Science.gov

Sample records for greenhouse production

  1. An Introduction to Greenhouse Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Robert W.

    This student manual provides a basic text for those preparing for greenhouse and floriculture work. At the beginning of each chapter, competencies are listed, along with related math and science concepts, and a list of "terms to know"; figures, tables, and photographs may be included. At the end of each chapter, a self-check can be made…

  2. Off-season greenhouse strawberry production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Strawberry production in the mid-South is mostly done in the field with harvest from April to June. There is year-round demand for fruit with the highest prices from November through February. Our research is ongoing to evaluate off-season strawberry production in polyethylene-covered greenhouses....

  3. An Introduction to Greenhouse Production. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Robert W.

    This student manual is presented in its first revision, providing a current, basic text for those preparing for greenhouse and floriculture work. Its fourteen chapters are: Overview of the Greenhouse Industry; Greenhouse Structures; Controlling the Greenhouse Environment; Greenhouse Equipment and Lighting; Greenhouse Irrigation Systems; Root Media…

  4. Supplemental photosynthetic lighting for greenhouse tomato production

    SciTech Connect

    Godfriaux, B.L.; Wittman, W.K. ); Janes, H.W.; McAvoy, R.J.; Putman, J.; Logendra, S. . Dept. of Horticulture and Forestry); Mears, D.R.; Giacommelli, G.; Giniger, M. . Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering)

    1989-12-01

    The influence of supplemental light on the growth and productivity of greenhouse tomatoes grown to a single cluster on movable benches is examined, and the economic feasibility of such a system is evaluated. Experiments were conducted to quantify the tomato plants' response to various levels of supplemental light in terms of growth rate and yield at various stages in their development (e.g., seedling, flowering plant, etc.). The 1984--85 experiments showed that supplemental photosynthetic lighting nearly doubled tomato yields, from 0.48 to 0.86 lbs/plant. Subsequent experiments in 1985--86 identified the best tomato varieties for this treatment and further increased yields to 1.3 lbs/plant. In addition, the use of supplemental lighting was found to hasten tomato crop maturity. An economic analysis was performed on the 1985--86 empirical data using the tax rates and provisions then in force. It indicated that a 10-acre greenhouse could provide an after-tax internal rate of return of 10% to 12% using only equity financing. This return could likely be increased to 15--18% with the use of combined debt/equity financing. Using supplemental lighting on 10,000 acres of greenhouse production would require an estimated 7.5 billion kWh of additional electricity per year and, at 4.7 cents/kWh, generate an estimated $350 million in additional utility revenues. 48 refs., 34 figs., 24 tabs.

  5. Minerals, metal production and greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Themelis, N.J.; Wernick, I.

    1997-12-31

    The construction minerals, industrial minerals, and metals used in the U.S. annually amount to about 2.3 billion tons or 72% of all materials produced by industry, agriculture and forestry, excluding the bulk of the fossil fuel production (about 1.9 billion tons) which is used for electricity, heating and transportation. On a global scale, the consumption of minerals and metals has increased by a factor of ten in the 20th century and is an important contributor to the generation of greenhouse gases. As the grades of mined ores diminish, the energy units required to produce minerals and metals, and the corresponding emissions to the atmosphere, will increase substantially. The current emissions of the dominant production technologies and the prospects for reducing emissions, by means of recycling and technological advances, will be discussed.

  6. Application Problem of Biomass Combustion in Greenhouses for Crop Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Atsuhiro; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    It is consumed much energy in fossil fuels to production crops in greenhouses in Japan. And fl ue gas as CO2 fertilization is used for growing crops in modern greenhouses. If biomass as renewable energy can use for production vegetables in greenhouses, more than 800,000 kl of energy a year (in crude oil equivalent) will be saved. In this study, at fi rst, we made the biomass combustion equipment, and performed fundamental examination for various pellet fuel. We performed the examination that considered an application to a real greenhouse next. We considered biomass as both a source of energy and CO2 gas for greenhouses, and the following fi ndings were obtained: 1) Based on the standard of CO2 gas fertilization to greenhouses, it is diffi cult to apply biomass as a CO2 fertilizer, so that biomass should be applied to energy use only, at least for the time being. 2) Practical biomass energy machinery for economy, high reliability and greenhouses satisfying the conservatism that it is easy is necessary. 3) It is necessary to develop crop varieties and cultivation systems requiring less strict environmental control. 4) Disposal of combustion ash occurring abundantly, effective practical use is necessary.

  7. Treatment of drainage solution from hydroponic greenhouse production with microalgae.

    PubMed

    Hultberg, Malin; Carlsson, Anders S; Gustafsson, Susanne

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated treatment of the drainage solution from greenhouse production with microalgae, through inoculation with Chlorella vulgaris or through growth of the indigenous microalgal community. A significant reduction in nitrogen, between 34.7 and 73.7 mg L(-1), and particularly in phosphorus concentration, between 15.4 and 15.9 mg L(-1), was observed in drainage solution collected from commercial greenhouse production. The large reduction in nutrients was achieved through growth of the indigenous microalgal community i.e., without pre-treatment of the drainage solution or inoculation with the fast growing green microalgae C. vulgaris. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of the algal biomass revealed that compared with a standard growth medium for green algae, the drainage solution was inferior for lipid production. Despite the biorefinery concept being less promising, microalgae-based treatment of drainage solution from greenhouse production is still of interest considering the urgent need for phosphorus recycling.

  8. Greenhouse Management: Production Schedules and Financial Analysis. Teaching Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., River Falls.

    Designed to culminate an ornamental horticulture class, this teaching guide provides information needed for the year-round operation of a school and/or commercial greenhouse. Three units are presented: production schedules, determining harvest time, and cost analysis. Each unit lists major teaching points, learning activities, and reference…

  9. Greenhouse Management: Production Schedules and Financial Analysis. Teaching Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., River Falls.

    Designed to culminate an ornamental horticulture class, this teaching guide provides information needed for the year-round operation of a school and/or commercial greenhouse. Three units are presented: production schedules, determining harvest time, and cost analysis. Each unit lists major teaching points, learning activities, and reference…

  10. Biomass Burning and the Production of Greenhouse Gases. Chapter 9

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Joel S.

    1994-01-01

    Biomass burning is a source of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide. In addition, biomass burning is a source of chemically active gases, including carbon monoxide, nonmethane hydrocarbons, and nitric oxide. These gases, along with methane, lead to the chemical production of tropospheric ozone (another greenhouse gas) as well as control the concentration of the hydroxyl radical, which regulates the lifetime of almost every atmospheric gas. Following biomass burning, biogenic emissions of nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and methane are significantly enhanced. It is hypothesized that enhanced postburn biogenic emissions of these gases are related to fire-induced changes in soil chemistry and/or microbial ecology. Biomass burning, once believed to be a tropical phenomenon, has been demonstrated by satellite imagery to also be a regular feature of the world's boreal forests. One example of biomass burning is the extensive 1987 fire that destroyed more than 12 million acres of boreal forest in the People's Republic of China and across its border in the Soviet Union. Recent estimates indicate that almost all biomass burning is human-initiated and that it is increasing with time. With the formation of greenhouse and chemically active gases as direct combustion products and a longer-term enhancement of biogenic emissions of gases, biomass burning may be a significant driver for global change.

  11. An environmental impact calculator for greenhouse production systems.

    PubMed

    Torrellas, Marta; Antón, Assumpció; Montero, Juan Ignacio

    2013-03-30

    Multiple web-based calculators have come on the market as tools to support sustainable decision making, but few are available to agriculture. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has proved to be an objective, transparent tool for calculating environmental impacts throughout the life cycle of products and services, but can often be too complex for non-specialists. The objective of this study was therefore to develop an environmental support tool to determine the environmental impacts of protected crops. An effort was made to provide an easy-to-use tool in order to reach a wide audience and help horticulture stakeholders choose efficient options to mitigate the environmental impacts of protected crops. Users can estimate the environmental performance of their crops by entering a limited amount of data and following a few easy steps. A questionnaire must be answered with data on the crop, greenhouse dimensions, substrate, waste management, and the consumption of water, energy, fertilisers and pesticides. The calculator was designed as a simplified LCA, based on two scenarios analysed in detail in previous tasks of the EUPHOROS project and used as reference systems in this study. Two spreadsheets were provided based on these reference scenarios: one for a tomato crop in a multi-tunnel greenhouse under Southern European climate conditions and the other for a tomato crop in a Venlo glass greenhouse under Central European climate conditions. The selected functional unit was one tonne of tomatoes. Default data were given for each reference system for users who did not have complete specific data and to provide results for comparison with users' own results. The results were presented for water use as an inventory indicator and for the impact categories abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, global warming, photochemical oxidation and cumulative energy demand. In the multi-tunnel greenhouse, the main contributors based on the default data were the structure, fertilisers

  12. Greenhouse gas emission associated with sugar production in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Since sugarcane areas have increased rapidly in Brazil, the contribution of the sugarcane production, and, especially, of the sugarcane harvest system to the greenhouse gas emissions of the country is an issue of national concern. Here we analyze some data characterizing various activities of two sugarcane mills during the harvest period of 2006-2007 and quantify the carbon footprint of sugar production. Results According to our calculations, 241 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent were released to the atmosphere per a ton of sugar produced (2406 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a hectare of the cropped area, and 26.5 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per a ton of sugarcane processed). The major part of the total emission (44%) resulted from residues burning; about 20% resulted from the use of synthetic fertilizers, and about 18% from fossil fuel combustion. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the most important reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from sugarcane areas could be achieved by switching to a green harvest system, that is, to harvesting without burning. PMID:20565736

  13. Temperature and organic matter controls on hyporheic greenhouse gas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comer-Warner, S.; Romeijn, P.; Krause, S.; Hannah, D. M.; Gooddy, D.

    2016-12-01

    The region of groundwater and surface water mixing, known as the hyporheic zone, has recently attracted interest as an area of greenhouse gas (GHG) production. Although high concentrations of GHG have been found in these environments, the drivers of hyporheic GHG production remain poorly understood. Here we present the results of a microcosm incubation experiment, designed to determine the effect of multiple environmental parameters on GHG production. Three sediment types, representing a gradient of organic matter contents, from two contrasting UK lowland rivers (sandstone and chalk), were incubated for 29 hours. Experiments were performed at five temperature treatments between 5 and 25°C, and the microbial metabolism of each microcosm was determined using the smart tracer Resazurin. Headspace concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide were measured to determine the effect of these environmental parameters on GHG production, and establish their roles as drivers of GHG production in the hyporheic zone. Our results indicate strong temperature controls of GHG production, overlapping with the observed impacts of varying organic matter content of different sediments. Experimental findings indicate that increased hyporheic temperatures during increasing baseflow and drought conditions may significantly enhance sediment respiration, and thus, GHG emissions from the streambed interface. This research advances understanding of drivers of whole stream carbon and nitrogen budgets, as well as the role of groundwater-surface water interfaces in GHG emissions, and allows the interaction of these controls to be assessed.

  14. Production, management, and environment symposium: Environmental footprint of livestock production - Greenhouse gas emissions and climate change

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This manuscript is the introduction to the 2015 Production, Management, and Environment symposium titled “Environmental Footprint of Livestock ProductionGreenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change” that was held at the Joint Annual Meeting of the ASAS and ADSA at the Rosen Shingle Creek Resort in...

  15. Greenhouse Production: A Series of Learning Activity Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, J. C.; And Others

    Designed for use when the student or the class is expected to grow a crop using the high school greenhouse, these learning activity packages are sequenced in typical greenhouse cropping fashion: (1) poinsettias in the fall, (2) Easter lilies (bulb crop) in the winter, (3) bedding plants (seed crop) in the spring, and (4) a nursery crop (from…

  16. Soil greenhouse gas production: Relations to soil attributes in a sugarcane production area, southern Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The production of the main soil greenhouse gases (GHG: CO2, CH4 and N2O) is influenced by agricultural practices that cause changes in soil physical, chemical and biological attributes, directly affecting their emission to the atmosphere. The aim of this study was to investigate the infield soil CO2...

  17. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Cerri, Carlos Eduardo Pellegrino; You, Xin; Cherubin, Maurício Roberto; Moreira, Cindy Silva; Raucci, Guilherme Silva; Castigioni, Bruno de Almeida; Alves, Priscila Aparecida; Cerri, Domingos Guilherme Pellegrino; Mello, Francisco Fujita de Castro; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Soybean biodiesel (B100) has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42-51%) for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46-52%) for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route) of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected scenarios in this

  18. Assessing the greenhouse gas emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production

    PubMed Central

    You, Xin; Cherubin, Maurício Roberto; Moreira, Cindy Silva; Raucci, Guilherme Silva; Castigioni, Bruno de Almeida; Alves, Priscila Aparecida; Cerri, Domingos Guilherme Pellegrino; Mello, Francisco Fujita de Castro; Cerri, Carlos Clemente

    2017-01-01

    Soybean biodiesel (B100) has been playing an important role in Brazilian energy matrix towards the national bio-based economy. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is the most widely used indicator for assessing the environmental sustainability of biodiesels and received particular attention among decision makers in business and politics, as well as consumers. Former studies have been mainly focused on the GHG emissions from the soybean cultivation, excluding other stages of the biodiesel production. Here, we present a holistic view of the total GHG emissions in four life cycle stages for soybean biodiesel. The aim of this study was to assess the GHG emissions of Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system with an integrated life cycle approach of four stages: agriculture, extraction, production and distribution. Allocation of mass and energy was applied and special attention was paid to the integrated and non-integrated industrial production chain. The results indicated that the largest source of GHG emissions, among four life cycle stages, is the agricultural stage (42–51%) for B100 produced in integrated systems and the production stage (46–52%) for B100 produced in non-integrated systems. Integration of industrial units resulted in significant reduction in life cycle GHG emissions. Without the consideration of LUC and assuming biogenic CO2 emissions is carbon neutral in our study, the calculated life cycle GHG emissions for domestic soybean biodiesel varied from 23.1 to 25.8 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100 and those for soybean biodiesel exported to EU ranged from 26.5 to 29.2 gCO2eq. MJ-1 B100, which represent reductions by 65% up to 72% (depending on the delivery route) of GHG emissions compared with the EU benchmark for diesel fuel. Our findings from a life cycle perspective contributed to identify the major GHG sources in Brazilian soybean biodiesel production system and they can be used to guide mitigation priority for policy and decision-making. Projected scenarios in

  19. 75 FR 39735 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases From Magnesium Production, Underground Coal Mines...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-12

    ...EPA is promulgating a regulation to require monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions from magnesium production, underground coal mines, industrial wastewater treatment, and industrial waste landfills. This action adds these four source categories to the list of source categories already required to report greenhouse gas emissions. This action requires monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gases for these source categories only for sources with carbon dioxide equivalent emissions above certain threshold levels as described in this regulation. This action does not require control of greenhouse gases.

  20. Widespread production of nonmicrobial greenhouse gases in soils.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Lerdau, Manuel; He, Yongli

    2017-06-06

    Carbon dioxide (CO2 ), methane (CH4 ), and nitrous oxide (N2 O) are the three most important greenhouse gases (GHGs), and all show large uncertainties in their atmospheric budgets. Soils of natural and managed ecosystems play an extremely important role in modulating their atmospheric abundance. Mechanisms underlying the exchange of these GHGs at the soil-atmosphere interface are often assumed to be exclusively microbe-mediated (M-GHGs). We argue that it is a widespread phenomenon for soil systems to produce GHGs through nonmicrobial pathways (NM-GHGs) based on a review of the available evidence accumulated over the past half century. We find that five categories of mechanistic process, including photodegradation, thermal degradation, reactive oxidative species (ROS) oxidation, extracellular oxidative metabolism (EXOMET), and inorganic chemical reactions, can be identified as accounting for their production. These pathways are intricately coupled among themselves and with M-GHGs production and are subject to strong influences from regional and global change agents including, among others, climate warming, solar radiation, and alterations of atmospheric components. Preliminary estimates have suggested that NM-GHGs could play key roles in contributing to budgets of GHGs in the arid regions, whereas their global importance would be enhanced with accelerated global environmental changes. Therefore, more research should be undertaken, with a differentiation between NM-GHGs and M-GHGs, to further elucidate the underlying mechanisms, to investigate the impacts of various global change agents, and to quantify their contributions to regional and global GHGs budgets. These efforts will contribute to a more complete understanding of global carbon and nitrogen cycling and a reduction in the uncertainty of carbon-climate feedbacks in the Earth system. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Greenhouse gas and carbon profile of the U.S. forest products industry value chain

    Treesearch

    Linda S. Heath; Van Maltby; Reid Miner; Kenneth E. Skog; James E. Smith; Jay Unwin; Brad Upton

    2010-01-01

    A greenhouse gas and carbon accounting profile was developed for the U.S. forest products industry value chain for 1990 and 2004-2005 by examining net atmospheric fluxes of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) using a variety of methods and data sources. Major GHG emission sources include direct and indirect (from purchased electricity...

  2. Virtual Grower: Software to Calculate Heating Costs of Greenhouse Production in the US

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Greenhouses are used in many climates either for season extension or year-round production, and can be expensive to heat. Greenhouse users and growers are often faced with management decisions that rely on an understanding of how temperature settings, heating systems, fuel types, and construction d...

  3. Overview of Production Sector in the Greenhouse Gas Inventory- September 2012 Workshop

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View a presentation on the production sector in the GHG inventory, presented at the Stakeholder Workshop on Natural Gas in the Inventory of U.S. Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions and Sinks on Thursday, September 13, 2012.

  4. Evaluation of gypsum rates on greenhouse crop production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was to determine the potential of an added value distribution channel for gypsum waste by evaluating various greenhouse crops with captious pH and calcium needs. Three studies consisting of: Zonal geranium (Pelargonium x hortorum) and petunia (Petunia x hybrida); tomato (Solanum lycoper...

  5. Designing advanced biochar products for maximizing greenhouse gas mitigation potential

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agricultural operations continue to increase. Carbon enriched char materials like biochar have been described as a mitigation strategy. Utilization of biochar material as a soil amendment has been demonstrated to provide potentially further soil GHG suppression du...

  6. Production of Greenhouse Gases in The Atmosphere of Early Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kress, Monika E.; McKay, Christopher P.; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Mars was much warmer and wetter 3.5 to 4 billion years ago than it is today, suggesting that its climate was able to support life in the distant past. Carbon dioxide and methane are greenhouse gases which may have kept Mars warm during this time. We explore the possibility that these gases were produced via grain-catalyzed reactions in the warm, dusty aftermath of large comet and/or asteroid impacts which delivered Mars, volatile inventory.

  7. Mitigating cadmium accumulation in greenhouse lettuce production using biochar.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ruilun; Sun, Guoxin; Li, Cui; Reid, Brian J; Xie, Zubin; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Qinghai

    2017-03-01

    Greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of rice straw biochar (RSB) on soil cadmium (Cd) availability and accumulation in lettuce. The RSB was applied either in bands or broadcast in the test site of four greenhouses with soil Cd concentrations ranging from 1.70-3.14 μg g(-1). Biochar doses applied in bands were half of those broadcast. The Cd levels in the shoots of lettuce were observed to be reduced by up to 57% with increasing RSB application rate (0, 6, 12, 18 t ha(-1)). Following RSB application, shoot Cd concentrations of lettuce were reduced to below the Chinese threshold value set for food, and hazard quotients for Cd associated with vegetable consumption were reduced from 0.70-1.11 to 0.42-0.65. A decrease in soil bulk density (11%) and increases in water holding capacity (16%), available phosphorus (30%), available potassium (197%), and lettuce yield (15%) were observed after RSB application. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested that the soil extractable Cd level (but not biomass dilution) and soil bulk density, as influenced by RSB addition, were the dominant contributors to the shoot Cd levels in lettuce and lettuce yield, respectively. These results highlight the potential for RSB to mitigate the phytoaccumulation of Cd and thereby to reduce human exposure from vegetable consumption. Application of biochar in band, rather than broadcasting over the entire area, represents an opportunity to halve the biochar cost while retaining a good remediation effect.

  8. Spatial analysis of climate factors used to determine suitability of greenhouse production in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cemek, Bilal; Güler, Mustafa; Arslan, Hakan

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to identify the most suitable growing periods for greenhouse production in Turkey in order to make valuable contribution to economic viability. Data collected from the meteorological databases of 81 provinces was used to determine periodic climatological requirements of greenhouses in terms of cooling, heating, natural ventilation, and lighting. Spatial distributions of mean daily outside temperatures and greenhouse heating requirements were derived using ordinary co-kriging (OCK) supported by Geographical Information System (GIS). Mean monthly temperatures throughout the country were found to decrease below 12 °C in January, February, March, and December, indicating heating requirements, whereas temperatures in 94.46 % of the country rose above 22 °C in July, indicating cooling requirements. Artificial lighting is not a requirement in Turkey except for November, December, and January. The Mediterranean, Aegean, Marmara, and Black Sea Regions are more advantageous than the Central, East, and Southeast Anatolia Regions in terms of greenhouse production because the Mediterranean and Aegean Regions are more advantageous in terms of heating, and the Black Sea Region is more advantageous in terms of cooling. Results of our study indicated that greenhouse cultivation of winter vegetables is possible in certain areas in the north of the country. Moreover, greenhouses could alternatively be used for drying fruits and vegetables during the summer period which requires uneconomical cooling systems due to high temperatures in the Mediterranean and Southeastern Anatolian Regions.

  9. Spatial analysis of climate factors used to determine suitability of greenhouse production in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cemek, Bilal; Güler, Mustafa; Arslan, Hakan

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to identify the most suitable growing periods for greenhouse production in Turkey in order to make valuable contribution to economic viability. Data collected from the meteorological databases of 81 provinces was used to determine periodic climatological requirements of greenhouses in terms of cooling, heating, natural ventilation, and lighting. Spatial distributions of mean daily outside temperatures and greenhouse heating requirements were derived using ordinary co-kriging (OCK) supported by Geographical Information System (GIS). Mean monthly temperatures throughout the country were found to decrease below 12 °C in January, February, March, and December, indicating heating requirements, whereas temperatures in 94.46 % of the country rose above 22 °C in July, indicating cooling requirements. Artificial lighting is not a requirement in Turkey except for November, December, and January. The Mediterranean, Aegean, Marmara, and Black Sea Regions are more advantageous than the Central, East, and Southeast Anatolia Regions in terms of greenhouse production because the Mediterranean and Aegean Regions are more advantageous in terms of heating, and the Black Sea Region is more advantageous in terms of cooling. Results of our study indicated that greenhouse cultivation of winter vegetables is possible in certain areas in the north of the country. Moreover, greenhouses could alternatively be used for drying fruits and vegetables during the summer period which requires uneconomical cooling systems due to high temperatures in the Mediterranean and Southeastern Anatolian Regions.

  10. Localising livestock protein feed production and the impact on land use and greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Sasu-Boakye, Y; Cederberg, C; Wirsenius, S

    2014-08-01

    Livestock farmers in Sweden usually grow feed grains for livestock but import protein feed from outside Sweden. Aside from the economic implications, some environmental issues are associated with this practice. We used life cycle assessment to evaluate the impact of local protein feed production on land use and greenhouse gas emissions, compared with the use of imported protein feed, for pig meat and dairy milk produced in Sweden. Our results showed that local production reduced greenhouse gas emissions by 4.5% and 12%, respectively, for pigs and dairy cows. Land use for feed production in Sweden increased by 11% for pigs and 25% for dairy cows, but total land use decreased for pig production and increased for dairy milk production. Increased protein feed cultivation in Sweden decreased inputs needed for animal production and improved some ecological processes (e.g. nutrient recycling) of the farm systems. However, the differences in results between scenarios are relatively small and influenced to an extent by methodological choices such as co-product allocation. Moreover, it was difficult to assess the contribution of greenhouse emissions from land use change. The available accounting methods we applied did not adequately account for the potential land use changes and in some cases provided conflicting results. We conclude that local protein feed production presents an opportunity to reduce greenhouse gas emissions but at a cost of increasing land occupation in Sweden for feed production.

  11. Milled Paulownia tomentosa as a substrate component in greenhouse annual production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent research has indicated the potential of wood fiber products as alternative substrate components. This study was conducted to determine the effects of Paulowinia tomentosa amended substrates on production of greenhouse grown annuals. Paulownia (PT) was used alone (100% PT) and combined with di...

  12. Pathogen filtration to control plant disease outbreak in greenhouse production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Sangho; Krasnow, Charles; Bhalsod, Gemini; Granke, Leah; Harlan, Blair; Hausbeck, Mary; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has been extensively focused on understanding the fate and transport of human microbial pathogens in soil and water environments. However, little is known about the transport of plant pathogens, although these pathogens are often found in irrigation waters and could cause severe crop damage and economical loss. Water mold pathogens including Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. are infective to a wide range of vegetable and floriculture crops, and they are primarily harbored in soils and disseminated through water flow. It is challenging to control these pathogens because they often quickly develop resistance to many fungicides. Therefore, this multi-scale study aimed to investigate physical removal of plant pathogens from water by filtration, thus reducing the pathogen exposure risks to crops. In column-scale experiments, we studied controlling factors on the transport and retention of Phytophthora capsici zoospores in saturated columns packed with iron oxide coated-sand and uncoated-sand under varying solution chemistry. Biflagellate zoospores were less retained than encysted zoospores, and lower solution pH and greater iron oxide content increased the retention of encysted zoospores. These results provided insights on environmental dispersal of Phytophthora zoospores in natural soils as well as on developing cost-effective engineered filtration systems for pathogen removal. Using small-scale greenhouse filtration systems, we further investigated the performance of varying filter media (i.e., granular sand, iron oxide coated ceramic porous media, and activated carbon) in mitigating disease outbreaks of Phytophthora and Pythium for greenhouse-grown squash and poinsettia, respectively, in comparison with fungicide treatment. For squash, filtration by iron oxide coated media was more effective in reducing the Phytophthora infection, comparing to sand filtration and fungicide application. For poinsettia, sand filtration performed better in controlling

  13. Life cycle greenhouse gas and energy assessment of winegrape production in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose: This study applies life cycle assessment (LCA) to assess greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, energy use, and direct water use in winegrape production across common vineyard management scenarios in two representative growing regions of California, USA (Napa and Lodi). California hosts 90 percent...

  14. Chapter 5: Quantifying greenhouse gas sources and sinks in animal production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this publication is to develop methods to quantify greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) from U.S. agriculture and forestry. This chapter provides guidance for reporting GHG emissions from animal production systems. In particular, it focuses on methods for estimating emissions from beef cat...

  15. Greenhouse Crop Production; A Student Handbook, Teacher Education Series, Volume 10 Number 3s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1969

    This study guide, developed by the Department of Agricultural Education of The Pennsylvania State University and field-tested by 54 teachers, is for student use in a unit on greenhouse crop production. Learning objectives, key questions, vocabulary terms, subject matter, and references are included for each of these problem areas: (1) Occupational…

  16. Greenhouse Crop Production; A Teacher's Manual. Teacher Education Series, Volume 10 Number 3t.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1969

    Developed by the Department of Agricultural Education of the Pennsylvania State University and field-tested by 54 teachers, this guide is for teacher use in planning a unit in greenhouse crop production. The unit is intended for upper high school and post-high school students interested in careers in this field. Teacher suggestions, references,…

  17. A life cycle greenhouse gas inventory of a tree production system

    Treesearch

    Alissa Kendall; E. Gregory McPherson

    2012-01-01

    PurposeThis study provides a detailed, process-based life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory of an ornamental tree production system for urban forestry. The success of large-scale tree planting initiatives for climate protection depends on projects being net sinks for CO2 over their entire life cycle....

  18. Greenhouse Crop Production; A Student Handbook, Teacher Education Series, Volume 10 Number 3s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1969

    This study guide, developed by the Department of Agricultural Education of The Pennsylvania State University and field-tested by 54 teachers, is for student use in a unit on greenhouse crop production. Learning objectives, key questions, vocabulary terms, subject matter, and references are included for each of these problem areas: (1) Occupational…

  19. Greenhouse Crop Production; A Teacher's Manual. Teacher Education Series, Volume 10 Number 3t.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1969

    Developed by the Department of Agricultural Education of the Pennsylvania State University and field-tested by 54 teachers, this guide is for teacher use in planning a unit in greenhouse crop production. The unit is intended for upper high school and post-high school students interested in careers in this field. Teacher suggestions, references,…

  20. Software for evaluating greenhouse gas emissions and the carbon footprint of dairy production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Abstract: Dairy production, along with all other types of animal agriculture, is a recognized source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, but little information exists on the net emissions from our farms. Component models for representing all important sources and sinks of CH4, N2O, and CO2 in dairy p...

  1. Developing hygiene protocols against mechanically transmitted pathogens in greenhouse tomato production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Greenhouse tomato propagation and production require intensive crop work that promotes the spread of mechanically transmitted pathogens (e.g. fungi, bacteria, viruses and viroids). Therefore, a clean seed program is very important to prevent any un-intentional introduction of seed-borne pathogens t...

  2. Evaluation of disinfectants to prevent mechanical transmission of viruses and a viroid in greenhouse tomato production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In an effort to select disinfectant(s) with capability to deactivate infectivity from a broad range of viruses and viroids that are commonly observed in greenhouse tomato production systems, a total of 16 disinfectants were evaluated against Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), T...

  3. Greenhouse soil heating for improved production and energy conservation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Roller, W.L.; Elwell, D.L.

    1981-09-01

    A three-year study of the beneficial use of simulated power plant reject heat for soil heating in greenhouses is described. The effect of 25, 30, 35, and 40/sup 0/C warm water on the temperature of and moisture distribution in three diverse, greenhouse soils was studied, and the growth response of variety HR-5 lettuce in this environment was determined. Detailed information on soil temperature and moisture distribution, heat transfer rates, and lettuce production yield under various operating conditions was obtained.

  4. Row crops production practices effects on greenhouse gas emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    One of the grand challenges facing humankind is meeting projected demands for agricultural products in a world undergoing anthropogenically-driven global climate change. As demands increase for the reliable and environmentally-responsible supply of food and fiber, how management is adapted to meet d...

  5. Fractal dimension analysis of landscape scale variability in greenhouse gas production potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva Bicalho, Elton; Spokas, Kurt; La Scala, Newton, Jr.

    2015-04-01

    Soil greenhouse gas emission is influenced by tillage and management practices that modify soil attributes directly related to the dynamics of soil carbon in the agricultural environment. The aim of this study was to assess the soil CO2 and N2O production potentials and their spatial variability characterized by fractal dimension in different scales, in addition to their correlation with other soil attributes. The quantification of soil CO2 and N2O production was carried out from dry soil samples collected in a grid of 50 × 50 m containing 133 points arranged symmetrically on a sugarcane area under green residue management in southern Brazil. Laboratory incubations were used to analyze greenhouse gas dynamics by gas chromatography. Soil CO2 and N2O production were correlated significantly (P < 0.05) with microbial biomass, silt and clay content, pH, available phosphorus, sum of metal cations (bases), and cation exchange capacity. Similarly, these soil attributes also were correlated with microbial biomass, supporting their role in soil microbial activity and greenhouse gas production. Furthermore, variations in the fractal dimension over the scale indicate that the pattern of the spatial variability structure of soil CO2 production potential was correlated to that observed for microbial biomass, pH, available phosphorus, sum of bases, and cation exchange capacity. On the other hand, only the spatial structure of the clay content, pH and the sum of bases were correlated with the soil N2O production. Therefore, examining the fractal dimension enables the spatially visualization of altering processes across a landscape at different scales, which highlights properties that influence greenhouse gas production and emission in agricultural areas.

  6. Energy production, nutrient recovery and greenhouse gas emission potentials from integrated pig manure management systems.

    PubMed

    Prapaspongsa, T; Poulsen, T G; Hansen, J A; Christensen, P

    2010-05-01

    Improper management of pig manure has resulted in environmental problems such as surface water eutrophication, ground water pollution, and greenhouse gas emissions. This study develops and compares 14 alternative manure management scenarios aiming at energy and nutrient extraction. The scenarios based on combinations of thermal pretreatment, anaerobic digestion, anaerobic co-digestion, liquid/solid separation, drying, incineration, and thermal gasification were compared with respect to their energy, nutrient and greenhouse gas balances. Both sole pig manure and pig manure mixed with other types of waste materials were considered. Data for the analyses were obtained from existing waste treatment facilities, experimental plants, laboratory measurements and literature. The assessment reveals that incineration combined with liquid/solid separation and drying of the solids is a promising management option yielding a high potential energy utilization rate and greenhouse gas savings. If maximum electricity production is desired, anaerobic digestion is advantageous as the biogas can be converted to electricity at high efficiency in a gas engine while allowing production of heat for operation of the digestion process. In conclusion, this study shows that the choice of technology has a strong influence on energy, nutrient and greenhouse gas balances. Thus, to get the most reliable results, it is important to consider the most representative (and up-to-date) technology combined with data representing the area or region in question.

  7. Coupling above and below ground gas measurements to understand greenhouse gas production in the soil profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nickerson, Nick; Creelman, Chance

    2016-04-01

    Natural and anthropogenic changes in climate have the potential to significantly affect the Earth's natural greenhouse gas balances. To understand how these climatic changes will manifest in a complex biological, chemical and physical system, a process-based understanding of the production and consumption of greenhouse gases in soils is critical. Commonly, both chamber methods and gradient-based approaches are used to estimate greenhouse gas flux from the soil to the atmosphere. Each approach offers benefits, but not surprisingly, comes with a list of drawbacks. Chambers are easily deployed on the surface without significant disturbance to the soil, and can be easily spatially replicated. However the high costs of automated chamber systems and the inability to partition fluxes by depth are potential downfalls. The gradient method requires a good deal of disturbance for installation, however it also offers users spatiotemporally resolved flux estimates at a reasonable price point. Researchers widely recognize that the main drawback of the gradient approach is the requirement to estimate diffusivity using empirical models based on studies of specific soils or soil types. These diffusivity estimates can often be off by several orders of magnitude, yielding poor flux estimates. Employing chamber and gradient methods in unison allows for in-situ estimation of the diffusion coefficient, and therefore improves gradient-based estimates of flux. A dual-method approach yields more robust information on the temporal dynamics and depth distribution of greenhouse gas production and consumption in the soil profile. Here we present a mathematical optimization framework that allows these complimentary measurement techniques to yield more robust information than a single technique alone. We then focus on how it can be used to improve the process-based understanding of greenhouse gas production in the soil profile.

  8. The effect of floating vegetation on denitrification and greenhouse gas production in wetland mesocosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, A. E.; Harrison, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic intensification of nitrogen (N) loading to aquatic ecosystems is widespread and can lead to the degradation of these systems. Wetlands are important sites for N removal via denitrification, the microbially mediated reduction of reactive nitrate to inert N2 gas, but they can also produce high levels of greenhouse gases. Floating plants play an important role in encouraging denitrification, since they create low oxygen conditions that may favor denitrification. We investigated whether wetland sediments with floating plant cover had higher denitrification and greenhouse gas production rates than wetland sediments without floating plants. Replicate flow-through mesocosms with wetland sediment and water were constructed in a growth chamber to mimic the wetland where the sediment and water were collected. Mesocosm treatments were covered with floating vegetation (duckweed), an opaque tarp, or no cover to determine how cover type affects denitrification and greenhouse gas production and whether biotic or abiotic factors are likely responsible for observed differences. Denitrification and greenhouse gas production rates were calculated by measuring excess N2 gas, methane, and nitrous oxide concentrations in the water column and measuring the gas exchange rates between the water column and the atmosphere. Gas exchange rates were measured using an inert volatile tracer added to the water column and accumulation of gas in the mesocosm headspace. Additional mesocosm experiments were performed to determine how duckweed-dominated wetland systems respond to nitrogen loading and which mechanism for lowering dissolved oxygen concentrations is important in affecting denitrification under floating vegetation. Mesocosms with floating vegetation had lower dissolved oxygen than no cover or tarp-covered mesocosms, which is consistent with field and literature observations. Water flowing out of the mesocosms had statistically lower total nitrogen and nitrate concentrations

  9. Accumulation status, sources and phytoavailability of metals in greenhouse vegetable production systems in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Lu, Anxiang; Wang, Jihua; Ma, Zhihong; Pan, Ligang; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Luan, Yunxia

    2015-12-01

    The accumulation status, sources and phytoavailability of selected metals in greenhouse vegetable production systems in peri-urban areas of Beijing were investigated. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in greenhouse soils were 8.44, 0.25, 69.0, 0.09 and 22.0 mg kg(-1), dw, respectively. According to principal component analysis, As, Cd, Cr and Hg are mainly from anthropogenic source, but Pb is likely from natural source. Metal concentrations in all vegetable samples were decreased in the order of Cr>As>Pb>Cd>Hg. Compared with root and fruit vegetables, leaf vegetables had relatively high concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals, except for Cd. By including soil pH, OM and greenhouse soil metals, 10 empirical models were derived using stepwise multiple linear regression analysis to predict heavy metal concentrations in the edible parts of different vegetables. Among the different vegetable groups, the highest intakes of metals occurred through consumption of leaf vegetables for the two age groups, except for Cd. The HI value of the studied metals were all below 1, indicating that consumption of vegetables grown in greenhouse soils was of low risk to consumers in our study area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Nitrogen removal from the surface runoff of a field scale greenhouse vegetable production system.

    PubMed

    Min, Ju; Lu, Kouping; Zhao, Xu; Sun, Haijun; Zhang, Hailin; Shi, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient losses from greenhouse vegetable production systems may impair water quality in the Taihu Lake Region of China. We studied the characteristics of nitrogen (N) lost via runoff from greenhouse vegetable systems and strategies for minimizing N entering water bodies. A two-year experiment at a field scale was conducted to monitor N surface runoff. An eco-ditch (148 m(2)) and a low N input paddy field (135 kg N ha⁻¹, 550 m²) were designed to remove N from the surface runoff of a 25 × 50 m greenhouse vegetable field. The greenhouse was not covered from late June to mid-October each year, and runoff occurred multiple times during this period. Annual total N loss in runoff from the greenhouse vegetable site was 25.3 and 33.5 kg ha⁻¹ in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Nitrate-N was the major form of N lost in the runoff. The average runoff volume was 289 mm (varied from 221 to 357 mm), which contained 15.7 (varied from 3.3 to 39.2 mg L⁻¹) mg L⁻¹ total N. The eco-ditch system and the wetland paddy field (WPF) effectively reduced total N discharge; the removal rates reached 49.9% and 58.7% and the average removal capacities were 12.4 g N m⁻² and 4.1 g N m⁻² in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The combined system of the ecological ditch-WPF removed almost 79% total N in the runoff. Ecological ditch or paddy wetland can be a water management option available to growers in this region to economically reduce pollutants in agricultural runoff.

  11. Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp.) in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Cloyd, Raymond A.

    2015-01-01

    Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.) are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems. PMID:26463188

  12. Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp.) in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A

    2015-04-09

    Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.) are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems.

  13. The Dairy Greenhouse Gas Model: A Tool for estimating greenhouse gas emissions and the carbon footprint of dairy production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential impact on the environment has become an important national and international concern. Animal agriculture is a recognized source of GHG emissions, but good information does not exist on the net emissions from our farms. A software tool called the Dai...

  14. Reducing California's Greenhouse Gas Emissions through ProductLife-Cycle Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Masanet, Eric; Price, Lynn; de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Worrell,Ernst

    2005-12-30

    Product life-cycle optimization addresses the reduction ofenvironmental burdens associated with the production, use, andend-of-life stages of a product s life cycle. In this paper, we offer anevaluation of the opportunities related to product life-cycleoptimization in California for two key products: personal computers (PCs)and concrete. For each product, we present the results of an explorativecase study to identify specific opportunities for greenhouse gas (GHG)emissions reductions at each stage of the product life cycle. We thenoffer a discussion of the practical policy options that may exist forrealizing the identified GHG reduction opportunities. The case studiesdemonstrate that there may be significant GHG mitigation options as wellas a number of policy options that could lead to life-cycle GHG emissionsreductions for PCs and concrete in California.

  15. Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, Mario; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Notenbaert, An; Rufino, Mariana C.; Thornton, Philip K.; Blümmel, Michael; Weiss, Franz; Grace, Delia; Obersteiner, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We present a unique, biologically consistent, spatially disaggregated global livestock dataset containing information on biomass use, production, feed efficiency, excretion, and greenhouse gas emissions for 28 regions, 8 livestock production systems, 4 animal species (cattle, small ruminants, pigs, and poultry), and 3 livestock products (milk, meat, and eggs). The dataset contains over 50 new global maps containing high-resolution information for understanding the multiple roles (biophysical, economic, social) that livestock can play in different parts of the world. The dataset highlights: (i) feed efficiency as a key driver of productivity, resource use, and greenhouse gas emission intensities, with vast differences between production systems and animal products; (ii) the importance of grasslands as a global resource, supplying almost 50% of biomass for animals while continuing to be at the epicentre of land conversion processes; and (iii) the importance of mixed crop–livestock systems, producing the greater part of animal production (over 60%) in both the developed and the developing world. These data provide critical information for developing targeted, sustainable solutions for the livestock sector and its widely ranging contribution to the global food system. PMID:24344273

  16. Biomass use, production, feed efficiencies, and greenhouse gas emissions from global livestock systems.

    PubMed

    Herrero, Mario; Havlík, Petr; Valin, Hugo; Notenbaert, An; Rufino, Mariana C; Thornton, Philip K; Blümmel, Michael; Weiss, Franz; Grace, Delia; Obersteiner, Michael

    2013-12-24

    We present a unique, biologically consistent, spatially disaggregated global livestock dataset containing information on biomass use, production, feed efficiency, excretion, and greenhouse gas emissions for 28 regions, 8 livestock production systems, 4 animal species (cattle, small ruminants, pigs, and poultry), and 3 livestock products (milk, meat, and eggs). The dataset contains over 50 new global maps containing high-resolution information for understanding the multiple roles (biophysical, economic, social) that livestock can play in different parts of the world. The dataset highlights: (i) feed efficiency as a key driver of productivity, resource use, and greenhouse gas emission intensities, with vast differences between production systems and animal products; (ii) the importance of grasslands as a global resource, supplying almost 50% of biomass for animals while continuing to be at the epicentre of land conversion processes; and (iii) the importance of mixed crop–livestock systems, producing the greater part of animal production (over 60%) in both the developed and the developing world. These data provide critical information for developing targeted, sustainable solutions for the livestock sector and its widely ranging contribution to the global food system.

  17. Using flowering and heat-loss models for improving greenhouse energy-use efficiency in annual bedding plant production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In temperate climates, annual bedding plants are typically produced in heated greenhouses from late winter through early summer. Temperature, photoperiod, light intensity, and transplant date are commonly manipulated during commercial production so that plants are in flower for predetermined market ...

  18. Greenhouse gas and carbon profile of the u.s. Forest products industry value chain.

    PubMed

    Heath, Linda S; Maltby, Van; Miner, Reid; Skog, Kenneth E; Smith, James E; Unwin, Jay; Upton, Brad

    2010-05-15

    A greenhouse gas and carbon accounting profile was developed for the U.S. forest products industry value chain for 1990 and 2004-2005 by examining net atmospheric fluxes of CO(2) and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) using a variety of methods and data sources. Major GHG emission sources include direct and indirect (from purchased electricity generation) emissions from manufacturing and methane emissions from landfilled products. Forest carbon stocks in forests supplying wood to the industry were found to be stable or increasing. Increases in the annual amounts of carbon removed from the atmosphere and stored in forest products offset about half of the total value chain emissions. Overall net transfers to the atmosphere totaled 91.8 and 103.5 TgCO(2)-eq. in 1990 and 2005, respectively, although the difference between these net transfers may not be statistically significant. Net transfers were higher in 2005 primarily because additions to carbon stored in forest products were less in 2005. Over this same period, energy-related manufacturing emissions decreased by almost 9% even though forest products output increased by approximately 15%. Several types of avoided emissions were considered separately and were collectively found to be notable relative to net emissions.

  19. Greenhouse Gas and Carbon Profile of the U.S. Forest Products Industry Value Chain

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    A greenhouse gas and carbon accounting profile was developed for the U.S. forest products industry value chain for 1990 and 2004−2005 by examining net atmospheric fluxes of CO2 and other greenhouse gases (GHGs) using a variety of methods and data sources. Major GHG emission sources include direct and indirect (from purchased electricity generation) emissions from manufacturing and methane emissions from landfilled products. Forest carbon stocks in forests supplying wood to the industry were found to be stable or increasing. Increases in the annual amounts of carbon removed from the atmosphere and stored in forest products offset about half of the total value chain emissions. Overall net transfers to the atmosphere totaled 91.8 and 103.5 TgCO2-eq. in 1990 and 2005, respectively, although the difference between these net transfers may not be statistically significant. Net transfers were higher in 2005 primarily because additions to carbon stored in forest products were less in 2005. Over this same period, energy-related manufacturing emissions decreased by almost 9% even though forest products output increased by approximately 15%. Several types of avoided emissions were considered separately and were collectively found to be notable relative to net emissions. PMID:20355695

  20. Sustainable bioenergy feedstock production systems: Integrating carbon dynamics, erosion, water quality, and greenhouse gas production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emission is one of several rationales for developing renewable biomass energy. Unfortunately, there are few studies reporting direct impacts of harvesting biomass feedstocks on GHG, especially effects on nitrous oxide (N2O) flux. Overzealous biomass harvest may accelera...

  1. Re-assessment of net energy production and greenhouse gas emissions avoidance after 40 years of photovoltaics development

    PubMed Central

    Louwen, Atse; van Sark, Wilfried G. J. H. M.; Faaij, André P. C.; Schropp, Ruud E. I.

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, installed solar photovoltaic capacity has grown tremendously to 230 gigawatt worldwide in 2015, with a growth rate between 1975 and 2015 of 45%. This rapid growth has led to concerns regarding the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of photovoltaics production. We present a review of 40 years of photovoltaics development, analysing the development of energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions associated with photovoltaics production. Here we show strong downward trends of environmental impact of photovoltaics production, following the experience curve law. For every doubling of installed photovoltaic capacity, energy use decreases by 13 and 12% and greenhouse gas footprints by 17 and 24%, for poly- and monocrystalline based photovoltaic systems, respectively. As a result, we show a break-even between the cumulative disadvantages and benefits of photovoltaics, for both energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, occurs between 1997 and 2018, depending on photovoltaic performance and model uncertainties. PMID:27922591

  2. Re-assessment of net energy production and greenhouse gas emissions avoidance after 40 years of photovoltaics development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louwen, Atse; van Sark, Wilfried G. J. H. M.; Faaij, André P. C.; Schropp, Ruud E. I.

    2016-12-01

    Since the 1970s, installed solar photovoltaic capacity has grown tremendously to 230 gigawatt worldwide in 2015, with a growth rate between 1975 and 2015 of 45%. This rapid growth has led to concerns regarding the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of photovoltaics production. We present a review of 40 years of photovoltaics development, analysing the development of energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions associated with photovoltaics production. Here we show strong downward trends of environmental impact of photovoltaics production, following the experience curve law. For every doubling of installed photovoltaic capacity, energy use decreases by 13 and 12% and greenhouse gas footprints by 17 and 24%, for poly- and monocrystalline based photovoltaic systems, respectively. As a result, we show a break-even between the cumulative disadvantages and benefits of photovoltaics, for both energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, occurs between 1997 and 2018, depending on photovoltaic performance and model uncertainties.

  3. Re-assessment of net energy production and greenhouse gas emissions avoidance after 40 years of photovoltaics development.

    PubMed

    Louwen, Atse; van Sark, Wilfried G J H M; Faaij, André P C; Schropp, Ruud E I

    2016-12-06

    Since the 1970s, installed solar photovoltaic capacity has grown tremendously to 230 gigawatt worldwide in 2015, with a growth rate between 1975 and 2015 of 45%. This rapid growth has led to concerns regarding the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of photovoltaics production. We present a review of 40 years of photovoltaics development, analysing the development of energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions associated with photovoltaics production. Here we show strong downward trends of environmental impact of photovoltaics production, following the experience curve law. For every doubling of installed photovoltaic capacity, energy use decreases by 13 and 12% and greenhouse gas footprints by 17 and 24%, for poly- and monocrystalline based photovoltaic systems, respectively. As a result, we show a break-even between the cumulative disadvantages and benefits of photovoltaics, for both energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, occurs between 1997 and 2018, depending on photovoltaic performance and model uncertainties.

  4. Effects of organic matter amendments on net primary productivity and greenhouse gas emissions in annual grasslands.

    PubMed

    Ryals, Rebecca; Silver, Whendee L

    2013-01-01

    Most of the world's grasslands are managed for livestock production. A critical component of the long-term sustainability and profitability of rangelands (e.g., grazed grassland ecosystems) is the maintenance of plant production. Amending grassland soils with organic waste has been proposed as a means to increase net primary productivity (NPP) and ecosystem carbon (C) storage, while mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from waste management. Few studies have evaluated the effects of amendments on the C balance and greenhouse gas dynamics of grasslands. We used field manipulations replicated within and across two rangelands (a valley grassland and a coastal grassland) to determine the effects of a single application of composted green waste amendments on NPP and greenhouse gas emissions over three years. Amendments elevated total soil respiration by 18% +/- 4% at both sites but had no effect on nitrous oxide or methane emissions. Carbon losses were significantly offset by greater and sustained plant production. Amendments stimulated both above- and belowground NPP by 2.1 +/- 0.8 Mg C/ha to 4.7 +/- 0.7 Mg C/ha (mean +/- SE) over the three-year study period. Net ecosystem C storage increased by 25-70% without including the direct addition of compost C. The estimated magnitude of net ecosystem C storage was sensitive to estimates of heterotrophic soil respiration but was greater than controls in five out of six fields that received amendments. The sixth plot was the only one that exhibited lower soil moisture than the control, suggesting an important role of water limitation in these seasonally dry ecosystems. Treatment effects persisted over the course of the study, which were likely derived from increased water-holding capacity in most plots, and slow-release fertilization from compost decomposition. We conclude that a single application of composted organic matter can significantly increase grassland C storage, and that effects of a single application are likely to

  5. Greenhouse gas balances in low-productive drained boreal peatlands - is climate-friendly management possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojanen, Paavo; Minkkinen, Kari; Heikkinen, Tiina; Penttilä, Timo

    2016-04-01

    Five million hectares of peatland has been drained for forestry in Finland. About 20% of that, i.e. one million hectares, has been estimated to be so low-productive that the profitability of keeping them in forestry is questionable. At the same time, drainage has introduced changes in the ecosystem functions of these peatlands, including fluxes of greenhouse gases. Options to manage such peatlands include for example 1) no measures, i.e. leaving the drained peatlands as they are 2) increasing intensity by e.g. repetitive fertilisations and 3) restoration back to functional peatlands. Here we estimate the greenhouse gas impacts of these three management options. We collected GHG and organic carbon flux data from 50 low-productive peatlands under these management options over two years 2014-2015. Gas fluxes (CO2, CH4, N2O) were measured with closed chambers. Litter production rates of different plants above and below ground were estimated using litter traps (trees), biomass sampling (roots), through-grow nets (mosses), allometric biomass models (other vasculars) and published turnover rates (roots, other vasculars). Characteristics for estimating tree stand biomass increment were measured at each site from circular sample plots. In this presentation we will estimate the GHG impacts for the different management options, and aim to find the most climate-friendly options for the management of low-productive peatlands in the short and long term. This work was funded by Life+ LIFE12/ENV/FI/150.

  6. Agricultural and Management Practices and Bacterial Contamination in Greenhouse versus Open Field Lettuce Production

    PubMed Central

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards. PMID:25546272

  7. Agricultural and management practices and bacterial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production.

    PubMed

    Holvoet, Kevin; Sampers, Imca; Seynnaeve, Marleen; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Uyttendaele, Mieke

    2014-12-23

    The aim of this study was to gain insight into potential differences in risk factors for microbial contamination in greenhouse versus open field lettuce production. Information was collected on sources, testing, and monitoring and if applicable, treatment of irrigation and harvest rinsing water. These data were combined with results of analysis on the levels of Escherichia coli as a fecal indicator organism and the presence of enteric bacterial pathogens on both lettuce crops and environmental samples. Enterohemorragic Escherichia coli (EHEC) PCR signals (vt1 or vt2 positive and eae positive), Campylobacter spp., and Salmonella spp. isolates were more often obtained from irrigation water sampled from open field farms (21/45, 46.7%) versus from greenhouse production (9/75, 12.0%). The open field production was shown to be more prone to fecal contamination as the number of lettuce samples and irrigation water with elevated E. coli was significantly higher. Farmers comply with generic guidelines on good agricultural practices available at the national level, but monitoring of microbial quality, and if applicable appropriateness of water treatment, or water used for irrigation or at harvest is restricted. These results indicate the need for further elaboration of specific guidelines and control measures for leafy greens with regard to microbial hazards.

  8. Influence of biochar amendment on greenhouse gases emission and rice production in paddy field, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Pan, G. X.; Li, L. Q.; Zhou, T.

    2012-04-01

    Biochar incorporating into agricultural soils as a strategy to increase soil carbon content and mitigate climate change received great attention. We present a field study about biochar amendment into paddy field in Sichuan province 2010, China. The objective was to evaluate the impacts of biochar incorporation on rice production and greenhouse gas emissions. Biochar used in this study was produced from wheat straw at temperature 350-550°C. Biochar incorporated into paddy field before rice transplanting. Methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes were measured in situ using closed chamber method during whole rice growing season. Flux of greenhouse gases was monitored at about 7 day's interval. Two rates of N fertilizer (0 and 240 kg N/ha) were applied as urea in combination with 3 biochar rates (0, 20 and 40 t/ha). Amendment of biochar had no influence on rice yield even at the hightest rate of 40 t/ha. However, rice production was greatly relying on chemical N fertilization input. No interact effect was detected between biochar and N fertilizer. Amendment of biochar suppressed N2O emission. During the whole rice growing season, the total N2O emission from chemical fertilizer was reduce by 29% and 53% under biochar amendment rates of 20t/ha and 40t/ha respectively. Total amounts of CO2 and CH4 emitted from paddy fields during whole rice growing season were not greatly increased despite of much carbon brought into soil with biochar. However, biochar amendment slightly increased CO2 emission in the absence of N fertilizer. Our results showed that biochar amendment into paddy field did not increase the global warming potential (GPW) and greenhouse gases emission intensity (GHGI).

  9. A comparative analysis of vehicle-related greenhouse gas emissions between organic and conventional dairy production.

    PubMed

    Aggestam, Vivianne; Buick, Jon

    2017-08-01

    Agricultural industrialisation and globalisation have steadily increased the transportation of food across the world. In efforts to promote sustainability and self-sufficiency, organic milk producers in Sweden are required to produce a higher level of cattle feed on-farm in the hope that increased self-sufficiency will reduce reliance on external inputs and reduce transport-related greenhouse gas emissions. Using data collected from 20 conventional and 20 organic milk producers in Sweden this paper aims to assess the global warming impact of farmyard vehicles and the transportation of feed produced 'off-farm' in order to compare the impact of vehicle-related emissions from the different production methods. The findings show organic and conventional production methods have different vehicle-related emission outputs that vary according to a reliance on either road transportation or increased farmyard machinery use. Mechanical weeding is more fuel demanding than conventional agrichemical sprayers. However, artificial fertilising is one of the highest farmyard vehicle-related emitters. The general findings show organic milk production emits higher levels of farm vehicle-related emissions that fail to be offset by reduced emissions occurring from international transport emissions. This paper does not propose to cover a comprehensive supply chain carbon footprint for milk production or attempt to determine which method of production has the largest climatic impact. However, it does demonstrate that Sweden's legal requirements for organic producers to produce more feed on-farm to reduce transport emissions have brought emissions back within Sweden's greenhouse gas inventory and raises questions around the effectiveness of policies to reduce vehicle-related emissions. Further research is needed into the effectiveness of climate change mitigation on food production policies, in particular looking at various trade-offs that affects the entire food supply chain.

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions from agricultural food production to supply Indian diets: Implications for climate change mitigation.

    PubMed

    Vetter, Sylvia H; Sapkota, Tek B; Hillier, Jon; Stirling, Clare M; Macdiarmid, Jennie I; Aleksandrowicz, Lukasz; Green, Rosemary; Joy, Edward J M; Dangour, Alan D; Smith, Pete

    2017-01-16

    Agriculture is a major source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions globally. The growing global population is putting pressure on agricultural production systems that aim to secure food production while minimising GHG emissions. In this study, the GHG emissions associated with the production of major food commodities in India are calculated using the Cool Farm Tool. GHG emissions, based on farm management for major crops (including cereals like wheat and rice, pulses, potatoes, fruits and vegetables) and livestock-based products (milk, eggs, chicken and mutton meat), are quantified and compared. Livestock and rice production were found to be the main sources of GHG emissions in Indian agriculture with a country average of 5.65 kg CO2eq kg(-1) rice, 45.54 kg CO2eq kg(-1) mutton meat and 2.4 kg CO2eq kg(-1) milk. Production of cereals (except rice), fruits and vegetables in India emits comparatively less GHGs with <1 kg CO2eq kg(-1) product. These findings suggest that a shift towards dietary patterns with greater consumption of animal source foods could greatly increase GHG emissions from Indian agriculture. A range of mitigation options are available that could reduce emissions from current levels and may be compatible with increased future food production and consumption demands in India.

  11. Evaluation of disinfectants to prevent mechanical transmission of viruses and a viroid in greenhouse tomato production.

    PubMed

    Li, Rugang; Baysal-Gurel, Fulya; Abdo, Zaid; Miller, Sally A; Ling, Kai-Shu

    2015-01-27

    In recent years, a number of serious disease outbreaks caused by viruses and viroids on greenhouse tomatoes in North America have resulted in significant economic losses to growers. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effectiveness of commercial disinfectants against mechanical transmission of these pathogens, and to select disinfectants with broad spectrum reactivity to control general virus and viroid diseases in greenhouse tomato production. A total of 16 disinfectants were evaluated against Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV), Potato spindle tuber viroid (PSTVd), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). The efficacy of each disinfectant to deactivate the pathogen's infectivity was evaluated in replicate experiments from at least three independent experiments. Any infectivity that remained in the treated solutions was assessed through bioassays on susceptible tomato plants through mechanical inoculation using inocula that had been exposed with the individual disinfectant for three short time periods (0-10 sec, 30 sec and 60 sec). A positive infection on the inoculated plant was determined through symptom observation and confirmed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PepMV, ToMV, and TMV) and real-time reverse transcription-PCR (PSTVd). Experimental data were analyzed using Logistic regression and the Bayesian methodology. Statistical analyses using logistic regression and the Bayesian methodology indicated that two disinfectants (2% Virkon S and 10% Clorox regular bleach) were the most effective to prevent transmission of PepMV, PSTVd, ToMV, and TMV from mechanical inoculation. Lysol all-purpose cleaner (50%) and nonfat dry milk (20%) were also effective against ToMV and TMV, but with only partial effects for PepMV and PSTVd. With the broad spectrum efficacy against three common viruses and a viroid, several disinfectants, including 2% Virkon S, 10% Clorox regular bleach and 20% nonfat dry milk, are recommend to greenhouse facilities

  12. Agriculture: Nurseries and Greenhouses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nurseries and Greenhouses. Information about environmental requirements specifically relating to the production of many types of agricultural crops grown in nurseries and greenhouses, such as ornamental plants and specialty fruits and vegetables.

  13. Greenhouse gas production and efficiency of planted and artificially aerated constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Maltais-Landry, Gabriel; Maranger, Roxane; Brisson, Jacques; Chazarenc, Florent

    2009-03-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by constructed wetlands (CWs) could mitigate the environmental benefits of nutrient removal in these man-made ecosystems. We studied the effect of 3 different macrophyte species and artificial aeration on the rates of nitrous oxide (N(2)O), carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and methane (CH(4)) production in CW mesocosms over three seasons. CW emitted 2-10 times more GHG than natural wetlands. Overall, CH(4) was the most important GHG emitted in unplanted treatments. Oxygen availability through artificial aeration reduced CH(4) fluxes. Plant presence also decreased CH(4) fluxes but favoured CO(2) production. Nitrous oxide had a minor contribution to global warming potential (GWP<15%). The introduction of oxygen through artificial aeration combined with plant presence, particularly Typha angustifolia, had the overall best performance among the treatments tested in this study, including lowest GWP, greatest nutrient removal, and best hydraulic properties.

  14. Regional crop productivity and greenhouse gas emissions from Swiss soils under organic farming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Juhwan; Necpalova, Magdalena; Six, Johan

    2016-04-01

    There is worldwide concern about the increase in atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHG) and their impact on climate change and food security. As a sustainable alternative, organic cropping in various forms has been promoted to minimize the environmental impacts of conventional practices. However, relatively little is known about the potential to reduce GHG emissions while maintaining crop productivity through the large-scale adoption of organic practices. Therefore, we simulated and compared regional crop production, soil organic carbon status, and net soil GHG emissions under organic and conventional practices. Grid-level (2.2 km by 2.2 km) simulation was performed using previously validated DailyDayCent by considering typical crop rotations. Regional model estimates are presented and discussed specifically with the focus on Swiss organic and conventional cropping systems, which differ by type and intensity of manuring, tillage, and cover crop.

  15. Increasing beef production could lower greenhouse gas emissions in Brazil if decoupled from deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Oliveira Silva, R.; Barioni, L. G.; Hall, J. A. J.; Folegatti Matsuura, M.; Zanett Albertini, T.; Fernandes, F. A.; Moran, D.

    2016-05-01

    Recent debate about agricultural greenhouse gas emissions mitigation highlights trade-offs inherent in the way we produce and consume food, with increasing scrutiny on emissions-intensive livestock products. Although most research has focused on mitigation through improved productivity, systemic interactions resulting from reduced beef production at the regional level are still unexplored. A detailed optimization model of beef production encompassing pasture degradation and recovery processes, animal and deforestation emissions, soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics and upstream life-cycle inventory was developed and parameterized for the Brazilian Cerrado. Economic return was maximized considering two alternative scenarios: decoupled livestock-deforestation (DLD), assuming baseline deforestation rates controlled by effective policy; and coupled livestock-deforestation (CLD), where shifting beef demand alters deforestation rates. In DLD, reduced consumption actually leads to less productive beef systems, associated with higher emissions intensities and total emissions, whereas increased production leads to more efficient systems with boosted SOC stocks, reducing both per kilogram and total emissions. Under CLD, increased production leads to 60% higher emissions than in DLD. The results indicate the extent to which deforestation control contributes to sustainable intensification in Cerrado beef systems, and how alternative life-cycle analytical approaches result in significantly different emission estimates.

