Science.gov

Sample records for greenhouse vegetables grown

  1. Arsenic uptake and speciation in vegetables grown under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Smith, E; Juhasz, A L; Weber, J

    2009-04-01

    The accumulation of arsenic (As) by vegetables is a potential human exposure pathway. The speciation of As in vegetables is an important consideration due to the varying toxicity of different As species. In this study, common Australian garden vegetables were hydroponically grown with As-contaminated irrigation water to determine the uptake and species of As present in vegetable tissue. The highest concentrations of total As were observed in the roots of all vegetables and declined in the aerial portions of the plants. Total As accumulation in the edible portions of the vegetables decreased in the order radish > mung bean > lettuce = chard. Arsenic was present in the roots of radish, chard, and lettuce as arsenate (As(V)) and comprised between 77 and 92% of the total As present, whereas in mung beans, arsenite (As(III)) comprised 90% of the total As present. In aerial portions of the vegetables, As was distributed equally between both As(V) and As(III) in radish and chard but was present mainly as As(V) in lettuce. The presence of elevated As in vegetable roots suggests that As species may be complexed by phytochelatins, which limits As translocation to aerial portions of the plant.

  2. Evaluation of endosulfan residues in vegetables grown in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Arrebola, F J; Egea-González, F J; Moreno, M; Fernández-Gutiérrez, A; Hernández-Torres, M E; Martínez-Vidal, J L

    2001-07-01

    The reduction in residue levels of endosulfan with time after treatment of tomatoes, green beans, peppers and cucumbers grown in different types of commercial greenhouses (flat- and asymmetric-roof greenhouses) in Almería (Spain) was investigated. A study of the major and minor degradation products of endosulfan in peppers and cucumbers (endosulfan-sulfate, -ether and -lactone) was carried out using gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). To establish the influence of environmental conditions on the degradation of endosulfan, several field trials have been carried out in which crops were sprayed at different rates (full, half- and quarter- of those rates recommended) during two seasons (spring and winter). For statistical purposes, the disappearance of endosulfan with time was considered to follow a pseudo-first-order reaction. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been applied to the results obtained. Half-lives of residue disappearance were 4.03-4.68 days in green beans, 4.03-4.20 days in tomatoes, 8.22 days in peppers and 7.97 days in cucumbers. Half-lives in spring were shorter than in the winter season. The application rate and the type of greenhouse did not influence the half-lives.

  3. The first "space" vegetables have been grown in the "SVET" greenhouse using controlled environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanova, T. N.; Bercovich, Yu. A.; Mashinskiy, A. L.; Meleshko, G. I.

    The paper describes the "SVET" project—a new generation of space greenhouse with small dimensions. Through the use of a minicomputer, "SVET" is fully capable of automatically operating and controlling environmental systems for higher plant growth. A number of preliminary studies have shown the radish and cabbage to be potentially important crops for CELSS (Closed Environmental Life Support System). The "SVET" space greenhouse was mounted on the "CRYSTAL" technological module docked to the Mir orbital space station on 10 June 1990. Soviet cosmonauts Balandin and Solovyov started the first experiments with the greenhouse on 15 June 1990. Preliminary results of seed cultivation over an initial 54-day period in "SVET" are presented. Morphometrical characteristics of plants brought back to Earth are given. Alteration in plant characteristics, such as growth and developmental changes, or morphological contents were noted. A crop of radish plants was harvested under microgravity conditions. Characteristics of plant environmental control parameters and an estimation of functional properties of control and regulation systems of the "SVET" greenhouse in space flight as received via telemetry data is reported.

  4. A greenhouse and field-based study to determine the accumulation of arsenic in common homegrown vegetables grown in mining-affected soils

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Andreotta, Monica D.; Brusseau, Mark L.; Artiola, Janick F.; Maier, Raina M.

    2012-01-01

    The uptake of arsenic by plants from contaminated soils presents a health hazard that may affect home gardeners neighboring contaminated environments. A controlled greenhouse study was conducted in parallel with a co-created citizen science program (home garden experiment) to characterize the uptake of arsenic by common homegrown vegetables near the Iron King Mine and Humboldt Smelter Superfund site in southern Arizona. The greenhouse and home garden arsenic soil concentrations varied considerably, ranging from 2.35 to 533 mg kg−1. In the greenhouse experiment four vegetables were grown in three different soil treatments and in the home garden experiment a total of 63 home garden produce samples were obtained from 19 properties neighboring the site. All vegetables accumulated arsenic in both the greenhouse and home garden experiments, ranging from 0.01 to 23.0 mg kg−1 dry weight. Bioconcentration factors were determined and show that arsenic uptake decreased in the order: Asteraceae > Brassicaceae > Amaranthaceae > Cucurbitaceae > Liliaceae > Solanaceae > Fabaceae. Certain members of the Asteraceae and Brassicaceae plant families have been previously identified as hyperaccumulator plants, and it can be inferred that members of these families have genetic and physiological capacity to accumulate, translocate, and resist high amounts of metals. Additionally, a significant linear correlation was observed between the amount of arsenic that accumulated in the edible portion of the plant and the arsenic soil concentration for the Asteraceae, Brassicaceae, Amaranthaceae, and Fabaceae families. The results suggest that home gardeners neighboring mining operations or mine tailings with elevated arsenic levels should be made aware that arsenic can accumulate considerably in certain vegetables, and in particular, it is recommended that gardeners limit consumption of vegetables from the Asteraceae and Brassicaceae plant families. PMID:23201696

  5. From fresh vegetables to the harvest of wheat plants grown in the "SVET" space greenhouse onboard the MIR orbital station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanova, T.; Kostov, P.; Sapunova, S.; Dandolov, I.; Sytchev, V.; Podolski, I.; Levinskikh, M.; Meleshko, G.; Bingham, G.; Salisbury, F.

    1997-01-01

    Researchers report the results of experiments conducted onboard MIR in 1990, 1995, and 1996 in raising edible crops. In the 1990 experiment, radishes and Chinese cabbage were grown successfully, though the experimental plants were up to four times smaller than controls at harvest. The 1995 experiment in growing wheat through a complete life cycle was not completed. The 1996 experiment was successful in growing wheat through a complete life cycle to the seed stage. No seeds developed on any of the 279 ears harvested in that experiment. Reasons for the seedless development are explored.

  6. Heavy metals in intensive greenhouse vegetable production systems along Yellow Sea of China: Levels, transfer and health risk.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Tian, Kang; Holm, Peter E; Zhang, Yanxia

    2017-01-01

    Recently, greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has grown rapidly and counts a large proportion of vegetable production in China. In this study, the accumulation, health risk and threshold values of selected heavy metals were evaluated systematically. A total of 120 paired soil and vegetable samples were collected from three typical intensive GVP systems along the Yellow Sea of China. Mean concentrations of Cd, As, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn in greenhouse soils were 0.21, 7.12, 0.05, 19.81, 24.95 and 94.11 mg kg(-1), respectively. Compared to rootstalk and fruit vegetables, leafy vegetables had relatively high concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals. The accumulation of heavy metals in soils was affected by soil pH and soil organic matter. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of the heavy metals by vegetable consumption decreased in the order of leafy > rootstalk > fruit vegetables with hazard index (HI) values of 0.61, 0.33 and 0.26, respectively. The HI values were all below 1, which indicates that there is a low risk of greenhouse vegetable consumption. Soil threshold values (STVs) of heavy metals in GVP system were established according to the health risk assessment. The relatively lower transfer factors of rootstalk and fruit vegetables and higher STVs suggest that these types of vegetables are more suitable for cultivation in greenhouse soils. This study will provide an useful reference for controlling heavy metals and developing sustainable GVP.

  7. Agriculture: Nurseries and Greenhouses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nurseries and Greenhouses. Information about environmental requirements specifically relating to the production of many types of agricultural crops grown in nurseries and greenhouses, such as ornamental plants and specialty fruits and vegetables.

  8. An assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from the Australian vegetables industry.

    PubMed

    Maraseni, Tek N; Cockfield, Geoff; Maroulis, Jerry; Chen, Guangnan

    2010-08-01

    Recently, partly due to the increasing carbon consciousness in the electorates and partly due to the imminent introduction of the Australian Government's Carbon Pollution Reduction Scheme (CPRS), estimating carbon footprints is becoming increasingly necessary in agriculture. By taking data from several sources, this study estimates the national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from a variety of farm inputs, for the 23 key vegetables crops grown in Australia. For the 121,122 ha of land occupied by vegetable farms, there are 1.1 MtCO(2)e GHG emissions or 9.2 tCO(2)e ha(-1). In total, 65% of total GHG emissions from the vegetable industry are due to electricity use for irrigation and post-harvest on-farm activities, 17% from soil N(2)O emissions due to N fertiliser use, 10% from agrochemicals, 7% through fossils fuels and 1% from on-farm machinery. The top four vegetables (by area), potatoes, lettuce, tomatoes and broccoli account for 29.1%, 7.9%, 5.9% and 7.2% of total GHG emissions from vegetables, respectively. However, the ratio of GHG emissions between the highest and lowest-emitting crops per hectare and per tonne, are different. Therefore, care must be exercised in carbon footprint labelling vegetable products to ensure that the labels reflect carbon emissions on a per tonnage basis.

  9. Uptake of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate of vegetables from plastic film greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xiaowei; Du, Qizhen

    2011-11-09

    Uptake of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) of nine vegetables including potherb mustard, bok choy, celery, spinach, cabbage, leaf of tube, lettuce, garlic, and edible amaranth in plastic film greenhouses with different plastic films, film thickness, greenhouse age, and greenhouse height was studied. The results showed that the higher the DEHP content of film, the thicker the film, the lower the height of the greenhouse, and the younger the age of the greenhouse were, the higher the DEHP concentration of vegetables was. The results afford significant information for production of safe vegetables with low level DEHP contamination.

  10. Arsenic and Lead Uptake by Vegetable Crops Grown on Historically Contaminated Orchard Soils

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Transfer of Pb and As into vegetables grown in orchard soils historically contaminated by Pb arsenate pesticides was measured in the greenhouse. Lettuce, carrots, green beans and tomatoes were grown on soils containing a range of total Pb (16.5–915 mg/kg) and As (6.9–211 mg/kg) concentrations. The vegetables were acid-digested and analyzed for total Pb and As using ICP-mass spectrometry. Vegetable contamination was dependent on soil total Pb and As content, pH, and vegetable species. Arsenic concentrations were highest in lettuce and green beans, lower in carrots, and much lower in tomato fruit. Transfer of Pb into lettuce and beans was generally lower than that of As, and Pb and As were strongly excluded from tomato fruit. Soil metal concentrations as high as 400 mg/kg Pb and 100 mg/kg As produced vegetables with concentrations of Pb and As below the limits of international health standards. PMID:26949393

  11. The impact of greenhouse vegetable farming duration and soil types on phytoavailability of heavy metals and their health risk in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lanqin; Huang, Biao; Hu, Wenyou; Chen, Yong; Mao, Mingcui; Yao, Lipeng

    2014-05-01

    Heavy metal contamination in vegetables from greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) in China requires major attention. For GVP sustainability at a large regional level, 441 surface GVP soil and 132 corresponding greenhouse vegetable samples were collected from six typical GVP bases in eastern China to systematically evaluate the impact of GVP duration and soil types (Anthrosols and Cambosols) on phytoavailability of four major metals, Cd, Cu, Zn, and Pb, and their health risk. The results revealed high Cd accumulation in leaf vegetables grown in Anthrosols, which might pose potential health risk. Regardless of soil types in the study region, greenhouse farming lowered soil pH and enhanced metal availability with rising GVP duration, which might exacerbate Cd phytoavailability and vegetable Cd contamination as well as potential health risk. Also, increased GVP soil organic matter contents over time, found in some locations, affected crop-depending Cu and Zn uptakes. Furthermore, due to GVP, the annual decrease rate of soil pH and increase rates of soil available metal concentrations were generally much greater in Anthrosols than those in Cambosols, which contributed a lot to high Cd uptake by leaf vegetables grown in Anthrosols and their potential health risk. From sustainable GVP perspective, fertilization strategy with reduced frequency and rate is especially important and effective for abating soil and vegetable contamination by heavy metals under greenhouse farming.

  12. Consumer sensory analysis of organically and conventionally grown vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xin; Chambers, Edgar; Matta, Ziad; Loughin, Thomas M; Carey, Edward E

    2007-03-01

    Consumers of organically grown fruits and vegetables often believe that these products taste better than conventional produce. However, comparison of produce from supermarket shelves does not permit adequate assessment of this consumer perception, given potentially confounding cultivar and environmental effects. We used replicated side-by-side plots to produce organic and conventional vegetables for consumer sensory studies. In one test, red loose leaf lettuce, spinach, arugula, and mustard greens, grown organically and conventionally, were evaluated for overall liking as well as for intensity of flavor and bitterness. Another consumer test was conducted comparing organically and conventionally grown tomatoes, cucumbers, and onions. Overall, organically and conventionally grown vegetables did not show significant differences in consumer liking or consumer-perceived sensory quality. The only exception was in tomatoes where the conventionally produced tomato was rated as having significantly stronger flavor than the organically produced tomato. However, overall liking was the same for both organic and conventional samples. As conventional tomatoes also were scored marginally significantly higher in ripeness and a positive correlation was found between ratings of flavor intensity and ripeness, the flavor difference observed could not be simply ascribed to the contrasting growing conditions. Consumer panelists in both tests considered organic produce to be healthier (72%) and more environmentally friendly (51%) than conventional produce, while 28% considered organic produce to have better taste. Covariance analysis indicated that consumer demographics affected sensory comparisons of organic and conventional lettuce and cucumbers. Future study is needed to substantiate the influence of segmentation of consumers on their preference for organic food.

  13. Effect of localizing fruit and vegetable consumption on greenhouse gas emissions and nutrition, Santa Barbara County.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, David A; Radka, Corie N; Müller, Nora M; Watson, Tyler D; Rekstein, Nicole J; Wright, Hannah Van M; Hollingshead, Sydney E

    2011-05-15

    The US agrifood system is very productive, but highly centralized and resource intensive with very weak links between production and consumption. This contributes to high levels of malnutrition and greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE). A popular approach to improvement is localization-reducing direct transport (farm to retail distance, or "food miles"). We examined Santa Barbara County (SBC) California, which mirrors the high production, nutritional and environmental problems, and growing localization movement of California. SBC ranks in the top 1% of US counties in value of agricultural products, and >80% of this value is produce (fruits and vegetables). We calculated the amount of produce grown in and consumed in SBC and estimated that >99% of produce grown in SBC is exported from the county, and >95% of produce consumed in SBC is imported. If all produce consumed in SBC was grown in the county (100% localization), it would reduce GHGE from the agrifood system <1%, and not necessarily affect nutrition. While food miles capture only a portion of the environmental impact of agrifood systems, localization could be done in ways that promote synergies between improving nutrition and reducing GHGE, and many such efforts exist in SBC.

  14. Effects of exogenous abscisic acid on yield, antioxidant capacities, and phytochemical contents of greenhouse grown lettuces.

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Zhao, Xin; Sandhu, Amandeep K; Gu, Liwei

    2010-05-26

    Antioxidants and phytochemicals in vegetables are known to provide health benefits. Strategies that enhance these properties are expected to increase the nutritional values of vegetables. The objective of this research is to assess the effects of exogenous abscisic acid (ABA) on yield, antioxidant capacities, and phytochemical content of lettuces grown in a greenhouse. Red loose leaf lettuce (cv. Galactic) and green loose leaf lettuce (cv. Simpson Elite) were cultivated using a randomized complete block design. Three concentrations of ABA in water [0 (control), 150, 300 ppm] were sprayed on the 30th and 39th days after sowing, and lettuces were harvested on the 46th day. Exogenous ABA significantly decreased yield of green and red lettuces. Total phenolic and total anthocyanin contents in red lettuce treated with ABA were significantly higher than in controls, whereas no significant differences were observed in green lettuce. ABA significantly induced the accumulation of chlorophyll b and total carotenoids in lettuces. The phenolic compounds identified and quantified in red and green lettuces included caffeoyltartaric acid, 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid, dicaffeoyltartaric acid, 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid, and quercetin 3-(6''-malonyl)-glucoside. Additionally, cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-(3''-malonoyl)-glucoside, and cyanidin 3-(6''-malonoyl)-glucoside in red lettuces were quantified. No significant effects of ABA on these individual phytochemicals were observed in green lettuces, whereas ABA significantly elevated the content of individual phytochemicals in red lettuces except for 5-O-caffeoylquinic acid. Differences among red lettuces with or without exogenous ABA were visualized on the score plots of principal component analyses. Loading plot indicated that multiple phenolic compounds contributed to the observed differences in red lettuces.

  15. Determination and degradation of methomyl in tomatoes and green beans grown in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Gil Garcia, M D; Martínez Vidal, J L; Martínez Galera, M; Rodríguez Torreblanca, C; Gonzalez, C

    1997-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method using UV detection at 233 nm was used to study the degradation of methomyl in tomatoes and green beans grown in greenhouses. A liquid-liquid extraction with CH2Cl2-methanol (90 + 10, v/v) and a cleanup step with Florisil were combined with LC to isolate, recover, and quantitate the pesticide. Average recoveries obtained at spike levels of 0.03 and 0.40 mg/kg were 83.2-84.7% for tomatoes and 83.3-87.5% for green beans. Determination limits were 0.03 mg/kg for tomatoes and 0.01 mg/kg for green beans. Levels of methomyl residues were studied in tomatoes and green beans grown in an experimental greenhouse to establish the effect of the kind of greenhouse, application dose, species grown, and climatic conditions on the degradation of this pesticide. Analysis of variance showed that doses did not affect the response. The half-life, however, is greater in a flat-roof greenhouse than in an asymmetric-roof greenhouse and is significantly longer for green beans than for tomatoes and longer in winter than in spring. A preharvest time of about 5 days may be suitable for green beans sprayed with methomyl. Tomatoes show residue levels at the time of application lower than Spanish minimum residue levels.

  16. Distribution and uptake pathways of organochlorine pesticides in greenhouse and conventional vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Anping; Luo, Wenxiu; Sun, Jianqiang; Xiao, Hang; Liu, Weiping

    2015-02-01

    The application of greenhouse vegetable cultivation has dramatically expanded worldwide during the last several decades. However, little information is available on the distribution and uptake of pesticides in greenhouse vegetables. To bridge this knowledge gap, the present study was initiated to investigate the distribution and uptake of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in vegetables from plastic greenhouse and conventional cultivation methods. The uptake pathways of OCPs were not significantly different between these two cultivation methods. The arithmetic means of OCP concentrations in greenhouse vegetables were higher than those in conventional vegetables, although there was no significant difference. This small difference raised the concern of whether the tiny difference could be magnified to a significant difference by bioaccumulation in the food chain. The issue should be addressed by a well-designed scheme in future studies.

  17. Metabolite changes in nine different soybean cultivars grown under field and greenhouse conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Differences in the primary (amino acids, organic acids, and sugars) and secondary (isoflavones, fatty acid methyl esters) metabolites of nine soybean varieties grown in the field and in greenhouses were investigated by chemometric tools to identify the metabolic patterns associated with the growing ...

  18. First report of Impatiens necrotic spot virus infecting greenhouse-grown potatoes in Washington State

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In April and May 2010, potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Atlantic) plants grown from pre-nuclear minitubers in three separate greenhouses located at the USDA-ARS facility in Prosser, WA exhibited necrotic spots on leaves similar to those produced by the early blight pathogen, Alternaria solani (Sor.)...

  19. Feasibility of vermicomposting for vegetable greenhouse waste recycling.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Gómez, Manuel J; Romero, Esperanza; Nogales, Rogelio

    2010-12-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the feasibility of Eisenia andrei for vermicomposting heterogeneous-plant (HP), tomato-plant (P), and damaged tomato-fruit (T) greenhouse vegetable wastes. Earthworm growth and reproduction were monitored over a 12-week period, and variations in chemical parameters, enzyme activity, phytotoxicity test, and genetic fingerprinting of bacterial communities were evaluated. While high rates of salinity prevented earthworm survival in HP and P (>10 dS m(-1)), T was vermicomposted recording an adequate earthworm growth and cocoon production. The latter waste was successfully stabilized, as indicated by the significant decrease in its TOC content ( approximately 13-26%) and C:N ratio ( approximately 16-36%) and its high germination indices ( approximately 39-72%). The similar enzyme activities levels and bacterial community fingerprintings recorded in diverse vermicomposts obtained from T waste indicate that this type of waste favoured the existence of analogous bacterial communities responsible for the high degree of stabilization and maturity detected.

  20. Listeria monocytogenes Internalizes in Romaine Lettuce Grown in Greenhouse Conditions.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Archana G; Oliver, Haley F; Deering, Amanda J

    2017-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has been implicated in a number of outbreaks involving fresh produce, including an outbreak in 2016 resulting from contaminated packaged salads. The persistence and internalization potential of L. monocytogenes in romaine lettuce was evaluated, and the persistence of two L. monocytogenes strains was assessed on three romaine lettuce cultivars. Seeds were germinated, and plants grown in three soil types (i.e., standard potting mix, autoclaved potting mix, and top soil) and sterile soft-top agar for up to 21 days. Average CFU per gram of L. monocytogenes on seeds and plants was calculated from five replicates per harvest day. Up to 8.2 log CFU/g L. monocytogenes persisted on romaine lettuce plants (Braveheart cultivar) grown in soft-top agar, while those grown in commercial potting mix (initial soil aerobic plate count of 4.0 × 10(4) CFU/g) had a final concentration of 5.4 log CFU/g, and autoclaved commercial potting mix had a final concentration of 3.8 ± 0.2 log CFU/g after a 21-day period. Pathogen levels dropped below the limit of detection (2 log CFU/g) by day 18 in 75% topsoil (initial soil aerobic plate count of 4.0 × 10(1) CFU/g); this did not occur in sterile media. Although L. monocytogenes strain differences and presence of a clay coating on seeds did not affect persistence, differences were observed in L. monocytogenes growth and survival among cultivars. To assess internalization, seeds were inoculated with L. monocytogenes expressing green fluorescent protein. Three plants were fixed, paraffin embedded, and sectioned; localization was studied by using standard immunohistochemistry techniques. A total of 539 internalized L. monocytogenes cells were visualized among three 20-day seedlings. L. monocytogenes cells were located in all major tissue types (pith followed by cortex, xylem, phloem, and epidermis). The presence of L. monocytogenes in the plant vasculature suggests potential for transport throughout the plant into edible

  1. Comparing effects of low levels of herbicides on greenhouse- and field-grown potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.), soybeans (Glycine max L.), and peas (Pisum sativum L.).

    PubMed

    Pfleeger, Thomas; Olszyk, David; Lee, E Henry; Plocher, Milton

    2011-02-01

    Although laboratory toxicology tests are generally easy to perform, cost effective, and readily interpreted, they have been questioned for their environmental relevance. In contrast, field tests are considered realistic while producing results that are difficult to interpret and expensive to obtain. Toxicology tests were conducted on potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in a native soil in pots in the greenhouse and were compared to plants grown outside under natural environmental conditions to determine toxicological differences between environments, whether different plant developmental stages were more sensitive to herbicides, and whether these species were good candidates for plant reproductive tests. The reproductive and vegetative endpoints of the greenhouse plants and field-grown plants were also compared. The herbicides bromoxynil, glyphosate, MCPA ([4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy] acetic acid), and sulfometuron-methyl were applied at below field application rates to potato plants at two developmental stages. Peas and soybeans were exposed to sulfometuron-methyl at similar rates at three developmental stages. The effective herbicide concentrations producing a 25% reduction in a given measure differed between experimental conditions but were generally within a single order of magnitude within a species, even though there were differences in plant morphology. This study demonstrated that potatoes, peas, and soybeans grown in pots in a greenhouse produce phytotoxicity results similar to those grown outside in pots; that reproductive endpoints in many cases were more sensitive than vegetative ones; and that potato and pea plants are reasonable candidates for asexual and sexual reproductive phytotoxicity tests, respectively. Plants grown in pots in a greenhouse and outside varied little in toxicity. However, extrapolating those toxicity results to native plant communities in the field is basically unknown and in need of research.

  2. [Effects of fertilizer application on greenhouse vegetable yield: a case study of Shouguang].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ping; Li, Yan; Jiang, Li-Hua; Liu, Zhao-Hui; Gao, Xin-Hao; Lin, Hai-Tao; Zheng, Fu-Li; Shi, Jing

    2014-06-01

    Data collected from 51 representative greenhouses of Shouguang through questionnaire survey were analyzed to investigate the effect of chemical fertilizers on vegetable yield, relationship between application of organic manure and yield, and influence factors and evolution rule of fertilizer application rate. The results showed that averages of 3338 kg N x hm(-2), 1710 kg P2O5 x hm(-2) 3446 kg K2O x hm(-2) were applied to greenhouse vegetables annually in Shouguang, 6-14 times as that in the local wheat-maize rotation system. The application rates of chemical N, P, and K fertilizers accounted for about 35%, 49% and 42% of the total input. Increasing application of chemical fertilizers had no significant effect on vegetable yields, while organic manure input significantly increased the vegetable yields. With the increase of greenhouse cultivating time, no significant changes in the input of chemical N, P, and K fertilizers were observed in greenhouse vegetable production while organic manure input decreased significantly. Differences in vegetable species, planting pattern and cultivating time of greenhouses was one of the reasons for large variations in nutrient application rate. In recent more than ten years, organic manure nutrient input increased significantly, chemical N and P fertilizer input presented a downward trend, chemical K fertilizer input increased significantly, and the N/P/K ratio became more and more reasonable in greenhouse vegetable production in Shouguang.

  3. Accumulation of heavy metals by vegetables grown in mine wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, G.P.; Sands, K.; Waters, M.; Wixson, B.G.; Dorward-King, E.

    2000-03-01

    Lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc were quantified in mine wastes and in soils mixed with mine wastes. Metal concentrations were found to be heterogeneous in the wastes. Iceberg lettuce, Cherry Belle radishes, Roma bush beans, and Better Boy tomatoes were cultivated in mine wastes and in waste-amended soils. Lettuce and radishes had 100% survival in the 100% mine waste treatments compared to 0% and 25% survival for tomatoes and beans, respectively. Metal concentrations were determined in plant tissues to determine uptake and distribution of metals in the edible plant parts. Individual soil samples were collected beneath each plant to assess metal content in the immediate plant environment. This analysis verified heterogeneous metal content of the mine wastes. The four plant species effectively accumulated and translocated lead, cadmium, arsenic, and zinc. Tomato and bean plants contained the four metals mainly in the roots and little was translocated to the fruits. Radish roots accumulated less metals compared to the leaves, whereas lettuce roots and leaves accumulated similar concentrations of the four metals. Lettuce leaves and radish roots accumulated significantly more metals than bean and tomato fruits. This accumulation pattern suggests that consumption of lettuce leaves or radish roots from plants grown in mine wastes would pose greater risks to humans and wildlife than would consumption of beans or tomatoes grown in the same area. The potential risk may be mitigated somewhat in humans, as vegetables grown in mine wastes exhibited stunted growth and chlorosis.

  4. Factors affecting radionuclide availability to vegetables grown at Los Alamos

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.C.; Hakonson, T.E.; Ahlquist, A.J.

    1981-07-01

    A field study was conducted in 1977 on /sup 238/ /sup 239/Pu and /sup 137/Cs availability to zucchini squash (Curcurbita melopepo, hybrid seneca) and green bush beans (Phaseolus vulgaris, Landreths stringless) grown under home-garden conditions in an area at Los Alamos National Laboratory used for treated radioactive liquid waste disposal. Radionuclide concentrations were measured as a function of tissue type, height above the soil, fertilization regime, and for the squash, food-cleansing procedures. Analysis of variance procedures was used to analyze the data. Ratios of the concentration of a radionuclide in oven-dried vegetation to dry soil ranged from 0.0004 to 0.116 for the Pu isotopes, and from 0.051 to 0.255 for /sup 137/Cs. Fertilization with cattle manure reduced the Pu concentration ratios by 30% and /sup 137/Cs by 50%. Vegetative parts sampled within 20 cm of the ground surface were contaminated about four times as much as those parts growing further from the ground surface. About 65% of the contamination was removed by washing, indicating the presence of surficial contamination. The 50-year radiation dose commitment to humans consuming vegetables from the garden plot would be less than 0.05 mrem and would be due almost entirely to /sup 137/Cs.

  5. Metabolite changes in nine different soybean varieties grown under field and greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Maria John, K M; Natarajan, Savithiry; Luthria, Devanand L

    2016-11-15

    Global food security remains a worldwide concern due to changing climate, increasing population, and reduced agriculture acreages. Greenhouse cultivation increases productivity by extending growing seasons, reducing pest infestations and providing protection against short term drastic weather fluctuations like frost, heat, rain, and wind. In the present study, we examined and compared the metabolic responses of nine soybean varieties grown under field and greenhouse conditions. Extracts were assayed by GC-FID, GC-MS, and LC-MS for the identification of 10 primary (amino acids, organic acids, and sugars) and 10 secondary (isoflavones, fatty acid methyl esters) metabolites. Sugar molecules (glucose, sucrose, and pinitol) and isoflavone aglycons were increased but the isoflavones glucoside content decreased in the greenhouse cultivated soybeans. The amino acids and organic acids varied between the varieties. The results show that clustering (PCA and PLS-DA) patterns of soybean metabolites were significantly influenced by the genetic variation and growing conditions.

  6. [Effects of superphosphate addition on NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Sun, Qin-ping; Li, Ni; Liu, Chun-sheng; Li, Ji-jin; Liu, Ben-sheng; Zou, Guo-yuan

    2015-01-01

    To study the effects of superphosphate (SP) on the NH, and greenhouse gas emissions, vegetable waste composting was performed for 27 days using 6 different treatments. In addition to the controls, five vegetable waste mixtures (0.77 m3 each) were treated with different amounts of the SP additive, namely, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The ammonia volatilization loss and greenhouse gas emissions were measured during composting. Results indicated that the SP additive significantly decreased the ammonia volatilization and greenhouse gas emissions during vegetable waste composting. The additive reduced the total NH3 emission by 4.0% to 16.7%. The total greenhouse gas emissions (CO2-eq) of all treatments with SP additives were decreased by 10.2% to 20.8%, as compared with the controls. The NH3 emission during vegetable waste composting had the highest contribution to the greenhouse effect caused by the four different gases. The amount of NH3 (CO2-eq) from each treatment ranged from 59.90 kg . t-1 to 81.58 kg . t-1; NH3(CO2-eq) accounted for 69% to 77% of the total emissions from the four gases. Therefore, SP is a cost-effective phosphorus-based fertilizer that can be used as an additive during vegetable waste composting to reduce the NH3 and greenhouse gas emissions as well as to improve the value of compost as a fertilizer.

  7. Greenhouse cultivation mitigates metal-ingestion-associated health risks from vegetables in wastewater-irrigated agroecosystems.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chun; Chen, Xing-Peng; Ma, Zhen-Bang; Jia, Hui-Hui; Wang, Jun-Jian

    2016-08-01

    Wastewater irrigation can elevate metal concentrations in soils and crops and increase the metal-associated health risks via vegetable ingestion in arid and semiarid northwestern China. Here, we investigated the As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in four vegetable species from Dongdagou and Xidagou farmlands in Baiyin, Gansu, China. We evaluated the effects of irrigation type (Dongdagou: industrial wastewater; Xidagou: domestic wastewater) and cultivation mode (open field and greenhouse) on the vegetable metal concentration, metal partitioning, soil-to-plant bioconcentration factor (BCF), and the health risk index. All stream waters, soils, and vegetables were found most severely polluted by As and Cd, with higher severity in the industrial-wastewater-irrigated Dongdagou than the domestic-wastewater-irrigated Xidagou. All vegetables had higher or, at least, comparable metal mass allocated in the shoot than in the root. Greenhouse cultivation could reduce metal-ingestion-associated health risks from edible vegetable biomass by decreasing the soil to plant bioaccumulation (BCF) and the metal concentration. This effect was always significant for all vegetables within Xidagou, and for carrot within Dongdagou. This mitigation effect of greenhouse cultivation could be attributed to the metal sorption by a higher level of soil organic matter and faster growth rate over metal uptake rate in greenhouses compared to open fields. Such mitigation effect was, however, insignificant for leafy vegetables within Dongdagou, when much more severely polluted water for irrigation was applied in greenhouses compared to open fields within Dongdagou. The present study highlights greenhouse cultivation as a potential mitigating approach to providing less-polluted vegetables for residents in the severely polluted area in addition to the source pollution control.

  8. Characteristics of nitrogen balance in open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems of China.

    PubMed

    Ti, Chaopu; Luo, Yongxia; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen (N) loss from vegetable cropping systems has become a significant environmental issue in China. In this study, estimation of N balances in both open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in China was established. Results showed that the total N input in open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in 2010 was 5.44 and 2.60 Tg, respectively. Chemical fertilizer N input in the two cropping systems was 201 kg N ha(-1) per season (open-air) and 478 kg N ha(-1) per season (greenhouse). The N use efficiency (NUE) was 25.9 ± 13.3 and 19.7 ± 9.4% for open-air and greenhouse vegetable cropping systems, respectively, significantly lower than that of maize, wheat, and rice. Approximately 30.6% of total N input was accumulated in soils and 0.8% was lost by ammonia volatilization in greenhouse vegetable system, while N accumulation and ammonia volatilization accounted for 19.1 and 11.1%, respectively, of total N input in open-air vegetable systems.

  9. Warming effects on greenhouse gas fluxes in peatlands are modulated by vegetation composition.

    PubMed

    Ward, Susan E; Ostle, Nicholas J; Oakley, Simon; Quirk, Helen; Henrys, Peter A; Bardgett, Richard D

    2013-10-01

    Understanding the effects of warming on greenhouse gas feedbacks to climate change represents a major global challenge. Most research has focused on direct effects of warming, without considering how concurrent changes in plant communities may alter such effects. Here, we combined vegetation manipulations with warming to investigate their interactive effects on greenhouse gas emissions from peatland. We found that although warming consistently increased respiration, the effect on net ecosystem CO2 exchange depended on vegetation composition. The greatest increase in CO2 sink strength after warming was when shrubs were present, and the greatest decrease when graminoids were present. CH4 was more strongly controlled by vegetation composition than by warming, with largest emissions from graminoid communities. Our results show that plant community composition is a significant modulator of greenhouse gas emissions and their response to warming, and suggest that vegetation change could alter peatland carbon sink strength under future climate change.

  10. Morphometric and genetics properties of pea crops grown in space greenhouse Lada"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinskikh, M.; Sychev, V.; Podolsky, I.; Gostimsky, S.; Bingham, G.

    Results of the experiments with higher plants performed in greenhouse Svet aboard the MIR space station in 1996-1999 made it evident that the main biological characteristics of plants growth development reproduction and metabolism did not undergo modifications in consequence of microgravity It was shown that at least two ontogenetic cycles of plants could pass in the normal way in this environment However the initial experimental data was insufficient for fiducial conclusions on the delayed effects of cultivating a sequence of plant generations on the background of spaceflight factors Hence these investigations are given precedence in the space life sciences research programs In the period from March 2003 to April 2005 we fulfilled five experimental cultivations of genetically marked dwarf pea species in greenhouse Lada installed in the Russian segment of the International space station The purpose of this series of experiments was to make morphologic and genetic analysis of pea plants grown in successive generations According to our results pea growth and development over the full cycle of ontogenesis from seed to seed taking place in space greenhouse Lada were not different as compared with the ground control plants In addition four successive pea crops gathered in space flight did not loose their reproductive functions and formed viable seeds Genetic analysis of the plants grown from the space and ground seeds produced by the first to fourth successive crops was performed using the methods of

  11. Benzoylphenylurea residues in peppers and zucchinis grown in greenhouses: determination of decline times and pre-harvest intervals by modelling.

    PubMed

    López-López, Trinidad; Martínez-Vidal, José L; Gil-García, María D; Martínez-Galera, María; Rodríguez-Lallena, José A

    2004-02-01

    Residue levels and degradation rates of five benzoylphenylurea insecticides were studied in zucchinis and peppers grown in experimental greenhouses in Almería (Spain). Benzoylphenylurea residues were analyzed by HPLC using on-line post-elution photoirradiation with fluorescence detection. Mathematically defined decline curves were established by determining optimal relationships between benzoylphenylurea residues and time, using different models. The models that best fitted the experimental data were those of first-order for diflubenzuron, triflumuron, hexaflumuron and flufenoxuron in zucchini and RF first-order models for the five insecticides in peppers and for lufenuron in zucchini. Half-life times for the residues on the two vegetables were estimated from the optimal models. In order to guarantee safe consumption of the two vegetables, we have estimated suitable pre-harvest intervals complying with the maximum residue levels established by the Spanish Government. In all cases, such pre-harvest intervals were shorter than those specified by the manufacturers of commercial formulates. Experimental data for the five insecticides in peppers and for lufenuron in zucchini were also fitted to a first-order model. Even though this function was legitimized statistically, estimations of decline times (T/2) and pre-harvest intervals were quite different from those provided by the optimal model.

  12. Efficacy of microbial amendments on vegetables in greenhouse and field trials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil amendments, with and without microbes, may affect plant development. Eight-week-old, organically grown, seedlings of a bell, cv. Jupiter, and a non-pungent jalapeño, cv. Pace 105, pepper (both Capsicum annuum L.) were transplanted into pots in a greenhouse using an organic potting medium. One...

  13. [Effects of planting years of vegetable solar greenhouse on soil microbial flora and enzyme activities].

    PubMed

    Yang, Qin; Li, Liang

    2013-09-01

    Taking the vegetable solar greenhouses having been planted for 2, 4, 6, 11, 13, 16, and 19 years as test objects, and with the open vegetable field as the control, this paper studied the variations of soil microbial flora and enzyme activities. With the increasing years of planting, the numbers of soil bacteria, actinomycetes, and total microbes in vegetable solar greenhouses decreased after an initial increase, and reached the maximum in the greenhouse of 11 years planting, with a significant increment of 54.8%, 63.7%, and 55.4%, respectively, as compared to the control. The number of soil fungi in the vegetable solar greenhouses increased steadily with increasing planting years, being about 2.2 times higher in the greenhouse of 11 years planting. Among the microbial physiological groups, the numbers of aerobic cellulose-decomposer, aerobic azotobacter, nitrite bacteria, denitrifier, and sulphur reducer showed the same variation trend as the soil bacteria's, and those in the greenhouse of 11 years planting being 1.5, 1.6, 1.9, 1.4, and 1.1 times of the control, respectively. The number of ammonifiers increased after an initial decrease, reached the minimum in the greenhouse of 13 years planting, being only 56.0% of the control. The enzyme activities of soil urease, polyphenol oxidase, sucrase, protease, cellulase, and alkaline phosphatase increased firstly and then decreased with the increasing years of planting, but soil catalase activity was relatively stable. Correlation analysis showed that the numbers of soil bacteria, actinomycetes, and total microbes were significantly positively correlated with all test soil enzyme activities, while the number of soil fungi had significant negative correlation with the activity of soil catalase.

  14. Growth and gas exchange in field-grown and greenhouse-grown Quercus rubra following three years of exposure to enhanced UV-B radiation.

    PubMed

    Bassman, John H; Robberecht, Ronald

    2006-09-01

    Long-term effects of enhanced UV-B radiation were evaluated in field-grown and greenhouse-grown Quercus rubra L. (northern red oak), a species with a multiple flushing shoot growth habit. Seeds were germinated and grown in ambient, twice ambient (2x) or three times ambient (3x) biologically effective UV-B radiation from square-wave (greenhouse) or modulated (field) lamp systems for three growing seasons. Greenhouse plants in the 2x treatment had greater heights and diameters during the later part of the first year and into the second year, but by the third year there were no differences among treatments. There were no significant differences in growth among treatments for field plants. Enhanced UV-B radiation did not significantly reduce total biomass or distribution of biomass in either field or greenhouse plants. Net photosynthesis (3x), leaf conductance (2x and 3x) and water-use efficiency (3x) of greenhouse plants were greater in the enhanced UV-B radiation treatments in the second year but unaffected by the treatments in other years. None of the treatments affected these parameters in field plants. Dark respiration was increased by the 3x treatment in the first and third years in greenhouse plants, and by the 2x treatment during the second year in field plants. Enhanced UV-B had variable effects on apparent quantum yield and light compensation points. Chlorophylls were unaffected by enhanced UV-B radiation in both greenhouse and field conditions. Bulk methanol-extractable UV-absorbing compounds were increased only by the 3x treatment in greenhouse plants during the third year and by the 2x treatment in field plants during the second year. Overall, Q. rubra appears relatively resistant to potentially damaging enhanced UV-B radiation and is unlikely to be negatively impacted even in the predicted worst-case scenarios.

  15. [Estimation model for daily transpiration of greenhouse muskmelon in its vegetative growth period].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da-Long; Li, Jian-Ming; Wu, Pu-Te; Li, Wei-Li; Zhao, Zhi-Hua; Xu, Fei; Li, Jun

    2013-07-01

    For developing an estimation method of muskmelon transpiration in greenhouse, an estimation model for the daily transpiration of greenhouse muskmelon in its vegetative growth period was established, based on the greenhouse environmental parameters, muskmelon growth and development parameters, and soil moisture parameters. According to the specific environment in greenhouse, the item of aerodynamics in Penman-Monteith equation was modified, and the greenhouse environmental sub-model suitable for calculating the reference crop evapotranspiration in greenhouse was deduced. The crop factor sub-model was established with the leaf area index as independent variable, and the form of the model was linear function. The soil moisture sub-model was established with the soil relative effective moisture content as independent variable, and the form of the model was logarithmic function. With interval sowing, the model parameters were estimated and analyzed, according to the measurement data of different sowing dates in a year. The prediction accuracy of the model for sufficient irrigation and water-saving irrigation was verified, according to measurement data when the relative soil moisture content was 80%, 70%, and 60%, and the mean relative error was 11.5%, 16.2% , and 16.9% respectively. The model was a beneficial exploration for the application of Penman-Monteith equation under greenhouse environment and water-saving irrigation, having good application foreground and popularization value.

  16. Uptake of pharmaceuticals, hormones and parabens into vegetables grown in soil fertilized with municipal biosolids.

    PubMed

    Sabourin, Lyne; Duenk, Peter; Bonte-Gelok, Shelly; Payne, Michael; Lapen, David R; Topp, Edward

    2012-08-01

    Several recent greenhouse studies have established the potential for uptake of human pharmaceuticals from soil fertilized with municipal biosolids into a variety of crops. In the present study, a field experiment was undertaken to evaluate the uptake of organic micropollutants from soil fertilized with municipal biosolids at a regulated application rate into tomatoes, carrots, potatoes and sweet corn produced under normal farming conditions. The vegetables were grown according to farming practices mandated by the province of Ontario Canada, the key feature being a one-year offset between biosolid application and the harvest of crops for human consumption. Biosolids at application, and crop samples following harvest were analyzed for 118 pharmaceuticals and transformation products, 17 hormones or hormone transformation products, and 6 parabens. Analyte concentrations in the biosolids were consistent with those detected in other surveys. Eight of the 141 analytes were detected in one or two crop replicates at concentrations ranging from 0.33 to 6.25 ng/g dry weight, but no analytes were consistently detected above the detection limit in all triplicate treated plots. Overall, this study suggests that the potential for micropollutant uptake into crops under normal farming conditions is low.

  17. Demonstration of a commercial solar greenhouse. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Figueras, A.

    1982-03-31

    The greenhouse is located in the town of Russell, in St. Lawrence County, New York. It was built to demonstrate the economics of using the solar greenhouse design as a commercial greenhouse growing vegetables for local sale. The design and construction of the greenhouse are briefly described. Records of temperatures monitored and produce grown and sold are included. (BCS)

  18. The effect of floating vegetation on denitrification and greenhouse gas production in wetland mesocosms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, A. E.; Harrison, J. A.

    2012-12-01

    Anthropogenic intensification of nitrogen (N) loading to aquatic ecosystems is widespread and can lead to the degradation of these systems. Wetlands are important sites for N removal via denitrification, the microbially mediated reduction of reactive nitrate to inert N2 gas, but they can also produce high levels of greenhouse gases. Floating plants play an important role in encouraging denitrification, since they create low oxygen conditions that may favor denitrification. We investigated whether wetland sediments with floating plant cover had higher denitrification and greenhouse gas production rates than wetland sediments without floating plants. Replicate flow-through mesocosms with wetland sediment and water were constructed in a growth chamber to mimic the wetland where the sediment and water were collected. Mesocosm treatments were covered with floating vegetation (duckweed), an opaque tarp, or no cover to determine how cover type affects denitrification and greenhouse gas production and whether biotic or abiotic factors are likely responsible for observed differences. Denitrification and greenhouse gas production rates were calculated by measuring excess N2 gas, methane, and nitrous oxide concentrations in the water column and measuring the gas exchange rates between the water column and the atmosphere. Gas exchange rates were measured using an inert volatile tracer added to the water column and accumulation of gas in the mesocosm headspace. Additional mesocosm experiments were performed to determine how duckweed-dominated wetland systems respond to nitrogen loading and which mechanism for lowering dissolved oxygen concentrations is important in affecting denitrification under floating vegetation. Mesocosms with floating vegetation had lower dissolved oxygen than no cover or tarp-covered mesocosms, which is consistent with field and literature observations. Water flowing out of the mesocosms had statistically lower total nitrogen and nitrate concentrations

  19. Nitrogen removal from the surface runoff of a field scale greenhouse vegetable production system.

    PubMed

    Min, Ju; Lu, Kouping; Zhao, Xu; Sun, Haijun; Zhang, Hailin; Shi, Weiming

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient losses from greenhouse vegetable production systems may impair water quality in the Taihu Lake Region of China. We studied the characteristics of nitrogen (N) lost via runoff from greenhouse vegetable systems and strategies for minimizing N entering water bodies. A two-year experiment at a field scale was conducted to monitor N surface runoff. An eco-ditch (148 m(2)) and a low N input paddy field (135 kg N ha⁻¹, 550 m²) were designed to remove N from the surface runoff of a 25 × 50 m greenhouse vegetable field. The greenhouse was not covered from late June to mid-October each year, and runoff occurred multiple times during this period. Annual total N loss in runoff from the greenhouse vegetable site was 25.3 and 33.5 kg ha⁻¹ in 2010 and 2011, respectively. Nitrate-N was the major form of N lost in the runoff. The average runoff volume was 289 mm (varied from 221 to 357 mm), which contained 15.7 (varied from 3.3 to 39.2 mg L⁻¹) mg L⁻¹ total N. The eco-ditch system and the wetland paddy field (WPF) effectively reduced total N discharge; the removal rates reached 49.9% and 58.7% and the average removal capacities were 12.4 g N m⁻² and 4.1 g N m⁻² in 2010 and 2011, respectively. The combined system of the ecological ditch-WPF removed almost 79% total N in the runoff. Ecological ditch or paddy wetland can be a water management option available to growers in this region to economically reduce pollutants in agricultural runoff.

  20. Molybdenum uptake by forage crops grown on sewage sludge -- Amended soils in the field and greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    McBride, M.B.; Richards, B.K.; Steenhuis, T.; Spiers, G.

    2000-06-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) is a plant-available element in soils that can adversely affect the health of farm animals. There is a need for more information on its uptake into forage crops from waste materials, such as sewage sludge, applied to agricultural land. Field and greenhouse experiments with several crops grown on long-term sewage sludge-amended soils as well as soils recently amended with dewatered (DW) and alkaline-stabilized (ALK) sludges indicated that Mo supplied from sludge is readily taken up by legumes in particular. Excessive uptake into red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) was seen in a soil that had been heavily amended with sewage sludge 20 yr earlier, where the soil contained about 3 mg Mo/kg soil, three times the background soil concentration. The greenhouse and field studies indicated that Mo can have a long residual availability in sludge-amended soils. The effect of sludge application was to decrease Cu to Mo ratios in legume forages, canola (Brassica napus var. napus) and soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] below the recommended limit of 2:1 for ruminant diets, a consequence of high bioavailability of Mo and low uptake of Cu added in sludge. Molybdenum uptake coefficients (UCs) for ALK sludge were higher than for DW sludge, presumably due to the greater solubility of Mo measured in the more alkaline sludges and soils. Based on these UCs, it is tentatively recommended that cumulative Mo loadings on forages grown on nonacid soils should not exceed 1.0 kg/ha from ALK sludge or 4.0 kg/ha from DW sludge.

  1. Heavy metals in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia: health hazard.

    PubMed

    Rahman, M Azizur; Rahman, Mohammad Mahmudur; Reichman, Suzie M; Lim, Richard P; Naidu, Ravi

    2014-02-01

    Dietary exposure to heavy metals is a matter of concern for human health risk through the consumption of rice, vegetables and other major foodstuffs. In the present study, we investigated concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in Australian grown and imported rice and vegetables on sale in Australia. The mean concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Australian grown rice were 7.5 µg kg(-1), 21 µg kg(-1), 144 µg kg(-1), 2.9 mg kg(-1), 24.4 mg kg(-1), 166 µg kg(-1), 375 µg kg(-1), and 17.1 mg kg(-1) dry weight (d. wt.), respectively. Except Cd, heavy metal concentrations in Australian grown rice were higher than Bangladeshi rice on sale in Australia. However, the concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, and Ni in Indian rice on sale in Australia were higher than Australian grown rice. The concentrations of Cu and Ni in Vietnamese rice, and that of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Pb in Thai rice on sale in Australia were also higher than Australian grown rice. Heavy metal concentrations in Pakistani rice on sale in Australia were substantially lower than that in Australian grown rice. In Australian grown rice varieties, the concentrations of heavy metals were considerably higher in brown rice varieties than white rice varieties, indicating Australian brown rice as a potential source of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables on sale in Australia were also determined. Some of the Australian grown and Bangladeshi vegetables contained heavy metals higher than Australian standard maximum limits indicating them as potential sources of dietary heavy metals for Australian consumers. Further investigation is required to estimate health risks of heavy metals from rice and vegetables consumption for Australian consumers.

  2. Investigation on diazinon and oxydemeton-methyl residues in cucumbers grown in Kerman greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Ganjeizadeh Rohani, Fatemeh; Mahdavi, Vahideh; Aminaei, M Mehdi

    2014-07-01

    Pesticides are considered as the most polluting substances. The residue of pesticides in agricultural crops, especially in greenhouse harvests, has been reported critical. Cucumber, considered as a vegetable, is an agricultural product which is commonly found in the Iranian food basket. The current study aims to assess the level of diazinon and oxydemeton-methyl existing in cucumbers sampled from Kerman greenhouses. The pesticide residue was extracted by acetone and dichloromethane. The extracts were cleaned up according to the solid-phase extraction method. The pesticide residues were then determined by capillary gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorus detection. The recoveries were 83 and 85 %, the limit of detection was 0.028 and 0.034 mg/kg, and the limits of qualification were 0.093 and 0.113 mg/kg for diazinon and oxydemeton-methyl in cucumber samples, respectively. The median of diazinon residue was detected 0.582 mg/kg, which was 11.64 times the national maximum residue limit (MRL) (0.05 mg/kg), and the median for oxydemeton-methyl was 1.910 mg/kg, being 1.91 times the MRL (1 mg/kg).

  3. Phthalic acid esters in soils from vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China.

    PubMed

    Chai, Chao; Cheng, Hongzhen; Ge, Wei; Ma, Dong; Shi, Yanxi

    2014-01-01

    Soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm, 10 cm to 20 cm, and 20 cm to 40 cm from 37 vegetable greenhouses in Shandong Peninsula, East China, were collected, and 16 phthalic acid esters (PAEs) were detected using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). All 16 PAEs could be detected in soils from vegetable greenhouses. The total of 16 PAEs (Σ16PAEs) ranged from 1.939 mg/kg to 35.442 mg/kg, with an average of 6.748 mg/kg. Among four areas, including Qingdao, Weihai, Weifang, and Yantai, the average and maximum concentrations of Σ16PAEs in soils at depths of 0 cm to 10 cm appeared in Weifang, which has a long history of vegetable production and is famous for extensive greenhouse cultivation. Despite the different concentrations of Σ16PAEs, the PAE compositions were comparable. Among the 16 PAEs, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and diisobutyl phthalate (DiBP) were the most abundant. Compared with the results on agricultural soils in China, soils that are being used or were used for vegetable greenhouses had higher PAE concentrations. Among PAEs, dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) and DnBP exceeded soil allowable concentrations (in US) in more than 90% of the samples, and DnOP in more than 20%. Shandong Peninsula has the highest PAE contents, which suggests that this area is severely contaminated by PAEs.

  4. Bombus huntii, Bombus impatiens and Bombus vosnesenskii (Hymenoptera: Apidae) pollinate greenhouse-grown tomatoes in western North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bumble bees (Bombus) are the primary pollinators of tomatoes grown in greenhouses and can significantly increase fruit weight compared to tomatoes that receive no supplemental pollination. Due to mounting concerns over the transportation of bumble bees outside of their native ranges, several specie...

  5. Effects of physical agitation on yield of greenhouse-grown soybean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, R. S.; Mitchell, C. A.

    1992-01-01

    Agronomic and horticultural crop species experience reductions in growth and harvestable yield after exposure to physical agitation (also known as mechanical stress), as by wind or rain. A greenhouse study was conducted to test the influence of mechanical stress on soybean yield and to determine if exposure to mechanical stress during discrete growth periods has differential effects on seed yield. A modified rotatory shaker was used to apply seismic (i.e., shaking) stress. Brief, periodic episodes of seismic stress reduced stem length, total seed dry weight, and seed number of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Lodging resistance was greater for plants stressed during vegetative growth or throughout vegetative and reproductive growth than during reproductive growth only. Seed dry weight yield was reduced regardless of the timing or duration of stress application, but was lowest when applied during reproductive development. Seismic stress applied during reproductive growth stages R1 to R2 (Days 3 to 4) was as detrimental to seed dry weight accumulation as was stress applied during growth stages R1 to R6 (Days 39 to 42). Seed dry weight per plant was highly correlated with seed number per plant, and seed number was correlated with the seed number of two- and three-seeded pods. Dry weight per 100 seeds was unaffected by seismic-stress treatment. Growth and yield reductions resulting from treatments applied only during the vegetative stage imply that long-term mechanical effects were induced, from which the plants did not fully recover. It is unclear which yield-controlling physiological processes were affected by mechanical stress. Both transient and long-term effects on yield-controlling processes remain to be elucidated.

  6. [Development of a cultivation technology and selection of leaf vegetable cultures for space greenhouse].

    PubMed

    Levinskikh, M A; Signalova, O B; Derendiaeva, T A; Livanskaia, O G; Nefedova, E L; Sychev, V N; Podo'skiĭ, I G

    2001-01-01

    We plan to perform space experiments on development of a technology for cultivation of leaf vegetables that might be a component of future life support systems for space crews. For this purpose, we are going to fly research greenhouses with the crop area from 0.03 up to 0.1 m2 inside the universal docking module of the ISS Russian segment. To prepare for future space experiments, ground investigations were made in order to compare crop capacity of various artificial soils used to grow leaf vegetables in greenhouse Svet. Useful life of root module Svet can be extended with a new technology based on resupply of fibrous substrate with nutrients. The most effective volume of soil per a plant was determined which sustains high productivity of leaf vegetables in Svet. To select leaf vegetables for in-space cultivation, we conducted investigations of productivity, morphometric and biochemical characteristics, and palatability of 18 cultures including alternative greens highly popular in Japan and China which have been earlier tested neither in laboratory nor in space within the closed eco-system projects. We would prioritize mizuna, pak choi, tatsoi, rapina or broccoli raab, and red giant mustard as objects for in-space investigations.

  7. Annual nitric and nitrous oxide fluxes from Chinese subtropical plastic greenhouse and conventional vegetable cultivations.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhisheng; Liu, Chunyan; Dong, Haibo; Wang, Rui; Zheng, Xunhua

    2015-01-01

    As intensive vegetable cultivation is rapidly expanding in China and elsewhere worldwide, its environmental consequences on nitrous oxide (N(2)O) and nitric oxide (NO) emissions deserve attention. We measured N(2)O and NO fluxes simultaneously for a full year from Chinese subtropical vegetable fields. Clearly, both N(2)O and NO emissions varied greatly in different vegetable crop seasons within a year, highlighting the importance of whole-year measurement for achieving temporally accurate annual direct emission factors. A revised "hole-in-the-pipe" model well described quantitative relationships between N(2)O plus NO fluxes and soil-specific conditions. Annual background N(2)O and NO emissions were 0.73-5.0 and 0.26-0.56 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), respectively, for the vegetable cultivations. The farmers' fertilization practice increased N(2)O and NO emissions. Annual direct emission factors for greenhouse and conventional vegetable fields, respectively, were 1.1% and 1.9% for N(2)O, and 0.36% and 0.32% for NO, indicating there is a need to consider a differentiation of emission factors for managed vegetable cultivations.

  8. Sustainability assessment of greenhouse vegetable farming practices from environmental, economic, and socio-institutional perspectives in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lanqin; Huang, Biao; Mao, Mingcui; Yao, Lipeng; Niedermann, Silvana; Hu, Wenyou; Chen, Yong

    2016-09-01

    To provide growing population with sufficient food, greenhouse vegetable production has expanded rapidly in recent years in China and sustainability of its farming practices is a major concern. Therefore, this study assessed the sustainability of greenhouse vegetable farming practices from environmental, economic, and socio-institutional perspectives in China based on selected indicators. The empirical data were collected through a survey of 91 farm households from six typical greenhouse vegetable production bases and analysis of environmental material samples. The results showed that heavy fertilization in greenhouse vegetable bases of China resulted in an accumulation of N, P, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in soil, nutrient eutrophication in irrigation water, and high Cd in some leaf vegetables cultivated in acidic soil. Economic factors including decreased crop yield in conventional farming bases, limited and site-dependent farmers' income, and lack of complete implementation of subsidy policies contributed a lot to adoption of heavy fertilization by farmers. Also, socio-institutional factors such as lack of unified management of agricultural supplies in the bases operated in cooperative and small family business models and low agricultural extension service efficiency intensified the unreasonable fertilization. The selection of cultivated vegetables was mainly based on farmers' own experience rather than site-dependent soil conditions. Thus, for sustainable development of greenhouse vegetable production systems in China, there are two key aspects. First, it is imperative to reduce environmental pollution and subsequent health risks through integrated nutrient management and the planting strategy of selected low metal accumulation vegetable species especially in acidic soil. Second, a conversion of cooperative and small family business models of greenhouse vegetable bases to enterprises should be extensively advocated in future for the unified agricultural supplies

  9. 1978 Insect Pest Management Guide: Commercial Vegetable Crops and Greenhouse Vegetables. Circular 897.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Urbana. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This circular lists suggested uses of insecticides for the control of pests by commercial vegetable farmers. Suggestions are given for selection, dosage and application of insecticides to control pests of cabbage and related crops, beans, cucumbers and other vine crops, tomatoes, potatoes, peppers, corn, and onions. (CS)

  10. Determination of acetamiprid residues in zucchini grown under greenhouse conditions: application to behavioral dynamics.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji-Yeon; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Kim, Bo-Mee; Park, Jong-Hyouk; Cho, Soon-Kil; Ghafar, M W; Abd El-Aty, A M; Shim, Jae-Han

    2011-01-01

    A simple analytical method was developed for the determination of acetamiprid residues in zucchini and zucchini leaves grown under greenhouse conditions using liquid chromatography. Residues were confirmed via tandem mass spectrometry in positive-ion electrospray ionization mode. The calibration curves were linear with correlation coefficients in excess of 0.999. The limits of detection and limits of quantification were 0.01 and 0.03 µg/g and 0.02 and 0.06 µg/g, for the zucchini and zucchini leaves, respectively. For validation purposes, recoveries studies were carried out at low and high levels, yielding recovery rates ranged from 85.7 to 92.2% in zucchini and from 90.5 to 101.9% in zucchini leaves, with a relative standard deviation of <12%. The results demonstrated that the pattern of acetamiprid dissipation followed pseudo first-order kinetics with a half-life of 1.9 and 2.5 days, respectively. The residues in zucchini leaves were substantially higher than in the zucchini plant itself. No residues were detected at 7 days post-application. The results of this study suggest that acetamiprid is acceptable for application in/on zucchini under the recommended dosage conditions.

  11. Biometric analysis of arabica coffee grown in low potassium nutrient solution under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Moura, W M; Soares, Y J B; Amaral Júnior, A T; Gravina, G A; Barili, L D; Vieira, H D

    2016-09-19

    Genetic parameters and associations between morpho-agronomic traits and nutritional efficiencies of arabica coffee cultivars were estimated to identify promising traits to assist in the selection of coffee genotypes efficient in potassium use, under limiting conditions of this nutrient. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse with 20 arabica coffee cultivars grown in nutrient solution with a low potassium level (1.5 mM), using a randomized block design with three replicates. The traits evaluated were plant height, number of leaves, number of nodes, internode length, stem diameter, leaf area, rooting efficiency, potassium absorption efficiency, potassium translocation efficiency, biomass production efficiency, and potassium use efficiency. Genetic variability among coffee cultivars for all the evaluated traits was found. The phenotypic variance for all traits showed a higher contribution of genetic variance compared to environmental variance. Plant height, internode length, stem diameter, leaf area, biomass production efficiency, and potassium use efficiency had a genotypic determination coefficient (H2) above 80% and variation index greater than one. Leaf area and stem diameter had significant and positive genetic correlations with rooting, biomass production, and potassium use efficiencies. Stem diameter has great potential for use in breeding programs with a goal of indirect selection of cultivars that have greater potassium use efficiency in environments with restrictions of this nutrient.

