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Sample records for gregor eron adoberg

  1. Gregor Mendel: Creationist Hero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Numbers, Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    In histories of twentieth-century Darwinism few developments loom larger than the turn-of-the-century rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's genetic research and the later application of Mendelian principles in constructing so-called Neo-Darwinism. Virtually unknown is the equally enthusiastic embrace of Mendel by antievolutionists, who as early as…

  2. Gregor Mendel: Creationist Hero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numbers, Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    In histories of twentieth-century Darwinism few developments loom larger than the turn-of-the-century rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's genetic research and the later application of Mendelian principles in constructing so-called Neo-Darwinism. Virtually unknown is the equally enthusiastic embrace of Mendel by antievolutionists, who as early as 1917 adopted the Austrian monk as their most celebrated scientific hero, a status he continues to hold down to the present day.

  3. Toward Polarimetry with GREGOR -- Testing the GREGOR Polarimetric Unit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, A.; Rendtel, J.; Arlt, K.

    The new 1.5 m solar telescope GREGOR with modern scientific instrumentation will become operational in the near future. The GREGOR Polarimetric Unit (GPU) for the calibration of polarimetric measurements with any post-focal device has been developed at the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (AIP). Here we describe details of the extensive test measurements made in the laboratory of the Solar Observatory ``Einsteinturm''.

  4. Marion McGregor Lee Loy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Joe

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Marion Frances Kaleleonalani McGregor Lee Loy who served as a teacher in the Hawai'i Department of Education from 1935 to 1974. Marion McGregor Lee Loy was born in 1911 in Honolulu. She attended Central Grammar and Lincoln Grammar schools before entering Kamehameha School for Girls in the ninth grade. Lee…

  5. [An enigmatic disease in Gregor Mendel's life].

    PubMed

    Nivet, Christiane

    2004-11-01

    The great value of the experimental and theoretical work of Gregor Mendel has been recognized more than thirty five years after its publication; in this article, we suggest that his personality has still to be rediscovered.

  6. The GREGOR Broad-Band Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Lühe, O.; Volkmer, R.; Kentischer, T. J.; Geißler, R.

    2012-11-01

    The design and characteristics of the Broad-Band Imager (BBI) of GREGOR are described. BBI covers the visible spectral range with two cameras simultaneously for a large field and with critical sampling at 390 nm, and it includes a mode for observing the pupil in a Foucault configuration. Samples of first-light observations are shown.

  7. Walking capabilities of Gregor controlled through Walknet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, Paolo; Patané, Luca; Schilling, Malte; Schmitz, Josef

    2007-05-01

    Locomotion control of legged robots is nowadays a field in continuous evolution. In this work a bio-inspired control architecture based on the stick insect is applied to control the hexapod robot Gregor. The control scheme is an extension of Walknet, a decentralized network inspired by the stick insect, that on the basis of local reflexes generates the control signals needed to coordinate locomotion in hexapod robots. Walknet has been adapted to the specific mechanical structure of Gregor that is characterized by specialized legs and a sprawled posture. In particular an innovative hind leg geometry, inspired by the cockroach, has been considered to improve climbing capabilities. The performances of the new control architecture have been evaluated in dynamic simulation environments. The robot has been endowed with distance and contact sensors for obstacle detection. A heading control is used to avoid large obstacles, and an avoidance reflex, as can be found in stick insects, has been introduced to further improve climbing capabilities of the structure. The reported results, obtained in different environmental configurations, stress the adaptive capabilities of the Walknet approach: Even in unpredictable and cluttered environments the walking behaviour of the simulated robot and the robot prototype, controlled through a FPGA based board, remained stable.

  8. The GREGOR dome, pathfinder for the EST dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Kommers, Johannes N.; Visser, Simon; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; van Schie, Anton G. M.; van Leverink, Simon J.; Sliepen, Guus; Jägers, Aswin P. L.

    2012-09-01

    The completely open-foldable dome of the GREGOR telescope is a further development of the DOT dome, respectively 9 and 7 meter in diameter. New technical developments are implemented and tested at the GREGOR dome, that are important for the design of the much larger dome for the EST, which will be 28 meter in diameter. The GREGOR dome is the first with more than one clamp working simultaneously for closing the dome and bringing the membranes on the required high tension for storm resistance. The storm Delta with 245 km/h 1-minute mean maximum at the location of the GREGOR gave no problems nor did the storms afterwards. Opening and closing experiences are up to wind speeds of 90 km/h without problems. Good observing circumstances never occur with higher wind speeds. A double layer of membranes is applied in the GREGOR construction whereas the DOT dome is equipped with a single layer. Simultaneous climate measurements inside and outside the dome have proven the thermal-insulation capability of this double-layer construction. The experiences with the GREGOR showed that the elongation by tensioning of the prestrained membrane material is much lower than originally expected. In the meantime, more strong and stiff membrane material is available and applied in the EST design. As a consequence, the clamps of the EST can have a relatively much shorter length and there is no need anymore for simultaneous operation of the clamps and the main actuators in low speed with help of a frequency inverter. The clamps can close after the main bow operation is finished, which simplifies the electrical control.

  9. Gregor Mendel, OSA (1822-1884), founder of scientific genetics.

    PubMed

    Dunn, P M

    2003-11-01

    Gregor Mendel, an Augustinian monk and part-time school teacher, undertook a series of brilliant hybridisation experiments with garden peas between 1857 and 1864 in the monastery gardens and, using statistical methods for the first time in biology, established the laws of heredity, thereby establishing the discipline of genetics.

  10. On a Seminal Paper by Karlin and McGregor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Mirta M.; Grünbaum, F. Alberto

    2013-03-01

    The use of spectral methods to study birth-and-death processes was pioneered by S. Karlin and J. McGregor. Their expression for the transition probabilities was made explicit by them in a few cases. Here we complete their analysis and indicate a few applications of their very powerful method.

  11. A retrospective of the GREGOR solar telescope in scientific literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; von der Lühe, O.; Feller, A.; Arlt, K.; Balthasar, H.; Bauer, S.-M.; Bello González, N.; Berkefeld, Th.; Caligari, P.; Collados, M.; Fischer, A.; Granzer, T.; Hahn, T.; Halbgewachs, C.; Heidecke, F.; Hofmann, A.; Kentischer, T.; Klva{ňa, M.; Kneer, F.; Lagg, A.; Nicklas, H.; Popow, E.; Puschmann, K. G.; Rendtel, J.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sobotka, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; Waldmann, T.; Wiehr, E.; Wittmann, A. D.; Woche, M.

    2012-11-01

    In this review, we look back upon the literature, which had the GREGOR solar telescope project as its subject including science cases, telescope subsystems, and post-focus instruments. The articles date back to the year 2000, when the initial concepts for a new solar telescope on Tenerife were first presented at scientific meetings. This comprehensive bibliography contains literature until the year 2012, i.e., the final stages of commissioning and science verification. Taking stock of the various publications in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings also provides the ``historical'' context for the reference articles in this special issue of Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes.

  12. Optical design of the new solar telescope GREGOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltau, D.; Volkmer, R.; von der Lühe, O.; Berkefeld, Th.

    2012-11-01

    This article describes the considerations which led to the current optical design of the new 1.5 m solar telescope GREGOR. The result is Gregorian design with two real foci in the optical train. The telescope includes a relay optic with a pupil image used by a high order adaptive optics system (AO). The optical design is described in detail and performance characteristics are given. Finally we show some verification results which prove that - without atmospheric effects - the completed telescope reaches a diffraction limited performance.

  13. Subglacial Lake McGregor, south-central Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro-Stasiuk, Mandy J.

    2003-08-01

    It is proposed that a lake, here named "Subglacial Lake McGregor", existed beneath the Laurentide Ice Sheet at, or near, the last glacial maximum. The lake resided in the ancient buried McGregor and Tee Pee preglacial valleys, which are now mostly filled with glacigenic deposits. The greatest thickness of sediment in the valleys is in the form of chaotically deposited lake beds that were laid down in a subaqueous environment by a number of process: gravity flow, water transport, and suspension settling. Topographic, sedimentary, and stratigraphic evidence point to a subglacial, not a proglacial, origin for the beds. During the early stages of lake existence, ice movement was significant as there are numerous sets of shear planes in the sedimentary beds. This indicates that the lake filled (lake sedimentation) and drained (shearing of the beds by overlying ice when ice contacted the bed) often. Thus, early in its history, the lake(s) was/were ephemeral. During the later stages of lake existence, the lake was relatively stable with no rapid draining or influx of sediment. Gradual drainage of the lake resulted in lowering of the ice onto the lake beds resulting in subglacial till deposition. Drainage was not a single continuous event. Rather it was characterized by multiple phases of near total drainage (till deposition), followed by water accumulation (lake sedimentation). Water accumulation events became successively less significant reflected by thinning of lake beds and thickening of till beds higher in the stratigraphic sequence. Since subglacial lake sedimentation appears to be restricted to the subglacial valleys, it is suggested that the valleys acted as a large-scale interconnected cavity system that both stored and transported water. It is also suggested that these acted as the main routes of water flow beneath the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  14. Historical study: Johann Gregor Mendel 1822-1884.

    PubMed

    Weiling, F

    1991-07-01

    The life and personality of Johann Gregor Mendel (1822-1884), the founder of scientific genetics, are reviewed against the contemporary background of his times. At the end are weighed the benefits for Mendel (as charged by Sir Ronald Fisher) to have documented his results on hand of falsified data. Mendel was born into a humble farm family in the "Kuhländchen", then a predominantly German area of Northern Moravia. On the basis of great gifts Mendel was able to begin higher studies; however, he found himself in serious financial difficulties because of his father's accident and incapacitation. His hardships engendered illness which threatened continuation and completion of his studies until he was afforded the chance of absolving successfully theological studies as an Augustinian monk in the famous chapter of St. Thomas in Altbrünn (Staré Brno). Psychosomatic indisposition made Mendel unfit for practical pastoral duties. Thus, he was directed to teach but without appropriate state certification; an attempt to pass such an examination failed. At that point he was sent to the University of Vienna for a 2-year course of studies, with emphasis on physics and botany, to prepare him for the exam. His scientific and methodologic training enabled him to plan studies of the laws of inheritance, which had begun to interest him already during his theology training, and to choose the appropriate experimental plant. In 1865, after 12 years of systematic investigations on peas, he presented his results in the famous paper "Versuche über Pflanzenhybriden." Three years after his return from Vienna he failed to attain his teaching certification a second time. Only by virtue of his exceptional qualifications did he continue to function as a Supplementary Professor of Physics and Natural History in the two lowest classes of a secondary school. In 1868 he was elected Abbot of his chapter, and freed from teaching duties, was able to pursue his many scientific interests with greater

  15. Remembering Johann Gregor Mendel: a human, a Catholic priest, an Augustinian monk, and abbot.

    PubMed

    Richter, Father Clemens

    2015-11-01

    Johann Mendel (Gregor was the name given to him only later by his Augustinian order, Fig. 1) was born on July 20, 1822 to an ethnic German family, Anton and Rosina Mendel (Fig. 2), in Heinzendorf in the Austrian Empire at the Moravian-Silesian border (now Hynčice, Czech Republic).

  16. Remembering Johann Gregor Mendel: a human, a Catholic priest, an Augustinian monk, and abbot.

    PubMed

    Richter, Father Clemens

    2015-11-01

    Johann Mendel (Gregor was the name given to him only later by his Augustinian order, Fig. 1) was born on July 20, 1822 to an ethnic German family, Anton and Rosina Mendel (Fig. 2), in Heinzendorf in the Austrian Empire at the Moravian-Silesian border (now Hynčice, Czech Republic). PMID:26740939

  17. 25. VIEW OF McGREGOR BRIDGE (18811936), CROSSING THE MERRIMACK RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW OF McGREGOR BRIDGE (1881-1936), CROSSING THE MERRIMACK RIVER AT BRIDGE STREET, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. NORTH ELEVATION OF DOUBLE-DECKED, THREE-SPAN DOUGLAS PATENT PARABOLIC IRON TRUSS ERECTED BY CORRUGATED METAL COMPANY (BERLIN IRON BRIDGE COMPANY, BERLIN, CT) From 'Bridge Street Bridge', photographer and date unknown. - Notre Dame Bridge, Spanning Merrimack River on Bridge Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

  18. Karlin-McGregor-like formula in a simple time-inhomogeneous birth-death process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Algebraic discussions are developed to derive transition probabilities for a simple time-inhomogeneous birth-death process. Algebraic probability theory and Lie algebraic treatments make it easy to treat the time-inhomogeneous cases. As a result, an expression based on the Charlier polynomials is obtained, which can be considered as an extension of a famous Karlin-McGregor representation for a time-homogeneous birth-death process.

  19. The Karlin-McGregor formula for a variant of a discrete version of Walsh's spider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünbaum, F. Alberto

    2009-10-01

    We consider a variant of a discrete space version of Walsh's spider, see Walsh (1978 Temps Locaux, Asterisque vol 52-53 (Paris: Soc. Math. de France)) as well as Evans and Sowers (2003 Ann. Probab. 31 486-527 and its references). This process can be seen as an instance of a quasi-birth-and-death process, a class of random walks for which the classical theory of Karlin and McGregor can be nicely adapted as in Dette, Reuther, Studden and Zygmunt (2006 SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 29 117-42), Grünbaum (2007 Probability, Geometry and Integrable Systems ed Pinsky and Birnir vol 55 (Berkeley, CA: MSRI publication) pp. 241-60, see also arXiv math PR/0703375), Grünbaum (2007 Dagstuhl Seminar Proc. 07461 on Numerical Methods in Structured Markov Chains ed Bini), Grünbaum (2008 Proceedings of IWOTA) and Grünbaum and de la Iglesia (2008 SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 30 741-63). We give here a weight matrix that makes the corresponding matrix-valued orthogonal polynomials orthogonal to each other. We also determine the polynomials themselves and thus obtain all the ingredients to apply a matrix-valued version of the Karlin-McGregor formula. Dedicated to Jack Schwartz, who passed away on March 2, 2009.

  20. The Human Side of Science Education: Using McGregor's Theory Y as a Framework for Improving Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markwell, John

    2004-01-01

    Student motivation is correlated with learning. Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y as a basis for understanding and improving motivation in the business world can be directly applied to the science classroom. Teachers with a Theory Y perspective (students naturally want to learn) provide increased motivation for students and promote more…

  1. Gregor Mendel's classic paper and the nature of science in genetics courses.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Julie F; Fairbanks, Daniel J

    2010-12-01

    The discoveries of Gregor Mendel, as described by Mendel in his 1866 paper Versuche uber Pflanzen-Hybriden (Experiments on plant hybrids), can be used in undergraduate genetics and biology courses to engage students about specific nature of science characteristics and their relationship to four of his major contributions to genetics. The use of primary source literature as an instructional tool to enhance genetics students' understanding of the nature of science helps students more clearly understand how scientists work and how the science of genetics has evolved as a discipline. We offer a historical background of how the nature of science developed as a concept and show how Mendel's investigations of heredity can enrich biology and genetics courses by exemplifying the nature of science. PMID:21166799

  2. Fisher's contributions to genetics and heredity, with special emphasis on the Gregor Mendel controversy.

    PubMed

    Piegorsch, W W

    1990-12-01

    R. A. Fisher is widely respected for his contributions to both statistics and genetics. For instance, his 1930 text on The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection remains a watershed contribution in that area. Fisher's subsequent research led him to study the work of (Johann) Gregor Mendel, the 19th century monk who first developed the basic principles of heredity with experiments on garden peas. In examining Mendel's original 1865 article, Fisher noted that the conformity between Mendel's reported and proposed (theoretical) ratios of segregating individuals was unusually good, "too good" perhaps. The resulting controversy as to whether Mendel "cooked" his data for presentation has continued to the current day. This review highlights Fisher's most salient points as regards Mendel's "too good" fit, within the context of Fisher's extensive contributions to the development of genetical and evolutionary theory.

  3. Gregor Mendel's classic paper and the nature of science in genetics courses.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Julie F; Fairbanks, Daniel J

    2010-12-01

    The discoveries of Gregor Mendel, as described by Mendel in his 1866 paper Versuche uber Pflanzen-Hybriden (Experiments on plant hybrids), can be used in undergraduate genetics and biology courses to engage students about specific nature of science characteristics and their relationship to four of his major contributions to genetics. The use of primary source literature as an instructional tool to enhance genetics students' understanding of the nature of science helps students more clearly understand how scientists work and how the science of genetics has evolved as a discipline. We offer a historical background of how the nature of science developed as a concept and show how Mendel's investigations of heredity can enrich biology and genetics courses by exemplifying the nature of science.

  4. MuSICa at GRIS: a prototype image slicer for EST at GREGOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcines, A.; Collados, M.; López, R. L.

    2013-05-01

    This communication presents a prototype image slicer for the 4-m European Solar Telescope (EST) designed for the spectrograph of the 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope (GRIS). The design of this integral field unit has been called MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera). It is a telecentric system developed specifically for the integral field, high resolution spectrograph of EST and presents multi-slit capability, reorganizing a bidimensional field of view of 80 arcsec^{2} into 8 slits, each one of them with 200 arcsec length × 0.05 arcsec width. It minimizes the number of optical components needed to fulfil this multi-slit capability, three arrays of mirrors: slicer, collimator and camera mirror arrays (the first one flat and the other two spherical). The symmetry of the layout makes it possible to overlap the pupil images associated to each part of the sliced entrance field of view. A mask with only one circular aperture is placed at the pupil position. This symmetric characteristic offers some advantages: facilitates the manufacturing process, the alignment and reduces the costs. In addition, it is compatible with two modes of operation: spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric, offering a great versatility. The optical quality of the system is diffraction-limited. The prototype will improve the performances of GRIS at GREGOR and is part of the feasibility study of the integral field unit for the spectrographs of EST. Although MuSICa has been designed as a solar image slicer, its concept can also be applied to night-time astronomical instruments (Collados et al. 2010, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7733, 77330H; Collados et al. 2012, AN, 333, 901; Calcines et al. 2010, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7735, 77351X)

  5. Roberts Victor Eclogites: The MacGregor Legacy of Archean Oceanic Lithosphere Subduction and its Role in Craton Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirey, S. B.; Schmitz, M. D.; Wiechert, U.; Carlson, R. W.

    2005-12-01

    Eclogite xenoliths from the 125 Ma old, Group II, Roberts Victor kimberlite have long been of interest (MacGregor et al, 1968) because of their diversity, abundance, large size, occurrence with peridotite and their high carbon/diamond content. Coesite, corundum, kyanite, Ca-, Mg-, and Fe- rich eclogites are available but those classified as Group I, Group II (as defined by MacGregor, 1970) or diamondiferous were selected with the goal to better understand eclogite petrogenesis, Kaapvaal cratonic keel evolution, diamond formation, and eclogite metasomatism. Recent laser fluorination oxygen isotope data (δ18O) on gt (GI = 5.8 to 6.9; GII = 2.1 to 5.1) match earlier data (Garlick et al, 1971; MacGregor and Manton, 1986), while ion-probe trace element contents of gt (e.g. chondrite normalized Ce G1 = 0.2 to 0.5; GII = 0.002 to 0.07) and cpx (G1 = 7 to 20; GII = 0.2 to 2) and whole-rock Re-Os (G1 Re = 0.19 to 3.41 ppb; GII Re = 0.006 to 0.38 ppb) highlight even more distinct differences between Groups I and II. These differences must be a pre-metamorphic signature of their original protoliths and not just due to pressure differences or partial melting during emplacement. Using ophiolites and composites of oceanic crust as a guide (e.g. MacGregor and Manton, 1986), Group I eclogites could represent the volcanic rocks of Layer 2 of Archean oceanic crust whereas Group II might represent the cumulate, intrusive rocks of Layer 3. Group II eclogites have positive Eu anomalies and lower REE and Re contents which support this idea. The Re-Os systematics of the oceanic lithosphere is poorly known, especially in the Archean, but Roberts Victor eclogite Re-Os and trace element abundances and major element compositions suggest a basaltic komatiitic protolith as might typify slightly hotter ocean ridges in the Archean. A U-Pb age of 3.061±0.006 Ga on zircon grains separated from a Group I Roberts Victor eclogite and a same-age but scattered whole-rock Re-Os isotope array

  6. MuSICa image slicer prototype at 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcines, A.; López, R. L.; Collados, M.; Vega Reyes, N.

    2014-07-01

    Integral Field Spectroscopy is an innovative technique that is being implemented in the state-of-the-art instruments of the largest night-time telescopes, however, it is still a novelty for solar instrumentation. A new concept of image slicer, called MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera), has been designed for the integral field spectrograph of the 4-m European Solar Telescope. This communication presents an image slicer prototype of MuSICa for GRIS, the spectrograph of the 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope located at the Observatory of El Teide. MuSICa at GRIS reorganizes a 2-D field of view of 24.5 arcsec into a slit of 0.367 arcsec width by 66.76 arcsec length distributed horizontally. It will operate together with the TIP-II polarimeter to offer high resolution integral field spectropolarimetry. It will also have a bidimensional field of view scanning system to cover a field of view up to 1 by 1 arcmin.

  7. The evolutionary ideas of F. M. (Ladimir) Klacel, teacher of Gregor Mendel.

    PubMed

    Peaslee, Margaret H; Orel, Vitezslav

    2007-06-01

    Abstract: A philosopher and teacher, F. M. (Ladimir) Klacel (1808-1882), educated in what is now the Czech Republic, developed his own explanation for the origin and interaction of living organisms. Klácel, a member of the Augustinian Monastery in Brno, influenced his younger colleague, Friar Gregor Mendel, who went on to formulate concepts in heredity that are still recognized for their profound insight. A mutual interest in the natural sciences of these two friends provided a basis for their discussions of the relationship between religion, evolution, and society. Klacel's outspoken defense of his proposals caused him to lose favor with both the Church and the authorities, and he immigrated to America in 1869. His failing health and inability to communicate with the English-speaking populace, unfortunately, limited his influence in his new environs. In this paper we trace the roots of Klacel's philosophy and elucidate his incorporation of ideas from Hegel, Darwin, and others. An investigation of Klacel's recipe for a successful society reveals his belief in the universality of life and his optimistic hope for human achievement.

  8. [Biology of Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) on three species of Annonaceae].

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Josilene M; Gondim, Manoel G C; Lofego, Antônio C

    2010-01-01

    The mite Tetranychus mexicanus (McGregor) is considered a pest of a variety of plant species in the Americas. Although this mite apparently causes economic damage to Annonaceae, little is known about its biology. Here we studied the biology of T. mexicanus on soursop (Annona muricata), sweetsop (Annona squamosa) and araticum (Annona coriaceae). The first two species are the most important economical Annonaceae species in northeast Brazil; araticum is commonly found in the region, but not commercially explored. The mites were collected in the field from leaves of A. muricata and maintained in the laboratory for six months on detached leaves of A. muricata, A. squamosa and A. coriaceae, respectively, before observations started. Tetranychus mexicanus developed more slowly on A. squamosa than on the two other hosts, but oviposition was considerably lower on A. coriaceae. As indicated by the calculated life table parameters, biotic potential was higher on A. muricata than on the other hosts. Despite the observed differences in the T. mexicanus biology on the different evaluated hosts, development and reproduction were satisfactory in all of the hosts used.

  9. Involvement of Three Esterase Genes from Panonychus citri (McGregor) in Fenpropathrin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-Min; Liao, Chong-Yu; Lu, Xue-Ping; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Jin-Jun; Dou, Wei

    2016-08-19

    The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), is a major citrus pest with a worldwide distribution and an extensive record of pesticide resistance. However, the underlying molecular mechanism associated with fenpropathrin resistance in this species have not yet been reported. In this study, synergist triphenyl phosphate (TPP) dramatically increased the toxicity of fenpropathrin, suggesting involvement of carboxylesterases (CarEs) in the metabolic detoxification of this insecticide. The subsequent spatiotemporal expression pattern analysis of PcE1, PcE7 and PcE9 showed that three CarEs genes were all over-expressed after insecticide exposure and higher transcripts levels were observed in different field resistant strains of P. citri. Heterologous expression combined with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetra-zolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells revealed that PcE1-, PcE7- or PcE9-expressing cells showed significantly higher cytoprotective capability than parental Sf9 cells against fenpropathrin, demonstrating that PcEs probably detoxify fenpropathrin. Moreover, gene silencing through the method of leaf-mediated dsRNA feeding followed by insecticide bioassay increased the mortalities of fenpropathrin-treated mites by 31% (PcE1), 27% (PcE7) and 22% (PcE9), respectively, after individual PcE gene dsRNA treatment. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that PcE1, PcE7 and PcE9 are functional genes mediated in fenpropathrin resistance in P. citri and enrich molecular understanding of CarEs during the resistance development of the mite.

  10. Involvement of Three Esterase Genes from Panonychus citri (McGregor) in Fenpropathrin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao-Min; Liao, Chong-Yu; Lu, Xue-Ping; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Jin-Jun; Dou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), is a major citrus pest with a worldwide distribution and an extensive record of pesticide resistance. However, the underlying molecular mechanism associated with fenpropathrin resistance in this species have not yet been reported. In this study, synergist triphenyl phosphate (TPP) dramatically increased the toxicity of fenpropathrin, suggesting involvement of carboxylesterases (CarEs) in the metabolic detoxification of this insecticide. The subsequent spatiotemporal expression pattern analysis of PcE1, PcE7 and PcE9 showed that three CarEs genes were all over-expressed after insecticide exposure and higher transcripts levels were observed in different field resistant strains of P. citri. Heterologous expression combined with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetra-zolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells revealed that PcE1-, PcE7- or PcE9-expressing cells showed significantly higher cytoprotective capability than parental Sf9 cells against fenpropathrin, demonstrating that PcEs probably detoxify fenpropathrin. Moreover, gene silencing through the method of leaf-mediated dsRNA feeding followed by insecticide bioassay increased the mortalities of fenpropathrin-treated mites by 31% (PcE1), 27% (PcE7) and 22% (PcE9), respectively, after individual PcE gene dsRNA treatment. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that PcE1, PcE7 and PcE9 are functional genes mediated in fenpropathrin resistance in P. citri and enrich molecular understanding of CarEs during the resistance development of the mite. PMID:27548163

  11. Involvement of Three Esterase Genes from Panonychus citri (McGregor) in Fenpropathrin Resistance.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-Min; Liao, Chong-Yu; Lu, Xue-Ping; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Jin-Jun; Dou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), is a major citrus pest with a worldwide distribution and an extensive record of pesticide resistance. However, the underlying molecular mechanism associated with fenpropathrin resistance in this species have not yet been reported. In this study, synergist triphenyl phosphate (TPP) dramatically increased the toxicity of fenpropathrin, suggesting involvement of carboxylesterases (CarEs) in the metabolic detoxification of this insecticide. The subsequent spatiotemporal expression pattern analysis of PcE1, PcE7 and PcE9 showed that three CarEs genes were all over-expressed after insecticide exposure and higher transcripts levels were observed in different field resistant strains of P. citri. Heterologous expression combined with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetra-zolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells revealed that PcE1-, PcE7- or PcE9-expressing cells showed significantly higher cytoprotective capability than parental Sf9 cells against fenpropathrin, demonstrating that PcEs probably detoxify fenpropathrin. Moreover, gene silencing through the method of leaf-mediated dsRNA feeding followed by insecticide bioassay increased the mortalities of fenpropathrin-treated mites by 31% (PcE1), 27% (PcE7) and 22% (PcE9), respectively, after individual PcE gene dsRNA treatment. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that PcE1, PcE7 and PcE9 are functional genes mediated in fenpropathrin resistance in P. citri and enrich molecular understanding of CarEs during the resistance development of the mite. PMID:27548163

  12. The human side of science education: Using McGregor's theory Y as a framework for improving student motivation*.

    PubMed

    Markwell, John

    2004-09-01

    Student motivation is correlated with learning. Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y as a basis for understanding and improving motivation in the business world can be directly applied to the science classroom. Teachers with a Theory Y perspective (students naturally want to learn) provide increased motivation for students and promote more active learning than Theory X-style teachers who do not view students as active learners. Many teachers are not aware of their Theory X/Theory Y orientation and how this bias may be impacting their interaction with students. This article explores the benefits of moving from a Theory X to a more Theory Y style of teaching.

  13. Dispelling a few false-positives: a reply to MacGregor and McNamee on doping.

    PubMed

    Kious, Brent Michael

    2011-06-01

    McGregor and MacNamee recently, in this journal, offered several criticisms of an earlier article in which I attempted to refute a number of arguments for the claim that doping in sports is morally wrong. Their criticisms are numerous, but focus on four domains. First, they sketch a view on which the risk profiles of different sports may make doping permissible in some and impermissible in others. Second, they suggest that my criticisms of safety-based arguments assume that doping opponents are bent on harm elimination, rather than harm management. Finally, they offer two methodological criticisms, the first pertaining to my use of analogical arguments, and the second pertaining to the general difficulties of making revisionist arguments in ethics. I defend my criticisms of safety-based arguments by showing that these do not rest on the assumptions McGregor and MacNamee attribute to me and by noting that their own view about the variable relevance of safety considerations is underdeveloped. As for their methodological arguments, I endeavor to show that these are misplaced, in that they either rest on misinterpretations of my earlier article or on an excessively high standard for ethical argumentation. PMID:21298346

  14. Dispelling a few false-positives: a reply to MacGregor and McNamee on doping.

    PubMed

    Kious, Brent Michael

    2011-06-01

    McGregor and MacNamee recently, in this journal, offered several criticisms of an earlier article in which I attempted to refute a number of arguments for the claim that doping in sports is morally wrong. Their criticisms are numerous, but focus on four domains. First, they sketch a view on which the risk profiles of different sports may make doping permissible in some and impermissible in others. Second, they suggest that my criticisms of safety-based arguments assume that doping opponents are bent on harm elimination, rather than harm management. Finally, they offer two methodological criticisms, the first pertaining to my use of analogical arguments, and the second pertaining to the general difficulties of making revisionist arguments in ethics. I defend my criticisms of safety-based arguments by showing that these do not rest on the assumptions McGregor and MacNamee attribute to me and by noting that their own view about the variable relevance of safety considerations is underdeveloped. As for their methodological arguments, I endeavor to show that these are misplaced, in that they either rest on misinterpretations of my earlier article or on an excessively high standard for ethical argumentation.

  15. Antioxidant responses of citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), exposed to thermal stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Hong; Huang, Hai; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2010-12-01

    Relatively low or high temperatures are responsible for a variety of physiological stress responses in insects and mites. Induced thermal stress was recently associated with increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, which caused oxidative damage. In this study, we examined the time-related effect of the relatively low (0, 5, 10, and 15 °C) or high (32, 35, 38, and 41 °C) temperatures on the activities of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidases (POX), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and the total antioxidant capacity (TEAC) of the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor). The malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as a marker of lipid peroxidation in organisms, was also measured in the citrus red mite under thermal stress conditions. Results showed that SOD and GST activities were significantly increased and play an important role in the process of antioxidant response to thermal stress. Lipid peroxidation levels increased significantly (P<0.001) and changed in a time-dependent manner. CAT and POX activity, as well as TEAC, did not vary significantly and play a minor role to remove the ROS generation. These results suggest that thermal stress leads to oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes play an important role in reducing oxidative damage in the citrus red mite. PMID:20709071

  16. Vítězslav Orel (1926-2015): Gregor Mendel's biographer and the rehabilitation of genetics in the Communist Bloc.

    PubMed

    Paleček, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    At almost 90 years of age, we have lost the author of the founding historical works on Johann Gregor Mendel. Vítězslav Orel served for almost 30 years as the editor of the journal Folia Mendeliana. His work was beset by the wider problems associated with Mendel's recognition in the Communist Bloc, and by the way in which narratives of the history of science could be co-opted into the service of Cold War and post-Cold War political agendas. Orel played a key role in the organization of the Mendel symposium of 1965 in Brno, and has made a strong contribution to the rehabilitation of genetics generally, and to championing the work of Johann Gregor Mendel in particular. With Jaroslav Kříženecký, he cofounded the Mendelianum in Brno, which for decades has served as an intellectual bridge between the East and West. Orel's involvement with this institution exposed him to dangers both during and after the Cold War.

  17. Vítězslav Orel (1926-2015): Gregor Mendel's biographer and the rehabilitation of genetics in the Communist Bloc.

    PubMed

    Paleček, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    At almost 90 years of age, we have lost the author of the founding historical works on Johann Gregor Mendel. Vítězslav Orel served for almost 30 years as the editor of the journal Folia Mendeliana. His work was beset by the wider problems associated with Mendel's recognition in the Communist Bloc, and by the way in which narratives of the history of science could be co-opted into the service of Cold War and post-Cold War political agendas. Orel played a key role in the organization of the Mendel symposium of 1965 in Brno, and has made a strong contribution to the rehabilitation of genetics generally, and to championing the work of Johann Gregor Mendel in particular. With Jaroslav Kříženecký, he cofounded the Mendelianum in Brno, which for decades has served as an intellectual bridge between the East and West. Orel's involvement with this institution exposed him to dangers both during and after the Cold War. PMID:27325060

  18. Assessment of Prey Preference by the Generalist Predator, Mallada basalis (Walker), When Offered Two Species of Spider Mites, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor) on Papaya

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We investigated potential prey preference of the generalist predator Mallada basalis (Walker) when offered two mites, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor), both important pests on papaya. Laboratory choice tests revealed that none of the three larval instars of M. basalis sho...

  19. Life history of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) fed with castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) pollen in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Marafeli, P P; Reis, P R; Silveira, E C da; Souza-Pimentel, G C; de Toledo, M A

    2014-08-01

    The predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is one of the principal natural enemies of tetranychid mites in several countries, promoting efficient control of those mites in several food and ornamental crops. Pest attacks such as that of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the problems faced by farmers, especially in the greenhouse, due to the difficulty of its control with the use of chemicals because of the development of fast resistance making it hard to control it. The objective of this work was to study the life history of the predatory mite N. californicus as a contribution to its mass laboratory rearing, having castor bean plant [Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae)] pollen as food, for its subsequent use as a natural enemy of T. urticae on a cultivation of greenhouse rosebushes. The studies were carried out in the laboratory, at 25 ± 2°C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14 hour photophase. The biological aspects and the fertility life table were appraised. Longevity of 32.9 days was verified for adult females and 40.4 days for males. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.2 and the mean generation time (T) was 17.2 days. The population doubled every 4.1 days. The results obtained were similar to those in which the predatory mite N. californicus fed on T. urticae.

  20. Characterization and functional analysis of a novel glutathione S-transferase gene potentially associated with the abamectin resistance in Panonychus citri (McGregor).

    PubMed

    Liao, Chong-Yu; Xia, Wen-Kai; Feng, Ying-Cai; Li, Gang; Liu, Hai; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-09-01

    The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), a major citrus pest distributed worldwide, has been found to be resistant to various insecticides and acaricides used in China. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with the abamectin resistance in this species have not yet been reported. In this study, results showed over-expression of a novel glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) gene (PcGSTm5) in abamectin-resistant P. citri. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the transcripts of PcGSTm5 were also significantly up-regulated after exposure to abamectin and the maximum mRNA expression level at nymphal stage. The recombinant protein of PcGSTm5-pET-28a produced by Escherichia coli showed a pronounced activity toward the conjugates of 1-chloro-2,4 dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and glutathione (GSH). The kinetics of CDNB and GSH and its optimal pH and thermal stability were also determined. Reverse genetic study through a new method of leaf-mediated dsRNA feeding further support a link between the expression of PcGSTm5 and abamectin resistance. However, no direct evidence was found in metabolism or inhibition assays to confirm the hypothesis that PcGSTm5 can metabolize abamectin. Finally, it is here speculated that PcGSTm5 may play a role in abamectin detoxification through other pathway such as the antioxidant protection.

  1. Characterization and functional analysis of a novel glutathione S-transferase gene potentially associated with the abamectin resistance in Panonychus citri (McGregor).

    PubMed

    Liao, Chong-Yu; Xia, Wen-Kai; Feng, Ying-Cai; Li, Gang; Liu, Hai; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2016-09-01

    The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), a major citrus pest distributed worldwide, has been found to be resistant to various insecticides and acaricides used in China. However, the molecular mechanisms associated with the abamectin resistance in this species have not yet been reported. In this study, results showed over-expression of a novel glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) gene (PcGSTm5) in abamectin-resistant P. citri. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the transcripts of PcGSTm5 were also significantly up-regulated after exposure to abamectin and the maximum mRNA expression level at nymphal stage. The recombinant protein of PcGSTm5-pET-28a produced by Escherichia coli showed a pronounced activity toward the conjugates of 1-chloro-2,4 dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and glutathione (GSH). The kinetics of CDNB and GSH and its optimal pH and thermal stability were also determined. Reverse genetic study through a new method of leaf-mediated dsRNA feeding further support a link between the expression of PcGSTm5 and abamectin resistance. However, no direct evidence was found in metabolism or inhibition assays to confirm the hypothesis that PcGSTm5 can metabolize abamectin. Finally, it is here speculated that PcGSTm5 may play a role in abamectin detoxification through other pathway such as the antioxidant protection. PMID:27521916

  2. [Gregor Mendel and dysplastic nevi].

    PubMed

    Happle, R

    1989-02-01

    In contrast to what has so far generally been believed, dysplastic nevi do not appear to be mendelizing, but rather due to polygenic inheritance. In order to explain this contrasting idea, the following six theses are presented: (1) All dysplastic nevi are inherited in the same manner. (2) Dysplastic nevi constitute a continuous trait. (3) A "dysplastic nevus syndrome" in the form of a monogenic autosomal dominant trait probably does not exist. (4) A nonhereditary dysplastic nevus syndrome does not exist. (5) The number of the underlying genes that, considered separately, do of course follow the rules of mendelian inheritance is so far unknown. (6) A search for a single underlying gene defect is probably hopeless.

  3. L. H. Bailey's citations to Gregor Mendel.

    PubMed

    MacRoberts, M H

    1984-01-01

    L. H. Bailey cited Mendel's 1865 and 1869 papers in the bibliography that accompanied his 1892 paper, Cross-Breeding and Hybridizing, and Mendel is mentioned once in the 1895 edition of Bailey's "Plant-Breeding." Bailey claimed to have copied his 1892 references to Mendel from Focke. It seems, however, that while he may have first encountered references to Mendel's work in Focke, he actually copied them from the Royal Society "Catalogue of Scientific Papers." Bailey also saw a reference to Mendel's 1865 paper in Jackson's "Guide to the Literature of Botany." Bailey's 1895 mention of Mendel occurs in a passage he translated from Focke's "Die Pflanzen-Mischlinge."

  4. Collaborating with McGregor and ASTD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Joan E.; Freeland, D. Kim

    A descriptive study using survey research techniques investigated the degree to which managerial philosophy was related to training and development professionals' acceptance and practice of those adult learning principles that support the collaborative teaching-learning mode. Data were collected from a random sample of 400 members of the American…

  5. [1848: Gregor Mendel, the monk who wanted to be a citizen].

    PubMed

    Nivet, Christiane

    2006-04-01

    This article proposes a previously unpublished French translation of a petition, in German, addressed by six Augustinian friars to the Constitutional Parliament of Vienna in the revolutionary year 1848. The petition states that members of religious orders are deprived of civil rights and demands that they be given citizenship ; it also contains a bitter attack on the monastic institution. We suggest that Mendel was the author of this text, which he signed and actually hand-wrote.

  6. Music and Literacy: Strategies Using "Comprehension Connections" by Tanny McGregor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasher, Kathleen Diane

    2014-01-01

    Music and literacy share many of the same skills; therefore, it is no surprise that music and literacy programs can be used together to help children learn to read. Music study can help promote literacy skills such as vocabulary, articulation, pronunciation, grammar, fluency, writing, sentence patterns, rhythm/parts of speech, auditory processing,…

  7. Michael Mästlin's role in the polemic against the calendar reform of pope Gregor XIII. (German Title: Die Rolle Michael Mästlins in der Polemik um die Kalenderreform von Papst Gregor XIII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    Because of theological resistance, the calendar reform of 1582 was introduced only in countries under catholic rule. Michael Mästlin is found among the spokesmen of opposition against this feared attempted of the pope to gain influence in the protestant church, nevertheless, Mästlin had no doubt that a calendar reform was necessary. This article retraces Mästlin's argumentation and puts it into context with contemporary discussions about a calendar reform.

  8. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Polarimetry in the Chamaeleon I Dark Cloud (McGregor+, 1994)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, P. J.; Harrison, T. E.; Hough, J. H.; Bailey, J. A.

    2009-07-01

    H band polarimetry is presented for 66 stars in the direction of the Chamaeleon I dark cloud. K band polarimetry is presented for a further two stars. The data were obtained with the Mark II Hatfield polarimeter on the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope. Equatorial coordinates are provided for the 68 stars. These were not presented in the original paper. (2 data files).

  9. 76 FR 59768 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability and Request for Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... to SpaceX for Operation of the Grasshopper Vehicle at the McGregor Test Site, Texas AGENCY: Federal... for Issuing an Experimental Permit to SpaceX for Operation of the Grasshopper Vehicle at the McGregor... Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) from the McGregor test site in McGregor, TX. The Grasshopper RLV is...

  10. Evaluation of suitable reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR during development and abiotic stress in Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Niu, Jin-Zhi; Dou, Wei; Ding, Tian-Bo; Yang, Li-Hong; Shen, Guang-Mao; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2012-05-01

    Quantitative real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is preferred for gene expression analysis in living organisms. Currently, it is a valuable tool for biological and ecological studies as it provides a relatively straightforward way to assess the relevance of transcriptional regulation under developmental and stress tolerance conditions. However, studies have shown that some commonly used reference genes varied among different experimental treatments, thus, systematic evaluation of reference genes is critical for gene expression profiling, which is often neglected in gene expression studies of arthropods. The aim of this study is to identify the suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR experiments involving various developmental stages and/or under abiotic stresses in citrus red mite Panonychus citri, a key pest in citrus orchards worldwide. GeNorm, NormFinder, and Bestkeeper software analysis indicates that elongation factor-1 alpha (ELF1A), RNA polymerase II largest subunit, alpha tublin, and glyceraldhyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) are the most stable reference genes in various developmental stages, meanwhile, ELF1A and GAPDH were the most stable reference genes under various abiotic stresses. Furthermore, this study will serve as a resource to screen reference genes for gene expression studies in any other spider mite species.

  11. B. Othanel Smith, Douglas McGregor, and the Philosophical Analysis of the Discourse of Institutional Democracy in Education: An Essay with Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliker, Michael A.

    This collection of documents concerns the Analytical Philosophy of Education (APE) and its history. APE was the dominant approach to philosophy of education during the 1960s and 1970s; it is no longer fashionable. The main paper included in this collection sketches the history of APE and attempts to show its relevance to the idea of "institutional…

  12. Motivation Theories of Maslow, Herzberg, McGregor & McClelland. A Literature Review of Selected Theories Dealing with Job Satisfaction and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardee, Ronald L.

    Job satisfaction, motivation, and reward systems are included in one area of organizational theory. The strongest influence in this area is motivation because it overlaps into both of the other two components. A review of the classical literature on motivation reveals four major theory areas: (1) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs; (2) Herzberg's…

  13. Alone in the Garden: How Gregor Mendel's Inattention to Audience May Have Affected the Reception of His Theory of Inheritance in "Experiments in Plant Hybridization"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynn, James

    2007-01-01

    From a rhetorical perspective, Mendel's work and its reception elicit two important questions: (a) why were Mendel's arguments so compelling to 20th century biologists? And (b) why where they so roundly ignored by his contemporaries? The focus of this article is to examine the latter question while commenting on the former by employing several…

  14. An Investigation of the Fantasy Predisposition and Fantasy Style of Children with Imaginary Companions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouldin, Paula

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the author tested whether children with imaginary companions (ICs) have a different fantasy life than do children without ICs. To measure the fantasy life of the 74 children aged 3.2 to 8.7 years, the author modified the Children's Fantasy Interview (E. Rosenfeld, L. R. Huesmann, L. D. Eron, & J. V. Torney-Purta, 1982) to make it…

  15. 77 FR 28900 - Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ..., 2012, applicable to workers and former workers of Pace American Enterprises, Inc., McGregor, Texas (TA... workers of Pace American Enterprises, Inc., McGregor, Texas (TA-W-81,004), Pace American Enterprises, Inc... notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on January 12, 2012 (76 FR 1951)....

  16. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February 16, 1937 MARBLE MANTEL, SO. WALL OF EAST HALF OF HALL, SECOND STORY - Azalea Grove, 55 South McGregor Avenue, Spring Hill, Mobile County, AL

  17. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February 16, 1937 MARBLE MANTEL, NO. WALL of FRONT ROOM, 1st FLOOR - Azalea Grove, 55 South McGregor Avenue, Spring Hill, Mobile County, AL

  18. 21. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February 16, 1937 WHITE MARBLE MANTEL ON NO. WALL OF FRONT ROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Azalea Grove, 55 South McGregor Avenue, Spring Hill, Mobile County, AL

  19. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February 16, 1937 MARBLE MANTEL ON NORTH WALL OF REAR ROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Azalea Grove, 55 South McGregor Avenue, Spring Hill, Mobile County, AL

  20. Observational Evidence of For-Profit Delivery and Inferior Nursing Home Care: When Is There Enough Evidence for Policy Change?

    PubMed

    Ronald, Lisa A; McGregor, Margaret J; Harrington, Charlene; Pollock, Allyson; Lexchin, Joel

    2016-04-01

    Margaret McGregor and colleagues consider Bradford Hill's framework for examining causation in observational research for the association between nursing home care quality and for-profit ownership. PMID:27093442

  1. Leadership through Shared Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muccigrosso, Robert M.

    1980-01-01

    The author explains the particular relevance of participatory decision making for the Catholic school administrator, with reference to such organizational theories as McGregor's Theory Y and Maslow's hierarchy of human needs. (Author/SJL)

  2. 77 FR 59955 - Changes in Flood Hazard Determinations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ..., 2012...... 080193 (11-08-0971P). William C. Building, 170 www.bakeraecom.com/ Pinkham, Mayor, MacGregor...- October 12, 2012..... 420292 Chester (12-03- McNeeley Manager, Building, team.com/lomrs.htm....

  3. 78 FR 37540 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License Applicants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-21

    ..., Application Type: New NVO & OFF License. Allyn International Services, Inc. (OFF), 13391 McGregor Blvd., Fort... Inc. (NVO & OFF), 19920 Foxwood Forest Blvd., Suite 401, Humble, TX 77338, Officer: Mary...

  4. 75 FR 74079 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... Ferndale, Pleasant Ridge, 10001024 Washtenaw County McGregor Memorial Conference Center, 495 Ferry Mall... Restricted, Leon, 10001016 Oklahoma County Main Public Library, 131 Dean McGee Ave, Oklahoma City,...

  5. Influences on Mendel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckabee, Colleen J.

    1989-01-01

    Examines Gregor Mendel's family background, schooling, and the brotherhood of his monastery life for insights into how Mendel was stimulated to engage in plant hybridization, his precursors, and why he was successful in his endeavors. (RT)

  6. New species, new records and re-description of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) from India.

    PubMed

    Zeity, Mahran; Srinivasa, N; Gowda, C Chinnamade

    2016-01-01

    Two species of Tetranychidae (Acari), Oligonychus neotylus sp. nov. from Zea mays and Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae) and Tetranychus hirsutus sp. nov. from Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Apocynaceae) are described from Karnataka state, south India. Tetranychus bambusae Wang and Ma is recorded for the first time from India and re-described. Four other species are reported for the first time from India viz., Oligonychus coniferarum (McGregor), Oligonychus duncombei Meyer, Tetranychus marianae McGregor and Tetranychus okinawanus Ehara from Cupressus sp., an undetermined grass, Centrosema pubescens and Adenium obesum, respectively. PMID:27394311

  7. Mendel, mechanism, models, marketing, and more.

    PubMed

    Birchler, James A

    2015-09-24

    This year marks the 150(th) anniversary of the presentation by Gregor Mendel of his studies of plant hybridization to the Brunn Natural History Society. Their nature and meaning have been discussed many times. However, on this occasion, we reflect on the scientific enterprise and the perception of new discoveries. PMID:26406361

  8. 76 FR 35469 - National Register of Historic Places; Notification of Pending Nominations and Related Actions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... properties under the National Register criteria for evaluation. Comments may be forwarded by United States...., Nashville, 11000418 U.S. Naval Reserve Training Center, 1515 Davidson St., Nashville, 11000419 Hamilton...Gregor Wy., Sylvan Rd. & Wayside Dr., Houston, 11000425 WASHINGTON King County New Richmond Hotel,...

  9. Some Tours Are More Equal than Others: The Convex-Hull Model Revisited with Lessons for Testing Models of the Traveling Salesperson Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tak, Susanne; Plaisier, Marco; van Rooij, Iris

    2008-01-01

    To explain human performance on the "Traveling Salesperson" problem (TSP), MacGregor, Ormerod, and Chronicle (2000) proposed that humans construct solutions according to the steps described by their convex-hull algorithm. Focusing on tour length as the dependent variable, and using only random or semirandom point sets, the authors…

  10. Space for Performing Teacher Identity: Through the Lens of Kafka and Hegel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkison, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Franz Kafka's 1912 novella "The Metamorphosis" provides an analogy for a consideration of the process of teacher identity formation and performance. Gregor Samsa awoke to find himself transformed into a giant beetle. He faced a complete loss of identity as he lost connection with the micro-political space that formed the context of his former role…

  11. Stories of Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascazine, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents three biographical sketches of scientists including John Wesley Powell (first to explore the geology of the Grand Canyon), Joseph von Fraunhofer (his work in optics led to the science of spectroscopy), and Gregor Mendel (of Mendelian genetics fame). Other scientists are mentioned along with sources for additional biographical information.…

  12. Teaching Theory X and Theory Y in Organizational Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Carey

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the activity described here is to integrate McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y into a group application: design a syllabus that embodies either Theory X or Theory Y tenets. Students should be able to differentiate between Theory X and Theory Y, create a syllabus based on Theory X or Theory Y tenets, evaluate the different syllabi…

  13. Instructional Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Reviews a six-part series (available as 16mm film or videocassettes) in which actors portray scientists lecturing on various topics/issues. Scientists portrayed include Louis Pasteur, Charles Darwin, William Harvey, Gregor Mendel, William Beaumont, and Hans Spemann. Also reviews a film detailing construction of the Multiple Mirror Telescope on…

  14. Mendel, mechanism, models, marketing, and more.

    PubMed

    Birchler, James A

    2015-09-24

    This year marks the 150(th) anniversary of the presentation by Gregor Mendel of his studies of plant hybridization to the Brunn Natural History Society. Their nature and meaning have been discussed many times. However, on this occasion, we reflect on the scientific enterprise and the perception of new discoveries.

  15. An express route to perfection: Ornamental plant breeders have the tools at their disposal to expedite breeding for specific traits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants inherit traits the same way Gregor Mendel observed in his famous experiments with peas in the 1800s. Breeders select parents with one or more desirable traits and then look for superior combinations of these traits in their offspring. Seedlings must be rigorously evaluated for the desirable...

  16. Identification of Mendel's white flower character

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified A, the factor determining anthocyanin pigmentation in pea that was used by Gregor Mendel 150 years ago in his study of inheritance. The A gene encodes a bHLH transcription factor. The white flowered mutant allele most likely used by Mendel is a simple G to A transition in a splice...

