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Sample records for gregor eron adoberg

  1. Gregor Mendel: Creationist Hero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Numbers, Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    In histories of twentieth-century Darwinism few developments loom larger than the turn-of-the-century rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's genetic research and the later application of Mendelian principles in constructing so-called Neo-Darwinism. Virtually unknown is the equally enthusiastic embrace of Mendel by antievolutionists, who as early as…

  2. Gregor Mendel: Creationist Hero

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Numbers, Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    In histories of twentieth-century Darwinism few developments loom larger than the turn-of-the-century rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's genetic research and the later application of Mendelian principles in constructing so-called Neo-Darwinism. Virtually unknown is the equally enthusiastic embrace of Mendel by antievolutionists, who as early as…

  3. Gregor Mendel: Creationist Hero

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numbers, Ronald L.

    2015-01-01

    In histories of twentieth-century Darwinism few developments loom larger than the turn-of-the-century rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's genetic research and the later application of Mendelian principles in constructing so-called Neo-Darwinism. Virtually unknown is the equally enthusiastic embrace of Mendel by antievolutionists, who as early as 1917 adopted the Austrian monk as their most celebrated scientific hero, a status he continues to hold down to the present day.

  4. The GREGOR Solar Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; Lagg, A.; Puschmann, K. G.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sobotka, M.; Soltau, D.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; von der Luehe, O.; Solanki, S. K.; Balthasar, H.; Bello Gonzalez, N.; Berkefeld, T.; Collados Vera, M.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.

    2012-12-01

    The 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope is a new facility for high-resolution observations of the Sun. The telescope is located at the Spanish Observatorio del Teide on Tenerife. The telescope incorporates advanced designs for a foldable-tent dome, an open steel-truss telescope structure, and active and passive means to minimize telescope and mirror seeing. Solar fine structure can be observed with a dedicated suite of instruments: a broad-band imaging system, the "GREGOR Fabry-Perot Interferometer", and the "Grating Infrared Spectrograph". All post-focus instruments benefit from a high-order (multi-conjugate) adaptive optics system, which enables observations close to the diffraction limit of the telescope. The inclusion of a spectrograph for stellar activity studies and the search for solar twins expands the scientific usage of the GREGOR to the nighttime domain. We report on the successful commissioning of the telescope until the end of 2011 and the first steps towards science verification in 2012.

  5. The Solar Telescope GREGOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmer, R.

    2008-09-01

    During the last years the new 1.5m solar telescope GREGOR was assembled at Izania on Tenerife, Spain. The telescope is designed for high-precision measurements of the magnetic field in the solar photosphere and chromosphere with a resolution of 70km on the Sun. The telescope concept offers also high resolution stellar spectroscopy. The telescope is build by a consortium of the Kiepenheuer-Institut für Sonnenphysik, the Astrophysikalische Institut Potsdam, the Institut für Astrophysik Göttingen, Max-Plank-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung and additional international Partners. The telescope is a complete open structure with active cooled main mirror. High performance post-focus instruments in the visible and near IR wavelength acquire high resolution spectra with 2 dimensional spatial resolution and polarimetric information. The commissioning of the telescope will start in 2008 to allow first science observations at the end of 2009.

  6. Marion McGregor Lee Loy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossi, Joe

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an interview with Marion Frances Kaleleonalani McGregor Lee Loy who served as a teacher in the Hawai'i Department of Education from 1935 to 1974. Marion McGregor Lee Loy was born in 1911 in Honolulu. She attended Central Grammar and Lincoln Grammar schools before entering Kamehameha School for Girls in the ninth grade. Lee…

  7. [An enigmatic disease in Gregor Mendel's life].

    PubMed

    Nivet, Christiane

    2004-11-01

    The great value of the experimental and theoretical work of Gregor Mendel has been recognized more than thirty five years after its publication; in this article, we suggest that his personality has still to be rediscovered.

  8. The GREGOR Broad-Band Imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von der Lühe, O.; Volkmer, R.; Kentischer, T. J.; Geißler, R.

    2012-11-01

    The design and characteristics of the Broad-Band Imager (BBI) of GREGOR are described. BBI covers the visible spectral range with two cameras simultaneously for a large field and with critical sampling at 390 nm, and it includes a mode for observing the pupil in a Foucault configuration. Samples of first-light observations are shown.

  9. Walking capabilities of Gregor controlled through Walknet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, Paolo; Patané, Luca; Schilling, Malte; Schmitz, Josef

    2007-05-01

    Locomotion control of legged robots is nowadays a field in continuous evolution. In this work a bio-inspired control architecture based on the stick insect is applied to control the hexapod robot Gregor. The control scheme is an extension of Walknet, a decentralized network inspired by the stick insect, that on the basis of local reflexes generates the control signals needed to coordinate locomotion in hexapod robots. Walknet has been adapted to the specific mechanical structure of Gregor that is characterized by specialized legs and a sprawled posture. In particular an innovative hind leg geometry, inspired by the cockroach, has been considered to improve climbing capabilities. The performances of the new control architecture have been evaluated in dynamic simulation environments. The robot has been endowed with distance and contact sensors for obstacle detection. A heading control is used to avoid large obstacles, and an avoidance reflex, as can be found in stick insects, has been introduced to further improve climbing capabilities of the structure. The reported results, obtained in different environmental configurations, stress the adaptive capabilities of the Walknet approach: Even in unpredictable and cluttered environments the walking behaviour of the simulated robot and the robot prototype, controlled through a FPGA based board, remained stable.

  10. Mechanical design of the solar telescope GREGOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkmer, R.; Eisenträger, P.; Emde, P.; Fischer, A.; von der Lühe, O.; Nicklas, H.; Soltau, D.; Schmidt, W.; Weis, U.

    2012-11-01

    The mechanical structure of the GREGOR telescope was installed at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, in 2004. New concepts for mounting and cooling of the 1.5-meter primary mirror were introduced. GREGOR is an open telescope, therefore the dome is completely open during observations to allow for air flushing through the open, but stiff telescope structure. Backside cooling system of the primary mirror keeps the mirror surface close to ambient temperature to prevent mirror seeing. The large collecting area of the primary mirror results in high energy density at the field stop at the prime focus of the primary which needs to be removed. The optical elements are supported by precision alignment systems and should provide a stable solar image at the optical lab. The coudé train can be evacuated and serves as a natural barrier between the outer environmental conditions and the air-conditioned optical laboratory with its sensitive scientific instrumentation. The telescope was successfully commissioned and will start its nominal operation during 2013.

  11. Single-Dose Oritavancin Treatment of Acute Bacterial Skin and Skin Structure Infections: SOLO Trial Efficacy by Eron Severity and Management Setting.

    PubMed

    Deck, Daniel H; Jordan, Jennifer M; Holland, Thomas L; Fan, Weihong; Wikler, Matthew A; Sulham, Katherine A; Ralph Corey, G

    2016-09-01

    Introduction of new antibiotics enabling single-dose administration, such as oritavancin may significantly impact site of care decisions for patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI). This analysis compared the efficacy of single-dose oritavancin with multiple-dose vancomycin in patients categorized according to disease severity via modified Eron classification and management setting. SOLO I and II were phase 3 studies evaluating single-dose oritavancin versus 7-10 days of vancomycin for treatment of ABSSSI. Patient characteristics were collected at baseline and retrospectively analyzed. Study protocols were amended, allowing outpatient management at the discretion of investigators. In this post hoc analysis, patients were categorized according to a modified Eron severity classification and management setting (outpatient vs. inpatient) and the efficacy compared. Overall, 1910 patients in the SOLO trials were categorized into Class I (520, 26.5%), II (790, 40.3%), and III (600, 30.6%). Of the 767 patients (40%) in the SOLO trials who were managed entirely in the outpatient setting 40.3% were categorized as Class II and 30.6% were Class III. Clinical efficacy was similar between oritavancin and vancomycin treatment groups, regardless of severity classification and across inpatient and outpatient settings. Class III patients had lower response rates (oritavancin 73.3%, vancomycin 76.6%) at early clinical evaluation when compared to patients in Class I (82.6%) or II (86.1%); however, clinical cure rates at the post-therapy evaluation were similar for Class III patients (oritavancin 79.8%, vancomycin 79.9%) when compared to Class I and II patients (79.1-85.7%). Single-dose oritavancin therapy results in efficacy comparable to multiple-dose vancomycin in patients categorized according to modified Eron disease severity classification regardless of whether management occurred in the inpatient or outpatient setting. The Medicines Company

  12. The GREGOR dome, pathfinder for the EST dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Kommers, Johannes N.; Visser, Simon; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; van Schie, Anton G. M.; van Leverink, Simon J.; Sliepen, Guus; Jägers, Aswin P. L.

    2012-09-01

    The completely open-foldable dome of the GREGOR telescope is a further development of the DOT dome, respectively 9 and 7 meter in diameter. New technical developments are implemented and tested at the GREGOR dome, that are important for the design of the much larger dome for the EST, which will be 28 meter in diameter. The GREGOR dome is the first with more than one clamp working simultaneously for closing the dome and bringing the membranes on the required high tension for storm resistance. The storm Delta with 245 km/h 1-minute mean maximum at the location of the GREGOR gave no problems nor did the storms afterwards. Opening and closing experiences are up to wind speeds of 90 km/h without problems. Good observing circumstances never occur with higher wind speeds. A double layer of membranes is applied in the GREGOR construction whereas the DOT dome is equipped with a single layer. Simultaneous climate measurements inside and outside the dome have proven the thermal-insulation capability of this double-layer construction. The experiences with the GREGOR showed that the elongation by tensioning of the prestrained membrane material is much lower than originally expected. In the meantime, more strong and stiff membrane material is available and applied in the EST design. As a consequence, the clamps of the EST can have a relatively much shorter length and there is no need anymore for simultaneous operation of the clamps and the main actuators in low speed with help of a frequency inverter. The clamps can close after the main bow operation is finished, which simplifies the electrical control.

  13. Planet imaging polarimetry with the solar telescope GREGOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisler, Daniel; Berkefeld, Thomas; Berdyugina, Svetlana

    2016-07-01

    Polarimetry of planets and planetary systems provide unique information on physics and chemistry of planetary atmospheres. We have built a new instrument, GREGOR Planet Polarimeter (GPP), which includes fast polarimetric modulation, high-rate readout CCD, and adaptive optics. It operates at the solar telescope GREGOR on Tenerife, Canary Islands, and it benefits from the possibility to calibrate the entire optical train after the secondary mirror. Here we present the instrument design, performance tests, and first scientific data. This research is supported by the ERC Advanced Grant HotMol.

  14. Gregor Mendel, OSA (1822-1884), founder of scientific genetics.

    PubMed

    Dunn, P M

    2003-11-01

    Gregor Mendel, an Augustinian monk and part-time school teacher, undertook a series of brilliant hybridisation experiments with garden peas between 1857 and 1864 in the monastery gardens and, using statistical methods for the first time in biology, established the laws of heredity, thereby establishing the discipline of genetics.

  15. On a Seminal Paper by Karlin and McGregor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, Mirta M.; Grünbaum, F. Alberto

    2013-03-01

    The use of spectral methods to study birth-and-death processes was pioneered by S. Karlin and J. McGregor. Their expression for the transition probabilities was made explicit by them in a few cases. Here we complete their analysis and indicate a few applications of their very powerful method.

  16. A retrospective of the GREGOR solar telescope in scientific literature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, C.; von der Lühe, O.; Feller, A.; Arlt, K.; Balthasar, H.; Bauer, S.-M.; Bello González, N.; Berkefeld, Th.; Caligari, P.; Collados, M.; Fischer, A.; Granzer, T.; Hahn, T.; Halbgewachs, C.; Heidecke, F.; Hofmann, A.; Kentischer, T.; Klva{ňa, M.; Kneer, F.; Lagg, A.; Nicklas, H.; Popow, E.; Puschmann, K. G.; Rendtel, J.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sobotka, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; Waldmann, T.; Wiehr, E.; Wittmann, A. D.; Woche, M.

    2012-11-01

    In this review, we look back upon the literature, which had the GREGOR solar telescope project as its subject including science cases, telescope subsystems, and post-focus instruments. The articles date back to the year 2000, when the initial concepts for a new solar telescope on Tenerife were first presented at scientific meetings. This comprehensive bibliography contains literature until the year 2012, i.e., the final stages of commissioning and science verification. Taking stock of the various publications in peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings also provides the ``historical'' context for the reference articles in this special issue of Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes.

  17. Subglacial Lake McGregor, south-central Alberta, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munro-Stasiuk, Mandy J.

    2003-08-01

    It is proposed that a lake, here named "Subglacial Lake McGregor", existed beneath the Laurentide Ice Sheet at, or near, the last glacial maximum. The lake resided in the ancient buried McGregor and Tee Pee preglacial valleys, which are now mostly filled with glacigenic deposits. The greatest thickness of sediment in the valleys is in the form of chaotically deposited lake beds that were laid down in a subaqueous environment by a number of process: gravity flow, water transport, and suspension settling. Topographic, sedimentary, and stratigraphic evidence point to a subglacial, not a proglacial, origin for the beds. During the early stages of lake existence, ice movement was significant as there are numerous sets of shear planes in the sedimentary beds. This indicates that the lake filled (lake sedimentation) and drained (shearing of the beds by overlying ice when ice contacted the bed) often. Thus, early in its history, the lake(s) was/were ephemeral. During the later stages of lake existence, the lake was relatively stable with no rapid draining or influx of sediment. Gradual drainage of the lake resulted in lowering of the ice onto the lake beds resulting in subglacial till deposition. Drainage was not a single continuous event. Rather it was characterized by multiple phases of near total drainage (till deposition), followed by water accumulation (lake sedimentation). Water accumulation events became successively less significant reflected by thinning of lake beds and thickening of till beds higher in the stratigraphic sequence. Since subglacial lake sedimentation appears to be restricted to the subglacial valleys, it is suggested that the valleys acted as a large-scale interconnected cavity system that both stored and transported water. It is also suggested that these acted as the main routes of water flow beneath the Laurentide Ice Sheet.