  12. Lead and Arsenic Uptake by Leafy Vegetables Grown on Contaminated Soils: Effects of Mineral and Organic Amendments

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Murray B.; Simon, Tobi; Tam, Geoffrey; Wharton, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    To assess strategies for mitigating Pb and As transfer into leafy vegetables from contaminated garden soils, we conducted greenhouse experiments using two field-contaminated soils amended with materials expected to reduce metal phytoavailability. Lettuce and mustard greens grown on these soils were analysed by ICP-MS, showing that some Pb and As transfer into the vegetables occurred from both soils tested, but plant Pb concentrations were highly variable among treatment replicates. Soil-to-plant transfer was more efficient for As than for Pb. Contamination of the leaves by soil particles probably accounted for most of the vegetable Pb, since plant Pb concentrations were correlated to plant tissue concentrations of the immobile soil elements Al and Fe. This correlation was not observed for vegetable As concentrations, evidence that most of the soil-to-plant transfer for this toxic metal occurred by root uptake and translocation into the above-ground tissues. A follow-up greenhouse experiment with lettuce on one of the two contaminated soils revealed a lower and less variable foliar Pb concentration than observed in the first experiment, with evidence of less soil particle contamination of the crop. This reduced transfer of Pb to the crop appeared to be a physical effect attributable to the greater biomass causing reduced overall exposure of the above-ground tissues to the soil surface. Attempts to reduce soil Pb and As solubility and plant uptake by amendment at practical rates with stabilizing materials including composts, peat, Ca phosphate, gypsum and Fe oxide, were generally unsuccessful. Only Fe oxide reduced soluble As in the soil, but this effect did not persist. Phosphate amendment rapidly increased soil As solubility but had no measurable effect on either soil Pb solubility or concentrations of Pb or As in the leafy vegetables. The ineffectiveness of these amendments in reducing Pb transfer into leafy vegetables is attributed in this study to the low

  13. Production of greenhouse-grown biocrust mosses and associated cyanobacteria to rehabilitate dryland soil function

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Antoninka, Anita; Bowker, Matthew A.; Reed, Sasha C.; Doherty, Kyle

    2016-01-01

    Mosses are an often-overlooked component of dryland ecosystems, yet they are common members of biological soil crust communities (biocrusts) and provide key ecosystem services, including soil stabilization, water retention, carbon fixation, and housing of N2 fixing cyanobacteria. Mosses are able to survive long dry periods, respond rapidly to precipitation, and reproduce vegetatively. With these qualities, dryland mosses have the potential to be an excellent dryland restoration material. Unfortunately, dryland mosses are often slow growing in nature, and ex situ cultivation methods are needed to enhance their utility. Our goal was to determine how to rapidly produce, vegetatively, Syntrichia caninervis and S. ruralis, common and abundant moss species in drylands of North America and elsewhere, in a greenhouse. We manipulated the length of hydration on a weekly schedule (5, 4, 3, or 2 days continuous hydration per week), crossed with fertilization (once at the beginning, monthly, biweekly, or not at all). Moss biomass increased sixfold for both species in 4 months, an increase that would require years under dryland field conditions. Both moss species preferred short hydration and monthly fertilizer. Remarkably, we also unintentionally cultured a variety of other important biocrust organisms, including cyanobacteria and lichens. In only 6 months, we produced functionally mature biocrusts, as evidenced by high productivity and ecosystem-relevant levels of N2 fixation. Our results suggest that biocrust mosses might be the ideal candidate for biocrust cultivation for restoration purposes. With optimization, these methods are the first step in developing a moss-based biocrust rehabilitation technology.

  14. Phosphorus saturation and mobilization in two typical Chinese greenhouse vegetable soils.

    PubMed

    Kalkhajeh, Yusef Kianpoor; Huang, Biao; Hu, Wenyou; Holm, Peter E; Bruun Hansen, Hans Christian

    2017-04-01

    Chinese greenhouse vegetable production can cause eutrophication of fresh waters due to heavy use of fertilizers. To address this, phosphorus (P) leaching was compared between two major greenhouse vegetable soils from Jiangsu Province, Southeast China: clayey and acid-neutral Guli Orthic Anthrosols and sandy and alkaline Tongshan Ustic Cambosols. A total of 20 intact soil columns were collected based on differences in total P content varying between 1360 and 11,220 mg kg(-1). Overall, six leaching experiments were carried out with collection of leachates over 24 h. Very high P concentrations, with a mean of 3.43 mg L(-1), were found in the leachates from P rich Tongshan soils. In contrast, P leaching from fine-textured but less P rich Guli soils rarely exceeded the suggested environmental P threshold of 0.1 mg L(-1). Strong linear correlations were found between different soil test P measures (STPs) or degree of P saturations (DPSs) and dissolved reactive P (DRP) for Tongshan soil columns. The correlations with Olsen P (r(2) = 0.91) and DPS based on MehlichIII extractable calcium (DPSM3-Ca) (r(2) = 0.87) were the most promising. An Olsen P value above 41 mg kg(-1) or a DPSM3-Ca above 3.44% led to DRP leaching exceeding 0.1 mg L(-1). Accordingly, more than 80% of Tongshan soils resulted in DRP leaching exceeding the environmental P threshold. In conclusion P rich alkaline sandy soils used for greenhouse vegetable production are at high risk of P mobilization across China.

  15. Arsenic and Lead Uptake by Vegetable Crops Grown on an Old Orchard Site Amended with Compost

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Murray B.; Shayler, Hannah A.; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M.; Spliethoff, Henry M.; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G.

    2015-01-01

    The potential for lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) transfer into vegetables was studied on old orchard land contaminated by lead arsenate pesticides. Root (carrot), leafy (lettuce), and vegetable fruits (green bean, tomato) were grown on seven “miniplots” with soil concentrations ranging from near background to ≈ 800 and ≈ 200 mg kg−1 of total Pb and As, respectively. Each miniplot was divided into sub-plots and amended with 0% (control), 5% and 10% (by weight) compost and cropped for 3 years. Edible portions of each vegetable were analyzed for total Pb and As to test the effect of organic matter on transfer of these toxic elements into the crop. Vegetable Pb and As concentrations were strongly correlated to soil total Pb and As, respectively, but not to soil organic matter content or compost addition level. For Pb vegetable concentrations, carrot ≥ lettuce > bean > tomato. For As, lettuce > carrot > bean > tomato. A complementary single-year study of lettuce, arugula, spinach, and collards revealed a beneficial effect of compost in reducing both Pb and As concentrations in leafy vegetables. Comparisons of all measured vegetable concentrations to international health-based standards indicate that tomatoes can be grown without exceeding standards even in substantially Pb- and As-contaminated soils, but carrots and leafy greens may exceed standards when grown in soils with more than 100–200 mg kg−1 Pb. Leafy greens may also exceed health-based standards in gardens where soil As is elevated, with arugula having a particularly strong tendency to accumulate As. PMID:26900187

  16. Microbial Community and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Abandoned Rice Paddies with Different Vegetation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunghyun; Lee, Seunghoon; McCormick, Melissa; Kim, Jae Geun; Kang, Hojeong

    2016-10-01

    The area of rice paddy fields has declined continuously in East Asian countries due to abandonment of agriculture and concurrent socioeconomic changes. When they are abandoned, rice paddy fields generally transform into wetlands by natural succession. While previous studies have mainly focused on vegetation shifts in abandoned rice paddies, little information is available about how these changes may affect their contribution to wetland functions. As newly abandoned fields proceed through succession, their hydrology and plant communities often change. Moreover, the relationships between these changes, soil microbial characteristics, and emissions of greenhouse gasses are poorly understood. In this study, we examined changes over the course of secondary succession of abandoned rice paddies to wetlands and investigated their ecological functions through changes in greenhouse gas fluxes and microbial characteristics. We collected gas and soil samples in summer and winter from areas dominated by Cyperaceae, Phragmites, and Sphagnum in each site. We found that CO2 emissions in summer were significantly higher than those in winter, but CH4 and N2O emission fluxes were consistently at very low levels and were similar among seasons and locations, due to their low nutrient conditions. These results suggest that microbial activity and abundance increased in summer. Greenhouse gas flux, soil properties, and microbial abundance were not affected by plant species, although the microbial community composition was changed by plant species. This information adds to our basic understanding of the contribution of wetlands that are transformed from abandoned rice paddy systems.

  17. Determination of Pesticides Residues in Cucumbers Grown in Greenhouse and the Effect of Some Procedures on Their Residues

    PubMed Central

    LEILI, Mostafa; PIRMOGHANI, Amin; SAMADI, Mohammad Taghi; SHOKOOHI, Reza; ROSHANAEI, Ghodratollah; POORMOHAMMADI, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to determine the residual concentrations of ethion and imidacloprid in cucumbers grown in greenhouse. The effect of some simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were also studied. Methods: Ten active greenhouses that produce cucumber were randomly selected. Ethion and imidacloprid as the most widely used pesticides were measured in cucumber samples of studied greenhouses. Moreover, the effect of storing, washing, and peeling as simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were investigated. Results: One hour after pesticide application; the maximum residue levels (MRLs) of ethion and imidacloprid were higher than that of Codex standard level. One day after pesticide application, the levels of pesticides were decreased about 35 and 31% for ethion and imidacloprid, respectively, which still were higher than the MRL. Washing procedure led to about 51 and 42.5% loss in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. Peeling procedure also led to highest loss of 93.4 and 63.7% in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. The recovery for both target analytes was in the range between 88 and 102%. Conclusion: The residue values in collected samples one hour after pesticides application were higher than standard value. The storing, washing, and peeling procedures lead to the decrease of pesticide residues in greenhouse cucumbers. Among them, the peeling procedure has the greatest impact on residual reduction. Therefore, these procedures can be used as simple and effective processing techniques for reducing and removing pesticides from greenhouse products before their consumption. PMID:28032066

  18. Influence of Uptake Pathways on the Stereoselective Dissipation of Chiral Neonicotinoid Sulfoxaflor in Greenhouse Vegetables.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zenglong; Dong, Fengshou; Pan, Xinglu; Xu, Jun; Liu, Xingang; Wu, Xiaohu; Zheng, Yongquan

    2016-04-06

    Stereoselectivity is of vital importance in our environment and needs to be taken into account for comprehensive risk assessment and regulatory decisions of chiral neonicotinoid sulfoxaflor. However, little is known about the dissipation of sulfoxaflor stereoisomers with respect to stereoselectivity in plants under greenhouse cultivation. To bridge the knowledge gap, the current study was initiated to investigate the stereoselective degradation of sulfoxaflor in solar greenhouse cucumber and tomato from foliage and root uptake pathways. The stereoselective dissipation of sulfoxaflor was not statistically different between enantiomer pairs from foliage and root pathways of vegetables (P < 0.05). The persistence of sulfoxaflor stereoisomers was consistently prolonged under the foliage uptake pathway (t1/2, 3.38-14.09 days) compared to the root uptake pathway (t1/2, 2.65-5.07 days) in both vegetable fruits. Nevertheless, the concentrations of (+)-sulfoxaflor A and (-)-sulfoxaflor B were both slightly higher than that of their antipode. The tiny difference should be emphasized because it might be magnified to a significant difference by the high-potential bioaccumulation of sulfoxaflor in the food chain.

  19. Interactions among vegetation, climate, and herbivory control greenhouse gas fluxes in a subarctic coastal wetland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelsey, K.C.; Leffler, A.J.; Beard, K.H.; Schmutz, Joel A.; Choi, R.T.; Welker, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    High-latitude ecosystems are experiencing the most rapid climate changes globally, and in many areas these changes are concurrent with shifts in patterns of herbivory. Individually, climate and herbivory are known to influence biosphere-atmosphere greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange; however, the interactive effects of climate and herbivory in driving GHG fluxes have been poorly quantified, especially in coastal systems that support large populations of migratory waterfowl. We investigated the magnitude and the climatic and physical controls of GHG exchange within the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska across four distinct vegetation communities formed by herbivory and local microtopography. Net CO2 flux was greatest in the ungrazed Carex meadow community (3.97 ± 0.58 [SE] µmol CO2 m−2 s−1), but CH4 flux was greatest in the grazed community (14.00 ± 6.56 nmol CH4 m−2 s−1). The grazed community is also the only vegetation type where CH4 was a larger contributor than CO2 to overall GHG forcing. We found that vegetation community was an important predictor of CO2 and CH4 exchange, demonstrating that variation in regional gas exchange is best explained when the effect of grazing, determined by the difference between grazed and ungrazed communities, is included. Further, we identified an interaction between temperature and vegetation community, indicating that grazed regions could experience the greatest increases in CH4 emissions with warming. These results suggest that future GHG fluxes could be influenced by both climate and by changes in herbivore population dynamics that expand or contract the vegetation community most responsive to future temperature change.

  20. Interactions among vegetation, climate, and herbivory control greenhouse gas fluxes in a subarctic coastal wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelsey, K. C.; Leffler, A. J.; Beard, K. H.; Schmutz, J. A.; Choi, R. T.; Welker, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    High-latitude ecosystems are experiencing the most rapid climate changes globally, and in many areas these changes are concurrent with shifts in patterns of herbivory. Individually, climate and herbivory are known to influence biosphere-atmosphere greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange; however, the interactive effects of climate and herbivory in driving GHG fluxes have been poorly quantified, especially in coastal systems that support large populations of migratory waterfowl. We investigated the magnitude and the climatic and physical controls of GHG exchange within the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta in western Alaska across four distinct vegetation communities formed by herbivory and local microtopography. Net CO2 flux was greatest in the ungrazed Carex meadow community (3.97 ± 0.58 [SE] µmol CO2 m-2 s-1), but CH4 flux was greatest in the grazed community (14.00 ± 6.56 nmol CH4 m-2 s-1). The grazed community is also the only vegetation type where CH4 was a larger contributor than CO2 to overall GHG forcing. We found that vegetation community was an important predictor of CO2 and CH4 exchange, demonstrating that variation in regional gas exchange is best explained when the effect of grazing, determined by the difference between grazed and ungrazed communities, is included. Further, we identified an interaction between temperature and vegetation community, indicating that grazed regions could experience the greatest increases in CH4 emissions with warming. These results suggest that future GHG fluxes could be influenced by both climate and by changes in herbivore population dynamics that expand or contract the vegetation community most responsive to future temperature change.

  1. Soil environmental quality in greenhouse vegetable production systems in eastern China: Current status and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenyou; Zhang, Yanxia; Huang, Biao; Teng, Ying

    2017-03-01

    Greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has become an important source of public vegetable consumption and farmers' income in China. However, various pollutants can be accumulated in GVP soils due to the high cropping index, large agricultural input, and closed environment. Ecological toxicity caused by excessive pollutants' accumulation can then lead to serious health risks. This paper was aimed to systematically review the current status of soil environmental quality, analyze their impact factors, and consequently to propose integrated management strategies for GVP systems. Results indicated a decrease in soil pH, soil salinization, and nutrients imbalance in GVP soils. Fungicides, remaining nutrients, antibiotics, heavy metals, and phthalate esters were main pollutants accumulating in GVP soils comparing to surrounding open field soils. Degradation of soil ecological function, accumulation of major pollutants in vegetables, deterioration of neighboring water bodies, and potential human health risks has occurred due to the changes of soil properties and accumulation of pollutants such as heavy metals and fungicides in soils. Four dominant factors were identified leading to the above-mentioned issues including heavy application of agricultural inputs, outmoded planting styles with poor environmental protection awareness, old-fashion regulations, unreasonable standards, and ineffective supervisory management. To guarantee a sustainable GVP development, several strategies were suggested to protect and improve soil environmental quality. Implementation of various strategies not only requires the concerted efforts among different stakeholders, but also the whole lifecycle assessment throughout the GVP processes as well as effective enforcement of policies, laws, and regulations.

  2. Potential health concerns of trace elements and mineral content in commonly consumed greenhouse vegetables in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Mohammad Reza; Rezaee-Ebrahim-Saraee, Khadijeh; Fard, Mehdi Rezvani; Baradaran-Ghahfarokhi, Milad

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to investigate the potential health concerns of trace elements and mineral content of commonly consumed greenhouse vegetables in Isfahan, Iran. Materials and Methods: Six kinds of greenhouse vegetables namely; Raphanus sativus (Radish), Cucumis sativus (Cucumber), Solanum lycopersicum (Tomato), green Capsicum annuum (Green bell pepper), yellow C. annuum (Yellow bell pepper), and red C. annuum (Red bell pepper) were collected from Isfahan greenhouses, between December 2012 and March 2013. The vegetables were analyzed in order to determine the concentrations of trace elements and trace minerals using instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). Results: The results of INAA showed that the concentrations of aluminum, bromine, cobalt, rubidium and strontium of these vegetables were varied from 7.2 to 28.4 mg/kg, 0.6–11.7 mg/kg, 0.1–0.5 mg/kg, 4.2–8.4 mg/kg, and 12.0–141.0 mg/kg, respectively. The trace mineral concentrations of As, Cr, Cs, Sc, Th, and U in all of the samples were less than the defined tolerable upper intake level. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that considering the measured trace elements and mineral content levels, Isfahan greenhouse vegetables do not impose any serious health harmful effects for individuals in the studied area due to their meal consumptions. PMID:26605243

  3. A monitoring system for vegetable greenhouses based on a wireless sensor network.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiu-hong; Cheng, Xiao; Yan, Ke; Gong, Peng

    2010-01-01

    A wireless sensor network-based automatic monitoring system is designed for monitoring the life conditions of greenhouse vegetables. The complete system architecture includes a group of sensor nodes, a base station, and an internet data center. For the design of wireless sensor node, the JN5139 micro-processor is adopted as the core component and the Zigbee protocol is used for wireless communication between nodes. With an ARM7 microprocessor and embedded ZKOS operating system, a proprietary gateway node is developed to achieve data influx, screen display, system configuration and GPRS based remote data forwarding. Through a Client/Server mode the management software for remote data center achieves real-time data distribution and time-series analysis. Besides, a GSM-short-message-based interface is developed for sending real-time environmental measurements, and for alarming when a measurement is beyond some pre-defined threshold. The whole system has been tested for over one year and satisfactory results have been observed, which indicate that this system is very useful for greenhouse environment monitoring.

  4. Effect of carbon dioxide enrichment on health-promoting compounds and organoleptic properties of tomato fruits grown in greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiming; Liu, Lihong; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yongsong; Wang, Qiaomei

    2014-06-15

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of carbon dioxide (CO2) enrichment on the main health-promoting compounds and organoleptic characteristics of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruits grown in greenhouse. The contents of health-promoting compounds, including lycopene, β-carotene, and ascorbic acid, as well as the flavour, indicated by sugars, titrable acidity, and sugar/acid ratio, were markedly increased in CO2 enrichment fruits. Furthermore, CO2 enrichment significantly enhanced other organoleptic characteristics, including colour, firmness, aroma, and sensory attributes in tomato fruits. The results indicated that CO2 enrichment has potential in promoting the nutritional value and organoleptic characteristics of tomatoes.

  5. Occurrence and risk assessment of phthalate esters (PAEs) in vegetables and soils of suburban plastic film greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Chen, Gangcai; Christie, Peter; Zhang, Manyun; Luo, Yongming; Teng, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Phthalate esters (PAEs) are suspected of having adverse effects on human health and have been frequently detected in soils and vegetables. The present study investigated their occurrence and composition in plastic film greenhouse soil-vegetable systems and assessed their potential health risks to farmers exposed to these widespread pollutants. Six priority control phthalates, namely dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), were determined in 44 plastic film greenhouse vegetables and corresponding soils. Total PAEs ranged from 0.51 to 7.16mgkg(-1) in vegetables and 0.40 to 6.20mgkg(-1) in soils with average concentrations of 2.56 and 2.23mgkg(-1), respectively. DnBP, DEHP and DnOP contributed more than 90% of the total PAEs in both vegetables and soils but the proportions of DnBP and DnOP in vegetables were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in soils. The average concentrations of PAEs in pot herb mustard, celery and lettuce were >3.00mgkg(-1) but were <2.50mgkg(-1) in the corresponding soils. Stem and leaf vegetables accumulated more PAEs. There were no clear relationships between vegetable and soil PAEs. Risk assessment indicates that DnBP, DEHP and DnOP exhibited elevated non-cancer risk with values of 0.039, 0.338 and 0.038, respectively. The carcinogenic risk of DEHP was about 3.94×10(-5) to farmers working in plastic film greenhouses. Health risks were mainly by exposure through vegetable consumption and soil ingestion.

  6. Changes in Arctic Vegetation Amplify High-Latitude Warming Through Greenhouse Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swann, A.; Fung, I.; Levis, S.; Bonan, G. B.; Doney, S. C.

    2009-12-01

    Changes in vegetation cover are recognized to modify climate and the energy budget of the Earth through changes in albedo in high latitudes and evapotranspiration (ET) in the tropics. In snow-covered regions, the springtime growth of leaves enhances solar absorption because surface albedo is reduced from the albedo of snow (~0.8) towards the albedo of leaves (~0.1). Leaves also play a hydrologic role, transpiring soil water to the atmosphere. It has been suggested that broad-leaf deciduous trees may invade warming tundra more effectively than boreal evergreen trees and these trees have higher rates of transpiration than needle-leaf trees. Here we use a global climate model with an interactive biosphere to investigate the effects of adding deciduous trees on bare ground at high northern latitudes. We find that the top-of-atmosphere radiative imbalance from enhanced transpiration (associated with the expanded forest cover) is 2.4 times larger than the direct forcing due to albedo change from the forest. Albedo change is considered to be the dominant mechanism by which trees directly modify climate at high-latitudes, but our findings suggest an additional mechanism through transpiration. Furthermore, the greenhouse warming by additional water vapor melts sea ice and triggers a positive feedback through changes in ocean albedo and evaporation. Vegetation feedbacks through albedo and transpiration produce a strong warming if they act in combination with sea-ice processes.

  7. Effects of industrial wastewater on growth and biomass production in commonly grown vegetables.

    PubMed

    Uzma, Syeda; Azizullah, Azizullah; Bibi, Roqaia; Nabeela, Farhat; Muhammad, Uzair; Ali, Imran; Rehman, Zia Ur; Häder, Donat-Peter

    2016-06-01

    In developing countries like Pakistan, irrigation of crops with industrial and municipal wastewater is a common practice. However, the impact of wastewater irrigation on vegetables growth has rarely been studied. Therefore, the present study was conducted to determine the effect of industrial wastewater on the germination and seedling growth of some commonly grown vegetables in Pakistan. Wastewater samples were collected from two different industries (marble industry and match alam factory) at Hayatabad Industrial Estate (HIE) in Peshawar, Pakistan, and their effect on different growth parameters of four vegetables including Hibiscus esculentus, Lactuca sativa, Cucumis sativus, and Cucumis melo was investigated. The obtained results revealed that wastewater from marble industry did not affect seed germination except a minor inhibition in H. esculentus. Effluents from match alam factory stimulated seed germination in C. melo and C. sativus but had no effect on seed germination in the other two vegetables. Wastewater increased root and shoot length in H. esculentus, L. sativa and C. melo, but decreased it in C. sativus. Similarly, differential effects of wastewater were observed on fresh and dry biomass of seedlings in all vegetables. It can be concluded that wastewater may have different effects on different crops, depending upon the nature of wastewater and sensitivity of a plant species to wastewater.

  8. Implications of Vegetation Shifts on Greenhouse Gas Production in a Coastal Salt Marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouni, S.; Corbett, J. E.; Peteet, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    Methane production in salt marshes is understudied, although these anaerobic environments store vast amounts of carbon and may release large quantities as climate shifts. Studies show ranges of salt marsh methane emissions that vary widely from 0.4-160 g CH4 m-2 y-1. CH4 production in salt marshes is governed by several variables. Due to high sulfate concentrations in these environments, less CH4 is expected to form and escape from the subsurface. However, vascular plants allow greater amounts of CH4 escape from subsurface porewater and produce more labile organic carbon substrates, which support higher rates of microbial decomposition. Coastal salt marshes are also dominated by various vascular plant species both native and invasive which may allow for greater amounts of CH4 formation and escape than previously thought. To better understand CH4 dynamics in coastal salt marshes, pore water samples were collected from various depths in Piermont salt marsh, NY (40 ̊00' N, 73 ̊55'W), a tidal wetland that has been invaded in the last century by Phragmites australis. Dissolved organic carbon lability was measured, previously developed isotope-mass balance equations were utilized, and root depth and density were analyzed from several vegetation zones. Areas dominated by invasive Phragmites australis vegetation contain deeper and denser root zones and are expected to produce more subsurface methane and release more methane than areas dominated by native vegetation types. This study will allow us to identify zones more likely to contribute greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and increase knowledge of CH4 production and release in coastal salt marshes.

  9. Pseudomonas cichorii as the causal agent of midrib rot, an emerging disease of greenhouse-grown butterhead lettuce in Flanders.

    PubMed

    Cottyn, Bart; Heylen, Kim; Heyrman, Jeroen; Vanhouteghem, Katrien; Pauwelyn, Ellen; Bleyaert, Peter; Van Vaerenbergh, Johan; Höfte, Monica; De Vos, Paul; Maes, Martine

    2009-05-01

    Bacterial midrib rot of greenhouse-grown butterhead lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata) is an emerging disease in Flanders (Belgium) and fluorescent pseudomonads are suspected to play an important role in the disease. Isolations from infected lettuces, collected from 14 commercial greenhouses in Flanders, yielded 149 isolates that were characterized polyphasically, which included morphological characteristics, pigmentation, pathogenicity tests by both injection and spraying of lettuce, LOPAT characteristics, FAME analysis, BOX-PCR fingerprinting, 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequencing, as well as DNA-DNA hybridization. Ninety-eight isolates (66%) exhibited a fluorescent pigmentation and were associated with the genus Pseudomonas. Fifty-five of them induced an HR+ (hypersensitive reaction in tobacco leaves) response. The other 43 fluorescent isolates were most probably saprophytic bacteria and about half of them were able to cause rot on potato tuber slices. BOX-PCR genomic fingerprinting was used to assess the genetic diversity of the Pseudomonas midrib rot isolates. The delineated BOX-PCR patterns matched quite well with Pseudomonas morphotypes defined on the basis of colony appearance and variation in fluorescent pigmentation. 16S rRNA and rpoB gene sequence analyses allowed most of the fluorescent isolates to be allocated to Pseudomonas, and they belonged to either the Pseudomonas fluorescens group, Pseudomonas putida group, or the Pseudomonas cichorii/syringae group. In particular, the isolates allocated to this latter group constituted the vast majority of HR+ isolates and were identified as P. cichorii by DNA-DNA hybridization. They were demonstrated by spray-inoculation tests on greenhouse-grown lettuce to induce the midrib rot disease and could be re-isolated from lesions of inoculated plants. Four HR+ non-fluorescent isolates associated with one sample that showed an atypical midrib rot were identified as Dickeya sp.

  10. Bombus huntii, Bombus impatiens, and Bombus vosnesenskii (Hymenoptera: Apidae) Pollinate Greenhouse-Grown Tomatoes in Western North America.

    PubMed

    Strange, James P

    2015-06-01

    Bumble bees (Bombus) are the primary pollinators of tomatoes grown in greenhouses and can significantly increase fruit weight compared with tomatoes that receive no supplemental pollination. More than a million colonies are sold worldwide annually to meet pollination needs. Due to mounting concerns over the transportation of bumble bees outside of their native ranges, several species native to western North American are currently being investigated as potential commercial pollinators. Here, two western, Bombus huntii Greene and Bombus vosnesenskii Radoszkowski, and one eastern species, Bombus impatiens Cresson, are compared for their efficacy as pollinators of greenhouse-grown tomatoes. In two experiments, colonies were placed in greenhouses and compared with control plants that received no supplemental pollination. In the first experiment, seed set was significantly increased with B. huntii pollination in one variety of cherry tomatoes. In the second experiment comparing all three bumble bee species, fruit weight was an average of 25.2 g heavier per fruit pollinated by bees versus the control, and the number of days to harvest was 2.9 d shorter for bee-pollinated fruit. In some rounds of pollination, differences were found among bumble bee species, but these were inconsistent across replicates and not statistically significant overall. Additionally, fruit weight was shown to be highly correlated to fruit diameter and seed set in all tests and, thus, is shown to be a reliable metric for assessing pollination in future studies. These results suggest that commercialization of western bumble bees is a viable alternative to the current practices of moving of nonnative bees into western North America to pollinate tomatoes.

  11. Arsenic and heavy metal contamination of vegetables grown in Samta village, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Alam, M G M; Snow, E T; Tanaka, A

    2003-06-01

    Drinking of arsenic (As) contaminated well water has become a serious threat to the health of many millions in Bangladesh. However, the implications of contamination of agricultural soils from long-term irrigation with As-contaminated groundwater for phyto-accumulation in food crops, and thence dietary exposure to As, and other metals, has not been assessed previously in Bangladesh. Various vegetables were sampled in Samta village in the Jessore district of Bangladesh, and screened for As, Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). These local food products are the basis of human nutrition in this region and of great relevance to human health. The results revealed that the individual vegetables containing the highest mean As concentrations microg x g(-1)) are snake gourd (0.489), ghotkol (0.446), taro (0.440), green papaya (0.389), elephant foot (0.338) and Bottle ground leaf (0.306), respectively. The As concentration in fleshy vegetable material is low. In general, the data show the potential for some vegetables to accumulate heavy metals with concentrations of Pb greater than Cd. Some vegetables such as bottle ground leaf, ghotkol, taro, eddoe and elephant foot had much higher concentrations of Pb. Other leafy and root vegetables, contained higher concentrations of Zn and Cu. Bioconcentration factors (BCF) values, based on dry weight, were below 1 for all metals. In most cases, BCF values decreased with increasing metal concentrations in the soil. From the heavily As-contaminated village in Samta, BCF values for As in ladies finger, potato, ash gourd, brinjal, green papaya, ghotkol and snake gourd were 0.001, 0.006, 0.006, 0.014, 0.030, 0.034 and 0.038, respectively. Considering the average daily intake of fresh vegetables per person per day is only 130 g, all the vegetables grown at Samta had Pb concentrations that would be a health hazard for human consumption

  12. [Cytoembryologic studies of super dwarf wheat grown in "Svet" greenhouse in the ground-based experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinskikh, M. A.; Veselova, T. D.; Il'ina, G. M.; Dzhalilova, Kh Kh; Sychev, V. N.; Derendiaeva, T. A.; Salisbury, F.; Cambell, W.; Bubenheim, D.; Campbell, W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    The Project of scientific programs MIR/SHUTTLE and MIR/NASA was allowed for studying the productional, cytoembryological, morphological, biomechanical and other characteristics of superclub wheat on cultivation in the Svet greenhouse on-board orbital complex. This work was aimed at studying the duration of the complete cycle of ontogenesis of wheat and its individual stages, the peculiarities of forming the reproductive organs, processes, fertilization and formation of the seed production while cultivating in the Svet greenhouse under terrestrial conditions. Superclub wheat has been the object of experimentation. On cultivation of superclub wheat in the Svet greenhouse at designated conditions it was found that the cycle duration "from seed to seed" was 90-97 days. The number of granules in the wheat-ears studied was quite low and ranged from 15 to 30%. Performed studies with applying the light microscopy have indicated that in superclub wheat the embryological processes occur in compliance with those regularities which are described for the other forms of soft wheat.

  13. [Cytoembryologic studies of super dwarf wheat grown in "Svet" greenhouse in the ground-based experiments].

    PubMed

    Levinskikh, M A; Veselova, T D; Il'ina, G M; Dzhalilova, Kh Kh; Sychev, V N; Derendiaeva, T A; Salisbury, F; Cambell, W; Bubenheim, D

    1998-01-01

    The Project of scientific programs MIR/SHUTTLE and MIR/NASA was allowed for studying the productional, cytoembryological, morphological, biomechanical and other characteristics of superclub wheat on cultivation in the Svet greenhouse on-board orbital complex. This work was aimed at studying the duration of the complete cycle of ontogenesis of wheat and its individual stages, the peculiarities of forming the reproductive organs, processes, fertilization and formation of the seed production while cultivating in the Svet greenhouse under terrestrial conditions. Superclub wheat has been the object of experimentation. On cultivation of superclub wheat in the Svet greenhouse at designated conditions it was found that the cycle duration "from seed to seed" was 90-97 days. The number of granules in the wheat-ears studied was quite low and ranged from 15 to 30%. Performed studies with applying the light microscopy have indicated that in superclub wheat the embryological processes occur in compliance with those regularities which are described for the other forms of soft wheat.

  14. Determination and evaluation of heavy metals in soils under two different greenhouse vegetable production systems in eastern China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Kang; Hu, Wenyou; Xing, Zhe; Huang, Biao; Jia, Mengmeng; Wan, Mengxue

    2016-12-01

    The evaluation of heavy metals (HMs) in greenhouse soils is crucial for both environmental monitoring and human health; thus, it is imperative to determine their concentrations, identify their sources and assess their potential risks. In this study, eight metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in 167 surface soils were investigated in two representative greenhouse vegetable systems of China: perennial solar greenhouse (SG) and seasonal plastic greenhouse (PG). The results indicated accumulations of Cd, Cu, Hg and Zn in the SG soils and Cd, Pb, Hg and Zn in the PG soils, with higher concentrations than the background values. In particular, Cd and Hg exhibited high levels of pollution under both GVP systems due to their positive Igeo values. Principle component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis suggested that Cd, Cu, Hg and Zn in the SG soils and Cd, Hg and Zn in the PG soils were mainly related to intensive farming practices; Pb in the PG soils was significantly affected by atmospheric deposition. The results showed that soil characteristics, in particular soil organic matter, total nitrogen and total phosphorus, exerted significant influence on Hg, Cu, Cd, and Zn under the SG system. However, the HMs in the PG soils were weakly affected by soil properties. Overall, this study provides comparative research on the accumulation, potential risks and sources of HMs in two typical greenhouse soils in China, and our findings suggest that, Cd and Hg in both greenhouse soils could potentially represent environmental problems.

  15. [Treatment effect of biological filtration and vegetable floating-bed combined system on greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chong-Jun; Zhang, Rui; Xiang, Kun; Wu, Wei-Xiang

    2014-08-01

    Unorganized discharge of greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater has brought several negative influences on the ecological environment in the rural area of Yangtze River Delta. Biological filtration and vegetable floating-bed combined system is a potential ecological method for greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater treatment. In order to explore the feasibility of this system and evaluate the contribution of vegetable uptake of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in treating greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater, three types of vegetables, including Ipomoea aquatica, lettuce and celery were selected in this study. Results showed the combined system had a high capacity in simultaneous removal of organic matter, N and P. The removal efficiencies of COD, NH4(+)-N, TN and TP from the wastewater reached up to 93.2%-95.6%, 97.2%-99.6%, 73.9%-93.1% and 74.9%-90.0%, respectively. System with I. aquatica had the highest efficiencies in N and P removal, followed by lettuce and celery. However, plant uptake was not the primary pathway for TN arid TP removal in the combined system. The vegetable uptake of N and P accounted for only 9.1%-25.0% of TN and TP removal from the wastewater while the effect of microorganisms would be dominant for N and P removal. In addition, the highest amounts of N and P uptake in I. aquatica were closely related with the biomass of plant. Results from the study indicated that the biological filtration and vegetable floating-bed combined system was an effective approach to treating greenhouse turtle breeding wastewater in China.

  16. Large herbivore grazing affects the vegetation structure and greenhouse gas balance in a high arctic mire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, Julie Maria; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Christensen, Torben R.; Ström, Lena

    2015-04-01

    Herbivory is an important part of most ecosystems and affects the ecosystems’ carbon balance both directly and indirectly. Little is known about herbivory and its impact on the carbon balance in high arctic mire ecosystems. We hypothesized that trampling and grazing by large herbivores influences the vegetation density and composition and thereby also the carbon balance. In 2010, we established fenced exclosures in high arctic Greenland to prevent muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus) from grazing. During the growing seasons of 2011 to 2013 we measured CO2 and CH4 fluxes in these ungrazed blocks and compared them to blocks subjected to natural grazing. Additionally, we measured depth of the water table and active layer, soil temperature, and in 2011 and 2013 an inventory of the vegetation density and composition were made. In 2013 a significant decrease in total number of vascular plant (33-44%) and Eriophorum scheuchzeri (51-53%) tillers were found in ungrazed plots, the moss-layer and amount of litter had also increased substantially in these plots. This resulted in a significant decrease in net ecosystem uptake of CO2 (47%) and likewise a decrease in CH4 emission (44%) in ungrazed plots in 2013. While the future of the muskoxen in a changing arctic is unknown, this experiment points to a potentially large effect of large herbivores on the carbon balance in natural Arctic ecosystems. It thus sheds light on the importance of grazing mammals, and hence adds to our understanding of natural ecosystem greenhouse gas balance in the past and in the future.

  17. Changes in Arctic vegetation amplify high-latitude warming through the greenhouse effect.

    PubMed

    Swann, Abigail L; Fung, Inez Y; Levis, Samuel; Bonan, Gordon B; Doney, Scott C

    2010-01-26

    Arctic climate is projected to change dramatically in the next 100 years and increases in temperature will likely lead to changes in the distribution and makeup of the Arctic biosphere. A largely deciduous ecosystem has been suggested as a possible landscape for future Arctic vegetation and is seen in paleo-records of warm times in the past. Here we use a global climate model with an interactive terrestrial biosphere to investigate the effects of adding deciduous trees on bare ground at high northern latitudes. We find that the top-of-atmosphere radiative imbalance from enhanced transpiration (associated with the expanded forest cover) is up to 1.5 times larger than the forcing due to albedo change from the forest. Furthermore, the greenhouse warming by additional water vapor melts sea-ice and triggers a positive feedback through changes in ocean albedo and evaporation. Land surface albedo change is considered to be the dominant mechanism by which trees directly modify climate at high-latitudes, but our findings suggest an additional mechanism through transpiration of water vapor and feedbacks from the ocean and sea-ice.

  18. Changes in Arctic vegetation amplify high-latitude warming through the greenhouse effect

    PubMed Central

    Swann, Abigail L.; Fung, Inez Y.; Levis, Samuel; Bonan, Gordon B.; Doney, Scott C.

    2010-01-01

    Arctic climate is projected to change dramatically in the next 100 years and increases in temperature will likely lead to changes in the distribution and makeup of the Arctic biosphere. A largely deciduous ecosystem has been suggested as a possible landscape for future Arctic vegetation and is seen in paleo-records of warm times in the past. Here we use a global climate model with an interactive terrestrial biosphere to investigate the effects of adding deciduous trees on bare ground at high northern latitudes. We find that the top-of-atmosphere radiative imbalance from enhanced transpiration (associated with the expanded forest cover) is up to 1.5 times larger than the forcing due to albedo change from the forest. Furthermore, the greenhouse warming by additional water vapor melts sea-ice and triggers a positive feedback through changes in ocean albedo and evaporation. Land surface albedo change is considered to be the dominant mechanism by which trees directly modify climate at high-latitudes, but our findings suggest an additional mechanism through transpiration of water vapor and feedbacks from the ocean and sea-ice. PMID:20080628

  19. [Effects of fertilization on the P accumulation and leaching in vegetable greenhouse soil].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ya-jie; Zhao, Mu-qiu; Lu, Cai-yan; Shi, Yi; Chen, Xin

    2015-02-01

    A packed soil column experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different fertilization practices on phosphorus (P) accumulation and leaching potential in a vegetable greenhouse soil with different fertility levels. The results showed that the leaching loss of total P in the leachates elevated with the increment of leaching time while the accumulative leaching loss of total P was relatively low, indicating P was mainly accumulated in the soil instead of in the leachate. At the end of the leaching experiment, soil fertility and fertilization treatment affected the content of total phosphorus and Olsen-P significantly. Compared with the low-level-fertility soil, the contents of total P and Olsen-P increased by 14.3% and 12.2% in the medium-level-fertility soil, 33.3% and 37.7% in the high-level-fertility soil. Total P in the combined application of poultry manure and chemical fertilizer (M+NPK) was elevated by 5.7% and 4.3%, compared with the NPK and M treatment. Compared with NPK treatment, Olsen-P in M and M + NPK treatments augmented by 13.0% and 3.1%, respectively. Soil total P and Olsen-P mainly accumulated in the 0-10 cm and 10-20 cm soil layers, and much less in the 20-40 cm soil layer.

  20. Occurrence of antibiotics in soils and manures from greenhouse vegetable production bases of Beijing, China and an associated risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Chen, Jiayi; Wang, Jihua; Ma, Zhihong; Han, Ping; Luan, Yunxia; Lu, Anxiang

    2015-07-15

    The occurrence of 15 antibiotics in soil and manure samples from 11 large-scale greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) bases in Beijing, China was investigated. Results showed that the greenhouse soils were ubiquitously contaminated with antibiotics, and that antibiotic concentrations were significantly higher in greenhouses than in open field soils. The mean concentrations of four antibiotic classes decreased in the following order: tetracyclines (102μg/kg)>quinolones (86μg/kg)>sulfonamides (1.1μg/kg)>macrolides (0.62μg/kg). This investigation also indicated that fertilization with manure and especially animal feces might be the primary source of antibiotics. A risk assessment based on the calculated risk quotients (RQs) demonstrated that oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin and enrofloxacin could pose a high risk to soil organisms. These results suggested that the ecological effects of antibiotic contamination in GVP bases and their potential adverse risks on human health need to be given special attention.

  1. Determination of chlorfenapyr in leek grown under greenhouse conditions with GC-μECD and confirmation by mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Musfiqur; Choi, Jeong-Heui; Abd El-Aty, A M; Park, Jong Hyouk; Park, Ji-Yeon; Im, Geon-Jae; Shim, Jae-Han

    2012-02-01

    A simple analytical method was developed for the determination of chlorfenapyr residues in leeks grown under greenhouse conditions. Residues were extracted by salting out, analyzed by gas chromatography with microelectron-capture detection, and confirmed via gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The calibration curves were found to be linear with correlation coefficients (r(2) ) in excess of 0.998. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.0015 and 0.005 mg kg(-1) , respectively. For validation purposes, recovery studies were carried out at low and high levels. Yield recovery rates were 87.27-89.64% with a relative standard deviation <6%. A maximum of 0.32 mg kg(-1) of chlorfenapyr residue was detected in leek sample sprayed three times at 7 day intervals until 7 days prior to harvest. The results of this study suggest that chlorfenapyr is acceptable for application in/on leeks under the recommended dosage regimen.

  2. Effects of washing, peeling, storage, and fermentation on residue contents of carbaryl and mancozeb in cucumbers grown in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Saeedi Saravi, S S; Shokrzadeh, M

    2016-06-01

    Cucumbers grown in two different greenhouses were exposed to mancozeb and carbaryl at different times. The effects of 10-day preharvest period, water and detergent washing, peeling, predetermined storage period at 4°C (refrigeration), and fermentation on the reduction of residue levels in the plant tissues were investigated. Mancozeb and carbaryl residues in cucumbers were determined by gas chromatography-electron capture detection. Results showed that residue levels in samples, which were collected after 10 days following the pesticide application, were significantly lower than the samples collected after 2 h subsequent to the pesticide application. The culinary applications were effective in reducing the residue levels of the pesticides in cucumbers. As a result, non-fermentative pickling in sodium chloride and acetic acid was the most effective way to reduce the mancozeb and carbaryl residues of the cucumbers.

  3. Does consumption of leafy vegetables grown in peri-urban agriculture pose a risk to human health?

    PubMed

    Nabulo, G; Black, C R; Craigon, J; Young, S D

    2012-03-01

    Concentrations of potentially toxic elements were measured in soils and five contrasting tropical leafy vegetables grown in a replicated field trial at five contaminated urban agriculture sites in Kampala City, Uganda. Soil contamination at each site could be tentatively ascribed to known waste disposal practices. There was considerable variation in metal uptake between vegetable types. Washing leafy vegetables reduced chromium and lead concentrations but exogenous contamination of leaves also depended on vegetable type, with Gynandropsis gynandra L. showing a marked tendency to accumulate Pb and Cr. For the worst case scenario of children consuming unwashed vegetables, some metal 'hazard quotient' (HQ) limits (1.0) were violated at four of the five sites studied. For the 25 'site-vegetable' combinations assessed, the HQ for Pb exceeded 1.0 in 36% of cases. A vegetable-specific site screening tool based on soil extraction with 0.01 M CaCl(2) and extrapolation to provide HQ values was assessed.

  4. Alternative control of Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard (Acari: Tetranychidae) on tomato plants grown in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Soto, Alberto; Venzon, Madelaine; Oliveira, Rafael M; Oliveira, Hamilton G; Pallini, Angelo

    2010-01-01

    Tetranychus evansi Baker & Pritchard is an important pest of solanaceous plants, including tomatoes. This mite is characterized by a high reproductive rate, which leads to high population growth in a short period of time causing important economic damage. Control of T. evansi is mainly through synthetic acaricides. In searching for environmentally friendly control measures, we evaluated the efficiency of alternative products to control T. evansi on tomato plants under greenhouse conditions. The products tested were lime sulphur and neem based products. We first estimated the lethal concentration (LC) and instantaneous rate of increase (r i) of T. evansi exposed to different product concentrations in laboratory conditions, and later tested the efficacy of LC95 and the concentrations that restrained mite population growth (r i = 0) in greenhouse conditions. The following treatments were repeated three times: NeemPro (81.0 and 71.6 mg a.i./l), Natuneem (31.1 and 20.4 mg ai/l), Organic Neem (39.1 and 30.4 mg a.i./l), lime sulphur (1.0 and 0.6%) and water (control). For all products, control provided by LC95 was higher than provided for lower concentrations (r i = 0) one day after spraying. However, after five days, for both concentrations, the percentage of T. evansi population reduction was superior to 95% and increased over time. Only plants sprayed with Natuneem (31.1 mg a.i./l) showed symptoms of phytotoxicity. Lime sulphur and neem based products, applied in appropriate concentrations and formulations, bear out as a viable alternative to control T. evansi on tomato plants.

  5. Developing and demonstrating low-energy climate control and production techniques for greenhouse-grown citrus and ornamental crops

    SciTech Connect

    Bodnaruk, W.H. Jr.

    1983-04-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and demonstrate low energy climate control and production techniques for greenhouse grown citrus and ornamental crops. Emphasis was placed on design, fuel efficiency and plant response to warm water soil heating systems using solar energy and LP gas. An energy requirement of 28Btus output per hour per square foot of bed space will provide soil temperature of 70/sup 0/F minimum when air temperatures are maintained at 60/sup 0/F. Soil heating to 70/sup 0/ increased rooting and growth of 8 foliage plant varieties by 25 to 45% compared to plants grown under 60/sup 0/F air temperature conditions. Providing soil heating, however, increased fuel consumption in the central Florida test facilities by 30% in the winters of 1980-81 and 1981-82. Solar tie-in to soil heating systems has the potential of reducing fuel usage. Solar heated water provided 4 hours of soil heating following a good collection day. Decreased in-bed pipe spacing and increased storage capacity should increase the solar percentage to 6 hours.

  6. WholeTree Substrate and Fertilizer Rate in Production of Greenhouse Grown Petunia (Petunia*hybrida Vilm) and marigold (Tagetes patula L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A substrate component (WholeTree) made from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) was evaluated along with starter fertilizer rate in the production of greenhouse-grown petunia (Petunia 'hybrida Vilm. ‘Dreams Purple’) and marigold (Tagetes patula L. ‘Hero Spry’). Loblolly pine from a 12 year old plantation...

  7. Protein, free amino acid, phenloic, ß-carotene, and lycopene content, and antioxidative and cancer cell inhibitory effects of 12 greenhouse-grown commercial cherry tomato varieties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The content of water, free amino acids, amino acid metabolites, crude protein, the carotene pigments ß-carotene and lycopene, and 9 characterized and 2 incompletely characterized individual phenolic (flavonoid) compounds of 12 greenhouse-grown cherry tomato varieties of various colors (green, yellow...

  8. The gravitropic response dynamics of wheat plants grown inside hemispherical greenhouse prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyablova, Natalya; Berkovich, Yuliy A.; Skripnikov, Alexander

    The characters of time course of gravicurvature (TCGC) of the 3-day wheat coleoptiles after a change in their orientation within the gravity field in dark and under red light are studied. It was found that maximal curvature angle and average rate of gravicurvature took place after 90 degrees of gravistimulation turn. Duration of the TCGC was registered in the range from 130 to 195 minutes. The estimates of red light (PPF of 30 µmol.m-2.s-1and 300 µmol.m-2.s-1) influence on 3-days coleoptiles TCGC are obtained. The reorganization of microtubules in dark and light during TCGC of wheat coleoptiles after changing their orientation from vertical to different angles is studied. The parameters of growth and development of wheat, cultivated during 5 weeks in rotating growth chamber of hemispherical on-ground prototype of space greenhouse were compared with stationary control crop. The wheat crop was cultivated under the hemispherical red-blue LEDs assembly with PPF of around 300 µmol.m-2.s-1. The plant growth chamber had diameter of 600mm and rotated 3 rph around of 2 perpendicular axes. Nutrient solution supply system regulated water potential in the range of (1,0 ± 0,45) kPa. The experiment showed that integral wheat gravitropic reactions inside rotating growth chamber under chosen illumination had not significant effect on growth and development of the plants.

  9. Dissipation of six fungicides in greenhouse-grown tomatoes with processing and health risk.

    PubMed

    Jankowska, Magdalena; Kaczynski, Piotr; Hrynko, Izabela; Lozowicka, Bozena

    2016-06-01

    Greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate the dissipation rate kinetics and estimate the behavior of selected pesticides after washing, peeling, simmering, and canning of tomato expressed as processing factor (PF). Two varieties (Marissa and Harzfeuer) were treated by six fungicides: azoxystrobin, boscalid, chlorothalonil, cyprodinil, fludioxonil, and pyraclostrobin at single and double dose and risk assessment defined as hazard quotient was performed. The QuEChERS method was used for sample preparation followed by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The dissipation of fungicides approximately fitted to a first-order kinetic model, with half-life values ranging from 2.49 and 2.67 days (cyprodinil) to 5.00 and 5.32 days (chlorothalonil) for Marissa and Harzfeuer variety, respectively. Results from processing studies showed that treatments have significant effects on the removal of the studied fungicides for both varieties. The PFs were generally less than 1 (between 0.01 and 0.90) and did not depend on variety. The dietary exposure assessed based on initial deposits of application at single and double dose on tomatoes and concentration after each process with PF correction showed no concern to consumer health. Our results would be a useful tool for monitoring of fungicides in tomatoes and provide more understanding of residue behavior and risk posed by these fungicides.

  10. Cadmium, lead and mercury in fresh and boiled leafy vegetables grown in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bakare, S; Denloye, A A B; Olaniyan, F O

    2004-12-01

    Vegetables, eaten fresh or boiled, are an important diet relished in many local Nigerian cuisines and delicacies. Increasing their production has therefore become a prime focus of governments in Nigeria. In the process of production, metals capable of impairing the health of consumers are inadvertently picked up. Studies were therefore conducted to determine the presence of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and mercury (Hg) in fresh and boiled leafy vegetables grown in farms close (proximal) to highways (PS) and those distant from highways (DS). Composite samples of fresh lettuce (Lactuca sativa), fresh Amaranthus (Amaranthus speciosa), boiled A. speciosa, soil, irrigation water, and manure from farms located at the two sites were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS). The results show that the fresh vegetables grown on sites close to highways (PS) had higher levels of Cd and Pb (0.313 microg g(-1), 16.933 microg g(-1) for Cd and Pb respectively in fresh Amaranthus, and 0.877 microg g(-1), 16.833 microg g(-1) for Cd and Pb respectively in Raw Lettuce) than those from DS farms (0.20 microg g(-1), 8.33 microg g(-1) for Cd and Pb respectively in fresh Amaranthus and 0.266 microg g(-1), 8.00 microg g(-1) for Cd and Pb respectively in Raw Lettuce). The irrigation water at the PS farms contained more Pb but similar levels of Cd and Hg. Soil from the PS was slightly more acidic (pH = 6.32 + 0.08) than those from the DS (pH = 6.49 + 0.02). Soils of PS farms gave very high Pb levels (4.13 microg g(-1)). Boiling had an effect on the levels of Cd and Pb but not Hg in Amaranthus, irrespective of the site of production. Cadmium (Cd) increased from 0.2 microg g(-1) to 1.036 microg g(-1) before and after boiling respectively in DS samples, while it increased from 0.3131 microg g(-1) to 1.037 microg g(-1) in samples from PS farms before and after boiling respectively. The level followed similar trend. Pb increased from 8.33 microg g(-1) to 5.667 microg g(-1) before and after

  11. Response of nitric and nitrous oxide fluxes to N fertilizer application in greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in southeast China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yaojun; Lin, Feng; Jin, Yaguo; Wang, Xiaofei; Liu, Shuwei; Zou, Jianwen

    2016-02-05

    It is of great concern worldwide that active nitrogenous gases in the global nitrogen cycle contribute to regional and global-scale environmental issues. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) are generally interrelated in soil nitrogen biogeochemical cycles, while few studies have simultaneously examined these two gases emission from typical croplands. Field experiments were conducted to measure N2O and NO fluxes in response to chemical N fertilizer application in annual greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in southeast China. Annual N2O and NO fluxes averaged 52.05 and 14.87 μg N m(-2) h(-1) for the controls without N fertilizer inputs, respectively. Both N2O and NO emissions linearly increased with N fertilizer application. The emission factors of N fertilizer for N2O and NO were estimated to be 1.43% and 1.15%, with an annual background emission of 5.07 kg N2O-N ha(-1) and 1.58 kg NO-N ha(-1), respectively. The NO-N/N2O-N ratio was significantly affected by cropping type and fertilizer application, and NO would exceed N2O emissions when soil moisture is below 54% WFPS. Overall, local conventional input rate of chemical N fertilizer could be partially reduced to attain high yield of vegetable and low N2O and NO emissions in greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in China.

  12. Response of nitric and nitrous oxide fluxes to N fertilizer application in greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in southeast China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yaojun; Lin, Feng; Jin, Yaguo; Wang, Xiaofei; Liu, Shuwei; Zou, Jianwen

    2016-02-01

    It is of great concern worldwide that active nitrogenous gases in the global nitrogen cycle contribute to regional and global-scale environmental issues. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and nitric oxide (NO) are generally interrelated in soil nitrogen biogeochemical cycles, while few studies have simultaneously examined these two gases emission from typical croplands. Field experiments were conducted to measure N2O and NO fluxes in response to chemical N fertilizer application in annual greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in southeast China. Annual N2O and NO fluxes averaged 52.05 and 14.87 μg N m‑2 h‑1 for the controls without N fertilizer inputs, respectively. Both N2O and NO emissions linearly increased with N fertilizer application. The emission factors of N fertilizer for N2O and NO were estimated to be 1.43% and 1.15%, with an annual background emission of 5.07 kg N2O-N ha‑1 and 1.58 kg NO-N ha‑1, respectively. The NO-N/N2O-N ratio was significantly affected by cropping type and fertilizer application, and NO would exceed N2O emissions when soil moisture is below 54% WFPS. Overall, local conventional input rate of chemical N fertilizer could be partially reduced to attain high yield of vegetable and low N2O and NO emissions in greenhouse vegetable cropping systems in China.

  13. Variation in concentrations of the fungicides tebuconazole and dichlofluanid following successive applications to greenhouse-grown lettuces.

    PubMed

    Rial-Otero, Raquel; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; López-Periago, Eugenio; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Simal-Gándara, Jesús

    2005-06-01

    Residual levels and degradation rates of tebuconazole and dichlofluanid in lettuce plants grown in a greenhouse under agricultural conditions typical of northwestern Spain were studied. Lettuce plants were sprayed four times with a homogeneous 0.2% aqueous solution of Folicur Combi (wettable powder containing 40% dichlofluanid and 10% tebuconazole) at a rate of 2500 g/ha. Samples were collected 1, 5, and 9 days after the first two applications and at times ranging from 1 to 27 days after the last two applications. All samples were stored in a refrigerator at 4 degrees C. Fungicide levels were determined by solid-liquid extraction (SLE) followed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry detection (GC-MSD). Recovery was good for tebuconazole (98%) but low for dichlofluanid (29%); precision was good (<10% for both analytes), and quantification limits were low (<1.5 mg/kg). Seven days after the last application, dichlofluanid levels were below the maximum allowed limit established in Spain (10 mg/kg), but tebuconazole levels were above the corresponding limit (5 mg/kg). Tebuconazole concentration dynamics was accurately fitted by zeroth- or combined first- and zeroth-order models (depending on variety), but modeling of the behavior of dichlofluanid was less satisfactory, probably due to its instability.

  14. Coastal vegetation invasion increases greenhouse gas emission from wetland soils but also increases soil carbon accumulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yaping; Chen, Guangcheng; Ye, Yong

    2015-09-01

    Soil properties and soil-atmosphere fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O from four coastal wetlands were studied throughout the year, namely, native Kandelia obovata mangrove forest vs. exotic Sonneratia apetala mangrove forest, and native Cyperus malaccensis salt marsh vs. exotic Spartina alterniflora salt marsh. Soils of the four wetlands were all net sources of greenhouse gases while Sonneratia forest contributed the most with a total soil-atmosphere CO2-equivalent flux of 137.27 mg CO2 m(-2) h(-1), which is 69.23%, 99.75% and 44.56% higher than that of Kandelia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively. The high underground biomass and distinctive root structure of Sonneratia might be responsible for its high greenhouse gas emission from the soil. Soils in Spartina marsh emitted the second largest amount of total greenhouse gases but it ranked first in emitting trace greenhouse gases. Annual average CH4 and N2O fluxes from Spartina soil were 13.77 and 1.14 μmol m(-2) h(-1), respectively, which are 2.08 and 1.46 times that of Kandelia, 1.03 and 1.15 times of Sonneratia, and 1.74 and 1.02 times of Cyperus, respectively. Spartina has longer growing season and higher productivity than native marshes which might increase greenhouse gas emission in cold seasons. Exotic wetland soils had higher carbon stock as compared to their respective native counterparts but their carbon stocks were offset by a larger proportion because of their higher greenhouse gas emissions. Annual total soil-atmosphere fluxes of greenhouse gases reduced soil carbon burial benefits by 8.1%, 9.5%, 6.4% and 7.2% for Kandelia, Sonneratia, Cyperus and Spartina, respectively, which narrowed down the gaps in net soil carbon stock between native and exotic wetlands. The results indicated that the invasion of exotic wetland plants might convert local coastal soils into a considerable atmospheric source of greenhouse gases although they at the same time increase soil carbon accumulation.

  15. Water level, vegetation composition and plant productivity explain greenhouse gas fluxes in temperate cutover fens after inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minke, M.; Augustin, J.; Burlo, A.; Yarmashuk, T.; Chuvashova, H.; Thiele, A.; Freibauer, A.; Tikhonov, V.; Hoffmann, M.

    2015-10-01

    Rewetting of temperate continental cutover peatlands generally implies the creation of flooded areas, which are - dependent on water depth - colonized by helophytes such as Eriophorum angustifolium, Carex spp., Typha latifolia or Phragmites australis. Reeds of Typha and Phragmites are reported to be large sources of methane, but data on net CO2 uptake are contradictory for Typha and rare for Phragmites. This paper describes the effect of vegetation, water level and nutrient conditions on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for representative vegetation types along water level gradients at two rewetted cutover fens (mesotrophic and eutrophic) in Belarus. Greenhouse emissions were measured with manual chambers in weekly to few - weekly intervals over a two years period and interpolated by modelling. All sites had negligible nitrous oxide exchange rates. Most sites were carbon sinks and small GHG sources. Methane emissions were generally associated with net ecosystem CO2 uptake. Small sedges were minor methane emitters and net CO2 sinks, while Phragmites australis sites released large amounts of methane and sequestered very much CO2. Variability of both fluxes increased with site productivity. Floating mats composed of Carex tussocks and Typha latifolia were a source for both methane and CO2. We conclude that shallow, stable flooding is a better measure to arrive at low GHG emissions than deep flooding, and that the risk of high GHG emissions consequent on rewetting is larger for eutrophic than for mesotrophic peatlands.

  16. Water level, vegetation composition, and plant productivity explain greenhouse gas fluxes in temperate cutover fens after inundation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minke, Merten; Augustin, Jürgen; Burlo, Andrei; Yarmashuk, Tatsiana; Chuvashova, Hanna; Thiele, Annett; Freibauer, Annette; Tikhonov, Vitalij; Hoffmann, Mathias

    2016-07-01

    Peat extraction leaves a land surface with a strong relief of deep cutover areas and higher ridges. Rewetting inundates the deep parts, while less deeply extracted zones remain at or above the water level. In temperate fens the flooded areas are colonized by helophytes such as Eriophorum angustifolium, Carex spp., Typha latifolia or Phragmites australis dependent on water depth. Reeds of Typha and Phragmites are reported as large sources of methane, but data on net CO2 uptake are contradictory for Typha and rare for Phragmites. Here, we analyze the effect of vegetation, water level and nutrient conditions on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for representative vegetation types along water level gradients at two rewetted cutover fens (mesotrophic and eutrophic) in Belarus. Greenhouse gas emissions were measured campaign-wise with manual chambers every 2 to 4 weeks for 2 years and interpolated by modelling. All sites had negligible nitrous oxide exchange rates. Most sites were carbon sinks and small GHG sources. Methane emissions generally increased with net ecosystem CO2 uptake. Mesotrophic small sedge reeds with water table around the land surface were small GHG sources in the range of 2.3 to 4.2 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1. Eutrophic tall sedge - Typha latifolia reeds on newly formed floating mats were substantial net GHG emitters in the range of 25.1 to 39.1 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr. They represent transient vegetation stages. Phragmites reeds ranged between -1.7 to 4.2 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1 with an overall mean GHG emission of 1.3 t CO2 eq. ha-1 yr-1. The annual CO2 balance was best explained by vegetation biomass, which includes the role of vegetation composition and species. Methane emissions were obviously driven by biological activity of vegetation and soil organisms. Shallow flooding of cutover temperate fens is a suitable measure to arrive at low GHG emissions. Phragmites australis establishment should be promoted in deeper flooded areas and will lead to moderate, but

  17. Biomass and vegetative characteristics of sawgrass grown in a tilting flume as part of a study of vegetative resistance to flow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rybicki, N.B.; Reel, J.T.; Ruhl, H.A.; Gammon, P.T.; Carter, Virginia; Lee, J.K.

    1999-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey is studying vegetative resistance to flow in the south Florida Everglades as part of a multidisciplinary effort to restore the South Florida Ecosystem. In order to test the flow resistance of sawgrass, one of the dominant species in the Everglades, uniform, dense stands of sawgrass were grown in a tilting flume at Stennis Space Center, Mississippi. Depth of water in the flume was controlled by adding or removing metal plates at the downstream end of the flume. A series of experiments were conducted at various flow depths, and the velocity, flow depth, and water-surface slope were measured. During each set of experiments, the sawgrass was sampled in layers from the sediment water interface for vegetative characteristics, biomass, and leaf area index. The results of the vegetation sampling are summarized in a series of tables.

  18. Vegetation dynamics and plant CO2 responses as positive feedbacks in a greenhouse world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'ishi, Ryouta; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Prentice, I. Colin; Sitch, Stephen

    2009-06-01

    An atmosphere-ocean-vegetation coupled model is used to quantify the biogeophysical feedback that emerges as vegetation adjusts dynamically to a quadrupling of atmospheric CO2. This feedback amplifies global warming by 13%. About half of it is due to climatically induced expansion of boreal forest into tundra, reinforced by reductions in snow and sea ice cover. The other half represents a global climatic effect of increased vegetative cover (an indirect consequence of plant physiological responses to CO2) in the semi-arid subtropics. Enhanced absorption of shortwave radiation in these regions produces a net surface warming, which the atmosphere communicates poleward. The greatest vegetation-induced warming is co-located with large, vulnerable carbon stores in the north. These lose carbon, so that in the long term, the biospheric response to CO2 and climate change becomes dominated by positive feedbacks that overwhelm the effect of CO2 fertilization on terrestrial carbon stocks.