  16. Energy Intensity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Tight Oil Production in the Bakken Formation

    SciTech Connect

    Brandt, Adam; Yeskoo, Tim; McNally, Michael; Vafi, Kourosh; Yeh, Sonia; Cai, Hao; Wang, MIchael Q

    2016-11-01

    The Bakken formation has contributed to the recent rapid increase in U.S. oil production, reaching a peak production of >1.2 × 106 barrels per day in early 2015. In this study, we estimate the energy intensity and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from 7271 Bakken wells drilled from 2006 to 2013. We model energy use and emissions using the Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE) model, supplemented with an open-source drilling and fracturing model, GHGfrack. Overall well-to-refinery-gate (WTR) consumption of natural gas, diesel, and electricity represent 1.3%, 0.2%, and 0.005% of produced crude energy content, respectively. Fugitive emissions are modeled for a “typical” Bakken well using previously published results of atmospheric measurements. Flaring is a key driver of emissions: wells that flared in 2013 had a mean flaring rate that was ≈500 standard cubic feet per barrel or ≈14% of the energy content of the produced crude oil. Resulting production-weighted mean GHG emissions in 2013 were 10.2 g of CO2 equivalent GHGs per megajoule (henceforth, gCO2eq/MJ) of crude. Between-well variability gives a 5–95% range of 2–28 gCO2eq/MJ. If flaring is completely controlled, Bakken crude compares favorably to conventional U.S. crude oil, with 2013 emissions of 3.5 gCO2eq/MJ for nonflaring wells, compared to the U.S. mean of ≈8 gCO2eq/MJ.

  17. Comparison of process-based models to quantify nutrient flows and greenhouse gas emissions of milk production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Assessing and improving the sustainability of dairy production systems is essential to secure future food production. This requires a holistic approach that reveals trade-offs between emissions of the different greenhouse gases (GHG) and nutrient-based pollutants and ensures that interactions betwee...

  18. Measuring and mitigating agricultural greenhouse gas production in the U.S. Great Plains 1870-2000

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the last 150 years the Great Plains region of the United States has become a major center of agricultural production for the global market. The initial agricultural settlement of this area and subsequent changes in production content and farming techniques have resulted in significant greenhouse ...

  19. Land use greenhouse gas emissions from conventional oil production and oil sands.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Sonia; Jordaan, Sarah M; Brandt, Adam R; Turetsky, Merritt R; Spatari, Sabrina; Keith, David W

    2010-11-15

    Debates surrounding the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from land use of biofuels production have created a need to quantify the relative land use GHG intensity of fossil fuels. When contrasting land use GHG intensity of fossil fuel and biofuel production, it is the energy yield that greatly distinguishes the two. Although emissions released from land disturbed by fossil fuels can be comparable or higher than biofuels, the energy yield of oil production is typically 2-3 orders of magnitude higher, (0.33-2.6, 0.61-1.2, and 2.2 5.1 PJ/ha) for conventional oil production, oil sands surface mining, and in situ production, respectively). We found that land use contributes small portions of GHGs to life cycle emissions of California crude and in situ oil sands production ( <0.4% or < 0.4 gCO₂e/MJ crude refinery feedstock) and small to modest portions for Alberta conventional oil (0.1-4% or 0.1-3.4 gCO₂e/MJ) and surface mining of oil sands (0.9-11% or 0.8-10.2 gCO₂e/MJ).Our estimates are based on assumptions aggregated over large spatial and temporal scales and assuming 100% reclamation. Values on finer spatial and temporal scales that are relevant to policy targets need to account for site-specific information, the baseline natural and anthropogenic disturbance.

  20. Comparing embodied greenhouse gas emissions of modern computing and electronics products.

    PubMed

    Teehan, Paul; Kandlikar, Milind

    2013-05-07

    Information and communications technology (ICT) contributes substantially to global greenhouse gas (GHG) pollutant emissions, but it is time-consuming to estimate the environmental impacts caused by the production of ICT devices, and the literature lacks coverage for newer products. Using a process-sum life cycle assessment (LCA) approach, we estimate and compare the embodied GHG emissions of 11 ICT products, including large- and small-form-factor desktop and laptop personal computers, a thin client device, an LCD monitor, newer mobile devices (an Apple iPad, an iPod Touch, and an Amazon Kindle), a rack server, and a network switch. Full bills of materials are provided via hand disassembly and weighing and are mapped to processes in the ecoinvent v2.2 database to produce impact estimates. Results are analyzed to develop simplified impact estimation models using linear regressions based on product characteristics. A simple and robust linear relationship between mass and embodied emissions is identified; a more sophisticated linear model using display mass, battery mass, and circuit board mass as inputs is slightly more accurate. Embodied GHG emissions for newer products are 50-60% lower than corresponding older products with similar functionality, largely due to decreased material usage, especially reductions in integrated circuit content.

  1. Agricultural productivity and greenhouse gas emissions: trade-offs or synergies between mitigation and food security?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valin, H.; Havlík, P.; Mosnier, A.; Herrero, M.; Schmid, E.; Obersteiner, M.

    2013-09-01

    In this letter, we investigate the effects of crop yield and livestock feed efficiency scenarios on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture and land use change in developing countries. We analyze mitigation associated with different productivity pathways using the global partial equilibrium model GLOBIOM. Our results confirm that yield increase could mitigate some agriculture-related emissions growth over the next decades. Closing yield gaps by 50% for crops and 25% for livestock by 2050 would decrease agriculture and land use change emissions by 8% overall, and by 12% per calorie produced. However, the outcome is sensitive to the technological path and which factor benefits from productivity gains: sustainable land intensification would increase GHG savings by one-third when compared with a fertilizer intensive pathway. Reaching higher yield through total factor productivity gains would be more efficient on the food supply side but halve emissions savings due to a strong rebound effect on the demand side. Improvement in the crop or livestock sector would have different implications: crop yield increase would bring the largest food provision benefits, whereas livestock productivity gains would allow the greatest reductions in GHG emission. Combining productivity increases in the two sectors appears to be the most efficient way to exploit mitigation and food security co-benefits.

  2. Possible greenhouse effects of tetrafluoromethane and carbon dioxide emitted from aluminum production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, Ralph E.

    Tetrafluoromethane (CF 4) is an extremely stable gas which strongly absorbs infrared radiation at ˜ 8 μm, and therefore is capable of influencing the greenhouse effect. No natural sources have been identified, and the major anthropogenic source appears to be the electrolytic smelting of alumina to produce aluminum. Measurements of CF 4 concentrations in the atmosphere are reviewed, and these are combined with aluminum production rates to provide an estimate of 1.3-3.6 kg of CF 4 emitted per ton of aluminum produced for the period up to ˜ 1985. Aluminum production also requires large amounts of electrical energy, leading to the emission of as much as 22 tons of carbon dioxide per ton of aluminum due to fossil fuel combustion in power plants. The present day contribution of hydroelectric power reduces this figure to about 14 tons of carbon dioxide per ton of aluminum. An estimate of the relative radiative trapping of CF 4 and CO 2 emitted in aluminum production during this same period (1900-1985) indicates that the effect of CF 4 is about one-third that of the CO 2 formed by aluminum production. However, the emission of fluorocarbons from modem aluminum electrolysis cells is much lower than previous estimates indicate, and this factor is considered in estimating potential long-term global warming effects of CF 4 and CO 2 from aluminum production. Possible processes leading to removal of CF 4 from the atmosphere are described.

  3. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in China's agriculture: from farm production to food consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Qian; Cheng, Kun; Pan, Genxing

    2016-04-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agriculture could be mitigated from both supple side and demand side. Assessing carbon footprint (CF) of agricultural production and food consumption could provide insights into the contribution of agriculture to climate change and help to identify possible GHG mitigation options. In the present study, CF of China's agricultural production was firstly assessed from site scale to national scale, and from crop production to livestock production. Data for the crop and livestock production were collected from field survey and national statistical archive, and both life cycle assessment and input-output method were employed in the estimations. In general, CF of crop production was lower than that of livestock production on average. Rice production ranked the highest CF in crop production, and the highest CFs of livestock production were observed in mutton and beef production. Methane emissions from rice paddy, emissions from fertilizer application and water irrigation exerted the largest contribution of more than 50% for CF of crop production; however, emissions from forage feeding, enteric fermentation and manure treatment made the most proportion of more than 90 % for CF of livestock production. In China, carbon efficiency was shown in a decreasing trend in recent years. According to the present study, overuse of nitrogen fertilizer caused no yield effect but significant emissions in some sites and regions of China, and aggregated farms lowered the CFs of crop production and livestock production by 3% to 25% and 6% to 60% respectively compared to household farms. Given these, improving farming management efficiency and farm intensive development is the key strategy to mitigate climate change from supply side. However, changes in food consumption may reduce GHG emissions in the production chain through a switch to the consumption of food with higher GHG emissions in the production process to food with lower GHG emissions. Thus, CFs

  4. Energy analyses and greenhouse gas emissions assessment for saffron production cycle.

    PubMed

    Bakhtiari, Amir Abbas; Hematian, Amir; Sharifi, Azin

    2015-10-01

    Population growth and world climate changes are putting high pressure on agri-food production systems. Exacerbating use of energy sources and expanding the environmental damaging symptoms are the results of these difficult situations. This study was conducted to determine the energy balance for saffron production cycle and investigate the corresponding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Iran. Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) is one of the main spice that historically cultivated in Iran. Data were obtained from 127 randomly selected saffron growers using a face to face questionnaire technique. The results revealed that in 5 years of saffron production cycle, the overall input and output energy use were to be 163,912.09 and 184,868.28 MJ ha(-1), respectively. The highest-level of energy consumption belongs to seeds (23.7 %) followed by chemical fertilizers (23.4 %). Energy use efficiency, specific energy, net energy, and energy productivity of saffron production were 1.1, 13.4 MJ kg(-1), 20,956.2 MJ ha(-1), and 0.1 kg MJ(-1), respectively. The result shows that the cultivation of saffron emits 2325.5 kg CO2 eq. ha(-1) greenhouse gas, in which around 46.5 % belonged to electricity followed by chemical fertilizers. In addition the Cobb-Douglas production function was applied into EViews 7 software to define the functional relationship. The results of econometric model estimation showed that the impact of human labor, electricity, and water for irrigation on stigma, human labor, electricity, and seed on corm and also human labor and farmyard manure (FYM) on flower and leaf yield were found to be statistically significant. Sensitivity analysis results of the energy inputs demonstrated that the marginal physical productivity (MPP) worth of electricity energy was the highest for saffron stigma and corm, although saffron flower and leaf had more sensitivity on chemicals energy inputs. Moreover, MPP values of renewable and indirect energies were higher than non-renewable and

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from production chain of a cigarette manufacturing industry in Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Hussain, Majid; Zaidi, Syed Mujtaba Hasnian; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Sharma, Benktesh Dash

    2014-10-15

    This study quantified greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Pakistan Tobacco Company (PTC) production using a life cycle approach. The PTC production chain comprises of two phases: agricultural activities (Phase I) and industrial activities (Phase II). Data related to agricultural and industrial activities of PTC production chain were collected through questionnaire survey from tobacco growers and records from PTC manufacturing units. The results showed that total GHG emissions from PTC production chain were 44,965, 42,875, and 43,839 tCO{sub 2}e respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Among the agricultural activities, firewood burning for tobacco curing accounted for about 3117, 3565, and 3264 tCO{sub 2}e, fertilizer application accounted for 754, 3251, and 4761 tCO{sub 2}e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Among the industrial activities, fossil fuels consumption in stationary sources accounted for 15,582, 12,733, and 13,203 tCO{sub 2}e, fossil fuels used in mobile sources contributed to 2693, 3038, and 3260 tCO{sub 2}e, and purchased electricity consumed resulted in 15,177, 13,556, and 11,380 tCO{sub 2}e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The GHG emissions related to the transportation of raw materials and processed tobacco amounted to 6800, 6301, and 7317 respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. GHG emissions from energy use in the industrial activities constituted the largest emissions (i.e., over 80%) of GHG emissions as PTC relies on fossil fuels and fossil fuel based electrical power in industrial processes. The total emissions of carbon footprint (CFP) from PTC production were 0.647 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes produced in 2009, 0.675 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes in 2010 and 0.59 tCO{sub 2}e per million cigarettes in 2011. Potential strategies for GHG emissions reductions for PTC production chain include energy efficiency, reducing reliance on fossil fuels in non-mobile sources, adoption of renewable fuels including solar energy, energy

  6. Pesticide risk assessment in flower greenhouses in Argentina: the importance of manipulating concentrated products.

    PubMed

    Flores, Andrea P; Berenstein, Giselle A; Hughes, Enrique A; Zalts, Anita; Montserrat, Javier M

    2011-05-15

    An evaluation of the Potential Dermal Exposure of workers to endosulfan and procymidone at the mix/load and application stages was done in small floricultural production units in Argentina. Seven experiments were performed with different operators under typical greenhouse conditions, based on the whole body dosimetry methodology. These results indicate that the mean Potential Dermal Exposure of the application step was 45.0 ± 55.0 mL h(-1) with the highest proportion on torso, head, arms and hands. When the mix/load and application stages were compared, the first was found to contribute the most to the total exposure. Also, the Margin of Safety for the different operations was calculated, and a pesticide surrogate was developed and used to make comparative evaluations of hand exposure for different groups of operators. These results emphasize the importance of the mix/load stage in the exposure process.

  7. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... and the Environment Greenhouse Gases Effect on the Climate Where Greenhouse Gases Come From Outlook for Future ... greenhouse effect that results in global warming and climate change. Many gases exhibit these greenhouse properties. Some ...

  8. Greenhouse gas mitigation for U.S. plastics production: energy first, feedstocks later

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posen, I. Daniel; Jaramillo, Paulina; Landis, Amy E.; Griffin, W. Michael

    2017-03-01

    Plastics production is responsible for 1% and 3% of U.S. greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and primary energy use, respectively. Replacing conventional plastics with bio-based plastics (made from renewable feedstocks) is frequently proposed as a way to mitigate these impacts. Comparatively little research has considered the potential for green energy to reduce emissions in this industry. This paper compares two strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions from U.S. plastics production: using renewable energy or switching to renewable feedstocks. Renewable energy pathways assume all process energy comes from wind power and renewable natural gas derived from landfill gas. Renewable feedstock pathways assume that all commodity thermoplastics will be replaced with polylactic acid (PLA) and bioethylene-based plastics, made using either corn or switchgrass, and powered using either conventional or renewable energy. Corn-based biopolymers produced with conventional energy are the dominant near-term biopolymer option, and can reduce industry-wide GHG emissions by 25%, or 16 million tonnes CO2e/year (mean value). In contrast, switching to renewable energy cuts GHG emissions by 50%–75% (a mean industry-wide reduction of 38 million tonnes CO2e/year). Both strategies increase industry costs—by up to 85/tonne plastic (mean result) for renewable energy, and up to 3000 tonne‑1 plastic for renewable feedstocks. Overall, switching to renewable energy achieves greater emission reductions, with less uncertainty and lower costs than switching to corn-based biopolymers. In the long run, producing bio-based plastics from advanced feedstocks (e.g. switchgrass) and/or with renewable energy can further reduce emissions, to approximately 0 CO2e/year (mean value).

  9. Recycling of wood for particle board production: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions.

    PubMed

    Merrild, Hanna; Christensen, Thomas H

    2009-11-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions related to the recycling of wood waste have been assessed with the purpose to provide useful data that can be used in accounting of greenhouse gas emissions. Here we present data related to the activities in a material recovery facility (MRF) where wood waste is shredded and foreign objects are removed in order to produce wood chips for use in the production of particleboard. The data are presented in accordance with the UOD (upstream, operational, downstream) framework presented in Gentil et al. (Waste Management & Research, 27, 2009). The GHG accounting shows that the emissions related to upstream activities (5 to 41 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne( -1) wood waste) and to activities at the MRF (approximately 5 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(-1) wood waste) are negligible compared to the downstream processing (-560 to -120 kg CO(2)equivalents tonne(-1) wood waste). The magnitude of the savings in GHG emissions downstream are mainly related to savings in energy consumption for drying of fresh wood for particleboard production. However, the GHG account highly depends on the choices made in the modelling of the downstream system. The inclusion of saved electricity from avoided chipping of virgin wood does not change the results radically (-665 to -125 kg CO(2)-equivalents tonne(- 1) wood waste). However, if in addition it is assumed that the GHG emissions from combustion of wood has no global warming potential (GWP) and that the energy produced from excess wood due to recycling substitutes energy from fossil fuels, here assumed to be coal, potentially large downstream GHG emissions savings can be achieved by recycling of waste wood (-1.9 to -1.3 tonnes CO(2)-equivalents tonne(- 1) wood waste). As the data ranges are broad, it is necessary to carefully evaluate the feasibility of the data in the specific system which the GHG accounting is to be applied to.

  10. Greenhouse gas production in wastewater treatment: process selection is the major factor.

    PubMed

    Keller, J; Hartley, K

    2003-01-01

    Many practical design and operating decisions on wastewater treatment plants can have significant impacts on the overall environmental performance, in particular the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The main factor in this regard is the use of aerobic or anaerobic treatment technology. This paper compares the GHG production of a number of case studies with aerobic or anaerobic main and sludge treatment of domestic wastewater and also looks at the energy balances and economics. This comparison demonstrates that major advantages can be gained by using primarily anaerobic processes as it is possible to largely eliminate any net energy input to the process, and therefore the production of GHG from fossil fuels. This is achieved by converting the energy of the incoming wastewater pollutants to methane which is then used to generate electricity. This is sufficient to power the aerobic processes as well as the mixing etc. of the anaerobic stages. In terms of GHG production, the total output (in CO2 equivalents) can be reduced from 2.4 kg CO2/kg COD(removed) for fully aerobic treatment to 1.0 kg CO2/kg COD(removed) for primarily anaerobic processes. All of the CO2 produced in the anaerobic processes comes from the wastewater pollutants and is therefore greenhouse gas neutral, whereas up to 1.4 kg CO2/kg COD(removed) originates from power generation for the fully aerobic process. This means that considerably more CO2 is produced in power generation than in the actual treatment process, and all of this is typically from fossil fuels, whereas the energy from the wastewater pollutants comes primarily from renewable energy sources, namely agricultural products. Even a change from anaerobic to aerobic sludge treatment processes (for the same aerobic main process) has a massive impact on the CO2 production from fossil fuels. An additional 0.8 kg CO2/kg COD(removed) is produced by changing to aerobic sludge digestion, which equates for a typical 100,000 EP plant to an additional

  11. Decoupling of greenhouse gas emissions from global agricultural production: 1970-2050.

    PubMed

    Bennetzen, Eskild H; Smith, Pete; Porter, John R

    2016-02-01

    Since 1970 global agricultural production has more than doubled; contributing ~1/4 of total anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) burden in 2010. Food production must increase to feed our growing demands, but to address climate change, GHG emissions must decrease. Using an identity approach, we estimate and analyse past trends in GHG emission intensities from global agricultural production and land-use change and project potential future emissions. The novel Kaya-Porter identity framework deconstructs the entity of emissions from a mix of multiple sources of GHGs into attributable elements allowing not only a combined analysis of the total level of all emissions jointly with emissions per unit area and emissions per unit product. It also allows us to examine how a change in emissions from a given source contributes to the change in total emissions over time. We show that agricultural production and GHGs have been steadily decoupled over recent decades. Emissions peaked in 1991 at ~12 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) and have not exceeded this since. Since 1970 GHG emissions per unit product have declined by 39% and 44% for crop- and livestock-production, respectively. Except for the energy-use component of farming, emissions from all sources have increased less than agricultural production. Our projected business-as-usual range suggests that emissions may be further decoupled by 20-55% giving absolute agricultural emissions of 8.2-14.5 Pg CO2 -eq. yr(-1) by 2050, significantly lower than many previous estimates that do not allow for decoupling. Beyond this, several additional costcompetitive mitigation measures could reduce emissions further. However, agricultural GHG emissions can only be reduced to a certain level and a simultaneous focus on other parts of the food-system is necessary to increase food security whilst reducing emissions. The identity approach presented here could be used as a methodological framework for more holistic food systems analysis.

  12. Temperature effects on net greenhouse gas production and bacterial communities in arctic thaw ponds.

    PubMed

    Negandhi, Karita; Laurion, Isabelle; Lovejoy, Connie

    2016-08-01

    One consequence of High Arctic permafrost thawing is the formation of small ponds, which release greenhouse gases (GHG) from stored carbon through microbial activity. Under a climate with higher summer air temperatures and longer ice-free seasons, sediments of shallow ponds are likely to become warmer, which could influence enzyme kinetics or select for less cryophilic microbes. There is little data on the direct temperature effects on GHG production and consumption or on microbial communities' composition in Arctic ponds. We investigated GHG production over 16 days at 4°C and 9°C in sediments collected from four thaw ponds. Consistent with an enzymatic response, production rates of CO2 and CH4 were significantly greater at higher temperatures, with Q10 varying from 1.2 to 2.5. The bacterial community composition from one pond was followed through the incubation by targeting the V6-V8 variable regions of the 16S rRNA gene and 16S rRNA. Several rare taxa detected from rRNA accounted for significant community compositional changes. At the higher temperature, the relative community contribution from Bacteroidetes decreased by 15% with compensating increases in Betaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Actinobacteria. The increase in experimental GHG production accompanied by changes in community indicates an additional factor to consider in sediment environments when evaluating future climate scenarios. © FEMS 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Life-cycle analysis of greenhouse gas emissions from renewable jet fuel production.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Sierk; Antonissen, Kay; Hoefnagels, Ric; Lonza, Laura; Wang, Michael; Faaij, André; Junginger, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The introduction of renewable jet fuel (RJF) is considered an important emission mitigation measure for the aviation industry. This study compares the well-to-wake (WtWa) greenhouse gas (GHG) emission performance of multiple RJF conversion pathways and explores the impact of different co-product allocation methods. The insights obtained in this study are of particular importance if RJF is included as an emission mitigation instrument in the global Carbon Offsetting and Reduction Scheme for International Aviation (CORSIA). Fischer-Tropsch pathways yield the highest GHG emission reduction compared to fossil jet fuel (86-104%) of the pathways in scope, followed by Hydrothermal Liquefaction (77-80%) and sugarcane- (71-75%) and corn stover-based Alcohol-to-Jet (60-75%). Feedstock cultivation, hydrogen and conversion inputs were shown to be major contributors to the overall WtWa GHG emission performance. The choice of allocation method mainly affects pathways yielding high shares of co-products or producing co-products which effectively displace carbon intensive products (e.g., electricity). Renewable jet fuel can contribute to significant reduction of aviation-related GHG emissions, provided the right feedstock and conversion technology are used. The GHG emission performance of RJF may be further improved by using sustainable hydrogen sources or applying carbon capture and storage. Based on the character and impact of different co-product allocation methods, we recommend using energy and economic allocation (for non-energy co-products) at a global level, as it leverages the universal character of energy allocation while adequately valuing non-energy co-products.

  14. Measuring and mitigating agricultural greenhouse gas production in the US Great Plains, 1870-2000.

    PubMed

    Parton, William J; Gutmann, Myron P; Merchant, Emily R; Hartman, Melannie D; Adler, Paul R; McNeal, Frederick M; Lutz, Susan M

    2015-08-25

    The Great Plains region of the United States is an agricultural production center for the global market and, as such, an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article uses historical agricultural census data and ecosystem models to estimate the magnitude of annual GHG fluxes from all agricultural sources (e.g., cropping, livestock raising, irrigation, fertilizer production, tractor use) in the Great Plains from 1870 to 2000. Here, we show that carbon (C) released during the plow-out of native grasslands was the largest source of GHG emissions before 1930, whereas livestock production, direct energy use, and soil nitrous oxide emissions are currently the largest sources. Climatic factors mediate these emissions, with cool and wet weather promoting C sequestration and hot and dry weather increasing GHG release. This analysis demonstrates the long-term ecosystem consequences of both historical and current agricultural activities, but also indicates that adoption of available alternative management practices could substantially mitigate agricultural GHG fluxes, ranging from a 34% reduction with a 25% adoption rate to as much as complete elimination with possible net sequestration of C when a greater proportion of farmers adopt new agricultural practices.

  15. Improving rice production sustainability by reducing water demand and greenhouse gas emissions with biodegradable films

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Zhisheng; Zheng, Xunhua; Liu, Chunyan; Lin, Shan; Zuo, Qiang; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    In China, rice production is facing unprecedented challenges, including the increasing demand, looming water crisis and on-going climate change. Thus, producing more rice at lower environmental cost is required for future development, i.e., the use of less water and the production of fewer greenhouse gas (GHG) per unit of rice. Ground cover rice production systems (GCRPSs) could potentially address these concerns, although no studies have systematically and simultaneously evaluated the benefits of GCRPS regarding yields and considering water use and GHG emissions. This study reports the results of a 2-year study comparing conventional paddy and various GCRPS practices. Relative to conventional paddy, GCRPSs had greater rice yields and nitrogen use efficiencies (8.5% and 70%, respectively), required less irrigation (−64%) and resulted in less total CH4 and N2O emissions (−54%). On average, annual emission factors of N2O were 1.67% and 2.00% for conventional paddy and GCRPS, respectively. A cost-benefit analysis considering yields, GHG emissions, water demand and labor and mulching costs indicated GCRPSs are an environmentally and economically profitable technology. Furthermore, substituting the polyethylene film with a biodegradable film resulted in comparable benefits of yield and climate. Overall, GCRPSs, particularly with biodegradable films, provide a promising solution for farmers to secure or even increase yields while reducing the environmental footprint. PMID:28054647

  16. Improving rice production sustainability by reducing water demand and greenhouse gas emissions with biodegradable films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Zhisheng; Zheng, Xunhua; Liu, Chunyan; Lin, Shan; Zuo, Qiang; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    In China, rice production is facing unprecedented challenges, including the increasing demand, looming water crisis and on-going climate change. Thus, producing more rice at lower environmental cost is required for future development, i.e., the use of less water and the production of fewer greenhouse gas (GHG) per unit of rice. Ground cover rice production systems (GCRPSs) could potentially address these concerns, although no studies have systematically and simultaneously evaluated the benefits of GCRPS regarding yields and considering water use and GHG emissions. This study reports the results of a 2-year study comparing conventional paddy and various GCRPS practices. Relative to conventional paddy, GCRPSs had greater rice yields and nitrogen use efficiencies (8.5% and 70%, respectively), required less irrigation (-64%) and resulted in less total CH4 and N2O emissions (-54%). On average, annual emission factors of N2O were 1.67% and 2.00% for conventional paddy and GCRPS, respectively. A cost-benefit analysis considering yields, GHG emissions, water demand and labor and mulching costs indicated GCRPSs are an environmentally and economically profitable technology. Furthermore, substituting the polyethylene film with a biodegradable film resulted in comparable benefits of yield and climate. Overall, GCRPSs, particularly with biodegradable films, provide a promising solution for farmers to secure or even increase yields while reducing the environmental footprint.

  17. Measuring and mitigating agricultural greenhouse gas production in the US Great Plains, 1870–2000

    PubMed Central

    Parton, William J.; Gutmann, Myron P.; Merchant, Emily R.; Hartman, Melannie D.; Adler, Paul R.; McNeal, Frederick M.; Lutz, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    The Great Plains region of the United States is an agricultural production center for the global market and, as such, an important source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This article uses historical agricultural census data and ecosystem models to estimate the magnitude of annual GHG fluxes from all agricultural sources (e.g., cropping, livestock raising, irrigation, fertilizer production, tractor use) in the Great Plains from 1870 to 2000. Here, we show that carbon (C) released during the plow-out of native grasslands was the largest source of GHG emissions before 1930, whereas livestock production, direct energy use, and soil nitrous oxide emissions are currently the largest sources. Climatic factors mediate these emissions, with cool and wet weather promoting C sequestration and hot and dry weather increasing GHG release. This analysis demonstrates the long-term ecosystem consequences of both historical and current agricultural activities, but also indicates that adoption of available alternative management practices could substantially mitigate agricultural GHG fluxes, ranging from a 34% reduction with a 25% adoption rate to as much as complete elimination with possible net sequestration of C when a greater proportion of farmers adopt new agricultural practices. PMID:26240366

  18. Greenhouse tomato limited cluster production systems: crop management practices affect yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logendra, L. S.; Gianfagna, T. J.; Specca, D. R.; Janes, H. W.

    2001-01-01

    Limited-cluster production systems may be a useful strategy to increase crop production and profitability for the greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). In this study, using an ebb-and-flood hydroponics system, we modified plant architecture and spacing and determined the effects on fruit yield and harvest index at two light levels. Single-cluster plants pruned to allow two leaves above the cluster had 25% higher fruit yields than did plants pruned directly above the cluster; this was due to an increase in fruit weight, not fruit number. Both fruit yield and harvest index were greater for all single-cluster plants at the higher light level because of increases in both fruit weight and fruit number. Fruit yield for two-cluster plants was 30% to 40% higher than for single-cluster plants, and there was little difference in the dates or length of the harvest period. Fruit yield for three-cluster plants was not significantly different from that of two-cluster plants; moreover, the harvest period was delayed by 5 days. Plant density (5.5, 7.4, 9.2 plants/m2) affected fruit yield/plant, but not fruit yield/unit area. Given the higher costs for materials and labor associated with higher plant densities, a two-cluster crop at 5.5 plants/m2 with two leaves above the cluster was the best of the production system strategies tested.

  19. Greenhouse tomato limited cluster production systems: crop management practices affect yield.

    PubMed

    Logendra, L S; Gianfagna, T J; Specca, D R; Janes, H W

    2001-08-01

    Limited-cluster production systems may be a useful strategy to increase crop production and profitability for the greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). In this study, using an ebb-and-flood hydroponics system, we modified plant architecture and spacing and determined the effects on fruit yield and harvest index at two light levels. Single-cluster plants pruned to allow two leaves above the cluster had 25% higher fruit yields than did plants pruned directly above the cluster; this was due to an increase in fruit weight, not fruit number. Both fruit yield and harvest index were greater for all single-cluster plants at the higher light level because of increases in both fruit weight and fruit number. Fruit yield for two-cluster plants was 30% to 40% higher than for single-cluster plants, and there was little difference in the dates or length of the harvest period. Fruit yield for three-cluster plants was not significantly different from that of two-cluster plants; moreover, the harvest period was delayed by 5 days. Plant density (5.5, 7.4, 9.2 plants/m2) affected fruit yield/plant, but not fruit yield/unit area. Given the higher costs for materials and labor associated with higher plant densities, a two-cluster crop at 5.5 plants/m2 with two leaves above the cluster was the best of the production system strategies tested.

  20. Greenhouse tomato limited cluster production systems: crop management practices affect yield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logendra, L. S.; Gianfagna, T. J.; Specca, D. R.; Janes, H. W.

    2001-01-01

    Limited-cluster production systems may be a useful strategy to increase crop production and profitability for the greenhouse tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill). In this study, using an ebb-and-flood hydroponics system, we modified plant architecture and spacing and determined the effects on fruit yield and harvest index at two light levels. Single-cluster plants pruned to allow two leaves above the cluster had 25% higher fruit yields than did plants pruned directly above the cluster; this was due to an increase in fruit weight, not fruit number. Both fruit yield and harvest index were greater for all single-cluster plants at the higher light level because of increases in both fruit weight and fruit number. Fruit yield for two-cluster plants was 30% to 40% higher than for single-cluster plants, and there was little difference in the dates or length of the harvest period. Fruit yield for three-cluster plants was not significantly different from that of two-cluster plants; moreover, the harvest period was delayed by 5 days. Plant density (5.5, 7.4, 9.2 plants/m2) affected fruit yield/plant, but not fruit yield/unit area. Given the higher costs for materials and labor associated with higher plant densities, a two-cluster crop at 5.5 plants/m2 with two leaves above the cluster was the best of the production system strategies tested.

  1. Increased greenhouse-gas intensity of rice production under future atmospheric conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Groenigen, Kees Jan; van Kessel, Chris; Hungate, Bruce A.

    2013-03-01

    Increased atmospheric CO2 and rising temperatures are expected to affect rice yields and greenhouse-gas (GHG) emissions from rice paddies. This is important, because rice cultivation is one of the largest human-induced sources of the potent GHG methane (CH4) and rice is the world's second-most produced staple crop. The need for meeting a growing global food demand argues for assessing GHG emissions from croplands on the basis of yield rather than land area, such that efforts to reduce GHG emissions take into consideration the consequences for food production. However, it is unclear whether or how the GHG intensity (that is, yield-scaled GHG emissions) of cropping systems will be affected by future atmospheric conditions. Here we show, using meta-analysis, that increased atmospheric CO2 (ranging from 550 to 743ppmV) and warming (ranging from +0.8°C to +6°C) both increase the GHG intensity of rice cultivation. Increased atmospheric CO2 increased GHG intensity by 31.4%, because CH4 emissions are stimulated more than rice yields. Warming increased GHG intensity by 11.8% per 1°C, largely owing to a decrease in yield. This analysis suggests that rising CO2 and warming will approximately double the GHG intensity of rice production by the end of the twenty-first century, stressing the need for management practices that optimize rice production while reducing its GHG intensity as the climate continues to change.

  2. Environmental analysis of the logistics of agricultural products from roof top greenhouses in Mediterranean urban areas.

    PubMed

    Sanyé-Mengual, Esther; Cerón-Palma, Ileana; Oliver-Solà, Jordi; Montero, Juan Ignacio; Rieradevall, Joan

    2013-01-15

    As urban populations increase so does the amount of food transported to cities worldwide, and innovative agro-urban systems are being developed to integrate agricultural production into buildings; for example, by using roof top greenhouses (RTGs). This paper aims to quantify and compare, through a life cycle assessment, the environmental impact of the current linear supply system with a RTG system by using a case study for the production of tomatoes. The main results indicate that a change from the current linear system to the RTG system could result in a reduction, per kilogram of tomatoes (the functional unit), in the range of 44.4-75.5% for the different impact categories analysed, and savings of up to 73.5% in energy requirements. These savings are associated with re-utilisation of packaging systems (55.4-85.2%), minimisation of transport requirements (7.6-15.6%) and reduction of the loss of product during transportation and retail stages (7.3-37%). The RTG may become a strategic factor in the design of low-carbon cities in Mediterranean areas. Short-term implementation in the city of Barcelona could result in savings of 66.1 tonnes of CO₂ eq. ha(-1) when considering the global warming potential, and of 71.03 t ha(-1) when considering that the transformation from woodland to agricultural land is avoided. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. In vitro cormlet production of saffron (Crocus sativus L. Kashmirianus) and their flowering response under greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Parray, Javid A; Kamili, Azra N; Hamid, Rehana; Husaini, Amjad M

    2012-01-01

    A complete protocol for the saffron cormlet production under in vitro conditions and subsequent flowering under greenhouse conditions is described. Highest number of cormlets (70.0 ± 0.30) per corm slice (explant) could be regenerated on Murashige and Skoog (MS) half strength medium supplemented with thidiazuron (TDZ) (20 µM), Indole acetic acid (IAA) (10 µM), and sucrose (40 g/l). Maximum germination (90%) of these cormlets could be achieved on MS medium containing 6-benzyl amino purine (BAP) (20 µM) and α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) (15 µM). In order to increase the size of the in vitro raised cormlets, these were cultured on MS medium containing TDZ (15 µM) and IAA in the range of 1.5-30 µM. Maximum increase in cormlet size could be attained on TDZ (15 µM) + IAA (12.5 µM) + sucrose (30 g/l), and the average size of cormlets was 2.5g. In another experiment, apical vegetative buds of actively growing corms were cultured for cormlet development, and corms of size 2.5g could be developed on MS medium with NAA (15 µM), BAP (20 µM), and sucrose (30 g/l). The in vitro developed cormlets were dried under shade at 25 ± 2°C for 7 d. These were then planted in small cups containing clay loam soil and kept in green house at 20 ± 2°C. In vitro developed cormlets with mean weight 2.5 g showed maximum flowering (25%) as well as vegetative growth (55%), while only 19% cormlets of 2.0 g flowered. To our knowledge this is the first report on successful flowering from in vitro raised cormlets under greenhouse.

  4. Energy efficiency and greenhouse gas emission intensity of petroleum products at U.S. refineries.

    PubMed

    Elgowainy, Amgad; Han, Jeongwoo; Cai, Hao; Wang, Michael; Forman, Grant S; DiVita, Vincent B

    2014-07-01

    This paper describes the development of (1) a formula correlating the variation in overall refinery energy efficiency with crude quality, refinery complexity, and product slate; and (2) a methodology for calculating energy and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission intensities and processing fuel shares of major U.S. refinery products. Overall refinery energy efficiency is the ratio of the energy present in all product streams divided by the energy in all input streams. Using linear programming (LP) modeling of the various refinery processing units, we analyzed 43 refineries that process 70% of total crude input to U.S. refineries and cover the largest four Petroleum Administration for Defense District (PADD) regions (I, II, III, V). Based on the allocation of process energy among products at the process unit level, the weighted-average product-specific energy efficiencies (and ranges) are estimated to be 88.6% (86.2%-91.2%) for gasoline, 90.9% (84.8%-94.5%) for diesel, 95.3% (93.0%-97.5%) for jet fuel, 94.5% (91.6%-96.2%) for residual fuel oil (RFO), and 90.8% (88.0%-94.3%) for liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). The corresponding weighted-average, production GHG emission intensities (and ranges) (in grams of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2e) per megajoule (MJ)) are estimated to be 7.8 (6.2-9.8) for gasoline, 4.9 (2.7-9.9) for diesel, 2.3 (0.9-4.4) for jet fuel, 3.4 (1.5-6.9) for RFO, and 6.6 (4.3-9.2) for LPG. The findings of this study are key components of the life-cycle assessment of GHG emissions associated with various petroleum fuels; such assessment is the centerpiece of legislation developed and promulgated by government agencies in the United States and abroad to reduce GHG emissions and abate global warming.

  5. Greenhouse gas production in mixtures of soil with composted and noncomposted biochars is governed by char-associated organic compounds

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Biochar application to soil has the potential to increase soil productivity while reducing anthropogenic net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere by sequestering carbon that has been assimilated by plants in a stabilized form. Techniques for conditioning this material as a soil amendment...

  6. Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in livestock production: a review of technical options for non-C02 emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Animal production is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. This analysis was done to evaluate the potential use of nutritional, manure, and animal management practices to mitigate non-CO2 GHG emissions (i.e., methane, CH4 and nitrous oxide, N2O) from enteric fermentation ...

  7. DairyGHG: a tool for evaluating the greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprint of dairy production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and their potential impact on the environment have become important national and international concerns. Dairy production, along with all other animal agriculture, is a recognized source of GHG emissions, but little information exists on the net emissions from our farm...

  8. Effects of nitrogen fertilizer application on greenhouse gas emissions and economics of corn production.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seungdo; Dale, Bruce E

    2008-08-15

    Nitrogen fertilizer plays an important role in corn cultivation in terms of both economic and environmental aspects. Nitrogen fertilizer positively affects corn yield and the soil organic carbon level, but it also has negative environmental effects through nitrogen-related emissions from soil (e.g., N20, NOx, NO3(-) leaching, etc.). Effects of nitrogen fertilizer on greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain are investigated via life cycle assessment. Ecoefficiency analysis is also used to determine an economically and environmentally optimal nitrogen application rate (NAR). The ecoefficiency index in this study is defined as the ratio of economic return due to nitrogen fertilizer to the greenhouse gas emissions of corn cultivation. Greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain decrease as NAR increases at a lower NAR until a minimum greenhouse gas emission level is reached because corn yield and soil organic carbon level increase with NAR. Further increasing NAR after a minimum greenhouse gas emission level raises greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain. Increased greenhouse gas emissions of corn grain due to nitrous oxide emissions from soil are much higher than reductions of greenhouse gas emissions of corn grain due to corn yield and changes in soil organic carbon levels at a higher NAR. Thus, there exists an environmentally optimal NAR in terms of greenhouse gas emissions. The trends of the ecoefficiency index are similar to those of economic return to nitrogen and greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain. Therefore, an appropriate NAR could enhance profitability as well as reduce greenhouse gas emissions associated with corn grain.

  9. Temperature response of denitrification rate and greenhouse gas production in agricultural river marginal wetland soils.

    PubMed

    Bonnett, S A F; Blackwell, M S A; Leah, R; Cook, V; O'Connor, M; Maltby, E

    2013-05-01

    Soils are predicted to exhibit significant feedback to global warming via the temperature response of greenhouse gas (GHG) production. However, the temperature response of hydromorphic wetland soils is complicated by confounding factors such as oxygen (O2 ), nitrate (NO3-) and soil carbon (C). We examined the effect of a temperature gradient (2-25 °C) on denitrification rates and net nitrous oxide (N2 O), methane (CH4 ) production and heterotrophic respiration in mineral (Eutric cambisol and Fluvisol) and organic (Histosol) soil types in a river marginal landscape of the Tamar catchment, Devon, UK, under non-flooded and flooded with enriched NO3- conditions. It was hypothesized that the temperature response is dependent on interactions with NO3--enriched flooding, and the physicochemical conditions of these soil types. Denitrification rate (mean, 746 ± 97.3 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ), net N2 O production (mean, 180 ± 26.6 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ) and net CH4 production (mean, 1065 ± 183 μg m(-2)  h(-1) ) were highest in the organic Histosol, with higher organic matter, ammonium and moisture, and lower NO3- concentrations. Heterotrophic respiration (mean, 127 ± 4.6 mg m(-2)  h(-1) ) was not significantly different between soil types and dominated total GHG (CO2 eq) production in all soil types. Generally, the temperature responses of denitrification rate and net N2 O production were exponential, whilst net CH4 production was unresponsive, possibly due to substrate limitation, and heterotrophic respiration was exponential but limited in summer at higher temperatures. Flooding with NO3- increased denitrification rate, net N2 O production and heterotrophic respiration, but a reduction in net CH4 production suggests inhibition of methanogenesis by NO3- or N2 O produced from denitrification. Implications for management and policy are that warming and flood events may promote microbial interactions in soil between distinct microbial communities and increase

  10. Occurrence of antibiotics in soils and manures from greenhouse vegetable production bases of Beijing, China and an associated risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Chen, Jiayi; Wang, Jihua; Ma, Zhihong; Han, Ping; Luan, Yunxia; Lu, Anxiang

    2015-07-15

    The occurrence of 15 antibiotics in soil and manure samples from 11 large-scale greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) bases in Beijing, China was investigated. Results showed that the greenhouse soils were ubiquitously contaminated with antibiotics, and that antibiotic concentrations were significantly higher in greenhouses than in open field soils. The mean concentrations of four antibiotic classes decreased in the following order: tetracyclines (102μg/kg)>quinolones (86μg/kg)>sulfonamides (1.1μg/kg)>macrolides (0.62μg/kg). This investigation also indicated that fertilization with manure and especially animal feces might be the primary source of antibiotics. A risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients (RQs) demonstrated that oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin could pose a high risk to soil organisms. These results suggested that the ecological effects of antibiotic contamination in GVP bases and their potential adverse risks on human health need to be given special attention.

  11. Reduction of greenhouse gases by fiber-loaded lightweight, high-opacity newsprint production

    Treesearch

    John H. Klungness; Matthew L. Stroika; Said M. Abubakr

    1999-01-01

    We estimated the effectiveness of fiber loading in reducing greenhouse gas emissions for producing lightweight high-opacity newsprint. Fiber loading enhances fiber bonding at increased precipitated calcium carbonate levels without significant loss in Canadian Standard Freeness or additional energy use. We investigated the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions for a...

  12. Elevating CO2 in commercial greenhouses can reduce carbon use and production cost in cool temperatures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    When greenhouses are heated in the cooler months, growers attempt to minimize gaps to reduce air infiltration. Greenhouses that are well sealed can result in CO2 drawdown to the detriment of plant growth. Growers can opt to counteract the low CO2 by supplementing with CO2. However, it is unknown how...

  13. Lifecycle greenhouse gas implications of US national scenarios for cellulosic ethanol production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scown, Corinne D.; Nazaroff, William W.; Mishra, Umakant; Strogen, Bret; Lobscheid, Agnes B.; Masanet, Eric; Santero, Nicholas J.; Horvath, Arpad; McKone, Thomas E.

    2012-03-01

    The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 set an annual US national production goal of 39.7 billion l of cellulosic ethanol by 2020. This paper explores the possibility of meeting that target by growing and processing Miscanthus × giganteus. We define and assess six production scenarios in which active cropland and/or Conservation Reserve Program land are used to grow to Miscanthus. The crop and biorefinery locations are chosen with consideration of economic, land-use, water management and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction objectives. Using lifecycle assessment, the net GHG footprint of each scenario is evaluated, providing insight into the climate costs and benefits associated with each scenario’s objectives. Assuming that indirect land-use change is successfully minimized or mitigated, the results suggest two major drivers for overall GHG impact of cellulosic ethanol from Miscanthus: (a) net soil carbon sequestration or emissions during Miscanthus cultivation and (b) GHG offset credits for electricity exported by biorefineries to the grid. Without these factors, the GHG intensity of bioethanol from Miscanthus is calculated to be 11-13 g CO2-equivalent per MJ of fuel, which is 80-90% lower than gasoline. Including soil carbon sequestration and the power-offset credit results in net GHG sequestration up to 26 g CO2-equivalent per MJ of fuel.

  14. Life cycle greenhouse gas impacts of ethanol, biomethane and limonene production from citrus waste

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourbafrani, Mohammad; McKechnie, Jon; MacLean, Heather L.; Saville, Bradley A.

    2013-03-01

    The production of biofuel from cellulosic residues can have both environmental and financial benefits. A particular benefit is that it can alleviate competition for land conventionally used for food and feed production. In this research, we investigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of ethanol, biomethane, limonene and digestate from citrus waste, a byproduct of the citrus processing industry. The study represents the first life cycle-based evaluations of citrus waste biorefineries. Two biorefinery configurations are studied—a large biorefinery that converts citrus waste into ethanol, biomethane, limonene and digestate, and a small biorefinery that converts citrus waste into biomethane, limonene and digestate. Ethanol is assumed to be used as E85, displacing gasoline as a light-duty vehicle fuel; biomethane displaces natural gas for electricity generation, limonene displaces acetone in solvents, and digestate from the anaerobic digestion process displaces synthetic fertilizer. System expansion and two allocation methods (energy, market value) are considered to determine emissions of co-products. Considerable GHG reductions would be achieved by producing and utilizing the citrus waste-based products in place of the petroleum-based or other non-renewable products. For the large biorefinery, ethanol used as E85 in light-duty vehicles results in a 134% reduction in GHG emissions compared to gasoline-fueled vehicles when applying a system expansion approach. For the small biorefinery, when electricity is generated from biomethane rather than natural gas, GHG emissions are reduced by 77% when applying system expansion. The life cycle GHG emissions vary substantially depending upon biomethane leakage rate, feedstock GHG emissions and the method to determine emissions assigned to co-products. Among the process design parameters, the biomethane leakage rate is critical, and the ethanol produced in the large biorefinery would not meet EISA

  15. Open-source LCA tool for estimating greenhouse gas emissions from crude oil production using field characteristics.

    PubMed

    El-Houjeiri, Hassan M; Brandt, Adam R; Duffy, James E

    2013-06-04

    Existing transportation fuel cycle emissions models are either general and calculate nonspecific values of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from crude oil production, or are not available for public review and auditing. We have developed the Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE) to provide open-source, transparent, rigorous GHG assessments for use in scientific assessment, regulatory processes, and analysis of GHG mitigation options by producers. OPGEE uses petroleum engineering fundamentals to model emissions from oil and gas production operations. We introduce OPGEE and explain the methods and assumptions used in its construction. We run OPGEE on a small set of fictional oil fields and explore model sensitivity to selected input parameters. Results show that upstream emissions from petroleum production operations can vary from 3 gCO2/MJ to over 30 gCO2/MJ using realistic ranges of input parameters. Significant drivers of emissions variation are steam injection rates, water handling requirements, and rates of flaring of associated gas.

  16. Trends in greenhouse gas emissions from consumption and production of animal food products - implications for long-term climate targets.

    PubMed

    Cederberg, C; Hedenus, F; Wirsenius, S; Sonesson, U

    2013-02-01

    To analyse trends in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from production and consumption of animal products in Sweden, life cycle emissions were calculated for the average production of pork, chicken meat, beef, dairy and eggs in 1990 and 2005. The calculated average emissions were used together with food consumption statistics and literature data on imported products to estimate trends in per capita emissions from animal food consumption. Total life cycle emissions from the Swedish livestock production were around 8.5 Mt carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e) in 1990 and emissions decreased to 7.3 Mt CO2e in 2005 (14% reduction). Around two-thirds of the emission cut was explained by more efficient production (less GHG emission per product unit) and one-third was due to a reduced animal production. The average GHG emissions per product unit until the farm-gate were reduced by 20% for dairy, 15% for pork and 23% for chicken meat, unchanged for eggs and increased by 10% for beef. A larger share of the average beef was produced from suckler cows in cow-calf systems in 2005 due to the decreasing dairy cow herd, which explains the increased emissions for the average beef in 2005. The overall emission cuts from the livestock sector were a result of several measures taken in farm production, for example increased milk yield per cow, lowered use of synthetic nitrogen fertilisers in grasslands, reduced losses of ammonia from manure and a switch to biofuels for heating in chicken houses. In contrast to production, total GHG emissions from the Swedish consumption of animal products increased by around 22% between 1990 and 2005. This was explained by strong growth in meat consumption based mainly on imports, where growth in beef consumption especially was responsible for most emission increase over the 15-year period. Swedish GHG emissions caused by consumption of animal products reached around 1.1 t CO2e per capita in 2005. The emission cuts necessary for meeting a global temperature

  17. Implications of Vegetation Shifts on Greenhouse Gas Production in a Coastal Salt Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouni, S.; Corbett, J. E.; Peteet, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Methane production in salt marshes is understudied, although these anaerobic environments store vast amounts of carbon and may release large quantities as climate shifts. Studies show ranges of salt marsh methane emissions that vary widely from 0.4-160 g CH4 m-2 y-1. CH4 production in salt marshes is governed by several variables. Due to high sulfate concentrations in these environments, less CH4 is expected to form and escape from the subsurface. However, vascular plants allow greater amounts of CH4 escape from subsurface porewater and produce more labile organic carbon substrates, which support higher rates of microbial decomposition. Coastal salt marshes are also dominated by various vascular plant species both native and invasive which may allow for greater amounts of CH4 formation and escape than previously thought. To better understand CH4 dynamics in coastal salt marshes, pore water samples were collected from various depths in Piermont salt marsh, NY (40 ̊00' N, 73 ̊55'W), a tidal wetland that has been invaded in the last century by Phragmites australis. Dissolved organic carbon lability was measured, previously developed isotope-mass balance equations were utilized, and root depth and density were analyzed from several vegetation zones. Areas dominated by invasive Phragmites australis vegetation contain deeper and denser root zones and are expected to produce more subsurface methane and release more methane than areas dominated by native vegetation types. This study will allow us to identify zones more likely to contribute greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and increase knowledge of CH4 production and release in coastal salt marshes.

  18. Streambed sediment controls on hyporheic greenhouse gas production - a microcosm experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romejn, Paul; Comer, Sophie; Gooddy, Daren; Ullah, Sami; Hannah, David; Krause, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Hyporheic zones, as the interfaces between groundwater and surface water, can contribute significantly to whole stream carbon respiration. The drivers and controls of rates and magnitude of hyporheic greenhouse gas (GHG) production remain poorly understood. Recent research has hypothesised that nitrous oxide emissions resulting from incomplete denitrification in nutrient rich agricultural streams may contribute substantially to GHG emissions. This paper reports on a controlled microcosm incubation experiment that has been set up to quantify the sensitivity of hyporheic zone GHG production to temperature and nutrient concentrations. Experiments were conducted with sediment from two contrasting UK lowland rivers (sandstone and chalk). Adopting a gradient approach, sediments with different organic matter and carbon content were analysed from both rivers. Our analytical approach integrated several novel methods, such as push-pull application of the Resazurin/Resorufin smart tracer system for estimation of sediment microbial metabolic activity, high-resolution gas sampling and analysis of methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, coupled with and high precision in-situ dissolved oxygen measurements. Our results indicate strong temperature controls of GHG production rates, overlapping with the observed impacts of different sediment types. Experimental findings indicate that increased hyporheic temperatures during increasing baseflow and drought conditions may enhance substantially sediment respiration and thus, GHG emissions from the streambed interface. The presented results integrated with field experiments of respiration and GHG emission rates under different treatments. This research advances understanding of scale dependent drivers and controls of whole stream carbon and nitrogen budgets and the role of streambed interfaces in GHG emissions.

  19. Productivity of Mizuna Cultivated in the Space Greenhouse Onboard the Russian Module of the Iss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Podolsky, Igor; Bingham, Gail; Moukhamedieva, Lana

    As stipulated by the science program of research into the processes of growth, development, metabolism and reproduction of higher plants in microgravity in view of their potential use in advanced life support systems, five experiments on Mizuna plants (Brassica rapa var. nipponisica) were performed using the Lada space greenhouse onboard the ISS Russian Module (RM) during Expeditions ISS-5, 17 and 20-22. One of the goals of the experiments was to evaluate the productivity of Mizuna plants grown at different levels of ISS RM air contamination. Mizuna plants were cultivated for 31 - 36 days when exposed to continuous illumination. The root growing medium was made of Turface enriched with a controlled release fertilizer Osmocote. In the course of the flight experiments major parameters of plant cultivation, total level of ISS RM air contamination and plant microbiological status were measured. The grown plants were returned to Earth as fresh or frozen samples. After the three last vegetation cycles the plants were harvested, packed and frozen at -80 0C in the MELFI freezer on the ISS U.S. Module and later returned to Earth onboard Space Shuttle. It was found that the productivity and morphometric (e.g., plant height and mass, number of leaves) parameters of the plants grown in space did not differ from those seen in ground controls. The T coefficient, which represents the total contamination level of ISS air), was 4 (ISS-5), 22 (ISS-17), 55 (ISS-20), 22 (ISS-21) and 28 (ISS-22) versus the norm of no more than 5. In summary, a significant increase in the total contamination level of the ISS RM air did not reduce the productivity of the leaf vegetable plant used in the flight experiments.

  20. Streambed sediment controls on hyporheic greenhouse gas production - a microcosm experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeijn, P.; Comer, S.; Krause, S.; Hannah, D. M.; Gooddy, D.

    2015-12-01

    Hyporheic zones, as the interfaces between groundwater and surface water, can contribute significantly to whole stream carbon respiration. The drivers and controls of rates and magnitude of hyporheic greenhouse gas (GHG) production remain poorly understood. Recent research has hypothesised that nitrous oxide emissions resulting from incomplete denitrification in nutrient rich agricultural streams may contribute substantially to GHG emissions. This paper reports on a controlled microcosm incubation experiment that has been set up to quantify the sensitivity of hyporheic zone GHG production to temperature and nutrient concentrations. Experiments were conducted with sediment from two contrasting UK lowland rivers (sandstone and chalk). Adopting a gradient approach, sediments with different organic matter and carbon content were analysed from both rivers. Our analytical approach integrated several novel methods, such as push-pull application of the Resazurin/Resorufin smart tracer system for estimation of sediment microbial metabolic activity, high-resolution gas sampling and analysis of methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide by gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, coupled with and high precision in-situ dissolved oxygen measurements. Our results indicate strong temperature controls of GHG production rates, overlapping with the observed impacts of different sediment types. Experimental findings indicate that increased hyporheic temperatures during increasing baseflow and drought conditions may enhance substantially sediment respiration and thus, GHG emissions from the streambed interface. The presented results integrated with field experiments of respiration and GHG emission rates under different treatments. This research advances understanding of scale dependent drivers and controls of whole stream carbon and nitrogen budgets and the role of streambed interfaces in GHG emissions.

  1. Microbial lipid signatures and substrate potential of organic matter in permafrost deposits: Implications for future greenhouse gas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapel, J. G.; Schirrmeister, L.; Overduin, P. P.; Wetterich, S.; Strauss, J.; Horsfield, B.; Mangelsdorf, K.

    2016-10-01

    A terrestrial permafrost core from Buor Khaya in northern Siberia comprising deposits of Late Pleistocene to Early Holocene age has been investigated to characterize living and past microbial communities with respect to modern and paleoclimate environmental conditions and to evaluate the potential of the organic matter (OM) for greenhouse gas generation. Microbial life markers—intact phospholipids and phospholipid fatty acids—are found throughout the entire core and indicate the presence of living microorganisms also in older permafrost deposits. Biomarkers for past microbial communities (branched and isoprenoid glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraether as well as archaeol) reveal links between increased past microbial activity and intervals of high OM accumulation accompanied by increased OM quality presumably caused by local periods of moister and warmer environmental conditions. Concentrations of acetate as an excellent substrate for methanogenesis are used to assess the OM quality with respect to microbial degradability for greenhouse gas production. For this purpose two acetate pools are determined: the pore water acetate and OM bound acetate. Both depth profiles reveal similarities to the OM content and quality indicating a link between the amount of the stored OM and the potential to provide substrates for microbial greenhouse gas production. The data suggest that OM stored in the permafrost deposits is not much different in terms of OM quality than the fresh surface organic material. Considering the expected increase of permafrost thaw due to climate warming, this implies a potentially strong impact on greenhouse gas generation from permafrost areas in future with positive feedback on climate variation.

  2. Heavy metals in intensive greenhouse vegetable production systems along Yellow Sea of China: Levels, transfer and health risk.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Tian, Kang; Holm, Peter E; Zhang, Yanxia

    2017-01-01

    Recently, greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has grown rapidly and counts a large proportion of vegetable production in China. In this study, the accumulation, health risk and threshold values of selected heavy metals were evaluated systematically. A total of 120 paired soil and vegetable samples were collected from three typical intensive GVP systems along the Yellow Sea of China. Mean concentrations of Cd, As, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn in greenhouse soils were 0.21, 7.12, 0.05, 19.81, 24.95 and 94.11 mg kg(-1), respectively. Compared to rootstalk and fruit vegetables, leafy vegetables had relatively high concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals. The accumulation of heavy metals in soils was affected by soil pH and soil organic matter. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of the heavy metals by vegetable consumption decreased in the order of leafy > rootstalk > fruit vegetables with hazard index (HI) values of 0.61, 0.33 and 0.26, respectively. The HI values were all below 1, which indicates that there is a low risk of greenhouse vegetable consumption. Soil threshold values (STVs) of heavy metals in GVP system were established according to the health risk assessment. The relatively lower transfer factors of rootstalk and fruit vegetables and higher STVs suggest that these types of vegetables are more suitable for cultivation in greenhouse soils. This study will provide an useful reference for controlling heavy metals and developing sustainable GVP.

  3. Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in the production of fluid milk.

    PubMed

    Tomasula, Peggy M; Nutter, Darin W

    2011-01-01

    Global climate change, driven by the buildup of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the atmosphere, is challenging the dairy industries in the United States and throughout the world to develop sustainable initiatives to reduce their environmental impact. The U.S. dairy industry has committed to lowering the GHG emissions, primarily CH(4), N(2)O, and CO(2), in each sector of the fluid milk supply chain which extends from the farm, to the processing plant, and to distribution of the packaged product, where it is refrigerated by the retailer and then the consumer. This chapter provides an overview of the life cycle analysis (LCA) technique and its use in identifying the GHG emissions in each sector of the fluid milk supply chain, from cradle to grave, and the best practices and research that is currently being conducted to reduce or mitigate GHG emissions in each sector. We also discuss the use of on-farm and off-farm process simulation as tools for evaluating on-farm mitigation techniques, off-farm alternative processing scenarios, and use of alternative energy management practices. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Energy Potential and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Bioenergy Cropping Systems on Marginally Productive Cropland

    PubMed Central

    Schmer, Marty R.; Vogel, Kenneth P.; Varvel, Gary E.; Follett, Ronald F.; Mitchell, Robert B.; Jin, Virginia L.

    2014-01-01

    Low-carbon biofuel sources are being developed and evaluated in the United States and Europe to partially offset petroleum transport fuels. Current and potential biofuel production systems were evaluated from a long-term continuous no-tillage corn (Zea mays L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) field trial under differing harvest strategies and nitrogen (N) fertilizer intensities to determine overall environmental sustainability. Corn and switchgrass grown for bioenergy resulted in near-term net greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions of −29 to −396 grams of CO2 equivalent emissions per megajoule of ethanol per year as a result of direct soil carbon sequestration and from the adoption of integrated biofuel conversion pathways. Management practices in switchgrass and corn resulted in large variation in petroleum offset potential. Switchgrass, using best management practices produced 3919±117 liters of ethanol per hectare and had 74±2.2 gigajoules of petroleum offsets per hectare which was similar to intensified corn systems (grain and 50% residue harvest under optimal N rates). Co-locating and integrating cellulosic biorefineries with existing dry mill corn grain ethanol facilities improved net energy yields (GJ ha−1) of corn grain ethanol by >70%. A multi-feedstock, landscape approach coupled with an integrated biorefinery would be a viable option to meet growing renewable transportation fuel demands while improving the energy efficiency of first generation biofuels. PMID:24594783

  5. Soil environmental quality in greenhouse vegetable production systems in eastern China: Current status and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenyou; Zhang, Yanxia; Huang, Biao; Teng, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has become an important source of public vegetable consumption and farmers' income in China. However, various pollutants can be accumulated in GVP soils due to the high cropping index, large agricultural input, and closed environment. Ecological toxicity caused by excessive pollutants' accumulation can then lead to serious health risks. This paper was aimed to systematically review the current status of soil environmental quality, analyze their impact factors, and consequently to propose integrated management strategies for GVP systems. Results indicated a decrease in soil pH, soil salinization, and nutrients imbalance in GVP soils. Fungicides, remaining nutrients, antibiotics, heavy metals, and phthalate esters were main pollutants accumulating in GVP soils comparing to surrounding open field soils. Degradation of soil ecological function, accumulation of major pollutants in vegetables, deterioration of neighboring water bodies, and potential human health risks has occurred due to the changes of soil properties and accumulation of pollutants such as heavy metals and fungicides in soils. Four dominant factors were identified leading to the above-mentioned issues including heavy application of agricultural inputs, outmoded planting styles with poor environmental protection awareness, old-fashion regulations, unreasonable standards, and ineffective supervisory management. To guarantee a sustainable GVP development, several strategies were suggested to protect and improve soil environmental quality. Implementation of various strategies not only requires the concerted efforts among different stakeholders, but also the whole lifecycle assessment throughout the GVP processes as well as effective enforcement of policies, laws, and regulations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Energy potential and greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy cropping systems on marginally productive cropland.

    PubMed

    Schmer, Marty R; Vogel, Kenneth P; Varvel, Gary E; Follett, Ronald F; Mitchell, Robert B; Jin, Virginia L

    2014-01-01

    Low-carbon biofuel sources are being developed and evaluated in the United States and Europe to partially offset petroleum transport fuels. Current and potential biofuel production systems were evaluated from a long-term continuous no-tillage corn (Zea mays L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) field trial under differing harvest strategies and nitrogen (N) fertilizer intensities to determine overall environmental sustainability. Corn and switchgrass grown for bioenergy resulted in near-term net greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions of -29 to -396 grams of CO2 equivalent emissions per megajoule of ethanol per year as a result of direct soil carbon sequestration and from the adoption of integrated biofuel conversion pathways. Management practices in switchgrass and corn resulted in large variation in petroleum offset potential. Switchgrass, using best management practices produced 3919±117 liters of ethanol per hectare and had 74±2.2 gigajoules of petroleum offsets per hectare which was similar to intensified corn systems (grain and 50% residue harvest under optimal N rates). Co-locating and integrating cellulosic biorefineries with existing dry mill corn grain ethanol facilities improved net energy yields (GJ ha-1) of corn grain ethanol by >70%. A multi-feedstock, landscape approach coupled with an integrated biorefinery would be a viable option to meet growing renewable transportation fuel demands while improving the energy efficiency of first generation biofuels.