  18. GREGOR observations of a small flare above a sunspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotka, M.; Dudík, J.; Denker, C.; Balthasar, H.; Jurčák, J.; Liu, W.; Liu

    A small flare ribbon above a sunspot umbra in active region 12205 was observed on November 7, 2014, at 12:00 UT in the blue imaging channel of the 1.5-m GREGOR telescope, using a 0.1 nm Ca II H interference filter. Context observations from SDO/AIA, Hinode/SOT, and IRIS show that the ribbon is a part of a larger one that extends through the neighboring positive polarities and also participates in several other flares within the active region. A 140 second long time series of Ca II H images was reconstructed by means of the Multi-Frame Blind Deconvolution method, giving the respective spatial and temporal resolutions of 0''.1 and 1 s. Light curves and horizontal velocities of small-scale bright knots in the observed flare ribbon were measured. Some knots are stationary but three move along the ribbon with speeds of 7-11 km s-1. Two of them move in the opposite direction and exhibit highly correlated intensity changes, providing evidence for the presence of slipping reconnection at small spatial scales.

  19. Mendelism: New Insights from Gregor Mendel's Lectures in Brno.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Chen, Wen; Sun, Kun

    2017-09-01

    Interpretation of Gregor Mendel's work has previously been based on study of his published paper "Experiments in Plant Hybridization." In contrast, the lectures that he gave preceding publication of this work have been largely neglected for more than 150 years. Here, we report on and interpret the content of Mendel's previous two lectures, as they were reported in a local newspaper. We comprehensively reference both the text of his paper and the historical background of his experiments. Our analysis shows that while Mendel had inherited the traditional research program on interspecific hybridization in plants, he introduced the novel method of ratio analysis for representing the variation of unit-characters among offspring of hybrids. His aim was to characterize and explain the developmental features of the distributional pattern of unit-characters in two series of hybrid experiments, using self-crosses and backcrosses with parents. In doing so, he not only answered the question of what the unit-characters were and the nature of their hierarchical classification, but also successfully inferred the numerical principle of unit-character transmission from generation to generation. He also established the nature of the composition and behaviors of reproductive cells from one generation to the next. Here we highlight the evidence from Mendel's lectures, clearly announcing that he had discovered the general law of cross-generation transmission of unit-characters through reproductive cells containing unit-factors. The recovered content of these previous lectures more accurately describes the work he performed with his garden peas than his published paper and shows how he first presented it in Brno. It is thus an invaluable resource for understanding the origin of the science of genetics. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.

  20. Historical study: Johann Gregor Mendel 1822-1884.

    PubMed

    Weiling, F

    1991-07-01

    The life and personality of Johann Gregor Mendel (1822-1884), the founder of scientific genetics, are reviewed against the contemporary background of his times. At the end are weighed the benefits for Mendel (as charged by Sir Ronald Fisher) to have documented his results on hand of falsified data. Mendel was born into a humble farm family in the "Kuhländchen", then a predominantly German area of Northern Moravia. On the basis of great gifts Mendel was able to begin higher studies; however, he found himself in serious financial difficulties because of his father's accident and incapacitation. His hardships engendered illness which threatened continuation and completion of his studies until he was afforded the chance of absolving successfully theological studies as an Augustinian monk in the famous chapter of St. Thomas in Altbrünn (Staré Brno). Psychosomatic indisposition made Mendel unfit for practical pastoral duties. Thus, he was directed to teach but without appropriate state certification; an attempt to pass such an examination failed. At that point he was sent to the University of Vienna for a 2-year course of studies, with emphasis on physics and botany, to prepare him for the exam. His scientific and methodologic training enabled him to plan studies of the laws of inheritance, which had begun to interest him already during his theology training, and to choose the appropriate experimental plant. In 1865, after 12 years of systematic investigations on peas, he presented his results in the famous paper "Versuche über Pflanzenhybriden." Three years after his return from Vienna he failed to attain his teaching certification a second time. Only by virtue of his exceptional qualifications did he continue to function as a Supplementary Professor of Physics and Natural History in the two lowest classes of a secondary school. In 1868 he was elected Abbot of his chapter, and freed from teaching duties, was able to pursue his many scientific interests with greater

  1. From the "Göttingen" Fabry-Perot Interferometer to the GREGOR FPI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puschmann, K. G.; Kneer, F.; Nicklas, H.; Wittmann, A. D.

    Fabry-Perot Interferometers (FPIs) have advantages over slit spectrographs, allowing fast two-dimensional, narrowband imaging and post factum image reconstruction of the spectropolarimetric data obtained. The resulting intensity, velocity and magnetic field maps are a fundamental base for the understanding of the dynamics of the solar atmosphere and its magnetic fields at smallest spatial scales. Efforts are undertaken to provide, with the Göttingen Fabry-Perot interferometer, an up-todate post-focus instrument for the German 1.5 m GREGOR solar telescope. Therefore a renewal of the spectrometer has been achieved during the first half of 2005. First observations at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) reveal new scientific aspects and a very promising outlook for the future at GREGOR. In this contribution a general description of the upgraded spectrometer is given. Its final optical design at GREGOR is described and an optical analysis of the GREGOR FPI is outlined. Latest results with the new instrument obtained at the VTT are presented.

  2. Remembering Johann Gregor Mendel: a human, a Catholic priest, an Augustinian monk, and abbot.

    PubMed

    Richter, Father Clemens

    2015-11-01

    Johann Mendel (Gregor was the name given to him only later by his Augustinian order, Fig. 1) was born on July 20, 1822 to an ethnic German family, Anton and Rosina Mendel (Fig. 2), in Heinzendorf in the Austrian Empire at the Moravian-Silesian border (now Hynčice, Czech Republic).

  3. Open-foldable domes with high-tension textile membranes: The GREGOR dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, R. H.; Kommers, J. N.; Visser, S.; Bettonvil, F. C. M.; van Schie, A. G. M.; van Leverink, S. J.; Sliepen, G.; Jägers, A. P. L.; Schmidt, W.; Volkmer, R.

    2012-11-01

    Double layers of high-tensioned textile membranes were applied to the completely open-foldable dome for the GREGOR telescope for the first time. Simultaneous climate measurements inside and outside the dome have proven the thermal-insulating capability of this double-layer construction. The GREGOR dome is the result of the continuation of the ESO research on open-foldable domes with textile structures, followed by the research for the DOT dome with high-tensioned textile membranes. It cleared the way to extreme stability required for astronomical practice on high mountain sites with heavy storms and ice formation. The storm Delta with 245 km/h 1-minute mean maximum at the location of the GREGOR caused no problems, nor did other storms afterwards. Opening and closing experiences up to wind speeds of 90 km/h were without problems. New technical developments were implemented and tested at the GREGOR dome, opening the way for application to much larger domes up to the 30 m diameter-class range.

  4. The GREGOR Fabry-Perot interferometer: a new instrument for high-resolution solar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, Carsten; Balthasar, Horst; Hofmann, Axel; Bello González, Nazaret; Volkmer, Reiner

    2010-07-01

    The GREGOR Fabry-Ṕerot Interferometer (GFPI) is one of the first-light instruments of the 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope currently being commissioned at Observatorio del Teide (OT), Tenerife, Spain. A spectral resolution of R ~ 250, 000 over the wavelength range from 530-860 nm can be achieved using a tunable dual etalon system. A high spectral resolving power is needed to extract physical parameters (e.g., temperature, plasma velocity and the magnetic field vector) from inversions of photospheric and chromospheric spectral lines. The GFPI is outfitted with a polarimeter, which accurately measures the full Stokes vector. Precision polarimetry is facilitated by a calibration unit in the immediate vicinity of GREGOR's secondary focus. The GFPI operates close to the diffraction limit of GREGOR, thus providing access to fine structures as small as 60 km on the solar surface. The field-of-view (FOV) of 52" × 40" is sufficiently large to cover significant portions of active regions. Large-format, high-cadence CCD detectors are an integral part of the instrument to ensure that scans of spectral lines can be obtained in time spans corresponding to the evolution time scale of solar phenomena such as granulation, evolving magnetic fields or dynamic chromospheric features. Besides describing the technical features of the GFPI and providing a status report on commissioning the instrument, we will use two-dimensional spectropolarimetric data obtained with the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) at OT to illustrate GFPI's science capabilities.

  5. 25. VIEW OF McGREGOR BRIDGE (18811936), CROSSING THE MERRIMACK RIVER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. VIEW OF McGREGOR BRIDGE (1881-1936), CROSSING THE MERRIMACK RIVER AT BRIDGE STREET, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. NORTH ELEVATION OF DOUBLE-DECKED, THREE-SPAN DOUGLAS PATENT PARABOLIC IRON TRUSS ERECTED BY CORRUGATED METAL COMPANY (BERLIN IRON BRIDGE COMPANY, BERLIN, CT) From 'Bridge Street Bridge', photographer and date unknown. - Notre Dame Bridge, Spanning Merrimack River on Bridge Street, Manchester, Hillsborough County, NH

  6. Karlin-McGregor-like formula in a simple time-inhomogeneous birth-death process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohkubo, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Algebraic discussions are developed to derive transition probabilities for a simple time-inhomogeneous birth-death process. Algebraic probability theory and Lie algebraic treatments make it easy to treat the time-inhomogeneous cases. As a result, an expression based on the Charlier polynomials is obtained, which can be considered as an extension of a famous Karlin-McGregor representation for a time-homogeneous birth-death process.

  7. sTools - a data reduction pipeline for the GREGOR Fabry-Pérot Interferometer and the High-resolution Fast Imager at the GREGOR solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuckein, C.; Denker, C.; Verma, M.; Balthasar, H.; González Manrique, S. J.; Louis, R. E.; Diercke, A.

    2017-10-01

    A huge amount of data has been acquired with the GREGOR Fabry-Pérot Interferometer (GFPI), large-format facility cameras, and since 2016 with the High-resolution Fast Imager (HiFI). These data are processed in standardized procedures with the aim of providing science-ready data for the solar physics community. For this purpose, we have developed a user-friendly data reduction pipeline called ``sTools'' based on the Interactive Data Language (IDL) and licensed under creative commons license. The pipeline delivers reduced and image-reconstructed data with a minimum of user interaction. Furthermore, quick-look data are generated as well as a webpage with an overview of the observations and their statistics. All the processed data are stored online at the GREGOR GFPI and HiFI data archive of the Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam (AIP). The principles of the pipeline are presented together with selected high-resolution spectral scans and images processed with sTools.

  8. Flows in and around Active Region NOAA12118 Observed with the GREGOR Solar Telescope and SDO/HMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, M.; Denker, C.; Balthasar, H.; Kuckein, C.; González Manrique, S. J.; Sobotka, M.; Bello González, N.; Hoch, S.; Diercke, A.; Kummerow, P.; Berkefeld, T.; Collados, M.; Feller, A.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.; Lagg, A.; Löhner-Böttcher, J.; Nicklas, H.; Pastor Yabar, A.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Schubert, M.; Sigwarth, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K.; Volkmer, R.; von der Lühe, O.; Waldmann, T.

    2016-04-01

    Accurate measurements of magnetic and velocity fields in and around solar active regions are key to unlocking the mysteries of the formation and the decay of sunspots. High spatial resolution images and spectral sequences with a high cadence obtained with the GREGOR solar telescope give us an opportunity to scrutinize 3-D flow fields with local correlation tracking and imaging spectroscopy. We present GREGOR early science data acquired in 2014 July - August with the GREGOR Fabry-Pérot Interferometer and the Blue Imaging Channel. Time-series of blue continuum (λ 450.6 nm) images of the small active region NOAA 12118 were restored with the speckle masking technique to derive horizontal proper motions and to track the evolution of morphological changes. In addition, high-resolution observations are discussed in the context of synoptic data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory.

  9. The Karlin-McGregor formula for a variant of a discrete version of Walsh's spider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünbaum, F. Alberto

    2009-10-01

    We consider a variant of a discrete space version of Walsh's spider, see Walsh (1978 Temps Locaux, Asterisque vol 52-53 (Paris: Soc. Math. de France)) as well as Evans and Sowers (2003 Ann. Probab. 31 486-527 and its references). This process can be seen as an instance of a quasi-birth-and-death process, a class of random walks for which the classical theory of Karlin and McGregor can be nicely adapted as in Dette, Reuther, Studden and Zygmunt (2006 SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 29 117-42), Grünbaum (2007 Probability, Geometry and Integrable Systems ed Pinsky and Birnir vol 55 (Berkeley, CA: MSRI publication) pp. 241-60, see also arXiv math PR/0703375), Grünbaum (2007 Dagstuhl Seminar Proc. 07461 on Numerical Methods in Structured Markov Chains ed Bini), Grünbaum (2008 Proceedings of IWOTA) and Grünbaum and de la Iglesia (2008 SIAM J. Matrix Anal. Appl. 30 741-63). We give here a weight matrix that makes the corresponding matrix-valued orthogonal polynomials orthogonal to each other. We also determine the polynomials themselves and thus obtain all the ingredients to apply a matrix-valued version of the Karlin-McGregor formula. Dedicated to Jack Schwartz, who passed away on March 2, 2009.

  10. Notes on the occurrence of Oligonychus milleri (McGregor) and oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We verified infestation of Oligonychus milleri (McGregor) on plantations of Pinus caribaea (Pinaceae) and of Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) on plantations of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtaceae) in State of Rondônia, Northern region of Brazil. This represents the first record of O. m...

  11. The Human Side of Science Education: Using McGregor's Theory Y as a Framework for Improving Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markwell, John

    2004-01-01

    Student motivation is correlated with learning. Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y as a basis for understanding and improving motivation in the business world can be directly applied to the science classroom. Teachers with a Theory Y perspective (students naturally want to learn) provide increased motivation for students and promote more…

  12. The Human Side of Science Education: Using McGregor's Theory Y as a Framework for Improving Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markwell, John

    2004-01-01

    Student motivation is correlated with learning. Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y as a basis for understanding and improving motivation in the business world can be directly applied to the science classroom. Teachers with a Theory Y perspective (students naturally want to learn) provide increased motivation for students and promote more…

  13. Fisher's contributions to genetics and heredity, with special emphasis on the Gregor Mendel controversy.

    PubMed

    Piegorsch, W W

    1990-12-01

    R. A. Fisher is widely respected for his contributions to both statistics and genetics. For instance, his 1930 text on The Genetical Theory of Natural Selection remains a watershed contribution in that area. Fisher's subsequent research led him to study the work of (Johann) Gregor Mendel, the 19th century monk who first developed the basic principles of heredity with experiments on garden peas. In examining Mendel's original 1865 article, Fisher noted that the conformity between Mendel's reported and proposed (theoretical) ratios of segregating individuals was unusually good, "too good" perhaps. The resulting controversy as to whether Mendel "cooked" his data for presentation has continued to the current day. This review highlights Fisher's most salient points as regards Mendel's "too good" fit, within the context of Fisher's extensive contributions to the development of genetical and evolutionary theory.