  17. Confronting Science: The Dilemma of Genetic Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zallen, Doris T.

    1997-01-01

    Considers the opportunities and ethical issues involved in genetic testing. Reviews the history of genetics from the first discoveries of Gregor Mendel, through the spurious pseudo-science of eugenics, and up to the discovery of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick. Explains how genetic tests are done. (MJP)

  18. Cognitive Mechanisms of Insight: The Role of Heuristics and Representational Change in Solving the Eight-Coin Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Öllinger, Michael; Jones, Gary; Faber, Amory H.; Knoblich, Günther

    2013-01-01

    The 8-coin insight problem requires the problem solver to move 2 coins so that each coin touches exactly 3 others. Ormerod, MacGregor, and Chronicle (2002) explained differences in task performance across different versions of the 8-coin problem using the availability of particular moves in a 2-dimensional search space. We explored 2 further…

  19. 78 FR 44122 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... (McGregor). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Contact Lens Rule (Rule), 16 CFR Part 315. OMB Control... promulgated the Rule pursuant to the Fairness to Contact Lens Consumers Act (FCLCA), Public Law 108-164 (Dec. 6, 2003), which was enacted to enable consumers to purchase contact lenses from the seller of...

  20. From Mendel’s discovery on pea to today´s plant genetics and breeding

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2015 we celebrated the 150th anniversary of the presentation of the seminal work of Gregor Johann Mendel. While Darwin's theory was based on differential survival and differential reproductive success, Mendel's on equality throughout all stages of the life cycle. Darwin's concepts were continuou...

  1. Irish Studies Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregor, Keith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This collection of papers includes the following: "Preface" (Keith Gregor); "Cultural Nationalism and the Irish Literary Revival" (David Pierce); "Transitions in Irish Miscellanies between 1923 and 1940" (Malcom Ballin); "Born into the Troubles: Deirdre Madden's 'Hidden Symptoms'" (Tamara Benito de la Iglesia); "'Reading in the Dark': The…

  2. A Correlational Study of Principals' Leadership Style and Teacher Absenteeism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y, gender, age, and years of experience of principals form a composite explaining the variation in teacher absences. It sought to determine whether all or any of these variables would be statistically significant in explaining the variance in absences for teachers.…

  3. Person-Centered Management in Project Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caraway, James E.

    The theories of several contemporary management theorists are examined in order to demonstrate that their administrative stance is that of a person-intensive approach to management. After exploring leadership theory and the positions of Douglas McGregor, John J. Morse, Jay W. Lorsch, Rensis Likert, Bernard M. Bass, William Reddin, George H. Rice,…

  4. Michigan Severity Rating Scales: Usage and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Anderson, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    For many years, increasing caseloads for vision professionals have caused concerns about the impact on educational services. Average caseload sizes in the literature have remained fairly consistent across decades, with 19.5 students per professional in the 1980s (Pelton, 1986), 18 students in the 1990s (Griffin-Shirley, McGregor, and Jacobson,…

  5. Unleash the Power! Knowledge - Technology - Diversity: Papers Presented at the Third International Forum on Research in School Librarianship, Annual Conference of the International Association of School Librarianship (IASL) (28th, Birmingham, Alabama, November 10-14, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lighthall, Lynne, Ed.; Howe, Eleanor, Ed.

    Papers presented at this forum were grouped under the following four broad themes: "Unleash the Power!,""Powerful Roles,""Powerful Partnerships," and "Powerful Technologies." Also included is the paper that won the Takeshi Murofushi Research Award, "Implementing Flexible Scheduling in Elementary Libraries" (Joy H. McGregor). Titles and authors of…

  6. The Introduction of Middle Schools in the Northern Territory: Processes and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Bill

    2006-01-01

    The year 2006 has been a year in which a decision on the introduction of middle schools has been made by the Labor government of the Northern Territory. The initial impetus for the change came from the 2003 Secondary Education Review "Future Directions for Secondary Education in the Northern Territory," chaired by Gregor Ramsay. There are many…

  7. Working Together: Collaborative School Leadership Fosters a Climate of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Ginger Kelley

    2005-01-01

    In Montessori schools, the best way to strengthen the climate of success by the administrators is called "transformational leadership". Leadership theorist James McGregor Burns identifies transformational leadership as a mutual belief and value system, and a commitment between a principal and teachers to focus on what works best for their school.…

  8. Child and Adult, X and Y: Reflections on the Process of Public Administration Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balfour, Danny L.; Marini, Frank

    1991-01-01

    Mirroring McGregor's management theories X and Y, the authors posit educational theory X, in which learners are treated as passive children whose teachers make all curricular decisions, and theory Y, in which students are viewed as autonomous and self-directed learners. (SK)

  9. Self-Renewal for Self-Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sistrunk, Walter E.

    This speech explores the concept of professional self-renewal. The presenter seeks to understand why some professionals always seem fresh, energetic, and ready for new challenges, whereas others are perpetually tired, bored, and irritated with the demands of their work. Referring to McGregor's management theories, the paper infers that Theory X…

  10. Foraging on and consumption of two species of papaya pest mites, Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus citri (Acari: tetranychidae) by Mallada basalis (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor) are two major acarine pests of the principal papaya variety in Taiwan, and they often co-occur in the same papaya screenhouses. This study measured prey acceptability, foraging schedule, short-term consumption rate, and handling time of la...

  11. Why Try? Achievement Motivation and Perceived Academic Climate among Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Natalie J.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.

    2010-01-01

    Elliot and McGregor's (2001) 2 x 2 model of achievement motivation (mastery approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach and performance-avoidance) was used among 143 Latino adolescents to examine how achievement motivation changes over time, and whether perception of academic climate influences eventual academic outcomes. A series of…

  12. Emerging Skills for School Administrators: Needs for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Donald

    This paper discusses leadership theories, leadership research issues that educational leaders must confront in the next decade, and leadership skills required for the future. The discussion of leadership theories begins with a review of McGregor's Theories X, Y, and Z and moves on to the qualities embodied in such heroic, charismatic, and…

  13. Dominant Achievement Goals across Tracks in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheltinga, Peter A. M.; Kuyper, Hans; Timmermans, Anneke C.; van der Werf, Greetje P. C.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant achievement goals (DAGs) of 7,008 students in the third grade of Dutch secondary education (US grade 9) were investigated, based on Elliot & McGregors' 2 × 2 framework (2001), in relation to track-level and motivational variables. We found the mastery-approach goal and the performance-approach goal, generally considered adaptive,…

  14. Humanistic History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrow, Alvin J.

    1982-01-01

    Utilizing the theories of McGregor, Maslow, and Herzberg, presents a model for teaching history which involves students in designing their own course objectives. Includes humanistic approaches, organizational management assumptions, and models with motivational, hygiene, physiological, and safety factors. (DMM)

  15. Re-Engaging Young People with Education and Training: What Are the Alternatives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kimberley; Stemp, Kellie; McGinty, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Alternative education programs are one way of responding to the disengagement of young people from mainstream schools. While there are a great variety of programs, those where young people experience success have incorporated a number of elements of best practice (Mills & McGregor 2010). This article reviews the attributes of effective alternative…

  16. The Old Days, Hot Groups, and Managers' Lib.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Harold J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes Douglas McGregor's group at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the 1940s and the group at Carnegie's Graduate School of Industrial Administration in the 1960s. Both showed the lively, task-obsessed characteristics of "hot groups." Both occupied participants' hearts and minds, held to high standards, and were extremely productive.…

  17. Information Seeking and Use: Students' Thinking and Their Mental Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Joy H.

    1994-01-01

    Compares research studies conducted by Kuhlthau, McGregor, and Pitts that investigated the library research process used by high school students and their information retrieval and utilization strategies. Topics discussed include research methodologies; information seeking; cognitive aspects; narrowing the topic; stages in the research process;…

  18. International Technological Literacy Symposium. Proceedings (Anchorage, Alaska, June 25-26, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Univ., Anchorage.

    The following papers are included: "Technological Literacy: Pedagogy for a New World Order" (Peter McGregor); "Career and Technology Studies, A Curriculum Model" (Clarence Preitz); "Vocational and Technical Education at Secondary Schools in Taiwan, Republic of China" (James Yu); "Blueprint for Literacy in Technology" (Jerry Balistreri, Douglas…

  19. Some multivariable orthogonal polynomials of the Askey tableau-discrete families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tratnik, M. V.

    1991-09-01

    A multivariable generalization is presented for all the discrete families of the Askey tableau. This significantly extends the multivariable Hahn polynomials introduced by Karlin and McGregor. The latter are recovered as a limit case from a family of multivariable Racah polynomials.

  20. Training and OD Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Mark; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Reviews current organizational development and training practices in two articles of a special section. The first compares OD philosophy with McGregor's integrative approach. The second article discusses contributions OD practice can make to theory, including modifying existing theories, addressing new problems, and exploring the internal logic of…

  1. On the Measurement of Achievement Goals: Critique, Illustration, and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Murayama, Kou

    2008-01-01

    The authors identified several specific problems with the measurement of achievement goals in the current literature and illustrated these problems, focusing primarily on A. J. Elliot and H. A. McGregor's (2001) Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ). They attended to these problems by creating the AGQ-Revised and conducting a study that examined…

  2. Align the Front End First.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Jim

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of management styles and front-end analysis focuses on a review of Douglas McGregor's theories. Topics include Theories X, Y, and Z; leadership skills; motivational needs of employees; intrinsic and extrinsic rewards; and faulty implementation of instructional systems design processes. (LRW)

  3. A Systemwide Approach to Improving Early Childhood Program Quality in the Detroit Metropolitan Area. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shouse, A. Clay; Epstein, Ann S.

    This document is the final report of the McGregor-funded High/Scope training initiative, a system-wide approach to improving the quality of early childhood programs in the Detroit metropolitan area. The 3-year project was based on the validated High/Scope educational approach and training model, which advocates hands-on active learning for both…

  4. Flexible Scheduling: Making the Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, Peggy Milam

    2008-01-01

    Citing literature that supports the benefits of flexible scheduling on student achievement, the author exhorts readers to campaign for flexible scheduling in their library media centers. She suggests tips drawn from the work of Graziano (2002), McGregor (2006) and Stripling (1997) for making a smooth transition from fixed to flexible scheduling:…

  5. Motivational Influences of Using Peer Evaluation in Problem-Based Learning in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abercrombie, Sara; Parkes, Jay; McCarty, Teresita

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the ways in which medical students' achievement goal orientations (AGO) affect their perceptions of learning and actual learning from an online problem-based learning environment, Calibrated Peer Review™. First, the tenability of a four-factor model (Elliot & McGregor, 2001) of AGO was tested with data collected from…

  6. Examining Dual Meanings of Items in 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaires through MTMM Modeling and MDS Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, Elliot and McGregor proposed a 2 x 2 (mastery-performance x approach- avoidance) achievement goal frameworks and developed a questionnaire to measure four goals (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals). This study examines the dual meanings of items in 2 x 2 achievement goal…

  7. Faculty Attitudes Toward Leadership in Post-Secondary Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Roberto; Ramey, Gerald W.

    Using the existing body of knowledge about both management and higher education, it is argued that the managerial climate surrounding professional level people should lean toward Douglas McGregor's Theory Y, a nonauthoritarian, nonautocratic style of leadership. A number of theories of leadership in organizations are brought into the discussion,…

  8. Time for a Change: Theory X or Theory Y--What Is Your Style?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattaliano, Anthony P.

    1982-01-01

    Adapting to education Douglas McGregor's management theory that the day-to-day behavior of the immediate superior communicates to subordinates the superior's assumptions about human nature, the author contends that principals who have positive feelings about people will fare better in improving teacher motivation, creativity, and job satisfaction.…

  9. The Role of Goal Orientation and Self-Efficacy in Learning from Web-Based Worked Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent J.; Biesinger, Kevin D.; Muis, Krista R.; Orgill, Marykay

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to understand the roles of goal orientation and self-efficacy when learning from worked examples. A Web-based learning environment, used as a component of a traditional undergraduate chemistry course, served as the context for the study. Goal orientations were derived from Elliot and McGregor's (2001) achievement goals…

  10. Tapping Toddlers' Evolving Semantic Representation via Gesture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capone, Nina C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study presents evidence that gesture is a means to understanding the semantic representations of toddlers. Method: The data were part of a study of toddlers' word learning conducted by N. C. Capone and K. K. McGregor (2005). The object function probe from that study was administered after 1 exposure and after 3 exposures to objects.…

  11. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Achievement Goals Questionnaire among Nigerian Preservice Mathematics and Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Arigbabu, Abayomi A.; Fatade, Alfred O.; Awofala, Awoyemi A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The stability of the achievement goal orientation across different contexts has been a source of further research since the new millennium. Through theoretically-driven and empirically-based analyses, this study investigated the psychometric properties of the Elliot and McGregor 2x2 framework for achievement goal questionnaire within…

  12. Feed intake and weight gain in beef steers of known genetic background following BVDV challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-sired steers (n = 95) born in the spring of 2008 produced from TAMU McGregor Genomics Project cows were evaluated for individual feed intake and ADG for 42 d following challenge to BVD virus. Steers were not vaccinated for BRD prior to trial initiation, and were verified to be BVD-free. Prior ...

  13. Enabling Inquiry Learning in Fixed-Schedule Libraries: An Evidence-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubeck, Carole J.

    2015-01-01

    Fixed scheduling is well-researched in the school library literature. We know from this research that information skills taught in isolation from curriculum content are not as relevant to students as skills taught in the context of what they already know (McGregor 2006). Constructivism is an approach to learning that posits individuals construct…

  14. Health measures in beef steers of known genetic background following BVDV challenge

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus-sired steers (n = 95) born in the spring of 2008 produced from TAMU McGregor Genomics Project cows were evaluated for health measures following challenge to BVD virus. Steers were not vaccinated for BRD prior to trial initiation, and were verified to be BVD-free. Prior to BVDV challenge, steer...

  15. A Psychometric Evaluation of Two Achievement Goal Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnellan, M. Brent

    2008-01-01

    The properties of the achievement goal inventories developed by Grant and Dweck (2003) and Elliot and McGregor (2001) were evaluated in two studies with a total of 780 participants. A four-factor specification for the Grant and Dweck inventory did not closely replicate results published in their original report. In contrast, the structure of the…

  16. "Speak Out. Act Up. Move Forward." Disobedience-Based Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotin, Alison; Aguirre McGregor, Stella; Pellecchia, DeAnna; Schatz, Ingrid; Liu, Shaw Pong

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Alison Kotin, Stella Aguirre McGregor, DeAnna Pellecchia, Ingrid Schatz, and Shaw Pong Liu reflect on their experiences working with public high school students to create "Speak Out. Act Up. Move Forward.," a performative response to current and historical acts of civil disobedience. The authors--a group of instructors…

  17. Motivation of Teachers. ACSA School Management Digest, Series 1, Number 18. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sydney

    This publication discusses intrinsic teacher motivation by reviewing human resources literature and making use of educational literature and interviews with working educators. First it provides sketches of the work motivation theories of McGregor, Maslow, Herzberg, and Deci. Next, the paper examines the work and problems of teachers. Finally, it…

  18. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  19. Probing the Natural World, Level III, Teacher's Edition: Why You're You. Intermediate Science Curriculum Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonar, John R., Ed.; Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is the teacher's edition of one of the eight units of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) for level III students (grade 9). The chapters include basic information about heredity, activities, and optional "excursions." The answers to all activities are included. An introduction describes the work of Gregor Mendel and his…

  20. Into the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Provides fully developed library media activities designed for specific curriculum units. Curriculum areas represented include reading and language arts (proverbs and fables, letters of the alphabet, and biographies); science (the study of Gregor Mendel and genetics, oil resources); and social studies (global awareness). (LRW)

  1. What Are Null Hypotheses? The Reasoning Linking Scientific and Statistical Hypothesis Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.

    2008-01-01

    We should dispense with use of the confusing term "null hypothesis" in educational research reports. To explain why the term should be dropped, the nature of, and relationship between, scientific and statistical hypothesis testing is clarified by explication of (a) the scientific reasoning used by Gregor Mendel in testing specific…

  2. Teaching Mendelism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, William D.

    2008-01-01

    Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) is rightly credited as being the "father of modern genetics." He presented the results of his pea experiments at a meeting of his local natural history society in two lectures during 1865. His paper was published in the proceedings of the society the next year. From his breeding experiments with the edible pea, he…

  3. Two Sides of the Same Coin: Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Steven; Burns, James MacGregor; McKay, Ritchie

    2002-01-01

    This article presents a transcript of Steven Berg's interviews with James MacGregor Burns and Ritchie McKay regarding leadership. James Burns is a senior fellow in the Jepson School of Leadership Studies at the University of Richmond, Virginia. Ritchie McKay is Head Coach of the men's basketball team at University of New Mexico. Steven Berg is an…

  4. Comparison of k0-NAA measurement results with calculated uncertainties for reference samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smodiš, B.; Bučar, T.

    2010-10-01

    Standard samples of well-defined geometry containing accurately known amounts of Co, Fe, Gd, Mo, Nd, Sb, Se, W, Zn and Zr were prepared and assayed using k0-based neutron activation analysis ( k0-NAA). Measurement results for six independent determinations of each standard spiked sample were evaluated and compared to calculated uncertainties using the computer program ERON, which computes uncertainty propagation factors from the relevant formulae and calculates the overall uncertainty following the internationally recommended approach. The calculated relative expanded uncertainties U ( k=2), which ranged from 6 to 11% for particular nuclides/gamma-lines agreed well with the measurements results thus proving the correctness of the applied approach. One of the important measures to further reduce uncertainties in the k0-NAA measurements is to review and re-determine more accurately specific nuclear constants involved in the relevant calculations.

  5. Reactive approach motivation (RAM) for religion.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Ian; Nash, Kyle; Prentice, Mike

    2010-07-01

    In 3 experiments, participants reacted with religious zeal to anxious uncertainty threats that have caused reactive approach motivation (RAM) in past research (see McGregor, Nash, Mann, & Phills, 2010, for implicit, explicit, and neural evidence of RAM). In Study 1, results were specific to religious ideals and did not extend to merely superstitious beliefs. Effects were most pronounced among the most anxious and uncertainty-averse participants in Study 1 and among the most approach-motivated participants in Study 2 (i.e., with high Promotion Focus, Behavioral Activation, Action Orientation, and Self-Esteem Scale scores). In Studies 2 and 3, anxious uncertainty threats amplified even the most jingoistic and extreme aspects of religious zeal. In Study 3, reactive religious zeal occurred only among participants who reported feeling disempowered in their everyday goals in life. Results support a RAM view of empowered religious idealism for anxiety management (cf. Armstrong, 2000; Inzlicht, McGregor, Hirsch, & Nash, 2009). PMID:20565192

  6. Reactive approach motivation (RAM) for religion.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Ian; Nash, Kyle; Prentice, Mike

    2010-07-01

    In 3 experiments, participants reacted with religious zeal to anxious uncertainty threats that have caused reactive approach motivation (RAM) in past research (see McGregor, Nash, Mann, & Phills, 2010, for implicit, explicit, and neural evidence of RAM). In Study 1, results were specific to religious ideals and did not extend to merely superstitious beliefs. Effects were most pronounced among the most anxious and uncertainty-averse participants in Study 1 and among the most approach-motivated participants in Study 2 (i.e., with high Promotion Focus, Behavioral Activation, Action Orientation, and Self-Esteem Scale scores). In Studies 2 and 3, anxious uncertainty threats amplified even the most jingoistic and extreme aspects of religious zeal. In Study 3, reactive religious zeal occurred only among participants who reported feeling disempowered in their everyday goals in life. Results support a RAM view of empowered religious idealism for anxiety management (cf. Armstrong, 2000; Inzlicht, McGregor, Hirsch, & Nash, 2009).

  7. South American Spider Mites: New Hosts and Localities

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Renata S; Navia, Denise; Diniz, Ivone R; Flechtmann, Carlos HW

    2011-01-01

    In order to contribute to taxonomic information on Tetranychid mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in South America, surveys were conducted in Brazil (15 States and the Federal District) and Uruguay (one Department); 550 samples of 120 plant species were collected. Tetranychid mite infestations were confirmed in 204 samples, and 22 species belonging to seven genera of the Bryobiinae and Tetranychinae subfamilies were identified on 58 different host plants. Thirty-six new plant hosts were found in Brazil, South America, and worldwide for the following species: Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor); Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar); Oligonychus anonae Paschoal; O. mangiferus (Rahman and Sapra); Tetranychus bastosi Tuttle, Baker and Sales; T. desertorum Banks, 1900, T. evansi Baker and Pritchard; T. ludeni Zacher; T. mexicanus (McGregor); T. neocaledonicus André; and T. urticae Koch. Four new localities in Brazil were reported for Eotetranychus tremae De Leon; O. anonae; Panonychus ulmi (Koch); and T. gloveri Baker and Pritchard. PMID:22224405

  8. Solar adaptive optics at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltau, Dirk; Berkefeld, Thomas; Schmidt, Dirk; von der Lühe, Oskar

    2013-10-01

    Observing the Sun with high angular resolution is difficult because the turbulence in the atmosphere is strongest during day time. In this paper we describe the principles of solar adaptive optics exemplified by the two German solar telescopes VTT and GREGOR at the Observatorio del Teide. With theses systems we obtain near diffraction limited images of the Sun. Ways to overcome the limits of conventional AO by applying multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) are shown.

  9. Detours to the unification of calendars: The ``Improved Calendar'' (1700 bis 1775) and the foundation of the Berlin Astronomical Observatory. (German Title: Umwege zur Kalendereinheit: Der ``Verbesserte Kalender'' (1700 bis 1775) und die Gründung der Berliner Sternwarte)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokott, Wolfgang

    The refusal of most protestant communities in Germany and other countries to accept the calendar reform decreed by Pope Gregor XIII in 1582 was finally circumvented by the introduction of an ``Improved (Julian) Calendar''. It did provide for astronomical rather than cyclical calculation of the date of Easter. While for most years both calendars were identical except in name, some conflicts did eventually occur. This led finally, in 1775, to a decision in favour of the Gregorian mode of calculation.

  10. Supreme Court to hear Florida clinic access case.

    PubMed

    1994-04-15

    On April 27, 1994, the US Supreme Court will review a Florida Supreme Court decision ensuring access to women's health clinics that offer abortion services. In October 1993, the Florida High Court determined that an order issued by Brevard/Seminole County Circuit Judge Robert McGregor that requires anti-abortion protestors to remain 36 feet from the clinic grounds, prohibits approaching any clinic patient within 300 feet of the facility, bars excessive noise during clinic hours, and creates a 300 foot safety zone around the homes of clinic staff was reasonable. Anti-abortion activists had challenged Judge McGregor's injunction, maintaining that it violated their First Amendment rights and was overboard. Days before the Florida High Court ruling, however, the US Court of Appeals for the Eleventh Circuit had rejected Judge McGregor's injunction as unconstitutional. Although the appeal to the US Supreme Court, Madsen vs Women's Health Center, was filed by anti-abortion activists, pro-choice groups are supporting the review as a means of resolving the confusion created by conflicting state and federal rulings.

  11. Gesture supports children's word learning (†).

    PubMed

    McGregor, Karla K

    2008-01-01

    This review paper, based on a keynote address to the 2007 Speech Pathology Australia National Conference, summarizes three recent research studies that pertain to gesture as an intervention tool. Specifically, the research concerns the utility of gestured input as a scaffold to children's comprehension of-and hence learning of-spoken words. The research is framed within the Emergentist Coalition Model. In Booth, McGregor, and Rohlfing we found evidence that toddlers of 28 - 30 months exploited both the attentional and intentional bases of gesture when fast mapping new words. In Capone and McGregor, toddlers of a similar age exploited representational gesture as a cue to linguistic meaning during both fast mapping and slow mapping stages of word learning. In McGregor and Capone we demonstrated that representational gestures are also useful for at-risk children who are acquiring an early lexicon. The overall purpose of this review paper is to motivate research efforts aimed at clinical applications of the gesture - language relationship.

  12. The origin of pyroxene megacrysts in alkali basalts from Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ntaflos, Theo; Bjerg, Ernesto; Gregoire, Michel

    2015-04-01

    Clinopyroxene and othopyroxene megacrysts have been brought to the surface together with mantle xenoliths by Neogene and Quaternary alkali basalts from the back-arc environment in Patagonia. The collected megacrysts are from Pali Aike Volcanic Field (El Ruido, maar) and the Gobernador Gregores cinder cone in southern Patagonia, and from the Laguna Fria outcrop in northern Patagonia. The most frequent pyroxene megacrysts are augites (twelve samples), one diopside and two enstatites. Enstatites were found in El Ruido and Laguna Fria. The augites are magnesian rich with MG# that vary from 73.1 to 75.3 in Gobernador Gregores, fairly constant at 76.6 in El Ruido and from 74.0 to 78.6 in Laguna Fria. The MG# of diopside is 91.1 and the two enstatites, one from Gobernador Gregores and the other from Laguna Fria, have MG#s 78.3 and 82.5 respectively. The Na2O and TiO2 contents in augites vary from 0.99 to 2.06 wt% and from 0.69 to 1.86 wt% repectively. Systematically, the Gobernador Gregores augites have the highest TiO2 and Na2O contents. The primitive mantle normalized REE abundances have concave upwards patterns. While the Gobernador Gregores augites have (La/Y)N ratios that vary from 2.4 to 3.8, the El Ruido and Laguna Fria augites have ratios that vary from 0.91 to 1.74. The enstatites from both localities have similar MREE but they differ markedly in their LREE (in GG LaN=0.04xPM and in El Ruido LAN=0.14) and in their HREE (in Gobernador Gregores YbN=0.25 and in El Ruido YBN=0.6). The AL IV/AL VI in all augites is high and vary from 0.75 to1.07 suggesting that they have been formed at - more than 30 km depth. The calculated minimum equilibrium temperatures vary between 1260 to 1320°C. Pressure estimates for augites, with exception of the El Ruido augites with a pressure of 1.65 GP, vary between 1.27 and 1.47 GPa. Especially the pressure estimates from Gobernador Gregores megacrysts vary within a small interval from 1.29 to 1.36 GPa indicating an isobaric

  13. "Hypertractions and hyperstresses convey the same mechanical information Continuum Mech. Thermodyn. (2010) 22:163-176" by Prof. Podio Guidugli and Prof. Vianello and some related papers on higher gradient theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dell'Isola, Francesco; Seppecher, Pierre

    2011-09-01

    In this commentary, we try to make clearer the state of the art concerning the relation between mechanical contact interactions and the different notions of stresses. We emphasize the importance of the concept of virtual displacements. Its role has been recognized in Mechanics and in Continuum Mechanics long ago (see e.g., Vailati in Il principio dei lavori virtuali da Aristotele a Erone d'Alessandria, 113-128, 1987; Russo in The forgotten revolution, Springer, Berlin, 2003, or Cosserat and Cosserat in Sur la Théorie des Corps Déformables, Herman, Paris, 1909; Cosserat and Cosserat in Note sur la théorie de l.action euclidienne, Gauthier-Villars, Paris, 1908), and it is central as well when starting with an expression of the power expended by internal stresses and deducing the form of contact interactions as when starting with some form of the contact interactions and developing a representation theorem for these contact interactions based on the Cauchy tetrahedron construction.

  14. Silicon shallow doping by erbium and oxygen recoils implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feklistov, K. V.; Cherkov, A. G.; Popov, V. P.

    2016-09-01

    In order to get shallow high doping of Si with optically active complexes ErOn, Er followed by O recoils implantation was realized by means of subsequent Ar+ 250-290 keV implantation with doses 2×1015-1×1016 cm-2 through 50-nm deposited films of Er and then SiO2, accordingly. High Er concentration up to 5×1020 cm-3 to the depth of 10 nm was obtained after implantation. However, about a half of the Er implanted atoms become part of surface SiO2 during post-implantation annealing at 950 °C for 1 h in the N2 ambient under a SiO2 cap. The mechanism of Er segregation into the cap oxide following the moving amorphous-crystalline interface during recrystallization was rejected by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Instead, the other mechanism of immobile Er atoms and redistribution of recoil-implanted O atoms toward cap oxide was proposed. It explains the observed formation of two Er containing phases: Er-Si-O phase with a high O content adjacent to the cap oxide and deeper O depleted Er-Si phase. The correction of heat treatments is proposed in order to avoid the above-mentioned problems.

  15. Computer-assisted uncertainty assessment of k0-NAA measurement results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bučar, T.; Smodiš, B.

    2008-10-01

    In quantifying measurement uncertainty of measurement results obtained by the k0-based neutron activation analysis ( k0-NAA), a number of parameters should be considered and appropriately combined in deriving the final budget. To facilitate this process, a program ERON (ERror propagatiON) was developed, which computes uncertainty propagation factors from the relevant formulae and calculates the combined uncertainty. The program calculates uncertainty of the final result—mass fraction of an element in the measured sample—taking into account the relevant neutron flux parameters such as α and f, including their uncertainties. Nuclear parameters and their uncertainties are taken from the IUPAC database (V.P. Kolotov and F. De Corte, Compilation of k0 and related data for NAA). Furthermore, the program allows for uncertainty calculations of the measured parameters needed in k0-NAA: α (determined with either the Cd-ratio or the Cd-covered multi-monitor method), f (using the Cd-ratio or the bare method), Q0 (using the Cd-ratio or internal comparator method) and k0 (using the Cd-ratio, internal comparator or the Cd subtraction method). The results of calculations can be printed or exported to text or MS Excel format for further analysis. Special care was taken to make the calculation engine portable by having possibility of its incorporation into other applications (e.g., DLL and WWW server). Theoretical basis and the program are described in detail, and typical results obtained under real measurement conditions are presented.

  16. 'It's the hearing that is last to go': a case of traumatic head injury.

    PubMed

    Tapson, Kate; Sierotowicz, Wanda; Marks-Maran, Di; Thompson, Trish Morris

    This article explores the literature related to acquired brain injury (ABI) and is followed by a case study of one patient with ABI, which reflects how the evidence, when implemented by a team of health professionals, can have a positive impact on recovery. Gregor is a middle-aged Polish man who suffered traumatic ABI when knocked down by a car. He spent a number of years in a specialist neurosurgical unit, then a rehabilitation unit, and for the past several years has been cared for in a care home. For most of this time he was in a coma. He began to come out of his coma and during his time in the care home received intensive physiotherapy and speech therapy. At the time of his brain injury Gregor could speak no English yet years later, when he began to regain consciousness, he was able to speak and understand English, a fact that might be attributed in part to 6 years of nurses talking to him in English as part of caring for him. Nurses are always told that hearing is the last of the senses to be lost when a person is unconscious or has a brain injury (Sisson, 1990). The case study presented in this article demonstrates the potential power of talking to a patient when providing care, even when that patient is in a coma, and the impact this may have had on Gregor. It also demonstrates the importance of the need for evidence-based neuro-rehabilitation, including multi-professional working by a team of specialist physiotherapists, nurses, speech therapists, continence specialist nurse and nutritionist. PMID:25757582

  17. Genetic alterations in syndromes with oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Anuthama, Krishnamurthy; Prasad, Harikrishnan; Ramani, Pratibha; Premkumar, Priya; Natesan, Anuja; Sherlin, Herald J

    2013-11-01

    Ever since Gregor Johan Mendel proposed the law of inheritance, genetics has transcended the field of health and has entered all walks of life in its application. Thus, the gene is the pivoting factor for all happenings revolving around it. Knowledge of gene mapping in various diseases would be a valuable tool in prenatally diagnosing the condition and averting the future disability and stigma for the posterity. This article includes an array of genetically determined conditions in patients seen at our college out-patient department with complete manifestation, partial manifestation and array of manifestations not fitting into a particular syndrome.

  18. Scientific myth-conceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allchin, Douglas

    2003-05-01

    Using several familiar examples - Gregor Mendel, H. B. D. Kettlewell, Alexander Fleming, Ignaz Semmelweis, and William Harvey - I analyze how educators currently frame historical stories to portray the process of science. They share a rhetorical architecture of myth, which misleads students about how science derives its authority. Narratives of error and recovery from error, alternatively, may importantly illustrate the nature of science, especially its limits. Contrary to recent claims for reform, we do not need more history in science education. Rather, we need different types of history that convey the nature of science more effectively.

  19. Shaped by the environment--adaptation in plants: meeting report based on the presentations at the FEBS Workshop 'Adaptation Potential in Plants' 2009 (Vienna, Austria).

    PubMed

    Siomos, Maria F

    2009-09-01

    As sessile organisms that are unable to escape from inhospitable environments, plants are at the mercy of the elements. Nonetheless, plants have managed to adapt, evolve and survive in some of the harshest conditions on earth. The FEBS Workshop 'Adaptation Potential in Plants', held at the Gregor Mendel Institute of Molecular Plant Biology, Vienna, Austria from 19 to 21 March 2009, provided a forum (including 18 invited talks, 8 selected short talks and 69 posters) for about 100 plant biologists from 32 countries, working in the diverse fields of genetics, epigenetics, stress signalling, and growth and development, to come together and discuss adaptation potential in plants at all its levels.

  20. Is evolution finished?

    PubMed

    Davison, John A

    2004-01-01

    Since speciation seems to be no longer in progress, one is compelled to conclude that sexual reproduction is incompetent as a macroevolutionary device. I propose that the reason some might insist that evolution is still in progress stems primarily from the influence of two authorities, the geologist Charles Lyell, with his doctrine of uniformitarianism and Gregor Mendel, the discoverer of sexually mediated transmission genetics. William Bateson, the father of modern genetics, clearly foresaw the failure of Mendelism to explain macroevolutionary change, a perspective with which I am in full agreement. PMID:15648214

  1. Is evolution finished?

    PubMed

    Davison, John A

    2004-01-01

    Since speciation seems to be no longer in progress, one is compelled to conclude that sexual reproduction is incompetent as a macroevolutionary device. I propose that the reason some might insist that evolution is still in progress stems primarily from the influence of two authorities, the geologist Charles Lyell, with his doctrine of uniformitarianism and Gregor Mendel, the discoverer of sexually mediated transmission genetics. William Bateson, the father of modern genetics, clearly foresaw the failure of Mendelism to explain macroevolutionary change, a perspective with which I am in full agreement.

  2. Preliminary design of a multi-slit image slicer for EST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcines, A.; López, R. L.; Collados, M.

    2012-09-01

    Integral field spectroscopy is a modern technique used in Astronomy to obtain simultaneous spectral information of all points in a bidimensional field of view. This communication presents the preliminary design of a multi-slit image slicer to be coupled to the spectrographs of the 4 meters aperture European Solar Telescope. This integral field unit will provide the observation of an 80 arcsec2 field of view, rearranged into 8 slits of 200 arcsec length by 0.05 arcsec width. Different optical design alternatives with diffraction limited optical quality, as well as the design of a prototype for the GREGOR solar telescope, are presented.

  3. Birth and death processes and quantum spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünbaum, F. Alberto; Vinet, Luc; Zhedanov, Alexei

    2013-06-01

    This paper underscores the intimate connection between the quantum walks generated by certain semi-infinite spin chain Hamiltonians and classical birth and death processes. It is observed that transition amplitudes between single excitation states of the spin chains have an expression in terms of orthogonal polynomials which is analogous to the Karlin-McGregor representation formula of the transition probability functions for classes of birth and death processes. As an application, we present a characterization of spin systems for which the probability to return to the point of origin at some time is 1 or almost 1.

  4. Random walks with similar transition probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiefermayr, Klaus

    2003-04-01

    We consider random walks on the nonnegative integers with a possible absorbing state at -1. A random walk is called [alpha]-similar to a random walk if there exist constants Cij such that for the corresponding n-step transition probabilities , i,j[greater-or-equal, slanted]0, hold. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for the [alpha]-similarity of two random walks both in terms of the parameters and in terms of the corresponding spectral measures which appear in the spectral representation of the n-step transition probabilities developed by Karlin and McGregor.

  5. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Markov processes and a multiple generating function of product of generalized Laguerre polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Poh-Aun

    1997-06-01

    From the spectral representation of the transition probability of birth-and-death processes, Karlin and McGregor show that the transition probability for the infinite server Markovian queue is in the form of a diagonal sum involving a product of Charlier polynomials. By using Meixner's bilinear generating formula for the Charlier polynomials and the Markov property, a multiple generating for the Charlier polynomials is deduced from the Chapman - Kolmogorov equation. The resulting formula possesses the same genre of a multiple generating function for the generalized Laguerre polynomials discussed by Messina and Paladimo, the explicit solution of which is recently given by the present author.

  6. Random Walk Weakly Attracted to a Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coninck, Joël; Dunlop, François; Huillet, Thierry

    2008-10-01

    We consider a random walk X n in ℤ+, starting at X 0= x≥0, with transition probabilities {P}(X_{n+1}=Xn±1|Xn=yge1)={1over2}mp{δover4y+2δ} and X n+1=1 whenever X n =0. We prove {E}Xn˜const. n^{1-{δ over2}} as n ↗∞ when δ∈(1,2). The proof is based upon the Karlin-McGregor spectral representation, which is made explicit for this random walk.

  7. A Multi-Layer Extension of the Stochastic Heat Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Neil; Warren, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by recent developments on solvable directed polymer models, we define a `multi-layer' extension of the stochastic heat equation involving non-intersecting Brownian motions. By developing a connection with Darboux transformations and the two-dimensional Toda equations, we conjecture a Markovian evolution in time for this multi-layer process. As a first step in this direction, we establish an analogue of the Karlin-McGregor formula for the stochastic heat equation and use it to prove a special case of this conjecture.

  8. Mission Bay facility's quest to be greener.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Alisdair; Naqvi, Afaan; Krehlik, Tyler

    2011-02-01

    A new integrated 289-bed hospital complex in San Francisco, the first phase of which is set for completion in 2014, will embrace a wide range of sustainable technologies and principles, with the key to the design being early involvement with, and buy-in from, all parties involved, to, a project-specific "sustainability plan". Here key project participants Alisdair McGregor and Afaan Naqvi, of the San Francisco offices of Arup, and Tyler Krehlik of Anshen + Allen, describe how a rigorous planning and design process should result in the new UCSF Mission Bay Hospital meeting tough environmental goals, while providing a highly therapeutic environment that stimulates and speeds patient recovery.

  9. The Ofpe/WN9 class in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohannan, Bruce; Walborn, Nolan R.

    1989-05-01

    The remarkable Ofpe/WN9 spectroscopic category in the LMC now contains ten members, including two newly identified here. Both photographic and digital spectrograms are presented, to establish the characteristics of the class in terms of the latter data, as a reference for future work. Two of these objects have shown large spectrum variations which transiently remove them from the class; one is currently undergoing a giant outburst which establishes it as a Luminous Blue Variable and suggests the possibility that the others may also be quiescent LBVs. Some significant correlations with the recent infrared spectral phenomenology of McGregor et al. (1988) are also pointed out.

  10. Radiation emission from small particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, W. G.; Hilgeman, T. W.

    1984-04-01

    Measurements have been made of the IR radiation from monodisperse optically absorbing spherical particles of di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate. The purpose was to validate the Mie emission theory for particles that are small compared with the radiation wavelength. In contradiction to the Mie theory, McGregor has theoretically concluded that radiation absorption or emission is not possible at wavelengths longer than pi times the square root of 2 times the particle diameter for spherical particles. The present results on monodisperse spherical particles of 3, 1, and 0.5 microns emitting at a wavelength of 3.4 microns support the Mie theory predictions.

  11. Detection of the O I 11287 A line in the Seyfert 1 galaxy I ZW 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudy, Richard J.; Rossano, George S.; Puetter, R. C.

    1989-07-01

    This paper reports a detection of the infrared 11287 A transition of neutral oxygen in the Seyfert 1 galaxy I Zw 1. The observed strength of the feature is 6.5 x 10 to the -14th erg/sq cm sec. When this value is compared to the flux of O I 8446A measured by Persson and McGregor (1985), the ratio of the photon fluxes is unity, to within the measurement uncertainties. This is a direct confirmation that the broad permitted O I lines observed in Seyfert 1 galaxies and quasars arise through fluorescent excitation by Lyman Beta.

  12. Genetic alterations in syndromes with oral manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Anuthama, Krishnamurthy; Prasad, Harikrishnan; Ramani, Pratibha; Premkumar, Priya; Natesan, Anuja; Sherlin, Herald J.

    2013-01-01

    Ever since Gregor Johan Mendel proposed the law of inheritance, genetics has transcended the field of health and has entered all walks of life in its application. Thus, the gene is the pivoting factor for all happenings revolving around it. Knowledge of gene mapping in various diseases would be a valuable tool in prenatally diagnosing the condition and averting the future disability and stigma for the posterity. This article includes an array of genetically determined conditions in patients seen at our college out-patient department with complete manifestation, partial manifestation and array of manifestations not fitting into a particular syndrome. PMID:24379857

  13. Overturning of slender blocks: Numerical investigation and application to precariously balanced rocks in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvance, Matthew D.

    This dissertation focuses on the parameterization of slender block overturning with application towards precariously balanced rocks (PBRs) in southern California. In order to quantify overturning in terms of block size, block shape, and excitation intensity, an extensive numerical experiment has been undertaken. The probabilistic formulation adopted in this dissertation, motivated by the work of Yim et al. (1980), regularizes the overturning responses in a very useful way. As a result, systematic overturning behavior is observed. Both logistic and multiple least squares regression analyses have been used to parameterize the overturning responses. In addition, the author has devised an approximate method to obtain prediction intervals through transformation techniques. Comparisons between the numerical formulation and overturning data derived from shake table experiments strongly suggests that the numerical formulation is applicable the prediction of PBR overturning. A methodology for the comparison of PBRs with ground motion models has been developed and applied to PBR sites in southern California. Ground motion models that utilize the attenuation relations of Abrahamson and Silva (1997), Boore et al. (1997), Gregor et al. (2002), and Abrahamson (2005) have been investigated at PBR sites near to the San Andreas, San Jacinto, Elsinore, and White Wolf faults. The ground motion models that use the Abrahamson and Silva (1997) and Gregor et al. (2002) relations are more inconsistent with the PBRs than the ground motion models that utilize the Boore et al. (1997) and Abrahamson (2005) relations. These findings may be used to refine current PSHA methodologies.

  14. Noncolliding Brownian Motion and Determinantal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katori, Makoto; Tanemura, Hideki

    2007-12-01

    A system of one-dimensional Brownian motions (BMs) conditioned never to collide with each other is realized as (i) Dyson's BM model, which is a process of eigenvalues of hermitian matrix-valued diffusion process in the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE), and as (ii) the h-transform of absorbing BM in a Weyl chamber, where the harmonic function h is the product of differences of variables (the Vandermonde determinant). The Karlin-McGregor formula gives determinantal expression to the transition probability density of absorbing BM. We show from the Karlin-McGregor formula, if the initial state is in the eigenvalue distribution of GUE, the noncolliding BM is a determinantal process, in the sense that any multitime correlation function is given by a determinant specified by a matrix-kernel. By taking appropriate scaling limits, spatially homogeneous and inhomogeneous infinite determinantal processes are derived. We note that the determinantal processes related with noncolliding particle systems have a feature in common such that the matrix-kernels are expressed using spectral projections of appropriate effective Hamiltonians. On the common structure of matrix-kernels, continuity of processes in time is proved and general property of the determinantal processes is discussed.

  15. General solution to gradient-induced transverse and longitudinal relaxation of spins undergoing restricted diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, W.; Gao, H.; Liu, J.-G.; Zhang, Y.; Ye, Q.; Swank, C.

    2011-11-01

    We develop an approach, by calculating the autocorrelation function of spins, to derive the magnetic field gradient-induced transverse (T2) relaxation of spins undergoing restricted diffusion. This approach is an extension to the method adopted by McGregor. McGregor's approach solves the problem only in the fast diffusion limit; however, our approach yields a single analytical solution suitable in all diffusion regimes, including the intermediate regime. This establishes a direct connection between the well-known slow diffusion result of Torrey and the fast diffusion result. We also perform free induction decay measurements on spin-exchange optically polarized 3He gas with different diffusion constants. The measured transverse relaxation profiles are compared with the theory and satisfactory agreement has been found throughout all diffusion regimes. In addition to the transverse relaxation, this approach is also applicable to solving the longitudinal relaxation (T1) regardless of the diffusion limits. It turns out that the longitudinal relaxation in the slow diffusion limit differs by a factor of 2 from that in the fast diffusion limit.

  16. Regional climate modeling of heat stress, frost, and water stress events in the agricultural region of Southwest Western Australia under the current climate and future climate scenarios.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kala, Jatin; Lyons, Tom J.; Abbs, Deborah J.; Foster, Ian J.

    2010-05-01

    Heat stress, frost, and water stress events have significant impacts on grain quality and production within the agricultural region (wheat-belt) of Southwest Western Australia (SWWA) (Cramb, 2000) and understanding how the frequency and intensity of these events will change in the future is crucial for management purposes. Hence, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (Pielke et al, 1992) (RAMS Version 6.0) is used to simulate the past 10 years of the climate of SWWA at a 20 km grid resolution by down-scaling the 6-hourly 1.0 by 1.0 degree National Center for Environmental Prediction Final Analyses from December 1999 to Present. Daily minimum and maximum temperatures, as well as daily rainfall are validated against observations. Simulations of future climate are carried out by down-scaling the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) Mark 3.5 General Circulation Model (Gordon et al, 2002) for 10 years (2046-2055) under the SRES A2 scenario using the Cubic Conformal Atmospheric Model (CCAM) (McGregor and Dix, 2008). The 6-hourly CCAM output is then downscaled to a 20 km resolution using RAMS. Changes in extreme events are discussed within the context of the continued viability of agriculture in SWWA. Cramb, J. (2000) Climate in relation to agriculture in south-western Australia. In: The Wheat Book (Eds W. K. Anderson and J. R. Garlinge). Bulletin 4443. Department of Agriculture, Western Australia. Gordon, H. B., Rotstayn, L. D., McGregor, J. L., Dix, M. R., Kowalczyk, E. A., O'Farrell, S. P., Waterman, L. J., Hirst, A. C., Wilson, S. G., Collier, M. A., Watterson, I. G., and Elliott, T. I. (2002). The CSIRO Mk3 Climate System Model [Electronic publication]. Aspendale: CSIRO Atmospheric Research. (CSIRO Atmospheric Research technical paper; no. 60). 130 p McGregor, J. L., and Dix, M. R., (2008) An updated description of the conformal-cubic atmospheric model. High Resolution Simulation of the Atmosphere and Ocean, Hamilton, K. and Ohfuchi

  17. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    PubMed

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.

  18. Management for doctors. Getting the best from people.

    PubMed Central

    Owen, A. V.

    1995-01-01

    To get the best out of people the McGregor Theory 'Y' manager will be supportive and collaborative rather than controlling. The aim will be to appoint staff to properly designed jobs and to motivate them by working with them and agreeing joint goals, by encouraging self development and appropriate training, and by being both firm and fair. In essence this manager will care about colleagues and see them as a resource to be nurtured rather than competitors to be undermined or costs to be cut. If the doctor in the case study had been treated in this way perhaps he might still be motivated and treating British patients instead of going to Saudi Arabia where he feels more greatly valued both as an individual and a professional. PMID:7703755

  19. Exploration and drilling for geothermal heat in the Capital District, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The Capital District area of New York was explored to determine the nature of a hydrothermal geothermal system. The chemistry of subsurface water and gas, the variation in gravity, magnetism, seismicity, and temperature gradients were determined. Water and gas analyses and temperature gradient measurements indicate the existence of a geothermal system located under an area from Ballston Spa, southward to Altamont, and eastware toward Albany. Gravimetric and magnetic surveys provided little useful data but microseismic activity in the Altamont area may be significant. Eight wells about 400 feet deep, one 600 feet and one 2232 feet were drilled and tested for geothermal potential. The highest temperature gradients, most unusual water chemistries, and greatest carbon dioxide exhalations were observed in the vicinity of the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, New York, suggesting some fault control over the geothermal system. Depths to the warm fluids within the system range from 500 meters (Ballston Spa) to 2 kilometers (Albany).

  20. Description and redescription of Haliotrema species (Monogenoidea: Poloyonchoinea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing butterfly fishes (Teleostei: Chaetodontidae) in the Indo-West Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Plaisance, Laetitia; Bouamer, Salah; Morand, Serge

    2004-05-01

    Haliotrema species are described and/or reported from the gills of butterfly fishes (Chaetodontidae) from coral reefs of the Indo-West Pacific islands: Moorea (French Polynesia), Palau (Micronesia), Wallis (Wallis and Futuna), New Caledonia, Lizard Island and Heron Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia). Haliotrema angelopterum sp. nov., a new species of Monogenoidea parasite from seven species of Chaetodon Linnaeus, 1758 (Chaetodontidae), is described. A new redescription and statute are given for Haliotrema aurigae (Yamaguti, 1968) comb. nov., a parasite from ten species of Chaetodon and one species of Heniochus Cuvier, 1816 (Chaetodontidae). New records of Haliotrema scyphovagina Yamaguti, 1968 are reported from two localities and from several host species belonging to the genera Chaetodon and Forcipiger Jordan and McGregor, 1898 (Chaetodontidae).

  1. Necromancing the stones.

    PubMed

    Goel, V

    1995-12-15

    Since its introduction 15 years ago extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (ESWL) has become a standard treatment for urinary stones. The author comments on the results of Adrian R. Levy and Maurice McGregor's study of the use of ESWL for urinary stones in Quebec (see pages 1729 to 1736 of this issue). The rapid increase in the use of ESWL that occurred in the first 2 years of the study points to the fact that the application of a new technology is often quickly expanded before thorough assessments of effectiveness and safety have been carried out. New technologies also lead to shifts in cost distribution that must be considered in cost analyses. The author argues that continuing research is needed to document the dissemination of new technologies and points to methodologic concerns that should be addressed to make such research as fruitful as possible.

  2. Motivating pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Donehew, G R

    1979-01-01

    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate.

  3. Noble gas composition of subcontinental lithospheric mantle: An extensively degassed reservoir beneath Southern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalowitzki, Tiago; Sumino, Hirochika; Conceição, Rommulo V.; Orihashi, Yuji; Nagao, Keisuke; Bertotto, Gustavo W.; Balbinot, Eduardo; Schilling, Manuel E.; Gervasoni, Fernanda

    2016-09-01

    Patagonia, in the Southern Andes, is one of the few locations where interactions between the oceanic and continental lithosphere can be studied due to subduction of an active spreading ridge beneath the continent. In order to characterize the noble gas composition of Patagonian subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), we present the first noble gas data alongside new lithophile (Sr-Nd-Pb) isotopic data for mantle xenoliths from Pali-Aike Volcanic Field and Gobernador Gregores, Southern Patagonia. Based on noble gas isotopic compositions, Pali-Aike mantle xenoliths represent intrinsic SCLM with higher (U + Th + K)/(3He, 22Ne, 36Ar) ratios than the mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) source. This reservoir shows slightly radiogenic helium (3He/4He = 6.84-6.90 RA), coupled with a strongly nucleogenic neon signature (mantle source 21Ne/22Ne = 0.085-0.094). The 40Ar/36Ar ratios vary from a near-atmospheric ratio of 510 up to 17700, with mantle source 40Ar/36Ar between 31100-6800+9400 and 54000-9600+14200. In addition, the 3He/22Ne ratios for the local SCLM endmember, at 12.03 ± 0.15 to 13.66 ± 0.37, are higher than depleted MORBs, at 3He/22Ne = 8.31-9.75. Although asthenospheric mantle upwelling through the Patagonian slab window would result in a MORB-like metasomatism after collision of the South Chile Ridge with the Chile trench ca. 14 Ma, this mantle reservoir could have remained unhomogenized after rapid passage and northward migration of the Chile Triple Junction. The mantle endmember xenon isotopic ratios of Pali-Aike mantle xenoliths, which is first defined for any SCLM-derived samples, show values indistinguishable from the MORB source (129Xe/132Xe =1.0833-0.0053+0.0216 and 136Xe/132Xe =0.3761-0.0034+0.0246). The noble gas component observed in Gobernador Gregores mantle xenoliths is characterized by isotopic compositions in the MORB range in terms of helium (3He/4He = 7.17-7.37 RA), but with slightly nucleogenic neon (mantle source 21Ne/22Ne = 0.065-0.079). We

  4. Theoretical studies of chromospheres and winds in cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    Calculated radiative losses from H, H-, Ca II, and Mg II show that cooling for the chromosphere of the supergiant epsilon Gem do not differ greatly from the solar law, although there are differences at approximately 6000K due to ionization effects. With a rough standard law for computation of stellar winds using the Hartmann-MacGregor theory and standard stellar evolutionary calculations, the wind velocities and temperatures in the HR diagram were systematically explored. Results show that cool winds with tempratures 1,000,00K are not possible for log g or = 2. Predicted wind velocities are approximately 1.5 to 2 x larger than observed, particularly for the most luminous cool stars. The ionization balance for the wind of alpha ORI and the hydrogen profile lines for T Tauri stars were computed using the PANDORA computer program.