  7. Future atmospheric conditions increase the greenhouse gas intensity of rice production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Groenigen, K.; Van Kessel, C.; Hungate, B. A.

    2012-12-01

    Elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 and rising temperatures are both expected to alter rice yields and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from rice paddies. This is important, because rice cultivation is one of the largest anthropogenic sources of the potent GHG methane (CH4) and rice is the world's second-most produced staple crop. Because global food demand is growing, it makes sense to assess GHG emissions from croplands on the basis of yield rather than land area, so that efforts to reduce GHG emissions occur with taking into consideration the effects on food production. However, it is unclear whether or how the GHG intensity (that is, yield-scaled GHG emissions) of cropping systems will be affected by future atmospheric conditions. Using meta-analysis, we show that elevated atmospheric CO2 (ranging from 550 to 743 ppmV) and warming (ranging from +0.8°C to +6°C) both increase the GHG intensity of rice cultivation. Elevated atmospheric CO2 increased GHG intensity by 31.4%, because CH4 emissions are stimulated more than rice yields. Warming increased GHG intensity by 11.8% per 1°C, largely due to a decrease in yield. Our findings underscore the need for mitigation and adaptation efforts to secure global food supply while at the same time keeping GHG emissions in check.

  8. Increased spring flooding of agricultural fields will exhibit altered production of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, R. F.; Smith, C. M.; Smyth, E. M.; Kantola, I. B.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2013-12-01

    The U.S. Corn Belt currently is a net source of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide to the atmosphere, but is also a sink of methane. Among the proposed effects of climate change in the North American Midwest region is an increase in the frequency and duration of spring flooding events. This would cause ponding in fields which may change the greenhouse gas balance of the region, especially by providing a suitable anoxic environment for the proliferation of methanogens, increasing methane emissions. To determine whether methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural soils of the Midwest and how other gas fluxes are affected, we installed collars into the ground of a research field located in central Illinois. The control group was maintained at the same conditions as the surrounding field. Two groups of collars were sustained with water flooding the headspaces via a drip irrigation system; one treatment was analyzed for gas fluxes of CH4, N2O, and CO2 evolving from the collars, and a separate treatment of flooded collars was used for soil sampling. Comparing flooded soils versus control we measured reduced N2O fluxes (-3.12 x 10-6 × 6.8 x 10-7 g N m-2 min-1), reduced CO2 fluxes (-6.13 x 10-3 × 9.3 x 10-4 g CO2 m-2 min-1), and increased methane fluxes (+2.72 x 10-6 × 5.8 x 10-7 g CH4 m-2 min-1). After only one week of treatment the flooded soils switched from being sinks to sources of methane, which continued across the duration of the experiment. These preliminary results indicate that methanogenesis occurs in flooded agricultural fields, and suggest including regional modeling into further study. Although the global warming potential of methane is 25 times greater than CO2, our measured rates of methane production were compensated by reductions in nitrous oxide and CO2 fluxes, reducing the total 100-year horizon global warming potential of the flooded soils we studied by 64.8%. This indicates that accounting for more frequent seasonal ponding would significantly

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions from production chain of a cigarette manufacturing industry in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Majid; Zaidi, Syed Mujtaba Hasnian; Malik, Riffat Naseem; Sharma, Benktesh Dash

    2014-10-01

    This study quantified greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the Pakistan Tobacco Company (PTC) production using a life cycle approach. The PTC production chain comprises of two phases: agricultural activities (Phase I) and industrial activities (Phase II). Data related to agricultural and industrial activities of PTC production chain were collected through questionnaire survey from tobacco growers and records from PTC manufacturing units. The results showed that total GHG emissions from PTC production chain were 44,965, 42,875, and 43,839 tCO2e respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. Among the agricultural activities, firewood burning for tobacco curing accounted for about 3117, 3565, and 3264 tCO2e, fertilizer application accounted for 754, 3251, and 4761 tCO2e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. Among the industrial activities, fossil fuels consumption in stationary sources accounted for 15,582, 12,733, and 13,203 tCO2e, fossil fuels used in mobile sources contributed to 2693, 3038, and 3260 tCO2e, and purchased electricity consumed resulted in 15,177, 13,556, and 11,380 tCO2e in 2009, 2010, and 2011, respectively. The GHG emissions related to the transportation of raw materials and processed tobacco amounted to 6800, 6301, and 7317 respectively in 2009, 2010, and 2011. GHG emissions from energy use in the industrial activities constituted the largest emissions (i.e., over 80%) of GHG emissions as PTC relies on fossil fuels and fossil fuel based electrical power in industrial processes. The total emissions of carbon footprint (CFP) from PTC production were 0.647 tCO2e per million cigarettes produced in 2009, 0.675 tCO2e per million cigarettes in 2010 and 0.59 tCO2e per million cigarettes in 2011. Potential strategies for GHG emissions reductions for PTC production chain include energy efficiency, reducing reliance on fossil fuels in non-mobile sources, adoption of renewable fuels including solar energy, energy from crop residues, and promotion of organic

  10. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides.

    PubMed

    Olszyk, David; Pfleeger, Thomas; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2010-01-01

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plants were treated with herbicides (cloransulam, dicamba, glyphosate, imazapyr, primsulfuron, sulfometuron, or tribenuron) at simulated drift levels [Production of small tubers and shoot dry weight were determined at approximately 28 DAT. Imazapyr, sulfometuron, and tribenuron caused significant reductions in tuber fresh weight, with the effective concentrations producing a 25% potato tuber fresh weight (EC25) of 0.00038, 0.0016, and 0.0021 x f.a.r. of 1,124, 52, and 9 g active ingredient hectare(-1) (g a.i. HA(-1)), respectively. Primisulfuron, dicamba, and cloransulam also significantly reduced tuber fresh weight, but with higher EC25 values of 0.011, 0.07, and 0.010 to 0.2 x f.a.r. of 40, 558, and 18 g a.i. HA(-1), respectively. Glyphosate had little effect on tuber fresh weight, with a significant reduction in only one experiment. Sulfometuron reduced tuber fresh weight at an EC25 value lower than the EC25 values for shoot dry weight or plant height. For other herbicides, the reduction in tuber fresh weight occurred within the range of EC25 values for other responses. Although additional experiments are required to develop further a phytotoxicity test, these results indicated that tuber production in young potato plants (harvested approximately 42 DAE) may be an effective assay for below-ground asexual reproductive responses to herbicides, especially acetolactate synthase inhibitors.

  11. Evaluation of residue management practices effects on corn productivity, soil quality, and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzman, Jose German

    The removal of crop residues left after harvest is being considered as a potential feedstock source for bioethanol production which can contribute to the reduction of fossil fuel use and net greenhouse gas (GHG). The objectives of this study were to: (i) examine how tillage, N fertilization rates, residue removal, and their interactions affect crop productivity, (ii) SOC and soil physical properties, and (iii) GHG emissions, and (iv) calculated a soil C budget to determine how much crop residue can be sustainably be removed in Central and Southwest Iowa. After three years of residue removal under different management practices, the findings of this study suggest that a portion of the corn residue that is left on the soil surface after harvest can be removed, with no negative impacts in the short term continuous corn yield in sites at Central and Southwest Iowa. However, significant decreases in SOC sequestration rates, microbial biomass-C, bulk density, soil penetration resistance, wet aggregate stability, and infiltration rates were observed, but varied with soil type and management practices. Additionally, soil surface CO2 and N2O emissions were responsive to management practices; primarily by altering soil temperature, soil water content, soil mineral N, and crop growth. Results from soil C budget show that in 2010 when corn growth was not water stressed (lack of moisture), approximately 35 and 30% of the residue could be sustainably removed in the Central and Southwest sites, respectively. In 2011, drier soil conditions resulted in approximately 2 and 49% of the residue could be sustainably removed in the Central and Southwest sites, respectively.

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions from swine barns of various production stages in suburban Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, H.; Zhu, Z.; Shang, B.; Kang, G.; Zhu, H.; Xin, H.

    Gaseous emissions from animal feeding operations may be influenced by production stage, genetics, dietary type and nutritional plan, housing type, manure handling schemes, and climatic conditions. This study was conducted to quantify annual emission rates (ERs) of greenhouse gases (GHGs)—methane (CH 4), carbon dioxide (CO 2) and nitrous oxide (N 2O) from naturally ventilated swine gestation (GE), farrowing (FA), nursery (NU) and growing-finishing (GF) barns under typical operational conditions in suburban Beijing, China. Variables relative to the GHG ERs were measured every two months for a one-year period, with each measurement episode lasting 72 h. Air exchange rate of the naturally ventilated barns was estimated using CO 2 balance method. The annual mean daily GHG ERs (mean ± SD), expressed in gd-1AU-1(AU=animal unit=500 live body weight), for the GE, FA, NU, and GF barns were, respectively, 5920±440,7490±110,29670±1090 and 16730±1060 for CO 2; 9.6±1.9,9.6±3.6,58.4±21.8 and 32.1±11.7 for CH 4; and 0.75±0.56,0.54±0.15,1.29±0.37 and 0.86±0.75 for N 2O. The GHG ER values from the current study paralleled those reported in the literature in some cases but differed considerably in other cases. This outcome of similarity and disparity confirms the need to exercise caution when applying literature data to estimation of GHG emissions under various production systems. Results of this study are expected to contribute to the global GHG inventory.

  13. Biochar Impacts on Crop Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from an Andosol.

    PubMed

    Koga, Nobuhisa; Shimoda, Seiji; Iwata, Yukiyoshi

    2017-01-01

    To assess the impacts of biochar application on crop productivity and global warming mitigation, a 4-yr field experiment was conducted in a well-drained Andosol in northern Japan. Wood residue-derived biochar (pyrolyzed at >800°C) was applied at rates of 0, 10, 20, and 40 Mg ha for potatoes, winter wheat, sugar beet, and soybeans cultivated in rotation, and CO, NO, and CH emissions from the soil and yield and quality of the harvested materials were measured. Biochar application, regardless of rate, had no significant impact on yield and quality of the harvested materials, except for soybean grain yield. It also had no effect on cumulative CO, NO, and CH emissions from the soil. Andosols are inherently highly porous, and biochar application increased soil porosity only at the highest amendment level. The small changes in soil properties and the recalcitrance of the biochar's C components probably account for the unchanged soil-associated greenhouse gas emissions and the minimal impact on crop yield and quality. Because soil CO emission was not increased, the net ecosystem C budget during the study period increased with the rate of biochar application from -3.55 ± 0.19 Mg C ha without biochar application to 4.89 ± 0.46, 13.4 ± 0.3, and 29.9 ± 0.4 Mg C ha at application rates of 10, 20, and 40 Mg ha, respectively; therefore, application of wood residue-derived biochar to an Andosol has great potential for mitigating global warming through enhanced soil C sequestration without sacrificing crop productivity.

  14. Impact of office productivity cloud computing on energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Williams, Daniel R; Tang, Yinshan

    2013-05-07

    Cloud computing is usually regarded as being energy efficient and thus emitting less greenhouse gases (GHG) than traditional forms of computing. When the energy consumption of Microsoft's cloud computing Office 365 (O365) and traditional Office 2010 (O2010) software suites were tested and modeled, some cloud services were found to consume more energy than the traditional form. The developed model in this research took into consideration the energy consumption at the three main stages of data transmission; data center, network, and end user device. Comparable products from each suite were selected and activities were defined for each product to represent a different computing type. Microsoft provided highly confidential data for the data center stage, while the networking and user device stages were measured directly. A new measurement and software apportionment approach was defined and utilized allowing the power consumption of cloud services to be directly measured for the user device stage. Results indicated that cloud computing is more energy efficient for Excel and Outlook which consumed less energy and emitted less GHG than the standalone counterpart. The power consumption of the cloud based Outlook (8%) and Excel (17%) was lower than their traditional counterparts. However, the power consumption of the cloud version of Word was 17% higher than its traditional equivalent. A third mixed access method was also measured for Word which emitted 5% more GHG than the traditional version. It is evident that cloud computing may not provide a unified way forward to reduce energy consumption and GHG. Direct conversion from the standalone package into the cloud provision platform can now consider energy and GHG emissions at the software development and cloud service design stage using the methods described in this research.

  15. Analytical methods for quantifying greenhouse gas flux in animal production systems.

    PubMed

    Powers, W; Capelari, M

    2016-08-01

    Given increased interest by all stakeholders to better understand the contribution of animal agriculture to climate change, it is important that appropriate methodologies be used when measuring greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from animal agriculture. Similarly, a fundamental understanding of the differences between methods is necessary to appropriately compare data collected using different approaches and design meaningful experiments. Sources of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide emissions in animal production systems includes the animals, feed storage areas, manure deposition and storage areas, and feed and forage production fields. These 3 gases make up the primary GHG emissions from animal feeding operations. Each of the different GHG may be more or less prominent from each emitting source. Similarly, the species dictates the importance of methane emissions from the animals themselves. Measures of GHG flux from animals are often made using respiration chambers, head boxes, tracer gas techniques, or in vitro gas production techniques. In some cases, a combination of techniques are used (i.e., head boxes in combination with tracer gas). The prominent methods for measuring GHG emissions from housing include the use of tracer gas techniques or direct or indirect ventilation measures coupled with concentration measures of gases of interest. Methods for collecting and measuring GHG emissions from manure storage and/or production lots include the use of downwind measures, often using photoacoustic or open path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, combined with modeling techniques or the use of static chambers or flux hood methods. Similar methods can be deployed for determining GHG emissions from fields. Each method identified has its own benefits and challenges to use for the stated application. Considerations for use include intended goal, equipment investment and maintenance, frequency and duration of sampling needed to achieve desired representativeness

  16. Evaluation of cadmium in greenhouse soils and agricultural products of Jiroft (Iran) using microwave digestion prior to atomic absorption spectrometry determination.

    PubMed

    Afzali, Daryoush; Fathirad, Fariba; Afzali, Zahra; Majdzadeh-Kermani, Seyed Mohammad Javad

    2015-03-01

    This study determines total levels of potentially toxic trace element, Cd (II) in Jiroft (Kerman, Iran) greenhouse soil and agricultural products that are grown in these greenhouses (tomatoes and cucumbers), and the comparison with soil outside of greenhouse using microwave digestion prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination. The results show that the cadmium concentration in greenhouse soil is 0.9-1.9 mg kg(-1) and out of greenhouse is 0.4-1.0 mg kg(-1). Also, cadmium concentration range in tomatoes and cucumbers is about 0.07-0.40 mg kg(-1). The obtained results show that the concentration of this metal in greenhouse soil is higher than outside soil samples and is below the safe limit.

  17. Inside Story of Gas Processes within Stormwater Biofilters: Does Greenhouse Gas Production Tarnish the Benefits of Nitrogen Removal?

    PubMed

    Payne, Emily G I; Pham, Tracey; Cook, Perran L M; Deletic, Ana; Hatt, Belinda E; Fletcher, Tim D

    2017-04-04

    Stormwater biofilters are dynamic environments, supporting diverse processes that act to capture and transform incoming pollutants. However, beneficial water treatment processes can be accompanied by undesirable greenhouse gas production. This study investigated the potential for nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) generation in dissolved form at the base of laboratory-scale stormwater biofilter columns. The influence of plant presence, species, inflow frequency, and inclusion of a saturated zone and carbon source were studied. Free-draining biofilters remained aerobic with negligible greenhouse gas production during storm events. Designs with a saturated zone were oxygenated at their base by incoming stormwater before anaerobic conditions rapidly re-established, although extended dry periods allowed the reintroduction of oxygen by evapotranspiration. Production of CH4 and N2O in the saturated zone varied significantly in response to plant presence, species, and wetting and drying. Concentrations of N2O typically peaked rapidly following stormwater inundation, associated with limited plant root systems and poorer nitrogen removal from biofilter effluent. Production of CH4 also commenced quickly but continued throughout the anaerobic interevent period and lacked clear relationships with plant characteristics or nitrogen removal performance. Dissolved greenhouse gas concentrations were highly variable, but peak concentrations of N2O accounted for <1.5% of the incoming total nitrogen load. While further work is required to measure surface emissions, the potential for substantial release of N2O or CH4 in biofilter effluent appears relatively low.

  18. The effect of water oxygen content on the production of greenhouse gases from shallow pond sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, Adam; Quinton, John; Surridge, Ben; McNamara, Niall

    2014-05-01

    Shallow lakes and ponds, including those commonly found in agricultural landscapes are often only a few metres deep, with surface areas <1ha. Despite this, landscapes may contain a high number of these ponds, amounting to a considerable cumulative surface area. Many of these features, both naturally formed and man-made, receive and trap runoff with high nutrient and sediment loadings. As such, the potential for the production of greenhouse gases (GHGs) through biogeochemical cycling in the pond sediments may be significant. Furthermore, the abundance of available nutrients coupled with the shallow physical characteristics of these systems, mean that short, irregular eutrophic episodes during the summer are common, causing large fluctuations in the oxygen content of the overlying water column. The oxygen content of the water column is often cited as key factor in the production of GHGs in large lake and reservoir systems. Given the limited research focusing on shallow ponds/lakes, and potential for these systems to be important sources of GHGs, the impacts of variable water oxygen content should be investigated. Here we present the results from a sediment microcosm experiment utilising sediment cores from an agricultural pond system in Cumbria, UK. Intact sediment cores were incubated in the dark at in-situ temperature and continuously fed with filtered pond water for 2 weeks. During this time the oxygen content of the water was manipulated between fully oxygenated and anaerobic. Measurements of GHG release were based on calculated dissolved gas concentrations present in the water columns of these cores. Results indicated that during times of water column anoxia, production of methane and carbon dioxide increased significantly, despite the presence of substantial quantities of nitrate in the water columns. No change in N2O production was detected. These results indicate that while representing a significant cumulative carbon store in agricultural landscapes, shallow

  19. Effects of active forest fire on terrestrial ecosystem production and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sannigrahi, Srikanta; Rahmat, Shahid; Bhatt, Sandeep; Rana, Virendra

    2017-04-01

    Uttarakhand) due to the subtle water stress condition with lesser soil moisture content into the ground. Among the 13 districts, the maximum net emissions of carbon and nitrogen compounds have been observed in 7 districts (accounting for high biomass and forest cover loss by the 2016 forest fire), whereas, the rest of the 6 districts acts as the sequester of greenhouse compounds. This new approach having the potentiality of quantifying the losses of ecosystem productivity due to forest fires and could be used in broader aspects if more accurate field based observation can be obtained in the near future.

  20. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions from enzyme and yeast manufacture for corn and cellulosic ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Jennifer B; Mueller, Steffen; Wang, Michael; Han, Jeongwoo

    2012-12-01

    Enzymes and yeast are important ingredients in the production of ethanol, yet the energy consumption and emissions associated with their production are often excluded from life-cycle analyses of ethanol. We provide new estimates for the energy consumed and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emitted during enzyme and yeast manufacture, including contributions from key ingredients such as starch, glucose, and molasses. We incorporated these data into Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation model and observed that enzymes and yeast together contribute 1.4 and 27 % of farm-to-pump GHG emissions for corn and cellulosic ethanol, respectively. Over the course of the entire corn ethanol life cycle, yeast and enzymes contribute a negligible amount of GHG emissions, but increase GHG emissions from the cellulosic ethanol life cycle by 5.6 g CO(2)e/MJ.

  1. Production of greenhouse-grown biocrust mosses and associated cyanobacteria to rehabilitate dryland soil function

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antoninka, Anita; Bowker, Matthew A.; Reed, Sasha C.; Doherty, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Mosses are an often-overlooked component of dryland ecosystems, yet they are common members of biological soil crust communities (biocrusts) and provide key ecosystem services, including soil stabilization, water retention, carbon fixation, and housing of N2 fixing cyanobacteria. Mosses are able to survive long dry periods, respond rapidly to precipitation, and reproduce vegetatively. With these qualities, dryland mosses have the potential to be an excellent dryland restoration material. Unfortunately, dryland mosses are often slow growing in nature, and ex situ cultivation methods are needed to enhance their utility. Our goal was to determine how to rapidly produce, vegetatively, Syntrichia caninervis and S. ruralis, common and abundant moss species in drylands of North America and elsewhere, in a greenhouse. We manipulated the length of hydration on a weekly schedule (5, 4, 3, or 2 days continuous hydration per week), crossed with fertilization (once at the beginning, monthly, biweekly, or not at all). Moss biomass increased sixfold for both species in 4 months, an increase that would require years under dryland field conditions. Both moss species preferred short hydration and monthly fertilizer. Remarkably, we also unintentionally cultured a variety of other important biocrust organisms, including cyanobacteria and lichens. In only 6 months, we produced functionally mature biocrusts, as evidenced by high productivity and ecosystem-relevant levels of N2 fixation. Our results suggest that biocrust mosses might be the ideal candidate for biocrust cultivation for restoration purposes. With optimization, these methods are the first step in developing a moss-based biocrust rehabilitation technology.

  2. Evaluation of different techniques to control hydrogen sulfide and greenhouse gases from animal production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Dhan Prasad

    The livestock manure management sector is one of the prime sources for the emission of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and other pollutant gases such as ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), which may affect the human health, animal welfare, and the environment. So, worldwide investigations are going on to mitigate these gaseous emissions. The overall objective of this research was to investigate different approaches (dietary manipulation and nanotechnology) for mitigating the gaseous emissions from livestock manure system. A field study was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of dietary proteins (12 and 16%) and fat levels (3 to 5.5%) fed to beef cattle on gaseous emission (methane-CH4, nitrous oxide-N2O, carbon dioxide-CO 2 and hydrogen sulfide-H2S) from the pen surface. To evaluate the effects of different nanoparticles (zinc oxide-nZnO; and zirconium-nZrO 2) on these gaseous emissions from livestock manure stored under anaerobic conditions, laboratory studies were conducted with different treatments (control, bare NPs, NPs entrapped alginate beads applying freely and keeping in bags, and used NPs entrapped alginate beads). Field studies showed no significant differences in the GHG and H2S emissions from the manure pen surface. Between nZnO and nZrO2, nZnO outperformed the nZrO2 in terms of gases production and concentration reduction from both swine and dairy liquid manure. Application of nZnO at a rate of 3 g L-1 showed up to 82, 78, 40 and 99% reduction on total gas production, CH 4, CO2 and H2S concentrations, respectively. The effectiveness of nZnO entrapped alginate (alginate-nZnO) beads was statistically lower than the bare nZnO, but both of them were very effective in reducing gas production and concentrations. These gaseous reductions were likely due to combination of microbial inhibition of microorganisms and chemical conversion during the treatment, which was confirmed by microbial plate count, SEM-EDS, and XPS analysis. However

  3. Carbon Geography. The political economy of congressional support for legislation intended to mitigate greenhouse gas production

    SciTech Connect

    CRAGG, MICHAEL I.; ZHOU, YUYU; GURNEY, KEVIN; KAHN, MATTHEW E.

    2012-04-20

    Over the last five years, the U.S Congress has voted on several pieces of legislation intended to sharply reduce the nation’s greenhouse gas emissions. Given that climate change is a world public bad, standard economic logic would predict that the United States would -free rideII and wait for other nations to reduce their emissions. Within the Congress, there are clear patterns to who votes in favor of mitigating greenhouse gas emissions. This paper presents a political economy analysis of the determinants of pro-greenII votes on such legislation. Conservatives consistently vote against such legislation. Controlling for a Representative’s ideology, representatives from richer districts and districts with a lower per-capita carbon dioxide footprint are more likely to vote in favor of climate change mitigation legislation. Representatives from districts where industrial emissions represent a larger share of greenhouse gas emissions are more likely to vote no.

  4. Science and Technology Development to Integrate Energy Production and Greenhouse Gas Management

    SciTech Connect

    Pendergast, D.

    2004-10-03

    This paper reviews the carbon cycle from the point of view of past and present human influence. Potential future human input to the cycle through science and technology to manage atmospheric greenhouse gas are considered. The review suggests that humans will need to ingeniously exploit even more energy to integrate its use with control of atmospheric greenhouse gases. Continuing development and application of energy is essential if the development of human society is to be sustained through the coming centuries. The continuing development of nuclear energy seems an essential energy supply component.

  5. Assessing energy efficiencies and greenhouse gas emissions under bioethanol-oriented paddy rice production in northern Japan.

    PubMed

    Koga, Nobuhisa; Tajima, Ryosuke

    2011-03-01

    To establish energetically and environmentally viable paddy rice-based bioethanol production systems in northern Japan, it is important to implement appropriately selected agronomic practice options during the rice cultivation step. In this context, effects of rice variety (conventional vs. high-yielding) and rice straw management (return to vs. removal from the paddy field) on energy inputs from fuels and consumption of materials, greenhouse gas emissions (fuel and material consumption-derived CO(2) emissions as well as paddy soil CH(4) and N(2)O emissions) and ethanol yields were assessed. The estimated ethanol yield from the high-yielding rice variety, "Kita-aoba" was 2.94 kL ha(-1), a 32% increase from the conventional rice variety, "Kirara 397". Under conventional rice production in northern Japan (conventional rice variety and straw returned to the paddy), raising seedlings, mechanical field operations, transportation of harvested unhulled brown rice and consumption of materials (seeds, fertilizers, biocides and agricultural machinery) amounted to 28.5 GJ ha(-1) in energy inputs. The total energy input was increased by 14% by using the high-yielding variety and straw removal, owing to increased requirements for fuels in harvesting and transporting harvested rice as well as in collecting, loading and transporting rice straw. In terms of energy efficiency, the variation among rice variety and straw management scenarios regarding rice varieties and rice straw management was small (28.5-32.6 GJ ha(-1) or 10.1-14.0 MJ L(-1)). Meanwhile, CO(2)-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions varied considerably from scenario to scenario, as straw management had significant impacts on CH(4) emissions from paddy soils. When rice straw was incorporated into the soil, total CO(2)-equivalent greenhouse gas emissions for "Kirara 397" and "Kita-aoba" were 25.5 and 28.2 Mg CO(2) ha(-1), respectively; however, these emissions were reduced notably for the two varieties when rice straw

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions from sub-tropical agricultural soils after addition of organic by-products.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dai H; Biala, Johannes; Grace, Peter R; Scheer, Clemens; Rowlings, David W

    2014-01-01

    As the cost of mineral fertilisers increases globally, organic soil amendments (OAs) from agricultural sources are increasingly being used as substitutes for nitrogen. However, the impact of OAs on the production of greenhouse gases (CO2 and N2O) is not well understood. A 60-day laboratory incubation experiment was conducted to investigate the impacts of applying OAs (equivalent to 296 kg N ha(-1) on average) on N2O and CO2 emissions and soil properties of clay and sandy loam soils from sugar cane production. The experiment included 6 treatments, one being an un-amended (UN) control with addition of five OAs being raw mill mud (MM), composted mill mud (CM), high N compost (HC), rice husk biochar (RB), and raw mill mud plus rice husk biochar (MB). These OAs were incubated at 60, 75 and 90% water-filled pore space (WFPS) at 25°C with urea (equivalent to 200 kg N ha(-1)) added to the soils thirty days after the incubation commenced. Results showed WFPS did not influence CO2 emissions over the 60 days but the magnitude of emissions as a proportion of C applied was RB < CM < MB < HC < MM. Nitrous oxide emissions were significantly less in the clay soil compared to the sandy loam at all WFPS, and could be ranked RB < MB < MM < CM < UN < HC. These results led to linear models being developed to predict CO2 and N2O emissions as a function of the dry matter and C/N ratio of the OAs, WFPS, and the soil CEC. Application of RB reduced N2O emissions by as much as 42-64% depending on WFPS. The reductions in both CO2 and N2O emissions after application of RB were due to a reduced bioavailability of C and not immobilisation of N. These findings show that the effect of OAs on soil GHG emissions can vary substantially depending on their chemical properties. OAs with a high availability of labile C and N can lead to elevated emissions of CO2 and N2O, while rice husk biochar showed potential in reducing overall soil GHG emissions.

  7. Greenhouse gas emissions from fen soils used for forage production in northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poyda, Arne; Reinsch, Thorsten; Kluß, Christof; Loges, Ralf; Taube, Friedhelm

    2016-09-01

    A large share of peatlands in northwestern Germany is drained for agricultural purposes, thereby emitting high amounts of greenhouse gases (GHGs). In order to quantify the climatic impact of fen soils in dairy farming systems of northern Germany, GHG exchange and forage yield were determined on four experimental sites which differed in terms of management and drainage intensity: (a) rewetted and unutilized grassland (UG), (b) intensive and wet grassland (GW), (c) intensive and moist grassland (GM) and (d) arable forage cropping (AR). Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of CO2 and fluxes of CH4 and N2O were measured using closed manual chambers. CH4 fluxes were significantly affected by groundwater level (GWL) and soil temperature, whereas N2O fluxes showed a significant relation to the amount of nitrate in top soil. Annual balances of all three gases, as well as the global warming potential (GWP), were significantly correlated to mean annual GWL. A 2-year mean GWP, combined from CO2-C eq. of NEE, CH4 and N2O emissions, as well as C input (slurry) and C output (harvest), was 3.8, 11.7, 17.7 and 17.3 Mg CO2-C eq. ha-1 a-1 for sites UG, GW, GM and AR, respectively (standard error (SE) 2.8, 1.2, 1.8, 2.6). Yield-related emissions for the three agricultural sites were 201, 248 and 269 kg CO2-C eq. (GJ net energy lactation; NEL)-1 for sites GW, GM and AR, respectively (SE 17, 9, 19). The carbon footprint of agricultural commodities grown on fen soils depended on long-term drainage intensity rather than type of management, but management and climate strongly influenced interannual on-site variability. However, arable forage production revealed a high uncertainty of yield and therefore was an unsuitable land use option. Lowest yield-related GHG emissions were achieved by a three-cut system of productive grassland swards in combination with a high GWL (long-term mean ≤ 20 cm below the surface).

  8. Production efficiencies of U.S. electric generation plants: Effects of data aggregation and greenhouse gas and renewable energy policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynes, Melissa Kate

    Over the last few decades there has been a shift in electricity production in the U.S. Renewable energy sources are becoming more widely used. In addition, electric generation plants that use coal inputs are more heavily regulated than a couple decades ago. This shift in electricity production was brought on by changes in federal policy -- a desire for electricity produced in the U.S. which led to policies being adopted that encourage the use of renewable energy. The change in production practices due to policies may have led to changes in the productivity of electric generation plants. Multiple studies have examined the most efficient electric generation plants using the data envelopment analysis (DEA) approach. This study builds on past research to answer three questions: 1) Does the level of aggregation of fuel input variables affect the plant efficiency scores and how does the efficiency of renewable energy input compare to nonrenewable energy inputs; 2) Are policies geared toward directly or indirectly reducing greenhouse gas emissions affecting the production efficiencies of greenhouse gas emitting electric generation plants; and 3) Do renewable energy policies and the use of intermittent energy sources (i.e. wind and solar) affect the productivity growth of electric generation plants. All three analysis, presented in three essays, use U.S. plant level data obtained from the Energy Information Administration to answer these questions. The first two essays use DEA to determine the pure technical, overall technical, and scale efficiencies of electric generation plants. The third essay uses DEA within the Malmquist index to assess the change in productivity over time. Results indicate that the level of aggregation does matter particularly for scale efficiency. This implies that valuable information is likely lost when fuel inputs are aggregated together. Policies directly focused on reducing greenhouse gas emissions may improve the production efficiencies of

  9. Implementation and analysis of an on-farm food safety program for the production of greenhouse vegetables.

    PubMed

    Luedtke, Amber N; Chapman, Benjamin; Powell, Douglas A

    2003-03-01

    Fresh fruits and vegetables are increasingly being recognized as vectors for foodborne illness. In 1998, an on-farm food safety program was developed for the Ontario Greenhouse Vegetable Growers (OGVG) in Ontario, Canada. This hazard analysis critical control point-based system was designed to reduce the potential of microbial contamination along the entire production and distribution process. A previous report (D. A. Powell, M. Bobadilla-Ruiz, A. Whitfield, M. W. Griffiths, and A. Luedtke, J. Food Prot. 65:918-923) outlined the first 2 years of the program; the present report documents the third year of the program's implementation. Through individual on-site grower visits and the microbiological testing of produce and water, the program's OGVG member requirements were determined, and the program's success was assessed. Growers' knowledge, understanding, and awareness of microbial risks associated with fresh produce have increased, and improvements in practices used in greenhouses and packing sheds were noted.

  10. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumortier, Jerome; Hayes, Dermot J.; Carriquiry, Miguel; Dong, Fengxia; Du, Xiaodong; Elobeid, Amani; Fabiosa, Jacinto F.; Martin, Pamela A.; Mulik, Kranti

    2012-06-01

    We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO2-equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally.

  11. Soil Nitrous Oxide Emissions with Crop Production for Biofuel: Implications for Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The growing biofuel commodity market for corn ethanol has the potential to reduce direct greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with fossil fuel combustion in the US. However, projected increases in cropland to accommodate this energy-based commodity will also impact emissions of GHGs from soils...

  12. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plant...

  13. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plant...

  14. Managing the nitrogen cycle to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from crop production and biofuel expansion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The United States Renewable Fuel Standards (RFS2) established under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 requires greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to be lower for biofuels relative to fossil fuel combustion. However, there is an extensive debate in the literature about the potential to red...

  15. Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions in the production of fluid milk

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Global climate change, driven by the buildup of greenhouse gas emissions (GHG) in the atmosphere, is challenging the dairy industries in the U.S. and throughout the world to develop sustainable initiatives to reduce their environmental impact. The U.S. dairy industry has committed to lowering the GH...

  16. Evaluating the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and adaptation in dairy production.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Process-level modeling at the farm scale provides a tool for evaluating strategies for both mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and adapting to climate change. The Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) simulates representative crop, beef or dairy farms over many years of weather to predict performance...

  17. Developing strategies for automated remote plant production systems: Environmental control and monitoring of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse in the Canadian High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamsey, M.; Berinstain, A.; Graham, T.; Neron, P.; Giroux, R.; Braham, S.; Ferl, R.; Paul, A.-L.; Dixon, M.

    2009-12-01

    The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is a unique research facility dedicated to the study of greenhouse engineering and autonomous functionality under extreme operational conditions, in preparation for extraterrestrial biologically-based life support systems. The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is located at the Haughton Mars Project Research Station on Devon Island in the Canadian High Arctic. The greenhouse has been operational since 2002. Over recent years the greenhouse has served as a controlled environment facility for conducting scientific and operationally relevant plant growth investigations in an extreme environment. Since 2005 the greenhouse has seen the deployment of a refined nutrient control system, an improved imaging system capable of remote assessment of basic plant health parameters, more robust communication and power systems as well as the implementation of a distributed data acquisition system. Though several other Arctic greenhouses exist, the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is distinct in that the focus is on autonomous operation as opposed to strictly plant production. Remote control and autonomous operational experience has applications both terrestrially in production greenhouses and extraterrestrially where future long duration Moon/Mars missions will utilize biological life support systems to close the air, food and water loops. Minimizing crew time is an important goal for any space-based system. The experience gained through the remote operation of the Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse is providing the experience necessary to optimize future plant production systems and minimize crew time requirements. Internal greenhouse environmental data shows that the fall growth season (July-September) provides an average photosynthetic photon flux of 161.09 μmol m -2 s -1 (August) and 76.76 μmol m -2 s -1 (September) with approximately a 24 h photoperiod. The spring growth season provides an average of 327.51 μmol m -2 s -1 (May) and 339.32 μmol m -2 s

  18. Biochar helps enhance maize productivity and reduce greenhouse gas emissions under balanced fertilization in a rainfed low fertility inceptisol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dengxiao; Pan, Genxing; Wu, Gang; Kibue, Grace Wanjiru; Li, Lianqing; Zhang, Xuhui; Zheng, Jinwei; Zheng, Jufeng; Cheng, Kun; Joseph, Stephen; Liu, Xiaoyu

    2016-01-01

    Maize production plays an important role in global food security, especially in arid and poor-soil regions. Its production is also increasing in China in terms of both planting area and yield. However, maize productivity in rainfed croplands is constrained by low soil fertility and moisture insufficiency. To increase the maize yield, local farmers use NPK fertilizer. However, the fertilization regime (CF) they practice is unbalanced with too much nitrogen in proportion to both phosphorus and potassium, which has led to low fertilizer use efficiency and excessive greenhouse gases emissions. A two-year field experiment was conducted to assess whether a high yielding but low greenhouse gases emission system could be developed by the combination of balanced fertilization (BF) and biochar amendment in a rainfed farmland located in the Northern region of China. Biochar was applied at rates of 0, 20, and 40 t/ha. Results show that BF and biochar increased maize yield and partial nutrient productivity and decreased nitrous oxide (N2O) emission. Under BF the maize yield was 23.7% greater than under CF. N2O emissions under BF were less than half that under CF due to a reduced N fertilizer application rate. Biochar amendment decreased N2O by more than 31% under CF, while it had no effect on N2O emissions under BF. Thus BF was effective at maintaining a high maize yield and reducing greenhouse gases emissions. If combined with biochar amendment, BF would be a good way of sustaining low carbon agriculture in rainfed areas.

  19. Biomass and lipid production from Nannochloropsis oculata growth in raceway ponds operated in sequential batch mode under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Millán-Oropeza, Aarón; Fernández-Linares, Luis

    2016-06-06

    The effect of sequential batch cultures of the marine microalgae Nannochloropsis oculata on lipid and biomass production was studied in 200-L raceway ponds for 167 days (nine harvesting cycles) during winter and spring seasons under greenhouse conditions. The highest biomass concentration and productivity were 1.2 g/L and 49.8 mg/L/day on days 73 (5th cycle) and 167 (9th cycle), respectively. The overall interval of lipid production was between 131 and 530 mg/L. Despite the daily and seasonal variations of light irradiance (0-1099 μmol photon/m(2) s), greenhouse temperature (2.1-50.7 °C), and culture temperature (12.5-31.4 °C), ANOVA analysis showed no statistical difference (p value > 0.01) on the fatty acid methyl ester (FAMES) composition over the nine harvesting cycles evaluated. The most abundant FAMES were palmitic (C16:0), stearic (C18:0) and palmitoleic (C16:1∆9) acids with 37.1, 28.6, and 8.4 %, respectively. The sequential batch cultures of N. oculata in raceway ponds showed an increasing biomass production in each new cycle while keeping the quality of the fatty acid mixture under daily and seasonal variations of light irradiance and temperature.

  20. An Exploration on Greenhouse Gas and Ammonia Production by Insect Species Suitable for Animal or Human Consumption

    PubMed Central

    Oonincx, Dennis G. A. B.; van Itterbeeck, Joost; Heetkamp, Marcel J. W.; van den Brand, Henry; van Loon, Joop J. A.; van Huis, Arnold

    2010-01-01

    Background Greenhouse gas (GHG) production, as a cause of climate change, is considered as one of the biggest problems society is currently facing. The livestock sector is one of the large contributors of anthropogenic GHG emissions. Also, large amounts of ammonia (NH3), leading to soil nitrification and acidification, are produced by livestock. Therefore other sources of animal protein, like edible insects, are currently being considered. Methodology/Principal Findings An experiment was conducted to quantify production of carbon dioxide (CO2) and average daily gain (ADG) as a measure of feed conversion efficiency, and to quantify the production of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) as well as NH3 by five insect species of which the first three are considered edible: Tenebrio molitor, Acheta domesticus, Locusta migratoria, Pachnoda marginata, and Blaptica dubia. Large differences were found among the species regarding their production of CO2 and GHGs. The insects in this study had a higher relative growth rate and emitted comparable or lower amounts of GHG than described in literature for pigs and much lower amounts of GHG than cattle. The same was true for CO2 production per kg of metabolic weight and per kg of mass gain. Furthermore, also the production of NH3 by insects was lower than for conventional livestock. Conclusions/Significance This study therefore indicates that insects could serve as a more environmentally friendly alternative for the production of animal protein with respect to GHG and NH3 emissions. The results of this study can be used as basic information to compare the production of insects with conventional livestock by means of a life cycle analysis. PMID:21206900

  1. Multi-TASTE Assessment of the Quality and Evolution of Envisat Reactive and Greenhouse Gas Data Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppens, A.; Hubert, D.; Granville, J.; Hendrick, F.; Verhoelst, T.; Lambert, J.-C.

    2016-08-01

    This work reports on the use of the Multi-TASTE QA/validation system in support to the continuous evolution of operational Envisat data products on ozone, greenhouse gases, and temperature. The focus is on the latest upgrades of GOMOS (IPF V5 to IPF V6), MIPAS (IPF V5 to ML2PP V7), and SCIAMACHY (SGP V3 to SGP V6) processors. The studies conclude with altitude and latitude-resolved estimates of bias, spread, and long-term stability of those latest versions.

  2. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions for an ethanol production process based on blue-green algae.

    PubMed

    Luo, Dexin; Hu, Zushou; Choi, Dong Gu; Thomas, Valerie M; Realff, Matthew J; Chance, Ronald R

    2010-11-15

    Ethanol can be produced via an intracellular photosynthetic process in cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), excreted through the cell walls, collected from closed photobioreactors as a dilute ethanol-in-water solution, and purified to fuel grade ethanol. This sequence forms the basis for a biofuel production process that is currently being examined for its commercial potential. In this paper, we calculate the life cycle energy and greenhouse gas emissions for three different system scenarios for this proposed ethanol production process, using process simulations and thermodynamic calculations. The energy required for ethanol separation increases rapidly for low initial concentrations of ethanol, and, unlike other biofuel systems, there is little waste biomass available to provide process heat and electricity to offset those energy requirements. The ethanol purification process is a major consumer of energy and a significant contributor to the carbon footprint. With a lead scenario based on a natural-gas-fueled combined heat and power system to provide process electricity and extra heat and conservative assumptions around the ethanol separation process, the net life cycle energy consumption, excluding photosynthesis, ranges from 0.55 MJ/MJ(EtOH) down to 0.20 MJ/ MJ(EtOH), and the net life cycle greenhouse gas emissions range from 29.8 g CO₂e/MJ(EtOH) down to 12.3 g CO₂e/MJ(EtOH) for initial ethanol concentrations from 0.5 wt % to 5 wt %. In comparison to gasoline, these predicted values represent 67% and 87% reductions in the carbon footprint for this ethanol fuel on a energy equivalent basis. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions can be further reduced via employment of higher efficiency heat exchangers in ethanol purification and/ or with use of solar thermal for some of the process heat.

  3. Linking environment-productivity trade-offs and correlated uncertainties: Greenhouse gas emissions and crop productivity in paddy rice production systems.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kiyotada; Nagumo, Yoshifumi; Domoto, Akiko

    2016-11-15

    In comparative life cycle assessments of agricultural production systems, analyses of both the trade-offs between environmental impacts and crop productivity and of the uncertainties specific to agriculture such as fluctuations in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and crop yields are crucial. However, these two issues are usually analyzed separately. In this paper, we present a framework to link trade-off and uncertainty analyses; correlated uncertainties are integrated into environment-productivity trade-off analyses. We compared three rice production systems in Japan: a system using a pelletized, nitrogen-concentrated organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using closed-air composting techniques (high-N system), a system using a conventional organic fertilizer made from poultry manure using open-air composting techniques (low-N system), and a system using a chemical compound fertilizer (conventional system). We focused on two important sources of uncertainties in paddy rice cultivation-methane emissions from paddy fields and crop yields. We found trade-offs between the conventional and high-N systems and the low-N system and the existence of positively correlated uncertainties in the conventional and high-N systems. We concluded that our framework is effective in recommending the high-N system compared with the low-N system, although the performance of the former is almost the same as the conventional system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of industrial and agricultural waste amendment on soil greenhouse gas production in a paddy field in Southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiqi; Neogi, Suvadip; Lai, Derrick Y. F.; Zeng, Congsheng; Wang, Chun; Zeng, Dongping

    2017-09-01

    Controlling the production and subsequent emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) from paddy fields is crucial to minimize the climatic impacts arising from crop production. The application of chemical or biological amendments is one possible way to limit the production of GHGs in paddy soils. Yet, few existing studies have examined the impacts of applying fertilizers originated from industrial and agricultural wastes on soil GHG production and its governing factors in subtropical paddy fields. In this study, we examined the effects of various agricultural and industrial amendments, including biochar, steel slag, shell slag, gypsum slag, and slag-derived silicate and calcium fertilizers, on the production potential of GHGs in an early paddy field in southeast China. The mean CO2 production rates from soils amended with steel slag as well as silicate and calcium fertilizers were significantly higher than those of the controls by 13.4% and 18.6%, respectively (P < 0.05). Mean soil CH4 production rates from the plots amended with steel slag, biochar, shell slag, and gypsum slag were significantly lower than those of the controls by 42.5%, 36.1%, 60.8%, and 61.8%, respectively (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, we found no significant difference in mean soil N2O production rates between the control and any of the treatments (P > 0.05). Overall, the soil production rate of CO2 was positively correlated with that of CH4 (P < 0.05), but negatively correlated with that of N2O (P < 0.05). When compared to the controls, the ratio of soil CO2:CH4 production increased significantly in the plots receiving biochar, and silicate and calcium fertilizer amendments (P < 0.05), while that of CO2:N2O production increased significantly only in the biochar-amended plots. Soil CH4:N2O production ratio decreased significantly in the plots amended with steel slag and gypsum slag, as compared to the controls (P < 0.05). Our results suggest that the application of biochar, shell slag and gypsum slag would

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased early growth of two nontimber forest product species Dyera polyphylla and Aquilaria filaria under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Turjaman, Maman; Tamai, Yutaka; Santoso, Erdy; Osaki, Mitsuru; Tawaraya, Keitaro

    2006-10-01

    Nontimber forest products (NTFPs) represent an important source of income to millions of people in tropical forest regions, but some NTFP species have decreased in number and become endangered due to overexploitation. There is increasing concern that the planting stocks of Dyera polyphylla and Aquilaria filaria are not sufficient to sustain the yield of NTFPs and promote forest conservation. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of two arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, Glomus clarum and Gigaspora decipiens, on the early growth of two NTFP species, D. polyphylla and A. filaria, under greenhouse conditions. The seedlings of both species were inoculated with G. clarum or G. decipiens, or uninoculated (control) under greenhouse conditions. Percentage of AM colonization, plant growth, survival rate, and nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) concentrations were measured after 180 days of growth. The percentage of AM colonization of D. polyphylla and A. filaria ranged from 87 to 93% and from 22 to 39%, respectively. Colonization by G. clarum and G. decipiens increased plant height, diameter, and shoot and root dry weights. Shoot N and P concentrations of the seedlings were increased by AM colonization by as much as 70-153% and 135-360%, respectively. Survival rates were higher in the AM-colonized seedlings at 180 days after transplantation than in the control seedlings. The results suggest that AM fungi can accelerate the establishment of the planting stocks of D. polyphylla and A. filaria, thereby promoting their conservation ecologically and sustaining the production of these NTFPs economically.

  6. Pesticide Flow Analysis to Assess Human Exposure in Greenhouse Flower Production in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R.

    2013-01-01

    Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area. PMID:23528812

  7. Pesticide flow analysis to assess human exposure in greenhouse flower production in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Lesmes-Fabian, Camilo; Binder, Claudia R

    2013-03-25

    Human exposure assessment tools represent a means for understanding human exposure to pesticides in agricultural activities and managing possible health risks. This paper presents a pesticide flow analysis modeling approach developed to assess human exposure to pesticide use in greenhouse flower crops in Colombia, focusing on dermal and inhalation exposure. This approach is based on the material flow analysis methodology. The transfer coefficients were obtained using the whole body dosimetry method for dermal exposure and the button personal inhalable aerosol sampler for inhalation exposure, using the tracer uranine as a pesticide surrogate. The case study was a greenhouse rose farm in the Bogota Plateau in Colombia. The approach was applied to estimate the exposure to pesticides such as mancozeb, carbendazim, propamocarb hydrochloride, fosetyl, carboxin, thiram, dimethomorph and mandipropamide. We found dermal absorption estimations close to the AOEL reference values for the pesticides carbendazim, mancozeb, thiram and mandipropamide during the study period. In addition, high values of dermal exposure were found on the forearms, hands, chest and legs of study participants, indicating weaknesses in the overlapping areas of the personal protective equipment parts. These results show how the material flow analysis methodology can be applied in the field of human exposure for early recognition of the dispersion of pesticides and support the development of measures to improve operational safety during pesticide management. Furthermore, the model makes it possible to identify the status quo of the health risk faced by workers in the study area.

  8. Using Market Forces to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Product-Level Life Cycle Analysis and Eco-Labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweeney, J. F.; Davis, S. J.

    2007-12-01

    Established protocols allow entity-level accounting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The information contained within GHG inventories is used by entities to manage their carbon footprint and to anticipate future exposure to compulsory GHG markets or taxes. The efficacy of such inventories, as experienced by the consumer, can be improved upon by product-level GHG inventories applying the methods of traditional life cycle analysis (LCA). A voluntary product-level assessment of this type, coupled with an eco-label, would 1) empower consumers with information about the total embodied GHG content of a product, 2) allow companies to understand and manage GHG emissions outside the narrow scope of their entities, and 3) drive reduction of GHG emissions throughout product value chains. The Climate Conservancy (TCC) is a non-profit organization founded to help companies calculate their GHG emissions at the level of individual product units, and to inform consumers about the GHG intensity of the products they choose to purchase. With the assistance of economists, policy experts and scientists, TCC has developed a useful metric for reporting product-level GHG emissions that allows for a normalized comparison of a product's GHG intensity irrespective of industry sector or competitors, where GHG data are often unavailable or incomplete. Using this metric, we envision our Climate Conscious label becoming an important arbiter of choice for consumers seeking ways to mitigate their climate impacts without the need for governmental regulation.

  9. Solar greenhouses in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Polich, M.

    1981-12-01

    After a discussion of solar greenhouse phenomena and the potential for heat collection and food production, design recommendations are provided for attached heat collecting solar sunspaces and for attached food producing solar greenhouses. Also, design of a single solar structure to maximize heat collection and food production is considered. A method of predicting the performance for attached heat collecting solar sunspaces is given in which the solar savings fraction is calculated. (LEW)

  10. Greenhouse gas mitigation on marginal land: a quantitative review of the relative benefits of forest recovery versus biofuel production.

    PubMed

    Evans, Samuel G; Ramage, Benjamin S; DiRocco, Tara L; Potts, Matthew D

    2015-02-17

    Decisions concerning future land-use/land cover change stand at the forefront of ongoing debates on how to best mitigate climate change. In this study, we compare the greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation value over a 30-year time frame for a range of forest recovery and biofuel production scenarios on abandoned agricultural land. Carbon sequestration in recovering forests is estimated based on a statistical analysis of tropical and temperate studies on marginal land. GHGs offset by biofuel production are analyzed for five different production pathways. We find that forest recovery is superior to low-yielding biofuel production scenarios such as oil palm and corn. Biofuel production scenarios with high yields, such as sugarcane or high-yielding energy grasses, can be comparable or superior to natural forest succession and to reforestation in some cases. This result stands in contrast to previous research suggesting that restoring degraded ecosystems to their native state is generally superior to agricultural production in terms of GHG mitigation. Further work is needed on carbon stock changes in forests, soil carbon dynamics, and bioenergy crop production on degraded/abandoned agricultural land. This finding also emphasizes the need to consider the full range of social, economic, and ecological consequences of land-use policies.

  11. Water level, vegetation composition and plant productivity explain greenhouse gas fluxes in temperate cutover fens after inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minke, M.; Augustin, J.; Burlo, A.; Yarmashuk, T.; Chuvashova, H.; Thiele, A.; Freibauer, A.; Tikhonov, V.; Hoffmann, M.

    2015-10-01

    Rewetting of temperate continental cutover peatlands generally implies the creation of flooded areas, which are - dependent on water depth - colonized by helophytes such as Eriophorum angustifolium, Carex spp., Typha latifolia or Phragmites australis. Reeds of Typha and Phragmites are reported to be large sources of methane, but data on net CO2 uptake are contradictory for Typha and rare for Phragmites. This paper describes the effect of vegetation, water level and nutrient conditions on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for representative vegetation types along water level gradients at two rewetted cutover fens (mesotrophic and eutrophic) in Belarus. Greenhouse emissions were measured with manual chambers in weekly to few - weekly intervals over a two years period and interpolated by modelling. All sites had negligible nitrous oxide exchange rates. Most sites were carbon sinks and small GHG sources. Methane emissions were generally associated with net ecosystem CO2 uptake. Small sedges were minor methane emitters and net CO2 sinks, while Phragmites australis sites released large amounts of methane and sequestered very much CO2. Variability of both fluxes increased with site productivity. Floating mats composed of Carex tussocks and Typha latifolia were a source for both methane and CO2. We conclude that shallow, stable flooding is a better measure to arrive at low GHG emissions than deep flooding, and that the risk of high GHG emissions consequent on rewetting is larger for eutrophic than for mesotrophic peatlands.

  12. Gaining ground in the modeling of land-use change greenhouse gas emissions associated with biofuel production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunn, J.; Mueller, S.; Kwon, H.; Wang, M.; Wander, M.

    2012-12-01

    Land-use change (LUC) resulting from biofuel feedstock production and the associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are a hotly-debated aspect of biofuels. Certainly, LUC GHG emissions are one of the most uncertain elements in life cycle analyses (LCA) of biofuels. To estimate LUC GHG emissions, two sets of data are necessary. First, information on the amount and type of land that is converted to biofuel feedstock production is required. These data are typically generated through application of computable general equilibrium (CGE) models such as Purdue University's Global Trade Analysis Project (GTAP) model. Second, soil carbon content data for the affected land types is essential. Recently, Argonne National Laboratory's Carbon Calculator for Land Use Change from Biofuels Production (CCLUB) has been updated with CGE modeling results that estimate the amount and type of LUC world-wide from production of ethanol from corn, corn stover, miscanthus, and switchgrass (Mueller et al. 2012). Moreover, we have developed state-specific carbon content data, determined through modeling with CENTURY, for the two most dominant soil types in the conterminous 48 U.S. states (Kwon et al. 2012) to enable finer-resolution results for domestic LUC GHG emissions for these ethanol production scenarios. Of the feedstocks examined, CCLUB estimates that LUC GHG emissions are highest for corn ethanol (9.1 g CO2e/MJ ethanol) and lowest for miscanthus (-12 g CO2e/MJ ethanol). We will present key observations from CCLUB results incorporated into Argonne National Laboratory's Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREET) model, which is a LCA tool for transportation fuels and advanced vehicle technologies. We will discuss selected issues in this modeling, including the sensitivity of domestic soil carbon emission factors to modeling parameters and assumptions about the fate of harvested wood products. Further, we will discuss efforts to update CCLUB with county

  13. Passive-solar greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Our project objective was to design, construct, and operate a commercialized (16' x 50') passive, solar greenhouse. The structure was originally intended as a vegetable forcing facility to produce vegetable crops in the off-season. Building and size constraints and economic considerations convinced us to use the greenhouse for producing bedding plants and vegetable starts in the spring, high value vegetables (tomatoes, cucumbers) in the fall and forced bulbs in the winter. This crop sequence allows us to use the greenhouse all year without additional heat as the crops are adopted to the temperature regime of the greenhouse during each particular season. In our first season, the greenhouse performed beautifully. The lowest temperature recorded was 38/sup 0/F after 4 cold, cloudy days in February. The production of bedding plants has allowed us to diversify our products and the early transplants we produced were a great asset to our vegetable farming operation. Although construction cost (4.57 sq. ft.) is higher than that of a conventional polyethylene-covered, quonset-type greenhouse (approx. $1.92 sq. ft.), our annual operating cost is cheaper than that of a conventional greenhouse (0.49 cents sq. ft. versus 0.67 cents sq. ft.) due to a longer usable lifetime of the structure and the elimination of heating costs. Our structure has been toured by interested individuals, school and farm groups. We plan to publicize the structure and its advantages by promoting more visits to the site.

  14. Renewable Energy Production and Urban Remediation: Modeling the biogeochemical cycle at contaminated urban brownfields and the potential for renewable energy production and mitigation of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gopalakrishnan, G.

    2014-12-01

    Brownfields or urban sites that have been contaminated as a result of historic practices are present throughout the world. In the United States alone, the National Research Council has estimated that there are approximately 300,000 to 400,000 sites which have been contaminated by improper use and disposal of chemicals (NRC 1993). The land available at these sites is estimated at several million acres; however, the presence of high levels of contamination in the soil and groundwater makes it difficult to utilize these sites for traditional purposes such as agriculture. Further, the time required to remediate these contaminants to regulated levels is in the order of decades, which often results in long-term economic consequences for the areas near these sites. There has been significant interest in developing these sites as potential sources of renewable energy production in order to increase the economic viability of these sites and to provide alternative land resources for renewable energy production (EPA 2012). Solar energy, wind energy, and bioenergy from lignocellulosic biomass production have been identified as the main sources of renewable energy that can be produced at these locations. However, the environmental impacts of such a policy and the implications for greenhouse gas emissions, particularly resulting from changes in land-use impacting the biogeochemical cycle at these sites, have not been studied extensively to date. This study uses the biogeochemical process-based model DNDC to simulate carbon sequestration, nitrous oxide emissions and methane emissions from typical urban brownfield systems in the United States, when renewable energy systems are deployed. Photovoltaic solar energy and lignocellulosic biomass energy systems are evaluated here. Plants modeled include those most widely used for both bioenergy and remediation such as woody trees. Model sensitivity to soil conditions, contaminant levels and local weather data and the resulting impacts on

  15. Greenhouse gas and ammonia emissions from production of compost bedding on a dairy farm.

    PubMed

    Fillingham, M A; VanderZaag, A C; Burtt, S; Baldé, H; Ngwabie, N M; Smith, W; Hakami, A; Wagner-Riddle, C; Bittman, S; MacDonald, D

    2017-09-18

    Recent developments in composting technology enable dairy farms to produce their own bedding from composted manure. This management practice alters the fate of carbon and nitrogen; however, there is little data available documenting how gaseous emissions are impacted. This study measured in-situ emissions of methane (CH4), carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O), and ammonia (NH3) from an on-farm solid-liquid separation system followed by continuously-turned plug-flow composting over three seasons. Emissions were measured separately from the continuously-turned compost phase, and the compost-storage phase prior to the compost being used for cattle bedding. Active composting had low emissions of N2O and CH4 with most carbon being emitted as CO2-C and most N emitted as NH3-N. Compost storage had higher CH4 and N2O emissions than the active phase, while NH3 was emitted at a lower rate, and CO2 was similar. Overall, combining both the active composting and storage phases, the mean total emissions were 3.9×10(-2)gCH4kg(-1) raw manure (RM), 11.3gCO2kg(-1) RM, 2.5×10(-4)g N2O kg(-1) RM, and 0.13g NH3 kg(-1) RM. Emissions with solid-separation and composting were compared to calculated emissions for a traditional (unseparated) liquid manure storage tank. The total greenhouse gas emissions (CH4+N2O) from solid separation, composting, compost storage, and separated liquid storage were reduced substantially on a CO2-equivalent basis compared to traditional liquid storage. Solid-liquid separation and well-managed composting could mitigate overall greenhouse gas emissions; however, an environmental trade off was that NH3 was emitted at higher rates from the continuously turned composter than reported values for traditional storage. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Impact of organic carbon quality on methanogenesis in subterranean estuaries and implications for greenhouse gas production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pain, A.; Young, C. R.; Martin, J. B.

    2016-12-01

    The land-sea interface is a hotspot for organic carbon (OC) remineralization reactions, which generate greenhouse gases (CO2 and CH4). Intense processing of terrestrial organic carbon occurs in surface estuaries, and the extent of reactions depends in part on OC reactivity. Subterranean estuaries (STEs) are ubiquitous along coastlines but understudied relative to surface estuaries. However, they could possess many of the same characteristics that lead to intense OC processing in surface estuaries and perhaps be even more important to C cycling considering their small water-sediment ratios. We assess OC processing in three seepage faces discharging to Indian River Lagoon, FL (Eau Gallie North, EGN; Riverwalk Park, RWP; and Banana River Lagoon, BRL), by measuring the quantity and quality of dissolved OC along with concentrations and δ13C signatures of dissolved CO2 and CH4. OC quality is assessed with fluorescence and PARAFAC modeling to depict changes in the abundance of reactive OC. CH4 concentrations vary by orders of magnitude between seepage faces, with the highest concentrations of 100 µM at RWP. RWP is more reducing than EGN and BRL and also contains the highest abundance of labile protein-like organic matter, which may fuel more extensive OC remineralization reactions. Residuals of salinity-based concentration and isotopic mixing models between lagoon surface water and inland groundwater indicate changes in concentration and isotopic compositions of CO2 and CH4 in the STE is due to reactions rather than mixing. At EGN and BRL, CO2 and CH4 are produced at a molar ratio of CO2:CH4 = 4 and 1.5, respectively, suggesting predominant methanogenesis via acetate fermentation, which produces CO2:CH4 ratios of 1. At RWP, CO2 is consumed as CH4 is produced at a molar ratio of -0.8, near the expected change in CO2:CH4 of -1 for methanogenesis via CO2 reduction. RWP δ13C-CH4 signatures are more depleted (-81‰) than EGN and BRL (-55‰), further supporting different

  17. The greenhouse gas abatement potential of productivity improving measures applied to cattle systems in a developing region.

    PubMed

    Salmon, G R; Marshall, K; Tebug, S F; Missohou, A; Robinson, T P; MacLeod, M

    2017-09-27

    Developing countries are experiencing an increase in total demand for livestock commodities, as populations and per capita demands increase. Increased production is therefore required to meet this demand and maintain food security. Production increases will lead to proportionate increases in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions unless offset by reductions in the emissions intensity (Ei) (i.e. the amount of GHG emitted per kg of commodity produced) of livestock production. It is therefore important to identify measures that can increase production whilst reducing Ei cost-effectively. This paper seeks to do this for smallholder agro-pastoral cattle systems in Senegal; ranging from low input to semi-intensified, they are representative of a large proportion of the national cattle production. Specifically, it identifies a shortlist of mitigation measures with potential for application to the various herd systems and estimates their GHG emissions abatement potential (using the Global Livestock Environmental Assessment Model) and cost-effectiveness. Limitations and future requirements are identified and discussed. This paper demonstrates that the Ei of meat and milk from livestock systems in a developing region can be reduced through measures that would also benefit food security, many of which are likely to be cost-beneficial. The ability to make such quantification can assist future sustainable development efforts.

  18. Land, irrigation water, greenhouse gas, and reactive nitrogen burdens of meat, eggs, and dairy production in the United States.