  14. Gregor Mendel's classic paper and the nature of science in genetics courses.

    PubMed

    Westerlund, Julie F; Fairbanks, Daniel J

    2010-12-01

    The discoveries of Gregor Mendel, as described by Mendel in his 1866 paper Versuche uber Pflanzen-Hybriden (Experiments on plant hybrids), can be used in undergraduate genetics and biology courses to engage students about specific nature of science characteristics and their relationship to four of his major contributions to genetics. The use of primary source literature as an instructional tool to enhance genetics students' understanding of the nature of science helps students more clearly understand how scientists work and how the science of genetics has evolved as a discipline. We offer a historical background of how the nature of science developed as a concept and show how Mendel's investigations of heredity can enrich biology and genetics courses by exemplifying the nature of science.

  15. MuSICa at GRIS: a prototype image slicer for EST at GREGOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcines, A.; Collados, M.; López, R. L.

    2013-05-01

    This communication presents a prototype image slicer for the 4-m European Solar Telescope (EST) designed for the spectrograph of the 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope (GRIS). The design of this integral field unit has been called MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera). It is a telecentric system developed specifically for the integral field, high resolution spectrograph of EST and presents multi-slit capability, reorganizing a bidimensional field of view of 80 arcsec^{2} into 8 slits, each one of them with 200 arcsec length × 0.05 arcsec width. It minimizes the number of optical components needed to fulfil this multi-slit capability, three arrays of mirrors: slicer, collimator and camera mirror arrays (the first one flat and the other two spherical). The symmetry of the layout makes it possible to overlap the pupil images associated to each part of the sliced entrance field of view. A mask with only one circular aperture is placed at the pupil position. This symmetric characteristic offers some advantages: facilitates the manufacturing process, the alignment and reduces the costs. In addition, it is compatible with two modes of operation: spectroscopic and spectro-polarimetric, offering a great versatility. The optical quality of the system is diffraction-limited. The prototype will improve the performances of GRIS at GREGOR and is part of the feasibility study of the integral field unit for the spectrographs of EST. Although MuSICa has been designed as a solar image slicer, its concept can also be applied to night-time astronomical instruments (Collados et al. 2010, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7733, 77330H; Collados et al. 2012, AN, 333, 901; Calcines et al. 2010, Proc. SPIE, Vol. 7735, 77351X)

  16. Roberts Victor Eclogites: The MacGregor Legacy of Archean Oceanic Lithosphere Subduction and its Role in Craton Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirey, S. B.; Schmitz, M. D.; Wiechert, U.; Carlson, R. W.

    2005-12-01

    Eclogite xenoliths from the 125 Ma old, Group II, Roberts Victor kimberlite have long been of interest (MacGregor et al, 1968) because of their diversity, abundance, large size, occurrence with peridotite and their high carbon/diamond content. Coesite, corundum, kyanite, Ca-, Mg-, and Fe- rich eclogites are available but those classified as Group I, Group II (as defined by MacGregor, 1970) or diamondiferous were selected with the goal to better understand eclogite petrogenesis, Kaapvaal cratonic keel evolution, diamond formation, and eclogite metasomatism. Recent laser fluorination oxygen isotope data (δ18O) on gt (GI = 5.8 to 6.9; GII = 2.1 to 5.1) match earlier data (Garlick et al, 1971; MacGregor and Manton, 1986), while ion-probe trace element contents of gt (e.g. chondrite normalized Ce G1 = 0.2 to 0.5; GII = 0.002 to 0.07) and cpx (G1 = 7 to 20; GII = 0.2 to 2) and whole-rock Re-Os (G1 Re = 0.19 to 3.41 ppb; GII Re = 0.006 to 0.38 ppb) highlight even more distinct differences between Groups I and II. These differences must be a pre-metamorphic signature of their original protoliths and not just due to pressure differences or partial melting during emplacement. Using ophiolites and composites of oceanic crust as a guide (e.g. MacGregor and Manton, 1986), Group I eclogites could represent the volcanic rocks of Layer 2 of Archean oceanic crust whereas Group II might represent the cumulate, intrusive rocks of Layer 3. Group II eclogites have positive Eu anomalies and lower REE and Re contents which support this idea. The Re-Os systematics of the oceanic lithosphere is poorly known, especially in the Archean, but Roberts Victor eclogite Re-Os and trace element abundances and major element compositions suggest a basaltic komatiitic protolith as might typify slightly hotter ocean ridges in the Archean. A U-Pb age of 3.061±0.006 Ga on zircon grains separated from a Group I Roberts Victor eclogite and a same-age but scattered whole-rock Re-Os isotope array

  17. Notes on the Occurrence of Oligonychus milleri (McGregor) and Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Castro, E B; Zanardi, O C; Garlet, J; Ochoa, R; Feres, R J F

    2017-08-24

    We verified infestation of Oligonychus milleri (McGregor) on plantations of Pinus caribaea (Pinaceae) and of Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) on plantations of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtaceae) in State of Rondônia, Northern region of Brazil. This represents the first record of O. milleri in Brazil. Oligonychus ununguis was recorded previously, on cypress. The damage caused by these two spider mites in the plantations is described herein.

  18. Characterization of optical turbulence at the GREGOR solar telescope: temporal and local behavior and its influence on the solar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprung, D.; Sucher, E.; Stein, K.; von der Lühe, O.; Berkefeld, Th.

    2016-10-01

    Local atmospheric turbulence at the telescope level is regarded as a major reason for affecting the performance of the adaptive optics systems using wavelengths in the visible and infrared for solar observations. During the day the air masses around the telescope dome are influenced by flow distortions. Additionally heating of the infrastructure close to telescope causes thermal turbulence. Thereby optical turbulence is produced and leads to quality changes in the local seeing throughout the day. Image degradation will be yielded affecting the performance of adaptive optical systems. The spatial resolution of the solar observations will be reduced. For this study measurements of the optical turbulence, represented by the structure function parameter of the refractive index Cn2 were performed on several locations at the GREGOR telescope at the Teide observatory at Tenerife at the Canary Islands / Spain. Since September 2012 measurements of Cn2 were carried out between the towers of the Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT) and of GREGOR with a laser-scintillometer. The horizontal distance of the measurement path was about 75 m. Additional from May 2015 up to March 2016 the optical turbulence was determined at three additional locations close to the solar telescope GREGOR. The optical turbulence is derived from sonic anemometer measurements. Time series of the sonic temperature are analyzed and compared to the direct measurements of the laser scintillometer. Meteorological conditions are investigated, especially the influence of the wind direction. Turbulence of upper atmospheric layers is not regarded. The measured local turbulence is compared to the system performance of the GREGOR telescopes. It appears that the mountain ridge effects on turbulence are more relevant than any local causes of seeing close to the telescope. Results of these analyses and comparison of nearly one year of measurements are presented and discussed.

  19. The evolutionary ideas of F. M. (Ladimir) Klacel, teacher of Gregor Mendel.

    PubMed

    Peaslee, Margaret H; Orel, Vitezslav

    2007-06-01

    Abstract: A philosopher and teacher, F. M. (Ladimir) Klacel (1808-1882), educated in what is now the Czech Republic, developed his own explanation for the origin and interaction of living organisms. Klácel, a member of the Augustinian Monastery in Brno, influenced his younger colleague, Friar Gregor Mendel, who went on to formulate concepts in heredity that are still recognized for their profound insight. A mutual interest in the natural sciences of these two friends provided a basis for their discussions of the relationship between religion, evolution, and society. Klacel's outspoken defense of his proposals caused him to lose favor with both the Church and the authorities, and he immigrated to America in 1869. His failing health and inability to communicate with the English-speaking populace, unfortunately, limited his influence in his new environs. In this paper we trace the roots of Klacel's philosophy and elucidate his incorporation of ideas from Hegel, Darwin, and others. An investigation of Klacel's recipe for a successful society reveals his belief in the universality of life and his optimistic hope for human achievement.

  20. Opto-mechanical design of an image slicer for the GRIS spectrograph at GREGOR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega Reyes, N.; Esteves, M. A.; Sánchez-Capuchino, J.; Salaun, Y.; López, R. L.; Gracia, F.; Estrada Herrera, P.; Grivel, C.; Vaz Cedillo, J. J.; Collados, M.

    2016-07-01

    An image slicer has been proposed for the Integral Field Spectrograph [1] of the 4-m European Solar Telescope (EST) [2] The image slicer for EST is called MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera) [3] and it is a telecentric system with diffraction limited optical quality offering the possibility to obtain high resolution Integral Field Solar Spectroscopy or Spectro-polarimetry by coupling a polarimeter after the generated slit (or slits). Considering the technical complexity of the proposed Integral Field Unit (IFU), a prototype has been designed for the GRIS spectrograph at GREGOR telescope at Teide Observatory (Tenerife), composed by the optical elements of the image slicer itself, a scanning system (to cover a larger field of view with sequential adjacent measurements) and an appropriate re-imaging system. All these subsystems are placed in a bench, specially designed to facilitate their alignment, integration and verification, and their easy installation in front of the spectrograph. This communication describes the opto-mechanical solution adopted to upgrade GRIS while ensuring repeatability between the observational modes, IFU and long-slit. Results from several tests which have been performed to validate the opto-mechanical prototypes are also presented.

  1. MuSICa image slicer prototype at 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcines, A.; López, R. L.; Collados, M.; Vega Reyes, N.

    2014-07-01

    Integral Field Spectroscopy is an innovative technique that is being implemented in the state-of-the-art instruments of the largest night-time telescopes, however, it is still a novelty for solar instrumentation. A new concept of image slicer, called MuSICa (Multi-Slit Image slicer based on collimator-Camera), has been designed for the integral field spectrograph of the 4-m European Solar Telescope. This communication presents an image slicer prototype of MuSICa for GRIS, the spectrograph of the 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope located at the Observatory of El Teide. MuSICa at GRIS reorganizes a 2-D field of view of 24.5 arcsec into a slit of 0.367 arcsec width by 66.76 arcsec length distributed horizontally. It will operate together with the TIP-II polarimeter to offer high resolution integral field spectropolarimetry. It will also have a bidimensional field of view scanning system to cover a field of view up to 1 by 1 arcmin.

  2. Slipping reconnection in a solar flare observed in high resolution with the GREGOR solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotka, M.; Dudík, J.; Denker, C.; Balthasar, H.; Jurčák, J.; Liu, W.; Berkefeld, T.; Collados Vera, M.; Feller, A.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.; Kuckein, C.; Lagg, A.; Louis, R. E.; von der Lühe, O.; Nicklas, H.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sigwarth, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; Waldmann, T.

    2016-11-01

    A small flare ribbon above a sunspot umbra in active region 12205 was observed on November 7, 2014, at 12:00 UT in the blue imaging channel of the 1.5 m GREGOR telescope, using a 1 Å Ca ii H interference filter. Context observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) onboard Hinode, and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) show that this ribbon is part of a larger one that extends through the neighboring positive polarities and also participates in several other flares within the active region. We reconstructed a time series of 140 s of Ca ii H images by means of the multiframe blind deconvolution method, which resulted in spatial and temporal resolutions of 0.1″ and 1 s. Light curves and horizontal velocities of small-scale bright knots in the observed flare ribbon were measured. Some knots are stationary, but three move along the ribbon with speeds of 7-11 km s-1. Two of them move in the opposite direction and exhibit highly correlated intensity changes, which provides evidence of a slipping reconnection at small spatial scales. Movies associated to Figs. 1 and 2 are available at http://www.aanda.org

  3. The 2012 status of the MCAO testbed for the GREGOR solar telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Dirk; Berkefeld, Thomas; Heidecke, Frank

    2012-07-01

    We look back on two years of experience with the laboratory MCAO testbed for the GREGOR solar telescope. GREGOR’s MCAO features four adaptive mirrors, i. e. one tip-tilt mirror, and three DMs to compensate for turbulence around 0 km, 5 km, and 15.5 km above ground. Two different Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor units are used for wavefront tomography. A sensor with a narrow field of view and smaller subapertures is dedicated to high-order aberrations on the optical axis. This sensor directly follows the pupil plane DM and does not see the high-altitude DMs. The second sensor features larger subapertures and 19 guide regions spread over a wide field of view for off-axis wavefront sensing. We show that high-altitude DMs cause rapidly changing pupil distortions and thus misregistration, which renders the interaction of a pupil-plane DM and a subsequent wavefront sensor non-linear. We rewrote the control software for cleaner and more flexible code, and we switched to modal wavefront reconstruction from direct reconstruction. The original digital interfacing of the DMs high-voltage electronics didn’t prove to be reliable. Thus, we developed a new interface board that is based on CameraLink/ChannelLink technology to transmit the DM commands from the control computer. In this paper we present the innovations and some of the first experimental performance measurements with two DMs. One DM failed before scientific grade data was recorded with three DMs. This DM will be replaced soon. We conclude that GREGOR’s MCAO system is now ready for first on-sky tests at the telescope.

  4. Involvement of Three Esterase Genes from Panonychus citri (McGregor) in Fenpropathrin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Xiao-Min; Liao, Chong-Yu; Lu, Xue-Ping; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Jin-Jun; Dou, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), is a major citrus pest with a worldwide distribution and an extensive record of pesticide resistance. However, the underlying molecular mechanism associated with fenpropathrin resistance in this species have not yet been reported. In this study, synergist triphenyl phosphate (TPP) dramatically increased the toxicity of fenpropathrin, suggesting involvement of carboxylesterases (CarEs) in the metabolic detoxification of this insecticide. The subsequent spatiotemporal expression pattern analysis of PcE1, PcE7 and PcE9 showed that three CarEs genes were all over-expressed after insecticide exposure and higher transcripts levels were observed in different field resistant strains of P. citri. Heterologous expression combined with 3-(4,5-dimethyl-thiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetra-zolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells revealed that PcE1-, PcE7- or PcE9-expressing cells showed significantly higher cytoprotective capability than parental Sf9 cells against fenpropathrin, demonstrating that PcEs probably detoxify fenpropathrin. Moreover, gene silencing through the method of leaf-mediated dsRNA feeding followed by insecticide bioassay increased the mortalities of fenpropathrin-treated mites by 31% (PcE1), 27% (PcE7) and 22% (PcE9), respectively, after individual PcE gene dsRNA treatment. In conclusion, this study provides evidence that PcE1, PcE7 and PcE9 are functional genes mediated in fenpropathrin resistance in P. citri and enrich molecular understanding of CarEs during the resistance development of the mite. PMID:27548163

  5. The human side of science education: Using McGregor's theory Y as a framework for improving student motivation*.

    PubMed

    Markwell, John

    2004-09-01

    Student motivation is correlated with learning. Douglas McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y as a basis for understanding and improving motivation in the business world can be directly applied to the science classroom. Teachers with a Theory Y perspective (students naturally want to learn) provide increased motivation for students and promote more active learning than Theory X-style teachers who do not view students as active learners. Many teachers are not aware of their Theory X/Theory Y orientation and how this bias may be impacting their interaction with students. This article explores the benefits of moving from a Theory X to a more Theory Y style of teaching. Copyright © 2004 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. [Presence-absence sampling plan for Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae) on mate-tea orchard].