  5. IBA-Europhysics Prize in Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacGregor, I. J. Douglas

    2014-03-01

    The Nuclear Physics Board of the European Physical Society is pleased to announce that the 2013 IBA-Europhysics Prize in Applied Nuclear Science and Nuclear Methods in Medicine is awarded to Prof. Marco Durante, Director of the Biophysics Department at GSI Helmholtz Center (Darmstadt, Germany); Professor at the Technical University of Darmstadt (Germany) and Adjunct Professor at the Temple University, Philadelphia, USA. The prize was presented in the closing Session of the INPC 2013 conference by Mr. Thomas Servais, R&D Manager for Accelerator Development at the IBA group, who sponsor the IBA Europhysics Prize. The Prize Diploma was presented by Dr. I J Douglas MacGregor, Chair-elect of the EPS Nuclear Physics Division and Chair of the IBA Prize committee.

  6. Exploration for geothermal resources in the Capital District of New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sneeringer, M.R.; Dunn, J.R.

    1981-11-01

    Water chemistry, gas analyses, and geophysical methods including gravity and magnetic surveys, microseismic monitoring, and temperature gradient measurements were used in the Capital District area to evaluate the potential for a hydrothermal geothermal system. Water and gas chemistries provided indirect indicators, and temperature gradients provided direct indications of a geothermal system. Gravity results were supportive of gradient and chemistry data, but seismic and magnetic work have thus far provided little information on the potential system. Gradients throughout the area ranged from an average background value of about 10/sup 0/C/km to a high of roughly 44/sup 0/C/km. The highest gradient values, the most unusual water chemistries and largest carbon dioxide exhalations occur along the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, and indicate a good potential for a usable hydrothermal geothermal system at depth.

  7. Exploration and drilling for geothermal heat in the Capital District, New York. Volume 4. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The Capital District area of New York was explored to determine the nature of a hydrothermal geothermal system. The chemistry of subsurface water and gas, the variation in gravity, magnetism, seismicity, and temperature gradients were determined. Water and gas analyses and temperature gradient measurements indicate the existence of a geothermal system located under an area from Ballston Spa, southward to Altamont, and eastward toward Albany. Gravimetric and magnetic surveys provided little useful data but microseismic activity in the Altamont area may be significant. Eight wells about 400 feet deep, one 600 feet and one 2232 feet were drilled and tested for geothermal potential. The highest temperature gradients, most unusual water chemistries, and greatest carbon dioxide exhalations were observed in the vicinity of the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, New York, suggesting some fault control over the geothermal system. Depths to the warm fluids within the system range from 500 meters (Ballston Spa) to 2 kilometers (Albany).

  8. Exploration for geothermal resources in the Capital District of New York. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    Water chemistry, gas analyses, and geophysical methods including gravity and magnetic surveys, microseismic monitoring, and temperature gradient measurements were used in the Capital District area to evaluate the potential for a hydrothermal geothermal system. Water and gas chemistries provided indirect indicators, and temperature gradients provided direct indications of a geothermal system. Gravity results were supportive of gradient and chemistry data, but seismic and magnetic work have thus far provided little information on the potential system. Gradients throughout the area ranged from an average background value of about 10/sup 0/C/km to a high of roughly 44/sup 0/C/km. The highest gradient values, the most unusual water chemistries and largest carbon dioxide exhalations occur along the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, and indicate a good potential for a usable hydrothermal geothermal system at depth.

  9. Mendel's use of mathematical modelling: ratios, predictions and the appeal to tradition.

    PubMed

    Teicher, Amir

    2014-01-01

    The seventh section of Gregor Mendel's famous 1866 paper contained a peculiar mathematical model, which predicted the expected ratios between the number of constant and hybrid types, assuming self-pollination continued throughout further generations. This model was significant for Mendel's argumentation and was perceived as inseparable from his entire theory at the time. A close examination of this model reveals that it has several perplexing aspects which have not yet been systematically scrutinized. The paper analyzes those aspects, dispels some common misconceptions regarding the interpretation of the model, and re-evaluates the role of this model for Mendel himself. In light of the resulting analysis, Mendel's position between nineteenth-century hybridist tradition and twentieth-century population genetics is reassessed, and his sophisticated use of mathematics to legitimize his innovative theory is uncovered.

  10. Beyond the simplicity of Mendelian inheritance.

    PubMed

    Schacherer, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the underlying rules that govern the phenotypic diversity observed in natural populations is an old but still unaccomplished goal in biology. In 1865, Gregor Mendel paved the way for the dissection of the underlying genetic basis of traits by setting out to understand the principles of heredity. To date, we still lack a global overview of the spectrum and continuum existing between Mendelian and complex traits within any natural population. In this respect, we recently performed a species-wide survey of Mendelian traits across a large population of isolates using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By analyzing the distribution and the inheritance patterns of the trait, we have clearly shown that monogenic mutations can display a significant, variable, and continuous expressivity across different genetic backgrounds. Our study also demonstrated that combining the elegancy of both classical genetics and high-throughput genomics is more than valuable to dissect the genotype-phenotype relationship in natural populations.

  11. Management for doctors. Getting the best from people.

    PubMed

    Owen, A V

    1995-03-11

    To get the best out of people the McGregor Theory 'Y' manager will be supportive and collaborative rather than controlling. The aim will be to appoint staff to properly designed jobs and to motivate them by working with them and agreeing joint goals, by encouraging self development and appropriate training, and by being both firm and fair. In essence this manager will care about colleagues and see them as a resource to be nurtured rather than competitors to be undermined or costs to be cut. If the doctor in the case study had been treated in this way perhaps he might still be motivated and treating British patients instead of going to Saudi Arabia where he feels more greatly valued both as an individual and a professional.

  12. Perspectives on the dental school learning environment: putting theory X and theory Y into action in dental education.

    PubMed

    Connor, Joseph P; Troendle, Karen

    2008-12-01

    Theory X and Theory Y are terms coined by Douglas McGregor to express the belief that managers' behaviors are shaped by their assumptions about the motivation of their subordinates. The theories were applied to dental education in a Perspectives article published in the August 2007 issue of the Journal of Dental Education. This article explains how those seemingly contradictory theories can be reconciled using the concept of the "emotional bank account" introduced by Stephen Covey in The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. Understanding the underlying concept of an emotional bank account helps dental educators to bridge the generation gap between instructors, born during the baby boom period of 1946-63, and dental students, born after 1980, who are referred to as "Generation Y" or "millennials." PMID:19056621

  13. Re-discovering Mendel: The Case of Carl Correns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Carl Erich Correns (1864-1933) is remembered in the annals of science as one of the three botanists who re-discovered Mendel's laws. He can also, however, be regarded as one of the founding figures of classical genetics in Germany. Between 1894 and 1899 he carried out the crossing experiments with corn and peas that led to the re-statement of Gregor Mendel's (1822-1884) results. Between 1900 and 1910, he explored the complications of these laws, including the coupling of factors due to their chromosomal location and the inheritance of sex, in a great number of plant species. In later years Correns became interested in and experimented on phenomena of extra-nuclear inheritance.

  14. Fort Bliss exploratory slimholes: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    During November/96 to April/97 Sandia National Laboratories provided consulation, data collection, analysis and project documentation to the U.S. Army for a series of four geothermal exploratory slimholes drilled on the McGregor Range approximately 25 miles north of El Paso, Texas. This drilling was directed toward evaluating a potential reservoir for geothermal power generation in this area, with a secondary objective of assessing the potential for direct use applications such as space heating or water de-salinization. This report includes: representative temperature logs from the wells; daily drilling reports; a narrative account of the drilling and testing; a description of equipment used; a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data; and recommendations for future work.

  15. On the relationship between coronae and mass loss in late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, L.; Dupree, A. K.; Raymond, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    High-dispersion spectra taken with the IUE are used to examine the temperature stratification of the wind of the hybrid atmosphere star Alpha TrA (K4 II). C IV emission is shown to have a line width of 150-200 km/s, with Si III and C III exhibiting 100 km/s widths. It is suggested that the line widths reflect wind expansion, with C IV formed in an extended region flowing near the wind terminal velocity of 85 km/s. It is shown that the observed line widths can be accounted for by the stellar wind theory of Hartmann and MacGregor, in which the schematic dissipation of Alfven waves drives the outflow in addition to heating the wind. The observations of the warm expanding corona in Alpha TrA suggest a continuous progression between the high temperature low-mass-flux solar wind and the winds of luminous cool stars.

  16. Cognitive mechanisms of insight: the role of heuristics and representational change in solving the eight-coin problem.

    PubMed

    Öllinger, Michael; Jones, Gary; Faber, Amory H; Knoblich, Günther

    2013-05-01

    The 8-coin insight problem requires the problem solver to move 2 coins so that each coin touches exactly 3 others. Ormerod, MacGregor, and Chronicle (2002) explained differences in task performance across different versions of the 8-coin problem using the availability of particular moves in a 2-dimensional search space. We explored 2 further explanations by developing 6 new versions of the 8-coin problem in order to investigate the influence of grouping and self-imposed constraints on solutions. The results identified 2 sources of problem difficulty: first, the necessity to overcome the constraint that a solution can be found in 2-dimensional space and, second, the necessity to decompose perceptual groupings. A detailed move analysis suggested that the selection of moves was driven by the established representation rather than the application of the appropriate heuristics. Both results support the assumptions of representational change theory (Ohlsson, 1992).

  17. Does genomic imprinting play a role in autoimmunity?

    PubMed

    Camprubí, Cristina; Monk, David

    2011-01-01

    In the 19th century Gregor Mendel defined the laws of genetic inheritance by crossing different types of peas. From these results arose his principle of equivalence: the gene will have the same behaviour whether it is inherited from the mother or the father. Today, several key exceptions to this principle are known, for example sex-linked traits and genes in the mitochondrial genome, whose inheritance patterns are referred to as 'non mendelian'. A third, important exception in mammals is that of genomic imprinting, where transcripts are expressed in a monoallelic fashion from only the maternal or the paternal chromosome. In this chapter, we discuss how parent-of-origin effects and genomic imprinting may play a role in autoimmunity and speculate how imprinted miRNAs may influence the expression of many target autoimmune associated genes. PMID:21627045

  18. Fort Bliss Geothermal Area Data: Temperature profile, logs, schematic model and cross section

    SciTech Connect

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    This dataset contains a variety of data about the Fort Bliss geothermal area, part of the southern portion of the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. The dataset contains schematic models for the McGregor Geothermal System, a shallow temperature survey of the Fort Bliss geothermal area. The dataset also contains Century OH logs, a full temperature profile, and complete logs from well RMI 56-5, including resistivity and porosity data, drill logs with drill rate, depth, lithology, mineralogy, fractures, temperature, pit total, gases, and descriptions among other measurements as well as CDL, CNL, DIL, GR Caliper and Temperature files. A shallow (2 meter depth) temperature survey of the Fort Bliss geothermal area with 63 data points is also included. Two cross sections through the Fort Bliss area, also included, show well position and depth. The surface map included shows faults and well spatial distribution. Inferred and observed fault distributions from gravity surveys around the Fort Bliss geothermal area.

  19. In memoriam In memoriam In memoriam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, John

    2010-12-01

    The preceding paper is a record of an invited paper presented by Beatrice Annaratone at the 29th ICPIG held in Cancún, Mexico in 2009. The principal author Beatrice Annaratone died, together with her husband Arturo Tanga, in a tragic car accident on 20 December 2009. As a result of this tragedy the paper has not received the usual final revision by its author. Some of the work described is incomplete, but it will certainly be of interest to researchers in the field, some of whom will carry it to fruition. A paper entitled 'In Memoriam Beatrice Maria Annaratone', by John Allen, Gregor Morfill and Hubertus Thomas was presented at the 37th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics held in Dublin in June 2010. See http://iopscience.iop.org/0741-3335/52/12/124001

  20. Integration of Planetary Protection Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.

    2000-01-01

    Research and activities under this grant have focused on a systematic examination and analysis of critical questions likely to impact planetary protection (PP) controls and implementation for Mars sample return missions (MSR). Four areas in the non-scientific and social realms were selected for special attention because of their importance to future mission planning and concern about critical timing or possible economic impacts on MSR mission implementation. These include: (1) questions of legal uncertainty and the decision making process, (2) public perception of risks associated with sample return, (3) risk communication and Education/Public Outreach , and (4) planetary protection implications of alternative mission architectures, for both robotic and human sample return missions. In its entirety, NAG 2-986 has encompassed three categories of activity: (1) research and analysis (Race), (2) subcontracted research (MacGregor/Decision Research), and (3) consulting services.

  1. Microscopic modelling of semi-insulating GaAs detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cola, A.; Vasanelli, L.; Reggiani, L.; Cavallini, A.; Nava, F.

    1997-08-01

    We present a drift-diffusion model of semi-insulating n-GaAs detectors, taking into account the presence of hot-carrier dynamics, conduction band features and the kinetics of trapping and detrapping from deep and shallow centres. We provide unambiguous evidence of a field-enhanced capture cross section for EL2 and EL3 centres as conjectured by McGregor [1] for the case of EL2. This result is shown to be strictly correlated with the active thickness of the detector varying almost linearly with the applied voltage, in excellent agreement with recent experimental measurements performed with the Optical Beam-Induced Currents (OBIC) technique. Evidence of Poole-Frenkel effects at the highest applied voltages is provided by the current-voltage characteristics.

  2. The multivariate Hahn polynomials and the singular oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genest, Vincent X.; Vinet, Luc

    2014-11-01

    Karlin and McGregor's d-variable Hahn polynomials are shown to arise in the (d+1)-dimensional singular oscillator model as the overlap coefficients between bases associated with the separation of variables in Cartesian and hyperspherical coordinates. These polynomials in d discrete variables depend on d+1 real parameters and are orthogonal with respect to the multidimensional hypergeometric distribution. The focus is put on the d = 2 case for which the connection with the three-dimensional singular oscillator is used to derive the main properties of the polynomials: forward/backward shift operators, orthogonality relation, generating function, recurrence relations, bispectrality (difference equations) and explicit expression in terms of the univariate Hahn polynomials. The extension of these results to an arbitrary number of variables is presented at the end of the paper.

  3. Quantum random walk polynomial and quantum random walk measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yuanbao; Wang, Caishi

    2014-05-01

    In the paper, we introduce a quantum random walk polynomial (QRWP) that can be defined as a polynomial , which is orthogonal with respect to a quantum random walk measure (QRWM) on , such that the parameters are in the recurrence relations and satisfy . We firstly obtain some results of QRWP and QRWM, in which case the correspondence between measures and orthogonal polynomial sequences is one-to-one. It shows that any measure with respect to which a quantum random walk polynomial sequence is orthogonal is a quantum random walk measure. We next collect some properties of QRWM; moreover, we extend Karlin and McGregor's representation formula for the transition probabilities of a quantum random walk (QRW) in the interacting Fock space, which is a parallel result with the CGMV method. Using these findings, we finally obtain some applications for QRWM, which are of interest in the study of quantum random walk, highlighting the role played by QRWP and QRWM.

  4. Exploration and drilling for geothermal heat in the Capital District, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneeringer, M. R.; Crist, W. K.; Dunn, J. R.

    1983-08-01

    The Capital District area of New York was explored to determine the nature of a hydrothermal geothermal system. The chemistry of sub-surface water and gas, the variation in gravity, magnetism, seismicity, and temperature gradient measurements indicate the existence of a geothermal system located under an area from Ballston Spa, southward to Altamont, and eastward toward Albany. Eight wells about 400-feet deep, one 600-foot well and one 2232-foot well were drilled and tested for geothermal potential. The highest temperature gradients, most unusual water chemistries, and greatest carbon dioxide exhalations were observed in the vicinity of the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, suggesting some fault control over the geothermal system. Depths to the warm fluids within the system range from 500 meters (Ballston Spa) to 2 kilometers (Albany).

  5. On the total—and strict total—Positivity of the kernels associated with parabolic initial boundary value problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, E. J. P. Georg

    This paper is concerned with the total—and strict total—positivity of the integral kernels which relate the solutions of parabolic initial boundary value problems to the initial and boundary data. Maximum principle arguments, in conjunction with a characterisation of total positivity in terms of variation diminishing properties, are used to prove total positivity of both the initial value and boundary value kernels under mild assumptions; similar methods yield strict total positivity when the coefficients appearing in the equation are analytic in either the time or the space variable. In this way we extend results of Karlin and McGregor on the total positivity of the kernel associated with the initial data; their proofs used the determinantal definition of total positivity and exploited the work of Gohberg and Krein on the Green's functions of Sturm-Liouville operators.

  6. Role of chemical change in the paleomagnetic record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Subir K.; Reynolds, Richard L.

    To produce an outline of how either to isolate or capitalize on changes in magnetic properties resulting from chemical changes, the workshop, “Effects of Chemical Changes on Magnetization,” was held in Santa Fe, N. Mex. from August 13 to 16. It was sponsored by the Institute for Rock Magnetism (IRM) in Minneapolis, Minn., and funded by the National Science Foundation. Graduate students and established researchers in rockand paleomagnetism, mostly from the United States and Canada, participated. Ian McGregor and Mike Mayhew represented NSF. A special feature of the conference was five guest speakers from outside the field of rock magnetism who bridged the gap between chemistry and magnetism.

  7. Further results in multiset processing with neural networks.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Simon

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents new experimental results on the variadic neural network (VNN) [McGregor, S. (2007). Neural network processing for multiset data. In Proceedings: Vol. 4668. Artificial neural networks - ICANN 2007, 17th international conference (pp. 460-470). Springer]. The inputs to a variadic network are an arbitrary-length list of n-tuples of real numbers, where n is fixed, and the function computed by the network is unaffected by permutation of the inputs. This paper describes improvements in the training algorithm for the variadic perceptron, based on a constructive cascade topology, and performance of the improved networks on geometric problems inspired by vector graphics. Further development may allow practical application of these or similar networks to vector graphics processing and statistical analysis.

  8. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    PubMed

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented. PMID:6465152

  9. Pesticide compatibility with natural enemies for pest management in greenhouse gerbera daisies.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Cheri M; Braman, S K; Oetting, R D; Hinkle, N C

    2013-08-01

    Pesticides commonly used in commercial greenhouse management were evaluated for compatibility with two biological control agents: a leafminer parasitoid (Diglyphus isaea [Walker]), and a predatory mite (Neoseiulus californicus [McGregor]). These natural enemies were exposed to miticides, fungicides, and insecticides targeting leafminers, thrips, and whiteflies, according to label directions in laboratory vial assays, after which mortality at 12, 24, and 48 h was recorded. Greater mortality of predatory mites than leafminer parasitoids was observed overall, illustrating that fewer pesticides were compatible with predatory mites compared with the parasitoid. However, some commonly used pesticides were found to cause high mortality to both the leafminer parasitoid and predatory mites. Twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) infestations often disrupt leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii [Burgess]) biocontrol programs. Therefore, potentially compatible miticides (bifenazate, hexythiazox, spiromesifen, acequinocyl, etoxazole, and clofentezine) identified in laboratory trials were also evaluated in a greenhouse study and found to be compatible with leafminer biocontrol. PMID:24020270

  10. Effects of cluster location and cluster distribution on performance on the traveling salesman problem.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, James N

    2015-10-01

    Research on human performance in solving traveling salesman problems typically uses point sets as stimuli, and most models have proposed a processing stage at which stimulus dots are clustered. However, few empirical studies have investigated the effects of clustering on performance. In one recent study, researchers compared the effects of clustered, random, and regular stimuli, and concluded that clustering facilitates performance (Dry, Preiss, & Wagemans, 2012). Another study suggested that these results may have been influenced by the location rather than the degree of clustering (MacGregor, 2013). Two experiments are reported that mark an attempt to disentangle these factors. The first experiment tested several combinations of degree of clustering and cluster location, and revealed mixed evidence that clustering influences performance. In a second experiment, both factors were varied independently, showing that they interact. The results are discussed in terms of the importance of clustering effects, in particular, and perceptual factors, in general, during performance of the traveling salesman problem.

  11. Beyond the simplicity of Mendelian inheritance.

    PubMed

    Schacherer, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the underlying rules that govern the phenotypic diversity observed in natural populations is an old but still unaccomplished goal in biology. In 1865, Gregor Mendel paved the way for the dissection of the underlying genetic basis of traits by setting out to understand the principles of heredity. To date, we still lack a global overview of the spectrum and continuum existing between Mendelian and complex traits within any natural population. In this respect, we recently performed a species-wide survey of Mendelian traits across a large population of isolates using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By analyzing the distribution and the inheritance patterns of the trait, we have clearly shown that monogenic mutations can display a significant, variable, and continuous expressivity across different genetic backgrounds. Our study also demonstrated that combining the elegancy of both classical genetics and high-throughput genomics is more than valuable to dissect the genotype-phenotype relationship in natural populations. PMID:27344551

  12. Perspectives on the dental school learning environment: putting theory X and theory Y into action in dental education.

    PubMed

    Connor, Joseph P; Troendle, Karen

    2008-12-01

    Theory X and Theory Y are terms coined by Douglas McGregor to express the belief that managers' behaviors are shaped by their assumptions about the motivation of their subordinates. The theories were applied to dental education in a Perspectives article published in the August 2007 issue of the Journal of Dental Education. This article explains how those seemingly contradictory theories can be reconciled using the concept of the "emotional bank account" introduced by Stephen Covey in The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. Understanding the underlying concept of an emotional bank account helps dental educators to bridge the generation gap between instructors, born during the baby boom period of 1946-63, and dental students, born after 1980, who are referred to as "Generation Y" or "millennials."

  13. Testing PSHA Output via Precariously Balanced Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purvance, M. D.; Brune, J. N.; Anooshehpoor, R.

    2005-12-01

    Purvance (2005) has shown that the overturning responses of precariously balanced rocks (PBRs) depend on the PBR shapes, sizes, and the vector of ground motion intensity measures including PGA and either PGV, SA@1sec, or SA@2sec. This formulation allows one to quantify the overturning probability of an object that has been exposed to a ground motion time history with specified peak parameters (e.g. PGA and PGV). Vector-valued PSHA (VPSHA) provides a methodology to estimate the rate of occurrence of all ground motions. Combining the VPSHA output with the PBR fragility results in the rate of PBR overturning. In this way, one can compare the PBR age with the estimated failure date given the assumptions inherent in the VPSHA calculation. This study focuses on the variability of estimated failure dates of PBRs as a function of attenuation relations utilized in the VPSHA calculations. The following attenuation relations have been investigated: Abrahamson and Silva (1997), Boore et al. (1997), Abrahamson (2005), and Gregor et al. (2002). The Boore et al. (1997) and Abrahamson (2005) relations produce ground motion models that are more consistent with the PBRs in southern California than the Abrahamson and Silva (1997) and Gregor et al. (2002) relations. It is apparent that the addition of recent data (e.g. Chi-Chi, Izmit) in the development of the Abrahamson (2005) attenuation relation significantly affects the VPSHA output. These findings highlight the utility of this methodology to test alternate attenuation relations such as those produced by the NGA initiative. In addition, varying RELM models may be assessed for consistency with PBRs via the described methodology.

  14. Sensitivity of simulated tropical climate variability and its global teleconnections to reconstructed volcanic eruptions and solar irradiance fluctuations over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodri, Myriam; Servonnat, Jérome; Fluteau, Frédérique; Gastineau, Guillaume; Alexandrine Sicre, Marie; Mignot, Juliette

    2010-05-01

    Tropical climate variability based on proxy reconstructions for the last millennium suggests important interannual to decadal changes probably modulated by external forcing such as volcanic eruptions and solar irradiance fluctuations. For example these proxy reconstructions suggest a warming of the Pacific warm pool (Newton et al 2009), a low ENSO variance and a northward shift of the ITCZ during periods of increased Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and low volcanic activity such as during the so-called Warm Medieval Period (Haug et al, 2001; McGregor et al, 2009). The opposite situation is suggested for the Little Ice Age (LIA), a climatic period around the Maunder Minimum characterised by higher volcanic activity and small, yet sizable reduction of the TSI. Furthermore, first evidence suggest a significant role played by such tropical changes in driving teleconnected megaflood/megadroughts and threshold-like response in monsoons over South and North America while modulating significantly the climate of the North Atlantic region during the Warm Medieval Period and the Little Ice Age (Rein et al., 2004; Moy et al., 2002; Conroy et al. 2009; McGregor et al, 2009; Seager et al, 2008; Sicre et al, 2008…). In link with these issues, we will explore tropical Pacific climate variability and its tropical and extra tropical teleconnections in particular over the Americas and North Atlantic, in externally forced and unforced millennial-long simulations run with the IPSL model. This will allow us evaluating the sensitivity of tropical Pacific internal dynamics and global teleconnections to the applied reconstructed volcanic and solar forcings for this period and hopefully shade some light on the processes underlying proxy-based reconstructions for the last millennium climate variability.

  15. Therapeutic effects of functional orthodontic appliances on cervical spine posture: a retrospective cephalometric study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Interactions between the cervical spine and the stomatognathic system have been discussed in literature. The present study was conducted to investigate whether, and to what extent, orthodontically induced mandibular advancement produces changes in cervical spine posture. Furthermore, possible appliance-specific effects should be distinguished. Material and methods The cephalograms of 64 patients with skeletal class II were analysed before and after mandibular advancement. Linear and angular cephalometric parameters were identified to define the position of the atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial joints. The total example was divided into two subgroups (comprising 32 individuals each) according to the employed appliance: activator versus bite-jump appliance (BJA). Student's t-test and analysis of covariance were used for statistical analysis. Results Overall, a significant straightening of the cervical spine was observed during the treatment. This conclusion is based on changes of Chamberlain (p = 0.0055), CVT (p = 0.0003), OPT (p < 0.0001), Redlund-Johnell/Petersson (p < 0.0001), McGregor-mC2 (p = 0.0333) and AT-FH (p = 0.0445). Improvements in occipitoatlantal dislocation were also observed in the total sample. Appliance-specific changes were found in the activator subgroup for a number of linear parameters (Chamberlain, McGregor, CVT, OPT, Redlund-Johnell/Petersson). In contrast, only two linear parameters (OPT and Powers ratio) revealed statistically significant changes in the BJA subgroup. Conclusions During skeletal class II treatment the position of upper cervical spine changes. In the activator subgroup the observed effects were more pronounced than those in the BJA subgroup. Further studies including a control group comprised with non-treated class II patients are needed to assess whether these effects may be caused directly by the appliances irrespective of growth. PMID:24661951

  16. Variations in the magnitude of non mass dependent sulfur fractionation in the Archean atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claire, M.; Kasting, J. F.

    2010-12-01

    eroneous conclusions. [1] Danielache et al. (2008), Journal of Geophysical Research 113 D17314. [2] Pavlov and Kasting (2002) Astrobiology 2 27. [3] Ueno et al. (2009), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (35) 14784-14789. [4] Zahnle, Claire, and Catling (2006), Geobiology 4 271-283. [5] Lyons (2007), Geophysical Research Letters 34, L22811. [6] Halevy et al 2010 Science, 10.1126 1190298. [7] Wolf and Toon (2010), Science 238, 1266-1268.

  17. [Anatomopathological findings during development of diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats].

    PubMed

    Manjarrez-Gutiérrez, Gabriel; Hernández-Chávez, Victor; Neri-Gómez, Teresa; Boyzo-Montes de Oca, Alfonso; Mondragón-Herrera, José Antonio; Hernández-Rodríguez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la miocardiopatía diabética ocurre en ambos tipos de diabetes mellitus y en su patogenia intervienen la hiperglucemia y los cambios metabólicos asociados. Objetivo: caracterizar los diferentes cambios patológicos que aparecen durante la evolución de la miocardiopatía diabética en la rata. Material y métodos: estudio transversal comparativo en dos grupos de ratas diabéticas por la administración de estreptozotocina. A los 14, 21 y 30 días de la administración del tóxico se obtuvieron los corazones, que se colocaron en p-formaldehído al 4%. Se efectuaron cortes de 5 μm y se tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina, tricrómica de Masson e inmunocitoquímica con anticuerpos anti β-tubulina. Resultados: a los 14 días de la aplicación de la estreptozotocina se observaron en el miocardio sinusoides dilatadas y depósito de colágena entre las fibras de Purkinje e intersticio cardiaco. A los 21 días disminuyó la luz arteriolar por hiperplasia de la capa media. A los 30 días del estudio se hicieron más evidentes los sinusoides cardiacos y los depósitos de colágena y un importante desarreglo del sistema microtubular de los cardiomiocitos. Conclusiones: los sinusoides cardiacos, que representan un patrón vascular fetal y la fibrosis intersticial en el miocardio y el desarreglo microtubular de los cardiomiocitos, apoyan el hecho de que el mecanismo fisiopatológico de la miocardiopatía diabética se inicia en la microcirculación coronaria debido a cambios en el metabolismo cardiaco que contribuyen a la disfunción miocárdica durante el estado diabético.

  18. Predictive influence of sea surface temperature on teleconnection patterns in North Atlantic. A case study on winter seasonal forecast in NW Iberian Peninsula.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, I.; Lorenzo, M. N.; Taboada, J. J.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.; Ramos, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Seasonal forecast in medium latitudes is a research field not too much developed, but it is likely to improve considerable as the dynamics of atmosphere and ocean as a coupled system are better understood. The aim of this work is to study the relationship between the global sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) and the most important teleconnection patterns which affect the North Atlantic area: North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), East Atlantic pattern (EA), Scandinavia pattern (SCA), East Atlantic/Western Russia pattern (EA/WR) and Europe Polar/Eurasia pattern (POL). The relationship between SSTA and those patterns will be explored in autumn and winter, the seasons with the highest quantity of rainfall in the area under study. These teleconnection patterns have a relationship with climate characteristics in Europe. Therefore, any forecast skill over teleconnection patterns will mean a forecast skill on climate. The SST data was provided by the NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, USA. The teleconnection indices were taken from the Climate Prediction Center of the NOAA between 1950 and 2006. Monthly precipitation and temperature data from 1951-2006 for two locations at NW Iberian Peninsula were obtained from the database of MeteoGalicia, the forecast center of the Regional Government of Galicia. The methodology used in this work is the same one used in Phillips and McGregor, 2002 and Lorenzo el al., 2009. Results show that SST anomalies in certain areas of the world ocean have a great potential to improve seasonal climate forecast in the mid-latitudes. A potential predictability for NAO and EA patterns in winter and for SCA and EA patterns in autumn was obtained. The value of those kind of correlations have been studied for a particular region, located at the NW part of the Iberian Peninsula, highlighting the possibility of perform a climate forecast for autumn and winter. This work could serve like a reference for many other regions in Europe, whose climate is

  19. Against UNESCO: Gedda, Gini and American scientific racism.

    PubMed

    Cassata, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on the ideological, institutional and intellectual connections between Italian eugenics and American scientific racism, from 1953 to 1967. The paper pays special attention to the scientific links between fascist demographer Corrado Gini (the first president of the Italian Central Statistical Institute - Istat), and geneticist Luigi Gedda (the president of the Gregor Mendel Institute in Rome and head of the Catholic political association Azione Cattolica) on the one hand, and on the other, the members of the IAAEE (International Association for the Advancement of Ethnology and Eugenics) and their journal, "The Mankind Quarterly". Corrado Gini and Luigi Gedda were both members of the honorary advisory board of "The Mankind Quarterly", and Gini was also assistant editor in 1962. Despite the theoretical differences between the "neo-Lamarckians" Gini and Gedda, and the "Mendelians" Robert Gayre and Reginald Ruggles Gates--editor and associate editor of "The Mankind Quarterly"--the relationship grew stronger because of a sort of strategic alliance in the ideological fight against UNESCO's Statements on Race. The main source of the paper is Corrado Gini's personal archive, deposited in Rome at the National State Archive (ACS). PMID:19848223

  20. On the origin of genetics and beginnings of medical genetics of diseases of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2006-04-01

    The twentieth century has been termed the century of the gene. Although the term "gene" was introduced in 1909, interest in reproduction and heredity has occupied humankind since its transition from hunter-gatherers to farmers and herders. Heredity, as it applies to diseases, began with Greek medicine. The humoral theory of the Hippocratic Corpus provided an etiological explanation for susceptibility of individuals to certain diseases well into the nineteenth century and was variously termed diathesis, temperament, and constitution. The application of the new probability math to quantify the hybridization of sweet peas by Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) in 1866 provided a scientific basis to inheritance, which had theretofore been an amalgam of scattered empirical observations. The near simultaneous publication of Origin of Species by Charles Darwin (1809-1882) in 1859 was a key catalyst in the transfer of what had been studies in plant biology into studies of populations and humans. The subsequent growth of genetics has been the outcome of interplay of technological breakthroughs in statistical analysis, cytology, biochemistry, physics, and computer science, coupled with the insightful analysis of workers in the field, several of whom have been the recipients of the Nobel Prize in medicine or chemistry since 1933. Application of these techniques to molecular biology and medical genetics is just beginning to yield insight into diseases of the kidney and provide visions of their likely therapies in the future. PMID:16580619

  1. Characterization of optical turbulence at the solar observatory at the Mount Teide, Tenerife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprung, Detlev; Sucher, Erik

    2013-10-01

    Optical turbulence represented by the structure function parameter of the refractive index Cn2 is regarded as one of the chief causes of image degradation of ground-based astronomical telescopes operating in visible or infrared wavebands. Especially, it affects the attainable spatial resolution. Therefore since the middle of September 2012 the optical turbulence has been monitored between two German solar telescopes at the Observatory in Tenerife /Canary Islands /Spain. It comprises the solar telescope GREGOR and the vacuum tower telescope VTT mounted on two 30 m high towers. Between the two towers at the level of the telescopes, Cn2 was measured using a Laser-Scintillometer SLS40 (Scintec, Rottenburg, Germany). The horizontal distance of the measurement path was 75 m. The first results of the measurements starting from the 15th September 2012 up to the end of December 2012 are presented and analyzed using simultaneous measured meteorological data of wind, temperature and humidity. Daily and seasonal variations are shown and discussed.

  2. How to Implement JITT - Just In Time Teaching?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Carolina; Hay, Katrina

    2010-03-01

    Reforms in education and the desire to improve the quality of learning were the incentive to search for more efficient teaching strategies [1]. Here is presented Just In Time Teaching, JITT, which is an exciting methodology [2] intended to engage students by using feedback from pre-class web assignments. In this process the students are more in control of the learning process and they become more active and interested learners. Even though some examples from physics are presented, this method can be successfully implemented in almost all the fields. The implementation of this method at SUNY Oswego, and Pacific Lutheran University is discussed. [4pt] [1]John D. Bransford, Ann L. Brown, and Rodney R. Cocking - editors, How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School, Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning; National Research Council; National Academy Press 1999[0pt] [2] Gregor M. Novak, Evelyn T. Patterson, Andrew D. Gavrin and Wolfgang Christian, Just in Time Teaching -- Blending Active Learning with Web Technology, Prentice Hall Series in Educational Innovation, 1999.

  3. Coincidental intraguild predation by caterpillars on spider mites.

    PubMed

    Shirotsuka, Kanako; Yano, Shuichi

    2012-01-29

    Intraguild predation (IGP) is defined as the killing and eating of prey species by a predator that also can utilize the resources of the prey. It is mainly reported among carnivores that share common herbivorous prey. However, a large chewing herbivore could prey upon sedentary and/or micro herbivores in addition to utilizing a host plant. To investigate such coincidental IGP, we observed the behavioral responses of the polyphagous mite Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae) when its host plant Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnep. (Vitaceae) was attacked by hornworms, Theretra japonica Boisduval (Sphingidae) and T. oldenlandiae Fabricius (Sphingidae). We also examined an interaction between the oligophagous mite Panonychus citri McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae) and caterpillars of the swallowtail Papilio xuthus L. (Papilionidae) that share citrus plants as their main food source. Although all T. kanzawai and some active stage P. citri tried to escape from the coincidental IGP, some were consumed together with eggs, quiescent mites, and host plant leaves, suggesting that coincidental IGP occurs on spider mites in the wild. Moreover, neither hornworms nor swallowtail caterpillars distinguished between spider mite-infested and uninfested leaves, suggesting that the mite-infested leaves do not discourage caterpillar feeding. The reasons that the mites have no effective defense against coincidental IGP other than escaping are discussed.

  4. DNA barcoding as a screening tool for cryptic diversity: an example from Caryocolum, with description of a new species (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huemer, Peter; Karsholt, Ole; Mutanen, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We explore the potential value of DNA barcode divergence for species delimitation in the genus Caryocolum Gregor & Povolný, 1954 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae), based on data from 44 European species (including 4 subspecies). Low intraspecific divergence of the DNA barcodes of the mtCOI (cytochrome c oxidase 1) gene and/or distinct barcode gaps to the nearest neighbor support species status for all examined nominal taxa. However, in 8 taxa we observed deep splits with a maximum intraspecific barcode divergence beyond a threshold of 3%, thus indicating possible cryptic diversity. The taxonomy of these taxa has to be re-assessed in the future. We investigated one such deep split in Caryocolum amaurella (Hering, 1924) and found it in congruence with yet unrecognized diagnostic morphological characters and specific host-plants. The integrative species delineation leads to the description of Caryocolum crypticum sp. n. from northern Italy, Switzerland and Greece. The new species and the hitherto intermixed closest relative C. amaurella are described in detail and adults and genitalia of both species are illustrated and a lectotype of C. amaurella is designated; a diagnostic comparison of the closely related C. iranicum Huemer, 1989, is added. PMID:24843272

  5. Origin of melt pockets in mantle xenoliths from southern Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliani, Paola; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Bjerg, Ernesto

    2009-12-01

    Peridotite mantle xenoliths collected north of Gobernador Gregores, Patagonia, affected by cryptic and modal metasomatism bear melt pockets of unusually large size. Melt pockets consist of second generation olivine (ol2), clinopyroxene (cpx2) and spinel (sp2) ± relict amphibole (amph) immersed in a yellowish vesicular glass matrix. Amphibole breakdown was responsible for melt pocket generation as suggested by textural evidence and proved by consistent mass-balance calculations: amph → cpx2 + ol2 + sp2 + melt. Composition of calculated amphibole in amphibole-free melt pockets is very similar to that measured in amphibole-bearing melt pockets from the same xenolith, i.e. amphibole was consumed in the melt pocket generation process. In melt pockets devoid of relict amphibole, mass-balance calculations show remarkable differences between the calculated amphibole and the measured amphibole compositions in melt pockets from the same xenolith. The participation of minor proportions of a consumed reactant phase could be a reasonable explanation. In some samples the calculated phase proportion of glass is in excess compared to modal estimations based on backscattered electron images, probably because a portion of the generated melt was able to migrate out of the melt pockets. Compositional inhomogeneity of cpx2 and variable Ti Kd in cpx2 vs. glass in the same melt pocket reflect fast nucleation and growth and disequilibrium crystallisation, respectively. This and the difference between forsterite content in calculated equilibrium olivine and second generation olivine, suggest that mineral equilibrium was inhibited by rapid quenching of melt pockets.

  6. Distribution of Amblydromalus limonicus in northeastern Spain and diversity of phytoseiid mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) in tomato and other vegetable crops after its introduction.

    PubMed

    Chorąży, Alicja; Kropczyńska-Linkiewicz, Danuta; Sas, Daniel; Escudero-Colomar, Lucia-Adriana

    2016-08-01

    Amblydromalus limonicus (Garman and McGregor) was detected for the first time in 2011 on tomatoes of several locations of the northeastern Spain. During 2012 and 2013 samplings on tomato crop cultivars in the two provinces of Catalonia where the species was found were carried out. The goals of the study were to know the range of spread of the species in these two provinces, its abundance in tomato cultivars, non-crop vegetation among them, in the different parts of the tomato plant and in some other vegetable crops. Results showed that A. limonicus was present at both regions sampled, although there were significant differences in the abundance of the species between sampling points. It is the second in abundance in tomato and the cultivars that most frequently host A. limonicus were Anaidis, Hybrid and Marmande. No significant differences were found in the abundance of A. limonicus among tomato plant canopy strata. On average, it accounted for 31.6 % of all sampled phytoseiids. It was present in four crops (tomato, bean, cucumber and strawberry) and in Amaranthus cruentus, Chenopodium polyspermum, Cynodon dactylon, Mentha sp., Parietaria officinalis and Phleum pratense. Amblydromalus limonicus is well established in the extreme northeast of Spain all year round in crops and non-crops. PMID:27193216

  7. Spin-down Dynamics of Magnetized Solar-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oglethorpe, R. L. F.; Garaud, P.

    2013-12-01

    It has long been known that solar-type stars undergo significant spin-down, via magnetic braking, during their main-sequence lifetimes. However, magnetic braking only operates on the surface layers; it is not yet completely understood how angular momentum is transported within the star and how rapidly the spin-down information is communicated to the deep interior. In this work, we use insight from recent progress in understanding internal solar dynamics to model the interior of other solar-type stars. We assume, following Gough & McIntyre, that the bulk of the radiation zone of these stars is held in uniform rotation by the presence of an embedded large-scale primordial field, confined below a stably stratified, magnetic-free tachocline by large-scale meridional flows downwelling from the convection zone. We derive simple equations to describe the response of this model interior to spin-down of the surface layers, which are identical to the two-zone model of MacGregor & Brenner, with a coupling timescale proportional to the local Eddington-Sweet timescale across the tachocline. This timescale depends both on the rotation rate of the star and on the thickness of the tachocline, and it can vary from a few hundred thousand years to a few Gyr, depending on stellar properties. Qualitative predictions of the model appear to be consistent with observations, although they depend sensitively on the assumed functional dependence of the tachocline thickness on the stellar rotation rate.

  8. [Populational dynamics of mites (Acari) in the mate-tea tree (Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil.: Aquifoliaceae)].

    PubMed

    de Gouvea, Alfredo; Boaretto, Luiz C; Zanella, Carla F; Alves, Luis F A

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research was to analyze the populational dynamic of the phytophagous mites, as well as that of their natural predators in the plants Ilex paraguariensis St. Hil. (Aquifoliaceae). This study was conduced in Dois Vizinhos, State of Paraná, from August 2001 to July 2002. Leaf samples from different parts of the plant were taken and the number of mites was registered. During this period, two species of phytophagous mites, Dichopelmus notus Keifer, and Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor), and three species of predator mites identified as Euseius concordis (Chant), Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, and Agistemus sp. were related to the mate-tea plant. Large numbers of D. notus appeared on mature leaves and on the inferior face of leaves. The mite was more frequent in the inferior and medium strata. O. yothersi occurred mainly on mature leaves. The concentration of E. concordis e I. zuluagai was higher on the inferior face of the leaves, and on the leaves of inferior and medium strata, as well as in the internal canopy region, and on mature leaves. The highest numbers of D. notus, O. yothersi, E. concordis and I. zuluagai occurred in periods with mild temperatures and little rain precipitation. The largest population density of Agistemus sp. occurred on the inferior face of the leaves, more often in periods of high temperature and heavy rain.

  9. Panonychus from Georgia: survey, taxonomical status and redescription of P. hadzhibejliae (Reck, 1947) (Acari, Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Arabuli, Tea; Çobanoglu, Sultan; Auger, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    A survey of Panonychus species was undertaken across Georgia from 2005 to 2014 on various host plants, revealing three species: Panonychus citri (McGregor, 1916), Panonychus hadzhibejliae (Reck, 1947) and Panonychus ulmi (Koch, 1836). New hosts for P. ulmi and P. citri are recorded, Buxus sempervirens, Hedera colchica and Prunus laurocerasus for P. ulmi and Ficus carica for P. citri, whereas P. hadzhibejliae was only found on F. carica. The newly collected material also allowed us to investigate the taxonomical status of P. hadzhibejliae. The comparison of P. hadzhibejliae with the two closely related species sampled in the survey, P. ulmi and P. citri, and with data of P. caricae found in the literature, shows that P. hadzhibejliae is a valid species. It can be separated from the three other Panonychus species without ambiguity especially using the female dorsal setae length in combination with the ratio between the length of the female dorsal opisthosomal f2 and h1 setae and the ratio between the palptarsal terminal eupathidium su and the related solenidion ω. A redescription of P. hadzhibejliae is provided including the male and some morphological characters, measurements and drawings of the female that were omitted in the original description. A key to the world species of Panonychus is also proposed. PMID:27395141

  10. Hybrids, pure cultures, and pure lines: from nineteenth-century biology to twentieth-century genetics.

    PubMed

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2007-12-01

    Prompted by recent recognitions of the omnipresence of horizontal gene transfer among microbial species and the associated emphasis on exchange, rather than isolation, as the driving force of evolution, this essay will reflect on hybridization as one of the central concerns of nineteenth-century biology. I will argue that an emphasis on horizontal exchange was already endorsed by 'biology' when it came into being around 1800 and was brought to full fruition with the emergence of genetics in 1900. The true revolution in nineteenth-century life sciences, I maintain, consisted in a fundamental shift in ontology, which eroded the boundaries between individual and species, and allowed biologists to move up and down the scale of organic complexity. Life became a property extending both 'downwards', to the parts that organisms were composed of, as well as 'upwards', to the collective entities constituted by the relations of exchange and interaction that organisms engage in to reproduce. This mode of thinking was crystallized by Gregor Mendel and consolidated in the late nineteenth-century conjunction of biochemistry, microbiology and breeding in agro-industrial settings. This conjunction and its implications are especially exemplified by Wilhelm Johannsen's and Martinus Beijerinck's work on pure lines and cultures. An understanding of the subsequent constraints imposed by the evolutionary synthesis of the twentieth century on models of genetic systems may require us to rethink the history of biology and displace Darwin's theory of natural selection from that history's centre. PMID:18053934

  11. Multiple forms of the human gene-specific transcription factor USF. II. DNA binding properties and transcriptional activity of the purified HeLa USF.

    PubMed

    Sawadogo, M

    1988-08-25

    The gene-specific upstream stimulatory transcription factor (USF) is required for maximal expression of the adenovirus major late promoter in vivo as well as in vitro. We have examined the DNA binding and transcriptional properties of USF purified to near-homogeneity from HeLa cell nuclei (Sawadogo, M., Van Dyke, M. W., Gregor, P. D., and Roeder, R. G. (1988) J. Biol. Chem. 263, 11985-11993). The 44-and 43,000-dalton forms of USF displayed identical affinities for the major late promoter upstream sequence. Specific binding parameters were greatly influenced by neighboring sequences, but not by the topological state of the DNA. The dissociation rate was highly dependent upon the concentration of competitor DNA, indicating that USF can efficiently transfer from one binding site to another by passing through a doubly bound intermediate state (direct transfer mechanism). Transcription stimulation by purified USF showed titration curves identical to those observed with cruder preparations of the transcription factor. However, the overall stimulation observed at saturating USF concentration was significantly lower with the purified protein. By contrast, interaction with TATA box-binding RNA polymerase II transcription factor D was observed with both USF-containing fractions. This could suggest the existence of two different mechanisms for upstream sequence-dependent transcription stimulation, where one critical component (or some necessary modification of the upstream factor itself) may be missing in reactions reconstituted with purified USF.

  12. Against UNESCO: Gedda, Gini and American scientific racism.

    PubMed

    Cassata, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on the ideological, institutional and intellectual connections between Italian eugenics and American scientific racism, from 1953 to 1967. The paper pays special attention to the scientific links between fascist demographer Corrado Gini (the first president of the Italian Central Statistical Institute - Istat), and geneticist Luigi Gedda (the president of the Gregor Mendel Institute in Rome and head of the Catholic political association Azione Cattolica) on the one hand, and on the other, the members of the IAAEE (International Association for the Advancement of Ethnology and Eugenics) and their journal, "The Mankind Quarterly". Corrado Gini and Luigi Gedda were both members of the honorary advisory board of "The Mankind Quarterly", and Gini was also assistant editor in 1962. Despite the theoretical differences between the "neo-Lamarckians" Gini and Gedda, and the "Mendelians" Robert Gayre and Reginald Ruggles Gates--editor and associate editor of "The Mankind Quarterly"--the relationship grew stronger because of a sort of strategic alliance in the ideological fight against UNESCO's Statements on Race. The main source of the paper is Corrado Gini's personal archive, deposited in Rome at the National State Archive (ACS).

  13. COSMIC INHERITANCE RULES: IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE AND SCIENCE1

    PubMed Central

    Halberg, F.; Cornélissen, G.; Katinas, G. S.; Watanabe, Y.; Siegelová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Countering the trend in specialization, we advocate the trans-disciplinary monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate for signatures of environmental cyclic and other variabilities in space as well as terrestrial weather on the one hand, and for surveillance of personal and societal health on the other hand. New rules (if confirmed novel laws) emerge as we recognize our inheritance from the cosmos of cycles that constitute and characterize life and align them with inheritance from parents. In so doing, we happen to follow the endeavors of Gregor Mendel, who recognized the segregation and independent assortment of what became known as genes. Circadians, rhythms with periods, τ, between 20 and 28 hours, and cycles with frequencies that are higher (ultradian) or lower (infradian) than circadian, are genetically anchored. An accumulating long list of very important but aeolian (nonstationary) infradian cycles, characterizing the incidence patterns of sudden cardiac death, suicide and terrorism, with drastically different τs, constitutes the nonphotic (corpuscular emission from the sun, heliogeomagnetics, ultraviolet flux, gravitation) Cornélissen-series. PMID:21603087

  14. (Semi)volatile organic compounds and microbiological entities in snow during OASIS Barrow 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariya, P.; Kos, G.

    2009-12-01

    Gregor Kos (1), Nafissa Adechina (2), Dwayne Lutchmann (2) , Roya Mortazavi, and Parisa Ariya* (1), (2) (1) McGill University, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2K6, Canada (2) McGill University, Department of Chemistry, 801 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2K6, Canada an active medium for the deposition of (semi-)volatile (bio)organic compounds. We collected surface snow samples during the OASIS Barrow campaign in March 2009 for analysis of semi-volatile organic compounds using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (SPME-GC/MS). Additioal gab samples were taken for analysis of non-methane hydrocarbons in air. More over, we analyzed for microbial species in air and snow. Identifed organic compounds covered a wide range of functionalities andmolecular weigts, including oxygenated reactive speces such as aldehydes (e.g., hexanal to decanal), alcohols (e.g., hexanol, octanol) and aromatic species (e.g., methyl- and ethylbenzenes). Quantification data for selected aromatic species are presented with concentrations in the upper ng/L range. We will present our preliminary data on microbiological species, and will discuss the potential mplications of the results for organic snow chemistry.