  19. Greenhouse gas emission response to global change may be limited by vegetation community shifts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal marshes experience a confluence of global changes including climate change, sea level rise, exotic species invasion, and eutrophication. These changes are likely to exert new abiotic stressors and affect interspecific interactions that influence vegetation community stru...

  20. Effect of long-term application of treated sewage water on heavy metal accumulation in vegetables grown in northern India.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Amlan Kr; Bhatt, M A; Agrawal, H P

    2012-01-01

    Use of industrial and wastewater for irrigation is on the rise in India and other developing countries because of scarcity of good-quality irrigation water. Wastewaters contain plant nutrients that favour crop growth but leave a burden of heavy metals which can enter the food chain and is a cause of great concern. The present study was undertaken on the long-term impact of irrigation with treated sewage water for growing vegetables and the potential health risk associated with consumption of such vegetable. Treated sewage water (TSW), groundwater (GW), soil and plant samples were collected from peri urban vegetable growing areas of Northern India (Varanasi) and analysed to assess the long-term effect of irrigation with TSW on Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb build-up in soils and its subsequent transfer into commonly grown vegetable crops. Results indicate that TSW was richer in essential plant nutrients but contained Cd, Cr and Ni in amounts well above the permissible limits for its use as irrigation water. Long-term application of TSW resulted in significant build-up of total and DTPA extractable Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb over GW irrigated sites. TSW also resulted in slight lowering in pH, increase in organic carbon (1.6 g kg(-1)) and cation exchange capacity (5.2 cmol kg(-1)). The tissue metal concentration and relative efficiency of transfer of heavy metals from soil to plant (transfer factor) for various groups of vegetables were worked out. Radish, turnip and spinach were grouped as hyper accumulator of heavy metals whereas brinjal and cauliflower accumulated less heavy metals. Health risk assessment by consumption of vegetables grown with TSW indicated that all the vegetables were safe for human consumption. However, significant accumulation of these heavy metals in soil and plant needs to be monitored.

  1. Variation in Factors Regulating Net Greenhouse Gas Exchange Across Different Vegetation Types at Cape Bounty, Melville Island, Nunavut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, N. A.; Blaser, A.; Buckley, E.; Humphreys, E.; Treitz, P.

    2015-12-01

    Global-scale climate simulations predict significant changes both in temperature and moisture regimes in the high Arctic. This could lead to changes in vegetation community distribution, as vegetation communities are distributed along moisture gradients often determined by snowfall patterns across the landscape. Furthermore, changes in soil moisture and temperature could alter fluxes of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), and the impacts of changes in these controlling factors could vary by vegetation type.We measured both spatial and temporal variation in CO2 fluxes using combinations of eddy covariance, auto-chamber, and static chamber techniques at the Cape Bounty Arctic Watershed Observatory (CBAWO). Measurements were performed in three major plant community types: polar semi-desert (PSD), mid-moisture tundra (MM) and wet sedge meadow (WS). Based on our auto-chamber data collected in all vegetation types, ecosystem respiration (ER) related positively to air temperature, and correlated more strongly with air temperature than soil temperature. Modeled ER based on eddy covariance data and air temperature over MM agreed well with measured ER in the same vegetation type. In the WS community, average net ecosystem exchange (NEE) in 2014 measured by static chambers differed in spectrally separable 'wet' and 'dry' sedge areas (-0.33 and 0.01 µmol m-2 s-1, respectively; p<0.001). Rates of ER also varied across this moisture gradient (p<0.05). Over the entire growing season and multiple years, NEE correlated poorly with air and soil temperature, suggesting that ER is not the dominant processes driving NEE. This can vary, however, over the growing season. In PSD communities measured in 2013, air temperature related positively to NEE early in the growing season, but not during the latter part of the season, when PAR (photosynthesis) became the key factor controlling NEE. Not surprisingly, NEE related strongly (0.93) to

  2. Quantifying the Negative Feedback of Vegetation to Greenhouse Warming: A Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounous, L.; Hall, F. G.; Sellers, P. J.; Kumar, A.; Collatz, G. J.; Tucker, C. J.; Imhoff, M. L.

    2010-01-01

    Several climate models indicate that in a 2 x CO2 environment, temperature and precipitation would increase and runoff would increase faster than precipitation. These models, however, did not allow the vegetation to increase its leaf density as a response to the physiological effects of increased CO2 and consequent changes in climate. Other assessments included these interactions but did not account for the vegetation down-regulation to reduce plant's photosynthetic activity and as such resulted in a weak vegetation negative response. When we combine these interactions in climate simulations with 2 x CO2, the associated increase in precipitation contributes primarily to increase evapotranspiration rather than surface runoff, consistent with observations, and results in an additional cooling effect not fully accounted for in previous simulations with elevated CO2. By accelerating the water cycle, this feedback slows but does not alleviate the projected warming, reducing the land surface warming by 0.6 C. Compared to previous studies, these results imply that long term negative feedback from CO2-induced increases in vegetation density could reduce temperature following a stabilization of CO2 concentration.

  3. RNA-mediated gene silencing signals are not graft transmissible from the rootstock to the scion in greenhouse-grown apple plants Malus sp.

    PubMed

    Flachowsky, Henryk; Tränkner, Conny; Szankowski, Iris; Waidmann, Sascha; Hanke, Magda-Viola; Treutter, Dieter; Fischer, Thilo C

    2012-01-01

    RNA silencing describes the sequence specific degradation of RNA targets. Silencing is a non-cell autonomous event that is graft transmissible in different plant species. The present study is the first report on systemic acquired dsRNA-mediated gene silencing of transgenic and endogenous gene sequences in a woody plant like apple. Transgenic apple plants overexpressing a hairpin gene construct of the gusA reporter gene were produced. These plants were used as rootstocks and grafted with scions of the gusA overexpressing transgenic apple clone T355. After grafting, we observed a reduction of the gusA gene expression in T355 scions in vitro, but not in T355 scions grown in the greenhouse. Similar results were obtained after silencing of the endogenous Mdans gene in apple that is responsible for anthocyanin biosynthesis. Subsequently, we performed grafting experiments with Mdans silenced rootstocks and red leaf scions of TNR31-35 in order to evaluate graft transmitted silencing of the endogenous Mdans. The results obtained suggested a graft transmission of silencing signals in in vitro shoots. In contrast, no graft transmission of dsRNA-mediated gene silencing signals was detectable in greenhouse-grown plants and in plants grown in an insect protection tent.

  4. Evaluation of corn plant as potential banker plant for supporting predatory gall Midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae) against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in greenhouse vegetable production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the most important and highly polyphagous pests of vegetables and other crops worldwide. In this study, several experiments were conducted under laboratory and greenhouse conditions to evaluate whether corn plant ...

  5. Study on the idity fuzzy neural network controller based on improved genetic algorithm of intelligent temperature control system in vegetable greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Su; Yuan, Hongbo; Zhou, Yuhong; Wang, Nan

    2009-07-01

    In order to create the environment that the suitable crop grows, direct against the characteristic of the system of the greenhouse. The aim of the research was to study the intelligent temperature control system in vegetable greenhouse. Based on computer automatic control ,a kind of intelligent temperature control system in vegetable greenhouse was designed. The design thought of systematic hardwares such as temperature collection system, temperature display, control system, heater control circuit in the heater were expounded in detail The control algorithm of the system was improved and system simulation was made by using MATLAB finally. The control algorithm of the system was improved by a new fuzzy neural network controller. The stimulation curve showed that the system had better controlling and tracking performances ,higher accuracy of controlling the temperature. And this system and host epigyny computer could constitute the secondary computer control system which was favorable for realizing the centralized management of the production.

  6. Escherichia coli Contamination of Vegetables Grown in Soils Fertilized with Noncomposted Bovine Manure: Garden-Scale Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ingham, Steven C.; Losinski, Jill A.; Andrews, Matthew P.; Breuer, Jane E.; Breuer, Jeffry R.; Wood, Timothy M.; Wright, Thomas H.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we tested the validity of the National Organic Program (NOP) requirement for a ≥120-day interval between application of noncomposted manure and harvesting of vegetables grown in manure-fertilized soil. Noncomposted bovine manure was applied to 9.3-m2 plots at three Wisconsin sites (loamy sand, silt loam, and silty clay loam) prior to spring and summer planting of carrots, radishes, and lettuce. Soil and washed (30 s under running tap water) vegetables were analyzed for indigenous Escherichia coli. Within 90 days, the level of E. coli in manure-fertilized soil generally decreased by about 3 log CFU/g from initial levels of 4.2 to 4.4 log CFU/g. Low levels of E. coli generally persisted in manure-fertilized soil for more than 100 days and were detected in enriched soil from all three sites 132 to 168 days after manure application. For carrots and lettuce, at least one enrichment-negative sample was obtained ≤100 days after manure application for 63 and 88% of the treatments, respectively. The current ≥120-day limit provided an even greater likelihood of not detecting E. coli on carrots (≥1 enrichment-negative result for 100% of the treatments). The rapid maturation of radishes prevented conclusive evaluation of a 100- or 120-day application-to-harvest interval. The absolute absence of E. coli from vegetables harvested from manure-fertilized Wisconsin soils may not be ensured solely by adherence to the NOP ≥120-day limit. Unless pathogens are far better at colonizing vegetables than indigenous E. coli strains are, it appears that the risk of contamination for vegetables grown in Wisconsin soils would be elevated only slightly by reducing the NOP requirement to ≥100 days. PMID:15528501

  7. [N2O emission from an intensively managed greenhouse vegetable field in Nanjing suburb, Jiangsu Province of East China].

    PubMed

    Jia, Jun-Xiang; Zhang, Man; Xiong, Zheng-Qin; Li, Ye

    2012-03-01

    By using static opaque chamber and gas chromatography, this paper studied the dynamic changes of N2O fluxes and their relationships with soil temperature, soil moisture content, and soil nitrate and ammonium contents in an intensively managed greenhouse celery-Tung choy-Bok choy-amaranth rotation field and in a bare fallow land in Nanjing suburb. The cumulative N2O emission from the rotation vegetable field was as high as 137.2 kg N x hm(-2), being significantly higher than that from the bare fallow land (29.2 kg N x hm(-2)), and the N2O-N emission factor of the rotation vegetable field ecosystem was up to 4.6%. In the rotation field, the planting of Tung choy had the greatest contribution to the annual cumulative N2O emission, occupying 53.5% of the total, followed by the planting of Bok choy (31.9%), celery field (4.5%), and amaranth (4.8%). The N2O flux of the rotation field had significant positive correlation with soil temperature, the Q10 being 2.80, but no significant correlations with soil moisture content and soil nitrate and ammonium contents.

  8. The Early Paleogene Greenhouse and PCO2: A Look at the Role and Response of Vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shellito, L. J.; Sloan, L. C.

    2003-12-01

    This study uses the NCAR Community Climate Model (v.3.6.6) (CCM) and dynamic vegetation global model (DVGM) to assess potential responses of Early Paleogene (50-60 Ma) flora to changes in pCO2, and to examine the role that this flora may have had in supporting the warm climate of this time period. We compare the vegetation in model output with the invariable Early Eocene land cover used to drive previous global climate model experiments. The invariable land cover was derived from Paleogene fossil flora and may produce inconsistencies between climate and vegetation in a model, especially in lower pCO2 scenarios, where high latitudes become too cool to support Eocene fossil flora. We drive the DVGM with climate data generated from two experiments with the CCM. In one experiment, pCO2 is set at 560 ppm, and the other, at 1120 ppm. We find that the higher pCO2 experiment allows the plant functional types which favor warmer climates to increase their latitudinal range, and thus become more consistent with proxy interpretations of the distribution of flora during this time period.

  9. Accumulation, sources and health risks of trace metals in elevated geochemical background soils used for greenhouse vegetable production in southwestern China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haidong; Huang, Biao; Dong, Linlin; Hu, Wenyou; Akhtar, Mohammad Saleem; Qu, Mingkai

    2017-03-01

    Greenhouse vegetable cultivation with substantive manure and fertilizer input on soils with an elevated geochemical background can accumulate trace metals in soils and plants leading to human health risks. Studies on trace metal accumulation over a land use shift duration in an elevated geochemical background scenario are lacking. Accumulation characteristics of seven trace metals in greenhouse soil and edible plants were evaluated along with an assessment of the health risk to the consumers. A total of 118 greenhouse surface soils (0-20cm) and 30 vegetables were collected from Kunming City, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, and analyzed for total Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, As, Hg, and Cr content by ICP-MS and AFS. The trace metals were ordered Cu>Cd>Hg>Zn>Pb>As>Cr in greenhouse soils accumulation level, and the geo-accumulation index suggested the soil more severely polluted with Cd, Cu, Hg and Zn. The greenhouse and open-field soils had significant difference in Cd, Cr and Zn. The duration of shift from paddy to greenhouse land-use significantly influenced trace metal accumulation with a dramatic change during five to ten year greenhouse land-use, and continuous increase of Cd and Hg. A spatial pattern from north to south for Cd and Hg and a zonal pattern for Cu and Zn were found. An anthropogenic source primarily caused trace metal accumulation, where the principal component analysis/multiple linear regression indicated a contribution 61.2%. While the assessment showed no potential risk for children and adults, the hazard health risks index was greater than one for adolescents. The extended duration of land use as greenhouses caused the trace metal accumulation, rotation in land use should be promoted to reduce the health risks.

  10. Assessing risk to human health from tropical leafy vegetables grown on contaminated urban soils.

    PubMed

    Nabulo, G; Young, S D; Black, C R

    2010-10-15

    Fifteen tropical leafy vegetable types were sampled from farmers' gardens situated on nine contaminated sites used to grow vegetables for commercial or subsistence consumption in and around Kampala City, Uganda. Trace metal concentrations in soils were highly variable and originated from irrigation with wastewater, effluent discharge from industry and dumping of solid waste. Metal concentrations in the edible shoots of vegetables also differed greatly between, and within, sites. Gynandropsis gynandra consistently accumulated the highest Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations, while Amaranthus dubius accumulated the highest Zn concentration. Cadmium uptake from soils with contrasting sources and severity of contamination was consistently lowest in Cucurbita maxima and Vigna unguiculata, suggesting these species were most able to restrict Cd uptake from contaminated soil. Concentrations of Pb and Cr were consistently greater in unwashed, than in washed, vegetables, in marked contrast to Cd, Ni and Zn. The risk to human health, expressed as a 'hazard quotient' (HQ(M)), was generally greatest for Cd, followed successively by Pb, Zn, Ni and Cu. Nevertheless, it was apparent that urban cultivation of leafy vegetables could be safely pursued on most sites, subject to site-specific assessment of soil metal burden, judicious choice of vegetable types and adoption of washing in clean water prior to cooking.

  11. Plant density and N fertilizer rate on yield and nutrient content of onion developed from greenhouse grown transplants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) can be established from seed or transplants. The latter planting material can be dormant or actively growing when transplanted to the field. Onion transplants can be produced in a greenhouse, but additional information is needed regarding the cultural requirements for these...

  12. Plant response of onion cultivars developed from greenhouse-grown transplants to plant density and fertilizer rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Onions (Allium cepa L.) can be established from seed or transplants. The latter planting material can be dormant or actively growing when transplanted to the field. Onion transplants can be produced in a greenhouse, but there are gaps in the knowledge of the cultural requirements for these plants ...

  13. Spherical Lactic Acid-producing Bacteria of Southern-grown Raw and Processed Vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Mundt, J. Orvin; Graham, Wanda F.; McCarty, I. E.

    1967-01-01

    The frequency and levels of population of the spherical lactic acid-producing bacteria were determined on raw and processed yellow summer and zucchini squash, a variety of greens, green beans, okra, southern peas, and butter and lima beans, and on fresh cucumbers and corn flowers. Six taxa occurred consistently: Leuconostoc mesenteroides, yellow-pigmented streptococci, Streptococcus faecium, Aerococcus viridans, and S. faecalis and S. faecalis var. liquefaciens. The same taxa occurred with the same order of frequency on processed, frozen vegetables, but with a marked decrease in the occurrence of S. faecalis var. liquefaciens. S. lactis, S. cremoris, S. equinus, S. bovis, and pediococci were isolated infrequently. No other member of the viridans group of the streptococci and no member of the pyogenic group was isolated. Approximately 88% of the cultures were identified. Total counts of the lactic-acid-producing bacteria rarely exceeded 105 per gram of sample, and there was a reduction by 90% during the second year of study, probably because of drought. Only one bacterial species was found on 40% of the raw and 34% of the processed vegetable samples. Two or more species or taxa were present on the remainder of 153 raw and 56 processed vegetable samples. A. viridans was present on squash, greens, okra, and southern peas, and its frequency of occurrence on vegetables suggests that plants are its natural habitat. PMID:16349739

  14. Vegetation, soil property and climatic controls over greenhouse gas fluxes in a blanket peatland hosting a wind farm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Alona; Waldron, Susan; Ostle, Nick; Whitaker, Jeanette

    2013-04-01

    Peatlands are important carbon (C) stores, with boreal and subarctic peatlands containing 15-30 % of the world soil carbon stock (Limpens et al., 2008). Research has demonstrated that greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes in peatlands are influenced by vegetation, soil property and climatic variables, including plant functional type (PFT), water table height and temperature. In this paper we present data from Black Law Wind Farm, Scotland, where we examined the effect of a predicted wind turbine-induced microclimatic gradient and PFT on carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes. Moreover, we determined the role of vegetation, soil property and climatic variables as predictors of the variation in CO2 and CH4 emissions. We measured CO2 and CH4 at 48 plots within Black Law Wind Farm at monthly intervals from May 2011 to April 2012. Four sampling sites were located along a predicted wind turbine-induced microclimatic gradient. At each site four blocks were established, each with plots in areas dominated by mosses, sedges and shrubs. Plant biomass and PFT (vegetation factors); soil moisture, water table height, peat depth, C content, nitrogen (N) content and C:N (soil properties); and soil temperature and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) (climatic variables) were measured. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) models based on the microclimatic gradient site, PFT and season when measurements were made explained 58 %, 44 % and 49 % of the variation in ecosystem respiration, photosynthesis and CH4, respectively. Site, PFT, season and their interactions were all significant for respiration and photosynthesis (with the exception of the PFT*site interaction) but for CH4 only the main effects were significant. Parsimonious ANOVA models using the biotic, soil property and climatic explanatory data explained 62 %, 55 % and 49 % of the variation in respiration, photosynthesis and CH4, respectively. Published studies (Baidya Roy and Traiteur 2010; Zhou et al., 2012) and preliminary

  15. To What Extent Can Vegetation Mitigate Greenhouse Warming? A Modeling Approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bounoua, L.; Hall, F.G.; Collatz, G.J.; Tucker, C.J.; Sellers, P.J.; Kumar, A.

    2008-01-01

    Climate models participating in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report indicate that under a 2xCO2 environment, runoff would increase faster than precipitation overland. However, observations over large U.S watersheds indicate otherwise. This inconsistency suggests that there may be important feedbacks between climate and land surface unaccounted for in the present generation of models. We postulate that the increase in precipitation associated with the increase in CO2 is also increasing vegetation density, which may already be feeding back onto climate. Including this feedback in a climate model simulation resulted in precipitation and runoff trends consistent with observations and reduced the warming by 0.6OC overland. This unaccounted for missing water may be linked to about 10% of the missing land carbon sink. A recent compilation of outputs from 19 coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models used in the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) shows projected increases in air temperature, precipitation and river discharge for 24 major rivers in the world in response to doubling CO2 by the end of the century (1). The ensemble mean from these models also indicates that, compared to their respective baselines overland, the global mean of the runoff change would increase faster (8.9% per year) than that of the precipitation (5% per year). We analyze century-scale observed annual runoff time-series (1901-2002) over 9 hydrological units covering large regions of the Eastern United States (Fig.1) compiled by the United States Geological Survey (USGS)(2). These regions were selected because they are the most forested; the least water-limited and are not under extensive irrigation. We compare these time-series to similar time-series of observed annual precipitation anomalies spanning the period 1900-1995 (3). Both time-series exhibit a positive longterm trend (Fig. 2); however, in contrast to the analysis of (I), these historic data records show that the rate of

  16. Efficiency of a novel "Food to waste to food" system including anaerobic digestion of food waste and cultivation of vegetables on digestate in a bubble-insulated greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Stoknes, K; Scholwin, F; Krzesiński, W; Wojciechowska, E; Jasińska, A

    2016-10-01

    At urban locations certain challenges are concentrated: organic waste production, the need for waste treatment, energy demand, food demand, the need for circular economy and limited area for food production. Based on these factors the project presented here developed a novel technological approach for processing organic waste into new food. In this system, organic waste is converted into biogas and digester residue. The digester residue is being used successfully as a stand-alone fertilizer as well as main substrate component for vegetables and mushrooms for the first time - a "digeponics" system - in a closed new low energy greenhouse system with dynamic soap bubble insulation. Biogas production provides energy for the process and CO2 for the greenhouse. With very limited land use highly efficient resource recycling was established at pilot scale. In the research project it was proven that a low energy dynamic bubble insulated greenhouse can be operated continuously with 80% energy demand reduction compared to conventional greenhouses. Commercial crop yields were achieved based on fertilization with digestate; in individual cases they were even higher than the control yields of vegetables such as tomatoes, cucumber and lettuce among others. For the first time an efficient direct use of digestate as substrate and fertilizer has been developed and demonstrated.

  17. [Concentration and distribution of PAHs in vegetables grown near an iron and steel industrial area].

    PubMed

    Shen, Fei; Zhu, Li-Zhong

    2007-03-01

    Concentrations of 15 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) were determined in 8 vegetable species and their growing environment (soil and atmosphere) near an iron and steel industrial area. The total concentrations of 15 kinds of PAHs (sigma PAHs) were 227.1 - 1 533.2 ng/g, 759.1 ng/g in average. The concentrations of 8 carcinogenic PAHs (sigma carePAHs) were 7.1 - 231.2 ng/g, 70.6 ng/g in average. Of the various vegetable species determined, the highest polyaromatic burden was observed in the leafy vegetables, followed by melon and fruit species, while the rhizome species accumulated the lowest amount. In melon and fruit species, most PAHs were accumulated on the peel, only about 30% transfer into the core. The ability of the plant accumulating PAHs was mainly influenced by the lipid content of the plant. Leaf with pubescence or rough surface was found to have higher sigma PAHs than the other, and the fibre higher than the taproot, when the lipid contents were close.

  18. Analysis of vegetable seedlings grown in contact with Apollo 14 lunar surface fines.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walkinshaw, C. H.; Johnson, P. H.

    1971-01-01

    Study of plant seedlings treated with lunar material, grown for 14 to 21 days, and then subjected to chemical analyses and other measurements. The purpose of the study was to determine whether plants growing in contact with lunar-surface fines contained a different elemental composition compared with untreated seedlings. The results indicate a direct interaction between germfree plants and lunar material. Treated plants dissolved and absorbed significant quantities of Al, Fe, and Ti from the lunar fines. Cabbage and Brussel sprouts were particularly efficient in the dissolution and absorption of Mn.

  19. Solar greenhouse project. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-03

    Three (3) passive solar greenhouses were constructed as lean-to attachment to the homes of three (3) low-income families in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina as a demonstration project. CETA labor was provided by a training and work experience project for home repair and construction skills. Some of the walls were constructed from old salvaged windows and a local block company donated blocks that were used for the foundation. Recipients of the greenhouses reported reduced air drafts and fuel consumption savings. Flowers and vegetables were successfully grown during the winter months.

  20. Greenhouse (III): Gas-Exchange and Seed-to-Seed Experiments on the Russian Space Station MIR and Earth-grown, Ethylene-Treated Wheat Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, William F.; Bingham, Gail; Carman, John; Bubenheim, David; Levinskikh, Margarita; Sytchev, Vladimir N.; Podolsky, Igor B.; Chernova, Lola; Nefodova, Yelena

    2001-01-01

    The Mir Space Station provided an outstanding opportunity to study long-term plant responses when exposed to a microgravity environment. Furthermore, if plants can be grown to maturity in a microgravity environment, they might be used in future bioregenerative life-support systems (BLSS). The primary objective of the Greenhouse experiment onboard Mir was to grow Super Dwarf and Apogee wheat through complete life cycles in microgravity; i.e., from seed-to-seed-to-seed. Additional objectives were to study chemical, biochemical, and structural changes in plant tissues as well as photosynthesis, respiration, and transpiration (evaporation of water from plants). Another major objective was to evaluate the suitability clothe facilities on Mir for advanced research with plants. The Greenhouse experiment was conducted in the Russian/Bulgarian plant growth chamber, the Svet, to which the United States added instrumentation systems to monitor changes in CO2 and water vapor caused by the plants (with four infrared gas analyzers monitoring air entering and leaving two small plastic chambers). In addition, the US instrumentation also monitored O2; air, leaf (IR), cabin pressure; photon flux; and substrate temperature and substrate moisture (16 probes in the root module). Facility modifications were first performed during the summer of 1995 during Mir 19, which began after STS-72 left Mir. Plant development was monitored by daily observations and some photographs.

  1. Soil versus foliar iodine fertilization as a biofortification strategy for field-grown vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Lawson, Patrick G.; Daum, Diemo; Czauderna, Roman; Meuser, Helmut; Härtling, Joachim W.

    2015-01-01

    Iodine (I) biofortification of vegetables by means of soil and foliar applications was investigated in field experiments on a sandy loam soil. Supply of iodine to the soil in trial plots fertilized with potassium iodide (KI) and potassium iodate directly before planting (0, 1.0, 2.5, 7.5, and 15 kg I ha-1) increased the iodine concentration in the edible plant parts. The highest iodine accumulation levels were observed in the first growing season: In butterhead lettuce and kohlrabi the desired iodine content [50–100 μg I (100 g FM)-1] was obtained or exceeded at a fertilizer rate of 7.5 kg IO3--I ha-1 without a significant yield reduction or impairment of the marketable quality. In contrast, supplying KI at the same rate resulted in a much lower iodine enrichment and clearly visible growth impairment. Soil applied iodine was phytoavailable only for a short period of time as indicated by a rapid decline of CaCl2-extractable iodine in the top soil. Consequently, long-term effects of a one-time iodine soil fertilization could not be observed. A comparison between the soil and the foliar fertilization revealed a better performance of iodine applied aerially to butterhead lettuce, which reached the desired iodine accumulation in edible plant parts at a fertilizer rate of 0.5 kg I--I ha-1. In contrast, the iodine content in the tuber of sprayed kohlrabi remained far below the targeted range. The results indicate that a sufficient spreading of iodine applied on the edible plant parts is crucial for the efficiency of the foliar approach and leafy vegetables are the more suitable target crops. The low iodine doses needed as well as the easy and inexpensive application may favor the implementation of foliar sprays as the preferred iodine biofortification strategy in practice. PMID:26157445

  2. Soil versus foliar iodine fertilization as a biofortification strategy for field-grown vegetables.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Patrick G; Daum, Diemo; Czauderna, Roman; Meuser, Helmut; Härtling, Joachim W

    2015-01-01

    Iodine (I) biofortification of vegetables by means of soil and foliar applications was investigated in field experiments on a sandy loam soil. Supply of iodine to the soil in trial plots fertilized with potassium iodide (KI) and potassium iodate directly before planting (0, 1.0, 2.5, 7.5, and 15 kg I ha(-1)) increased the iodine concentration in the edible plant parts. The highest iodine accumulation levels were observed in the first growing season: In butterhead lettuce and kohlrabi the desired iodine content [50-100 μg I (100 g FM)(-1)] was obtained or exceeded at a fertilizer rate of 7.5 kg IO3 (-)-I ha(-1) without a significant yield reduction or impairment of the marketable quality. In contrast, supplying KI at the same rate resulted in a much lower iodine enrichment and clearly visible growth impairment. Soil applied iodine was phytoavailable only for a short period of time as indicated by a rapid decline of CaCl2-extractable iodine in the top soil. Consequently, long-term effects of a one-time iodine soil fertilization could not be observed. A comparison between the soil and the foliar fertilization revealed a better performance of iodine applied aerially to butterhead lettuce, which reached the desired iodine accumulation in edible plant parts at a fertilizer rate of 0.5 kg I(-)-I ha(-1). In contrast, the iodine content in the tuber of sprayed kohlrabi remained far below the targeted range. The results indicate that a sufficient spreading of iodine applied on the edible plant parts is crucial for the efficiency of the foliar approach and leafy vegetables are the more suitable target crops. The low iodine doses needed as well as the easy and inexpensive application may favor the implementation of foliar sprays as the preferred iodine biofortification strategy in practice.

  3. Build a Solar Greenhouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Attached solar greenhouses are relatively inexpensive and easy to build; they can provide additional heat to homes all winter as well as fresh vegetables and flowers. This bulletin: (1) describes the characteristics of a solar greenhouse; (2) provides a checklist of five items to consider before building a solar greenhouse; (3) describes the four…

  4. Assessment of Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Content, Antioxidant Properties, and Yield of Aeroponically and Conventionally Grown Leafy Vegetables and Fruit Crops: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Suman; Khan, Shabana; Avula, Bharathi; Lata, Hemant; Yang, Min Hye; ElSohly, Mahmoud A.; Khan, Ikhlas A.

    2014-01-01

    A comparison of the product yield, total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant properties was done in different leafy vegetables/herbs (basil, chard, parsley, and red kale) and fruit crops (bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash) grown in aeroponic growing systems (AG) and in the field (FG). An average increase of about 19%, 8%, 65%, 21%, 53%, 35%, 7%, and 50% in the yield was recorded for basil, chard, red kale, parsley, bell pepper, cherry tomatoes, cucumber, and squash, respectively, when grown in aeroponic systems, compared to that grown in the soil. Antioxidant properties of AG and FG crops were evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DDPH) and cellular antioxidant (CAA) assays. In general, the study shows that the plants grown in the aeroponic system had a higher yield and comparable phenolics, flavonoids, and antioxidant properties as compared to those grown in the soil. PMID:24782905

  5. The expansion of Phytophthora clade 8b: three new species associated with winter grown vegetable crops.

    PubMed

    Bertier, L; Brouwer, H; de Cock, A W A M; Cooke, D E L; Olsson, C H B; Höfte, M

    2013-12-01

    Despite its association with important agricultural crops, Phytophthora clade 8b is a poorly studied group of species. The clade currently consists of three officially described species (Phytophthora porri, P. brassicae and P. primulae) that are host-specific pathogens of leek, cabbages and Primula spp., respectively. However, over the past few decades, several other clade 8b-like Phytophthoras have been found on a variety of different host plants that were all grown at low temperatures in winter seasons. In this study, a collection of 30 of these isolates was subjected to a phylogenetic study using two loci (the rDNA ITS region and the mitochondrial cox1 gene). This analysis revealed a clear clustering of isolates according to their host plants. To verify whether these isolates belong to separate species, a detailed morphological study was conducted. On the basis of genetic and morphological differences and host specificity, we now present the official description of three new species in clade 8b: Phytophthora cichorii sp. nov., P. dauci sp. nov. and P. lactucae sp. nov. Two other groups of isolates (Phytophthora taxon castitis and Phytophthora taxon parsley) might also represent new species but the data available at this time are insufficient for an official description. This brings Phytophthora clade 8b to a group of six species that are all host-specific, slow-growing and specifically infect herbaceous crops at low temperatures.

  6. Content of Cadmium and Lead in Vegetables and Fruits Grown in the Campania Region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Mauro; Picazio, Giuseppe; Serpe, Paola; Lambiase, Sara; Cerino, Pellegrino

    2015-09-01

    Illegal practices of waste combustion and their burial in some land devoted to agricultural crops caused a severe economic crisis of the agriculture and food sector in the Campania region of Italy. To assess the levels of contamination by lead and cadmium, the only metals subject to European Union legislation, a system of monitoring of plant foods in the whole territory of the region has been promoted, with the goal of certifying productions and consumer protection. In fact, products that comply with European Union standards are assigned a Quick Response Code, which guarantees the traceability of the product (manufacturer and location). The code also ensures the safety of the product, as it allows the consumer to see the results of the analysis performed on the specific chain of production. The content of lead and cadmium was determined in 750 vegetable samples by using the atomic absorption spectrophotometry after microwave mineralization. These levels were below the maximum limits in all but three samples; two samples of tomatoes exceeded the maximum level of cadmium, and one sample of valerian contained an excess of lead.

  7. Boron nutrition and mobility, and its relation to the elemental composition of greenhouse grown root crops I. rutabaga

    SciTech Connect

    Shelp, B.J.; Shattuck, V.I.

    1987-01-01

    The nutrition and mobility of B, and its relation to the elemental composition of two cultivars of rutabaga (Brassica napus ssp. rapifera cv. Laurentian and Wilhelmsberger) plants were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Laurentian exhibited a greater response than Wilhelmsberger to continuing B deficiency as indicated by the severity in the roots of brown heart, of external roughness and elongation and of the decrease in B concentration. Signs of B deficiency were not found when the B contents of the root and young leaves were 27 and 56 ..mu..g and g/sup -1/ DM respectively. Root B levels of 14 and 17-20 ..mu..g f/sup -1/ gave moderate and slight internal signs of brown discoloration. Foliar applications of B partially restored the B concentrations of the roots; however, the mechanisms of movement was unclear. The Mg, Mn and Zn contents of roots were the only elements that consistently increased and accumulated under B deficiency. The relative element composition of the root compared to the mature leaves is consistent with the root being supplied predominantly with nutrients by the phloem.

  8. Combined effects of nitrogen fertilization and biochar on the net global warming potential, greenhouse gas intensity and net ecosystem economic budget in intensive vegetable agriculture in southeastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Fan, C. H.; Zhang, H.; Chen, Z. Z.; Sun, L. Y.; Xiong, Z. Q.

    2015-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to determine the effects of nitrogen (N) fertilization and biochar addition on the net global warming potential (net GWP), greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) and net ecosystem economic budget (NEEB). These experiments were conducted in an intensive vegetable field with 4 consecutive vegetable crops in 2012 and 2013 in southeastern China. The experiment was conducted with a 32 factorial design in triplicate at N fertilizer rates of 0, 1475, 1967 kg N ha-1 and biochar rates of 0, 20, and 40 t ha-1. Although CH4 emissions were not obviously affected by N fertilization, N2O emissions increased by 27.2-116.2% and the net GWP increased by 30.6-307.2%. Consequently, the GHGI increased significantly, but vegetable yield and the NEEB did not improve. Furthermore, biochar amendments did not significantly influence CH4 emissions, but significantly decreased the N2O emissions by 1.7-25.4%, the net GWP by 89.6-700.5%, and the GHGI by 89.5-644.8%. In addition, vegetable yields significantly increased by 2.1-74.1%, which improved the NEEB. Thus, N fertilization did not increase vegetable yields or the NEEB. However, N fertilization did increase the net GWP and GHGI. In contrast, biochar additions resulted in lower N2O emissions and net GWP and GHGI, but increased vegetable yield and the NEEB in the intensive vegetable production system. Therefore, appropriate biochar amendment should be studied to combat changing climate and to improve the economic profits of vegetable production.

  9. Phthalate esters contamination in soils and vegetables of plastic film greenhouses of suburb Nanjing, China and the potential human health risk.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ting Ting; Wu, Long Hua; Chen, Like; Zhang, Hai Bo; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yong Ming

    2015-08-01

    The contamination of phthalate esters (PAEs) has become a potential threat to the environment and human health because they could be easily released as plasticizers from the daily supply products, especially in polyethylene films. Concentration levels of total six PAEs, nominated as priority pollutants by the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), were investigated in soils and vegetables from four greenhouse areas in suburbs of Nanjing, East China. Total PAEs concentration ranged from 930 ± 840 to 2,450 ± 710 μg kg(-1) (dry weight (DW)) in soil and from 790 ± 630 to 3,010 ± 2,130 μg kg(-1) in vegetables. Higher concentrations of PAEs were found in soils except in Suo Shi (SS) area and in vegetables, especially in potherb mustard and purple tsai-tai samples. Risk assessment mainly based on the exposures of soil ingestion and daily vegetable intake indicated that bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) in the samples from Gu Li (GL) and Hu Shu (HS) exhibited the highest hazard to children less than 6-year old. Therefore, the human health risk of the PAEs contamination in soils and vegetables should greatly be of a concern, especially for their environmental estrogen analog effects.

  10. Short-term fluctuations in vegetation and phytoplankton during the Middle Eocene greenhouse climate: a 640-kyr record from the Messel oil shale (Germany)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenz, Olaf K.; Wilde, Volker; Riegel, Walter

    2011-11-01

    The Palaeogene was the most recent greenhouse period on Earth. Especially for the Late Palaeocene and Early Eocene, several superimposed short-term hyperthermal events have been described, including extremes such as the Palaeocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Major faunal and floral turnovers in the marine and terrestrial realms were recorded in association with these events. High-resolution palynological analysis of the early Middle Eocene maar lake sediments at Messel, near Darmstadt, Germany, provides an insight into the dynamics of a climax vegetation during the Middle Eocene greenhouse climate in a time span without significant climatic excursions. Numerical techniques like detrended correspondence analysis and wavelet analysis have been applied to recognize cyclic fluctuations and long-term trends in the vegetation through a time interval of approximately 640 kyr. Based on the numerical zoning of the pollen diagram, three phases in the development of the vegetation may be distinguished. Throughout these phases, the climax vegetation did not change substantially in qualitative composition, but a trend towards noticeably less humid conditions probably in combination with a drop of the water level in the lake may be recognized. A shift in algal population from the freshwater dinoflagellate cyst Messelodinium thielepfeifferae to a dominance of Botryococcus in the uppermost part of the core is interpreted as a response to changes in acidity and nutrient availability within the lake. Time series analyses of pollen assemblages show that variations in the Milankovitch range of eccentricity, obliquity and precession can be distinguished. In addition, fluctuations in the sub-Milankovitch range are indicated. This demonstrates that floral changes during steady depositional conditions in the Middle Eocene of Messel were controlled by orbital forcing.

  11. Fungicidal activities of soil humic/fulvic acids as related to their chemical structures in greenhouse vegetable fields with cultivation chronosequence

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Meng; Song, Mengya; Liu, Ming; Jiang, Chunyu; Li, Zhongpei

    2016-01-01

    In the background of rapid expansion of plastic greenhouse vegetable production in China, many environmental risks have emerged in recent years. In this study, the soils with a chronosequence in greenhouse vegetable fields were collected and the soil humic acids (HAs) and fluvic acids (FAs) were extracted and purified. The soil HAs and FAs were found to show inhibition activities against phytopathogenic fungi for the first time. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was performed to investigate the chemical structures of HAs and FAs. The variation of relative peak areas indicated the chemical structure of HAs become more complex and stable under continuous cultivation. The PCA analysis showed HAs and FAs could be distinctly separated from each other and cultivation years mainly determined the variation. Mantel test and RDA analysis indicated the active components (aliphatic peaks for HAs and COOH, OH peaks for FAs) had positive correlation with the inhibition rates of HAs and FAs against phytopathogenic fungi. According to our research, the active fungicidal components in soil HAs and FAs decreased along with the extension of cultivation years, which made the soil suffer more risk to phytopathogenic fugi. So we believe continuous cultivation too many years in PGVP systems is inadvisable. PMID:27597259

  12. Fungicidal activities of soil humic/fulvic acids as related to their chemical structures in greenhouse vegetable fields with cultivation chronosequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Meng; Song, Mengya; Liu, Ming; Jiang, Chunyu; Li, Zhongpei

    2016-09-01

    In the background of rapid expansion of plastic greenhouse vegetable production in China, many environmental risks have emerged in recent years. In this study, the soils with a chronosequence in greenhouse vegetable fields were collected and the soil humic acids (HAs) and fluvic acids (FAs) were extracted and purified. The soil HAs and FAs were found to show inhibition activities against phytopathogenic fungi for the first time. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was performed to investigate the chemical structures of HAs and FAs. The variation of relative peak areas indicated the chemical structure of HAs become more complex and stable under continuous cultivation. The PCA analysis showed HAs and FAs could be distinctly separated from each other and cultivation years mainly determined the variation. Mantel test and RDA analysis indicated the active components (aliphatic peaks for HAs and COOH, OH peaks for FAs) had positive correlation with the inhibition rates of HAs and FAs against phytopathogenic fungi. According to our research, the active fungicidal components in soil HAs and FAs decreased along with the extension of cultivation years, which made the soil suffer more risk to phytopathogenic fugi. So we believe continuous cultivation too many years in PGVP systems is inadvisable.

  13. Food Safety and Bioavailability Evaluations of Four Vegetables Grown in the Highly Arsenic-Contaminated Soils on the Guandu Plain of Northern Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Su, Shaw-Wei; Tsui, Chun-Chih; Lai, Hung-Yu; Chen, Zueng-Sang

    2014-01-01

    Arsenic contamination in a large area of agricultural fields on the Guandu Plain of northern Taiwan was confirmed in a survey conducted in 2006, but research concerning the relationship between bioavailable As concentrations in contaminated soils and crop production in Taiwan is not available. Pot experiments were conducted to examine the growth and accumulation of As in four vegetable crops grown in As-contaminated soils and to assess As intake through consumption. The phytotoxic effects of As in soils were not shown in the pot experiments in which vegetable crops were grown in soils contaminated with different As levels in situ collected from Guandu Plain (120–460 mg/kg) or artificially spiked As-contaminated soils (50–170 mg/kg). Experimental results showed that the bioavailable As extracted with 5 M NaHCO3 from soils can be used to estimate As concentrations in vegetables. The As concentrations in the vegetables were compared with data shown in the literature and As limits calculated from drinking water standards and the provisional tolerance weekly intake (PTWI) of inorganic As established by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations/World Health Organization (FAO/WHO). Although the As levels in the vegetables were not high and the bioavailability of As in the soils was quite low, long-term consumption may result in higher As intake in the human body. PMID:24736690

  14. Spatial variation related to hydroloigc patterns and vegetation in greenhouse gas fluxes from the Mississippi Delta agricultural region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O), and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes from agricultural landscapes may contribute significantly to regional greenhouse gas budgets due to stimulation of soil microbial activity through fertilizer application and variable soil moisture effects. In this study, measuremen...

  15. Concentrations of lead, cadmium and barium in urban garden-grown vegetables: the impact of soil variables

    PubMed Central

    McBride, Murray B.; Shayler, Hannah A.; Spliethoff, Henry M.; Mitchell, Rebecca G.; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G.; Ferenz, Gretchen S.; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M.; Casey, Linda; Bachman, Sharon

    2014-01-01

    Paired vegetable/soil samples from New York City and Buffalo, NY, gardens were analyzed for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba). Vegetable aluminum (Al) was measured to assess soil adherence. Soil and vegetable metal concentrations did not correlate; vegetable concentrations varied by crop type. Pb was below health-based guidance values (EU standards) in virtually all fruits. 47% of root crops and 9% of leafy greens exceeded guidance values; over half the vegetables exceeded the 95th percentile of market-basket concentrations for Pb. Vegetable Pb correlated with Al; soil particle adherence/incorporation was more important than Pb uptake via roots. Cd was similar to market-basket concentrations and below guidance values in nearly all samples. Vegetable Ba was much higher than Pb or Cd, although soil Ba was lower than soil Pb. The poor relationship between vegetable and soil metal concentrations is attributable to particulate contamination of vegetables and soil characteristics that influence phytoavailability. PMID:25163429

  16. Concentrations of lead, cadmium and barium in urban garden-grown vegetables: the impact of soil variables.

    PubMed

    McBride, Murray B; Shayler, Hannah A; Spliethoff, Henry M; Mitchell, Rebecca G; Marquez-Bravo, Lydia G; Ferenz, Gretchen S; Russell-Anelli, Jonathan M; Casey, Linda; Bachman, Sharon

    2014-11-01

    Paired vegetable/soil samples from New York City and Buffalo, NY, gardens were analyzed for lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and barium (Ba). Vegetable aluminum (Al) was measured to assess soil adherence. Soil and vegetable metal concentrations did not correlate; vegetable concentrations varied by crop type. Pb was below health-based guidance values (EU standards) in virtually all fruits. 47% of root crops and 9% of leafy greens exceeded guidance values; over half the vegetables exceeded the 95th percentile of market-basket concentrations for Pb. Vegetable Pb correlated with Al; soil particle adherence/incorporation was more important than Pb uptake via roots. Cd was similar to market-basket concentrations and below guidance values in nearly all samples. Vegetable Ba was much higher than Pb or Cd, although soil Ba was lower than soil Pb. The poor relationship between vegetable and soil metal concentrations is attributable to particulate contamination of vegetables and soil characteristics that influence phytoavailability.

  17. Heavy metals health risk assessment for population via consumption of vegetables grown in old mining area; a case study: Banat County, Romania

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to measure the levels of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cd and Pb) found in common vegetables (parsley, carrot, onion, lettuce, cucumber and green beans) grown in contaminated mining areas compared with those grown in reference clear area and to determine their potential detrimental effects via calculation of the daily metal intake (DImetal) and Target Hazard Quotients (THQ) for normal daily consumption of these vegetables, for male and female gender. Results Compared with the reference in contaminated areas, soil and plant contents of all analyzed metals are higher, usually over normally content for Mn, Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb. Particularly, in soil, higher values than intervention threshold values (ITV) were found for Cu and Pb and higher than maximum allowable limits (MAL) for Zn, Cu, Cd and Pb for parsley roots and leaves, carrot roots, cabbage, lettuce and cucumber. DImetal and THQ values for male and female were calculated for each vegetable and metal and for which oral reference doses exist. The combined THQ values calculated are concerning in that they are usually below the safe level of THQ<1 for all vegetables grown in reference area. In contaminated Moldova Noua (M) area the combined THQ exceeded the safe level only for parsley roots, while in more contaminated Ruschita (R) area combined THQ exceeded the safe level for parsley and carrot roots, lettuce and cabbage. Cd and Pb, most toxic metals to humans, have an increasing prevalence in the combined THQ for leafy (cabbage and lettuce) and fruit vegetables (cucumber). In the root vegetables only Pb has an increasing prevalence in combined THQ values. In all areas female THQ is higher than male THQ. Conclusion The results of this study regarding metal contents in soils, vegetables, DImetal and THQ suggest that the consumption of some vegetables (especially parsley, carrot and cabbage and less for lettuce, cucumber and green beans) is not free of risks in these areas. The

  18. Characterization and detection of emerging viroids in North American greenhouse tomatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tomato is an economically important vegetable in many countries around the world, with major productions in China, the U.S., Spain, Italy, India, Turkey, and Egypt. Although, most of the tomato production is field grown, there is a growing trend in protective production (greenhouse). Nearly 40% of...

  19. Hazardous impact and translocation of vanadium (V) species from soil to different vegetables and grasses grown in the vicinity of thermal power plant.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sumaira; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Kolachi, Nida Fatima; Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Shah, Abdul Qadir; Kumar, Sham; Shah, Faheem

    2011-06-15

    The distribution of vanadium (V) species in soil (test soil), vegetables and grasses, collected from the vicinity of a thermal power plant has been studied. For comparison purpose soil (control soil), same vegetable and grass samples were collected from agricultural land devoid of any industrial area. A simple and efficient ultrasonic assisted extraction method has been developed for the extraction of V(5+) species from soil, vegetable and grass samples using Na(2)CO(3) in the range of 0.1-0.5 mol/L. For comparison purpose same sub samples were also extracted by conventional heating method. The total and V species were determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using different modifiers. The validity of V(5+) and V(4+) determination had been confirmed by the spike recovery and total amount of V by the analysis of CRM 1570 (spinach leave) and sub samples of agricultural soil. The concentration of total V was found in the range of 90-215 and 11.4-42.3 μg/g in test and control soil samples, respectively. The contents of V(5+) and total V in vegetables and grasses grown around the thermal power plant were found in the range of 2.9-5.25 and 8.74-14.9 μg/g, respectively, which were significantly higher than those values obtained from vegetables and fodders grown in non exposed agricultural site (P<0.01). Statistical evaluations indicate that the sum of concentrations of V(5+) and V(4+) species was not significantly different from total concentration of V in same sub samples of vegetable, grass and soil of both origins, at 95% level of confidence.

  20. Passive-solar greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Our project objective was to design, construct, and operate a commercialized (16' x 50') passive, solar greenhouse. The structure was originally intended as a vegetable forcing facility to produce vegetable crops in the off-season. Building and size constraints and economic considerations convinced us to use the greenhouse for producing bedding plants and vegetable starts in the spring, high value vegetables (tomatoes, cucumbers) in the fall and forced bulbs in the winter. This crop sequence allows us to use the greenhouse all year without additional heat as the crops are adopted to the temperature regime of the greenhouse during each particular season. In our first season, the greenhouse performed beautifully. The lowest temperature recorded was 38/sup 0/F after 4 cold, cloudy days in February. The production of bedding plants has allowed us to diversify our products and the early transplants we produced were a great asset to our vegetable farming operation. Although construction cost (4.57 sq. ft.) is higher than that of a conventional polyethylene-covered, quonset-type greenhouse (approx. $1.92 sq. ft.), our annual operating cost is cheaper than that of a conventional greenhouse (0.49 cents sq. ft. versus 0.67 cents sq. ft.) due to a longer usable lifetime of the structure and the elimination of heating costs. Our structure has been toured by interested individuals, school and farm groups. We plan to publicize the structure and its advantages by promoting more visits to the site.

  1. Accumulation and potential health risks of cadmium, lead and arsenic in vegetables grown near mining sites in Northern Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Bui, Anh T K; Nguyen, Ha T H; Nguyen, Minh N; Tran, Tuyet-Hanh T; Vu, Toan V; Nguyen, Chuyen H; Reynolds, Heather L

    2016-09-01

    The effect of environmental pollution on the safety of vegetable crops is a serious global public health issue. This study was conducted to assess heavy metal concentrations in soil, irrigation water, and 21 local vegetable species collected from four sites near mining activities and one control site in Northern Vietnam. Soils from vegetable fields in the mining areas were contaminated with cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As), while irrigation water was contaminated with Pb. Average concentrations of Pb and As in fresh vegetable samples collected at the four mining sites exceeded maximum levels (MLs) set by international food standards for Pb (70.6 % of vegetable samples) and As (44.1 % of vegetable samples), while average Cd concentrations in vegetables at all sites were below the MLs of 0.2. The average total target hazard quotient (TTHQ) across all vegetable species sampled was higher than the safety threshold of 1.0, indicating a health risk. Based on the weight of evidence, we find that cultivation of vegetables in the studied mining sites is an important risk contributor for local residents' health.

  2. [Contamination and health risk for heavy metals via consumption of vegetables grown in fragmentary vegetable plots from a typical nonferrous metals mine city].

    PubMed

    Li, Ru-Zhong; Pan, Cheng-Rong; Xu, Jing-Jing; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Yan-Min

    2013-03-01

    A systematic survey of As, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn concentrations in eight kinds of vegetables (involving 226 samples) and their corresponding soils at 35 sampling sites in the fragmentary vegetable plots of a typical nonferrous metals mine city, Tongling, was carried out for assessing heavy metal pollution, bio-accumulation ability and potential health risk to local inhabitants due to exposure via consumption of vegetables. The results showed that: (1) The soils of the studied vegetable plots were seriously contaminated by heavy metals and the mean concentrations of As, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn reached 96.96, 56.64, 1 247.82, 313.59, 6.743 and 600.96 mg x kg(-1), respectively, all significantly exceeding the soil background value of Tongling city; (2) The mean values of integrated pollution index corresponding to eight varieties of vegetables were all higher than the threshold value (i. e. 3.0) of heavy pollution; (3) In general, the largest bioaccumulation factor of heavy metals in vegetables was As, followed by Ni and Cu, and the order of pollution degree of heavy metals in vegetables was Ni > Zn > Cu > Pb > As > Cd; (4) The target hazard quotients (THQs) of As, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn were 17.92, 1.01, 10.14, 0.73, 0.21 and 1.93, respectively. Arsenic and copper were the major risk contributors for inhabitants since the THQs of them respectively mounted to 56.10% and 31.75% of the total THQ value according to the average vegetable consumption; (5) The estimated daily intake (DI) of As, Ni, Cu, Pb, Cd and Zn from vegetables was 324.38, 1 211.25, 24 326.25, 176.25, 12.75 and 34 800 microg x d(-1) for adult residents, respectively; and (6) The target cancer risk (TR) of vegetables polluted by As to individual human health was 8.06 x 10(-3), significantly higher than the management standard (i. e. 10(-6) - 10(-4)) of United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) and the standard (i. e. 5.0 x 10(-5)) of International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP

  3. Health risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals via dietary intake of vegetables grown in the vicinity of thermal power plants.

    PubMed

    Khillare, P S; Jyethi, Darpa Saurav; Sarkar, Sayantan

    2012-05-01

    Six different vegetables grown in the vicinity of three thermal power plants and a background site in Delhi, India were analyzed for 16 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and 7 heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Ni, Zn, Fe and Mn). Annual mean concentrations of PAHs and all metals were found to be significantly higher (ANOVA, p<0.001) at power plant sites as compared to the background site. Higher abundances of coal tracer PAHs such as Phen, Anth, Flan, Pyr and Chry in power plant vegetables suggested possible impacts of coal combustion emissions. Higher ratios of polluted sample-to-background sample of vegetables were found especially for Cr, Cd, Ni and Zn. Spinach and radish showed greater accumulation of PAHs and metals on a mass basis at the power plant sites while vegetables belonging to the gourd family showed highest relative enrichment. Power plant samples showed 184-475% greater metal pollution index (MPI) values as compared to the background location while health risk indices (HRI) for Cd and Ni exceeded the safe limit for most vegetables. Incremental lifetime cancer risk (ILCR) assessment showed that up to 58 excess cancer cases are likely in Delhi for lifetime ingestion exposure to PAHs at their observed concentrations.

  4. The impact of exogenous N supply on soluble organic nitrogen dynamics and nitrogen balance in a greenhouse vegetable system.

    PubMed

    Liang, Bin; Kang, Lingyun; Ren, Tao; Junliang, Li; Chen, Qing; Wang, Jingguo

    2015-05-01

    A long-term greenhouse experiment (2004-2012) was conducted with continuous tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.) plantings to understand the influence of an exogenous nitrogen supply from irrigation water, chemical fertilizer, or organic amendment on the N balance and soluble organic nitrogen (SON). The results from 16 tomato growing seasons indicated that the application of organic amendment (manure and straw) alone (Or-N) resulted in the same yield as the conventional chemical N with organic amendment (Co-N) and the reduced chemical N with organic amendment (Re-N) treatments. The annual apparent N loss was >1000 and 438 kg N ha(-1) in the Co-N and Re-N treatments, respectively. Over the study period, the SON in the 1.8 m soil profile was 1449 and 1978 kg N ha(-1) in the Re-N and Co-N treatments, respectively, it was 1.7- and 2.3-fold higher than that observed in the Or-N treatment, which indicated that SON increased with the chemical N application. The percentage of SON in the cumulative soluble N (SON plus mineral N) ranged from 28% to 44%, and there were no significant differences across the 0-0.6, 0.6-1.2, and 1.2-1.8 m soil profile, which indicated that the leaching and distribution of SON was similar to those of the mineral N in the 0-1.8 m soil profile. We conclude that the mobility of soluble organic N in the 0-1.8 m of the soil was synchronous with the mineral N under a greenhouse production system, and the risk of soluble organic N leaching increased with inorganic N application rate. Therefore, leaching of SON in the intensive agriculture should not be ignored when evaluating the risk of N leaching.

  5. Attempts to reduce exposure to fungi, β-glucan, bacteria, endotoxin and dust in vegetable greenhouses and a packaging unit.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Tendal, Kira; Frederiksen, Margit W

    2014-01-15

    Indoor handling of large amounts of plant materials occurs in different occupational settings including greenhouses and causes exposure to bioaerosols. The bioaerosol components fungi, β-glucan, bacteria and endotoxin are involved in different airway symptoms and health effects can be dose-dependent. Therefore, there is a persistent need to reduce exposure. The aims of this study were to identify tasks causing exposure and to evaluate preventive measures aimed at reducing exposure of greenhouse workers to bioaerosols, and to study factors affecting the exposure. We have focused on different exposure scenarios; one with high short-term exposure found during clearing of old cucumber plants; the other with long-term, mid-level exposure found during tomato picking, leaf nipping, stringing up tomato plants, and packaging of cucumbers. Clearing of non-dried cucumber plants compared with clearing of dried cucumber plants significantly reduced the exposure to dust, endotoxin, bacteria, fungal spores and β-glucan. More endotoxin and fungi are emitted and more of the emitted particles were of respirable size if the leaves were dried. Along the cucumber packaging line, exposure levels were highly specific to each personal subtask. The subtask 'unloading of cucumbers' was the source of exposure making task ventilation or shielding of the process a possibility. Elimination of leaf debris on the floor reduced the exposure to fungi significantly. However, leaf debris on the floor did not contribute significantly to the exposure to dust, endotoxin and bacteria. Furthermore, to eliminate leaf debris, it had to be cleared away and this was associated with a higher exposure to dust and endotoxin. The age of the plants affected the exposure level to bioaerosols with higher exposures from old plants. In conclusion, different tasks and subtasks cause very different exposure levels. It is possible to reduce exposure by identifying subtasks causing the exposure and by modifying work

  6. Reduction of lead concentrations in vegetables grown in Tarragona Province, Spain, as a consequence of reduction of lead in gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Belles, M.; Rico, A.; Schuhmacher, M.

    1995-12-31

    Lead concentrations were determined in 350 samples belonging to 13 different species of vegetables from Tarragona Province, Spain. The samples were subjected to lead analyses by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. During the period 1989-1994, an average decrease for lead concentrations of 69% was estimated. Spinach showed the lowest reduction2 in lead content (6%), while the highest decreases were observed for onion (87%) and leek (90%). Taking into account the average consumption of vegetable foodstuffs by the population of Tarragona Province, the daily lead intake through edible vegetables was reduced from 41.5 {mu}g/d in 1989 to 10.6 {mu}g/d in 1994. The results of the current study demonstrate a substantial decline in the lead levels of vegetables from Tarragona Province. The major cause of this decline is most likely the reduced leaded gasoline consumption.

  7. Coliform Contamination of Peri-urban Grown Vegetables and Potential Public Health Risks: Evidence from Kumasi, Ghana.

    PubMed

    Abass, Kabila; Ganle, John Kuumuori; Adaborna, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Peri-urban vegetable farming in Ghana is an important livelihood activity for an increasing number of people. However, increasing quality and public health concerns have been raised, partly because freshwater availability for irrigation purposes is a major constraint. This paper investigated on-farm vegetable contamination and potential health risks using samples of lettuce, spring onions and cabbage randomly selected from 18 vegetable farms in peri-urban Kumasi, Ghana. Vegetable samples were tested for total coliform, fecal coliform, Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. bacteria contamination using the Most Probable Number method. Results show high contamination levels of total and fecal coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria in all 18 vegetable samples. The mean total coliform/100 ml concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 9.15 × 10(9), 4.7 × 10(7) and 8.3 × 10(7) respectively. The mean fecal coliform concentration for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were also 1.5 × 10(8), 4.15 × 10(7) and 2.15 × 10(7) respectively, while the mean Escherichia coli bacteria contamination for spring onions, lettuce and cabbage were 1.4 × 10(8), 2.2 × 10(7) and 3.2 × 10(7) respectively. The level of total coliform, fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria contamination in all the vegetable samples however declined as the distance between the main water source (Wiwi River) and farms increases. Nonetheless, all contamination levels were well above acceptable standards, and could therefore pose serious public health risks to consumers. Increased education and supervision of farmers, as well as public health and food hygiene education of consumers, are critical to reducing on-farm vegetable contamination and the health risks associated with consumption of such vegetables.

  8. Measuring calcium, potassium, and nitrate in plant nutrient solutions using ion-selective electrodes in hydroponic greenhouse of some vegetables.

    PubMed

    Vardar, Gökay; Altıkatoğlu, Melda; Ortaç, Deniz; Cemek, Mustafa; Işıldak, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Generally, the life cycle of plants depends on the uptake of essential nutrients in a balanced manner and on toxic elements being under a certain concentration. Lack of control of nutrient levels in nutrient solution can result in reduced plant growth and undesired conditions such as blossom-end rot. In this study, sensitivity and selectivity tests for various polyvinylchloride (PVC)-based ion-selective membranes were conducted to identify those suitable for measuring typical concentration ranges of macronutrients, that is, NO(3-), K(+), and Ca(2+), in hydroponic solutions. The sensitivity and selectivity of PVC-membrane-based ion-selective sensors prepared with tetradodecylammoniumnitrate for NO(3-), valinomycin for K(+), and Ca ionophore IV for Ca(2+) were found to be satisfactory for measuring NO(3-), K(+), and Ca(2+) ions in nutrient solutions over typical ranges of hydroponic concentrations. Potassium, calcium, and nitrate levels that were utilized by cucumber and tomato seedlings in the greenhouse were different. The findings show that tomato plants consumed less amounts of nitrate than cucumber plants over the first 2 months of their growth. We also found that the potassium intake was higher than other nutritional elements tested for all plants.

  9. Effects of vegetation structure on soil carbon, nutrients and greenhouse gas exchange in a savannah ecosystem of Mount Kilimanjaro Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, J.

    2015-12-01

    The savannah biome is a hotspot for biodiversity and wildlife conservation in Africa and recently got in the focus of research on carbon sequestration. Savannah ecosystems are under strong pressure from climate and land-use change, especially around populous areas like the Mt. Kilimanjaro region. Savannah vegetation consists of grassland with isolated trees and is therefore characterized by high spatial variation of canopy cover, aboveground biomass and root structure. The canopy structure is a major regulator for soil ecological parameters and soil-atmospheric trace gas exchange (CO2, N2O, CH4) in water limited environments. The spatial distribution of these parameters and the connection between above and belowground processes are important to understand and predict ecosystem changes and estimate its vulnerability. Our objective was to determine spatial trends and changes of soil parameters and relate their variability to the vegetation structure. We chose three trees from each of the two most dominant species (Acacia nilotica and Balanites aegyptiaca) in our research area. For each tree, we selected transects with nine sampling points of the same relative distances to the stem. At these each sampling point a soil core was taken and separated in 0-10 cm and 10-30 cm depth. We measured soil carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) storage, microbial biomass C and N, Natural δ13C, soil respiration, available nutrients, pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC) as well as root biomass and -density, soil temperature and soil water content. Concentrations and stocks of C and N fractions, CEC and K+ decreased up to 50% outside the crown covered area. Microbial C:N ratio and CO2 efflux was about 30% higher outside the crown. This indicates N limitation and low C use efficiency in soil outside the crown area. We conclude that the spatial structure of aboveground biomass in savanna ecosystems leads to a spatial variance in nutrient limitation. Therefore, the capability of a savanna ecosystem

  10. Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli Contamination of Root and Leaf Vegetables Grown in Soils with Incorporated Bovine Manure

    PubMed Central

    Natvig, Erin E.; Ingham, Steven C.; Ingham, Barbara H.; Cooperband, Leslie R.; Roper, Teryl R.