    PubMed

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Makov, Tamar; Milo, Ron

    2014-08-19

    Livestock production impacts air and water quality, ocean health, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on regional to global scales and it is the largest use of land globally. Quantifying the environmental impacts of the various livestock categories, mostly arising from feed production, is thus a grand challenge of sustainability science. Here, we quantify land, irrigation water, and reactive nitrogen (Nr) impacts due to feed production, and recast published full life cycle GHG emission estimates, for each of the major animal-based categories in the US diet. Our calculations reveal that the environmental costs per consumed calorie of dairy, poultry, pork, and eggs are mutually comparable (to within a factor of 2), but strikingly lower than the impacts of beef. Beef production requires 28, 11, 5, and 6 times more land, irrigation water, GHG, and Nr, respectively, than the average of the other livestock categories. Preliminary analysis of three staple plant foods shows two- to sixfold lower land, GHG, and Nr requirements than those of the nonbeef animal-derived calories, whereas irrigation requirements are comparable. Our analysis is based on the best data currently available, but follow-up studies are necessary to improve parameter estimates and fill remaining knowledge gaps. Data imperfections notwithstanding, the key conclusion--that beef production demands about 1 order of magnitude more resources than alternative livestock categories--is robust under existing uncertainties. The study thus elucidates the multiple environmental benefits of potential, easy-to-implement dietary changes, and highlights the uniquely high resource demands of beef.

  19. Potential energy and greenhouse gas emission effects of hydrogen production from coke oven gas in U.S. Steel Mills.

    SciTech Connect

    Joseck, F.; Wang, M.; Wu, Y.; Energy Systems; DOE

    2008-02-01

    For this study, we examined the energy and emission effects of hydrogen production from coke oven gas (COG) on a well-to-wheels basis and compared these effects with those of other hydrogen production options, as well as with those of conventional gasoline and diesel options. We then estimated the magnitude of hydrogen production from COG in the United States and the number of hydrogen fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) that could potentially be fueled with the hydrogen produced from COG. Our analysis shows that this production pathway can achieve energy and greenhouse gas emission reduction benefits. This pathway is especially worth considering because first, the sources of COG are concentrated in the upper Midwest and in the Northeast United States, which would facilitate relatively cost-effective collection, transportation, and distribution of the produced hydrogen to refueling stations in these regions. Second, the amount of hydrogen that could be produced may fuel about 1.7 million cars, thus providing a vital near-term hydrogen production option for FCV applications.

  20. Greenhouse gas life cycle assessment of products arising from the rendering of mammalian animal byproducts in the UK.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Angel D; Humphries, Andrea C; Woodgate, Stephen L; Wilkinson, Robert G

    2012-01-03

    Animal byproducts (ABP) are unavoidable byproduct of meat production that are categorized under EU legislation into category 1, 2, and 3 materials, which are normally treated by rendering. Rendering is a thermal process that produces rendered fat and protein. Heat is provided from the combustion of natural gas and self-produced rendered fat. The main objectives of the study were (i) to assess energy intensity in the UK rendering industry, and (ii) to quantify the greenhouse gas emissions associated with the production of mammalian rendered products using life cycle assessment. Thermal energy requirements were 2646 and 1357 kJ/kg, whereas electricity requirements were 260 and 375 kJ/kg for category 1 and 3 ABP respectively. Fossil CO(2) emissions were -0.77 and 0.15 kg CO(2)e/kg category 1 and 3 mammalian rendered fat respectively and 0.15 kg CO(2)e/kg processed animal protein. These were low relative to vegetable products such as palm oil and soya bean meal because (i) ABP were considered wastes that do not incur the environmental burden of their production, and (ii) the rendering process produces biofuels that can be used to generate energy that can be used to offset the use of fossil fuels in other systems.

  1. Impact of policy on greenhouse gas emissions and economics of biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Olivetti, Elsa; Gülşen, Ece; Malça, João; Castanheira, Erica; Freire, Fausto; Dias, Luis; Kirchain, Randolph

    2014-07-01

    As an alternative transportation fuel to petrodiesel, biodiesel has been promoted within national energy portfolio targets across the world. Early estimations of low lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of biodiesel were a driver behind extensive government support in the form of financial incentives for the industry. However, studies consistently report a high degree of uncertainty in these emissions estimates, raising questions concerning the carbon benefits of biodiesel. Furthermore, the implications of feedstock blending on GHG emissions uncertainty have not been explicitly addressed despite broad practice by the industry to meet fuel quality standards and to control costs. This work investigated the impact of feedstock blending on the characteristics of biodiesel by using a chance-constrained (CC) blend optimization method. The objective of the optimization is minimization of feedstock costs subject to fuel standards and emissions constraints. Results indicate that blending can be used to manage GHG emissions uncertainty characteristics of biodiesel, and to achieve cost reductions through feedstock diversification. Simulations suggest that emissions control policies that restrict the use of certain feedstocks based on their GHG estimates overlook blending practices and benefits, increasing the cost of biodiesel. In contrast, emissions control policies which recognize the multifeedstock nature of biodiesel provide producers with feedstock selection flexibility, enabling them to manage their blend portfolios cost effectively, potentially without compromising fuel quality or emissions reductions.

  2. Adaptive nitrogen and integrated weed management in conservation agriculture: impacts on agronomic productivity, greenhouse gas emissions, and herbicide residues.

    PubMed

    Oyeogbe, Anthony Imoudu; Das, T K; Bhatia, Arti; Singh, Shashi Bala

    2017-04-01

    Increasing nitrogen (N) immobilization and weed interference in the early phase of implementation of conservation agriculture (CA) affects crop yields. Yet, higher fertilizer and herbicide use to improve productivity influences greenhouse gase emissions and herbicide residues. These tradeoffs precipitated a need for adaptive N and integrated weed management in CA-based maize (Zea mays L.)-wheat [Triticum aestivum (L.) emend Fiori & Paol] cropping system in the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) to optimize N availability and reduce weed proliferation. Adaptive N fertilization was based on soil test value and normalized difference vegetation index measurement (NDVM) by GreenSeeker™ technology, while integrated weed management included brown manuring (Sesbania aculeata L. co-culture, killed at 25 days after sowing), herbicide mixture, and weedy check (control, i.e., without weed management). Results indicated that the 'best-adaptive N rate' (i.e., 50% basal + 25% broadcast at 25 days after sowing + supplementary N guided by NDVM) increased maize and wheat grain yields by 20 and 14% (averaged for 2 years), respectively, compared with whole recommended N applied at sowing. Weed management by brown manuring (during maize) and herbicide mixture (during wheat) resulted in 10 and 21% higher grain yields (averaged for 2 years), respectively, over the weedy check. The NDVM in-season N fertilization and brown manuring affected N2O and CO2 emissions, but resulted in improved carbon storage efficiency, while herbicide residuals in soil were significantly lower in the maize season than in wheat cropping. This study concludes that adaptive N and integrated weed management enhance synergy between agronomic productivity, fertilizer and herbicide efficiency, and greenhouse gas mitigation.

  3. Joint carbon footprint assessment and data envelopment analysis for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture production.

    PubMed

    Rebolledo-Leiva, Ricardo; Angulo-Meza, Lidia; Iriarte, Alfredo; González-Araya, Marcela C

    2017-03-22

    Operations management tools are critical in the process of evaluating and implementing action towards a low carbon production. Currently, a sustainable production implies both an efficient resource use and the obligation to meet targets for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The carbon footprint (CF) tool allows estimating the overall amount of GHG emissions associated with a product or activity throughout its life cycle. In this paper, we propose a four-step method for a joint use of CF assessment and Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). Following the eco-efficiency definition, which is the delivery of goods using fewer resources and with decreasing environmental impact, we use an output oriented DEA model to maximize production and reduce CF, taking into account simultaneously the economic and ecological perspectives. In another step, we stablish targets for the contributing CF factors in order to achieve CF reduction. The proposed method was applied to assess the eco-efficiency of five organic blueberry orchards throughout three growing seasons. The results show that this method is a practical tool for determining eco-efficiency and reducing GHG emissions.

  4. Regulation of Vapor Pressure Deficit by Greenhouse Micro-Fog Systems Improved Growth and Productivity of Tomato via Enhancing Photosynthesis during Summer Season

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dalong; Zhang, Zhongdian; Li, Jianming; Chang, Yibo; Du, Qingjie; Pan, Tonghua

    2015-01-01

    The role of a proposed micro-fog system in regulating greenhouse environments and enhancing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) productivity during summer season was studied. Experiments were carried out in a multi-span glass greenhouse, which was divided into two identical compartments involving different environments: (1) without environment control and (2) with a micro-fog system operating when the air vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of greenhouse was higher than 0.5 KPa. The micro-fog system effectively alleviated heat stress and evaporative demand in the greenhouse during summer season. The physiologically favourable environment maintained by micro-fog treatment significantly enhanced elongation of leaf and stem, which contributed to a substantial elevation of final leaf area and shoot biomass. These improvements in physiological and morphological traits resulted in around 12.3% increase of marketable tomato yield per plant. Relative growth rate (RGR) of micro-fog treatment was also significantly higher than control plants, which was mainly determined by the substantial elevation in net assimilation rate (NAR), and to a lesser extent caused by leaf area ratio (LAR). Measurement of leaf gas exchange parameters also demonstrated that micro-fog treatment significantly enhanced leaf photosynthesis capacity. Taken together, manipulation of VPD in greenhouses by micro-fog systems effectively enhanced tomato growth and productivity via improving photosynthesis during summer season. PMID:26221726

  5. Regulation of Vapor Pressure Deficit by Greenhouse Micro-Fog Systems Improved Growth and Productivity of Tomato via Enhancing Photosynthesis during Summer Season.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dalong; Zhang, Zhongdian; Li, Jianming; Chang, Yibo; Du, Qingjie; Pan, Tonghua

    2015-01-01

    The role of a proposed micro-fog system in regulating greenhouse environments and enhancing tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) productivity during summer season was studied. Experiments were carried out in a multi-span glass greenhouse, which was divided into two identical compartments involving different environments: (1) without environment control and (2) with a micro-fog system operating when the air vapor pressure deficit (VPD) of greenhouse was higher than 0.5 KPa. The micro-fog system effectively alleviated heat stress and evaporative demand in the greenhouse during summer season. The physiologically favourable environment maintained by micro-fog treatment significantly enhanced elongation of leaf and stem, which contributed to a substantial elevation of final leaf area and shoot biomass. These improvements in physiological and morphological traits resulted in around 12.3% increase of marketable tomato yield per plant. Relative growth rate (RGR) of micro-fog treatment was also significantly higher than control plants, which was mainly determined by the substantial elevation in net assimilation rate (NAR), and to a lesser extent caused by leaf area ratio (LAR). Measurement of leaf gas exchange parameters also demonstrated that micro-fog treatment significantly enhanced leaf photosynthesis capacity. Taken together, manipulation of VPD in greenhouses by micro-fog systems effectively enhanced tomato growth and productivity via improving photosynthesis during summer season.

  6. Processed eucalyptus trees as a substrate component for greenhouse crop production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fast growing eucalyptus species are selected for commercial plantings worldwide and are harvested for a variety of uses. Eucalyptus plantings in south Florida are harvested for landscape mulch production, yet this material may have potential as a container substrate for horticulture crop production....

  7. Mitigation opportunities for life cycle greenhouse gas emissions during feedstock production across heterogeneous landscapes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feedstock production can contribute greater than or equal to 50% of the lifecycle global warming intensity (GWI) of a biofuel. Variability exists within and among high-leverage components of the biomass production phase. GWI variability within feedstocks has gone unrecognized by regulatory agencies....

  8. Sustainability and Energy Development: Influences of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reduction Options on Water Use in Energy Production

    SciTech Connect

    D. Craig Cooper; Gerald Sehlke

    2012-01-01

    Climate change mitigation strategies cannot be evaluated solely in terms of energy cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential. Maintaining GHGs at a 'safe' level will require fundamental change in the way we approach energy production, and a number of environmental, economic, and societal factors will come into play. Water is an essential component of energy production, and water resource constraints (e.g., insufficient supplies and competing ecological and anthropogenic needs) will limit our options for producing energy and for reducing GHG emissions. This study evaluates these potential constraints from a global perspective by revisiting the 'climate wedges' proposal of Pacala and Sokolow [1], and evaluating the potential water impacts of the 'wedges' associated with energy production. Results indicate that there is a range of water impacts, with some options reducing water demand while others increase water demand. Mitigation options that improve energy conversion and end-use efficiency have the greatest potential for reducing water resources impacts. These options provide 'win-win-win' scenarios for reducing GHG emissions, lowering energy costs and reducing water demand. Thet may merit higher priority than alternative options that emphasize deploying new low-carbon energy facilities or modifying existing facilities with energy intensive GHG mitigation technologies to reduce GHG emissions. While the latter can reduce GHG emissions, they will typically increase energy costs and water impacts.

  9. Sustainability and energy development: influences of greenhouse gas emission reduction options on water use in energy production.

    PubMed

    Cooper, D Craig; Sehlke, Gerald

    2012-03-20

    Climate change mitigation strategies cannot be evaluated solely in terms of energy cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation potential. Maintaining GHGs at a "safe" level will require fundamental change in the way we approach energy production, and a number of environmental, economic, and societal factors will come into play. Water is an essential component of energy production, and water resource constraints will limit our options for meeting society's growing demand for energy while also reducing GHG emissions. This study evaluates these potential constraints from a global perspective by revisiting the climate wedges proposal of Pacala and Socolow (Science2004, 305 (5686), 968-972) and evaluating the potential water-use impacts of the wedges associated with energy production. GHG mitigation options that improve energy conversion or use efficiency can simultaneously reduce GHG emissions, lower energy costs, and reduce energy impacts on water resources. Other GHG mitigation options (e.g., carbon capture and sequestration, traditional nuclear, and biofuels from dedicated energy crops) increase water requirements for energy. Achieving energy sustainability requires deployment of alternatives that can reduce GHG emissions, water resource impacts, and energy costs.

  10. Estimation of pathways of the production of greenhouse gases in the tropical swamp forest in Thailand by stable isotope investigation.

    PubMed

    Boontanon, Narin; Ueda, Shingo; Wada, Eitaro

    2008-09-01

    Dynamics of greenhouse gases (N(2)O and CH(4)) with the dry-wet cycle along with the variation of oxidation-reduction boundaries were investigated in the tropical wetland in monsoon Asia. It was clarified that the production of N(2)O and CH(4) was closely related to the development of a redox boundary in the Bang Nara River systems. An intermittent increase in N(2)O was observed at the beginning of the rainy season, when a large amount of easily decomposable organic matter was introduced into the river. After 10 days, when dissolved oxygen was consumed completely at the middle reaches, the emission of CH(4) became maximal due to the possible occurrence of denitrification. The distribution of stable isotope ratios in N(2)O clearly demonstrated that nitrification is the major process for its production. Furthermore, the production of N(2)O in this study area was found to vary in time and space with changes in the redox boundary along the water flow.

  11. Uncertainty in the Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions from U.S. Production of Three Biobased Polymer Families.

    PubMed

    Posen, I Daniel; Jaramillo, Paulina; Griffin, W Michael

    2016-03-15

    Interest in biobased products has been motivated, in part, by the claim that these products have lower life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions than their fossil counterparts. This study investigates GHG emissions from U.S. production of three important biobased polymer families: polylactic acid (PLA), polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and bioethylene-based plastics. The model incorporates uncertainty into the life cycle emission estimates using Monte Carlo simulation. Results present a range of scenarios for feedstock choice (corn or switchgrass), treatment of coproducts, data sources, end of life assumptions, and displaced fossil polymer. Switchgrass pathways generally have lower emissions than corn pathways, and can even generate negative cradle-to-gate emissions if unfermented residues are used to coproduce energy. PHB (from either feedstock) is unlikely to have lower emissions than fossil polymers once end of life emissions are included. PLA generally has the lowest emissions when compared to high emission fossil polymers, such as polystyrene (mean GHG savings up to 1.4 kg CO2e/kg corn PLA and 2.9 kg CO2e/kg switchgrass PLA). In contrast, bioethylene is likely to achieve the greater emission reduction for ethylene intensive polymers, like polyethylene (mean GHG savings up to 0.60 kg CO2e/kg corn polyethylene and 3.4 kg CO2e/kg switchgrass polyethylene).

  12. Influence of agro-ecosystem modeling approach on the greenhouse gas profiles of wheat-derived biopolymer products.

    PubMed

    Guo, Miao; Li, ChangSheng; Bell, J Nigel B; Murphy, Richard J

    2012-01-03

    An approach is presented to include a wider range of factors involved in the nitrogen and carbon cycles in agro-ecosystems than is typical of many Life Cycle Assessments (LCAs) of agriculture-based products. This use results from the process-oriented Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC, modified version) model. Here we evaluate the effects of using site-specific N(2)O emissions derived from the DNDC model rather than the values derived from the commonly used Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Tier 1 empirical model on the results of whole life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) profiles for wheat-based biopolymer products. Statistical methods were also used to analyze the quality of the DNDC and IPCC outputs and to characterize the uncertainty in the GHG results. The results confirm that the GHG profiles of the wheat-derived biopolymer products are sensitive to how the agricultural system is modeled and uncertainty analyses indicate that DNDC is preferred over the IPCC Tier 1 approach for site-specific LCAs. The former allows inclusion of a wider range of important site-specific agricultural parameters in the LCA, provides for improved quality in the LCA data, and permits better calibration of uncertainty in the LCA inventory.

  13. Potential of municipal solid waste for renewable energy production and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Changkook

    2010-02-01

    Energy from waste (EfW) for nonrecyclable wastes is a suitable method of waste management and is important for renewable energy production. South Korea currently recycles 57% of household waste and landfills 26%. The remaining 17% is incinerated, mainly for heat production. In this study, the potential for energy production and reduction of corresponding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) in Korea was estimated without accounting for the lifecycle impact of waste management. The properties of the MSW were established from data available in national-scale waste surveys and reports. The potential of EfW for GHG emission reduction was calculated considering (1) the direct release of anthropogenic carbon, nitrous oxide (N2O), and methane (CH4); and (2) the reduction in indirect GHG emissions by fossil fuel displacement. CH4 emissions from landfilling were also estimated from biogenic carbon in waste. Applying the resulting emission factors to various EfW cases suggests that the current level of GHG emissions is significant but can be substantially reduced by increased use of EfW. A net reduction in GHG emissions can be achieved only by EfW with combined heat and power (CHP).

  14. Comparing chemical and biological control strategies for twospotted spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in commercial greenhouse production of bedding plants.

    PubMed

    Opit, George P; Perret, Jamis; Holt, Kiffnie; Nechols, James R; Margolies, David C; Williams, Kimberly A

    2009-02-01

    Efficacy, costs, and impact on crop salability of various biological and chemical control strategies for Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) were evaluated on mixed plantings of impatiens, Impatiens wallerana Hook.f (Ericales: Balsaminaceae), and ivy geranium, Pelargonium peltatum (1.) L'Hér. Ex Aiton (Geraniales: Geraniaceae), cultivars in commercial greenhouses. Chemical control consisting of the miticide bifenazate (Floramite) was compared with two biological control strategies using the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Treatments were 1) a single, early application of bifenazate; 2) a single, early release of predatory mites at a 1:4 predator:pest ratio based on leaf samples to estimate pest density; 3) a weekly release of predatory mites at numbers based on the area covered by the crop; and 4) an untreated control. T. urticae populations were monitored for 3 wk after the earliest treatment. When plants were ready for market, their salability was estimated. Bifenazate and density-based P. persimilis treatments effectively reduced T. urticae numbers starting 1 wk after plants had been treated, whereas the scheduled, area-based P. persimilis treatment had little or no effect. The percentage of flats that could be sold at the highest market wholesale price ranged from 15 to 33%, 44 to 86%, 84 to 95%, and 92 to 100%, in the control, weekly area-based P. persimilis, bifenazate, and single density-based P. persimilis treatments, respectively. We have shown that in commercial greenhouse production of herbaceous ornamental bedding plants, estimating pest density to determine the appropriate number of predators to release is as effective and offers nearly the same economic benefit as prophylactic use of pesticides.

  15. Greenhouse gas emissions of realistic dietary choices in Denmark: the carbon footprint and nutritional value of dairy products

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Louise Bruun; Flysjö, Anna; Tholstrup, Tine

    2014-01-01

    Background Dairy products are important in a healthy diet due to their high nutritional value; they are, however, associated with relatively large greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) per kg product. When discussing the need to reduce the GHGE caused by the food system, it is crucial to consider the nutritional value of alternative food choices. Objective The objective of this study was to elucidate the role of dairy products in overall nutrition and to clarify the effects of dietary choices on GHGE, and to combine nutritional value and GHGE data. Methods We created eight dietary scenarios with different quantity of dairy products using data from the Danish National Dietary Survey (1995–2006). Nutrient composition and GHGE data for 71 highly consumed foods were used to estimate GHGE and nutritional status for each dietary scenario. An index was used to estimate nutrient density in relation to nutritional recommendation and climate impact for solid food items; high index values were those with the highest nutrient density scores in relation to the GHGE. Results The high-dairy scenario resulted in 27% higher protein, 13% higher vitamin D; 55% higher calcium; 48% higher riboflavin; and 18% higher selenium than the non-dairy scenario. There was a significant correlation between changes in calcium and changes in vitamin D, selenium, and riboflavin content (P=0.0001) throughout all of the diets. The estimated GHGE for the dietary scenario with average-dairy consumption was 4,631 g CO2e/day. Conclusions When optimizing a diet with regard to sustainability, it is crucial to account for the nutritional value and not solely focus on impact per kg product. Excluding dairy products from the diet does not necessarily mitigate climate change but in contrast may have nutritional consequences. PMID:24959114

  16. WholeTree Substrate and Fertilizer Rate in Production of Greenhouse Grown Petunia (Petunia*hybrida Vilm) and marigold (Tagetes patula L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A substrate component (WholeTree) made from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) was evaluated along with starter fertilizer rate in the production of greenhouse-grown petunia (Petunia 'hybrida Vilm. ‘Dreams Purple’) and marigold (Tagetes patula L. ‘Hero Spry’). Loblolly pine from a 12 year old plantation...

  17. Types of greenhouse gas emissions in the production of cast iron and steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisienko, V. G.; Chesnokov, Yu N.; Lapteva, A. V.; Noskov, V. Yu

    2016-09-01

    Types of carbon dioxide emissions in iron and steel production are indicated. Production processes have been classified according to mechanisms of carbon dioxide formation. Mathematical models for calculation of carbon dioxide emissions for each type of process are found. Calculations results of carbon dioxide emissions of coke (BF + EAF) and cokeless processes (Corex, Midrex, HyL-3, Romelt) in combination with EAF are provided.

  18. Greenhouse gas production in a pond sediment: effects of temperature, nitrate, acetate and season.

    PubMed

    Stadmark, Johanna; Leonardson, Lars

    2007-11-15

    In this paper we investigate the impact of nitrate (NO(3)(-)) concentration and temperature on the production of carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)) and nitrous oxide (N(2)O). We studied sediment collected during spring, summer and autumn from a constructed pond in South Sweden. Homogenised sediment samples were dark incubated in vitro under N(2) atmosphere at 13 degrees C and 20 degrees C after addition of five NO(3)(-) concentrations, between 0 and 16 mg NO(3)(-)-N per litre. We found higher net production of N(2)O and CO(2) at the higher temperature. Moreover, increased NO(3)(-) concentrations had strong positive impact on the N(2)O concentration, but no effect on CH(4) and CO(2) production. The lack of response in CO(2) is suggested to be due to the use of alternative oxidants as electron acceptors. Interaction between NO(3)(-) and temperature suggests a further increase of N(2)O net production when both NO(3)(-) and temperature are high. Our interpretation of the CH(4) data is that at high concentrations of NO(3)(-) temperature is of less importance for CH(4) production. We also found that at 13 degrees C CH(4) production was substrate limited and that the addition of acetate increased CH(4) as well as CO(2) production. There was a seasonal effect on gas production potential, with more CH(4) and N(2)O produced in spring than in summer. Re-calculation of the gas concentrations into global warming potential (GWP) units (i.e. CO(2), CH(4), and N(2)O transferred to CO(2) equivalents) shows that GWP increases with temperature. However, under environmental conditions generally occurring in South Swedish ponds, i.e. low temperature and high NO(3)(-) concentration during spring and high temperature and low NO(3)(-) concentration during summer, NO(3)(-) concentration is of minor importance.

  19. Land, irrigation water, greenhouse gas, and reactive nitrogen burdens of meat, eggs, and dairy production in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Eshel, Gidon; Shepon, Alon; Makov, Tamar; Milo, Ron

    2014-01-01

    Livestock production impacts air and water quality, ocean health, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions on regional to global scales and it is the largest use of land globally. Quantifying the environmental impacts of the various livestock categories, mostly arising from feed production, is thus a grand challenge of sustainability science. Here, we quantify land, irrigation water, and reactive nitrogen (Nr) impacts due to feed production, and recast published full life cycle GHG emission estimates, for each of the major animal-based categories in the US diet. Our calculations reveal that the environmental costs per consumed calorie of dairy, poultry, pork, and eggs are mutually comparable (to within a factor of 2), but strikingly lower than the impacts of beef. Beef production requires 28, 11, 5, and 6 times more land, irrigation water, GHG, and Nr, respectively, than the average of the other livestock categories. Preliminary analysis of three staple plant foods shows two- to sixfold lower land, GHG, and Nr requirements than those of the nonbeef animal-derived calories, whereas irrigation requirements are comparable. Our analysis is based on the best data currently available, but follow-up studies are necessary to improve parameter estimates and fill remaining knowledge gaps. Data imperfections notwithstanding, the key conclusion—that beef production demands about 1 order of magnitude more resources than alternative livestock categories—is robust under existing uncertainties. The study thus elucidates the multiple environmental benefits of potential, easy-to-implement dietary changes, and highlights the uniquely high resource demands of beef. PMID:25049416

  20. Greenhouse Gas Production From a Young Boreal Hydroelectric Reservoir (Eastern Canada): A Carbon Isotope Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalonde, A.; Helie, J.

    2007-12-01

    It is now accepted that boreal hydroelectric reservoirs and lakes produce greenhouse gases (GHG) mainly in the form of CO2. Much of the research has so far focused on old (> 20 year) reservoirs. However, the problems associated with a newly flooded reservoir are different because after flooding, salts and nutrients from the flooded soils are released into the water column (i.e. the reservoir's effect). It is anticipated that the CO2 fluxes should be higher in young reservoirs than in older ones, but little is known about their magnitude and their sources. The Eastmain-1 hydroelectric reservoir is a small reservoir of 603 km2 with a mean depth of 11.5m. Flooding began in November 2005 and ended in May 2006. The flooded area was covered with approximately 65% boreal forests, 21% rivers and lakes and 14% peatlands. Here, we make use stable carbon isotopes to constrain carbon sources and cycling in this disturbed environment. Ultimately, the study aims at estimating annual CO2 fluxes at the water-air interface of the reservoir. Sampling was performed four times (June 2006, August 2006, October 2006 and June 2007) to account for seasonality of the carbon cycle. Twelve sites were visited on the reservoir as well as a natural lake near the reservoir. Three sites were also sampled along a depth gradient. At each sampling site, in situ measurements included water and air temperatures, pH, alkalinity, wind speed, conductivity and dissolved oxygen content. Samples were collected for the analysis of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (respectively DOC and DIC) and particulate organic carbon (POC) concentrations, for the analysis of the carbon isotopic compositions of DOC, DIC, POC and air CO2 at the water-air interface and finally for the C:N of DOM and POM. DOC concentrations are highest averaging 6.86±1.40 mg*l-1, DIC concentrations average 1.51±0.76 mg*l-1 and POC concentrations are up to 2 orders of magnitude lower averaging 0.036±0.018 mg*l-1. δ13C values of DOC

  1. Electron acceptor-based regulation of microbial greenhouse gas production from thawing permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bak, Ebbe; Jones, Eleanor; Yde, Jacob; Hodson, Andy; Mallon, Gunnar; Fisnter, Kai

    2017-04-01

    Permafrost contains about 35% of the global soil organic carbon (0-3 m depth). As a consequence of global warming, the active layer thickness is steadily increasing and its organic carbon is becoming available for degradation, causing a concomitant release of CO2 and CH4. The climate forcing feedbacks of permafrost thaw are determined by the rate of organic carbon degradation and to which degree it is released as CO2 or CH4. Methane is produced under anoxic conditions, but the factors that regulate its production are poorly constrained. In this study, we investigate how CH4 production is influenced by the presence of competing anaerobic processes with focus on the role of iron and sulfate reduction. We have collected permafrost cores to 2.2 meters depth from three different lowland sites in Adventdalen on Svalbard. From these cores, we have prepared anoxic batch incubation for each 25 cm depth interval and followed the production of CO2 and CH4 as well as the iron and sulfate reduction. This approach allows us to monitor the rate of the CO2 and CH4 production as well as to investigate the correlation between CH4 production and competing anaerobic respiration processes in the active layer as well in the permafrost. These investigations are accompanied by characterization of the carbon, iron and sulfate content in the soil and will be followed by characterization of the microbial community structure. The aim of this study is to get a better understanding of how the availability of sulfate and iron and the microbial community structure regulate the production of CO2 and CH4 in thawing permafrost, and to elucidate how the rate of the organic carbon degradation changes with depth in permafrost-affected soils. This study improves our understanding of climate feedback mechanisms operating during permafrost thaw.

  2. The Contribution of Highly Productive but Leaky Wetlands to the Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Dynamics of sub-Saharan Africa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, Matthew; Kansiime, Frank; Jones, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The tropical wetlands of East Africa represent hotspots of carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange the dynamics of which vary across the site, landscape and regional scale. The wetlands of the Nile headwaters including Lake Victoria, the world's largest tropical lake, are dominated by the emergent macrophyte sedge Cyperus papyrus L. (papyrus), which under favourable environmental conditions has been shown to exhibit high rates of photosynthetic carbon dioxide assimilation (≥40 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1); high rates of net primary productivity (≥50 g DM m-2 d-1); and the accumulation of significant peat deposits resulting in carbon stocks (≥640 t C ha-1) that exceed similar estimates from tropical rainforests, often considered to be the primary land based reserve of carbon. However, while these wetlands represent significant carbon pools, they are inherently "leaky" systems due to the lateral loss of particulate and dissolved carbon and this has implications for riverine carbon and GHG emissions which have been shown to increase with wetland extent and upland biomass. This paper utilises a range of empirical and published information to report on the eco-physiological controls on carbon, water and GHG exchange in papyrus dominated wetlands and considers the contribution of these highly productive wetlands to the GHG dynamics of the inland waters of East Africa, and in particular the Lake Victoria basin and the headwaters of the river Nile.

  3. The Contribution of Highly Productive but Leaky Wetlands to the Carbon and Greenhouse Gas Dynamics of sub-Saharan Africa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, M. J.; Kansiime, F.; Jones, M. B.

    2015-12-01

    The tropical wetlands of East Africa represent hotspots of carbon and greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange the dynamics of which vary across the site, landscape and regional scale. The wetlands of the Nile headwaters including Lake Victoria, the world's largest tropical lake, are dominated by the emergent macrophyte sedge Cyperus papyrus L. (papyrus), which under favourable environmental conditions has been shown to exhibit high rates of photosynthetic carbon dioxide assimilation (≥40 µmol CO2 m-2 s-1); high rates of net primary productivity (≥50 g DM m-2 d-1); and the accumulation of significant peat deposits resulting in carbon stocks (≥640 t C ha-1) that exceed similar estimates from tropical rainforests, often considered to be the primary land based reserve of carbon. However, while these wetlands represent significant carbon pools, they are inherently "leaky" systems due to the lateral loss of particulate and dissolved carbon and this has implications for riverine carbon and GHG emissions which have been shown to increase with wetland extent and upland biomass. This paper utilises a range of empirical and published information to report on the eco-physiological controls on carbon, water and GHG exchange in papyrus dominated wetlands and considers the contribution of these highly productive wetlands to the GHG dynamics of the inland waters of East Africa, and in particular the Lake Victoria basin and the headwaters of the river Nile.

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emission from Corn Rotations and Perennial Grasses in Iowa Grown for Biofuel Production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The ideal bioenergy crop is characterized by high yield, low energy input, low nutrient requirements, low production cost, and composition with minimal contaminants. Perennial grasses show better efficiency, higher biomass yield, and lower energy input and nutrient requirements than continuous corn ...

  5. Evaluation of greenhouse gas emissions in relation to irrigation methods and sustainable production in California orchard

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    California (CA) is one of the top agricultural production states in the United States of America (USA). Increasing water use efficiency and minimizing environmental impact are two of the major elements affecting sustainability of irrigated agriculture in CA. Field research has been conducted to eval...

  6. A comparison of disinfectants to prevent spread of potyviruses in greenhouse tomato production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Potyviruses, transmitted by a diverse array of common aphid species, infect a broad range of vegetable crops, and can be problematic in glasshouse tomato production. Once introduced, these viruses are believed to be transmitted plant-to-plant during pruning operations, and can infect large sections...

  7. The Impact of Region, Nitrogen Use Efficiency, and Grower Incentives on Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Canola (Brassica napus) Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammac, W. A.; Pan, W.; Koenig, R. T.; McCracken, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated through the second renewable fuel standard (RFS2) that biodiesel meet a minimum threshold requirement (50% reduction) for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction compared to fossil diesel. This designation is determined by life cycle assessment (LCA) and carries with it potential for monetary incentives for biodiesel feedstock growers (Biomass Crop Assistance Program) and biodiesel processors (Renewable Identification Numbers). A national LCA was carried out for canola (Brassica napus) biodiesel feedstock by the EPA and it did meet the minimum threshold requirement. However, EPA's national LCA does not provide insight into regional variation in GHG mitigation. The authors propose for full GHG reduction potential of biofuels to be realized, LCA results must have regional specificity and should inform incentives for growers and processors on a regional basis. The objectives of this work were to determine (1) variation in biofuel feedstock production related GHG emissions between three agroecological zones (AEZs) in eastern Washington State (2) the impact of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) on GHG mitigation potential for each AEZ and (3) the impact of incentives on adoption of oilseed production. Results from objective (1) revealed there is wide variability in range for GHG estimates both across and within AEZs based on variation in farming practices and environment. It is expected that results for objective (2) will show further GHG mitigation potential due to minimizing N use and therefore fertilizer transport and soil related GHG emission while potentially increasing biodiesel production per hectare. Regional based incentives may allow more timely achievement of goals for bio-based fuels production. Additionally, incentives may further increase GHG offsetting by promoting nitrogen conserving best management practices implementation. This research highlights the need for regional assessment/incentive based

  8. Simulating oceanic CaCO3 export production in the greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinze, C.

    2004-08-01

    A model scenario for the change in global marine biogenic CaCO3 export production (CaCO3 = calcium carbonate) due to increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure is carried out. Findings from laboratory experiments, which suggest a decrease of biocalcification at higher pCO2, are extrapolated to the world ocean by use of the biogeochemical ocean general circulation model HAMOCC. For an A1B IPCC emission scenario and constant emission rates after year 2100, the simulation predicts a global decrease of biological CaCO3 export production by about 50% in year 2250. The negative feedback due to this drop in CaCO3 export on the atmospheric CO2 concentration is small as compared to the anthropogenic CO2 emissions. This negative feedback will potentially be compensated by a shallower remineralization of organic carbon.

  9. Green cheese: partial life cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions and energy intensity of integrated dairy production and bioenergy systems.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Villegas, H A; Passos-Fonseca, T H; Reinemann, D J; Armentano, L E; Wattiaux, M A; Cabrera, V E; Norman, J M; Larson, R

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of integrating dairy and bioenergy systems on land use, net energy intensity (NEI), and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. A reference dairy farm system representative of Wisconsin was compared with a system that produces dairy and bioenergy products. This integrated system investigates the effects at the farm level when the cow diet and manure management practices are varied. The diets evaluated were supplemented with varying amounts of dry distillers grains with solubles and soybean meal and were balanced with different types of forages. The manure-management scenarios included manure land application, which is the most common manure disposal method in Wisconsin, and manure anaerobic digestion (AD) to produce biogas. A partial life cycle assessment from cradle to farm gate was conducted, where the system boundaries were expanded to include the production of biofuels in the analysis and the environmental burdens between milk and bioenergy products were partitioned by system expansion. Milk was considered the primary product and the functional unit, with ethanol, biodiesel, and biogas considered co-products. The production of the co-products was scaled according to milk production to meet the dietary requirements of each selected dairy ration. Results indicated that land use was 1.6 m2, NEI was 3.86 MJ, and GHG emissions were 1.02 kg of CO2-equivalents per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) for the reference system. Within the integrated dairy and bioenergy system, diet scenarios that maximize dry distillers grains with solubles and implement AD had the largest reduction of GHG emissions and NEI, but the greatest increase in land use compared with the reference system. Average land use ranged from 1.68 to 2.01 m2/kg of FPCM; NEI ranged from -5.62 to -0.73 MJ/kg of FPCM; and GHG emissions ranged from 0.63 to 0.77 kg of CO2-equivalents/kg of FPCM. The AD contributed 65% of the NEI and 77% of the GHG

  10. Exploiting Co-Benefits of Increased Rice Production and Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emission through Optimized Crop and Soil Management.

    PubMed

    An, Ning; Fan, Mingsheng; Zhang, Fusuo; Christie, Peter; Yang, Jianchang; Huang, Jianliang; Guo, Shiwei; Shi, Xiaojun; Tang, Qiyuan; Peng, Jianwei; Zhong, Xuhua; Sun, Yixiang; Lv, Shihua; Jiang, Rongfeng; Dobermann, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Meeting the future food security challenge without further sacrificing environmental integrity requires transformative changes in managing the key biophysical determinants of increasing agronomic productivity and reducing the environmental footprint. Here, we focus on Chinese rice production and quantitatively address this concern by conducting 403 on-farm trials across diverse rice farming systems. Inherent soil productivity, management practices and rice farming type resulted in confounded and interactive effects on yield, yield gaps and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (N2O, CH4 and CO2-equivalent) with both trade-offs and compensating effects. Advances in nitrogen, water and crop management (Best Management Practices-BMPs) helped closing existing yield gaps and resulted in a substantial reduction in CO2-equivalent emission of rice farming despite a tradeoff of increase N2O emission. However, inherent soil properties limited rice yields to a larger extent than previously known. Cultivating inherently better soil also led to lower GHG intensity (GHG emissions per unit yield). Neither adopting BMPs only nor improving soils with low or moderate productivity alone can adequately address the challenge of substantially increasing rice production while reducing the environmental footprint. A combination of both represents the most efficient strategy to harness the combined-benefits of enhanced production and mitigating climate change. Extrapolating from our farm data, this strategy could increase rice production in China by 18%, which would meet the demand for direct human consumption of rice by 2030. It would also reduce fertilizer nitrogen consumption by 22% and decrease CO2-equivalent emissions during the rice growing period by 7% compared with current farming practice continues. Benefits vary by rice-based cropping systems. Single rice systems have the largest food provision benefits due to its wider yield gap and total cultivated area, whereas double-rice system

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Calf- and Yearling-Fed Beef Production Systems, With and Without the Use of Growth Promotants

    PubMed Central

    Basarab, John; Baron, Vern; López-Campos, Óscar; Aalhus, Jennifer; Haugen-Kozyra, Karen; Okine, Erasmus

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary A spring calving herd (~350 beef cows) over two production cycles was used to compare the whole-farm greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions among calf-fed vs. yearling-fed production systems, with and without growth implants. Farm GHG emissions initially included enteric CH4, manure CH4 and N2O, cropping N2O, and energy use CO2. The carbon footprint ranged from 19.9–22.5 kg CO2e per kg carcass weight. Including soil organic carbon loss from annual cropping and carbon sequestration from perennial pastures and haylands further reduced the carbon footprint by 11–16%. The carbon footprint of beef was reduced by growth promotants (4.9–5.1%) and by calf-fed beef production (6.3–7.5%). Abstract A spring calving herd consisting of about 350 beef cows, 14–16 breeding bulls, 60 replacement heifers and 112 steers were used to compare the whole-farm GHG emissions among calf-fed vs. yearling-fed production systems with and without growth implants. Carbon footprint ranged from 11.63 to 13.22 kg CO2e per kg live weight (19.87–22.52 kg CO2e per kg carcass weight). Enteric CH4 was the largest source of GHG emissions (53–54%), followed by manure N2O (20–22%), cropping N2O (11%), energy use CO2 (9–9.5%), and manure CH4 (4–6%). Beef cow accounted for 77% and 58% of the GHG emissions in the calf-fed and yearling-fed. Feeders accounted for the second highest GHG emissions (15% calf-fed; 35–36% yearling-fed). Implants reduced the carbon footprint by 4.9–5.1% compared with hormone-free. Calf-fed reduced the carbon footprint by 6.3–7.5% compared with yearling-fed. When expressed as kg CO2e per kg carcass weight per year the carbon footprint of calf-fed production was 73.9–76.1% lower than yearling-fed production, and calf-fed implanted was 85% lower than hormone-free yearling-fed. Reducing GHG emissions from beef production may be accomplished by improving the feed efficiency of the cow herd, decreasing the days on low quality feeds, and reducing the age

  12. Nutrient losses and greenhouse gas emissions from dairy production in China: Lessons learned from historical changes and regional differences.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nannan; Bai, Zhaohai; Luo, Jiafa; Ledgard, Stewart; Wu, Zhiguo; Ma, Lin

    2017-11-15

    The dairy industry in China was rapidly expanded and intensified from 1980 to 2010, engendering potential long-term impacts on the environment and natural resources. However, impacts of dairy intensification on nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were unknown. This study was undertaken to examine these relations using the NUtrient flows in Food chains, Environment and Resources use (NUFER)-dairy model. Results showed that milk yield increased by 64% from 1980 to 2010 on average, and the use of concentrate feeds increased by 57% associated with a shift of production from traditional and grassland systems to collective and industrialized systems. At herd level, the N use efficiency (NUE; conversion of N inputs to products) doubled from 7 to 15%, and the P use efficiency (PUE) increased from 10 to 17%, primarily resulting from increased milk yield per cow. In contrast, at the system level, NUE showed a small increase (from 10 to 15%, associated with reduced gaseous losses) while PUE decreased from 46 to 30% due to a large increase in manure discharges. This is attributed to decoupling of feed and dairy production, as the proportion of manure N and P recycled to cropland decreased by 52% and 54%, respectively. Despite this, the average total N loss decreased from 63 to 48gkg(-1) milk, and the average GHG emissions from 1.7 to 1.1kgCO2equivalentkg(-1) milk associated with increased per-cow productivity. However, average P loss increased from 1.4 to 2.8gPkg(-1) milk due to higher discharge rate to wastewater and landfill in collective and industrialized systems. Anyhow, average N and P losses exceeded levels in developed countries. There were large regional variations in nutrient use efficiency, nutrient losses and GHG emissions in China, largely determined by the dairy production structure. Average N losses and GHG emissions per unit of milk showed a negative correlation with production intensification based on the proportion of

  13. Exploiting Co-Benefits of Increased Rice Production and Reduced Greenhouse Gas Emission through Optimized Crop and Soil Management

    PubMed Central

    An, Ning; Fan, Mingsheng; Zhang, Fusuo; Christie, Peter; Yang, Jianchang; Huang, Jianliang; Guo, Shiwei; Shi, Xiaojun; Tang, Qiyuan; Peng, Jianwei; Zhong, Xuhua; Sun, Yixiang; Lv, Shihua; Jiang, Rongfeng; Dobermann, Achim

    2015-01-01

    Meeting the future food security challenge without further sacrificing environmental integrity requires transformative changes in managing the key biophysical determinants of increasing agronomic productivity and reducing the environmental footprint. Here, we focus on Chinese rice production and quantitatively address this concern by conducting 403 on-farm trials across diverse rice farming systems. Inherent soil productivity, management practices and rice farming type resulted in confounded and interactive effects on yield, yield gaps and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (N2O, CH4 and CO2-equivalent) with both trade-offs and compensating effects. Advances in nitrogen, water and crop management (Best Management Practices—BMPs) helped closing existing yield gaps and resulted in a substantial reduction in CO2-equivalent emission of rice farming despite a tradeoff of increase N2O emission. However, inherent soil properties limited rice yields to a larger extent than previously known. Cultivating inherently better soil also led to lower GHG intensity (GHG emissions per unit yield). Neither adopting BMPs only nor improving soils with low or moderate productivity alone can adequately address the challenge of substantially increasing rice production while reducing the environmental footprint. A combination of both represents the most efficient strategy to harness the combined-benefits of enhanced production and mitigating climate change. Extrapolating from our farm data, this strategy could increase rice production in China by 18%, which would meet the demand for direct human consumption of rice by 2030. It would also reduce fertilizer nitrogen consumption by 22% and decrease CO2-equivalent emissions during the rice growing period by 7% compared with current farming practice continues. Benefits vary by rice-based cropping systems. Single rice systems have the largest food provision benefits due to its wider yield gap and total cultivated area, whereas double-rice system

  14. Greenhouse gas emissions during plantation stage of palm oil-based biofuel production addressing different land conversion scenarios in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Kusin, Faradiella Mohd; Akhir, Nurul Izzati Mat; Mohamat-Yusuff, Ferdaus; Awang, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    The environmental impacts with regard to agro-based biofuel production have been associated with the impact of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, field GHG emissions during plantation stage of palm oil-based biofuel production associated with land use changes for oil palm plantation development have been evaluated. Three different sites of different land use changes prior to oil palm plantation were chosen; converted land-use (large and small-scales) and logged-over forest. Field sampling for determination of soil N-mineralisation and soil organic carbon (SOC) was undertaken at the sites according to the age of palm, i.e. <5 years (immature), 5-20 and >21 years (mature oil palms). The field data were incorporated into the estimation of nitrous oxide (N2O) and the resulting CO2-eq emissions as well as for estimation of carbon stock changes. Irrespective of the land conversion scenarios, the nitrous oxide emissions were found in the range of 6.47-7.78 kg N2O-N/ha resulting in 498-590 kg CO2-eq/ha. On the other hand, the conversion of tropical forest into oil palm plantation has resulted in relatively higher GHG emissions (i.e. four times higher and carbon stock reduction by >50%) compared to converted land use (converted rubber plantation) for oil palm development. The conversion from previously rubber plantation into oil palm plantation would increase the carbon savings (20% in increase) thus sustaining the environmental benefits from the palm oil-based biofuel production.

  15. The Greenhouse Gas Flux and Carbon Budget of Land Use Conversion from Pasture to Energy Cane Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, B.; Davis, S. C.; Parton, W. J.; Long, S. P.; DeLucia, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    The United States is committed to produce 140 billion liters of ethanol by 2022. To meet this goal, and mitigate concerns about the "fuel versus food" conundrum, there is a pressing need for a second generation of sustainable biofuel feedstocks. Energy cane is a high yield, cold-tolerant C4 grass that can be efficiently used to produce bio-ethanol via existing cellulo-lignosic conversion technologies. There is exciting promise for Energy cane as an ethanol feedstock, however the climate implications of large-scale land use change from pasture (a significant use of land in the Southeastern USA) to production of an energy grass has not been fully explored. Furthermore, the soil type on which Energy cane will be grown will likely have a significant impact on greenhouse gases (GHG). We use DAYCENT, a process based biogeochemical model, to forecast how land use change from pasture to Energy cane production influences ecosystem level GHG flux and soil carbon flux. Because Energy cane is not widely cultivated, we use the available sugar cane literature to validate our in silico experiments. DAYCENT simulations suggest that soil type and fertilization rates have a strong control on the GHG and soil C dynamics after changing land from pasture to Energy cane. Our model results show net losses of ecosystem level C when Energy cane is grown on Histosols (organic matter rich soils), and a net gain of ecosystem C when that crop is grown on Spodosols (sandy soils). Respired CO2, N2O and total GHG efflux is significantly higher on Histosols compared to Spodosols in cane production. We conclude that the soil type on which Energy cane is grown determines the climatic impact of changing a landscape from pasture to Energy cane, and the greatest long-term climate benefit comes from growing cane on Spodosols.

  16. Influence of Anthropogenic Nutrient Additions on Greenhouse Gas Production Rates at Water-soil Interfaces in an Urban Dominated Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigham, B. A.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Bird, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    The tidal Hudson River Estuary (HRE) receives significant inputs of readily dissolvable carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) from incomplete wastewater treatment and sewer overflow during storm events associated with NYC and other urban centers. Nutrient deposition may alter C utilization in the estuarine water column, associated sediments and surrounding wetlands. In these anaerobic systems, we hypothesize that microbial activity is limited by the availability of easily-degradable C (not electron acceptors), which acts as a co-metabolite and provides energy for organic matter decomposition. Sporadic transport of highly C enriched storm derived runoff may substantially enhance greenhouse gas (GHG) production rates through the utilization of stored C pools. To test our hypothesis carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) process rates (1) were evaluated from soil cores removed from three distinct HRE wetland sites (Saw Mill Creek, Piermont, and Iona Island Marsh(s)) across a salinity gradient and incubated under varying nutrient treatments. Further, CO2 and CH4 surface water effluxes (2) were quantified from multiple river cruises spanning two years at varying distance from nutrient sources associated with NYC. Incubation experiments from wetland soil core experiments demonstrated that readily degradable C but not inorganic N additions stimulated GHG production (200 - 350 ug C g-1 of dry soil day-1) threefold compared to negative controls. The HRE was found to be both a CO2 and CH4 source under all conditions. The greatest GHG efflux (300 - 3000 nmoles C m-2 day-1) was quantified in mid-channel, tributary, and near shore sites in close proximity to NYC which following precipitation events demonstrated 2-20X increased GHG efflux. These results demonstrate that anthropogenic C additions associated with dense urban centers have the potential to enhance anaerobic microbial degradation of organic matter and subsequent GHG production.

  17. Well-to-Wheels Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Canadian Oil Sands Products: Implications for U.S. Petroleum Fuels.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hao; Brandt, Adam R; Yeh, Sonia; Englander, Jacob G; Han, Jeongwoo; Elgowainy, Amgad; Wang, Michael Q

    2015-07-07

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) regulations affecting U.S. transportation fuels require holistic examination of the life-cycle emissions of U.S. petroleum feedstocks. With an expanded system boundary that included land disturbance-induced GHG emissions, we estimated well-to-wheels (WTW) GHG emissions of U.S. production of gasoline and diesel sourced from Canadian oil sands. Our analysis was based on detailed characterization of the energy intensities of 27 oil sands projects, representing industrial practices and technological advances since 2008. Four major oil sands production pathways were examined, including bitumen and synthetic crude oil (SCO) from both surface mining and in situ projects. Pathway-average GHG emissions from oil sands extraction, separation, and upgrading ranged from ∼6.1 to ∼27.3 g CO2 equivalents per megajoule (in lower heating value, CO2e/MJ). This range can be compared to ∼4.4 g CO2e/MJ for U.S. conventional crude oil recovery. Depending on the extraction technology and product type output of oil sands projects, the WTW GHG emissions for gasoline and diesel produced from bitumen and SCO in U.S. refineries were in the range of 100-115 and 99-117 g CO2e/MJ, respectively, representing, on average, about 18% and 21% higher emissions than those derived from U.S. conventional crudes. WTW GHG emissions of gasoline and diesel derived from diluted bitumen ranged from 97 to 103 and 96 to 104 g CO2e/MJ, respectively, showing the effect of diluent use on fuel emissions.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions and production cost of ethanol produced from biosyngas fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Roy, Poritosh; Dutta, Animesh; Deen, Bill

    2015-09-01

    Life cycle (LC) of ethanol has been evaluated to determine the environmental and economical viability of ethanol that was derived from biosyngas fermentation process (gasification-biosynthesis). Four scenarios [S1: untreated (raw), S2: treated (torrefied); S3: untreated-chemical looping gasification (CLG), S4: treated-CLG] were considered. The simulated biosyngas composition was used in this evaluation process. The GHG emissions and production cost varied from 1.19 to 1.32 kg-CO2 e/L and 0.78 to 0.90$/L, respectively, which were found to be dependent on the scenarios. The environmental and economical viability was found be improved when untreated feedstock was used instead of treated feedstock. Although the GHG emissions slightly reduced in the case of CLG process, production cost was nominally increased because of the cost incurred by the use of CaO. This study revealed that miscanthus is a promising feedstock for the ethanol industry, even if it is grown on marginal land, which can help abate GHG emissions.

  19. Developing and demonstrating low-energy climate control and production techniques for greenhouse-grown citrus and ornamental crops

    SciTech Connect

    Bodnaruk, W.H. Jr.

    1983-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and demonstrate low energy climate control and production techniques for greenhouse grown citrus and ornamental crops. Emphasis was placed on design, fuel efficiency and plant response to warm water soil heating systems using solar energy and LP gas. An energy requirement of 28Btus output per hour per square foot of bed space will provide soil temperature of 70/sup 0/F minimum when air temperatures are maintained at 60/sup 0/F. Soil heating to 70/sup 0/ increased rooting and growth of 8 foliage plant varieties by 25 to 45% compared to plants grown under 60/sup 0/F air temperature conditions. Providing soil heating, however, increased fuel consumption in the central Florida test facilities by 30% in the winters of 1980-81 and 1981-82. Solar tie-in to soil heating systems has the potential of reducing fuel usage. Solar heated water provided 4 hours of soil heating following a good collection day. Decreased in-bed pipe spacing and increased storage capacity should increase the solar percentage to 6 hours.

  20. Variability and uncertainty in life cycle assessment models for greenhouse gas emissions from Canadian oil sands production.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Adam R

    2012-01-17

    Because of interest in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from transportation fuels production, a number of recent life cycle assessment (LCA) studies have calculated GHG emissions from oil sands extraction, upgrading, and refining pathways. The results from these studies vary considerably. This paper reviews factors affecting energy consumption and GHG emissions from oil sands extraction. It then uses publicly available data to analyze the assumptions made in the LCA models to better understand the causes of variability in emissions estimates. It is found that the variation in oil sands GHG estimates is due to a variety of causes. In approximate order of importance, these are scope of modeling and choice of projects analyzed (e.g., specific projects vs industry averages); differences in assumed energy intensities of extraction and upgrading; differences in the fuel mix assumptions; treatment of secondary noncombustion emissions sources, such as venting, flaring, and fugitive emissions; and treatment of ecological emissions sources, such as land-use change-associated emissions. The GHGenius model is recommended as the LCA model that is most congruent with reported industry average data. GHGenius also has the most comprehensive system boundaries. Last, remaining uncertainties and future research needs are discussed.

  1. Effects of disease control by fungicides on greenhouse gas emissions by U.K. arable crop production.

    PubMed

    Hughes, David J; West, Jonathan S; Atkins, Simon D; Gladders, Peter; Jeger, Michael J; Fitt, Bruce Dl

    2011-09-01

    The U.K. government has published plans to reduce U.K. agriculture's greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. At the same time, the goal of global food security requires an increase in arable crop yields. Foliar disease control measures such as fungicides have an important role in meeting both objectives. It is estimated that U.K. winter barley production is associated with GHG emissions of 2770 kg CO2 eq. ha(-1) of crop and 355 kg CO2 eq. t(-1) of grain. Foliar disease control by fungicides is associated with decreases in GHG emissions of 42-60 kg CO2 eq. t(-1) in U.K. winter barley and 29-39 kg CO2 eq. t(-1) in U.K. spring barley. The sensitivity of these results to the impact of disease control on yield and to variant GHG emissions assumptions is presented. Fungicide treatment of the major U.K. arable crops is estimated to have directly decreased U.K. GHG emissions by over 1.5 Mt CO2 eq. in 2009. Crop disease control measures such as fungicide treatment reduce the GHG emissions associated with producing a tonne of grain. As national demand for food increases, greater yields as a result of disease control also decrease the need to convert land from non-arable to arable use, which further mitigates GHG emissions. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Establishing a regional nitrogen management approach to mitigate greenhouse gas emission intensity from intensive smallholder maize production.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Chen, Xinping; Cui, Zhenling; Zhang, Weifeng; Zhang, Fusuo

    2014-01-01

    The overuse of Nitrogen (N) fertilizers on smallholder farms in rapidly developing countries has increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and accelerated global N consumption over the past 20 years. In this study, a regional N management approach was developed based on the cost of the agricultural response to N application rates from 1,726 on-farm experiments to optimize N management across 12 agroecological subregions in the intensive Chinese smallholder maize belt. The grain yield and GHG emission intensity of this regional N management approach was investigated and compared to field-specific N management and farmers' practices. The regional N rate ranged from 150 to 219 kg N ha(-1) for the 12 agroecological subregions. Grain yields and GHG emission intensities were consistent with this regional N management approach compared to field-specific N management, which indicated that this regional N rate was close to the economically optimal N application. This regional N management approach, if widely adopted in China, could reduce N fertilizer use by more than 1.4 MT per year, increase maize production by 31.9 MT annually, and reduce annual GHG emissions by 18.6 MT. This regional N management approach can minimize net N losses and reduce GHG emission intensity from over- and underapplications, and therefore can also be used as a reference point for regional agricultural extension employees where soil and/or plant N monitoring is lacking.

  3. Establishing a Regional Nitrogen Management Approach to Mitigate Greenhouse Gas Emission Intensity from Intensive Smallholder Maize Production

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Liang; Chen, Xinping; Cui, Zhenling; Zhang, Weifeng; Zhang, Fusuo

    2014-01-01

    The overuse of Nitrogen (N) fertilizers on smallholder farms in rapidly developing countries has increased greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and accelerated global N consumption over the past 20 years. In this study, a regional N management approach was developed based on the cost of the agricultural response to N application rates from 1,726 on-farm experiments to optimize N management across 12 agroecological subregions in the intensive Chinese smallholder maize belt. The grain yield and GHG emission intensity of this regional N management approach was investigated and compared to field-specific N management and farmers' practices. The regional N rate ranged from 150 to 219 kg N ha−1 for the 12 agroecological subregions. Grain yields and GHG emission intensities were consistent with this regional N management approach compared to field-specific N management, which indicated that this regional N rate was close to the economically optimal N application. This regional N management approach, if widely adopted in China, could reduce N fertilizer use by more than 1.4 MT per year, increase maize production by 31.9 MT annually, and reduce annual GHG emissions by 18.6 MT. This regional N management approach can minimize net N losses and reduce GHG emission intensity from over- and underapplications, and therefore can also be used as a reference point for regional agricultural extension employees where soil and/or plant N monitoring is lacking. PMID:24875747

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions and reactive nitrogen releases from rice production with simultaneous incorporation of wheat straw and nitrogen fertilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Longlong; Xia, Yongqiu; Ma, Shutan; Wang, Jinyang; Wang, Shuwei; Zhou, Wei; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-08-01

    Impacts of simultaneous inputs of crop straw and nitrogen (N) fertilizer on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and N losses from rice production are not well understood. A 2-year field experiment was established in a rice-wheat cropping system in the Taihu Lake region (TLR) of China to evaluate the GHG intensity (GHGI) as well as reactive N intensity (NrI) of rice production with inputs of wheat straw and N fertilizer. The field experiment included five treatments of different N fertilization rates for rice production: 0 (RN0), 120 (RN120), 180 (RN180), 240 (RN240), and 300 kg N ha-1 (RN300, traditional N application rate in the TLR). Wheat straws were fully incorporated into soil before rice transplantation. The meta-analytic technique was employed to evaluate various Nr losses. Results showed that the response of rice yield to N rate successfully fitted a quadratic model, while N fertilization promoted Nr discharges exponentially (nitrous oxide emission, N leaching, and runoff) or linearly (ammonia volatilization). The GHGI of rice production ranged from 1.20 (RN240) to 1.61 kg CO2 equivalent (CO2 eq) kg-1 (RN0), while NrI varied from 2.14 (RN0) to 10.92 g N kg-1 (RN300). Methane (CH4) emission dominated the GHGI with a proportion of 70.2-88.6 % due to direct straw incorporation, while ammonia (NH3) volatilization dominated the NrI with proportion of 53.5-57.4 %. Damage costs to environment incurred by GHG and Nr releases from current rice production (RN300) accounted for 8.8 and 4.9 % of farmers' incomes, respectively. Cutting N application rate from 300 (traditional N rate) to 240 kg N ha-1 could improve rice yield and nitrogen use efficiency by 2.14 and 10.30 %, respectively, while simultaneously reducing GHGI by 13 %, NrI by 23 %, and total environmental costs by 16 %. Moreover, the reduction of 60 kg N ha-1 improved farmers' income by CNY 639 ha-1, which would provide them with an incentive to change the current N application rate. Our study suggests that GHG

  5. Deep Production Well for Geothermal Direct-Use Heating of A Large Commercial Greenhouse, Radium Springs, Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    James C. Witcher

    2002-01-02

    Expansion of a large commercial geothermally-heated greenhouse is underway and requires additional geothermal fluid production. This report discusses the results of a cost-shared U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and A.R. Masson, Inc. drilling project designed to construct a highly productive geothermal production well for expansion of the large commercial greenhouse at Radium Springs. The well should eliminate the potential for future thermal breakthrough from existing injection wells and the inducement of inflow from shallow cold water aquifers by geothermal production drawdown in the shallow reservoir. An 800 feet deep production well, Masson 36, was drilled on a US Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Geothermal Lease NM-3479 at Radium Springs adjacent to the A. R. Masson Radium Springs Farm commercial greenhouse 15 miles north of Las Cruces in Dona Ana County, New Mexico just west of Interstate 25 near the east bank of the Rio Grande. The area is in the Rio Grande rift, a tectonically-active region with high heat flow, and is one of the major geothermal provinces in the western United State.

  6. Testing the limits in a greenhouse ocean: Did low nitrogen availability limit marine productivity during the end-Triassic mass extinction?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoepfer, Shane D.; Algeo, Thomas J.; Ward, Peter D.; Williford, Kenneth H.; Haggart, James W.

    2016-10-01

    The end-Triassic mass extinction has been characterized as a 'greenhouse extinction', related to rapid atmospheric warming and associated changes in ocean circulation and oxygenation. The response of the marine nitrogen cycle to these oceanographic changes, and the extent to which mass extinction intervals represent a deviation in nitrogen cycling from other ice-free 'greenhouse' periods of Earth history, remain poorly understood. The well-studied Kennecott Point section in Haida Gwaii, British Columbia, Canada, was deposited in the open Panthalassic Ocean, and is used here as a test case to better understand changes in the nitrogen cycle and marine productivity from the pre-crisis greenhouse of the Rhaetian to the latest-Rhaetian crisis interval. We estimated marine productivity from the late Norian to the early Hettangian using TOC- and P-based paleoproductivity transform equations, and then compared these estimates to records of sedimentary nitrogen isotopes, redox-sensitive trace elements, and biomarker data. Major negative excursions in δ15N (to ≤ 0 ‰) correspond to periods of depressed marine productivity. During these episodes, the development of a stable pycnocline below the base of the photic zone suppressed vertical mixing and limited N availability in surface waters, leading to low productivity and increased nitrogen fixation, as well as ecological stresses in the photic zone. The subsequent shoaling of euxinic waters into the ocean surface layer was fatal for most Triassic marine fauna, although the introduction of regenerated NH4+ into the photic zone may have allowed phytoplankton productivity to recover. These results indicate that the open-ocean nitrogen cycle was influenced by climatic changes during the latest Triassic, despite having existed in a greenhouse state for over 50 million years previously, and that low N availability limited marine productivity for hundreds of thousands of years during the end-Triassic crisis.