  15. Larval Cryptothelea gloverii (Lepidoptera: Psychidae), an arthropod predator and herbivore on Florida citrus.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Raul T; Rodrigues, Jose C V; Childers, Carl C

    2005-01-01

    The orange bagworm (OBW), Cryptothelea gloverii (Packard) (Lepidoptera: Psychidae) was previously reported feeding on citrus fruit and foliage and preying upon the camphor scale Pseudaonidia duplex (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Coccidae). In this study using laboratory assays, OBW preyed upon citrus rust mite, Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) (Acari: Eriophyidae) and consumed eggs and adults of both P. oleivora and Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), two important pest mites on Florida citrus. OBW was also observed to feed on the purple scale, Lepidosaphes beckii (Newman) (Homoptera: Diaspididae) and on a fungus (Penicillium sp.). OBW fed on orange and grapefruit leaves by starting from the border and eating part of the leaf, by chewing holes, or consuming the outer epithelium of either the axial or abaxial surface of the leaf without penetrating through the leaf. OBW was observed in orange orchards in association with fruit extensively russeted by P. oleivora feeding. Laboratory assays revealed that OBW larvae preferred to feed on oranges infested with P. oleivora rather than on clean fruits that were free of mite feeding damage. Feeding damage to citrus fruit by OBW larvae results in one to several holes being eaten into the rind or albedo, without damage to the fruit sacs. PMID:16082926

  16. The Development of Genetics in the Light of Thomas Kuhn's Theory of Scientific Revolutions.

    PubMed

    Portin, Petter

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a paradigm is in the key position in Thomas Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions. A paradigm is the framework within which the results, concepts, hypotheses and theories of scientific research work are understood. According to Kuhn, a paradigm guides the working and efforts of scientists during the time period which he calls the period of normal science. Before long, however, normal science leads to unexplained matters, a situation that then leads the development of the scientific discipline in question to a paradigm shift--a scientific revolution. When a new theory is born, it has either gradually emerged as an extension of the past theory, or the old theory has become a borderline case in the new theory. In the former case, one can speak of a paradigm extension. According to the present author, the development of modern genetics has, until very recent years, been guided by a single paradigm, the Mendelian paradigm which Gregor Mendel launched 150 years ago, and under the guidance of this paradigm the development of genetics has proceeded in a normal fashion in the spirit of logical positivism. Modern discoveries in genetics have, however, created a situation which seems to be leading toward a paradigm shift. The most significant of these discoveries are the findings of adaptive mutations, the phenomenon of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, and, above all, the present deeply critical state of the concept of the gene. PMID:26392355

  17. Fanniidae (Diptera): new synonym, new records and an updated key to males of European species of Fannia

    PubMed Central

    Barták, Miroslav; Preisler, Jiří; Kubík, Štěpán; Šuláková, Hana; Sloup, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Based on revision of large recent collections of the authors, the following five species are first recorded from the Czech Republic: Fannia collini d’Assis-Fonseca, 1966 (simultaneously first record in Central Europe), Fannia lugubrina (Zetterstedt, 1838), Fannia melania (Dufour, 1839), Fannia slovaca Gregor & Rozkošný, 2005, and Fannia brinae Albuquerque, 1951 (simultaneously first record from low altitudes). Another species, Fannia alpina Pont, 1970, is first recorded from Slovak Republic, and Fannia cothurnata (Loew, 1873) is first recorded from Kazakhstan. An updated key to males of European species of Fannia is presented. A list of Czech and Slovak Fanniidae is appended. One new synonym is established: Fannia lucida Chillcott, 1961 is considered junior synonym of Fannia norvegica Ringdahl, 1934. Altogether two species are first recorded from Bohemia [Fannia cothurnata (Loew, 1873) and Fannia vespertilionis Ringdahl, 1934] and three for Moravia [Fannia alpina Pont, 1970, Fannia conspecta Rudzinski, 2003, and Fannia limbata (Tiensuu, 1938) – this species considered in Central Europe very rare was found in numbers near waters both running and standing in early spring under unusually warm temperature conditions]. PMID:27408553

  18. Mendel's genes: toward a full molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Reid, James B; Ross, John J

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of classical genetics is founded on the hereditary behavior of the seven genes studied by Gregor Mendel. The advent of molecular techniques has unveiled much about the identity of these genes. To date, four genes have been sequenced: A (flower color), LE (stem length), I (cotyledon color), and R (seed shape). Two of the other three genes, GP (pod color) and FA (fasciation), are amenable to candidate gene approaches on the basis of their function, linkage relationships, and synteny between the pea and Medicago genomes. However, even the gene (locus) identity is not known for certain for the seventh character, the pod form, although it is probably V. While the nature of the mutations used by Mendel cannot be determined with certainty, on the basis of the varieties available in Europe in the 1850s, we can speculate on their nature. It turns out that these mutations are attributable to a range of causes-from simple base substitutions and changes to splice sites to the insertion of a transposon-like element. These findings provide a fascinating connection between Mendelian genetics and molecular biology that can be used very effectively in teaching new generations of geneticists. Mendel's characters also provide novel insights into the nature of the genes responsible for characteristics of agronomic and consumer importance.

  19. Spin-down dynamics of magnetized solar-type stars

    SciTech Connect

    Oglethorpe, R. L. F.; Garaud, P.

    2013-12-01

    It has long been known that solar-type stars undergo significant spin-down, via magnetic braking, during their main-sequence lifetimes. However, magnetic braking only operates on the surface layers; it is not yet completely understood how angular momentum is transported within the star and how rapidly the spin-down information is communicated to the deep interior. In this work, we use insight from recent progress in understanding internal solar dynamics to model the interior of other solar-type stars. We assume, following Gough and McIntyre, that the bulk of the radiation zone of these stars is held in uniform rotation by the presence of an embedded large-scale primordial field, confined below a stably stratified, magnetic-free tachocline by large-scale meridional flows downwelling from the convection zone. We derive simple equations to describe the response of this model interior to spin-down of the surface layers, which are identical to the two-zone model of MacGregor and Brenner, with a coupling timescale proportional to the local Eddington-Sweet timescale across the tachocline. This timescale depends both on the rotation rate of the star and on the thickness of the tachocline, and it can vary from a few hundred thousand years to a few Gyr, depending on stellar properties. Qualitative predictions of the model appear to be consistent with observations, although they depend sensitively on the assumed functional dependence of the tachocline thickness on the stellar rotation rate.

  20. TRANSFORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  1. Modelling avian biodiversity using raw, unclassified satellite imagery.

    PubMed

    St-Louis, Véronique; Pidgeon, Anna M; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Sonnenschein, Ruth; Radeloff, Volker C; Clayton, Murray K; Locke, Brian A; Bash, Dallas; Hostert, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Applications of remote sensing for biodiversity conservation typically rely on image classifications that do not capture variability within coarse land cover classes. Here, we compare two measures derived from unclassified remotely sensed data, a measure of habitat heterogeneity and a measure of habitat composition, for explaining bird species richness and the spatial distribution of 10 species in a semi-arid landscape of New Mexico. We surveyed bird abundance from 1996 to 1998 at 42 plots located in the McGregor Range of Fort Bliss Army Reserve. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values of two May 1997 Landsat scenes were the basis for among-pixel habitat heterogeneity (image texture), and we used the raw imagery to decompose each pixel into different habitat components (spectral mixture analysis). We used model averaging to relate measures of avian biodiversity to measures of image texture and spectral mixture analysis fractions. Measures of habitat heterogeneity, particularly angular second moment and standard deviation, provide higher explanatory power for bird species richness and the abundance of most species than measures of habitat composition. Using image texture, alone or in combination with other classified imagery-based approaches, for monitoring statuses and trends in biological diversity can greatly improve conservation efforts and habitat management.

  2. Revision of the Afrotropical Phaeogenini (Ichneumonidae, Ichneumoninae), with description of a new genus and twelve new species

    PubMed Central

    Rousse, Pascal; van Noort, Simon; Diller, E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We revise the 10 genera and 23 species of the tribe Phaeogenini (Ichneumonidae: Ichneumoninae) known to occur in the Afrotropical region. We describe the following 13 new taxa: Kibalus Rousse, van Noort & Diller, gen. n.; K. toro Rousse, van Noort & Diller, sp. n.; K. mubfs Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; Arearia oxymoron Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; Chauvinia nyanga Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; Dicaelotus asantesana Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; D. hoerikwaggoensis Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; D. tablemountainensis Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; Heterischnus mfongosi Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; H. mkomazi Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; Lusius flummox Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; Tycherus amatola Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; and T. nardousberg Rousse & van Noort, sp. n. New distribution records: Heterischnus africanus (Heinrich, 1936) from South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda; H. krausi Schönitzer, 1999 from Rwanda; Lusius tenuissimus (Heinrich, 1938) from Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Nigeria, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. A doubtful record of Aethecerus foveolatus Gregor, 1940 from Sao Tome is additionaly reported in the appendix. We provide illustrated diagnoses and identification notes. Online interactive dichotomous and matrix Lucid keys to genera and species are available at http://www.waspweb.org. PMID:24294101

  3. Mendelian controversies: a botanical and historical review.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, D J; Rytting, B

    2001-05-01

    Gregor Mendel was a 19(th) century priest and botanist who developed the fundamental laws of inheritance. The year 2000 marked a century since the rediscovery of those laws and the beginning of genetics. Although Mendel is now recognized as the founder of genetics, significant controversy ensued about his work throughout the 20(th) century. In this paper, we review five of the most contentious issues by looking at the historical record through the lens of current botanical science: (1) Are Mendel's data too good to be true? (2) Is Mendel's description of his experiments fictitious? (3) Did Mendel articulate the laws of inheritance attributed to him? (4) Did Mendel detect but not mention linkage? (5) Did Mendel support or oppose Darwin?A synthesis of botanical and historical evidence supports our conclusions: Mendel did not fabricate his data, his description of his experiments is literal, he articulated the laws of inheritance attributed to him insofar as was possible given the information he had, he did not detect linkage, and he neither strongly supported nor opposed Darwin.

  4. 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii', a novel basal group rickettsia detected in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hajduskova, Eva; Literak, Ivan; Papousek, Ivo; Costa, Francisco B; Novakova, Marketa; Labruna, Marcelo B; Zdrazilova-Dubska, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    A novel rickettsial sequence in the citrate synthase gltA gene indicating a novel Rickettsia species has been detected in 7 out of 4524 Ixodes ricinus ticks examined within several surveys performed in the Czech Republic from 2005 to 2009. This new Candidatus Rickettsia sp. sequence has been found in 2 nymphs feeding on wild birds (Luscinia megarhynchos and Erithacus rubecula), in a male tick from vegetation, and 4 ticks feeding on a dog (3 males, 1 female tick). Portions of the ompA, ompB, sca4, and htrA genes were not amplifiable in these samples. A maximum likelihood tree of rickettsiae based on comparisons of partial amino acid sequences of citrate synthase and nucleotide sequences of 16S rDNA genes and phylogenetic analysis revealed a basal position of the novel species in the proximity of R. bellii and R. canadensis. The novel species has been named 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii' after the founder of genetics, Gregor Mendel.

  5. From Mendel to epigenetics: History of genetics.

    PubMed

    Gayon, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The origins of genetics are to be found in Gregor Mendel's memoir on plant hybridization (1865). However, the word 'genetics' was only coined in 1906, to designate the new science of heredity. Founded upon the Mendelian method for analyzing the products of crosses, this science is distinguished by its explicit purpose of being a general 'science of heredity', and by the introduction of totally new biological concepts (in particular those of gene, genotype, and phenotype). In the 1910s, Mendelian genetics fused with the chromosomal theory of inheritance, giving rise to what is still called 'classical genetics'. Within this framework, the gene is simultaneously a unit of function and transmission, a unit of recombination, and of mutation. Until the early 1950s, these concepts of the gene coincided. But when DNA was found to be the material basis of inheritance, this congruence dissolved. Then began the venture of molecular biology, which has never stopped revealing the complexity of the way in which hereditary material functions.

  6. Description of Pseudomonas gregormendelii sp. nov., a Novel Psychrotrophic Bacterium from James Ross Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kosina, Marcel; Švec, Pavel; Černohlávková, Jitka; Barták, Miloš; Snopková, Kateřina; De Vos, Paul; Sedláček, Ivo

    2016-07-01

    During the microbiological research performed within the scope of activities of Czech expeditions based at the Johann Gregor Mendel Station at James Ross Island, Antarctica, two psychrotrophic gram-stain negative non-fluorescent strains CCM 8506T and CCM 8507 from soil were extensively characterized using genotypic and phenotypic methods. Initial characterization using ribotyping with HindIII restriction endonuclease and phenotyping implies that both isolates belong to a single Pseudomonas species. Sequencing of rrs, rpoB, rpoD and glnA genes of strain CCM 8506(T) confirmed affiliation of investigated strains within the genus Pseudomonas. Further investigation using automated ribotyping with EcoRI (RiboPrinter(®) Microbial Characterisation System), whole-cell protein profiling using the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer system, extensive biochemical testing and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that both investigated strains are members of a single taxon which is clearly separated from all hitherto described Pseudomonas spp. Based on all findings, we describe a novel species Pseudomonas gregormendelii sp. nov. with the type strain CCM 8506(T) (=LMG 28632T).

  7. Interview with Heribert Hirt.

    PubMed

    Hirt, Heribert

    2016-01-01

    As a son of an engineer who traveled widely during his career, Heribert Hirt began his life in the exotic country of Iran, before receiving his high-school education in Germany and then studying biochemistry at the University of Cape Town and then later at the University of Vienna, from where he received his PhD in 1987. He then worked as a postdoctoral fellow in Vienna, Oxford, and Wageningen, before starting his own group at the University of Vienna in 1993. It was also in Vienna that he became professor of genetics in 1997, followed by vice-director of the Gregor Mendel Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, and later head of the Plant Molecular Biology Department of the University of Vienna. In 2007, he decided that it was time for new challenges and accepted an appointment in France to direct the Paris-based INRA-CNRS Plant Genomics Institute for the following 7 years. In 2014, Heribert embarked on yet another challenge by accepting the role to head up the Center for Desert Agriculture at King Abdullah University of Sciences and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia.

  8. Evolution of genetic techniques: past, present, and beyond.

    PubMed

    Durmaz, Asude Alpman; Karaca, Emin; Demkow, Urszula; Toruner, Gokce; Schoumans, Jacqueline; Cogulu, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    Genetics is the study of heredity, which means the study of genes and factors related to all aspects of genes. The scientific history of genetics began with the works of Gregor Mendel in the mid-19th century. Prior to Mendel, genetics was primarily theoretical whilst, after Mendel, the science of genetics was broadened to include experimental genetics. Developments in all fields of genetics and genetic technology in the first half of the 20th century provided a basis for the later developments. In the second half of the 20th century, the molecular background of genetics has become more understandable. Rapid technological advancements, followed by the completion of Human Genome Project, have contributed a great deal to the knowledge of genetic factors and their impact on human life and diseases. Currently, more than 1800 disease genes have been identified, more than 2000 genetic tests have become available, and in conjunction with this at least 350 biotechnology-based products have been released onto the market. Novel technologies, particularly next generation sequencing, have dramatically accelerated the pace of biological research, while at the same time increasing expectations. In this paper, a brief summary of genetic history with short explanations of most popular genetic techniques is given.

  9. Rice artificial hybridization for genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Sha, Xueyan

    2013-01-01

    Artificial hybridization has probably been practiced since ancient time; however, the science of genetics did not initiate until Gregor Mendel conducted a series of crosses between different pure lines of garden pea and made careful observations and systematical analyses of their offspring. Artificial hybridization or crossing between carefully chosen parents has been and still is the primary way to transfer genes from different germplasm for self-pollinated rice. Through gene recombination, novel genetic variation is created by different arrangements of genes existing in parental lines. Procedures of artificial hybridization involve the selection of appropriate panicles from representative plants of the female parents, the emasculation of female parents, and the pollination of emasculated panicles with abundant pollens of selected male parents. Of the numerous proposed methods, hot water and vacuum emasculation have proven to be the most robust and reliable ones. A successful and efficient hybridization program also relies on the knowledge of parental lines or germplasm, the reproductive biology and development of rice, the conditions needed to promote flowering and seed development, and the techniques to synchronize flowering of diverse parents.

  10. Conditional mutations in Drosophila melanogaster: On the occasion of the 150th anniversary of G. Mendel's report in Brünn.

    PubMed

    Chadov, Boris F; Fedorova, Nina B; Chadova, Eugenia V

    2015-01-01

    The basis for modern genetics was laid by Gregor Mendel. He proposed that traits belonging to the intraspecific variability class be studied. However, individuals of one species possess traits of another class. They are related to intraspecific similarity. Individuals never differ from each other in these traits. By analogy with traits varying within a species and determined by genes, it is conjectured that intraspecific similarity is determined by genes, too. If so, mutations in these genes can be obtained. This paper provides a review of works published in 2000-2014 that: (1) propose breeding methods for detection of mutations in Drosophila melanogaster genes that lead intraspecific similarity; these mutations were called conditional; (2) describe collections of conditional mutations in chromosomes X, 2, and 3 of Drosophila; (3) show unusual features of epigenetic nature in the mutants; and (4) analyze these features of the mutants. Based on the peculiarities of manifestation it is supposed that the recognized conditional mutations occur in genes responsible for intraspecific similarity. The genes presumably belong to the so-called regulatory network of the Drosophila genome. This approach expands the scope of breeding analysis introduced by G. Mendel for heredity studies 150 years ago.

  11. Diurnal Temperature Variations Affect Development of a Herbivorous Arthropod Pest and its Predators

    PubMed Central

    Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Audenaert, Joachim; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Verhoeven, Ruth; Gobin, Bruno; Tirry, Luc; De Clercq, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The impact of daily temperature variations on arthropod life history remains woefully understudied compared to the large body of research that has been carried out on the effects of constant temperatures. However, diurnal varying temperature regimes more commonly represent the environment in which most organisms thrive. Such varying temperature regimes have been demonstrated to substantially affect development and reproduction of ectothermic organisms, generally in accordance with Jensen’s inequality. In the present study we evaluated the impact of temperature alternations at 4 amplitudes (DTR0, +5, +10 and +15°C) on the developmental rate of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and their natural prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). We have modelled their developmental rates as a function of temperature using both linear and nonlinear models. Diurnally alternating temperatures resulted in a faster development in the lower temperature range as compared to their corresponding mean constant temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed in the higher temperature range. Our results indicate that Jensen’s inequality does not suffice to fully explain the differences in developmental rates at constant and alternating temperatures, suggesting additional physiological responses play a role. It is concluded that diurnal temperature range should not be ignored and should be incorporated in predictive models on the phenology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies and their performance in biological control programmes. PMID:25874697

  12. Emphasizing the History of Genetics in an Explicit and Reflective Approach to Teaching the Nature of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Cody Tyler; Rudge, David Wÿss

    2016-05-01

    Science education researchers have long advocated the central role of the nature of science (NOS) for our understanding of scientific literacy. NOS is often interpreted narrowly to refer to a host of epistemological issues associated with the process of science and the limitations of scientific knowledge. Despite its importance, practitioners and researchers alike acknowledge that students have difficulty learning NOS and that this in part reflects how difficult it is to teach. One particularly promising method for teaching NOS involves an explicit and reflective approach using the history of science. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a historically based genetics unit on undergraduates' understanding of NOS. The three-class unit developed for this study introduces students to Mendelian genetics using the story of Gregor Mendel's work. NOS learning objectives were emphasized through discussion questions and investigations. The unit was administered to undergraduates in an introductory biology course for pre-service elementary teachers. The influence of the unit was determined by students' responses to the SUSSI instrument, which was administered pre- and post-intervention. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted that focused on changes in students' responses from pre- to post-test. Data collected indicated that students showed improved NOS understanding related to observations, inferences, and the influence of culture on science.

  13. Interspecific interactions involving Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis (Acari: Stigmaeidae) as predators of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcos Zatti; Sato, Mário Eidi; de Oliveira, Carlos Amadeu Leite; Nicastro, Roberto Lomba

    2015-03-01

    Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) is associated with the transmission of Citrus leprosis which is considered the main viral disease for the Brazilian citrus production. Mites of the families Stigmaeidae and Phytoseiidae coexist in various agricultural crops, often promoting the biological control of pest mites. The aim of this work was to study the interactions of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Stigmaeidae), in the presence or absence of B. phoenicis. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, a N. californicus female was placed in each leaf disc arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and A. brasiliensis as food sources. In the second, an A. brasiliensis female was placed in each arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and N. californicus as food sources. Adults of both predators were able to consume both types of eggs available as food sources, but they fed on considerably higher proportions of B. phoenicis than on eggs of the predator. Eggs of A. brasiliensis were not a suitable food source for N. californicus, which produced only 0.1 egg per female per day when only eggs of that species were present in the experimental unit. The results suggest that eggs of N. californicus were a suitable food source for A. brasiliensis, which oviposited 1.12 eggs per day, when only eggs of N. californicus were provided to the stigmaeid mite. The possible interactions among N. californicus, A. brasiliensis and B. phoenicis in citrus orchards are discussed.

  14. An intergrative factor analysis of leadership measures and theories.

    PubMed

    Sweney, A B; Fiechtner, L A; Samores, R J

    1975-05-01

    Since the instruments for measuring most of the current leadership models have never been reconciled, it is important that the relationships between them be clearly understood before assumptions of similarity are made. A sample of 103 male working students were given a battery of tests measuring leadership orientations. The tests included role preference and role pressure measures from Sweney's Response to Power Model, the California F Scale, Fiedler's Least Preferred Co-Worker Scale and Assumed Similarity Between Opposites Scale, Costley and Downey's six scales to measure McGregor's "Theory X" and "Theory Y" constructs, modified scales for the Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid, and relevant scales from the 16 PF. The results were intercorrelated and yielded 11 varimax factors based upon a Guttman criterion, as follows: Authoritarian Role Preferance, Authoritarian Role Pressure, Equalitarian Role Preferance, Equalitarian Role Pressure, Balanced Manager, People Oriented Manager, Assumed Similarity Between Opposites, Contemptuous Indulgence, Supportive Values, People Tolerance, and Organizational Tolerance. The instruments measuring authoritarianism loaded the first factor in the right direction, but most of them had their primary loadings elsewhere, suggesting greater conceptual complexity to this area than previously recognized.

  15. Effect of the administration of Solanum nigrum fruit on blood glucose, lipid profiles, and sensitivity of the vascular mesenteric bed to phenylephrine in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabipour, Shahla; Kharazmi, Fatemah; Soltani, Nepton; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Background Solanum nigrum fruit is traditionally used in Asia to manage, control, and treat diabetes but there is no scientific evidence of the efficacy of Solanum nigrum fruit in treatment of diabetes. We designed this study to investigate the effect of the administration of oral doses of aqueous extract from Solanum nigrum fruit on plasma glucose, lipid profiles, and the sensitivity of the vascular mesenteric bed to Phenylephrine in diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Material/Methods Animals were divided into 5 groups (n=10): 2 groups served as non-diabetic controls (NDC), and the other groups had diabetes induced with a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ). Solanum nigrum-treated chronic diabetic (CD-SNE) and Solanum nigrum-treated controls (ND-SNE) received 1g/l of Solanum nigrum added to drinking water for 8 weeks. The mesenteric vascular beds were prepared using the McGregor method. Results Administration of Solanum nigrum caused Ca/Mg ratio, plasma glucose, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), total cholesterol, and triglyceride concentrations to return to normal levels, and was shown to decrease alteration in vascular reactivity to vasoconstrictor agents. Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that Solanum nigrum could play a role in the management of diabetes and the prevention of vascular complications in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:23660828

  16. Role of GABAB Receptor and L-Arg in GABA-Induced Vasorelaxation in Non-diabetic and Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rat Vessels

    PubMed Central

    Kharazmi, Fatemah; Soltani, Nepton; Rezaei, Sana; Keshavarz, Mansoor; Farsi, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular mortality in diabetic patients. The present study was designed to determine the role of gamma amino butyric acid B (GABAB) receptor and L-arginine (L-Arg) in GABA-induced vasorelaxation in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat vessels. Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single i.p. injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 60 mg/kg). Eight weeks later, superior mesenteric arteries of all groups were isolated and perfused according to the McGregor method. Results: Baseline perfusion pressure of STZ diabetic rats was significantly higher than non-diabetic rats in both intact and denuded endothelium. In the presence of faclofen, a selective GABAB receptor blocker, GABA-induced relaxation in intact and denuded endothelium mesenteric beds of STZ diabetic rats was suppressed, but this response in non-diabetic rats was not suppressed. Our results showed that in the presence of L-Arg, a nitric oxide precursor, GABA induced vasorelaxation in both diabetic and non-diabetic vessels. Conclusion: From the results of this study, it may be concluded that the vasorelaxatory effect of GABA in diabetic vessel is mediated by the GABAB receptor and nitric oxide, but it seems that in non-diabetic vessel GABAB receptor does not play any role in GABA-induced vasorelaxation, but nitric oxide induced GABA relaxation in non-diabetic vessel. PMID:25864813

  17. Interspecific interactions involving Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis (Acari: Stigmaeidae) as predators of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcos Zatti; Sato, Mário Eidi; de Oliveira, Carlos Amadeu Leite; Nicastro, Roberto Lomba

    2015-03-01

    Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) is associated with the transmission of Citrus leprosis which is considered the main viral disease for the Brazilian citrus production. Mites of the families Stigmaeidae and Phytoseiidae coexist in various agricultural crops, often promoting the biological control of pest mites. The aim of this work was to study the interactions of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Stigmaeidae), in the presence or absence of B. phoenicis. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, a N. californicus female was placed in each leaf disc arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and A. brasiliensis as food sources. In the second, an A. brasiliensis female was placed in each arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and N. californicus as food sources. Adults of both predators were able to consume both types of eggs available as food sources, but they fed on considerably higher proportions of B. phoenicis than on eggs of the predator. Eggs of A. brasiliensis were not a suitable food source for N. californicus, which produced only 0.1 egg per female per day when only eggs of that species were present in the experimental unit. The results suggest that eggs of N. californicus were a suitable food source for A. brasiliensis, which oviposited 1.12 eggs per day, when only eggs of N. californicus were provided to the stigmaeid mite. The possible interactions among N. californicus, A. brasiliensis and B. phoenicis in citrus orchards are discussed. PMID:25524512

  18. Mites occurrence on Pachira aquatica Aubl. including aspects of external mouthpart morphology of Brachytydeus formosa (Acari: Tydeidae).

    PubMed

    Lorençon, J R; Andrade, S C; Andrade, D J

    2016-02-01

    Pachira aquatica Aubl. is commonly used as an ornamental plant in urban areas of Brazil. The objective of the study was to investigate the occurrence of mites on P. aquatica, with emphasis on Brachytydeus formosa (Cooreman), and to describe aspects the external features of its mouthpart. The study was conducted in 2012 in Jaboticabal, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Ten trees of P. aquatica were selected for the experiment. Approximately 130 leaflets were collected from each tree, which were located in different quadrants (north, south, east, and west) and strata (upper, middle, and lower). The leaflets were placed in paper bags and transported to the laboratory. The mites were prepared on optical microscope slides. A total of eleven species of mites were found, belonging to eight different families. The species and genera of the organisms included B. formosa, Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor), Agistemus sp., Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank, 1781), Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes), Brevipalpus sp., Cheletogenes sp., Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, Euseius sp., Neoseiulus sp., and only one specimen from the Bdellidae family. The predominant species was B. formosa, with 8,142 mites equally distributed among the four quadrants and mostly in the middle and upper strata of the plant. B. formosa mites from leaflets of P. aquatica were separated for the study of the external mouthpart morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:26871751

  19. Diurnal temperature variations affect development of a herbivorous arthropod pest and its predators.

    PubMed

    Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Audenaert, Joachim; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Verhoeven, Ruth; Gobin, Bruno; Tirry, Luc; De Clercq, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The impact of daily temperature variations on arthropod life history remains woefully understudied compared to the large body of research that has been carried out on the effects of constant temperatures. However, diurnal varying temperature regimes more commonly represent the environment in which most organisms thrive. Such varying temperature regimes have been demonstrated to substantially affect development and reproduction of ectothermic organisms, generally in accordance with Jensen's inequality. In the present study we evaluated the impact of temperature alternations at 4 amplitudes (DTR0, +5, +10 and +15°C) on the developmental rate of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and their natural prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). We have modelled their developmental rates as a function of temperature using both linear and nonlinear models. Diurnally alternating temperatures resulted in a faster development in the lower temperature range as compared to their corresponding mean constant temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed in the higher temperature range. Our results indicate that Jensen's inequality does not suffice to fully explain the differences in developmental rates at constant and alternating temperatures, suggesting additional physiological responses play a role. It is concluded that diurnal temperature range should not be ignored and should be incorporated in predictive models on the phenology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies and their performance in biological control programmes. PMID:25874697

  20. [Research progress on the cloning of Mendel's gene in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and its application in genetics teaching].

    PubMed

    He, Feng-Hua; Zhu, Bi-Yan; Gao, Feng; Li, Shao-Shan; Li, Niang-Hui

    2013-07-01

    One hundred and fifty years ago, Gregor Mendel investigated the segregation of seven traits in pea (Pisum sativum) and established the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment in genetics. After the two laws of genetics were rediscovered in 1900, the seven traits have been extensively investigated in the fields of plant physiology and biochemistry as well as in the cell and molecular levels. Recently, with the development of molecular technology in genetics, four genes for seed shape (R), stem length (Le), cotyledon colour (I), and flower colour (A) have been cloned and sequenced; and another three genes for immature pod colour (Gp), fasciation (Fa) and pod form (V) have been located in the linkage groups, respectively. The identification and cloning of the four Mendel's genes will help deeply understand the basic concept of gene in many respects: like the diversity of gene function, the different origins for gene mutation in molecular level, and the molecular nature of a dominant gene or a recessive gene. In teaching of genetics, the introduction of most recent research advancements of cloning of Mendel's genes to the students and the interpretation of the Mendel's laws in molecular level will help students promote their learning interests in genetics and help students grasp the whole content from classical genetics to molecular genetics and the developmental direction of this subject.

  1. The Development of Genetics in the Light of Thomas Kuhn's Theory of Scientific Revolutions.

    PubMed

    Portin, Petter

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a paradigm is in the key position in Thomas Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions. A paradigm is the framework within which the results, concepts, hypotheses and theories of scientific research work are understood. According to Kuhn, a paradigm guides the working and efforts of scientists during the time period which he calls the period of normal science. Before long, however, normal science leads to unexplained matters, a situation that then leads the development of the scientific discipline in question to a paradigm shift--a scientific revolution. When a new theory is born, it has either gradually emerged as an extension of the past theory, or the old theory has become a borderline case in the new theory. In the former case, one can speak of a paradigm extension. According to the present author, the development of modern genetics has, until very recent years, been guided by a single paradigm, the Mendelian paradigm which Gregor Mendel launched 150 years ago, and under the guidance of this paradigm the development of genetics has proceeded in a normal fashion in the spirit of logical positivism. Modern discoveries in genetics have, however, created a situation which seems to be leading toward a paradigm shift. The most significant of these discoveries are the findings of adaptive mutations, the phenomenon of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, and, above all, the present deeply critical state of the concept of the gene.

  2. Fanniidae (Diptera): new synonym, new records and an updated key to males of European species of Fannia.

    PubMed

    Barták, Miroslav; Preisler, Jiří; Kubík, Štěpán; Šuláková, Hana; Sloup, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    Based on revision of large recent collections of the authors, the following five species are first recorded from the Czech Republic: Fannia collini d'Assis-Fonseca, 1966 (simultaneously first record in Central Europe), Fannia lugubrina (Zetterstedt, 1838), Fannia melania (Dufour, 1839), Fannia slovaca Gregor & Rozkošný, 2005, and Fannia brinae Albuquerque, 1951 (simultaneously first record from low altitudes). Another species, Fannia alpina Pont, 1970, is first recorded from Slovak Republic, and Fannia cothurnata (Loew, 1873) is first recorded from Kazakhstan. An updated key to males of European species of Fannia is presented. A list of Czech and Slovak Fanniidae is appended. One new synonym is established: Fannia lucida Chillcott, 1961 is considered junior synonym of Fannia norvegica Ringdahl, 1934. Altogether two species are first recorded from Bohemia [Fannia cothurnata (Loew, 1873) and Fannia vespertilionis Ringdahl, 1934] and three for Moravia [Fannia alpina Pont, 1970, Fannia conspecta Rudzinski, 2003, and Fannia limbata (Tiensuu, 1938) - this species considered in Central Europe very rare was found in numbers near waters both running and standing in early spring under unusually warm temperature conditions]. PMID:27408553

  3. Cell Theory, Specificity, and Reproduction, 1837–1870

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    The cell is not only the structural, physiological, and developmental, but also the reproductive unit of life. So far, however, this aspect of the cell has received little attention by historians and philosophers of biology. I will argue that cell theory had far-reaching consequences for how biologists conceptualized the reproductive relationships between germs and adult organisms. Cell theory, as formulated by Theodor Schwann in 1839, implied that this relationship was a specific and lawful one, i.e. that germs of a certain kind, all else being equal, would produce adult organisms of the same kind, and vice versa. Questions of preformation and epigenesis took on a new meaning under this presupposition. The question now was whether cells could be considered as independent agents producing adult organisms of a given species, or whether they were the product of external, organizing forces and thus a stage in the development of the whole organism only. The question was an important one for nineteenth-century biology. As I will demonstrate, it was the view of cells as independent agents which helped both Charles Darwin and Gregor Mendel to think of differential reproduction as a lawful process. PMID:20934643

  4. Spectrum-specific UV egg damage and dispersal responses in the phytoseiid predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Tachi, Fuyuki; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2014-06-01

    Solar ultraviolet-B (UVB) radiation is deleterious to plant-dwelling mites. Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) is a predominant predator of agriculturally important pest species of spider mite. However, phytoseiid mites are more vulnerable to UVB radiation than spider mites. Thus, the UVB radiation may influence decision making in foraging phytoseiid mites whether disperse or not. We tested the difference in impact and behavioral response among wavelengths of monochromatic UV radiation using a spectroscopic light source in N. californicus in the laboratory. We also examined whether the behavioral responses of N. californicus females to UV radiation varied based on the presence of prey (Tetranychus urticae Koch) eggs and residues (webs and excreta of T. urticae: foraging cue). The impact of UV radiation on the N. californicus egg hatchability varied drastically between wavelengths of ≤300 nm (0%) and ≥310 nm (100%). The N. californicus females escaped from UV radiation more quickly when they were irradiated with UV at shorter wavelength. Presence of T. urticae eggs had no effects arresting the escape of phytoseiid mites. In contrast, prey residues (including eggs) markedly detained N. californicus females from escaping under UV irradiation at ≥310 nm. However, N. californicus females quickly escaped when irradiated with UV at harmful 300 nm wavelength, regardless of prey cues. This indicates that the eyeless phytoseiid mite is capable of perceiving UV radiation, and whether escape or not is determined on the basis of harmful/harmless UV wavelength and presence/absence of foraging cues.

  5. Modelling avian biodiversity using raw, unclassified satellite imagery

    PubMed Central

    St-Louis, Véronique; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Sonnenschein, Ruth; Radeloff, Volker C.; Clayton, Murray K.; Locke, Brian A.; Bash, Dallas; Hostert, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Applications of remote sensing for biodiversity conservation typically rely on image classifications that do not capture variability within coarse land cover classes. Here, we compare two measures derived from unclassified remotely sensed data, a measure of habitat heterogeneity and a measure of habitat composition, for explaining bird species richness and the spatial distribution of 10 species in a semi-arid landscape of New Mexico. We surveyed bird abundance from 1996 to 1998 at 42 plots located in the McGregor Range of Fort Bliss Army Reserve. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values of two May 1997 Landsat scenes were the basis for among-pixel habitat heterogeneity (image texture), and we used the raw imagery to decompose each pixel into different habitat components (spectral mixture analysis). We used model averaging to relate measures of avian biodiversity to measures of image texture and spectral mixture analysis fractions. Measures of habitat heterogeneity, particularly angular second moment and standard deviation, provide higher explanatory power for bird species richness and the abundance of most species than measures of habitat composition. Using image texture, alone or in combination with other classified imagery-based approaches, for monitoring statuses and trends in biological diversity can greatly improve conservation efforts and habitat management. PMID:24733952

  6. Ontogenetic shifts in intraguild predation on thrips by phytoseiid mites: the relevance of body size and diet specialization.

    PubMed

    Walzer, A; Paulus, H F; Schausberger, P

    2004-12-01

    In greenhouse agroecosystems, a guild of spider mite predators may consist of the oligophagous predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, the polyphagous predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (both Acari: Phytoseiidae) and the primarily herbivorous but facultatively predatory western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Diet-specialization and the predator body size relative to prey are crucial factors in predation on F. occidentalis by P. persimilis and N. californicus. Here, it was tested whether the relevance of these factors changes during predator ontogeny. First, the predator (protonymphs and adult females of P. persimilis and N. californicus): prey (F. occidentalis first instars) body size ratios were measured. Second, the aggressiveness of P. persimilis and N. californicus towards F. occidentalis was assessed. Third, survival, development and oviposition of P. persimilis and N. californicus with F. occidentalis prey was determined. The body size ranking was P. persimilis females > N. californicus females > P. persimilis protonymphs > N. californicus protonymphs. Neoseiulus californicus females were the most aggressive predators, followed by highly aggressive N. californicus protonymphs and moderately aggressive P. persimilis protonymphs. Phytoseiulus persimilis females did not attack thrips. Frankliniella occidentalis larvae are an alternative prey for juvenile N. californicus and P. persimilis, enabling them to reach adulthood. Females of N. californicus but not P. persimilis sustained egg production with thrips prey. Within the guild studied here, N. californicus females are the most harmful predators for F. occidentalis larvae, followed by N. californicus and P. persimilis juveniles. Phytoseiulus persimilis females are harmless to F. occidentalis.

  7. Development and reproduction of Panonychus citri (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) on different species and varieties of citrus plants.

    PubMed

    Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Bordini, Gabriela Pavan; Franco, Aline Aparecida; de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The species and varieties of citrus plants that are currently grown can favor the population growth of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) and alter the pest management programs in citrus groves. In this study we evaluated, in the laboratory, the development and reproduction of P. citri and estimated its life table parameters when reared on four varieties of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Valencia, Pera, Natal, and Hamlin), one variety of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Ponkan) and one variety of Citrus limon (L.) Burm. (Sicilian). The incubation period and egg viability were not affected by the host plant. However, the development and survival of the immature stage were significantly lower on Hamlin orange than on Valencia, Pera and Natal oranges, Ponkan mandarin and Sicilian lemon. The fecundity and oviposition period of females were lower on Hamlin orange than on the other hosts. Mites reared on Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon had a higher net reproductive rate (R 0 ), intrinsic growth rate (r) and finite rate of increase (λ), and a shorter interval between generations (T) than on Pera, Natal and Hamlin oranges and Ponkan mandarin. On the other hand, mites reared on Hamlin orange had the lowest R 0 , r and λ and the highest T among the hosts. Based on the results obtained we recommend that for Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon, the mite monitoring programs should be more intense to detect the initial infestation of pest, avoiding the damage in plants and the increase in production costs. PMID:26459376

  8. Cell theory, specificity, and reproduction, 1837-1870.

    PubMed

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2010-09-01

    The cell is not only the structural, physiological, and developmental unit of life, but also the reproductive one. So far, however, this aspect of the cell has received little attention from historians and philosophers of biology. I will argue that cell theory had far-reaching consequences for how biologists conceptualized the reproductive relationships between germs and adult organisms. Cell theory, as formulated by Theodor Schwann in 1839, implied that this relationship was a specific and lawful one, that is, that germs of a certain kind, all else being equal, would produce adult organisms of the same kind, and vice versa. Questions of preformation and epigenesis took on a new meaning under this presupposition. The question then became one of whether cells could be considered as autonomous agents producing adult organisms of a given species, or whether they were the product of external, organizing forces and thus only a stage in the development of the whole organism. This question became an important issue for nineteenth-century biology. As I will demonstrate, it was the view of cells as autonomous agents which helped both Charles Darwin and Gregor Mendel to think of inheritance as a lawful process. PMID:20934643

  9. Genetic networks and the flow of positional information in embryonic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialek, William

    When we study a biological system, we make inferences about the underlying mechanisms and dynamics. But biological systems themselves must also solve inference problems, as when our brains draw conclusions about the world given (often quite limited) data from our eyes and ears. My colleagues and I have been exploring both of these inference problems as they play out in the first hours of development in the fruit fly embryo. In this system, the concentrations of particular molecules encode the position of each cell in the embryo, and these concentrations are the outputs of a genetic network. Putting ourselves in the place of the cells, we have been able to read the code, building a dictionary that maps gene expression levels back into estimates of position. If our dictionary really is the one used by the embryo, then mutants should build predictably distorted body plans, and preliminary results show quantitative agreement with these predictions. Independent of their role as carriers of information, we can also analyze the patterns of gene expression to draw inferences about the underlying network. Finally, it is possible that the network architecture and parameters have been chosen to optimize the flow of information, and we see signatures of this optimization. Joint work with CG Callan, JO Dubuis, T Gregor, D Krotov, M Petkova, TR Sokolowski, G Tkacik, AM Walczak, and EF Wieschaus.

  10. Cell theory, specificity, and reproduction, 1837-1870.

    PubMed

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2010-09-01

    The cell is not only the structural, physiological, and developmental unit of life, but also the reproductive one. So far, however, this aspect of the cell has received little attention from historians and philosophers of biology. I will argue that cell theory had far-reaching consequences for how biologists conceptualized the reproductive relationships between germs and adult organisms. Cell theory, as formulated by Theodor Schwann in 1839, implied that this relationship was a specific and lawful one, that is, that germs of a certain kind, all else being equal, would produce adult organisms of the same kind, and vice versa. Questions of preformation and epigenesis took on a new meaning under this presupposition. The question then became one of whether cells could be considered as autonomous agents producing adult organisms of a given species, or whether they were the product of external, organizing forces and thus only a stage in the development of the whole organism. This question became an important issue for nineteenth-century biology. As I will demonstrate, it was the view of cells as autonomous agents which helped both Charles Darwin and Gregor Mendel to think of inheritance as a lawful process.

  11. Effect of chronic lithium administration on endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat mesenteric bed: role of nitric oxide.

    PubMed

    Afsharimani, Banafsheh; Moezi, Leila; Sadeghipour, Hamed; Rahimzadeh-Rofouyi, Bahareh; Nobakht, Maliheh; Sanatkar, Mehdi; Ghahremani, Mohammad Hosein; Dehpour, Ahmad R

    2007-10-01

    The mechanism of action of lithium, an effective treatment for bipolar disease, is still unknown. In this study, the mesenteric vascular beds of control rats and rats that were chronically treated with lithium were prepared by the McGregor method, and the mesenteric vascular bed vasorelaxation responses were examined. NADPH-diaphorase histochemistry was used to determine the activity of NOS (nitric oxide synthase) in mesenteric vascular beds. We demonstrated that ACh-induced vasorelaxation increased in the mesenteric vascular bed of rats treated with lithium. Acute No-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) administration in the medium blocked ACh-induced vasorelaxation in the control group more effectively than in lithium-treated rats, while the vasorelaxant response to sodium nitroprusside, a NO donor, was not different between lithium-treated and control groups. Acute aminoguanidine administration blocked ACh-induced vasorelaxation of lithium-treated rats, but had no effect in the control rats. Furthermore, NOS activity, determined by NADPH-diaphorase staining, was significantly greater in the mesenteric vascular beds from chronic lithium-treated rats than in those from control rats. These data suggest that the enhanced ACh-induced endothelium-derived vasorelaxation in rat mesenteric bed from chronic lithium-treated rats might be associated with increased NOS activity, likely via iNOS. Simultaneous acute L-NAME and indomethacin administration suggests the possible upregulation of EDHF (endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor) in lithium-treated rats.

  12. Comparative biology and pesticide susceptibility of Amblydromella caudiglans and Galendromus occidentalis as spider mite predators in apple orchards.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Jeffris, Rebecca A; Beers, Elizabeth H

    2015-09-01

    The successful integrated mite management program for Washington apples was based on conservation of the mite predator Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt). In the 1960s, this mite was assumed to be the only phytoseiid in Washington commercial apple orchards, due to its preference for the most common mite pest of that period, Tetranychus mcdanieli McGregor, as well as its resistance to organophosphate pesticides. A recent survey of phytoseiids in Washington apple found that another phytoseiid, Amblydromella caudiglans (Schuster) has become common. It is a more generalized predator than G. occidentalis (it is not a Tetranychus spp. specialist) and is not known to be organophosphate-resistant. A series of experiments was conducted to compare the life history, prey consumption, and pesticide tolerance of these two species. Galendromus occidentalis developed more quickly than A. caudiglans, but had slightly lower egg survival. Although A. caudiglans attacked more Tetranychus urticae Koch eggs than G. occidentalis, it could not reproduce on this diet. Both predators performed equally well on a diet of T. urticae protonymphs. Unlike G. occidentalis, A. caudiglans experienced significant mortality when exposed to carbaryl, azinphosmethyl, and bifenazate. Both predators experienced significant mortality due to imidacloprid and spinetoram. These results highlight the key differences between these two predators; the shift away from organophosphate use as well as the change in dominant mite pest to Panonychus ulmi (Koch) may be driving factors for the observed increased abundance of A. caudiglans in Washington apple.

  13. Exposure to Diflubenzuron Results in an Up-Regulation of a Chitin Synthase 1 Gene in Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Wen-Kai; Ding, Tian-Bo; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Liao, Chong-Yu; Zhong, Rui; Yang, Wen-Jia; Liu, Bin; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Chitin synthase synthesizes chitin, which is critical for the arthropod exoskeleton. In this study, we cloned the cDNA sequences of a chitin synthase 1 gene, PcCHS1, in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), which is one of the most economically important pests of citrus worldwide. The full-length cDNA of PcCHS1 contains an open reading frame of 4605 bp of nucleotides, which encodes a protein of 1535 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 175.0 kDa. A phylogenetic analysis showed that PcCHS1 was most closely related to CHS1 from Tetranychus urticae. During P. citri development, PcCHS1 was constantly expressed in all stages but highly expressed in the egg stage (114.8-fold higher than in the adult). When larvae were exposed to diflubenzuron (DFB) for 6 h, the mite had a significantly high mortality rate, and the mRNA expression levels of PcCHS1 were significantly enhanced. These results indicate a promising use of DFB to control P. citri, by possibly acting as an inhibitor in chitin synthesis as indicated by the up-regulation of PcCHS1 after exposure to DFB. PMID:24590130

  14. Isotopic geochemistry of the Saratoga springs: Implications for the origin of solutes and source of carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Donald I.; Lesniak, Keri A.; Stute, Martin; Frape, Shaun

    2004-03-01

    We report the results of an isotopic study designed to determine the source of solutes and carbon dioxide in the famed Saratoga Springs (New York) mineral waters. These waters have thousands of milligrams per liter total dissolved solid concentrations and are highly charged with carbon dioxide gas. The spring waters are cold (˜12 °C) and there is no local, deep-seated thermal anomaly. They emerge through thick shale caprock along the surface expression of normal faults. The δ13C (-5.8‰ to +0.8‰ Vienna Peedee belemnite) of the dissolved inorganic carbon and elevated 3He/4He ratios suggest that the source of the CO2 is the mantle or an ancient deep crystallized igneous melt. The stable isotopic content of the spring waters defines a mixing line between modern local meteoric waters (δ ˜ 70‰) and a component with heavier δD but similar δ18O values. This trend and that of 87Sr/86Sr of dissolved strontium versus 1/Sr are consistent with the hypothesis that Canadian Shield type brines contribute salinity to the springs. These brines plausibly migrate from the Adirondack Mountains to the topographically low McGregor fault system in the Hudson River lowlands, where the Saratoga springs discharge.

  15. Synchronization in Disordered Josephson Junction Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissanayake, S. T. M.; Trees, B. R.

    2001-10-01

    There is considerable scientific and technological interest in the time-dependent behavior of arrays of non-identical Josephson junctions, whose voltages oscillate with individual bare frequencies that can be made, through interactions, to renormalize their frequencies to a common value. We have studied the degree of synchronization of a subset of overdamped junctions in a ladder geometry, in which the voltages across the ``rung'' junctions of the ladder oscillate with the same, renormalized frequency and a fixed phase difference. We measure the degree of synchronization of the junctions with an order parameter, r (0<= r<= 1), as a function of the nearest-neighbor junction coupling strength. We also determined that a time-averaged version of the resistively-shunted junction (RSJ) equations could be used as an accurate description of the dynamics of the junctions. The solutions to the averaged equations exhibit phase slips between pairs of junctions for certain ranges of the junction coupling strength and also demonstrated that the relationship between the array size N and the critical coupling strength for all junctions to oscillate with the same frequency scales as N^2. This research was partially funded by a grant to Ohio Wesleyan University from the McGregor Foundation to support student research.

  16. U.S. and U.S.S.R agree on ocean research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostenso, Ned A.

    On June 1, 1990, George Bush and Mikhail S. Gorbachev signed a renegotiated bilateral agreement for cooperation in oceanographic research. The original agreement for “Studies of the World Ocean,” signed in 1972, did not provide for the protection of intellectual property. The new agreement is administered by executive secretaries from both countries working under the U.S.-U.S.S.R. Joint Committee on Cooperation in Ocean Studies. The committee held its first meeting in Moscow September 14-17, 1990, at the headquarters of the U.S.S.R. State Committee for Science and Technology (GKNT).The U.S. delegation was led by John A. Knauss, undersecretary of commerce for oceans and atmosphere and administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and included Ned A. Ostenso, executive secretary of the agreement; Thomas E. Murray, NOAA; M. Grant Gross, National Science Foundation; Robert S. Winokur, U.S. Navy; Bonnie McGregor Stubblefield, U.S. Geological Survey; William S. Busch, Office of Science and Technology Policy; and William A. Erb, Eric Green, and Sidney Smith, Department of State.

  17. A study of ultraviolet spectra of Zeta Aurigae/VV Cephei systems. VII - Chromospheric density distribution and wind acceleration region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, K.-P.

    1985-06-01

    Chromospheric eclipse spectra have been obtained for three Zeta Aurigae binary systems using the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spacecraft. In order to fit average density models to the chromospheres, 3 samples of column densities (for 31 Cygni, 32 Cygni, and Zeta Aurigae K giants) were used. Wind velocities were derived assuming a continuous outflow of matter and a known M-dot value. It is shown that wind acceleration region of Zeta Aurigae underwent a temporary energy deficiency and mass loss at the time of the 1979 eclipse. The density gradients and wind acceleration regions of 31 Cygni and 32 Cygni, were found to be very similar in the corresponding eclipses of 1981 and 1982. The density and velocity structure of 31 and 32 Cygni are represented by power laws which correspond to the Alfven wave driven wind models of Hartmann and McGregor (1980). The location of the main power input per unit mass is also discussed. A sketch of the eclipse geometry of 31 Cygni is provided.

  18. Reexamination of relaxation of spins due to a magnetic field gradient: Identity of the Redfield and Torrey theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, R.; Rohm, Ryan M.; Swank, C. M.

    2011-02-01

    There is an extensive literature on magnetic-gradient-induced spin relaxation. Cates, Schaefer, and Happer, in a seminal publication, have solved the problem in the regime where diffusion theory (the Torrey equation) is applicable using an expansion of the density matrix in diffusion equation eigenfunctions and angular momentum tensors. McGregor has solved the problem in the same regime using a slightly more general formulation using the Redfield theory formulated in terms of the autocorrelation function of the fluctuating field seen by the spins and calculating the correlation functions using the diffusion-theory Green’s function. The results of both calculations were shown to agree for a special case. In the present work, we show that the eigenfunction expansion of the Torrey equation yields the expansion of the Green’s function for the diffusion equation, thus showing the identity of this approach with that of the Redfield theory. The general solution can also be obtained directly from the Torrey equation for the density matrix. Thus, the physical content of the Redfield and Torrey approaches are identical. We then introduce a more general expression for the position autocorrelation function of particles moving in a closed cell, extending the range of applicability of the theory.