    PubMed

    Gouvea, Alfredo de; Bertoldo, Guilherme; Alves, Luis F A

    2007-01-01

    Mite infestations to the culture of mate-tea frequently causes losses by the premature fall of the leaves. So, it is necessary to monitor the population of these arthropods, and to adopt management strategies for their control. The objective of this research was to evaluate the trustworthiness of presence-absence sampling for Oligonychus yothersi (McGregor) on mate-tea orchard. This study was conducted in Cascavel, Paraná State, from April 2001 to July 2000, in a mate-tea tree commercial plantation. Biweekly sampling of 240 leaves were collected in different parts of 10 plants, and the number of mites was counted. The aggregation pattern was determined through the coefficients a and b of Taylor's power law. The proportion of infested leaves and the number of required samples were estimated through mathematical model. The mite O. yothersi presented aggregate distribution. The proportion of infested leaves calculated by means of mathematical model showed to be a trustworthy parameter to estimate the population density of the mite. The number of required samples was small, making feasible the practical application of the presence-absence sampling method for O. yothersi in the culture of mate-tea.

  7. Molecular Characterization of Vitellogenin and Its Receptor Genes from Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor)

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Rui; Ding, Tian-Bo; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Xia, Wen-Kai; Liao, Chong-Yu; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The production and uptake of yolk protein play an important role in the reproduction of all oviparous organisms. Vitellogenin (Vg) is the precursor of vitellin (Vn), which is the major egg storage protein, and vitellogenin receptor (VgR) is a necessary protein for the uptake of Vg into developing oocytes. In this paper, we characterize the full-length Vg and VgR, PcVg1 and PcVgR, respectively, of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor). The PcVg1 cDNA is 5748 nucleotides (nt) with a 5553-nt open reading frame (ORF) coding for 1851 amino acids (aa), and the PcVgR is 6090 nt, containing an intact ORF of 5673 nt coding an expected protein of 1891 aa. The PcVg1 aa sequence shows a typical GLCG domain and several K/RXXR cleavage sites, and PcVgR comprises two ligand-binding domains, two epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like regions containing YWTD motifs, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain. An analysis of the aa sequences and phylogenetics implied that both genes were genetically distinct from those of ticks and insects. The transcriptional profiles determined by real-time quantitative PCR in different developmental stages showed that both genes present the same expressional tendencies in eggs, larvae, nymphs, and adults. This suggested that the biosynthesis and uptake of PcVg occurs coordinately. The strong reproductive capacity of P. citri has been hypothesized as an important factor in its resistance; consequently, understanding the molecular mechanisms regulating Vg and VgR are fundamental for mite control. PMID:25739087

  8. The importance of the convex hull for human performance on the traveling salesman problem: a comment on MacGregor and Ormerod (1996)

    PubMed

    Lee, M D; Vickers, D

    2000-01-01

    MacGregor and Ormerod (1996) have presented results purporting to show that human performance on visually presented traveling salesman problems, as indexed by a measure of response uncertainty, is strongly determined by the number of points in the stimulus array falling inside the convex hull, as distinct from the total number of points. It is argued that this conclusion is artifactually determined by their constrained procedure for stimulus construction, and, even if true, would be limited to arrays with fewer than around 50 points.

  9. Vítězslav Orel (1926-2015): Gregor Mendel's biographer and the rehabilitation of genetics in the Communist Bloc.

    PubMed

    Paleček, Pavel

    2016-09-01

    At almost 90 years of age, we have lost the author of the founding historical works on Johann Gregor Mendel. Vítězslav Orel served for almost 30 years as the editor of the journal Folia Mendeliana. His work was beset by the wider problems associated with Mendel's recognition in the Communist Bloc, and by the way in which narratives of the history of science could be co-opted into the service of Cold War and post-Cold War political agendas. Orel played a key role in the organization of the Mendel symposium of 1965 in Brno, and has made a strong contribution to the rehabilitation of genetics generally, and to championing the work of Johann Gregor Mendel in particular. With Jaroslav Kříženecký, he cofounded the Mendelianum in Brno, which for decades has served as an intellectual bridge between the East and West. Orel's involvement with this institution exposed him to dangers both during and after the Cold War.

  10. Assessment of Prey Preference by the Generalist Predator, Mallada basalis (Walker), When Offered Two Species of Spider Mites, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor) on Papaya

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We investigated potential prey preference of the generalist predator Mallada basalis (Walker) when offered two mites, Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor), both important pests on papaya. Laboratory choice tests revealed that none of the three larval instars of M. basalis sho...

  11. How do cathartic drugs act? A case study on Gregor Horst (1578-1636) and his attempt to defend Galenist theory.

    PubMed

    Schweikardt, C

    1998-12-01

    This case study deals with the argument of the Galenist author Gregor Horst (1578-1636), Medical Professor at Giessen University, Germany, and later town phyusician in Ulm, in the discussion on how purgatives act. Horst tried to reconcile a number of different opinions within a Galenist framework. His vast erudition enabled him to compare several classical as well as contemporary opinions. He takes into account Galen (129-c.200/216), Erasistratos (c. 330-255 BC), Asclepiades (fl. 1st century BC), the Hippocratic Corpus and the Problemata Aristotelis from antiquity, Mesue and Mundinus (c. 1270-1326) from the Middle Ages, and Jean Fernel (c. 1497-1558), Girolamo Cardano (1501-c. 1576), Johannes Costaeus (d. 1603), Laurent Joubert (1529-1583), Francisco Valles (1524-1592), Tobias Dorncreilius (1571-1605) and Gavriele Falloppio (1523-1562) from contemporary authors. Horst also integrated some Paracelsian ideas from Joseph Duchesne alias Quercetanus (1549-1609). In his attempt to preserve fundamentals of Galenic thought, Horst created a complicated theory nearly breaking under its own weight. He shows a rising divergence within traditional views as well as the fragmentation of Renaissance Galenism which took place already before the discovery of the blood circulation.

  12. Life history of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) fed with castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) pollen in laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Marafeli, P P; Reis, P R; Silveira, E C da; Souza-Pimentel, G C; de Toledo, M A

    2014-08-01

    The predatory mite, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor, 1954) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) is one of the principal natural enemies of tetranychid mites in several countries, promoting efficient control of those mites in several food and ornamental crops. Pest attacks such as that of the spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch, 1836 (Acari: Tetranychidae), is one of the problems faced by farmers, especially in the greenhouse, due to the difficulty of its control with the use of chemicals because of the development of fast resistance making it hard to control it. The objective of this work was to study the life history of the predatory mite N. californicus as a contribution to its mass laboratory rearing, having castor bean plant [Ricinus communis L. (Euphorbiaceae)] pollen as food, for its subsequent use as a natural enemy of T. urticae on a cultivation of greenhouse rosebushes. The studies were carried out in the laboratory, at 25 ± 2°C of temperature, 70 ± 10% RH and a 14 hour photophase. The biological aspects and the fertility life table were appraised. Longevity of 32.9 days was verified for adult females and 40.4 days for males. The intrinsic rate of increase (rm) was 0.2 and the mean generation time (T) was 17.2 days. The population doubled every 4.1 days. The results obtained were similar to those in which the predatory mite N. californicus fed on T. urticae.

  13. [Gregor Mendel and dysplastic nevi].

    PubMed

    Happle, R

    1989-02-01

    In contrast to what has so far generally been believed, dysplastic nevi do not appear to be mendelizing, but rather due to polygenic inheritance. In order to explain this contrasting idea, the following six theses are presented: (1) All dysplastic nevi are inherited in the same manner. (2) Dysplastic nevi constitute a continuous trait. (3) A "dysplastic nevus syndrome" in the form of a monogenic autosomal dominant trait probably does not exist. (4) A nonhereditary dysplastic nevus syndrome does not exist. (5) The number of the underlying genes that, considered separately, do of course follow the rules of mendelian inheritance is so far unknown. (6) A search for a single underlying gene defect is probably hopeless.

  14. L. H. Bailey's citations to Gregor Mendel.

    PubMed

    MacRoberts, M H

    1984-01-01

    L. H. Bailey cited Mendel's 1865 and 1869 papers in the bibliography that accompanied his 1892 paper, Cross-Breeding and Hybridizing, and Mendel is mentioned once in the 1895 edition of Bailey's "Plant-Breeding." Bailey claimed to have copied his 1892 references to Mendel from Focke. It seems, however, that while he may have first encountered references to Mendel's work in Focke, he actually copied them from the Royal Society "Catalogue of Scientific Papers." Bailey also saw a reference to Mendel's 1865 paper in Jackson's "Guide to the Literature of Botany." Bailey's 1895 mention of Mendel occurs in a passage he translated from Focke's "Die Pflanzen-Mischlinge."

  15. Collaborating with McGregor and ASTD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Joan E.; Freeland, D. Kim

    A descriptive study using survey research techniques investigated the degree to which managerial philosophy was related to training and development professionals' acceptance and practice of those adult learning principles that support the collaborative teaching-learning mode. Data were collected from a random sample of 400 members of the American…

  16. Land Use Withdrawal, McGregor Range, Fort Bliss, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    middens ; observable discrete concentrations of particular classes of artifacts or features; and the presence of substantial quantities of nonportable...dense scatte-s of ceramic/lithic or lithic artifacts; generally less extensive trash middens than "village" category; fewer activities indicated by...ceramic artifacts, structural features (e.g., hearths), and extensive ash midden deposits. At present, surficial evidence is insufficient to determine

  17. Music and Literacy: Strategies Using "Comprehension Connections" by Tanny McGregor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasher, Kathleen Diane

    2014-01-01

    Music and literacy share many of the same skills; therefore, it is no surprise that music and literacy programs can be used together to help children learn to read. Music study can help promote literacy skills such as vocabulary, articulation, pronunciation, grammar, fluency, writing, sentence patterns, rhythm/parts of speech, auditory processing,…

  18. [1848: Gregor Mendel, the monk who wanted to be a citizen].

    PubMed

    Nivet, Christiane

    2006-04-01

    This article proposes a previously unpublished French translation of a petition, in German, addressed by six Augustinian friars to the Constitutional Parliament of Vienna in the revolutionary year 1848. The petition states that members of religious orders are deprived of civil rights and demands that they be given citizenship ; it also contains a bitter attack on the monastic institution. We suggest that Mendel was the author of this text, which he signed and actually hand-wrote.

  19. Music and Literacy: Strategies Using "Comprehension Connections" by Tanny McGregor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasher, Kathleen Diane

    2014-01-01

    Music and literacy share many of the same skills; therefore, it is no surprise that music and literacy programs can be used together to help children learn to read. Music study can help promote literacy skills such as vocabulary, articulation, pronunciation, grammar, fluency, writing, sentence patterns, rhythm/parts of speech, auditory processing,…

  20. GREGOR M1 mirror and cell design: effects of different mirror substrates on the telescope design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Süß, M.; Volkmer, R.; Eisenträger, P.

    2010-07-01

    After suffering from serious problems in the course of the SiC 1.5m M1 manufacturing, the existing design of the M1, it's cell and the associated mirror cooling system was investigated in terms of modification efforts to be compatible for a different M1 substrate (Zerodur). The analysis included the system requirements, the M1 design, the M1 support system, the M1 cooling system as well as the M1 cell. The investigations resulting in a modified design of the above mentioned system. Driven by the choice of material, different requirements became design driving factors. The consequences on the detail design of the M1 Mirror as well as on the support system and the cooling system are presented.

  1. Michael Mästlin's role in the polemic against the calendar reform of pope Gregor XIII. (German Title: Die Rolle Michael Mästlins in der Polemik um die Kalenderreform von Papst Gregor XIII)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamel, Jürgen

    Because of theological resistance, the calendar reform of 1582 was introduced only in countries under catholic rule. Michael Mästlin is found among the spokesmen of opposition against this feared attempted of the pope to gain influence in the protestant church, nevertheless, Mästlin had no doubt that a calendar reform was necessary. This article retraces Mästlin's argumentation and puts it into context with contemporary discussions about a calendar reform.

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Polarimetry in the Chamaeleon I Dark Cloud (McGregor+, 1994)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGregor, P. J.; Harrison, T. E.; Hough, J. H.; Bailey, J. A.

    2009-07-01

    H band polarimetry is presented for 66 stars in the direction of the Chamaeleon I dark cloud. K band polarimetry is presented for a further two stars. The data were obtained with the Mark II Hatfield polarimeter on the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope. Equatorial coordinates are provided for the 68 stars. These were not presented in the original paper. (2 data files).

  3. Clarifications on mass media campaigns promoting organ donation: a response to Rady, McGregor, & Verheijde (2012).

    PubMed

    Morgan, Susan E; Feeley, Thomas Hugh

    2013-11-01

    The current paper provides readers some clarifications on the nature and goals of mass media campaigns designed to promote organ donation. These clarifications were necessitated by an earlier essay by Rady et al. (Med Health Care Philos 15:229-241, 2012) who present erroneous claims that media promotion campaigns in this health context represent propaganda that seek to misrepresent the transplantation process. Information is also provided on the nature and relative power of media campaigns in organ donation promotion.

  4. B. Othanel Smith, Douglas McGregor, and the Philosophical Analysis of the Discourse of Institutional Democracy in Education: An Essay with Bibliographies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliker, Michael A.

    This collection of documents concerns the Analytical Philosophy of Education (APE) and its history. APE was the dominant approach to philosophy of education during the 1960s and 1970s; it is no longer fashionable. The main paper included in this collection sketches the history of APE and attempts to show its relevance to the idea of…

  5. Alone in the Garden: How Gregor Mendel's Inattention to Audience May Have Affected the Reception of His Theory of Inheritance in "Experiments in Plant Hybridization"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynn, James

    2007-01-01

    From a rhetorical perspective, Mendel's work and its reception elicit two important questions: (a) why were Mendel's arguments so compelling to 20th century biologists? And (b) why where they so roundly ignored by his contemporaries? The focus of this article is to examine the latter question while commenting on the former by employing several…

  6. Motivation Theories of Maslow, Herzberg, McGregor & McClelland. A Literature Review of Selected Theories Dealing with Job Satisfaction and Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardee, Ronald L.