  7. Rate of warming affects temperature sensitivity of anaerobic peat decomposition and greenhouse gas production.

    PubMed

    Sihi, Debjani; Inglett, Patrick W; Gerber, Stefan; Inglett, Kanika S

    2017-07-26

    Temperature sensitivity of anaerobic carbon mineralization in wetlands remains poorly represented in most climate models and is especially unconstrained for warmer subtropical and tropical systems which account for a large proportion of global methane emissions. Several studies of experimental warming have documented thermal acclimation of soil respiration involving adjustments in microbial physiology or carbon use efficiency (CUE), with an initial decline in CUE with warming followed by a partial recovery in CUE at a later stage. The variable CUE implies that the rate of warming may impact microbial acclimation and the rate of carbon-dioxide (CO2 ) and methane (CH4 ) production. Here, we assessed the effects of warming rate on the decomposition of subtropical peats, by applying either a large single-step (10°C within a day) or a slow ramping (0.1°C/day for 100 days) temperature increase. The extent of thermal acclimation was tested by monitoring CO2 and CH4 production, CUE, and microbial biomass. Total gaseous C loss, CUE, and MBC were greater in the slow (ramp) warming treatment. However, greater values of CH4 -C:CO2 -C ratios lead to a greater global warming potential in the fast (step) warming treatment. The effect of gradual warming on decomposition was more pronounced in recalcitrant and nutrient-limited soils. Stable carbon isotopes of CH4 and CO2 further indicated the possibility of different carbon processing pathways under the contrasting warming rates. Different responses in fast vs. slow warming treatment combined with different endpoints may indicate alternate pathways with long-term consequences. Incorporations of experimental results into organic matter decomposition models suggest that parameter uncertainties in CUE and CH4 -C:CO2 -C ratios have a larger impact on long-term soil organic carbon and global warming potential than uncertainty in model structure, and shows that particular rates of warming are central to understand the response of

  8. The effect on climate change impacts for building products when including the timing of greenhouse gas emissions

    Treesearch

    Richard D Bergman

    2012-01-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs) trap infrared radiation emitting from the Earth’s surface to generate the “greenhouse effect” thus keeping the planet warm. Many natural activities including rotting vegetation emit GHGs such as carbon dioxide to produce this natural affect. However, in the last 200 years or so, human activity has increased the atmospheric concentrations of GHGs...

  9. Space and time variability of heating requirements for greenhouse tomato production in the Euro-Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Luigi; Cola, Gabriele; Bulgari, Roberta; Ferrante, Antonio; Martinetti, Livia

    2016-08-15

    The Euro-Mediterranean area is the seat of a relevant greenhouse activity, meeting the needs of important markets. A quantitative assessment of greenhouse energy consumption and of its variability in space and time is an important decision support tool for both greenhouse-sector policies and farmers. A mathematical model of greenhouse energy balance was developed and parameterized for a state-of-the-art greenhouse to evaluate the heating requirements for vegetables growing. Tomato was adopted as reference crop, due to its high energy requirement for fruit setting and ripening and its economic relevance. In order to gain a proper description of the Euro-Mediterranean area, 56 greenhouse areas located within the ranges 28°N-72°N and 11°W-55°E were analyzed over the period 1973-2014. Moreover, the two 1973-1987 and 1988-2014 sub-periods were separately studied to describe climate change effects on energy consumption. Results account for the spatial variability of energy needs for tomato growing, highlighting the strong influence of latitude on the magnitude of heat requirements. The comparison between the two selected sub-periods shows a decrease of energy demand in the current warm phase, more relevant for high latitudes. Finally, suggestions to reduce energy consumptions are provided.

  10. Determination and evaluation of heavy metals in soils under two different greenhouse vegetable production systems in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Kang; Hu, Wenyou; Xing, Zhe; Huang, Biao; Jia, Mengmeng; Wan, Mengxue

    2016-12-01

    The evaluation of heavy metals (HMs) in greenhouse soils is crucial for both environmental monitoring and human health; thus, it is imperative to determine their concentrations, identify their sources and assess their potential risks. In this study, eight metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in 167 surface soils were investigated in two representative greenhouse vegetable systems of China: perennial solar greenhouse (SG) and seasonal plastic greenhouse (PG). The results indicated accumulations of Cd, Cu, Hg and Zn in the SG soils and Cd, Pb, Hg and Zn in the PG soils, with higher concentrations than the background values. In particular, Cd and Hg exhibited high levels of pollution under both GVP systems due to their positive Igeo values. Principle component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis suggested that Cd, Cu, Hg and Zn in the SG soils and Cd, Hg and Zn in the PG soils were mainly related to intensive farming practices; Pb in the PG soils was significantly affected by atmospheric deposition. The results showed that soil characteristics, in particular soil organic matter, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, exerted significant influence on Hg, Cu, Cd, and Zn under the SG system. However, the HMs in the PG soils were weakly affected by soil properties. Overall, this study provides comparative research on the accumulation, potential risks and sources of HMs in two typical greenhouse soils in China, and our findings suggest that, Cd and Hg in both greenhouse soils could potentially represent environmental problems.

  11. The Impacts of Thawing and Rewetting Cycles on Greenhouse Gas Production in Wetland Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eden, V.; Schade, J. D.

    2016-12-01

    Climate models predict longer periods of drought followed by intense precipitation, which will have an impact on the expansion and contraction of saturated soils and the extent of anoxic zones near wetlands. Climate models also predict reductions in snowpack which may increase soil freeze thaw cycles. These changes in soil conditions will impact microbial activities. To investigate these processes, we collected soils from saturated, seasonally saturated (SS), and dry areas of a wetland in central Minnesota. We simulated freeze/thaw cycles (FT), dry/rewet (DR), and combination of the two (FTDR) in anoxic incubations of soils from three different positions along a soil moisture gradient for 8-weeks. We also measured soil moisture and organic matter and extracellular enzyme activities of these soils to assess resource use by microbes. Results showed that N2O emissions were high in each area over the first week, suggesting that initially denitrifiers outcompeted methanogens for SOM. The SS soils produced especially high levels of N2O. N-acquiring enzymes involved in the breakdown of plant litter were found to be produced at a lower rate in all treatments of this zone when compared to the others, which indicates that those microbes were less nitrogen limited. CH4 emissions were low during the first two weeks in the control, DR, and FTDR treatments, but significantly higher in the FT treatment, suggesting that this cycle stimulates methanogenesis. This pattern continued in dry soils through the course of the incubation process, which could be the methanogens' reaction to a greater amount of saturation than normal. Enzyme analyses showed that enzymes involved in carbon acquisition were produced at the highest rate in FT treatment in dry soils, suggesting methanogens were carbon limited. Our results suggest that increasing the frequency of FT cycles could lead to higher methane production when wetland soils are saturated, which represents a potential positive feedback on

  12. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. and international estimates of greenhouse gas emissions: Carbon dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Nitrous oxide (N2O) Industrial ... From Outlook for Future Emissions FAQs How much carbon dioxide is produced when different fuels are burned? — ...

  13. Greenhouse gas fluxes and root productivity in a switchgrass and loblolly pine intercropping system for bioenergy production

    Treesearch

    Paliza Shrestha; John R. Seiler; Brian D. Strahm; Eric B. Sucre; Zakiya H. Leggett

    2015-01-01

    This study is part of a larger collaborative effort to determine the overall environmental sustainability of intercropping pine (Pinus taeda L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.), both of which are promising feedstock for bioenergy production in the Lower Coastal Plain in North Carolina.

  14. Vapour pressure deficit control in relation to water transport and water productivity in greenhouse tomato production during summer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Dalong; Du, Qingjie; Zhang, Zhi; Jiao, Xiaocong; Song, Xiaoming; Li, Jianming

    2017-01-01

    Although atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) has been widely recognized as the evaporative driving force for water transport, the potential to reduce plant water consumption and improve water productivity by regulating VPD is highly uncertain. To bridge this gap, water transport in combination with plant productivity was examined in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants grown under contrasting VPD gradients. The driving force for water transport was substantially reduced in low-VPD treatment, which consequently decreased water loss rate and moderated plant water stress: leaf desiccation, hydraulic limitation and excessive negative water potential were prevented by maintaining water balance. Alleviation in water stress by reducing VPD sustained stomatal function and photosynthesis, with concomitant improvements in biomass and fruit production. From physiological perspectives, suppression of the driving force and water flow rate substantially reduced cumulative transpiration by 19.9%. In accordance with physiological principles, irrigation water use efficiency as criterions of biomass and fruit yield in low-VPD treatment was significantly increased by 36.8% and 39.1%, respectively. The reduction in irrigation was counterbalanced by input of fogging water to some extent. Net water saving can be increased by enabling greater planting densities and improving the evaporative efficiency of the mechanical system. PMID:28266524

  15. Vapour pressure deficit control in relation to water transport and water productivity in greenhouse tomato production during summer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dalong; Du, Qingjie; Zhang, Zhi; Jiao, Xiaocong; Song, Xiaoming; Li, Jianming

    2017-03-07

    Although atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) has been widely recognized as the evaporative driving force for water transport, the potential to reduce plant water consumption and improve water productivity by regulating VPD is highly uncertain. To bridge this gap, water transport in combination with plant productivity was examined in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants grown under contrasting VPD gradients. The driving force for water transport was substantially reduced in low-VPD treatment, which consequently decreased water loss rate and moderated plant water stress: leaf desiccation, hydraulic limitation and excessive negative water potential were prevented by maintaining water balance. Alleviation in water stress by reducing VPD sustained stomatal function and photosynthesis, with concomitant improvements in biomass and fruit production. From physiological perspectives, suppression of the driving force and water flow rate substantially reduced cumulative transpiration by 19.9%. In accordance with physiological principles, irrigation water use efficiency as criterions of biomass and fruit yield in low-VPD treatment was significantly increased by 36.8% and 39.1%, respectively. The reduction in irrigation was counterbalanced by input of fogging water to some extent. Net water saving can be increased by enabling greater planting densities and improving the evaporative efficiency of the mechanical system.

  16. Life-cycle assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy production in Eastern Canada: a case study.

    PubMed

    Mc Geough, E J; Little, S M; Janzen, H H; McAllister, T A; McGinn, S M; Beauchemin, K A

    2012-09-01

    The objective of this study was to conduct a life-cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a typical nongrazing dairy production system in Eastern Canada. Additionally, as dairying generates both milk and meat, this study assessed several methods of allocating emissions between these coproducts. An LCA was carried out for a simulated farm based on a typical nongrazing dairy production system in Quebec. The LCA was conducted over 6 yr, the typical lifespan of dairy cows in this province. The assessment considered 65 female Holstein calves, of which 60 heifers survived to first calving at 27 mo of age. These animals were subsequently retained for an average of 2.75 lactations. Progeny were also included in the analysis, with bulls and heifers in excess of replacement requirements finished as grain-fed veal (270 kg) at 6.5 mo of age. All cattle were housed indoors and fed forages and grains produced on the same farm. Pre-farm gate GHG emissions and removals were quantified using Holos, a whole-farm software model developed by Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada and based on the Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change Tier 2 and 3methodologies with modifications for Canadian conditions. The LCA yielded a GHG intensity of 0.92 kg of CO(2) Eq/kg of fat- and protein-corrected milk yield. Methane (CH(4)) accounted for 56% of total emissions, with 86% originating from enteric fermentation. Nitrous oxide accounted for 40% of total GHG emissions. Lactating cows contributed 64% of total GHG emissions, whereas calves under 12 mo contributed 10% and veal calves only 3%. Allocation of GHG emissions between meat and milk were assessed as (1) 100% allocation to milk, (2) economics, (3) dairy versus veal animals, and (4) International Dairy Federation equation using feed energy demand for meat and milk production. Comparing emissions from dairy versus veal calves resulted in 97% of the emissions allocated to milk. The lowest allocation of emissions to milk (78

  17. Combined Effect of Management Intensity and Climate Change on the Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Balance of Montane Grassland Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diaz-Pines, E.; Lu, H.; Ralf, K.; Wang, N.; Fu, J.; Gasche, R.; Wolf, B.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.; Dannenmann, M.

    2016-12-01

    Montane grasslands cover large areas in Central Europe and are of high economic importance. Intense management regimes are common i.e. high rates of fertilization and frequent cuttings to promote high yields. Understanding the consequences of grassland management on the greenhouse gas balance and productivity is crucial, especially in view of the anticipated climate change, which is likely to alter the environmental conditions and consequently the ecosystem biogeochemistry. In this context, the TERENO (www.tereno.net) Bavarian Alps / Prealps Observatory encompasses three sites within an elevational gradient (860, 700, 600 m a.s.l), with large intact lysimeters (1m²; 1.4m height) under control and simulated climate change conditions, combined with extensive and intensive grassland management. In-situ and laboratory measurements of plant productivity, soil emissions of N2O, NH3, N2, CO2 and CH4 as well as N leaching are conducted since 2012. Manure application rates were 250-350 kg N ha-1 a-1 in the intensive management, resulting in higher grass yields than in the extensive treatment, which was fertilized at a lower rates of 60-120 kg N ha-1 a-1. On the contrary, mean annual soil N2O emissions were not different between intensive and extensive management. High plant N uptake and dominance of N2 over N2O emissions during denitrification explained the observed low soil N2O fluxes. Overall, N2O emissions are short-lived and characterized by pulses after frost-thaw, precipitation and fertilization events. Soil N outputs were dominated by plant export and outbalanced the N inputs through fertilization and N deposition, so that a substantial soil N mineralization was needed to close the grassland N balance. Intensive management substantially reduced this soil N gap, suggesting that high fertilization loads are needed not only to sustain productivity rates but also to prevent soil C and N mining. Simulated climate change slightly enhanced N2O emissions after fertilization

  18. Paludiculture as a chance for peatland and climate: the greenhouse gas balance of biomass production on two rewetted peatlands does not differ from the natural state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Günther, Anke; Huth, Vytas; Jurasinski, Gerald; Albrecht, Kerstin; Glatzel, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    In Europe, rising prices for farm land make it increasingly difficult for government administrations to compete with external investors during the acquisition of land for wetland conservation. Thus, adding economic value to these, otherwise "lost", areas by combining extensive land use with nature conservation efforts could increase the amount of ground available for wetland restoration. Against this background, the concept of paludiculture aims to provide biomass for multiple purposes from peatlands with water tables high enough to conserve the peat body. However, as plants have been shown to contribute to greenhouse gas exchange in peatlands, manipulating the vegetation (by harvesting, sowing etc.) might alter the effect of the restored peatlands on climate. Here, we present greenhouse gas data from two experimental paludiculture systems on formerly drained intensive grasslands in northern Germany. In a fen that has been rewetted more than 15 years ago three species of reed plants were harvested to simulate biomass production for bioenergy and as construction material. And in a peat bog that has been converted from drained grassland to a field with a controlled water table around ground surface Sphagnum mosses were cultivated to provide an alternative growing substrate for horticulture. In both systems, we determined carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide exchange using closed chambers over two years. Additionally, water and peat chemistry and environmental parameters as recorded by a weather station were analyzed. Both restored peatlands show greenhouse gas balances comparable to those of natural ecosystems. Nitrous oxide was not emitted in either system. Fluctuations of the emissions reflect changes in weather conditions across the study years. In the fen, relative emission patterns between plant species were not constant over time. We did not find a negative short-term effect of biomass harvest or Sphagnum cultivation on net greenhouse gas balances

  19. Effects of N and P fertilisation on greenhouse gas (GHG) production in floodplain fen peat: A microcosm fertilisation experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanley, Kieran; Heppell, Catherine; Belyea, Lisa; Baird, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Biogeochemical and hydrological cycles are being significantly perturbed by anthropic activities altering atmospheric mole fractions of greenhouse gases (GHG) and increasing global temperatures. With the intensification of the hydrological cycle, lowland areas, such as floodplain fens, may be inundated more frequently. Rivers in agricultural catchments have the potential to pollute floodplain fens with significant amounts of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P); however, the effects of short-term (< 15 days) N and P fertilisation via fluvial inundation on GHG emissions from floodplain fens are poorly understood. The aim of this research was to determine how N (51 mg L-1 NO3-N) and P (1.4 mg L-1 PO43--P) additions may alter GHG (CO2, CH4, and N2O) production in floodplain fens of contrasting nutrient status under anaerobic conditions. A five-level (control, glucose (G), N+G, P+G, and N+P+G), fully-factorial microcosm experiment was designed and undertaken in Spring 2013 with peat from two floodplain fens under conservation management with similar vegetation (from Norfolk, United Kingdom). One site receives a higher nutrient load than the other and has a historical legacy of higher N and P contents within the peat. Results from the experiment showed no significant difference in CO2 production between the control and fertilised treatments from 0 to 96 hours, but a significant difference between treatments (ANCOVA, between factors: treatment and site; covariate: time; F4,419 = 11.844, p < 0.001) and site (F1,149 = 5.721, p = 0.017) from 96 hours to in the end of the experiment due to fermentation. N2O production only occurred in samples fertilised with N (N+G and N+P+G) due to denitrification. Rates of N2O production were significantly greater in samples from the lower-nutrient site in comparison to the nutrient-rich site (t12= 6.539, p < 0.001 and t12= 7.273, p < 0.001 for N+G and N+P+G fertilised samples, respectively). Fertilisation with N and P had different effects on

  20. Life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of production of bioethanol from sorghum in the United States.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hao; Dunn, Jennifer B; Wang, Zhichao; Han, Jeongwoo; Wang, Michael Q

    2013-10-02

    The availability of feedstock options is a key to meeting the volumetric requirement of 136.3 billion liters of renewable fuels per year beginning in 2022, as required in the US 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of sorghum-based ethanol need to be assessed for sorghum to play a role in meeting that requirement. Multiple sorghum-based ethanol production pathways show diverse well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use and GHG emissions due to differences in energy use and fertilizer use intensity associated with sorghum growth and differences in the ethanol conversion processes. All sorghum-based ethanol pathways can achieve significant fossil energy savings. Relative to GHG emissions from conventional gasoline, grain sorghum-based ethanol can reduce WTW GHG emissions by 35% or 23%, respectively, when wet or dried distillers grains with solubles (DGS) is the co-product and fossil natural gas (FNG) is consumed as the process fuel. The reduction increased to 56% or 55%, respectively, for wet or dried DGS co-production when renewable natural gas (RNG) from anaerobic digestion of animal waste is used as the process fuel. These results do not include land-use change (LUC) GHG emissions, which we take as negligible. If LUC GHG emissions for grain sorghum ethanol as estimated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are included (26 g CO2e/MJ), these reductions when wet DGS is co-produced decrease to 7% or 29% when FNG or RNG is used as the process fuel. Sweet sorghum-based ethanol can reduce GHG emissions by 71% or 72% without or with use of co-produced vinasse as farm fertilizer, respectively, in ethanol plants using only sugar juice to produce ethanol. If both sugar and cellulosic bagasse were used in the future for ethanol production, an ethanol plant with a combined heat and power (CHP) system that supplies all process energy can achieve a GHG emission reduction of 70% or 72%, respectively, without or with vinasse

  1. Life-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas emissions of production of bioethanol from sorghum in the United States

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The availability of feedstock options is a key to meeting the volumetric requirement of 136.3 billion liters of renewable fuels per year beginning in 2022, as required in the US 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act. Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of sorghum-based ethanol need to be assessed for sorghum to play a role in meeting that requirement. Results Multiple sorghum-based ethanol production pathways show diverse well-to-wheels (WTW) energy use and GHG emissions due to differences in energy use and fertilizer use intensity associated with sorghum growth and differences in the ethanol conversion processes. All sorghum-based ethanol pathways can achieve significant fossil energy savings. Relative to GHG emissions from conventional gasoline, grain sorghum-based ethanol can reduce WTW GHG emissions by 35% or 23%, respectively, when wet or dried distillers grains with solubles (DGS) is the co-product and fossil natural gas (FNG) is consumed as the process fuel. The reduction increased to 56% or 55%, respectively, for wet or dried DGS co-production when renewable natural gas (RNG) from anaerobic digestion of animal waste is used as the process fuel. These results do not include land-use change (LUC) GHG emissions, which we take as negligible. If LUC GHG emissions for grain sorghum ethanol as estimated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) are included (26 g CO2e/MJ), these reductions when wet DGS is co-produced decrease to 7% or 29% when FNG or RNG is used as the process fuel. Sweet sorghum-based ethanol can reduce GHG emissions by 71% or 72% without or with use of co-produced vinasse as farm fertilizer, respectively, in ethanol plants using only sugar juice to produce ethanol. If both sugar and cellulosic bagasse were used in the future for ethanol production, an ethanol plant with a combined heat and power (CHP) system that supplies all process energy can achieve a GHG emission reduction of 70% or 72%, respectively, without or

  2. Sorghum production under future climate in the Southwestern USA: model projections of yield, greenhouse gas emissions and soil C fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duval, B.; Ghimire, R.; Hartman, M. D.; Marsalis, M.

    2016-12-01

    Large tracts of semi-arid land in the Southwestern USA are relatively less important for food production than the US Corn Belt, and represent a promising area for expansion of biofuel/bioproduct crops. However, high temperatures, low available water and high solar radiation in the SW represent a challenge to suitable feedstock development, and future climate change scenarios predict that portions of the SW will experience increased temperature and temporal shifts in precipitation distribution. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) is a valuable forage crop with promise as a biofuel feedstock, given its high biomass under semi-arid conditions, relatively lower N fertilizer requirements compared to corn, and salinity tolerance. To evaluate the environmental impact of expanded sorghum cultivation under future climate in the SW USA, we used the DayCent model in concert with a suite of downscaled future weather projections to predict biogeochemical consequences (greenhouse gas flux and impacts on soil carbon) of sorghum cultivation in New Mexico. The model showed good correspondence with yield data from field trials including both dryland and irrigated sorghum (measured vs. modeled; r2 = 0.75). Simulation experiments tested the effect of dryland production versus irrigation, low N versus high N inputs and delayed fertilizer application. Nitrogen application timing and irrigation impacted yield and N2O emissions less than N rate and climate. Across N and irrigation treatments, future climate simulations resulted in 6% increased yield and 20% lower N2O emissions compared to current climate. Soil C pools declined under future climate. The greatest declines in soil C were from low N input sorghum simulations, regardless of irrigation (>20% declines in SOM in both cases), and requires further evaluation to determine if changing future climate is driving these declines, or if they are a function of prolonged sorghum-fallow rotations in the model. The relatively small gain in yield for

  3. Climate science: Agricultural greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Chris

    2011-05-01

    Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture is important and achievable. However, cutting emissions to meet the UK's legal targets for 2050 will bring technical and political challenges, and may affect food production.

  4. Life cycle energy and greenhouse gas profile of a process for the production of ammonium sulfate from nitrogen-fixing photosynthetic cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Razon, Luis F

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, an alternative means for nitrogen fixation that may consume less energy and release less greenhouse gases than the Haber-Bosch process is explored. A life-cycle assessment was conducted on a process to: culture the cyanobacterium, Anabaena sp. ATCC 33047, in open ponds; harvest the biomass and exopolysaccharides and convert these to biogas; strip and convert the ammonia from the biogas residue to ammonium sulfate; dry the ammonium sulfate solution to ammonium sulfate crystals and transport the finished product. The results suggest that substantial reductions in non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions may be realized. The study opens the possibility that Haber-Bosch ammonia may be replaced with ammonia from a biomass process which simultaneously generates renewable energy. The process is intrinsically safer than the Haber-Bosch process. However, there are trade-offs in terms of land use and possibly, water.

  5. DayCent model simulations for estimating soil carbon dynamics and greenhouse gas fluxes from agricultural production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    DayCent is a biogeochemical model of intermediate complexity used to simulate carbon, nutrient, and greenhouse gas fluxes for crop, grassland, forest, and savanna ecosystems. Model inputs include: soil texture and hydraulic properties, current and historical land use, vegetation cover, daily maximum...

  6. Soil greenhouse gas emissions and carbon dynamics of a no-till, corn-based cellulosic ethanol production system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crop residues like corn stover perform important functions that promote soil health and provide ecosystem services that influence agricultural sustainability and global biogeochemical cycles. We evaluated the effect of corn residue removal from a no-till, corn-soybean rotation on greenhouse gas (GHG...

  7. Changes in net ecosystem productivity and greenhouse gas exchange with fertilization of Douglas fir: Mathematical modeling in ecosys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, R. F.; Black, T. A.; Jassal, R. S.; Bruemmer, C.

    2010-12-01

    The application of nitrogen fertilizers to Douglas fir forests is known to raise net ecosystem productivity (NEP), but also N2O emissions, the CO2 equivalent of which may offset gains in NEP when accounting for net greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange. However, total changes in NEP and N2O emissions caused by fertilizer between times of application and harvest, while needed for national GHG inventories, are difficult to quantify except through modeling. In this study, integrated hypotheses for soil and plant N processes within the ecosystem model ecosys were tested against changes in CO2 and N2O fluxes recorded with eddy covariance (EC) and surface flux chambers for 1 year after applying 20 g N m-2 of urea to a mature Douglas fir stand in British Columbia. Parameters from annual regressions of hourly modeled versus measured CO2 fluxes conducted before and after fertilization were unchanged (b = 1.0, R2 = 0.8, RMSD = 3.4 μmol m-2 s-1), indicating that model hypotheses for soil and plant N processes did not introduce bias into CO2 fluxes modeled after fertilization. These model hypotheses were then used to project changes in NEP and GHG exchange attributed to the fertilizer during the following 10 years until likely harvest of the Douglas fir stand. Increased CO2 uptake caused modeled and EC-derived annual NEP to rise from 443 and 386 g C m-2 in the year before fertilization to 591 and 547 g C m-2 in the year after. These gains contributed to a sustained rise in modeled wood C production with fertilization, which was partly offset by a decline in soil C attributed in the model to reduced root C productivity and litterfall. Gains in net CO2 uptake were further offset in the model by a rise of 0.74 g N m-2 yr-1 in N2O emissions during the first year after fertilization, which was consistent with one of 1.05 g N m-2 yr-1 estimated from surface flux chamber measurements. Further N2O emissions were neither modeled nor measured after the first year. At the end of the 11 year

  8. Grassland systems of red meat production: integration between biodiversity, plant nutrient utilisation, greenhouse gas emissions and meat nutritional quality.

    PubMed

    Dawson, L E R; O'Kiely, P; Moloney, A P; Vipond, J E; Wylie, A R G; Carson, A F; Hyslop, J

    2011-08-01

    Government policies relating to red meat production take account of the carbon footprint, environmental impact, and contributions to human health and nutrition, biodiversity and food security. This paper reviews the impact of grazing on these parameters and their interactions, identifying those practices that best meet governments' strategic goals. The recent focus of research on livestock grazing and biodiversity has been on reducing grazing intensity on hill and upland areas. Although this produces rapid increases in sward height and herbage mass, changes in structural diversity and plant species are slower, with no appreciable short-term increases in biodiversity so that environmental policies that simply involve reductions in numbers of livestock may not result in increased biodiversity. Furthermore, upland areas rely heavily on nutrient inputs to pastures so that withdrawal of these inputs can threaten food security. Differences in grazing patterns among breeds increase our ability to manage biodiversity if they are matched appropriately to different conservation grazing goals. Lowland grassland systems differ from upland pastures in that additional nutrients in the form of organic and inorganic fertilisers are more frequently applied to lowland pastures. Appropriate management of these nutrient applications is required, to reduce the associated environmental impact. New slurry-spreading techniques and technologies (e.g. the trailing shoe) help reduce nutrient losses but high nitrogen losses from urine deposition remain a key issue for lowland grassland systems. Nitrification inhibitors have the greatest potential to successfully tackle this problem. Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are lower from indoor-based systems that use concentrates to shorten finishing periods. The challenge is to achieve the same level of performance from grass-based systems. Research has shown potential solutions through the use of forages containing condensed tannins or establishing

  9. Investigation of water productivity for maize with focus on the difference in global radiation between a greenhouse and a field site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kloss, Sebastian; Schütze, Niels

    2015-04-01

    Simulation models for crop growth become increasingly important to investigate yield development and water consumption, which help reducing the experimental expenditures and performing scenario analyses, particularly in the light of finding adaption strategies to cope with limited water supply. Often, small pot greenhouse experiments are conducted to evaluate the suitability of a crop or a certain irrigation strategy. Results from such experiments serve then as a recommended management practice for application in the field. Previous investigations on water productivity for maize from greenhouse experiments have shown, that crop growth modeling was only successful when observed global radiation was increased by more than 50%. This suggests a higher exposure to global radiation of the crop in greenhouses and makes the transfer of results to the field difficult. In this contribution, a study is presented that investigates WP of maize with focus on the difference in global radiation between a greenhouse and field site. An intensively monitored irrigation experiment with containers in a greenhouse was conducted. Two deficit and one full irrigation treatments for two different soils were investigated. Irrigation was controlled by a soil-water potential sensor capable of measuring tensions between pF0 and pF7 with the goal to achieve a high WP. Other sensors included tensiometers, TDR, VH400 soil water sensors, and Hydra probes. Two containers were placed on scales which served as minilysimeters to determine the soil-water balance throughout the growing period of the crop. All containers were placed so that no shading would occur between them. The greenhouse was compared to an outdoor site with an equal setup of maize grown in containers and a field site with maize growing under field conditions. Measurements of the global radiation between those three sites were taken in weekly intervals with a sensor measuring the global radiation from six spatial directions at the same

  10. A life cycle assessment of non-renewable energy use and greenhouse gas emissions associated with blueberry and raspberry production in northern Italy.

    PubMed

    Girgenti, Vincenzo; Peano, Cristiana; Bounous, Michele; Baudino, Claudio

    2013-08-01

    This study examined the emissions produced during the pre-farm, farm and post-farm phases of the production cycle of raspberries and giant American whortleberries (blueberries) cultivated in one of the best-adapted areas in northern Italy. The pre-farm phase included the greenhouse gas emissions from the production of plants in the nursery and the transportation of the plants to the production farms. The farm phase involved the emissions of greenhouse gases from chemical products, the water used for irrigation, the generation of waste, and the consumption of electricity and other energy. The post-farm phase comprised the transportation of the products to the distribution centre (DC) and their storage in the DC. The use phase is not included in the system, nor is transportation from the supermarket to the home of the final consumer, but the disposal of the packaging is nevertheless taken into account. Indeed, the use of traditional plastic materials during both the field phase (nursery and cultivation) and the post-harvesting phase (packaging) produced the greatest estimated impact.

  11. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems — Part II. Ammonia, greenhouse gas, and particulate matter emissions

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, T. A.; Zhao, Y.; Li, H.; Stinn, J. P.; Hayes, M. D.; Xin, H.

    2015-01-01

    As an integral part of the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) Project, this study simultaneously monitored air emissions of 3 commercially operated egg production systems at the house level and associated manure storage over 2 single-cycle flocks (18 to 78 wk of age). The 3 housing systems were 1) a conventional cage house (CC) with a 200,000-hen capacity (6 hens in a cage at a stocking density of 516 cm2/hen), 2) an enriched colony house (EC) with a 50,000-hen capacity (60 hens per colony at a stocking density of 752 cm2/hen), and 3) an aviary house (AV) with a 50,000-hen capacity (at a stocking density of 1253 to 1257 cm2/hen). The 3 hen houses were located on the same farm and were populated with Lohmann white hens of the same age. Indoor environment and house-level gaseous (ammonia [NH3] and greenhouse gasses [GHG], including carbon dioxide [CO2], methane [CH4], and nitrous oxide [N2O]) and particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) emissions were monitored continually. Gaseous emissions from the respective manure storage of each housing system were also monitored. Emission rates (ERs) are expressed as emission quantities per hen, per animal unit (AU, 500 kg live BW), and per kilogram of egg output. House-level NH3 ER (g/hen/d) of EC (0.054) was significantly lower than that of CC (0.082) or AV (0.112) (P < 0.05). The house-level CO2 ER (g/hen/d) was lower for CC (68.3) than for EC and AV (74.4 and 74.0, respectively), and the CH4 ER (g/hen/d) was similar for all 3 houses (0.07 to 0.08). The house-level PM ER (mg/hen/d), essentially representing the farm-level PM ER, was significantly higher for AV (PM10 100.3 and PM2.5 8.8) than for CC (PM10 15.7 and PM2.5 0.9) or EC (PM10 15.6 and PM2.5 1.7) (P < 0.05). The farm-level (house plus manure storage) NH3 ER (g/hen/d) was significantly lower for EC (0.16) than for CC (0.29) or AV (0.30) (P < 0.05). As expected, the magnitudes of GHG emissions were rather small for all 3 production systems. Data from this study

  12. Environmental assessment of three egg production systems--Part II. Ammonia, greenhouse gas, and particulate matter emissions.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, T A; Zhao, Y; Li, H; Stinn, J P; Hayes, M D; Xin, H

    2015-03-01

    As an integral part of the Coalition for Sustainable Egg Supply (CSES) Project, this study simultaneously monitored air emissions of 3 commercially operated egg production systems at the house level and associated manure storage over 2 single-cycle flocks (18 to 78 wk of age). The 3 housing systems were 1) a conventional cage house (CC) with a 200,000-hen capacity (6 hens in a cage at a stocking density of 516 cm2/hen), 2) an enriched colony house (EC) with a 50,000-hen capacity (60 hens per colony at a stocking density of 752 cm2/hen), and 3) an aviary house (AV) with a 50,000-hen capacity (at a stocking density of 1253 to 1257 cm2/hen). The 3 hen houses were located on the same farm and were populated with Lohmann white hens of the same age. Indoor environment and house-level gaseous (ammonia [NH3] and greenhouse gasses [GHG], including carbon dioxide [CO2], methane [CH4], and nitrous oxide [N2O]) and particulate matter (PM10, PM2.5) emissions were monitored continually. Gaseous emissions from the respective manure storage of each housing system were also monitored. Emission rates (ERs) are expressed as emission quantities per hen, per animal unit (AU, 500 kg live BW), and per kilogram of egg output. House-level NH3 ER (g/hen/d) of EC (0.054) was significantly lower than that of CC (0.082) or AV (0.112) (P<0.05). The house-level CO2 ER (g/hen/d) was lower for CC (68.3) than for EC and AV (74.4 and 74.0, respectively), and the CH4 ER (g/hen/d) was similar for all 3 houses (0.07 to 0.08). The house-level PM ER (mg/hen/d), essentially representing the farm-level PM ER, was significantly higher for AV (PM10 100.3 and PM2.5 8.8) than for CC (PM10 15.7 and PM2.5 0.9) or EC (PM10 15.6 and PM2.5 1.7) (P<0.05). The farm-level (house plus manure storage) NH3 ER (g/hen/d) was significantly lower for EC (0.16) than for CC (0.29) or AV (0.30) (P<0.05). As expected, the magnitudes of GHG emissions were rather small for all 3 production systems. Data from this study enable

  13. Material and energy balances of an integrated biological hydrogen production and purification system and their implications for its potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Yasuhiro; Huang, Yu-Jung; Chen, Jhen-Wei; Lin, Hung-Chun; Whang, Liang-Ming; Chu, Hsin; Lo, Young-Chong; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2011-09-01

    The materials and energy in an integrated biological hydrogen production and purification system involving hydrolysis, dark fermentation, photo fermentation, CO2 fixation and anaerobic digestion are balanced by integrating the results from multiple experiments, simulations and the literature. The findings are two fold. First, using 1000 kg rice straw as a substrate, 19.8 kg H2 and 138.0 kg CH4 are obtained. The net energy balance (NEB) and net energy ratio (NER) are -738.4 kWh and 77.8%, respectively, both of which imply an unfavorable energy production system. Opportunities to improve the performance particularly lie in the photo fermentation process. Second, greenhouse gas emissions are evaluated for various options. The results were comparable with the emission inventory of electricity generated from fossil fuels. NEB and NER under a zero-carbon-emission constraint were discussed in detail to clarify completely the implications of the energy and material balances on greenhouse gas emissions. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Discrimination of plant root zone water status in greenhouse production based on phenotyping and machine learning techniques.

    PubMed

    Guo, Doudou; Juan, Jiaxiang; Chang, Liying; Zhang, Jingjin; Huang, Danfeng

    2017-08-15

    Plant-based sensing on water stress can provide sensitive and direct reference for precision irrigation system in greenhouse. However, plant information acquisition, interpretation, and systematical application remain insufficient. This study developed a discrimination method for plant root zone water status in greenhouse by integrating phenotyping and machine learning techniques. Pakchoi plants were used and treated by three root zone moisture levels, 40%, 60%, and 80% relative water content. Three classification models, Random Forest (RF), Neural Network (NN), and Support Vector Machine (SVM) were developed and validated in different scenarios with overall accuracy over 90% for all. SVM model had the highest value, but it required the longest training time. All models had accuracy over 85% in all scenarios, and more stable performance was observed in RF model. Simplified SVM model developed by the top five most contributing traits had the largest accuracy reduction as 29.5%, while simplified RF and NN model still maintained approximately 80%. For real case application, factors such as operation cost, precision requirement, and system reaction time should be synthetically considered in model selection. Our work shows it is promising to discriminate plant root zone water status by implementing phenotyping and machine learning techniques for precision irrigation management.

  15. Relationships between the potential production of the greenhouse gases CO2, CH4 and N2O and soil concentrations of C, N and P across 26 paddy fields in southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Weiqi; Sardans, Jordi; Wang, Chun; Zeng, Congsheng; Tong, Chuan; Asensio, Dolores; Peñuelas, Josep

    2017-09-01

    Paddy fields are a major global anthropogenic source of greenhouse gases. China has the second largest area under rice cultivation, so determining the relationships between the emission of greenhouse gases and soil carbon content, nutrient availabilities and concentrations and physical properties is crucial for minimizing the climatic impacts of rice agriculture. We examined soil nutrients and other properties, greenhouse-gas production and their relationships in 26 paddy fields throughout the province of Fujian in China, one of the most important provinces for rice production. High P and K concentrations, contents and availabilities were correlated with low rates of CO2 production, whereas high C and N contents were correlated with high rates of CH4 production. Mean annual precipitation (MAP) and rates of gas production were not clearly correlated, at least partly due to the management of flooding that can mask the effect of precipitation. Higher mean annual temperatures and soil Fe contents favored the production of N2O. C, N, P and K concentrations and their ratios, especially the C:K and N:K ratios, and P availability were correlated with CO2 and CH4 production across the province, with higher C:K and N:K ratios correlated positively with increased CO2 production and available P correlated negatively with CH4 production. A management strategy to avoid excessive C accumulation in the soil and to increase P availability and decrease available Fe contents would likely decrease the production of greenhouse gases.

  16. Gardening with Greenhouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses come in all shapes, sizes, and price ranges: from simple hand-built plastic-covered frames to dazzling geodesic domes. Some child care centers install greenhouses as a part of their outdoor garden space. Other centers have incorporated a greenhouse into the building itself. Greenhouses provide a great opportunity for children to grow…

  17. Gardening with Greenhouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses come in all shapes, sizes, and price ranges: from simple hand-built plastic-covered frames to dazzling geodesic domes. Some child care centers install greenhouses as a part of their outdoor garden space. Other centers have incorporated a greenhouse into the building itself. Greenhouses provide a great opportunity for children to grow…

  18. Non-Construction Approaches to Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Through Energy Efficient Products and Practices - Closed Announcement FY 2017

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Office of Atmospheric Programs is soliciting proposals to advance the energy efficiency of products through product specific technical research, test procedure development, and education that drives consumer adoption of efficient products and practices

  19. Calculation of greenhouse gas emissions of jatropha oil and jatropha biodiesel as alternative fuels for electricity production in Côte d'Ivoire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atta, Pascal Atta; N'guessan, Yao; Morin, Celine; Voirol, Anne Jaecker; Descombes, Georges

    2017-02-01

    The electricity in Côte d'Ivoire is mainly produced from fossil energy sources. This causes damages on environment due to greenhouse gas emissions (GHG). The aim of this paper is to calculate the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of jatropha oil and jatropha biodiesel as alternative fuels for electricity production in Côte d'Ivoire by using Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. The functional unit in this LCA is defined as 1 kWh of electricity produced by the combustion of jatropha oil or jatropha biodiesel in the engine of a generator. Two scenarios, called short chain and long chain, were examined in this LCA. The results show that 0.132 kg CO2 equivalent is emitted for the scenario 1 with jatropha oil as an alternative fuel against 0.6376 kg CO2 equivalent for the scenario 2 with jatropha biodiesel as an alternative fuel. An 87 % reduction of kg CO2 equivalent is observed in scenario 1 and a 37 % reduction of kg CO2 equivalent is observed in the scenario 2, when compared with a Diesel fuel.

  20. The Influence of Climate, Soil and Pasture Type on Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity of Modeled Beef Cow-Calf Grazing Systems in Southern Australia

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Matthew J.; Cullen, Brendan R.; Eckard, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary Livestock production systems and the agricultural industries in general face challenges to meet the global demand for food, whilst also minimizing their environmental impact through the production of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Livestock grazing systems in southern Australia are low input and reliant on pasture as a low-cost source of feed. The balance between productivity and GHG emission intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems was studied at sites chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types. While the climatic and edaphic characteristics of a location may impact on the emissions from a grazing system, management to efficiently use pasture can reduce emissions per unit product. Abstract A biophysical whole farm system model was used to simulate the interaction between the historical climate, soil and pasture type at sites in southern Australia and assess the balance between productivity and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2-eq.) intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems. Four sites were chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types. Poorer feed quality and supply limited the annual carrying capacity of the kikuyu pasture compared to phalaris pastures, with an average long-term carrying capacity across sites estimated to be 0.6 to 0.9 cows/ha. A relative reduction in level of feed intake to productivity of calf live weight/ha at weaning by feeding supplementary feed reduced the average CO2-eq. emissions/kg calf live weight at weaning of cows on the kikuyu pasture (18.4 and 18.9 kg/kg with and without supplementation, respectively), whereas at the other sites studied an increase in intake level to productivity and emission intensity was seen (between 10.4 to 12.5 kg/kg without and with supplementary feed, respectively). Enteric fermentationand nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification were the main sources of annual variability in emissions intensity

  1. Techno-economics of integrating bioethanol production from spent sulfite liquor for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from sulfite pulping mills.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Abdul M; Haigh, Kate; Görgens, Johann F

    2014-01-01

    Flow sheet options for integrating ethanol production from spent sulfite liquor (SSL) into the acid-based sulfite pulping process at the Sappi Saiccor mill (Umkomaas, South Africa) were investigated, including options for generation of thermal and electrical energy from onsite bio-wastes, such as bark. Processes were simulated with Aspen Plus® for mass- and energy-balances, followed by an estimation of the economic viability and environmental impacts. Various concentration levels of the total dissolved solids in magnesium oxide-based SSL, which currently fuels a recovery boiler, prior to fermentation was considered, together with return of the fermentation residues (distillation bottoms) to the recovery boiler after ethanol separation. The generation of renewable thermal and electrical energy from onsite bio-wastes were also included in the energy balance of the combined pulping-ethanol process, in order to partially replace coal consumption. The bio-energy supplementations included the combustion of bark for heat and electricity generation and the bio-digestion of the calcium oxide SSL to produce methane as additional energy source. Ethanol production from SSL at the highest substrate concentration was the most economically feasible when coal was used for process energy. However this solution did not provide any savings in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the concentration-fermentation-distillation process. Maximizing the use of renewable energy sources to partially replace coal consumption yielded a satisfactory economic performance, with a minimum ethanol selling price of 0.83 US$/l , and a drastic reduction in the overall greenhouse gas emissions for the entire facility. High substrate concentrations and conventional distillation should be used when considering integrating ethanol production at sulfite pulping mills. Bio-wastes generated onsite should be utilized at their maximum potential for energy generation in order to maximize the GHG emissions

  2. Greenhouse Gas Dynamics in Streams and Riparian Floodplains located within Forested Landscapes of the US Northeast: Impact of Key Floodplain Geomorphic Features on Greenhouse Gas Production in a Forested Watershed in Northern New York State, USA.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serchan, S. P.; Vidon, P.

    2015-12-01

    This study measured dissolved greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations in interstitial water and stream across various "hotspots" in headwater catchments of Archer Creek watershed, New York, USA. Results indicated that stream water was hyper saturated with methane (CH4), and moderately saturated with carbon dioxide (CO2), and nitrous oxide (N2O). The values of dissolved CO2 (88.3 μmol/L), dissolved CH4 (1.2 μmol/L), and dissolved N2O (0.02 μmol/L) found in the stream were 5.8, 432, and 2.3 times in excess of atmospheric equilibrium, respectively. Results of dissolved GHG measured in interstitial water across various sites: riparian dry (RZ-Dry), riparian wet (RZ-Wet), riparian mucky (RZ-Mucky), pool with fine textured bed sediments (IS-fine-sedpool), pool with coarse textured bed sediments (IS-coarse-sed-pool), and riffles (Riffle) indicated high variations in the degree of saturation of all three GHG. RZ-Mucky, RZ-Wet, and IS-fine-sedpool sites were hotspots of CH4 and CO2 relative to other sites. RZ-Dry sites were hotspots of N2O. Multiple linear regression models indicated that dissolved oxygen (D.O.) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) influenced dissolved CO2 and CH4 at most of the sites. Relationships between dissolved N2O and predictor variables were highly variable across all sites. Patterns of dissolved N2O in relatively oxic RZ-Dry sites (D.O. 5.3 mg/L) were positively correlated with nitrate (NO3) indicating nitrification as a dominant process in N2O production. In contrast, patterns of dissolved N2O were positively correlated with ammonium (NH4+) at RZ-Wet and RZ-Mucky sites where concentrations of D.O. were significantly lower compared to other sites.

  3. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change.

  4. Water level, vegetation composition, and plant productivity explain greenhouse gas fluxes in temperate cutover fens after inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minke, Merten; Augustin, Jürgen; Burlo, Andrei; Yarmashuk, Tatsiana; Chuvashova, Hanna; Thiele, Annett; Freibauer, Annette; Tikhonov, Vitalij; Hoffmann, Mathias

    2016-07-01

    Peat extraction leaves a land surface with a strong relief of deep cutover areas and higher ridges. Rewetting inundates the deep parts, while less deeply extracted zones remain at or above the water level. In temperate fens the flooded areas are colonized by helophytes such as Eriophorum angustifolium, Carex spp., Typha latifolia or Phragmites australis dependent on water depth. Reeds of Typha and Phragmites are reported as large sources of methane, but data on net CO2 uptake are contradictory for Typha and rare for Phragmites. Here, we analyze the effect of vegetation, water level and nutrient conditions on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for representative vegetation types along water level gradients at two rewetted cutover fens (mesotrophic and eutrophic) in Belarus. Greenhouse gas emissions were measured campaign-wise with manual chambers every 2 to 4 weeks for 2 years and interpolated by modelling. All sites had negligible nitrous oxide exchange rates. Most sites were carbon sinks and small GHG sources. Methane emissions generally increased with net ecosystem CO2 uptake. Mesotrophic small sedge reeds with water table around the land surface were small GHG sources in the range of 2.3 to 4.2 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1. Eutrophic tall sedge - Typha latifolia reeds on newly formed floating mats were substantial net GHG emitters in the range of 25.1 to 39.1 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr. They represent transient vegetation stages. Phragmites reeds ranged between -1.7 to 4.2 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1 with an overall mean GHG emission of 1.3 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1. The annual CO2 balance was best explained by vegetation biomass, which includes the role of vegetation composition and species. Methane emissions were obviously driven by biological activity of vegetation and soil organisms. Shallow flooding of cutover temperate fens is a suitable measure to arrive at low GHG emissions. Phragmites australis establishment should be promoted in deeper flooded areas and will lead to moderate, but

  5. The Influence of Climate, Soil and Pasture Type on Productivity and Greenhouse Gas Emissions Intensity of Modeled Beef Cow-Calf Grazing Systems in Southern Australia.

    PubMed

    Bell, Matthew J; Cullen, Brendan R; Eckard, Richard J

    2012-10-01

    A biophysical whole farm system model was used to simulate the interaction between the historical climate, soil and pasture type at sites in southern Australia and assess the balance between productivity and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO₂-eq.) intensity of beef cow-calf grazing systems. Four sites were chosen to represent a range of climatic zones, soil and pasture types. Poorer feed quality and supply limited the annual carrying capacity of the kikuyu pasture compared to phalaris pastures, with an average long-term carrying capacity across sites estimated to be 0.6 to 0.9 cows/ha. A relative reduction in level of feed intake to productivity of calf live weight/ha at weaning by feeding supplementary feed reduced the average CO₂-eq. emissions/kg calf live weight at weaning of cows on the kikuyu pasture (18.4 and 18.9 kg/kg with and without supplementation, respectively), whereas at the other sites studied an increase in intake level to productivity and emission intensity was seen (between 10.4 to 12.5 kg/kg without and with supplementary feed, respectively). Enteric fermentation and nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification were the main sources of annual variability in emissions intensity, particularly at the lower rainfall sites. Emissions per unit product of low input systems can be minimized by efficient utilization of pasture to maximize the annual turnoff of weaned calves and diluting resource input per unit product.

  6. The effect of changing cow production and fitness traits on net income and greenhouse gas emissions from Australian dairy systems.

    PubMed

    Bell, M J; Eckard, R J; Haile-Mariam, M; Pryce, J E

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of changing a range of biological traits on farm net income and greenhouse gas emissions (expressed in carbon dioxide equivalents, CO2-eq.) in the Australian dairy cow population. An average cow was modeled, using breed-average information for Holsteins and Jerseys from the Australian Dairy Herd Improvement Scheme. A Markov chain approach was used to describe the steady-state herd structure, as well as estimate the CO2-eq. emissions per cow and per kilogram of milk solids. The effects of a single unit change in herd milk volume, fat and protein yields, live weight, survival, dry matter intake, somatic cell count, and calving interval were assessed. With the traits studied, the only single-unit change that would bring about a desirable increase in both net income and reduced emissions intensity per cow and per kilogram of milk solids in Australian dairy herds would be an increase in survival and reductions in milk volume, live weight, DMI, SCC, and calving interval. The models developed can be used to assess lifetime dairy system abatement options by breeding, feeding, and management. Selective breeding and appropriate management can both improve health, fertility, and feed utilization of Australian dairy systems and reduce its environmental impact. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Spatially-explicit estimates of greenhouse-gas payback times for perennial cellulosic biomass production on open lands in the Lake States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahajpal, R.

    2015-12-01

    The development of renewable energy sources is an integral step towards mitigating the carbon dioxide induced component of climate change. One important renewable source is plant biomass, comprising both food crops such as corn (Zea mays) and cellulosic biomass from short-rotation woody crops (SRWC) such as hybrid-poplar (Populus spp.) and Willow (Salix spp.). Due to their market acceptability and excellent energy balance, cellulosic feedstocks represent an abundant and if managed properly, a carbon-neutral and environmentally beneficial resource. We evaluate how site variability impacts the greenhouse-gas (GHG) benefits of SRWC plantations on lands potentially suited for bioenergy feedstock production in the Lake States (Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan). We combine high-resolution, spatially-explicit estimates of biomass, soil organic carbon and nitrous oxide emissions for SRWC plantations from the Environmental Policy Integrated Climate (EPIC) model along with life cycle analysis results from the GREET model to determine the greenhouse-gas payback time (GPBT) or the time needed before the GHG savings due to displacement of fossil fuels exceeds the initial losses from plantation establishment. We calibrate our models using unique yield and N2O emission data from sites across the Lake states that have been converted from pasture and hayfields to SRWC plantations. Our results show a reduction of 800,000 ha in non-agricultural open land availability for biomass production, a loss of nearly 37% (see attached figure). Overall, GPBTs range between 1 and 38 years, with the longest GPBTs occurring in the northern Lake states. Initial soil nitrate levels and site drainage potential explain more than half of the variation in GPBTs. Our results indicate a rapidly closing window of opportunity to establish a sustainable cellulosic feedstock economy in the Lake States.

  8. Greenhouse production of Impatiens wallerana using a controlled-release fertiliser produces quality finished plants with enhanced garden performance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nutrient management during production can greatly influence post-production quality of plants. The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of controlled release fertilizer (CRF) applied at the time of plug planting on the garden performance (post-production) of impatiens (Impatiens wal...

  9. Mars inflatable greenhouse analog.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Philip D; Giacomelli, Gene A

    2002-01-01

    Light intensities on the Martian surface can possibly support a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) utilizing natural sunlight for hydroponic crop production, if a suitable controlled environment can be provided. Inflatable clear membrane structures offer low mass, are more easily transported than a rigid structure, and are good candidates for providing a suitable controlled environment for crop production. Cable culture is one hydroponic growing system that can take advantage of the beneficial attributes of the inflatable structure. An analog of a Mars inflatable greenhouse can provide researchers data on issues such as crew time requirements for operation, productivity for BLSS, human factors, and much more at a reasonable cost. This is a description of one such design.

  10. [Risk of reproductive disorders in greenhouse workers].

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech

    2007-01-01

    This study reviews the evidence on the association between work in greenhouses and reproductive disorders. The analysis indicate that employment in greenhouses may increase the risk of birth defects, preterm delivery and spontaneous abortion, and also may affect birth weight. The obtained results showed that employment in the agriculture production sector (greenhouses) of more than 10 years decreased the median sperm concentration in men. The data on the effect of employment in greenhouses on the time to pregnancy are unequivocal, but most of them suggest that there is a relationship between the decreased fecundity ratio and greenhouse work, mostly due to exposure to pesticides. The literature review indicates a great need to increase awareness among greenhouse workers occupationally exposed to pesticides about potential negative effects of these chemicals on their health.

  11. Closing the yield gap could reduce projected greenhouse gas emissions: a case study of maize production in China.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhenling; Yue, Shanchao; Wang, Guiliang; Meng, Qingfeng; Wu, Liang; Yang, Zhiping; Zhang, Qiang; Li, Shiqing; Zhang, Fusuo; Chen, Xinping

    2013-08-01

    Although the goal of doubling food demand while simultaneously reducing agricultural environmental damage has become widely accepted, the dominant agricultural paradigm still considers high yields and reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity to be in conflict with one another. Here, we achieved an increase in maize yield of 70% in on-farm experiments by closing the yield gap and evaluated the trade-off between grain yield, nitrogen (N) fertilizer use, and GHG emissions. Based on two groups of N application experiments in six locations for 16 on-farm site-years, an integrated soil-crop system (HY) approach achieved 93% of the yield potential and averaged 14.8 Mg ha(-1) maize grain yield at 15.5% moisture. This is 70% higher than current crop (CC) management. More importantly, the optimal N rate for the HY system was 250 kg N ha(-1) , which is only 38% more N fertilizer input than that applied in the CC system. Both the N2 O emission intensity and GHG intensity increased exponentially as the N application rate increased, and the response curve for the CC system was always higher than that for the HY system. Although the N application rate increased by 38%, N2 O emission intensity and the GHG intensity of the HY system were reduced by 12% and 19%, respectively. These on-farm observations indicate that closing the yield gap alongside efficient N management should therefore be prominent among a portfolio of strategies to meet food demand while reducing GHG intensity at the same time.

  12. Water-saving ground cover rice production system reduces net greenhouse gas fluxes in an annual rice-based cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Z.; Du, Y.; Tao, Y.; Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; Lin, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-06-01

    To safeguard food security and preserve precious water resources, the technology of water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) is being increasingly adopted for the rice cultivation. However, changes in soil water status and temperature under GCRPS may affect soil biogeochemical processes that control the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The overall goal of this study is to better understand how net ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges (NEGE) and grain yields are affected by GCRPS in an annual rice-based cropping system. Our evaluation was based on measurements of the CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil heterotrophic respiration (CO2 emission) over a complete year, as well as the estimated soil carbon sequestration intensity for six different fertilizer treatments for conventional paddy and GCRPS. The fertilizer treatments included urea application and no N fertilization for both conventional paddy (CUN and CNN) and GCRPS (GUN and GNN), solely chicken manure (GCM) and combined urea and chicken manure applications (GUM) for GCRPS. Averaging across all the fertilizer treatments, GCRPS increased annual N2O emission and grain yield by 40% and 9%, respectively, and decreased annual CH4 emission by 69%, while GCRPS did not affect soil CO2 emissions relative to the conventional paddy. The annual direct emission factors of N2O were 4.01, 0.087 and 0.50% for GUN, GCM and GUM, respectively, and 1.52% for the conventional paddy (CUN). The annual soil carbon sequestration intensity under GCRPS was estimated to be an average of -1.33 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, which is approximately 44% higher than the conventional paddy. The annual NEGE were 10.80-11.02 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the conventional paddy and 3.05-9.37 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the GCRPS, suggesting the potential feasibility of GCRPS in reducing net greenhouse effect from rice cultivation. Using organic fertilizers for GCRPS considerably reduced annual emissions

  13. Water-saving ground cover rice production system reduces net greenhouse gas fluxes in an annual rice-based cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Z.; Du, Y.; Tao, Y.; Zheng, X.; Liu, C.; Lin, S.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2014-11-01

    To safeguard food security and preserve precious water resources, the technology of water-saving ground cover rice production system (GCRPS) is being increasingly adopted for rice cultivation. However, changes in soil water status and temperature under GCRPS may affect soil biogeochemical processes that control the biosphere-atmosphere exchanges of methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2). The overall goal of this study is to better understand how net ecosystem greenhouse gas exchanges (NEGE) and grain yields are affected by GCRPS in an annual rice-based cropping system. Our evaluation was based on measurements of the CH4 and N2O fluxes and soil heterotrophic respiration (CO2 emissions) over a complete year, and the estimated soil carbon sequestration intensity for six different fertilizer treatments for conventional paddy and GCRPS. The fertilizer treatments included urea application and no N fertilization for both conventional paddy (CUN and CNN) and GCRPS (GUN and GNN), and solely chicken manure (GCM) and combined urea and chicken manure applications (GUM) for GCRPS. Averaging across all the fertilizer treatments, GCRPS increased annual N2O emission and grain yield by 40 and 9%, respectively, and decreased annual CH4 emission by 69%, while GCRPS did not affect soil CO2 emissions relative to the conventional paddy. The annual direct emission factors of N2O were 4.01, 0.09 and 0.50% for GUN, GCM and GUM, respectively, and 1.52% for the conventional paddy (CUN). The annual soil carbon sequestration intensity under GCRPS was estimated to be an average of -1.33 Mg C ha-1 yr-1, which is approximately 44% higher than the conventional paddy. The annual NEGE were 10.80-11.02 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the conventional paddy and 3.05-9.37 Mg CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 for the GCRPS, suggesting the potential feasibility of GCRPS in reducing net greenhouse effects from rice cultivation. Using organic fertilizers for GCRPS considerably reduced annual emissions of CH4

  14. Integration of on-farm biodiesel production with anaerobic digestion to maximise energy yield and greenhouse gas savings from process and farm residues.

    PubMed

    Heaven, Sonia; Salter, Andrew M; Banks, Charles J

    2011-09-01

    Anaerobic co-digestion of residues from the cold pressing and trans-esterification of oilseed rape (OSR) with other farm wastes was considered as a means of enhancing the sustainability of on-farm biodiesel production. The study verified the process energy yields using biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests and semi-continuous digestion trials. The results indicated that high proportions of OSR cake in the feedstock led to a decrease in volatile solids destruction and instability of the digestion process. Co-digestion with cattle slurry or with vegetable waste led to acceptable specific and volumetric methane productions, and a digestate low in potentially toxic elements (PTE). The results were used to evaluate energy balances and greenhouse gas emissions of the integrated process compared with biodiesel production alone. Co-digestion was shown to provide energy self-sufficiency and security of supply to farms, with sufficient surplus for export as fuel and electricity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The greenhouse gambit

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, D. . Environmental Information Service)

    1992-01-01

    While forecasts of the economic costs and benefits of ameliorating global warming remain speculative, so, too, are the climate change projections that gird the debate. The consensus among most of the scientific community is that a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide is likely to raise the mean global temperature of the Earth 3 to 8 degrees Fahrenheit by 2050. To put this forecast in some perspective, the planet was about 10 degrees cooler during the last Great Ice Age and about 10 degrees warmer dozing the Age of the Dinsosaurs. Accordingly, the warming could bring about dramatic changes in climate. But a prudent investor must be careful not to invest too much in pat assumptions about the greenhouse effect. The climate may have many surprises in store. Indeed, it has surprised climate forecasters already by not warming nearly as fast as their general circulation models have suggested it would. This book examines four industries with the most at stake in the greenhouse debate: agriculture, forest products, automobiles and electric power. All of these industries essentially face two choices: Act now to blunt the possible momentum of climate change, or wait and see if the basic forecast is correct, accommodating any change as it occurs. These choices involve a trade-off between further information-gathering to ensure a proper course of action and implementing a strategy, quickly to its intended effect. Such a trade-off is the essence of risk, the stuff of investing. For the purposes of this book, it defines the greenhouse gambit.''

  16. The Dynamic Greenhouse Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses are marvelous devices, allowing one to enjoy the flower spectacle of summer all year round. At night, greenhouses use supplemental heat to keep the fragile plants warm. Over the last 30 years, greenhouse technology has undergone many changes, with the structures being automated and monitored and low-cost plastic structures emerging as…

  17. Build a Solar Greenhouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Attached solar greenhouses are relatively inexpensive and easy to build; they can provide additional heat to homes all winter as well as fresh vegetables and flowers. This bulletin: (1) describes the characteristics of a solar greenhouse; (2) provides a checklist of five items to consider before building a solar greenhouse; (3) describes the four…

  18. The Dynamic Greenhouse Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses are marvelous devices, allowing one to enjoy the flower spectacle of summer all year round. At night, greenhouses use supplemental heat to keep the fragile plants warm. Over the last 30 years, greenhouse technology has undergone many changes, with the structures being automated and monitored and low-cost plastic structures emerging as…

  19. Report urges greenhouse action now

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1988-07-01

    A recent report that is a product of a process initiated and monitored by three major international organizations, the United Nations Environmental Program, the World Meteorological Organization, and the International Council of Scientific Unions, brings the greenhouse effect into the public eye. The report estimates rates of temperature increase of the earth due to CO/sub 2/ plus the other greenhouse gases. Estimates of the greenhouse effect arising from unrestrained gas emissions and a highly sensitive climate or strong global restraint of emissions and a low climate sensitivity range from 0.8 to 0.06/sup 0/C per decade. Long term policies that the report recommends should be reexamined are increased efficiency in the consumption of energy and a shift toward alternative energy to reduce CO/sub 2/ emissions and reforestation to remove CO/sub 2/ from the atmosphere.

  20. Multi-Model CIMP5 projected impacts of increased greenhouse gases on the Niger basin and implications for hydropower production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyerinde, Ganiyu; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-05-01

    Climate change could potentially have large impacts on water availability in West Africa and the predictions are accrued with high uncertainties in this region. Countries in the Niger River basin (West Africa) plan the investment of 200 million in the installation of an additional 400MW of hydropower in the nearest future, adding to the existing 685MW. With the impacts of climate change in the basin already occurring, there is a need for comprehending the influence of future hydro-climatic changes on water resources and hydro-power generation in the basin. This study uses a hydrological model to simulate river flow under present and future conditions and evaluates the impacts of potential changes on electricity production of the largest hydroelectric dam (Kainji) in the Niger Basin. The Kainji reservoir produces 25 per cent of the current energy needs of Nigeria and was subject to large fluctuations in energy production as a result of variable inflow and operational reasons. Inflow into the reservoir was simulated using hydroclimatic data from a set of 7 regional climate models (RCM) with two emission scenarios from the CORDEX-Africa regional downscaling experiment, driven with CMIP5 data. Based on observations of inflow, water level in the reservoir, and energy production we developed a simple hydroelectricity production model to simulate future energy production for the reservoir. Results suggest increases in river flow for the majority of RCM data as a result of increases in precipitation in the headwaters of the basin around 2050 and slightly decreasing trends for low emission scenarios by the end of the century. Despite this consistent increase, shifts in timing of river flow can challenge the reliable production of energy. This analysis could help assess the planning of hydropower schemes in the basin for a sustainable production of hydroelectricity in the future.