  19. Random walk with long-range interaction with a barrier and its dual: Exact results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huillet, Thierry

    2010-03-01

    We consider the random walk on , with up and down transition probabilities given the chain is in state x[set membership, variant]{1,2,...}: Here [delta]>=-1 is a real tuning parameter. We assume that this random walk is reflected at the origin. For [delta]>0, the walker is attracted to the origin. The strength of the attraction goes like for large x and so is long-ranged. For [delta]<0, the walker is repelled from the origin. This chain is irreducible and periodic; it is always recurrent, either positive or null recurrent. Using Karlin-McGregor's spectral representations in terms of orthogonal polynomials and first associated orthogonal polynomials, exact expressions are obtained for first return time probabilities to the origin (excursion length), eventual return (contact) probability, excursion height and spatial moments of the walker. All exhibit power-law decay in some range of the parameter [delta]. In the study, an important role is played by the Wall duality relation for birth and death chains with reflecting barrier. Some qualitative aspects of the dual random walk (obtained by interchanging px and qx) are therefore also included.

  20. Electric-field distribution in Au-semi-insulating GaAs contact investigated by positron-lifetime technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, C. C.; Shek, Y. F.; Huang, A. P.; Fung, S.; Beling, C. D.

    1999-02-01

    Positron-lifetime spectroscopy has been used to investigate the electric-field distribution occurring at the Au-semi-insulating GaAs interface. Positrons implanted from a 22Na source and drifted back to the interface are detected through their characteristic lifetime at interface traps. The relative intensity of this fraction of interface-trapped positrons reveals that the field strength in the depletion region saturates at applied biases above 50 V, an observation that cannot be reconciled with a simple depletion approximation model. The data, are, however, shown to be fully consistent with recent direct electric-field measurements and the theoretical model proposed by McGregor et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 75, 7910 (1994)] of an enhanced EL2+ electron-capture cross section above a critical electric field that causes a dramatic reduction of the depletion region's net charge density. Two theoretically derived electric field profiles, together with an experimentally based profile, are used to estimate a positron mobility of ~95+/-35 cm2 V-1 s-1 under the saturation field. This value is higher than previous experiments would suggest, and reasons for this effect are discussed.

  1. Electron paramagnetic resonance of [(CH3)3NH]CuCl3.2H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Mark B.; Drumheller, John E.; Kite, Terence M.; Snively, Leslie O.; Emerson, Kenneth

    1983-11-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance of [(CH3)3NH]CuCl3.2H2O has been studied in the temperature range of 4 K to room temperature. This compound is known to behave magnetically as a spin- 1/2 , one-dimensional Heisenberg ferromagnetic with ordering below 1K. In the high-temperature regime the EPR data show a rich angular dependence of the linewidths as the magnetic field is rotated away from the chain. The data were analyzed in manner similar to that used by McGregor and Soos, who used the Blume-Hubbard result for spin dynamics and extracted exchange anisotropies in one dimension. For adequate fit, we reduced the symmetry of symmetric anisotropic exchange to orthorhombic and included the antisymmetric exchange. Isotropic symmetric, dipolar, anisotropic symmetric, and antisymmetric exchange therefore were included with the room temperature results of J0=0.8 K, Dd=0.058 K, De=0.032 K, and d=0.043 K, respectively, and further show about a 12% XY character to the exchange. These results are reasonably consistent with the previous results on this compound. Splitting of the EPR lines indicate that there are two inequivalent chains along the needle axis. Data to 4 K indicate no significant changes in the angle dependence but an anomalous monotonic broadening of the linewidths is observed as temperature is lowered.

  2. Numerical Simulations Of The Impact Of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9: Plume Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palotai, Csaba J.; Korycansky, D.; Deming, D.; Harrington, J.; Reese, C.

    2007-10-01

    We present results of our three-dimensional, hydrodynamic simulations of the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) into the atmosphere of Jupiter. In the current phase of the research we focus on the plume blowout and splashback phases of the SL9 event. We have modified the Zeus-MP/2 model (Hayes et al. 2006) to be suitable for our investigation, adding a Jovian atmospheric profile, Tillotson equation of state for the impactor, and the Coriolis terms. As an initial condition of our high-resolution simulations we use the energy deposition profile taken from the SL9 impact modeling of Korycansky et al. (2006). The effects of the Coriolis force during the shockwave propagation are tested through sensitivity tests. The viscosity in the splash model is adjusted until the outer part of the plume re-entry shock matches the expanding infrared rings (McGregor et al. 1996). The molecular viscosity being well-known, this will place a strong constraint on the Jovian eddy viscosity. We add radiative terms from previous 2D splash calculation of Deming and Harrington (2001) to allow us to calculate realistic wavelength-dependent lightcurves and low-resolution spectra for direct comparison to data. This work is supported by National Science Foundation Grant No. 0307638 and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Grant No. NNG 04GQ35G.

  3. Implementation of a Semi-Lagrangian scheme for water vapour and tracer advection in RegCM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tefera Diro, Gulilat; Tompkins, Adrian; Giorgi, Filippo; Bonaventura, Luca

    2013-04-01

    A semi-Lagrangian approach is introduced in the latest version of the ICTP regional climate model (RegCM4) for water vapor and tracer advection. A 'quasi' cubic interpolation and McGregor's third order accurate trajectory calculation are used in the advection scheme. The modified scheme is evaluated on idealized as well as realistic case studies and its results are compared against those of the Eulerian scheme originally employed in RegCM4. In the idealized test cases the semi-Lagrangian scheme appears to be superior to the Eulerian scheme in terms of the dissipative and dispersive errors, especially when large gradients are present in the advected quantity. Two realistic cases of meso-scale phenomena over the European domain were also tested in a short range mode for specific humidity transport. In both cases, the semi-Lagrangian scheme has captured better the detailed structure and improved the overall pattern of the vertically integrated humidity field. In the present preliminary implementation, the scheme is more expensive than the Eulerian one. This is because the same time step is used for tracer advection as the explicit time discretization employed by the dynamical core. However, greater computational gains are expected as the number of tracers considered increases, for instance when the gas phase chemistry is switched on.

  4. Synchronization in Disordered Josephson Junction Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trees, B. R.; Dissanayake, S. T. M.

    2002-03-01

    We have studied the dynamics of a ladder array of overdamped Josephson junctions with periodic boundary conditions. The junctions have critical current and resistive disorder, are current biased above the critical current, and their voltages oscillate with nonidentical bare frequencies. We have been interested in the onset of synchronization in the rung junctions of the ladder, in which nearest neighbor interactions of strength α renormalize the bare frequencies to a common value. The degree of synchronization of the array is measured by an order parameter, r (0<= r<= 1), as a function of α and the spread of bare frequencies. For a given frequency spread, a synchronization phase transition is clearly visible with an increase in α. We have also determined that a time-averaged version of the resistively-shunted junction equations can be used as an accurate description of the dynamics of the junctions. The solutions to the averaged equations exhibit phase slips between pairs of junctions for certain ranges of values of α and also demonstrate that the relationship between the array size, N, and the critical coupling strength for the onset of synchronization scales as N^2. This research was partially funded by a grant to Ohio Wesleyan University from the McGregor Foundation to support student research.

  5. The circumstellar envelope of S 106 - IRS 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felli, M.; Simon, M.; Fischer, J.; Hamann, F.

    1985-04-01

    The authors present new observations that help set the parameters of the ionized circumstellar envelope of S 106-IRS 4. The part of the envelope that is optically thick at 1.35 cm wavelength is smaller than 0arcsec.15 diameter which corresponds to 90 AU at 600 pc distance. The profiles of the Brackett-α and -γ lines are somewhat different with half power widths of 121±10 and 181±15 km s-1, respectively. The He I (21P-21S) line is detected at the S 106 nebula but not at IRS 4. The He I line emission of the nebula indicates that the central star of IRS 4 must have an effective temperature of about 35,000K. Comparison of the wind model scenario presented by Felli et al. (1984) with the present data and the Paschen line and Paschen edge data of McGregor et al. (1984) shows that the model encounters difficulties when observables that require details of the velocity field and of the innermost regions of the flow are considered.

  6. It Doesn't Take a Rocket Scientist: Great Amateurs of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, John

    2002-10-01

    Did you know. . . . . . that the woman who discovered the largest and most complete T. rex fossil on record was a high-school dropout who became one of the world's greatest fossil hunters? . . . that the great British scientist Michael Faraday was the son of a blacksmith and had very little formal education? . . . that Gregor Mendel had time to study inherited traits in garden peas because he failed the test to qualify as a high school science teacher? This is just a small sampling of the many surprises you'll find in this enlightening survey of the mavericks, misfits, and unschooled investigators who have been responsible for some of the greatest scientific discoveries in history. It Doesn't Take a Rocket Scientist explains the achievements of each of these accomplished amateurs, describes how they approached their investigations, and discusses the impact of their discoveries. In these amazing and inspiring stories, you'll learn about: Grote Reber and the birth of radio astronomy Arthur C. Clarke's vision of communication satellites Joseph Priestley and the discovery of oxygen Felix d'Herelle's pinpointing of bacteriophages, killers of bacteria Thomas Jefferson and the science of archaeology You'll also discover which fields of science still offer great opportunities for modern amateurs eager to make a name for themselves. After all, it doesn't take a rocket scientist!

  7. The perception of minimal structures: performance on open and closed versions of visually presented Euclidean travelling salesperson problems.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Douglas; Bovet, Pierre; Lee, Michael D; Hughes, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The planar Euclidean version of the travelling salesperson problem (TSP) requires finding a tour of minimal length through a two-dimensional set of nodes. Despite the computational intractability of the TSP, people can produce rapid, near-optimal solutions to visually presented versions of such problems. To explain this, MacGregor et al (1999, Perception 28 1417-1428) have suggested that people use a global-to-local process, based on a perceptual tendency to organise stimuli into convex figures. We review the evidence for this idea and propose an alternative, local-to-global hypothesis, based on the detection of least distances between the nodes in an array. We present the results of an experiment in which we examined the relationships between three objective measures and performance measures of optimality and response uncertainty in tasks requiring participants to construct a closed tour or an open path. The data are not well accounted for by a process based on the convex hull. In contrast, results are generally consistent with a locally focused process based initially on the detection of nearest-neighbour clusters. Individual differences are interpreted in terms of a hierarchical process of constructing solutions, and the findings are related to a more general analysis of the role of nearest neighbours in the perception of structure and motion. PMID:12974572

  8. On the origin of genetics and beginnings of medical genetics of diseases of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2006-04-01

    The twentieth century has been termed the century of the gene. Although the term "gene" was introduced in 1909, interest in reproduction and heredity has occupied humankind since its transition from hunter-gatherers to farmers and herders. Heredity, as it applies to diseases, began with Greek medicine. The humoral theory of the Hippocratic Corpus provided an etiological explanation for susceptibility of individuals to certain diseases well into the nineteenth century and was variously termed diathesis, temperament, and constitution. The application of the new probability math to quantify the hybridization of sweet peas by Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) in 1866 provided a scientific basis to inheritance, which had theretofore been an amalgam of scattered empirical observations. The near simultaneous publication of Origin of Species by Charles Darwin (1809-1882) in 1859 was a key catalyst in the transfer of what had been studies in plant biology into studies of populations and humans. The subsequent growth of genetics has been the outcome of interplay of technological breakthroughs in statistical analysis, cytology, biochemistry, physics, and computer science, coupled with the insightful analysis of workers in the field, several of whom have been the recipients of the Nobel Prize in medicine or chemistry since 1933. Application of these techniques to molecular biology and medical genetics is just beginning to yield insight into diseases of the kidney and provide visions of their likely therapies in the future.

  9. Evolution of Genetic Techniques: Past, Present, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Durmaz, Asude Alpman; Karaca, Emin; Schoumans, Jacqueline; Cogulu, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    Genetics is the study of heredity, which means the study of genes and factors related to all aspects of genes. The scientific history of genetics began with the works of Gregor Mendel in the mid-19th century. Prior to Mendel, genetics was primarily theoretical whilst, after Mendel, the science of genetics was broadened to include experimental genetics. Developments in all fields of genetics and genetic technology in the first half of the 20th century provided a basis for the later developments. In the second half of the 20th century, the molecular background of genetics has become more understandable. Rapid technological advancements, followed by the completion of Human Genome Project, have contributed a great deal to the knowledge of genetic factors and their impact on human life and diseases. Currently, more than 1800 disease genes have been identified, more than 2000 genetic tests have become available, and in conjunction with this at least 350 biotechnology-based products have been released onto the market. Novel technologies, particularly next generation sequencing, have dramatically accelerated the pace of biological research, while at the same time increasing expectations. In this paper, a brief summary of genetic history with short explanations of most popular genetic techniques is given. PMID:25874212

  10. RESPONSES OF MALE TROPICAL MOCKINGBIRDS TO VARIATION IN WITHIN-SONG AND BETWEEN-SONG VERSATILITY.

    PubMed

    Botero, Carlos A; Vehrencamp, Sandra L

    2007-01-01

    Despite their large vocal repertoires and otherwise highly versatile singing style, male mockingbirds sometimes sing in a highly repetitive fashion. We conducted a playback experiment to determine the possible signal value of different syllable presentation patterns during simulated male intrusions in the Tropical Mockingbird (Mimus gilvus) testing the hypothesis that more repetitive singing represents a stronger threat and generates a stronger aggressive response. Responses were measured in terms of approach and singing behavior and were analyzed using McGregor's (1992) multivariate method. We also introduce the use of survival analysis for analyzing response variables for which subjects do not perform the behavior in question in at least one of the replicates (known as 'right-censored variables' in the statistical literature). As predicted by theory, experimental subjects responded more aggressively to songs composed of a single note than to variable ones. However, versatility at the between-song level had an opposite effect as high song switching rates generated stronger responses than low ones. Given the lack of a statistical interaction between within-song versatility and switching rate, we conclude that these two parameters may serve independent purposes and possibly transmit different information. We discuss the possibility that the signal value of variation in vocal versatility lies in the mediation of territorial conflicts, the attraction of female partners and/or the mediation of conflicts over access to reproductive females.

  11. Comparative Demography of the Spider Mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus, on four Date Palm Varieties in Southwestern Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Chaaban, Sameh Ben; Chermiti, Brahim; Kreiter, Serge

    2011-01-01

    The date palm mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a serious pest of palm date fruits. Life cycle, fecundity, and longevity of this mite were studied on fruits of four date palms, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae)(varieties: Deglet Noor, Alig, Kentichi, and Besser), under laboratory conditions at 27 = 1 °C, 60 ± 10% RH. Total development time of immature female was shorter on Deglet Noor fruits than on the other cultivars. O. afrasiaticus on Deglet Noor had the highest total fecundity per female, while low fecundity values occurred on Besser. The comparison of intrinsic rates of natural increase (rm), net reproductive rates (Ro), and the survival rates of immature stage of O. afrasiaticus on the host plants suggests that O. afrasiaticus performs better on Deglet Noor fruits. The mite feeding on Alig showed the lowest intrinsic rate of natural population increase (rm = 0.103 day 1). The estimation of difference in susceptibility of cultivars to O. afrasiaticus is crucial for developing efficient pest control programs. Indeed, less susceptible cultivars can either be left unsprayed or sprayed at low threshold. PMID:22233420

  12. Lip Reconstruction after Tumor Ablation

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Ali; Kalantar Motamedi, Mohammad Hossein; Ebrahimi, Azin; Kazemi, Mohammad; Shams, Amin; Hashemzadeh, Haleh

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 25% of all oral cavity carcinomas involve the lips, and the primary management of these lesions is complete surgical resection. Loss of tissue in the lips after resection is treated with a variety of techniques, depending on the extension and location of the defect. Here we review highly accepted techniques of lip reconstruction and some of new trials with significant clinical results. Reconstruction choice is primarily depend to size of the defect, localization of defect, elasticity of tissues. But patient’s age, comorbidities, and motivation are also important. According to the defect location and size, different reconstruction methods can be used. For defects involved less than 30% of lips, primary closures are sufficient. In defects with 35–70% lip involvement, the Karapandzic, Abbe, Estlander, McGregor or Gillies’ fan flaps or their modifications can be used. When lip remaining tissues are insufficient, cheek tissue can be used in Webster and Bernard advancement flaps and their various modifications. Deltopectoral or radial forearm free flaps can be options for large defects of the lip extending to the Jaws. To achieve best functional and esthetic results, surgeons should be able to choose most appropriate reconstruction method. Considering defects’ size and location, patients’ expects and surgeon’s ability and knowledge, a variety of flaps are presented in order to reconstruct defects resulted from tumor ablation. It’s necessary for surgeons to trace the recent innovations in lip reconstruction to offer best choices to patients. PMID:27308236

  13. Development and reproduction of Panonychus citri (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) on different species and varieties of citrus plants.

    PubMed

    Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Bordini, Gabriela Pavan; Franco, Aline Aparecida; de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The species and varieties of citrus plants that are currently grown can favor the population growth of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) and alter the pest management programs in citrus groves. In this study we evaluated, in the laboratory, the development and reproduction of P. citri and estimated its life table parameters when reared on four varieties of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Valencia, Pera, Natal, and Hamlin), one variety of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Ponkan) and one variety of Citrus limon (L.) Burm. (Sicilian). The incubation period and egg viability were not affected by the host plant. However, the development and survival of the immature stage were significantly lower on Hamlin orange than on Valencia, Pera and Natal oranges, Ponkan mandarin and Sicilian lemon. The fecundity and oviposition period of females were lower on Hamlin orange than on the other hosts. Mites reared on Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon had a higher net reproductive rate (R 0 ), intrinsic growth rate (r) and finite rate of increase (λ), and a shorter interval between generations (T) than on Pera, Natal and Hamlin oranges and Ponkan mandarin. On the other hand, mites reared on Hamlin orange had the lowest R 0 , r and λ and the highest T among the hosts. Based on the results obtained we recommend that for Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon, the mite monitoring programs should be more intense to detect the initial infestation of pest, avoiding the damage in plants and the increase in production costs.

  14. COSMIC INHERITANCE RULES: IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE AND SCIENCE.

    PubMed

    Halberg, F; Cornélissen, G; Katinas, G S; Watanabe, Y; Siegelová, J

    2010-01-01

    Countering the trend in specialization, we advocate the trans-disciplinary monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate for signatures of environmental cyclic and other variabilities in space as well as terrestrial weather on the one hand, and for surveillance of personal and societal health on the other hand. New rules (if confirmed novel laws) emerge as we recognize our inheritance from the cosmos of cycles that constitute and characterize life and align them with inheritance from parents. In so doing, we happen to follow the endeavors of Gregor Mendel, who recognized the segregation and independent assortment of what became known as genes. Circadians, rhythms with periods, τ, between 20 and 28 hours, and cycles with frequencies that are higher (ultradian) or lower (infradian) than circadian, are genetically anchored. An accumulating long list of very important but aeolian (nonstationary) infradian cycles, characterizing the incidence patterns of sudden cardiac death, suicide and terrorism, with drastically different τs, constitutes the nonphotic (corpuscular emission from the sun, heliogeomagnetics, ultraviolet flux, gravitation) Cornélissen-series. PMID:21603087

  15. Suspension of Egg Hatching Caused by High Humidity and Submergence in Spider Mites.

    PubMed

    Ubara, Masashi; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2015-08-01

    We tested the effects of high humidity and submergence on egg hatching of spider mites. In both the high humidity and submergence treatments, many Tetranychus and Panonychus eggs did not hatch until after the hatching peak of the lower humidity or unsubmerged controls. However, after humidity decreased or water was drained, many eggs hatched within 1-3 h. This was observed regardless of when high humidity or submergence treatments were implemented: either immediately after oviposition or immediately before hatching was due. Normal eyespot formation was observed in most eggs in the high humidity and submergence treatments, which indicates that spider mite embryos develop even when eggs are underwater. Therefore, delays in hatching are not caused by delayed embryonic development. A delay in hatching was always observed in Panonychus citri (McGregor) but was more variable in Tetranychus urticae Koch and Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida. The high humidity and submergence treatments affected but did not suppress larval development in these species. In contrast, many Oligonychus eggs died following the high humidity treatments. In Tetranychus and Panonychus spider mites, suspension of egg hatching may mitigate the adverse effects of rainfall.

  16. Evaluation of thermobarometers for garnet peridotites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finnerty, A. A.; Boyd, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-one geothermometers and six geobarometers are evaluated for accuracy and precision for garnet lherzolites, with a suite of well-equilibrated xenoliths from kimberlites of northern Lesotho. Accuracy was tested by comparison of P-T estimates for a diamond-bearing and a graphite-bearing xenolith with the experimentally determined diamond-graphite univariant curve and by comparison of P-T estimates for phlogopite-bearing xenoliths to the high-temperature stability limit of phlogopite. Precision was evaluated by measuring the scatter of P-T estimates for each of four xenoliths from a wide range of P and T when many point analyses of the constituent minerals are used for P-T estimation. Most satisfactory is a thermobarometer composed of the uncorrected diopside-enstatite miscibility gap of Lindsley and Dixon (1976), combined with the uncorrected isopleths for aluminum in enstatite coexisting with pyrope of MacGregor (1974). The inflection observed in the northern Lesotho paleogeotherm cannot be an artifact of the method of temperature estimation.

  17. A modeling study of notch noise responses of type III units in the gerbil dorsal cochlear nucleus.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaohan; Voigt, Herbert F

    2006-12-01

    A computational model of the neural circuitry of the gerbil dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), based on the MacGregor's neuromime model, was used to simulate type III unit (P-cell) responses to notch noise stimuli. The DCN patch model is based on a previous computational model of the cat DCN [Hancock, K. E., and H. F. Voigt. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 27:73-87, 1999]. According to the experimental study of Parsons et al. [Ann. Biomed. Eng. 29:887-896, 2001], the responses of gerbil DCN type III units to notch noise stimuli are similar to those of cat DCN type IV units, which are thought to be spectral notch detectors. This suggests that type III units in the gerbil DCN may serve as spectral notch detectors. In this modeling study, a simplified notch noise response plot--spike discharge rate vs. notch cutoff frequency plot--was used to compare model responses to the experimental results. Parameter estimation and sensitivity analysis of three connection parameters within the DCN patch have been studied and shows the model is robust, providing reasonable fits to the experimental data from 14 of 15 type III units examined.

  18. Quantifying characters: polygenist anthropologists and the hardening of heredity.

    PubMed

    Hume, Brad D

    2008-01-01

    Scholars studying the history of heredity suggest that during the 19th-century biologists and anthropologists viewed characteristics as a collection of blended qualities passed on from the parents. Many argued that those characteristics could be very much affected by environmental circumstances, which scholars call the inheritance of acquired characteristics or "soft" heredity. According to these accounts, Gregor Mendel reconceived heredity--seeing distinct hereditary units that remain unchanged by the environment. This resulted in particular traits that breed true in succeeding generations, or "hard" heredity. The author argues that polygenist anthropology (an argument that humanity consisted of many species) and anthropometry in general should be seen as a hardening of heredity. Using a debate between Philadelphia anthropologist and physician, Samuel G. Morton, and Charleston naturalist and reverend, John Bachman, as a springboard, the author contends that polygenist anthropologists hardened heredity by conceiving of durable traits that might reappear even after a race has been eliminated. Polygenists saw anthropometry (the measurement of humans) as one method of quantifying hereditary qualities. These statistical ranges were ostensibly characteristics that bred true and that defined racial groups. Further, Morton's interest in hybridity and racial mixing demonstrates that the polygenists focused as much on the transmission and recognition of "amalgamations" of characters as they did on racial categories themselves. The author suggests that seeing race science as the study of heritable, statistical characteristics rather than broad categories helps explain why "race" is such a persistent cultural phenomenon.

  19. The "useful questions of heredity" before Mendel.

    PubMed

    Orel, Vítezslav

    2009-01-01

    Now Emeritus Head of the Mendelianum (Mendel Museum) in Brno, Czech Republic, Vítezslav Orel began his academic career as a student at the Brno Agriculture University. His work was interrupted first by the Nazi invasion and then by the communist revolution, when the science of genetics was denounced and replaced by Lysenko pseudogenetics. V. O. was dismissed from his position at the Poultry Research Institute and assigned to work at a small duck farm outside Brno. When the "Lysenkoist madness" subsided, Professor Jaroslav Krizenecky (1896-1964), teacher of V. O., was allowed to develop the museum in recognition of Mendel's contributions. V. O. assisted him by conducting research on the history of Mendel and of genetics. On Jaroslav Krizenecky's death, V. O. became head of the Mendelianum. V. O. has become an internationally recognized figure in the study of the history of science, having published nearly 200 papers in Czech and 10 other languages. Orel's most recent books, published by Oxford University Press, make use of the rich archives of the Mendelianum that he helped create. Gregor Mendel-The First Geneticist (Orel 1996) is the definitive biography of Mendel, and in 2001, V. O. and co-author R. J. Wood published Genetic Prehistory in Selective Breeding: A Prelude to Mendel. (Biography from Margaret H. Peaslee).

  20. Modelling avian biodiversity using raw, unclassified satellite imagery.

    PubMed

    St-Louis, Véronique; Pidgeon, Anna M; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Sonnenschein, Ruth; Radeloff, Volker C; Clayton, Murray K; Locke, Brian A; Bash, Dallas; Hostert, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Applications of remote sensing for biodiversity conservation typically rely on image classifications that do not capture variability within coarse land cover classes. Here, we compare two measures derived from unclassified remotely sensed data, a measure of habitat heterogeneity and a measure of habitat composition, for explaining bird species richness and the spatial distribution of 10 species in a semi-arid landscape of New Mexico. We surveyed bird abundance from 1996 to 1998 at 42 plots located in the McGregor Range of Fort Bliss Army Reserve. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values of two May 1997 Landsat scenes were the basis for among-pixel habitat heterogeneity (image texture), and we used the raw imagery to decompose each pixel into different habitat components (spectral mixture analysis). We used model averaging to relate measures of avian biodiversity to measures of image texture and spectral mixture analysis fractions. Measures of habitat heterogeneity, particularly angular second moment and standard deviation, provide higher explanatory power for bird species richness and the abundance of most species than measures of habitat composition. Using image texture, alone or in combination with other classified imagery-based approaches, for monitoring statuses and trends in biological diversity can greatly improve conservation efforts and habitat management. PMID:24733952

  1. Evaluating the importance of the convex hull in solving the Euclidean version of the traveling salesperson problem: reply to Lee and Vickers (2000).

    PubMed

    MacGregor, J N; Ormerod, T C

    2000-10-01

    Lee and Vickers (2000) suggest that the results of MacGregor and Ormerod (1996), showing that the response uncertainty to traveling salesperson problems (TSPs) increases with increasing numbers of nonboundary points, may have resulted as an artifact of constraints imposed in the construction of stimuli. The fact that similar patterns of results have been obtained for our "constrained" stimuli, for a stimulus constructed under different constraints, for 13 randomly generated stimuli, and for random and patterned 48-point problems provides empirical evidence that the results are not artifactual. Lee and Vickers further suggest that, even if not artifactual, the results are in principle limited to arrays of fewer than 50 points and that, beyond this, the total number of points and number of nonboundary points are "diagnostically equivalent." This claim seems to us incorrect, since arrays of any size can be constructed that will permit experimental tests of whether problem difficulty is influenced by the number of nonboundary points, or the total number of points, or both. We present a reanalysis of our original data using hierarchical regression analysis which indicates that both factors may influence problem complexity.

  2. Interview with Heribert Hirt.

    PubMed

    Hirt, Heribert

    2016-01-01

    As a son of an engineer who traveled widely during his career, Heribert Hirt began his life in the exotic country of Iran, before receiving his high-school education in Germany and then studying biochemistry at the University of Cape Town and then later at the University of Vienna, from where he received his PhD in 1987. He then worked as a postdoctoral fellow in Vienna, Oxford, and Wageningen, before starting his own group at the University of Vienna in 1993. It was also in Vienna that he became professor of genetics in 1997, followed by vice-director of the Gregor Mendel Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, and later head of the Plant Molecular Biology Department of the University of Vienna. In 2007, he decided that it was time for new challenges and accepted an appointment in France to direct the Paris-based INRA-CNRS Plant Genomics Institute for the following 7 years. In 2014, Heribert embarked on yet another challenge by accepting the role to head up the Center for Desert Agriculture at King Abdullah University of Sciences and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia. PMID:26686410

  3. 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii', a novel basal group rickettsia detected in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hajduskova, Eva; Literak, Ivan; Papousek, Ivo; Costa, Francisco B; Novakova, Marketa; Labruna, Marcelo B; Zdrazilova-Dubska, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    A novel rickettsial sequence in the citrate synthase gltA gene indicating a novel Rickettsia species has been detected in 7 out of 4524 Ixodes ricinus ticks examined within several surveys performed in the Czech Republic from 2005 to 2009. This new Candidatus Rickettsia sp. sequence has been found in 2 nymphs feeding on wild birds (Luscinia megarhynchos and Erithacus rubecula), in a male tick from vegetation, and 4 ticks feeding on a dog (3 males, 1 female tick). Portions of the ompA, ompB, sca4, and htrA genes were not amplifiable in these samples. A maximum likelihood tree of rickettsiae based on comparisons of partial amino acid sequences of citrate synthase and nucleotide sequences of 16S rDNA genes and phylogenetic analysis revealed a basal position of the novel species in the proximity of R. bellii and R. canadensis. The novel species has been named 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii' after the founder of genetics, Gregor Mendel. PMID:26873811

  4. From Mendel to epigenetics: History of genetics.

    PubMed

    Gayon, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The origins of genetics are to be found in Gregor Mendel's memoir on plant hybridization (1865). However, the word 'genetics' was only coined in 1906, to designate the new science of heredity. Founded upon the Mendelian method for analyzing the products of crosses, this science is distinguished by its explicit purpose of being a general 'science of heredity', and by the introduction of totally new biological concepts (in particular those of gene, genotype, and phenotype). In the 1910s, Mendelian genetics fused with the chromosomal theory of inheritance, giving rise to what is still called 'classical genetics'. Within this framework, the gene is simultaneously a unit of function and transmission, a unit of recombination, and of mutation. Until the early 1950s, these concepts of the gene coincided. But when DNA was found to be the material basis of inheritance, this congruence dissolved. Then began the venture of molecular biology, which has never stopped revealing the complexity of the way in which hereditary material functions. PMID:27263362

  5. Description of Pseudomonas gregormendelii sp. nov., a Novel Psychrotrophic Bacterium from James Ross Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kosina, Marcel; Švec, Pavel; Černohlávková, Jitka; Barták, Miloš; Snopková, Kateřina; De Vos, Paul; Sedláček, Ivo

    2016-07-01

    During the microbiological research performed within the scope of activities of Czech expeditions based at the Johann Gregor Mendel Station at James Ross Island, Antarctica, two psychrotrophic gram-stain negative non-fluorescent strains CCM 8506T and CCM 8507 from soil were extensively characterized using genotypic and phenotypic methods. Initial characterization using ribotyping with HindIII restriction endonuclease and phenotyping implies that both isolates belong to a single Pseudomonas species. Sequencing of rrs, rpoB, rpoD and glnA genes of strain CCM 8506(T) confirmed affiliation of investigated strains within the genus Pseudomonas. Further investigation using automated ribotyping with EcoRI (RiboPrinter(®) Microbial Characterisation System), whole-cell protein profiling using the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer system, extensive biochemical testing and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that both investigated strains are members of a single taxon which is clearly separated from all hitherto described Pseudomonas spp. Based on all findings, we describe a novel species Pseudomonas gregormendelii sp. nov. with the type strain CCM 8506(T) (=LMG 28632T). PMID:27032403

  6. The residual and direct effects of reduced-risk and conventional miticides on twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Liburd, O.E.; White, J.C.; Rhodes, E.M.; Browdy, A.A.

    2007-03-15

    The residual effects of several reduced-risk and conventional miticides were evaluated in strawberries (Fragaria z ananassa Duchesne) on the twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and on 2 predatory mites, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse. The greenhouse experiments also tested the direct effects of the miticides on TSSM. The efficacy of conventional and reduced-risk miticides was evaluated on strawberry leaf discs and on whole plants for control of TSSM. Furthermore, the residual effects of these miticides were evaluated on whole strawberry plants against selective predatory mites. For TSSM, 5 treatments were evaluated: a conventional miticide; fenbutatin-oxide (Vendex[reg]) and 3 reduced-risk miticides; binfenazate (Acramite 50WP[reg]), activated garlic extract (Repel[reg]), sesame seed and castor oil (Wipeout[reg]), and a water-treated control. For predatory mites, the residual effects of only Acramite[reg] and Vendex[reg] were evaluated. Acramite[reg] was the most effective acaricide in reducing TSSM populations in both the laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Vendex[reg] and Wipeout[reg] were also effective in the laboratory, but did not cause significant reduction of TSSM in the greenhouse. Repel[reg] was the least effective of the 4 pesticides evaluated. Neither Acramite[reg] nor Vendex[reg] had a significant effect on either predatory mite species. However, there appeared to be more predatory mites on the Vendex[reg]-treated plants than on the Acramite[reg]-treated plants. There were significantly more predatory mites of both species on the cue plants, which were inoculated with TSSM versus the non-cue plants, which were not inoculated. (author) [Spanish] Los efectos residuales en poblaciones de la 'arana roja', Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranichidae) y de los acaros predadores

  7. A search for Potential Impact Sites in Southern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca, M. C. L.

    The Southern part of Argentina is composed of five Provinces; Tierra del Fuego, Santa Cruz, Chubut, Rio Negro and Neuquen. A search for potential impact sites was performed by the author through the examination of 76 color LANDSAT satellite images ( 1:250,000 - resolution = 250 meters ) at the Instituto Geografico Militar ( IGM ) of Buenos Aires city. When a potential candidate was found a more detailed study of the site was done. If available the radar X-SAR satellite images of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft-und Raumfahrt, (DLR), Berlin, Germany , were also examined. The final step was to perform a review of the available published geologic information of each site at the Servicio Geologico y Minero Argentino ( SEGEMAR ), ( =Geological Survey of Argentina ), in Buenos Aires. The resulting catalogue contains information about sites where possible simple crater or complex impact structures could be present. Each case demands future detailed and `in situ' research by an impact cratering specialist. --Tierra del Fuego: TF1 ) Ushuaia 5569-II, No 218. Cerro Taarsh, Estancia San Justo. Possible complex structure. Semi-circular area of concentric low ridges. Estimated diameter : 12 km. Probably very eroded. --Santa Cruz: SC1 ) Gobernador Gregores 4969-I, No 127. Estancia La Aragonesa Possible eroded complex structure. Circular area of low ridges, estimated diameter: 10 km.. Bull's eye like morphology. SC2 ) Gobernador Gregores 4969-I, No 127. Gran Altiplanicie Central. Possible simple crater in basalts. Diameter: 1 km.. SC3 ) Tres Lagos 4972-IV, No 106. Meseta del Bagual Chico. Possible perfectly circular simple crater in basalts. Diameter: 1.0 km.. SC4 )Paso Rio Bote 5172-II, No 20. Rio Pelque, Ruta Provincial No 5. A circular bowl-shaped structure is present on fluvial deposits of pleistocenic age. Diameter: 3.5 km.. SC5 ) Caleta Olivia 4769-II, No 28. North of Cerro Doce Grande. Possible complex structure of concentric circular rings of ridges. SC6 ) Caleta

  8. Four centuries of tropical Pacific sea-surface temperature from coral archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emile-Geay, J.; Guillot, D.; Cobb, K. M.; Cole, J. E.; Correge, T.; Tudhope, A. W.; Rajaratnam, B.

    2012-12-01

    Our ability to judge the significance of recent climate change is fundamentally limited by the shortness and sparsity of the instrumental record. It is therefore crucial to extend the latter, particularly in the tropical Pacific where powerful air/sea interactions orchestrate global-scale low-frequency climate variability. Reconstructions of tropical sea-surface temperature (SST) variability have traditionally relied heavily on extratropical proxy records, particularly dendrochronological ones. Such dependence hinders a rigorous examination of the links between tropical SST and continental hydroclimate in the pre-instrumental era. Here we use an expanded network of high-resolution coral proxies and a novel statistical methodology (GraphEM Guillot et al., in revision) to reconstruct tropical Pacific SST back to 1600 C.E solely from annually-banded coral archives. The network and method prove able to capture ˜ 30% of interannual SST variability in the NINO3.4 region, but systematically under-represents El Nino events, especially strong ones, which negatively affect coral physiology at some sites. La Nina events, however, are more faithfully captured. The reconstructed NINO3.4 displays no long-term trend since 1600 C.E, contradicting claims that the twentieth century is anomalous with respect to a long-term baseline (McGregor et al., 2010). Changes in the preponderance of ENSO 'flavors' (Eastern Pacific vs Central Pacific El Nino events) are assessed using the methodology of (Yeh et al., 2009), and suggests that the late twentieth century trend towards increased CP El Nino occurrences is within historic norms, consistent with results employing a multivariate red noise model (Newman et al., 2011). The link to North American droughts is assessed by comparison to the Palmer Drought Severity Index from the North American Drought Atlas v2a (Cook et al., 2004; Cook, 2008): the pattern corresponding to notable droughts in the US southwest is cool tropical Pacific, both

  9. Universe Clinopyroxene barometer -recalibrations on the results of the orthopyroxene thermobarometry and experimental results and applications to the clinopyroxene geotherms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashchepkov, I. V.

    2009-04-01

    The internal exchange of Jd-Di components on clinopyroxene allow to calibrate the universal clinopyroxene thermobarometer (Ashchepkov, 2001; 2002; 2003) based on experimental data for different systems including peridotitic, eclogitic and igneous which are represented by the augite cumulates as well as salites from the basic granulates from low crust. The equation to the peridotitic system was calibrated on the results of the othopyroxene thermobarometry (Brey. Kohler,1990- McGregor,1974). Modifications allow receiving the better agreement with the orthopyroxene estimates and results of polymineral thermobarometry (Brey, Kohler, 1990) as well as the clinopyroxene thermobarometry (Nimis, Taylor, 2000). The following equation allows working with the peridotite of the mantle lithosphere beneath cratons (30-80) kbar. P(Ash2009)=0.32 (1-0.2*Na/Al+0.012*Fe/Na)*Kd^(3/4)*ToK/(1+Fe)-35*ln(1273/ToK)*(Al+Ti+2.5Na+1.5Fe3+)+(0.9-CaO)*10+Na20/Al2O3*ToK /200 with the second iteration P=(0.0000002* P4 +0.000002+P^3-0.0027*P^2+1.2241*P) Checking of the HP experiments (Brey et al 2008, Walter, 1998; Falloon, Green, 1989; Dasgupta et al., 2007 etc.) it show the precision close to those of the best barometers (McGregor, 1974) ~5-7 but much more wider compositional range including metasomatic associations and The equation for the Al - rich assemblages allow to obtain the pressure estimates fro the megacrystalls and Al - rich peridotitic clinopyroxenes from the mantle xenoliths carried by alkaline basalts: P(Ash2009)=0.035*Kd*ToK(1+2.44Fe)-50.2 ln(1273/ToK) (Al+Ti+Na) Together with the clinopyroxene thermometer (Nimis, Taylor, 2000) it produces the TP estimates very close to those obtained with (Brey, Kohler, 1990) and values of experiments for the melting of basalts. The meagacrystalls show the polybaric origin and their range of estimated pressure corresponds well to determined for mantle peridotites and pyroxenites. The clinopyroxene geotherms for S. Africa (Boyd, Nixon, 1974

  10. Coastal and Oceanic SST variability along the western Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, F.; Gómez Gesteira, M.; Decastro, M.; Álvarez, I.

    2010-09-01

    Trends in coastal and oceanic Sea Surface Temperature (SST) were analyzed along the western Iberian Peninsula for the period 1900-2008. SST data were obtained from the UK Meteorological Office, Hadley Centre (http://badc.nerc.ac.uk/data/hadisst). Nodes were distributed on a 1°x1° grid with monthly periodicity. Twelve points were considered from 37°N to 43°N, six at coastal locations (9°W) and six at oceanic locations (14°W). SST has undergone several periods of warming and cooling during the last century. In particularly, two warming periods (from 1900 to 1955 and from 1970 to 2008), and one cooling period (from 1955 to 1975). In addition, the increment of SST (ΔSST) has been calculated as the SST difference between coastal and ocean locations at the same latitude. This parameter has been used by some authors to characterize the upwelling (Nykjaer & VanCamp, 1994). In the inter-annual evolution of the average of ΔSST: two of increase (from 1920 to 1950 and from 1980 to 2008) and one of decrease (from 1950 to 1980). The same study was carried out seasonally. Three seasons were selected according to the periods of high, moderate or low ΔSST: November-February (NDJF); March-June (MAMJ) and July-October (JASO). The greatest differences between coast and ocean were observed during JASO and lowest ones during MAMJ. Negative values were detected during the whole year being more negative from July to September coinciding with the upwelling season (Alvarez et al., 2005). The seasonal ΔSST shows the same increase and decrease cycles as the annual ΔSST evolution. SST patterns showed that warming and cooling trends were less intense near coast than in the ocean. The possible causes of this behavior were analyzed. If the mechanism described by Bakun (1990) and McGregor et al., (2007) is assumed, coastal upwelling is revealed as the main cause of this behavior. On the contrary, when upwelling index evolution is calculated from wind data, coastal upwelling is not

  11. Metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle beneath southern Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolosova-Satlberger, Olesya; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Bjerg, Ernesto

    2015-04-01

    Mantle xenoliths from Gobernador Gregores, southern Patagonia are spinel- lherzolites, harzburgites and wehrlites. Composite xenoliths consisting of websterites, olivine-websterites and spinel- lherzolites or harzburgites are present as well. The lithospheric mantle beneath Gobernador Gregores region was affected by multiple modal metasomatic events as can be inferred by the presence of amphibole, phlogopite and apatite. The existence of amphibole as inclusion in clinopyroxene suggests dehydration reaction of peridotites, which previously experienced modal metasomatism. This textural evidence records the earliest detectable metasomatic event. A second distinct modal metasomatic event consists of disseminated up to 6 mm in diameter coarse grained amphiboles (100*mg# =89.9) which show breakdown reactions and pseudomorphic replacement by glass and fine grained second generation of olivine, clinopyroxene and spinel. The intensity of the breakdown reaction is variable. In most cases amphibole occurs as a relict within these pseudomorphs. However, melt pockets of up to 10 mm in diameter are abundant, irregular in shape and having the same minerals such as in the pseudomorphs, indicate clearly amphibole breakdown because remnants of it were found enclosed by second generation clinopyroxene. Similar breakdown reactions experienced the phlogopite in the samples where is present. The Phlogopite (100*mg# =88.6) breakdown produces the same mineral phases as the amphibole. The second generation minerals formed after breakdown of amphibole and phlogopite show minor differences in their composition. However, the chemical composition of glass varies considerably. The glasses formed after breakdown of amphibole and phlogopite have trachyandesitic and tephriphonolitic composition, respectively. Some harzburgites and composite xenoliths reveal another metasomatic event: peridotite, enriched in orthopyroxene (mainly orthopyroxenite veinlets, rare websterite), suggests interaction with

  12. Supplemental food that supports both predator and pest: a risk for biological control?

    PubMed

    Leman, Ada; Messelink, Gerben J

    2015-04-01

    Supplemental food sources to support natural enemies in crops are increasingly being tested and used. This is particularly interesting for generalist predators that can reproduce on these food sources. However, a potential risk for pest control could occur when herbivores also benefit from supplemental food sources. In order to optimize biological control, it may be important to select food sources that support predator populations more than herbivore populations. In this study we evaluated the nutritional quality of four types of supplemental food for the generalist predatory mites Amblyseius swirskii Athias-Henriot and Amblydromalus (Typhlodromalus) limonicus (Garman and McGregor), both important thrips predators, and for the herbivore western flower thrips Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, by assessing oviposition rates. These tests showed that application of corn pollen, cattail pollen or sterilized eggs of Ephestia kuehniella Zeller to chrysanthemum leaves resulted in three times higher oviposition rates of thrips compared to leaves without additional food. None of the tested food sources promoted predatory mites or western flower thrips exclusively. Decapsulated cysts of Artemia franciscana Kellogg were not suitable, whereas cattail pollen was very suitable for both predatory mites and western flower thrips. In addition, we found that the rate of thrips predation by A. swirskii can be reduced by 50 %, when pollen is present. Nevertheless, application of pollen or Ephestia eggs to a chrysanthemum crop still strongly enhanced the biological control of thrips with A. swirskii, both at low and high release densities of predatory mites through the strong numerical response of the predators. Despite these positive results, application in a crop should be approached with caution, as the results may strongly depend on the initial predator-prey ratio, the nutritional quality of the supplemental food source, the species of predatory mites, the distribution of the

  13. Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) as a potential control agent of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae): effect of pest/predator ratio on pest abundance on strawberry.

    PubMed

    Greco, Nancy M; Sánchez, Norma E; Liljesthröm, Gerardo G

    2005-01-01

    Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) is a promising agent for successful Tetranychus urticae Koch control through conservation techniques, in strawberry crops in La Plata (Buenos Aires, Argentina). In prey-predator interaction, initial relative densities have an important effect on system dynamics. The economic threshold level (ETL) used for this pest in the present study was 50 active mites per leaflet. In our laboratory experiments, initial T. urticae to N. californicus ratio had a significant effect on the population abundance of T. urticae at a 7-day period. When pest/predator ratio was 5/1 (at initial pest densities from 5 to 15 females/leaflet) the final number of active T. urticae/leaflet was significantly lower than the ETL, while at 20 females/leaflet this number did not differ from the ETL. At 7.5/1 ratio, the final number of active T. urticae/leaflet, at initial pest densities from 5 to 15 females/leaflet, reached the ETL without surpassing it. At 10/1 and 15/1 ratios, pest densities exceeded the ETL only at 15 initial T. urticae/leaflet. Most greenhouse and field observations were consistent with the predictions of a graphical model based on experimental results. This predator was very effective in limiting pest densities at a 7-day period and within the range of pest-predator ratios and absolute densities used in this study. Conservation of N. californicus promoting favorable pest/predator ratios may result in early control of T. urticae.

  14. Behavioral and cognitive data in mice with different tryptophan-metabolizing enzymes knocked out.

    PubMed

    Too, Lay Khoon; Li, Kong M; Suarna, Cacang; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Stocker, Roland; McGregor, Iain S; Hunt, Nicholas H

    2016-12-01

    This article demonstrates behavioral changes in mice in response to free adaptation and drinking session adaptation modules implemented in their social home environment, the IntelliCage. These data complement the study "Deletion of TDO2, IDO-1 and IDO-2 differentially affects mouse behavior and cognitive function" (Too LK, Li KM, Suarna C, Maghzal GJ, Stocker R, McGregor IS, et al., 2016) [1]. Prior to programmed drinking sessions, all mice were exposed to a home cage adaptation module during which there was no time limit on water access - the free adaptation module. The exploratory behaviors are here expressed as percentages of visits with nosepokes and of visits with licks. The measurements by percentage of exploratory activity showed minimal genotype effects. The number of nosepokes or licks per corner visit also was compared between WT and gene knockout (GKO) IDO1 mice, WT and GKO IDO2 mice and WT and GKO TDO2 mice and demonstrated unremarkable behavioral changes during the free adaptation module. Analysis of drinking session adaptation behavior showed no genotype effect between WT and GKO of IDO1, IDO2 or TDO2 background. Notwithstanding the absence of genotype differences, each IDO1, IDO2 or TDO2 animal group displayed a specific pattern of adaptation to the drinking session modules. Furthermore, IDO1 GKO mice showed a more rapid recovery of lick frequency to the baseline level compared to the WT equivalents in a simple patrolling task during the first complete testing cycle (R1). TDO2 GKO mice on the other hand did not differ from their WT equivalents in terms of lick frequency over the three test days of complex patrolling and discrimination reversal tasks. Lastly, IDO2 GKO mice reduced their visits to the permanently non-rewarding reference corners by the same degree as did the WT mice. PMID:27668274

  15. The use of the cannibalistic habit and elevated relative humidity to improve the storage and shipment of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Ghazy, Noureldin Abuelfadl; Amano, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using the cannibalistic habits of the mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) and controlling the relative humidity (RH) to prolong the survival time during the storage or shipment of this predatory mite. Three-day-old mated and unmated females were individually kept at 25 ± 1 °C in polypropylene vials (1.5 mL), each containing one of the following items or combinations of items: a kidney bean leaf disk (L), N. californicus eggs (E), and both a leaf disk and the eggs (LE). Because the leaf disk increased the RH in the vials, the RH was 95 ± 2 % under the L and LE treatments and 56 ± 6 % under the E treatment. The median lethal time (LT50) exceeded 50 days for the mated and unmated females under the LE treatment. However, it did not exceed 11 or 3 days for all females under the L or E treatments, respectively. Under the LE treatment, the mated and unmated females showed cannibalistic behavior and consumed an average of 5.2 and 4.6 eggs/female/10 days. Some of the females that survived for LT50 under each treatment were transferred and fed normally with a constant supply of Tetranychus urticae Koch. Unmated females were provided with adult males for 24 h for mating. Only females previously kept at LE treatment produced numbers of eggs equivalent to the control females (no treatment is applied). The results suggested that a supply of predator eggs and leaf material might have furnished nutrition and water vapor, respectively, and that this combination prolonged the survival time of N. californicus during storage. Moreover, this approach poses no risk of pest contamination in commercial products. PMID:27059865

  16. Comparative toxicity of an acetogenin-based extract and commercial pesticides against citrus red mite.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Leandro do Prado; Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Vendramim, José Djair; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2014-01-01

    Acetogenins, a class of natural compounds produced by some Annonaceae species, are potent inhibitors of mitochondrial electron transport systems. Although the cellular respiration processes are an important biochemical site for the acaricidal action of compounds, few studies have been performed to assess the bioactivity of acetogenin-based biopesticides on spider mites, mainly against species that occur in orchards. Using residual contact bioassays, this study aimed to evaluate the bioactivity of an ethanolic extract from Annona mucosa seeds (ESAM) (Annonaceae) against the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), an important pest of the Brazilian citriculture. ESAM is a homemade biopesticide which was previously characterized by its high concentration of acetogenins. It caused both high mortality of P. citri females (LC50 = 7,295, 4,662, 3,463, and 2,608 mg l(-1), after 48, 72, 96, and 120 h of exposure, respectively) and significant oviposition deterrence (EC50 = 3.194,80 mg l(-1)). However, there was no effect on P. citri female fertility (hatching rate). In addition, the ESAM efficacy (in terms of its LC90) was compared with commercial acaricides/insecticides (at its recommended rate) of both natural [Anosom(®) 1 EC (annonin), Derisom(®) 2 EC (karanjin), and Azamax(®) 1.2 EC (azadirachtin + 3-tigloylazadirachtol)] and synthetic origin [Envidor(®) 24 SC (spirodiclofen)]. Based on all of the analyzed variables, the ESAM exhibited levels of activity superior to other botanical commercial acaricides and similar to spirodiclofen. Thus, our results indicate that ESAM may constitute a biorational acaricide for citrus red mite integrated pest management in Brazilian citrus orchards, particularly for local use. PMID:24696362

  17. Evaluation of site-specific tactics using bifenazate and Neoseiulus californicus for management of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) in strawberries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruohan; Nyoike, Teresia W; Liburd, Oscar E

    2016-10-01

    Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of site-specific tactics for management of the twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, a major pest of greenhouse and field-grown strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne). Two site-specific (spot) treatments, the miticide bifenazate (Acramite(®)) and the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus McGregor, were compared with whole-plot treatments of bifenazate or N. californicus to determine whether T. urticae could be effectively managed in field-grown strawberry using only site-specific tactics. Additionally, the cost of site-specific tactics was compared with whole-plot treatments to determine the economic value of using site-specific management tactics for T. urticae in strawberries. In the greenhouse, all treatments equivalently reduced the number of T. urticae below control. In the field during the 2011-2012 season, more T. urticae eggs and motiles were in the whole-plot treatments of both N. californicus and bifenazate in the mid-season and late season, respectively, compared with the spot treatments. With the exception of site-specific N. californicus during the 2011-2012 field season, there were no differences in marketable yields between plots with site-specific treatments and whole-plot management. An economic analysis demonstrated a significant cost savings (75.3 %) with site-specific treatments of N. californicus compared with whole-plot application of N. californicus. Similarly, a 24.7 % reduction in cost was achieved in using site-specific bifenazate compared with whole-plot application of bifenazate. The findings indicate that site-specific treatments with N. californicus and bifenazate are competitive alternatives to whole-field application for T. urticae management in strawberries. PMID:27502111

  18. Pest response in packed table grapes to low temperature storage combined with slow-release sulfur dioxide pads in basic and large-scale tests.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, V Y; Miller, G T; Crisosto, C H

    2001-08-01

    The effect of low temperature storage combined with slow release sulfur dioxide pads was determined in basic laboratory and large-scale commercial tests on western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande; grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn); Pacific spider mite, Tetranychus pacificus McGregor; twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch; and omnivorous leafroller, Platynota stultana Walshingham. Temperatures within the foam containers among the packed clusters decreased from ambient to 2 degrees C within approximately 1 d and ranged from 0.4 to 1.7 degrees C in all tests. Sulfur dioxide concentrations in the foam containers ranged between 0.2 and 1.6 ppm during the 1- to 6-wk storage period in basic tests and 0.5-1.1 ppm during the 1- to 8-wk storage period in the large-scale test. Western flower thrips was completely controlled by a > or =1-wk exposure. Grape mealybug mortality was > or =93% after 2-5 wk exposures and 100% after a 6-wk exposure in basic tests. Pacific spider mite and twospotted spider mite mortality was 98.0 and 99.6%, respectively, after a 6-wk exposure. Mortality of grape mealybug and twospotted spider mite increased significantly at > or =3-wk exposures and Pacific spider mite mortality increased significantly at > or =4-wk exposures. Mortality of the spider mites in general was directly related to the duration of exposure. An 8-wk exposure to low temperature storage combined with slow release sulfur dioxide pads in the large-scale test resulted in 100% mortality of western flower thrips, twospotted spider mite, and omnivorous leafroller. The treatment resulted in <8% survival of grape mealybug and <1% survival of Pacific spider mite in the large-scale test. The combination treatment offers an economical method to attain quarantine control of certain insects and mites.