    2002-01-01

    Bovine manure, with or without added Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (three strains), was incorporated into silty clay loam (SCL) and loamy sand (LS) soil beds (53- by 114-cm surface area, 17.5 cm deep) and maintained in two controlled-environment chambers. The S. enterica serovar Typhimurium inoculum was 4 to 5 log CFU/g in manure-fertilized soil. The conditions in the two environmental chambers, each containing inoculated and uninoculated beds of manure-fertilized soil, simulated daily average Madison, Wis., weather conditions (hourly temperatures, rainfall, daylight, and humidity) for a 1 March or a 1 June manure application and subsequent vegetable growing seasons ending 9 August or 28 September, respectively. Core soil samples were taken biweekly from both inoculated and uninoculated soil beds in each chamber. Radishes, arugula, and carrots were planted in soil beds, thinned, and harvested. Soils, thinned vegetables, and harvested vegetables were analyzed for S. enterica serovar Typhimurium and Escherichia coli (indigenous in manure). After the 1 March manure application, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was detected at low levels in both soils on 31 May, but not on vegetables planted 1 May and harvested 12 July from either soil. After the 1 June manure application, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was detected in SCL soil on 7 September and on radishes and arugula planted in SCL soil on 15 August and harvested on 27 September. In LS soil, S. enterica serovar Typhimurium died at a similar rate (P ≥ 0.05) after the 1 June manure application and was less often detected on arugula and radishes harvested from this soil compared to the SCL soil. Pathogen levels on vegetables were decreased by washing. Manure application in cool (daily average maximum temperature of <10°C) spring conditions is recommended to ensure that harvested vegetables are not contaminated with S. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Manure application under warmer (daily average maximum

  11. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Inoculation to Enhance Vegetative Growth, Nitrogen Fixation and Nitrogen Remobilisation of Maize under Greenhouse Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Khing Boon; Othman, Radziah; Abdul Rahim, Khairuddin; Shamsuddin, Zulkifli H.

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) may provide a biological alternative to fix atmospheric N2 and delay N remobilisation in maize plant to increase crop yield, based on an understanding that plant-N remobilisation is directly correlated to its plant senescence. Thus, four PGPR strains were selected from a series of bacterial strains isolated from maize roots at two locations in Malaysia. The PGPR strains were screened in vitro for their biochemical plant growth-promoting (PGP) abilities and plant growth promotion assays. These strains were identified as Klebsiella sp. Br1, Klebsiella pneumoniae Fr1, Bacillus pumilus S1r1 and Acinetobacter sp. S3r2 and a reference strain used was Bacillus subtilis UPMB10. All the PGPR strains were tested positive for N2 fixation, phosphate solubilisation and auxin production by in vitro tests. In a greenhouse experiment with reduced fertiliser-N input (a third of recommended fertiliser-N rate), the N2 fixation abilities of PGPR in association with maize were determined by 15N isotope dilution technique at two harvests, namely, prior to anthesis (D50) and ear harvest (D65). The results indicated that dry biomass of top, root and ear, total N content and bacterial colonisations in non-rhizosphere, rhizosphere and endosphere of maize roots were influenced by PGPR inoculation. In particular, the plants inoculated with B. pumilus S1r1 generally outperformed those with the other treatments. They produced the highest N2 fixing capacity of 30.5% (262 mg N2 fixed plant−1) and 25.5% (304 mg N2 fixed plant−1) of the total N requirement of maize top at D50 and D65, respectively. N remobilisation and plant senescence in maize were delayed by PGPR inoculation, which is an indicative of greater grain production. This is indicated by significant interactions between PGPR strains and time of harvests for parameters on N uptake and at. % 15Ne of tassel. The phenomenon is also supported by the lower N content in tassels of maize treated

  12. Plant Growth-Promoting Rhizobacteria Inoculation to Enhance Vegetative Growth, Nitrogen Fixation and Nitrogen Remobilisation of Maize under Greenhouse Conditions.

    PubMed

    Kuan, Khing Boon; Othman, Radziah; Abdul Rahim, Khairuddin; Shamsuddin, Zulkifli H

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) may provide a biological alternative to fix atmospheric N2 and delay N remobilisation in maize plant to increase crop yield, based on an understanding that plant-N remobilisation is directly correlated to its plant senescence. Thus, four PGPR strains were selected from a series of bacterial strains isolated from maize roots at two locations in Malaysia. The PGPR strains were screened in vitro for their biochemical plant growth-promoting (PGP) abilities and plant growth promotion assays. These strains were identified as Klebsiella sp. Br1, Klebsiella pneumoniae Fr1, Bacillus pumilus S1r1 and Acinetobacter sp. S3r2 and a reference strain used was Bacillus subtilis UPMB10. All the PGPR strains were tested positive for N2 fixation, phosphate solubilisation and auxin production by in vitro tests. In a greenhouse experiment with reduced fertiliser-N input (a third of recommended fertiliser-N rate), the N2 fixation abilities of PGPR in association with maize were determined by 15N isotope dilution technique at two harvests, namely, prior to anthesis (D50) and ear harvest (D65). The results indicated that dry biomass of top, root and ear, total N content and bacterial colonisations in non-rhizosphere, rhizosphere and endosphere of maize roots were influenced by PGPR inoculation. In particular, the plants inoculated with B. pumilus S1r1 generally outperformed those with the other treatments. They produced the highest N2 fixing capacity of 30.5% (262 mg N2 fixed plant-1) and 25.5% (304 mg N2 fixed plant-1) of the total N requirement of maize top at D50 and D65, respectively. N remobilisation and plant senescence in maize were delayed by PGPR inoculation, which is an indicative of greater grain production. This is indicated by significant interactions between PGPR strains and time of harvests for parameters on N uptake and at. % 15Ne of tassel. The phenomenon is also supported by the lower N content in tassels of maize treated with

  13. Effect of a full-grown vegetative filter strip on herbicide runoff: maintaining of filter capacity over time.

    PubMed

    Otto, S; Vianello, M; Infantino, A; Zanin, G; Di Guardo, A

    2008-03-01

    Narrow vegetative filter strips (VFS) proved to effectively reduce herbicide runoff from cultivated fields mainly due to the ability of vegetation to delay surface runoff, promote infiltration and adsorb herbicides. Since VFS are dynamic systems, their performance would not remain constant over the years indicating the need to define suitable buffer management. In order to evaluate the performance of different five and six year-old VFS, the runoff of the herbicides metolachlor and terbuthylazine was monitored in 2002 and 2003 in an experimental site in northern Italy. The structure of the herbaceous cover in the buffers changes over time. When rows of trees are present, the grass cover is decreased by the shading action of the trees, but the leaf litter gains importance. In VFS with grass cover only, the cover composition changes because of the substitution of grass by broadleaf species. Six metres wide VFS are very effective in reducing runoff volume and concentration during both wet and dry years. Classification analysis showed that runoff concentration and volume are linked to the characteristics of the rainfall event, buffer, source of herbicides and time after application. Regression analysis showed that the significant predictors for runoff volume are rainfall amount and intensity, total vegetal cover in the VFS, crop leaf area index and time after treatment; for concentration they are rainfall intensity, crop leaf area index and total vegetal cover in the VFS. The role of VFS is complex, so appropriate management is required to maintain its increasing filtering capacity over time.

  14. Bioaccumulation and cancer risk of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in leafy vegetables grown in soils within automobile repair complex and environ in Uyo, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Inam, Edu; Ibanga, Felicia; Essien, Joseph

    2016-12-01

    Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and an incremental lifetime cancer risks (ILCRs) assessment model, the bioaccumulation and cancer risk of 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in leafy vegetables (Vernonia amygdalina and Lasianthera africanum) grown in soils within an automobile repair complex environment in Uyo, Nigeria was studied. The total PAHs concentrations recorded for soils ranged from 0.02 to 1.77 mg/kg. The highest level of 1.77 mg/kg was recorded for soils from the main automobile repair complex (site 1). Low molecular weight (LMW) PAHs were predominant although some high molecular weight (HMW) PAHs suites (0.04 mg/kg of chrysene and 0.04 of benzo[k]fluoranthene) were also found in site 1. The leafy vegetables accumulated PAHs were mostly LMW. Accumulation levels were similar but the extent of PAH uptake in vegetables was species dependent as V. amygdalina accumulated more (0.81 mg/kg). The bioaccumulation factors (BaFs) calculated ranged from 0.22 to 0.63 for L. africanum, and 0.18 to 0.55 for V. amygdalina in site 1 where high PAH levels were recorded in soil. Pearson correlation coefficient analysis revealed a strong positive relation between the PAH content of soil and the amount accumulated by L. africanum (r = 0.5) and V. amygdalina (r = 0.8) at p = 0.05. The vegetable's potential to bioaccumulate PAHs is indicative of their use as good bioindicators for PAH contamination in soil. Only two of the USEPA possible human carcinogenic PAHs were detected, and carcinogenic risk assessment based on occupational exposures to soil particles by adults revealed that the total risk level (7.17 × 10(-5)) contribution from incidental soil ingestion, dermal contact, and soil particle dust inhalation slightly exceed the USEPA acceptable limits (< 1.00 × 10(-5)). There is a need for public education on consumption of vegetables grown in and around automobile repair complexes across Nigeria.

  15. Lipid formation and γ-linolenic acid production by Mucor circinelloides and Rhizopus sp., grown on vegetable oil

    PubMed Central

    Tauk-Tornisielo, Sâmia M.; Arasato, Luciana S.; de Almeida, Alex F.; Govone, José S.; Malagutti, Eleni N.

    2009-01-01

    The fungi strains were tested in Bioscreen automated system to select the best nutritional source. Following, shaking submserse cultures were studied in media containing sole carbon or nitrogen source. The growth of these strains improved in media containing vegetable oil, with high concentration of lipids. The high concentration of γ-linolenic acid was obtained with M. circinelloides in culture containing sesame oil. PMID:24031370

  16. [Greenhouse gases fluxes of biological soil crusts and soil ecosystem in the artificial sand-fixing vegetation region in Shapotou area].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yi-Gang; Feng, Yu-Lan; Zhang, Zhi-Shan; Huang, Lei; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Bing-Xin

    2014-01-01

    Uncertainties still existed for evaluating greenhouse gases fluxes (GHGs), including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) at the regional scale for desert ecosystem because available GHGs data about biological soil crusts (BSCs) was very scarce. In 2011 and 2012, soil ecosystem covered by various types of BSCs and BSCs at different succession stages in an artificial sand-fixing vegetation region established in various periods at southeast of the Shapotou area in Tengger Desert was selected to measure fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O using static chamber and gas chromatography. The results showed that curst type, recovery time and their interactions with sampling date significantly affected CO2 flux. Recovery time and interaction of crust type and sampling date significantly affected CH4 flux. Sampling date significantly affected the fluxes of CO2, CH4 and N2O. The mean annual flux of CO2 for moss crust (105.1 mg x m(-2) x h(-1)) was significantly higher than that of algae crust (37.7 mg x m(-2) x h(-1)) at the same succession stage. Annual mean CH4 and N2O consumption was 19.9 and 3.4 microg x m(-2) x h(-1), respectively. Mean annual consumption of CH4 and N2O for algae crust was slightly higher than that of moss crust, however, significant difference was not found. Ecosystem respiration (Re) of desert soil covered by BSCs increased with the recovery process of desert ecosystem, in contrast, consumption of CH4 and N2O decreased. Re of moss crust was more sensitive to temperature and moisture variation than algae crust and Re sensitivity of temperature and moisture gradually increased with the development and succession of BSCs. Both soil temperature and moisture were not the main factor to determine CH4 and N2O fluxes of BSCs-soil in desert ecosystem.

  17. Establishment of an efficient and rapid method of multiple shoot regeneration and a comparative phenolics profile in in vitro and greenhouse-grown plants of psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vinayak; Chauhan, Namita Singh; Singh, Mohit; Idris, Asif; Madanala, Raju; Pande, Veena; Mohanty, Chandra Sekhar

    2014-01-01

    An in vitro method of multiple shoot induction and plant regeneration in Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (L.) DC was developed. Cotyledons, hypocotyls, epicotyls, internodal and young seedling leaves were used as explants. MS media supplemented with various concentrations of either thidiazuron (TDZ) or N6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) along with NAA or IAA combinations were used to determine their influence on multiple shoot induction. MS media supplemented with TDZ induced direct shoot regeneration when epicotyls and internodal segments were used as explants. TDZ at 3 mg L−1 induced highest rate (89.2 ± 3.28%) of regeneration with (13.4 ± 2.04) shoots per explant. MS media supplemented with BAP in combination with NAA or IAA induced callus mediated regeneration when cotyledons and hypocotyls were used as explants. BAP (2.5 mg L−1) and IAA (0.2 mg L−1) induced highest rate (100 ± 2.66%) of regeneration with (23.2 ± 2.66) shoots per explant. Mature plants produced from regenerated shoots were transferred successfully to the greenhouse. In a comparative study, the phenolics contents of various parts of greenhouse-grown plants with that of in vitro-raised plants showed significant variations. PMID:25482808

  18. Effects of growth medium, nutrients, water, and aeration on mycorrhization and biomass allocation of greenhouse-grown interior Douglas-fir seedlings.

    PubMed

    Kazantseva, Olga; Bingham, Marcus; Simard, Suzanne W; Berch, Shannon M

    2009-11-01

    Commercial nursery practices usually fail to promote mycorrhization of interior Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco] seedlings in British Columbia, which may account for their poor performance following planting in the field. We tested the effects of four nursery cultivation factors (nitrogen fertilization, phosphorus fertilization, watering, and soil aeration) and field soil addition on mycorrhization, survival, growth, and biomass allocation of interior Douglas-fir seedlings in a series of greenhouse experiments. Where field soil was added to the growing medium, mycorrhization and root/shoot ratios were maximized at lower levels of mineral nutrient application and aeration. Where field soil was not added, mycorrhization was negligible across all fertilization and aeration treatments, but root/shoot ratio was maximized at lower levels of mineral nutrients and the highest level of aeration. Regardless of whether field soil was added, intermediate levels of soil water resulted in the best mycorrhizal colonization and root/shoot ratios. However, field soil addition reduced seedling mortality at the two lowest water levels. A cluster analysis placed ectomycorrhizal morphotypes into three groups (Mycelium radicis-atrovirens Melin, Wilcoxina, and mixed) based on their treatment response, with all but two morphotypes in the mixed group whose abundance was maximized under conditions common to advanced seedling establishment. For maximal mycorrhization and root development of interior Douglas-fir seedlings, nurseries should minimize addition of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients, maximize aeration, provide water at moderate rates, and, where possible, add small amounts of field soil to the growing medium.

  19. [Irrigation scheduling with a 20 cm standard pan for drip-irrigated cucumber grown in solar greenhouse in the North China Plain].

    PubMed

    Gong, Xue-wen; Sun, Jing-sheng; Liu, Hao; Zhang, Hao; Wu, Xiao-lei; Sun, Yu-hong

    2015-11-01

    An experiment was conducted in 2013 and 2014 at the Xinxiang Comprehensive Experimental Station, Chinese Academy of Agriculture Sciences. Water amount was estimated with the Ep-20 and pan coefficient. Responses of cucumber evapotranspiration (ET), yield, quality and water use efficiency (WUE) to different drip irrigation amounts (Kcp1: 0.25; Kcp2: 0.5; Kcp3: 0.75; Kcp4: 1.0; Kcp5: 1.25) were investigated. The possibility of developing drip irrigation scheduling using the 20 cm pan was also discussed. Results showed that the seasonal evapotranspiration of cucumber ranged between 129 and 314 mm, and the water consumption generally increased with the increase in drip irrigation water amount. There was no significance difference in cucumber yield between the treatments with Kcp > 0.75, and the responses of mean fruit mass, number and length to water amount had a threshold value (0.75Ep-20). Regarding the fruit quality, the contents of total soluble solids, vitamin C and soluble sugar slightly decreased with increasing the irrigation water amount, while the soluble protein content varied in order as: Kcp2 > Kcp3 > Kcp4 > Kcp1 > Kcp5. There was a significant positive correlation (P < 0.01) between the pan evaporation and the reference crop evapotranspiration estimated based on a modified Penman-Monteith equation. In a conclusion, the drip water amount calculated with Kcp of 0.75 and the 20 cm pan were easy and feasible for cucumber cultivation in solar greenhouse in the North China Plain.

  20. Browns Ferry waste heat greenhouse. Progress report. Circular Z-117

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, E.R.; Carter, J.; Pile, R.S.; Roetheli, J.C.

    1980-08-01

    A 25,000-ft/sup 2/ experimental greenhouse at Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant was divided into three sections to compare two heat exchange systems using waste heat in condenser cooling water (CCW) with a conventionally heated zone. A 125-hp pump at each of the three power plant units provides a 3000 gal/min pumping capacity for the CCW which is pumped about 2000 ft through a 12-in. pipe to the greenhouse. Construction was completed in November 1978; initial engineering tests were not conducted on system performance until January 1979; and the first tomato crop was planted January 10, 1979. Harvest was completed in July 1979; and cucumbers, chrysanthemums, poinsettias, and gloxinias were grown during the following summer and fall. Low winter greenhouse temperatures reduced the yield and quality of tomatoes in the two waste heat sections which averaged 13.0 lbs/plant. The conventionally heated zone produced 15.4 lbs/plant. In January and February, temperatures of the CCW were sometimes as low as 52/sup 0/F, or 18/sup 0/F below the predicted 70/sup 0/F which was the minimum simulated CCW temperature used to develop the pilot greenhouse heating system at Muscle Shoals. The two heat exchange systems using CCW performed near design expectations - keeping the greenhouse air temperature within 10/sup 0/ to 12/sup 0/F of the incoming water temperature. Summer and fall production of cucumbers and ornamental crops was successful in all three sections, which were conventionally cooled. Production budgets indicated a greater potential for ornamental production than vegetable production in waste heat greenhouses. Economic studies showed that heat exchange systems using waste heat from CCW will require higher capital investment and greater electrical consumption than a conventionally heated greenhouse. However, depending upon the costs charged for CCW, the waste heat systems may show potential economic advantages as a result of reduced heating costs.

  1. Free amino acid and phenolic contents and antioxidative and cancer cell-inhibiting activities of extracts of 11 greenhouse-grown tomato varieties and 13 tomato-based foods.

    PubMed

    Choi, Suk-Hyun; Kim, Hyen-Ryung; Kim, Hyun-Jeong; Lee, In-Seon; Kozukue, Nobuyuki; Levin, Carol E; Friedman, Mendel

    2011-12-28

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants synthesize nutrients, pigments, and bioactive compounds that benefit nutrition and human health. The nature and concentrations of these compounds are strongly influenced by varietal factors such as size and color as well as by processing. To better understand how these factors affect the concentration of nutrients and bioactive compounds, we analyzed 11 Korean tomato varieties grown under the same greenhouse conditions and 13 processed commercial tomato products for free amino acids and amino acid metabolites by HPLC, for individual phenolics by HPLC-MS, for total phenolics by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, for antioxidative activity by the FRAP and DPPH methods, and for cancer cell-inhibiting effects by the MTT assay. We also determined the protein content of the tomatoes by an automated Kjeldahl method. The results show that there is a broad range of bioactive compounds across tomato varieties and products. Small tomatoes had higher contents of bioactive compounds than the large ones. The content of phenolic compounds of processed products was lower than that of fresh tomatoes. Tomato extracts promoted growth in normal liver (Chang) cells, had little effect in normal lung (Hel299) cells, mildly inhibited growth of lung cancer (A549) cells, and first promoted and then, at higher concentrations, inhibited growth in lymphoma (U937) cells. The relationship of cell growth to measured constituents was not apparent. Dietary and health aspects of the results are discussed.

  2. Effects of air pollution on plant-insect interactions: increased susceptibility of greenhouse-grown soybeans to the Mexican bean beetle after plant exposure to SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.R.; Potter, J.E.; Weinstein, L.H.

    1982-02-01

    Foliage from greenhouse-grown soybeans fumigated with 524 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ of SO/sub 2/ or from control plants held under the same conditions without fumigation was fed to Mexican bean beetle larvae and adults. The larvae developed faster and grew larger when fed on the fumigated leaves; larval mortality was consistently low and showed no apparent relationship to the type of leaves used as the food source. Adult females showed a significant feeding preference for discs cut from fumigated leaves and were more fecund when fed on the treated foliage than when fed on control leaves. A greater percentage of the females laid eggs, and the viability of the eggs was higher when the females were fed on fumigated leaves. These females produced more eggs per individual, with significant increases in both the number of eggs per mass and the number of masses per female. The longevity of egg-laying females did not differ significantly between the treatments.

  3. Effects of air pollution on plant-insect interactions: increased susceptibility of greenhouse-grown soybeans to the Mexican bean beetle after plant exposure to SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.R.; Potter, J.E.; Weinstein, L.H.

    1982-02-15

    Foliage from greenhouse-grown soybeans fumigated with 524 ..mu..g.m/sup -3/ of SO/sub 2/ or from control plants held under the same conditions without fumigation was fed to Mexican bean beetle larvae and adults. The larvae developed faster and grew larger when fed on the fumigated leaves; larva mortality was consistently low and showed no apparent relationship to the type of leaves used as the food source. Adult females showed a significant feeding preference for discs cut from fumigated leaves and were more fecund when fed on the treated foliage than when fed on control leaves. A greater percentage of the females laid eggs, and the viability of the eggs was higher when the females were fed on fumigated leaves. These females produced more eggs per individual, with significant increases in both the number of eggs per mass and the number of masses per female. The longevity of egg-laying females did not differ significantly between the treatments.

  4. Lead and cadmium contamination and exposure risk assessment via consumption of vegetables grown in agricultural soils of five-selected regions of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Rehman, Zahir Ur; Khan, Sardar; Brusseau, Mark L; Shah, Mohammad Tahir

    2017-02-01

    Rapid urbanization and industrialization result in serious contamination of soil with toxic metals such as lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), which can lead to deleterious health impacts in the exposed population. This study aimed to investigate Pb and Cd contamination in agricultural soils and vegetables in five different agricultural sites in Pakistan. The metal transfer from soil-to-plant, average daily intake of metals, and health risk index (HRI) were also characterized. The Pb concentrations for all soils were below the maximum allowable limits (MAL 350 mg kg(-1)) set by State Environmental Protection Administration of China (SEPA), for soils in China, while Cd concentrations in the soils were exceeded the MAL (61.7-73.7% and 4.39-34.3%) set by SEPA (0.6 mg kg(-)), and European Union, (1.5 mg kg(-1)) respectively. The mean Pb concentration in edible parts of vegetables ranged from 1.8 to 11 mg kg(-1). The Pb concentrations for leafy vegetables were higher than the fruiting and pulpy vegetables. The Pb concentrations exceeded the MAL (0.3 mg kg(-1)) for leafy vegetables and the 0.1 mg kg(-1) MAL for fruity and rooty/tuber vegetables set by FAO/WHO-CODEX. Likewise, all vegetables except Pisum sativum (0.12 mg kg(-1)) contained Cd concentrations that exceeded the MAL set by SEPA. The HRI values for Pb and Cd were <1 for both adults and children for most of the vegetable species except Luffa acutangula, Solanum lycopersicum, Benincasa hispada, Momordi charantia, Aesculantus malvaceae, Cucumis sativus, Praecitrullus fistulosus, Brassica oleracea, and Colocasia esculanta for children. Based on these results, consumption of these Pb and Cd contaminated vegetables poses a potential health risk to the local consumers.

  5. A geographical assessment of vegetation carbon stocks and greenhouse gas emissions on potential microalgae-based biofuel facilities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Quiroz Arita, Carlos; Yilmaz, Özge; Barlak, Semin; Catton, Kimberly B; Quinn, Jason C; Bradley, Thomas H

    2016-12-01

    The microalgae biofuels life cycle assessments (LCA) present in the literature have excluded the effects of direct land use change (DLUC) from facility construction under the assumption that DLUC effects are negligible. This study seeks to model the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of microalgae biofuels including DLUC by quantifying the CO2 equivalence of carbon released to the atmosphere through the construction of microalgae facilities. The locations and types of biomass and Soil Organic Carbon that are disturbed through microalgae cultivation facility construction are quantified using geographical models of microalgae productivity potential including consideration of land availability. The results of this study demonstrate that previous LCA of microalgae to biofuel processes have overestimated GHG benefits of microalgae-based biofuels production by failing to include the effect of DLUC. Previous estimations of microalgae biofuel production potential have correspondingly overestimated the volume of biofuels that can be produced in compliance with U.S. environmental goals.

  6. Effect of biweekly shoot tip harvests on the growth and yield of Georgia Jet sweet potato grown hydroponically

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogbuehi, Cyriacus R.; Loretan, Phil A.; Bonsi, C. K.; Hill, Walter A.; Morris, Carlton E.; Biswas, P. K.; Mortley, Desmond G.

    1989-01-01

    Sweet potato shoot tips have been shown to be a nutritious green vegetable. A study was conducted to determine the effect of biweekly shoot tip harvests on the growth and yield of Georgia Jet sweet potato grown in the greenhouse using the nutrient film technique (NFT). The nutrient solution consisted of a modified half Hoagland solution. Biweekly shoot tip harvests, beginning 42 days after planting, provided substantial amounts of vegetable greens and did not affect the fresh and dry foliage weights or the storage root number and fresh and dry storage root weights at final harvest. The rates of anion and cation uptake were not affected by tip harvests.

  7. Gardener's solar greenhouse: how to build and use a solar greenhouse for year-round gardening

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, R.

    1984-01-01

    The design of a solar greenhouse is presented. Subtleties of its use are discussed, and site selection criteria for it are discussed. Rather complete instructions for construction are presented in sections. Separate sections are included for foundation, framing, glazing and trim, and movable insulation. Recipes for using the goodies grown in the greenhouse are also included. 92 figures.

  8. Urban Options Solar Greenhouse Demonstration Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cipparone, L.

    1980-10-15

    The following are included: the design process, construction, thermal performance, horticulture, educational activities, and future plans. Included in appendices are: greenhouse blueprints, insulating curtain details, workshop schedules, sample data forms, summary of performance calculations on the Urban Options Solar Greenhouse, data on vegetable production, publications, news articles on th Solar Greenhouse Project, and the financial statement. (MHR)

  9. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... Found Solar Thermal Power Plants Solar Thermal Collectors Solar Energy and the Environment Secondary Sources Electricity The Science ... the earth’s atmosphere act as greenhouse gases. When sunlight strikes the earth’s surface, some of it radiates ...

  10. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. and international estimates of greenhouse gas emissions: Carbon dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Nitrous oxide (N2O) Industrial ... From Outlook for Future Emissions FAQs How much carbon dioxide is produced when different fuels are burned? — ...

  11. Dredging Operations Technical Support Program. Comparison of the Heavy-Metal Uptake of Cyperus esculentus and of Agronomic Plants Grown on Contaminated Dutch Sediments.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    under reduced (flooded) and oxidized (upland) disposal conditions was studied in the greenhouse. Heavy-metal uptake by lettuce, radish, spring wheat , and...planted in the sediments was grown to maximum vegetative growth (45 days). Seeds of lettuce, radish, spring wheat , and red fescue grass were planted...spring wheat for Ni. Both DTPA-extractable and total metal in the substrates were related to plant metal concentrations, but for Zn the best fit was

  12. Three years exclusion of large herbivores in a high arctic mire in NE Greenland resulted in changed vegetation density and greenhouse gas emission and uptake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, Julie M.; Schmidt, Niels Martin; Christensen, Torben R.; Forchhammer, Mads C.; Jackowicz-Korczynski, Marcin; Ström, Lena

    2014-05-01

    Herbivory is an important part of many ecosystems and their presence effects the ecosystems carbon balance with both direct and indirect effects. Little is known about what will happen to an arctic ecosystem that is influenced by herbivory, if the animals disappear. We hypothesized that trampling and grazing by large herbivores influence the vegetation density and composition and hereby the carbon balance. Method: In 2010 an in-situ field experiment in Zackenberg, NE Greenland, were initiated to study the effects of herbivory on the vegetation and carbon balance. Exclosures were established to exclude the muskoxen (Ovibos moschatus), which are a natural part of these ecosystems. The experiment consists of five block replicates with three treatments within each block, i.e., control, exclosure and a snow fence (the treatment area is 10x10 m and the fences are 1 m high). During the growing season we have since 2011 performed weekly measurements of CO2 and CH4fluxes, the concentration of labile substrate for CH4 formation (organic acid concentration) in pore-water and additional ecosystem properties, i.e., water table depth, active layer depth and soil temperature. In 2013 a detailed analysis of the vascular plant species composition and density within each measurement plot were performed. Furthermore biomass (including mosses) samples 20x20 cm were harvested within all treatments. Results: The third year after the initiation of the experiment we observed a clear effect of excluding muskoxen grazing from the ecosystem. The exclosures had lower uptake of CO2 and lower CH4 emission. The vegetation analysis inside the plots showed a decrease in total number of vascular tillers and of Eriophorum scheuchzeri (ES) tillers. Correspondingly, the biomass samples from the exclosures had lower number of total plant tillers, ES tillers, total green leaves and green ES leaves and the height of all vascular plants and of ES plants were higher. Finally, the dry weight of the biomass

  13. Influence of CO2 change during 90-day experiment on growth characteristics and photosynthetic activity in vegetables grown in Lunar Palace 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Lingzhi; Liu, Hong; Wang, Minjuan; Fu, Yuming; Dong, Chen; Liu, Guanghui

    To establish bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) on lunar or Mars bases in the future, it is necessary to firstly conduct manned simulation experiments on the ground. For this purpose, Lunar palace 1 as an integrative experimental facility for permanent astrobase life support artificial closed ecosystem was set up, and 90-day experiment was carried out in this system. Vegtables as one of the important plant units, provide various nutrient content for crews in the system, such as vitamin, antioxidants and so on. However, it is not clear yet that how the CO _{2} change during 90-day experiment to affect on growth characteristics and photosynthetic activity in vegtables grown in the system. In this study, red lettuce, red rape, romaine lettuce, and bibb lettuce grown in the system were chosen as the subject investigated. Growth, expressed as dry weight, length of shoot and root, leaf area, was mearsured, and photosynthesis,expressed as net photosynthetic rate, intercellular CO _{2} concentration, chlorophyll contents and fluorescence was analyzed to detemind influence of CO _{2} change during 90-day experiment on growth in vegtables grown in the system.

  14. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... vegetation) leads to greater concentrations of carbon and nitrogen molecules in the lower atmosphere which, when it ... including those reactions which occur in fertilizer containing nitrogen. Increasing use of these fertilizers has been made ...

  15. Heavy metal accumulation in soils, plants, and hair samples: an assessment of heavy metal exposure risks from the consumption of vegetables grown on soils previously irrigated with wastewater.

    PubMed

    Massaquoi, Lamin Daddy; Ma, Hui; Liu, Xue Hui; Han, Peng Yu; Zuo, Shu-Mei; Hua, Zhong-Xian; Liu, Dian-Wu

    2015-12-01

    It is common knowledge that soils irrigated with wastewater accumulate heavy metals more than those irrigated with cleaner water sources. However, little is known on metal concentrations in soils and cultivars after the cessation of wastewater use. This study assessed the accumulation and health risk of heavy metals 3 years post-wastewater irrigation in soils, vegetables, and farmers' hair. Soils, vegetables, and hair samples were collected from villages previously irrigating with wastewater (experimental villages) and villages with no history of wastewater irrigation (control villages). Soil samples were digested in a mixture of HCL/HNO3/HCLO4/HF. Plants and hair samples were digested in HNO3/HCLO4 mixture. Inductive coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) was used to determine metal concentrations of digested extracts. Study results indicate a persistence of heavy metal concentration in soils and plants from farms previously irrigated with wastewater. In addition, soils previously irrigated with wastewater were severely contaminated with cadmium. Hair metal concentrations of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were significantly higher (P < 0.05) than farmers irrigating with clean water, but metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers previously irrigating with wastewater were not associated with current soil metal concentrations. The study concludes that there is a persistence of heavy metals in soils and plants previously irrigated with wastewater, but high metal concentrations in hair samples of farmers cannot be associated with current soil metal concentrations.

  16. [Growth and development of plants in a row of generations under the conditions of space flight (experiment Greenhouse-5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinskikh, M. A.; Sychev, V. N.; Derendiaeva, T. A.; Signalova, O. B.; Podol'skii, I. G.; Avdeev, S. V.; Bingheim, G. E.; Campbell, W. F. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Results of the experiment aimed at harvesting a second space generation of wheat var. Apogee in Mir greenhouse Svet (experiment GREENHOUSE-5) are presented. In space flight, germination rate of space seeds from the first crop made up 89% against 100% of the ground seeds. The full biological ripeness was observed in 20 plants grown from the ground seeds and one plant grown from the space seeds following 80- to 90-d vegetation. The plant of the second space generation was morphologically different neither from the species in the first space crop nor from the ground controls. To study the biological characteristics of Apogee seeds gathered in the first and second crops in spaceflight experiment GREENHOUSE-5, the seeds were planted on their return to the laboratory. Morphometric analysis showed that they were essentially similar to the controls. Hence, the space experiments in Mir greenhouse Svet performed during 1998-1999 gave proof that plants cultivated in microgravity can pass the ontogenetic cycle more than once. However, initial results of the investigations into growth and development of plants through several generations are still in-sufficient to speak of possible delayed effects of the spaceflight factors (microgravity, multicomponent radiation, harmful trace contaminants etc.).

  17. Super-optimal CO2 reduces wheat yield in growth chamber and greenhouse environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grotenhuis, T.; Reuveni, J.; Bugbee, B.

    1997-01-01

    Seven growth chamber trials (six replicate trials using 0.035, 0.12, and 0.25 % CO_2 in air and one trial using 0.12, 0.80, and 2.0% CO_2 in air) and three replicate greenhouse trials (0.035, 0.10, 0.18, 0.26, 0.50, and 1.0% CO_2 in air) compare the effects of super-optimal CO_2 on the seed yield, harvest index, and vegetative growth rate of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cvs. USU-Apogee and Veery-10). Plants in the growth chamber trials were grown hydroponically under fluorescent lamps, while the greenhouse trials were grown under sunlight and high pressure sodium lamps and in soilless media. Plants in the greenhouse trials responded similarly to those in the growth chamber trials; maximum yields occurred near 0.10 and 0.12 % CO_2 and decreased significantly thereafter. This research indicates that the toxic effects of elevated CO_2 are not specific to only one environment and has important implications for the design of bio-regenerative life support systems in space, and for the future of terrestrial agriculture.

  18. Effect of drying and cooking on nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of morogo (Amaranthus hybridus) a traditional leafy vegetable grown in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Medoua, Gabriel Nama; Oldewage-Theron, Wilna H

    2014-04-01

    Morogo (vegetables in Tswana) is a green leafy vegetable from the Amaranthaceae family that can be harvested from wild growing or cultivated. The objective of this study was to determine the nutritional value, the total antioxidant capacity and selected bioactive compounds present in morogo leaves, and evaluate the effect of drying and cooking. Results showed that morogo contained a significant amount of protein (3.6 ± 0.1 g/100 g FW) and minerals which the level exceed 1% of fresh weight. The total antioxidant capacity (μmole TE/ 100 g FW) determined by DPPH and FRAP assays were 118.3 ± 15.3 and 128.4 ± 11.9 respectively. Total polyphenols (109.4 ± 7.5 mg GAE/100 g FW), vitamin C (36.6 ± 1.0 mg /100 g FW) and carotenoids represented by β carotene (25.3 ± 1.3 mg /100 g FW) and xanthophylls (7.48 ± 0.31 mg /100 g FW) formed a significant part of bioactive compounds content of morogo leaves. Since the boiling can cause significant losses of compounds in the boiling water, it can be recommended to avoid cooking methods that can include a boiling step with discard of boiling water.

  19. [Growth and development of plants in a sequence of generations under the conditions of space flight (experiment Greenhouse-3)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levinskikh, M. A.; Sychev, V. N.; Signalova, O. B.; Derendiaeva, T. A.; Podol'skii, I. G.; Masgreiv, M. E.; Bingheim, G. E.; Musgrave, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Campbell, W. F. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose was to study characteristic features of growth and development of several plant generations in space flight in experiment GREENHOUSE-3 as a part of the Russian-US space research program MIR/NASA in 1997. The experiment consisted of cultivation of Brassica rapa L. in board greenhouse Svet. Two vegetative cycles were fully completed and the third vegetation was terminated on day 13 on the phase of budding. The total duration of the space experiment was 122 days, i.e. same as in the ground controls. In the experiment with Brassica rapa L. viable seeds produced by the first crop were planted in space flight and yielded next crop. Crops raised from the ground and space seeds were found to differ in height and number of buds. Both parameters were lowered in the plants grown from the space seeds. The prime course for smaller size and reduced organogenic potential of plantTs reproductive system seems to be a less content of nutrients in seeds that had matured in the space flight. Experiment GREENHOUSE-3 demonstrated principle feasibility of plant reproduction in space greenhouse from seeds developed in microgravity.

  20. Dissipation, half-lives, and mass spectrometric identification of endosulfan isomers and the sulfate metabolite on three field-grown vegetables.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George; Hill, Regina; Ross, Kyla; Coolong, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    Endosulfan 3 EC, a mixture of α- and β-stereo isomers, was sprayed on field-grown pepper, melon, and sweet potato plants at the recommended rate of 0.44 kg A.I. acre(-1). Plant tissue samples (leaves, fruits, or edible roots) were collected 1 h to 30 days following spraying and analyzed for endosulfan isomers (α- and β-isomers). Analysis of samples was accomplished using a gas chromatograph (GC) equipped with a mass detector in total ion mode. The results indicated the formation of endosulfan sulfate as the major metabolite of endosulfan sulfite and the relatively higher persistence of the β-isomers as compared to the α-isomer. The initial total residues (α- and β-isomers plus endosulfan sulfate) were higher on leaves than on fruits. On pepper and melon fruits, the α-isomer, which is the more toxic to mammals, dissipated faster (T(1/2) = 1.22 and 0.95 d, respectively) than the less toxic β-isomer (T(1/2) = 3.0 and 2.5 d, respectively). These results confirm the greater loss of the α-isomer compared to the β-isomer, which can ultimately impact endosulfan dissipation in the environment. Additionally, the higher initial residues of endosulfan on pepper and sweet potato leaves should be considered of great importance for timing field operations and the safe entry of harvesters due to the high mammalian toxicity of endosulfan.

  1. Program to monitor and evaluate a passive solar greenhouse/aquaculture system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    A temperature monitoring program of Amity's solar greenhouse demonstrated that air, soil, and water temperatures can be maintained at optimal levels without supplemental heat. A foil reflector placed in front of the greenhouse glazing at an angle of between 0 and 5/sup 0/ above horizontal enhanced direct light entering the greenhouse by as much as 22%. Aquaculture in the water heat storage of a solar greenhouse has been a success. Fish reached harvest size in about seven months. The two species that were received the best by the public were African perch (Tilapia mossambica) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Although carp (Cyprinus carpio) were the fastest growers they were not well received by the public. Linking hydroponics to greenhouse aquaculture shows a lot of promise. Different support medias were examined and tomatoes and European cucumbers were raised successfully. A savonius windmill was successfully linked to an aquaculture aeration system but because of the wind pattern in the Willamette valley the windmill system did not provide air in the evening when it was needed most. Alternate designs are discussed. Locally grown fish diets were evaluated for their ability to promote fish growth. Diets such as water hyacinth, duckweed, earthworms, beans, and comfrey were raised on the Amity site, pelleted with a hand grinder and solar dried. Duckweed and earthworms appear to hold promise for a nutritous, easy to grow and pelletize, food source. Amity's solar greenhouse, three coldframe designs and a PVC tunnel cloche were compared in a vegetable growing trial. Most impressive was the cloche design because it provided adequate protection, was inexpensive and very easy to build.

  2. Induced abnormality in Mir- and Earth grown Super Dwarf wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, D. L.; Stieber, J.; Campbell, W. F.; Salisbury, F. B.; Levinski, M.; Sytchev, V.; Podolsky, I.; Chernova, L.; Pdolsky, I.

    2003-01-01

    Super-dwarf wheat grown on the Mir space station using the Svet "Greenhouse" exhibited morphological, metabolic and reproductive abnormalities compared with Earth-grown wheat. Of prominent importance were the abnormalities associated with reproductive ontogeny and the total absence of seed formation on Mir. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition from the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of 'Super-Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Observation of ruptured anthers from the Mir-grown plants revealed what appeared to be normally developed pollen. These pollen gains, however, contained only one nuclei, while normal viable pollen is tri-nucleate. A potentially important difference in the flight experiment, compared with ground reference studies, was the presence of a high level of atmospheric ethylene (1,200 ppb). Ground studies conducted by exposing 'Super-Dwarf' wheat to ethylene just prior to anthesis resulted in manifestation of the same abnormalities observed in the space flight samples. c2002 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  3. Gardening with Greenhouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses come in all shapes, sizes, and price ranges: from simple hand-built plastic-covered frames to dazzling geodesic domes. Some child care centers install greenhouses as a part of their outdoor garden space. Other centers have incorporated a greenhouse into the building itself. Greenhouses provide a great opportunity for children to grow…

  4. Induced Abnormality In Mir- and Earth-Grown Super Dwarf Wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Stieber, Joseph; Campbell, William F.; Salisbury, Frank B.; Levinski, Margarita; Sytchev, Vladimir; Podolsky, Igor; Chernova, Lola; Ivanova, Irene; Kliss, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Super-dwarf wheat grown on the Mir space station using the Svet "Greenhouse" exhibited morphological, metabolic and reproductive abnormalities compared with normal wheat. Of prominent importance were the abnormalities associated with reproductive ontogeny and the total absence of seed formation on Mir. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition from the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of 'Super Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Observation of ruptured anthers from the Mir-grown plants revealed what appeared to be normally developed pollen. These pollen grains however, contain only one nucleus, while normal viable pollen is trinucleate. A potentially important difference in the flight experiment, compared with ground reference studies, was identified - a high level of atmospheric ethylene (1200 ppb). Ground studies conducted exposing "Super-dwarf" wheat to ethylene at just prior to anthesis resulted in manifestation of the same abnormalities observed in the space flight samples.

  5. Pesticide residue analysis of vegetables by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection.

    PubMed

    Fenoll, José; Hellín, Pilar; Martínez, Carmen M; Flores, Pilar

    2007-01-01

    A new and original analytical method was developed for the routine analysis of 28 multiclass pesticide residues in vegetables (green pepper, red pepper, and tomato). The extraction was performed with acetone, and the pesticides were partitioned into ethyl acetate-cyclohexane (1 + 1, v/v). Residue levels in vegetables were determined by gas chromatography (GC) with electron-capture detection. Residue identities were confirmed by GC coupled with mass spectrometry in the selected ion monitoring mode. The average recoveries in pepper and tomato obtained for all analytes studied were 67.3 and 123.1%, respectively, with relative standard deviation between 1.8 and 7.0%. The detection limit for the pesticides studied varied from 0.1 to 2.6 microg/kg. The proposed method was applied to the analysis of these compounds in vegetables grown in experimental greenhouses.

  6. A Greenhouse for Mars and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaim, Christopher P.; Czysz, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    A detailed design study for a deployable greenhouse for Mars mission is has been completed. The greenhouse has been designed so that it has a life span of at least 20 years, a leakage rate of no more that 1% of the total volume per day at the target working pressure of 50 kPa and provides at least six crewmembers with approximately twenty five percent of their food supply. Artificial light is provided by high intensity red and blue light emitting diodes, but sunlight is also used by installing small Lexan windows on the rooftop. The greenhouse structure is a rigid IM7/977-3 graphite/epoxy sandwich structure with a footprint of 38 m2. Radioisotope thermal electric generators are used to produce power for the greenhouse and its subsystems and the plants are grown in nested pockets located on vertical cylinders which allows for a growth area of 48 m2. An aeroponic water and nutrient delivery system is used in order to reduce the greenhouse water usage. Harvesting and planting is achieved through the use of robotics specifically designed for this mission. The greenhouse structure and subsystems have a total weight of less than 10 metric tons. In this paper the design highlights of several of the subsystems of the greenhouse design will be summarized.

  7. The Dynamic Greenhouse Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses are marvelous devices, allowing one to enjoy the flower spectacle of summer all year round. At night, greenhouses use supplemental heat to keep the fragile plants warm. Over the last 30 years, greenhouse technology has undergone many changes, with the structures being automated and monitored and low-cost plastic structures emerging as…

  8. Carbon balance, partitioning and photosynthetic acclimation in fruit-bearing grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) grown under simulated climate change (elevated CO2, elevated temperature and moderate drought) scenarios in temperature gradient greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Parra, Carolina; Aranjuelo, Iker; Pascual, Inmaculada; Erice, Gorka; Sanz-Sáez, Álvaro; Aguirreolea, Jone; Sánchez-Díaz, Manuel; Irigoyen, Juan José; Araus, José Luis; Morales, Fermín

    2015-02-01

    Although plant performance under elevated CO2 has been extensively studied in the past little is known about photosynthetic performance changing simultaneously CO2, water availability and temperature conditions. Moreover, despite of its relevancy in crop responsiveness to elevated CO2 conditions, plant level C balance is a topic that, comparatively, has received little attention. In order to test responsiveness of grapevine photosynthetic apparatus to predicted climate change conditions, grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo) fruit-bearing cuttings were exposed to different CO2 (elevated, 700ppm vs. ambient, ca. 400ppm), temperature (ambient vs. elevated, ambient +4°C) and irrigation levels (partial vs. full irrigation). Carbon balance was followed monitoring net photosynthesis (AN, C gain), respiration (RD) and photorespiration (RL) (C losses). Modification of environment (13)C isotopic composition (δ(13)C) under elevated CO2 (from -10.30 to -24.93‰) enabled the further characterization of C partitioning into roots, cuttings, shoots, petioles, leaves, rachides and berries. Irrespective of irrigation level and temperature, exposure to elevated CO2 induced photosynthetic acclimation of plants. C/N imbalance reflected the inability of plants grown at 700ppm CO2 to develop strong C sinks. Partitioning of labeled C to storage organs (main stem and roots) did not avoid accumulation of labeled photoassimilates in leaves, affecting negatively Rubisco carboxylation activity. The study also revealed that, after 20 days of treatment, no oxidative damage to chlorophylls or carotenoids was observed, suggesting a protective role of CO2 either at current or elevated temperatures against the adverse effect of water stress.

  9. Accumulation and health risk of heavy metals in vegetables from harmless and organic vegetable production systems of China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong; Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Weindorf, David C; Rajan, Nithya; Liu, Xiaoxiao; Niedermann, Silvana

    2013-12-01

    Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables is a growing concern for public health. Limited studies have elucidated the heavy metal accumulation characteristics and health risk of different vegetables produced in different facilities such as greenhouses and open-air fields and under different management modes such as harmless and organic. Given the concern over the aforementioned factors related to heavy metal accumulation, this study selected four typical greenhouse vegetable production bases, short-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (SHGVB), middle-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (MHGVB), long-term harmless greenhouse vegetable base (LHGVB), and organic greenhouse vegetable base (OGVB), in Nanjing City, China to study heavy metal accumulation in different vegetables and their associated health risks. Results showed that soils and vegetables from SHGVB and OGVB apparently accumulated fewer certain heavy metals than those from other bases, probably due to fewer planting years and special management, respectively. Greenhouse conditions significantly increased certain soil heavy metal concentrations relative to open-air conditions. However, greenhouse conditions did not significantly increase concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Hg, and Zn in leaf vegetables. In fact, under greenhouse conditions, Pb accumulation was effectively reduced. The main source of soil heavy metals was the application of large amounts of low-grade fertilizer. There was larger health risk for producers' children to consume vegetables from the three harmless vegetable bases than those of residents' children. The hazard index (HI) over a large area exceeded 1 for these two kinds of children in the MHGVB and LHGVB. There was also a slight risk in the SHGVB for producers' children solely. However, the HI of the whole area of the OGVB for two kinds of children was below 1, suggesting low risk of heavy metal exposure through the food chain. Notably, the contribution rate of Cu and Zn to the HI were

  10. 4. Perspective view, greenhouse, from the southwest. The greenhouse is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Perspective view, greenhouse, from the southwest. The greenhouse is the portion of the seed house to the right (south) of the double doors. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Thoughts from the Greenhouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonstrom, Wendy Jean

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author compares the functions of a graduate adult education program and a greenhouse. A graduate adult education program is a place where, like in a greenhouse, exciting new hybrids can be developed--working with people outside the school of education, in different disciplines and beyond the university's walls, sharing what…

  12. Metabolic profiling of turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) plants derived from in vitro micropropagation and conventional greenhouse cultivation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoqiang; Gang, David R

    2006-12-13

    Turmeric (Curcuma longa) was considered only a culinary spice in many parts of the world until the notable anti-inflammation curcuminoids were discovered from this herb. Because it is a sterile triploid and is propagated vegetatively by rhizome division, turmeric is susceptible to pathogens that accumulate and are transmitted from generation to generation, and amplification of particularly useful stocks is a slow process. An in vitro propagation method has been developed to alleviate these problems. Metabolic profiling, using GC-MS and LC-ESI-MS, was used to determine if chemical differences existed between greenhouse-grown and in vitro micropropagation derived plants. The major chemical constituent curcuminoids, a group of diarylheptanoid compounds, as well as major mono- and sesquiterpenoids were identified and quantified. Principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis revealed chemical differences between lines (T3C turmeric vs Hawaiian red turmeric) and tissues (rhizome, root, leaf, and shoot). However, this analysis indicated that no significant differences existed between growth treatments (conventional greenhouse-grown vs in vitro propagation derived plants).

  13. Sustainability of Switchgrass for Cellulosic Ethanol: Evaluating Net Energy, Greenhouse Gas Emissions, and Feedstocks Costs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Perennial herbaceous plants such as switchgrass are being evaluated as cellulosic bioenergy crops. Sustainability concerns with switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and similar energy crops have been about net energy efficiency, potential greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and economic feasibility grown ...

  14. Productivity of Mizuna Cultivated in the Space Greenhouse Onboard the Russian Module of the Iss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levinskikh, Margarita; Sychev, Vladimir; Podolsky, Igor; Bingham, Gail; Moukhamedieva, Lana

    As stipulated by the science program of research into the processes of growth, development, metabolism and reproduction of higher plants in microgravity in view of their potential use in advanced life support systems, five experiments on Mizuna plants (Brassica rapa var. nipponisica) were performed using the Lada space greenhouse onboard the ISS Russian Module (RM) during Expeditions ISS-5, 17 and 20-22. One of the goals of the experiments was to evaluate the productivity of Mizuna plants grown at different levels of ISS RM air contamination. Mizuna plants were cultivated for 31 - 36 days when exposed to continuous illumination. The root growing medium was made of Turface enriched with a controlled release fertilizer Osmocote. In the course of the flight experiments major parameters of plant cultivation, total level of ISS RM air contamination and plant microbiological status were measured. The grown plants were returned to Earth as fresh or frozen samples. After the three last vegetation cycles the plants were harvested, packed and frozen at -80 0C in the MELFI freezer on the ISS U.S. Module and later returned to Earth onboard Space Shuttle. It was found that the productivity and morphometric (e.g., plant height and mass, number of leaves) parameters of the plants grown in space did not differ from those seen in ground controls. The T coefficient, which represents the total contamination level of ISS air), was 4 (ISS-5), 22 (ISS-17), 55 (ISS-20), 22 (ISS-21) and 28 (ISS-22) versus the norm of no more than 5. In summary, a significant increase in the total contamination level of the ISS RM air did not reduce the productivity of the leaf vegetable plant used in the flight experiments.

  15. Greenhouse gas fluxes from no-till rotated corn in the Upper Midwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We determined soil surface fluxes of greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane) from no-till, dryland corn (Zea mays L.) in eastern South Dakota and tested the effect of rotation on greenhouse gas fluxes from corn. The corn was grown within a randomized, complete block study that incl...

  16. Fort Yukon Greenhouse Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Tanana Chiefs Conference is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  17. Solar greenhouses in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Polich, M.

    1981-12-01

    After a discussion of solar greenhouse phenomena and the potential for heat collection and food production, design recommendations are provided for attached heat collecting solar sunspaces and for attached food producing solar greenhouses. Also, design of a single solar structure to maximize heat collection and food production is considered. A method of predicting the performance for attached heat collecting solar sunspaces is given in which the solar savings fraction is calculated. (LEW)

  18. Operating and Maintaining the Greenhouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresser, Priscilla A.

    This learning guide is designed to assist vocational agriculture students in mastering 20 tasks involved in the operation and maintenance of a greenhouse. Addressed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: identification of greenhouse designs, greenhouse construction, basic greenhouse maintenance to conserve energy,…

  19. Optimization of lamp spectrum for vegetable growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prikupets, L. B.; Tikhomirov, A. A.

    1994-01-01

    An increase in the demand for and production of vegetables in the winter, mainly in northern and Siberian regions, inevitably leads to mass building of structures for growing plants under completely artificial conditions. An industrial lighting technology is required whose main parameters (spectrum, irradiance, photoperiod) should be assigned carefully and should uniquely determine, along with other important characteristics of the artificial climate, the productivity of the plant-production facility. The most widespread crops grown in our country under indoor conditions are cucumber and tomato plants, which account for more than 98% of the area in greenhouses. These plants are good prospects for growing completely under intense artificial lighting conditions (photocultures). Optimization of the main parameters of optical radiation when growing these plants is the most important task of achieving their profitable production. At present, considerable experience has been gained in studying the dependence of productivity of cucumber and tomato communities on irradiation conditions. Fundamental studies of the Agrophysical Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Timiryazev Institute of Plant Physiology of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Timiryazev Agricultural Academy, and other institutes create a good basis for a detailed study of the given problem. Commercial sources of radiation substantially differing in spectral characteristics in the region of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) were used in the studies.

  20. First report of cucumber green mottle mosaic virus infecting greenhouse cucumber in Canada

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV), in the genus Tobamovirus and family Virgaviridae, is a seed-borne pathogen on cucurbits. In early 2013, serious viral disease outbreaks on greenhouse cucumber crops were experienced by greenhouse vegetable growers in Alberta, Canada. CGMMV was detected i...

  1. Greenhouse Management Curriculum Guide for Vocational Agriculture/Agribusiness. Curriculum Development. Bulletin No. 1824.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    University of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette.

    This document contains teacher's materials for an 8-unit course in greenhouse management for 11th and 12th graders. The units are as follows: Producing Annual Bedding Plants; Foliage Plants; General Greenhouse Management; Poinsettia Production; Vegetable Bedding Plant Production: Tomatoes, Peppers, and Eggplants; Production of Potted…

  2. [Soils salinity content of greenhouse in Shanghai suburb].

    PubMed

    Yao, Chun-Xia; Chen, Zhen-Lou; Xu, Shi-Yuan

    2007-06-01

    Salinity content and characteristic of farmland soil in Shanghai suburb was studied. Result indicates that soils in greenhouse in Shanghai suburb are partially salted. Soils of suburb where melons or vegetables grow in Shanghai city, 88.52% soil is non-salted while 10.37% mildly salted, 0.74% obviously salted and 0.37% badly salted. Anions component of salt salinity in soil are mainly SO4(2-), Cl-, NO3(-) and cations component are mainly Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+, K+. These ions are mostly from fertilizer auxiliary component or fertilizer transformation component besides some original deposition in soil. The formation of soil secondary salted in greenhouse cultivation in suburbs of Shanghai has a close relationship with improper fertilization or employing too much fertilizer. Soil salinity is different with different cultivation mode and utilization time. From high to low, sequence of soil salinity content in 0 - 20 cm cultivation layer of different crop mode is greenhouse vegetable soil, melon soil, vegetable melon rotation soil and hypaethral vegetable soil respectively. In the same region, salinity in greenhouse soil continually increases and accumulates from underlayer to surface along with more utilization years.

  3. Grafting effects on vegetable quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetable grafting began in the 1920s to control soil-borne disease. It is now a common practice in Asia, parts of Europe, and the Middle East. In Japan and Korea most of the cucurbits and tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) grown are grafted. This practice is rare in the U.S. and there have...

  4. Passive solar renovation of an existing commercial greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, J.W.; Whitehead, N.

    1980-01-01

    The renovation of an existing 1800 square foot commercial greenhouse to incorporate passive solar reliant and energy conserving features is detailed. The Aquatic-Agriculture Institute for Research, a non-profit group, sponsored the project to develop efficient production methods to raise vegetables and fish at the community level. The performance of the remodeled greenhouse will be compared to the performance of the same greenhouse as it was originally designed. The restored greenhouse began operation in September 1979. Accurate fuel and temperature records maintained through-out the past winter, show the cost of back-up heating under operating conditions to be approximately $150.00. Old fuel receipts dating back into the 1940's show an average use of 2000 gallons of heating fuel each winter prior to remodeling. This would indicate a yearly fuel savings of better than 90% through the use of passive solar techniques.

  5. Vegetative reproduction capacities of floodplain willows--cutting response to competition and biomass loss.

    PubMed

    Radtke, A; Mosner, E; Leyer, I

    2012-03-01

    While several studies on regeneration in Salicaceae have focused on seedling recruitment, little is known about factors controlling their vegetative reproduction. In two greenhouse experiments, we studied the response of floodplain willows (Salix fragilis, S. viminalis, S. triandra) to competition with Poa trivialis, and to shoot and root removal when planted as vegetative cuttings. In the first experiment, growth performance variables were analysed in relation to full competition, shoot competition, root competition and control, taking into account two different water levels. After 9 weeks, shoots were removed and the resprouting capacity of the bare cuttings was recorded. In the second experiment, the cutting performance of the three floodplain and an additional two fen willow species (S. cinerea, S. aurita) was compared when grown in three different soil compositions and with two different water levels. After 9 weeks, shoot and root biomass was removed and the bare cuttings were replanted to test their ability to resprout. Cutting performance and secondary resprouting were negatively affected by full and shoot competition while root competition had no or weak effects. The floodplain species performed better than the fen species in all soil types and water levels. Secondary resprouting capacity was also higher in the floodplain species, which showed an additional strong positive response to the previous waterlogging treatment. The results contribute to understanding of the vegetative regeneration ecology of floodplain willows, and suggest that the use of vegetative plantings in restoration plantings could be an effective strategy for recovering floodplain forests.

  6. Application Problem of Biomass Combustion in Greenhouses for Crop Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Atsuhiro; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    It is consumed much energy in fossil fuels to production crops in greenhouses in Japan. And fl ue gas as CO2 fertilization is used for growing crops in modern greenhouses. If biomass as renewable energy can use for production vegetables in greenhouses, more than 800,000 kl of energy a year (in crude oil equivalent) will be saved. In this study, at fi rst, we made the biomass combustion equipment, and performed fundamental examination for various pellet fuel. We performed the examination that considered an application to a real greenhouse next. We considered biomass as both a source of energy and CO2 gas for greenhouses, and the following fi ndings were obtained: 1) Based on the standard of CO2 gas fertilization to greenhouses, it is diffi cult to apply biomass as a CO2 fertilizer, so that biomass should be applied to energy use only, at least for the time being. 2) Practical biomass energy machinery for economy, high reliability and greenhouses satisfying the conservatism that it is easy is necessary. 3) It is necessary to develop crop varieties and cultivation systems requiring less strict environmental control. 4) Disposal of combustion ash occurring abundantly, effective practical use is necessary.

  7. Microbiological profile of greenhouses in a farm producing hydroponic tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Leopoldo; Rico-Romero, Leticia; Escartín, Eduardo F

    2008-01-01

    Produce, including tomatoes, has been implicated in several outbreaks of foodborne illness. A number of the sources of contamination for produce grown in open fields are known. However, as an alternative agricultural system, hydroponic greenhouses are reasonably expected to reduce some of these sources. The objective of the present study was to determine the microbiological profile of tomatoes grown in greenhouses at a Mexican hydroponic farm with a high technological level and sanitary agricultural practices (SAPs) in place. Tomatoes and other materials associated with the farm were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella enterica and populations of Escherichia coli, coliforms, and Enterobacteriaceae. Tomatoes showed median levels of 0.8 log CFU per tomato for Enterobacteriaceae, < 0.5 log CFU per tomato for coliforms, and 0.5 most probable number per tomato for E. coli. Despite the physical barriers that the facilities provide and the implemented SAPs, we found that 2.8% of tomatoes were contaminated with Salmonella and 0.7% with E. coli. Other Salmonella-positive materials were puddles, soil, cleaning cloths, and sponges. Samples from the nursery and greenhouses were positive for E. coli, whereas Salmonella was found only in the latter. Although hydroponic greenhouses provide physical barriers against some sources of enteric bacterial contamination, these results show that sporadic evidence of fecal contamination and the presence of Salmonella can occur at the studied greenhouse farm.

  8. 15. Interior view, greenhouse, from the northwest. The greenhouse interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view, greenhouse, from the northwest. The greenhouse interior was quite modest, the space between the floor of the lower level and the joists carrying the loft floor is only five-and-one-half feet. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. Greenhouse Gas Court Decision

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the June 26, 2012, U.S. Court of Appeals- D.C. Circuit's decision to uphold EPA's Endangerment Finding and greenhouse gas regulations issued under the Clean Air Act (CAA) for passenger vehicles and CAA permitting for stationary sources.

  10. Operation GREENHOUSE-1951. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berkhouse, L.; Davis, S.E.; Gladeck, F.R.; Hallowell, J.H.; Jones, C.B.

    1983-06-15

    GREENHOUSE was a four-detonation atmospheric nuclear weapon's test series conducted in the Marshall Islands at Enewetak Atoll in April and May 1951. This is a report of DOD personnel in GREENHOUSE with an emphasis on operational radiological safety.