    Job satisfaction, motivation, and reward systems are included in one area of organizational theory. The strongest influence in this area is motivation because it overlaps into both of the other two components. A review of the classical literature on motivation reveals four major theory areas: (1) Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs; (2) Herzberg's…

  7. Alone in the Garden: How Gregor Mendel's Inattention to Audience May Have Affected the Reception of His Theory of Inheritance in "Experiments in Plant Hybridization"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wynn, James

    2007-01-01

    From a rhetorical perspective, Mendel's work and its reception elicit two important questions: (a) why were Mendel's arguments so compelling to 20th century biologists? And (b) why where they so roundly ignored by his contemporaries? The focus of this article is to examine the latter question while commenting on the former by employing several…

  8. Pathogenesis and the role of ARID1A mutation in endometriosis-related ovarian neoplasms

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Daichi; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Endometriosis-related ovarian neoplasms (ERONs) are a unique group of tumors as they are associated with endometriosis, especially endometriosis presenting as an ovarian endometriotic cyst (endometrioma). ERONs include clear cell carcinoma, endometrioid carcinoma, and seromucinous borderline tumor. A growing body of evidence from both clinicopathological and molecular studies suggests that most, if not all, ERONs develop from endometriotic cyst epithelium through different stages of tumor progression. The endometriotic cyst contains abundant iron-induced reactive oxygen species which are thought to be mutagenic, and chronic exposure of cystic epithelium to this microenvironment facilitates the accumulation of somatic mutations that ultimately result in tumor development. Molecular analyses of ERONs, including genome-wide screens, have identified several molecular genetic alterations that lead to aberrant activation or inactivation of pathways involving ARID1A, PI3K, Wnt, and PP2A. Among all molecular genetic changes identified to date, inactivating mutations of the ARID1A tumor suppressor gene are the most common in ERON. Understanding the molecular changes and pathogenesis involved in the development of ERON is fundamental for future translational studies aimed at designing new diagnostic tests for early detection and identifying critical molecular features for targeted therapeutics. PMID:23232571

  9. An Investigation of the Fantasy Predisposition and Fantasy Style of Children with Imaginary Companions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouldin, Paula

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the author tested whether children with imaginary companions (ICs) have a different fantasy life than do children without ICs. To measure the fantasy life of the 74 children aged 3.2 to 8.7 years, the author modified the Children's Fantasy Interview (E. Rosenfeld, L. R. Huesmann, L. D. Eron, & J. V. Torney-Purta, 1982) to make…

  10. An Investigation of the Fantasy Predisposition and Fantasy Style of Children with Imaginary Companions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouldin, Paula

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the author tested whether children with imaginary companions (ICs) have a different fantasy life than do children without ICs. To measure the fantasy life of the 74 children aged 3.2 to 8.7 years, the author modified the Children's Fantasy Interview (E. Rosenfeld, L. R. Huesmann, L. D. Eron, & J. V. Torney-Purta, 1982) to make…

  11. Best-First Heuristic Search for Multicore Machines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    w factor of the optimal solution cost) (Davis, Bramanti -Gregor, & Wang, 1988). It is possible to modify AHDA*, BFPSDD, and PBNF to use weights to... Bramanti -Gregor, A., & Wang, J. (1988). The advantages of using depth and breadth components in heuristic search. In Methodologies for Intelligent Systems 3

  12. Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy of Carbon Stars in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-10

    from carbon stars, and rounded by similar amounts of dust have more acetylene around Frenklach et al. (1989) and Cadwell et al. (1994) have identi...McGregor, P. J. 1994, PASP, 106, 508 Cadwell , B. I1., Wang, H., Feigelson, E. D., & Frenklach, M. 1994, ApJ, 429, McGregor, P. J., Hart, J., Hoadley, D

  13. Developing Agents of Change

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    on joint operations is deficient. 89William J. Gregor , Ph.D., Information Paper, AMSP...War. trans. G.H. Mendell and W.P. Craighill. Connecticut: Greenwood Press (reprint from the 1862 original), 1977. 49 Korb, Lawrence J. (editor...Government Printing Office, 2001. Interviews, Reports, and Unpublished Works Gregor , William J., Ph.D., Information Paper, AMSP Curriculum Content

  14. Influences on Mendel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckabee, Colleen J.

    1989-01-01

    Examines Gregor Mendel's family background, schooling, and the brotherhood of his monastery life for insights into how Mendel was stimulated to engage in plant hybridization, his precursors, and why he was successful in his endeavors. (RT)

  15. Violent Video Games May Not 'Desensitize' Players, Brain Scans Suggest

    MedlinePlus

    ... involved in the study. He's a professor of psychology at Stetson University in DeLand, Fla. In the ... appears March 8 in the journal Frontiers in Psychology . SOURCES: Gregor Szycik, Dr. rer. nat., lecturer, Department ...

  16. Influences on Mendel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huckabee, Colleen J.

    1989-01-01

    Examines Gregor Mendel's family background, schooling, and the brotherhood of his monastery life for insights into how Mendel was stimulated to engage in plant hybridization, his precursors, and why he was successful in his endeavors. (RT)

  17. 15. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February 16, 1937 MARBLE MANTEL ON NORTH WALL OF REAR ROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Azalea Grove, 55 South McGregor Avenue, Spring Hill, Mobile County, AL

  18. 20. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February 16, 1937 MARBLE MANTEL, SO. WALL OF EAST HALF OF HALL, SECOND STORY - Azalea Grove, 55 South McGregor Avenue, Spring Hill, Mobile County, AL

  19. 21. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February 16, 1937 WHITE MARBLE MANTEL ON NO. WALL OF FRONT ROOM, SECOND FLOOR - Azalea Grove, 55 South McGregor Avenue, Spring Hill, Mobile County, AL

  20. 19. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Historic American Buildings Survey E. W. Russell, Photographer, February 16, 1937 MARBLE MANTEL, NO. WALL of FRONT ROOM, 1st FLOOR - Azalea Grove, 55 South McGregor Avenue, Spring Hill, Mobile County, AL

  1. Leadership through Shared Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muccigrosso, Robert M.

    1980-01-01

    The author explains the particular relevance of participatory decision making for the Catholic school administrator, with reference to such organizational theories as McGregor's Theory Y and Maslow's hierarchy of human needs. (Author/SJL)

  2. Biological Effects of Electromagnetic Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-27

    6] Wolfram E. Samlowski, Jhon R. McGregor, Gregory J. Litton, “Liver Sequestration of Murine Lymphokine Activated Killer Cells Is Mediated by...365, 2004. [6] Wolfram E. Samlowski, Jhon R. McGregor, Gregory J. Litton, “Liver Sequestration of Murine Lymphokine Activated Killer Cells Is...ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We would like to thank Dr A. Stolzing for her help in the preparation of this manuscript. REFERENCES [1] W. Stewart , “Mobile phones and

  3. Leveraging Logical Lines of Operation in COIN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-25

    government. For example, the Iraqi constitution awaits final approval at the time of 4 9 Ibid., 3-3. 10 William J. Gregor , The Relationship...Theory and Practice. New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1964. Jomini, Antoine-Henri. The Art of War, translated by G.H. Mendell and W.P. Craighill’s...Review (September- October, 2002). Gregor , William J. “The Relationship Between Joint Doctrine Development and Service DTLOSM.” Information Paper

  4. A Joint Forces Group: A Permanent Joint Echelon for the Operational Level of War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-05-21

    Government Printing Office, 1996), 539; A paper by Dr. William Gregor describes in some detail the development of the theater strategic level as well as...the current US command structure. William J. Gregor , Toward a Revolution in Civil-Military Affairs Understanding the United States Military in the...Jay Luvass, trans. G. H. Mendell and W.P. Craighill (Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co., 1862; reprint Wesport, CT: Greenwood Press, Publishers

  5. A Compendium of Sexual Assault Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    example, studies exam- ined such victim attributes as age (e.g., Du Mont and Myhr, 2000), race ( Horney and Spohn, 1996), and income level (McGregor...et al., 1999), as well as perpetrator attributes, such as prior felony record ( Horney and Spohn, 1996) and number of perpetrators (McGregor, Du Mont...2006) research. The amount of time between the incident and initial report also played a role, as demonstrated by Horney and Spohn (1996), Kingsnorth

  6. Rift Valley Fever Virus: Molecular Biologic Studies of the M Segment RNA for Application in Disease Prevention.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-08-01

    AD-A174 610 RIFT VALLEY FEVER VIRUS- MOLECULAR BIOLOGIC STUDIES 6F 1/1 THE M SEGMENT RNA (U) MOLECULAR GENETICS INC MINNETONK~A MN M COLLETT AUG 86...Molecular Genetics , In. DTIC ioso Eron Road East --ELECTE -Minetnka, Minnesota 64 DEC 0 11986 DOD DISTRIBUTION unE"--£ Approved for public release...ForNTIS GRA&I DTIC TAB Contract No. DAMD17-8S-C-6220 U:Iannouned Justiff cat toa_____ Molecular Genetlcs. Inc. 1010 Oran Road East Mlnnetonka, Milnneoota

  7. Editors' note

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denker, Carsten; Feller, Alex; Schmidt, Wolfgang; von der Lühe, Oskar

    2012-11-01

    This topical issue of Astronomische Nachrichten/Astronomical Notes is a collection of reference articles covering the GREGOR solar telescope, its science capabilities, its subsystems, and its dedicated suite of instruments for high-resolution observations of the Sun. Because ground-based telescopes have life spans of several decades, it is only natural that they continuously reinvent themselves. Literally, the GREGOR telescope builds on the foundations of the venerable Gregory-Coudé Telescope (GCT) at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. Acknowledging the fact that new discoveries in observational solar physics are driven by larger apertures to collect more photons and to scrutinize the Sun in finer detail, the GCT was decommissioned and the building was made available to the GREGOR project.

  8. New species, new records and re-description of spider mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) from India.

    PubMed

    Zeity, Mahran; Srinivasa, N; Gowda, C Chinnamade

    2016-03-03

    Two species of Tetranychidae (Acari), Oligonychus neotylus sp. nov. from Zea mays and Pennisetum purpureum (Poaceae) and Tetranychus hirsutus sp. nov. from Gymnema sylvestre R. Br. (Apocynaceae) are described from Karnataka state, south India. Tetranychus bambusae Wang and Ma is recorded for the first time from India and re-described. Four other species are reported for the first time from India viz., Oligonychus coniferarum (McGregor), Oligonychus duncombei Meyer, Tetranychus marianae McGregor and Tetranychus okinawanus Ehara from Cupressus sp., an undetermined grass, Centrosema pubescens and Adenium obesum, respectively.

  9. Shell Polynomials and Dual Birth-Death Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Doorn, Erik A.

    2016-05-01

    This paper aims to clarify certain aspects of the relations between birth-death processes, measures solving a Stieltjes moment problem, and sets of parameters defining polynomial sequences that are orthogonal with respect to such a measure. Besides giving an overview of the basic features of these relations, revealed to a large extent by Karlin and McGregor, we investigate a duality concept for birth-death processes introduced by Karlin and McGregor and its interpretation in the context of shell polynomials and the corresponding orthogonal polynomials. This interpretation leads to increased insight in duality, while it suggests a modification of the concept of similarity for birth-death processes.

  10. SpaceX Dragon Cargo Transfer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-13

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, and SpaceX CEO and Chief Designer Elon Musk, view the historic Dragon capsule that returned to Earth on May 31 following the first successful mission by a private company to carry supplies to the International Space Station on Wednesday, June 13, 2012 at the SpaceX facility in McGregor, Texas. Bolden and Musk also thanked the more than 150 SpaceX employees working at the McGregor facility for their role in the historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  11. SpaceX Dragon Cargo Transfer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-13

    Some of the 1,367 pounds of cargo the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft returned to Earth from the space station are seen in a clean room at the SpaceX rocket development facility, Wednesday, June 13, 2012 in McGregor, Texas. NASA Administrator Charles Bolden and SpaceX CEO and Chief Designer Elon Musk were at the facility to view the historic Dragon capsule and to thank the more than 150 SpaceX employees working at the McGregor facility for their role in the historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  12. SpaceX Dragon Cargo Transfer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-13

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, congratulates SpaceX CEO and Chief Designer Elon Musk in front of the historic Dragon capsule that returned to Earth on May 31 following the first successful mission by a private company to carry supplies to the International Space Station on Wednesday, June 13, 2012 at the SpaceX facility in McGregor, Texas. Bolden and Musk also thanked the more than 150 SpaceX employees working at the McGregor facility for their role in the historic mission. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  13. The Introduction of Middle Schools in the Northern Territory: Processes and Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Bill

    2006-01-01

    The year 2006 has been a year in which a decision on the introduction of middle schools has been made by the Labor government of the Northern Territory. The initial impetus for the change came from the 2003 Secondary Education Review "Future Directions for Secondary Education in the Northern Territory," chaired by Gregor Ramsay. There…

  14. Gene expression profiling describes the genetic regulation of Meloidogyne arenaria resistance in Arachis hypogaea and reveals a candidate gene for resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Resistance to root-knot nematode was introgressed into cultivated peanut Arachis hypogaea from a wild peanut relative, A. cardenasii and previously mapped to chromosome A09. The highly resistant recombinant inbred RIL 46 and moderately resistant RIL 48 were selected from a population with cv. Gregor...

  15. Motivation of Teachers. ACSA School Management Digest, Series 1, Number 18. ERIC/CEM Research Analysis Series, Number 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sydney

    This publication discusses intrinsic teacher motivation by reviewing human resources literature and making use of educational literature and interviews with working educators. First it provides sketches of the work motivation theories of McGregor, Maslow, Herzberg, and Deci. Next, the paper examines the work and problems of teachers. Finally, it…

  16. State Collapse, Insurgency, and Counterinsurgency: Lessons from Somalia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    neighbors.75 Coca - Cola has even opened a $10 million bottling plant in Hargeisa.76 In this context, one needs to single out the edu- cational sector not...Middle East and Africa, Vol. 1, No. 1, Spring 2010, pp. 139-144. 65 76. See Sarah McGregor, “ Coca - Cola Invests $10 million in Somaliland Bottling

  17. Leading the Way in Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    2002-01-01

    Describes how, after a quarter-century, James MacGregor Burns, a fellow at the Jepson School of Leadership Studies at the University of Richmond, is still working to refine leadership studies in a way that could change the face of the field. (EV)

  18. Michigan Severity Rating Scales: Usage and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Anderson, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    For many years, increasing caseloads for vision professionals have caused concerns about the impact on educational services. Average caseload sizes in the literature have remained fairly consistent across decades, with 19.5 students per professional in the 1980s (Pelton, 1986), 18 students in the 1990s (Griffin-Shirley, McGregor, and Jacobson,…

  19. An express route to perfection: Ornamental plant breeders have the tools at their disposal to expedite breeding for specific traits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plants inherit traits the same way Gregor Mendel observed in his famous experiments with peas in the 1800s. Breeders select parents with one or more desirable traits and then look for superior combinations of these traits in their offspring. Seedlings must be rigorously evaluated for the desirable...