  19. THE INFLUENCE OF VARIABLE TEMPERATURE AND HUMIDITY ON THE PREDATION EFFICIENCY OF P. PERSIMILIS, N. CALIFORNICUS AND N. FALLACIS.

    PubMed

    Audenaert, J; Vangansbeke, D; Verhoeven, R; De Clercq, P; Tirry, L; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    Predatory mites like Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and N. fallacis (Garman) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) are essential in sustainable control strategies of the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) in warm greenhouse cultures to complement imited available pesticides and to tackle emerging resistance. However, in response to high energy prices, greenhouse plant breeders have recently changed their greenhouse steering strategies, allowing more variation in temperature and humidity. The impact of these variations on biological control agents is poorly understood. Therefore, we constructed functional response models to demonstrate the impact of realistic climate variations on predation efficiency. First, two temperature regimes were compared at constant humidity (70%) and photoperiod (16L:8D): DIF0 (constant temperature) and DIF15 (variable temperature with day-night difference of 15°C). At mean temperatures of 25°C, DIF15 had a negative influence on the predation efficiency of P. persimilis and N. californicus, as compared to DIF0. At low mean temperatures of 15°C, however, DIF15 showed a higher predation efficiency for P. persimilis and N. californicus. For N. fallacis no difference was observed at both 15°C and 25°C. Secondly, two humidity regimes were compared, at a mean temperature of 25°C (DIFO) and constant photoperiod (16L:8D): RHCTE (constant 70% humidity) and RHALT (alternating 40% L:70%D humidity). For P. persimilis and N. fallacis RHCTE resulted in a higher predation efficiency than RHALT, for N. californicus this effect was opposite. This shows that N. californicus is more adapted to dry climates as compared to the other predatory mites. We conclude that variable greenhouse climates clearly affect predation efficiency of P. persimilis, N. californicus and N. fallacis. To obtain optimal control efficiency, the choice of predatory mites (including dose and application frequency

  20. [Fifty years ago, the double helix gave birth to molecular biology].

    PubMed

    Lunardi, J

    2003-01-01

    Fifty years ago, a paper signed by two young scientists, James Watson and Francis Crick, and reporting a model for DNA based on a double helix structure was published in the scientific review Nature in date of april 25, 1953. Although this model of striking simplicity and rare elegance was actually worked out in a few months by the two men, it was the result of quite 100 years of research aimed at the definition of the structure of the genetic material present in living organisms. The double helix was the outcome of a multidisciplinary approach initiated in the mid 19th century by the genetic laws of Gregor Mendel and the discovery of the chemical nature of the desoxyribonucleic acid by Johann Friedrich Miesher. The discovery of the DNA structure had been at the origin of major scientific progress regarding mechanisms that rule the replication and the expression of the genetic information. Theses researches have given birth to a new scientific field, molecular biology, which everyone will see very soon is actually part in a quasi symbiotic manner of all other biological fields dealing with life. The spectacular development of molecular biology during the last fifty years was in great part possible thanks to a concomitant enormous development of the different methods of investigation of the biological molecules and structure. The present rising of biotechnology applications is the direct consequence of the tremendous amount of fundamental knowledge gained during the last few decennia. They open very important and attractive perspectives both on medical or on socio-economic point of views. There is no doubt that the next fifty years will be as fruitful as the last ones.

  1. Link between the chromospheric network and magnetic structures of the corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jendersie, S.; Peter, H.

    2006-12-01

    Context: . Recent work suggested that the traditional picture of the corona above the quiet Sun being rooted in the magnetic concentrations of the chromospheric network alone is strongly questionable. Aims: . Building on that previous study we explore the impact of magnetic configurations in the photosphere and the low corona on the magnetic connectivity from the network to the corona. Observational studies of this connectivity are often utilizing magnetic field extrapolations. However, it is open to which extent such extrapolations really represent the connectivity found on the Sun, as observations are not able to resolve all fine scale magnetic structures. The present numerical experiments aim at contributing to this question. Methods: . We investigated random salt-and-pepper-type distributions of kilo-Gauss internetwork flux elements carrying some 1015 to 1017 Mx, which are hardly distinguishable by current observational techniques. These photospheric distributions are then extrapolated into the corona using different sets of boundary conditions at the bottom and the top. This allows us to investigate the fraction of network flux which is connected to the corona, as well as the locations of those coronal regions which are connected to the network patches. Results: . We find that with current instrumentation one cannot really determine from observations, which regions on the quiet Sun surface, i.e. in the network and internetwork, are connected to which parts of the corona through extrapolation techniques. Future spectro-polarimetric instruments, such as with Solar B or Gregor, will provide a higher sensitivity, and studies like the present one could help to estimate to which extent one can then pinpoint the connection from the chromosphere to the corona. Conclusions: .

  2. Behavioral and cognitive data in mice with different tryptophan-metabolizing enzymes knocked out.

    PubMed

    Too, Lay Khoon; Li, Kong M; Suarna, Cacang; Maghzal, Ghassan J; Stocker, Roland; McGregor, Iain S; Hunt, Nicholas H

    2016-12-01

    This article demonstrates behavioral changes in mice in response to free adaptation and drinking session adaptation modules implemented in their social home environment, the IntelliCage. These data complement the study "Deletion of TDO2, IDO-1 and IDO-2 differentially affects mouse behavior and cognitive function" (Too LK, Li KM, Suarna C, Maghzal GJ, Stocker R, McGregor IS, et al., 2016) [1]. Prior to programmed drinking sessions, all mice were exposed to a home cage adaptation module during which there was no time limit on water access - the free adaptation module. The exploratory behaviors are here expressed as percentages of visits with nosepokes and of visits with licks. The measurements by percentage of exploratory activity showed minimal genotype effects. The number of nosepokes or licks per corner visit also was compared between WT and gene knockout (GKO) IDO1 mice, WT and GKO IDO2 mice and WT and GKO TDO2 mice and demonstrated unremarkable behavioral changes during the free adaptation module. Analysis of drinking session adaptation behavior showed no genotype effect between WT and GKO of IDO1, IDO2 or TDO2 background. Notwithstanding the absence of genotype differences, each IDO1, IDO2 or TDO2 animal group displayed a specific pattern of adaptation to the drinking session modules. Furthermore, IDO1 GKO mice showed a more rapid recovery of lick frequency to the baseline level compared to the WT equivalents in a simple patrolling task during the first complete testing cycle (R1). TDO2 GKO mice on the other hand did not differ from their WT equivalents in terms of lick frequency over the three test days of complex patrolling and discrimination reversal tasks. Lastly, IDO2 GKO mice reduced their visits to the permanently non-rewarding reference corners by the same degree as did the WT mice.

  3. Variability in solar irradiance observed at two contrasting Antarctic sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkov, Boyan H.; Láska, Kamil; Vitale, Vito; Lanconelli, Christian; Lupi, Angelo; Mazzola, Mauro; Budíková, Marie

    2016-05-01

    The features of erythemally weighted (EW) and short-wave downwelling (SWD) solar irradiances, observed during the spring-summer months of 2007-2011 at Johann Gregor Mendel (63°48‧S, 57°53‧W, 7 m a.s.l.) and Dome Concordia (75°06‧S, 123°21‧E, 3233 m a.s.l.) stations, placed at the Antarctic coastal region and on the interior plateau respectively, have been analysed and compared to each other. The EW and SWD spectral components have been presented by the corresponding daily integrated values and were examined taking into account the different geographic positions and different environmental conditions at both sites. The results indicate that at Mendel station the surface solar irradiance is strongly affected by the changes in the cloud cover, aerosols and albedo that cause a decrease in EW between 20% and 35%, and from 0% to 50% in SWD component, which contributions are slightly lower than the seasonal SWD variations evaluated to be about 71%. On the contrary, the changes in the cloud cover features at Concordia station produce only a 5% reduction of the solar irradiance, whilst the seasonal oscillations of 94% turn out to be the predominant mode. The present analysis leads to the conclusion that the variations in the ozone column cause an average decrease of about 46% in EW irradiance with respect to the value found in the case of minimum ozone content at each of the stations. In addition, the ratio between EW and SWD spectral components can be used to achieve a realistic assessment of the radiation amplification factor that quantifies the relationship between the atmospheric ozone and the surface UV irradiance.

  4. Seasonal variation of air temperature at the Mendel Station, James Ross Island in the period of 2006-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laska, Kamil; Prošek, Pavel; Budík, Ladislav

    2010-05-01

    Key words: air temperature, seasonal variation, James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula Recently, significant role of the atmospheric and oceanic circulation variation on positive trend of near surface air temperature along the Antarctic Peninsula has been reported by many authors. However, small number of the permanent meteorological stations located on the Peninsula coast embarrasses a detail analysis. It comprises analysis of spatiotemporal variability of climatic conditions and validation of regional atmospheric climate models. However, geographical location of the Czech Johann Gregor Mendel Station (hereafter Mendel Station) newly established on the northern ice-free part of the James Ross Island provides an opportunity to fill the gap. There are recorded important meteorological characteristics which allow to evaluate specific climatic regime of the region and their impact on the ice-shelf disintegration and glacier retreat. Mendel Station (63°48'S, 57°53'W) is located on marine terrace at the altitude of 7 m. In 2006, a monitoring network of several automatic weather stations was installed at different altitudes ranging from the seashore level up to mesas and tops of glaciers (514 m a.s.l.). In this contribution, a seasonal variation of near surface air temperature at the Mendel Station in the period of 2006-2009 is presented. Annual mean air temperature was -7.2 °C. Seasonal mean temperature ranged from +1.4 °C (December-February) to -17.7 °C (June-August). Frequently, the highest temperature occurred in the second half of January. It reached maximum of +8.1 °C. Sudden changes of atmospheric circulation pattern during winter caused a large interdiurnal variability of air temperature with the amplitude of 30 °C.

  5. The assumption of equilibrium in models of migration.

    PubMed

    Schachter, J; Althaus, P G

    1993-02-01

    In recent articles Evans (1990) and Harrigan and McGregor (1993) (hereafter HM) scrutinized the equilibrium model of migration presented in a 1989 paper by Schachter and Althaus. This model used standard microeconomics to analyze gross interregional migration flows based on the assumption that gross flows are in approximate equilibrium. HM criticized the model as theoretically untenable, while Evans summoned empirical as well as theoretical objections. HM claimed that equilibrium of gross migration flows could be ruled out on theoretical grounds. They argued that the absence of net migration requires that either all regions have equal populations or that unsustainable regional migration propensities must obtain. In fact some moves are inter- and other are intraregional. It does not follow, however, that the number of interregional migrants will be larger for the more populous region. Alternatively, a country could be divided into a large number of small regions that have equal populations. With uniform propensities to move, each of these analytical regions would experience in equilibrium zero net migration. Hence, the condition that net migration equal zero is entirely consistent with unequal distributions of population across regions. The criticisms of Evans were based both on flawed reasoning and on misinterpretation of the results of a number of econometric studies. His reasoning assumed that the existence of demand shifts as found by Goldfarb and Yezer (1987) and Topel (1986) invalidated the equilibrium model. The equilibrium never really obtains exactly, but economic modeling of migration properly begins with a simple equilibrium model of the system. A careful reading of the papers Evans cited in support of his position showed that in fact they affirmed rather than denied the appropriateness of equilibrium modeling. Zero net migration together with nonzero gross migration are not theoretically incompatible with regional heterogeneity of population, wages, or

  6. Physiological Cost Index and Comfort Walking Speed in Two Level Lower Limb Amputees Having No Vascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Vllasolli, Teuta Osmani; Orovcanec, Nikola; Zafirova, Beti; Krasniqi, Blerim; Murtezani, Ardiana; Krasniqi, Valbona; Rama, Bukurije

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Physiological Cost Index (PCI) was introduced by MacGregor to estimate the energy cost in walking of healthy people, also it has been reported for persons with lower limb amputation, walking with prosthesis. Objective: To assess energy cost and walking speed in two level lower limb amputation: transfemoral and transtibial amputation and to determine if the age and prosthetic walking supported with walking aids have impact on energy cost and walking speed. Methods: A prospective cross sectional study was performed in two level lower limb amputees with no vascular disease who were rehabilitated at the Department of Prosthetics and Orthotics at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo. The Physiological Cost Index (PCI) was assessed by five minutes of continuous indoor walking at Comfort Walking Speed (CWS). Results: Eighty three lower limb amputees were recruited. It is shown relevant impact of level of amputation in PCI (t=6.8, p<0.001) and CWS (T=487, p<0.001). The great influence of using crutches during prosthetic walking in PCI (ANOVA F= 39.5 P < 0.001) and CWS (ANOVA F=32.01, P <0.001) has been shown by One Way ANOVA test. The correlation coefficient (R) showed a significant correlation of age with PCI and CWS in both groups of amputation. Conclusions: Walking with transfemoral prosthesis or using walking aids during prosthetic ambulation is matched with higher cost of energy and slower walking speed. Advanced age was shown with high impact on PCI and CWS in both groups of amputees. PMID:25870485

  7. Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veizer, J.; MacKenzie, F. T.

    2003-12-01

    For almost a century, it has been recognized that the present-day thickness and areal extent of Phanerozoic sedimentary strata increase progressively with decreasing geologic age. This pattern has been interpreted either as reflecting an increase in the rate of sedimentation toward the present (Barrell, 1917; Schuchert, 1931; Ronov, 1976) or as resulting from better preservation of the younger part of the geologic record ( Gilluly, 1949; Gregor, 1968; Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971a; Veizer and Jansen, 1979, 1985).Study of the rocks themselves led to similarly opposing conclusions. The observed secular (=age) variations in relative proportions of lithological types and in chemistry of sedimentary rocks (Daly, 1909; Vinogradov et al., 1952; Nanz, 1953; Engel, 1963; Strakhov, 1964, 1969; Ronov, 1964, 1982) were mostly given an evolutionary interpretation. An opposing, uniformitarian, approach was proposed by Garrels and Mackenzie (1971a). For most isotopes, the consensus favors deviations from the present-day steady state as the likely cause of secular trends.This chapter attempts to show that recycling and evolution are not opposing, but complementary, concepts. It will concentrate on the lithological and chemical attributes of sediments, but not deal with the evolution of sedimentary mineral deposits (Veizer et al., 1989) and of life ( Sepkoski, 1989), both well amenable to the outlined conceptual treatment. The chapter relies heavily on Veizer (1988a) for the sections dealing with general recycling concepts, on Veizer (2003) for the discussion of isotopic evolution of seawater, and on Morse and Mackenzie (1990) and Mackenzie and Morse (1992) for discussion of carbonate rock recycling and environmental attributes.

  8. Final Progress Report: Collaborative Research: Decadal-to-Centennial Climate & Climate Change Studies with Enhanced Variable and Uniform Resolution GCMs Using Advanced Numerical Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Fox-Rabinovitz, M; Cote, J

    2009-06-05

    The joint U.S-Canadian project has been devoted to: (a) decadal climate studies using developed state-of-the-art GCMs (General Circulation Models) with enhanced variable and uniform resolution; (b) development and implementation of advanced numerical techniques; (c) research in parallel computing and associated numerical methods; (d) atmospheric chemistry experiments related to climate issues; (e) validation of regional climate modeling strategies for nested- and stretched-grid models. The variable-resolution stretched-grid (SG) GCMs produce accurate and cost-efficient regional climate simulations with mesoscale resolution. The advantage of the stretched grid approach is that it allows us to preserve the high quality of both global and regional circulations while providing consistent interactions between global and regional scales and phenomena. The major accomplishment for the project has been the successful international SGMIP-1 and SGMIP-2 (Stretched-Grid Model Intercomparison Project, phase-1 and phase-2) based on this research developments and activities. The SGMIP provides unique high-resolution regional and global multi-model ensembles beneficial for regional climate modeling and broader modeling community. The U.S SGMIP simulations have been produced using SciDAC ORNL supercomputers. Collaborations with other international participants M. Deque (Meteo-France) and J. McGregor (CSIRO, Australia) and their centers and groups have been beneficial for the strong joint effort, especially for the SGMIP activities. The WMO/WCRP/WGNE endorsed the SGMIP activities in 2004-2008. This project reflects a trend in the modeling and broader communities to move towards regional and sub-regional assessments and applications important for the U.S. and Canadian public, business and policy decision makers, as well as for international collaborations on regional, and especially climate related issues.

  9. Biphasic effect of Solanum nigrum fruit aqueous extract on vascular mesenteric beds in non-diabetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Sohrabipour, Shahla; Kharazmi, Fatemah; Soltani, Nepton; Kamalinejad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Background: In Asia, Solanum nigrum fruit is traditionally used to manage, control, and treat diabetes. Objective: This study was carried out to investigate the endothelium and nitric oxide roles in Solanum nigrum-induced vasorelaxation in non-diabetic and diabetic rat vessels. Materials and Methods: Diabetes was induced by a single i.p. injection of streptozotocin. Eight weeks later, superior mesenteric arteries of non-diabetic and diabetic groups were isolated and perfused according to the McGregor method. Solanum nigrum fruit extract (SNE) at concentrations of 0.00001 to 0.6 mg/ml was added to the medium and perfusion pressure was recorded. Results: Baseline perfusion pressure of diabetic group was significantly higher than non-diabetic rats in both intact and denuded endothelium. The low concentrations of SNE have vasodilatory effect in the diabetic and non-diabetic, but high concentrations of SNE produce initial significant contractions, followed by secondary relaxations in normal and diabetic rats. We observed vasorelaxation at low and high concentrations of SNE in both diabetic and non-diabetic groups after endothelium denudation. SNE-induced vasorelaxation in diabetic group is mediated by both endothelium and smooth muscle, but the relaxatory effect of SNE in non-diabetic group is not mediated by endothelium, and SNE has direct action on the smooth muscle. Conclusion: Although the part of SNE-induced relaxation in diabetic vessel was mediated by endothelium, nitric oxide didn’t play any role in this action, and maybe we can use SNE in the management of diabetes vessel complications in future. PMID:24761120

  10. Comments on Evaluation of thermobarometers for garnet peridotites' by A. A. Finnerty and F. R. Boyd

    SciTech Connect

    Ganguly, J. )

    1992-02-01

    In order to evaluate the accuracy of a given combination of thermo-barometer, Finnerty and Boyd (1984) calculated the P-T conditions of two control samples of garnet lherzolite xenoliths, namely BD 2125 and PHN 1569. The importance of the samples lies in the fact that BD 2125 is diamond bearing, whereas PHN 1569 is graphite bearing. The alumina solubility in orthopyroxene (OPx) coexisting with garnet (Gt) is sensitive to both pressure and temperature changes and has thus been used widely, in combination with various geothermometers, for the thermo-barometry of garnet lherzolite xenoliths. Finnerty and Boyd (1984) concluded that the experimental calibrations of alumina solubility in OPx by Akella (1976) and Lane and Ganguly (1980) are as precise as, but probably less accurate than MC74 barometer,' where MC74 referred to the experimental calibration of alumina solubility in OPx by McGregor (1974) in the system MgSiO{sub 3}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} (MAS) based on synthesis experiments from glass of appropriate compositions. This conclusion on the accuracy of the above barometers was based on their observation that the use of only MC74 placed the calculated P-T conditions of the control samples in the right field with respect to the diamond-graphite equilibrium boundary, while those of Akella (1976; AK76) and Lane and Ganguly (1980; LG80) yielded P-T conditions that did not exactly satisfy the latter constraint, but were within 2 kb of the phase boundary. While it is clear from thermodynamic considerations that an unambiguous test of the accuracy of the calibrations cannot be carried out without making corrections for the effects of the additional components which are present in the natural samples but not in the experimental charges, the calculations of Finnerty and Boyd (1984) using LG80 are grossly erroneous.

  11. Mississippi Basin Carbon Project: upland soil database for sites in Nishnabotna River basin, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, J.W.; Fries, T.L.; Haughy, R.; Kramer, L.; Zheng, Shuhui

    2001-01-01

    The conversion of land from its native state to an agricultural use commonly results in a significant loss of soil carbon (Mann, 1985; Davidson and Ackerman, 1993). Globally, this loss is estimated to account for as much as 1/3 of the net CO2 emissions for the period of 1850 to 1980 (Houghton and others, 1983). Roughly 20 to 40 percent of original soil carbon is estimated to be lost as CO2 as a result of agricultural conversion, or "decomposition enhancement". Global models use this estimate along with land conversion data to provide agricultural contributions of CO2 emissions for global carbon budgets (Houghton and others, 1983; Schimel, 1995). Soil erosion rates are significantly (10X) higher on croplands than on their undisturbed equivalents (Dabney and others, 1997). Most of the concern over erosion is related to diminished productivity of the uplands (Stallings, 1957; McGregor and others, 1969; Rhoton, 1990) or to increased hazards and navigability of the lowlands in the late 1800's to early 1900's. Yet because soil carbon is concentrated at the soil surface, with an exponential decline in concentration with depth (Harden et al, 1999), it is clear that changes in erosion rates seen on croplands must also impact soil carbon storage and terrestrial carbon budgets as well. As yet, erosional losses of carbon are not included in global carbon budgets explicitly as a factor in land conversion nor implicitly as a portion of the decomposition enhancement. However, recent work by Lal and others (1995) and by Stallard (1998) suggests that significant amounts of eroded soil may be stored in man-made reservoirs and depositional environments as a result of agricultural conversion. Moreover, Stallard points out that eroding soils have the potential for replacing part of the carbon trapped in man-made reservoirs. If true, then the global carbon budget may grossly underestimate or ignore a significant sink term resulting from the burial of eroded soil.

  12. Mississippi Basin Carbon Project; upland soil database for sites in Yazoo Basin, northern Mississippi

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harden, J.W.; Fries, T.L.; Huntington, T.G.

    1999-01-01

    The conversion of land from its native state to an agricultural use commonly results in a significant loss of soil carbon (Mann, 1985; Davidson and Ackerman, 1993). Globally, this loss is estimated to account for as much as 1/3 of the net CO2 emissions for the period of 1850 to 1980 (Houghton et al, 1983). Roughly 20 to 40 percent of original soil carbon is estimated to be lost as CO2 as a result of agricultural conversion, or 'decomposition enhancement', and global models use this estimate along with land conversion data to provide agricultural contributions of CO2 emissions for global carbon budgets (Houghton and others, 1983; Schimel, 1995). As yet, erosional losses of carbon are not included in global carbon budgets explicitly as a factor in land conversion nor implicitly as a portion of the decomposition enhancement. However, recent work by Lal et al (1995) and by Stallard (1998) suggests that significant amounts of eroded soil may be stored in man-made reservoirs and depositional environments as a result of agricultural conversion. Moreover, Stallard points out that if eroding soils have the potential for replacing part of the carbon trapped in man-made reservoirs, then the global carbon budget may grossly underestimate or ignore a significant sink term resulting from the burial of eroded soil. Soil erosion rates are significantly (10X) higher on croplands than on their undisturbed equivalents (Dabney et al, 1997). Most of the concern over erosion is related to diminished productivity of the uplands (Stallings, 1957; McGregor et al, 1993; Rhoton and Tyler, 1990) or to increased hazards and navigability of the lowlands in the late 1800's to early 1900's. Yet because soil carbon is concentrated at the soil surface, with an exponential decline in concentration with depth, it is clear that changes in erosion rates seen on croplands must also impact soil carbon storage and terrestrial carbon budgets as well.

  13. Clinical significance of changes in pB-C2 distance in patients with Chiari Type I malformations following posterior fossa decompression: a single-institution experience.

    PubMed

    Bonney, Phillip A; Maurer, Adrian J; Cheema, Ahmed A; Duong, Quyen; Glenn, Chad A; Safavi-Abbasi, Sam; Stoner, Julie A; Mapstone, Timothy B

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT The coexistence of Chiari malformation Type I (CM-I) and ventral brainstem compression (VBSC) has been well documented, but the change in VBSC after posterior fossa decompression (PFD) has undergone little investigation. In this study the authors evaluated VBSC in patients with CM-I and determined the change in VBSC after PFD, correlating changes in VBSC with clinical status and the need for further intervention. METHODS Patients who underwent PFD for CM-I by the senior author from November 2005 to January 2013 with complete radiological records were included in the analysis. The following data were obtained: objective measure of VBSC (pB-C2 distance); relationship of odontoid to Chamberlain's, McGregor's, McRae's, and Wackenheim's lines; clival length; foramen magnum diameter; and basal angle. Statistical analyses were performed using paired t-tests and a mixed-effects ANOVA model. RESULTS Thirty-one patients were included in the analysis. The mean age of the cohort was 10.0 years. There was a small but statistically significant increase in pB-C2 postoperatively (0.5 mm, p < 0.0001, mixed-effects ANOVA). Eleven patients had postoperative pB-C2 values greater than 9 mm. The mean distance from the odontoid tip to Wackenheim's line did not change after PFD, signifying postoperative occipitocervical stability. No patients underwent transoral odontoidectomy or occipitocervical fusion. No patients experienced clinical deterioration after PFD. CONCLUSIONS The increase in pB-C2 in patients undergoing PFD may occur as a result of releasing the posterior vector on the ventral dura, allowing it to relax posteriorly. This increase appears to be well-tolerated, and a postoperative pB-C2 measurement of more than 9 mm in light of stable craniocervical metrics and a nonworsened clinical examination does not warrant further intervention. PMID:26613273

  14. Exploration Drilling and Technology Demonstration At Fort Bliss

    SciTech Connect

    Barker, Ben; Moore, Joe; Segall, Marylin; Nash, Greg; Simmons, Stuart; Jones, Clay; Lear, Jon; Bennett, Carlon

    2014-02-26

    The Tularosa-Hueco basin in south-central New Mexico has long been known as an extensional area of high heat flow. Much of the basin is within the Fort Bliss military reservation, which is an exceptionally high value customer for power independent of the regional electric grid and for direct use energy in building climate control. A series of slim holes drilled in the 1990s established the existence of a thermal anomaly but not its practical value. This study began in 2009 with a demonstration of new exploration drilling technology. The subsequent phases reported here delivered a useful well, comparative exploration data sets and encouragement for further development. A production-size well, RMI56-5, was sited after extensive study of archival and newly collected data in 2010-2011. Most of 2012 was taken up with getting state and Federal authorities to agree on a lead agency for permitting purposes, getting a drilling permit and redesigning the drilling program to suit available equipment. In 2013 we drilled, logged and tested a 924 m well on the McGregor Range at Fort Bliss using a reverse circulation rig. Rig tests demonstrated commercial permeability and the well has a 7-inch slotted liner for use either in production or injection. An August 2013 survey of the completed well showed a temperature of 90 C with no reversal, the highest such temperature in the vicinity. The well’s proximity to demand suggests a potentially valuable resource for direct use heat and emergency power generation. The drilling produced cuttings of excellent size and quality. These were subjected to traditional analyses (thin sections, XRD) and to the QEMScan™ for comparison. QEMScan™ technology includes algorithms for determining such properties of rocks as density, mineralogy, heavy/light atoms, and porosity to be compared with direct measurements of the cuttings. In addition to a complete cuttings set, conventional and resistivity image logs were obtained in the open hole before

  15. Male 11-ketotestosterone levels change as a result of being watched in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Dzieweczynski, Teresa L; Eklund, Amy C; Rowland, William J

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of nesting status and the presence of an audience on 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) levels in male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Prior studies have demonstrated that both nesting status, an indicator of territory-holding power and reproductive state, and the sex of a conspecific audience lead to differences in male behavior during aggressive encounters. Since behavioral changes have already been demonstrated, we chose to investigate whether 11KT levels were also influenced by nesting status and audience presence as 11KT both stimulates, and is stimulated by, reproductive and aggressive behaviors in male teleosts. Male 11KT levels were measured from water samples taken from containers holding fish both before and after interaction. Males interacted under three treatment conditions: no audience, female audience, and male audience. Within these treatments were two nest paradigms: both males had nests or neither male had a nest. 11KT levels varied depending on nesting status and audience type. In general, 11KT levels were lower in interacting males when a female audience was present or when males had nests. Overall, 11KT showed increases or decreases as aggression increased or decreased, as shown by already established behavioral findings [see Dzieweczynski T.L., Green T.M., Earley R.L., Rowland W.J., 2005. Audience effect is context dependent in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Behav. Ecol. 16, 1025-1030; Doutrelant, C., McGregor, P.K., Oliveira, R.F., 2001. Effect of an audience on intrasexual communication in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Behav. Ecol. 12, 283-286.]. Our results suggest that 11KT levels are influenced by reproductive status, as indicated by nest ownership, and audience presence and are most likely modulated by territorial behavior and social environment.

  16. Models of the SL9 Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, J.; Deming, D.

    2000-05-01

    We model the plume flight and atmospheric response phases of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacts, and present synthetic impact-site images and lightcurves that are consistent with observations. The impacts are too complex to cover in a single model, involving hypersonic solid-gas interaction, ballistics, non-hydrostatic hydrodynamics, temperatures of 10 K - 40,000 K, and important interaction length scales from tens of meters to tens of thousands of kilometers. We thus break the event into five phases: comet fragment entry, entry response, plume flight, plume landing response, and dissipation. We initialize a ballistic Monte-Carlo model of the plume flight with the final velocity distribution of Zahnle and Mac Low's (1995, J. Geophys. Res. 100 16,885-16,894) entry-response model. The model ejects the plume into a cone with adjustble tilt and opening angles, and calculates where the mass, energy, and momentum land as a function of time. It also has parameterized material sliding, since the plumes were observed to slide after impact (Hammel et al. 1994, Science 267 1288-1296). The model produces the main features of the large observed impact sites, including the previously-unexplained expanding ring seen at 3.2 micron by McGregor et al. (1996, Icarus 121 361-388). As this is a ballistic model, the atmospheric waves are not reproduced. The model's output feeds a radiative-hydrodynamic model of the atmosphere based on the ZEUS 3D code of Stone and Norman (1992, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 80 753-790). This model produces synthetic lightcurves and explains the physics of the ``third precursors'', ``main event'', ``bounces'', ``flare'', and several spectroscopic observations, including hot CO. The maximum temperature produced is 2000 K. The pincipal cooling mechanism following the main event is adiabatic horizontal expansion, not radiation. Work funded by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program.

  17. Synchronization of coupled rotators: Josephson junction ladders and the Kuramoto model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniels, B. C.; Trees, B. R.

    2002-10-01

    We show that the resistively shunted junction (RSJ) equations describing a ladder array of overdamped, critical-current disordered Josephson junctions that are current-biased along the rungs of the ladder can be mapped onto a Kuramoto model with nearest-neighbor, sinusoidal couplings. This result is obtained by an averaging method, in which the fast dynamics of the RSJ equations are integrated out, leaving the dynamics which describe the time scale over which neighboring junctions along the rungs of the ladder phase and frequency synchronize. We quantify the degree of frequency synchronization of the rung junctions by calculating the standard deviation of their time-averaged voltages, σ_ω, and the phase synchronization is quantified by calculating the time average of the modulus of the Kuramoto order parameter, < |r|>. We test the results of our averaging process by comparing the values of σ_ω and < |r|> for the original RSJ equations and our averaged equations. We find excellent agreement for DC bias currents of I_B/< I_c>agt 3, where < I_c> is the average critical current of the rung junctions, and critical current disorders of up to 10%. We also study the effects of thermal noise on the synchronization properties of the overdamped ladder. Finally, we find that including the effects of junction capacitance can lead to a discontinuous synchronization transition as the strength of the coupling between neighboring junctions is smoothly varied. This project was supported by the Ohio Wesleyan University Summer Research Program which was funded in part by the McGregor Fund.

  18. Excited-State Dynamics in 6-THIOGUANOSINE from Femtosecond to Microsecond Time Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Cao; Reichardt, Christian; Crespo-Hernández, Carlos E.

    2011-06-01

    6-thioguanine is a widely used pro-drug in which the oxygen atom in the carbonyl group of guanine is replaced by a sulfur atom. Previous studies have shown that patients treated with 6-thioguanine can metabolize and incorporate it in DNA as 6-thioguanosine (6tGuo). These patients show a high incidence of skin cancer when they are exposed to extended periods of sunlight irradiation. In this work, the photodynamics of 6tGuo is investigated by broad band time resolved transient spectroscopy. Similar to previously studied 4-thiothymidine, our results show that excitation of 6tGuo with UVA light at 340 nm results in efficient and ultrafast intersystem crossing to the triplet manifold (τ = 0.31±0.05 ps) and a high triplet quantum yield (φ = 0.8±0.2). The triplet state has a lifetime of 720±10 ns in N2-saturated vs. 460±10 ns in air-saturated aqueous solution. In addition, a minor picosecond deactivation channel (80±15 ps) is observed, which is tentatively assigned to internal conversion from the lowest-energy excited singlet state to the ground state. Quantum chemical calculations support the proposed kinetic model. Based on the high triplet quantum yield measured, it is proposed that the phototoxicity of 6tGuo is due to its ability to photosensitized singlet oxygen, which can result in oxidative damage to DNA. P. O'Donovan, C. M. Perrett, X. Zhang, B. Montaner, Y.-Z. Xu, C. A. Harwood, J. M. McGregor, S. L. Walker, F. Hanaoka, P. Karran, Science 309, 1871 (2005). C. Reichardt, C. Guo, C. E. Crespo-Hernández, J. Phys. Chem. B. in press (2011). C. Reichardt, C. E. Crespo-Hernández, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 1, 2239 (2010) C. Reichardt, C. E. Crespo-Hernández, Chem. Comm. 46, 5963 (2010).

  19. The sudden appearance of CO emission in LHA 115-S 65

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksala, M. E.; Kraus, M.; Arias, M. L.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Cidale, L.; Muratore, M. F.; Curé, M.

    2012-10-01

    Molecular emission has been detected in several Magellanic Cloud B[e] supergiants. In this Letter, we report on the detection of CO band head emission in the B[e] supergiant LHA 115-S 65, and present a K-band near-infrared spectrum obtained with the Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observation in the Near-Infrared (SINFONI; R= 4500) on the ESO VLT UT4 telescope. The observed molecular band head emission in S65 is quite surprising in the light of a previous non-detection by McGregor, Hyland & McGinn, as well as a high-resolution (R= 50 000) Gemini/Phoenix spectrum of this star taken nine months earlier showing no emission. Based on analysis of the optical spectrum by Kraus, Borges Fernandes & de Araújo, we suspect that the sudden appearance of molecular emission could be due to density build-up in an outflowing viscous disc, as seen for Be stars. This new discovery, combined with variability in two other similar evolved massive stars, indicates an evolutionary link between B[e] supergiants and luminous blue variables. Based on observations obtained with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 088.D-044 and at the Gemini Observatory which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (USA), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), under programme ID GS-2010B-Q-31.

  20. Optical Magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budker, Dmitry; Kimball, Derek F. Jackson

    2013-03-01

    Part I. Principles and Techniques: 1. General principles and characteristics of optical magnetometers D. F. Jackson Kimball, E. B. Alexandrov and D. Budker; 2. Quantum noise in atomic magnetometers M. V. Romalis; 3. Quantum noise, squeezing, and entanglement in radio-frequency optical magnetometers K. Jensen and E. S. Polzik; 4. Mx and Mz magnetometers E. B. Alexandrov and A. K. Vershovskiy; 5. Spin-exchange-relaxation-free (serf) magnetometers I. Savukov and S. J. Seltzer; 6. Optical magnetometry with modulated light D. F. Jackson Kimball, S. Pustelny, V. V. Yashchuk and D. Budker; 7. Microfabricated atomic magnetometers S. Knappe and J. Kitching; 8. Optical magnetometry with nitrogen-vacancy centers in diamond V. M. Acosta, D. Budker, P. R. Hemmer, J. R. Maze and R. L. Walsworth; 9. Magnetometry with cold atoms W. Gawlik and J. M. Higbie; 10. Helium magnetometers R. E. Slocum, D. D. McGregor and A. W. Brown; 11. Surface coatings for atomic magnetometry S. J. Seltzer, M.-A. Bouchiat and M. V. Balabas; 12. Magnetic shielding V. V. Yashchuk, S.-K. Lee and E. Paperno; Part II. Applications: 13. Remote detection magnetometry S. M. Rochester, J. M. Higbie, B. Patton, D. Budker, R. Holzlöhner and D. Bonaccini Calia; 14. Detection of nuclear magnetic resonance with atomic magnetometers M. P. Ledbetter, I. Savukov, S. J. Seltzer and D. Budker; 15. Space magnetometry B. Patton, A. W. Brown, R. E. Slocum and E. J. Smith; 16. Detection of biomagnetic fields A. Ben-Amar Baranga, T. G. Walker and R. T. Wakai; 17. Geophysical applications M. D. Prouty, R. Johnson, I. Hrvoic and A. K. Vershovskiy; Part III. Broader Impact: 18. Tests of fundamental physics with optical magnetometers D. F. Jackson Kimball, S. K. Lamoreaux and T. E. Chupp; 19. Nuclear magnetic resonance gyroscopes E. A. Donley and J. Kitching; 20. Commercial magnetometers and their application D. C. Hovde, M. D. Prouty, I. Hrvoic and R. E. Slocum; Index.

  1. Models of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 Impacts. I. Ballistic Monte Carlo Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Joseph; Deming, Drake

    2001-11-01

    We model the plumes raised by impacting fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 to calculate synthetic plume views, atmospheric infall fluxes, and debris patterns. Our plume is a swarm of ballistic particles with one of several mass-velocity distributions (MVDs). The swarm is ejected instantaneously and uniformly into a cone from its apex. On falling to the ejection altitude, particles slide with horizontal deceleration following one of several schemes. The model ignores hydrodynamic and Coriolis effects. Initial conditions come from observations of plume heights and calculated or estimated properties of impactors. We adjust the plume tilt, opening angle, and minimum velocity and choose MVDs and sliding schemes to create impact patterns that match observations. Our best match uses the power-law MVD from the numerical impact model of Zahnle & Mac Low, with velocity cutoffs at 4.5 and 11.8 km s-1, a cone opening angle of 75°, a cone tilt of 30° from vertical, and a sliding constant deceleration of 1.74 m s-2. A mathematically derived feature of Zahnle & Mac Low's published cumulative MVD is a thin shell of mass at the maximum velocity, corresponding to the former atmospheric shock front. This vanguard contains 22% of the mass and 45% of the energy of the plume and accounts for several previously unexplained observations, including the large, expanding ring seen at 3.2 μm by McGregor et al. and the ``third precursors'' and ``flare'' seen near 300 and 1000 s, respectively, in the infrared light curves. We present synthetic views of the plumes in flight and after landing and derive infall fluxes of mass, energy, and vertical momentum as a function of time and position on the surface. These fluxes initialize a radiative-hydrodynamic atmosphere model (Paper II of this series) that calculates the thermal and dynamical response of the atmosphere and produces synthetic light curves.

  2. Physics of the SL9 Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, J.; Deming, D.

    2000-10-01

    We model the plume flight and atmospheric response phases of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacts, producing synthetic impact-site images and lightcurves that are consistent with observations. We initialize a ballistic Monte-Carlo plume model with the final velocity distribution of Zahnle and Mac Low's (1995, J. Geophys. Res. 100, 16,885--16,894) entry-response model. Our model ejects the plume into a cone with adjustble tilt and opening angles, and calculates where and when the mass, energy, and momentum land. It also has parameterized material sliding, since the observed plumes slid after impact (Hammel et al. 1994, Science 267, 1288--1296). The model reproduces the main features of the large impact sites, including the previously-unexplained expanding ring seen at 3.2 microns by McGregor et al. (1996, Icarus 121, 361--388). The model's output feeds a radiative-hydrodynamic atmosphere model based on the ZEUS 3D code of Stone and Norman (1992, Astrophys. J. Suppl. 80, 753--790). This model produces synthetic lightcurves and explains the physics of the ``third precursors'', ``main event'', ``bounces'', ``flare'', and several spectroscopic observations, including hot CO. The maximum temperature is 2500 K. The principal cooling mechanism following the main event is adiabatic horizontal expansion, not radiation. We cannot reproduce many lightcurve features without a "vanguard" of high-density, fast material preceeding the main plume. This is a little-noted feature of Zahnle and Mac Low's (1995) published velocity distribution. Our models represent the closure of the scientific method on models of fragment impact and breakup, as they carry the final conditions of impact models forward in time and produce synthetic observables capable of distinguishing among those models. We offer to initialize our models with the final conditions of any published impact model to perform this test. Work funded by the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program.

  3. Models of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 Impacts. II. Radiative-Hydrodynamic Modeling of the Plume Splashback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Drake; Harrington, Joseph

    2001-11-01

    We model the plume ``splashback'' phase of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) collisions with Jupiter. We modified the ZEUS-3D hydrodynamic code to include radiative transport in the gray approximation and present validation tests. After initializing with a model Jovian atmosphere, we couple mass and momentum fluxes of SL9 plume material, as calculated by the ballistic Monte Carlo plume model of Paper I of this series. A strong and complex shock structure results. The shock temperatures produced by the model agree well with observations, and the structure and evolution of the modeled shocks account for the appearance of high-excitation molecular line emission after the peak of the continuum light curve. The splashback region cools by radial expansion as well as by radiation. The morphology of our synthetic continuum light curves agrees with observations over a broad wavelength range (0.9-12 μm). Much of the complex structure of these light curves is a natural consequence of the temperature dependence of the Planck function and the plume velocity distribution. A feature of our ballistic plume is a shell of mass at the highest velocities, which we term the ``vanguard.'' Portions of the vanguard ejected on shallow trajectories produce a lateral shock front, whose initial expansion accounts for the ``third precursors'' seen in the 2 μm light curves of the larger impacts and for hot methane emission at early times observed by Dinelli and coworkers. Continued propagation of this lateral shock approximately reproduces the radii, propagation speed, and centroid positions of the large rings observed at 3-4 μm by McGregor and coworkers. The portion of the vanguard ejected closer to the vertical falls back with high z-component velocities just after maximum light, producing CO emission and the ``flare'' seen at 0.9 μm. The model also produces secondary maxima (``bounces''), whose amplitudes and periods are in agreement with observations.

  4. Does head posture have a significant effect on the hyoid bone position and sternocleidomastoid electromyographic activity in young adults?

    PubMed

    Valenzuela, Saúl; Miralles, Rodolfo; Ravera, María José; Zúñiga, Claudia; Santander, Hugo; Ferrer, Marcelo; Nakouzi, Jorge

    2005-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between head posture (head extension, normal head posture, and head flexion) and anteroposterior head position, hyoid bone position, and the sternocleidomastoid integrated electromyographic (IEMG) activity in a sample of young adults. The study included 50 individuals with natural dentition and bilateral molar support. A lateral craniocervical radiograph was taken for each subject and a cephalometric analysis was performed. Head posture was measured by means of the craniovertebral angle formed by the MacGregor plane and the odontoid plane. According to the value of this angle, the sample was divided into the following three groups: head extension (less than 95 degrees); normal head posture (between 95 degrees and 106 degrees); and head flexion (more than 106 degrees). The following cephalometric measurements were taken to compare the three groups: anteroposterior head position (true vertical plane/pterygoid distance), anteroposterior hyoid bone position (true vertical plane-Ha distance), vertical hyoid bone position (H-H' distance in the hyoid triangle), and CO-C2 distance. In the three groups, IEMG recordings at rest and during swallowing of saliva and maximal voluntary clenching were performed by placing bipolar surface electrodes on the right and left sternocleidomastoid muscles. In addition, the condition with/without craniomandibular dysfunction (CMD) in each group was also assessed. Head posture showed no significant association with anteroposterior head position, anteroposterior hyoid bone position, vertical hyoid bone position, or sternocleidomastoid IEMG activity. There was no association to head posture with/without the condition of CMD. Clinical relevance of the results is discussed.

  5. New mite invasions in citrus in the early years of the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise; Ochoa, Ronald

    2013-02-01

    Several mite species commonly attack cultivated citrus around the world. Up to 104 phytophagous species have been reported causing damage to leaves, buds and fruits, but only a dozen can be considered major pests requiring control measures. In recent years, several species have expanded their geographical range primarily due to the great increase in trade and travel worldwide, representing a threat to agriculture in many countries. Three spider mite species (Acari: Tetranychidae) have recently invaded the citrus-growing areas in the Mediterranean region and Latin America. The Oriental red mite, Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein), presumably from the Near East, was detected in southern Spain in 2001. The Texas citrus mite, Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor), is widely distributed in North, Central and South America. It was first reported in Europe in 1999 on citrus in Portugal; afterwards the mite invaded the citrus orchards in southern Spain. In Latin America, the Hindustan citrus mite, Schizotetranychus hindustanicus (Hirst), previously known only from citrus and other host plants in India, was reported causing significant damage to citrus leaves and fruits in Zulia, northwest Venezuela, in the late 1990s. Later, this mite species spread to the southeast being detected on lemon trees in the state of Roraima in northern Brazil in 2008. Whereas damage levels, population dynamics and control measures are relatively well know in the case of Oriental red mite and Texas citrus mite, our knowledge of S. hindustanicus is noticeably scant. In the present paper, information on pest status, seasonal trends and natural enemies in invaded areas is provided for these species, together with morphological data useful for identification. Because invasive species may evolve during the invasion process, comparison of behavior, damage and management options between native and invaded areas for these species will be useful for understanding the invader's success and their ability to

  6. Male 11-ketotestosterone levels change as a result of being watched in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Dzieweczynski, Teresa L; Eklund, Amy C; Rowland, William J

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of nesting status and the presence of an audience on 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) levels in male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Prior studies have demonstrated that both nesting status, an indicator of territory-holding power and reproductive state, and the sex of a conspecific audience lead to differences in male behavior during aggressive encounters. Since behavioral changes have already been demonstrated, we chose to investigate whether 11KT levels were also influenced by nesting status and audience presence as 11KT both stimulates, and is stimulated by, reproductive and aggressive behaviors in male teleosts. Male 11KT levels were measured from water samples taken from containers holding fish both before and after interaction. Males interacted under three treatment conditions: no audience, female audience, and male audience. Within these treatments were two nest paradigms: both males had nests or neither male had a nest. 11KT levels varied depending on nesting status and audience type. In general, 11KT levels were lower in interacting males when a female audience was present or when males had nests. Overall, 11KT showed increases or decreases as aggression increased or decreased, as shown by already established behavioral findings [see Dzieweczynski T.L., Green T.M., Earley R.L., Rowland W.J., 2005. Audience effect is context dependent in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Behav. Ecol. 16, 1025-1030; Doutrelant, C., McGregor, P.K., Oliveira, R.F., 2001. Effect of an audience on intrasexual communication in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Behav. Ecol. 12, 283-286.]. Our results suggest that 11KT levels are influenced by reproductive status, as indicated by nest ownership, and audience presence and are most likely modulated by territorial behavior and social environment. PMID:16473353

  7. ELECTRONIC SCHOLARLY PUBLISHING: FOUNDATIONS OF GENETICS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Robbins

    2002-11-10

    As the Human Genome Project (HGP) moves toward its successful completion, more and more people have become interested in understanding this project and its results. Since the HGP has significant ethical, legal, and social implications for all citizens, the number of individuals who do, or should wish to become familiar with the project is high. In addition to its importance in the training of professional geneticists, the HGP is of special relevance for undergraduate training in basic biology, and even for high-school and other K-12 education. Understanding the results of HGP research requires a familiarity with the notions of basic genetics. Unlike other disciplines that evolved over centuries, modern genetics began abruptly with the rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's work in 1900. Within a few years, fundamental concepts were elaborated and the foundations of genetics established. Because genetics developed so rapidly in just a few decades after 1900, the literature of that period constitutes a valuable resource even now. It may be read profitably by students and scientists wishing to understand the foundations of their field, as well as by laymen or historians of science. Unfortunately, the early literature is rapidly becoming almost inaccessible. Newer libraries do not hold older journals and even established libraries are moving their materials from that era into hard-to-reach (and impossible to browse) long-term storage in remote warehouses. To be sure, key studies from the early work are discussed in nearly all textbooks, but a comparison of these presentations with the actual literature shows that most textbook treatments have essentially mythologized the early work so that real understanding is lost. There have been several collections of classic works developed over the years (although none lately), but these suffer from the effects of the necessary, but nonetheless pernicious, highly selective sampling that accompanies these projects. Such selectivity

  8. Observations of a solar storm from the stratosphere: The BARREL Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halford, Alexa

    2016-07-01

    During the Balloon Array for Radiation belt Relativistic Electron Losses (BARREL) second campaign, BARREL observed with a single primary instrument, a 3"x3" NaI spectrometer measuring 20 keV - 10 MeV X-rays [Woodger et al 2015 JGR], portions of an entire solar storm. This very small event, in terms of geomagnetic activity, or one of the largest of the current solar cycle, in terms of solar energetic particle events, has given us a very clear set of observations of the response of the day side magnetosphere to the arrival of an interplanetary coronal mass ejection shock. The BARREL mission of opportunity working in tandem with the Van Allen Probes was designed to study the loss of radiation belt electrons to the ionosphere and upper atmosphere. However BARREL is able to see X-rays from a multitude of sources. During the second campaign, the Sun produced, and BARREL observed, an X-class flare [McGregor et al in prep.]. This was followed by BARREL observations of X-rays, gamma-rays, and directly injected protons from the solar energetic particle (SEP) event associated with the eruption from the Sun while simultaneously the Van Allen Probes observed the SEP protons in the inner magnetosphere [Halford et al 2016 submitted JGR]. Two days later the shock generated by the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME-shock) hit the Earth while BARREL was in conjunction with the Van Allen Probes and GOES [Halford et al 2015 JGR]. Although this was a Mars directed CME and the Earth only received a glancing blow [Möstl et al 2015 Nat. Commun., Mays et al 2015 ApJ], the modest compression led to the formation of ultra low frequency (ULF) waves, electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves, and very low frequency (VLF) whistler mode waves [Halford and Mann 2016 submitted to JGR]. The combination of these waves and the enhancement of the local particle population led to precipitation of electrons remotely observed by BARREL. This was not a Halloween, Bastille Day, or one of the now

  9. Intensification of the meridional temperature gradient in the Great Barrier Reef following the Last Glacial Maximum - Results from IODP Expedition 325

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felis, Thomas; McGregor, Helen V.; Linsley, Braddock K.; Tudhope, Alexander W.; Gagan, Michael K.; Suzuki, Atsushi; Inoue, Mayuri; Thomas, Alexander L.; Esat, Tezer M.; Thompson, William G.; Tiwari, Manish; Potts, Donald C.; Mudelsee, Manfred; Yokoyama, Yusuke; Webster, Jody M.