  11. Supplemental photosynthetic lighting for greenhouse tomato production

    SciTech Connect

    Godfriaux, B.L.; Wittman, W.K. ); Janes, H.W.; McAvoy, R.J.; Putman, J.; Logendra, S. . Dept. of Horticulture and Forestry); Mears, D.R.; Giacommelli, G.; Giniger, M. . Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering)

    1989-12-01

    The influence of supplemental light on the growth and productivity of greenhouse tomatoes grown to a single cluster on movable benches is examined, and the economic feasibility of such a system is evaluated. Experiments were conducted to quantify the tomato plants' response to various levels of supplemental light in terms of growth rate and yield at various stages in their development (e.g., seedling, flowering plant, etc.). The 1984--85 experiments showed that supplemental photosynthetic lighting nearly doubled tomato yields, from 0.48 to 0.86 lbs/plant. Subsequent experiments in 1985--86 identified the best tomato varieties for this treatment and further increased yields to 1.3 lbs/plant. In addition, the use of supplemental lighting was found to hasten tomato crop maturity. An economic analysis was performed on the 1985--86 empirical data using the tax rates and provisions then in force. It indicated that a 10-acre greenhouse could provide an after-tax internal rate of return of 10% to 12% using only equity financing. This return could likely be increased to 15--18% with the use of combined debt/equity financing. Using supplemental lighting on 10,000 acres of greenhouse production would require an estimated 7.5 billion kWh of additional electricity per year and, at 4.7 cents/kWh, generate an estimated $350 million in additional utility revenues. 48 refs., 34 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. Development of a cost-effective method for nitrate and nitrite determination in leafy plants and nitrate and nitrite contents of some green leafy vegetables grown in the Aegean region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozdestan, Ozgül; Uren, Ali

    2010-05-12

    An accurate, fast, easily applicable, and cost-effective method for the determination of nitrate and nitrite was developed. This method was much more reliable than the cadmium column reduction method, which is a tedious and time-consuming procedure and not easily applicable. The principle of the method was reduction of nitrate to nitrite with cadmium acetate solution and zinc powder and then treatment with Griess reagent. Recovery of the method changed from 92.9 to 102.8%, and detection limit was found as 31.4 mg/kg. Coefficient of variation was 3.16% for intraday precision. Nitrate and nitrite contents of 10 types of leafy vegetables native to the Aegean region of Turkey were determined. Wild radish, chicory, fennel, blessed thistle, blue mallow, and chard were analyzed for the first time. Nitrate contents were found between 354.8 mg/kg for iceberg lettuce and 4653 mg/kg for wild radish. Tested vegetables contained <26.33 mg/kg nitrite.

  13. Pathogen filtration to control plant disease outbreak in greenhouse production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Sangho; Krasnow, Charles; Bhalsod, Gemini; Granke, Leah; Harlan, Blair; Hausbeck, Mary; Zhang, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has been extensively focused on understanding the fate and transport of human microbial pathogens in soil and water environments. However, little is known about the transport of plant pathogens, although these pathogens are often found in irrigation waters and could cause severe crop damage and economical loss. Water mold pathogens including Phytophthora spp. and Pythium spp. are infective to a wide range of vegetable and floriculture crops, and they are primarily harbored in soils and disseminated through water flow. It is challenging to control these pathogens because they often quickly develop resistance to many fungicides. Therefore, this multi-scale study aimed to investigate physical removal of plant pathogens from water by filtration, thus reducing the pathogen exposure risks to crops. In column-scale experiments, we studied controlling factors on the transport and retention of Phytophthora capsici zoospores in saturated columns packed with iron oxide coated-sand and uncoated-sand under varying solution chemistry. Biflagellate zoospores were less retained than encysted zoospores, and lower solution pH and greater iron oxide content increased the retention of encysted zoospores. These results provided insights on environmental dispersal of Phytophthora zoospores in natural soils as well as on developing cost-effective engineered filtration systems for pathogen removal. Using small-scale greenhouse filtration systems, we further investigated the performance of varying filter media (i.e., granular sand, iron oxide coated ceramic porous media, and activated carbon) in mitigating disease outbreaks of Phytophthora and Pythium for greenhouse-grown squash and poinsettia, respectively, in comparison with fungicide treatment. For squash, filtration by iron oxide coated media was more effective in reducing the Phytophthora infection, comparing to sand filtration and fungicide application. For poinsettia, sand filtration performed better in controlling

  14. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF TISSUE CULTURE-RAISED BALLOTA NIGRA L. PLANTS GROWN EX VITRO.

    PubMed

    Makowczyńska, Joanna; Grzegorczyk-KAROLAK, Izabela; Wysokińska, Halina

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties and total phenolic and flavonoid contents were evaluated in methanolic extracts of shoots from Ballota nigra plants initiated in vitro (from nodal explants) and in vivo (from seeds). The plants were grown in greenhouse and in the field, and were analyzed at the vegetative and flowering stages. The shoot extract of wild-grown plants of B. nigra was also investigated. The results indicate that antioxidant potential of the B. nigra extracts seems to be due to their scavenging of free radicals (DPPH assay) and metal reducing (FRAP test), while they were less effective at the prevention of linoleic acid peroxidation (LPO test). The extracts from shoots of in vitro derived plants were found to exhibit the greatest antioxidant properties. The extracts were also characterized by the highest content of phenolic compounds and their level was affected by plant developmental stage. The extracts of shoots collected at the flowering period exhibited higher amounts of phenolics and flavonoids than in the extracts of immature plants. A close correlation between the total phenolic content and flavonoid content and antioxidant activity using the DPPH and FRAP assays was obtained. The results of the present study suggest the use in vitro-derived plants of B. nigra instead of using wild plants for pharmaceutical purposes.

  15. Manipulating Sensory and Phytochemical Profiles of Greenhouse Tomatoes Using Environmentally Relevant Doses of Ultraviolet Radiation.

    PubMed

    Dzakovich, Michael P; Ferruzzi, Mario G; Mitchell, Cary A

    2016-09-14

    Fruits harvested from off-season, greenhouse-grown tomato plants have a poor reputation compared to their in-season, garden-grown counterparts. Presently, there is a gap in knowledge with regard to the role of UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) in determining greenhouse tomato quality. Knowing that UV-B is a powerful elicitor of secondary metabolism and not transmitted through greenhouse glass and some greenhouse plastics, we tested the hypothesis that supplemental UV-B radiation in the greenhouse will impart quality attributes typically associated with garden-grown tomatoes. Environmentally relevant doses of supplemental UV-B radiation did not strongly affect antioxidant compounds of fruits, although the flavonol quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin) significantly increased in response to UV-B. Physicochemical metrics of fruit quality attributes and consumer sensory panels were used to determine if any such differences altered consumer perception of tomato quality. Supplemental UV-A radiation (315-400 nm) pre-harvest treatments enhanced sensory perception of aroma, acidity, and overall approval, suggesting a compelling opportunity to environmentally enhance the flavor of greenhouse-grown tomatoes. The expression of the genes COP1 and HY5 were indicative of adaptation to UV radiation, which explains the lack of marked effects reported in these studies. To our knowledge, these studies represent the first reported use of environmentally relevant doses of UV radiation throughout the reproductive portion of the tomato plant life cycle to positively enhance the sensory and chemical properties of fruits.

  16. Characterization of culturable bacterial endophytes and their capacity to promote plant growth from plants grown using organic or conventional practices

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Ye; DeBolt, Seth; Dreyer, Jamin; Scott, Delia; Williams, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Plants have a diverse internal microbial biota that has been shown to have an important influence on a range of plant health attributes. Although these endophytes have been found to be widely occurring, few studies have correlated agricultural production practices with endophyte community structure and function. One agricultural system that focuses on preserving and enhancing soil microbial abundance and biodiversity is organic farming, and numerous studies have shown that organically managed system have increased microbial community characteristics. Herein, the diversity and specificity of culturable bacterial endophytes were evaluated in four vegetable crops: corn, tomato, melon, and pepper grown under organic or conventional practices. Endophytic bacteria were isolated from surface-sterilized shoot, root, and seed tissues and sequence identified. A total of 336 bacterial isolates were identified, and grouped into 32 species and five phyla. Among these, 239 isolates were from organically grown plants and 97 from those grown conventionally. Although a diverse range of bacteria were documented, 186 were from the Phylum Firmicutes, representing 55% of all isolates. Using the Shannon diversity index, we observed a gradation of diversity in tissues, with shoots and roots having a similar value, and seeds having the least diversity. Importantly, endophytic microbial species abundance and diversity was significantly higher in the organically grown plants compared to those grown using conventional practices, potentially indicating that organic management practices may increase endophyte presence and diversity. The impact that these endophytes could have on plant growth and yield was evaluated by reintroducing them into tomato plants in a greenhouse environment. Of the bacterial isolates tested, 61% were found to promote tomato plant growth and 50–64% were shown to enhance biomass accumulation, illustrating their potential agroecosystem application. PMID:26217348

  17. An Introduction to Greenhouse Production. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Robert W.

    This student manual is presented in its first revision, providing a current, basic text for those preparing for greenhouse and floriculture work. Its fourteen chapters are: Overview of the Greenhouse Industry; Greenhouse Structures; Controlling the Greenhouse Environment; Greenhouse Equipment and Lighting; Greenhouse Irrigation Systems; Root Media…

  18. The greenhouse trap

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, F.; Mintzer, I.; Courrier, K.; MacKenzie, J.

    1990-01-01

    This book describes evidence of global warming and the contributions of man's activities to the process. The impacts of greenhouse gases on climate and health are discussed and recommendations are made for mitigation of these effects. Changes in fuel use, expansion of carbon sinks through planting of trees, and personal commitments to energy conservation are among these recommendations. Individual chapters were indexed separately for the data base.

  19. Operation GREENHOUSE-1951

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-15

    potential for exposure of weapon diagnostics participants. 26 Effects Experiments All four GREENHOUSE shots tested new weapon developments. Priorities of...but crawling some of the way. Each round trip took about 15 minutes and was made in a different set of test trousers (Reference 72, p. 10). Th...aboard two VB -29s, and aboard an RB-29 from the Strategic Air Command (SAC). flown in specifically to participate in this S. experiment. The film was

  20. A decision support system (GesCoN) for managing fertigation in vegetable crops. Part II—model calibration and validation under different environmental growing conditions on field grown tomato

    PubMed Central

    Conversa, Giulia; Bonasia, Anna; Di Gioia, Francesco; Elia, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The GesCoN model was evaluated for its capability to simulate growth, nitrogen uptake, and productivity of open field tomato grown under different environmental and cultural conditions. Five datasets collected from experimental trials carried out in Foggia (IT) were used for calibration and 13 datasets collected from trials conducted in Foggia, Perugia (IT), and Florida (USA) were used for validation. The goodness of fitting was performed by comparing the observed and simulated shoot dry weight (SDW) and N crop uptake during crop seasons, total dry weight (TDW), N uptake and fresh yield (TFY). In SDW model calibration, the relative RMSE values fell within the good 10–15% range, percent BIAS (PBIAS) ranged between −11.5 and 7.4%. The Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) was very close to the optimal value 1. In the N uptake calibration RRMSE and PBIAS were very low (7%, and −1.78, respectively) and NSE close to 1. The validation of SDW (RRMSE = 16.7%; NSE = 0.96) and N uptake (RRMSE = 16.8%; NSE = 0.96) showed the good accuracy of GesCoN. A model under- or overestimation of the SDW and N uptake occurred when higher or a lower N rates and/or a more or less efficient system were used compared to the calibration trial. The in-season adjustment, using the “SDWcheck” procedure, greatly improved model simulations both in the calibration and in the validation phases. The TFY prediction was quite good except in Florida, where a large overestimation (+16%) was linked to a different harvest index (0.53) compared to the cultivars used for model calibration and validation in Italian areas. The soil water content at the 10–30 cm depth appears to be well-simulated by the software, and the GesCoN proved to be able to adaptively control potential yield and DW accumulation under limited N soil availability scenarios and consequently to modify fertilizer application. The DSSwell simulate SDW accumulation and N uptake of different tomato genotypes grown under Mediterranean and

  1. Dynamics of Nitrogen Uptake and Mobilization in Field-grown Winter Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus) From Stem Extension to Harvest. II. An 15N-labelling-based Simulation Model of N Partitioning Between Vegetative and Reproductive Tissues

    PubMed Central

    MALAGOLI, P.; LAINE, P.; ROSSATO, L.; OURRY, A.

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) has often been used as a catch crop to deal with the issue of N leaching, but for this to be effective, prediction of the crop's N uptake capability and N partitioning is required. The aim of this work was to build a compartmental model of N dynamics in oilseed rape, based on the kinetic description of N uptake, partitioning and mobilization in each organ. • Model In this study, logistic and exponential equations were fitted to the N relations of each compartment, especially the leaf at each node. Data previously obtained from an 15N-labelling field experiment was used to quantify the partitioning of total N content, the allocation of N taken up and subsequent changes in the sink/source status for endogenous N in each tissue throughout the growth cycle. • Key Results and Conclusions This modelling approach provides a unique tool for the quantitative estimation of cycling of endogenous N in relation to changes in N uptake at the whole-plant level. Furthermore, as oilseed rape is known to release large amounts of N to the soil during spring through leaf loss, this model was used to identify potential methods for improving the N harvest index of the crop. Simulations showed that N content or yield could be improved by 15 % by optimizing N transfer from vegetative to reproductive tissues and by reducing the residual %N (DW) in abscised leaves. PMID:15802311

  2. Design and development of a greenhouse growing system with a cooling facility using geothermal energy; Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Shunichiro; Ishibashi, Sadato . Faculty of Agriculture); Kaieda, Masami )

    1994-03-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop a greenhouse growing system with a night cooling facility using geothermal energy to grow fall and winter vegetables during high summer temperatures. In this paper, the authors first designed and constructed a greenhouse cooling facility using geothermal water for the driving energy, and then conducted a cooling performance test and growth experiment in the growing of vegetables. As a result of the investigation, first, the facility showed the cooling performance as designed, since the air in the greenhouse was cooled to the desired temperature of 15 C. Second, in the open division, almost all the spinach, lettuce, and Kinusaya peas died back during growing and there was therefore no yield. However, in the cooling division, all the vegetables grew normally and their yields were large. From the results mentioned above, the authors concluded that it is possible to grow vegetables during the high-temperature summer season in greenhouse cooled only at night.

  3. The greenhouse gambit

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, D. . Environmental Information Service)

    1992-01-01

    While forecasts of the economic costs and benefits of ameliorating global warming remain speculative, so, too, are the climate change projections that gird the debate. The consensus among most of the scientific community is that a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide is likely to raise the mean global temperature of the Earth 3 to 8 degrees Fahrenheit by 2050. To put this forecast in some perspective, the planet was about 10 degrees cooler during the last Great Ice Age and about 10 degrees warmer dozing the Age of the Dinsosaurs. Accordingly, the warming could bring about dramatic changes in climate. But a prudent investor must be careful not to invest too much in pat assumptions about the greenhouse effect. The climate may have many surprises in store. Indeed, it has surprised climate forecasters already by not warming nearly as fast as their general circulation models have suggested it would. This book examines four industries with the most at stake in the greenhouse debate: agriculture, forest products, automobiles and electric power. All of these industries essentially face two choices: Act now to blunt the possible momentum of climate change, or wait and see if the basic forecast is correct, accommodating any change as it occurs. These choices involve a trade-off between further information-gathering to ensure a proper course of action and implementing a strategy, quickly to its intended effect. Such a trade-off is the essence of risk, the stuff of investing. For the purposes of this book, it defines the greenhouse gambit.''

  4. The MdTFL1 gene of apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) reduces vegetative growth and generation time.

    PubMed

    Flachowsky, Henryk; Szankowski, Iris; Waidmann, Sascha; Peil, Andreas; Tränkner, Conny; Hanke, Magda-Viola

    2012-10-01

    TFL1 is known as a floral repressor in Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. In apple there are two TFL1 homologs, MdTFL1-1 and MdTFL1-2. The MdTFL1-1 gene was silenced in transgenic clones expressing a hairpin gene construct of a 323 bp fragment of MdTFL1-1. The hairpin gene construct was transferred to three different apple genotypes. Of 22 transgenic clones, 21 showed a significant reduction in MdTFL1-1 mRNA expression. Precocious flowering was obtained for 20 clones, which flowered already during in vitro cultivation. Nineteen clones could successfully be transferred to the greenhouse where 18 of them flowered within a few weeks followed by the death or at least a strongly inhibited vegetative growth of the plant. Most of the transgenic flowers developed abnormally. Results obtained on greenhouse-grown plants of the transgenic clones and transgenic seedlings clearly demonstrated the major role of MdTFL1 genes in maintaining the vegetative growth as prerequisite for a perennial lifecycle. It was shown that MdTFL1 dsRNAi promotes a life history similar to annual plants. Preliminary results obtained from grafting experiments with non-transgenic scions grafted onto MdTFL1 dsRNAi transgenic rootstocks indicated that the flower-inducing signal obtained after silencing of MdTFL1 genes seems not to be graft-transmissible.

  5. CO/sub 2/ enrichment in a solar energy collection/storage greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Willits, D.H.; Peet, M.M.

    1981-01-01

    The potential of the N.C. State solar energy collection/storage greenhouse to increase the benefits of CO/sub 2/ enrichment in warm climates was investigated. Tomatoes, cucumbers, and bedding plants were grown in this house at 1000 ppm and in a conventional greenhouse unenriched. Yield increases (14.6% for tomatoes, 42.0% for cucumbers, 104% for bedding plants) compare favorably with enrichment studies done in colder climates. 9 refs.

  6. Predicting greenhouse gas emissions and soil carbon from changing pasture to an energy crop.

    PubMed

    Duval, Benjamin D; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J; Davis, Sarah C; Keogh, Cindy; Long, Stephen P; Parton, William J; DeLucia, Evan H

    2013-01-01

    Bioenergy related land use change would likely alter biogeochemical cycles and global greenhouse gas budgets. Energy cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is a sugarcane variety and an emerging biofuel feedstock for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. It has potential for high yields and can be grown on marginal land, which minimizes competition with grain and vegetable production. The DayCent biogeochemical model was parameterized to infer potential yields of energy cane and how changing land from grazed pasture to energy cane would affect greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O) fluxes and soil C pools. The model was used to simulate energy cane production on two soil types in central Florida, nutrient poor Spodosols and organic Histosols. Energy cane was productive on both soil types (yielding 46-76 Mg dry mass · ha(-1)). Yields were maintained through three annual cropping cycles on Histosols but declined with each harvest on Spodosols. Overall, converting pasture to energy cane created a sink for GHGs on Spodosols and reduced the size of the GHG source on Histosols. This change was driven on both soil types by eliminating CH4 emissions from cattle and by the large increase in C uptake by greater biomass production in energy cane relative to pasture. However, the change from pasture to energy cane caused Histosols to lose 4493 g CO2 eq · m(-2) over 15 years of energy cane production. Cultivation of energy cane on former pasture on Spodosol soils in the southeast US has the potential for high biomass yield and the mitigation of GHG emissions.

  7. Predicting Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Soil Carbon from Changing Pasture to an Energy Crop

    PubMed Central

    Duval, Benjamin D.; Anderson-Teixeira, Kristina J.; Davis, Sarah C.; Keogh, Cindy; Long, Stephen P.; Parton, William J.; DeLucia, Evan H.

    2013-01-01

    Bioenergy related land use change would likely alter biogeochemical cycles and global greenhouse gas budgets. Energy cane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is a sugarcane variety and an emerging biofuel feedstock for cellulosic bio-ethanol production. It has potential for high yields and can be grown on marginal land, which minimizes competition with grain and vegetable production. The DayCent biogeochemical model was parameterized to infer potential yields of energy cane and how changing land from grazed pasture to energy cane would affect greenhouse gas (CO2, CH4 and N2O) fluxes and soil C pools. The model was used to simulate energy cane production on two soil types in central Florida, nutrient poor Spodosols and organic Histosols. Energy cane was productive on both soil types (yielding 46–76 Mg dry mass⋅ha−1). Yields were maintained through three annual cropping cycles on Histosols but declined with each harvest on Spodosols. Overall, converting pasture to energy cane created a sink for GHGs on Spodosols and reduced the size of the GHG source on Histosols. This change was driven on both soil types by eliminating CH4 emissions from cattle and by the large increase in C uptake by greater biomass production in energy cane relative to pasture. However, the change from pasture to energy cane caused Histosols to lose 4493 g CO2 eq⋅m−2 over 15 years of energy cane production. Cultivation of energy cane on former pasture on Spodosol soils in the southeast US has the potential for high biomass yield and the mitigation of GHG emissions. PMID:23991028

  8. Dissipation of pyrethroid residues in peppers, zucchinis, and green beans exposed to field treatments in greenhouses: evaluation by decline curves.

    PubMed

    Martinez Galera, Maria; Gil Garcia, Maria D; Rodriguez Lallena, Jose A; Lopez Lopez, Trinidad; Martinez Vidal, Jose L

    2003-09-10

    Dissipation of seven pyrethroid insecticides under field conditions was evaluated on green beans, zucchinis, and peppers grown in experimental greenhouses (Almería, Spain). Pyrethroid residues were determined by high performance liquid chromatography using continuous on-line post-elution photoirradiation with fluorescence detection after dichloromethane extraction and cleanup on florisil phase cartridges. Mathematically defined decline curves were established by determining optimal relationships between pyrethroid residues and time. Different models were used to find these curves. The 1st-order model achieved the best adjustment to the experimental data in 42.9% of cases. The RF (root function) 1st-order model was the best in 33.3% of times. Each of the 1.5th- and 2nd-order models provided the best adjustment in a 9.5% of the cases. Finally, the RF 1.5th-order model was the most appropriate in only 4.8% of cases. Half-life times for these three vegetables were estimated from the optimal models. The preharvest intervals for the residues in these three vegetables was obtained, taking into account the maximum residue levels established by the existing legislation. They were all lower than the ones specified by the makers of commercial formulates, which ensures a safe enough consumption.

  9. Has your greenhouse gone virtual?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Virtual Grower is a free decision-support software program available from USDA-ARS that allows growers to build a virtual greenhouse. It was initially designed to help greenhouse growers estimate heating costs and conduct simple simulations to figure out where heat savings could be achieved. Featu...

  10. Mars inflatable greenhouse analog.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Philip D; Giacomelli, Gene A

    2002-01-01

    Light intensities on the Martian surface can possibly support a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) utilizing natural sunlight for hydroponic crop production, if a suitable controlled environment can be provided. Inflatable clear membrane structures offer low mass, are more easily transported than a rigid structure, and are good candidates for providing a suitable controlled environment for crop production. Cable culture is one hydroponic growing system that can take advantage of the beneficial attributes of the inflatable structure. An analog of a Mars inflatable greenhouse can provide researchers data on issues such as crew time requirements for operation, productivity for BLSS, human factors, and much more at a reasonable cost. This is a description of one such design.

  11. The greenhouse of Titan.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of non-gray radiative equilibrium and gray convective equilibrium on Titan suggests that a massive molecular-hydrogen greenhouse effect may be responsible for the disagreement between the observed IR temperatures and the equilibrium temperature of an atmosphereless Titan. Calculations of convection indicate a probable minimum optical depth of 14 which corresponds to a molecular hydrogen shell of substantial thickness with total pressures of about 0.1 bar. It is suggested that there is an equilibrium between outgassing and blow-off on the one hand and accretion from the protons trapped in a hypothetical Saturnian magnetic field on the other, in the present atmosphere of Titan. It is believed that an outgassing equivalent to the volatilization of a few kilometers of subsurface ice is required to maintain the present blow-off rate without compensation for all geological time. The presence of an extensive hydrogen corona around Titan is postulated, with surface temperatures up to 200 K.

  12. Pathogenicity of Two Species of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Against the Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in Laboratory and Greenhouse Experiments.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Nastaran; Karimi, Javad; Hosseini, Mojtaba; Goldani, Morteza; Campos-Herrera, Raquel

    2015-03-01

    The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a polyphagous pest in greenhouse crops. The efficacy of two entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, as biological control agents against T. vaporariorum was evaluated using two model crops typical of vegetable greenhouse productions: cucumber and pepper. Laboratory tests evaluated adults and second nymphal instars for pest susceptibility to different EPN species at different concentrations of infective juveniles (IJ; 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 IJ per cm(2)); subsequent greenhouse trials against second nymphal instars on cucumber and pepper plants evaluated more natural conditions. Concentrations were applied in combination with Triton X-100 (0.1% v/v), an adjuvant for increasing nematode activity. In laboratory studies, both life stages were susceptible to infection by the two nematode species, but S. feltiae recorded a lower LC50 than H. bacteriophora for both insect stages. Similarly, in greenhouse experiments, S. feltiae required lower concentrations of IJ than H. bacteriophora to reach the same mortality in nymphs. In greenhouse trials, a significant difference was observed in the triple interaction among nematode species × concentration × plant. Furthermore, the highest mortality rate of the second nymphal instars of the T. vaporariorum was obtained from the application of S. feltiae concentrated to 250 IJ/cm(2) on cucumber (49 ± 1.23%). The general mortality caused by nematodes was significantly higher in cucumber than in pepper. These promising results support further investigation for the optimization of the best EPN species/concentration in combination with insecticides or adjuvants to reach a profitable control of this greenhouse pest.

  13. Pathogenicity of Two Species of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Against the Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in Laboratory and Greenhouse Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Nastaran; Karimi, Javad; Hosseini, Mojtaba; Goldani, Morteza; Campos-Herrera, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a polyphagous pest in greenhouse crops. The efficacy of two entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, as biological control agents against T. vaporariorum was evaluated using two model crops typical of vegetable greenhouse productions: cucumber and pepper. Laboratory tests evaluated adults and second nymphal instars for pest susceptibility to different EPN species at different concentrations of infective juveniles (IJ; 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 IJ per cm2); subsequent greenhouse trials against second nymphal instars on cucumber and pepper plants evaluated more natural conditions. Concentrations were applied in combination with Triton X-100 (0.1% v/v), an adjuvant for increasing nematode activity. In laboratory studies, both life stages were susceptible to infection by the two nematode species, but S. feltiae recorded a lower LC50 than H. bacteriophora for both insect stages. Similarly, in greenhouse experiments, S. feltiae required lower concentrations of IJ than H. bacteriophora to reach the same mortality in nymphs. In greenhouse trials, a significant difference was observed in the triple interaction among nematode species × concentration × plant. Furthermore, the highest mortality rate of the second nymphal instars of the T. vaporariorum was obtained from the application of S. feltiae concentrated to 250 IJ/cm2 on cucumber (49 ± 1.23%). The general mortality caused by nematodes was significantly higher in cucumber than in pepper. These promising results support further investigation for the optimization of the best EPN species/concentration in combination with insecticides or adjuvants to reach a profitable control of this greenhouse pest. PMID:25861117

  14. Veracruz State Preliminary Greenhouse Gases Emissions Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh Rodriguez, C.; Rodriquez Viqueira, L.; Guzman Rojas, S.

    2007-05-01

    At recent years, the international organisms such as United Nations, has discussed that the temperature has increased slightly and the pattern of precipitations has changed in different parts of the world, which cause either extreme droughts or floods and that the extreme events have increased. These are some of the risks of global climate change because of the increase of gas concentration in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxides, nitrogen oxides and methane - which increase the greenhouse effect. Facing the consequences that could emerge because of the global temperature grown, there is a genuine necessity in different sectors of reduction the greenhouse gases and reduced the adverse impacts of climate change. To solve that, many worldwide conventions have been realized (Rio de Janeiro, Kyoto, Montreal) where different countries have established political compromises to stabilize their emissions of greenhouse gases. The mitigation and adaptation policies merge as a response to the effects that the global climate change could have, on the humans as well as the environment. That is the reason to provide the analysis of the areas and geographic zones of the country that present major vulnerability to the climate change. The development of an inventory of emissions that identifies and quantifies the principal sources of greenhouse gases of a country, and also of a region is basic to any study about climate change, also to develop specific political programs that allow to preserve and even improve a quality of the atmospheric environment, and maybe to incorporate to international mechanisms such as the emissions market. To estimate emissions in a systematic and consistent way on a regional, national and international level is a requirement to evaluate the feasibility and the cost-benefit of instrumented possible mitigation strategies and to adopt politics and technologies to reduce emissions. Mexico has two national inventories of emissions, 1990 and 1995, now it is

  15. Greenhouse gas trading starts up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    While nations decide on whether to sign on to the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, some countries and private companies are moving forward with greenhouse gas emissions trading.A 19 March report, "The Emerging International Greenhouse Gas Market," by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, reports that about 65 greenhouse gas emissions trades for quantities above 1,000 metric tons of carbon dioxideequivalent already have occurred worldwide since 1996. Many of these trades have taken place under a voluntary, ad hoc framework, though the United Kingdom and Denmark have established their own domestic emissions trading programs.

  16. Reducing airborne ectomycorrhizal fungi and growing non-mycorrhizal loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) seedlings in a greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Stottlemyer, Aaron D; Wang, G Geoff; Wells, Christina E; Stottlemyer, David W; Waldrop, Thomas A

    2008-07-01

    Atmospheric spores of ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are a potential source of contamination when mycorrhizal studies are performed in the greenhouse, and techniques for minimizing such contamination have rarely been tested. We grew loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) from seed in a greenhouse and inside a high-efficiency particulate air-filtered chamber (HFC) constructed within the same greenhouse. Seedlings were germinated in seven different sand- or soil-based and artificially based growth media. Seedlings grown in the HFC had fewer mycorrhizal short roots than those grown in the open greenhouse atmosphere. Furthermore, the proportion of seedlings from the HFC that were completely non-mycorrhizal was higher than that of seedlings from the greenhouse atmosphere. Seedlings grown in sterilized, artificially based growth media (>50% peat moss, vermiculite, and/or perlite by volume) had fewer mycorrhizal short roots than those grown in sand- or soil-based media. The HFC described here can minimize undesirable ECM colonization of host seedlings in greenhouse bioassays. In addition, the number of non-mycorrhizal seedlings can be maximized when the HFC is used in combination with artificially based growth media.

  17. European greenhouse gas fluxes from land use: the impact of expanding the use of dedicated bioenergy crops.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Astley; Böttcher, Hannes; Clifton-Brown, John; Fuchs, Richard; Hillier, Jon; Jones, Ed; Obersteiner, Michael; Pogson, Mark; Richards, Mark; Smith, Pete

    2013-04-01

    Bioenergy derived from vegetation cycles carbon to and from the atmosphere using the chemical energy fixed by the plants by photosynthesis using solar energy. However bioenergy is not carbon neutral as energy is used and greenhouse gasses (GHG) are emitted in the process of growing bioenergy feeedstocks and processing them into a usable fuel, whether it is biomass or liquid fuel such as biodiesel or bioethanol. Using bio instead of fossil fuels replaces greenhouse gas emissions from coal, oil and gas by those of the biofuel. To estimate the impact on European greenhouse gas fluxes of expanding the use of bioenergy, it is necessary to quantify the difference between the GHG emissions associated with producing and using the biofuel and the fossil fuel it replaces, and to take into account any emissions associated with the change from the original land use to that of growing the bioenergy feedstock. This involves estimating any displacement of food, fibre and timber production to other geographical areas. Here we report on a study of the GHG emissions from the potential increasing use of a variety of biofuels produced from feedstocks grown in the EU countries. The GHG emissions of the historical land use of EU27 have been modelled using ECOSSE on a 1 km grid to estimate the impact the agriculture intensification and land use change of the last 50 years and the associated crop yield gains. The excess land made available from the yield gains is considered to be available for use for bioenergy, and the yields of potential bioenergy feedstocks are estimated from EUROSTAT data or modelled using the bioenergy crop growth model MISCANFOR. These yields are used to calculate the energy used and GHG emissions associated with the use of the resulting biofuel using a life cycle analysis, and to estimate the organic matter input into the soil. The ECOSSE model is then used to estimate the soil carbon change and GHG emissions associated with the land use change to growing the

  18. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    SciTech Connect

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  19. Field trials measuring the effects of ultraviolet-absorbing greenhouse plastic films on insect populations.

    PubMed

    Costa, H S; Robb, K L; Wilen, C A

    2002-02-01

    Field studies were conducted to compare insect population levels in greenhouse crops covered with plastics that block the transmission of UV light in two wavelength ranges. Crops grown in greenhouses under a plastic that blocked UV light at wavelengths of 380 nm and below had lower numbers of aphids and thrips compared with a plastic that blocked UV light at wavelengths of 360 nm and below. This is consistent with the results found for thrips in previous studies using small, completely enclosed tunnels with no plant material. The effects were not as dramatic in the commercial greenhouses, perhaps due to unfiltered light entering through the open sides of those greenhouses. There was no reduction in greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood, populations under the <380 UV-absorbing plastic compared to <360 nm UV-absorbing plastic in these field trials. This is inconsistent with results found in small, completely enclosed tunnels, where sticky traps caught a significantly higher proportion (95 +/- 2%) of released greenhouse whiteflies inside tunnels covered with <360 nm absorbing plastic compared with the <380 nm absorbing plastic. The results of these studies suggest that the type of greenhouse plastic used in a structure can affect population levels of some insect species, and may be useful tools in developing integrated pest management programs for insect management. The design of the greenhouse and amount of unfiltered light that enters the system appear to be important factors in determining the level of effect.

  20. Overview of global greenhouse effects

    SciTech Connect

    Reck, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report reviews the factors that influence the evolution of climate and climate change. Recent studies have confirmed that CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and chlorofluorocarbos are increasing in abundance in the atmosphere and can alter the radiation balance by means of the so-called greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is as well-accepted phenomenon, but the prediction of its consequences is much less certain. Attempts to detect a human-caused temperature change are still inconclusive. This report presents a discussion of the scientific basis for the greenhouse effect, its relationship to the abundances of greenhouse gases, and the evidence confirming the increases in the abundances. The basis for climate modeling is presented together with an example of the model outputs from one of the most sophisticated modeling efforts. Uncertainties in the present understanding of climate are outlined.

  1. Climate science: Agricultural greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Chris

    2011-05-01

    Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture is important and achievable. However, cutting emissions to meet the UK's legal targets for 2050 will bring technical and political challenges, and may affect food production.

  2. Reducing greenhouse gas emissions, water use and grain arsenic levels in rice systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agriculture is faced with the challenge of providing healthy food for a growing population while minimizing environmental consequences. Rice (Oryza sativa), the staple crop for the largest number of people on earth, is grown under flooded soil conditions and uses more water and has higher greenhous...

  3. Potato (Solanum tuberosum) greenhouse tuber production as an assay for asexual reproduction effects from herbicides

    EPA Science Inventory

    The present study determined whether young potato plants can be used as an assay to indicate potential effects of pesticides on asexual reproduction. Solanum tuberosum (Russet Burbank) plants were grown from seed pieces in a mineral soil in pots under greenhouse conditions. Plant...

  4. Milled Paulownia tomentosa as a substrate component in greenhouse annual production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent research has indicated the potential of wood fiber products as alternative substrate components. This study was conducted to determine the effects of Paulowinia tomentosa amended substrates on production of greenhouse grown annuals. Paulownia (PT) was used alone (100% PT) and combined with di...

  5. Greenhouses and their humanizing synergies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Paterson, Carrie; Schubert, Daniel; Zabel, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Greenhouses in space will require advanced technical systems of automatic watering, soil-less cultivation, artificial lighting, and computerized observation of plants. Functions discussed for plants in space habitats include physical/health requirements and human psychology, social cohesion, as well as the complex sensorial benefits of plants for humans. The authors consider the role of plants in long-term space missions historically since 1971 (Salyut 1) and propose a set of priorities to be considered within the design requirements for greenhouses and constructed environments given a range of benefits associated with plant-human relationships. They cite recent research into the use of greenhouses in extreme environments to reveal the relative importance of greenhouses for people living in isolated locations. Additionally, they put forward hypotheses about where greenhouses might factor into several strata of human health. In a recent design-in-use study of astronauts' experiences in space habitats discussed in Architecture for Astronauts (Springer Press 2011) it was found that besides the basic advantages for life support there are clearly additional "side benefits" for habitability and physical wellbeing, and thus long-term mission success. The authors have composed several key theses regarding the need to promote plant-human relationships in space, including areas where synergy and symbiosis occur. They cite new comprehensive research into the early US Space Program to reveal where programmatic requirements could be added to space architecture to increase the less quantifiable benefits to astronauts of art, recreation, and poetic engagement with their existential condition of estrangement from the planet. Specifically in terms of the technological requirements, the authors propose the integration of a new greenhouse subsystem component into space greenhouses—the Mobile Plant Cultivation Subsystem—a portable, personal greenhouse that can be integrated

  6. Kinetic study of phytotoxicity induced by foliar lead uptake for vegetables exposed to fine particles and implications for sustainable urban agriculture.

    PubMed

    Xiong, TianTian; Austruy, Annabelle; Pierart, Antoine; Shahid, Muhammad; Schreck, Eva; Mombo, Stéphane; Dumat, Camille

    2016-08-01

    At the global scale, foliar metal transfer occurs for consumed vegetables cultivated in numerous urban or industrial areas with a polluted atmosphere. However, the kinetics of metal uptake, translocation and involved phytotoxicity was never jointly studied with vegetables exposed to micronic and sub-micronic particles (PM). Different leafy vegetables (lettuces and cabbages) cultivated in RHIZOtest® devices were, therefore, exposed in a greenhouse for 5, 10 and 15days to various PbO PM doses. The kinetics of transfer and phytotoxicity was assessed in relation to lead concentration and exposure duration. A significant Pb accumulation in leaves (up to 7392mg/kg dry weight (DW) in lettuce) with translocation to roots was observed. Lead foliar exposure resulted in significant phytotoxicity, lipid composition change, a decrease of plant shoot growth (up to 68.2% in lettuce) and net photosynthesis (up to 58% in lettuce). The phytotoxicity results indicated plant adaptation to Pb and a higher sensitivity of lettuce in comparison with cabbage. Air quality needs, therefore, to be considered for the health and quality of vegetables grown in polluted areas, such as certain megacities (in China, Pakistan, Europe, etc.) and furthermore, to assess the health risks associated with their consumption.

  7. Trace metal accumulation in soil and their phytoavailability as affected by greenhouse types in north China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lanqin; Huang, Biao; Mao, Mingcui; Yao, Lipeng; Hickethier, Martina; Hu, Wenyou

    2015-05-01

    Long-term heavy organic fertilizer application has linked greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) with trace metal contamination in north China. Given that trace metals release from fertilizers and their availability may be affected by discrepant environmental conditions, especially temperature under different greenhouses, this study investigated Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn accumulation and contamination extent in soil as well as their phytoavailability under two major greenhouses in Tongshan, north China, namely solar greenhouse (SG) and round-arched plastic greenhouse (RAPG), to evaluate their presumed difference. The results showed significant Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn accumulation in GVP soil by comparing with those in open-field soil, but their accumulation extent and rates were generally greater in SG than those in RAPG. This may be related to more release of trace metals to soil due to the acceleration of decomposition and humification process of organic fertilizers under higher soil temperature in SG relative to that in RAPG. Overall, soil in both greenhouses was generally less polluted or moderately polluted by the study metals. Similarly, decreased soil pH and elevated soil available metals in SG caused higher trace metals in leaf vegetables in SG than those in RAPG, although there was no obvious risk via vegetable consumption under both greenhouses. Lower soil pH may be predominantly ascribed to more intensive farming practices in SG while elevated soil available metals may be attributed to more release of dissolved organic matter-metal complexes from soil under higher temperature in SG. The data provided in this study may assist in developing reasonable and sustainable fertilization strategies to abate trace metal contamination in both greenhouses.

  8. Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Acccord, or Midwestern Greenhouse gas Accord (MGA), is a regional agreement by governors of the states in the US Midwest and one Canadian province to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to combat climate change. Signatories to the accord include the US states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Kansas, Ohio and South Dakota, and the Canadian Province of Manitoba. The accord, signed on November 15, 2007, established the Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Program, which aims to: establish greenhouse gas reduction targets and timeframes consistent with MGA member states' targets; develop a market-based and multi-sector cap-and-trade mechanism to help achieve those reduction targets; establish a system to enable tracking, management, and crediting for entities that reduce greenhouse gas emissions; and develop and implement additional steps as needed to achieve the reduction targets, such as a low-carbon fuel standards and regional incentives and funding mechanisms. The GHG registry will be managed by the Climate Registry, which manages the registry for other US state schemes. One of the first actions was to convene an Energy Security under Climate Stewardship Platform to guide future development of the Midwest's energy economy.

  9. Yield performance of cowpea genotypes grown in alkaline soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at soil pH of 7.5 or higher, cowp...

  10. Yield performance of cowpea plant introductions grown in calcareous soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea or Southernpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] is an important legume crop used as a feed for livestock, as a green vegetable and for consumption of its dry beans which provide 22-25% protein. The crop is very sensitive to alkaline soil conditions. When grown at a soil pH of 7.5 or higher, co...

  11. Can artificial soil be used in the vegetative vigor test for U.S. pesticide registration?

    PubMed

    Bidelspach, Conor; Olszyk, David; Pfleeger, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    Current testing guidelines for pesticide registration for the protection of nontarget plants calls for the use of sterilized, standardized soil consisting of primarily sandy loam, loamy sand, loamy clay, or clay loam that contains up to 3% organic matter. Low organic matter soils can be difficult to manage in a greenhouse setting because when soils dry, they contract, causing impeded water infiltration, or when overwatered, poor drainage increases the chances of anaerobic conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine if the results for the vegetative vigor test differed when using either natural or artificial soils. The herbicide sulfometuron methyl was applied 14 d after emergence at 0.1 and 0.0032 of the suggested field application rate. Six plant species were tested, 4 of the common test species, Zea mays (corn), Glycine max (soybean), Avena sativa (oat), and Lactuca sativa (lettuce), and 2 native plants of the Willamette Valley, Oregon prairie, Bromus carinatus (California brome) and Ranunculus occidentalis (western buttercup). Herbicide application rate was the most significant factor in the experiment regardless of soil type. The different soils generally produced different results, even though the 2 native soils, one from Oregon and the other from Maryland, are both acceptable soils for the pesticide registration tests. The plants grown on artificial soil produced results generally between the Oregon and Maryland soil results. This study indicates that artificial soils may produce results similar to or more sensitive than soils currently used in the vegetative vigor test.

  12. Mid-Atlantic Consumer Purchasing Behavior and Knowledge of Locally Grown and Seasonal Produce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chamberlain, Amy J.; Kelley, Kathleen M.; Hyde, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Mid-Atlantic urban consumers were surveyed on their fruit and vegetable purchasing behaviors and their knowledge of produce grown in the region. Consumers were generally unaware of what produce is grown in the mid-Atlantic and during what months they are harvested. Additionally, differences pertaining to number of produce items purchased were…

  13. Spatial analysis of climate factors used to determine suitability of greenhouse production in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cemek, Bilal; Güler, Mustafa; Arslan, Hakan

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to identify the most suitable growing periods for greenhouse production in Turkey in order to make valuable contribution to economic viability. Data collected from the meteorological databases of 81 provinces was used to determine periodic climatological requirements of greenhouses in terms of cooling, heating, natural ventilation, and lighting. Spatial distributions of mean daily outside temperatures and greenhouse heating requirements were derived using ordinary co-kriging (OCK) supported by Geographical Information System (GIS). Mean monthly temperatures throughout the country were found to decrease below 12 °C in January, February, March, and December, indicating heating requirements, whereas temperatures in 94.46 % of the country rose above 22 °C in July, indicating cooling requirements. Artificial lighting is not a requirement in Turkey except for November, December, and January. The Mediterranean, Aegean, Marmara, and Black Sea Regions are more advantageous than the Central, East, and Southeast Anatolia Regions in terms of greenhouse production because the Mediterranean and Aegean Regions are more advantageous in terms of heating, and the Black Sea Region is more advantageous in terms of cooling. Results of our study indicated that greenhouse cultivation of winter vegetables is possible in certain areas in the north of the country. Moreover, greenhouses could alternatively be used for drying fruits and vegetables during the summer period which requires uneconomical cooling systems due to high temperatures in the Mediterranean and Southeastern Anatolian Regions.

  14. The Greenhouse and Anti-Greenhouse Effects on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, C. P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and is the only moon in the solar system with a substantial atmosphere. Its atmosphere is mostly made of nitrogen, with a few percent CH4, 0.1% H2 and an uncertain level of Ar (less than 10%). The surface pressure is 1.5 atms and the surface temperature is 95 K, decreasing to 71 at the tropopause before rising to stratospheric temperatures of 180 K. In pressure and composition Titan's atmosphere is the closest twin to Earth's. The surface of Titan remains unknown, hidden by the thick smog layer, but it may be an ocean of liquid methane and ethane. Titan's atmosphere has a greenhouse effect which is much stronger than the Earth's - 92% of the surface warming is due to greenhouse radiation. However an organic smog layer in the upper atmosphere produces an anti-greenhouse effect that cuts the greenhouse warming in half - removing 35% of the incoming solar radiation. Models suggest that during its formation Titan's atmosphere was heated to high temperatures due to accretional energy. This was followed by a cold Triton-like period which gradually warmed to the present conditions. The coupled greenhouse and haze anti-greenhouse may be relevant to recent suggestions for haze shielding of a CH4 - NH3 early atmosphere on Earth or Mars. When the NASA/ESA mission to the Saturn System, Cassini, launches in a few years it will carry a probe that will be sent to the surface of Titan and show us this world that is strange and yet in many ways similar to our own.

  15. Handling Procedures of Vegetable Crops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perchonok, Michele; French, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working towards future long duration manned space flights beyond low earth orbit. The duration of these missions may be as long as 2.5 years and will likely include a stay on a lunar or planetary surface. The primary goal of the Advanced Food System in these long duration exploratory missions is to provide the crew with a palatable, nutritious, and safe food system while minimizing volume, mass, and waste. Vegetable crops can provide the crew with added nutrition and variety. These crops do not require any cooking or food processing prior to consumption. The vegetable crops, unlike prepackaged foods, will provide bright colors, textures (crispy), and fresh aromas. Ten vegetable crops have been identified for possible use in long duration missions. They are lettuce, spinach, carrot, tomato, green onion, radish, bell pepper, strawberries, fresh herbs, and cabbage. Whether these crops are grown on a transit vehicle (e.g., International Space Station) or on the lunar or planetary surface, it will be necessary to determine how to safely handle the vegetables while maintaining acceptability. Since hydrogen peroxide degrades into water and oxygen and is generally recognized as safe (GRAS), hydrogen peroxide has been recommended as the sanitizer. The objective of th is research is to determine the required effective concentration of hydrogen peroxide. In addition, it will be determined whether the use of hydrogen peroxide, although a viable sanitizer, adversely affects the quality of the vegetables. Vegetables will be dipped in 1 % hydrogen peroxide, 3% hydrogen peroxide, or 5% hydrogen peroxide. Treated produce and controls will be stored in plastic bags at 5 C for up to 14 days. Sensory, color, texture, and total plate count will be measured. The effect on several vegetables including lettuce, radish, tomato and strawberries has been completed. Although each vegetable reacts to hydrogen peroxide differently, the

  16. Greenhouse-effect spurs legislation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Senator Timothy E. Wirth (D-Colo.) reintroduced legislation on February 1, 1989, to establish a national energy policy that would slow down the emission of pollutants contributing to the greenhouse effect. Wirth's comprehensive bill to combat the greenhouse effect includes initiatives to: increase energy-efficiency in all sectors of the US economy; expand research and development of nonfossil fuel sources such as solar; encourage technologies to reduce carbon dioxide emission from coal-fired power plants and other sources; direct the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to develop policies to stop tropical deforestation; and research the greenhouse effect, its causes, and the steps needed to cope with a changing climate.

  17. Graphic Grown Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Ann

    2009-01-01

    It's no secret that children and YAs are clued in to graphic novels (GNs) and that comics-loving adults are positively giddy that this format is getting the recognition it deserves. Still, there is a whole swath of library card-carrying grown-up readers out there with no idea where to start. Splashy movies such as "300" and "Spider-Man" and their…

  18. Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp.) in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies.

    PubMed

    Cloyd, Raymond A

    2015-04-09

    Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.) are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems.

  19. Ecology of Fungus Gnats (Bradysia spp.) in Greenhouse Production Systems Associated with Disease-Interactions and Alternative Management Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Cloyd, Raymond A.

    2015-01-01

    Fungus gnats (Bradysia spp.) are major insect pests of greenhouse-grown horticultural crops mainly due to the direct feeding damage caused by the larvae, and the ability of larvae to transmit certain soil-borne plant pathogens. Currently, insecticides and biological control agents are being used successively to deal with fungus gnat populations in greenhouse production systems. However, these strategies may only be effective as long as greenhouse producers also implement alternative management strategies such as cultural, physical, and sanitation. This includes elimination of algae, and plant and growing medium debris; placing physical barriers onto the growing medium surface; and using materials that repel fungus gnat adults. This article describes the disease-interactions associated with fungus gnats and foliar and soil-borne diseases, and the alternative management strategies that should be considered by greenhouse producers in order to alleviate problems with fungus gnats in greenhouse production systems. PMID:26463188

  20. A Guide to Energy Savings - For the Vegetable Producer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynn, N. A.

    This booklet gives a brief overview of energy use patterns in vegetable production and gives examples of cutting the cost of energy in fertilization, weed management, insect pest management, irrigation, harvesting, use of equipment, and greenhouses. Finally, energy use recordkeeping is discussed. (BB)

  1. Probabilistic viability calculations for cryopreserving vegetatively propagated collections in genebanks

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetatively propagated plant collections within genebanks are vulnerable to threats when they are maintained in field or greenhouse conditions. International genebanking standards recommend that these collections be securely backed-up at either secondary locations or by using in vitro culture or cr...

  2. Phytotoxicity of zinc and manganese to seedlings grown in soil contaminated by zinc smelting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historic emissions from two zinc smelters have damaged the forest on Blue Mountain near Palmerton, Pennsylvania, USA. Seedlings of soybeans and five tree species were grown in a greenhouse in a series of mixtures of smelter-contaminated and reference soils. As little as 10% Palmerton soil mixed wi...

  3. Perfluoroalkyl acid distribution in various plant compartments of edible crops grown in biosolids-amended soils

    EPA Science Inventory

    Crop uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) from biosolids-amended soil has been identified as a potential pathway for PFAA entry into the terrestrial food chain. This study compared the uptake of PFAAs in greenhouse-grown radish (Raphanus sativus), celery (Apium graveolens var.d...

  4. [Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the vegetation restoration of different types of coal mine spoil banks].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ren-Xin; Guo, Wei; Fu, Rui-Ying; Zhao, Wen-Jing; Guo, Jiang-Yuan; Bi, Na; Zhang, Jun

    2013-11-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to investigate the influence of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi Glomus etunicatum (GE) and Glomus versiforme (GV) on the plant growth, nutrient uptake, C: N: P stoichiometric, uptake of heavy metals by maize (Zea mays L.) grown in three types of coal mine spoil banks. The aim was to provide a technical basis for the revegetation of coal mine spoil banks in grassland ecosystem. The results indicated that the symbiotic associations were successfully established between two isolates and maize grown in the three substrates, with an average mycorrhizal colonization rate ranging from 36% to 54%. The colonization of two AM fungi significantly increased the dry weight of maize grown in recent discharged and weathered coal mine spoils and GE increased those grown in weathered coal mine spoil. Inoculation with AM fungi promoted the uptake of N, P and K by maize to varying degrees. In addition, inoculation with GE and GV also decreased C: N: P ratios, supporting the growth rate hypothesis, and had significantly differences on concentrations of Cu, Fe, Mn and Zn in shoots and roots of maize. The results indicated that GE and GV had different mycorrhizal effects on maize in the three types of substrates. GV was more suitable for the revegetation of recent discharged coal mine spoil and weathered coal mine spoil, while GE was more suitable for the revegetation of spontaneous combusted coal mine spoil. The experiment demonstrates that AM fungi have a potential role for maize to enhance the ability to adapt the composite adversity of different types of coal mine spoil and play a positive role in the revegetation of different coal mine spoil banks. Further field experiments should be conducted to evaluate the practical effects of AM fungi on the vegetation restoration of different types of coal mine spoil under field conditions.

  5. Mineral composition of organically grown tomato

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghambashidze, Giorgi

    2014-05-01

    In recent years, consumer concerns on environmental and health issues related to food products have increased and, as a result, the demand for organically grown production has grown. Results indicate that consumers concerned about healthy diet and environmental degradation are the most likely to buy organic food, and are willing to pay a high premium. Therefore, it is important to ensure the quality of the produce, especially for highly consumed products. The tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) is one of the most widely consumed fresh vegetables in the world. It is also widely used by the food industries as a raw material for the production of derived products such as purees or ketchup. Consequently, many investigations have addressed the impact of plant nutrition on the quality of tomato fruit. The concentrations of minerals (P, Na, K, Ca and Mg) and trace elements (Cu, Zn and Mn) were determined in tomatoes grown organically in East Georgia, Marneuli District. The contents of minerals and Mn seem to be in the range as shown in literature. Cu and Zn were found in considerably high amounts in comparison to maximum permissible values established in Georgia. Some correlations were observed between the minerals and trace elements studied. K and Mg were strongly correlated with Cu and Zn. Statistically significant difference have shown also P, K and Mg based between period of sampling.

  6. An Introduction to Greenhouse Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Robert W.

    This student manual provides a basic text for those preparing for greenhouse and floriculture work. At the beginning of each chapter, competencies are listed, along with related math and science concepts, and a list of "terms to know"; figures, tables, and photographs may be included. At the end of each chapter, a self-check can be made…

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane are the primary greenhouse gases associated with global climate change. Livestock production’s contribution to carbon dioxide emissions is minimal, but it is a substantial contributor to both nitrous oxide and methane emissions. In both grazing and confin...

  8. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes ...

  9. Building and using the solar greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    Thorough directions are given for planning, constructing and using a solar greenhouse attached to a house. Included is a method of calculating the savings accruing from the use of the greenhouse. (LEW)

  10. The Greenhouse Effect: Science and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Stephen H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses many of the scientific questions surrounding the greenhouse effect debate and the issue of plausible responses. Discussion includes topics concerning projecting emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations, estimating global climatic response, economic, social, and political impacts, and policy responses. (RT)

  11. Engineering concepts for inflatable Mars surface greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Hublitz, I; Henninger, D L; Drake, B G; Eckart, P

    2004-01-01

    A major challenge of designing a bioregenerative life support system for Mars is the reduction of the mass, volume, power, thermal and crew-time requirements. Structural mass of the greenhouse could be saved by operating the greenhouse at low atmospheric pressure. This paper investigates the feasibility of this concept. The method of equivalent system mass is used to compare greenhouses operated at high atmospheric pressure to greenhouses operated at low pressure for three different lighting methods: natural, artificial and hybrid lighting.

  12. Developmental, nutritional and hormonal anomalies of weightlessness-grown wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carman, J. G.; Hole, P.; Salisbury, F. B.; Bingham, G. E.

    2015-07-01

    The behavior of water in weightlessness, as occurs in orbiting spacecraft, presents multiple challenges for plant growth. Soils remain saturated, impeding aeration, and leaf surfaces remain wet, impeding gas exchange. Herein we report developmental and biochemical anomalies of "Super Dwarf" wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown aboard Space Station Mir during the 1996-97 "Greenhouse 2" experiment. Leaves of Mir-grown wheat were hyperhydric, senesced precociously and accumulated aromatic and branched-chain amino acids typical of tissues experiencing oxidative stress. The highest levels of stress-specific amino acids occurred in precociously-senescing leaves. Our results suggest that the leaf ventilation system of the Svet Greenhouse failed to remove sufficient boundary layer water, thus leading to poor gas exchange and onset of oxidative stress. As oxidative stress in plants has been observed in recent space-flight experiments, we recommend that percentage water content in apoplast free-spaces of leaves be used to evaluate leaf ventilation effectiveness. Mir-grown plants also tillered excessively. Crowns and culms of these plants contained low levels of abscisic acid but high levels of cytokinins. High ethylene levels may have suppressed abscisic acid synthesis, thus permitting cytokinins to accumulate and tillering to occur.

  13. The Greenhouse Effect and Built Environment Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenall Gough, Annette; Gough, Noel

    The greenhouse effect has always existed. Without the greenhouse effect, Earth could well have the oven-like environment of Venus or the deep-freeze environment of Mars. There is some debate about how much the Earth's surface temperature will rise given a certain amount of increase in the amount of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous…

  14. Seedborne fungal contamination: consequences in space-grown wheat.

    PubMed

    Bishop, D L; Levine, H G; Kropp, B R; Anderson, A J

    1997-11-01

    Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses that may promote microbial growth and result in disease symptoms. Wheat (cv. Super Dwarf) recovered from an 8-day mission aboard a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) space shuttle showed disease symptoms, including girdling of leaf sheaths and chlorosis and necrosis of leaf and root tissues. A Neotyphodium species was isolated from the seed and leaf sheaths of symptomatic wheat used in the spaceflight mission. Certain isozymes of a peroxidase unique to extracts from the microgravity-grown plants were observed in extracts from earth-grown Neotyphodium-infected plants but were not present in noninfected wheat. The endophytic fungus was eliminated from the wheat seed by prolonged heat treatment at 50 degrees C followed by washes with water at 50 degrees C. Plants from wheat seed infected with the Neotyphodium endophyte were symptomless when grown under greenhouse conditions, whereas symptoms appeared after only 4 days of growth in closed containers. Disease spread from an infected plant to noninfected plants in closed containers. Dispersion via spores was found on asymptomatic plants at distances of 7 to 18 cm from infected plants. The size and shape of the conidia, mycelia, and phialide-bearing structures and the ability to grow rapidly on carbohydrates, especially xylose, resembled the characteristics of N. chilense, which is pathogenic on orchard grass, Doctylis glomerati. The Neotyphodium wheat isolate caused disease symptoms on other cereals (wheat cv. Malcolm, orchard grass, barley, and maize) grown in closed containers.

  15. Seedborne fungal contamination: consequences in space-grown wheat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bishop, D. L.; Levine, H. G.; Kropp, B. R.; Anderson, A. J.; Hood, E. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1997-01-01

    Plants grown in microgravity are subject to many environmental stresses that may promote microbial growth and result in disease symptoms. Wheat (cv. Super Dwarf) recovered from an 8-day mission aboard a NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) space shuttle showed disease symptoms, including girdling of leaf sheaths and chlorosis and necrosis of leaf and root tissues. A Neotyphodium species was isolated from the seed and leaf sheaths of symptomatic wheat used in the spaceflight mission. Certain isozymes of a peroxidase unique to extracts from the microgravity-grown plants were observed in extracts from earth-grown Neotyphodium-infected plants but were not present in noninfected wheat. The endophytic fungus was eliminated from the wheat seed by prolonged heat treatment at 50 degrees C followed by washes with water at 50 degrees C. Plants from wheat seed infected with the Neotyphodium endophyte were symptomless when grown under greenhouse conditions, whereas symptoms appeared after only 4 days of growth in closed containers. Disease spread from an infected plant to noninfected plants in closed containers. Dispersion via spores was found on asymptomatic plants at distances of 7 to 18 cm from infected plants. The size and shape of the conidia, mycelia, and phialide-bearing structures and the ability to grow rapidly on carbohydrates, especially xylose, resembled the characteristics of N. chilense, which is pathogenic on orchard grass, Doctylis glomerati. The Neotyphodium wheat isolate caused disease symptoms on other cereals (wheat cv. Malcolm, orchard grass, barley, and maize) grown in closed containers.

  16. Evaluation of cadmium in greenhouse soils and agricultural products of Jiroft (Iran) using microwave digestion prior to atomic absorption spectrometry determination.

    PubMed

    Afzali, Daryoush; Fathirad, Fariba; Afzali, Zahra; Majdzadeh-Kermani, Seyed Mohammad Javad

    2015-03-01

    This study determines total levels of potentially toxic trace element, Cd (II) in Jiroft (Kerman, Iran) greenhouse soil and agricultural products that are grown in these greenhouses (tomatoes and cucumbers), and the comparison with soil outside of greenhouse using microwave digestion prior to flame atomic absorption spectrometry determination. The results show that the cadmium concentration in greenhouse soil is 0.9-1.9 mg kg(-1) and out of greenhouse is 0.4-1.0 mg kg(-1). Also, cadmium concentration range in tomatoes and cucumbers is about 0.07-0.40 mg kg(-1). The obtained results show that the concentration of this metal in greenhouse soil is higher than outside soil samples and is below the safe limit.

  17. Greenhouse gas emissions from constructed wetlands treating dairy wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glass, Vimy M.

    In Nova Scotia, constructed wetland systems are widely considered as effective treatment systems for agricultural wastewater. Although research has examined the water quality treatment attributes, there has been limited focus on the air quality effects of these systems. Six operational pilot-scale constructed wetlands were built with flow-through chambers for quantifying greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in Truro, NS. Utilized within this facility were three gas analyzers to monitor GHG emissions (CO2, N 2O, CH4) and the gaseous fluxes could then be determined using the mass balance micrometeorological technique. Prior to data collection, the site underwent testing to ensure valid conclusions and replicated responses from the wetland systems. Those wetlands receiving wastewater at a typical HLR (10.6 mm d-1) and with ample vegetation displayed the best concentration reductions. During the growing season (GS), average CO 2 consumption was large (approximately -44 g CO2m -2 d-1) for wetlands with dense vegetation (approximately 100% cover) at the typical loading rate. For those wetlands at higher loading rates, CO2 emissions were observed to be as high as +9.2 g CO 2m-2 d-1. Wetlands with typical loading rates and healthy aquatic vegetation produced average CH4 fluxes of approximately 43 g CO2 eq. m-2d-1, while higher loaded systems with little vegetation approached 90 g CO 2 eq. m-2d-1. During the non-growing season (NGS), all vegetated wetlands exhibited higher CH4 emissions than the non-vegetated systems (˜15 to 20% higher). Vegetation maturity played a strong role in the GHG balance. The average CO2consumption for wetlands with established vegetation was ˜ -36 g CO2 m -2 d-1 during the GS. Wetland 4, which had been newly transplanted in 2004, had the highest single day CO2 consumption of -152 g CO2m-2 d-1 . Methane emissions from wetlands with two-year-old vegetation followed the same pattern but were approximately half of the emissions recorded from 2003. The

  18. Characterization of the acylglycerols and resulting biodiesel derived from vegetable oil and microalgae (Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum).

    PubMed

    Zendejas, Frank J; Benke, Peter I; Lane, Pamela D; Simmons, Blake A; Lane, Todd W

    2012-05-01

    Algal biofuels are a growing interest worldwide due to their potential in terms of sustainable greenhouse gas displacement and energy production. This article describes a comparative survey of biodiesel production and conversion yields of biodiesel via alkaline transesterification of acylglycerols extracted from the microalgae Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, grown under silicate or nitrate limitation, and that of model vegetable oils: soybean, and rapeseed oil. Acylglycerols were extracted with n-hexane and the total yield per biomass was determined by gravimetric assay. Under our conditions, the total acylglycerol yield from the microalgae studied was 13-18% of total dry weight. The biodiesel samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-flame ionization detector to determine quantitative information of residual glycerol, mono-, di-, and tri-acylglycerol concentrations in the biodiesel. All of the algal-based biodiesel demonstrated less mono-, di-, and tri-acylglycerol concentrations than the vegetable-based biodiesel under identical transesterification conditions. The fatty acid compositions of all the feedstock oils and their resultant biodiesel were also analyzed and reported. Based on the fatty acid methyl ester compositions of our samples we qualitatively assessed the suitability of the algal-derived biodiesel in terms of cetane number (CN), cold-flow properties, and oxidative stability.