  20. Foraging on and consumption of two species of papaya pest mites, Tetranychus kanzawai and Panonychus citri (Acari: tetranychidae) by Mallada basalis (Neuroptera: Chrysopidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida and Panonychus citri (McGregor) are two major acarine pests of the principal papaya variety in Taiwan, and they often co-occur in the same papaya screenhouses. This study measured prey acceptability, foraging schedule, short-term consumption rate, and handling time of la...

  1. Transformational Leadership: Democratic or Despotic?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allix, Nicholas M.

    2000-01-01

    James MacGregor Burns's conceptualization of transforming leadership stressed the moral and educative nature of the leader-follower relationship. However, critical examination of Burns's account uncovers philosophical and technical difficulties with some of his central claims. Transformative leadership may be structured more for domination than…

  2. Working Together: Collaborative School Leadership Fosters a Climate of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Ginger Kelley

    2005-01-01

    In Montessori schools, the best way to strengthen the climate of success by the administrators is called "transformational leadership". Leadership theorist James McGregor Burns identifies transformational leadership as a mutual belief and value system, and a commitment between a principal and teachers to focus on what works best for their school.…

  3. Advantages of Application of Electronic Commerce in Procurement for the Armed Forces of Brazil and South Korea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-12-01

    Northern Europe.”, Ecommerce Times, [http://www.ecommercetimes.com/perl/story/3546.html], June 2001. Mc Gregor, Don, “Encryption”, [http...sans.org/infosecFAQ/ ecommerce /fraud.htm], September 2001. Schneider, Gary P. and James T. Perry, “Electronic Commerce”, Course Technology, 2001

  4. Mendel, mechanism, models, marketing, and more.

    PubMed

    Birchler, James A

    2015-09-24

    This year marks the 150(th) anniversary of the presentation by Gregor Mendel of his studies of plant hybridization to the Brunn Natural History Society. Their nature and meaning have been discussed many times. However, on this occasion, we reflect on the scientific enterprise and the perception of new discoveries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Teaching Mendelism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, William D.

    2008-01-01

    Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) is rightly credited as being the "father of modern genetics." He presented the results of his pea experiments at a meeting of his local natural history society in two lectures during 1865. His paper was published in the proceedings of the society the next year. From his breeding experiments with the edible pea, he…

  6. Selected and Edited Papers Presented at the National TAFE Senior Executives' Conference (Kooralbyn, Australia, October 7-8, 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Centre for Vocational Education Research, Leabrook (Australia).

    Eleven papers from an Australian Technical and Further Education (TAFE) conference are included: "The TAFE System and the Training Reform Agenda" (Gregor Ramsey) raises issues to keep the impetus going for national system improvement and development. "Towards the Best of Both Worlds: Models for Governance of TAFE Colleges" (Ian…

  7. Instructional Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Reviews a six-part series (available as 16mm film or videocassettes) in which actors portray scientists lecturing on various topics/issues. Scientists portrayed include Louis Pasteur, Charles Darwin, William Harvey, Gregor Mendel, William Beaumont, and Hans Spemann. Also reviews a film detailing construction of the Multiple Mirror Telescope on…

  8. Emerging Skills for School Administrators: Needs for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Donald

    This paper discusses leadership theories, leadership research issues that educational leaders must confront in the next decade, and leadership skills required for the future. The discussion of leadership theories begins with a review of McGregor's Theories X, Y, and Z and moves on to the qualities embodied in such heroic, charismatic, and…

  9. Examining Dual Meanings of Items in 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaires through MTMM Modeling and MDS Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, Elliot and McGregor proposed a 2 x 2 (mastery-performance x approach- avoidance) achievement goal frameworks and developed a questionnaire to measure four goals (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals). This study examines the dual meanings of items in 2 x 2 achievement goal…

  10. Dominant Achievement Goals across Tracks in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheltinga, Peter A. M.; Kuyper, Hans; Timmermans, Anneke C.; van der Werf, Greetje P. C.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant achievement goals (DAGs) of 7,008 students in the third grade of Dutch secondary education (US grade 9) were investigated, based on Elliot & McGregors' 2 × 2 framework (2001), in relation to track-level and motivational variables. We found the mastery-approach goal and the performance-approach goal, generally considered adaptive,…

  11. A Psychometric Evaluation of Two Achievement Goal Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnellan, M. Brent

    2008-01-01

    The properties of the achievement goal inventories developed by Grant and Dweck (2003) and Elliot and McGregor (2001) were evaluated in two studies with a total of 780 participants. A four-factor specification for the Grant and Dweck inventory did not closely replicate results published in their original report. In contrast, the structure of the…

  12. Motivational Influences of Using Peer Evaluation in Problem-Based Learning in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abercrombie, Sara; Parkes, Jay; McCarty, Teresita

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the ways in which medical students' achievement goal orientations (AGO) affect their perceptions of learning and actual learning from an online problem-based learning environment, Calibrated Peer Review™. First, the tenability of a four-factor model (Elliot & McGregor, 2001) of AGO was tested with data collected from…

  13. Align the Front End First.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Jim

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of management styles and front-end analysis focuses on a review of Douglas McGregor's theories. Topics include Theories X, Y, and Z; leadership skills; motivational needs of employees; intrinsic and extrinsic rewards; and faulty implementation of instructional systems design processes. (LRW)

  14. The Old Days, Hot Groups, and Managers' Lib.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Harold J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes Douglas McGregor's group at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the 1940s and the group at Carnegie's Graduate School of Industrial Administration in the 1960s. Both showed the lively, task-obsessed characteristics of "hot groups." Both occupied participants' hearts and minds, held to high standards, and were extremely…

  15. International Technological Literacy Symposium. Proceedings (Anchorage, Alaska, June 25-26, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska Univ., Anchorage.

    The following papers are included: "Technological Literacy: Pedagogy for a New World Order" (Peter McGregor); "Career and Technology Studies, A Curriculum Model" (Clarence Preitz); "Vocational and Technical Education at Secondary Schools in Taiwan, Republic of China" (James Yu); "Blueprint for Literacy in…

  16. Time for a Change: Theory X or Theory Y--What Is Your Style?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattaliano, Anthony P.

    1982-01-01

    Adapting to education Douglas McGregor's management theory that the day-to-day behavior of the immediate superior communicates to subordinates the superior's assumptions about human nature, the author contends that principals who have positive feelings about people will fare better in improving teacher motivation, creativity, and job satisfaction.…

  17. Faculty Attitudes Toward Leadership in Post-Secondary Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Roberto; Ramey, Gerald W.

    Using the existing body of knowledge about both management and higher education, it is argued that the managerial climate surrounding professional level people should lean toward Douglas McGregor's Theory Y, a nonauthoritarian, nonautocratic style of leadership. A number of theories of leadership in organizations are brought into the discussion,…

  18. A Hollow Army in the 21st Century: Will History Repeat Itself?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-22

    America’s First Battles 1776-1965, 269. 15 Douglas McGregor . Don’t Waste a Drawdown Online. Armed Forces Journal (February 2012): http...General Douglas MacArthur summarized the personnel shortages dramatically, declaring: “In many cases there is but one officer on duty with an entire

  19. An Examination and Comparative Study of Job Characteristics Levels and Internal Work Motivation Among U.S. Air Force Navigators Based on Aircraft and Type of Mission Flown

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    the onset of the Great Depression, a second school of thought called Human Relations Theory began to evolve. Associated with Elton Mayo and his...Maslow’s theory and some of the wo;rks of Elton Mayo , Douglas McGregor developed the well-known "Theory X-Theory Y" framework of motivational behavior

  20. Does Scale Really Matter? Ultra-Large-Scale Systems Seven Years after the Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-24

    148-156. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2012. Felfernig, Alexander , Monika Schubert, Monika Mandl, Francesco Ricci, and Walid Maalej. "Recommendation and...Dorigo, Gregor Engels, Rehan O’Grady, Marco Platzner, Franz Rammig, Wolfgang Reif, and Ansgar Trächtler. "Engineering Self-coordinating Software

  1. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Achievement Goals Questionnaire among Nigerian Preservice Mathematics and Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Arigbabu, Abayomi A.; Fatade, Alfred O.; Awofala, Awoyemi A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The stability of the achievement goal orientation across different contexts has been a source of further research since the new millennium. Through theoretically-driven and empirically-based analyses, this study investigated the psychometric properties of the Elliot and McGregor 2x2 framework for achievement goal questionnaire within…

  2. What Are Null Hypotheses? The Reasoning Linking Scientific and Statistical Hypothesis Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Anton E.

    2008-01-01

    We should dispense with use of the confusing term "null hypothesis" in educational research reports. To explain why the term should be dropped, the nature of, and relationship between, scientific and statistical hypothesis testing is clarified by explication of (a) the scientific reasoning used by Gregor Mendel in testing specific…

  3. Stories of Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascazine, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents three biographical sketches of scientists including John Wesley Powell (first to explore the geology of the Grand Canyon), Joseph von Fraunhofer (his work in optics led to the science of spectroscopy), and Gregor Mendel (of Mendelian genetics fame). Other scientists are mentioned along with sources for additional biographical information.…

  4. The Strategic Planning Process and the Need for Grand Strategy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Basil Liddell Hart defines the purpose of grand strategy as the means “to coordinate and direct all of the resources of the nation, or band of nations...University Press. Murray, William, MacGregor Knox, and Alvin Bernstein . The Making of Strategy. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. Naveh, Shimon

  5. The Proposed 2009 War Powers Consultation Act

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-19

    Company 1997), 20. 27 Ibid., 18. 28 Ibid., 20; Williamson Murray, MacGregor Knox, and Alvin Bernstein , eds., The Making of Strategy: Rulers, States and...violence carried on by political units against each other.” 86 Basil Henry Liddell Hart, Strategy, 2nd ed. (New York, NY: Penguin Books 1967), 338

  6. From Mendel’s discovery on pea to today´s plant genetics and breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 2015 we celebrated the 150th anniversary of the presentation of the seminal work of Gregor Johann Mendel. While Darwin's theory was based on differential survival and differential reproductive success, Mendel's on equality throughout all stages of the life cycle. Darwin's concepts were continuou...

  7. Teaching Theory X and Theory Y in Organizational Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Carey

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the activity described here is to integrate McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y into a group application: design a syllabus that embodies either Theory X or Theory Y tenets. Students should be able to differentiate between Theory X and Theory Y, create a syllabus based on Theory X or Theory Y tenets, evaluate the different syllabi…

  8. Motivational Influences of Using Peer Evaluation in Problem-Based Learning in Medical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abercrombie, Sara; Parkes, Jay; McCarty, Teresita

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the ways in which medical students' achievement goal orientations (AGO) affect their perceptions of learning and actual learning from an online problem-based learning environment, Calibrated Peer Review™. First, the tenability of a four-factor model (Elliot & McGregor, 2001) of AGO was tested with data collected from…

  9. Humanistic History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marrow, Alvin J.

    1982-01-01

    Utilizing the theories of McGregor, Maslow, and Herzberg, presents a model for teaching history which involves students in designing their own course objectives. Includes humanistic approaches, organizational management assumptions, and models with motivational, hygiene, physiological, and safety factors. (DMM)

  10. MendelWeb: An Electronic Science/Math/History Resource for the WWW.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumberg, Roger B.

    This paper describes a hypermedia resource, called MendelWeb that integrates elementary biology, discrete mathematics, and the history of science. MendelWeb is constructed from Gregor Menders 1865 paper, "Experiments in Plant Hybridization". An English translation of Mendel's paper, which is considered to mark the birth of classical and…

  11. Enabling Inquiry Learning in Fixed-Schedule Libraries: An Evidence-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubeck, Carole J.

    2015-01-01

    Fixed scheduling is well-researched in the school library literature. We know from this research that information skills taught in isolation from curriculum content are not as relevant to students as skills taught in the context of what they already know (McGregor 2006). Constructivism is an approach to learning that posits individuals construct…

  12. Self-Renewal for Self-Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sistrunk, Walter E.

    This speech explores the concept of professional self-renewal. The presenter seeks to understand why some professionals always seem fresh, energetic, and ready for new challenges, whereas others are perpetually tired, bored, and irritated with the demands of their work. Referring to McGregor's management theories, the paper infers that Theory X…

  13. Managing Productivity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-01-01

    Productivity Impediments 3 Cause One 3 Cause Two 4 Cause Three 4 Cause Four 5 Cause Five 6 3. Motivation And Productivity 7 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs 7...motivation theory car be traced through the teachings of Abraham Maslow, Doug’as McGregor, and Frederick Hertzberg: Maslow’s Hierarchy Of Needs In his book

  14. Individual Differences in Optimization Problem Solving: Reconciling Conflicting Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronicle, Edward P.; MacGregor, James N.; Lee, Michael; Ormerod, Thomas C.; Hughes, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Results on human performance on the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP) from different laboratories show high consistency. However, one exception is in the area of individual differences. While one research group has consistently failed to find systematic individual differences across instances of TSPs (Chronicle, MacGregor and Ormerod), another…

  15. Teaching Theory X and Theory Y in Organizational Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noland, Carey

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the activity described here is to integrate McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y into a group application: design a syllabus that embodies either Theory X or Theory Y tenets. Students should be able to differentiate between Theory X and Theory Y, create a syllabus based on Theory X or Theory Y tenets, evaluate the different syllabi…

  16. Defining Success in the War on Terrorism

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Gregor , Ph.D. _________________________________________ Director, Kevin C. W. Benson, MMAS School of Advanced Military Studies... Mendel , William W. and Floyd T. Banks. “Campaign Planning: Getting it Straight,” Parameters 18, no. 3, (September 1988): 43-53. Metz, Steven

  17. Probing the Natural World, Level III, Teacher's Edition: Why You're You. Intermediate Science Curriculum Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonar, John R., Ed.; Hathway, James A., Ed.