  1. Engineering Concepts for Inflatable Mars Surface Greenhouses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hublitz, I.; Henninger, D.; Drake, G.; Eckart, P.

    An inflatable greenhouse is an important component of the Mars mission infrastructure as plant -based life support systems offer self-sufficiency and possibly cost reduction. Resupply is prohibitive for long duration Mars missions as it increases the launching mass and consequently the launching costs. Risks for the astronauts are als o increased by relying on frequent resupply from Earth. Greenhouses are not only used for the production of edible biomass but also as air and water regeneration processors. This study provides designs and engineering considerations for inflatable Mars surface greenhouses including structural, material, lighting method and thermal aspects. Challenges for the thermal control system are presented by showing the diurnal heat gain/loss for the various greenhouse design options. Structural mass savings for operating greenhouses at lower pressures are investigated. The method of equivalent system mass is used in order to compare greenhouses operated at high pressure to greenhouses operated at low pressure for three different lighting methods: natural, artificial and hybrid lighting. This method evaluates the impact of the greenhouse implementation to other systems by reducing the physical quantities mass, power, cooling and crew-time requirements to one single parameter mass, which is the primary driver of Mars mission costs. The design comparison evaluation is a further approach to compare the different greenhouse design options regarding not only the equivalent system mass but also other important factors such as the technology maturity, safety and flexibility to mission modifications. Alternative design ideas will be presented and future work issues will be defined.

  2. Farm Simulation: a tool for evaluating the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and the adaptation of dairy production to climate change

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Farms both produce greenhouse gas emissions that drive human-induced climate change and are impacted by that climate change. Whole farm and global climate models provide useful tools for studying the benefits and costs of greenhouse gas mitigation and the adaptation of farms to changing climate. The...

  3. Optimizing water management practices for enhancing rice production and mitigating greenhouse gas emissions in Asia: The food-water-climate nexus approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, B.; Tian, H.; Lu, C.; Yang, J.; Ren, W.

    2015-12-01

    Rice fields, supporting over half of the global population, consumed around 30% of the freshwater used for global crop growth and identified as one of the major methane (CH4) sources. Asia, in where 90% of rice is consumed, took over 90% of the total CH4 emission from the global rice field. With the increasing water scarcity and rapidly growth population, it is urgent to address how to simultaneously maintain or even increase food production, reduce water consumption, and benefit climate. In this study, we used a process-based model (Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model), which has the capability to simultaneously simulate the carbon, water, and nitrogen fluxes and storages within the terrestrial ecosystem, and also the exchanges of greenhouse gases between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, to quantify the magnitude, spatial and temporal variation of rice production and CH4 emissions under different water management practices. Simulated results have been evaluated against field observations, inventory-based and atmospheric inversion estimates. By implementing a set of experimental simulations, the results could provide insights for reasonable implementation of optimum water management practices, which is also crucial for policy maker to make trade-off decisions to increase yield and reduce GHG emissions through effective mitigation strategies.

  4. Urban Options Solar Greenhouse Demonstration Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cipparone, L.

    1980-10-15

    The following are included: the design process, construction, thermal performance, horticulture, educational activities, and future plans. Included in appendices are: greenhouse blueprints, insulating curtain details, workshop schedules, sample data forms, summary of performance calculations on the Urban Options Solar Greenhouse, data on vegetable production, publications, news articles on th Solar Greenhouse Project, and the financial statement. (MHR)

  5. The Dairy Greenhouse Gas Emission Model: Reference Manual

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Dairy Greenhouse Gas Model (DairyGHG) is a software tool for estimating the greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprint of dairy production systems. A relatively simple process-based model is used to predict the primary greenhouse gas emissions, which include the net emission of carbon dioxide...

  6. A Greenhouse Gas and Soil Carbon Model for Estimating the Carbon Footprint of Livestock Production in Canada

    PubMed Central

    Vergé, Xavier P.C.; Dyer, James A.; Worth, Devon E.; Smith, Ward N.; Desjardins, Raymond L.; McConkey, Brian G.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary We developed a model to estimate the carbon footprint of Canadian livestock production. To include long term soil carbon storage and loss potential we introduced a payback period concept. The model was tested by reallocating 10% only of the protein production from a ruminant to a non ruminant source to minimize the risk of including rangeland or marginal lands. This displacement generated residual land which was found to play a major role in the potential mitigation of GHG emissions. The model will allow land use policies aimed at reducing the agricultural GHG emissions to be assessed. Abstract To assess tradeoffs between environmental sustainability and changes in food production on agricultural land in Canada the Unified Livestock Industry and Crop Emissions Estimation System (ULICEES) was developed. It incorporates four livestock specific GHG assessments in a single model. To demonstrate the application of ULICEES, 10% of beef cattle protein production was assumed to be displaced with an equivalent amount of pork protein. Without accounting for the loss of soil carbon, this 10% shift reduced GHG emissions by 2.5 TgCO2e y−1. The payback period was defined as the number of years required for a GHG reduction to equal soil carbon lost from the associated land use shift. A payback period that is shorter than 40 years represents a net long term decrease in GHG emissions. Displacing beef cattle with hogs resulted in a surplus area of forage. When this residual land was left in ungrazed perennial forage, the payback periods were less than 4 years and when it was reseeded to annual crops, they were equal to or less than 40 years. They were generally greater than 40 years when this land was used to raise cattle. Agricultural GHG mitigation policies will inevitably involve a trade-off between production, land use and GHG emission reduction. ULICEES is a model that can objectively assess these trade-offs for Canadian agriculture. PMID:26487032

  7. Impacts of European livestock production: nitrogen, sulphur, phosphorus and greenhouse gas emissions, land-use, water eutrophication and biodiversity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leip, Adrian; Billen, Gilles; Garnier, Josette; Grizzetti, Bruna; Lassaletta, Luis; Reis, Stefan; Simpson, David; Sutton, Mark A.; de Vries, Wim; Weiss, Franz; Westhoek, Henk

    2015-11-01

    Livestock production systems currently occupy around 28% of the land surface of the European Union (equivalent to 65% of the agricultural land). In conjunction with other human activities, livestock production systems affect water, air and soil quality, global climate and biodiversity, altering the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon. Here, we quantify the contribution of European livestock production to these major impacts. For each environmental effect, the contribution of livestock is expressed as shares of the emitted compounds and land used, as compared to the whole agricultural sector. The results show that the livestock sector contributes significantly to agricultural environmental impacts. This contribution is 78% for terrestrial biodiversity loss, 80% for soil acidification and air pollution (ammonia and nitrogen oxides emissions), 81% for global warming, and 73% for water pollution (both N and P). The agriculture sector itself is one of the major contributors to these environmental impacts, ranging between 12% for global warming and 59% for N water quality impact. Significant progress in mitigating these environmental impacts in Europe will only be possible through a combination of technological measures reducing livestock emissions, improved food choices and reduced food waste of European citizens.

  8. A Greenhouse Gas and Soil Carbon Model for Estimating the Carbon Footprint of Livestock Production in Canada.

    PubMed

    Vergé, Xavier P C; Dyer, James A; Worth, Devon E; Smith, Ward N; Desjardins, Raymond L; McConkey, Brian G

    2012-09-04

    To assess tradeoffs between environmental sustainability and changes in food production on agricultural land in Canada the Unified Livestock Industry and Crop Emissions Estimation System (ULICEES) was developed. It incorporates four livestock specific GHG assessments in a single model. To demonstrate the application of ULICEES, 10% of beef cattle protein production was assumed to be displaced with an equivalent amount of pork protein. Without accounting for the loss of soil carbon, this 10% shift reduced GHG emissions by 2.5 TgCO₂e y(-1). The payback period was defined as the number of years required for a GHG reduction to equal soil carbon lost from the associated land use shift. A payback period that is shorter than 40 years represents a net long term decrease in GHG emissions. Displacing beef cattle with hogs resulted in a surplus area of forage. When this residual land was left in ungrazed perennial forage, the payback periods were less than 4 years and when it was reseeded to annual crops, they were equal to or less than 40 years. They were generally greater than 40 years when this land was used to raise cattle. Agricultural GHG mitigation policies will inevitably involve a trade-off between production, land use and GHG emission reduction. ULICEES is a model that can objectively assess these trade-offs for Canadian agriculture.

  9. Regulations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aircraft

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are taking coordinated steps to enable the production of a new generation of clean vehicles, through reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improved fuel use from onroad vehicles.

  10. Greenhouse gas performance of biochemical biodiesel production from straw: soil organic carbon changes and time-dependent climate impact.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Hanna; Ahlgren, Serina; Sandgren, Mats; Passoth, Volkmar; Wallberg, Ola; Hansson, Per-Anders

    2017-01-01

    Use of bio-based diesel is increasing in Europe. It is currently produced from oilseed crops, but can also be generated from lignocellulosic biomass such as straw. However, removing straw affects soil organic carbon (SOC), with potential consequences for the climate impact of the biofuel. This study assessed the climate impacts and energy balance of biodiesel production from straw using oleaginous yeast, with subsequent biogas production from the residues, with particular emphasis on SOC changes over time. It also explored the impact of four different scenarios for returning the lignin fraction of the biomass to soil to mitigate SOC changes. Climate impact was assessed using two methods, global warming potential (GWP) and a time-dependent temperature model (∆T s ) that describes changes in mean global surface temperature as a function of time or absolute temperature change potential (AGTP). Straw-derived biodiesel reduced GWP by 33-80% compared with fossil fuels and primary fossil energy use for biodiesel production was 0.33-0.80 MJprim/MJ, depending on the scenario studied. Simulations using the time-dependent temperature model showed that a scenario where all straw fractions were converted to energy carriers and no lignin was returned to soil resulted in the highest avoided climate impact. The SOC changes due to straw removal had a large impact on the results, both when using GWP and the time-dependent temperature model. In a climate perspective, it is preferable to combust straw lignin to produce electricity rather than returning it to the soil if the excess electricity replaces natural gas electricity, according to results from both GWP and time-dependent temperature modelling. Using different methods to assess climate impact did not change the ranking between the scenarios, but the time-dependent temperature model provided information about system behaviour over time that can be important for evaluation of biofuel systems, particularly in relation to

  11. The microbial communities and potential greenhouse gas production in boreal acid sulphate, non-acid sulphate, and reedy sulphidic soils.

    PubMed

    Šimek, Miloslav; Virtanen, Seija; Simojoki, Asko; Chroňáková, Alica; Elhottová, Dana; Krištůfek, Václav; Yli-Halla, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Acid sulphate (AS) soils along the Baltic coasts contain significant amounts of organic carbon and nitrogen in their subsoils. The abundance, composition, and activity of microbial communities throughout the AS soil profile were analysed. The data from a drained AS soil were compared with those from a drained non-AS soil and a pristine wetland soil from the same region. Moreover, the potential production of methane, carbon dioxide, and nitrous oxide from the soils was determined under laboratory conditions. Direct microscopic counting, glucose-induced respiration (GIR), whole cell hybridisation, and extended phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis confirmed the presence of abundant microbial communities in the topsoil and also in the deepest Cg2 horizon of the AS soil. The patterns of microbial counts, biomass and activity in the profile of the AS soil and partly also in the non-AS soil therefore differed from the general tendency of gradual decreases in soil profiles. High respiration in the deepest Cg2 horizon of the AS soil (5.66 μg Cg(-1)h(-1), as compared to 2.71 μg Cg(-1)h(-1) in a top Ap horizon) is unusual but reasonable given the large amount of organic carbon in this horizon. Nitrous oxide production peaked in the BCgc horizon of the AS and in the BC horizon of the non-AS soil, but the peak value was ten-fold higher in the AS soil than in the non-AS soil (82.3 vs. 8.6 ng Ng(-1)d(-1)). The data suggest that boreal AS soils on the Baltic coast contain high microbial abundance and activity. This, together with the abundant carbon and total and mineral nitrogen in the deep layers of AS soils, may result in substantial gas production. Consequently, high GHG emissions could occur, for example, when the generally high water table is lowered because of arable farming.

  12. Greenhouse gas emissions and reactive nitrogen releases during the life-cycles of staple food production in China and their mitigation potential.

    PubMed

    Xia, Longlong; Ti, Chaopu; Li, Bolun; Xia, Yongqiu; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2016-06-15

    Life-cycle analysis of staple food (rice, flour and corn-based fodder) production and assessments of the associated greenhouse gas (GHG) and reactive nitrogen (Nr) releases, from environmental and economic perspectives, help to develop effective mitigation options. However, such evaluations have rarely been executed in China. We evaluated the GHG and Nr releases per kilogram of staple food production (carbon and Nr footprints) and per unit of net economic benefit (CO2-NEB and Nr-NEB), and explored their mitigation potential. Carbon footprints of food production in China were obviously higher than those in some developed countries. There was a high spatial variation in the footprints, primarily attributable to differences in synthetic N use (or CH4 emissions) per unit of food production. Provincial carbon footprints had a significant linear relationship with Nr footprints, attributed to large contribution of N fertilizer use to both GHG and Nr releases. Synthetic N fertilizer applications and CH4 emissions dominated the carbon footprints, while NH3 volatilization and N leaching were the main contributors to the Nr footprints. About 564 (95% uncertainty range: 404-701) TgCO2eqGHG and 10 (7.4-12.4) Tg Nr-N were released every year during 2001-2010 from staple food production. This caused the total damage costs of 325 (70-555) billion ¥, equivalent to nearly 1.44% of the Gross Domestic Product of China. Moreover, the combined damage costs and economic input costs, accounted for 66%-80% of the gross economic benefit generated from food production. A reduction of 92.7TgCO2eqyr(-1) and 2.2TgNr-Nyr(-1) could be achieved by reducing synthetic N inputs by 20%, increasing grain yields by 5% and implementing off-season application of straw and mid-season drainage practices for rice cultivation. In order to realize these scenarios, an ecological compensation scheme should be established to incentivize farmers to gradually adopt knowledge-based managements.

  13. Energy balances and greenhouse gas emissions of crude palm oil production system in Indonesia (Case study: Mill P, PT X, Sumatera Island)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andarani, Pertiwi; Nugraha, Winardi Dwi; Wieddya

    2017-03-01

    Indonesia is one of the largest palm oil producers in the world. The total exported crude palm oil (CPO) and its derivatives in 2015 reached about 26.40 million tons or increase at 21% compared to the previous year (2014). However, the further expansion of the CPO production system could potentially have environmental impacts. The objective of this study is to analyze the energy balances and greenhouse gas emissions at mill P, PT X located in Sumatera Island. System analysis approaches was applied to this study and the assessment was focused on a CPO production system in PT XYZ located on the Sumatera Island. The system boundary was determined based on the field study. The data collection consisted of all the input and output energy which involving all input materials (including fertilizers, herbicides, pesticides, water, etc.) and energy consumption (consumption of diesel, electricity, etc.) starting from plantation activities (at the oil palm plantation) to the conversion process (at the palm oil mill). The energy output from biodiesel was 480.46 GJ/ha (2014) and decreased to 450.79 GJ/ha (2015). Surplus energy from biogas was 15.21 GJ/ha (2014) and 13.57 GJ/ha (2015). The NEP was 494.56 GJ/ha and decreased to 317.84 GJ/ha. Meanwhile, the NER decreased from 3.27 (2014) to 3.17 (2015). The NEP in this mill is significantly higher than other related studies of similar palm oil production system in other companies. The emission of the activities in the palm estate increased from 12.50 kgCO2eq/ton FFB to 22.057 kgCO2eq/ton FFB. In the palm oil mill, the emission decreased from 2,509.93 kgCO2eq/ton CPO to 2,057.14 kgCO2eq/ton CPO.

  14. Eco-efficient agriculture for producing higher yields with lower greenhouse gas emissions: a case study of intensive irrigation wheat production in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Z. L.; Ye, Y. L.; Ma, W. Q.; Chen, X. P.; Zhang, F. S.

    2013-10-01

    Although the concept of producing higher yields with reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is a goal that attracts increasing public and scientific attention, the tradeoff between crop productivity and GHG emissions in intensive agricultural production is not well understood. In this study, we investigated 33 sites of on-farm experiments to evaluate the tradeoff between grain yield and GHG emissions using two systems (conventional practice, CP; high-yielding systems, HY) of intensive irrigation wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in China. Furthermore, we discussed the potential to produce higher yields with lower GHG emissions based on a survey of 2938 farmers. However, in both the HY and CP systems, wheat grain yield response to GHG emissions fit a linear-plateau model, whereas the curve for grain yield from the HY system was always higher than that from the CP system. Compared to the CP system, grain yield was 44% (2.6 Mg ha-1) higher in the HY system, while GHG emissions increased by only 2.5%, and GHG emission intensity was reduced by 29%. The current intensive irrigation wheat system with farmers' practice had a median yield and maximum GHG emission rate of 6.05 Mg ha-1 and 4783 kg CO2 eq ha-1, respectively; however, this system can be transformed to maintain yields while reducing GHG emissions by 40% (5.96 Mg ha-1, and 2890 kg CO2 eq ha-1). Further, the HY system was found to increase grain yield by 41% with a simultaneous reduction in GHG emissions by 38% (8.55 Mg ha-1, and 2961 kg CO2 eq ha-1, respectively). In the future, we suggest moving the tradeoff relationships and calculations from grain yield and GHG emissions, to new measures of productivity and environmental protection using innovative management technologies. This shift in focus is critical to achieve food and environmental security.

  15. Development of a vaccine to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in agriculture: vaccination of sheep with methanogen fractions induces antibodies that block methane production in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wedlock, D N; Pedersen, G; Denis, M; Dey, D; Janssen, P H; Buddle, B M

    2010-02-01

    To develop an understanding of the immune responses of ruminants to methanogens, and to provide proof of a concept that harnessing the immune system of ruminants is a potentially viable approach to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. Four subcellular fractions, namely cytoplasmic, two cell-wall preparations, and cell wall-derived proteins were prepared from Methanobrevibacter ruminantium M1. Twenty sheep (10 months of age) were vaccinated with these fractions or with whole cells (n=4 per group). Sheep were re-vaccinated once after 3 weeks, and antibody responses to M. ruminantium M1 antigens in sera and saliva measured using ELISA at 2 weeks after the second vaccination. Antigens recognised by the antisera were visualised using Western blotting. The antisera were tested in vitro for their impact on M. ruminantium M1, measuring the effect on cell growth, methane production, and ability to induce agglutination. Basal levels (pre-vaccination) of antibodies against M. ruminantium M1 antigens were low. Vaccination with the antigenic fractions induced strong antibody responses in serum. Both IgG and IgA responses to methanogen antigens were detected in saliva following vaccination. Western blot analysis of the antisera indicated reactivity of antibodies, and a wide range of proteins was present in the different methanogen fractions. Antisera against the various fractions agglutinated methanogens in an in-vitro assay. In addition, these antisera decreased the growth of a pure culture of a methanogen and production of methane in vitro. Antigens from methanogens are immunogenic in ruminants, and antisera from sheep vaccinated with fractions of methanogens have a significant impact on these organisms, inducing cell agglutination, and decreasing growth of methanogens and production of methane. Only antisera to selected methanogen fractions were able to achieve these effects. The results demonstrate the feasibility of a vaccination strategy to mitigate emission

  16. Life cycle energy use, costs, and greenhouse gas emission of broiler farms in different production systems in Iran-a case study of Alborz province.

    PubMed

    Pishgar-Komleh, Seyyed Hassan; Akram, Asadollah; Keyhani, Alireza; van Zelm, Rosalie

    2017-07-01

    In order to achieve sustainable development in agriculture, it is necessary to quantify and compare the energy, economic, and environmental aspects of products. This paper studied the energy, economic, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission patterns in broiler chicken farms in the Alborz province of Iran. We studied the effect of the broiler farm size as different production systems on the energy, economic, and environmental indices. Energy use efficiency (EUE) and benefit-cost ratio (BCR) were 0.16 and 1.11, respectively. Diesel fuel and feed contributed the most in total energy inputs, while feed and chicks were the most important inputs in economic analysis. GHG emission calculations showed that production of 1000 birds produces 19.13 t CO2-eq and feed had the highest share in total GHG emission. Total GHG emissions based on different functional units were 8.5 t CO2-eq per t of carcass and 6.83 kg CO2-eq per kg live weight. Results of farm size effect on EUE revealed that large farms had better energy management. For BCR, there was no significant difference between farms. Lower total GHG emissions were reported for large farms, caused by better management of inputs and fewer bird losses. Large farms with more investment had more efficient equipment, resulting in a decrease of the input consumption. In view of our study, it is recommended to support the small-scale broiler industry by providing subsidies to promote the use of high-efficiency equipment. To decrease the amount of energy usage and GHG emissions, replacing heaters (which use diesel fuel) with natural gas heaters can be considered. In addition to the above recommendations, the use of energy saving light bulbs may reduce broiler farm electricity consumption.

  17. Toward a more comprehensive greenhouse gas emissions assessment of biofuels: the case of forest-based fischer-tropsch diesel production in Finland.

    PubMed

    Soimakallio, Sampo

    2014-01-01

    Increasing the use of biofuels influences atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations. Although widely recognized, uncertainties related to the particular impacts are typically ignored or only partly considered. In this paper, various sources of uncertainty related to the GHG emission savings of biofuels are considered comprehensively and transparently through scenario analysis and stochastic simulation. Technology and feedstock production chain-specific factors, market-mediated factors and climate policy time frame issues are reflected using as a case study Fischer-Tropsch diesel derived from boreal forest biomass in Finland. This case study shows that the GHG emission savings may be positive or negative in many of the cases studied, and are subject to significant uncertainties, which are mainly determined by market-mediated factors related to fossil diesel substitution. Regardless of the considerable uncertainties, some robust conclusions could be drawn; it was likely of achieving some sort of but unlikely of achieving significant savings in the GHG emissions within the 100 year time frame in many cases. Logging residues (branches) performed better than stumps and living stem wood in terms of the GHG emission savings, which could be increased mainly by blocking carbon leakage. Forest carbon stock changes also significantly contributed to the GHG emission savings.

  18. Phthalate esters in soil, plastic film, and vegetable from greenhouse vegetable production bases in Beijing, China: Concentrations, sources, and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Chen, Jiayi; Wang, Jihua; Han, Ping; Luan, Yunxia; Ma, Xupu; Lu, Anxiang

    2016-10-15

    The increased use of plastic film in greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) could result in phthalate ester (PAE) contamination in vegetables. However, limited information is currently available on their occurrence and associated potential risks in GVP systems. The present study documents the occurrence and composition of 15 PAEs in soil, plastic film, and vegetable samples from eight large-scale GVP bases in Beijing, China. Results showed that PAEs are ubiquitous contaminants in these GVP bases. Total PAE concentrations ranged from 0.14 to 2.13mg/kg (mean 0.99mg/kg) in soils and from 0.15 to 6.94mg/kg (mean 1.49mg/kg) in vegetables. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-n-butyl phthalate, and diisobutyl phthalate were the most abundant components, which accounted for >90% of the total PAEs. This investigation also indicated that the widespread application of plastic film in GVP systems may be the primary source of these PAEs. The non-cancer and carcinogenic risks of target PAEs were estimated based on the exposures of vegetable intake. The hazard quotients of PAE in all vegetable samples were lower than 1 and the carcinogenic risks were also at acceptable levels for consumers. The data in this study can provide valuable information to understand the status of potential pollutants, specifically PAEs, in GVP systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Urea deep placement reduces yield-scaled greenhouse gas (CH4 and N2O) and NO emissions from a ground cover rice production system.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhisheng; Zheng, Xunhua; Zhang, Yanan; Liu, Chunyan; Wang, Rui; Lin, Shan; Zuo, Qiang; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2017-09-12

    Ground cover rice production system (GCRPS), i.e., paddy soils being covered by thin plastic films with soil moisture being maintained nearly saturated status, is a promising technology as increased yields are achieved with less irrigation water. However, increased soil aeration and temperature under GCRPS may cause pollution swapping in greenhouse gas (GHG) from CH4 to N2O emissions. A 2-year experiment was performed, taking traditional rice cultivation as a reference, to assess the impacts of N-fertilizer placement methods on CH4, N2O and NO emissions and rice yields under GCRPS. Averaging across all rice seasons and N-fertilizer treatments, the GHG emissions for GCRPS were 1973 kg CO2-eq ha(-1) (or 256 kg CO2-eq Mg(-1)), which is significantly lower than that of traditional cultivation (4186 kg CO2-eq ha(-1)or 646 kg CO2-eq Mg(-1)). Furthermore, if urea was placed at a 10-15 cm soil depth instead of broadcasting, the yield-scaled GHG emissions from GCRPS were further reduced from 377 to 222 kg CO2-eq Mg(-1), as N2O emissions greatly decreased while yields increased. Urea deep placement also reduced yield-scaled NO emissions by 54%. Therefore, GCRPS with urea deep placement is a climate- and environment-smart management, which allows for maximal rice yields at minimal GHG and NO emissions.

  20. Greenhouse gases and agriculture. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically enhanced greenhouse effect. (Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are ranked first and second, respectively.) Specifically, greenhouse gas sources and sinks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by conversion of land to agricultural use, using fertilizers, cultivating paddy rice, producing other plant and animal crops, and by creating and managing animal and plant wastes. However, some of these same activities increase greenhouse gas sinks and decrease greenhouse gas sources so the net effects are not obvious. The paper identifies the agricultural inputs, outputs, and wastes that alter atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxides, and discusses agriculture's net impact on greenhouse gas fluxes.

  1. Chemolithoautotrophic production mediating the cycling of the greenhouses gases N2O and CH4 in an upwelling ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farías, L.; Fernández, C.; Faúndez, J.; Cornejo, M.; Alcaman, M. E.

    2009-06-01

    Coastal upwelling ecosystems with marked oxyclines (redoxclines) present high availability of electron donors that favour chemoautotrophy, leading in turn to high N2O and CH4 cycling associated with aerobic NH4+ (AAO) and CH4 oxidation (AMO). This is the case of the highly productive coastal upwelling area off Central Chile (36° S), where we evaluated the importance of total chemolithoautotrophic vs. photoautotrophic production, the specific contributions of AAO and AMO to chemosynthesis and their role in gas cycling. Chemoautotrophy (involving bacteria and archaea) was studied at a time-series station during monthly (2002-2009) and seasonal cruises (January 2008, September 2008, January 2009) and was assessed in terms of dark carbon assimilation (CA), N2O and CH4 cycling, and the natural C isotopic ratio of particulate organic carbon (δ13POC). Total Integrated dark CA fluctuated between 19.4 and 2.924 mg C m-2 d-1. It was higher during active upwelling and represented on average 27% of the integrated photoautotrophic production (from 135 to 7.626 mg C m-2d-1). At the oxycline, δ13POC averaged -22.209‰ this was significantly lighter compared to the surface (-19.674‰) and bottom layers (-20.716‰). This pattern, along with low NH4+ content and high accumulations of N2O, NO2- and NO3- within the oxycline indicates that chemolithoautotrophs and specifically AA oxydisers were active. Dark CA was reduced from 27 to 48% after addition of a specific AAO inhibitor (ATU) and from 24 to 76% with GC7, a specific archaea inhibitor, indicating that AAO and maybe AMO microbes (most of them archaea) were performing dark CA through oxidation of NH4+ and CH4. AAO produced N2O at rates from 8.88 to 43 nM d-1 and a fraction of it was effluxed into the atmosphere (up to 42.85 μmol m-2 d-1). AMO on the other hand consumed CH4 at rates between 0.41 and 26.8 nM d-1 therefore preventing its efflux to the atmosphere (up to 18.69 μmol m-2 d-1). These findings show that chemically

  2. Chemolithoautotrophic production mediating the cycling of the greenhouse gases N2O and CH4 in an upwelling ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farías, L.; Fernández, C.; Faúndez, J.; Cornejo, M.; Alcaman, M. E.

    2009-12-01

    The high availability of electron donors occurring in coastal upwelling ecosystems with marked oxyclines favours chemoautotrophy, in turn leading to high N2O and CH4 cycling associated with aerobic NH4+ (AAO) and CH4 oxidation (AMO). This is the case of the highly productive coastal upwelling area off central Chile (36° S), where we evaluated the importance of total chemolithoautotrophic vs. photoautotrophic production, the specific contributions of AAO and AMO to chemosynthesis and their role in gas cycling. Chemolithoautotrophy was studied at a time-series station during monthly (2007-2009) and seasonal cruises (January 2008, September 2008, January 2009) and was assessed in terms of the natural C isotopic ratio of particulate organic carbon (δ13POC), total and specific (associated with AAO and AMO) dark carbon assimilation (CA), and N2O and CH4 cycling experiments. At the oxycline, δ13POC averaged -22.2‰; this was significantly lighter compared to the surface (-19.7‰) and bottom layers (-20.7‰). Total integrated dark CA in the whole water column fluctuated between 19.4 and 2.924 mg C m-2 d-1, was higher during active upwelling, and contributed 0.7 to 49.7% of the total integrated autotrophic CA (photo plus chemoautotrophy), which ranged from 135 to 7.626 mg C m-2 d-1, and averaged 20.3% for the whole sampling period. Dark CA was reduced by 27 to 48% after adding a specific AAO inhibitor (ATU) and by 24 to 76% with GC7, a specific archaea inhibitor. This indicates that AAO and AMO microbes (most of them archaea) were performing dark CA through the oxidation of NH4+ and CH4. Net N2O cycling rates varied between 8.88 and 43 nM d-1, whereas net CH4 cycling rates ranged from -0.41 to -26.8 nM d-1. The addition of both ATU and GC7 reduced N2O accumulation and increased CH4 consumption, suggesting that AAO and AMO were responsible, in part, for the cycling of these gases. These findings show that chemically driven chemolithoautotrophy (with NH4+ and CH4 acting

  3. Accumulation, sources and health risks of trace metals in elevated geochemical background soils used for greenhouse vegetable production in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haidong; Huang, Biao; Dong, Linlin; Hu, Wenyou; Akhtar, Mohammad Saleem; Qu, Mingkai

    2017-03-01

    Greenhouse vegetable cultivation with substantive manure and fertilizer input on soils with an elevated geochemical background can accumulate trace metals in soils and plants leading to human health risks. Studies on trace metal accumulation over a land use shift duration in an elevated geochemical background scenario are lacking. Accumulation characteristics of seven trace metals in greenhouse soil and edible plants were evaluated along with an assessment of the health risk to the consumers. A total of 118 greenhouse surface soils (0-20cm) and 30 vegetables were collected from Kunming City, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, and analyzed for total Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, As, Hg, and Cr content by ICP-MS and AFS. The trace metals were ordered Cu>Cd>Hg>Zn>Pb>As>Cr in greenhouse soils accumulation level, and the geo-accumulation index suggested the soil more severely polluted with Cd, Cu, Hg and Zn. The greenhouse and open-field soils had significant difference in Cd, Cr and Zn. The duration of shift from paddy to greenhouse land-use significantly influenced trace metal accumulation with a dramatic change during five to ten year greenhouse land-use, and continuous increase of Cd and Hg. A spatial pattern from north to south for Cd and Hg and a zonal pattern for Cu and Zn were found. An anthropogenic source primarily caused trace metal accumulation, where the principal component analysis/multiple linear regression indicated a contribution 61.2%. While the assessment showed no potential risk for children and adults, the hazard health risks index was greater than one for adolescents. The extended duration of land use as greenhouses caused the trace metal accumulation, rotation in land use should be promoted to reduce the health risks.

  4. Mars Greenhouses: Concepts and Challenges. Proceedings from a 1999 Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Ray M. (Editor); Martin-Brennan, Cindy (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Topic covered include :Plants on Mars: On the Next Mission and in the Long Term Future; Bubbles in the Rocks: Natural and Artificial Caves and Cavities as Like Support Structures; Challenges for Bioregenerative Life Support on Mars; Cost Effectiveness Issues; Low Pressure Systems for Plant Growth; Plant Responses to Rarified Atmospheres; Can CO2 be Used as a Pressurizing Gas for Mars Greenhouses?; Inflatable Habitats Technology Development; Development of an Inflatable Greenhouse for a Modular Crop Production System; Mars Inflatable Greenhouse Workshop; Design Needs for Mars Deployable Greenhouse; Preliminary Estimates of the Possibilities for Developing a Deployable Greenhouse for a Planetary Surface Mars; Low Pressure Greenhouse Concepts for Mars; Mars Greenhouse Study: Natural vs. Artificial Lighting; and Wire Culture for an Inflatable Mars Greenhouse and Other Future Inflatable Space Growth Chambers.

  5. A half-century of production-phase greenhouse gas emissions from food loss & waste in the global food supply chain.

    PubMed

    Porter, Stephen D; Reay, David S; Higgins, Peter; Bomberg, Elizabeth

    2016-11-15

    Research on loss & waste of food meant for human consumption (FLW) and its environmental impact typically focuses on a single or small number of commodities in a specific location and point in time. However, it is unclear how trends in global FLW and potential for climate impact have evolved. Here, by utilising the Food and Agriculture Organization's food balance sheet data, we expand upon existing literature. Firstly, we provide a differentiated (by commodity, country and supply chain stage) bottom-up approach; secondly, we conduct a 50-year longitudinal analysis of global FLW and its production-phase greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions; and thirdly, we trace food wastage and its associated emissions through the entire food supply chain. Between 1961 and 2011 the annual amount of FLW by mass grew a factor of three - from 540Mt to 1.6Gt; associated production-phase (GHG) emissions more than tripled (from 680Mt to 2.2Gt CO2e). A 44% increase in global average per capita FLW emissions was also identified - from 225kg CO2e in 1961 to 323kg CO2e in 2011. The regional weighting within this global average changing markedly over time; in 1961 developed countries accounted for 48% of FLW and less than a quarter (24%) in 2011. The largest increases in FLW-associated GHG emissions were from developing economies, specifically China and Latin America - primarily from increasing losses in fruit and vegetables. Over the period examined, cumulatively such emissions added almost 68Gt CO2e to the atmospheric GHG stock; an amount the rough equivalent of two years of emissions from all anthropogenic sources at present rates. Building up from the most granular data available, this study highlights the growth in the climate burden of FLW emissions, and thus the need to improve efficiency in food supply chains to mitigate future emissions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Greenhouse gas emissions, soil quality, and crop productivity from a mono-rice cultivation system as influenced by fallow season straw management.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Hussain, Saddam; Wu, Lishu; Qin, Ziguo; Li, Xiaokun; Lu, Jianwei; Khan, Fahad; Cao, Weidong; Geng, Mingjian

    2016-01-01

    Straw management during fallow season may influence crop productivity, soil quality, and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from rice field. A 3-year field experiment was carried out in central China to examine the influence of different fallow season straw management practices on rice yield, soil properties, and emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from a mono-rice cultivation system. The treatments comprised an unfertilized control (CK), inorganic fertilization (NPK), rice straw burning in situ (NPK + RSB), rice straw mulching (NPK + RSM), and rice straw strip mulching with green manuring (NPK + RSM + GM). The maximum rice yield, soil organic carbon, soil total nitrogen, and available potassium were observed in NPK + RSM + GM treatment. Compared with NPK, the NPK + RSM + GM recorded 9% higher grain yield averaged across 3 years. However, NPK + RSM and NPK + RSB were statistically similar with NPK regarding grain yield. The NPK + RSM and NPK + RSM + GM recorded significantly higher CH4 emission during rice growing season as well as winter fallow; however, the response of N2O emissions was variable. The NPK + RSM and NPK + RSM + GM were statistically similar for annual cumulative CH4 and N2O emissions. The NPK + RSM + GM recorded 103 and 72% higher straw-induced net economic benefits and soil organic carbon sequestration rate, and reduced net global warming potential by 27% as compared with NPK + RSM. Considering the benefits of soil fertility, higher crop productivity, and environmental safety, the NPK + RSM + GM could be the most feasible and sustainable option for mono-rice cultivation system in central China.

  7. 4. Perspective view, greenhouse, from the southwest. The greenhouse is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Perspective view, greenhouse, from the southwest. The greenhouse is the portion of the seed house to the right (south) of the double doors. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Incorporating Agricultural Management Practices into the Assessment of Soil Carbon Change and Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Corn Stover Ethanol Production

    SciTech Connect

    Qin, Zhangcai; Canter, Christina E.; Dunn, Jennifer B.; Mueller, Steffen; Kwon, Ho-young; Han, Jeongwoo; Wander, Michelle M.; Wang, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Land management practices such as cover crop adoption or manure application that can increase soil organic carbon (SOC) may provide a way to counter SOC loss upon removal of stover from corn fields for use as a biofuel feedstock. This report documents the data, methodology, and assumptions behind the incorporation of land management practices into corn-soybean systems that dominate U.S. grain production using varying levels of stover removal in the GREETTM (Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation) model and its CCLUB (Carbon Calculator for Land Use change from Biofuels production) module. Tillage (i.e., conventional, reduced and no tillage), corn stover removal (i.e., at 0, 30% and 60% removal rate), and organic matter input techniques (i.e., cover crop and manure application) are included in the analysis as major land management practices. Soil carbon changes associated with land management changes were modeled with a surrogate CENTURY model. The resulting SOC changes were incorporated into CCLUB while GREET was expanded to include energy and material consumption associated with cover crop adoption and manure application. Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of stover ethanol were estimated using a marginal approach (all burdens and benefits assigned to corn stover ethanol) and an energy allocation approach (burdens and benefits divided between grain and stover ethanol). In the latter case, we considered corn grain and corn stover ethanol to be produced at an integrated facility. Life-cycle GHG emissions of corn stover ethanol are dependent upon the analysis approach selected (marginal versus allocation) and the land management techniques applied. The expansion of CCLUB and GREET to accommodate land management techniques can produce a wide range of results because users can select from multiple scenario options such as choosing tillage levels, stover removal rates, and whether crop yields increase annually or remain constant

  9. Thoughts from the Greenhouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonstrom, Wendy Jean

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author compares the functions of a graduate adult education program and a greenhouse. A graduate adult education program is a place where, like in a greenhouse, exciting new hybrids can be developed--working with people outside the school of education, in different disciplines and beyond the university's walls, sharing what…

  10. Thoughts from the Greenhouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonstrom, Wendy Jean

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author compares the functions of a graduate adult education program and a greenhouse. A graduate adult education program is a place where, like in a greenhouse, exciting new hybrids can be developed--working with people outside the school of education, in different disciplines and beyond the university's walls, sharing what…

  11. Greenhouse Operation and Management. Instructor Guide and Student Reference. Missouri Agricultural Education. Volume 21, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Judith A.; And Others

    These student and instructor materials for a one-semester course intended for high school juniors and seniors teach the following 24 lessons: (1) the scope and development of greenhouse production; (2) the economic importance of greenhouse crops; (3) careers in greenhouse operation and management; (4) greenhouse parts, structures, and coverings;…

  12. Greenhouse Operation and Management. Instructor Guide and Student Reference. Missouri Agricultural Education. Volume 21, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Judith A.; And Others

    These student and instructor materials for a one-semester course intended for high school juniors and seniors teach the following 24 lessons: (1) the scope and development of greenhouse production; (2) the economic importance of greenhouse crops; (3) careers in greenhouse operation and management; (4) greenhouse parts, structures, and coverings;…

  13. Assessment of the Contribution of Poultry and Pig Production to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in South Korea Over the Last 10 Years (2005 through 2014)

    PubMed Central

    Boontiam, Waewaree; Shin, Yongjin; Choi, Hong Lim; Kumari, Priyanka

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to estimate the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), namely methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) from poultry and pig production in South Korea over the last 10 years (2005 through 2014). The calculations of GHG emissions were based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. Over the study period, the CH4 emission from manure management decreased in layer chickens, nursery to finishing pigs and gestating to lactating sows, but there was a gradual increase in CH4 emission from broiler chickens and male breeding pigs. Both sows and nursery to finishing pigs were associated with greater emissions from enteric fermentation than the boars, especially in 2009. Layer chickens produced lower direct and indirect N2O emissions from 2009 to 2014, whereas the average direct and indirect N2O emissions from manure management for broiler chickens were 12.48 and 4.93 Gg CO2-eq/yr, respectively. Annual direct and indirect N2O emissions for broiler chickens tended to decrease in 2014. Average CO2 emission from direct on-farm energy uses for broiler and layer chickens were 46.62 and 136.56 Gg CO2-eq/yr, respectively. For pig sectors, the N2O emission from direct and indirect sources gradually increased, but they decreased for breeding pigs. Carbon dioxide emission from direct on-farm energy uses reached a maximum of 53.93 Gg CO2-eq/yr in 2009, but this total gradually declined in 2010 and 2011. For boars, the greatest CO2 emission occurred in 2012 and was 9.44 Gg CO2-eq/yr. Indirect N2O emission was the largest component of GHG emissions in broilers. In layer chickens, the largest contributing factor to GHG emissions was CO2 from direct on-farm energy uses. For pig production, the largest component of GHG emissions was CH4 from manure management, followed by CO2 emission from direct on-farm energy use and CH4 enteric fermentation emission, which accounted for 8.47, 2.85, and 2.82 Gg-CO2/yr, respectively. The

  14. Assessment of the Contribution of Poultry and Pig Production to Greenhouse Gas Emissions in South Korea Over the Last 10 Years (2005 through 2014).

    PubMed

    Boontiam, Waewaree; Shin, Yongjin; Choi, Hong Lim; Kumari, Priyanka

    2016-12-01

    The goal of this study was to estimate the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), namely methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) from poultry and pig production in South Korea over the last 10 years (2005 through 2014). The calculations of GHG emissions were based on Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines. Over the study period, the CH4 emission from manure management decreased in layer chickens, nursery to finishing pigs and gestating to lactating sows, but there was a gradual increase in CH4 emission from broiler chickens and male breeding pigs. Both sows and nursery to finishing pigs were associated with greater emissions from enteric fermentation than the boars, especially in 2009. Layer chickens produced lower direct and indirect N2O emissions from 2009 to 2014, whereas the average direct and indirect N2O emissions from manure management for broiler chickens were 12.48 and 4.93 Gg CO2-eq/yr, respectively. Annual direct and indirect N2O emissions for broiler chickens tended to decrease in 2014. Average CO2 emission from direct on-farm energy uses for broiler and layer chickens were 46.62 and 136.56 Gg CO2-eq/yr, respectively. For pig sectors, the N2O emission from direct and indirect sources gradually increased, but they decreased for breeding pigs. Carbon dioxide emission from direct on-farm energy uses reached a maximum of 53.93 Gg CO2-eq/yr in 2009, but this total gradually declined in 2010 and 2011. For boars, the greatest CO2 emission occurred in 2012 and was 9.44 Gg CO2-eq/yr. Indirect N2O emission was the largest component of GHG emissions in broilers. In layer chickens, the largest contributing factor to GHG emissions was CO2 from direct on-farm energy uses. For pig production, the largest component of GHG emissions was CH4 from manure management, followed by CO2 emission from direct on-farm energy use and CH4 enteric fermentation emission, which accounted for 8.47, 2.85, and 2.82 Gg-CO2/yr, respectively. The

  15. Life in Ice: Microbial Growth Dynamics and Greenhouse Gas Production During Winter in a Thermokarst Bog Revealed by Stable Isotope Probing Targeted Metagenomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blazewicz, S.; White, R. A., III; Tas, N.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Mcfarland, J. W.; Jansson, J.; Waldrop, M. P.

    2016-12-01

    Permafrost contains a reservoir of frozen C estimated to be twice the size of the current atmospheric C pool. In response to changing climate, permafrost is rapidly warming which could result in widespread seasonal thawing. When permafrost thaws, soils that are rich in ice and C often transform into thermokarst wetlands with anaerobic conditions and significant production of atmospheric CH4. While most C flux research in recently thawed permafrost concentrates on the few summer months when seasonal thaw has occurred, there is mounting evidence that sizeable portions of annual CO2 and CH4 efflux occurs over winter or during a rapid burst of emissions associated with seasonal thaw. A potential mechanism for such efflux patterns is microbial activity in frozen soils over winter where gasses produced are partially trapped within ice until spring thaw. In order to better understand microbial transformation of soil C to greenhouse gas over winter, we applied stable isotope probing (SIP) targeted metagenomics combined with process measurements and field flux data to reveal activities of microbial communities in `frozen' soil from an Alaskan thermokarst bog. Field studies revealed build-up of CO2 and CH4 in frozen soils suggesting that microbial activity persisted throughout the winter in soils poised just below the freezing point. Laboratory incubations designed to simulate in-situ winter conditions (-1.5 °C and anaerobic) revealed continuous CH4 and CO2 production. Strikingly, the quantity of CH4 produced in 6 months in frozen soil was equivalent to approximately 80% of CH4 emitted during the 3 month summer `active' season. Heavy water SIP targeted iTag sequencing revealed growing bacteria and archaea in the frozen anaerobic soil. Growth was primarily observed in two bacterial phyla, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, suggesting that fermentation was likely the major C mineralization pathway. SIP targeted metagenomics facilitated characterization of the primary metabolic

  16. Farm simulation: a tool for evaluating the mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and the adaptation of dairy production to climate change

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Process-level modeling at the farm scale provides a tool for evaluating both strategies for mitigating greenhouse gas emissions and strategies for adapting to climate change. The Integrated Farm System Model (IFSM) simulates representative crop, beef or dairy farms over many years of weather to pred...

  17. Evaluation of corn plant as potential banker plant for supporting predatory gall Midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in greenhouse vegetable production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most important and highly polyphagous pests of vegetables and other crops worldwide. In this study, several experiments were conducted under laboratory and greenhouse conditions to evaluate whether corn plant ...

  18. Greenhouse Gas Flux and Crop Productivity after 10 Years of Reduced and No Tillage in a Wheat-Maize Cropping System

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Shenzhong; Wang, Yu; Ning, Tangyuan; Zhao, Hongxiang; Wang, Bingwen; Li, Na; Li, Zengjia; Chi, Shuyun

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate tillage plays an important role in mitigating the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) in regions with higher crop yields, but the emission situations of some reduced tillage systems such as subsoiling, harrow tillage and rotary tillage are not comprehensively studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the emission characteristics of GHG (CH4 and N2O) under four reduced tillage systems from October 2007 to August 2009 based on a 10-yr tillage experiment in the North China Plain, which included no-tillage (NT) and three reduced tillage systems of subsoil tillage (ST), harrow tillage (HT) and rotary tillage (RT), with the conventional tillage (CT) as the control. The soil under the five tillage systems was an absorption sink for CH4 and an emission source for N2O. The soil temperature positive impacted on the CH4 absorption by the soils of different tillage systems, while a significant negative correlation was observed between the absorption and soil moisture. The main driving factor for increased N2O emission was not the soil temperature but the soil moisture and the content of nitrate. In the two rotation cycle of wheat-maize system (10/2007–10/2008 and 10/2008–10/2009), averaged cumulative uptake fluxes of CH4 under CT, ST, HT, RT and NT systems were approximately 1.67, 1.72, 1.63, 1.77 and 1.17 t ha−1 year−1, respectively, and meanwhile, approximately 4.43, 4.38, 4.47, 4.30 and 4.61 t ha−1 year−1 of N2O were emitted from soil of these systems, respectively. Moreover, they also gained 33.73, 34.63, 32.62, 34.56 and 27.54 t ha−1 yields during two crop-rotation periods, respectively. Based on these comparisons, the rotary tillage and subsoiling mitigated the emissions of CH4 and N2O as well as improving crop productivity of a wheat-maize cropping system. PMID:24019923

  19. Greenhouse gas flux and crop productivity after 10 years of reduced and no tillage in a wheat-maize cropping system.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shenzhong; Wang, Yu; Ning, Tangyuan; Zhao, Hongxiang; Wang, Bingwen; Li, Na; Li, Zengjia; Chi, Shuyun

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate tillage plays an important role in mitigating the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) in regions with higher crop yields, but the emission situations of some reduced tillage systems such as subsoiling, harrow tillage and rotary tillage are not comprehensively studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the emission characteristics of GHG (CH4 and N2O) under four reduced tillage systems from October 2007 to August 2009 based on a 10-yr tillage experiment in the North China Plain, which included no-tillage (NT) and three reduced tillage systems of subsoil tillage (ST), harrow tillage (HT) and rotary tillage (RT), with the conventional tillage (CT) as the control. The soil under the five tillage systems was an absorption sink for CH4 and an emission source for N2O. The soil temperature positive impacted on the CH4 absorption by the soils of different tillage systems, while a significant negative correlation was observed between the absorption and soil moisture. The main driving factor for increased N2O emission was not the soil temperature but the soil moisture and the content of nitrate. In the two rotation cycle of wheat-maize system (10/2007-10/2008 and 10/2008-10/2009), averaged cumulative uptake fluxes of CH4 under CT, ST, HT, RT and NT systems were approximately 1.67, 1.72, 1.63, 1.77 and 1.17 t ha(-1) year(-1), respectively, and meanwhile, approximately 4.43, 4.38, 4.47, 4.30 and 4.61 t ha(-1) year(-1) of N2O were emitted from soil of these systems, respectively. Moreover, they also gained 33.73, 34.63, 32.62, 34.56 and 27.54 t ha(-1) yields during two crop-rotation periods, respectively. Based on these comparisons, the rotary tillage and subsoiling mitigated the emissions of CH4 and N2O as well as improving crop productivity of a wheat-maize cropping system.

  20. Fort Yukon Greenhouse Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Tanana Chiefs Conference is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  1. Operating and Maintaining the Greenhouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresser, Priscilla A.

    This learning guide is designed to assist vocational agriculture students in mastering 20 tasks involved in the operation and maintenance of a greenhouse. Addressed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: identification of greenhouse designs, greenhouse construction, basic greenhouse maintenance to conserve energy,…

  2. Effect of farming practices for greenhouse gas mitigation and subsequent alternative land use on environmental impacts of beef cattle production systems.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, T T H; Doreau, M; Eugène, M; Corson, M S; Garcia-Launay, F; Chesneau, G; van der Werf, H M G

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluated effects of farming practice scenarios aiming to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and subsequent alternative land use on environmental impacts of a beef cattle production system using the life cycle assessment approach. The baseline scenario includes a standard cow-calf herd with finishing heifers based on grazing, and a standard bull-fattening herd using a diet mainly based on maize silage, corresponding to current farm characteristics and management by beef farmers in France. Alternative scenarios were developed with changes in farming practices. Some scenarios modified grassland management (S1: decreasing mineral N fertiliser on permanent grassland; S2: decreasing grass losses during grazing) or herd management (S3: underfeeding of heifers in winter; S4: fattening female calves instead of being reared at a moderate growth rate; S5: increasing longevity of cows from 7 to 9 years; S6: advancing first calving age from 3 to 2 years). Other scenarios replaced protein sources (S7: partially replacing a protein supplement by lucerne hay for the cow-calf herd; S8: replacing soya bean meal with rapeseed meal for the fattening herd) or increased n-3 fatty acid content using extruded linseed (S9). The combination of compatible scenarios S1, S2, S5, S6 and S8 was also studied (S10). The impacts, such as climate change (CC, not including CO2 emissions/sequestration of land use and land-use change, LULUC), CC/LULUC (including CO2 emissions of LULUC), cumulative energy demand, eutrophication (EP), acidification and land occupation (LO) were expressed per kg of carcass mass and per ha of land occupied. Compared with the baseline, the most promising practice to reduce impacts per kg carcass mass was S10 (all reduced by 13% to 28%), followed by S6 (by 8% to 10%). For other scenarios, impact reduction did not exceed 5%, except for EP (up to 11%) and LO (up to 10%). Effects of changes in farming practices (the scenarios) on environmental impacts varied

  3. Solar energy utilization in a greenhouse/animal shelter combination

    SciTech Connect

    Spillman, C.K.; Greig, J.K.; Johnson, G.A.; Hartford, J.R.; Koch, B.A.; Hines, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Two greenhouses are being used at Kansas State Univesity to evaluate use of exhaust air from an animal shelter and its effect on greenhouse production. The control greenhouse is attached to the headquarters building and operated conventionally. The experimental house is attached to a swine finishing building and has air handling equipment to introduce hoghouse air to the greenhouse at 680 m/sup 3//h (400 cfm) or 1200 m/sup 3//h (700 cfm) and has a rock storage system with about 1 m/sup 3/ of rock for each 2 m/sup 2/ of greenhouse floor space. Cucumber, tomato, and broccoli plants in the experimental greenhouse have darker green foliage than plants in the control house regardless of nitrogen levels. The fall cucumber study indicated a 31 percent increase in number of marketable fruits from the experimental house. Marketable fruits from the experimental house weighed 40 percent more than those from the control house.

  4. USDA Northeast climate hub greenhouse gas mitigation workshop technical report

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In April 2015, USDA Secretary Vilsack announced the Greenhouse Gas Building Blocks for Climate Smart Agriculture and Forestry in an effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, increase carbon sequestration, and expand renewable energy production in the agricultural and forestry sectors. This initiati...

  5. An integrated study of nutrient leaching and greenhouse gas emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nutrient leaching and greenhouse gas emission are two of the primary environmental impacts of crop production. These processes have been studied at great length separately, but few integrated studies of leaching and greenhouse gas emission have been conducted. We measured nutrient leaching and green...

  6. Analysis on Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions by the Introduction of a Bio-methane Production Plant Using Dairy Cow Slurry as the Main Ingredient, and Management Balance of the Plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Takashi; Hideshima, Yoshiaki; Shudo, Yukoh; Ohmiya, Kazuhiko

    A study was conducted on a system to refine biogas generated from a biogas plant, which uses cow slurry as its main ingredient, and use the bio-methane as a regional energy supply source. Based on the data obtained by the demonstrative operation of the biogas plant and bio-methane production experiments, a bio-methane production plant that can process waste from 1,000 dairy cows was assumed, and optimization of plant operation was attempted using the linear programming method with maximum environmental friendliness (reduction of greenhouse gas emissions) and economic efficiency (management balance of the plant) as the target functions. The results revealed that plant operation methods varied according to the target of optimization. Environmental friendliness and economic efficiency were in a trade-off relationship with each other, but in the case where the greatest importance was placed on economic efficiency, greenhouse gas emissions were equivalent to that in the case where the greatest importance was placed on environmental friendliness itself. However, the values of economic efficiency were negative in both cases, indicating that it is difficult to make the plant management economically feasible under the current circumstances. To make the plant management balance positive, it is necessary to take measures, such as reduction of plant construction costs and exemption from interest costs. In addition, as a future direction for such regional bio-methane use, a micro grid system with a dispersed power source using bio-methane as raw fuel was presented.

  7. 15. Interior view, greenhouse, from the northwest. The greenhouse interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view, greenhouse, from the northwest. The greenhouse interior was quite modest, the space between the floor of the lower level and the joists carrying the loft floor is only five-and-one-half feet. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. Greenhouse Gas Court Decision

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the June 26, 2012, U.S. Court of Appeals- D.C. Circuit's decision to uphold EPA's Endangerment Finding and greenhouse gas regulations issued under the Clean Air Act (CAA) for passenger vehicles and CAA permitting for stationary sources.

  9. Robotic System For Greenhouse Or Nursery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul; Montgomery, Jim; Silver, John; Heffelfinger, Neil; Simonton, Ward; Pease, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Report presents additional information about robotic system described in "Robotic Gripper With Force Control And Optical Sensors" (MFS-28537). "Flexible Agricultural Robotics Manipulator System" (FARMS) serves as prototype of robotic systems intended to enhance productivities of agricultural assembly-line-type facilities in large commercial greenhouses and nurseries.

  10. Measuring and managing reservoir greenhouse gas emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with a heat trapping capacity 34 times greater than that of carbon dioxide on a 100 year time scale. Known anthropogenic CH4 sources include livestock production, rice agriculture, landfills, and natural gas...

  11. Measuring and managing reservoir greenhouse gas emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with a heat trapping capacity 34 times greater than that of carbon dioxide on a 100 year time scale. Known anthropogenic CH4 sources include livestock production, rice agriculture, landfills, and natural gas...

  12. Operation GREENHOUSE-1951. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berkhouse, L.; Davis, S.E.; Gladeck, F.R.; Hallowell, J.H.; Jones, C.B.

    1983-06-15

    GREENHOUSE was a four-detonation atmospheric nuclear weapon's test series conducted in the Marshall Islands at Enewetak Atoll in April and May 1951. This is a report of DOD personnel in GREENHOUSE with an emphasis on operational radiological safety.

  13. Greenhouse of the future. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cavin, B. III

    1998-07-03

    This greenhouse of the future is located at the Center for Regenerative Studies (CRS) at Cal Poly Pomona. The building design was driven by desired environmental conditions. The primary objective was to keep the interior space warm during winter for the breeding of fish and other greenhouse activities, especially in the winter. To do this, a highly insulating envelope was needed. Straw bales provide excellent insulation with an R-value of approximately 50 and also help solve the environmental problems associated with this agricultural waste product. A summary of the construction progress, construction costs and operating costs are included.

  14. (Solar pods (greenhouses))

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    Detailed instructions for the construction of solar pads are presented. The materials necessary for constructing the solar pad are made available in kit form. A list of the materials includes: dome shaped double glazing; end plates and supports; 2 x 4's; a snow support rib; and pressure strips. Assembly of the structure is made easy with an electric drill and simple hand tools. The solar pads resemble miniature greenhouses and are used for year round horticulture. (BCS)

  15. Iron versus the greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Monastersky, R.

    1995-09-30

    This paper reports on the possible repercussions of a Pacific Ocean experiment which demonstrated the effects of adding iron to the ocean. The plant growth stimulated was enough to use 350000 kilograms of carbon dioxide from the seawater. If performed on a large scale, fertilization of ocean water could absorb billions of tones of carbon dioxide from the air, enough to slow the rate of greenhouse warming. A variety of opinions are presented in the article.

  16. The greenhouse trap

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, F.; Mintzer, I.; Courrier, K.; MacKenzie, J.

    1990-01-01

    This book describes evidence of global warming and the contributions of man's activities to the process. The impacts of greenhouse gases on climate and health are discussed and recommendations are made for mitigation of these effects. Changes in fuel use, expansion of carbon sinks through planting of trees, and personal commitments to energy conservation are among these recommendations. Individual chapters were indexed separately for the data base.

  17. Operation GREENHOUSE-1951

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-15

    potential for exposure of weapon diagnostics participants. 26 Effects Experiments All four GREENHOUSE shots tested new weapon developments. Priorities of...but crawling some of the way. Each round trip took about 15 minutes and was made in a different set of test trousers (Reference 72, p. 10). Th...aboard two VB -29s, and aboard an RB-29 from the Strategic Air Command (SAC). flown in specifically to participate in this S. experiment. The film was

  18. The Greenhouse Gas Climate Change Initiative (GHG-CCI): comparative validation of GHG-CCI SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT and TANSO-FTS/GOSAT CO2 and CH4 retrieval algorithm products with measurements from the TCCON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dils, B.; Buchwitz, M.; Reuter, M.; Schneising, O.; Boesch, H.; Parker, R.; Guerlet, S.; Aben, I.; Blumenstock, T.; Burrows, J. P.; Butz, A.; Deutscher, N. M.; Frankenberg, C.; Hase, F.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Heymann, J.; De Mazière, M.; Notholt, J.; Sussmann, R.; Warneke, T.; Griffith, D.; Sherlock, V.; Wunch, D.

    2014-06-01

    Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane have been retrieved from spectra acquired by the TANSO-FTS (Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observations-Fourier Transform Spectrometer) and SCIAMACHY (Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Cartography) instruments on board GOSAT (Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite) and ENVISAT (ENVIronmental SATellite), respectively, using a range of European retrieval algorithms. These retrievals have been compared with data from ground-based high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs) from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). The participating algorithms are the weighting function modified differential optical absorption spectroscopy (DOAS) algorithm (WFMD, University of Bremen), the Bremen optimal estimation DOAS algorithm (BESD, University of Bremen), the iterative maximum a posteriori DOAS (IMAP, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Netherlands Institute for Space Research algorithm (SRON)), the proxy and full-physics versions of SRON's RemoTeC algorithm (SRPR and SRFP, respectively) and the proxy and full-physics versions of the University of Leicester's adaptation of the OCO (Orbiting Carbon Observatory) algorithm (OCPR and OCFP, respectively). The goal of this algorithm inter-comparison was to identify strengths and weaknesses of the various so-called round- robin data sets generated with the various algorithms so as to determine which of the competing algorithms would proceed to the next round of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Greenhouse Gas Climate Change Initiative (GHG-CCI) project, which is the generation of the so-called Climate Research Data Package (CRDP), which is the first version of the Essential Climate Variable (ECV) "greenhouse gases" (GHGs). For XCO2, all algorithms reach the precision requirements for inverse modelling (< 8 ppm), with only WFMD having a lower precision (4.7 ppm) than the other algorithm products (2.4-2.5 ppm

  19. Regulations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Commercial Trucks & Buses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are taking coordinated steps to enable the production of a new generation of clean vehicles, through reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improved fuel use from onroad vehicles.

  20. Regulations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Passenger Cars and Trucks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are taking coordinated steps to enable the production of a new generation of clean vehicles, through reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improved fuel use from onroad vehicles.

  1. A comparative analysis of well-to-wheel primary energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions for the operation of alternative and conventional vehicles in Switzerland, considering various energy carrier production pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanie, Mashael; Noembrini, Fabrizio; Dossetto, Lionel; Boulouchos, Konstantinos

    2014-03-01

    This study provides a comprehensive analysis of well-to-wheel (WTW) primary energy demand and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for the operation of conventional and alternative passenger vehicle drivetrains. Results are determined based on a reference vehicle, drivetrain/production process efficiencies, and lifecycle inventory data specific to Switzerland. WTW performance is compared to a gasoline internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV). Both industrialized and novel hydrogen and electricity production pathways are evaluated. A strong case is presented for pluggable electric vehicles (PEVs) due to their high drivetrain efficiency. However, WTW performance strongly depends on the electricity source. A critical electricity mix can be identified which divides optimal drivetrain performance between the EV, ICEV, and plug-in hybrid vehicle. Alternative drivetrain and energy carrier production pathways are also compared by natural resource. Fuel cell vehicle (FCV) performance proves to be on par with PEVs for energy carrier (EC) production via biomass and natural gas resources. However, PEVs outperform FCVs via solar energy EC production pathways. ICE drivetrains using alternative fuels, particularly biogas and CNG, yield remarkable WTW energy and emission reductions as well, indicating that alternative fuels, and not only alternative drivetrains, play an important role in the transition towards low-emission vehicles in Switzerland.

  2. Production of the greenhouse gases CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} by hydroelectric reservoirs of the boreal region

    SciTech Connect

    Duchemin, E.; Lucotte, M.; Canuel, R.