  19. Preliminary greenhouse design for a Martian colony: Structural, solar collection, and light distribution systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The design of a greenhouse that will be a component of a long-term habitat on Mars is presented. The greenhouse will be the primary food source for people stationed on Mars. The food will be grown in three identical underground modules, pressurized at 1 atm to allow a shirt-sleeve environment within the greenhouse. The underground location will support the structure, moderate the large environmental variations on the surface, and protect the crops from cosmic radiation. The design effort is concentrated on the outer structure and the lighting system for the greenhouse. The structure is inflatable and made of a Kevlar 49/Epoxy composite and a pipe-arched system that is corrugated to increase stiffness. This composite is pliable in an uncured state, which allows it to be efficiently packaged for transport. The lighting system consists of several flat-plate fiber optic solar collectors with dual-axis tracking systems that will continually track the sun. This design is modeled after the Himawari collector, which was designed by Dr. Kei Mori and is currently in use in Japan. The light will pass through Fresnel lenses that filter out undesirable wavelengths and send the light into the greenhouses by way of fiber optic cables. When the light arrives at the greenhouse, it is dispersed to the plants via a waveguide and diffuser system.

  20. Preliminary greenhouse design for a Martian colony: Structural, solar collection, and light distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-11-01

    The design of a greenhouse that will be a component of a long-term habitat on Mars is presented. The greenhouse will be the primary food source for people stationed on Mars. The food will be grown in three identical underground modules, pressurized at 1 atm to allow a shirt-sleeve environment within the greenhouse. The underground location will support the structure, moderate the large environmental variations on the surface, and protect the crops from cosmic radiation. The design effort is concentrated on the outer structure and the lighting system for the greenhouse. The structure is inflatable and made of a Kevlar 49/Epoxy composite and a pipe-arched system that is corrugated to increase stiffness. This composite is pliable in an uncured state, which allows it to be efficiently packaged for transport. The lighting system consists of several flat-plate fiber optic solar collectors with dual-axis tracking systems that will continually track the sun. This design is modeled after the Himawari collector, which was designed by Dr. Kei Mori and is currently in use in Japan. The light will pass through Fresnel lenses that filter out undesirable wavelengths and send the light into the greenhouses by way of fiber optic cables. When the light arrives at the greenhouse, it is dispersed to the plants via a waveguide and diffuser system.

  1. Greenhouse-gas payback times for crop-based biofuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elshout, P. M. F.; van Zelm, R.; Balkovic, J.; Obersteiner, M.; Schmid, E.; Skalsky, R.; van der Velde, M.; Huijbregts, M. A. J.

    2015-06-01

    A global increase in the demand for crop-based biofuels may be met by cropland expansion, and could require the sacrifice of natural vegetation. Such land transformation alters the carbon and nitrogen cycles of the original system, and causes significant greenhouse-gas emissions, which should be considered when assessing the global warming performance of crop-based biofuels. As an indicator of this performance we propose the use of greenhouse-gas payback time (GPBT), that is, the number of years it takes before the greenhouse-gas savings due to displacing fossil fuels with biofuels equal the initial losses of carbon and nitrogen stocks from the original ecosystem. Spatially explicit global GPBTs were derived for biofuel production systems using five different feedstocks (corn, rapeseed, soybean, sugarcane and winter wheat), cultivated under no-input and high-input farm management. Overall, GPBTs were found to range between 1 and 162 years (95% range, median: 19 years) with the longest GPBTs occurring in the tropics. Replacing no-input with high-input farming typically shortened the GPBTs by 45 to 79%. Location of crop cultivation was identified as the primary factor driving variation in GPBTs. This study underscores the importance of using spatially explicit impact assessments to guide biofuel policy.

  2. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    ScienceCinema

    Anderson, Diana

    2016-07-12

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas — one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  3. Volcanoes can muddle the greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    As scientists and politicians anxiously eye signs of global greenhouse warming, climatologists are finding the best evidence yet that a massive volcanic eruption can temporarily bring the temperature down a notch or two. Such a cooling could be enough to set the current global warming back more than a decade, confusing any efforts to link it to the greenhouse effect. By effectively eliminating some nonvolcanic climate changes from the record of the past 100 years, researchers have detected drops in global temperature of several tenths of a degree within 1 to 2 years of volcanic eruptions. Apparently, the debris spewed into the stratosphere blocked sunlight and caused the temperature drops. For all their potential social significance, the climate effects of volcanoes have been hard to detect. The problem has been in identifying a volcanic cooling among the nearly continuous climate warmings and coolings of a similar size that fill the record. The paper reviews how this was done.

  4. Mitigating cadmium accumulation in greenhouse lettuce production using biochar.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ruilun; Sun, Guoxin; Li, Cui; Reid, Brian J; Xie, Zubin; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Qinghai

    2017-01-10

    Greenhouse experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of rice straw biochar (RSB) on soil cadmium (Cd) availability and accumulation in lettuce. The RSB was applied either in bands or broadcast in the test site of four greenhouses with soil Cd concentrations ranging from 1.70-3.14 μg g(-1). Biochar doses applied in bands were half of those broadcast. The Cd levels in the shoots of lettuce were observed to be reduced by up to 57% with increasing RSB application rate (0, 6, 12, 18 t ha(-1)). Following RSB application, shoot Cd concentrations of lettuce were reduced to below the Chinese threshold value set for food, and hazard quotients for Cd associated with vegetable consumption were reduced from 0.70-1.11 to 0.42-0.65. A decrease in soil bulk density (11%) and increases in water holding capacity (16%), available phosphorus (30%), available potassium (197%), and lettuce yield (15%) were observed after RSB application. Multiple linear regression analysis suggested that the soil extractable Cd level (but not biomass dilution) and soil bulk density, as influenced by RSB addition, were the dominant contributors to the shoot Cd levels in lettuce and lettuce yield, respectively. These results highlight the potential for RSB to mitigate the phytoaccumulation of Cd and thereby to reduce human exposure from vegetable consumption. Application of biochar in band, rather than broadcasting over the entire area, represents an opportunity to halve the biochar cost while retaining a good remediation effect.

  5. The making of greenhouse policy

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of anthropogenic climate change on a global scale has raised a public policy debate which has become the archetypical science policy issue. Against a background of natural changes in the earth's climate man has altered the surface of the earth and its atmosphere. We have evidence of increases in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The computer models of the climate effect take into account this input, but do not adequately simulate fundamental aspects of the Earth system which may reduce or increase the predicted climate effects. The average global temperatures did not increase from 1979 to 1989 yet global increases in releases of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere were at unprecendented levels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, an international body, has set up three working groups to investigate different aspects of climate change. Their reports were presented to the Second World Climate Conference in Geneva from October 29 to November 7, 1990. All three groups cited uncertainties in their assessments of effects of global climate change. A government wide U.S. Global Change Research Program has been formed to monitor and understand the Earth system and predict global change. President Bush has asked for over $1 billion to fund this research program. Social and economic factors will play a large role in any policy decisions that affect climate change. Policies have been instituted by this administration which will reduce greenhouse-gas-emissions. These include the phasing out of CFCs by the year 2000, The Clean Air Act being debated by Congress, and a National Energy Strategy. President Bush has proposed the U.S. host the first negotiating sessions leading to an international agreement on greenhouse policy.

  6. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  7. Greenhouse Gases Monitoring from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, Takashi

    The role of greenhouse gases in global warming processes and an important element of the global carbon cycle is widely recognized. With the advent of the technical means to provide new monitoring and measurement of greenhouse gases (GHG) from space, JAXA has identified the coordination of these measurements and their application by cooperating with international space agencies. In order to foster the use of space-based GHG observations and consolidate data requirements for the next generation GHG monitoring mission from space, a synergetic strategy for easy access to GHG satellite observations, including GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Monitoring Satellite, JAXA) and current observations should be developed, and also harmonizing the next generation of GHG satellite observations shoud be facilitated. The Paper describes the current status of international activities of GHG monitoring from space and relations with policy makers and stake holders. The long term GHG monitoring from space is also proposed by respecting the GEO Carbon Strategy which is published in March 2010. Also, GOSAT sample XCO2 and XCH4 global column amount datasets will be introduced with the avtivities of validation campaign.

  8. Scientists Inspect Plant Grown onboard the ISS in 2002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Advanced Astroculture (tm) unit is growing plants on its second flight on the International Space Station. Dr. Weijia Zhou (left), director of the Wisconsin Center for Space Automation and Robotics at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, inspects soybeans grown in the plant growth unit aboard ISS in 2002. Coating technology is used inside the miniature plant greenhouse to remove ethylene, a chemical produced by plant leaves that can cause plants to mature too quickly. This same coating technology is used in a new anthrax-killing device. The Space Station experiment is managed by the Space Partnership Development Program at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Ala.

  9. Reproductive Ontogeny of Wheat Grown on the MIR Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bubenheim, David L.; Stieber, Joseph

    1997-01-01

    The reproductive ontogeny of 'Super-Dwarf' wheat grown on the space station Mir is chronicled from the vegetative phase through flower development. Changes in the apical meristem associated with transition From the vegetative phase to floral initiation and development of the reproductive spike were all typical of 'Super Dwarf' wheat up to the point of anthesis. Filament elongation, which characteristically occurs just prior to anthesis and moves the anthers through the stigmatic branches thus facilitating pollination, did no1 xcur in the flowers of spikes grown on Mir. While development of spikes on tillers typically occurs later :han that of spikes on the main stem, all flowers appear to be arrested at the same developmental point.

  10. The Spacelab-Mir-1 "Greenhouse-2" experiment.

    PubMed

    Bingham, G E; Salisbury, F B; Campbell, W F; Carman, J G; Bubenheim, D L; Yendler, B; Sytchev, V N; Berkovitch YuA; Levinskikh, M A; Podolsky, I G

    1996-01-01

    The Spacelab-Mir-1 (SLM-1) mission is the first docking of the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-71) with the Orbital Station Mir in June 1995. The SLM-1 "Greenhouse-2" experiment will utilize the Russian-Bulgarian-developed plant growth unit (Svet). "Greenhouse-2" will include two plantings (1) designed to test the capability of Svet to grow a crop of Superdwarf wheat from seed to seed, and (2) to provide green plant material for post-flight analysis. Protocols, procedures, and equipment for the experiment have been developed by the US-Russian science team. "Greenhouse-2" will also provide the first orbital test of a new Svet Instrumentation System (SIS) developed by Utah State University to provide near real time data on plant environmental parameters and gas-exchange rates. SIS supplements the Svet control and monitoring system with additional sensors for substrate moisture, air temperature, IR leaf temperature, light, oxygen, pressure, humidity, and carbon-dioxide. SIS provides the capability to monitor canopy transpiration and net assimilation of the plants growing in each vegetation unit (root zone) by enclosing the canopy in separate, retractable, ventilated leaf chambers. Six times during the seed-to-seed experiment, plant samples will be collected, leaf area measured, and plant parts fixed and/or dried for ground analysis. A second planting initiated 30 days before the arrival of a U.S. Shuttle [originally planned to be STS-71] is designed to provide green material at the vegetative development stage for ground analysis. [As this paper is being edited, the experiment has been delayed until after the arrival of STS-71.

  11. The spacelab-mir-1 ``greenhouse-2'' experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, G. E.; Salisbury, F. B.; Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Bubenheim, D. L.; Yendler, B.; Sytchev, V. N.; Berkovitch, Yu. A.; Levinskikh, M. A.; Podolsky, I. G.

    1996-01-01

    The Spacelab-Mir-1 (SLM-1) mission is the first docking of the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-71) with the Orbital Station Mir in June 1995. The SLM-1 ``Greenhouse-2'' experiment will utilize the Russian-Bulgarian-developed plant growth unit (Svet). ``Greenhouse-2'' will include two plantings (1) designed to test the capability of Svet to grow a crop of Superdwarf wheat from seed to seed, and (2) to provide green plant material for post-flight analysis. Protocols, procedures, and equipment for the experiment have been developed by the US-Russian science team. ``Greenhouse-2'' will also provide the first orbital test of a new Svet Instrumentation System (SIS) developed by Utah State University to provide near real time data on plant environmental parameters and gas-exchange rates. SIS supplements the Svet control and monitoring system with additional sensors for substrate moisture, air temperature, IR leaf temperature, light, oxygen, pressure, humidity, and carbon-dioxide. SIS provides the capability to monitor canopy transpiration and net assimilation of the plants growing in each vegetation unit (root zone) by enclosing the canopy in separate, retractable, ventilated leaf chambers. Six times during the seed-to-seed experiment, plant samples will be collected, leaf area measured, and plant parts fixed and/or dried for ground analysis. A second planting initiated 30 days before the arrival of a U.S. Shuttle [originally planned to be STS-71] is designed to provide green material at the vegetative development stage for ground analysis. [As this paper is being edited, the experiment has been delayed until after the arrival of STS-71.

  12. The Spacelab-Mir-1 "Greenhouse-2" experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, G. E.; Salisbury, F. B.; Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Bubenheim, D. L.; Yendler, B.; Sytchev, V. N.; Levinskikh, M. A.; Podolsky, I. G.

    1996-01-01

    The Spacelab-Mir-1 (SLM-1) mission is the first docking of the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-71) with the Orbital Station Mir in June 1995. The SLM-1 "Greenhouse-2" experiment will utilize the Russian-Bulgarian-developed plant growth unit (Svet). "Greenhouse-2" will include two plantings (1) designed to test the capability of Svet to grow a crop of Superdwarf wheat from seed to seed, and (2) to provide green plant material for post-flight analysis. Protocols, procedures, and equipment for the experiment have been developed by the US-Russian science team. "Greenhouse-2" will also provide the first orbital test of a new Svet Instrumentation System (SIS) developed by Utah State University to provide near real time data on plant environmental parameters and gas-exchange rates. SIS supplements the Svet control and monitoring system with additional sensors for substrate moisture, air temperature, IR leaf temperature, light, oxygen, pressure, humidity, and carbon-dioxide. SIS provides the capability to monitor canopy transpiration and net assimilation of the plants growing in each vegetation unit (root zone) by enclosing the canopy in separate, retractable, ventilated leaf chambers. Six times during the seed-to-seed experiment, plant samples will be collected, leaf area measured, and plant parts fixed and/or dried for ground analysis. A second planting initiated 30 days before the arrival of a U.S. Shuttle [originally planned to be STS-71] is designed to provide green material at the vegetative development stage for ground analysis. [As this paper is being edited, the experiment has been delayed until after the arrival of STS-71.].

  13. Heat and mass transfer of a low-pressure Mars greenhouse: Simulation and experimental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hublitz, Inka

    Biological life support systems based on plant growth offer the advantage of producing fresh food for the crew during a long surface stay on Mars. Greenhouses on Mars are also used for air and water regeneration and waste treatment. A major challenge in developing a Mars greenhouse is its interaction with the thin and cold Mars environment. Operating a Mars greenhouse at low interior pressure reduces the pressure differential across the structure and therefore saves structural mass as well as reduces leakage. Experiments were conducted to analyze the heating requirements as well as the temperature and humidity distribution within a small-scale greenhouse that was placed in a chamber simulating the temperatures, pressure and light conditions on Mars. Lettuce plants were successfully grown inside of the Mars greenhouse for up to seven days. The greenhouse atmosphere parameters, including temperature, total pressure, oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration were controlled tightly; radiation level, relative humidity and plant evapo-transpiration rates were measured. A vertical stratification of temperature and humidity across the greenhouse atmosphere was observed. Condensation formed on the inside of the greenhouse when the shell temperature dropped below the dew-point. During the night cycles frost built up on the greenhouse base plate and the lower part of the shell. Heat loss increased significantly during the night cycle. Due to the placement of the heating system and the fan blowing warm air directly on the upper greenhouse shell, condensation above the plants was avoided and therefore the photosynthetically active radiation at plant level was kept constant. Plant growth was not affected by the temperature stratification due to the tight temperature control of the warmer upper section of the greenhouse, where the lettuce plants were placed. A steady state and a transient heat transfer model of the low pressure greenhouse were developed for the day and the night

  14. Greenhouse gas exchange in grasslands: impacts of climate, intensity of management and other factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. A.

    2003-04-01

    several Western European countries, very high rates of N application to both grazed grassland and to grass crops grown for winter feed have made these lands the principal source of N_2O. It has been estimated that 40% of global emissions of NO, a precursor of tropospheric ozone, come from grasslands and savannas. Global warming is expected to bring about substantial changes in the overall greenhouse gas exchange of grasslands, with a net loss of soil C as CO_2, and possibly enhanced N_2O emissions. Increased rainfall is predicted for some regions, and this can also be expected to give rise to increases in N_2O.

  15. Effect of Mulch Surface Color on Root-knot of Tomato Grown in Simulated Planting Beds.

    PubMed

    Fortnum, B A; Kasperbauer, M J; Decoteau, D R

    2000-03-01

    The effect of different-colored polyethylene mulches on quantity and spectra of reflected light, plant morphology, and root-knot disease was studied in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown in simulated planting beds. Tomato plants were inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita at initial populations (Pi) of 0, 1,000, 10,000, or 50,000 eggs/plant, and grown in a greenhouse for 50 days over white, red, or black mulch. Soil temperature was kept constant among the mulch treatments by placing an insulation barrier between the colored mulch and the soil surface. Soil temperature varied less than 0.5 degrees C between soil chambers at solar noon. Tomatoes grown over white mulch received more reflected photosynthetic light and had greater shoot weights (27%), root weights (32%), and leaf area (20%) than plants grown over black mulch. Plants grown over red mulch received a higher far-red-to-red ratio in the reflected light. Mulch color altered the plant's response to root-knot nematode infection by changing the distribution of mass in axillary shoots. At high Pi, axillary leaf area and leaf weight were greater in tomato grown over white mulch than when grown over red mulch. The root-gall index was lower for plants grown over white mulch than similar plants grown over red mulch.

  16. Characterization of global vegetation using AVHRR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiang, Richard K.

    1998-03-01

    Increase in the levels of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases over the next half-century may result in an increase in global mean temperature. The recent discoveries of possible advance of arctic tree line into the tundra and earlier greening of northern vegetation provide additional warnings that global warming may indeed be occurring. On the Earth surface, land cover and its changes affect the coupling between the biosphere and the atmosphere, and control many important Earth system processes. Satellite remote sensing provides long-term, repeated coverage over extended area and is the essential data source for monitoring climate changes. An Advanced Very-High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) Pathfinder dataset from 1987, in 1 degree latitude-longitude resolution, is used in this study. Two reflective channels, two thermal channels, and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index are the input parameters. In conjunction with a global vegetation ground truth, a multi-layer neural network is trained and used for global vegetation characterization. As the same type of vegetation may appear very differently over different parts of the Earth at any given time, global classification is more difficult than local classification. It is shown that a multitemporal approach, in which data from multiple dates are used, may improve the accuracy.

  17. Greenhouse irrigation control system design based on ZigBee and fuzzy PID technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Bing; Yang, Qiliang; Liu, Kenan; Li, Peiqing; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Qijian

    In order to achieve the water demand information accurately detect of the greenhouse crop and its precision irrigation automatic control, this article has designed a set of the irrigated control system based on ZigBee and fuzzy PID technology, which composed by the soil water potential sensor, CC2530F256 wireless microprocessor, IAR Embedded Workbench software development platform. And the time of Irrigation as the output .while the amount of soil water potential and crop growth cycle as the input. The article depended on Greenhouse-grown Jatropha to verify the object, the results show that the system can irrigate timely and appropriately according to the soil water potential and water demend of the different stages of Jatropha growth , which basically meet the design requirements. Therefore, the system has broad application prospects in the amount of greenhouse crop of fine control irrigation.

  18. Solar energy collection/storage system for greenhouses: observed and simulated performance

    SciTech Connect

    Willits, D.H.; Chandra, P.; Miller, C.H.

    1981-01-01

    Performance data are pesented and some operating characteristics of a solar energy collection/storage system for greenhouses are examined. The system uses an external rock storage connected to a 6.7 x 12.2 m, fiberglass-covered greenhouse to hold excess energy collected with the greenhouse during the day for use in supplementing heating requirements during periods of deficit. Fuel consumption in the test house is compared to that in an identical, unmodified control house for three growing seasons over 1 1/2 years. Tomatoes were grown for two of the three seasons (Fall 78 and Spring 79) and lettuce was grown during the third (Fall 79). The data indicate that a savings of 31.1% was achieved for the Fall 79 season as compared to 16.9% for the same period of the previous year. This improvement is attributed to the reduced operating temperature and evapotranspiration load of the lettuce crop as well as to some improvements made to the system during the summer of 1979. Increased electrical consumption required to pump the air through the rock storage was observed to be a small percentage of the total energy saved. Yield data for the three growing seasons are pesented but no conclusions are drawn. Simulation studies performed in an effort to answer some pertinent questions about the performance of the system indicate that: (1) the uncontrolled release of heat from internal storages can be detrimental during periods when little or no heating is required resulting in higher greenhouse temperatures, and therefore higher plant respiration rates, than houses using external storages; and (2) better performance can be expected with double polyethylene-covered greenhouses than with fiberglass greenhouses owing to reduced nighttime heating load and increased solar energy collection.

  19. Native Grasses as a Management Alternative on Vegetated Closure Caps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwit, Charles; Collins, Beverly

    2008-06-01

    Capped waste sites often are vegetated with commercial turf grasses to increase evapotranspiration and prevent erosion and possible exposure of the barrier. Fertilizer, frequent watering, and mowing may be required to establish the turf grass and prevent invasion by trees and shrubs. Oldfield vegetation of grasses and forbs is a possible sustainable alternative to turf grass communities. To determine if oldfield vegetation can establish on caps, we (1) compared establishment of a dominant oldfield grass and a commercial turf grass under different combinations of new closure cap management: spring or summer planting and presence or absence of amendments to alleviate drought (watering, mulch) or increase soil fertility (fertilizer, lime, a nitrogen-fixing legume); (2) surveyed existing caps to determine if oldfield species establish naturally; and (3) performed a greenhouse experiment to compare growth of two native grasses under low and amended (added water, soil nutrients) conditions. Both the commercial grass and oldfield species established under new cap conditions; fertilizer, water, and mulch improved vegetation establishment in spring or summer, but legumes decreased grass cover. In the greenhouse, both native grasses grew best with amendments; however, substantial stem and root length were obtained with no fertilizer and only once-weekly watering. Existing vegetated caps supported planted grasses and naturally established oldfield species. Overall, the results indicate native grasses can establish on new caps and oldfields can serve as a management model; further work is needed to determine the management strategy to maintain herbaceous vegetation and slow woody species invasion.

  20. Monitoring vegetation water uptake in a semiarid riparian corridor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, J.; Ochoa, C. G.; Leonard, J.

    2015-12-01

    With a changing global climate and growing demand for water throughout the world, responsible and sustainable land and water resource management practices are becoming increasingly important. Accounting for the amount of water used by riparian vegetation is a critical element for better managing water resources in arid and semiarid environments. The objective of this study was to determine water uptake by selected riparian vegetative species in a semiarid riparian corridor in North-Central Oregon. Exo-skin sap flow sensors (Dynamax, Houston, TX, U.S.A.) were used to measure sap flux in red alder (Alnus rubra) trees, the dominant overstory vegetation at the field site. Xylem sap flow data was collected from selected trees at the field site and in a greenhouse setting. Transpiration rates were determined based on an energy balance method, which makes it possible to estimate the mass flow of sap by measuring the velocity of electrical heat pulses through the plant stem. Preliminary field results indicate that red alder tree branches of about 1 inch diameter transpire between 2 and 6 kg of water/day. Higher transpiration rates of up to 7.3 kg of water/day were observed under greenhouse conditions. Streamflow and stream water temperature, vegetation characteristics, and meteorological data were analyzed in conjunction with transpiration data. Results of this study provide insight on riparian vegetation water consumption in water scarce ecosystems. This study is part of an overarching project focused on climate-vegetation interactions and ecohydrologic processes in arid and semiarid landscapes.

  1. Contents of fluorides in vegetables from areas contaminated by industrial emissions: a preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Machoy, Z.; Samujlo, D.

    1981-01-01

    In vegetables grown in 1978 and 1979 near a chemical plant where phosphorites and apatites are processed, according to preliminary data, fluoride was significantly elevated in roots of carrots and parsley and in the leaves of parsley.

  2. Daily intake of heavy metals and nitrate through greenhouse cucumber and bell pepper consumption and potential health risks for human.

    PubMed

    Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Aghili, Forough; Sanaeiostovar, Azadeh

    2009-01-01

    Limited information is available on the health quality of greenhouse vegetables. Lead, cadmium, nickel, chromium, and nitrate (NO3-) concentrations in greenhouse cucumber (Cucumis sativa L.) and bell pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and their dietary intakes were determined. The non-cancer risk for NO3- was determined using the non-cancer hazard quotient. Lead non-cancer risk in children was calculated using the Integrated Exposure-Uptake Biokinetic model. Higher concentrations of cadmium, lead, and chromium were found in bell pepper than cucumber. The mean NO3- concentration in the greenhouse cucumber was about 2.7 times higher than the World Health Organization standard limit. Cadmium, lead, nickel, and chromium daily intake for different populations groups through consumption of the vegetables were < 0.01-0.04, 0.35-1.00, 0.03-0.24, and 0.05-0.27 microg/g, respectively. The dietary intake of NO3- for adult was greater than children. Elevated lead and NO3- concentrations in the greenhouse vegetables are important concerns for consumers. Potential health quality problems in greenhouse products have to be considered.

  3. Methane Greenhouses and Anti-Greenhouses During the Precambrian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasting, J. F.; Pavlov, A. A.

    2003-12-01

    Methane was arguably an important greenhouse gas during the Archean and early Paleoproterozoic Eras, prior to the rise of O2 at ~2.3 Ga (1,2). Atmospheric CH4 concentrations of 1000 ppmv or more are predicted, assuming that methanogenic bacteria evolved early and that they were widely distributed in the prevailing anaerobic biosphere (2,3). Indeed, previous models (1-3) may have underestimated both the concentration of CH4 and the greenhouse effect itself at this time. Knauth and Lowe (4) have used oxygen isotopes in cherts to argue that the mean surface temperature at 3.2-3.5 Ga was between 55oC and 85oC. The Sun is thought to have been some 23 percent dimmer at that time (5), so this would have required substantial greenhouse warming by both CH4 and CO2. Further constraints are imposed by the formation of hydrocarbon haze, and an accompanying "anti-greenhouse effect", if the CH4 concentration exceeds that of CO2 (2). Thus, only certain combinations of CH4 and CO2 are possible. The rise of O2 at 2.3 Ga destabilized the methane greenhouse, leading to widespread (possibly global) glaciation (1,6). The next 1.5 billion years were warm, however, as evidenced by the absence of glacial deposits and the continuing high temperatures implied by O isotopes in cherts (7). CH4 levels could have remained relatively high during this time, 20-100 ppmv, as a consequence of low concentrations of dissolved O2 and sulfate in the deep oceans, and increased recycling of organic matter by fermentation and methanogenesis (8,9). An increase in either O2 or dissolved sulfate at around 0.75 Ga may have once again decreased atmospheric CH4 levels and triggered the widespread Neoproterozoic glaciations. References: 1. Pavlov, A. A., Kasting, J. F., Brown, L. L., Rages, K. A. & Freedman, R. J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11,981-11,990 (2000). 2. Pavlov, A. A., Kasting, J. F. & Brown, L. L. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,267-23,287 (2001). 3. Kasting, J. F., Pavlov, A. A. & Siefert, J. L. Origins of Life

  4. Re-assessment of net energy production and greenhouse gas emissions avoidance after 40 years of photovoltaics development.

    PubMed

    Louwen, Atse; van Sark, Wilfried G J H M; Faaij, André P C; Schropp, Ruud E I

    2016-12-06

    Since the 1970s, installed solar photovoltaic capacity has grown tremendously to 230 gigawatt worldwide in 2015, with a growth rate between 1975 and 2015 of 45%. This rapid growth has led to concerns regarding the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of photovoltaics production. We present a review of 40 years of photovoltaics development, analysing the development of energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions associated with photovoltaics production. Here we show strong downward trends of environmental impact of photovoltaics production, following the experience curve law. For every doubling of installed photovoltaic capacity, energy use decreases by 13 and 12% and greenhouse gas footprints by 17 and 24%, for poly- and monocrystalline based photovoltaic systems, respectively. As a result, we show a break-even between the cumulative disadvantages and benefits of photovoltaics, for both energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, occurs between 1997 and 2018, depending on photovoltaic performance and model uncertainties.

  5. Re-assessment of net energy production and greenhouse gas emissions avoidance after 40 years of photovoltaics development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louwen, Atse; van Sark, Wilfried G. J. H. M.; Faaij, André P. C.; Schropp, Ruud E. I.

    2016-12-01

    Since the 1970s, installed solar photovoltaic capacity has grown tremendously to 230 gigawatt worldwide in 2015, with a growth rate between 1975 and 2015 of 45%. This rapid growth has led to concerns regarding the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of photovoltaics production. We present a review of 40 years of photovoltaics development, analysing the development of energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions associated with photovoltaics production. Here we show strong downward trends of environmental impact of photovoltaics production, following the experience curve law. For every doubling of installed photovoltaic capacity, energy use decreases by 13 and 12% and greenhouse gas footprints by 17 and 24%, for poly- and monocrystalline based photovoltaic systems, respectively. As a result, we show a break-even between the cumulative disadvantages and benefits of photovoltaics, for both energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, occurs between 1997 and 2018, depending on photovoltaic performance and model uncertainties.

  6. Re-assessment of net energy production and greenhouse gas emissions avoidance after 40 years of photovoltaics development

    PubMed Central

    Louwen, Atse; van Sark, Wilfried G. J. H. M.; Faaij, André P. C.; Schropp, Ruud E. I.

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1970s, installed solar photovoltaic capacity has grown tremendously to 230 gigawatt worldwide in 2015, with a growth rate between 1975 and 2015 of 45%. This rapid growth has led to concerns regarding the energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of photovoltaics production. We present a review of 40 years of photovoltaics development, analysing the development of energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions associated with photovoltaics production. Here we show strong downward trends of environmental impact of photovoltaics production, following the experience curve law. For every doubling of installed photovoltaic capacity, energy use decreases by 13 and 12% and greenhouse gas footprints by 17 and 24%, for poly- and monocrystalline based photovoltaic systems, respectively. As a result, we show a break-even between the cumulative disadvantages and benefits of photovoltaics, for both energy use and greenhouse gas emissions, occurs between 1997 and 2018, depending on photovoltaic performance and model uncertainties. PMID:27922591

  7. Derivation of soil thresholds for lead applying species sensitivity distribution: A case study for root vegetables.

    PubMed

    Ding, Changfeng; Ma, Yibing; Li, Xiaogang; Zhang, Taolin; Wang, Xingxiang

    2016-02-13

    The combination of food quality standard and soil-plant transfer models can be used to derive critical limits of heavy metals for agricultural soils. In this paper, a robust methodology is presented, taking the variations of plant species and cultivars and soil properties into account to derive soil thresholds for lead (Pb) applying species sensitivity distribution (SSD). Three species of root vegetables (four cultivars each for radish, carrot, and potato) were selected to investigate their sensitivity differences for accumulating Pb through greenhouse experiment. Empirical soil-plant transfer model was developed from carrot New Kuroda grown in twenty-one soils covering a wide variation in physicochemical properties and was used to normalize the bioaccumulation data of non-model cultivars. The relationship was then validated to be reliable and would not cause over-protection using data from field experimental sites and published independent studies. The added hazardous concentration for protecting 95% of the cultivars not exceeding the food quality standard (HC5add) were then calculated from the Burr Type III function fitted SSD curves. The derived soil Pb thresholds based on the added risk approach (total soil concentration subtracting the natural background part) were presented as continuous or scenario criteria depending on the combination of soil pH and CEC.

  8. Field and vegetable crops as hosts of larval western spotted cucumber beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Andrew B; Godfrey, Larry D

    2011-06-01

    The western spotted cucumber beetle, Diabrotica undecimpunctata undecimpunctata Mannerheim, is an important pest of melons (Cucurmis melo L.) in northern California. Recent observations indicate that adults are using alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) as a feeding host and larvae may be developing on the roots. Greenhouse studies were conducted during the winters of 2009 and 2010 in which larval development was compared on the roots of six field and vegetable crops commonly grown in the southern Sacramento Valley. The growth parameters used to evaluate the hosts were larval and pupal head capsule width, body width, and body length as well as total survival percentage and survival percentage to the third instar. According to larval growth and survivorship in 2009, maize (Zea mays L.) was the best host, followed by alfalfa and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) that were roughly equivalent to one another. Melon was a slightly weaker host than alfalfa and tomato; sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was a completely incompatible host and thus dropped from the 2010 study. In 2010, melon was the weakest host for larval development. Maize was the superior host again followed closely by alfalfa that performed slightly better than tomato and lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.). Data suggest that larval western spotted cucumber beetles may primarily develop outside of melon fields and the adults emigrate to melons.

  9. Uptake and distribution of bisphenol A and nonylphenol in vegetable crops irrigated with reclaimed water.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian; Wu, Jun; Stoffella, Peter J; Wilson, P Chris

    2015-01-01

    The potential uptake and distribution of bisphenol A (BPA) and nonylphenol (NP) (from reclaimed irrigation water) in edible crops was investigated. BPA and NP were spiked into simulated reclaimed water at environmentally relevant concentrations. Two crops (lettuce, Lactuca sativa and tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum) were grown hydroponically in a greenhouse using the spiked irrigation water under two irrigation exposure scenarios (overhead foliar exposure and subsurface root exposure). BPA concentrations in tomato fruit were 26.6 ± 5.8 (root exposure) and 18.3 ± 3.5 (foliar exposure) μg kg(-1), while concentrations in lettuce leaves were 80.6 ± 23.1 (root exposure) and 128.9 ± 17.4 (foliar exposure) μg kg(-1). NP concentrations in tomato fruit were 46.1 ± 6.6 (root exposure) and 24.6 ± 6.4 (foliar exposure) μg kg(-1), while concentrations in lettuce leaves were 144.1 ± 9.2 (root exposure) and 195.0 ± 16.9 (foliar exposure) μg kg(-1). BPA was relatively mobile in lettuce plants regardless of exposure route. Limited mobility was observed for NP in both crops and BPA in tomatoes. The estimated daily intake of BPA and NP through consumption of vegetables irrigated with reclaimed water ranged from 8.9-62.9 to 11.9-95.1 μg, respectively, depending on the exposure route.

  10. Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledley, Tamara S.; Sundquist, Eric; Schwartz, Stephen; Hall, Dorothy K.; Fellows, Jack; Killeen, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), as a scientific organization devoted to research on the Earth and space sciences, provides current scientific information to the public on issues pertinent to geophysics. The Council of the AGU approved a position statement on Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases in December 1998. The statement, together with a short summary of the procedures that were followed in its preparation, review, and adoption were published in the February 2, 1999 issue of Eos ([AGU, 1999]. The present article reviews scientific understanding of this issue as presented in peer-reviewed publications that serves as the underlying basis of the position statement.

  11. False advertising in the greenhouse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banse, K.

    1991-12-01

    Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

  12. [Risk of reproductive disorders in greenhouse workers].

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech

    2007-01-01

    This study reviews the evidence on the association between work in greenhouses and reproductive disorders. The analysis indicate that employment in greenhouses may increase the risk of birth defects, preterm delivery and spontaneous abortion, and also may affect birth weight. The obtained results showed that employment in the agriculture production sector (greenhouses) of more than 10 years decreased the median sperm concentration in men. The data on the effect of employment in greenhouses on the time to pregnancy are unequivocal, but most of them suggest that there is a relationship between the decreased fecundity ratio and greenhouse work, mostly due to exposure to pesticides. The literature review indicates a great need to increase awareness among greenhouse workers occupationally exposed to pesticides about potential negative effects of these chemicals on their health.

  13. Improvement of flavour quality and consumer acceptance during postharvest ripening in greenhouse peaches by carbon dioxide enrichment.

    PubMed

    Xi, Wanpeng; Zhang, Qiuyun; Lu, Xiaoyan; Wei, Changqing; Yu, Songlin; Zhou, Zhiqin

    2014-12-01

    In this study we assessed the impact of carbon dioxide enrichment (CDE) on flavour quality development of peach fruit, using peach trees grown in a greenhouse with a carbon-dioxide-enriched atmosphere. Fruit sugar, organic acids, volatiles contents and consumer acceptability were investigated, focusing on the period of postharvest ripening. Higher levels of sucrose, lactones, norisoprenoids, and lower levels of malic acid were found in CDE-treated fruit than those in the control fruit grown under normal conditions. We also measured significantly elevated amounts of pyruvic acid, precursors of volatile compounds, linoleic acid and linolenic acid as a result of CDE. Additionally, CDE-treated fruit were relatively well accepted by consumers compared to the control fruit. These results suggested that CDE can markedly improve the flavour quality and consumer acceptance of greenhouse-grown peaches. The possible mechanism could be that CDE increased precursors available for the biosynthesis of flavour compounds through regulation of photosynthesis.

  14. Could plants help tame the greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Baskin, Y.

    1993-03-19

    It's easy to see how climate change might affect the globe's vegetation, driving hardwood forests into regions now covered with evergreens and causing deserts to shift. It's less easy to picture the other side of the coin: biology's impact on the atmosphere. So mathematician Berrien Moore III of the University of New Hampshire, who heads the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program task force on global analysis, interpretation, and modeling, staged a simple demonstration. He modeled the effects of a biosphere fertilized by increased CO[sub 2] - and found that it could first help, then hinder, human efforts to slow the buildup of greenhouse gases. To simulate such a biotic carbon sink, Moore combined a simple model of CO[sub 2] uptake by the ocean with an equally simple model of its uptake by photosynthesis on land and its release by deforestation and plant decay. He then forced this simple ocean-atmosphere-vegetation model with fossil fuel CO[sub 2] emissions from 1860 to the present. As expected, his model ended up with too much carbon in the atmosphere. So he turned up photosynthesis, fertilizing plant growth in his model, until the rate of CO[sub 2] buildup just matched the observed increase. Moore then explored how this terrestrial carbon sink would respond if the CO[sub 2] buildup slowed. The result: If you were to cap the rate of CO[sub 2] emissions from fossil fuel burning, [this terrestrial] sink would reduce the atmospheric lifetime of CO[sub 2] by a factor of four or five. This cleansing effect would operate on timescales of years or decades, compared with centuries for the ocean, says Moore - fast enough to aid human efforts to slow the CO[sub 2] buildup. However, it doesn't do it forever. If at some point emissions cuts and the terrestrial sink succeeded in reducing atmospheric CO[sub 2], plant growth would drop and CO[sub 2] levels would bounce back up as all the extra biomass rotted away.

  15. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT OF THE ARCTIC ATMOSPHERE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Some of this absorbed heat is radiated back to the earth’s surface. This process is generally called the ’ greenhouse effect ’ of the atmosphere...of the terrestrial radiation escapes through the atmosphere. The values for two equations representing the ’ greenhouse effect ’ are discussed. Both...show very small geographical and temporal variations. The atmospheric greenhouse effect is remarkably stable in all latitudes and climatic zones

  16. Project of conveyer-type space greenhouse for cosmonauts' supply with vitamin greenery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovich, Yu. A.; Krivobok, N. M.; Sinyak, Yu. E.

    1998-11-01

    Design and advantages of conveyer-type growth chamber PHYTOCYCLE with a cylindrical crop surface are featured. Based on the results of testing, an experimental prototype of conveyer-type vegetable greenhouse VITACYCLE for space vehicles is being developed at the SSC-IBMP in conjunction with a number of institutions of the Russian space industry to provide space crews with fresh greenery. Rated daily production of the greenhouse is 150 g of eatable biomass with power consumption of 1 kW. The system is to be mounted within the life support module of international space station Alpha (ISSA). Design of the greenhouse is outlined. Brief description, state-of-the-art, and further plans regarding VITACYCLE elaboration and construction are presented.

  17. Engineering concepts for inflatable Mars surface greenhouses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hublitz, I.; Henninger, D. L.; Drake, B. G.; Eckart, P.

    2004-01-01

    A major challenge of designing a bioregenerative life support system for Mars is the reduction of the mass, volume, power, thermal and crew-time requirements. Structural mass of the greenhouse could be saved by operating the greenhouse at low atmospheric pressure. This paper investigates the feasibility of this concept. The method of equivalent system mass is used to compare greenhouses operated at high atmospheric pressure to greenhouses operated at low pressure for three different lighting methods: natural, artificial and hybrid lighting. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Observational determination of the greenhouse effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raval, A.; Ramanathan, V.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite measurements are used to quantify the atmospheric greenhouse effect, defined here as the infrared radiation energy trapped by atmospheric gases and clouds. The greenhouse effect is found to increase significantly with sea surface temperature. The rate of increase gives compelling evidence for the positive feedback between surface temperature, water vapor and the greenhouse effect; the magnitude of the feedback is consistent with that predicted by climate models. This study demonstrates an effective method for directly monitoring, from space, future changes in the greenhouse effect.

  19. DayCent model simulations for estimating soil carbon dynamics and greenhouse gas fluxes from agricultural production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    DayCent is a biogeochemical model of intermediate complexity used to simulate carbon, nutrient, and greenhouse gas fluxes for crop, grassland, forest, and savanna ecosystems. Model inputs include: soil texture and hydraulic properties, current and historical land use, vegetation cover, daily maximum...

  20. Factors affecting vegetable growers' exposure to fungal bioaerosols and airborne dust.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Vinni M; Meyling, Nicolai Vitt; Winding, Anne; Eilenberg, Jørgen; Madsen, Anne Mette

    2012-03-01

    We have quantified vegetable growers' exposure to fungal bioaerosol components including (1→3)-β-d-glucan (β-glucan), total fungal spores, and culturable fungal units. Furthermore, we have evaluated factors that might affect vegetable growers' exposure to fungal bioaerosols and airborne dust. Investigated environments included greenhouses producing cucumbers and tomatoes, open fields producing cabbage, broccoli, and celery, and packing facilities. Measurements were performed at different times during the growth season and during execution of different work tasks. Bioaerosols were collected with personal and stationary filter samplers. Selected fungal species (Beauveria spp., Trichoderma spp., Penicillium olsonii, and Penicillium brevicompactum) were identified using different polymerase chain reaction-based methods and sequencing. We found that the factors (i) work task, (ii) crop, including growth stage of handled plant material, and (iii) open field versus greenhouse significantly affected the workers' exposure to bioaerosols. Packing of vegetables and working in open fields caused significantly lower exposure to bioaerosols, e.g. mesophilic fungi and dust, than harvesting in greenhouses and clearing of senescent greenhouse plants. Also removing strings in cucumber greenhouses caused a lower exposure to bioaerosols than harvest of cucumbers while removal of old plants caused the highest exposure. In general, the exposure was higher in greenhouses than in open fields. The exposures to β-glucan during harvest and clearing of senescent greenhouse plants were very high (median values ranging between 50 and 1500 ng m(-3)) compared to exposures reported from other occupational environments. In conclusion, vegetable growers' exposure to bioaerosols was related to the environment, in which they worked, the investigated work tasks, and the vegetable crop.

  1. Fruits and vegetables (image)

    MedlinePlus

    A healthy diet includes adding vegetables and fruit every day. Vegetables like broccoli, green beans, leafy greens, zucchini, cauliflower, cabbage, carrots, and tomatoes are low in calories and high in fiber, ...

  2. Evaluation of primary and secondary treated and disinfected wastewater irrigation of tomato and cucumber plants under greenhouse conditions, regarding growth and safety considerations.

    PubMed

    Manios, T; Papagrigoriou, I; Daskalakis, G; Sabathianakis, I; Terzakis, S; Maniadakis, K; Markakis, G

    2006-08-01

    Tomato and cucumber seedlings were distributed into 10 groups (five for each plant) of 15 plants each. The plants were irrigated for 10 weeks with primary treated wastewater (group A), secondary treated wastewater (group B), chlorinated secondary treated wastewater (group C), a fertilizer dilution (group F), and tap water (group M). All precautions were taken to secure that there was no direct contact between the wastewater and the edible portions of the crops. During this period and on a weekly basis, the height and number of leaves was monitored, while, at the end, the dry weight of leaves, stems, and roots for each plant of each group was measured. Based on these growth parameters, both types of plant in groups A and F recorded the most significant development compared to the other three groups. The plants irrigated with tap water recorded the smallest development, in every case. Plants in groups B and C were similar, with a slight (but not significant) superiority for the plants irrigated with secondary treated wastewater, probably as a result of some phytotoxic effects of residual chloride in the chlorinated wastewater. The presence of nutrients and specifically nitrogen in the various solutions explains the differences satisfactorily. The vegetables grown on the plants of each group were harvested, and their surface tissue analyzed for total coliforms (TC) and enterococci (EC). Tomatoes grown on the plants of groups A and B recorded the highest values for TC, with 505 and 490 cfu/g, respectively, whereas, for cucumbers, those values were 342 and 450 cfu/g, respectively. Enterococci were detected on the surface of harvested vegetables from groups A and B, but the small number of cases and their random character cannot support any strong relations between the used wastewater and their presence. The TC values in group C were very low, far lower than those if group F. No EC were found in either group C or group F. These primary results suggested that irrigation

  3. Effects of Phosphorus on Morphology and Foliar Nutrient Concentrations of Hydroponically Grown Scaevola aemula R. Br. ‘Whirlwind Blue’

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In commercial greenhouses, fan flower ‘Whirlwind Blue’ (Scaevola aemula R. Br.) plants appear sensitive to phosphorus rates typically applied to other floricultural crops. In order to quantify this response, fan flower plants were grown in Hoagland solutions containing 0, 20, 40, 60, or 80 mg P/L. ...

  4. Quantification and Controls of Wetland Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    McNicol, Gavin

    2016-05-10

    Wetlands cover only a small fraction of the Earth’s land surface, but have a disproportionately large influence on global climate. Low oxygen conditions in wetland soils slows down decomposition, leading to net carbon dioxide sequestration over long timescales, while also favoring the production of redox sensitive gases such as nitrous oxide and methane. Freshwater marshes in particular sustain large exchanges of greenhouse gases under temperate or tropical climates and favorable nutrient regimes, yet have rarely been studied, leading to poor constraints on the magnitude of marsh gas sources, and the biogeochemical drivers of flux variability. The Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California was once a great expanse of tidal and freshwater marshes but underwent drainage for agriculture during the last two centuries. The resulting landscape is unsustainable with extreme rates of land subsidence and oxidation of peat soils lowering the surface elevation of much of the Delta below sea level. Wetland restoration has been proposed as a means to slow further subsidence and rebuild peat however the balance of greenhouse gas exchange in these novel ecosystems is still poorly described. In this dissertation I first explore oxygen availability as a control on the composition and magnitude of greenhouse gas emissions from drained wetland soils. In two separate experiments I quantify both the temporal dynamics of greenhouse gas emission and the kinetic sensitivity of gas production to a wide range of oxygen concentrations. This work demonstrated the very high sensitivity of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide production to oxygen availability, in carbon rich wetland soils. I also found the temporal dynamics of gas production to follow a sequence predicted by thermodynamics and observed spatially in other soil or sediment systems. In the latter part of my dissertation I conduct two field studies to quantify greenhouse gas exchange and understand the carbon sources for

  5. Vegetable oil fuel standards

    SciTech Connect

    Pryde, E.H.

    1982-01-01

    Suggested standards for vegetable oils and ester fuels, as well as ASTM specifications for No. 2 diesel oil are given. The following physical properties were discussed: cetane number, cloud point, distillation temperatures, flash point, pour point, turbidity, viscosity, free fatty acids, iodine value, phosphorus, and wax. It was apparent that vegetable oils and their esters cannot meet ASTM specifications D975 for No. 2 diesel oil for use in the diesel engine. Vegetable oil modification or engine design modification may make it possible eventually for vegetable oils to become suitable alternative fuels. Vegetable oils must be recognized as experimental fuels until modifications have been tested thoroughly and generally accepted. 1 table. (DP)

  6. Prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial pathogens in long-term manured greenhouse soils as revealed by metagenomic survey.

    PubMed

    Fang, Hua; Wang, Huifang; Cai, Lin; Yu, Yunlong

    2015-01-20

    Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), human pathogenic bacteria (HPB), and HPB carrying ARGs pose a high risk to soil ecology and public health. Here, we used a metagenomic approach to investigate their diversity and abundance in chicken manures and greenhouse soils collected from Guli, Pulangke, and Hushu vegetable bases with different greenhouse planting years in Nanjing, Eastern China. There was a positive correlation between the levels of antibiotics, ARGs, HPB, and HPB carrying ARGs in manures and greenhouse soils. In total, 156.2–5001.4 μg/kg of antibiotic residues, 22 classes of ARGs, 32 HPB species, and 46 species of HPB carrying ARGs were found. The highest relative abundance was tetracycline resistance genes (manures) and multidrug resistance genes (greenhouse soils). The dominant HPB and HPB carrying ARGs in the manures were Bacillus anthracis, Bordetella pertussis, and B. anthracis (sulfonamide resistance gene, sul1), respectively. The corresponding findings in greenhouse soils were Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. ulcerans, M. tuberculosis (macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin resistance protein, MLSRP), and B. anthracis (sul1), respectively. Our findings confirmed high levels of antibiotics, ARGs, HPB, and HPB carrying ARGs in the manured greenhouse soils compared with those in the field soils, and their relative abundance increased with the extension of greenhouse planting years.

  7. Can we delay a greenhouse warming

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    The author comments on the EPA report dated September 1983 Can We Delay A Greenhouse Warming. He takes exception to the widely-held interpretation that the answer is not much. The contribution of other greenhouse gases such as methane and nitrous oxide to the EPA scenarios is pointed out, and the lack of understanding of their role is emphasised. (ACR)

  8. A Hiatus of the Greenhouse Effect

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jinjie; Wang, Yuan; Tang, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The rate at which the global average surface temperature is increasing has slowed down since the end of the last century. This study investigates whether this warming hiatus results from a change in the well-known greenhouse effect. Using long-term, reliable, and consistent observational data from the Earth’s surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA), two monthly gridded atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect parameters (Ga and Gs) are estimated to represent the radiative warming effects of the atmosphere and the surface in the infrared range from 1979 to 2014. The atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect over the tropical monsoon-prone regions is found to contribute substantially to the global total. Furthermore, the downward tendency of cloud activity leads to a greenhouse effect hiatus after the early 1990 s, prior to the warming pause. Additionally, this pause in the greenhouse effect is mostly caused by the high number of La Niña events between 1991 and 2014. A strong La Niña indicates suppressed convection in the tropical central Pacific that reduces atmospheric water vapor content and cloud volume. This significantly weakened regional greenhouse effect offsets the enhanced warming influence in other places and decelerates the rising global greenhouse effect. This work suggests that the greenhouse effect hiatus can be served as an additional factor to cause the recent global warming slowdown. PMID:27616203

  9. A Hiatus of the Greenhouse Effect.

    PubMed

    Song, Jinjie; Wang, Yuan; Tang, Jianping

    2016-09-12

    The rate at which the global average surface temperature is increasing has slowed down since the end of the last century. This study investigates whether this warming hiatus results from a change in the well-known greenhouse effect. Using long-term, reliable, and consistent observational data from the Earth's surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA), two monthly gridded atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect parameters (Ga and Gs) are estimated to represent the radiative warming effects of the atmosphere and the surface in the infrared range from 1979 to 2014. The atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect over the tropical monsoon-prone regions is found to contribute substantially to the global total. Furthermore, the downward tendency of cloud activity leads to a greenhouse effect hiatus after the early 1990 s, prior to the warming pause. Additionally, this pause in the greenhouse effect is mostly caused by the high number of La Niña events between 1991 and 2014. A strong La Niña indicates suppressed convection in the tropical central Pacific that reduces atmospheric water vapor content and cloud volume. This significantly weakened regional greenhouse effect offsets the enhanced warming influence in other places and decelerates the rising global greenhouse effect. This work suggests that the greenhouse effect hiatus can be served as an additional factor to cause the recent global warming slowdown.

  10. Solar Greenhouses and Sunspaces: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen G.; And Others

    Solar technology systems are being studied, managed, built and offered as an effective alternative energy option. This publication presents background material for the building and operation of better sunspaces and greenhouses. Recent developments in solar technology are explained and information on solar greenhouse and sunspace is provided (in…

  11. A Hiatus of the Greenhouse Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jinjie; Wang, Yuan; Tang, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    The rate at which the global average surface temperature is increasing has slowed down since the end of the last century. This study investigates whether this warming hiatus results from a change in the well-known greenhouse effect. Using long-term, reliable, and consistent observational data from the Earth’s surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA), two monthly gridded atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect parameters (Ga and Gs) are estimated to represent the radiative warming effects of the atmosphere and the surface in the infrared range from 1979 to 2014. The atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect over the tropical monsoon-prone regions is found to contribute substantially to the global total. Furthermore, the downward tendency of cloud activity leads to a greenhouse effect hiatus after the early 1990 s, prior to the warming pause. Additionally, this pause in the greenhouse effect is mostly caused by the high number of La Niña events between 1991 and 2014. A strong La Niña indicates suppressed convection in the tropical central Pacific that reduces atmospheric water vapor content and cloud volume. This significantly weakened regional greenhouse effect offsets the enhanced warming influence in other places and decelerates the rising global greenhouse effect. This work suggests that the greenhouse effect hiatus can be served as an additional factor to cause the recent global warming slowdown.

  12. Titan's greenhouse and antigreenhouse effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Courtin, Regis

    1992-01-01

    Thermal mechanisms active in Titan's atmosphere are discussed in a brief review of data obtained during the Voyager I flyby in 1980. Particular attention is given to the greenhouse effect (GHE) produced by atmospheric H2, N2, and CH4; this GHE is stronger than that on earth, with CH4 and H2 playing roles similar to those of H2O and CO2 on earth. Also active on Titan is an antigreenhouse effect, in which dark-brown and orange organic aerosols block incoming solar light while allowing IR radiation from the Titan surface to escape. The combination of GHE and anti-GHE leads to a surface temperature about 12 C higher than it would be if Titan had no atmosphere.

  13. Economic aspects of mycotoxins in fruits and vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    International trade in fresh fruit and vegetables has grown greatly in the past twenty years, and is presently a multi-billion dollar business representing the major export for many developing countries. There has been a global effort to develop and implement safe food handling for the entire food ...

  14. Soil genotoxicity induced by successive applications of chlorothalonil under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xiangxiang; Cui, Ning; Zhou, Wei; Khorram, Mahdi Safaei; Wang, Donghong; Yu, Yunlong

    2014-05-01

    Greenhouse production of vegetables has been developed rapidly in China. High temperature and humidity inside the greenhouse make this environment more suitable for fast reproduction of fungal diseases. Fungicides are among the chemicals used extensively in the greenhouse to prevent crops from invasive infections by phytopathogens; however, little is known about the accumulation of fungicides in soil and their effect on soil quality under greenhouse conditions. In the present study, the accumulation of the fungicide chlorothalonil (CT) and its toxic metabolite hydroxy-chlorothalonil (HCT) in soil as well as their related soil genotoxicity under greenhouse conditions was investigated. The results indicated that both CT and HCT accumulated in soil with repeated applications of CT, and the accumulation level was strongly correlated to application dosage and its frequency. In addition, soil genotoxicity, which was measured by Vicia faba, also increased with the accumulation of CT and HCT, and the main contributor to this phenomenon was CT rather than HCT. The data demonstrated that successive applications of fungicides may result in their accumulation in soil and thus a decline in soil quality.

  15. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    ScienceCinema

    Fischer, Marc

    2016-07-12

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  16. Greenhouse gases and agriculture. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically enhanced greenhouse effect. (Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are ranked first and second, respectively.) Specifically, greenhouse gas sources and sinks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by conversion of land to agricultural use, using fertilizers, cultivating paddy rice, producing other plant and animal crops, and by creating and managing animal and plant wastes. However, some of these same activities increase greenhouse gas sinks and decrease greenhouse gas sources so the net effects are not obvious. The paper identifies the agricultural inputs, outputs, and wastes that alter atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxides, and discusses agriculture's net impact on greenhouse gas fluxes.

  17. Thermodynamics of greenhouse systems for the northern latitudes: analysis, evaluation and prospects for primary energy saving.

    PubMed

    Bronchart, Filip; De Paepe, Michel; Dewulf, Jo; Schrevens, Eddie; Demeyer, Peter

    2013-04-15

    In Flanders and the Netherlands greenhouse production systems produce economically important quantities of vegetables, fruit and ornamentals. Indoor environmental control has resulted in high primary energy use. Until now, the research on saving primary energy in greenhouse systems has been mainly based on analysis of energy balances. However, according to the thermodynamic theory, an analysis based on the concept of exergy (free energy) and energy can result in new insights and primary energy savings. Therefore in this paper, we analyse the exergy and energy of various processes, inputs and outputs of a general greenhouse system. Also a total system analysis is then performed by linking the exergy analysis with a dynamic greenhouse climate growth simulation model. The exergy analysis indicates that some processes ("Sources") lie at the origin of several other processes, both destroying the exergy of primary energy inputs. The exergy destruction of these Sources is caused primarily by heat and vapour loss. Their impact can be compensated by exergy input from heating, solar radiation, or both. If the exergy destruction of these Sources is reduced, the necessary compensation can also be reduced. This can be accomplished through insulating the greenhouse and making the building more airtight. Other necessary Sources, namely transpiration and loss of CO2, have a low exergy destruction compared to the other Sources. They are therefore the best candidate for "pump" technologies ("vapour heat pump" and "CO2 pump") designed to have a low primary energy use. The combination of these proposed technologies results in an exergy efficient greenhouse with the highest primary energy savings. It can be concluded that exergy analyses add additional information compared to only energy analyses and it supports the development of primary energy efficient greenhouse systems.

  18. 13. Greenhouse, east elevation. The boardandbatten wall covers an opening ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Greenhouse, east elevation. The board-and-batten wall covers an opening that was originally fitted with windows which allowed sunlight into the greenhouse. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. Energy education through a demonstration urban greenhouse retrofit. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gilcrest, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    Construction of this passive solar retrofit in the City of Baltimore, MD began in November of 1979 and was completed in September 1980. Construction entailed the adding of a second story masonry room with 120 ft/sup 2/ of south facing glazing to an existing row home. The purpose of the structure was to add heat as well as vegetables to the home. The addition's first heating season was 1980-1981. A hydroponic gardening system was established in September 1980. Open houses were held in the Spring of 1981 to share the experience with area residents. With the insulation and windows (not provided under this grant, but by owners) and the greenhouse addition (which is the subject of this grant), the gallons of fuel oil used for heating was reduced by 47%.

  20. Antioxidant capacity and antimutagenic activity of natural oleoresin from greenhouse grown tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, Eustolia; Herrera-Ruiz, Gilberto; Pedraza-Aboytes, Gustavo; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe

    2009-03-01

    Natural oleoresins rich in lycopene were obtained from two varieties of tomato (Zedona and Gironda) and their nutraceutical potential (antioxidant and antimutagenic capacity) was evaluated. Both oleoresins had a high content of lycopene, 58.33+/-1.67 mg/g (Zedona) and 63.97+/-0.80 mg/g (Gironda). The antioxidant activity (AA) of the oleoresins by beta-carotene method were 56.4-74.5% (Zedona) and 51-72.8% (Gironda), while when using the free radical stable 2,2-diphenyl-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) method, the antiradical activity (ARA) was determined to be 18.2-32.7% (Zedona) and 16.6-26.7% (Gironda) for the concentrations tested that of 200-400 microM equivalents of lycopene. The antimutagenic activity of the oleoresins was tested against aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) using the microsuspension assay, both varieties had a very high antimutagenic potential against AFB1 (60-66%).These results suggest the NCRT can be taken advantage to obtaining rich oleoresin in lycopene with a nutraceutical value.

  1. Increased photosynthetic acclimation in alfalfa associated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and cultivated in greenhouse under elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Goicoechea, Nieves; Baslam, Marouane; Erice, Gorka; Irigoyen, Juan José

    2014-11-15

    Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) can exhibit photosynthetic down-regulation when grown in greenhouse conditions under elevated atmospheric CO2. This forage legume can establish a double symbiosis with nitrogen fixing bacteria and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), which may increase the carbon sink effect of roots. Our aim was to assess whether the association of alfalfa with AMF can avoid, diminish or delay the photosynthetic acclimation observed in previous studies performed with nodulated plants. The results, however, showed that mycorrhizal (M) alfalfa at the end of their vegetative period had lower carbon (C) discrimination than non-mycorrhizal (NM) controls, indicating photosynthetic acclimation under ECO2 in plants associated with AMF. Decreased C discrimination was due to the acclimation of conductance, since the amount of Rubisco and the expression of genes codifying both large and small subunits of Rubisco were similar or slightly higher in M than in NM plants. Moreover, M alfalfa accumulated a greater amount of soluble sugars in leaves than NM plants, thus favoring a down-regulation effect on photosynthetic rates. The enhanced contents of sugars in leaves coincided with a reduced percentage of arbuscules in roots, suggesting decreased sink of carbohydrates from shoots to roots in M plants. The shorter life cycle of alfalfa associated with AMF in comparison with the NM controls may also be related to the accelerated photosynthetic acclimation in M plants. Further research is needed to clarify to what extent this behavior could be extrapolated to alfalfa cultivated in the field and subjected to periodic cutting of shoots under climatic change scenarios.

  2. Survey of fresh vegetables for nematodes, amoebae, and Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Rude, R A; Jackson, G J; Bier, J W; Sawyer, T K; Risty, N G

    1984-01-01

    Contamination by nematodes, amoebae, and bacteria of the genus Salmonella was estimated in a 2-year survey of salad vegetables obtained from wholesale and retail sources. The vegetables examined were cucumbers, cabbage, lettuce, celery, carrots, radishes, tomatoes, mushrooms, cauliflower, and spinach. Nematode eggs and larvae were recovered by the Nacconol-ether centrifugation method. Some nematode eggs were identified as parasitic Ascaris sp.; the majority of larval nematodes were thought to be soil-dwelling species. Amoebae were recovered by rinsing the vegetables with distilled water, centrifuging the rinse water, and transferring the sediment to agar plates on which a bacterial lawn had previously been grown; trophozoites identified as the potentially pathogenic species--Acanthamoeba polyphaga, A. rhysodes, and A. castellanii--were the most common amoebae recovered on the plates. Salmonella spp. were grown from 4 of 50 samples.