    This is the teacher's edition of one of the eight units of the Intermediate Science Curriculum Study (ISCS) for level III students (grade 9). The chapters include basic information about heredity, activities, and optional "excursions." The answers to all activities are included. An introduction describes the work of Gregor Mendel and his…

  18. Stories of Scientists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mascazine, John R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents three biographical sketches of scientists including John Wesley Powell (first to explore the geology of the Grand Canyon), Joseph von Fraunhofer (his work in optics led to the science of spectroscopy), and Gregor Mendel (of Mendelian genetics fame). Other scientists are mentioned along with sources for additional biographical information.…

  19. Into the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Provides fully developed library media activities designed for specific curriculum units. Curriculum areas represented include reading and language arts (proverbs and fables, letters of the alphabet, and biographies); science (the study of Gregor Mendel and genetics, oil resources); and social studies (global awareness). (LRW)

  20. Identification of Mendel's white flower character

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We have identified A, the factor determining anthocyanin pigmentation in pea that was used by Gregor Mendel 150 years ago in his study of inheritance. The A gene encodes a bHLH transcription factor. The white flowered mutant allele most likely used by Mendel is a simple G to A transition in a splice...

  1. Leadership Skills in School and Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stronge, James H.

    1998-01-01

    Explores principals' leadership role by examining the business and general leadership literature. Applies Robert Katz's framework of technical, conceptual, and human skills to key organizational concepts and themes described by several writers (James MacGregor Burns, John Gardner, Stephen Covey, James Kouzes and Barry Posner) and the U.S. Managers…

  2. Irish Studies Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregor, Keith, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This collection of papers includes the following: "Preface" (Keith Gregor); "Cultural Nationalism and the Irish Literary Revival" (David Pierce); "Transitions in Irish Miscellanies between 1923 and 1940" (Malcom Ballin); "Born into the Troubles: Deirdre Madden's 'Hidden Symptoms'" (Tamara Benito de la…

  3. "Speak Out. Act Up. Move Forward." Disobedience-Based Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotin, Alison; Aguirre McGregor, Stella; Pellecchia, DeAnna; Schatz, Ingrid; Liu, Shaw Pong

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Alison Kotin, Stella Aguirre McGregor, DeAnna Pellecchia, Ingrid Schatz, and Shaw Pong Liu reflect on their experiences working with public high school students to create "Speak Out. Act Up. Move Forward.," a performative response to current and historical acts of civil disobedience. The authors--a group of instructors…

  4. 78 FR 44122 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ... extension of the current PRA clearance for the information collection requirements contained in the Contact.... FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information or copies of the proposed... (McGregor). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Title: Contact Lens Rule (Rule), 16 CFR Part 315. OMB Control...

  5. Health measures in beef steers of known genetic background following BVDV challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Angus-sired steers (n = 95) born in the spring of 2008 produced from TAMU McGregor Genomics Project cows were evaluated for health measures following challenge to BVD virus. Steers were not vaccinated for BRD prior to trial initiation, and were verified to be BVD-free. Prior to BVDV challenge, steer...

  6. Feed intake and weight gain in beef steers of known genetic background following BVDV challenge

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Angus-sired steers (n = 95) born in the spring of 2008 produced from TAMU McGregor Genomics Project cows were evaluated for individual feed intake and ADG for 42 d following challenge to BVD virus. Steers were not vaccinated for BRD prior to trial initiation, and were verified to be BVD-free. Prior ...

  7. Self-Renewal for Self-Preservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sistrunk, Walter E.

    This speech explores the concept of professional self-renewal. The presenter seeks to understand why some professionals always seem fresh, energetic, and ready for new challenges, whereas others are perpetually tired, bored, and irritated with the demands of their work. Referring to McGregor's management theories, the paper infers that Theory X…

  8. Space for Performing Teacher Identity: Through the Lens of Kafka and Hegel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkison, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Franz Kafka's 1912 novella "The Metamorphosis" provides an analogy for a consideration of the process of teacher identity formation and performance. Gregor Samsa awoke to find himself transformed into a giant beetle. He faced a complete loss of identity as he lost connection with the micro-political space that formed the context of his former role…

  9. Re-Engaging Young People with Education and Training: What Are the Alternatives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kimberley; Stemp, Kellie; McGinty, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Alternative education programs are one way of responding to the disengagement of young people from mainstream schools. While there are a great variety of programs, those where young people experience success have incorporated a number of elements of best practice (Mills & McGregor 2010). This article reviews the attributes of effective…

  10. Space for Performing Teacher Identity: Through the Lens of Kafka and Hegel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkison, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Franz Kafka's 1912 novella "The Metamorphosis" provides an analogy for a consideration of the process of teacher identity formation and performance. Gregor Samsa awoke to find himself transformed into a giant beetle. He faced a complete loss of identity as he lost connection with the micro-political space that formed the context of his former role…

  11. Cultural Resources Inventory of Lands Adjacent to Big Sandy Lake. Volume 1,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-01-18

    the beach. Erosion is not significant along this section of shoreline. Ownership: Mr. and Mrs. Curtis Johnson , Route 4, McGregor, Minnesota. Cultural...Affiliations: Late Prehistoric (Sandy Lake complex). [Collections: SMM 1977 survey, Mrs. Curtis Johnson .*. S M M A c c e s s i o n N o .: A 7 7 : 2 4

  12. Tapping Toddlers' Evolving Semantic Representation via Gesture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capone, Nina C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study presents evidence that gesture is a means to understanding the semantic representations of toddlers. Method: The data were part of a study of toddlers' word learning conducted by N. C. Capone and K. K. McGregor (2005). The object function probe from that study was administered after 1 exposure and after 3 exposures to objects.…

  13. Training and OD Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendenhall, Mark; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Reviews current organizational development and training practices in two articles of a special section. The first compares OD philosophy with McGregor's integrative approach. The second article discusses contributions OD practice can make to theory, including modifying existing theories, addressing new problems, and exploring the internal logic of…

  14. Person-Centered Management in Project Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caraway, James E.

    The theories of several contemporary management theorists are examined in order to demonstrate that their administrative stance is that of a person-intensive approach to management. After exploring leadership theory and the positions of Douglas McGregor, John J. Morse, Jay W. Lorsch, Rensis Likert, Bernard M. Bass, William Reddin, George H. Rice,…

  15. The Role of Goal Orientation and Self-Efficacy in Learning from Web-Based Worked Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent J.; Biesinger, Kevin D.; Muis, Krista R.; Orgill, Marykay

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to understand the roles of goal orientation and self-efficacy when learning from worked examples. A Web-based learning environment, used as a component of a traditional undergraduate chemistry course, served as the context for the study. Goal orientations were derived from Elliot and McGregor's (2001) achievement goals…

  16. Faculty Attitudes Toward Leadership in Post-Secondary Institutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Roberto; Ramey, Gerald W.

    Using the existing body of knowledge about both management and higher education, it is argued that the managerial climate surrounding professional level people should lean toward Douglas McGregor's Theory Y, a nonauthoritarian, nonautocratic style of leadership. A number of theories of leadership in organizations are brought into the discussion,…

  17. Emerging Skills for School Administrators: Needs for the Future.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, M. Donald

    This paper discusses leadership theories, leadership research issues that educational leaders must confront in the next decade, and leadership skills required for the future. The discussion of leadership theories begins with a review of McGregor's Theories X, Y, and Z and moves on to the qualities embodied in such heroic, charismatic, and…

  18. The Role of Goal Orientation and Self-Efficacy in Learning from Web-Based Worked Examples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crippen, Kent J.; Biesinger, Kevin D.; Muis, Krista R.; Orgill, Marykay

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this study was to understand the roles of goal orientation and self-efficacy when learning from worked examples. A Web-based learning environment, used as a component of a traditional undergraduate chemistry course, served as the context for the study. Goal orientations were derived from Elliot and McGregor's (2001) achievement goals…

  19. Examining Dual Meanings of Items in 2 x 2 Achievement Goal Questionnaires through MTMM Modeling and MDS Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Chia-Huei; Chen, Lung Hung

    2010-01-01

    In 2001, Elliot and McGregor proposed a 2 x 2 (mastery-performance x approach- avoidance) achievement goal frameworks and developed a questionnaire to measure four goals (mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals). This study examines the dual meanings of items in 2 x 2 achievement goal…

  20. Why Try? Achievement Motivation and Perceived Academic Climate among Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Natalie J.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.

    2010-01-01

    Elliot and McGregor's (2001) 2 x 2 model of achievement motivation (mastery approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach and performance-avoidance) was used among 143 Latino adolescents to examine how achievement motivation changes over time, and whether perception of academic climate influences eventual academic outcomes. A series of…

  1. On the Measurement of Achievement Goals: Critique, Illustration, and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Murayama, Kou

    2008-01-01

    The authors identified several specific problems with the measurement of achievement goals in the current literature and illustrated these problems, focusing primarily on A. J. Elliot and H. A. McGregor's (2001) Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ). They attended to these problems by creating the AGQ-Revised and conducting a study that examined…

  2. Some Tours Are More Equal than Others: The Convex-Hull Model Revisited with Lessons for Testing Models of the Traveling Salesperson Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tak, Susanne; Plaisier, Marco; van Rooij, Iris

    2008-01-01

    To explain human performance on the "Traveling Salesperson" problem (TSP), MacGregor, Ormerod, and Chronicle (2000) proposed that humans construct solutions according to the steps described by their convex-hull algorithm. Focusing on tour length as the dependent variable, and using only random or semirandom point sets, the authors…

  3. Why Try? Achievement Motivation and Perceived Academic Climate among Latino Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Natalie J.; Kuperminc, Gabriel P.

    2010-01-01

    Elliot and McGregor's (2001) 2 x 2 model of achievement motivation (mastery approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach and performance-avoidance) was used among 143 Latino adolescents to examine how achievement motivation changes over time, and whether perception of academic climate influences eventual academic outcomes. A series of…

  4. Some Tours Are More Equal than Others: The Convex-Hull Model Revisited with Lessons for Testing Models of the Traveling Salesperson Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tak, Susanne; Plaisier, Marco; van Rooij, Iris

    2008-01-01

    To explain human performance on the "Traveling Salesperson" problem (TSP), MacGregor, Ormerod, and Chronicle (2000) proposed that humans construct solutions according to the steps described by their convex-hull algorithm. Focusing on tour length as the dependent variable, and using only random or semirandom point sets, the authors…

  5. Confronting Science: The Dilemma of Genetic Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zallen, Doris T.

    1997-01-01

    Considers the opportunities and ethical issues involved in genetic testing. Reviews the history of genetics from the first discoveries of Gregor Mendel, through the spurious pseudo-science of eugenics, and up to the discovery of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick. Explains how genetic tests are done. (MJP)

  6. Dominant Achievement Goals across Tracks in High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheltinga, Peter A. M.; Kuyper, Hans; Timmermans, Anneke C.; van der Werf, Greetje P. C.

    2016-01-01

    The dominant achievement goals (DAGs) of 7,008 students in the third grade of Dutch secondary education (US grade 9) were investigated, based on Elliot & McGregors' 2 × 2 framework (2001), in relation to track-level and motivational variables. We found the mastery-approach goal and the performance-approach goal, generally considered adaptive,…

  7. A Psychometric Evaluation of Two Achievement Goal Inventories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donnellan, M. Brent

    2008-01-01

    The properties of the achievement goal inventories developed by Grant and Dweck (2003) and Elliot and McGregor (2001) were evaluated in two studies with a total of 780 participants. A four-factor specification for the Grant and Dweck inventory did not closely replicate results published in their original report. In contrast, the structure of the…

  8. On the Measurement of Achievement Goals: Critique, Illustration, and Application

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Murayama, Kou

    2008-01-01

    The authors identified several specific problems with the measurement of achievement goals in the current literature and illustrated these problems, focusing primarily on A. J. Elliot and H. A. McGregor's (2001) Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ). They attended to these problems by creating the AGQ-Revised and conducting a study that examined…

  9. Working Together: Collaborative School Leadership Fosters a Climate of Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Ginger Kelley

    2005-01-01

    In Montessori schools, the best way to strengthen the climate of success by the administrators is called "transformational leadership". Leadership theorist James McGregor Burns identifies transformational leadership as a mutual belief and value system, and a commitment between a principal and teachers to focus on what works best for their school.…

  10. Information Seeking and Use: Students' Thinking and Their Mental Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Joy H.

    1994-01-01

    Compares research studies conducted by Kuhlthau, McGregor, and Pitts that investigated the library research process used by high school students and their information retrieval and utilization strategies. Topics discussed include research methodologies; information seeking; cognitive aspects; narrowing the topic; stages in the research process;…

  11. The Old Days, Hot Groups, and Managers' Lib.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leavitt, Harold J.

    1996-01-01

    Describes Douglas McGregor's group at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in the 1940s and the group at Carnegie's Graduate School of Industrial Administration in the 1960s. Both showed the lively, task-obsessed characteristics of "hot groups." Both occupied participants' hearts and minds, held to high standards, and were extremely…

  12. Some multivariable orthogonal polynomials of the Askey tableau-discrete families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tratnik, M. V.

    1991-09-01

    A multivariable generalization is presented for all the discrete families of the Askey tableau. This significantly extends the multivariable Hahn polynomials introduced by Karlin and McGregor. The latter are recovered as a limit case from a family of multivariable Racah polynomials.

  13. Tapping Toddlers' Evolving Semantic Representation via Gesture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capone, Nina C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This study presents evidence that gesture is a means to understanding the semantic representations of toddlers. Method: The data were part of a study of toddlers' word learning conducted by N. C. Capone and K. K. McGregor (2005). The object function probe from that study was administered after 1 exposure and after 3 exposures to objects.…

  14. On Your Own--But Not Alone: Life Lab's Approach to Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miami-Dade Community Coll., FL.