    1995-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate soil-water interface (benthic) and air-water interface emissions and flux of methane (CH{sub 4}) and carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) at two hydroelectric reservoirs in Quebec, Canada. Data were collected over 2 years at 11 sampling stations during ice-free seasons. The recorded emission fluxes were compared to water column depth, type of flooded soil, inundation history, and wind exposure. Most of the benthic fluxes measured for both gases were similar to those measured at the air-water interface. Unusual sampling conditions (e.g., strong winds, water columns less than one meter deep, or flooded peatland mats floating at the surface) resulted in above average emission fluxes. Preliminary analyses indicate that these higher emissions may be an important factor in calculating atmospheric emissions for large reservoirs. Emission fluxes at the water-air interface were determined to be controlled by molecular diffusion. Concentration profiles of the dissolved gases clearly demonstrated that oxidation and/or horizontal advection are controlling factors of atmospheric release. Neither benthic emission nor soil type appeared to control emissions of methane or carbon dioxide from the reservoirs. By rough approximation, it was proposed that hydroelectric reservoirs emit greenhouse gases on a much smaller scale than conventional thermal power plants producing equivalent amounts of energy. 51 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Reduction of greenhouse gas emissions from feed supply chains by utilizing regionally produced protein sources: the case of Austrian dairy production.

    PubMed

    Hörtenhuber, Stefan Josef; Lindenthal, Thomas; Zollitsch, Werner

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the potential greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) for regionally alternative produced protein-rich feedstuffs (APRFs) which are utilized for dairy cattle in Austria in comparison to solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBME). In addition to GHGE from agriculture and related upstream supply chains, the effects of land use change were calculated and were included in the results for GHGE. Furthermore, mixtures of APRFs were evaluated which provided energy and utilizable protein equivalent to SBME. Highest GHGE were estimated for SBME, mainly due to land use change-related emissions. Medium GHGE were found for distillers' dried grains with solubles, for seed cake and solvent-extracted meal from rapeseed and for lucerne cobs. Cake and solvent-extracted meal from sunflower seed as well as faba beans were loaded with lowest GHGE. Substituting SBME by nutritionally equivalent mixtures of APRFs, on average, resulted in a reduction of GHGE of 42% (22-62%). Utilization of locally produced APRFs shows clear advantages in terms of GHGE. Balanced mixtures of APRFs may offer specific benefits, as they allow for a combination of desirable nutritional value and reduced GHGE. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Managing honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) for greenhouse tomato pollination.

    PubMed

    Sabara, Holly A; Winston, Mark L

    2003-06-01

    Although commercially reared colonies of bumble bees (Bombus sp.) are the primary pollinator world-wide for greenhouse tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) previous research indicates that honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) might be a feasible alternative or supplement to bumble bee pollination. However, management methods for honey bee greenhouse tomato pollination scarcely have been explored. We 1) tested the effect of initial amounts of brood on colony population size and flight activity in screened greenhouses during the winter, and 2) compared foraging from colonies with brood used within screened and unscreened greenhouses during the summer. Brood rearing was maintained at low levels in both brood and no-brood colonies after 21 d during the winter, and emerging honey bees from both treatments had significantly lower weights than bees from outdoor colonies. Honey bee flight activity throughout the day and over the 21 d in the greenhouse was not influenced by initial brood level. In our summer experiment, brood production in screened greenhouses neared zero after 21 d but higher levels of brood were reared in unscreened greenhouses with access to outside forage. Flower visitation measured throughout the day and over the 21 d the colonies were in the greenhouse was not influenced by screening treatment. An economic analysis indicated that managing honey bees for greenhouse tomato pollination would be financially viable for both beekeepers and growers. We conclude that honey bees can be successfully managed for greenhouse tomato pollination in both screened and unscreened greenhouses if the foraging force is maintained by replacing colonies every 3 wk.

  5. Occupational asthma in greenhouse workers.

    PubMed

    Monsó, Eduard

    2004-03-01

    A prevalence of asthma over 5% has been reported in flower farmers,and work inside greenhouses has emerged as an additional risk factor. Workplace determinants behind this high prevalence has been examined, and a prevalence of sensitization to workplace allergens over 30% has been reported being pollens, moulds, and Tetranychus urticae allergens the main sensitizers. Bronchial challenge tests in the workplace have demonstrated occupational asthma in more than 20% of the sensitized greenhouse growers. Air contamination inside greenhouses is mainly related to moulds, and is facilitated by the high indoor temperature and humidity. Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Alternaria and a wide range of flower pollens are able to sensitize the greenhouse worker and cause occupational asthma. Tetranychus urticae have allergens shared with other mites, but the low prevalence of cross-sensitization between them confirm that Tetranychus urticae contains species-specific allergens that may cause respiratory symptoms. Additionally, working inside greenhouses has been related to an increase in the prevalence of chronic bronchitis in nonsmokers. The cultivation of greenhouse crops may cause occupational asthma through sensitization to workplace pollens, moulds, and Tetranychus urticae allergens. In greenhouse flower growers, skin testing identifies sensitization to these allergens in one third of the growers, and more than one fifth of the sensitized workers will develop occupational asthma. Greenhouse work has also been related to chronic bronchitis in nonsmokers, suggesting a causal effect of greenhouse air contaminants on this disease as well.

  6. Estimation of greenhouse impacts of continuous regional emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Sinisalo, J.

    1998-03-27

    In this thesis, a method to calculate the greenhouse impact of continuous, time-dependent, non-global greenhouse gas emissions is used to estimate the impact of estimated anthropogenic pre-1990 and future (post 1990) emissions of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O of Finland and Nordic countries. Estimates for the impact of Finnish CFCs and their substitutes and the significance of Finnnish forests as carbon sink are also calculated. The method is also used to compare several different wood and peat energy production schemes with fossil fuel use, in terms of caused greenhouse impact. The uncertainty of the results is examined.

  7. Greenhouse Management Curriculum Guide for Vocational Agriculture/Agribusiness. Curriculum Development. Bulletin No. 1824.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette.

    This document contains teacher's materials for an 8-unit course in greenhouse management for 11th and 12th graders. The units are as follows: Producing Annual Bedding Plants; Foliage Plants; General Greenhouse Management; Poinsettia Production; Vegetable Bedding Plant Production: Tomatoes, Peppers, and Eggplants; Production of Potted…

  8. Greenhouse Management Curriculum Guide for Vocational Agriculture/Agribusiness. Curriculum Development. Bulletin No. 1824.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette.

    This document contains teacher's materials for an 8-unit course in greenhouse management for 11th and 12th graders. The units are as follows: Producing Annual Bedding Plants; Foliage Plants; General Greenhouse Management; Poinsettia Production; Vegetable Bedding Plant Production: Tomatoes, Peppers, and Eggplants; Production of Potted…

  9. Has your greenhouse gone virtual?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Virtual Grower is a free decision-support software program available from USDA-ARS that allows growers to build a virtual greenhouse. It was initially designed to help greenhouse growers estimate heating costs and conduct simple simulations to figure out where heat savings could be achieved. Featu...

  10. Uptake of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate of vegetables from plastic film greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaowei; Du, Qizhen

    2011-11-09

    Uptake of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) of nine vegetables including potherb mustard, bok choy, celery, spinach, cabbage, leaf of tube, lettuce, garlic, and edible amaranth in plastic film greenhouses with different plastic films, film thickness, greenhouse age, and greenhouse height was studied. The results showed that the higher the DEHP content of film, the thicker the film, the lower the height of the greenhouse, and the younger the age of the greenhouse were, the higher the DEHP concentration of vegetables was. The results afford significant information for production of safe vegetables with low level DEHP contamination.

  11. The greenhouse of Titan.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of non-gray radiative equilibrium and gray convective equilibrium on Titan suggests that a massive molecular-hydrogen greenhouse effect may be responsible for the disagreement between the observed IR temperatures and the equilibrium temperature of an atmosphereless Titan. Calculations of convection indicate a probable minimum optical depth of 14 which corresponds to a molecular hydrogen shell of substantial thickness with total pressures of about 0.1 bar. It is suggested that there is an equilibrium between outgassing and blow-off on the one hand and accretion from the protons trapped in a hypothetical Saturnian magnetic field on the other, in the present atmosphere of Titan. It is believed that an outgassing equivalent to the volatilization of a few kilometers of subsurface ice is required to maintain the present blow-off rate without compensation for all geological time. The presence of an extensive hydrogen corona around Titan is postulated, with surface temperatures up to 200 K.

  12. The Greenhouse Gas Climate Change Initiative (GHG-CCI): comparative validation of GHG-CCI SCIAMACHY/ENVISAT and TANSO-FTS/GOSAT CO2 and CH4 retrieval algorithm products with measurements from the TCCON network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dils, B.; Buchwitz, M.; Reuter, M.; Schneising, O.; Boesch, H.; Parker, R.; Guerlet, S.; Aben, I.; Blumenstock, T.; Burrows, J. P.; Butz, A.; Deutscher, N. M.; Frankenberg, C.; Hase, F.; Hasekamp, O. P.; Heymann, J.; De Mazière, M.; Notholt, J.; Sussmann, R.; Warneke, T.; Griffith, D.; Sherlock, V.; Wunch, D.

    2013-10-01

    Column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of carbon dioxide and methane have been retrieved from spectra acquired by the TANSO-FTS and SCIAMACHY instruments on board GOSAT and ENVISAT using a range of European retrieval algorithms. These retrievals have been compared with data from ground-based high-resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). The participating algorithms are the Weighting Function Modified Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) algorithm (WFMD, University of Bremen), the Bremen Optimal Estimation DOAS algorithm (BESD, University of Bremen), the Iterative Maximum A Posteriori DOAS (IMAP, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Netherlands Institute for Space Research algorithm (SRON)), the proxy and full-physics versions of SRON's RemoTeC algorithm (SRPR and SRFP respectively) and the proxy and full-physics versions of the University of Leicester's adaptation of the OCO (Orbiting Carbon Observatory) algorithm (OCPR and OCFP respectively). The goal of this algorithm inter-comparison was to identify strengths and weaknesses of the various so-called Round Robin data sets generated with the various algorithms so as to determine which of the competing algorithms would proceed to the next round of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Greenhouse Gas Climate Change Initiative (GHG-CCI) project, which is the generation of the so-called Climate Research Data Package (CRDP), which is the first version of the Essential Climate Variable (ECV) "Greenhouse Gases" (GHG). For CO2, all algorithms reach the precision requirements for inverse modelling (< 8 ppb), with only WFMD having a lower precision (4.7 ppm) than the other algorithm products (2.4-2.5 ppm). When looking at the seasonal relative accuracy (SRA, variability of the bias in space and time), none of the algorithms have reached the demanding < 0.5 ppm threshold. For CH4, the precision for both SCIAMACHY products (50.2 ppb for IMAP and 76.4 ppb

  13. Greenhouse effect of chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Lacis, Andrew; Prather, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A comparison is made of the radiative (greenhouse) forcing of the climate system due to changes of atmospheric chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases. It is found that CFCs, defined to include chlorofluorocarbons, chlorocarbons, and fluorocarbons, now provide about one-quater of current annual increases in anthropogenic greenhouse climate forcing. If the growth rates of CFC production in the early 1970s had continued to the present, current annual growth of climate forcing due to CFCs would exceed that due to CO2.

  14. Greenhouse effect of chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Lacis, Andrew; Prather, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A comparison is made of the radiative (greenhouse) forcing of the climate system due to changes of atmospheric chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases. It is found that CFCs, defined to include chlorofluorocarbons, chlorocarbons, and fluorocarbons, now provide about one-quater of current annual increases in anthropogenic greenhouse climate forcing. If the growth rates of CFC production in the early 1970s had continued to the present, current annual growth of climate forcing due to CFCs would exceed that due to CO2.

  15. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to

  16. Greenhouse Gas Data Publication Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This tool to gives you access to greenhouse gas data reported to EPA by large facilities and suppliers in the United States through EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. The tool allows you to view data in several formats including maps, tables, charts and graphs for individual facilities or groups of facilities. You can search the data set for individual facilities by name or location or filter the data set by state or county, industry sectors and sub-sectors, annual facility emission thresholds, and greenhouse gas type. For more information on the GHG Reporting Program and this data, please visit https://www.epa.gov/ghgreporting

  17. Greenhouse gas trading starts up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    While nations decide on whether to sign on to the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, some countries and private companies are moving forward with greenhouse gas emissions trading.A 19 March report, "The Emerging International Greenhouse Gas Market," by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, reports that about 65 greenhouse gas emissions trades for quantities above 1,000 metric tons of carbon dioxideequivalent already have occurred worldwide since 1996. Many of these trades have taken place under a voluntary, ad hoc framework, though the United Kingdom and Denmark have established their own domestic emissions trading programs.

  18. Interactions of Climate Change and Nitrogen Management for Optimizing Crop Productivity and Food Security while Minimizing Nitrogen Pollution and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, E. A.; Suddick, E. C.

    2012-12-01

    Producing food, transportation, and energy for seven billion people has led to huge increases in use of synthetic nitrogen (N) fertilizers and fossil fuels, resulting in large releases of N as air and water pollution. In its numerous chemical forms, N plays a critical role in all aspects of climate change, including mitigation, adaptation, and impacts. Here we report on a multi-authored, interdisciplinary technical report on climate-nitrogen interactions submitted to the US National Climate Assessment as part of a Research Coordination Network activity. Management of the N cycle not only affects emissions of nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitrogen oxides (NOX), but also impacts carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), through effects on carbon cycling processes in forests and soils and the effects on atmospheric reactions of ozone (O3) and CH4. While some of these direct and indirect N effects have a short-term cooling effect, the warming effects of N2O dominate at long time scales. The challenges of mitigating N2O emissions are substantially different from those for CO2 and CH4, because N is essential for food production, and over 80% of anthropogenic N2O emissions are from the agricultural sector. On one hand, improved agricultural nutrient management can confer some adaptive capacity of crops to climatic variability, but, on the other hand, increased climatic variability will render the task more difficult to manage nutrients for the optimization of crop productivity while minimizing N losses to the environment. Higher air temperatures will result in a "climate penalty" for air quality mitigation efforts, because larger NOX emissions reductions will be needed to achieve the same reductions of O3 pollution under higher temperatures, thus imposing further challenges to avoid harmful impacts on human health and crop productivity. Changes in river discharge, due to summer drought and to extreme precipitation events, will affect the transport of N from agricultural fields to

  19. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    SciTech Connect

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  20. Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete; Martino, Daniel; Cai, Zucong; Gwary, Daniel; Janzen, Henry; Kumar, Pushpam; McCarl, Bruce; Ogle, Stephen; O'Mara, Frank; Rice, Charles; Scholes, Bob; Sirotenko, Oleg; Howden, Mark; McAllister, Tim; Pan, Genxing; Romanenkov, Vladimir; Schneider, Uwe; Towprayoon, Sirintornthep; Wattenbach, Martin; Smith, Jo

    2008-02-27

    Agricultural lands occupy 37% of the earth's land surface. Agriculture accounts for 52 and 84% of global anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Agricultural soils may also act as a sink or source for CO2, but the net flux is small. Many agricultural practices can potentially mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the most prominent of which are improved cropland and grazing land management and restoration of degraded lands and cultivated organic soils. Lower, but still significant mitigation potential is provided by water and rice management, set-aside, land use change and agroforestry, livestock management and manure management. The global technical mitigation potential from agriculture (excluding fossil fuel offsets from biomass) by 2030, considering all gases, is estimated to be approximately 5500-6000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1, with economic potentials of approximately 1500-1600, 2500-2700 and 4000-4300Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at carbon prices of up to 20, up to 50 and up to 100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively. In addition, GHG emissions could be reduced by substitution of fossil fuels for energy production by agricultural feedstocks (e.g. crop residues, dung and dedicated energy crops). The economic mitigation potential of biomass energy from agriculture is estimated to be 640, 2240 and 16 000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at 0-20, 0-50 and 0-100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively.

  1. Potential of anaerobic digestion for mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions and production of renewable energy from agriculture: barriers and incentives to widespread adoption in Europe.

    PubMed

    Banks, C J; Salter, A M; Chesshire, M

    2007-01-01

    The paper considers the role of anaerobic digestion in promoting good agricultural practice on farms and the contribution this would make to reducing the environmental impacts associated with manure management. There are no regulatory drivers to promote the use of digestion in Europe, and the technology has only been widely adopted where economic drivers and coherent policies have been implemented at a national level. These measures have included direct subsidy on the energy price paid for "green electricity", and exemption of tax when biogas is used as a vehicle fuel. In those countries where financial incentives are not available or where a financial penalty is incurred through the regulatory regime, the uptake of digestion has been poor. Even with subsidies, digestion of animal manures as a single substrate is not common, and countries with successful schemes have achieved this either by permitting the import of wastes onto the farm or offering bonus subsidies for the use of energy crops. Both of these measures improve the energy efficiency of the process by increasing the volumetric methane production, although concerns are expressed that attention could concentrate on energy production at the expense of improving manure management.

  2. Solar effect: sunspaces and greenhouses, behavior and health

    SciTech Connect

    Moskal, S.; Brandt, B.

    1981-01-01

    Sunspaces and solar greenhouses can be low-cost additions to existing buildings which by their very nature add to the living space of the dwelling unit into which they are incorporated, thereby influencing the residents' lifestyle. The implications of these solar spaces for their users and the larger community are our focus. Solar greenhouses and sunspaces influence the physical and mental health of the resident, particularly persons who can use the space during the day and those on fixed incomes. Increased sunlight and warmth, and in greenhouses, humidity and food production, directly influence health, while changes in interaction patterns, social status, independence and self-esteem are indirect results. These factors have a beneficial effect on the individual, the family, and the community. With increasing availability and use of solar sunspaces and greenhouses, these wide-ranging benefits could result in changes in demand for human services and have definite implications for public policy.

  3. Passive solar renovation of an existing commercial greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, J.W.; Whitehead, N.

    1980-01-01

    The renovation of an existing 1800 square foot commercial greenhouse to incorporate passive solar reliant and energy conserving features is detailed. The Aquatic-Agriculture Institute for Research, a non-profit group, sponsored the project to develop efficient production methods to raise vegetables and fish at the community level. The performance of the remodeled greenhouse will be compared to the performance of the same greenhouse as it was originally designed. The restored greenhouse began operation in September 1979. Accurate fuel and temperature records maintained through-out the past winter, show the cost of back-up heating under operating conditions to be approximately $150.00. Old fuel receipts dating back into the 1940's show an average use of 2000 gallons of heating fuel each winter prior to remodeling. This would indicate a yearly fuel savings of better than 90% through the use of passive solar techniques.

  4. Characterization and detection of Tomato necrotic stunt virus, a novel potyvirus infecting greenhouse tomatoes in Mexico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Greenhouse tomato production has increased significantly in recent years in North America. Nearly 40% of fresh tomato supplies in the U.S. are produced in greenhouses. The highly intensive and hydroponic production system has created some unique ecological conditions for disease epidemic, especial...

  5. Overview of global greenhouse effects

    SciTech Connect

    Reck, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report reviews the factors that influence the evolution of climate and climate change. Recent studies have confirmed that CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and chlorofluorocarbos are increasing in abundance in the atmosphere and can alter the radiation balance by means of the so-called greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is as well-accepted phenomenon, but the prediction of its consequences is much less certain. Attempts to detect a human-caused temperature change are still inconclusive. This report presents a discussion of the scientific basis for the greenhouse effect, its relationship to the abundances of greenhouse gases, and the evidence confirming the increases in the abundances. The basis for climate modeling is presented together with an example of the model outputs from one of the most sophisticated modeling efforts. Uncertainties in the present understanding of climate are outlined.

  6. Policy implications of greenhouse warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppock, Rob

    1992-03-01

    A study panel of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine recently issued the report Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. That report examined relevant scientific knowldeg and evidence about the potential of greenhouse warming, and assayed actions that could slow the onset of warming (mitigation policies) or help human and natural systems of plants and animals adapt to climatic changes (adaptation policies). The panel found that, even given the considerable uncertainties knowledge of the relevant phenomena, greenhouse warming poses a threat sufficient to merit prompt action. People in this country could probably adapt to the changes likely to accompany greenhouse warming. The costs, however, could be substantial. Investment in mitigation acts as insurance protection against the great uncertainties and the possibility of dramatic surprises. The panel found mitigation options that could reduce U.S. emissions by an estimated 10 to 40 percent at modest cost.

  7. Greenhouses and their humanizing synergies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Paterson, Carrie; Schubert, Daniel; Zabel, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Greenhouses in space will require advanced technical systems of automatic watering, soil-less cultivation, artificial lighting, and computerized observation of plants. Functions discussed for plants in space habitats include physical/health requirements and human psychology, social cohesion, as well as the complex sensorial benefits of plants for humans. The authors consider the role of plants in long-term space missions historically since 1971 (Salyut 1) and propose a set of priorities to be considered within the design requirements for greenhouses and constructed environments given a range of benefits associated with plant-human relationships. They cite recent research into the use of greenhouses in extreme environments to reveal the relative importance of greenhouses for people living in isolated locations. Additionally, they put forward hypotheses about where greenhouses might factor into several strata of human health. In a recent design-in-use study of astronauts' experiences in space habitats discussed in Architecture for Astronauts (Springer Press 2011) it was found that besides the basic advantages for life support there are clearly additional "side benefits" for habitability and physical wellbeing, and thus long-term mission success. The authors have composed several key theses regarding the need to promote plant-human relationships in space, including areas where synergy and symbiosis occur. They cite new comprehensive research into the early US Space Program to reveal where programmatic requirements could be added to space architecture to increase the less quantifiable benefits to astronauts of art, recreation, and poetic engagement with their existential condition of estrangement from the planet. Specifically in terms of the technological requirements, the authors propose the integration of a new greenhouse subsystem component into space greenhouses—the Mobile Plant Cultivation Subsystem—a portable, personal greenhouse that can be integrated

  8. Browns Ferry waste heat greenhouse. Progress report. Circular Z-117

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, E.R.; Carter, J.; Pile, R.S.; Roetheli, J.C.

    1980-08-01

    A 25,000-ft/sup 2/ experimental greenhouse at Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant was divided into three sections to compare two heat exchange systems using waste heat in condenser cooling water (CCW) with a conventionally heated zone. A 125-hp pump at each of the three power plant units provides a 3000 gal/min pumping capacity for the CCW which is pumped about 2000 ft through a 12-in. pipe to the greenhouse. Construction was completed in November 1978; initial engineering tests were not conducted on system performance until January 1979; and the first tomato crop was planted January 10, 1979. Harvest was completed in July 1979; and cucumbers, chrysanthemums, poinsettias, and gloxinias were grown during the following summer and fall. Low winter greenhouse temperatures reduced the yield and quality of tomatoes in the two waste heat sections which averaged 13.0 lbs/plant. The conventionally heated zone produced 15.4 lbs/plant. In January and February, temperatures of the CCW were sometimes as low as 52/sup 0/F, or 18/sup 0/F below the predicted 70/sup 0/F which was the minimum simulated CCW temperature used to develop the pilot greenhouse heating system at Muscle Shoals. The two heat exchange systems using CCW performed near design expectations - keeping the greenhouse air temperature within 10/sup 0/ to 12/sup 0/F of the incoming water temperature. Summer and fall production of cucumbers and ornamental crops was successful in all three sections, which were conventionally cooled. Production budgets indicated a greater potential for ornamental production than vegetable production in waste heat greenhouses. Economic studies showed that heat exchange systems using waste heat from CCW will require higher capital investment and greater electrical consumption than a conventionally heated greenhouse. However, depending upon the costs charged for CCW, the waste heat systems may show potential economic advantages as a result of reduced heating costs.

  9. Transport of Greenhouse Gases in Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutschera, E.; Khalil, A. K.; Shearer, M.; Rosenstiel, T.

    2009-12-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have been measured in cultivated and natural regions, quantifying overall emissions for croplands, wetlands, and forests. However, segregation between soil and plant emissions is less clear, and the dynamics behind each respective emission type differs. Better defined plant transport mechanisms will yield more accurate determination of greenhouse gas flux, contributing to a comprehensive theory quantifying greenhouse gas emissions globally. While the mechanisms of CH4 and N2O emissions from rice have not been fully identified, for trees these mechanisms are virtually unknown. CH4 and N2O emissions from several species of tree (Alnus rubra, Populus trichocarpa, Thuja plicata, Fraxinus latifolia) native to the Pacific Northwest have been measured. To identify mechanisms of gas transport, correlation of emissions and stomatal conductance, transpiration, and photosynthesis has been tested. A synthesis between plant physiological data and emissions is sought to elucidate the role plant physiology plays in the production and transport of CH4 and N2O. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U. S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER64515.

  10. Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Acccord, or Midwestern Greenhouse gas Accord (MGA), is a regional agreement by governors of the states in the US Midwest and one Canadian province to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to combat climate change. Signatories to the accord include the US states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Kansas, Ohio and South Dakota, and the Canadian Province of Manitoba. The accord, signed on November 15, 2007, established the Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Program, which aims to: establish greenhouse gas reduction targets and timeframes consistent with MGA member states' targets; develop a market-based and multi-sector cap-and-trade mechanism to help achieve those reduction targets; establish a system to enable tracking, management, and crediting for entities that reduce greenhouse gas emissions; and develop and implement additional steps as needed to achieve the reduction targets, such as a low-carbon fuel standards and regional incentives and funding mechanisms. The GHG registry will be managed by the Climate Registry, which manages the registry for other US state schemes. One of the first actions was to convene an Energy Security under Climate Stewardship Platform to guide future development of the Midwest's energy economy.

  11. Recent Greenhouse Gas Concentrations

    DOE Data Explorer

    Blasing, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Gases typically measured in parts per million (ppm), parts per billion (ppb) or parts per trillion (ppt) are presented separately to facilitate comparison of numbers. Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) and atmospheric lifetimes are from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2013, Table 8.A.1), except for the atmospheric lifetime of carbon dioxide (CO2) which is explained in footnote 4. Additional material on greenhouse gases can be found in CDIAC's Reference Tools. To find out how CFCs, HFCs, HCFCs, and halons are named, see Name that compound: The numbers game for CFCs, HFCs, HCFCs, and Halons. Concentrations given apply to the lower 75-80 percent of the atmosphere, known as the troposphere. Sources of the current and preindustrial concentrations of the atmospheric gases listed in the table below are given in the footnotes. Investigators at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration have provided the recent concentrations. Much of the data provided results from the work of various investigators at institutions other than CDIAC, and represent considerable effort on their part. We ask as a basic professional courtesy that you acknowledge the primary sources, indicated in the footnotes below, or in the links given in the footnotes. Concentrations of ozone and water vapor are spatially and temporally variable due to their short atmospheric lifetimes. A vertically and horizontally averaged water vapor concentration is about 5,000 ppm. Globally averaged water vapor concentration is difficult to measure precisely because it varies from one place to another and from one season to the next. This precludes a precise determination of changes in water vapor since pre-industrial time. However, a warmer atmosphere will likely contain more water vapor than at present. For a more detailed statement on water vapor from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, see the "water vapor" page at http://lwf.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/gases.html

  12. Determining the suitability of alternative greenhouse/nursery substrates

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Greenhouse and nursery crop producers have greater awareness and access to materials not traditionally used as container substrates. Materials such as composted plant debris and animal wastes, industrial by-products, and wood biomass have been successfully used for crop propagation and production. R...

  13. Greenhouse gas emissions in Canada and Japan: sector-specific estimates and managerial and economic implications.

    PubMed

    Hayami, Hitoshi; Nakamura, Masao

    2007-10-01

    Many firms generate large amounts of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases when they burn fossil fuels in their production processes. In addition, production of raw materials and other inputs the firms procure for their operations also generates greenhouse gases indirectly. These direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions occur in many sectors of our economies. In this paper, we first present sector-specific estimates for such greenhouse gas emissions. We then show that estimates for such sector-specific greenhouse gas emissions are often required for various types of corporate as well as public policy analyses in both domestic and international contexts. Measuring greenhouse gas emissions resulting from firms' multi-stage production processes in a multi-sector context is relevant for policies related to the Kyoto protocol, an international agreement to limit global greenhouse gas emissions. For example, since the protocol allows firms to engage in trading and offsetting of their greenhouse gas emissions across national borders, provided that emissions are correctly measured, the firms can take advantage of such trading schemes by placing their energy-intensive production facilities globally and strategically. We present several case studies which illustrate the importance of this and other aspects of greenhouse gas emissions in firms' environmental management. We also argue that our modeling and estimation methods based on input-output analyses are suitable for the types of research goals we have in this paper. Our methods are applied to data for Canada and Japan in a variety of environmental management circumstances.

  14. Greenhouse Evaluation of Air-Assist Delivery Parameters for Mature Poinsettias

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding the performance characteristics of application equipment is important for helping make the most efficacious applications. While handguns making high volume applications are common in greenhouse production, it is difficult to achieve uniform distribution of product in a timely manner. ...

  15. The Greenhouse and Anti-Greenhouse Effects on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, C. P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and is the only moon in the solar system with a substantial atmosphere. Its atmosphere is mostly made of nitrogen, with a few percent CH4, 0.1% H2 and an uncertain level of Ar (less than 10%). The surface pressure is 1.5 atms and the surface temperature is 95 K, decreasing to 71 at the tropopause before rising to stratospheric temperatures of 180 K. In pressure and composition Titan's atmosphere is the closest twin to Earth's. The surface of Titan remains unknown, hidden by the thick smog layer, but it may be an ocean of liquid methane and ethane. Titan's atmosphere has a greenhouse effect which is much stronger than the Earth's - 92% of the surface warming is due to greenhouse radiation. However an organic smog layer in the upper atmosphere produces an anti-greenhouse effect that cuts the greenhouse warming in half - removing 35% of the incoming solar radiation. Models suggest that during its formation Titan's atmosphere was heated to high temperatures due to accretional energy. This was followed by a cold Triton-like period which gradually warmed to the present conditions. The coupled greenhouse and haze anti-greenhouse may be relevant to recent suggestions for haze shielding of a CH4 - NH3 early atmosphere on Earth or Mars. When the NASA/ESA mission to the Saturn System, Cassini, launches in a few years it will carry a probe that will be sent to the surface of Titan and show us this world that is strange and yet in many ways similar to our own.

  16. The Greenhouse and Anti-Greenhouse Effects on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, C. P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and is the only moon in the solar system with a substantial atmosphere. Its atmosphere is mostly made of nitrogen, with a few percent CH4, 0.1% H2 and an uncertain level of Ar (less than 10%). The surface pressure is 1.5 atms and the surface temperature is 95 K, decreasing to 71 at the tropopause before rising to stratospheric temperatures of 180 K. In pressure and composition Titan's atmosphere is the closest twin to Earth's. The surface of Titan remains unknown, hidden by the thick smog layer, but it may be an ocean of liquid methane and ethane. Titan's atmosphere has a greenhouse effect which is much stronger than the Earth's - 92% of the surface warming is due to greenhouse radiation. However an organic smog layer in the upper atmosphere produces an anti-greenhouse effect that cuts the greenhouse warming in half - removing 35% of the incoming solar radiation. Models suggest that during its formation Titan's atmosphere was heated to high temperatures due to accretional energy. This was followed by a cold Triton-like period which gradually warmed to the present conditions. The coupled greenhouse and haze anti-greenhouse may be relevant to recent suggestions for haze shielding of a CH4 - NH3 early atmosphere on Earth or Mars. When the NASA/ESA mission to the Saturn System, Cassini, launches in a few years it will carry a probe that will be sent to the surface of Titan and show us this world that is strange and yet in many ways similar to our own.

  17. Greenhouse-effect spurs legislation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Senator Timothy E. Wirth (D-Colo.) reintroduced legislation on February 1, 1989, to establish a national energy policy that would slow down the emission of pollutants contributing to the greenhouse effect. Wirth's comprehensive bill to combat the greenhouse effect includes initiatives to: increase energy-efficiency in all sectors of the US economy; expand research and development of nonfossil fuel sources such as solar; encourage technologies to reduce carbon dioxide emission from coal-fired power plants and other sources; direct the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to develop policies to stop tropical deforestation; and research the greenhouse effect, its causes, and the steps needed to cope with a changing climate.

  18. [Prototype of space vitamin greenhouse "Phytoconveyor"].

    PubMed

    Berkovich, Iu A; Erokhin, A N; Krivobok, N M; Smolianina, S O; Baranov, A V; Shanturin, N A; Droniaev, V P; Radostin, A V; Trofimov, Iu V; Sivenkov, V K

    2007-01-01

    Installation of a greens production system on the International space station will mean a leap toward biological regeneration of food in long-duration space mission. Today, priority is given to green cultures as supplements of space rations and a psychological support to crews in exploration missions to Mars, and also as least resource-intensive. Cylindrical salad greenhouse "Phytoconveyor" designed at the Institute for Biomedical Problems is highly productive, energy-efficient, and requires minimum of crew time for. Dimensions of the greenhouse are 540 x 590 x 400 mm, power demand is 0.25 kW, and the Plant chamber volume is about 0.09 m3. 'Phytoconveyor" has a planting unit with six cylindrical root modules. The total illuminated crop area is about 0.4 m2. The lighting unit consists of red (660 nm) and blue (470 nm) light-emitting diodes on the inner surface of a spiral cylinder coaxial with the roots module unit that generate the photon flux density 350 micromol x M(-2) x s(-1) at a distance of 4 cm. Each root module has a porous tube wrapped up in a fiber substrate with ion-exchange resins and is covered with a lightproof plastic with seed slits. The "Phytoconveyor" design includes a programmable reverse watering system. Given the 24-hr light period, the laboratory model of "Phytoconveyor" can produce up to 300 gram of fresh greens every 4-5 days. The greenhouse was designed with due account of resource limitations on the ISS Russian orbital segment.

  19. 75 FR 74773 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of Fluorinated GHGs

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ...EPA is issuing a regulation to require monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gas emissions from additional sources of fluorinated greenhouse gases, including electronics manufacturing, fluorinated gas production, electrical equipment use, electrical equipment manufacture or refurbishment, as well as importers and exporters of pre-charged equipment and closed-cell foams. This rule requires monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gases for these source categories only for sources with carbon dioxide equivalent emissions, imports, or exports above certain threshold levels. This rule does not require control of greenhouse gases.

  20. Production development and utilization of Zimmer Station wet FGD by-products. Final report. Volume 5, A laboratory greenhouse study conducted in fulfillment of Phase 2, Objective 2 titled. Use of FGD by-product gypsum enriched with magnesium hydroxide as a soil amendment

    SciTech Connect

    Yibirin, H.; Stehouwer, R. C.; Bigham, J. M.; Soto, U. I.

    1997-01-31

    The Clean Air Act, as revised in 1992, has spurred the development of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technologies that have resulted in large volumes of wet scrubber sludges. In general, these sludges must be dewatered, chemically treated, and disposed of in landfills. Disposal is an expensive and environmentally questionable process for which suitable alternatives must be found. Wet scrubbing with magnesium (Mg)-enhanced lime has emerged as an efficient, cost effective technology for SO2 removal. When combined with an appropriate oxidation system, the wet scrubber sludge can be used to produce gypsum (CaSO4-2H2O) and magnesium hydroxide [Mg(OH)2] of sufficient purity for beneficial re-use. Product value generally increases with purity of the by-product(s). The pilot plant at the CINERGY Zimmer Station near Cincinnati produces gypsum by products that can be formulated to contain varying amounts of Mg(OH)2. Such materials may have agricultural value as soil conditioners, liming agents and sources of plant nutrients (Ca, Mg, S). This report describes a greenhouse study designed to evaluate by-product gypsum and Mg gypsum from the Zimmer Station pilot plant as amendments for improving the quality of agricultural soils and mine spoils that are currently unproductive because of phytotoxic conditions related to acidity and high levels of toxic dissolved aluminum (Al). In particular, the technical literature contains evidence to suggest that gypsum may be more effective than agricultural limestone in modifying soil chemical conditions below the immediate zone of application. Representative samples of by-product gypsum and Mg(OH)2 from the Zimmer Station were initially characterized. The gypsum was of high chemical purity and consisted of well crystalline, lath-shaped particles of low specific surface area. By contrast, the by-product Mg(OH)2 was a high surface area material (50 m2 g

  1. Interaction of Calibrachoa and selected root and foliar pathogens in greenhouse settings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calibrachoa (Calibrachoa x hybrida) is a popular annual ornamental that was introduced in the late 1990s by the greenhouse ornamental industry. Little is published about its interaction with pathogens commonly associated with greenhouse production. We report here for the first time the response of C...

  2. Interaction of Calibrachoa and Selected Root and Foliar Pathogens in Greenhouse Setting

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calibrachoa (Calibrachoa x hybrida) is a popular annual ornamental that was introduced in the late 1990s by the greenhouse ornamental industry. Little is published about its interaction with pathogens commonly associated with greenhouse production. We report here for the first time the response of...

  3. Managed forest carbon estimates for the US greenhouse gas inventory, 1990-2008

    Treesearch

    Linda S. Heath; James E. Smith; Kenneth E. Skog; David J. Nowak; Christopher W. Woodall

    2011-01-01

    Land-use change and forestry is the major category featuring carbon sequestration in the annual US Greenhouse Gas Inventory, required by the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. We describe the National Greenhouse Gas Inventory and present the sources of our data and methods and the most recent results. Forests and forest products in the United States...

  4. Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options Database and Tool - Data repository of GHG mitigation technologies.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Industry and electricity production facilities generate over 50 percent of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the United States. There is a growing consensus among scientists that the primary cause of climate change is anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Reducing GHG emi...

  5. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

  6. Retractable Roof Greenhouses and Shadehouses

    Treesearch

    Jr. Bartok

    2005-01-01

    Open-roof greenhouses provide a natural environment for plant growth when the outdoor weather is suitable and an artificial environment when it is too hot or cold. Opening the roof over the plants increases light intensity, which can help to control the growth habit, flowering, and crop timing. It also reduces electricity costs because expensive fan cooling is not...

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Pasture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane are the primary greenhouse gases associated with global climate change. Livestock production’s contribution to carbon dioxide emissions is minimal, but it is a substantial contributor to both nitrous oxide and methane emissions. In both grazing and confin...

  8. Agricultural greenhouse gas flux determination via remote sensing and modeling

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Serious concerns have been raised about increasing levels of atmospheric greenhouse gases (GHGs) and associated climate change. For every degree in global temperature increase, grain production yields are expected to decrease 10%, while the global human population continues to increase by roughly 8...

  9. Design and layout of a small commercial greenhouse operation

    Treesearch

    John W. Bartok

    2002-01-01

    This information sheet outlines the major requirements and factors that should be considered by someone contemplating starting a small greenhouse operation for the production of tree seedlings, nursery stock, perennials, herbs or other specialized crops. It can also be used when planning an expansion of an existing business.

  10. Predicting greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedyard manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Improved predictive models for nitrous oxide and methane are crucial for assessing the greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of beef cattle production. Biochemical process based models to predict GHG from manure rely on information derived from studies on soil and only limited study has been conducted on m...

  11. Nutritional and management strategies to mitigate animal greenhouse gas emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Animal production is a significant source of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions worldwide. The current analysis was conducted to evaluate the potential of nutritional, manure and animal management practices for mitigating methane and nitrous oxide, i.e. non-carbon dioxide GHG emissions from enteric ferm...

  12. Estimated Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Representative Northeastern Dairy Farm

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to the atmosphere and their potential impact on global climate change have become important concerns world-wide. Livestock production systems, such as dairy farms, provide both sinks and sources for GHG emissions. Farmland can serve as a carbon sink by providing a lon...

  13. Predicting greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle feedyard manure

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Improved predictive models for nitrous oxide and methane are crucial for assessing the greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of beef cattle production. Biochemical process-based models to predict GHG from manure rely on information derived from studies on soil and only limited study has been conducted on m...

  14. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from beef cattle housing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Beef cattle are potential sources of greenhouse gases (GHG). These emissions include methane produced by fermentation within the gut (enteric), and methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure. Life Cycle Analysis of North American (NA) beef cattle production systems consistently indicate that...

  15. Extratropical Influence of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor on Greenhouse Warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hu, H.; Liu, W.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to re-examine the impact of upper tropospheric water vapor on greenhouse warming in midlatitudes by analyzing the recent observations of the upper tropospheric water vapor from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS), in conjuction with other space-based measurement and model simulation products.

  16. The Greenhouse Effect: Science and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Stephen H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses many of the scientific questions surrounding the greenhouse effect debate and the issue of plausible responses. Discussion includes topics concerning projecting emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations, estimating global climatic response, economic, social, and political impacts, and policy responses. (RT)

  17. The Greenhouse Effect: Science and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Stephen H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses many of the scientific questions surrounding the greenhouse effect debate and the issue of plausible responses. Discussion includes topics concerning projecting emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations, estimating global climatic response, economic, social, and political impacts, and policy responses. (RT)

  18. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes ...

  19. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes ...

  20. Building and using the solar greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    Thorough directions are given for planning, constructing and using a solar greenhouse attached to a house. Included is a method of calculating the savings accruing from the use of the greenhouse. (LEW)

  1. Capture of green-house carbon dioxide in Portland cement

    SciTech Connect

    Wagh, A.S.; Singh, D.; Pullockaran, J.; Knox, L.

    1993-12-31

    A novel process has been developed to sequester green-house carbon dioxide produced by the cement industry in precast cement products. Typically, 10--24 wt % of CO{sub 2} produced by calcination of calcium carbonate during clinkering of the cement may be captured. The carbonation process also cures the cement paste within minutes into hard bodies. The process maintains high pH conditions during curing, to allow conventional steel reinforcement of concrete. The process will save time and money to the cement industry, and at the same time, help them to comply with the Clean Air Act by sequestering the green-house carbon dioxide.

  2. Engineering concepts for inflatable Mars surface greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Hublitz, I; Henninger, D L; Drake, B G; Eckart, P

    2004-01-01

    A major challenge of designing a bioregenerative life support system for Mars is the reduction of the mass, volume, power, thermal and crew-time requirements. Structural mass of the greenhouse could be saved by operating the greenhouse at low atmospheric pressure. This paper investigates the feasibility of this concept. The method of equivalent system mass is used to compare greenhouses operated at high atmospheric pressure to greenhouses operated at low pressure for three different lighting methods: natural, artificial and hybrid lighting.

  3. Pathogenicity of Two Species of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Against the Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in Laboratory and Greenhouse Experiments.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Nastaran; Karimi, Javad; Hosseini, Mojtaba; Goldani, Morteza; Campos-Herrera, Raquel

    2015-03-01

    The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a polyphagous pest in greenhouse crops. The efficacy of two entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, as biological control agents against T. vaporariorum was evaluated using two model crops typical of vegetable greenhouse productions: cucumber and pepper. Laboratory tests evaluated adults and second nymphal instars for pest susceptibility to different EPN species at different concentrations of infective juveniles (IJ; 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 IJ per cm(2)); subsequent greenhouse trials against second nymphal instars on cucumber and pepper plants evaluated more natural conditions. Concentrations were applied in combination with Triton X-100 (0.1% v/v), an adjuvant for increasing nematode activity. In laboratory studies, both life stages were susceptible to infection by the two nematode species, but S. feltiae recorded a lower LC50 than H. bacteriophora for both insect stages. Similarly, in greenhouse experiments, S. feltiae required lower concentrations of IJ than H. bacteriophora to reach the same mortality in nymphs. In greenhouse trials, a significant difference was observed in the triple interaction among nematode species × concentration × plant. Furthermore, the highest mortality rate of the second nymphal instars of the T. vaporariorum was obtained from the application of S. feltiae concentrated to 250 IJ/cm(2) on cucumber (49 ± 1.23%). The general mortality caused by nematodes was significantly higher in cucumber than in pepper. These promising results support further investigation for the optimization of the best EPN species/concentration in combination with insecticides or adjuvants to reach a profitable control of this greenhouse pest.

  4. Pathogenicity of Two Species of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Against the Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in Laboratory and Greenhouse Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Nastaran; Karimi, Javad; Hosseini, Mojtaba; Goldani, Morteza; Campos-Herrera, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a polyphagous pest in greenhouse crops. The efficacy of two entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, as biological control agents against T. vaporariorum was evaluated using two model crops typical of vegetable greenhouse productions: cucumber and pepper. Laboratory tests evaluated adults and second nymphal instars for pest susceptibility to different EPN species at different concentrations of infective juveniles (IJ; 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 IJ per cm2); subsequent greenhouse trials against second nymphal instars on cucumber and pepper plants evaluated more natural conditions. Concentrations were applied in combination with Triton X-100 (0.1% v/v), an adjuvant for increasing nematode activity. In laboratory studies, both life stages were susceptible to infection by the two nematode species, but S. feltiae recorded a lower LC50 than H. bacteriophora for both insect stages. Similarly, in greenhouse experiments, S. feltiae required lower concentrations of IJ than H. bacteriophora to reach the same mortality in nymphs. In greenhouse trials, a significant difference was observed in the triple interaction among nematode species × concentration × plant. Furthermore, the highest mortality rate of the second nymphal instars of the T. vaporariorum was obtained from the application of S. feltiae concentrated to 250 IJ/cm2 on cucumber (49 ± 1.23%). The general mortality caused by nematodes was significantly higher in cucumber than in pepper. These promising results support further investigation for the optimization of the best EPN species/concentration in combination with insecticides or adjuvants to reach a profitable control of this greenhouse pest. PMID:25861117

  5. The Greenhouse Effect and Built Environment Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenall Gough, Annette; Gough, Noel

    The greenhouse effect has always existed. Without the greenhouse effect, Earth could well have the oven-like environment of Venus or the deep-freeze environment of Mars. There is some debate about how much the Earth's surface temperature will rise given a certain amount of increase in the amount of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous…

  6. Using waste oil to heat a greenhouse

    Treesearch

    Marla Schwartz

    2009-01-01

    During the winter of 1990, Northwoods Nursery (Elk River, ID) purchased a wood-burning system to heat the current greenhouses. This system burned slabs of wood to heat water that was then pumped into the greenhouses. The winter of 1990 was extremely harsh, requiring non-stop operation of the heating system. In order to keep seedlings in the greenhouse from freezing,...

  7. Mechatronic description of a laser autoguided vehicle for greenhouse operations.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Hermosilla, Julián; González, Ramón; Rodríguez, Francisco; Donaire, Julián G

    2013-01-08

    This paper presents a novel approach for guiding mobile robots inside greenhouses demonstrated by promising preliminary physical experiments. It represents a comprehensive attempt to use the successful principles of AGVs (auto-guided vehicles) inside greenhouses, but avoiding the necessity of modifying the crop layout, and avoiding having to bury metallic pipes in the greenhouse floor. The designed vehicle can operate different tools, e.g., a spray system for applying plant-protection product, a lifting platform to reach the top part of the plants to perform pruning and harvesting tasks, and a trailer to transport fruits, plants, and crop waste. Regarding autonomous navigation, it follows the idea of AGVs, but now laser emitters are used to mark the desired route. The vehicle development is analyzed from a mechatronic standpoint (mechanics, electronics, and autonomous control).

  8. Micropropagation, Acclimatization, and Greenhouse Culture of Veratrum californicum.

    PubMed

    White, Sarah A; Adelberg, Jeffrey; Naylor-Adelberg, Jacqueline; Mann, David A; Song, Ju Yeon; Sun, Youping

    2016-01-01

    Micropropagation and production of Veratrum californicum is most successful when using a premixed Murishage and Skoog basal medium with vitamins and a 5-week subculture cycle at 16 °C for multiplication. These culture conditions provide the best percent survival after acclimatization in the greenhouse. However, clone response to temperature and light quality within culture conditions varies. Micropropagated plants have mass and morphology similar to 2- or 3-year-old seedlings. Acclimatized plantlets can then be grown in the greenhouse using sub-irrigation (ebb and flood) to maintain substrate volumetric water content > 44 %. Growth cycle in the greenhouse must be about 100 days, followed by dormancy for 5 months at 5 °C.

  9. Mechatronic Description of a Laser Autoguided Vehicle for Greenhouse Operations

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Hermosilla, Julián; González, Ramón; Rodríguez, Francisco; Donaire, Julián G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for guiding mobile robots inside greenhouses demonstrated by promising preliminary physical experiments. It represents a comprehensive attempt to use the successful principles of AGVs (auto-guided vehicles) inside greenhouses, but avoiding the necessity of modifying the crop layout, and avoiding having to bury metallic pipes in the greenhouse floor. The designed vehicle can operate different tools, e.g., a spray system for applying plant-protection product, a lifting platform to reach the top part of the plants to perform pruning and harvesting tasks, and a trailer to transport fruits, plants, and crop waste. Regarding autonomous navigation, it follows the idea of AGVs, but now laser emitters are used to mark the desired route. The vehicle development is analyzed from a mechatronic standpoint (mechanics, electronics, and autonomous control). PMID:23299624

  10. Greater accordance with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern is associated with lower diet-related greenhouse gas production but higher dietary costs in the United Kingdom12

    PubMed Central

    Monsivais, Pablo; Scarborough, Peter; Lloyd, Tina; Mizdrak, Anja; Luben, Robert; Mulligan, Angela A; Wareham, Nicholas J; Woodcock, James

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is a proven way to prevent and control hypertension and other chronic disease. Because the DASH diet emphasizes plant-based foods, including vegetables and grains, adhering to this diet might also bring about environmental benefits, including lower associated production of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Objective: The objective was to examine the interrelation between dietary accordance with the DASH diet and associated GHGs. A secondary aim was to examine the retail cost of diets by level of DASH accordance. Design: In this cross-sectional study of adults aged 39–79 y from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition–Norfolk, United Kingdom cohort (n = 24,293), dietary intakes estimated from food-frequency questionnaires were analyzed for their accordance with the 8 DASH food and nutrient-based targets. Associations between DASH accordance, GHGs, and dietary costs were evaluated in regression analyses. Dietary GHGs were estimated with United Kingdom-specific data on carbon dioxide equivalents associated with commodities and foods. Dietary costs were estimated by using national food prices from a United Kingdom–based supermarket comparison website. Results: Greater accordance with the DASH dietary targets was associated with lower GHGs. Diets in the highest quintile of accordance had a GHG impact of 5.60 compared with 6.71 kg carbon dioxide equivalents/d for least-accordant diets (P < 0.0001). Among the DASH food groups, GHGs were most strongly and positively associated with meat consumption and negatively with whole-grain consumption. In addition, higher accordance with the DASH diet was associated with higher dietary costs, with the mean cost of diets in the top quintile of DASH scores 18% higher than that of diets in the lowest quintile (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Promoting wider uptake of the DASH diet in the United Kingdom may improve population health and reduce diet

  11. Greater accordance with the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension dietary pattern is associated with lower diet-related greenhouse gas production but higher dietary costs in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Monsivais, Pablo; Scarborough, Peter; Lloyd, Tina; Mizdrak, Anja; Luben, Robert; Mulligan, Angela A; Wareham, Nicholas J; Woodcock, James

    2015-07-01

    The Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet is a proven way to prevent and control hypertension and other chronic disease. Because the DASH diet emphasizes plant-based foods, including vegetables and grains, adhering to this diet might also bring about environmental benefits, including lower associated production of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The objective was to examine the interrelation between dietary accordance with the DASH diet and associated GHGs. A secondary aim was to examine the retail cost of diets by level of DASH accordance. In this cross-sectional study of adults aged 39-79 y from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Norfolk, United Kingdom cohort (n = 24,293), dietary intakes estimated from food-frequency questionnaires were analyzed for their accordance with the 8 DASH food and nutrient-based targets. Associations between DASH accordance, GHGs, and dietary costs were evaluated in regression analyses. Dietary GHGs were estimated with United Kingdom-specific data on carbon dioxide equivalents associated with commodities and foods. Dietary costs were estimated by using national food prices from a United Kingdom-based supermarket comparison website. Greater accordance with the DASH dietary targets was associated with lower GHGs. Diets in the highest quintile of accordance had a GHG impact of 5.60 compared with 6.71 kg carbon dioxide equivalents/d for least-accordant diets (P < 0.0001). Among the DASH food groups, GHGs were most strongly and positively associated with meat consumption and negatively with whole-grain consumption. In addition, higher accordance with the DASH diet was associated with higher dietary costs, with the mean cost of diets in the top quintile of DASH scores 18% higher than that of diets in the lowest quintile (P < 0.0001). Promoting wider uptake of the DASH diet in the United Kingdom may improve population health and reduce diet-related GHGs. However, to make the DASH diet more accessible

  12. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  13. Greenhouse gas exchange over grazed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, R.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

    2012-04-01

    Grasslands act as sinks and sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) and are, in conjunction with livestock production systems, responsible for a large share of GHG emissions. Whereas ecosystem scale flux measurements (eddy covariance) are commonly used to investigate CO2 exchange (and is becoming state-of-the-art for other GHGs, too), GHG emissions from agricultural animals are usually investigated on the scale of individual animals. Therefore eddy covariance technique has to be tested for combined systems (i.e. grazed systems). Our project investigates the ability of field scale flux measurements to reliably quantify the contribution of grazing dairy cows to the net exchange of CO2 and CH4. To quantify the contribution of the animals to the net flux the position, movement, and grazing/rumination activity of each cow are recorded. In combination with a detailed footprint analysis of the eddy covariance fluxes, the animal related CO2 and CH4 emissions are derived and compared to standard emission values derived from respiration chambers. The aim of the project is to test the assumption whether field scale CO2 flux measurements adequately include the respiration of grazing cows and to identify potential errors in ecosystem Greenhouse gas budgets.

  14. Promoting international deployment of greenhouse gas technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Kelley, J.S.; Voss, M.K.

    1995-12-31

    Increasing emission of greenhouse gases from human activities are predicted to lead to significant global warming and possible undesirable Environmental effects by the middle of the next century. These gases trap solar energy that is reradiated from the earth`s surface, raising its temperature. The gases-carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)-are emitted as the result of a wide range of anthropogenic activities, including the production and conversion of energy from fossil fuels, the operation of air conditioning and refrigeration equipment, and coal mining, domestic sewage treatment, and the manufacture of cement and nylon. To slow global warming, technologies are being developed, promoted, and deployed to reduce these emissions. To make a practical response to global environmental issues such as greenhouse gas emissions, it is recognized that international collaboration is needed. Because of the accelerating pace of technology innovation and the increasingly interconnected world economy, national efforts to adapt to global environmental challenges are no longer sufficient. Through international collaboration, scarce resources can be shared and technological solutions can be adapted and replicated. ORNL is responsible for managing and supporting the U.S, involvement in many of the implementing agreements. In addition to collaborating with GREENTIE, ORNL is involved with the following other IEA implementing agreements, either as executive committee members, national team leaders, or operating agents: the Center for the Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies, Heat Pump Program, Buildings and Community Systems, Alternative Motor Fuels, and Fusion Energy Stellerator Concept.

  15. Volcanoes can muddle the greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    As scientists and politicians anxiously eye signs of global greenhouse warming, climatologists are finding the best evidence yet that a massive volcanic eruption can temporarily bring the temperature down a notch or two. Such a cooling could be enough to set the current global warming back more than a decade, confusing any efforts to link it to the greenhouse effect. By effectively eliminating some nonvolcanic climate changes from the record of the past 100 years, researchers have detected drops in global temperature of several tenths of a degree within 1 to 2 years of volcanic eruptions. Apparently, the debris spewed into the stratosphere blocked sunlight and caused the temperature drops. For all their potential social significance, the climate effects of volcanoes have been hard to detect. The problem has been in identifying a volcanic cooling among the nearly continuous climate warmings and coolings of a similar size that fill the record. The paper reviews how this was done.

  16. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    ScienceCinema

    Anderson, Diana

    2016-07-12

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas — one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  17. Greenhouse gas fluxes during growth of different bioenergy crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, K.; Don, A.; Flessa, H.

    2012-04-01

    Bioenergy crops are expected to contribute to greenhouse gas mitigation by substituting fossil fuels. However, during production, processing and transport of bioenergy crops greenhouse gas emissions are generated that have to be taken into account when evaluating the role of bioenergy for climate mitigation. Especially nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions during feedstock production determine the greenhouse gas balance of bioenergy due to its strong global warming potential. This fact has often been ignored due to insufficient data and knowledge on greenhouse gas emission from cropland soils under bioenergy production. Therefore, we started to investigate the greenhouse gas emissions of major bioenergy crops maize, oil seed rape, grass (grass-clover, without N-fertilizer) and short rotation coppice (SRC, poplar hybrid) at two sites in Central Germany (near Göttingen and in Thuringia). The nitrous oxide and methane (CH4) fluxes from these sites have been determined by weekly chamber measurements since May 2011. The N2O emissions from all fields were low and without extreme peaks during the first five months of measurement (222 to 687 g N2O-N ha-1 for 5 months). The rape field near Göttingen emitted less N2O than the SRC, probably because SRC was newly established in spring 2011 and the rape has not been fertilized during the measurement period (cumulative emission over 5 months: rape seed 366 ± 188 g N2O-N ha-1, grassland 497 ± 153 g N2O-N ha-1, SRC 687 ± 124 g N2O-N ha-1). The maize field in Thuringia emitted more N2O than the SRC due to emission peaks related to the fertilization of maize (cumulative emission over 5 months: maize 492 ± 140 g N2O-N ha-1, grasslands 253 ± 87 and 361 ± 135 g N2O-N ha-1, new SRC 222 ± 90 g N2O-N ha-1, 4 years old SRC 340 ± 264 g N2O-N ha-1). All sites showed a net uptake of atmospheric methane throughout the summer season (104 to 862 g CH4-C ha-1 for 5 months). However, net-exchange of CH4 is of little importance for the greenhouse

  18. The making of greenhouse policy

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of anthropogenic climate change on a global scale has raised a public policy debate which has become the archetypical science policy issue. Against a background of natural changes in the earth's climate man has altered the surface of the earth and its atmosphere. We have evidence of increases in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The computer models of the climate effect take into account this input, but do not adequately simulate fundamental aspects of the Earth system which may reduce or increase the predicted climate effects. The average global temperatures did not increase from 1979 to 1989 yet global increases in releases of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere were at unprecendented levels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, an international body, has set up three working groups to investigate different aspects of climate change. Their reports were presented to the Second World Climate Conference in Geneva from October 29 to November 7, 1990. All three groups cited uncertainties in their assessments of effects of global climate change. A government wide U.S. Global Change Research Program has been formed to monitor and understand the Earth system and predict global change. President Bush has asked for over $1 billion to fund this research program. Social and economic factors will play a large role in any policy decisions that affect climate change. Policies have been instituted by this administration which will reduce greenhouse-gas-emissions. These include the phasing out of CFCs by the year 2000, The Clean Air Act being debated by Congress, and a National Energy Strategy. President Bush has proposed the U.S. host the first negotiating sessions leading to an international agreement on greenhouse policy.

  19. Implications of ethanol-based fuels for greenhouse gas emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, G.; DeLuchi, M.A.; Wyman, C.

    1994-02-14

    The US Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a rule which would mandate that 30% of the oxygen content of reformulated gasoline be provided by renewable oxygenates. The rule would essentially require that biomass-based ethanol, or ETBE derived from ethanol, be used to supply 30% of the oxygen in reformulated gasoline. This short statement addresses the very narrow question, ``Would this rule result in a net decrease in greenhouse gas emissions?`` The challenge then is to determine how much greenhouse gas is emitted during the ethanol fuel cycle, a fuel cycle that is much less mature and less well documented than the petroleum fuel cycle. In the petroleum fuel cycle, most of the greenhouse gas emissions come from fuel combustion. In the ethanol fuel cycle most of the greenhouse gas emissions come from the fuel production processes. Details of corn productivity, fertilizer use, process efficiency, fuel source, etc. become very important. It is also important that the ethanol fuel cycle produces additional products and the greenhouse gas emissions have somehow to be allocated among the respective products. With so many variables in the ethanol fuel cycle, the concern is actually with ethanol-based additives which will be produced in response to the proposed rule, and not necessarily with the average of ethanol which is being produced now. A first important observation is that the difference between standard gasoline and reformulated gasoline is very small so that when differences are drawn against alternative fuels, it makes little difference whether the contrast is against standard or reformulated gasoline. A second observation is that for this base case comparison, emissions of CO{sub 2} alone are roughly 13% less for the ethanol fuel cycle than for the reformulated gasoline cycle.

  20. Greenhouse Gases Monitoring from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, Takashi

    The role of greenhouse gases in global warming processes and an important element of the global carbon cycle is widely recognized. With the advent of the technical means to provide new monitoring and measurement of greenhouse gases (GHG) from space, JAXA has identified the coordination of these measurements and their application by cooperating with international space agencies. In order to foster the use of space-based GHG observations and consolidate data requirements for the next generation GHG monitoring mission from space, a synergetic strategy for easy access to GHG satellite observations, including GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Monitoring Satellite, JAXA) and current observations should be developed, and also harmonizing the next generation of GHG satellite observations shoud be facilitated. The Paper describes the current status of international activities of GHG monitoring from space and relations with policy makers and stake holders. The long term GHG monitoring from space is also proposed by respecting the GEO Carbon Strategy which is published in March 2010. Also, GOSAT sample XCO2 and XCH4 global column amount datasets will be introduced with the avtivities of validation campaign.

  1. Solar energy utilization and microcomputer control in the greenhouse builk curing and drying solar system

    SciTech Connect

    Nassar, A.N.H.

    1987-01-01

    Three agricultural applications in a specially designed greenhouse solar system functioning as a multi-purpose solar air collector for crop production and curing/drying processes are examined. An automated hydroponic crop production system is proposed for the greenhouse solar system. Design criteria of the proposed system and its utilization of solar energy for root-zone warming are presented and discussed. Based upon limited testing of the hydroponic system considered, hydroponic production of greenhouse crops is believed reasonable to complement the year-round use of the greenhouse solar system. The hardware/software design features of a microcomputer-based control system applied in the greenhouse solar barn are presented and discussed. On-line management and utilization of incident solar energy by the microcomputer system are investigated for both the greenhouse and tobacco curing/drying modes of operation. The design approach considered for the microcomputer control system is believed suitable for regulating solar energy collection and utilization for crop production applications in greenhouse systems.

  2. Jicarilla Apache Tribe: greenhouse renovation and demonstration project. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez, L. Jr.

    1980-09-30

    This report describes briefly the construction phase, instructional phase, bedding plant phase, and tomato production phase of a passive solar greenhouse renovation and demonstration project. Some data on the performance and heat savings are included.

  3. The greenhouse gas balance of the Province of Siena.

    PubMed

    Ridolfi, R; Kneller, M; Donati, A; Pulselli, R M

    2008-01-01

    There is a profound debate over how to assign greenhouse gas (GHG) responsibilities; therefore, we have decided to follow IPCC guidelines, as they offer the only standardized method. We have identified each type of greenhouse emission and its level of absorption. We have studied the province and its districts and municipalities. We have determined that the energy sector is that with the highest level of emissions, even if the per capita emissions of the Province of Siena are very low. This is caused by a very low level of industrialization and the presence of a local geothermal production of energy. In order to highlight this aspect, we have considered scenarios both with and without geothermal production. Our research was then focused on single districts (groups of homogenous municipalities) and municipalities, where we found great differences among the greenhouse emissions of the areas. We have constructed a map of the greenhouse emissions of the whole province. It has been interesting to note that there are 14 municipalities with net negative emissions, seven with low positive emissions, 12 with medium positive emissions and three with elevated positive emissions. These latter correspond to the main city and to two of the most industrialized municipalities.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, D. Y. C.; Lee, Y. T.