    2015-04-01

    Tropical south-western Pacific temperatures are of vital importance to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), but the role of sea surface temperatures (SSTs) in the growth of the GBR since the Last Glacial Maximum remains largely unknown. Here we present records of Sr/Ca and δ18O for Last Glacial Maximum and deglacial corals that were drilled by Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 325 along the shelf edge seaward of the modern GBR. The Sr/Ca and δ18O records of the precisely U-Th dated fossil shallow-water corals show a considerably steeper meridional SST gradient than the present day in the central GBR. We find a 1-2 ° C larger temperature decrease between 17° S and 20° S about 20,000 to 13,000 years ago. The result is best explained by the northward expansion of cooler subtropical waters due to a weakening of the South Pacific gyre and East Australian Current. Our findings indicate that the GBR experienced substantial and regionally differing temperature change during the last deglaciation, much larger temperature changes than previously recognized. Furthermore, our findings suggest a northward contraction of the Western Pacific Warm Pool during the LGM and last deglaciation, and serve to explain anomalous drying of northeastern Australia at that time. Overall, the GBR developed through significant SST change and, considering temperature alone, may be more resilient than previously thought. Webster, J. M., Yokoyama, Y. & Cotteril, C. & the Expedition 325 Scientists. Proceedings of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Vol. 325 (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program Management International Inc., 2011). Felis, T., McGregor, H. V., Linsley, B. K., Tudhope, A. W., Gagan, M. K., Suzuki, A., Inoue, M., Thomas, A. L., Esat, T. M., Thompson, W. G., Tiwari, M., Potts, D. C., Mudelsee, M., Yokoyama, Y., Webster, J. M. Intensification of the meridional temperature gradient in the Great Barrier Reef following the Last Glacial Maximum. Nature Communications 5, 4102

  10. The Effects of Lithium Carbonate Supplemented with Nitrazepam on Sleep Disturbance during Cannabis Abstinence

    PubMed Central

    Allsop, David J.; Bartlett, Delwyn J.; Johnston, Jennifer; Helliwell, David; Winstock, Adam; McGregor, Iain S.; Lintzeris, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    actigraphy measures of sleep disturbance, warranting further investigation. Discord between objective and subjective sleep indices suggest caution in evaluating treatment interventions with self-report sleep data only. Citation: Allsop DJ, Bartlett DJ, Johnston J, Helliwell D, Winstock A, McGregor IS, Lintzeris N. The effects of lithium carbonate supplemented with nitrazepam on sleep disturbance during cannabis abstinence. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(10):1153–1162. PMID:26285109

  11. [Use of pedicled cutaneous groin flaps in distal reconstruction of the upper extremity].

    PubMed

    Molski, M; Potocki, K; Stańczyk, J; Komorowska, A; Murawski, M

    2000-01-01

    In the years 1981-1997 at the Department of Plastic Surgery Medical Centre for Postsgraduate Education in Warsaw 116 patients were treated surgically using groin flaps and 97 patients using a pedicled cutaneous groin flap. This paper reports the results of the later technique. Reconstructions were performed in 10 female patients aged 18-58 (mean age 37.5 years) and 87 male patients aged 15-67 (mean age 33.8 years). The tissue defects or acquired deformations were caused by: crush injuries (26 cases), scalping injuries (23 cases), rugged injuries (18 cases), avulsion trauma (15 cases), explosion injuries (8 cases) and electric burns (7 cases). Flap size depended upon extent of the tissue defect and the from flaps were 7-26 cm long and 4-12 cm wide. Flap area ranged from 35 to 260 square centimetres. Emergency procedures were performed in 59 patients (61%). Secondary reconstructions were carried out in 38 cases (39%). Operative technique was based on the rules described by McGregor and Jackson. The donor site was sutured primarily tubulizing its basis--as in tube flap. The flap pedicle was cut off during a one stage procedure in 41 patients 21-30 days (mean 23 days) after surgery or during a two-stage procedure in 56 cases. The two-stage procedure consisted of an incision of part of the pedicle after 15-45 days post-op (mean 21 days) followed by a complete dissection after a few days (mean 4 days). In 44 cases the flap required modelling i.e. excision of excessives kin and/or thinning of subcutaneous tissue. The flap healed in 96 patients (99%). Complications at different stages of the treatment were observed in 40 patients (41%). In 3 cases wound ischemia was observed because of too tight suturing. Removal of skin sutures lead to normalization of blood supply. In 7 patients cyanotic skin of the distal part with no significant consequences was observed. In 27 patients (28%) necrosis of the marginal tissues surrounding the operation wound after cutting of the pedicle

  12. High Holocene lake levels in eastern Patagonia (Argentina) as a result of persistent Atlantic rainfall (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariztegui, D.; Compagnucci, R.; Agosta, E. A.

    2013-12-01

    Today's precipitation in central Patagonia, Argentina, mostly follows the intensity of the Westerlies. However, the extraordinary persistence of daily easterly winds can trigger episodes of intense rainfall reflected as water level variations in Lago Cardiel, a closed lacustrine basin located at 49°S. Meteorological data from 11-20 March 2002 at nearby Gobernador Gregores station recorded a heavy rain spell of 50mm accounting for 30% of the mean annual rainfall (167mm/year). The synoptic situation during this interval shows rainfall produced by wet air mass advection from the Atlantic. The weather surface maps for these days display a cyclone incoming at 45°S to the west of western Patagonia together with a concomitant anticyclone to the southwest, while a cyclogenesis initiates in eastern Patagonia. This pressure dipole produced east-north-eastern winds at the lake latitude and a generalized drop in the Westerlies intensity almost across the entire Patagonia. This is shown in distant stations such as Bariloche(41.9°S) and Rio Gallegos (51.4°S) in northwestern and southeastern Patagonia, respectively, as well as in Chilean stations such as Balmaceda (45.9°S) and Chile Chico (46.9°S). Similar pressure anomalies along with changes in wind intensity and direction have been previously simulated for the Austral winter (JJA) during the middle Holocene (7.0 to 4.5 kcal yrs BP). Thus, weaker Westerlies along with a higher frequency of the dipole-type atmospheric circulation than at present increased the described easterly winds-triggered rainfall. This inference agrees with high lake levels in the Lago Cardiel record along with more negative - Atlantic type - oxygen isotopic composition of authigenic carbonates. An increase in the frequency of this climatic configuration during longer time intervals could further explain the extreme lake highstands reconstructed for the early Holocene, and the contemporaneous negative isotopic signature of the carbonates. It could

  13. Tornadoes within the Czech Republic: from early medieval chronicles to the "internet society"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setvák, Martin; Šálek, Milan; Munzar, Jan

    This paper addresses the historical documentation of tornadoes and the awareness of tornadic events in the area of the present Czech Republic throughout the last nine centuries. The oldest records of tornado occurrence in the region can be found in chronicles from the first half of the 12th century—the two most interesting of these are presented here in translation from the original Latin texts. Several other cases of possible tornadoes and waterspouts can be found in chronicles from the 12th and 13th centuries. However, from the descriptions of the events, it is not always clear if the phenomenon was a tornado, waterspout, dust swirl, or if it was of a non-tornadic nature. From the 14th to 19th centuries, tornado records are rather scarce for the region. However, this is likely to have a non-meteorological explanation. Gregor Mendel's (1871) essay " Die Windhose vom 13. October 1870" can be considered as a distinctive "breakpoint" in the documentation history of tornadoes in the territory of the present Czech Republic, followed later by the work of Edler von Wahlburg [Das Wetter 28 (1911) 135] and Wegener [Wind-und-Wasserhosen in Europa. F. Vieweg & Sohn, Braunschweig, 1917]. During the "socialist" period, the term " tornado" was seldom used and they were poorly understood, producing a view that "tornadoes do not occur in Central Europe". The situation began to change with the works of Munzar [Tromby (tonáda) na územı´ Èeské republiky v letech 1119-1993. Zbornı´k Dejin Fyziky, vol. XI. Voj. Akadémia SNP, Liptovský Mikuláš, pp. 69-72, 1993 (in Czech)] and Šálek [Meteorol. Zpr. 47 (1994) 172], and new records showed that about one tornado per year occurred between 1994 and 1999. Finally, between 2000 and 2002, the number of documented tornadoes in the Czech Republic was five to eight cases per year.

  14. Geomorphology and sedimentology of hummocky terrain, south-central Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro-Stasiuk, Mandy J.

    The landscape in south-central Alberta, Canada, is dominated by a suite of landforms that formed beneath the Laurentide Ice Sheet. This thesis explores the origins of those landforms, specifically hummocky terrain. Sediments in the hummocks, hummock form, and associations with other landforms are examined to determine hummock genesis. Sediment was examined from over one hundred exposures through the "Buffalo Lake Moraine" at Travers Reservoir, McGregor Reservoir, and the Little Bow River. This belt of hummocky terrain (like most hummocky terrain regions) is traditionally interpreted as forming at, or near, the stagnating margins of the Laurentide Ice Sheet by supraglacial letdown. However, hummocks in south-central Alberta contain a complex variety of sediments and materials atypical of supraglacial letdown: in situ bedrock, thrust bedrock, lodgement till, melt-out till, sorted sand and gravel, rippled sand, rhythmically-bedded sand, silt, and clay, and pervasively sheared beds. All sediment types and deformation structures were deposited, or formed, subglacially. Also, the deposits make up in situ stratigraphies that record the history of initial Laurentide Ice Sheet advance into the area (lodgment till and thrust bedrock), the extensive accumulation of water at the bed (glaciolacustrine beds), and ice stagnation (melt-out till). Regardless of the genesis of sediments in hummocks, sedimentary units and structures are abruptly truncated by the surface that represents the hummock and trough morphology, demonstrating that the hummocks are erosional forms and that they represent a landscape unconformity. Subglacial sediments predating the erosion and subglacial eskers overlying the erosion surface strongly suggest that hummock erosion was subglacial. Also, hummock morphology, lithostratigraphy correlated from hummock to hummock, abrupt truncation at the land surface, and widespread boulder lags support meltwater erosion for hummocky terrain in the region. Well

  15. Hydrolysis of (1,4)-β-D-mannans in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is mediated by the concerted action of (1,4)-β-D-mannan endohydrolase and β-D-mannosidase

    PubMed Central

    Hrmova, Maria; Burton, Rachel A.; Biely, Peter; Lahnstein, Jelle; Fincher, Geoffrey B.

    2006-01-01

    A family GH5 (family 5 glycoside hydrolase) (1,4)-β-D-mannan endohydrolase or β-D-mannanase (EC 3.2.1.78), designated HvMAN1, has been purified 300-fold from extracts of 10-day-old barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings using ammonium sulfate fractional precipitation, followed by ion exchange, hydrophobic interaction and size-exclusion chromatography. The purified HvMAN1 is a relatively unstable enzyme with an apparent molecular mass of 43 kDa, a pI of 7.8 and a pH optimum of 4.75. The HvMAN1 releases Man (mannose or D-mannopyranose)-containing oligosaccharides of degree of polymerization 2–6 from mannans, galactomannans and glucomannans. With locust-bean galactomannan and mannopentaitol as substrates, the enzyme has Km constants of 0.16 mg·ml−1 and 5.3 mM and kcat constants of 12.9 and 3.9 s−1 respectively. Product analyses indicate that transglycosylation reactions occur during hydrolysis of (1,4)-β-D-manno-oligosaccharides. The complete sequence of 374 amino acid residues of the mature enzyme has been deduced from the nucleotide sequence of a near full-length cDNA, and has allowed a three-dimensional model of the HvMAN1 to be constructed. The barley HvMAN1 gene is a member of a small (1,4)-β-D-mannan endohydrolase family of at least six genes, and is transcribed at low levels in a number of organs, including the developing endosperm, but also in the basal region of young roots and in leaf tips. A second barley enzyme that participates in mannan depolymerization through its ability to hydrolyse (1,4)-β-D-manno-oligosaccharides to Man is a family GH1 β-D-mannosidase, now designated HvβMANNOS1, but previously identified as a β-D-glucosidase [Hrmova, MacGregor, Biely, Stewart and Fincher (1998) J. Biol. Chem. 273, 11134–11143], which hydrolyses 4NP (4-nitrophenyl) β-D-mannoside three times faster than 4NP β-D-glucoside, and has an action pattern typical of a (1,4)-β-D-mannan exohydrolase. PMID:16771710

  16. Final Progress Report submitted via the DOE Energy Link (E-Link) in June 2009 [Collaborative Research: Decadal-to-Centennial Climate & Climate Change Studies with Enhanced Variable and Uniform Resolution GCMs Using Advanced Numerical Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Fox-Rabinovitz, M; Cote, J

    2009-10-09

    The joint U.S-Canadian project has been devoted to: (a) decadal climate studies using developed state-of-the-art GCMs (General Circulation Models) with enhanced variable and uniform resolution; (b) development and implementation of advanced numerical techniques; (c) research in parallel computing and associated numerical methods; (d) atmospheric chemistry experiments related to climate issues; (e) validation of regional climate modeling strategies for nested- and stretched-grid models. The variable-resolution stretched-grid (SG) GCMs produce accurate and cost-efficient regional climate simulations with mesoscale resolution. The advantage of the stretched grid approach is that it allows us to preserve the high quality of both global and regional circulations while providing consistent interactions between global and regional scales and phenomena. The major accomplishment for the project has been the successful international SGMIP-1 and SGMIP-2 (Stretched-Grid Model Intercomparison Project, phase-1 and phase-2) based on this research developments and activities. The SGMIP provides unique high-resolution regional and global multi-model ensembles beneficial for regional climate modeling and broader modeling community. The U.S SGMIP simulations have been produced using SciDAC ORNL supercomputers. The results of the successful SGMIP multi-model ensemble simulations of the U.S. climate are available at the SGMIP web site (http://essic.umd.edu/~foxrab/sgmip.html) and through the link to the WMO/WCRP/WGNE web site: http://collaboration.cmc.ec.gc.ca/science/wgne. Collaborations with other international participants M. Deque (Meteo-France) and J. McGregor (CSIRO, Australia) and their centers and groups have been beneficial for the strong joint effort, especially for the SGMIP activities. The WMO/WCRP/WGNE endorsed the SGMIP activities in 2004-2008. This project reflects a trend in the modeling and broader communities to move towards regional and sub-regional assessments and

  17. Abortion foes get turn to ask Supreme Court for constitutional protection.

    PubMed

    Denniston, L

    1994-04-28

    judge's order. Clinic lawyer, Talbot D'Alemberte, president of Florida State University and former president of the American Bar Association, will argue that the issue is about intimidation. The Clinton administration's Solicitor General Drew S. Days III will support Seminole County Circuit Court Judge Robert S. McGregor's decision limiting protester activity.

  18. Phytoseiid mites on unsprayed apple trees in Oregon, and other western states (USA): distributions, life-style types and relevance to commercial orchards.

    PubMed

    Croft, B A; Luh, H K

    2004-01-01

    In unsprayed apple trees in eastern Oregon, Galendromus flumenis (Chant), Galendromus occidentalis (Nesbitt), Typhlodromus caudiglans Schuster and Metaseiulus citri (Garman and McGregor) were common phytoseiid mites; common plant-feeding mites were the eriophyid, Aculus schlechtendali Nalepa, the brown mite, Bryobia rubrioculus (Scheuten) and Eotetranychus spp.; apple rust mites seemed to be the primary prey for phytoseiids; the spider mites, Tetranychus urticae Koch and Panonychus ulmi (Koch) were scarce except for a few local outbreaks; the stigmaeid Zetzellia mali (Ewing) was at 10% of sites and its densities were inversely related to phytoseiid densities; phytoseiids were absent at some sites, particularly at high elevations where winters are severe. In seven Oregon ecoregions, G. flumenis was often at lower elevations in valleys with moderate winters; T. caudiglans was often at higher elevations; G. occidentalis was often at intermediate elevations, in young trees, and near where pesticides were used; it dominated in unsprayed trees only in almost treeless, sage-covered areas; M. citri was usually in older apple trees near agriculture. In mixed phytoseiid populations, M. citri, a generalist, and G. occidentalis, a specialist, occurred more often than expected; G. occidentalis was mostly found with T. caudiglans, a generalist; G. flumenis, a generalist, occurred less with others, possibly because it competes with both specialists and generalists. Analyses of species' distributions with multiple regression and genetic models gave explanatory r2s of 0.019-0.318. Of 29 variables, altitude of site, intensity of agricultural management, tree age, plant types, and Z. mali levels helped explain phytoseiid species presence. In the western USA, G. flumenis dominated in middle-southern latitudes; T. caudiglans dominated in the north near the Canadian border; G. occidentalis dominated in middle latitudes in parts of Washington, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming; M. citri was at

  19. The COronal Solar Magnetism Observatory (COSMO) Large Aperture Coronagraph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomczyk, Steve; Gallagher, Dennis; Wu, Zhen; Zhang, Haiying; Nelson, Pete; Burkepile, Joan; Kolinksi, Don; Sutherland, Lee

    2013-04-01

    The COSMO is a facility dedicated to observing coronal and chromospheric magnetic fields. It will be located on a mountaintop in the Hawaiian Islands and will replace the current Mauna Loa Solar Observatory (MLSO). COSMO will provide unique observations of the global coronal magnetic fields and its environment to enhance the value of data collected by other observatories on the ground (e.g. SOLIS, BBO NST, Gregor, ATST, EST, Chinese Giant Solar Telescope, NLST, FASR) and in space (e.g. SDO, Hinode, SOHO, GOES, STEREO, Solar-C, Solar Probe+, Solar Orbiter). COSMO will employ a fleet of instruments to cover many aspects of measuring magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere. The dynamics and energy flow in the corona are dominated by magnetic fields. To understand the formation of CMEs, their relation to other forms of solar activity, and their progression out into the solar wind requires measurements of coronal magnetic fields. The large aperture coronagraph, the Chromospheric and Prominence Magnetometer and the K-Coronagraph form the COSMO instrument suite to measure magnetic fields and the polarization brightness of the low corona used to infer electron density. The large aperture coronagraph will employ a 1.5 meter fuse silica singlet lens, birefringent filters, and a spectropolarimeter to cover fields of view of up to 1 degree. It will observe the corona over a wide range of emission lines from 530.3 nm through 1083.0 nm allowing for magnetic field measurements over a wide range of coronal temperatures (e.g. FeXIV at 530.3 nm, Fe X at 637.4 nm, Fe XIII at 1074.7 and 1079.8 nm. These lines are faint and require the very large aperture. NCAR and NSF have provided funding to bring the large aperture coronagraph to a preliminary design review state by the end of 2013. As with all data from Mauna Loa, the data products from COSMO will be available to the community via the Mauna Loa website: http://mlso.hao.ucar.edu

  20. Abortion foes get turn to ask Supreme Court for constitutional protection.

    PubMed

    Denniston, L

    1994-04-28

    judge's order. Clinic lawyer, Talbot D'Alemberte, president of Florida State University and former president of the American Bar Association, will argue that the issue is about intimidation. The Clinton administration's Solicitor General Drew S. Days III will support Seminole County Circuit Court Judge Robert S. McGregor's decision limiting protester activity. PMID:12287661

  1. A final report for: Gallium arsenide P-I-N detectors for high-sensitivity imaging of thermal neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Vernon, Stanley M.

    1999-04-01

    This SBIR Phase I developed neutron detectors made from gallium arsenide (GaAs) p-type/ intrinsic/n-type (P-I-N) diodes grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) onto semi-insulating (S1) bulk GaAs wafers. A layer of isotonically enriched boron-10 evaporated onto the front surface serves to convert incoming neutrons into lithium ions and a 1.47 MeV alpha particle which creates electron-hole pairs that are detected by the GaAs diode. Various thicknesses of ''intrinsic'' (I) undoped GaAs were tested, as was use of a back-surface field (BSF) formed from a layer of Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As. Schottky-barrier diodes formed from the same structures without the p+ GaAs top layer were tested as a comparison. After mesa etching and application of contacts, devices were tested in visible light before application of the boron coating. Internal quantum efficiency (IQE) of the best diode near the GaAs bandedge is over 90%. The lowest dark current measured is 1 x 10{sup -12} amps at -1 V on a 3mm x 3mm diode, or a density of 1.1 x 10{sup -11} amps cm{sup -2}, with many of the diode structures tested having nearly similar results. The PIN diodes were significantly better than the Schottky barrier device, which had six orders of magnitude higher dark current. Diodes were characterized in terms of their current-mode response to 5.5 MeV alpha particles from 241-Americium. These radiation-induced currents were as high as 9.78 x 10{sup -7} A cm{sup -1} on a PIN device with an Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1-x}As BSF. Simple PIN diodes had currents as high as 2.44 x 10{sup -7} A cm{sup -2}, with thicker undoped layers showing better sensitivity. Boron coatings were applied, and response to neutrons tested at University of Michigan by Dr. Doug McGregor. Devices with PIN and Schottky barrier designs showed neutron detection efficiencies as high as 2% on 5 {micro}m thick devices, with no need for external bias voltages. PIN diodes showed higher breakdown voltages and lower noise

  2. Cooling trend and enhancement of productivity in the upwelling off Peru since the late 19th century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouloubassi, I.; Gutierrez, D.; Sifeddine, A.; Purca, S.; Salvatteci, R.; Field, D.; Mejanelle, L.; Velazco, F.; Ortlieb, L.

    2009-12-01

    wind stress recorded off Pisco. They reveal an upwelling intensification through the 20th century with a more pronounced trend during the latter 50 years. Accordingly, proxy records of productivity (TOC fluxes, alkenone fluxes, anchovy scale deposition rates) off Pisco show increased productivity with enhanced alongshore windstress and SST cooling (stronger upwelling) after 1950. The trend to cooler SSTs and inferred upwelling intensification through the 20th century in the upwelling area off Peru is in agreement with studies in the coastal upwelling off NW Africa (McGregor et al., 2007) and supports the mecanism proposed by Bakun (1990) for global warming-related changes in the intensity of coastal upwelling .

  3. A comparison of multi-site daily rainfall downscaling techniques under Australian conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Andrew J.; Charles, Stephen P.; Timbal, Bertrand; Chiew, Francis H. S.; Mehrotra, R.; Nguyen, Kim C.; Chandler, Richard E.; McGregor, John L.; Fu, Guobin; Kirono, Dewi G. C.; Fernandez, Elodie; Kent, David M.

    2011-09-01

    SummarySix methods of downscaling GCM simulations to multi-site daily precipitation were applied to a set of 30 rain gauges located within South-Eastern Australia. The methods were tested at reproducing a range of statistics important within hydrological studies including inter-annual variability and spatial coherency using both NCEP/NCAR reanalysis and GCM predictors, thus testing the validity of GCM downscaled predictions. The methods evaluated, all having found application in Australia previously, are: (1) the dynamical downscaling Conformal-Cubic Atmospheric Model (CCAM) of McGregor (2005); the historical data based (2) Scaling method applied by Chiew et al. (2009) and (3) Analogue method of Timbal (2004); and three stochastic methods, (4) the GLIMCLIM (Generalised Linear Model for daily Climate time series) software package ( Chandler, 2002), (5) the Non-homogeneous Hidden Markov Model (NHMM) of Charles et al. (1999), and (6) the modified Markov model-kernel probability density estimation (MMM-KDE) downscaling technique of Mehrotra and Sharma (2007). The results showed that the simple Scaling approach provided relatively robust results for a range of statistics when GCM forcing data was used, and was therefore recommended for regional water availability and planning studies (subject to certain limitations as mentioned in conclusion section). The stochastic methods better capture changes to a fuller range of rainfall statistics and are recommended for detailed catchment modelling studies. In particular, the stochastic methods show better results for daily extreme rainfall (e.g. flooding/low flow) as the simulations are not based purely on temporal/spatial rainfall patterns observed in the past, and a hybrid GLIMCLIM occurrence-KDE amounts model is recommended based on performance for individual statistics. For GCM downscaled simulations, biases in annual mean and standard deviation of ±5% and -30% were observed typically, and no single model performed well

  4. Variable-Resolution GCMs for Regional Climate Modeling: Stretched-Grid Model Intercomparison Project (SGMIP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox-Rabinovitz, M.; Cote, J.; Dugas, B.; Deque, M.; McGregor, J.

    2006-05-01

    variable and uniform resolution GCMs and their high resolution multi-model ensembles against reanalysis and observations. The SGMIP-2 experiments are conducted for the 25-year period of integration, from 1979 to 2003. SGMIP-1 and SGMIP-2 have been endorsed by the WMO/WGNE at its 2004 and 2005 annual meetings. Reference [1] Fox-Rabinovitz, M.S., J. Cote, M. Deque, B. Dugas, J. McGregor, 2006: Variable-Resolution GCMs: Stretched-Grid Model Intercomparison Project (SGMIP), J. Geophys. Res., in press.

  5. Controls on overbank deposition in the Upper Mississippi River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Michael M.

    2003-12-01

    Floodplains contain valuable stratigraphic records of past floods, but these records do not always represent flood magnitudes in a straightforward manner. The depositional record generally reflects the magnitude, frequency, and duration of floods, but is also subject to storm-scale hysteresis effects, flood sequencing effects, and decade-scale trends in sediment load. Many of these effects are evident in the recent stratigraphic record of overbank floods along the Upper Mississippi River (UMR), where the floodplain has been aggrading for several thousand years. On low-lying floodplain surfaces in Iowa and Wisconsin, 137Cs profiles suggest average vertical accretion rates of about 10 mm/year since 1954. These rates are slightly less than rates that prevailed earlier in the 20th Century, when agricultural land disturbance was at a maximum, but they are still an order of magnitude greater than long-term average rates for the Holocene. As a result of soil conservation practices, accretion rates have decreased in recent decades despite an increase in the frequency of large floods. The stratigraphic record of the Upper Mississippi River floodplain is dominated by spring snowmelt events, because they are twice as frequent as rainfall floods, last almost twice as long, and are sometimes associated with very high sediment concentrations. The availability of sediment during floods is also influenced by a strong hysteresis effect. Peak sediment concentrations generally precede the peak discharges by 1-4 weeks, and concentrations are usually low (<50 mg/l) during the peak stages of most floods. The lag between peak concentration and peak discharge is especially large during spring floods, when much of the runoff is contributed by snowmelt in the far northern reaches of the valley. The great flood of 1993 on the Mississippi River focused attention on the geomorphic effectiveness and stratigraphic signature of large floods. At McGregor, where the peak discharge had a recurrence

  6. Crustal Signatures in Mantle Peridotites From Yakutian Kimberlites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, L. A.; Spetsius, Z.; Wiesli, R.; Anand, M.; Valley, J.

    2002-12-01

    Peridotites and eclogites are considered as the original hosts for diamonds in the mantle. However, it is now generally agreed that these "mantle" eclogites from kimberlites had their origin in the subduction of oceanic crust beneath the major cratons of the world. One of the first indications for such crustal protoliths was from studies of oxygen and carbon isotopes (e.g., Peter Deines and colleagues, Ian McGregor, as well as our group). Indeed, subsequent studies of such rocks have revealed several additional crustal signatures. A possible scenario involves the subduction of an ophiolite sequence, whereby the basaltic and lower mafic components were metamorphosed, devolatilized/partially melted, and otherwise transformed into eclogites. Being within the diamond-stability field, they later experience metasomatic diamond formation. Surprisingly, the closely associated diamondiferous peridotites are considered to be of original mantle origin. We pose the query: What became of the ultramafic portion at the bottom of the crustal sequence? Could this be the origin of at least some of the mantle peridotites? The restricted δ13C values for P-type (peridotitic) diamonds is commonly used as evidence for the mantle origin of peridotites. However, a compilation of δ13C data, published by Peter Deines and our group, for P-type diamonds, mainly from numerous south African pipes, also shows a significant number of values that are well below the mantle field (to -20 \\permil). Fresh, clean garnets were carefully selected from over a hundred peridotites collected from several Yakutian kimberlites. These were subjected to oxygen-isotope analyses by laser-fluorination at the University of Wisconsin. The majority of the δ18O values plot within the accepted mantle value of 5.5+/-0.4 \\permil (Mattey et al., 1994). However, a significant number (~20%) lies outside this window, both above and below. These values are interpreted to represent the effects of both high- and low

  7. Broad-scale patterns of avian biodiversity in response to habitat heterogeneity in a semi-arid landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Louis, Veronique

    The rapid decline in biodiversity makes urgent the need to understand the distribution of species over broad spatial extents. Traditionally-used classified imagery-based approaches have limited usefulness for this because they may overlook important within-habitat components in highly heterogeneous ecosystems. The main objective of my dissertation was to develop remote sensing and statistical approaches, informed by ecological theory, for mapping and understanding patterns of avian biodiversity in a semi-arid ecosystem. The study area was the McGregor Range of Fort Bliss Army Reserve in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. In the first three chapters I tested different remote sensing approaches for understanding the ecological factors that influence bird species richness and guild abundance. I used image texture measures as proxies for habitat heterogeneity and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index as a proxy for habitat productivity for modeling species richness. I subsequently used spectral mixture analysis to calculate proportions of discrete habitat components within each 30 m pixel of a given study plot. My results emphasize that habitat heterogeneity is a main determinant of bird species richness and the abundance of some guilds in that ecosystem. My fourth chapter addressed the ecological factors that affect the occurrence and fitness of the Loggerhead Shrike (Lanius ludovicianus). While I found significant statistical relationships between bird occurrence and habitat variables such as NDVI texture, I found no significant relationship between the habitat variables measured and measures of fitness. These results suggest a greater need for understanding what limits individual bird fitness in that ecosystem. My fifth chapter stems from my M.S. in biometry, and focused on testing the usefulness of Bayesian Model Averaging for building predictive models in ecology. I found that the choice of model prior influences the accuracy of the predictions and that the

  8. Metasomatism in the lithospheric mantle beneath southern Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolosova-Satlberger, Olesya; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Bjerg, Ernesto

    2014-05-01

    Mantle xenoliths from Gobernador Gregores, southern Patagonia are spinel- lherzolites, harzburgites and wherlites. A large number of the studied xenoliths have experienced cryptic and modal metasomatism. The xenoliths are mainly coarse-grained with prevalent protogranular texture but equigranular tabular and mosaic textures are present as well. Xenoliths that have undergone modal metasomatism bear hydrous phases such as amphibole, phlogopite ± apatite and melt pockets. The latter are of particular interest because of their unusually large size (up to 1 cm in diameter) and freshness. They consist of second generation olivine, clinopyroxene and spinel ± relict amphibole ± sulfides that are surrounded by a yellowish vesicular glass matrix. The melt pockets are found in amphibole- and/or phlogopite-bearing wehrlites and harzburgites as well as anhydrous lherzolites. Subhedral primary olivines enclosed by melt pockets show in the BSE images a dark grey margin up to 80 microns thick attributed to the reaction of the primatry olivine with melt. Fine grained spinel inclusions are always associated with the dark grey margin, indicating that they belong to the secong generation assemblage. There are considerable differences between first and second generation minerals found in melt pockets. While primary olivine has Fo-contents that range from 88.0 to 93.3, second generation olivines in melt pockets vary from Fo89.3 to Fo94.4. Both primary and second generation cpx are diopsides with the latter systematically enriched in TiO2. The glasses that occur in melt pockets or propagate intergranular have compositions varying from trachyandesite to phonolite. The variable composition of the glass could be attributed to host basalt infiltration and decompressional melting of amphiboles. Some of the studied xenoliths show melt propagation of two compositional different glasses crosscutting primary generation minerals and finally mixing with each other. Microprobe analyses suggest

  9. Garnet lherzolite xenoliths in the kimberlites of northern Lesotho: revised P-T equilibration conditions and upper mantle Palaeogeotherm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carswell, D. A.; Gibb, F. G. F.

    1987-12-01

    Evidence is presented that the inflected palaeogeotherm for northern Lesotho, previously highlighted by Boyd (1973), Boyd and Nixon (1973, 1975), Finnerty and Boyd (1984, 1987), is essentially an artifact of the unsatisfactory, over-simplified barometer formulation (based on MacGregor 1974) employed. The absence of an inflection in the palaeogeotherm for Udachnaya, Siberia based on P-T estimates for garnet lherzolite xenoliths calculated with the same barometer, does not prove the reality of an inflected palaeogeotherm for northern Lesotho. Rather, it reflects, at least in part, chemical differences between the equivalent deformed, high- T xenoliths in these two areas — most importantly expressed in the respective contents of Jadeite relative to ureyite in the constituent orthopyroxenes. Accurate estimation of P-T equilibration conditions for garnet lherzolite xenoliths requires both complete and precise mineral analyses and adequate consideration of the influence of minor elements, such as Cr and Na, on the element exchange reaction thermometers and barometers employed. The barometer formulation of Nickel and Green (1985) is judged to be the best currently available. As no single thermometer is entirely satisfactory and dependable throughout the P-T range of interest, equilibration temperatures are currently best assessed as a mean value obtained from application of the most accurate formulations for both the two-pyroxene solvus thermometer (Bertrand and Mercier 1985) and Fe2+-Mg2+ exchange reactions between garnet-clinopyroxene (Powell 1985), garnet-orthopyroxene (Harley 1984a) and garnet-olivine (O'Neill and Wood 1979) mineral pairs. Such ‘best’ P-T estimates for xenoliths in the kimberlites of northern Lesotho indicate a somewhat elevated, non-inflected, upper mantle palaeogeotherm, compatible with a 120 145 km thick thermally conductive lithosphere above a convecting asthenosphere. The common coarse textured, chemically depleted, garnet lherzolite

  10. Garnet peridotites from Williams kimberlites, north-central Montana, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hearn, B.C.; McGee, E.S.

    1983-01-01

    Two Williams kimberlites, 250x350m and 37x390m, in the eastern part of a swarm of 30 middle Eocene alnoitic diatremes in north-central Montana, USA, contain xenoliths of garnet-bearing lherzolites, harzburgites and dunites, in addition to spinel peridotites and upper and lower crustal amphibolites and granulites. Colluvial purple, red, and pink garnets are dominantly Mg- and Cr-rich, indicating their derivation From peridotites or megacrysts, and have CaO and Cr2O3 contents that fall in the lherzolite trend. Temperatures were calculated by the Lindsley-Dixon 20 kb method for lherzolites and by the O'Neill-Wood method for harzburgites and dunites, and pressures were calculated by the MacGregor method, or were assumed to be 50 kb for dunites. Most peridotites equilibrated at 1220-1350?C and 50-60 kb, well above a 44mW/m2 shield geotherm and on or at higher P than the graphite-diamond boundary. Four lherzolites are low T-P (830-990?C, 23-42 kb) and are close to the shield geotherm. All four low T-P lherzolites have coarse textures whereas the high T-P cluster has both coarse and porphyroclastic textures, indicating a range of conditions of deformation and recrystallization in a restricted high T-P range. The tiny size (0.01-0.2 mm) of granulated and euhedral olivines in several xenoliths shows that deformation was occurring just prior to incorporation in kimberlite and that ascent was rapid enough (40-70 km/hr) to retard Further coarsening of fine-grained olivine. For other high T-P peridotites, cessation of deformation and beginning of recrystallization before or during inclusion in kimberlite is suggested by larger (up to 3mm) euhedral olivines in a matrix of fine granulated olivine or by optical continuity of large and nearby small olivines. Two low T-P lherzolites contain distinctive, phlogopite-rimmed, 5-8mm clots of moderate-Cr garnet + Cr-spinel + Cr-diopside + enstatite that are inferred to have formed by reaction of an initial high-Cr garnet brought into the

  11. EDITORIAL: Nanowires for energy Nanowires for energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaPierre, Ray; Sunkara, Mahendra

    2012-05-01

    dominant lighting technology due to its superior electrical to optical conversion efficiency. A unique LED structure based on CdS is presented by Ye et al [8]. A detailed study by Nguyen et al [9] provides a fundamental understanding of the non-radiative recombination mechanisms in GaN-based white light emitting nanowire diodes grown on Si substrates. Another application of III-nitrides is in photovoltaic devices (solar cells) [10]. InGaN is the only semiconductor alloy whose energy bandgap can be continuously varied across nearly the entire solar spectrum, promising a new generation of solar cells. Another potentially important application for nanowires is the efficient production of H2 from the photocatalytic splitting of water, where the H2 can be used as an energy carrier. Water splitting based on unique nanostructures include Fe2O3 [11], CuS/ZnO [12], and ZnO/Si [13]. Another candidate for photocatalysis, among other applications, is copper oxide nanowires, reviewed by Gregor et al [14]. References [1] Hiralal P, Unalan H E and Amaratunga G A J 2012 Nanotechnology 23 194002 [2] Li J, Yu H and Li Y 2012 Nanotechnology 23 194010 [3] Wang B and Leu P W 2012 Nanotechnology 23 194003 [4] Yu L, O'Donnell B, Foldyna M, and Roca i Cabarrocas P 2012 Nanotechnology 23 194011 [5] Zhang F, Song T and Sun B 2012 Nanotechnology 23 194006 [6] Herman I, Yeo J, Hong S, Lee D, Nam K H, Choi J, Hong W, Lee D, Grigoropoulos C P and Ko S H 2012 Nanotechnology 23 194005 [7] Calestani D, Pattini F, Bissoli F, Gilioli E, Villani M and Zappettini A 2012 Nanotechnology 23 194008 [8] Ye Y, Yu B, Gao Z, Mang H, Zhang H, Dai L and Qin G 2012 Nanotechnology 23 194004 [9] Nguyen H P T, Djavid M, Cui K and Mi Z 2012 Nanotechnology 23 194012 [10] Wierer J J Jr, Li Q, Koleske D D, Lee S R L and Wang G T 2012 Nanotechnology 23 194007 [11] Chernomordik B D, Russell H B, Cvelbar U, Jasinski J B, Kumar V, Deutsch T and Sunkara M K 2012 Nanotechnology 23 194009 [12] Lee M and Yong K 2012 Nanotechnology 23

  12. The evaluation of the statistical monomineral thermobarometric methods for the reconstruction of the lithospheric mantle structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashchepkov, I.; Vishnyakova, E.

    2009-04-01

    The modified versions of the thermobarometers for the mantle assemblages were revised sing statistical calibrations on the results of Opx thermobarometry. The modifications suggest the calculation of the Fe# of coexisting olivine Fe#Ol according to the statistical approximations by the regressions obtained from the xenoliths from kimberlite data base including >700 associations. They allow reproduces the Opx based TP estimates and to receive the complete set of the TP values for mantle xenoliths and xenocrysts. For GARNET Three variants of barometer give similar results. The first is published (Ashchepkov, 2006). The second is calculating the Al2O3 from Garnet for Orthopyroxene according to procedure: xCrOpx=Cr2O3/CaO)/FeO/MgO/500 xAlOpx=1/(3875*(exp(Cr2O3^0.2/CaO)-0.3)*CaO/989+16)-XcrOpx Al2O3=xAlOp*24.64/Cr2O3^0.2*CaO/2.+FeO*(ToK-501)/1002 And then it suppose using of the Al2O3 in Opx barometer (McGregor, 1974). The third variant is transformation of the G. Grutter (2006) method by introducing of the influence of temperature. P=40+(Cr2O3)-4.5)*10/3-20/7*CaO+(ToC)*0.0000751*MgO)*CaO+2.45*Cr2O3*(7-xv(5,8)) -Fe*0.5 with the correction for P>55: P=55+(P-55)*55/(1+0.9*P) Average from this three methods give appropriate values comparable with determined with (McGregor,1974) barometer. Temperature are estimating according to transformed Krogh thermometer Fe#Ol_Gar=Fe#Gar/2+(T(K)-1420)*0.000112+0.01 For the deep seated associations P>55 kbar T=T-(0.25/(0.4-0.004*(20-P))-0.38/Ca)*275+51*Ca*Cr2-378*CaO-0.51)-Cr/Ca2*5+Mg/(Fe+0.0001)*17.4 ILMENITE P= ((TiO2-23.)*2.15-(T0-973)/20*MgO*Cr2O3 and next P=(60-P)/6.1+P ToK is determined according to (Taylor et al , 1998) Fe#Ol_Chr =(Fe/(Fe+Mg)ilm -0.35)/2.252-0.0000351*(T(K)-973) CHROMITE The equations for PT estimates with chromite compositions P=Cr/(Cr+Al)*T(K)/14.+Ti*0.10 with the next iteration P=-0.0053*P^2+1.1292*P+5.8059 +0.00135*T(K)*Ti*410-8.2 For P> 57 P=P+(P-57)*2.75 Temperature estimates are according to the O

  13. FIELD EXPERIMENTS AND MODELING AT CDG AIRPORTS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramaroson, R.

    2009-12-01

    Richard Ramaroson1,4, Klaus Schaefer2, Stefan Emeis2, Carsten Jahn2, Gregor Schürmann2, Maria Hoffmann2, Mikhael Zatevakhin3, Alexandre Ignatyev3. 1ONERA, Châtillon, France; 4SEAS, Harvard University, Cambridge, USA; 2FZK, Garmisch, Germany; (3)FSUE SPbAEP, St Petersburg, Russia. 2-month field campaigns have been organized at CDG airports in autumn 2004 and summer 2005. Air quality and ground air traffic emissions have been monitored continuously at terminals and taxi-runways, along with meteorological parameters onboard trucks and with a SODAR. This paper analyses the commercial engine emissions characteristics at airports and their effects on gas pollutants and airborne particles coupled to meteorology. LES model results for PM dispersion coupled to microphysics in the PBL are compared to measurements. Winds and temperature at the surface and their vertical profiles have been stored with turbulence. SODAR observations show the time-development of the mixing layer depth and turbulent mixing in summer up to 800m. Active low level jets and their regional extent have been observed and analyzed. PM number and mass size distribution, morphology and chemical contents are investigated. Formation of new ultra fine volatile (UFV) particles in the ambient plume downstream of running engines is observed. Soot particles are mostly observed at significant level at high power thrusts at take-off (TO) and on touch-down whereas at lower thrusts at taxi and aprons ultra the UFV PM emissions become higher. Ambient airborne PM1/2.5 is closely correlated to air traffic volume and shows a maximum beside runways. PM number distribution at airports is composed mainly by volatile UF PM abundant at apron. Ambient PM mass in autumn is higher than in summer. The expected differences between TO and taxi emissions are confirmed for NO, NO2, speciated VOC and CO. NO/NO2 emissions are larger at runways due to higher power. Reactive VOC and CO are more produced at low powers during idling at

  14. INTRODUCTION Introduction to the conference proceeding of the Workshop on Electromagnetic Inverse ProblemsThe University of Manchester, UK, 15-18 June, 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Oliver; Lionheart, Bill

    2010-11-01

    any successful inversion, whereas the other three papers discuss novel inversion techniques for specific applications. In the first contribution, with the title A Novel Simplified Mathematical Model for Antennas used in Medical Imaging Applications, the authors M J Fernando, M Elsdon, K Busawon and D Smith discuss a new technique for modelling the current across a monopole antenna from which the radiation fields of the antenna can be calculated very efficiently in specific medical imaging applications. This new technique is then tested on two examples, a quarter wavelength and a three quarter wavelength monopole antenna. The next contribution, with the title An investigation into the use of a mixture model for simulating the electrical properties of soil with varying effective saturation levels for sub-soil imaging using ECT by R R Hayes, P A Newill, F J W Podd, T A York, B D Grieve and O Dorn, considers the development of a new visualization tool for monitoring soil moisture content surrounding certain seed breeder plants. An electrical capacitance tomography technique is employed for verifying how efficiently each plant utilises the water and nutrients available in the surrounding soil. The goal of this study is to help in developing and identifying new drought tolerant food crops. In the third contribution Combination of Maximin and Kriging Prediction Methods for Eddy-Current Testing Database Generation by S Bilicz, M Lambert, E Vazquez and S Gyimóthy, a novel database generation technique is proposed for its use in solving inverse eddy-current testing problems. For avoiding expensive repeated forward simulations during the creation of this database, a kriging interpolation technique is employed for filling uniformly the data output space with sample points. Mathematically this is achieved by using a maximin formalism. The paper 2.5D inversion of CSEM data in a vertically anisotropic earth by C Ramananjaona and L MacGregor considers controlled

  15. Soil thermal properties at two different sites on James Ross Island in the period 2012/13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrbáček, Filip; Láska, Kamil

    2015-04-01

    James Ross Island (JRI) is the largest island in the eastern part of the Antarctic Peninsula. Ulu Peninsula in the northern part of JRI is considered the largest ice free area in the Maritime Antarctica region. However, information about permafrost on JRI, active layer and its soil properties in general are poorly known. In this study, results of soil thermal measurements at two different sites on Ulu Peninsula are presented between 1 April 2012 and 30 April 2013. The study sites are located (1) on an old Holocene marine terrace (10 m a. s. l.) in the closest vicinity of Johann Gregor Mendel (JGM) Station and (2) on top of a volcanic plateau named Johnson Mesa (340 m a. s. l.) about 4 km south of the JGM Station. The soil temperatures were measured at 30 min interval using platinum resistance thermometers Pt100/8 in two profiles up to 200 cm at JGM Station and 75 cm at Johnson Mesa respectively. Decagon 10HS volumetric water content sensors were installed up 30 cm at Johnson Mesa to 50 cm at JGM Station, while Hukseflux HFP01 soil heat flux sensors were used for direct monitoring of soil physical properties at 2.5 cm depth at both sites. The mean soil temperature varied between -5.7°C at 50 cm and -6.3°C at 5 cm at JGM Station, while that for Johnson Mesa varied between -6.9°C at 50 cm and -7.1°C at 10 cm. Maximum active layer thickness estimated from 0 °C isotherm reached 52 cm at JGM Station and 50 cm at Johnson Mesa respectively which corresponded with maximum observed annual temperature at 50 cm at both sites. The warmest part of both profiles detected at 50 cm depth corresponded with maximum thickness of active layer, estimated from 0°C isotherm, reached 52 cm at JGM Station and 50 cm at Johnson Mesa respectively. Volumetric water content at 5 cm varied around 0.25 m3m-3 at both sites. The slight increase to 0.32 m3m-3 was observed at JGM Station at 50 cm and at Johnson Mesa at 30 cm depth. Soil texture analysis showed distinctly higher share of coarser

  16. PREFACE: The Science of Making Torque from Wind 2014 (TORQUE 2014)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, Jakob; Bak, Christian; Bechmann, Andreas; Bingöl, Ferhat; Dellwik, Ebba; Dimitrov, Nikolay; Giebel, Gregor; Hansen, Martin O. L.; Jensen, Dorte Juul; Larsen, Gunner; Aagaard Madsen, Helge; Natarajan, Anand; Rathmann, Ole; Sathe, Ameya; Nørkær Sørensen, Jens; Nørkær Sørensen, Niels

    2014-06-01

    The 186 papers in this volume constitute the proceedings of the fifth Science of Making Torque from Wind conference, which is organized by the European Academy of Wind Energy (EAWE, www.eawe.eu). The conference, also called Torque 2014, is held at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) 17-20 June 2014. The EAWE conference series started in 2004 in Delft, the Netherlands. In 2007 it was held in Copenhagen, in 2010 in Heraklion, Greece, and then in 2012 in Oldenburg, Germany. The global yearly production of electrical energy by wind turbines has grown approximately by 25% annually over the last couple of decades and covers now 2-3% of the global electrical power consumption. In order to make a significant impact on one of the large challenges of our time, namely global warming, the growth has to continue for a decade or two yet. This in turn requires research and education in wind turbine aerodynamics and wind resources, the two topics which are the main subjects of this conference. Similar to the growth in electrical power production by wind is the growth in scientific papers about wind energy. Over the last decade the number of papers has also grown by about 25% annually, and many research based companies all over the world are founded. Hence, the wind energy research community is rapidly expanding and the Torque conference series offers a good opportunity to meet and exchange ideas. We hope that the Torque 2014 will heighten the quality of the wind energy research, while the participants will enjoy each others company in Copenhagen. Many people have been involved in producing the Torque 2014 proceedings. The work by more than two hundred reviewers ensuring the quality of the papers is greatly appreciated. The timely evaluation and coordination of the reviews would not have been possible without the work of sixteen ''section editors'' all from DTU Wind Energy: Christian Bak, Andreas Bechmann, Ferhat Bingöl, Ebba Dellwik, Nikolay Dimitrov, Gregor Giebel, Martin

  17. EDITORIAL: Invited review and topical lectures from the 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagorodny, A.; Kocherga, O.

    2007-05-01

    The 13th International Congress on Plasma Physics (ICPP 2006) was organized, on behalf of the International Advisory Committee of the ICPP series, by the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine and the Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics (BITP) and held in Kiev, Ukraine, 22 26 May 2006. The Congress Program included the topics: fundamental problems of plasma physics; fusion plasmas; plasmas in astrophysics and space physics; plasmas in applications and technologies; complex plasmas. A total of 305 delegates from 30 countries took part in the Congress. The program included 9 invited review lectures, 32 invited topical and 313 contributed papers (60 of which were selected for oral presentation). The Congress Program was the responsibility of the International Program Committee: Anatoly Zagorodny (Chairman) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Olha Kocherga (Scientific Secretary) Bogolyubov Institute for Theoretical Physics, Ukraine Boris Breizman The University of Texas at Austin, USA Iver Cairns School of Physics, University of Sydney, Australia Tatiana Davydova Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Tony Donne FOM-Institute for Plasma Physics, Rijnhuizen, The Netherlands Nikolai S Erokhin Space Research Institute of RAS, Russia Xavier Garbet CEA, France Valery Godyak OSRAM SYLVANIA, USA Katsumi Ida National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Alexander Kingsep Russian Research Centre `Kurchatov Institute', Russia E P Kruglyakov Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Russia Gregor Morfill Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Germany Osamu Motojima National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Jef Ongena ERM-KMS, Brussels and EFDA-JET, UK Konstantyn Shamrai Institute for Nuclear Research, Ukraine Raghvendra Singh Institute for Plasma Research, India Konstantyn Stepanov Kharkiv Institute of Physics and Technology, Ukraine Masayoshi Tanaka National Institute for Fusion Science, Japan Nodar Tsintsadze Physics Institute, Georgia The

  18. Walker circulation in a transient climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesca, Elina; Grützun, Verena; Buehler, Stefan A.