  3. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    1. Introduction Better information on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and mitigation potential in the agricultural sector is necessary to manage these emissions and identify responses that are consistent with the food security and economic development priorities of countries. Critical activity data (what crops or livestock are managed in what way) are poor or lacking for many agricultural systems, especially in developing countries. In addition, the currently available methods for quantifying emissions and mitigation are often too expensive or complex or not sufficiently user friendly for widespread use. The purpose of this focus issue is to capture the state of the art in quantifying greenhouse gases from agricultural systems, with the goal of better understanding our current capabilities and near-term potential for improvement, with particular attention to quantification issues relevant to smallholders in developing countries. This work is timely in light of international discussions and negotiations around how agriculture should be included in efforts to reduce and adapt to climate change impacts, and considering that significant climate financing to developing countries in post-2012 agreements may be linked to their increased ability to identify and report GHG emissions (Murphy et al 2010, CCAFS 2011, FAO 2011). 2. Agriculture and climate change mitigation The main agricultural GHGs—methane and nitrous oxide—account for 10%-12% of anthropogenic emissions globally (Smith et al 2008), or around 50% and 60% of total anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions, respectively, in 2005. Net carbon dioxide fluxes between agricultural land and the atmosphere linked to food production are relatively small, although significant carbon emissions are associated with degradation of organic soils for plantations in tropical regions (Smith et al 2007, FAO 2012). Population growth and shifts in dietary patterns toward more meat and dairy consumption will lead to

  4. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  5. The greenhouse and antigreenhouse effects on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Courtin, Regis

    1991-01-01

    The parallels between the atmospheric thermal structure of the Saturnian satellite Titan and the hypothesized terrestrial greenhouse effect can serve as bases for the evaluation of competing greenhouse theories. Attention is presently drawn to the similarity between the roles of H2 and CH4 on Titan and CO2 and H2O on earth. Titan also has an antigreenhouse effect due to a high-altitude haze layer which absorbs at solar wavelengths, while remaining transparent in the thermal IR; if this haze layer were removed, the antigreenhouse effect would be greatly reduced, exacerbating the greenhouse effect and raising surface temperature by over 20 K.

  6. Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete; Martino, Daniel; Cai, Zucong; Gwary, Daniel; Janzen, Henry; Kumar, Pushpam; McCarl, Bruce; Ogle, Stephen; O'Mara, Frank; Rice, Charles; Scholes, Bob; Sirotenko, Oleg; Howden, Mark; McAllister, Tim; Pan, Genxing; Romanenkov, Vladimir; Schneider, Uwe; Towprayoon, Sirintornthep; Wattenbach, Martin; Smith, Jo

    2008-02-27

    Agricultural lands occupy 37% of the earth's land surface. Agriculture accounts for 52 and 84% of global anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Agricultural soils may also act as a sink or source for CO2, but the net flux is small. Many agricultural practices can potentially mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the most prominent of which are improved cropland and grazing land management and restoration of degraded lands and cultivated organic soils. Lower, but still significant mitigation potential is provided by water and rice management, set-aside, land use change and agroforestry, livestock management and manure management. The global technical mitigation potential from agriculture (excluding fossil fuel offsets from biomass) by 2030, considering all gases, is estimated to be approximately 5500-6000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1, with economic potentials of approximately 1500-1600, 2500-2700 and 4000-4300Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at carbon prices of up to 20, up to 50 and up to 100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively. In addition, GHG emissions could be reduced by substitution of fossil fuels for energy production by agricultural feedstocks (e.g. crop residues, dung and dedicated energy crops). The economic mitigation potential of biomass energy from agriculture is estimated to be 640, 2240 and 16 000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at 0-20, 0-50 and 0-100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively.

  7. Greenhouse Trace Gases in Deadwood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, Kristofer; Bueno de Mesquita, Cliff; Oberle, Brad; Maynard, Dan; Bettigole, Charles; Crowther, Thomas; Duguid, Marlyse; Steven, Blaire; Zanne, Amy; Lapin, Marc; Ashton, Mark; Oliver, Chad; Lee, Xuhui; Bradford, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Deadwood, long recognized as playing an important role in carbon cycling in forest ecosystems, is more recently drawing attention for its potential role in the cycling of other greenhouse trace gases. We report data from four independent studies measuring internal gas concentrations in deadwood in in three Quercus dominated upland forest systems in the Northeastern and Central United States. Mean methane concentrations in deadwood were 23 times atmospheric levels, indicating a lower bound, mean radial wood surface area flux of ~6 x 10-4 μmol CH4 m-2 s-1. Site, decay class, diameter, and species were all highly significant predictors of methane abundance in deadwood, and log diameter and decay stage interacted as important controls limiting methane concentrations in the smallest and most decayed logs. Nitrous oxide concentrations were negatively correlated with methane and on average ~25% lower than ambient, indicating net consumption of nitrous oxide. These data suggest nonstructural carbohydrates fuel archaeal methanogens and confirm the potential for widespread in situ methanogenesis in both living and deadwood. Applying this understanding to estimate methane emissions from microbial activity in living trees implies a potential global flux of 65.6±12.0 Tg CH4 yr-1, more than 20 times greater than currently considered.

  8. Methane Greenhouses and Anti-Greenhouses During the Archean Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasting, J. F.; Pavlov, A. A.

    2002-12-01

    Climate and life are coupled today through the biogeochemical carbon cycle, but they may have been even more tightly coupled in the distant past when atmospheric O2 levels were lower. The finding of mass-independently fractionated S isotopes in Archean rocks confirms that pO2 was very low, probably <10-13 times the present level, prior to 2.3 Ga (1). The Sun was also some 20 percent less luminous at this time (2). High CO2 levels were initially proposed to solve this `faint young Sun problem' (3); however, these levels are in conflict in data from paleosols (4). CH4 is an alternative greenhouse gas which could have kept the Archean climate warm if present at concentrations of 0.01-0.1 percent by volume (5). The primary source of methane is biological. CH4 is produced by methanogenic bacteria that today live in anaerobic environments such as the intestines of ruminants and the water-logged soils underlying rice paddies. During the Archean, however, methanogens should have been widespread, and the methane they produced would have had a long photochemical lifetimes, around 10,000 years (6). Most methanogens are thermophiles or hyperthermophiles, and those which are more thermophilic have shorter doubling times than those that prefer cooler temperatures. This suggests that a positive feedback loop may have existed, whereby methanogens warmed the climate by releasing CH4, which in turn promoted the proliferation of faster-growing methanogens. This positive feedback would have been halted, however, once the ratio of CH4 to CO2 in the atmosphere exceeded unity. At this point, polymerization of CH4 by solar UV radiation would have caused the formation of an organic haze layer similar to that observed today on Titan. Such a haze layer would have cooled the climate by creating an `anti-greenhouse effect.' This creates an overall negative feedback loop that may have been responsible for maintaining a stable Archean climate. The rise of O2 at 2.3 Ga disrupted this equilibrium

  9. Selecting iodine-enriched vegetables and the residual effect of iodate application to soil.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jiu-Lan; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Zhang, Min; Huang, Yi-Zhong

    2004-12-01

    A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to select vegetables for iodine uptake. The residual effect of iodate fertilization on the growth of and iodine uptake by spinach plants were also investigated. Six vegetables, including leafy vegetables (pakchoi [Brassica chinensis L.], spinach [Spinacia oleracea L.]), tuber vegetables (onion [Allium cepa L.]), shoot vegetables (water spinach [Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.], celery [Apium graveolens L.]), and root vegetables (carrot [Daucus carota var. sativa DC.]) were examined. Results showed that the concentrations of iodate in soil had significant effect on the biomass of edible parts of pakchoi and spinach (p<0.01), whereas the concentrations of iodate in soil had no significant effect on that of carrots, water spinach, celery, and onion. Iodine concentrations in edible parts of vegetables and the transfer factors (TFedible parts) of soil-to-edible parts of vegetables significantly increased with increasing iodine concentrations in soil (p<0.001), and iodine concentrations in edible parts and TFedible parts of spinach were much higher than those of other vegetables at any treatment. Both transfer coefficients for edible parts (TCedible parts) and for aerial parts (TCaerial parts) of vegetables changed differently with increasing iodine concentrations in the soil, and TCedible parts and TCaerial parts of spinach were higher than those of other vegetables. Therefore, spinach was considered as an efficient vegetable for iodine biofortification. Further experiment showed that there is considerable residual effect of soil fertilization with iodate.

  10. Protein Crystals Grown in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A collage of protein and virus crystals, many of which were grown on the U.S. Space Shuttle or Russian Space Station, Mir. The crystals include the proteins canavalin; mouse monoclonal antibody; a sweet protein, thaumatin; and a fungal protease. Viruses are represented here by crystals of turnip yellow mosaic virus and satellite tobacco mosaic virus. The crystals are photographed under polarized light (thus causing the colors) and range in size from a few hundred microns in edge length up to more than a millimeter. All the crystals are grown from aqueous solutions and are useful for X-ray diffraction analysis. Credit: Dr. Alex McPherson, University of California, Irvine.

  11. Arctic climate change: Greenhouse warming unleashed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauritsen, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Human activity alters the atmospheric composition, which leads to global warming. Model simulations suggest that reductions in emission of sulfur dioxide from Europe since the 1970s could have unveiled rapid Arctic greenhouse gas warming.

  12. Multiagency Initiative to Provide Greenhouse Gas Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boland, Stacey W.; Duren, Riley M.

    2009-11-01

    Global Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop; Albuquerque, New Mexico, 20-22 May 2009; The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was held at Sandia National Laboratories and organized by an interagency collaboration among NASA centers, Department of Energy laboratories, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. Such an initiative could significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies.

  13. Reservoir Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Russian HPP

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, M. P.; Elistratov, V. V.; Maslikov, V. I.; Sidorenko, G. I.; Chusov, A. N.; Atrashenok, V. P.; Molodtsov, D. V.; Savvichev, A. S.; Zinchenko, A. V.

    2015-05-15

    Studies of greenhouse-gas emissions from the surfaces of the world’s reservoirs, which has demonstrated ambiguity of assessments of the effect of reservoirs on greenhouse-gas emissions to the atmosphere, is analyzed. It is recommended that greenhouse- gas emissions from various reservoirs be assessed by the procedure “GHG Measurement Guidelines for Fresh Water Reservoirs” (2010) for the purpose of creating a data base with results of standardized measurements. Aprogram for research into greenhouse-gas emissions is being developed at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University in conformity with the IHA procedure at the reservoirs impounded by the Sayano-Shushenskaya and Mainskaya HPP operated by the RusHydro Co.

  14. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  15. Advancing Greenhouse Gas Reductions through Affordable Housing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    James City County, Virginia, is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  16. Non-Profit Greenhouse Gas Reductions Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Baltimore City, Maryland, is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  17. The Greenhouse Effect in a Vial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Richard; Sneider, Cary

    1989-01-01

    Presents an example of a greenhouse-effect experiment from the Climate Protection Institute. Analyzes the amount of carbon dioxide in ambient air, human exhalation, automobile exhaust, and nearly pure carbon dioxide by titrating with ammonia and bromthymol blue. (MVL)

  18. Greenhouse Gas Endangerment Finding: Health Effects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View English or Spanish-language version of a fact sheet that highlights key effects that support EPA’s determination that current and future concentrations of greenhouse gases endanger public health.

  19. Regulations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aircraft

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are taking coordinated steps to enable the production of a new generation of clean vehicles, through reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improved fuel use from onroad vehicles.

  20. Greenhouse Gas Reductions for Marginalized Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Honolulu, Hawaii, is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  1. Bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, M.M.; Mintz, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    A bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies has been compiled to assist the Climate change Action Plan Task Force in their consideration of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from personal motor vehicles. The document contains a summary of the literature, including it major directions and implications; and annotated listing of 32 recent pertinent documents; and a listing of a larger group of related reports.

  2. Effect of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi on Plant Biomass and the Rhizosphere Microbial Community Structure of Mesquite Grown in Acidic Lead/Zinc Mine Tailings

    PubMed Central

    Solís-Domínguez, Fernando A.; Valentín-Vargas, Alexis; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M.

    2011-01-01

    Mine tailings in arid and semi-arid environments are barren of vegetation and subject to eolian dispersion and water erosion. Revegetation is a cost-effective strategy to reduce erosion processes and has wide public acceptance. A major cost of revegetation is the addition of amendments, such as compost, to allow plant establishment. In this paper we explore whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can help support plant growth in tailings at a reduced compost concentration. A greenhouse experiment was performed to determine the effects of three AMF inocula on biomass, shoot accumulation of heavy metals, and changes in the rhizosphere microbial community structure of the native plant Prosopis juliflora (mesquite). Plants were grown in an acidic lead/zinc mine tailings amended with 10% (w/w) compost amendment, which is slightly sub-optimal for plant growth in these tailings. After two months, AMF-inoculated plants showed increased dry biomass and root length (p < 0.05) and effective AMF colonization compared to controls grown in uninoculated compost-amended tailings. Mesquite shoot tissue lead and zinc concentrations did not exceed domestic animal toxicity limits regardless of whether AMF inoculation was used. The rhizosphere microbial community structure was assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of the small subunit RNA gene for bacteria and fungi. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of DGGE profiles showed that the rhizosphere fungal community structure at the end of the experiment was significantly different from the community structure in the tailings, compost, and AMF inocula prior to planting. Further, CCA showed that AMF inoculation significantly influenced the development of both the fungal and bacterial rhizosphere community structures after two months. The changes observed in the rhizosphere microbial community structure may be either a direct effect of the AMF inocula, caused by changes in plant physiology induced by

  3. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on plant biomass and the rhizosphere microbial community structure of mesquite grown in acidic lead/zinc mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Solís-Domínguez, Fernando A; Valentín-Vargas, Alexis; Chorover, Jon; Maier, Raina M

    2011-02-15

    Mine tailings in arid and semi-arid environments are barren of vegetation and subject to eolian dispersion and water erosion. Revegetation is a cost-effective strategy to reduce erosion processes and has wide public acceptance. A major cost of revegetation is the addition of amendments, such as compost, to allow plant establishment. In this paper we explore whether arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) can help support plant growth in tailings at a reduced compost concentration. A greenhouse experiment was performed to determine the effects of three AMF inocula on biomass, shoot accumulation of heavy metals, and changes in the rhizosphere microbial community structure of the native plant Prosopis juliflora (mesquite). Plants were grown in an acidic lead/zinc mine tailings amended with 10% (w/w) compost amendment, which is slightly sub-optimal for plant growth in these tailings. After two months, AMF-inoculated plants showed increased dry biomass and root length (p<0.05) and effective AMF colonization compared to controls grown in uninoculated compost-amended tailings. Mesquite shoot tissue lead and zinc concentrations did not exceed domestic animal toxicity limits regardless of whether AMF inoculation was used. The rhizosphere microbial community structure was assessed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles of the small subunit RNA gene for bacteria and fungi. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) of DGGE profiles showed that the rhizosphere fungal community structure at the end of the experiment was significantly different from the community structure in the tailings, compost, and AMF inocula prior to planting. Further, CCA showed that AMF inoculation significantly influenced the development of both the fungal and bacterial rhizosphere community structures after two months. The changes observed in the rhizosphere microbial community structure may be either a direct effect of the AMF inocula, caused by changes in plant physiology induced by

  4. Vegetation Identification With LIDAR

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Quercus agrifolia ).....27 3. Eucalyptus Tree (Eucalyptus Globus).........28 E. IDENTIFYING LOCATIONS WITHOUT VEGETATION.........30 F. IDENTIFYING...Relative First Return 25 ( Quercus dumosa), and the California Live Oak ( Quercus agrifolia ). These three species of trees are very abundant in this...ELEVATION OF TERRAIN...23 D. TYPES OF VEGETATION..............................26 1. California Scrub Oak ( Quercus dumosa).......26 2. California Live Oak

  5. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  6. [Choice of plant light status for space greenhouse: results of ground-based experience].

    PubMed

    Berkovich, Iu A

    2000-01-01

    To decide on the light status of plants in space greenhouse, a theoretical study was undertaken to correlate specific productivity of space greenhouse with illumination characteristics including vertical PAR flux density (I), photoperiod (tau), and crop leaf index (L). It was demonstrated that in pace with I the daily productivity per a volume unit tended to monotonously approach maximum at I = Ip, whereas the greenhouse energy efficiency ME peaked at I = IE, IK < IE < IP, where IK is a compensation point of the light curve of crop photosynthesis. Proposed are compromise criteria to optimize illumination as a maximum of linear combination of MV and ME and coefficients which account for the cost of a space station volume unit and a unit of board power supply, and as maximum of product Q = MV.ME. Experimental results serve as the basis for a technique for determination of the best, by the Q criterion, light status parameters for three types of space greenhouses: research growth chamber for synchronous cultivation of leaf mustard, wheat growth chamber with fixed crop density, and green conveyer for cultivation of Brassica pekinensis (Lour Rupor). For the last mentioned Q effective I and tau values differed with the conveyer step. The technique allows design of ground-based experiments aimed at determination of the most effective light status of space-grown crops.

  7. Thyroid function in Danish greenhouse workers

    PubMed Central

    Toft, Gunnar; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background From animal studies it is known that currently used pesticides can disturb thyroid function. Methods In the present study we investigated the thyroid function in 122 Danish greenhouse workers, to evaluate if greenhouse workers classified as highly exposed to pesticides experiences altered thyroid levels compared to greenhouse workers with lower exposure. Serum samples from the greenhouse workers were sampled both in the spring and the fall to evaluate if differences in pesticide use between seasons resulted in altered thyroid hormone levels. Results We found a moderate reduction of free thyroxine (FT4) (10–16%) among the persons working in greenhouses with a high spraying load both in samples collected in the spring and the fall, but none of the other measured thyroid hormones differed significantly between exposure groups in the cross-sectional comparisons. However, in longitudinal analysis of the individual thyroid hormone level between the spring and the fall, more pronounced differences where found with on average 32% higher thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level in the spring compared to the fall and at the same time a 5–9% lower total triiodthyroxin (TT3), free triiodthyroxine (FT3) and FT4. The difference between seasons was not consistently more pronounced in the group classified as high exposure compared to the low exposure groups. Conclusion The present study indicates that pesticide exposure among Danish greenhouse workers results in only minor disturbances of thyroid hormone levels. PMID:17147831

  8. Space and time variability of heating requirements for greenhouse tomato production in the Euro-Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Luigi; Cola, Gabriele; Bulgari, Roberta; Ferrante, Antonio; Martinetti, Livia

    2016-08-15

    The Euro-Mediterranean area is the seat of a relevant greenhouse activity, meeting the needs of important markets. A quantitative assessment of greenhouse energy consumption and of its variability in space and time is an important decision support tool for both greenhouse-sector policies and farmers. A mathematical model of greenhouse energy balance was developed and parameterized for a state-of-the-art greenhouse to evaluate the heating requirements for vegetables growing. Tomato was adopted as reference crop, due to its high energy requirement for fruit setting and ripening and its economic relevance. In order to gain a proper description of the Euro-Mediterranean area, 56 greenhouse areas located within the ranges 28°N-72°N and 11°W-55°E were analyzed over the period 1973-2014. Moreover, the two 1973-1987 and 1988-2014 sub-periods were separately studied to describe climate change effects on energy consumption. Results account for the spatial variability of energy needs for tomato growing, highlighting the strong influence of latitude on the magnitude of heat requirements. The comparison between the two selected sub-periods shows a decrease of energy demand in the current warm phase, more relevant for high latitudes. Finally, suggestions to reduce energy consumptions are provided.

  9. Modelling vegetated dune landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baas, A. C. W.; Nield, J. M.

    2007-03-01

    This letter presents a self-organising cellular automaton model capable of simulating the evolution of vegetated dunes with multiple types of plant response in the environment. It can successfully replicate hairpin, or long-walled, parabolic dunes with trailing ridges as well as nebkha dunes with distinctive deposition tails. Quantification of simulated landscapes with eco-geomorphic state variables and subsequent cluster analysis and PCA yields a phase diagram of different types of coastal dunes developing from blow-outs as a function of vegetation vitality. This diagram indicates the potential sensitivity of dormant dune fields to reactivation under declining vegetation vitality, e.g. due to climatic changes. Nebkha simulations with different grid resolutions demonstrate that the interaction between the (abiotic) geomorphic processes and the biological vegetation component (life) introduces a characteristic length scale on the resultant landforms that breaks the typical self-similar scaling of (un-vegetated) bare-sand dunes.

  10. Use of U.S. croplands for biofuels increases greenhouse gases through emissions from land-use change.

    PubMed

    Searchinger, Timothy; Heimlich, Ralph; Houghton, R A; Dong, Fengxia; Elobeid, Amani; Fabiosa, Jacinto; Tokgoz, Simla; Hayes, Dermot; Yu, Tun-Hsiang

    2008-02-29

    Most prior studies have found that substituting biofuels for gasoline will reduce greenhouse gases because biofuels sequester carbon through the growth of the feedstock. These analyses have failed to count the carbon emissions that occur as farmers worldwide respond to higher prices and convert forest and grassland to new cropland to replace the grain (or cropland) diverted to biofuels. By using a worldwide agricultural model to estimate emissions from land-use change, we found that corn-based ethanol, instead of producing a 20% savings, nearly doubles greenhouse emissions over 30 years and increases greenhouse gases for 167 years. Biofuels from switchgrass, if grown on U.S. corn lands, increase emissions by 50%. This result raises concerns about large biofuel mandates and highlights the value of using waste products.

  11. Use of U.S. Croplands for Biofuels Increases Greenhouse Gases Through Emissions from Land-Use Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Searchinger, Timothy; Heimlich, Ralph; Houghton, R. A.; Dong, Fengxia; Elobeid, Amani; Fabiosa, Jacinto; Tokgoz, Simla; Hayes, Dermot; Yu, Tun-Hsiang

    2008-02-01

    Most prior studies have found that substituting biofuels for gasoline will reduce greenhouse gases because biofuels sequester carbon through the growth of the feedstock. These analyses have failed to count the carbon emissions that occur as farmers worldwide respond to higher prices and convert forest and grassland to new cropland to replace the grain (or cropland) diverted to biofuels. By using a worldwide agricultural model to estimate emissions from land-use change, we found that corn-based ethanol, instead of producing a 20% savings, nearly doubles greenhouse emissions over 30 years and increases greenhouse gases for 167 years. Biofuels from switchgrass, if grown on U.S. corn lands, increase emissions by 50%. This result raises concerns about large biofuel mandates and highlights the value of using waste products.

  12. Arsenic, Pb, Cu, Zn, and P accumulation by sweet potato grown on broiler litter ash amended Pb and As contaminated soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L) Lam] is an important food crop grown in tropical and subtropical areas of the world. It is generally grown for its carbohydrates rich tuber. Sweet potato leaves rich in vitamin B, ß-carotene, iron, calcium, zinc and protein have been used as leafy vegetables in diff...

  13. Cruciferous Vegetables and Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... cruciferous vegetables? Cruciferous vegetables are part of the Brassica genus of plants. They include the following vegetables, ... others: Arugula Bok choy Broccoli Brussels sprouts Cabbage Cauliflower Collard greens Horseradish Kale Radishes Rutabaga Turnips Watercress ...

  14. Preliminary study on the variation of radon-222 inside greenhouse of Shouguang county, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaohong; Xu, Xianqin; Li, Wanwei; Wang, Fei; Hai, Chunxu

    2016-03-01

    Studies on radon have become the focus of indoor radiation. In this study, we chose greenhouse to be the study field, the research aims to: (1) explore the diurnal variation of radon concentration inside greenhouse in Shouguang county, China; (2) pre-analyze the relationship between radon concentration, temperature and relative humidity, and shed light on the radon behavior characteristic inside greenhouse; (3) verify the feasibility of calculating radon radiation dose by using short-period detected radon concentrations in typical months in Shouguang county. The following conclusions were drawn. Firstly, the average radon levels in typical months in Shouguang county are all much higher than that in ordinary dwellings in China, diurnal and seasonal variations in radon levels are observed inside greenhouse. Secondly, temperature and relative humidity may play a role indirectly through affecting soil moisture and other factors. The mechanism need to be further studied. Thirdly, radon concentrations detected in typical months are still useful in preliminary estimation of radon radiation dose for vegetable-plant farmers in Shouguang county.

  15. Greenhouse-gas-trading markets.

    PubMed

    Sandor, Richard; Walsh, Michael; Marques, Rafael

    2002-08-15

    This paper summarizes the extension of new market mechanisms for environmental services, explains of the importance of generating price information indicative of the cost of mitigating greenhouse gases (GHGs) and presents the rationale and objectives for pilot GHG-trading markets. It also describes the steps being taken to define and launch pilot carbon markets in North America and Europe and reviews the key issues related to incorporating carbon sequestration into an emissions-trading market. There is an emerging consensus to employ market mechanisms to help address the threat of human-induced climate changes. Carbon-trading markets are now in development around the world. A UK market is set to launch in 2002, and the European Commission has called for a 2005 launch of an European Union (EU)-wide market, and a voluntary carbon market is now in formation in North America. These markets represent an initial step in resolving a fundamental problem in defining and implementing appropriate policy actions to address climate change. Policymakers currently suffer from two major information gaps: the economic value of potential damages arising from climate changes are highly uncertain, and there is a lack of reliable information on the cost of mitigating GHGs. These twin gaps significantly reduce the quality of the climate policy debate. The Chicago Climate Exchange, for which the authors serve as lead designers, is intended to provide an organized carbon-trading market involving energy, industry and carbon sequestration in forests and farms. Trading among these diverse sectors will provide price discovery that will help clarify the cost of combating climate change when a wide range of mitigation options is employed. By closing the information gap on mitigation costs, society and policymakers will be far better prepared to identify and implement optimal policies for managing the risks associated with climate change. Establishment of practical experience in providing

  16. Analysis of root reinforcement of vegetated riprap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tron, Stefania; Raymond, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Riprap is a traditional engineering solution used to protect riverbanks against erosion on developed riparian corridors. However, the traditional riprap does not provide adequate fish and wildlife habitat within the riparian zone, which is normally provided by naturally vegetated stream banks. An innovative approach, which mitigates this issue and at the same time provides stream bank erosion control, is the vegetated riprap technique. This solution, which combines rocks and native vegetation in the form of live cuttings, has been designed and implemented by Terra Erosion Control Ltd for the past 7 years. The aim of this work was to study the effect of the vegetation, in particular the root system, on the stability of the riprap. This analysis was carried out in the late spring of 2013 on the vegetated riprap installation located along the Columbia River riverbank, adjacent to the Teck Metals Ltd. smelter in Trail, British Columbia, Canada. An excavation perpendicular to the river was performed in order to investigate the root system development within the vegetated riprap structure. This excavation exposed one of the Salix bebbiana cuttings installed in 2006. The cutting was 2.3 m long and was set with an inclination of 35° with respect to the horizontal plane: the first 0.3 m was exposed, 1 m was buried within the riprap rocks (which had an average diameter of 30 cm) and the remaining 1.0 m was in the soil matrix below the rocks. The diameter of the roots growing along the cutting were measured in order to obtain the root density at various depths and tensile strength tests were carried out on the Salix bebbiana roots with diameters of up to 9 mm. The aim was to quantitatively estimate the additional cohesion given by the roots. The additional root cohesion was more effective in the deeper soil layer where the soil matrix predominates. In the upper soil layer, where the particle size is significantly higher, roots do not increase the cohesion but act as a

  17. Vegetable Production System (Veggie)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Howard G.; Smith, Trent M.

    2016-01-01

    The Vegetable Production System (Veggie) was developed by Orbital Technologies Corp. to be a simple, easily stowed, and high growth volume yet low resource facility capable of producing fresh vegetables on the International Space Station (ISS). In addition to growing vegetables in space, Veggie can support a variety of experiments designed to determine how plants respond to microgravity, provide real-time psychological benefits for the crew, and conduct outreach activities. Currently, Veggie provides the largest volume available for plant growth on the ISS.

  18. Vegetation against dune mobility.

    PubMed

    Durán, Orencio; Herrmann, Hans J

    2006-11-03

    Vegetation is the most common and most reliable stabilizer of loose soil or sand. This ancient technique is for the first time cast into a set of equations of motion describing the competition between aeolian sand transport and vegetation growth. Our set of equations is then applied to study quantitatively the transition between barchans and parabolic dunes driven by the dimensionless fixation index theta which is the ratio between the dune characteristic erosion rate and vegetation growth velocity. We find a fixation index theta(c) below which the dunes are stabilized, characterized by scaling laws.

  19. Rapid evolution and the cost of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in greenhouse populations of cabbage loopers, Trichoplusia ni.

    PubMed Central

    Janmaat, Alida F; Myers, Judith

    2003-01-01

    The microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has become the mainstay of non-chemical control of Lepidopteran pests, either as sprays or through the incorporation of Bt toxins into transgenic crops. Given the wide use of Bt, it is striking that currently only one pest species, Plutella xylostella, has been reported to have developed significant resistance to Bt outside the laboratory. By contrast, we report here the frequent and rapid development of resistance to B. thuringiensis kurstaki (Dipel, Abbott) in populations of cabbage loopers, Trichoplusia ni, in commercial greenhouses. Resistance to Bt appears to be costly and there is a rapid decline of resistance in populations collected from greenhouses and maintained in the laboratory without selection. Management of pests resistant to Bt in vegetable greenhouses will require sporadic use of Bt-based sprays or alternatively use of sprays containing other Bt toxins. PMID:14613613

  20. Coma / Vegetative State

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vegetative State Legal Issues Sleeping Problems Anxiety & Stress Concussion / Mild TBI Living with Traumatic Brain Injury Speech & ... Conscious States After Severe Brain Injury Brain Trauma, Concussion, and Coma What Is the Glasgow Coma Scale? ...

  1. Global Enhanced Vegetation Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    By carefully measuring the wavelengths and intensity of visible and near-infrared light reflected by the land surface back up into space, the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Team can quantify the concentrations of green leaf vegetation around the world. The above MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) map shows the density of plant growth over the entire globe. Very low values of EVI (white and brown areas) correspond to barren areas of rock, sand, or snow. Moderate values (light greens) represent shrub and grassland, while high values indicate temperate and tropical rainforests (dark greens). The MODIS EVI gives scientists a new tool for monitoring major fluctuations in vegetation and understanding how they affect, and are affected by, regional climate trends. For more information, read NASA Unveils Spectacular Suite of New Global Data Products from MODIS. Image courtesy MODIS Land Group/Vegetation Indices, Alfredo Huete, Principal Investigator, and Kamel Didan, University of Arizona

  2. Vegetative pyoderma gangrenosum.

    PubMed

    Kim, Randie H; Lewin, Jesse; Hale, Christopher S; Meehan, Shane A; Stein, Jennifer; Ramachandran, Sarika

    2014-12-16

    Vegetative pyoderma gangrenosum is a rare, superficial variant of pyoderma gangrenosum that is more commonly found on the trunk as single or multiple, non-painful lesions. There is typically no associated underlying systemic disease. Compared to classic pyoderma gangrenosum, vegetative lesions are more likely to heal without the use of systemic glucocorticoids, although up to 39% of patients required a short course of prednisone in a review of 46 cases. Treatments for vegetative pyoderma gangrenosum include topical and intralesional glucocorticoids, minocycline or doxycycline, dapsone, colchicine, and, rarely, alternative steroid-sparing immunosuppressants. We present a case of multiple vegetative pyoderma gangrenosum lesions arising in prior surgical sites in a patient found to have IgA monoclonal gammopathy and abnormal urinary protein electrophoresis.

  3. Vegetable Oil-Biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Pudel, Frank; Wiesen, Sebastian

    2017-03-07

    Conventional vegetable oil mills are complex plants, processing oil, fruits, or seeds to vegetable fats and oils of high quality and predefined properties. Nearly all by-products are used. However, most of the high valuable plant substances occurring in oil fruits or seeds besides the oil are used only in low price applications (proteins as animal feeding material) or not at all (e.g., phenolics). This chapter describes the state-of-the-art of extraction and use of oilseed/oil fruit proteins and phyto-nutrients in order to move from a conventional vegetable oil processing plant to a proper vegetable oil-biorefinery producing a wide range of different high value bio-based products.

  4. [Effects of biochar and nitrification inhibitor incorporation on global warming potential of a vegetable field in Nanjing, China].

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Li, Qiao-Ling; Fan, Chang-Hua; Sun, Li-Ying; Xiong, Zheng-Qin

    2014-09-01

    The influences of biochar and nitrification inhibitor incorporation on global warming potential (GWP) of a vegetable field were studied using the static chamber and gas chromatography method. Compared with the treatments without biochar addition, the annual GWP of N2O and CH4 and vegetable yield were increased by 8.7%-12.4% and 16.1%-52.5%, respectively, whereas the greenhouse gas intensity (GHGI) were decreased by 5.4%-28.7% following biochar amendment. Nitrification inhibitor significantly reduced the N2O emission while had little influence on CH4 emission, decreased GWP by 17.5%-20.6%, increased vegetable yield by 21.2%-40.1%, and decreased the GHGI significantly. The combined application of biochar and nitrification inhibitor significantly increased both vegetable yield and GWP, but to a greater extent for vegetable yield. Therefore, nitrification inhibitor incorporation could be served as an appropriate practice for increasing vegetable yield and mitigating GHG emissions in vegetable field.

  5. Monitoring global vegetation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macdonald, R. B.; Houston, A. G.; Heydorn, R. P.; Botkin, D. B.; Estes, J. E.; Strahler, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    An attempt is made to identify the need for, and the current capability of, a technology which could aid in monitoring the Earth's vegetation resource on a global scale. Vegetation is one of our most critical natural resources, and accurate timely information on its current status and temporal dynamics is essential to understand many basic and applied environmental interrelationships which exist on the small but complex planet Earth.

  6. Vegetation and soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burke, M.K.; King, S.L.; Eisenbies, M.H.; Gartner, D.

    2000-01-01

    Intro paragraph: Characterization of bottomland hardwood vegetation in relatively undisturbed forests can provide critical information for developing effective wetland creation and restoration techniques and for assessing the impacts of management and development. Classification is a useful technique in characterizing vegetation because it summarizes complex data sets, assists in hypothesis generation about factors influencing community variation, and helps refine models of community structure. Hierarchical classification of communities is particularly useful for showing relationships among samples (Gauche 1982).

  7. Vegetable oil fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Fifty contributions (presentations) involving more than one hundred people worldwide were given at the International Conference on Plant and Vegetable Oils as Fuels. The proceedings were in Fargo, North Dakota, from August 2-4, 1982. The conference helped to promote renewable fuels, bio-oils, from plant and vegetable oils. Separate abstracts were prepared for 44 items for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  8. Aeromonas salmonicida grown in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Garduño, R A; Thornton, J C; Kay, W W

    1993-01-01

    The virulent fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida was rapidly killed in vivo when restricted inside a diffusion chamber implanted intraperitoneally in rainbow trout. After a period of regrowth, the survivors had acquired resistance to host-mediated bacteriolysis, phagocytosis, and oxidative killing, properties which were subsequently lost by growth in vitro. Resistance to bacteriolysis and phagocytosis was associated with a newly acquired capsular layer revealed by acidic polysaccharide staining and electron microscopy. This capsular layer shielded the underlying, regular surface array (S-layer) from immunogold labeling with a primary antibody to the S-layer protein. Resistance to oxidative killing was mediated by a mechanism not associated with the presence of the capsular layer. An attenuated vaccine strain of A. salmonicida grown in vivo failed to express the capsular layer. Consequently, the in vivo-grown cells of this attenuated strain remained as sensitive to bacteriolysis, and as avidly adherent to macrophages, as the in vitro-grown cells. The importance of these new virulence determinants and their relation to the known virulence factors of A. salmonicida are discussed. Images PMID:8359906

  9. [Fruits and vegetables].

    PubMed

    Aranceta, Javier

    2004-06-01

    Fruits and vegetables are particularly interesting for health for their content in minerals, antioxidant vitamins, phytochemicals and dietary fiber. All these substances are related to lower risk for the development of health probems, such as certain types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes, obesity, constipation or diverticolsys. The sound basis of scientific evidence led European and American scientific organizations and societies to recommend an intake up to 150-200 g of vegetables every day; ie. 2 or more portions daily and 3 or more portions of fruit; five portions of fruit and vegetables all together. According to the consumer panel from the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food, between the late 80s and the end of the 90s. consumption of fruit and vegetables decreased. However, in late years this trend has slow down and even reversed. Results from food consumption studies based on individual level assessment in Spain estimate an average consumption of fruit and vegetables of 154 g/per person/day in adults aged 25-60 yr. Prevalence of inadequate intake of fruit and vegetables is high among children and young people. In this age group above 70% of the population consume less than 3 portions of fruit every day on average. Reorientation of prevailing food patterns nowadays require investment in measures aimed at increasing the consumption of plant foods and estimulate healthy food habits in families.

  10. Treatment of vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bessler, T.R.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

  11. Phosphorus in China's Intensive Vegetable Production Systems: Overfertilization, Soil Enrichment, and Environmental Implications.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhengjuan; Liu, Pengpeng; Li, Yuhong; Ma, Lin; Alva, Ashok; Dou, Zhengxia; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Fusuo

    2013-07-01

    China's vegetable production has experienced a rapid growth in recent years. Total production amounted to 522.7 million Mg (1 Mg = 10 g) in 2009, which was more than nine times that in 1980 and represented >50% of the world production. Meanwhile, excessive use of animal manures and chemical fertilizers in vegetable fields has brought various production and environmental challenges, including excessive accumulation of nutrients in soils and accelerated water pollution problems. In this study, we have evaluated the current status of phosphorus (P) in China's intensive vegetable production systems based on data summarized from nearly 100 publications plus results from our recent experiments. Gross overfertilization occurred in greenhouse (571 kg P ha) and open-field (117 kg P ha) vegetable systems compared with P removal in harvested crops (44 and 25 kg P ha) per season. Excess P input led to soil enrichment of labile P, measured as Olsen-P, averaging 179 (greenhouses) and 100 mg P kg (open fields) in the 0- to 20-cm soil depth, and in some cases led to P leaching, as evidenced by increases in Olsen-P and CaCl-P at the 40- to 60-cm soil depth. The vast majority of vegetable soils had Olsen-P exceeding the critical level (46.0-58.0 mg P kg) for optimum vegetable yield. Innovative policies and strategies are urgently needed to implement science-based nutrient management practices to attain sustainable vegetable production while protecting natural and environmental resources.

  12. Effect of metal stress on the thermal infrared emission of soybeans: A greenhouse experiment - Possible utility in remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suresh, R.; Schwaller, M. R.; Foy, C. D.; Weidner, J. R.; Schnetzler, C. S.

    1989-01-01

    Manganese-sensitive forest and manganese-tolerant lee soybean cultivars were subjected to differential manganese stress in loring soil in a greenhouse experiment. Leaf temperature measurements were made using thermistors for forest and lee. Manganese-stressed plants had higher leaf temperatures than control plants in both forest and lee. Results of this experiment have potential applications in metal stress detection using remote sensing thermal infrared data over large areas of vegetation. This technique can be useful in reconnaissance mineral exploration in densely-vegetated regions where conventional ground-based methods are of little help.

  13. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  14. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Ruether, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

  15. Greenhouse Gas Analysis by GC/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, E. M.; Easton, Z. M.; Macek, P.

    2015-12-01

    Current methods to analyze greenhouse gases rely on designated complex, multiple-column, multiple-detector gas chromatographs. A novel method was developed in partnership with Shimadzu for simultaneous quantification of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in environmental gas samples. Gas bulbs were used to make custom standard mixtures by injecting small volumes of pure analyte into the nitrogen-filled bulb. Resulting calibration curves were validated using a certified gas standard. The use of GC/MS systems to perform this analysis has the potential to move the analysis of greenhouse gasses from expensive, custom GC systems to standard single-quadrupole GC/MS systems that are available in most laboratories, which wide variety of applications beyond greenhouse gas analysis. Additionally, use of mass spectrometry can provide confirmation of identity of target analytes, and will assist in the identification of unknown peaks should they be present in the chromatogram.

  16. The Greenhouse Effect and Climate Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, C.; Haberle, R. M.; McKay, C. P.; Titov, D. V.

    This chapter reviews the theory of the greenhouse effect and climate feedback. It also compares the theory with observations, using examples taken from all four known terrestrial worlds with substantial atmospheres: Venus, Earth, Mars, and Titan. The greenhouse effect traps infrared radiation in the atmosphere, thereby increasing surface temperature. It is one of many factors that affect a world's climate. (Others include solar luminosity and the atmospheric scattering and absorption of solar radiation.) A change in these factors — defined as climate forcing — may change the climate in a way that brings other processes — defined as feedbacks — into play. For example, when Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide increases, warming the surface, the water vapor content of the atmosphere increases. This is a positive feedback on global warming because water vapor is itself a potent greenhouse gas. Many positive and negative feedback processes are significant in determining Earth's climate, and probably the climates of our terrestrial neighbors.

  17. The Determinants of Organic Vegetable Purchasing in Jabodetabek Region, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Slamet, Alim Setiawan; Nakayasu, Akira; Bai, Hu

    2016-01-01

    Over the last few years, the global market of organic vegetables has grown. This is due to increased consumer concern regarding environmental and health issues, especially for food products. This study aims to examine factors that influence consumer behavior in purchasing organic vegetables. In this study, data were obtained from household surveys conducted in the Jabodetabek region (Greater Jakarta) from February to March 2015. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis, and a binary logit model were used to analyze the data. Subsequently, the results show that consumers with fewer family members and have a higher income, and are price tolerant, are more likely to purchase organic vegetables. Meanwhile, female consumers are less likely to buy organic vegetables. Another important finding is that positive attitude towards organic products, safety and health, environmental concerns, as well as degree of trust in organic attributes, are the determinants of organic vegetable purchasing among consumers. Therefore, based on the study results, the following recommendations are needed for organic vegetable development in Indonesia: (a) implementing an appropriate pricing strategy; (b) encouraging organic labeling and certification for vegetables; and (c) intensively promoting organic food with respect to consumers’ motives and concerns on health, safety, as well as environmental sustainability. PMID:28231181

  18. The Determinants of Organic Vegetable Purchasing in Jabodetabek Region, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Slamet, Alim Setiawan; Nakayasu, Akira; Bai, Hu

    2016-12-07

    Over the last few years, the global market of organic vegetables has grown. This is due to increased consumer concern regarding environmental and health issues, especially for food products. This study aims to examine factors that influence consumer behavior in purchasing organic vegetables. In this study, data were obtained from household surveys conducted in the Jabodetabek region (Greater Jakarta) from February to March 2015. Descriptive analysis, factor analysis, and a binary logit model were used to analyze the data. Subsequently, the results show that consumers with fewer family members and have a higher income, and are price tolerant, are more likely to purchase organic vegetables. Meanwhile, female consumers are less likely to buy organic vegetables. Another important finding is that positive attitude towards organic products, safety and health, environmental concerns, as well as degree of trust in organic attributes, are the determinants of organic vegetable purchasing among consumers. Therefore, based on the study results, the following recommendations are needed for organic vegetable development in Indonesia: (a) implementing an appropriate pricing strategy; (b) encouraging organic labeling and certification for vegetables; and

  19. Projected Future Vegetation Changes for the Northwest United States and Southwest Canada at a Fine Spatial Resolution Using a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Sarah L; Bartlein, Patrick J; Gray, Elizabeth M; Pelltier, Richard T

    2015-01-01

    Future climate change may significantly alter the distributions of many plant taxa. The effects of climate change may be particularly large in mountainous regions where climate can vary significantly with elevation. Understanding potential future vegetation changes in these regions requires methods that can resolve vegetation responses to climate change at fine spatial resolutions. We used LPJ, a dynamic global vegetation model, to assess potential future vegetation changes for a large topographically complex area of the northwest United States and southwest Canada (38.0-58.0°N latitude by 136.6-103.0°W longitude). LPJ is a process-based vegetation model that mechanistically simulates the effect of changing climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations on vegetation. It was developed and has been mostly applied at spatial resolutions of 10-minutes or coarser. In this study, we used LPJ at a 30-second (~1-km) spatial resolution to simulate potential vegetation changes for 2070-2099. LPJ was run using downscaled future climate simulations from five coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (CCSM3, CGCM3.1(T47), GISS-ER, MIROC3.2(medres), UKMO-HadCM3) produced using the A2 greenhouse gases emissions scenario. Under projected future climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the simulated vegetation changes result in the contraction of alpine, shrub-steppe, and xeric shrub vegetation across the study area and the expansion of woodland and forest vegetation. Large areas of maritime cool forest and cold forest are simulated to persist under projected future conditions. The fine spatial-scale vegetation simulations resolve patterns of vegetation change that are not visible at coarser resolutions and these fine-scale patterns are particularly important for understanding potential future vegetation changes in topographically complex areas.

  20. Projected Future Vegetation Changes for the Northwest United States and Southwest Canada at a Fine Spatial Resolution Using a Dynamic Global Vegetation Model

    PubMed Central

    Shafer, Sarah L.; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Gray, Elizabeth M.; Pelltier, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Future climate change may significantly alter the distributions of many plant taxa. The effects of climate change may be particularly large in mountainous regions where climate can vary significantly with elevation. Understanding potential future vegetation changes in these regions requires methods that can resolve vegetation responses to climate change at fine spatial resolutions. We used LPJ, a dynamic global vegetation model, to assess potential future vegetation changes for a large topographically complex area of the northwest United States and southwest Canada (38.0–58.0°N latitude by 136.6–103.0°W longitude). LPJ is a process-based vegetation model that mechanistically simulates the effect of changing climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations on vegetation. It was developed and has been mostly applied at spatial resolutions of 10-minutes or coarser. In this study, we used LPJ at a 30-second (~1-km) spatial resolution to simulate potential vegetation changes for 2070–2099. LPJ was run using downscaled future climate simulations from five coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (CCSM3, CGCM3.1(T47), GISS-ER, MIROC3.2(medres), UKMO-HadCM3) produced using the A2 greenhouse gases emissions scenario. Under projected future climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the simulated vegetation changes result in the contraction of alpine, shrub-steppe, and xeric shrub vegetation across the study area and the expansion of woodland and forest vegetation. Large areas of maritime cool forest and cold forest are simulated to persist under projected future conditions. The fine spatial-scale vegetation simulations resolve patterns of vegetation change that are not visible at coarser resolutions and these fine-scale patterns are particularly important for understanding potential future vegetation changes in topographically complex areas. PMID:26488750

  1. Projected future vegetation changes for the northwest United States and southwest Canada at a fine spatial resolution using a dynamic global vegetation model.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shafer, Sarah; Bartlein, Patrick J.; Gray, Elizabeth M.; Pelltier, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    Future climate change may significantly alter the distributions of many plant taxa. The effects of climate change may be particularly large in mountainous regions where climate can vary significantly with elevation. Understanding potential future vegetation changes in these regions requires methods that can resolve vegetation responses to climate change at fine spatial resolutions. We used LPJ, a dynamic global vegetation model, to assess potential future vegetation changes for a large topographically complex area of the northwest United States and southwest Canada (38.0–58.0°N latitude by 136.6–103.0°W longitude). LPJ is a process-based vegetation model that mechanistically simulates the effect of changing climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations on vegetation. It was developed and has been mostly applied at spatial resolutions of 10-minutes or coarser. In this study, we used LPJ at a 30-second (~1-km) spatial resolution to simulate potential vegetation changes for 2070–2099. LPJ was run using downscaled future climate simulations from five coupled atmosphere-ocean general circulation models (CCSM3, CGCM3.1(T47), GISS-ER, MIROC3.2(medres), UKMO-HadCM3) produced using the A2 greenhouse gases emissions scenario. Under projected future climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, the simulated vegetation changes result in the contraction of alpine, shrub-steppe, and xeric shrub vegetation across the study area and the expansion of woodland and forest vegetation. Large areas of maritime cool forest and cold forest are simulated to persist under projected future conditions. The fine spatial-scale vegetation simulations resolve patterns of vegetation change that are not visible at coarser resolutions and these fine-scale patterns are particularly important for understanding potential future vegetation changes in topographically complex areas.

  2. Testing and preformance measurement of straight vegetable oils as an alternative fuel for diesel engines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakshminarayanan, Arunachalam

    Rising fuel prices, growing energy demand, concerns over domestic energy security and global warming from greenhouse gas emissions have triggered the global interest in bio-energy and bio-fuel crop development. Backlash from these concerns can result in supply shocks of traditional fossil fuels and create immense economic pressure. It is thus widely argued that bio-fuels would particularly benefit developing countries by off-setting their dependencies on imported petroleum. Domestically, the transportation sector accounts for almost 40% of liquid fuel consumption, while on-farm application like tractors and combines for agricultural purposes uses close to an additional 18%. It is estimated that 40% of the farm budget can be attributed to the fuel costs. With the cost of diesel continuously rising, farmers are now looking at using Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO) as an alternative fuel by producing their own fuel crops. This study evaluates conventional diesel compared to the use of SVO like Camelina, Canola and Juncea grown on local farms in Colorado for their performance and emissions on a John Deere 4045 Tier-II engine. Additionally, physical properties like density and viscosity, metal/mineral content, and cold flow properties like CFPP and CP of these oils were measured using ASTM standards and compared to diesel. It was found that SVOs did not show significant differences compared to diesel fuel with regards to engine emissions, but did show an increase in thermal efficiency. Therefore, this study supports the continued development of SVO production as a viable alternative to diesel fuels, particularly for on-farm applications. The need for providing and developing a sustainable, economic and environmental friendly fuel alternative has taken an aggressive push which will require a strong multidisciplinary education in the field of bio-energy. Commercial bio-energy development has the potential to not only alleviate the energy concerns, but also to give renewed

  3. Greenhouse of the future. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cavin, B. III

    1998-07-03

    This greenhouse of the future is located at the Center for Regenerative Studies (CRS) at Cal Poly Pomona. The building design was driven by desired environmental conditions. The primary objective was to keep the interior space warm during winter for the breeding of fish and other greenhouse activities, especially in the winter. To do this, a highly insulating envelope was needed. Straw bales provide excellent insulation with an R-value of approximately 50 and also help solve the environmental problems associated with this agricultural waste product. A summary of the construction progress, construction costs and operating costs are included.

  4. Towards a Greenhouse Gas Lidar in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehret, Gerhard; Amediek, Axel; Quatrevalet, Mathieu

    Highly accurate measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by a space-borne lidar will help to substantially improve knowledge of greenhouse gas fluxes. The method of integrated-path differential-absorption lidar for total column measurements has proven to be a suitable means for CH4 detection in natural gas leak surveillance and active remote sensing of CO2. This pioneering work facilitated the instrument development of an advanced greenhouse gas lidar on HALO and set the stage for the development of a CH4-lidar in space instrument foreseen in the Franco-German climate mission MERLIN.

  5. Greenhouse gases and the metallurgical process industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lupis, C.H.P.

    1999-10-01

    The present lecture offers a brief review of the greenhouse effect, the sources of greenhouse gases, the potential effect of these gases on global warming, the response of the international community, and the probable cost of national compliance. The specific emissions of the metallurgical process industry, particularly those of the steel and aluminum sectors, are then examined. The potential applications of life-cycle assessments and of an input-output model in programs of emissions' abatement are investigated, and, finally, a few remarks on some implications for education are presented.

  6. Investigation of residual fluoroquinolones in a soil-vegetable system in an intensive vegetable cultivation area in Northern China.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Wen; Xie, Yun-Feng; Li, Cang-Lin; Zhao, Hui-Nan; Zhao, Hui; Wang, Ning; Wang, Jin-Feng

    2014-01-15

    One of the largest vegetable cultivation field sites in Northeast China was selected to investigate the occurrence and distribution pattern of fluoroquinolones (FQs) in the soil-vegetable system. A total of 100 surface soil samples and 68 vegetable samples were collected from this study area. The antibiotic concentration was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results indicated the presence of FQs in all soil samples. Ciprofloxacin (CIP) had the highest mean concentration, at 104.4 μg · kg(-1) in the soil, a level that represents a relatively high risk to the environment and to human health. However, in the vegetable samples, norfloxacin (NOR) was significantly higher than CIP and enrofloxacin (ENR), ranging from 18.2 to 658.3 μg · kg(-1). The transfer ability of NOR in soil-vegetables is greater than that of CIP and ENR. Moreover, we found that the solanaceous fruits had a higher antibiotic accumulation ability than the leafy vegetables. Taken together, these data indicate that greater attention should be paid to the region in which vegetables with higher accumulation ability are grown.

  7. Vegetable Oil from Leaves and Stems: Vegetative Production of Oil in a C4 Crop

    SciTech Connect

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: Arcadia Biosciences, in collaboration with the University of California-Davis, is developing plants that produce vegetable oil in their leaves and stems. Ordinarily, these oils are produced in seeds, but Arcadia Biosciences is turning parts of the plant that are not usually harvested into a source of concentrated energy. Vegetable oil is a concentrated source of energy that plants naturally produce and is easily separated after harvest. Arcadia Biosciences will isolate traits that control oil production in seeds and transfer them into leaves and stems so that all parts of the plants are oil-rich at harvest time. After demonstrating these traits in a fast-growing model plant, Arcadia Biosciences will incorporate them into a variety of dedicated biofuel crops that can be grown on land not typically suited for food production

  8. Within-plant distribution of Aulacorthum solani (Hemiptera: Aphididae), on various greenhouse plants with implications for control.

    PubMed

    Jandricic, S E; Mattson, N S; Wraight, S P; Sanderson, J P

    2014-04-01

    Foxglove aphid, Aulacorthum solani (Kaltenbach) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), has recently undergone a status change from an occasional pest to a serious pest in greenhouses of North America and the United Kingdom. Little nonanecdotal information exists on the ecology of this insect in greenhouse crops. To help improve integrated pest management decisions for A. solani, the within-plant distribution of this pest was explored on a variety of common greenhouse plants in both the vegetative and flowering stage. This aphid generally was found on lower leaves of vegetative plants, but was found higher in the canopy on reproductive plants (on flowers, flower buds, or upper leaves). Aphid numbers were not consistently positively correlated with total leaf surface areas within plant strata across plant species. Thus, the observed differences in preferred feeding sites on vegetative versus flowering plants are possibly a response to differences in nutritional quality of the various host-plant tissues. Despite being anecdotally described as a "stem-feeding aphid," A. solani was rarely found feeding on stems at the population densities established in our tests, with the exception of racemes of scarlet sage (Salvia splendans). Although some previous reports suggested that A. solani prefers to feed on new growth of plants, our results indicate that mature leaves are preferred over growing tips and young leaves. The implications of the within-plant feeding preferences of A. solani populations with respect to both biological and chemical control are discussed.

  9. Modeling the infrastructure dynamics of China -- Water, agriculture, energy, and greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, S.H.; Drennen, T.E.; Engi, D.; Harris, D.L.; Jeppesen, D.M.; Thomas, R.P.

    1998-08-01

    A comprehensive critical infrastructure analysis of the People`s Republic of China was performed to address questions about China`s ability to meet its long-term grain requirements and energy needs and to estimate greenhouse gas emissions in China likely to result from increased agricultural production and energy use. Four dynamic computer simulation models of China`s infrastructures--water, agriculture, energy and greenhouse gas--were developed to simulate, respectively, the hydrologic budgetary processes, grain production and consumption, energy demand, and greenhouse gas emissions in China through 2025. The four models were integrated into a state-of-the-art comprehensive critical infrastructure model for all of China. This integrated model simulates diverse flows of commodities, such as water and greenhouse gas, between the separate models to capture the overall dynamics of the integrated system. The model was used to generate projections of China`s available water resources and expected water use for 10 river drainage regions representing 100% of China`s mean annual runoff and comprising 37 major river basins. These projections were used to develop estimates of the water surpluses and/or deficits in the three end-use sectors--urban, industrial, and agricultural--through the year 2025. Projections of the all-China demand for the three major grains (corn, wheat, and rice), meat, and other (other grains and fruits and vegetables) were also generated. Each geographic region`s share of the all-China grain demand (allocated on the basis of each region`s share of historic grain production) was calculated in order to assess the land and water resources in each region required to meet that demand. Growth in energy use in six historically significant sectors and growth in greenhouse gas loading were projected for all of China.

  10. [Greenhouse gases emission or uptake in Inner Mongolia natural and free-grazing grasslands].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuesi; Xue, Min; Huang, Yao; Liu, Guangren; Wang, Mingxing; Gi, Baoming

    2003-03-01

    GC-MS was used to measure the greenhouse emission of Inner Mongolia Grassland. The results showed that four kinds of typical semi-arid grasslands in Inner Mongolia had their own special seasonal patterns as the source of atmospheric N2O and CO2 emission and the sink of atmopsheric CH4, which were controlled by seasonal weather variation. Different soil and vegetation types and precipitation influenced the intensity of emission and upatake of the gases. Compared with natural grassland, free grazing decreased CH4 uptake and N2O emission, but increased CO2 emission.

  11. Effects of vermicomposts produced from food waste on the growth and yields of greenhouse peppers.

    PubMed

    Arancon, Norman Q; Edwards, Clive A; Atiyeh, Rola; Metzger, James D

    2004-06-01

    Vermicomposts, produced commercially from food wastes, were substituted at a range of different concentrations into a soil-less commercial bedding plant container medium, Metro-Mix 360 (MM360), to evaluate their effects on the growth and yields of peppers in the greenhouse. Six-week-old peppers (Capsicum annum L. var. California) were transplanted into 100%, 80%, 60%, 40%, 20% or 10% MM360 substituted with 0%, 10%, 20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% vermicompost. All plants were watered three times weekly with 200 ppm Peter's Nutrient Solution from the time of transplanting up to 107 days. Peppers grown in potting mixtures containing 40% food waste vermicomposts and 60% MM360 yielded 45% more fruit weights and had 17% greater mean number of fruits than those grown in MM360 only. The mean heights, numbers of buds and numbers of flowers of peppers grown in potting mixtures containing 10-80% vermicompost although greater did not differ significantly from those of peppers grown in MM360. There were no positive correlations between the increases in pepper yields, and the amounts of mineral-N and microbial biomass-N in the potting mixtures, or the concentrations of nitrogen in the shoot tissues of peppers. Factors such as: an improvement of the physical structure of the potting medium, increases in populations of beneficial microorganisms and the potential availability of plant growth-influencing-substances produced by microorganisms in vermicomposts, could have contributed to the increased pepper yields obtained.

  12. Improvement of red pepper yield and soil environment by summer catch aquatic crops in greenhouses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, X. F.; Wang, L. Z.; Peng, J.; Wang, G. L.; Guo, X. S.; Wen, T. G.; Gu, D. L.; Wang, W. Z.; Wu, C. W.

    2016-08-01

    To investigate effects of the rotation of summer catch crops on remediation retrogressed soils in continuous cropping, a field experiment was conducted. Rice, water spinach, or cress were selected as summer catch crops; bare fallow during summer fallow was used as the control group. Results showed that aquatic crops grown in summer fallow period could effectively reduce soil bulk density and pH, facilitate soil nutrient release, and improve soil physical and chemical properties compared with those grown in fallow period. Paddy-upland rotation could improve soil microbial members and increase bacterial and actinomycete populations; by contrast, paddy-upland rotation could reduce fungal populations and enhance bacterium-to-fungus ratio. Paddy-upland rotation could also actively promote activities of soil enzymes, such as urease, phosphatase, invertase, and catalase. The proposed paddy-upland rotation significantly affected the growth of red pepper; the yield and quality of the grown red pepper were enhanced. Summer catch crops, such as rice, water spinach, and cress significantly increased pepper yield in the following growing season by 15.4%, 10.2% and 14.0%, respectively, compared with those grown in fallow treatment. Therefore, the proposed paddy-upland crop rotation could be a useful method to alleviate continuous cropping problems involved in cultivating red pepper in greenhouses.

  13. Trace and Major Elements in Food Articles in Latvia: Root Vegetables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincevica-Gaile, Zane; Klavins, Maris; Rudovica, Vita; Viksna, Arturs

    2011-01-01

    It is known that the content of trace and major elements in plants is dependent on several factors, such as type of species, soil properties, climate conditions, agricultural and agrichemical factors, pollution. The aim of the study was to quantify element content of root vegetables grown in farmlands and allotment gardens in Latvia. Samples of onion bulbs and carrot roots were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Quantitative amounts of 17 trace elements (Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, La, Mn, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Sr, V, Zn) and 5 major elements (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na) were determined. It was detected that carrot roots contained higher amounts of several elements than onion bulbs. Differences in element content of vegetables were also detected between the subgroups of samples grown in farmlands versus samples grown in allotment gardens. Data revealed that onions grown in farmlands were more affected by contaminants.

  14. Production of recombinant proteins in microalgae at pilot greenhouse scale.

    PubMed

    Gimpel, Javier A; Hyun, James S; Schoepp, Nathan G; Mayfield, Stephen P

    2015-02-01

    Recombinant protein production in microalgae chloroplasts can provide correctly folded proteins in significant quantities and potentially inexpensive costs compared to other heterologous protein production platforms. The best results have been achieved by using the psbA promoter and 5' untranslated region (UTR) to drive the expression of heterologous genes in a psbA-deficient, non-photosynthetic, algal host. Unfortunately, using such a strategy makes the system unviable for large scale cultivation using natural sunlight for photosynthetic growth. In this study we characterized eight different combinations of 5' regulatory regions and psbA coding sequences for their ability to restore photosynthesis in a psbA-deficient Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, while maintaining robust accumulation of a commercially viable recombinant protein driven by the psbA promoter/5'UTR. The recombinant protein corresponded to bovine Milk Amyloid A (MAA), which is present in milk colostrum and could be used to prevent infectious diarrhea in mammals. This approach allowed us to identify photosynthetic strains that achieved constitutive production of MAA when grown photosynthetically in 100 L bags in a greenhouse. Under these conditions, the maximum MAA expression achieved was 1.86% of total protein, which corresponded to 3.28 mg/L of culture medium. Within our knowledge, this is the first report of a recombinant protein being produced this way in microalgae.

  15. Cost of abating greenhouse gas emissions with cellulosic ethanol.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, Puneet; Wang, Weiwei; Hudiburg, Tara; Jaiswal, Deepak; Parton, William; Long, Stephen; DeLucia, Evan; Khanna, Madhu

    2015-02-17

    We develop an integrated framework to determine and compare greenhouse gas (GHG) intensities and production costs of cellulosic ethanol derived from corn stover, switchgrass, and miscanthus grown on high and low quality soils for three representative counties in the Eastern United States. This information is critical for assessing the cost-effectiveness of utilizing cellulosic ethanol for mitigating GHG emissions and designing appropriate policy incentives to support cellulosic ethanol production nationwide. We find considerable variations in the GHG intensities and production costs of ethanol across feedstocks and locations mostly due to differences in yields and soil characteristics. As compared to gasoline, the GHG savings from miscanthus-based ethanol ranged between 130% and 156% whereas that from switchgrass ranged between 97% and 135%. The corresponding range for GHG savings with corn stover was 57% to 95% and marginally below the threshold of at least 60% for biofuels classified as cellulosic biofuels under the Renewable Fuels Standard. Estimates of the costs of producing ethanol relative to gasoline imply an abatement cost of at least $48 Mg(-1) of GHG emissions (carbon dioxide equivalent) abated and can be used to infer the minimum carbon tax rate needed to induce consumption of cellulosic ethanol.