    This study provides a quantitative review of the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2) and methane (CH 4), the two most significant greenhouse gases (GHGs) in Hong Kong. Study indicated that CO 2 accounts for 90% of the local GHG emissions in Hong Kong. Among the different types of fuels coal is identified as the major source of CO 2, which constitutes about 50% by fuel type. On the other hand, CH 4, which mainly comes from waste decomposition, contributes to 5% of the total GHG emissions. Correlation study revealed that energy consumption and waste quantity were strongly correlated with population and gross domestic products (GDP), implying that not much has been done in Hong Kong to re-mediate GHG emissions. Regression analysis concluded that supply side management (fuel switch) was more effective than demand side management (energy conservation) in mitigating CO 2 emissions in Hong Kong.

  5. [Seeping irrigation effect in sunlight greenhouse].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zuoxin; Du, Yaodong; Cai, Chongguang; Wang, Jian

    2002-04-01

    The differences of soil and air environments, crop growth, development and diseases, and water use efficiency of seeping irrigation from furrow irrigation were studied. Results indicated that compared with furrow irrigation, seeping irrigation could increase soil waterstable granular by 81.4%, soil porosity by 29.0% and soil temperature by 1.1-1.7 degrees C respectively, decrease bulk density by 21.2% and relative air humidity by 13.4% respectively, and save irrigation water by 36.7%. In addition, seeping irrigation could also accelerate crop maturity and increase yield, reduce crop diseases and production cost. Therefore, seeping irrigation was an ideal irrigation technique in sunlight greenhouse at present.

  6. Greenhouse effect may not be all bad

    SciTech Connect

    Senft, D.

    1990-10-01

    Evidence is presented that indicates US temperatures decreased by a fraction of a degree during the past 70 years contrary to the estimates of some researchers concerned with the greenhouse effect. There is general agreement that the carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere will double by the late or mid 21st century. Experiments on cotton growth under increased temperature and carbon dioxide concentrations indicate sizeable gains in yield. This increased yield is exhibited by citrus trees and is projected for other crops. There is a concomitant need for more water and fertilizer. Increased populations of parasitic mites and insects also occur. Climatic changes are seen as being more gradual than previously thought. The possible increases in food production under these changes in climate are one positive element in the emerging scenario.

  7. Teleconsultations reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tiago Cravo; Barlow, James; Gonçalves, Luís; Bayer, Steffen

    2013-10-01

    Health services contribute significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. New models of delivering care closer to patients have the potential to reduce travelling and associated emissions. We aimed to compare the emissions of patients attending a teleconsultation - an outpatient appointment using video-conferencing equipment - with those of patients attending a face-to-face appointment. We estimated the total distances travelled and the direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions for 20,824 teleconsultations performed between 2004 and 2011 in Alentejo, a Portuguese region. These were compared to the distances and emissions that would have resulted if teleconsultations were not available and patients had to attend face-to-face outpatient appointments. Estimates were calculated using survey data on mode of transport, and national aggregate data for car engine size and fuel. A sensitivity analysis using the lower and upper quartiles for survey distances was performed. Teleconsultations led to reductions in distances and emissions of 95%. 2,313,819 km of travelling and 455 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions were avoided (22 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per patient). The incorporation of modes of transport and car engine size and fuel in the analysis led to emission estimates which were 12% smaller than those assuming all patients used an average car. The availability of remote care services can significantly reduce road travel and associated emissions. At a time when many countries are committed to reducing their carbon footprint, it is desirable to explore how these reductions could be incorporated into technology assessments and economic evaluations.

  8. The NOAA Annual Greenhouse Gas Index - 2012 Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, J. H.; Montzka, S. A.; Conway, T. J.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Elkins, J. W.; Masari, K. A.; Schnell, R. C.; Tans, P. P.

    2012-04-01

    For the past several decades, the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has monitored all of the long-lived atmospheric greenhouse gases. These global measurements have provided input to databases, analyses, and various relevant products, including national and international climate assessments. To make these data more useful and available, NOAA several years ago released its Annual Greenhouse Gas Index (AGGI), http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/gmd/aggi. This index, based on the climate forcing properties of long-lived greenhouse gases, was designed to enhance the connection between scientists and society by providing a normalized standard that can be easily understood and followed. The long-lived gases capture most of the radiative forcing, and uncertainty in their measurement is very small. This allows us to provide a robust measure and assessment of the long-term, radiative influence of these gases. Continuous greenhouse gas measurements are made at baseline climate observatories (Pt. Barrow, Alaska; Mauna Loa, Hawaii; American Samoa; and the South Pole) and weekly flask air samples are collected through a global network of over 60 sites, including an international cooperative program for carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. The gas samples are analyzed at NOAA's Earth System Research Laboratory (NOAA/ESRL) in Boulder, Colorado, using WMO standard reference gases prepared by NOAA/ESRL. The AGGI is normalized to 1.00 in 1990, the Kyoto Climate Protocol baseline year. In 2010, the AGGI was 1.29, indicating that global radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases had increased 29% since 1990. During the 1980s CO2 accounted for about 50-60% of the annual increase in radiative forcing by long-lived greenhouse gases, whereas, since 2000, it has accounted for 85-90% of this increase each year. After nearly a decade of virtually level concentrations in the atmosphere, methane (CH4) increased measurably over the past 2-3 years, as did its

  9. Methane Greenhouses and Anti-Greenhouses During the Precambrian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasting, J. F.; Pavlov, A. A.

    2003-12-01

    Methane was arguably an important greenhouse gas during the Archean and early Paleoproterozoic Eras, prior to the rise of O2 at ~2.3 Ga (1,2). Atmospheric CH4 concentrations of 1000 ppmv or more are predicted, assuming that methanogenic bacteria evolved early and that they were widely distributed in the prevailing anaerobic biosphere (2,3). Indeed, previous models (1-3) may have underestimated both the concentration of CH4 and the greenhouse effect itself at this time. Knauth and Lowe (4) have used oxygen isotopes in cherts to argue that the mean surface temperature at 3.2-3.5 Ga was between 55oC and 85oC. The Sun is thought to have been some 23 percent dimmer at that time (5), so this would have required substantial greenhouse warming by both CH4 and CO2. Further constraints are imposed by the formation of hydrocarbon haze, and an accompanying "anti-greenhouse effect", if the CH4 concentration exceeds that of CO2 (2). Thus, only certain combinations of CH4 and CO2 are possible. The rise of O2 at 2.3 Ga destabilized the methane greenhouse, leading to widespread (possibly global) glaciation (1,6). The next 1.5 billion years were warm, however, as evidenced by the absence of glacial deposits and the continuing high temperatures implied by O isotopes in cherts (7). CH4 levels could have remained relatively high during this time, 20-100 ppmv, as a consequence of low concentrations of dissolved O2 and sulfate in the deep oceans, and increased recycling of organic matter by fermentation and methanogenesis (8,9). An increase in either O2 or dissolved sulfate at around 0.75 Ga may have once again decreased atmospheric CH4 levels and triggered the widespread Neoproterozoic glaciations. References: 1. Pavlov, A. A., Kasting, J. F., Brown, L. L., Rages, K. A. & Freedman, R. J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11,981-11,990 (2000). 2. Pavlov, A. A., Kasting, J. F. & Brown, L. L. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,267-23,287 (2001). 3. Kasting, J. F., Pavlov, A. A. & Siefert, J. L. Origins of Life

  10. False advertising in the greenhouse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banse, K.

    1991-12-01

    Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

  11. Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledley, Tamara S.; Sundquist, Eric; Schwartz, Stephen; Hall, Dorothy K.; Fellows, Jack; Killeen, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), as a scientific organization devoted to research on the Earth and space sciences, provides current scientific information to the public on issues pertinent to geophysics. The Council of the AGU approved a position statement on Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases in December 1998. The statement, together with a short summary of the procedures that were followed in its preparation, review, and adoption were published in the February 2, 1999 issue of Eos ([AGU, 1999]. The present article reviews scientific understanding of this issue as presented in peer-reviewed publications that serves as the underlying basis of the position statement.

  12. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT OF THE ARCTIC ATMOSPHERE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Some of this absorbed heat is radiated back to the earth’s surface. This process is generally called the ’ greenhouse effect ’ of the atmosphere...of the terrestrial radiation escapes through the atmosphere. The values for two equations representing the ’ greenhouse effect ’ are discussed. Both...show very small geographical and temporal variations. The atmospheric greenhouse effect is remarkably stable in all latitudes and climatic zones

  13. Observational determination of the greenhouse effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raval, A.; Ramanathan, V.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite measurements are used to quantify the atmospheric greenhouse effect, defined here as the infrared radiation energy trapped by atmospheric gases and clouds. The greenhouse effect is found to increase significantly with sea surface temperature. The rate of increase gives compelling evidence for the positive feedback between surface temperature, water vapor and the greenhouse effect; the magnitude of the feedback is consistent with that predicted by climate models. This study demonstrates an effective method for directly monitoring, from space, future changes in the greenhouse effect.

  14. Engineering concepts for inflatable Mars surface greenhouses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hublitz, I.; Henninger, D. L.; Drake, B. G.; Eckart, P.

    2004-01-01

    A major challenge of designing a bioregenerative life support system for Mars is the reduction of the mass, volume, power, thermal and crew-time requirements. Structural mass of the greenhouse could be saved by operating the greenhouse at low atmospheric pressure. This paper investigates the feasibility of this concept. The method of equivalent system mass is used to compare greenhouses operated at high atmospheric pressure to greenhouses operated at low pressure for three different lighting methods: natural, artificial and hybrid lighting. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Engineering concepts for inflatable Mars surface greenhouses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hublitz, I.; Henninger, D. L.; Drake, B. G.; Eckart, P.

    2004-01-01

    A major challenge of designing a bioregenerative life support system for Mars is the reduction of the mass, volume, power, thermal and crew-time requirements. Structural mass of the greenhouse could be saved by operating the greenhouse at low atmospheric pressure. This paper investigates the feasibility of this concept. The method of equivalent system mass is used to compare greenhouses operated at high atmospheric pressure to greenhouses operated at low pressure for three different lighting methods: natural, artificial and hybrid lighting. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The role of nuclear energy in mitigating greenhouse warming

    SciTech Connect

    Krakowski, R.A.

    1997-12-31

    A behavioral, top-down, forced-equilibrium market model of long-term ({approximately} 2,100) global energy-economics interactions has been modified with a bottom-up nuclear energy model and used to construct consistent scenarios describing future impacts of civil nuclear materials flows in an expanding, multi-regional (13) world economy. The relative measures and tradeoffs between economic (GNP, tax impacts, productivity, etc.), environmental (greenhouse gas accumulations, waste accumulation, proliferation risk), and energy (resources, energy mixes, supply-side versus demand-side attributes) interactions that emerge from these analyses are focused herein on advancing understanding of the role that nuclear energy (and other non-carbon energy sources) might play in mitigating greenhouse warming. Two ostensibly opposing scenario drivers are investigated: (a) demand-side improvements in (non-price-induced) autonomous energy efficiency improvements; and (b) supply-side carbon-tax inducements to shift energy mixes towards reduced- or non-carbon forms. In terms of stemming greenhouse warming for minimal cost of greenhouse-gas abatement, and with the limitations of the simplified taxing schedule used, a symbiotic combination of these two approaches may offer advantages not found if each is applied separately.

  17. Limiting net greenhouse gas emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, R A; Watts, E C; Williams, E R

    1991-09-01

    In 2988 the Congress requested DOE produce a study on carbon dioxide inventory and policy to provide an inventory of emissions sources and to analyze policies to achieve a 20% reduction in carbon dioxide emissions in 5 to 10 years and a 50% reduction in 15 to 20 years. This report presents the results of that study. Energy and environmental technology data were analyzed using computational analysis models. This information was then evaluated, drawing on current scientific understanding of global climate change, the possible consequences of anthropogenic climate change (change caused by human activity), and the relationship between energy production and use and the emission of radiactively important gases. Topics discussed include: energy and environmental technology to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, fossil energy production and electricity generation technologies, nuclear energy technology, renewable energy technologies, energy storage, transmission, and distribution technology, transportation, technology, industrial technology, residential and commercial building technology, greenhouse gas removal technology, approaches to restructuring the demand for energy.

  18. Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    PubMed

    Petersen, S O; Blanchard, M; Chadwick, D; Del Prado, A; Edouard, N; Mosquera, J; Sommer, S G

    2013-06-01

    Ongoing intensification and specialisation of livestock production lead to increasing volumes of manure to be managed, which are a source of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Net emissions of CH4 and N2O result from a multitude of microbial activities in the manure environment. Their relative importance depends not only on manure composition and local management practices with respect to treatment, storage and field application, but also on ambient climatic conditions. The diversity of livestock production systems, and their associated manure management, is discussed on the basis of four regional cases (Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, China and Europe) with increasing levels of intensification and priorities with respect to nutrient management and environmental regulation. GHG mitigation options for production systems based on solid and liquid manure management are then presented, and potentials for positive and negative interactions between pollutants, and between management practices, are discussed. The diversity of manure properties and environmental conditions necessitate a modelling approach for improving estimates of GHG emissions, and for predicting effects of management changes for GHG mitigation, and requirements for such a model are discussed. Finally, we briefly discuss drivers for, and barriers against, introduction of GHG mitigation measures for livestock production. There is no conflict between efforts to improve food and feed production, and efforts to reduce GHG emissions from manure management. Growth in livestock populations are projected to occur mainly in intensive production systems where, for this and other reasons, the largest potentials for GHG mitigation may be found.

  19. Idaho National Laboratory FY12 Greenhouse Gas Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberly Frerichs

    2013-03-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2012 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho.

  20. Idaho National Laboratory's FY11 Greenhouse Gas Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberly Frerichs

    2012-03-01

    A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory is a systematic approach to account for the production and release of certain gases generated by an institution from various emission sources. The gases of interest are those that climate science has identified as related to anthropogenic global climate change. This document presents an inventory of GHGs generated during Fiscal Year (FY) 2011 by Idaho National Laboratory (INL), a Department of Energy (DOE)-sponsored entity, located in southeastern Idaho.

  1. Strengthening the Montreal protocol: does it cool down the greenhouse?

    PubMed

    den Elzen, M G; Swart, R J; Rotmans, J

    1992-03-31

    Strengthening of the Montreal Protocol is recently being negotiated in London in 1990 in order to achieve further reductions of the regulated CFCs and to include possibly more substances. In this article the implications of different policies with respect to control of ozone depleting substances for climate change are analysed, including the proposed substitution by HCFCs and HFCs, carbon tetrachloride and methylchloroform. A special halocarbon module was developed within the framework of RIVM's Integrated Model to Assess the Greenhouse Effect (IMAGE). IMAGE is a parameterized science based policy model and has been developed to give policy agencies a concise overview of the quantitative aspects of the greenhouse problem, to evaluate various policy options concerning climate change and to serve as a means of communication. It is concluded, from simulations with the halocarbon module, that it is of primary importance to achieve a further reduction of the regulated CFCs compared to the Montreal Protocol with compliance by as many countries as possible. From the perspective of the greenhouse effect the inclusion of longer lived halocarbons, such as carbon tetrachloride and HCFC-22 in the protocol comes second. The application of methylchloroform, halons and HCFCs and HFCs with lower global warming potentials (GWPs) than HCFC-22 contributes only marginally to the greenhouse effect in comparison with the much more important greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane, ozone and nitrous oxide. Especially if further growth of the total production of HCFCs after complete replacement of the present CFCs can be avoided by using these alternatives with a lower GWP, these substances could therefore be tolerated in a transition period, from the perspective of global warming.

  2. Cyanobacterial emergence at 2.8 gya and greenhouse feedbacks.

    PubMed

    Schwartzman, David; Caldeira, Ken; Pavlov, Alex

    2008-02-01

    Apparent cyanobacterial emergence at about 2.8 Gya coincides with the negative excursion in the organic carbon isotope record, which is the first strong evidence for the presence of atmospheric methane. The existence of weathering feedbacks in the carbonate-silicate cycle suggests that atmospheric and oceanic CO2 concentrations would have been high prior to the presence of a methane greenhouse (and thus the ocean would have had high bicarbonate concentrations). With the onset of a methane greenhouse, carbon dioxide concentrations would decrease. Bicarbonate has been proposed as the preferred reductant that preceded water for oxygenic photosynthesis in a bacterial photosynthetic precursor to cyanobacteria; with the drop of carbon dioxide level, Archean cyanobacteria emerged using water as a reductant instead of bicarbonate (Dismukes et al., 2001). Our thermodynamic calculations, with regard to this scenario, give at least a tenfold drop in aqueous CO2 levels with the onset of a methane-dominated greenhouse, assuming surface temperatures of about 60 degrees C and a drop in the level of atmospheric carbon dioxide from about 1 to 0.1 bars. The buildup of atmospheric methane could have been triggered by the boost in oceanic organic productivity that arose from the emergence of pre-cyanobacterial oxygenic phototrophy at about 2.8-3.0 Gya; high temperatures may have precluded an earlier emergence. A greenhouse transition timescale on the order of 50-100 million years is consistent with results from modeling the carbonate-silicate cycle. This is an alternative hypothesis to proposals of a tectonic driver for this apparent greenhouse transition.

  3. A Hiatus of the Greenhouse Effect

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jinjie; Wang, Yuan; Tang, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The rate at which the global average surface temperature is increasing has slowed down since the end of the last century. This study investigates whether this warming hiatus results from a change in the well-known greenhouse effect. Using long-term, reliable, and consistent observational data from the Earth’s surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA), two monthly gridded atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect parameters (Ga and Gs) are estimated to represent the radiative warming effects of the atmosphere and the surface in the infrared range from 1979 to 2014. The atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect over the tropical monsoon-prone regions is found to contribute substantially to the global total. Furthermore, the downward tendency of cloud activity leads to a greenhouse effect hiatus after the early 1990 s, prior to the warming pause. Additionally, this pause in the greenhouse effect is mostly caused by the high number of La Niña events between 1991 and 2014. A strong La Niña indicates suppressed convection in the tropical central Pacific that reduces atmospheric water vapor content and cloud volume. This significantly weakened regional greenhouse effect offsets the enhanced warming influence in other places and decelerates the rising global greenhouse effect. This work suggests that the greenhouse effect hiatus can be served as an additional factor to cause the recent global warming slowdown. PMID:27616203

  4. A Hiatus of the Greenhouse Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jinjie; Wang, Yuan; Tang, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    The rate at which the global average surface temperature is increasing has slowed down since the end of the last century. This study investigates whether this warming hiatus results from a change in the well-known greenhouse effect. Using long-term, reliable, and consistent observational data from the Earth’s surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA), two monthly gridded atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect parameters (Ga and Gs) are estimated to represent the radiative warming effects of the atmosphere and the surface in the infrared range from 1979 to 2014. The atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect over the tropical monsoon-prone regions is found to contribute substantially to the global total. Furthermore, the downward tendency of cloud activity leads to a greenhouse effect hiatus after the early 1990 s, prior to the warming pause. Additionally, this pause in the greenhouse effect is mostly caused by the high number of La Niña events between 1991 and 2014. A strong La Niña indicates suppressed convection in the tropical central Pacific that reduces atmospheric water vapor content and cloud volume. This significantly weakened regional greenhouse effect offsets the enhanced warming influence in other places and decelerates the rising global greenhouse effect. This work suggests that the greenhouse effect hiatus can be served as an additional factor to cause the recent global warming slowdown.

  5. Using a wood stove to heat greenhouses

    Treesearch

    Gloria Whitefeather-Spears

    2009-01-01

    The Red Lake Tribal Forestry Greenhouse in Red Lake, MN, utilizes four types of outdoor furnaces for heating through the fall, winter, and spring. The WoodMaster® is a highly efficient, wood-fired furnace that provides forced-air heat to the greenhouse. The HeatmorTM furnace is an economical wood-fired alternative that can provide lower...

  6. Solar Greenhouses and Sunspaces: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen G.; And Others

    Solar technology systems are being studied, managed, built and offered as an effective alternative energy option. This publication presents background material for the building and operation of better sunspaces and greenhouses. Recent developments in solar technology are explained and information on solar greenhouse and sunspace is provided (in…

  7. Can we delay a greenhouse warming

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    The author comments on the EPA report dated September 1983 Can We Delay A Greenhouse Warming. He takes exception to the widely-held interpretation that the answer is not much. The contribution of other greenhouse gases such as methane and nitrous oxide to the EPA scenarios is pointed out, and the lack of understanding of their role is emphasised. (ACR)

  8. A Hiatus of the Greenhouse Effect.

    PubMed

    Song, Jinjie; Wang, Yuan; Tang, Jianping

    2016-09-12

    The rate at which the global average surface temperature is increasing has slowed down since the end of the last century. This study investigates whether this warming hiatus results from a change in the well-known greenhouse effect. Using long-term, reliable, and consistent observational data from the Earth's surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA), two monthly gridded atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect parameters (Ga and Gs) are estimated to represent the radiative warming effects of the atmosphere and the surface in the infrared range from 1979 to 2014. The atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect over the tropical monsoon-prone regions is found to contribute substantially to the global total. Furthermore, the downward tendency of cloud activity leads to a greenhouse effect hiatus after the early 1990 s, prior to the warming pause. Additionally, this pause in the greenhouse effect is mostly caused by the high number of La Niña events between 1991 and 2014. A strong La Niña indicates suppressed convection in the tropical central Pacific that reduces atmospheric water vapor content and cloud volume. This significantly weakened regional greenhouse effect offsets the enhanced warming influence in other places and decelerates the rising global greenhouse effect. This work suggests that the greenhouse effect hiatus can be served as an additional factor to cause the recent global warming slowdown.

  9. Titan's greenhouse and antigreenhouse effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Courtin, Regis

    1992-01-01

    Thermal mechanisms active in Titan's atmosphere are discussed in a brief review of data obtained during the Voyager I flyby in 1980. Particular attention is given to the greenhouse effect (GHE) produced by atmospheric H2, N2, and CH4; this GHE is stronger than that on earth, with CH4 and H2 playing roles similar to those of H2O and CO2 on earth. Also active on Titan is an antigreenhouse effect, in which dark-brown and orange organic aerosols block incoming solar light while allowing IR radiation from the Titan surface to escape. The combination of GHE and anti-GHE leads to a surface temperature about 12 C higher than it would be if Titan had no atmosphere.

  10. Changes on sewage sludge stability after greenhouse drying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soriano-Disla, J. M.; Houot, S.; Imhoff, M.; Valentin, N.; Gómez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.

    2009-04-01

    The progressive implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC in all the European member states is increasing the quantities of sewage sludge requiring disposal. Sludge application onto cultivated soils as organic fertilizers allows the recycling of nutrients. The application of only dehydrated sludges has generated many problems including unpleasant odours and difficult management (regarding transport and application) related to their high water content. One way to overcome these problems, in a cheap and clean way, is the drying of sludges using the energy of the sun under greenhouse conditions. This drying may affect sludge chemical characteristics including organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, parameters which have to be controlled for the proper management of dry sludge application onto soils. For this reason, the main aim of this work was to study the impact of greenhouse drying of different sewage sludges on their organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, assessed by biochemical fractionation and mineralization assays. Three sewage sludges were sampled before (dehydrated sludges) and after greenhouse drying (dried sludges). The analyses consisted of: humidity, organic matter, mineral and organic N contents, N and C mineralization during 91-day laboratory incubations in controlled conditions, and biochemical fractionation using the Van Soest procedure. Greenhouse drying decreased the water content from 70-80% to 10% and also the odours, both of which will improve the management of the final product from the perspective of application and transport. We also found that drying reduced the organic matter content of the sludges but not the biodegradability of the remaining carbon. Organic N mineralization occurred during greenhouse drying, explaining why mineral N content tended to increase and the potential mineralization of organic nitrogen decreased after greenhouse drying. The biochemical stability did not

  11. Greenhouse gas fluxes from integrated crop-livestock systems in central North Dakota

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Integrated crop-livestock (ICL) systems have shown potential to achieve environmentally sustainable production of crop and livestock products with regards to improved soil health. Reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions relative to crop and/or livestock only production systems would increase sus...

  12. Characterization and detection of emerging viroids in North American greenhouse tomatoes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tomato is an economically important vegetable in many countries around the world, with major productions in China, the U.S., Spain, Italy, India, Turkey, and Egypt. Although, most of the tomato production is field grown, there is a growing trend in protective production (greenhouse). Nearly 40% of...

  13. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    ScienceCinema

    Fischer, Marc

    2016-07-12

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  14. Greenhouse gas mitigation by agricultural intensification.

    PubMed

    Burney, Jennifer A; Davis, Steven J; Lobell, David B

    2010-06-29

    As efforts to mitigate climate change increase, there is a need to identify cost-effective ways to avoid emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Agriculture is rightly recognized as a source of considerable emissions, with concomitant opportunities for mitigation. Although future agricultural productivity is critical, as it will shape emissions from conversion of native landscapes to food and biofuel crops, investment in agricultural research is rarely mentioned as a mitigation strategy. Here we estimate the net effect on GHG emissions of historical agricultural intensification between 1961 and 2005. We find that while emissions from factors such as fertilizer production and application have increased, the net effect of higher yields has avoided emissions of up to 161 gigatons of carbon (GtC) (590 GtCO(2)e) since 1961. We estimate that each dollar invested in agricultural yields has resulted in 68 fewer kgC (249 kgCO(2)e) emissions relative to 1961 technology ($14.74/tC, or approximately $4/tCO(2)e), avoiding 3.6 GtC (13.1 GtCO(2)e) per year. Our analysis indicates that investment in yield improvements compares favorably with other commonly proposed mitigation strategies. Further yield improvements should therefore be prominent among efforts to reduce future GHG emissions.

  15. Embodied greenhouse gas emissions in diets.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Prajal; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Juergen P

    2013-01-01

    Changing food consumption patterns and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. The agricultural sector is one of the major GHG emitters and thus holds a large potential for climate change mitigation through optimal management and dietary changes. We assess this potential, project emissions, and investigate dietary patterns and their changes globally on a per country basis between 1961 and 2007. Sixteen representative and spatially differentiated patterns with a per capita calorie intake ranging from 1,870 to >3,400 kcal/day were derived. Detailed analyses show that low calorie diets are decreasing worldwide, while in parallel diet composition is changing as well: a discernable shift towards more balanced diets in developing countries can be observed and steps towards more meat rich diets as a typical characteristics in developed countries. Low calorie diets which are mainly observable in developing countries show a similar emission burden than moderate and high calorie diets. This can be explained by a less efficient calorie production per unit of GHG emissions in developing countries. Very high calorie diets are common in the developed world and exhibit high total per capita emissions of 3.7-6.1 kg CO(2eq.)/day due to high carbon intensity and high intake of animal products. In case of an unbridled demographic growth and changing dietary patterns the projected emissions from agriculture will approach 20 Gt CO(2eq.)/yr by 2050.

  16. Embodied Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Diets

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Prajal; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Juergen P.

    2013-01-01

    Changing food consumption patterns and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. The agricultural sector is one of the major GHG emitters and thus holds a large potential for climate change mitigation through optimal management and dietary changes. We assess this potential, project emissions, and investigate dietary patterns and their changes globally on a per country basis between 1961 and 2007. Sixteen representative and spatially differentiated patterns with a per capita calorie intake ranging from 1,870 to 3,400 kcal/day were derived. Detailed analyses show that low calorie diets are decreasing worldwide, while in parallel diet composition is changing as well: a discernable shift towards more balanced diets in developing countries can be observed and steps towards more meat rich diets as a typical characteristics in developed countries. Low calorie diets which are mainly observable in developing countries show a similar emission burden than moderate and high calorie diets. This can be explained by a less efficient calorie production per unit of GHG emissions in developing countries. Very high calorie diets are common in the developed world and exhibit high total per capita emissions of 3.7–6.1 kg CO2eq./day due to high carbon intensity and high intake of animal products. In case of an unbridled demographic growth and changing dietary patterns the projected emissions from agriculture will approach 20 Gt CO2eq./yr by 2050. PMID:23700408

  17. Greenhouse gas mitigation by agricultural intensification

    PubMed Central

    Burney, Jennifer A.; Davis, Steven J.; Lobell, David B.

    2010-01-01

    As efforts to mitigate climate change increase, there is a need to identify cost-effective ways to avoid emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Agriculture is rightly recognized as a source of considerable emissions, with concomitant opportunities for mitigation. Although future agricultural productivity is critical, as it will shape emissions from conversion of native landscapes to food and biofuel crops, investment in agricultural research is rarely mentioned as a mitigation strategy. Here we estimate the net effect on GHG emissions of historical agricultural intensification between 1961 and 2005. We find that while emissions from factors such as fertilizer production and application have increased, the net effect of higher yields has avoided emissions of up to 161 gigatons of carbon (GtC) (590 GtCO2e) since 1961. We estimate that each dollar invested in agricultural yields has resulted in 68 fewer kgC (249 kgCO2e) emissions relative to 1961 technology ($14.74/tC, or ∼$4/tCO2e), avoiding 3.6 GtC (13.1 GtCO2e) per year. Our analysis indicates that investment in yield improvements compares favorably with other commonly proposed mitigation strategies. Further yield improvements should therefore be prominent among efforts to reduce future GHG emissions. PMID:20551223

  18. Electricity price impacts of alternative Greenhouse gas emission cap-and-trade programs

    SciTech Connect

    Edelston, Bruce; Armstrong, Dave; Kirsch, Laurence D.; Morey, Mathew J.

    2009-07-15

    Limits on greenhouse gas emissions would raise the prices of the goods and services that require such emissions for their production, including electricity. Looking at a variety of emission limit cases and scenarios for selling or allocating allowances to load-serving entities, the authors estimate how the burden of greenhouse gas limits are likely to be distributed among electricity consumers in different states. (author)

  19. 13. Greenhouse, east elevation. The boardandbatten wall covers an opening ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Greenhouse, east elevation. The board-and-batten wall covers an opening that was originally fitted with windows which allowed sunlight into the greenhouse. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. Greenhouse gas emissions intensity of global croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Gerber, James S.; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Herrero, Mario; MacDonald, Graham K.; Brauman, Kate A.; Havlik, Petr; O'Connell, Christine S.; Johnson, Justin A.; Saatchi, Sassan; West, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Stabilizing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from croplands as agricultural demand grows is a critical component of climate change mitigation. Emissions intensity metrics--including carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per kilocalorie produced (`production intensity’)--can highlight regions, management practices, and crops as potential foci for mitigation. Yet the spatial and crop-wise distribution of emissions intensity has been uncertain. Here, we develop global crop-specific circa 2000 estimates of GHG emissions and GHG intensity in high spatial detail, reporting the effects of rice paddy management, peatland draining, and nitrogen (N) fertilizer on CH4, CO2 and N2O emissions. Global mean production intensity is 0.16 Mg CO2e M kcal-1, yet certain cropping practices contribute disproportionately to emissions. Peatland drainage (3.7 Mg CO2e M kcal-1)--concentrated in Europe and Indonesia--accounts for 32% of these cropland emissions despite peatlands producing just 1.1% of total crop kilocalories. Methane emissions from rice (0.58 Mg CO2e M kcal-1), a crucial food staple supplying 15% of total crop kilocalories, contribute 48% of cropland emissions, with outsized production intensity in Vietnam. In contrast, N2O emissions from N fertilizer application (0.033 Mg CO2e M kcal-1) generate only 20% of cropland emissions. We find that current total GHG emissions are largely unrelated to production intensity across crops and countries. Climate mitigation policies should therefore be directed to locations where crops have both high emissions and high intensities.

  1. Quantification and Controls of Wetland Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    McNicol, Gavin

    2016-05-10

    Wetlands cover only a small fraction of the Earth’s land surface, but have a disproportionately large influence on global climate. Low oxygen conditions in wetland soils slows down decomposition, leading to net carbon dioxide sequestration over long timescales, while also favoring the production of redox sensitive gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Freshwater marshes in particular sustain large exchanges of greenhouse gases under temperate or tropical climates and favorable nutrient regimes, yet have rarely been studied, leading to poor constraints on the magnitude of marsh gas sources, and the biogeochemical drivers of flux variability. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was once a great expanse of tidal and freshwater marshes but underwent drainage for agriculture during the last two centuries. The resulting landscape is unsustainable with extreme rates of land subsidence and oxidation of peat soils lowering the surface elevation of much of the Delta below sea level. Wetland restoration has been proposed as a means to slow further subsidence and rebuild peat however the balance of greenhouse gas exchange in these novel ecosystems is still poorly described. In this dissertation I first explore oxygen availability as a control on the composition and magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions from drained wetland soils. In two separate experiments I quantify both the temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas emission and the kinetic sensitivity of gas production to a wide range of oxygen concentrations. This work demonstrated the very high sensitivity of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide production to oxygen availability, in carbon rich wetland soils. I also found the temporal dynamics of gas production to follow a sequence predicted by thermodynamics and observed spatially in other soil or sediment systems. In the latter part of my dissertation I conduct two field studies to quantify greenhouse gas exchange and understand the carbon sources for

  2. Simulation of Greenhouse Climate Monitoring and Control with Wireless Sensor Network and Event-Based Control

    PubMed Central

    Pawlowski, Andrzej; Guzman, Jose Luis; Rodríguez, Francisco; Berenguel, Manuel; Sánchez, José; Dormido, Sebastián

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring and control of the greenhouse environment play a decisive role in greenhouse production processes. Assurance of optimal climate conditions has a direct influence on crop growth performance, but it usually increases the required equipment cost. Traditionally, greenhouse installations have required a great effort to connect and distribute all the sensors and data acquisition systems. These installations need many data and power wires to be distributed along the greenhouses, making the system complex and expensive. For this reason, and others such as unavailability of distributed actuators, only individual sensors are usually located in a fixed point that is selected as representative of the overall greenhouse dynamics. On the other hand, the actuation system in greenhouses is usually composed by mechanical devices controlled by relays, being desirable to reduce the number of commutations of the control signals from security and economical point of views. Therefore, and in order to face these drawbacks, this paper describes how the greenhouse climate control can be represented as an event-based system in combination with wireless sensor networks, where low-frequency dynamics variables have to be controlled and control actions are mainly calculated against events produced by external disturbances. The proposed control system allows saving costs related with wear minimization and prolonging the actuator life, but keeping promising performance results. Analysis and conclusions are given by means of simulation results. PMID:22389597

  3. Wavelength-Selective Photovoltaics for Power-generating Greenhouses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Sue; Loik, Michael; Shugar, David; Corrado, Carley; Wade, Catherine; Alers, Glenn

    2014-03-01

    While photovoltaic (PV) technologies are being developed that have the potential for meeting the cost target of 0.50/W per module, the cost of installation combined with the competition over land resources could curtail the wide scale deployment needed to generate the Terrawatts per year required to meet the world's electricity demands. To be cost effective, such large scale power generation will almost certainly require PV solar farms to be installed in agricultural and desert areas, thereby competing with food production, crops for biofuels, or the biodiversity of desert ecosystems. This requirement has put the PV community at odds with both the environmental and agricultural groups they would hope to support through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. A possible solution to this challenge is the use of wavelength-selective solar collectors, based on luminescent solar concentrators, that transmit wavelengths needed for plant growth while absorbing the remaining portions of the solar spectrum and converting it to power. Costs are reduced through simultaneous use of land for both food and power production, by replacing the PV cells by inexpensive long-lived luminescent materials as the solar absorber, and by integrating the panels directly into existing greenhouse or cold frames. Results on power generation and crop yields for year-long trials done at academic and commercial greenhouse growers in California will be presented.

  4. Biological methanogenesis and the CO2 greenhouse effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guthrie, P. D.

    1986-01-01

    It is well established that plants tend to increase net photosynthesis under increased carbon dioxide. It is also well established that a large fraction of atmospheric methane is produced by microbial metabolism of organic sediments in paddies and freshwater wetlands, where a major source of organic debris is local plant growth. As CO2 increases, it may lead to increased methane production and a resulting enhancement of the expected greenhouse warming. A rough estimate of the present rate of this biologically mediated feedback on the climate system indicates that it might account for as much as 30 percent of the observed methane increase and speed up the greenhouse forcing by as much as 15 percent.

  5. Biological methanogenesis and the CO2 greenhouse effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guthrie, P. D.

    1986-01-01

    It is well established that plants tend to increase net photosynthesis under increased carbon dioxide. It is also well established that a large fraction of atmospheric methane is produced by microbial metabolism of organic sediments in paddies and freshwater wetlands, where a major source of organic debris is local plant growth. As CO2 increases, it may lead to increased methane production and a resulting enhancement of the expected greenhouse warming. A rough estimate of the present rate of this biologically mediated feedback on the climate system indicates that it might account for as much as 30 percent of the observed methane increase and speed up the greenhouse forcing by as much as 15 percent.

  6. A Greenhouse for Mars and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaim, Christopher P.; Czysz, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    A detailed design study for a deployable greenhouse for Mars mission is has been completed. The greenhouse has been designed so that it has a life span of at least 20 years, a leakage rate of no more that 1% of the total volume per day at the target working pressure of 50 kPa and provides at least six crewmembers with approximately twenty five percent of their food supply. Artificial light is provided by high intensity red and blue light emitting diodes, but sunlight is also used by installing small Lexan windows on the rooftop. The greenhouse structure is a rigid IM7/977-3 graphite/epoxy sandwich structure with a footprint of 38 m2. Radioisotope thermal electric generators are used to produce power for the greenhouse and its subsystems and the plants are grown in nested pockets located on vertical cylinders which allows for a growth area of 48 m2. An aeroponic water and nutrient delivery system is used in order to reduce the greenhouse water usage. Harvesting and planting is achieved through the use of robotics specifically designed for this mission. The greenhouse structure and subsystems have a total weight of less than 10 metric tons. In this paper the design highlights of several of the subsystems of the greenhouse design will be summarized.

  7. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  8. Scientists' internal models of the greenhouse effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libarkin, J. C.; Miller, H.; Thomas, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    A prior study utilized exploratory factor analysis to identify models underlying drawings of the greenhouse effect made by entering university freshmen. This analysis identified four archetype models of the greenhouse effect that appear within the college enrolling population. The current study collected drawings made by 144 geoscientists, from undergraduate geoscience majors through professionals. These participants scored highly on a standardized assessment of climate change understanding and expressed confidence in their understanding; many also indicated that they teach climate change in their courses. Although geoscientists held slightly more sophisticated greenhouse effect models than entering freshmen, very few held complete, explanatory models. As with freshmen, many scientists (44%) depict greenhouse gases in a layer in the atmosphere; 52% of participants depicted this or another layer as a physical barrier to escaping energy. In addition, 32% of participants indicated that incoming light from the Sun remains unchanged at Earth's surface, in alignment with a common model held by students. Finally, 3-20% of scientists depicted physical greenhouses, ozone, or holes in the atmosphere, all of which correspond to non-explanatory models commonly seen within students and represented in popular literature. For many scientists, incomplete models of the greenhouse effect are clearly enough to allow for reasoning about climate change. These data suggest that: 1) better representations about interdisciplinary concepts, such as the greenhouse effect, are needed for both scientist and public understanding; and 2) the scientific community needs to carefully consider how much understanding of a model is needed before necessary reasoning can occur.

  9. Assessment of a closed greenhouse aquaculture and hydroponic system

    SciTech Connect

    Head, W.D.

    1984-01-01

    Research was conducted to address three objectives: 1) to determine the nitrogen cycling of a closed greenhouse aquaculture and hydroponic system; 2) to determine the energy budget of a closed greenhouse aquaculture and hydroponic system; and 3) to determine which low cost fish diets could be used as a replacement or supplement to commercial diets for Tilapia mossambica. A 6435 liter recirculating aquaculture system was enclosed in a 32.6 m/sup 2/ greenhouse. Water was recirculated through two 416 liter trickling filter towers and three 5.5 m long hydroponic troughs. The aquaculture tank was stocked with a polyculture of channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) and tilapia (Tilapia mossambica) and the hydroponic troughs were planted with tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum). The fishes were fed a commercial fish diet and the tomatoes were irrigated with the aquaculture water using a modified Nutrient Film Technique. The fish yield was 42.2 kg and the average tomato yield from 24 plants was 4.1 kg/plant. The combined fish and tomato production accounted for 65% of the total nitrogen input. Leaf analyses and visual inspection showed that the tomato plants from the hydroponic troughs were deficient in potassium and magnesium. An energy analysis of the greenhouse and aquaculture-hydroponic system showed that when combining the energy outputs of heat, fish, and tomatoes the energy ratio (energy output/energy input) was similar to literature values for milkfish pond culture. When only the fish production was considered the energy ratio was similar to literature values reported for intensive water recirculating systems.

  10. The greenhouse and antigreenhouse effects on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Courtin, Regis

    1991-01-01

    The parallels between the atmospheric thermal structure of the Saturnian satellite Titan and the hypothesized terrestrial greenhouse effect can serve as bases for the evaluation of competing greenhouse theories. Attention is presently drawn to the similarity between the roles of H2 and CH4 on Titan and CO2 and H2O on earth. Titan also has an antigreenhouse effect due to a high-altitude haze layer which absorbs at solar wavelengths, while remaining transparent in the thermal IR; if this haze layer were removed, the antigreenhouse effect would be greatly reduced, exacerbating the greenhouse effect and raising surface temperature by over 20 K.

  11. Greenhouse Trace Gases in Deadwood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, Kristofer; Bueno de Mesquita, Cliff; Oberle, Brad; Maynard, Dan; Bettigole, Charles; Crowther, Thomas; Duguid, Marlyse; Steven, Blaire; Zanne, Amy; Lapin, Marc; Ashton, Mark; Oliver, Chad; Lee, Xuhui; Bradford, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Deadwood, long recognized as playing an important role in carbon cycling in forest ecosystems, is more recently drawing attention for its potential role in the cycling of other greenhouse trace gases. We report data from four independent studies measuring internal gas concentrations in deadwood in in three Quercus dominated upland forest systems in the Northeastern and Central United States. Mean methane concentrations in deadwood were 23 times atmospheric levels, indicating a lower bound, mean radial wood surface area flux of ~6 x 10-4 μmol CH4 m-2 s-1. Site, decay class, diameter, and species were all highly significant predictors of methane abundance in deadwood, and log diameter and decay stage interacted as important controls limiting methane concentrations in the smallest and most decayed logs. Nitrous oxide concentrations were negatively correlated with methane and on average ~25% lower than ambient, indicating net consumption of nitrous oxide. These data suggest nonstructural carbohydrates fuel archaeal methanogens and confirm the potential for widespread in situ methanogenesis in both living and deadwood. Applying this understanding to estimate methane emissions from microbial activity in living trees implies a potential global flux of 65.6±12.0 Tg CH4 yr-1, more than 20 times greater than currently considered.

  12. Methane Greenhouses and Anti-Greenhouses During the Archean Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasting, J. F.; Pavlov, A. A.

    2002-12-01

    Climate and life are coupled today through the biogeochemical carbon cycle, but they may have been even more tightly coupled in the distant past when atmospheric O2 levels were lower. The finding of mass-independently fractionated S isotopes in Archean rocks confirms that pO2 was very low, probably <10-13 times the present level, prior to 2.3 Ga (1). The Sun was also some 20 percent less luminous at this time (2). High CO2 levels were initially proposed to solve this `faint young Sun problem' (3); however, these levels are in conflict in data from paleosols (4). CH4 is an alternative greenhouse gas which could have kept the Archean climate warm if present at concentrations of 0.01-0.1 percent by volume (5). The primary source of methane is biological. CH4 is produced by methanogenic bacteria that today live in anaerobic environments such as the intestines of ruminants and the water-logged soils underlying rice paddies. During the Archean, however, methanogens should have been widespread, and the methane they produced would have had a long photochemical lifetimes, around 10,000 years (6). Most methanogens are thermophiles or hyperthermophiles, and those which are more thermophilic have shorter doubling times than those that prefer cooler temperatures. This suggests that a positive feedback loop may have existed, whereby methanogens warmed the climate by releasing CH4, which in turn promoted the proliferation of faster-growing methanogens. This positive feedback would have been halted, however, once the ratio of CH4 to CO2 in the atmosphere exceeded unity. At this point, polymerization of CH4 by solar UV radiation would have caused the formation of an organic haze layer similar to that observed today on Titan. Such a haze layer would have cooled the climate by creating an `anti-greenhouse effect.' This creates an overall negative feedback loop that may have been responsible for maintaining a stable Archean climate. The rise of O2 at 2.3 Ga disrupted this equilibrium

  13. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited availability of data and, moreover, the different scopes of the accounting lead to many ways of quantifying emissions and producing the accounts. The importance of transparency in GHG accounting is emphasised regarding waste type, waste composition, time period considered, GHGs included, global warming potential (GWP) assigned to the GHGs, counting of biogenic carbon dioxide, choice of system boundaries, interactions with the energy system, and generic emissions factors. In order to enhance transparency and consistency, a format called the upstream-operating-downstream framework (UOD) is proposed for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues including a clear distinction between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities.

  14. A greenhouse gas emissions inventory for Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Rose, Adam; Neff, Rob; Yarnal, Brent; Greenberg, Howard

    2005-08-01

    The Pennsylvania greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventory presented in this paper provides detailed estimates of emissions and their sources for the six major categories of GHGs. The inventory was compiled using the current U.S. Environment Protection Agency methodology, which applies emissions factors to socioeconomic data, such as fossil energy use, vehicle miles traveled, and industrial production. The paper also contains an assessment of the methodology and suggestions for improving accounting with respect to process, sectoral, and geographic considerations. The study found that Pennsylvania emitted 77.4 million metric tons carbon equivalent of GHGs in 1990 and that this total increased by 3% to 79.8 million metric tons carbon equivalent by 1999. Despite this increase, however, the state's percentage contribution to the United States total declined during the decade. Pennsylvania's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels represented 92.4% of 1990 totals and declined to 90.5% in 1999. Electricity generation was the largest single source of CO2 emissions, being responsible for 38% of fossil fuel CO2 emissions in 1990 and 40% of the total in 1999. Transportation emissions accounted for the largest increases in emissions between 1990 and 1999, whereas industrial emissions accounted for the largest decrease. The overall trend indicates that Pennsylvania has been able to weaken the relationship between GHG emissions and economic growth.

  15. Nonlinear Adaptive PID Control for Greenhouse Environment Based on RBF Network

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Songwei; Hu, Haigen; Xu, Lihong; Li, Guanghui

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid control strategy, combining Radial Basis Function (RBF) network with conventional proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) controllers, for the greenhouse climate control. A model of nonlinear conservation laws of enthalpy and matter between numerous system variables affecting the greenhouse climate is formulated. RBF network is used to tune and identify all PID gain parameters online and adaptively. The presented Neuro-PID control scheme is validated through simulations of set-point tracking and disturbance rejection. We compare the proposed adaptive online tuning method with the offline tuning scheme that employs Genetic Algorithm (GA) to search the optimal gain parameters. The results show that the proposed strategy has good adaptability, strong robustness and real-time performance while achieving satisfactory control performance for the complex and nonlinear greenhouse climate control system, and it may provide a valuable reference to formulate environmental control strategies for actual application in greenhouse production. PMID:22778587

  16. Nonlinear adaptive PID control for greenhouse environment based on RBF network.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Songwei; Hu, Haigen; Xu, Lihong; Li, Guanghui

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a hybrid control strategy, combining Radial Basis Function (RBF) network with conventional proportional, integral, and derivative (PID) controllers, for the greenhouse climate control. A model of nonlinear conservation laws of enthalpy and matter between numerous system variables affecting the greenhouse climate is formulated. RBF network is used to tune and identify all PID gain parameters online and adaptively. The presented Neuro-PID control scheme is validated through simulations of set-point tracking and disturbance rejection. We compare the proposed adaptive online tuning method with the offline tuning scheme that employs Genetic Algorithm (GA) to search the optimal gain parameters. The results show that the proposed strategy has good adaptability, strong robustness and real-time performance while achieving satisfactory control performance for the complex and nonlinear greenhouse climate control system, and it may provide a valuable reference to formulate environmental control strategies for actual application in greenhouse production.

  17. A compatible control algorithm for greenhouse environment control based on MOCC strategy.

    PubMed

    Hu, Haigen; Xu, Lihong; Zhu, Bingkun; Wei, Ruihua

    2011-01-01

    Conventional methods used for solving greenhouse environment multi-objective conflict control problems lay excessive emphasis on control performance and have inadequate consideration for both energy consumption and special requirements for plant growth. The resulting solution will cause higher energy cost. However, during the long period of work and practice, we find that it may be more reasonable to adopt interval or region control objectives instead of point control objectives. In this paper, we propose a modified compatible control algorithm, and employ Multi-Objective Compatible Control (MOCC) strategy and an extant greenhouse model to achieve greenhouse climate control based on feedback control architecture. A series of simulation experiments through various comparative studies are presented to validate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm. The results are encouraging and suggest the energy-saving application to real-world engineering problems in greenhouse production. It may be valuable and helpful to formulate environmental control strategies, and to achieve high control precision and low energy cost for real-world engineering application in greenhouse production. Moreover, the proposed approach has also potential to be useful for other practical control optimization problems with the features like the greenhouse environment control system.

  18. [Effects of fertilizer application on greenhouse vegetable yield: a case study of Shouguang].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Li, Yan; Jiang, Li-Hua; Liu, Zhao-Hui; Gao, Xin-Hao; Lin, Hai-Tao; Zheng, Fu-Li; Shi, Jing

    2014-06-01

    Data collected from 51 representative greenhouses of Shouguang through questionnaire survey were analyzed to investigate the effect of chemical fertilizers on vegetable yield, relationship between application of organic manure and yield, and influence factors and evolution rule of fertilizer application rate. The results showed that averages of 3338 kg N x hm(-2), 1710 kg P2O5 x hm(-2) 3446 kg K2O x hm(-2) were applied to greenhouse vegetables annually in Shouguang, 6-14 times as that in the local wheat-maize rotation system. The application rates of chemical N, P, and K fertilizers accounted for about 35%, 49% and 42% of the total input. Increasing application of chemical fertilizers had no significant effect on vegetable yields, while organic manure input significantly increased the vegetable yields. With the increase of greenhouse cultivating time, no significant changes in the input of chemical N, P, and K fertilizers were observed in greenhouse vegetable production while organic manure input decreased significantly. Differences in vegetable species, planting pattern and cultivating time of greenhouses was one of the reasons for large variations in nutrient application rate. In recent more than ten years, organic manure nutrient input increased significantly, chemical N and P fertilizer input presented a downward trend, chemical K fertilizer input increased significantly, and the N/P/K ratio became more and more reasonable in greenhouse vegetable production in Shouguang.

  19. A Compatible Control Algorithm for Greenhouse Environment Control Based on MOCC Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Haigen; Xu, Lihong; Zhu, Bingkun; Wei, Ruihua

    2011-01-01

    Conventional methods used for solving greenhouse environment multi-objective conflict control problems lay excessive emphasis on control performance and have inadequate consideration for both energy consumption and special requirements for plant growth. The resulting solution will cause higher energy cost. However, during the long period of work and practice, we find that it may be more reasonable to adopt interval or region control objectives instead of point control objectives. In this paper, we propose a modified compatible control algorithm, and employ Multi-Objective Compatible Control (MOCC) strategy and an extant greenhouse model to achieve greenhouse climate control based on feedback control architecture. A series of simulation experiments through various comparative studies are presented to validate the feasibility of the proposed algorithm. The results are encouraging and suggest the energy-saving application to real-world engineering problems in greenhouse production. It may be valuable and helpful to formulate environmental control strategies, and to achieve high control precision and low energy cost for real-world engineering application in greenhouse production. Moreover, the proposed approach has also potential to be useful for other practical control optimization problems with the features like the greenhouse environment control system. PMID:22163799

  20. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  1. Characterization of whitefly and whitefly-borne virus populations in tomato- and sweet pepper-growing greenhouses in the Cartago province, Costa Rica

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Crop production in greenhouse environments requires special care. Poor management can favor pest related problems which can lead to economic losses. Whiteflies and whitefly-borne viruses are major constraints to the production of tomato and sweet pepper both in field and greenhouses settings. Limit...

  2. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  3. Multiagency Initiative to Provide Greenhouse Gas Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boland, Stacey W.; Duren, Riley M.

    2009-11-01

    Global Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop; Albuquerque, New Mexico, 20-22 May 2009; The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was held at Sandia National Laboratories and organized by an interagency collaboration among NASA centers, Department of Energy laboratories, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. Such an initiative could significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies.

  4. The Greenhouse Effect in a Vial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Richard; Sneider, Cary

    1989-01-01

    Presents an example of a greenhouse-effect experiment from the Climate Protection Institute. Analyzes the amount of carbon dioxide in ambient air, human exhalation, automobile exhaust, and nearly pure carbon dioxide by titrating with ammonia and bromthymol blue. (MVL)

  5. The Greenhouse Effect in a Vial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Richard; Sneider, Cary

    1989-01-01

    Presents an example of a greenhouse-effect experiment from the Climate Protection Institute. Analyzes the amount of carbon dioxide in ambient air, human exhalation, automobile exhaust, and nearly pure carbon dioxide by titrating with ammonia and bromthymol blue. (MVL)

  6. Non-Profit Greenhouse Gas Reductions Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Baltimore City, Maryland, is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  7. Arctic climate change: Greenhouse warming unleashed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauritsen, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Human activity alters the atmospheric composition, which leads to global warming. Model simulations suggest that reductions in emission of sulfur dioxide from Europe since the 1970s could have unveiled rapid Arctic greenhouse gas warming.

  8. Advancing Greenhouse Gas Reductions through Affordable Housing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    James City County, Virginia, is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  9. Greenhouse Gas Reductions for Marginalized Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Honolulu, Hawaii, is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  10. Reservoir Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Russian HPP

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, M. P.; Elistratov, V. V.; Maslikov, V. I.; Sidorenko, G. I.; Chusov, A. N.; Atrashenok, V. P.; Molodtsov, D. V.; Savvichev, A. S.; Zinchenko, A. V.

    2015-05-15

    Studies of greenhouse-gas emissions from the surfaces of the world’s reservoirs, which has demonstrated ambiguity of assessments of the effect of reservoirs on greenhouse-gas emissions to the atmosphere, is analyzed. It is recommended that greenhouse- gas emissions from various reservoirs be assessed by the procedure “GHG Measurement Guidelines for Fresh Water Reservoirs” (2010) for the purpose of creating a data base with results of standardized measurements. Aprogram for research into greenhouse-gas emissions is being developed at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University in conformity with the IHA procedure at the reservoirs impounded by the Sayano-Shushenskaya and Mainskaya HPP operated by the RusHydro Co.

  11. Greenhouse Gas Endangerment Finding: Health Effects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View English or Spanish-language version of a fact sheet that highlights key effects that support EPA’s determination that current and future concentrations of greenhouse gases endanger public health.

  12. Bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, M.M.; Mintz, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    A bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies has been compiled to assist the Climate change Action Plan Task Force in their consideration of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from personal motor vehicles. The document contains a summary of the literature, including it major directions and implications; and annotated listing of 32 recent pertinent documents; and a listing of a larger group of related reports.

  13. Heavy metals relationship in arable and greenhouse soils of SE Spain using a geostatistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gil, Carlos; Joaquin Ramos-Miras, Jose; Rodríguez Martín, Jose Antonio; Boluda, Rafael; Roca, Núria; Bech, Jaume

    2013-04-01

    This study compares heavy metals contents and the main edaphic parameters in greenhouse soils from the W Almería region one of the most productive agricultural systems in Europe, with agricultural soils (arable soils) in western Andalusia, SW Spain. Heavy metals input in agricultural soils mainly occur through pesticides and phytosanitary control products. The hazardousness of the studied elements (Cr, Ni, Pb, Cu, Zn and Cd) is particularly relevant in soils used for intensive greenhouse farming where such agricultural practices, which centre on maximising production, end up with products that finally enter the human food chain directly. Here we explore a total of 199 greenhouse soils and 142 arable soils, representing two scales of variation in this Mediterranean area. Despite their similar edaphic characteristics, the main differences between arable soils and greenhouse soils lie in nutrients contents (P and K) and in certain heavy metals (Cd, Pb and Zn), which reflect widespread use of pesticides in greenhouse farming. One of the most toxic metals is Cd given its mobility, whose concentrations triple in greenhouse soils, although it does not exceed the limits set by Spanish legislation. We conclude that despite anthropic heavy metals input, the association patterns of these elements were similar on the two spatial variability scales. Cd, Pb and Zn contents, and partly those of Cu, are related with agricultural practices. On the short spatial scale, grouping these heavy metals shows very high contents in greenhouse soils in the central northern area of the W Almería region. On the other hand, the associations of Cr and Ni suggest a lithogenic influence combined with a pedogenic effect on spatial maps. This natural origin input becomes more marked on the long spatial scale (arable soils) where the main Cr and Ni contents are found in the vicinity of the Gádor Mountain Range.

  14. Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S

    SciTech Connect

    DeLuchi, M.A. |

    1993-11-01

    This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of greenhouse gas production and emissions. Those industries include electricity generation, transport of goods via trains, trucks, ships and pipelines, coal, natural gas and natural gas liquids, petroleum, nuclear energy, and biofuels.

  15. Electrical resistivity tomography to delineate greenhouse soil variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, R.; Amato, M.; Bitella, G.; Bochicchio, R.

    2013-03-01

    Appropriate management of soil spatial variability is an important tool for optimizing farming inputs, with the result of yield increase and reduction of the environmental impact in field crops. Under greenhouses, several factors such as non-uniform irrigation and localized soil compaction can severely affect yield and quality. Additionally, if soil spatial variability is not taken into account, yield deficiencies are often compensated by extra-volumes of crop inputs; as a result, over-irrigation and overfertilization in some parts of the field may occur. Technology for spatially sound management of greenhouse crops is therefore needed to increase yield and quality and to address sustainability. In this experiment, 2D-electrical resistivity tomography was used as an exploratory tool to characterize greenhouse soil variability and its relations to wild rocket yield. Soil resistivity well matched biomass variation (R2=0.70), and was linked to differences in soil bulk density (R2=0.90), and clay content (R2=0.77). Electrical resistivity tomography shows a great potential in horticulture where there is a growing demand of sustainability coupled with the necessity of stabilizing yield and product quality.

  16. Evaluation of endosulfan residues in vegetables grown in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Arrebola, F J; Egea-González, F J; Moreno, M; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A; Hernández-Torres, M E; Martínez-Vidal, J L

    2001-07-01

    The reduction in residue levels of endosulfan with time after treatment of tomatoes, green beans, peppers and cucumbers grown in different types of commercial greenhouses (flat- and asymmetric-roof greenhouses) in Almería (Spain) was investigated. A study of the major and minor degradation products of endosulfan in peppers and cucumbers (endosulfan-sulfate, -ether and -lactone) was carried out using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). To establish the influence of environmental conditions on the degradation of endosulfan, several field trials have been carried out in which crops were sprayed at different rates (full, half- and quarter- of those rates recommended) during two seasons (spring and winter). For statistical purposes, the disappearance of endosulfan with time was considered to follow a pseudo-first-order reaction. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been applied to the results obtained. Half-lives of residue disappearance were 4.03-4.68 days in green beans, 4.03-4.20 days in tomatoes, 8.22 days in peppers and 7.97 days in cucumbers. Half-lives in spring were shorter than in the winter season. The application rate and the type of greenhouse did not influence the half-lives.

  17. Greenhouse-gas payback times for crop-based biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshout, P. M. F.; van Zelm, R.; Balkovic, J.; Obersteiner, M.; Schmid, E.; Skalsky, R.; van der Velde, M.; Huijbregts, M. A. J.

    2015-06-01

    A global increase in the demand for crop-based biofuels may be met by cropland expansion, and could require the sacrifice of natural vegetation. Such land transformation alters the carbon and nitrogen cycles of the original system, and causes significant greenhouse-gas emissions, which should be considered when assessing the global warming performance of crop-based biofuels. As an indicator of this performance we propose the use of greenhouse-gas payback time (GPBT), that is, the number of years it takes before the greenhouse-gas savings due to displacing fossil fuels with biofuels equal the initial losses of carbon and nitrogen stocks from the original ecosystem. Spatially explicit global GPBTs were derived for biofuel production systems using five different feedstocks (corn, rapeseed, soybean, sugarcane and winter wheat), cultivated under no-input and high-input farm management. Overall, GPBTs were found to range between 1 and 162 years (95% range, median: 19 years) with the longest GPBTs occurring in the tropics. Replacing no-input with high-input farming typically shortened the GPBTs by 45 to 79%. Location of crop cultivation was identified as the primary factor driving variation in GPBTs. This study underscores the importance of using spatially explicit impact assessments to guide biofuel policy.

  18. Impact of greenhouse gas emissions reduction in Indonesia: NO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Susandi, A.

    2004-12-01

    In this study, we develop scenarios of total air pollution from fossil fuel consumption and its impacts for the 21st century, using an inter-temporal general equilibrium model MERGE. The Model for Evaluating the Regional and Global Effects of greenhouse gas reduction policies (MERGE) is used to project energy consumption and production. We use the base scenarios from IPCC (2000). These scenarios assume that no measures are undertaken to control greenhouse gas emissions. We extend the IPCC scenarios with mitigation scenarios, estimating the air pollution impacts of greenhouse gas emission reduction. The MERGE model was extended to analyze emissions of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), their concentrations, impacts on human health, and economic valuation. To estimate of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) impacts on respiratory symptoms, we calculated the NO2 concentration as derived from nitrogen oxide (NOx). In the baseline scenario, the concentrations of NO2 are rising to 2,263 μg/m3 in 2100. If the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) countries reduce their emissions, respiratory symptoms among adult's associated with NO2 case would reach the highest to 65,741% of adult population cases by the end of century. If all countries reduce their emission in the future, the total health problem cost associated with NO2 will lower 35% of GDP than in the baseline scenario during the century.

  19. Thyroid function in Danish greenhouse workers

    PubMed Central

    Toft, Gunnar; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background From animal studies it is known that currently used pesticides can disturb thyroid function. Methods In the present study we investigated the thyroid function in 122 Danish greenhouse workers, to evaluate if greenhouse workers classified as highly exposed to pesticides experiences altered thyroid levels compared to greenhouse workers with lower exposure. Serum samples from the greenhouse workers were sampled both in the spring and the fall to evaluate if differences in pesticide use between seasons resulted in altered thyroid hormone levels. Results We found a moderate reduction of free thyroxine (FT4) (10–16%) among the persons working in greenhouses with a high spraying load both in samples collected in the spring and the fall, but none of the other measured thyroid hormones differed significantly between exposure groups in the cross-sectional comparisons. However, in longitudinal analysis of the individual thyroid hormone level between the spring and the fall, more pronounced differences where found with on average 32% higher thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level in the spring compared to the fall and at the same time a 5–9% lower total triiodthyroxin (TT3), free triiodthyroxine (FT3) and FT4. The difference between seasons was not consistently more pronounced in the group classified as high exposure compared to the low exposure groups. Conclusion The present study indicates that pesticide exposure among Danish greenhouse workers results in only minor disturbances of thyroid hormone levels. PMID:17147831

  20. 75 FR 18607 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ...EPA is proposing a supplemental rule to require reporting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from petroleum and natural gas systems. Specifically, the proposed supplemental rulemaking would require emissions reporting from the following industry segments: Onshore petroleum and natural gas production, offshore petroleum and natural gas production, natural gas processing, natural gas transmission......