    2016-04-01

    response (temperature change by the time of CO2 doubling), which in turn might be related to a decreased ocean heat uptake. This uncertainty across the models we attribute to the multitude of factors controlling ocean and atmosphere heat exchange, both at global and regional scales, as well as to the present capabilities of GCMs in simulating this exchange. References: England, M. H., McGregor, S., Spence, P., Meehl, G. A., Timmermann, A., Cai, W., Gupta, A. S., McPhaden, M. J., Purich, A., and Santoso, A., 2014. Recent intensification of wind-driven circulation in the Pacific and the ongoing warming hiatus. Nature Climate Change 4 (3): 222-227. Ma, J., and Xie, S. P., 2013. Regional Patterns of Sea Surface Temperature Change: A Source of Uncertainty in Future Projections of Precipitation and Atmospheric Circulation*. Journal of Climate, 26 (8): 2482-2501

  19. Passive margin high altitude low relief surfaces: old or new? Testing the glacial/periglacial buzzsaw hypothesis on the landscape of Southern Norway.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthling, Ivar

    2015-04-01

    investigated on local scales. We test the periglacial 'buzzsaw' by spatial and temporal upscaling from current periglacial solifluction landforms and process rates. Berthling, I., and Etzelmüller, B., 2011, The concept of cryo-conditioning in landscape evolution: Quaternary Research, v. 75, no. 2, p. 378-384. French, H. M., 2007, The Periglacial Environment, John Wiley & Sons, 458 pp Gołędowski, B., Egholm, D. L., Nielsen, S. B., Clausen, O. R., and McGregor, E. D., 2013, Cenozoic erosion and flexural isostasy of Scandinavia: Journal of Geodynamics, v. 70, p. 49-57. LidmarBergstrom, K., Ollier, C. D., and Sulebak, J. R., 2000, Landforms and uplift history of southern Norway: Global and Planetary Change, v. 24, no. 3-4, p. 211-231. Nielsen, S. B., Gallagher, K., Leighton, C., Balling, N., Svenningsen, L., Jacobsen, B. H., Thomsen, E., Nielsen, O. B., Heilmann-Clausen, C., Egholm, D. L., Summerfield, M. A., Clausen, O. R., Piotrowski, J. A., Thorsen, M. R., Huuse, M., Abrahamsen, N., King, C., and Lykke-Andersen, H., 2009, The evolution of western Scandinavian topography: A review of Neogene uplift versus the ICE (isostasy-climate-erosion) hypothesis: Journal of Geodynamics, v. 47, no. 2-3, p. 72-95.

  20. The Universal Cpx Jd-Di barometer for mantle peridotite eclogite and pyroxenites and it using for the mantle petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashchepkov, Igor

    2015-04-01

    The Jd-Di exchange in clinopyroxenes used for the calibration of pyroxene barometer (Ashchepkov, 2000;2002; Ashchepkov et al 2010;2011;2012) was transformed to make one universal equation for mantle peridotite eclogites and pyroxenites. The original barometer (Ashchepkov, 2002) calibrated on pressures produced by Opx barometry (McGregor , 1974) was transformed (Ashchepkov et al ., 2004; 2010; 2011) to satisfy the increasing data bases for the mantle xenoliths and experimental values 530 in peridotitic and 650 in elcogitic systems . The obtained difference Pd =Pcpx- Pexp were studied for the dependence on each component and their combination . Instead of the common activities we used the temperature-dependent empirical equations. The three separate equations for the common peridotites, pyroxenites and eclogites (Ashchepkov et al., 2010) were checked and complex To and Al-Na-Fe dependent universal coefficients were received. The KD is determined as follows: KD=Na/AlCr*Mg/Ca The logarithmic dependence between P and KD was transformed to a linear one. Final pressure equations are: AlCr=(Al-0.01) *((T-600)/700)**0.75+Cr*(ToK-100)/1000+(4*Ti-0.0125)/ (T0-801)*650 +0.55*((Fe-0.23) *(T0-900)/10000-K) P=0.26*(5+12*(Al+0.30*Na)KD* ToK**0.75 /(1+Fe+ Fe*(ToK-600)/1000)-ln(1273/ ToK))*40*(7*Na-Al-15*Ti+10*Cr+Mg/4)+7.5*Si-20*( Al*Na*Mg/Ca/(Al-2*Ti+Na-2*Fe/(Fe+Mg))+50*(Na+0.1*Al-2*Ti+0.05*Mg-0.22*Ca-0.7*Na)/Ca). Obtained equation in combination with the (Nimis,Taylor, 2000) thermometer allow to reconstruct position of the magma feeder systems of the alkali basaltic magma withing the mantle diapirs in modern platforms like in Vitim plateau (Ashchepkov et al., 2011) and now was applicated to reconstruct the deep seated magma conduits beneath the mountain collision systems, island arcs ocean plateaus etc. This equation allows to receive the positions of the major groups of eclogites mantle sections and to find out the regularities of their behavior. The Fe rich eclogites commonly

  1. An optical and near-IR spectroscopic study of the extreme P Cygni-type supergiant HDE 316285

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillier, D. J.; Crowther, P. A.; Najarro, F.; Fullerton, A. W.

    1998-12-01

    variability, and because the stellar properties and chemical content of HDE 316285 are similar to known luminous blue variables (LBVs), we suggest that it is a LBV. Support for this contention comes from the detection by McGregor et al. (1988) of a cold circumstellar dust shell associated with HDE 316285. However HDE 316285, like P Cygni, could currently be in a relatively quiescent phase of its LBV life, exhibiting significant spectral variations but not undergoing major photometric outbursts similar to AG Car. The mass loss of HDE 316285 is prodigious. In less than 10(5) years it will lose over 20 Msun. Even if HDE 316285 is not an LBV, it is obviously in an evolutionary phase of short duration.

  2. Structure and evolution of the lithospheric mantle beneath Siberian craton, thermobarometric study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashchepkov, Igor V.; Pokhilenko, Nikolai P.; Vladykin, Nikolai V.; Logvinova, Alla M.; Afanasiev, Valentin P.; Pokhilenko, Lyudmila N.; Kuligin, Sergei S.; Malygina, Elena V.; Alymova, Natalia A.; Kostrovitsky, Sergey I.; Rotman, Anatolii Y.; Mityukhin, Sergey I.; Karpenko, Mikhail A.; Stegnitsky, Yuri B.; Khemelnikova, Olga S.

    2010-04-01

    Monomineral thermobarometry (MTB) data derived from EMP analyses for heavy monomineral separates from > 20 Yakutian kimberlite pipes were used to compile a SSE-NNW traverse of the mantle beneath the Siberian craton. Orthopyroxene (Opx) MBT for the mantle section beneath Udachnaya gives three PT paths: a low temperature (LT) conductive branch (Boyd et al., 1997), estimated with thermometers of Krogh (1988) or/and O'Neill and Wood (1979), and two other HT paths. The three paths correspond to different values of Fe# in Ol (0.075, 0.085 and 0.11). They are reproduced by the modified MTB equations for clinopyroxene, garnet, chromite and ilmenites (Ashchepkov et al., 2008a), a mono-version of the O'Neill and Wood (1979) thermometer with corrections to Cr and Ca/Mg ratios which mark conductive geotherm. PT estimates for garnets and pyroxenes reflect mantle layering, whereas those for ilmenite reflect varying conditions of polybaric mantle protokimberlite systems and metasomatism. MTB for xenoliths from the Udachnaya, Mir, Dalnyaya, and Komsomolskaya kimberlites show the colder branches if PT path using heavy mineral analyses them according to PT for xenoliths according to TB (O'Neill and Wood, 1979; Finnerty and Boyd, 1987; McGregor, 1974; Brey and Kohler, 1990) producing smoother geotherms. MTB gives a wider range PT points reflecting heating near magmatic channels. Regularities of mantle sections and layering in the Daldyn field are recognized on the PT and P- X diagrams. The lower part of the mantle sections were heated by protokimberlite melts which created the megacrystalline associations. PT values of sub-calcic garnets correlate with those of picroilmenites. Mantle columns beneath the large pipes reveal stepped 7-12 layering for Udachnaya pipe units correlating with the peaks of Re/Os ages (Griffin et al., 2002b) is marked by periodic increase in Fe# in minerals. Pyroxenites and 'hot' eclogites (Pokhilenko et al., 1999) are found in layers at ˜ ˜ 40, 50-65, and

  3. Using of Correlating monomineral thermobarometry for mantle peridotites (correlating methods).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashchepkov, I. V.; Pokhilenko, N. P.; Sobolev, N. V.; Rotman, A. Y.; Afanasiev, V. P.; Logvinova, A. M.; Vladykin, N. V.; Kostrovitsky, S. I.; Karpenko, M. A.; Vishnyakova, E. V.

    2005-12-01

    Correlating monomineral thermobarometry using kimberlite mega- and xenocrysts and xenoliths allows to determine mantle layering with concentrate from kimberlites or placers. Orthopyroxene method (Brey, Kohler,1990)-(McGregor, 1974) was used for calibration of others. Clinopyroxene. Po =0.04*Kd *ToC/(1-2.4*Fe)-5.5 where KD = Na/Ca *Mg/(Al+Cr)and polynomial P = 0.00006*Po3 - 0.0156*Po2 + 1.6757*Po (R2 = 0.8245). The ToC (Nimis -Taylor, 2000) are corrected ToC= 000001*TooC**2 +0.9575*TooC+107.01 Garnet. Thermometers based on: 1) OPx's (Brey, Kohler,1990) estimates, ToC =5272.5*(Ln(KD)/P)3+10265* (Ln(KD)/P)2+ 6472* Ln(KD)/P +2113 where KD= MgO*TiO2/((CaO+MgO)2* FeO*Al2O3 2) CPx (Nimis, Taylor, 2000), : T0oC =362.05*(Ln(KD)/P)3+1880.4* (Ln(KD))/P2+2659.6* Ln(KD)/P +1695.5 where KD= Na2O*MnO*TiO2/(CaO+MgO)* FeO*Al2O3, 3) Gar-Cpx (Krogh, 1988) KD= Na2O*MnO*TiO2/(CaO+MgO)* FeO*Al2O3, 4)Ni in garnet thermometry (Griffin, 1989) with Ni(ppm) =88,877*E**(-5.021*Ni'), (R2=0.69) where Ni' =MnO*ln(FeO)/ln(MgO)*1.1-0.193*TiO2 +0.003*ln(Na2O)- 0.003*Cr2O3+0.0035*CaO+0.004*Al2O3 ToC =0.0004*Ni3-0.0304*Ni2 +7.6318*Ni+ 597.2 ( R2 = 0.69) Chromite P=0.86347*(Cr/(Cr+Al)* ToC/14+Ti*0.1) the second approximation P=0.0004*Po3-0.0342*Po2+1.5323*Po The temperatures are determined using monomineral version of the Ol-Sp thermometer (Taylor et al.,1998) Fo=0.06+0.0005*P for P >30 kbar and Fo=0.095+0.0001*Po for the lower pressures. The Sp-Ol oxybarometer (Taylor et al ., 1998) give the lineal correlation with monomineral version made in the same manner (R-0,96). Ilmenite. P= (TiO2-23.)*2.15-(ToC-700)/20*MgO*Cr2O3-1.5*MnO)*ToC/1273 and further P=10*(60-Po)/60+Po. Monomineral version Ol-Il thermometer (Taylor et al ., 1998) where Fo=0.11+0.00025*P for pressures lower then 30 kbar and Fo=0.10+0.00025*P for greater pressures. The monomineral fO2 oxybarometer same Fo content . Data for 7 kimberlite fields in Yakutia show large scale variations of the mantle different part of Siberian platform

  4. Canary current upwelling: More or less?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barton, E. D.; Field, D. B.; Roy, C.

    2013-09-01

    surface temperature is increasing near the coast at all latitudes throughout the region at a rate >0.01 °C y-1; wind estimates from different data bases can differ in trends and variability, but WASWind estimates appear to agree well with the few available coastal stations; no statistically significant change in meridional (upwelling favorable) wind component is found, except off Iberia, where winds are becoming slightly less upwelling favorable; there is no evidence for a general intensification of upwelling in this large marine ecosystem, contrary to the hypothesis of Bakun (1990) and the conclusions of McGregor et al. (2007). Consideration of the factors influencing the alkenone unsaturation index U37K derived from coccolithophorids and other phytoplankton leads to the conclusions that: the use of the alkenone unsaturation index as a proxy for sea surface temperature is subject to considerable uncertainty, and should not be used uncritically; further examination of the mechanisms causing deviations in the alkenone unsaturation index-sea surface temperature relationship is required to understand paleo records (particularly those where SST changes are of lower magnitude); use of the index should preferably be made in conjunction with the examination of other proxies that are sensitive to changes in the structure of the water column (e.g. microfossils). In general, caution should be exercised in the use of proxy temperature estimates and their extrapolation to regional scales from a single proxy and/or sediment site. Multiple proxies and sediment cores are clearly needed in oceanographic reconstructions.

  5. Floods of 1952 in the basins of the upper Mississippi River and Red River of the North

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, J.V.B.

    1955-01-01

    tributaries above Fargo occurred during April 1952 and were due to the same factors that caused flooding in the Minnesota River basin. Because the snow cover was light in the drainage basin north of (below) Fargo, flooding was serious for only that part of the basin at and upstream from Fargo. The 1952 flood on Red River of the North at Fargo was the greatest since 1897, and flood damage for the basin was heaviest in the urban area of Fargo-Moorhead. The 1952 floods in the upper Mississippi basin occurred 1 year after the greatest floods known in the area since 1881. The 1952 stages and discharges on the Mississippi River from St. Paul to the Wisconsin River slightly exceeded those of 1951; below the Wisconsin River, the stages and discharges of the 2 years were about equal. The similarity in the hydrographs of the 1951 and 1952 floods along the Mississippi River between McGregor and Keokuk, Iowa, is interesting and revealing. Forecasts of the 1952 flood events were accurate and timely, owing to the experience gained in 1951. The flood crests on the upper Mississippi and the Missouri Rivers nearly coincided at St. Louis. Because the Missouri crest reached St. Louis about 2 days before the Mississippi crest, the peak discharge at St. Louis was not exceptional.

  6. The Growth of Solids, Destruction of Molecules, and Shielding of Radiation in the Young Stellar Disk of HD 45677

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Thomas M.; Buss, Richard, Jr.; Grady, Carol; Bjorkman, Karen

    1995-02-01

    Ultraviolet spectra (912-3300 Å) from the Astro-1 and lUE space missions of two Herbig Be stars, HD 45677 and HD 200775, show that the HD 200775 intrinsic continuum shape generally coincides with a T = 20,000 K Kurucz model and that the HD 45677 continuum exhibits additional line blanketing, extinction, and emission from gas and dust in its disk and bipolar wind. With log N(H I) = 21.4±0.1 cm-1, our measured upper limit on the fraction of HD 45677 disk H atoms in molecules (f < 1.5 × 10-2) is much less than that seen in general Galactic molecular clouds (f ≍ 0.5). Also, our derived HD 45677 circumstellar dust extinction for λ > 1400 Å is produced by an inhomogeneous disk of material: during periods of moderate visual extinction (Av ≍ 1.0±0.3 mag) the disk as a whole causes mid-UV extinction with an Rv ≍ 4-5 (values found in Galactic molecular clouds), yet at the thickest optical depths, there are regions with larger grains (inferred Rv > 7) than those in molecular clouds (Rv < 5.6). Alternately, we find in the FUV (1300-1000 A) a strong, steeply curved circumstellar extinction for HD 45677 that has a very similar shape as extinction produced by interstellar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules (PAHs) in an illuminated molecular cloud (NGC 2023). The PAHs around HD 45677, like NGC 2023, are more abundant relative to the large grains (Aλ/Av) than predicted by the extinction parameter Rv, because HD 45677 has evaporated the PAHs off large grains. With a measured FUV depth corresponding to τλ ≍ 1.4-3.5, the excess PAHs around HD 45677 partly shield the outer disk from FUV radiation. Both the disk gas and dust have evolved greatly since the formation of the mid-mass star HD 45677 from molecular clouds: in some regions, the disk grains have grown to micron sizes suitable for the formation of planetesimals, the ISM H_{2 }has been photodissociated into H I in the disk, and CO (McGregor, Hyland, & Hillier 1988) has disappeared. In addition, the

  7. Po-Basin Atmospheric Composition during the Pegasos Field Campaign (summer 2012): Evaluation of ninfa/aodeM Simulation with In-Situ e Remote Sensing Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landi, Tony C.; Bonafe, Giovanni; Stortini, Michele; Minguzzi, Enrico; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Giulianelli, Lara; Sandrini, Silvia; Gilardoni, Stefania; Rinaldi, Matteo; Ricciardelli, Isabella

    2014-05-01

    Guillaume, Catherine Liousse, Sophie Moukhtar, Betty Pun, Christian Seigneur, and Michaël Schulz (2008). "Regional modeling of carbonaceous aerosols over europe-focus on secondary organic aerosols." Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry 61, no. 3 : 175-202. Landi Tony Christian (2013). AODEM: A post-processing tool for aerosol optical properties calculation in the Chemical Transport Models. Book published by LAP - Lambert Academic Publishing ISBN: 978-3-659-31802-3. Steppeler, J., G. Doms, U. Schättler, H. W. Bitzer, A. Gassmann, U. Damrath, and G. Gregoric (2003). "Meso-gamma scale forecasts using the nonhydrostatic model LM." Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics 82, no. 1-4 : 75-96. M. Stortini, M. Deserti, G. Bonafè, and E. Minguzzi. Long-term simulation and validation of ozone and aerosol in the Po Valley. In C.Borrego and E.Renner, editors, Developments in Environmental Sciences, volume 6, pages 768-770. Elsevier, 2007.

  8. Proceedings of a workshop on American Eel passage technologies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haro, Alexander J.

    2013-01-01

    Recent concerns regarding a decline in recruitment of American eels (Anguilla rostrata) have prompted efforts to restore this species to historic habitats by providing passage for both upstream migrant juveniles and downstream migrant adults at riverine barriers, including low-head and hydroelectric dams (Castonguay et al. 1994, Haro et al. 2000). These efforts include development of management plans and stock assessment reviews in both the US and Canada (COSEWIC 2006, Canadian Eel Working Group 2009, DFO 2010, MacGregor et al. 2010, ASMFC 2000, ASMFC 2006, ASMFC 2008, Williams and Threader 2007), which target improvement of upstream and downstream passage for eels, as well as identification and prioritization of research needs for development of new and more effective passage technologies for American eels. Traditional upstream fish passage structures, such as fishways and fish lifts, are often ineffective passing juvenile eels, and specialized passage structures for this species are needed. Although designs for such passage structures are available and diverse (Knights and White 1998, Porcher 2002, FAO/DVWK 2002, Solomon and Beach 2004a,b, Environment Agency UK 2011), many biologists, managers, and engineers are unfamiliar with eel pass design and operation, or unaware of the technical options available for upstream eel passage, Better coordination is needed to account for eel passage requirements during restoration efforts for other diadromous fish species. Also, appropriately siting eel passes at hydropower projects is critical, and siting can be difficult and complex due to physical restrictions in access to points of natural concentrations of eels, dynamic hydraulics of tailrace areas, and presence of significant competing flows from turbine outfalls or spill. As a result, some constructed eel passes are sited poorly and may pass only a fraction of the number of eels attempting to pass the barrier. When sited and constructed appropriately, however, eel passes

  9. Structure of the mantle lithosphere beneath the Siberian kimberlite pipes reconstructed by monomineral thermobarometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashchepkov, I. V.

    2009-04-01

    The original methods of the monomineral thermobarometry for clinopyroxene, garnet, ilmenite, chromite (Ashchepkov,2008) and orthopyroxene (Brey, Kohler, 1990- McGregor, 1974) thermobarometer allow to reconstruct the mantle columns. TP diagram for Udachnaya pipe suggests creation at least in tree stages of the melt percolation through the mantle column differing in Fe# and other parameters. The most high temperature (HT) (45 mvm-2) and Fe# rich refer to the last HT reactions with the protokimberlite melts formed the megacrystalline associations. Relict low temperature (LT) geotherm (35 45 mvm-2 and lower) is close to the conductive geotherm (Boyd et al., 1997). Most of ТР parameters for the minerals refer to the middle part of the geotherm (40- 45 mvm-2). Monomineral thermobarometry reconstructing the PTX values (Fe#; CrCpx, Cr-Ilm CaGar, TiChr) showing the high overlapping formed by the the melt percolation. The clinopyroxene growth in the mantle lithosphere in Daldyn, Akakite, Nakyn and Upper Muna are produced by the refertilization events under the influence of the protokimberlite melts. Their spreading in the lower part of mantle section of Garnet trend to subcalsic and pyroxenitic types is likely the result of submelting and heating of the mantle peridotites. Similar process for eclogites is responsible for the appearance of LT eclogites tracing subduction gradients and HT branches with the Ti- bearing associations corresponding to advective gradients. . For the larger pipes the scale of the perturbation is much higher then for smaller. The levels of the melt intrusions are reconstructed by the clotting of TP values inflections of TP paths and TiChr, CrIlm and Fe#. Ilmenite trends reveal the polybaric character of the fractionation and high degree interaction with the wall rock peridotites visible by CrIlm increase. The metasomatic associations differ in PTX diagrams by higher Cr and LT conditions the HT megacrystalls. The evident layered nature of the mantle

  10. 3d-modelling workflows for trans-nationally shared geological models - first approaches from the project GeoMol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupf, Isabel

    2013-04-01

    framework model are interpreted seismic lines, 3d-models can be generated either in time or in depth domain. Some partners will build their 3d-model in time domain and convert it after finishing to depth. Other participants will transform seismic information first and will model directly in depth domain. To ensure comparability between the different parts transnational velocity models for time-depth conversion are required at an early stage of the project. The exchange of model geometries, topology, and geo-scientific content will be achieved applying an appropriate cyberinfrastructure called GST. It provides functionalities to ensure semantic and technical interoperability. Within the project GeoMol a web server for the dissemination of 3d geological models will be implemented including an administrative interface for the role-based access, real-time transformation of country-specific coordinate systems and a web visualisation features. The project GeoMol is co-funded by the Alpine Space Program as part of the European Territorial Cooperation 2007-2013. The project integrates partners from Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland and runs from September 2012 to June 2015. Further information on www.geomol.eu. The GeoMol 3D-modelling team: Roland Baumberger (swisstopo), Magdalena Bottig (GBA), Alessandro Cagnoni (RLB), Laure Capar (BRGM), Renaud Couëffé (BRGM), Chiara D'Ambrogi (ISPRA), Chrystel Dezayes (BRGM), Gerold Diepolder (LfU BY), Charlotte Fehn (LGRB), Sunseare Gabalda (BRGM), Gregor Götzl (GBA), Andrej Lapanje (GeoZS), Fabio Carlo Molinari (RER-SGSS), Edgar Nitsch (LGRB), Robert Pamer (LfU BY), Sebastian Pfleiderer (GBA), Marco Pantaloni (ISPRA), Uta Schulz (LfU BY), Günter Sokol (LGRB), Gunther Wirsing (LGRB), Heiko Zumsprekel (LGRB)

  11. INTRODUCTION Introduction to the conference proceeding of the Workshop on Electromagnetic Inverse ProblemsThe University of Manchester, UK, 15-18 June, 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorn, Oliver; Lionheart, Bill

    2010-11-01

    any successful inversion, whereas the other three papers discuss novel inversion techniques for specific applications. In the first contribution, with the title A Novel Simplified Mathematical Model for Antennas used in Medical Imaging Applications, the authors M J Fernando, M Elsdon, K Busawon and D Smith discuss a new technique for modelling the current across a monopole antenna from which the radiation fields of the antenna can be calculated very efficiently in specific medical imaging applications. This new technique is then tested on two examples, a quarter wavelength and a three quarter wavelength monopole antenna. The next contribution, with the title An investigation into the use of a mixture model for simulating the electrical properties of soil with varying effective saturation levels for sub-soil imaging using ECT by R R Hayes, P A Newill, F J W Podd, T A York, B D Grieve and O Dorn, considers the development of a new visualization tool for monitoring soil moisture content surrounding certain seed breeder plants. An electrical capacitance tomography technique is employed for verifying how efficiently each plant utilises the water and nutrients available in the surrounding soil. The goal of this study is to help in developing and identifying new drought tolerant food crops. In the third contribution Combination of Maximin and Kriging Prediction Methods for Eddy-Current Testing Database Generation by S Bilicz, M Lambert, E Vazquez and S Gyimóthy, a novel database generation technique is proposed for its use in solving inverse eddy-current testing problems. For avoiding expensive repeated forward simulations during the creation of this database, a kriging interpolation technique is employed for filling uniformly the data output space with sample points. Mathematically this is achieved by using a maximin formalism. The paper 2.5D inversion of CSEM data in a vertically anisotropic earth by C Ramananjaona and L MacGregor considers controlled

  12. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    -pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture M K Singh, A Ogino and M Nagatsu Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma H J Lee, C H Shon, Y S Kim, S Kim, G C Kim and M G Kong The acidification of lipid film surfaces by non-thermal DBD at atmospheric pressure in air A Helmke, D Hoffmeister, N Mertens, S Emmert, J Schuette and W Vioel Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet D L Bayliss, J L Walsh, G Shama, F Iza and M G Kong The effect of low-temperature plasma on bacteria as observed by repeated AFM imaging René Pompl, Ferdinand Jamitzky, Tetsuji Shimizu, Bernd Steffes, Wolfram Bunk, Hans-Ulrich Schmidt, Matthias Georgi, Katrin Ramrath, Wilhelm Stolz, Robert W Stark, Takuya Urayama, Shuitsu Fujii and Gregor Eugen Morfill Removal and sterilization of biofilms and planktonic bacteria by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure Mi Hee Lee, Bong Joo Park, Soo Chang Jin, Dohyun Kim, Inho Han, Jungsung Kim, Soon O Hyun, Kie-Hyung Chung and Jong-Chul Park Cell permeabilization using a non-thermal plasma M Leduc, D Guay, R L Leask and S Coulombe Physical and biological mechanisms of direct plasma interaction with living tissue Danil Dobrynin, Gregory Fridman, Gary Friedman and Alexander Fridman Nosocomial infections-a new approach towards preventive medicine using plasmas G E Morfill, T Shimizu, B Steffes and H-U Schmidt Generation and transport mechanisms of chemical species by a post-discharge flow for inactivation of bacteria Takehiko Sato, Shiroh Ochiai and Takuya Urayama Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces F Rossi, O Kylián, H Rauscher, M Hasiwa and D Gilliland Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding S P Kuo, O Tarasenko, J Chang, S Popovic, C Y Chen, H W Fan, A Scott, M Lahiani, P Alusta, J D Drake and M Nikolic A two

  13. Contribution of seismic processing to put up the scaffolding for the 3-dimensional study of deep sedimentary basins: the fundaments of trans-national 3D modelling in the project GeoMol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capar, Laure

    2013-04-01

    European Territorial Cooperation 2007-2013. The project integrates partners from Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Slovenia and Switzerland and runs from September 2012 to June 2015. Further information on www.geomol.eu The GeoMol seismic interpretation team: Roland Baumberger (swisstopo), Agnès BRENOT (BRGM), Alessandro CAGNONI (RLB), Renaud COUËFFE (BRGM), Gabriel COURRIOUX (BRGM), Chiara D'Ambrogi (ISPRA), Chrystel Dezayes (BRGM), Charlotte Fehn (LGRB), Sunseare GABALDA (BRGM), Gregor Götzl (GBA), Andrej Lapanje (GeoZS), Stéphane MARC (BRGM), Alberto MARTINI (RER-SGSS), Fabio Carlo Molinari (RER-SGSS), Edgar Nitsch (LGRB), Robert Pamer (LfU BY), Marco PANTALONI (ISPRA), Sebastian Pfleiderer (GBA), Andrea PICCIN (RLB), (Nils Oesterling (swisstopo), Isabel Rupf (LGRB), Uta Schulz (LfU BY), Yves SIMEON (BRGM), Günter SÖKOL (LGRB), Heiko Zumsprekel (LGRB)

  14. EDITORIAL: Focus on Plasma Medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Kong, M. G.; Zimmermann, J. L.

    2009-11-01

    -pressure microwave plasmas in an N2 and O2 gas mixture M K Singh, A Ogino and M Nagatsu Degradation of adhesion molecules of G361 melanoma cells by a non-thermal atmospheric pressure microplasma H J Lee, C H Shon, Y S Kim, S Kim, G C Kim and M G Kong The acidification of lipid film surfaces by non-thermal DBD at atmospheric pressure in air A Helmke, D Hoffmeister, N Mertens, S Emmert, J Schuette and W Vioel Reduction and degradation of amyloid aggregates by a pulsed radio-frequency cold atmospheric plasma jet D L Bayliss, J L Walsh, G Shama, F Iza and M G Kong The effect of low-temperature plasma on bacteria as observed by repeated AFM imaging René Pompl, Ferdinand Jamitzky, Tetsuji Shimizu, Bernd Steffes, Wolfram Bunk, Hans-Ulrich Schmidt, Matthias Georgi, Katrin Ramrath, Wilhelm Stolz, Robert W Stark, Takuya Urayama, Shuitsu Fujii and Gregor Eugen Morfill Removal and sterilization of biofilms and planktonic bacteria by microwave-induced argon plasma at atmospheric pressure Mi Hee Lee, Bong Joo Park, Soo Chang Jin, Dohyun Kim, Inho Han, Jungsung Kim, Soon O Hyun, Kie-Hyung Chung and Jong-Chul Park Cell permeabilization using a non-thermal plasma M Leduc, D Guay, R L Leask and S Coulombe Physical and biological mechanisms of direct plasma interaction with living tissue Danil Dobrynin, Gregory Fridman, Gary Friedman and Alexander Fridman Nosocomial infections-a new approach towards preventive medicine using plasmas G E Morfill, T Shimizu, B Steffes and H-U Schmidt Generation and transport mechanisms of chemical species by a post-discharge flow for inactivation of bacteria Takehiko Sato, Shiroh Ochiai and Takuya Urayama Low pressure plasma discharges for the sterilization and decontamination of surfaces F Rossi, O Kylián, H Rauscher, M Hasiwa and D Gilliland Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding S P Kuo, O Tarasenko, J Chang, S Popovic, C Y Chen, H W Fan, A Scott, M Lahiani, P Alusta, J D Drake and M Nikolic A two

  15. Structural record of mechanisms of granite intrusion in the Achaean gneisses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perchuk, L. L.; van Reenen, D. D.

    2009-04-01

    A model of diapiric formation of granite domes within green-stone areas is based on gravitational re-distribution mechanisms of rocks in the Precambrian continental crust (e.g. McGregor, 1951; Ramberg, 1951; Perchuk, 1989, 1993; Perchuk et al., 1992). In addition, the gravitational re-distribution is the leading mechanism to form Precambrian granulite facies terrains among green-stone belts. It has been proven by data on general geology, tectonics, petrology, geochemistry, isotopic geology, geophysics, and numerical modeling (Perchuk et al., 2001; Gerya et al., 2000, 2002). However the behavior of granite melt within gneisses of similar bulk composition is questionable. If the above mechanisms works well in the case of "granitic gneiss - granite melt", the ascending rocks must have structural features that indicate upward movement, while the adjacent wall rocks must demonstrate structural features of the opposite movement. In metamorphic rocks these features are represented by lineation, drag folds, orientation of fold hinges etc. Apart from "straight gneisses" (Davidson, 1984; Smit & van Reenen, 1997) no direct evidence for the internal dynamics of the formation of high-grade terrains has ever been considered. In this paper we formulate a rule allowing discrimination between cylindrical metamorphogenic and magmatogenic structures and demonstrate a model of their formation. Two types of ring structures are considered as indicators of ascending granulites toward the surface, i.e. cylindrical folds (sheath fold) and granite stocks. Systematic studies of such structures at diverse erosion sections allowing the conclusion on their formation. During exhumation (decompression) of granulite facies terrains the formation of sheath folds are resulted from generation of the granite magma within the same granitogneissic material and subsequent uprising due to difference in densities of contacting materials because all sheath folds con. This is recorded in the contrasting

  16. New calibration of Ji - Di clinopyroxene barometer for Eclogites, pyroxenites and peridotites and eclogite - pyroxenite mantle geotherms.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashchepkov, Igor; Vishnyakova, Elena

    2010-05-01

    .275*(1-0.17*Na/Al+0.0115*Fe/Na)*Kd^3/4*ToK/(1+Fe)* (1+5*Fe*(ToK-600)/50)-35*ln(1273/ToK)*(Al+Ti+2.5Na+1.5Fe3+)+(0.9-xx(2,8))*10+xx(2,9)/xx(2,3)* ToK /300-4*(Fe*33.2-4) -(Al-5.5)*( ToK -1300)/70-( ToK -1200)*0.015 with the second correction P=P*0.65+10+Mg*Al*( ToK -1400)/500 Where KD = Na*Mg/xAlCr*/Ca; XAlCr= Al*((T0-800)/800)**0.25+Cr-K+(4*Ti-0.0125)/(T0-600)*400+(Fe-0.21)*(T0-600)/14000 This equations reproduces the experimental pressures for 300 experimental runs with the R=0.84 and for the best set of the experimental data (Walter, 1999; Taylor ea 1998; Brey Kohler, 1990; 2009) with the E=0.95 (s=7) within the 100 kbar interval. They allow to work with the wide range of the pyroxenite compositions giving the practically coinciding PT parameters with the pressures determined for ilmenites and chromites as well as the (Brey, Kohler, 1900) pressure estimates. The PT parameters reconstructed for the mantle lithosphere beneath > 120 pipes from Yakutia , Baltica, Africa , North America and other world wide kimberlites have shown very good coincidence with the estimates from the other methods of monomineral (Nimis, Taylor, 2000; McGregor, 1974; Ashchepkov ea. 2009 ) and Gar-Opx barometers (Brey, Kohler, 1900; Nickel, Green, 1975). For the garnet and spinel xenoliths of the alkali basalts representing fertile or regenerated peridotites with high Al content of the clinopyroxenes the modified equation allows to determine the pressures together for megacrysts, pyroxeniets and peridotites using the following equation P=0.035*Kd*ToK)/(1+3.5*Fe)- 50*ln(1273/(ToK-100)*(Al+5*Na-Ti+2*Cr) -(Na-0.050)*(ToK-1200)*(Ca-0.85)/7000+5 Where KD = Na*Mg/xAlCr*/Ca; xAlCr= (Al+Si-2)*((ToK-700)/900)^0.35+Cr+Fe3-K +(4*Ti-0.0125)/(ToK-600)*700 +(Fe-0.21)*(ToK-400)/17000 This equations also very good reproduce the experimental runs in the pressure interval from 10 to 80 kbar but better to 50 kbars (R=0.92) (S=5) for 170 experimental runs (Putirka ea, 1996; Fallon ea, 1999; Taylor ea, 1998; Drapper Green

  17. PREFACE: Rutherford Centennial Conference on Nuclear Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeman, Sean

    2012-09-01

    , giving a really excellent set of presentations. Finally we are also pleased to express our thanks to the Conference Office of the Institute of Physics for their invaluable support in organising this event. We are especially grateful to Dawn Stewart for her responsive and efficient day-to-day handling of this event, as well as to Claire Garland for her planning and management of this event. This conference is the second in a series of conferences that began with the Rutherford Jubilee Conference held in Manchester in 1961, which is described in one of the contributions to these proceedings. I do hope that at least some of the delegates from the Centennial Conference will be able to attend the next one, fifty years hence in 2061, just as we were honoured to have some of the Jubilee delegates with us for the Centennial. If I am still around, I doubt that I will have the energy then to be conference chair. I would also not like to attempt to predict the plenary programme, but I hope that it will be as vibrant and exciting as the 2011 conference. Professor Sean J Freeman Conference Chair On behalf of the UK Organising Committee Ernest Rutherford Ernest Rutherford (Photograph courtesy of The University of Manchester) Edited by: Sean Freeman (The University of Manchester) Andrei Andreyev (University of the West of Scotland/The University of York) Alison Bruce (University of Brighton) Alick Deacon (The University of Manchester) Dave Jenkins (University of York) Dave Joss (University of Liverpool) Douglas MacGregor (University of Glasgow) Paddy Regan (University of Surrey) John Simpson (University of Daresbury) Garry Tungate (University of Birmingham) Bob Wadsworth (University of York) Dan Watts (University of Edinburgh) International Advisory Panel: A Aprahamian (Notre Dame, USA) J Äystö (Jyväskylä, Finland) F Aziaez (Orsay, France) J-P Blaizot (Saclay, France/ECT, Italy) A Bracco (Milan, Italy) H Caines (Yale, USA) C W de Jaeger (JLAB, USA) J Dilling (TRIUMF, Canada) J

  18. FOREWORD: International Conference on Planetary Boundary Layer and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djolov, G.; Esau, I.

    2010-05-01

    and convection in the climate system and the prominent demonstration of the climate sensitivity to the ocean heat uptake observed off Cape Town. The international conference responded to the urgent need of advancing our understanding of the complex climate system and development of adequate measures for saving the planet from environmental disaster. It also fits well with the Republic of South African government's major political decision to include the responses to global change/climate change at the very top of science and technology policy. The conference participants are grateful to the Norway Research Council and the National Research Foundation (NRF) RSA who supported the Conference through the project "Analysis and Possibility for Control of Atmospheric Boundary Layer Processes to Facilitate Adaptation to Environmental Changes" realized in the framework of the Programme for Research and Co-operation Phase II between the two countries. Kirstenbosh Biodiversity Institute and Botanical Gardens, Cape Town contribution of securing one of the most beautiful Conference venues in the world and technical support is also highly appreciated. G. Djolov and I. Esau Editors Conference_Photo Conference Organising Comittee Djolov, G.South AfricaUniversity of Pretoria Esau, I.NorwayNansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center Hewitson, B.South AfricaUniversity of Cape Town McGregor, J.AustraliaCSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research Midgley, G.South AfricaSouth African National Botanical Institute Mphepya, J.South AfricaSouth African Weather Service Piketh, S.South AfricaUniversity of the Witwatersrand Pielke, R.USAUniversity of Colorado, Boulder Pienaar, K.South AfricaUniversity of the North West Rautenbach, H.South AfricaUniversity of Pretoria Zilitinkevich, S.FinlandUniversity of Helsinki The conference was organized by: University of Pretoria Nansen Environmental and Remote Sensing Center With support and sponsorship from: Norwegian Research Council (grant N 197649

  19. GUEST EDITORS' INTRODUCTION: Guest Editors' introduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coulson, Geoff; de Meer, Jan B.

    1997-03-01

    service management' by Gregor v Bochmann and Abdelhakim Hafid offers lessons in QoS management learned during the implementation of a prototype News-on-Demand application. Some general principles are extracted from this experience. In particular, a novel QoS adaptation technique is highlighted: transparent automatic reconfiguration of the components involved in a communication (e.g. choice of an alternative network or server at run time). An algorithm which attempts to choose optimal configurations is discussed. `Quality of service management using generic modelling and monitoring techniques', by Leonard Franken and Boudewijn Haverkort investigates the use of Petri nets as the basis of generic QoS monitoring of distributed applications. A distributed application is exploded into finegrained component parts and interactions between these parts are instrumented. The paper offers a case study of the instrumentation of a videophone application using this technique. Simulation is used to evaluate the scheme. The final two papers in the special issue are more focused and pragmatic in nature. These papers explore QoS provision in particular environments (the World Wide Web and ATM networks respectively) through reported implementation experience. `QoS management in a World Wide Web environment which supports continuous media' by Michael Fry, Aruna Seneviratne, Andreas Vogel and Varuni Witana looks at the practical provision of end to end QoS management in the World Wide Web. The paper looks beyond currently available tools such as RealAudio and StreamWorks and presents a QoS managed RTP based solution featuring an adjunct QoS management protocol. This work offers QoS management functions (e.g. QoS negotiation, adaptation and control of QoS degradation paths) directly to the user via the usual Web GUI. `A QoS adaptive multimedia transport system: design, implementation and experiences' by Andrew Campbell and Geoff Coulson offers further practical experience of QoS management

  20. EDITORIAL: Focus on Quantum Cryptography: Theory and Practice FOCUS ON QUANTUM CRYPTOGRAPHY: THEORY AND PRACTICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lütkenhaus, N.; Shields, A. J.

    2009-04-01

    distribution network in Vienna M Peev, C Pacher, R Alléaume, C Barreiro, J Bouda, W Boxleitner, T Debuisschert, E Diamanti, M Dianati, J F Dynes, S Fasel, S Fossier, M Fürst, J-D Gautier, O Gay, N Gisin, P Grangier, A Happe, Y Hasani, M Hentschel, H Hübel, G Humer, T Länger, M Legré, R Lieger, J Lodewyck, T Lorünser, N Lütkenhaus, A Marhold, T Matyus, O Maurhart, L Monat, S Nauerth, J-B Page, A Poppe, E Querasser, G Ribordy, S Robyr, L Salvail, A W Sharpe, A J Shields, D Stucki, M Suda, C Tamas, T Themel, R T Thew, Y Thoma, A Treiber, P Trinkler, R Tualle-Brouri, F Vannel, N Walenta, H Weier, H Weinfurter, I Wimberger, Z L Yuan, H Zbinden and A Zeilinger Stable quantum key distribution with active polarization control based on time-division multiplexing J Chen, G Wu, L Xu, X Gu, E Wu and H Zeng Controlling passively quenched single photon detectors by bright light Vadim Makarov Information leakage via side channels in freespace BB84 quantum cryptography Sebastian Nauerth, Martin Fürst, Tobias Schmitt-Manderbach, Henning Weier and Harald Weinfurter Standardization of quantum key distribution and the ETSI standardization initiative ISG-QKD Thomas Länger and Gaby Lenhart Entangled quantum key distribution with a biased basis choice Chris Erven, Xiongfeng Ma, Raymond Laflamme and Gregor Weihs Finite-key analysis for practical implementations of quantum key distribution Raymond Y Q Cai and Valerio Scarani Field test of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution prototype S Fossier, E Diamanti, T Debuisschert, A Villing, R Tualle-Brouri and P Grangier Physics and application of photon number resolving detectors based on superconducting parallel nanowires F Marsili, D Bitauld, A Gaggero, S Jahanmirinejad, R Leoni, F Mattioli and A Fiore Device-independent quantum key distribution secure against collective attacks Stefano Pironio, Antonio Acín, Nicolas Brunner, Nicolas Gisin, Serge Massar and Valerio Scarani 1310 nm differential-phase-shift QKD system using

  1. An prediction and explanation of 'climatic swing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barkin, Yury

    2010-05-01

    of RAS, Syktyvkar, pp. 26-28. In Russian. [7] Barkin Yu.V. (2009) Prediction and explanation of mean sea levels in northern hemisphere, in southern hemisphere and all ocean of the Earth. EGU General Assembly (Vienna, Austria, 19-24 April 2009). Geophysical Research Abstracts, Volume 11, 2009, abstract # EGU2009-1610. [8] Barkin Yu.V. (2007) Forced redistribution of air masses between southern and northern hemispheres of the Earth. Proceedings of IUGG XXIV General Assembly, Perugia, Italy 2007: Earth: Our Changing Planet (Perugia, Italy, July 2-13, 2007), (A)-IAGA, JAS008, p. 326. www. iugg2007perugia.it. [9] Barkin, Yu.V.; Shuanggen J. (2007) On variations of the mean radius of the Northern and Southern Hemispheres of the Earth. EGU General Assembly (Vienna, Austria, 15-20 April 2007). Geoph. Res. Abs., Vol. 9, 2007, abstract # EGU07-A-08183. [10] Stephen Barker, Paula Diz, Maryline J. Vautravers, Jennifer Pike, Gregor Knorr, Ian R. Hall & Wallace S. Broecker (2009) Interhemispheric Atlantic seesaw response during the last deglaciation. Nature, 457, 1097-1102 (26 February 2009) | doi:10.1038/nature07770.

  2. EDITORIAL: Colloidal dispersions in external fields Colloidal dispersions in external fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löwen, Hartmut

    2012-11-01

    ller, Bastian Sieber, Holger Schweinfurth, Holger Reiber and Gerhard Nägele Electrokinetics on superhydrophobic surfacesPeriklis Papadopoulos, Xu Deng, Doris Vollmer and Hans-Jürgen Butt Numerical electrokineticsR Schmitz and B Dünweg Dielectric response of nanoscopic spherical colloids in alternating electric fields: a dissipative particle dynamics simulationJiajia Zhou and Friederike Schmid Self-assembly of colloidal particles into strings in a homogeneous external electric or magnetic fieldFrank Smallenburg, Hanumantha Rao Vutukuri, Arnout Imhof, Alfons van Blaaderen and Marjolein Dijkstra The nature of the laning transition in two dimensionsT Glanz and H Löwen Microscopic theory for anisotropic pair correlations in driven binary mixturesMatthias Kohl, Alexei V Ivlev, Philip Brandt, Gregor E Morfill and Hartmut Löwen Dynamics of individual colloidal particles in one-dimensional random potentials: a simulation studyRichard D L Hanes and Stefan U Egelhaaf An interacting dipole model to explore broadband transverse optical bindingMichael Mazilu, Andrew Rudhall, Ewan M Wright and Kishan Dholakia Comparison of 2D melting criteria in a colloidal systemPatrick Dillmann, Georg Maret and Peter Keim Effects of confinement and external fields on structure and transport in colloidal dispersions in reduced dimensionalityD Wilms, S Deutschländer, U Siems, K Franzrahe, P Henseler, P Keim, N Schwierz, P Virnau, K Binder, G Maret and P Nielaba Stochastic transport of particles across single barriersChristian Kreuter, Ullrich Siems, Peter Henseler, Peter Nielaba, Paul Leiderer and Artur Erbe A perspective on the interfacial properties of nanoscopic liquid dropsAlexandr Malijevský and George Jackson Controlling the wetting properties of the Asakura-Oosawa model and applications to spherical confinementA Statt, A Winkler, P Virnau and K Binder Crystalline multilayers of charged colloids in soft confinement: experiment versus theoryE C Oğuz, A Reinmüller, H J Schöpe, T Palberg, R

  3. Authentic Learning Enviroment in Analytical Chemistry Using Cooperative Methods and Open-Ended Laboratories in Large Lecture Courses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, John C.

    1996-09-01

    , etc. It requires a change in the way that faculty and students view themselves (4). It is clear that this course model is an example of one that replaces the traditional model of passive learners and inspired lecturers by a model where the students take an active and responsible part in the learning process and faculty members facilitate learning by preparing a learning environment that will challenge and empower students. These changes are fundamental and represent new traditions that guide students and faculty into a new approach to education. It is important to extend such approaches to other upper-level courses in the chemistry curriculum. Acknowledgment This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under grant 94-50615. Literature Cited 1. Moll, M. M.; Allen, R. D. J. College Sci. Teach. 1982, 11, 219-222. 2. Tobias, S. Revitalizing Undergraduate Science: Why Some Things Work and Most Don't; Research Corporation: Tucson, AZ, 1992. 3. Tobias, S. They're Not Dumb, They're Different: Stalking the Second Tier; Research Corporation: Tucson, AZ, 1990. 4. MacGregor, J. New Directions for Teaching and Learning 1990, 42, 19 -30. 5. Bunce, D.M. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 179 and associated papers. 6. Newmann, F. M. Phi Delta Kappan, 1991, 72, 458-463. 7. Walters, J. P. Anal. Chem. 1991, 63, 977A-985A, 1077A-1087A, 1179A-1191A. 8. Ricci, R. W.; Ditzler, M. A. J. Chem. Educ. 1991, 68, 228-232. 9. Laws, P. W. Physics Today, Dec. 1991, pp 24-31. 10. Pickering, M. J. Chem. Educ. 1985, 62, 874-875. 11. Alty, L. T. J. Chem. Educ. 1993, 70, 663-665. 12. Yamazaki, H.; Sperline, R. P.; Freiser, H. Anal. Chem. 1992, 64, 12720-2725. 13. Kagan, S. Cooperative Learning; Resources for Teachers, Inc.: San 1Juan Capistrano, CA, 1992. 14. Johnson, D. W. ; Johnson, R. T.; Smith, K. A. Active Learning: 1Cooperation in the College Classroom; Interaction Book Co.: Edina, 1MN, 1991. 15. Mazur, E. Peer Instruction: A User's Manual (Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge

  4. Mantle Samples Included in Volcanic Rocks: Xenoliths and Diamonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, D. G.; Canil, D.; Shirey, S. B.

    2003-12-01

    ) and Mg rich. Group II have interlocking texture of anhedral garnet and omphacite and are less altered. Garnets are lower in Na2O (0.05 wt.%). Common hosts for diamond, especially group I. Not all eclogites of obvious mantle origin and some grade into garnet granulites and pyroxenites of crust origin.Roberts Victor (MacGregor and Carter, 1970; McCandless and Gurney, 1989); Jagersfontein ( Nixon et al., 1978; Mazonne and Haggerty, 1989); Orapa ( Robinson et al., 1984), all Kaapvaal craton. Udachnaya, Siberian craton ( Sobolev, 1974; Ponomarenko, 1975); Koidu, W. African craton ( Tompkins and Haggerty, 1984; Hills and Haggerty, 1989)NA AX: megacrysts (discrete nodules)Single crystals or monominerallic polycrystalline aggregates (sometimes exsolved) weighing up to 15 kg. Rare mutual lamellar or granular intergrowths. Large range in Mg#, Cr, and Ti in a given suite. Cr-poor variety: widespread, locally abundant (e.g., Monastery). Garnets, clino- and orthopyroxenes, phlogopite and ilmenite most common, zircon and olivine rarer. Debatable whether phlogopite and olivine are members of Cr-poor suite. Wide range in chemistry but Cr-poor, Fe-Ti-rich relative to type I (low-T) peridotite minerals. Mineral chemistry and estimated equilibration P/Ts overlap those of type V (high-T) lherzolites. Some Slave craton "Cr-poor megacrysts" show mineral chemistry links to type II megacrystalline pyroxenite xenoliths. See review of Schulze (1987).N. Lesotho (Nixon and Boyd 1973b); Monastery ( Gurney et al., 1979), Jagersfontein ( Hops et al., 1992), Kaapvaal craton; The Malaita megacryst suite ( Nixon and Boyd, 1979), occurs in an ocean plateau alnoite, but has many similarities with the kimberlitic low-Cr suite Cr-rich variety: (i) A suite comprising garnet plus ortho- and clinopyroxene, mostly restricted to kimberlites from Colorado-Wyoming. Mineralogically similar to type I lherzolites. (ii) "Granny Smith" diopsides; bright green Cr-diopside, may contain blebs/intergrowths of ilmenite

  5. Poster Session B

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    that the most significantly enriched molecular function categories for SSG-modified proteins were free radical scavenging and cell death/survival. This preliminary result provides some insights on protein SSG modification as a potential regulatory mechanism of nanomaterial-induced oxidative stress. B.11 O-GlcNAc Regulates SOX2 Activity in Embryonic Stem Cells by Altering Protein-SOX2 Interactions Samuel Myers1, Sailaja Pedadda, Tara Freidrich, Sean Thomas, Gregor Krings, Michael Lopez, Marena Trinidad, Barbara Panning, Al Burlingame University of California, San Francisco, CA, USA SOX2 is a versatile transcription factor that maintains embryonic stem cell (ESC) pluripotency and self-renewal, and is important for proper lineage specification and adult stem cell maintenance. This versatility is likely due to post-translational modifications (PTMs) as SOX2 has been reported to be modified by numerous chemical moieties in a variety of cell types. One such PTM is O-GlcNAc, the dynamic and regulatory glycosylation of intracellular proteins. Global O-GlcNAc is essential for ESC self-renewal though the function of SOX2 O-GlcNAcylation in ESC is not understood. Here, we show that SOX2 is O-GlcNAc modified in the transactivation domain and alterations of self-renewing signals induce changes in SOX2 O-GlcNAc stoichiometry. Replacement of wild-type SOX2 with an O-GlcNAc-deficient mutant SOX2 in ESCs increases the pluripotency transcriptional network while down-regulating genes involved in differentiation. Analysis of SOX2-interacting proteins from ESCs revealed that the WT and mutant SOX2 interact with distinct subsets of transcriptional regulatory complexes. Thus, SOX2 O-GlcNAcylation modulates the transcriptional landscape of ESCs by modulating SOX2 activity and interactions with epigenetic regulatory complexes. B.12 Development of Multiplexed Assays for Oral Cancer Biomarker Verification by Peptide Immunoaffinity Enrichment and Targeted Mass Spectrometry Yung-Chin Hsiao1, Lang