  16. Pollution of intensively managed greenhouse soils by nutrients and heavy metals in the Yellow River Irrigation Region, Northwest China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Xiaole; Cao, Jing; Tang, Rangyun; Zhang, Shengqiang; Dong, Fang

    2014-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess the potential ecological risk of heavy metals and nutrient accumulation in polytunnel greenhouse soils in the Yellow River irrigation region (YRIR), Northwest China, and to identify the potential sources of these heavy metals using principal component analysis. Contents of available nitrogen (AN), phosphorus (AP), and potassium (AK) in the surface polytunnel greenhouse soils (0-20 cm) varied from 13.42 to 486.78, from 39.10 to 566.97, and from 21.64 to 1,156.40 mg kg(-1), respectively, as well as AP, soil organic matter (SOM) and AK contents tended to increase significantly at the 0-20- and 20-40-cm soil layers. Heavy metal accumulations occurred in the polytunnel greenhouse soils as compared to arable soils, especially at a depth of 20 cm where Cd, Zn and Cu contents were significantly higher than arable soil. Cd and As were found to be the two main polluting elements in the greenhouse soils because their contents exceeded the thresholds established for greenhouse vegetable production HJ333-2006 in China and the background of Gansu province. It has been shown that Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn at the 0-20-cm soil layer were derived mainly from agricultural production activities, whereas contents of Cr and Ni at the same soil layer were determined by 'natural' factors and As originated from natural sources, deposition and irrigation water.

  17. Possible Internalization of an Enterovirus in Hydroponically Grown Lettuce.

    PubMed

    Carducci, Annalaura; Caponi, Elisa; Ciurli, Adriana; Verani, Marco

    2015-07-17

    Several studies have shown that enteric viruses can be transferred onto the surface of vegetables and fruits through spray irrigation, but, recently, reports have suggested viral contamination of vegetables sub-irrigated with reused wastewater. Hydroponic cultures, used to grow ready to eat fresh lettuce, have also been used to study the possibility of viral absorption through roots. This study was conducted to assess a possible risk of viral contamination in lettuce from contaminated water. The leaves of lettuce plants grown in hydroponic cultures where the roots were exposed to water containing Coxsakievirus B2, were analysed for evidence of the virus. The plants and water were sampled at different times and virus was measured using quantitative RT-PCR and infectivity assay. In leaf samples, the lowest observed infective data were lower than the qRT-PCR detection limits, suggesting that free viral RNA or damaged viruses are eliminated rapidly while infectious particles remain stable for a longer time. The obtained data revealed that the leaves were contaminated at a water concentration of 4.11 ± 1 Log Most Probable Number/L (8.03 ± 1 Log GC/L) a concentration observed in contaminated untreated water of wastewater treatment plants. However, the absorption dynamics and whether the virus is inactive in the leaves still remains to be clarified. Nevertheless, this work has practical implications for risk management in using reclaimed water for agricultural use; when irrigated vegetables are destined for raw consumption, virological contamination in water sources should be evaluated.

  18. Managing biogeochemical cycles to reduce greenhouse gases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This special issue focuses on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and their roles in determining current continental-scale budgets and future trends in biogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) for North America. Understanding the current magnitude and forecasting future trajectories of atmospheric GHG concent...

  19. Broader perspectives for comparing different greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Manning, Martin; Reisinger, Andy

    2011-05-28

    Over the last 20 years, different greenhouse gases have been compared, in the context of climate change, primarily through the concept of global warming potentials (GWPs). This considers the climate forcing caused by pulse emissions and integrated over a fixed time horizon. Recent studies have shown that uncertainties in GWP values are significantly larger than previously thought and, while past literature in this area has raised alternative means of comparison, there is not yet any clear alternative. We propose that a broader framework for comparing greenhouse gases has become necessary and that this cannot be addressed by using simple fixed exchange rates. From a policy perspective, the framework needs to be clearly aligned with the goal of climate stabilization, and we show that comparisons between gases can be better addressed in this context by the forcing equivalence index (FEI). From a science perspective, a framework for comparing greenhouse gases should also consider the full range of processes that affect atmospheric composition and how these may alter for climate stabilization at different levels. We cover a basis for a broader approach to comparing greenhouse gases by summarizing the uncertainties in GWPs, linking those to uncertainties in the FEIs consistent with stabilization, and then to a framework for addressing uncertainties in the corresponding biogeochemical processes.

  20. Optimization Model for Reducing Emissions of Greenhouse ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (VGHG) model is used to apply various technologies to a defined set of vehicles in order to meet a specified GHG emission target, and to then calculate the costs and benefits of doing so. To facilitate its analysis of the costs and benefits of the control of GHG emissions from cars and trucks.

  1. Measuring and managing reservoir greenhouse gas emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with a heat trapping capacity 34 times greater than that of carbon dioxide on a 100 year time scale. Known anthropogenic CH4 sources include livestock production, rice agriculture, landfills, and natural gas...

  2. Robotic System For Greenhouse Or Nursery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul; Montgomery, Jim; Silver, John; Heffelfinger, Neil; Simonton, Ward; Pease, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Report presents additional information about robotic system described in "Robotic Gripper With Force Control And Optical Sensors" (MFS-28537). "Flexible Agricultural Robotics Manipulator System" (FARMS) serves as prototype of robotic systems intended to enhance productivities of agricultural assembly-line-type facilities in large commercial greenhouses and nurseries.

  3. The greenhouse and antigreenhouse effects on Titan.

    PubMed

    McKay, C P; Pollack, J B; Courtin, R

    1991-09-06

    There are many parallels between the atmospheric thermal structure of the Saturnian satellite Titan and the terrestrial greenhouse effect; these parallels provide a comparison for theories of the heat balance of Earth. Titan's atmosphere has a greenhouse effect caused primarily by pressure-induced opacity of N2, CH4, and H2. H2 is a key absorber because it is primarily responsible for the absorption in the wave number 400 to 600 cm-1 "window" region of Titan's infrared spectrum. The concentration of CH4, also an important absorber, is set by the saturation vapor pressure and hence is dependent on temperature. In this respect there is a similarity between the role of H2 and CH4 on Titan and that of CO2 and H2O on Earth. Titan also has an antigreenhouse effect that results from the presence of a high-altitude haze layer that is absorbing at solar wavelengths but transparent in the thermal infrared. The antigreenhouse effect on Titan reduces the surface temperature by 9 K whereas the greenhouse effect increases it by 21 K. The net effect is that the surface temperature (94 K) is 12 K warmer than the effective temperature (82 K). If the haze layer were removed, the antigreenhouse effect would be greatly reduced, the greenhouse effect would become even stronger, and the surface temperature would rise by over 20 K.

  4. Biological control in greenhouses using entomopathogenic fungi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The most important greenhouse (GH) pests, whiteflies, aphids, thrips, mealybugs, scales, and mites, all feed on plant saps via piercing-sucking mouthparts. This has important implications with respect to microbial biocontrol, as pathogens capable of invading their hosts via penetration of the body ...

  5. Joint Implementation: Biodiversity and Greenhouse Gas Offsets

    PubMed

    CUTRIGHT

    1996-11-01

    / One of the most pressing environmental issues today is the possibility that projected increases in global emissions of greenhouse gases from increased deforestation, development, and fossil-fuel combustion could significantly alter global climate patterns. Under the terms of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed in Rio de Janeiro during the June 1992 Earth Summit, the United States and other industrialized countries committed to balancing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels in the year 2000. Included in the treaty is a provision titled "Joint Implementation," whereby industrialized countries assist developing countries in jointly modifying long-term emission trends, either through emission reductions or by protecting and enhancing greenhouse gas sinks (carbon sequestration). The US Climate Action Plan, signed by President Clinton in 1993, calls for voluntary climate change mitigation measures by various sectors, and the action plan included a new program, the US Initiative on Joint Implementation. Wisconsin Electric decided to invest in a JI project because its concept encourages creative, cost-effective solutions to environmental problems through partnering, international cooperation, and innovation. The project chosen, a forest preservation and management effort in Belize, will sequester more than five million tons of carbon dioxide over a 40-year period, will become economically self-sustaining after ten years, and will have substantial biodiversity benefits.KEY WORDS: Joint implementation; Activities implemented jointly; Carbon sequestration; Carbon dioxide; Global climate change; Greenhouse gas; Belize

  6. Second Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boland, S. W.; Duren, R. M.; Mitchiner, J.; Rotman, D.; Sheffner, E.; Ebinger, M. H.; Miller, C. E.; Butler, J. H.; Dimotakis, P.; Jonietz, K.

    2009-12-01

    The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop was held May 20-22, 2009 at the Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was organized by an interagency collaboration between NASA centers, DOE laboratories, and NOAA. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales in order to significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies. This talk provides an overview of the second Greenhouse Gas Information System workshop, presents its key findings, and discusses current status and next steps in this interagency collaborative effort.

  7. 78 FR 23149 - Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 96 to 99, revised as of July 1, 2012, on page 768, in Sec. 98.226, in...

  8. Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Voluntary Reporting 1996

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Presents information on voluntary actions to reduce greenhouse gases or remove such gases from the atmosphere in 1995. It provides an overview of participation in the Voluntary Reporting Program, a perspective on the composition of activities reported, and a review of some key issues in interpreting and evaluating achievements associated with reported emissions mitigation initiatives.

  9. Studying the Greenhouse Effect: A Simple Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Studies the parameters involved in a presentation of the greenhouse effect and describes a simple demonstration of this effect. Required equipment includes a 100-120 watt lamp, a 250mL beaker, and a thermometer capable of recording 0-750 degrees Celsius together with a small amount of chloroform. (Author/SAH)

  10. Greenhouse Management and Operations. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowdy, Mary Ann Schwartz

    This document is the teacher's edition of a module containing 16 instructional units covering competencies for students with career aspirations in horticulture. It is designed to provide high school students with an in-depth perspective of both the technical and the commercial aspects of running a greenhouse. The 16 units cover the following…

  11. Off-season greenhouse strawberry production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Strawberry production in the mid-South is mostly done in the field with harvest from April to June. There is year-round demand for fruit with the highest prices from November through February. Our research is ongoing to evaluate off-season strawberry production in polyethylene-covered greenhouses....

  12. Geological assessment of the greenhouse effect

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, T.J. )

    1993-12-01

    Geologic studies provide a valuable perspective on the importance of greenhouse forcing for climate change. On both Pleistocene and tectonic time scales, changes in climate are positively correlated with greenhouse gas variations. However, the sensitivity of the system to greenhouse gas changes cannot yet be constrained by paleoclimate data below its present large range. Geologic records do not support one of the major predictions of greenhouse models-namely, that tropical sea surface temperatures will increase. Geologic data also suggest that winter cooling in high-latitude land areas is less than predicted by models. As the above-mentioned predictions appear to be systemic features of the present generation of climate models, some significant changes in model design may be required to reconcile models and geologic data. However, full acceptance of this conclusion requires more measurements and more systematic compilations of existing geologic data. Since progress in data collection in this area has been quite slow, uncertainties associated with these conclusions may persist for some time. 106 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Greenhouse effect due to chlorofluorocarbons - Climatic implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramanathan, V.

    1975-01-01

    The infrared bands of chlorofluorocarbons and chlorocarbons enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. This enhancement may lead to an appreciable increase in the global surface temperature if the atmospheric concentrations of these compounds reach values of the order of 2 parts per billion.

  14. Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from University Purchases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Matthew; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory was conducted for Yale University's procurement of goods and services over a one-year period. The goal of the inventory was to identify the financial expenditures resulting in the greatest "indirect" GHG emissions. This project is part of an ongoing effort to quantify and reduce the university's…

  15. Products from vegetable oils

    SciTech Connect

    Bagby, M.O.

    1995-12-01

    Vegetable oils serve various industrial applications such as plasticizers, emulsifiers, surfactants, plastics and resins. Research and development approaches may take advantage of natural properties of the oils. More often it is advantageous to modify those properties for specific applications. One example is the preparation of ink vehicles using vegetable oils in the absence of petroleum. They are cost competitive with petroleum-based inks with similar quality factors. Vegetable oils have potential as renewable sources of fuels for the diesel engine. However, several characteristics can restrict their use. These include poor cold-engine startup, misfire and for selected fuels, high pour point and cloud point temperatures. Other characteristics include incomplete combustion causing carbon buildup, lube oil dilution and degradation, and elevated NO{sub x} emissions. Precombustion and fuel quality data are presented as a tool for understanding and solving these operational and durability problems.

  16. Accounting For Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flooded Lands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the inundation of rivers and terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can lead to enhanced rates of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a method...

  17. 2. VIEW SOUTHEAST, LEANTO GREENHOUSES OF MAIN HEADHOUSE (BUILDINGS 22. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHEAST, LEAN-TO GREENHOUSES OF MAIN HEADHOUSE (BUILDINGS 22. 23) - U.S. Plant Introduction Station, Main Headhouse & Lean-to Greenhouses, 11601 Old Pond Road, Glenn Dale, Prince George's County, MD

  18. Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases: International Emissions and Projections

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA August 2011 report on global non-CO2 emissions projections (1990-2030) for emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases (methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorinated greenhouse gases) from more than twenty emissions sources.

  19. 22. Greenhouse, south elevation. This winter 2002 view was taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Greenhouse, south elevation. This winter 2002 view was taken by Joseph Elliot while conducting photographic documentation of the landscape. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. Stuccoed building within greenhouse complex, north and west (front) sides, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Stuccoed building within greenhouse complex, north and west (front) sides, looking south towards building no. 121 (tennis courts) across W. Pennington Ave. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Greenhouse, West Pennington Avenue, East of Building No. 139, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  1. Mars Greenhouses: Concepts and Challenges. Proceedings from a 1999 Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Ray M. (Editor); Martin-Brennan, Cindy (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Topic covered include :Plants on Mars: On the Next Mission and in the Long Term Future; Bubbles in the Rocks: Natural and Artificial Caves and Cavities as Like Support Structures; Challenges for Bioregenerative Life Support on Mars; Cost Effectiveness Issues; Low Pressure Systems for Plant Growth; Plant Responses to Rarified Atmospheres; Can CO2 be Used as a Pressurizing Gas for Mars Greenhouses?; Inflatable Habitats Technology Development; Development of an Inflatable Greenhouse for a Modular Crop Production System; Mars Inflatable Greenhouse Workshop; Design Needs for Mars Deployable Greenhouse; Preliminary Estimates of the Possibilities for Developing a Deployable Greenhouse for a Planetary Surface Mars; Low Pressure Greenhouse Concepts for Mars; Mars Greenhouse Study: Natural vs. Artificial Lighting; and Wire Culture for an Inflatable Mars Greenhouse and Other Future Inflatable Space Growth Chambers.

  2. Glucosinolates in collard greens grown under three soil management practices.

    PubMed

    Antonious, George F

    2015-01-01

    Glucosinolates (GSLs, β-D-thioglucoside-N-hydroxysulfates) are polar compounds present in varying amounts in members of the Brassicaceae family. They suppress soil-borne pests due to the biofumigant properties of the highly toxic isothiocyanates present in Brassica vegetables. The objectives of this investigation were to: (1) assess variation in GSLs concentrations among collard plants grown under three soil management practices: sewage sludge (SS) mixed with native soil, chicken manure (CM) mixed with native soil, and no-mulch (NM) native soil, (2) quantify GSLs concentrations in collard roots, leaves, and stems at harvest for potential use of their crude extracts in plant protection, and (3) assess myrosinase activity in soil amended with CM and SS mixed with native soil. Separation of GSLs was accomplished by adsorption on a DEAE-Sephadex ion exchange resin using disposable pipette tips filled with DEAE, a weak base, with a net positive charge when ionized and exchange anions such as GSLs (hydrophilic plant secondary metabolites). Quantification of total GSLs was based on inactivation of collard endogenous myrosinase and liberation of the glucose moiety from the GSLs molecule by addition of standardized myrosinase and colorimetric determination of the liberated glucose moiety. Across all treatments, SS and CM increased soil organic matter content from 2.2% in native soil to 4.2 and 6.5%, respectively. GSLs concentrations were significantly greater in collard leaves (30.9 µmoles g(-1) fresh weight) compared to roots and stems (7.8 and 1.2 µmoles g(-1) fresh weight), respectively. Leaves of collard grown in soil amended with SS contained the greatest concentrations of GSLs compared to leaves of plants grown in CM and NM treatments. Accordingly, leaves of collard plants grown in soil amended with SS could play a significant role in sustainable agriculture as alternative tools for soil-borne disease management in conventional and organic agriculture.

  3. Design of experiments on 135 cloned poplar trees to map environmental influence in greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Rui Climaco; Stenlund, Hans; Hertzberg, Magnus; Lundstedt, Torbjörn; Johansson, Erik; Trygg, Johan

    2011-01-31

    To find and ascertain phenotypic differences, minimal variation between biological replicates is always desired. Variation between the replicates can originate from genetic transformation but also from environmental effects in the greenhouse. Design of experiments (DoE) has been used in field trials for many years and proven its value but is underused within functional genomics including greenhouse experiments. We propose a strategy to estimate the effect of environmental factors with the ultimate goal of minimizing variation between biological replicates, based on DoE. DoE can be analyzed in many ways. We present a graphical solution together with solutions based on classical statistics as well as the newly developed OPLS methodology. In this study, we used DoE to evaluate the influence of plant specific factors (plant size, shoot type, plant quality, and amount of fertilizer) and rotation of plant positions on height and section area of 135 cloned wild type poplar trees grown in the greenhouse. Statistical analysis revealed that plant position was the main contributor to variability among biological replicates and applying a plant rotation scheme could reduce this variation.

  4. Mars Greenhouse Experiment Module: An Experiment to Grow Flowers on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacCallum, T. K.; Poynter, J. E.; McKay, C. P.

    2000-01-01

    NASA has entered a new phase of in-depth exploration of the planets where robotic exploration of the Solar System is focusing on in-situ missions that pave the way for human exploration. Creating a human presence on Mars will require specialized knowledge and experience concerning the Martian environment and validated technologies that will provide life-supporting consumables. An understanding of the response of terrestrial organisms to the Martian environment with respect to potential deleterious effects on crew health and changes to biological processes will be paramount. In response to these challenges an innovative selfcontained flight experiment is proposed, which is designed to assess the biocompatibility of the Martian environment by germinating seeds and following their growth through to flowering. The experiment, dubbed Mars Greenhouse Experiment Module (Mars GEM), will be accomplished in a sealed pressurized growth chamber or 'Mars Greenhouse'. Seeds will be grown in Martian soil and the Mars Greenhouse will provide ultraviolet-radiation protected, thermal-controlled environment for plant growth that actively controls the CO2 (required nutrient) and O2 (generated by the plants) levels in the chamber. The simple, but visually dramatic, demonstration of the potential to grow a plant in a man-made environment on the surface of Mars should establish a strong connection between current robotic missions and future human habitation on Mars.

  5. 40 CFR 1036.108 - Greenhouse gas emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Greenhouse gas emission standards... and Related Requirements § 1036.108 Greenhouse gas emission standards. This section contains standards... of six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  6. 5. Greenhouse and storeroom, west elevation. Portions of the storeroom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Greenhouse and storeroom, west elevation. Portions of the storeroom might predate the greenhouse construction (1760-1761), however the two structures were not linked until late in the eighteenth century or early in the nineteenth century. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  7. 10. Detail view, greenhouse, south wall. These groundlevel openings were ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail view, greenhouse, south wall. These ground-level openings were part of the original heating system used to warm the greenhouse. The openings were likely related to the flues, while a larger opening to the west (not in photograph) contained an exterior-fed iron stove. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 40 CFR 1036.108 - Greenhouse gas emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Greenhouse gas emission standards... and Related Requirements § 1036.108 Greenhouse gas emission standards. This section contains standards... of six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  9. Runaway greenhouse atmospheres: Applications to Earth and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, James F.

    1991-01-01

    Runaway greenhouse atmospheres are discussed from a theoretical standpoint and with respect to various practical situation in which they might occur. The following subject areas are covered: (1) runaway greenhouse atmospheres; (2) moist greenhouse atmospheres; (3) loss of water from Venus; (4) steam atmosphere during accretion; and (5) the continuously habitable zone.

  10. The Dairy Greenhouse Gas Emission Model: Reference Manual

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dairy Greenhouse Gas Model (DairyGHG) is a software tool for estimating the greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprint of dairy production systems. A relatively simple process-based model is used to predict the primary greenhouse gas emissions, which include the net emission of carbon dioxide...

  11. Arctic plant diversity in the Early Eocene greenhouse

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Guy J.; Eberle, Jaelyn; Le-Page, Ben A.; Dawson, Mary; Hutchison, J. Howard

    2012-01-01

    For the majority of the Early Caenozoic, a remarkable expanse of humid, mesothermal to temperate forests spread across Northern Polar regions that now contain specialized plant and animal communities adapted to life in extreme environments. Little is known on the taxonomic diversity of Arctic floras during greenhouse periods of the Caenozoic. We show for the first time that plant richness in the globally warm Early Eocene (approx. 55–52 Myr) in the Canadian High Arctic (76° N) is comparable with that approximately 3500 km further south at mid-latitudes in the US western interior (44–47° N). Arctic Eocene pollen floras are most comparable in richness with today's forests in the southeastern United States, some 5000 km further south of the Arctic. Nearly half of the Eocene, Arctic plant taxa are endemic and the richness of pollen floras implies significant patchiness to the vegetation type and clear regional richness of angiosperms. The reduced latitudinal diversity gradient in Early Eocene North American plant species demonstrates that extreme photoperiod in the Arctic did not limit taxonomic diversity of plants. PMID:22072610

  12. Arctic plant diversity in the Early Eocene greenhouse.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Guy J; Eberle, Jaelyn; Le-Page, Ben A; Dawson, Mary; Hutchison, J Howard

    2012-04-22

    For the majority of the Early Caenozoic, a remarkable expanse of humid, mesothermal to temperate forests spread across Northern Polar regions that now contain specialized plant and animal communities adapted to life in extreme environments. Little is known on the taxonomic diversity of Arctic floras during greenhouse periods of the Caenozoic. We show for the first time that plant richness in the globally warm Early Eocene (approx. 55-52 Myr) in the Canadian High Arctic (76° N) is comparable with that approximately 3500 km further south at mid-latitudes in the US western interior (44-47° N). Arctic Eocene pollen floras are most comparable in richness with today's forests in the southeastern United States, some 5000 km further south of the Arctic. Nearly half of the Eocene, Arctic plant taxa are endemic and the richness of pollen floras implies significant patchiness to the vegetation type and clear regional richness of angiosperms. The reduced latitudinal diversity gradient in Early Eocene North American plant species demonstrates that extreme photoperiod in the Arctic did not limit taxonomic diversity of plants.

  13. High methane emissions dominate annual greenhouse gas balances 30 years after bog rewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanselow-Algan, M.; Schmidt, S. R.; Greven, M.; Fiencke, C.; Kutzbach, L.; Pfeiffer, E.-M.

    2015-02-01

    Natural peatlands are important carbon sinks and sources of methane (CH4). In contrast, drained peatlands turn from a carbon sink to a carbon source and potentially emit nitrous oxide (N2O). Rewetting of peatlands thus implies climate change mitigation. However, data about the time span that is needed for the re-establishment of the carbon sink function by restoration is scarce. We therefore investigated the annual greenhouse gas (GHG) balances of three differently vegetated bog sites 30 years after rewetting. All three vegetation communities turned out to be sources of carbon dioxide (CO2) ranging between 0.6 ± 1.43 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (Sphagnum-dominated vegetation) and 3.09 ± 3.86 t CO2 ha-2 yr-1 (vegetation dominated by heath). While accounting for the different global warming potential (GWP) of the three greenhouse gases, the annual GHG balance was calculated. Emissions ranged between 25 and 53 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1 and were dominated by large emissions of CH4 (22 up to 51 t CO2-eq ha-1 yr-1), while highest rates were found at purple moor grass (Molinia caerulea) stands. These are to our knowledge the highest CH4 emissions so far reported for bog ecosystems in temperate Europe. As the restored area was subject to large fluctuations in water table, we conclude that the high CH4 emission rates were caused by a combination of both the temporal inundation of the easily decomposable plant litter of this grass species and the plant-mediated transport through its tissues. In addition, as a result of the land use history, the mixed soil material can serve as an explanation. With regards to the long time span passed since rewetting, we note that the initial increase in CH4 emissions due to rewetting as described in the literature is not limited to a short-term period.

  14. Microorganisms applying for artificial soil regeneration technology in space greenhouses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivobok, A. S.

    2012-04-01

    The space greenhouse and technology for growing plants are being designed in frame of bio-technical life support systems development. During long-term space missions such greenhouse could provide the crew with vitamins and rough plant fiber. One of the important elements of the plant cultivation technology in the absence of earth gravity is organization and support the optimum root area. The capillary-porous substrate composed of anionites (FIBAN -1) and cationites (FIBAN -22-1) synthetic salt-saturated fibers is developed for plant cultivation in space and named "BIONA-V3". The BIONA main features are high productivity and usability. But the pointed features are not constant: the substrate productivity will be decreasing gradually from vegetation to vegetation course of plant residues and root secretions accumulation. Also, the basic hydro-physical characteristic of root zone will be shifted. Furthermore, saprotrophic microflora will develop and lead to increasing the level of microbial contamination of whole inhabit isolated module. Due to these changes the substrate useful life is limited and store mass is increased in long-term missions. For overhaul-period renewal it' necessary to remove the roots residues and other organic accumulation providing safety of the substrate capillary-porous structure. The basic components of 24-days old plant roots (Brassica chinensis, L) are cellulose (35 %) hemicellulose (11 %) and lignin (10 %). We see that one of the possible ways for roots residues removal from fibrous BIONA is microorganisms applying with strong cellulolytic and ligninolytic activities. The fungi Trichoderma sp., cellulolytic bacteria associations, and some genus of anaerobic thermophilic cellulolitic bacteria have been used for roots residues biodegradation. In case of applying cellulolytic fungi Trichoderma sp. considerable decrease of microcrystalline cellulose has been noted in both liquid and solid state fermentation. Cellulolytic fungi weight has been

  15. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  16. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  17. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  18. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  19. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  20. The role of vegetation in mitigating air quality impacts from ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    On Apri1 27-28, 2019, a multi-disciplinary group of researchers and po1icymakers met to discuss the state-of-the-science regarding the potential of roadside vegetation to mitigate near-road air quality impacts. Concerns over population exposures to traffic-generated pollutants near roads have grown with an increasing number of health studies reporting links between proximity to roads and adverse health effects. A recent EM article described how roadway design, including the presence of roadside vegetation, may be a means of mitigating air pollutant concentrations near roads. As a first step in evaluating this concept, representatives from government agencies, academia, state and local agencies, and non-governmental environmental organizations with expertise in air quality, urban forestry, ecosystem services, and environmental policy reviewed the current science and identified future activities in evaluating the potential role of vegetation in mitigating near-road air pollutant concentrations. journal article

  1. Vegetational analysis with Skylab-3 imagery. [Perquimans County, North Carolina

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welby, C. W. (Principal Investigator); Holman, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Color infrared photography from Skylab 3 appeared to be superior to ERTS imagery in a vegetational study of northeastern North Carolina. An accuracy of 87% was achieved in delimiting species composition and zonation patterns of three coastal, vegetation classes. A vegetation map of Perquimans County, North Carolina, seemed to have a high degree of correlation with information provided by high altitude U-2 photography. Random verification sites revealed an overall interpretation accuracy above 84%. Comparison of maps drawn utilizing Skylab photography with North Carolina Dept. of Agriculture estimates of crop acreage revealed some marked discrepancies. The chief difference lies in the nonagricultural category in which there is a 30% discrepancy. This fact raised some questions as to the definition of nonagricultural land uses and methods used by the State Dept. of Agriculture to determine actual percentages of crops grown.

  2. Vegetable oil as fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    A review is presented of various experiments undertaken over the past few years in the U.S. to test the performance of vegetable oils in diesel engines, mainly with a view to on-farm energy self-sufficiency. The USDA Northern Regional Research Center in Peoria, Illinois, is screening native U.S. plant species as potential fuel oil sources.

  3. Fermented and Acidified Vegetables

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetables may be preserved by fermentation, direct acidification, or a combination of these along with pasteurization or refrigeration and selected additives to yield products with an extended shelf life and enhanced safety. Organic acids such as lactic, acetic, sorbic and benzoic acids along with ...

  4. Is the interaction between Retama sphaerocarpa and its understorey herbaceous vegetation always reciprocally positive? Competition?facilitation shift during Retama establishment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espigares, Tíscar; López-Pintor, Antonio; Rey Benayas, José M.

    2004-10-01

    Retama sphaerocarpa is a Mediterranean shrub that when adult, facilitates the establishment of herbaceous plants under its canopy. We test the hypothesis that during the establishment of R. sphaerocarpa seedlings, the interaction with the herbaceous plants is negative. We carried out a greenhouse experiment in which seedlings of R. sphaerocarpa were grown under different conditions of competition with herbs, watering and date of emergence. Measurements of seedling mortality, biomass and growth were taken during the first growing season. We found a significant relationship between R. sphaerocarpa seedling mortality and competition in early spring, presumably due to higher water demand of herbaceous plants. Generally, presence of herbaceous species, lower availability of water and late emergence had negative effects on biomass and growth of Retama seedlings. Additional water compensated for the negative effects of competition, except on leaves and cladodes of Retama seedlings, suggesting that other resources, such as light, could be the subject of competition. In contrast, Retama seedlings exerted a positive influence on the herbaceous plants by increasing their survival and biomass, probably as a consequence of the high availability of nutrients provided by the Rhizobia nodules in the roots of Retama seedlings. We concluded that, at the regeneration stage of the shrub, the interaction between the herbaceous vegetation and the shrub is negative for the shrub and positive for the herbs. This suggests a shift from competition to facilitation with age of Retama, as reciprocal positive interactions have been described between herbaceous plants and adult individuals of the shrub.

  5. Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    Program fact sheet highlighting federal requirements for GHG emissions management, FEMP services to help agencies reduce emissions, and additional resources. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) assists Federal agencies with managing their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG management entails measuring emissions and understanding their sources, setting a goal for reducing emissions, developing a plan to meet this goal, and implementing the plan to achieve reductions in emissions. FEMP provides the following services to help Federal agencies meet the requirements of inventorying and reducing their GHG emissions: (1) FEMP offers one-on-one technical assistance to help agencies understand and implement the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance and fulfill their inventory reporting requirements. (2) FEMP provides training, tools, and resources on FedCenter to help agencies complete their annual inventories. (3) FEMP serves a leadership role in the interagency Federal Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting that develops recommendations to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance. (4) As the focus continues to shift from measuring emissions (completing inventories) to mitigating emissions (achieving reductions), FEMP is developing a strategic planning framework and resources for agencies to prioritize among a variety of options for mitigating their GHG emissions, so that they achieve their reduction goals in the most cost-effective manner. These resources will help agencies analyze their high-quality inventories to make strategic decisions about where to use limited resources to have the greatest impact on reducing emissions. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the lower atmosphere, warming the earth's surface temperature in a natural process known as the 'greenhouse effect.' GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4

  6. Harvesting microalgae grown on wastewater.

    PubMed

    Udom, Innocent; Zaribaf, Behnaz H; Halfhide, Trina; Gillie, Benjamin; Dalrymple, Omatoyo; Zhang, Qiong; Ergas, Sarina J

    2013-07-01

    The costs and life cycle impacts of microalgae harvesting for biofuel production were investigated. Algae were grown in semi-continuous culture in pilot-scale photobioreactors under natural light with anaerobic digester centrate as the feed source. Algae suspensions were collected and the optimal coagulant dosages for metal salts (alum, ferric chloride), cationic polymer (Zetag 8819), anionic polymer (E-38) and natural coagulants (Moringa Oleifera and Opuntia ficus-indica cactus) were determined using jar tests. The relative dewaterability of the algae cake was estimated by centrifugation. Alum, ferric chloride and cationic polymer could all achieve >91% algae recovery at optimal dosages. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and cost analysis results revealed that cationic polymer had the lowest cost but the highest environmental impacts, while ferric chloride had the highest cost and lowest environmental impacts. Based on the LCA results, belt presses are the recommended algae dewatering technology prior to oil extraction.

  7. Phages in the global fruit and vegetable industry.

    PubMed

    Żaczek, M; Weber-Dąbrowska, B; Górski, A

    2015-03-01

    From recent articles, we have learned that phages can constitute a promising alternative in the food industry to eliminate bacterial pathogens from seedlings in greenhouse and field environments, as well as from fresh-cut food products. The fruit and vegetable industry requires quite a different approach than the meat or dairy industry. Several factors can inhibit efficacy of phage treatment such as plant watering or washing ready-to-eat products (water may dilute therapeutic doses), UV irradiation or extensive spreading of phytopathogens by wind, insects or even humans. Spontaneously occurring anomalous weather conditions in different parts of the world also may have an enormous impact on phage persistence in cultivations and on yields. Despite that, some phage preparations are commercially available and, without doubt, are much safer than chemical treatments. Along with increasing worldwide fruit and vegetable consumption, plant diseases and human foodborne illnesses are becoming a serious economic problem, resulting in a focus on optimization of phage treatment.

  8. [Effects of understory removal on soil greenhouse gas emissions in Carya cathayensis stands].

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Chen, Xue-shuang; Wu, Jia-sen; Jiang, Pei-kun; Zhou, Guo-mo; Li, Yong-fu

    2015-03-01

    CO2, N2O and CH4 are important greenhouse gases, and soils in forest ecosystems are their important sources. Carya cathayensis is a unique tree species with seeds used for high-grade dry fruit and oil production. Understory vegetation management plays an important role in soil greenhouse gases emission of Carya cathayensis stands. A one-year in situ experiment was conducted to study the effects of understory removal on soil CO2, N2O and CH4 emissions in C. cathayensis plantation by closed static chamber technique and gas chromatography method. Soil CO2 flux had a similar seasonal trend in the understory removal and preservation treatments, which was high in summer and autumn, and low in winter and spring. N2O emission occurred mainly in summer, while CH4 emission showed no seasonal trend. Understory removal significantly decreased soil CO, emission, increased N2O emission and CH4 uptake, but had no significant effect on soil water soluble organic carbon and microbial biomass carbon. The global warming potential of soil greenhouse gases emitted in the understory removal. treatment was 15.12 t CO2-e . hm-2 a-1, which was significantly lower than that in understory preservation treatment (17.04 t CO2-e . hm-2 . a-1).

  9. Potential effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on avian habitats and populations in the northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.

    1994-01-01

    Biotic response to the buildup of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere is considerably more complex than an adjustment to changing temperature and precipitation. The fertilization effect carbon dioxide has on some plants, the impact UVB radiation has on health and productivity of organisms, and the resulting changes in competitive balance and trophic structure must also be considered. The intent of this paper is to review direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on wildlife, and to explore possible effects on populations of birds and their habitats in the northern Great Plains.Many of the potential effects of increasing greenhouse gases, such as declining plant nutritional value, changes in timing of insect emergence, and fewer and saltier wetlands, foreshadow a decline in avian populations on the Great Plains. However, other possible effects such as increased drought resistance and water use efficiency of vegetation, longer growing seasons, and greater overall plant biomass promise at least some mitigation. Effects of multiple simultaneous perturbations such as can be expected under doubled carbon dioxide scenarios will require substantial basic research to clarify.

  10. A paleoclimatic simulation of the Late Permian greenhouse world and its consequences

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, G.T.; Jacobson, S.R.; Hayashida, D.N. )

    1991-03-01

    Sea-floor spreading assembled all the major cratonic blocks into a single supercontinent once in the Phanerozoic Eon. This unique Late Permian crustal tectonic event produced Pangaea and an enormous oceanic basin volume that dropped sea level to a global lowstand unrivaled in the Phanerozoic. Two paleoclimatic simulations using a numerical three-dimensional general circulation model tested changes in the greenhouse effect. The authors conclude that for a simulation to fit the Late Permian geologic record, the paleoatmosphere must contain an enhanced greenhouse gas effect. A third simulation tested changes of paleogeography in southern Pangaea (Gondwana) that did not appreciably alter the harsh continental paleoclimate. The simulated paleoclimatic changes provide extraordinarily warm ocean and atmosphere, and a significant reduction in continental rainfall and runoff. These conditions inevitably lead to more aridity and less vegetation on land, gradually reduce the delivery of vital nutrients from continental sources to marine margins, systematically liberate CO{sub 2} dissolved in ocean water, and incrementally increase stress on marine and terrestrial biotas. These consequences severely disrupted rates of oxygen and carbon cycling. Their quantitative paleoclimatic simulation is consistent with distributions of red beds, evaporites, coals, marine shelf areas, seawater isotope trends, and paleontologic originations and extinctions. Thus, the Pangaean plate assembly probably triggered an inexorable sequence of geophysical, geochemical, and biological events that forced an elevated greenhouse effect in the Late Permian, nearly annihilating the Phanerozoic biota.

  11. Potential effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on avian habitas and populations in the northern Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, D.L. )

    1994-04-01

    Biotic response to the buildup of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere is considerably more complex than an adjustment to changing temperature and precipitation. The fertilization effect CO[sub 2] has on some plants, the impact UVB radiation has on health and productivity of organisms, and the resulting changes in competitive balance and trophic structure must also be considered. The intent of this paper is to review direct and indirect effects of anthropogenic greenhouse gases on wildlife, and to explore possible effects on populations of birds and their habitats in the northern Great Plains. Many of the potential effects of increasing greenhouse gases, such as declining plant nutritional value, changes in timing of insect emergence, and fewer and saltier wetlands, foreshadow a decline in avian populations on the Great Plains. However, other possible effects such as increased drought resistance and water use efficiency of vegetation, longer growing seasons, and greater overall plant biomass promise at least some mitigation. Effects of multiple simultaneous perturbations such as can be expected under doubled CO[sub 2] scenarios will require substantial basic research to clarify. 113 refs., 1 fig.

  12. Estimating the vegetation water content using a radar vegetation index

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation water content is an important biophysical parameter. Here, the Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) based on polarimetric backscatter observations was evaluated for estimating vegetation water content. Analysis utilized a data set obtained by a ground-based multi-frequency polarimetric scatterome...

  13. Greenhouse role in reef stress unproven

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, L.

    1991-07-19

    In the late 1980s, as coral reefs throughout the Caribbean and elsewhere fell victim to a phenomenon known as bleaching, a few scientists stated that greenhouse warming is upon us and that the exquisitely sensitive corals, reacting to elevated water temperatures, are serving as biological sentinels. This stirred up so much concern that Congress assigned the National Science Foundation (NSF) to investigate the connection between coral bleaching and global warming. Late last month investigators at an NSF-sponsored meeting rendered their verdict. Following the Miami meeting, which brought together, for the first time, climatologists, oceanographers, and meteorologists with marine biologists, ecologists, and other reef experts, the participants issued a statement saying essentially that, yes, higher temperatures seem to be at least partly at fault but, no, greenhouse warming cannot be blamed.

  14. Climatic effect of clusterization of greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galashev, A. Y.; Rahmanova, O. R.; Galasheva, O. A.; Novrusov, A. N.

    2006-02-01

    The process of C0 II, CH 4 and N II0 molecules' absorption by water clusters is investigated by the molecular dynamics method, the frequency spectra of dielectric permittivity for systems consisting of (H IIO) n, (C0 II) i(H II0) 10, (CH 4) i(H II0) 10 and the (N II0) i(H II0) 10 clusters are defined. The calculation and analysis of IR radiation absorption spectra for these systems are carried out. The influence of the clusters' composition on the reflection coefficient of transverse electromagnetic wave from their surface is considered. The capture of greenhouse gas molecules by ultra disperse aqueous medium, reduces the ability of the medium to absorb the Earth's radiation, i.e. reduces the greenhouse effect.

  15. Greenhouse models of the atmosphere of Titan.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is calculated for a series of Titanian atmosphere models with different proportions of methane, hydrogen, helium, and ammonia. A computer program is used in temperature-structure calculations based on radiative-convective thermal transfer considerations. A brightness temperature spectrum is derived for Titan and is compared with available observational data. It is concluded that the greenhouse effect on Titan is generated by pressure-induced transitions of methane and hydrogen. The helium-to-hydrogen ratio is found to have a maximum of about 1.5. The surface pressure is estimated to be at least 0.4 atm, with a daytime temperature of about 155 K at the surface. The presence of methane clouds in the upper troposphere is indicated. The clouds have a significant optical depth in the visible, but not in the thermal, infrared.

  16. Greenhouse effect simulator - An educational application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Alan Freitas; Viveiros, Bruno Martins; da Silva, Claudio Elias

    2016-12-01

    Using the program "Modellus", we intend to create a simple simulation to show the impacts that the Greenhouse Effect might have, in a didactic and friendly way, in order to expose this notions to high and middle school students. In order to do so, we created a program that will simulate a sweep, through the Troposphere, and create two lines in a graphic, one showing the temperatures behavior, in normal conditions, and the other showing how the temperature behaves in the presence of excess of Greenhouse gases. The main purpose of the project is to use the model in schools and try to make kids more conscious of their roles in our so society, showing them the consequences of the tendency of our acts, stimulating them to be more proactives to change the future.

  17. Degradation of greenhouse twines derived from natural fibers and biodegradable polymer during composting.

    PubMed

    Lau, A K; Cheuk, W W; Lo, K V

    2009-01-01

    Commercial composting operations generally do not accept organic wastes with plastic twines from the greenhouse vegetable industry and the bulk of the waste materials ends up in landfills. The objectives of this paper are to identify environmentally compatible substitutes that could replace the current use of petrochemically derived plastic twines in greenhouse vegetable production, thus diverting them from landfills, and to assess the extent of their degradation via composting. Physical properties of the twines, including linear density, percent weight loss and tensile strength were monitored for the biodegradation tests. A pilot-scale composting trial was conducted in an in-vessel composting system. Results showed that the three biodegradable twine materials (cotton, jute and EcoPLA) could degrade readily in a composting environment within a reasonable time frame. Specifically, at the end of 105 days of composting, 85.3%, 84.8% and 81.1% of weight loss was observed for cotton, jute and EcoPLA, respectively. Furthermore, EcoPLA exhibited a slower decline in tensile strength with time, when compared to jute and cotton.

  18. Greenhouse gas mitigation options in the forestry sector of The Gambia: Analysis based on COMAP model

    SciTech Connect

    Jallow, B.P.

    1996-12-31

    Results of the 1993 Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory of The Gambia showed net CO{sub 2} emissions of over (1.66 x 10{sup 6} tons) and 1% was due to uptake by plantations (0.01 x 10{sup 6} tons). This is a clear indication that there is need to identify changes in the land-use policy, law and tenure that discourages forest clearing at the same time significantly influencing the sustainable distribution of land among forestry, rangeland and livestock, and agriculture. About 11% of the total area of The Gambia is either fallow or barren flats that once supported vegetation and hence is still capable of supporting vegetation. The US Country Study Programme has provided the Government of The Gambia through the National Climate Committee funds to conduct Assessment of Mitigation Options to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions. The Forestry Sector is one area for which assessment is being conducted. The assessment is expected to end in September 1996. The Comprehensive Mitigation Analysis Process (COMAP) is one of the Models supplied to the National Climate Committee by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, on behalf of the US Country Study Programme, and is being used to conduct the analysis in The Gambia.

  19. Research on automatic control system of greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Qi, Guoyang; Li, Zeyu; Wu, Qiannan; Meng, Yupeng

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces a kind of automatic control system of single-chip microcomputer and a temperature and humidity sensor based on the greenhouse, describes the system's hardware structure, working principle and process, and a large number of experiments on the effect of the control system, the results show that the system can ideally control temperature and room temperature and humidity, can be used in indoor breeding and planting, and has the versatility and portability.

  20. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2015-12-30

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region.

  1. Greenhouse effect due to atmospheric nitrous oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, Y. L.; Wang, W. C.; Lacis, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The greenhouse effect due to nitrous oxide in the present atmosphere is about 0.8 K. Increase in atmospheric N2O due to perturbation of the nitrogen cycle by man may lead to an increase in surface temperature as large as 0.5 K by 2025, or 1.0 K by 2100. Other climatic effects of N2O are briefly discussed.

  2. Plant experiments with light-emitting diode module in Svet space greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilieva, Iliana; Ivanova, Tania; Naydenov, Yordan; Dandolov, Ivan; Stefanov, Detelin

    2010-10-01

    Light is necessary for photosynthesis and shoot orientation in the space plant growth facilities. Light modules (LM) must provide sufficient photosynthetic photon flux for optimal efficiency of photosynthetic processes and also meet the constraints for power, volume and mass. A new LM for Svet space greenhouse using Cree® XLamp® 7090 XR light-emitting diodes (LEDs) was developed. Monochromic LEDs emitting in the red, green, and blue regions of the spectrum were used. The LED-LM contains 36 LED spots - 30 LED spots with one red, green and blue LED and 6 LED spots with three red LEDs. Digital Multiplex Control Unit controls the LED spots and can set 231 levels of light intensity thus achieving Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD) in the range 0-400 μmol m -2 s -1 and different percentages of the red, green and blue light, depending on the experimental objectives. Two one-month experiments with plants - lettuce and radicchio were carried out at 400 μmol m -2 s -1 PPFD (high light - HL) and 220 μmol m -2 s -1 PPFD (low light - LL) and 70% red, 20% green and 10% blue light composition. To evaluate the efficiency of photosynthesis, in vivo modulated chlorophyll fluorescence was measured by Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometer on leaf discs and the following parameters: effective quantum yield of Photosystem II ( ΦPSII) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) were calculated. Both lettuce and radicchio plants grown at LL express higher photochemical activity of Photosystem II (PSII) than HL grown plants, evaluated by ΦPSII. Accelerated rise in NPQ in both LL grown plants was observed, while steady state NPQ values were higher in LL grown lettuce plants and did not differ in LL and HL grown radicchio plants. The extent of photoinhibition process in both plants was evaluated by changes in malonedialdehyde (MDA) concentration, peroxidase (POX) activity and hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) content. Accumulation of high levels of MDA and increased POX activity

  3. Joint implementation: Biodiversity and greenhouse gas offsets

    SciTech Connect

    Cutright, N.J.

    1996-11-01

    One of the most pressing environmental issues today is the possibility that projected increases in global emissions of greenhouse gases form increased deforestation, development, and fossil-fuel combustion could significantly alter global climate patterns. Under the terms of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed in Rio de janeiro during the June 19923 Earth Summit, the United States and other industrialized countries committed to balancing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels in the year 2000. Included in the treaty is a provision titled {open_quotes}Joint Implementation,{close_quotes} whereby industrialized countries assist developing countries in jointly modifying long-term emission trends, either through emission reductions or by protecting and enhancing greenhouse gas sinks (carbon sequestration). The US Climate Action Plan, signed by President Clinton in 1993, calls for voluntary climate change mitigation measures by various sectors, and the action plan included a new program, the US Initiative on Joint Implementation. Wisconsin Electric decided to invest in a JI project because its concept encourages creative, cost-effective solutions to environmental problems through partnering, international cooperation, and innovation. The project chosen, a forest preservation and management effort in Belize, will sequester more than five million tons of carbon dioxide over a 40-year period, will become economically self-sustaining after ten years, and will have substantial biodiversity benefits. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  4. Accounting For Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flooded ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the inundation of rivers and terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can lead to enhanced rates of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. The research approaches include 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane emissions. To inform th

  5. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used as a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. In the U.S., research approaches include: 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane em

  6. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of leafy vegetables.

    PubMed

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Morra, Luigi; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Leafy vegetables have a relatively high potential for Cd uptake and translocation, and are thus considered Cd accumulators. For this reason, leaves and roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and endive (Cichorium endivia L.) plants, grown on different agricultural soils in Campania region (southern Italy), subjected to different fertilisation treatments (unfertilisation, compost amendment and mineral fertilisation), were analysed for Cd concentrations. Moreover, to clarify if the highest concentrations found are linked to older and inedible or to younger and edible leaves, external and internal endive leaves were separately analysed. All the leafy vegetables analysed showed on average 2-fold higher Cd concentrations in leaves than in roots. Leaf Cd concentrations in both lettuce and endive plants significantly differed among fertilisation treatments, with values highest in the plants grown on mineral fertilised soils. Apart from the soil fertilisation treatments, however, Cd leaf concentrations were often higher (up to 4-fold) than the threshold deduced by the EU 420/2011 Regulation, although the plants grew on unpolluted soils. Anyway, external leaves of endive plants showed significantly higher concentrations than internal leaves (in some cases the values were 3-fold higher), partly reassuring on the consumption of the younger leaves. Moreover, this study points out two major drawbacks in the Italian and European regulatory frameworks: (1) metal concentration (as total and/or available fraction) limits in agricultural soils are lacking; (2) metal concentration thresholds (currently existing only for Cd and Pb in crops) reported in the EU 420/2011 Regulation, expressed on the fresh weight basis rather than on the dry weight basis, appear not suitable.

  7. Reduced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and tyrosine ammonia-lyase activities and lignin synthesis in wheat grown under low pressure sodium lamps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guerra, D.; Anderson, A. J.; Salisbury, F. B.

    1985-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Fremont) grown in hydroponic culture under 24-hour continuous irradiation at 560 to 580 micromoles per square meter per second from either metalhalide (MH), high pressure sodium (HPS), or low pressure sodium (LPS) lamps reached maturity in 70 days. Grain yields were similar under all three lamps, although LPS-grown plants lodged at maturity. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and a tyrosine ammonia lyase (TAL) with lesser activity were detected in all extracts of leaf, inflorescence, and stem. Ammonia-lyase activities increased with age of the plant, and plants grown under the LPS lamp displayed PAL and TAL activities lower than wheat cultured under MH and HPS radiation. Greenhouse solar-grown wheat had the highest PAL and TAL activities. Lignin content of LPS-grown wheat was also significantly reduced from that of plants grown under MH or HPS lamps or in the greenhouse, showing a correlation with the reduced PAL and TAL activities. Ratios of far red-absorbing phytochrome to total phytochrome were similar for all three lamps, but the data do not yet warrant a conclusion about specific wavelengths missing from the LPS lamps that might have induced PAL and TAL activities in plants under the other lamps.

  8. Environmental controls of greenhouse gas release in a restoring peat bog in NW Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glatzel, S.; Forbrich, I.; Krüger, C.; Lemke, S.; Gerold, G.

    2008-01-01

    In Central Europe, most bogs have a history of drainage and many of them are currently being restored. Success of restoration as well as greenhouse gas exchange of these bogs is influenced by environmental stress factors as drought and atmospheric nitrogen deposition. We determined the methane and nitrous oxide exchange of sites in the strongly decomposed center and less decomposed edge of the Pietzmoor bog in NW Germany in 2004. Also, we examined the methane and nitrous oxide exchange of mesocosms from the center and edge before, during, and following a drainage experiment as well as carbon dioxide release from disturbed unfertilized and nitrogen fertilized surface peat. In the field, methane fluxes ranged from 0 to 3.8 mg m-2 h-1 and were highest from hollows. Field nitrous oxide fluxes ranged from 0 to 574 μg m-2 h-1 and were elevated at the edge. A large Eriophorum vaginatum tussock showed decreasing nitrous oxide release as the season progressed. Drainage of mesocosms decreased methane release to 0, even during rewetting. There was a tendency for a decrease of nitrous oxide release during drainage and for an increase in nitrous oxide release during rewetting. Nitrogen fertilization did not increase decomposition of surface peat. Our examinations suggest a competition between vascular vegetation and denitrifiers for excess nitrogen. We also provide evidence that the von Post humification index can be used to explain greenhouse gas release from bogs, if the role of vascular vegetation is also considered. An assessment of the greenhouse gas release from nitrogen saturated restoring bogs needs to take into account elevated release from fresh Sphagnum peat as well as from sedges growing on decomposed peat. Given the high atmospheric nitrogen deposition, restoration will not be able to achieve an oligotrophic ecosystem in the short term.

  9. Factors Influencing the Synthesis of Polysaccharide by Bradyrhizobium japonicum Bacteroids in Field-Grown Soybean Nodules

    PubMed Central

    Streeter, John G.; Salminen, Seppo O.; Beuerlein, James E.; Schmidt, Walter H.

    1994-01-01

    Certain strains of Bradyrhizobium japonicum produce large quantities of polysaccharide in soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) nodules, and nodule polysaccharide (NPS) is different from that produced in culture. A previous survey of field-grown plants showed highly variable levels of NPS among field sites. To obtain clues about the possible function of NPS, we conducted two additional surveys of field-grown plants. The amount of polysaccharide in bulk samples of nodules was not associated with soil type, texture, slope, drainage, or any of the measured soil chemical properties except pH and [Ca]. Correlations with pH and [Ca] were positive and highly significant for two independent surveys involving a total of 77 sites in two years. In a preliminary comparison of high and low levels of Ca supplied to soybean plants grown in silica sand in a greenhouse, a high level of Ca (200 mg of Ca liter-1) increased the NPS level and increased the Ca content of the polysaccharide fraction. B. japonicum isolates from 450 nodules collected at 10 field sites in 1993 were used to form nodules on soybean plants grown in sand culture in a greenhouse in order to examine bacterial phenotype under controlled conditions. Results showed that the NPS level in the bulk nodule sample from any given site was a function of the proportion of nodule occupants that were capable of NPS synthesis. Thus, a higher soil pH and/or [Ca] may positively influence the survival of B. japonicum capable of synthesis of the nodule-specific polysaccharide. PMID:16349358

  10. Vegetable oil fuels: A review

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.

    1999-04-01

    Using vegetable oils as fuel alternatives has economic, environmental, and energy benefits for Turkey. The present work provides insight to the status of vegetable oil fuels in Turkey. A brief historical background of the issue, as well as an up to date review of the research carried out on vegetable oil fuels, is given and the future of their production and application is discussed.

  11. Assessment of psychosocial risks faced by workers in Almería-type greenhouses, using the Mini Psychosocial Factor method.

    PubMed

    Montoya-García, M E; Callejón-Ferre, A J; Pérez-Alonso, J; Sánchez-Hermosilla, J

    2013-03-01

    This work reports the use of the Mini Psychosocial Factor (MPF) method for assessing the psychosocial risks faced by agricultural workers in the greenhouses of Almería (Spain) with the aim of improving their health. The variables Rhythm, Mobbing, Relationships, Health, Recognition, Autonomy, Emotional Involvement, Support, Compensation, Control, Demands, and Mental Load were recorded using a pre-validated questionnaire containing 15 questions. The sex, age, and nationality of the respondents (n = 310) were also recorded, as were the type of greenhouse in which each worked, the size of the greenhouse, and the crop grown. The results showed psychosocial risks to exist for the workers. Multiple correspondence analysis, however, showed that moderate risks can be offset by new prevention programmes that improve Spanish legislation in terms of workers' salaries, worker-employer social days, work timetables to facilitate family life, and training courses. This could improve the work environment and health of Almería's greenhouse workers as well as their productivity.

  12. Nonlinearities in vegetation functioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceballos-Núñez, Verónika; Müller, Markus; Metzler, Holger; Sierra, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Given the current drastic changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and the role of vegetation in the global carbon cycle, there is increasing attention to the carbon allocation component in biosphere terrestrial models. Improving the representation of C allocation in models could be the key to having better predictions of the fate of C once it enters the vegetation and is partitioned to C pools of different residence times. C allocation has often been modeled using systems of ordinary differential equations, and it has been hypothesized that most models can be generalized with a specific form of a linear dynamical system. However, several studies have highlighted discrepancies between empirical observations and model predictions, attributing these differences to problems with model structure. Although efforts have been made to compare different models, the outcome of these qualitative assessments has been a conceptual categorization of them. In this contribution, we introduce a new effort to identify the main properties of groups of models by studying their mathematical structure. For this purpose, we performed a literature research of the relevant models of carbon allocation in vegetation and developed a database with their representation in symbolic mathematics. We used the Python package SymPy for symbolic mathematics as a common language and manipulated the models to calculate their Jacobian matrix at fixed points and their eigenvalues, among other mathematical analyses. Our preliminary results show a tendency of inverse proportionality between model complexity and size of time/space scale; complex interactions between the variables controlling carbon allocation in vegetation tend to operate at shorter time/space scales, and vice-versa. Most importantly, we found that although the linear structure is common, other structures with non-linearities have been also proposed. We, therefore, propose a new General Model that can accommodate these

  13. Wave Dissipation by Vegetation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    relative to conditions without vegetation. During Hurricanes Charley and Wilma, water levels recorded in two Florida mangrove ecosystems were...reduced by as much as 9.4 cm per km inland. Although water levels were reduced as the surge moved through the coastal mangroves , the relative contribution...of mangroves was still unclear (Krauss et al. 2009). Numerical simulations by Loder et al. (2009) and ERDC/CHL CHETN-I-82 September 2011 2

  14. Emissions of Greenhouse Gases from Wet Drained Forest Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Arnold, K.; Weslien, P.; Nilsson, M.; Hånell, B.; Klemedtsson, L.

    2003-04-01

    Ditching has commonly been used in order to improve forest productivity on wet soils. When wet soils are drained the methane emissions, which are usually substantial from wetlands, decrease and the uptake of carbon dioxide by the vegetation increases. However, there is also an increase in the emissions of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide from the soil. The sizes of the fluxes depend on drainage depth and soil fertility. We have performed a study with the objective to examine the effect of tree species composition and site fertility on greenhouse gas emissions from drained temperate forest ecosystems. The fluxes of methane, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide were measured during two years in seven temperate forest sites, one open mire, one undrained alder swamp, both to be used for comparison, and five drained forest sites of different fertilities covered with different tree species. The drained sites, chosen to represent the most common tree species in Sweden, were two spruce sites of different fertility, three sites dominated by pine, alder and birch respectively. All drained sites had a mean groundwater depth between 14 and 26 cm. Fluxes were measured with dark static chambers, ten chambers at each site. Gas samples were collected every week during summer and every month during the wintertime. The annual methane emissions (presented as means of all chambers +/- standard error) were much larger from the undrained sites, between 50 +/- 19.2 and 126 +/- 34.7 kg/ha compared to 0 +/- 1.5 to 17 +/- 8.3 kg/ha from the drained sites. The fluxes of carbon dioxide from the soil were higher at the drained sites but as most twice as large as from the undrained sites (8 +/- 1.6 ton/ha from the mire and 16 +/- 1.9 ton/ha from the drained alder during the first year of sampling). The emissions of nitrous oxide were highest from the drained alder site, 11 +/- 3.8 kg/ha the first sampling year and 7 +/- 2.9 the second. At all other sites the emissions were approximately 10 times

  15. Atmospheric carbon exchange associated with vegetation and soils in urban and suburban land uses

    SciTech Connect

    Rowntree, R.A.

    1993-12-31

    In studies of the global C cycle prior to the 1980s, urban ecosystems were largely ignored, in part because them were inadequate measures of phytomass and soil carbon for the various land uses associated with cities. In the last decade, progress has been made in gathering urban vegetation data and recently, estimates of urban land use carbon storage and fluxes have been attempted. Demographic trends in many countries suggest that urban areas are growing. Thus it is important to discover the appropriate concepts and methods for understanding greenhouse gas fluxes from urban-related vegetation and soils.

  16. Functional vegetable guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub.) accessions for improving flavonoid concentrations in immature pods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dry guar (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L. Taub) seed are primarily used to extract galactomannan gum for oil fracking, however the immature pods are used as a vegetable in India and sold in ethnic grocery stores in the Atlanta, GA area. Twenty-two guar genotypes were grown in the field at Griffin, GA, US...

  17. In situ sensors, weighing lysimeters and COSMOS under vegetated and bare conditions with subsurface drip irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long term weighing lysimeter records may have utility for assessment of climate changes occurring during the period of record. They typically enclose a depth of soil that exceeds the root zone of vegetation normally grown on them and have drainagy systems so that more or less natural hydrologic flux...

  18. Description and Biology of Insects and Related Pests Injurious to Vegetable Crops - For Commercial Growers Only.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This manual is designed by the Massachusetts Cooperative Extension Service as a guide for the control of the most common insects and related pests of vegetable crops grown commercially in Massachusetts. It contains general information on insects and specific descriptions of the major pests, their life cycles, and the damage they cause. The topics…

  19. Statistical characteristics of selected elements in vegetables from Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Micic, Ruzica; Mitic, Snezana; Arsic, Biljana; Jokic, Anja; Mitic, Milan; Kostic, Danijela; Pavlovic, Aleksandra; Cekerevac, Milan; Nikolic-Bujanovic, Ljiljana; Spalevic, Zaklina

    2015-06-01

    Zinc, copper, iron, chromium and cobalt are essential elements for human health, showing toxicity only in high concentrations, while lead and cadmium are extremely toxic even as traces. Therefore, it is important to monitor the contents of toxic metals in vegetables. Large number of vegetables is grown and used in nutrition, in Kosovo. The concentrations of selected elements in vegetables (radish, onion, garlic and spinach) from Kosovo were determined using ICP-OES method. Oral intake of metals and health risk index were calculated. Statistical analysis indicated numerous positive correlations between concentrations of selected elements in vegetables. As a result of principal component analysis, 15 new variables were obtained which were characterized by eigenvalues. The sequence of health quotients for the heavy metals followed the decreasing order Zn = Mn > Pb > Cu > Ni > Fe > Cd > Co > Cr. The health quotients for all investigated heavy metals were below 1 (one), which is considered safe. The vegetables from Kosovo are mainly safe for use in everyday diet.

  20. [Prototype of space vitamin greenhouse "Phytoconveyor"].

    PubMed

    Berkovich, Iu A; Erokhin, A N; Krivobok, N M; Smolianina, S O; Baranov, A V; Shanturin, N A; Droniaev, V P; Radostin, A V; Trofimov, Iu V; Sivenkov, V K

    2007-01-01

    Installation of a greens production system on the International space station will mean a leap toward biological regeneration of food in long-duration space mission. Today, priority is given to green cultures as supplements of space rations and a psychological support to crews in exploration missions to Mars, and also as least resource-intensive. Cylindrical salad greenhouse "Phytoconveyor" designed at the Institute for Biomedical Problems is highly productive, energy-efficient, and requires minimum of crew time for. Dimensions of the greenhouse are 540 x 590 x 400 mm, power demand is 0.25 kW, and the Plant chamber volume is about 0.09 m3. 'Phytoconveyor" has a planting unit with six cylindrical root modules. The total illuminated crop area is about 0.4 m2. The lighting unit consists of red (660 nm) and blue (470 nm) light-emitting diodes on the inner surface of a spiral cylinder coaxial with the roots module unit that generate the photon flux density 350 micromol x M(-2) x s(-1) at a distance of 4 cm. Each root module has a porous tube wrapped up in a fiber substrate with ion-exchange resins and is covered with a lightproof plastic with seed slits. The "Phytoconveyor" design includes a programmable reverse watering system. Given the 24-hr light period, the laboratory model of "Phytoconveyor" can produce up to 300 gram of fresh greens every 4-5 days. The greenhouse was designed with due account of resource limitations on the ISS Russian orbital segment.