    Life Lab, an alternative educational program stressing self-directed learning at Miami-Dade Community College, is discussed in terms of its development, impact, and student attributes. More than half of the document presents personal histories and opinions of students and staff, alternating with the views of Dr. MacGregor Smith, program founder.…

  15. Investigation of Accelerated Life Prediction Techniques

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    1974, AD 784 188. 2. Rabinowicz , E., McEntire, R. H., and Shwalkar, B., A TECHNIQUE FOR ACCELERATED LIFE TESTING, Trans. ASME, August 1970, pp...706-710. 3. Rabinowicz , E., FRICTION AND WEAR OF MATERIALS, New York, John Wiley and Sons, 1966. 4. MacGregor, C. W. (ed), HANDBOOK OF

  16. A Correlational Study of Principals' Leadership Style and Teacher Absenteeism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y, gender, age, and years of experience of principals form a composite explaining the variation in teacher absences. It sought to determine whether all or any of these variables would be statistically significant in explaining the variance in absences for teachers.…

  17. Align the Front End First.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Jim

    1995-01-01

    Discussion of management styles and front-end analysis focuses on a review of Douglas McGregor's theories. Topics include Theories X, Y, and Z; leadership skills; motivational needs of employees; intrinsic and extrinsic rewards; and faulty implementation of instructional systems design processes. (LRW)

  18. Child and Adult, X and Y: Reflections on the Process of Public Administration Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balfour, Danny L.; Marini, Frank

    1991-01-01

    Mirroring McGregor's management theories X and Y, the authors posit educational theory X, in which learners are treated as passive children whose teachers make all curricular decisions, and theory Y, in which students are viewed as autonomous and self-directed learners. (SK)

  19. A century of genetics

    Treesearch

    Daniel J. Fairbanks

    2001-01-01

    In 1866, Gregor Mendel published his experiments on heredity in the garden pea (Pisum sativum). The fundamental principles of inheritance derived from his work apply to nearly all eukaryotic species and are now known as Mendelian principles. Since 1900, Mendel has been recognized as the founder of genetics. In 1900, three botanists, Carl Correns, Hugo De Vries, and...

  20. Michigan Severity Rating Scales: Usage and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Robert Wall; Anderson, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    For many years, increasing caseloads for vision professionals have caused concerns about the impact on educational services. Average caseload sizes in the literature have remained fairly consistent across decades, with 19.5 students per professional in the 1980s (Pelton, 1986), 18 students in the 1990s (Griffin-Shirley, McGregor, and Jacobson,…

  1. Instructional Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Reviews a six-part series (available as 16mm film or videocassettes) in which actors portray scientists lecturing on various topics/issues. Scientists portrayed include Louis Pasteur, Charles Darwin, William Harvey, Gregor Mendel, William Beaumont, and Hans Spemann. Also reviews a film detailing construction of the Multiple Mirror Telescope on…

  2. Flexible Scheduling: Making the Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creighton, Peggy Milam

    2008-01-01

    Citing literature that supports the benefits of flexible scheduling on student achievement, the author exhorts readers to campaign for flexible scheduling in their library media centers. She suggests tips drawn from the work of Graziano (2002), McGregor (2006) and Stripling (1997) for making a smooth transition from fixed to flexible scheduling:…

  3. Person-Centered Management in Project Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caraway, James E.

    The theories of several contemporary management theorists are examined in order to demonstrate that their administrative stance is that of a person-intensive approach to management. After exploring leadership theory and the positions of Douglas McGregor, John J. Morse, Jay W. Lorsch, Rensis Likert, Bernard M. Bass, William Reddin, George H. Rice,…

  4. Confronting Science: The Dilemma of Genetic Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zallen, Doris T.

    1997-01-01

    Considers the opportunities and ethical issues involved in genetic testing. Reviews the history of genetics from the first discoveries of Gregor Mendel, through the spurious pseudo-science of eugenics, and up to the discovery of DNA by James Watson and Francis Crick. Explains how genetic tests are done. (MJP)

  5. Into the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Provides fully developed library media activities designed for specific curriculum units. Curriculum areas represented include reading and language arts (proverbs and fables, letters of the alphabet, and biographies); science (the study of Gregor Mendel and genetics, oil resources); and social studies (global awareness). (LRW)

  6. Cognitive Mechanisms of Insight: The Role of Heuristics and Representational Change in Solving the Eight-Coin Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Öllinger, Michael; Jones, Gary; Faber, Amory H.; Knoblich, Günther

    2013-01-01

    The 8-coin insight problem requires the problem solver to move 2 coins so that each coin touches exactly 3 others. Ormerod, MacGregor, and Chronicle (2002) explained differences in task performance across different versions of the 8-coin problem using the availability of particular moves in a 2-dimensional search space. We explored 2 further…

  7. Saving a life but losing the patient.

    PubMed

    Greene, Mark

    2013-12-01

    Gregor Samsa awakes to find himself transformed into a gigantic bug. The creature's inchoate flailing leads Gregor's sister to conclude that Gregor is no more, having been replaced by a brute beast lacking any vestige of human understanding. Sadly, real cases of brain injury and disease can lead to psychological metamorphoses so profound that we cannot easily think that the survivor is the person we knew. I argue that there can be cases in which statements like, "It's just not Gregor anymore," are not merely figures of speech. With this in mind, I consider three possible results of saving a biological life: (1) ordinary cases where saving the life will save the person, with strong duties to save the life; (2) cases where the intervention needed to save the life will replace the person, with strong duties not to save the life; (3) cases in which it is indeterminate whether the person will be saved or replaced. How should we think about indeterminate cases? Impersonal ethical considerations miss the point, while standard person-affecting considerations are inapplicable. I suggest turning attention away from survival towards a richer focus on what I call "personal concern." I show how considerations of personal concern, unlike those of self-interest, need not be tied to survival and how this allows personal concern to provide a basis for ethically substantive discussion of cases where saving a life might result in losing the patient.

  8. Re-Engaging Young People with Education and Training: What Are the Alternatives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Kimberley; Stemp, Kellie; McGinty, Sue

    2011-01-01

    Alternative education programs are one way of responding to the disengagement of young people from mainstream schools. While there are a great variety of programs, those where young people experience success have incorporated a number of elements of best practice (Mills & McGregor 2010). This article reviews the attributes of effective…

  9. Biological observations on Bdella longicornis: a predatory mite in California Vineyards (Acari:Bdellidae)

    Treesearch

    J.T. Sorensen; D.N. Kinn; R.L. Doutt

    1983-01-01

    Bdella longicornis L. was studied to assess its role in winter morality of Tetranychus pacificus McGregor in northern California vineyards. Data indicate this predator was present in vineyards during winter and is most common on mature vine trunks near ground level; it was absent from July to September. We discuss consumption...

  10. Enabling Inquiry Learning in Fixed-Schedule Libraries: An Evidence-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stubeck, Carole J.

    2015-01-01

    Fixed scheduling is well-researched in the school library literature. We know from this research that information skills taught in isolation from curriculum content are not as relevant to students as skills taught in the context of what they already know (McGregor 2006). Constructivism is an approach to learning that posits individuals construct…

  11. Using the World Wide Web To accommodate Diverse Learning Styles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jonathan L.; Schulz, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of ways to use the World Wide Web in college instruction considers first, logistical issues; second, ways the Web can meet the needs of the visual, auditory, and kinesthetic learner; third, ways to accommodate the social learner; and fourth, using the Web with four cognitive learning styles, as measured by the Gregoric Style Delineator.…

  12. "Speak Out. Act Up. Move Forward." Disobedience-Based Arts Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kotin, Alison; Aguirre McGregor, Stella; Pellecchia, DeAnna; Schatz, Ingrid; Liu, Shaw Pong

    2013-01-01

    In this essay, Alison Kotin, Stella Aguirre McGregor, DeAnna Pellecchia, Ingrid Schatz, and Shaw Pong Liu reflect on their experiences working with public high school students to create "Speak Out. Act Up. Move Forward.," a performative response to current and historical acts of civil disobedience. The authors--a group of instructors…

  13. 76 FR 59768 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability and Request for Comment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... from Space Exploration Technologies Corporation (SpaceX). Under the Proposed Action, the FAA would... Federal Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST); Notice of Availability... to SpaceX for Operation of the Grasshopper Vehicle at the McGregor Test Site, Texas AGENCY:...

  14. Time for a Change: Theory X or Theory Y--What Is Your Style?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattaliano, Anthony P.

    1982-01-01

    Adapting to education Douglas McGregor's management theory that the day-to-day behavior of the immediate superior communicates to subordinates the superior's assumptions about human nature, the author contends that principals who have positive feelings about people will fare better in improving teacher motivation, creativity, and job satisfaction.…

  15. A Reasoned Approach to Officer Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-08-01

    Harvard Business Review , two trends can be noted...Rensis, "Motivational Approach to Management Development," Harvard Business Review , 37: July-August 1959. 15. Massey, Don J., "Narrowing the Gap...A., "OER Trends Cause Concern," Air Force, 59: August 1976. 19. McGregor, Douglas, "An Uneasy Look at Performance Appraisal ," Harvard Business Review ,

  16. Teaching Mendelism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stansfield, William D.

    2008-01-01

    Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) is rightly credited as being the "father of modern genetics." He presented the results of his pea experiments at a meeting of his local natural history society in two lectures during 1865. His paper was published in the proceedings of the society the next year. From his breeding experiments with the edible pea, he…

  17. The Future of Professional Officer Education in the German Armed Forces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    Monograph Director William J. Gregor, Ph.D. __________________________________ Monograph Reader Michael E. Hutchens, CMDR, US Navy...accessed October 17, 2009) 12 Robert Axelrod and Michael D. Cohen, Harnessing Complexity: Organizational Implications of a Scientific Frontier (New... Baumgartner a safe, open, and trusting environment that allows participation, collaboration, exploration, critical reflection, and feedback as well as

  18. NPDES Permit – East Lake Sewage Lagoon – Mille Lacs Indian Reservation (Aitkin County, MN)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA proposes to reissue a NPDES permit for the treated wastewater discharges from the East Lake Sewage Lagoon located within the boundaries of the Mille Lacs Indian Reservation located in East Lake (McGregor), Minnesota (Aitkin County) to be issued by EPA.

  19. Examining the Psychometric Properties of the Achievement Goals Questionnaire among Nigerian Preservice Mathematics and Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Awofala, Adeneye O. A.; Arigbabu, Abayomi A.; Fatade, Alfred O.; Awofala, Awoyemi A.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The stability of the achievement goal orientation across different contexts has been a source of further research since the new millennium. Through theoretically-driven and empirically-based analyses, this study investigated the psychometric properties of the Elliot and McGregor 2x2 framework for achievement goal questionnaire within…

  20. A Feasibility Study of the Assignment of Women to DD-963 (SPRUANCE) Class Destroyers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    contained in Cassin -Scott’s work. If one endorses the concepts that the nature of combat is beyond man’s control and that certain sexual stereotypes...41-42, March-April 1982. 5. Gregor, Women, Combat, and the Draft..., p. 4 3 6. Cassin -Scott J., Women at War, 1939-1945, Osprey Publishing, London, p

  1. An investigation of the fantasy predisposition and fantasy style of children with imaginary companions.

    PubMed

    Bouldin, Paula

    2006-03-01

    In this study, the author tested whether children with imaginary companions (ICs) have a different fantasy life than do children without ICs. To measure the fantasy life of the 74 children aged 3.2 to 8.7 years, the author modified the Children's Fantasy Interview (E. Rosenfeld, L. R. Huesmann, L. D. Eron, & J. V. Torney-Purta, 1982) to make it suitable for young children and focused on 5 aspects of fantasy life: (a) ICs, (b) dreams, (c) daydreams, (d) scary thoughts, and (e) pretend games. Consistent with the hypothesis, children who had ICs were more likely than were children without ICs to report (a) vivid imagery when daydreaming, (b) vivid imagery when playing pretend games, (c) mythical content for dreams, and (d) mythical content for pretend games.

  2. Flows along arch filaments observed in the GRIS `very fast spectroscopic mode'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Manrique, S. J.; Denker, C.; Kuckein, C.; Pastor Yabar, A.; Collados, M.; Verma, M.; Balthasar, H.; Diercke, A.; Fischer, C. E.; Gömöry, P.; Bello González, N.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Cubas Armas, M.; Berkefeld, T.; Feller, A.; Hoch, S.; Hofmann, A.; Lagg, A.; Nicklas, H.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sigwarth, M.; Sobotka, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; von der Lühe, O.; Waldmann, T.

    2017-10-01

    A new generation of solar instruments provides improved spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution, thus facilitating a better understanding of dynamic processes on the Sun. High-resolution observations often reveal multiple-component spectral line profiles, e.g., in the near-infrared He i 10830 Å triplet, which provides information about the chromospheric velocity and magnetic fine structure. We observed an emerging flux region, including two small pores and an arch filament system, on 2015 April 17 with the `very fast spectroscopic mode' of the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS) situated at the 1.5-meter GREGOR solar telescope at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. We discuss this method of obtaining fast (one per minute) spectral scans of the solar surface and its potential to follow dynamic processes on the Sun. We demonstrate the performance of the `very fast spectroscopic mode' by tracking chromospheric high-velocity features in the arch filament system.

  3. South American Spider Mites: New Hosts and Localities

    PubMed Central

    Mendonça, Renata S; Navia, Denise; Diniz, Ivone R; Flechtmann, Carlos HW

    2011-01-01

    In order to contribute to taxonomic information on Tetranychid mites (Acari: Tetranychidae) in South America, surveys were conducted in Brazil (15 States and the Federal District) and Uruguay (one Department); 550 samples of 120 plant species were collected. Tetranychid mite infestations were confirmed in 204 samples, and 22 species belonging to seven genera of the Bryobiinae and Tetranychinae subfamilies were identified on 58 different host plants. Thirty-six new plant hosts were found in Brazil, South America, and worldwide for the following species: Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor); Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar); Oligonychus anonae Paschoal; O. mangiferus (Rahman and Sapra); Tetranychus bastosi Tuttle, Baker and Sales; T. desertorum Banks, 1900, T. evansi Baker and Pritchard; T. ludeni Zacher; T. mexicanus (McGregor); T. neocaledonicus André; and T. urticae Koch. Four new localities in Brazil were reported for Eotetranychus tremae De Leon; O. anonae; Panonychus ulmi (Koch); and T. gloveri Baker and Pritchard. PMID:22224405

  4. Reactive approach motivation (RAM) for religion.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Ian; Nash, Kyle; Prentice, Mike

    2010-07-01

    In 3 experiments, participants reacted with religious zeal to anxious uncertainty threats that have caused reactive approach motivation (RAM) in past research (see McGregor, Nash, Mann, & Phills, 2010, for implicit, explicit, and neural evidence of RAM). In Study 1, results were specific to religious ideals and did not extend to merely superstitious beliefs. Effects were most pronounced among the most anxious and uncertainty-averse participants in Study 1 and among the most approach-motivated participants in Study 2 (i.e., with high Promotion Focus, Behavioral Activation, Action Orientation, and Self-Esteem Scale scores). In Studies 2 and 3, anxious uncertainty threats amplified even the most jingoistic and extreme aspects of religious zeal. In Study 3, reactive religious zeal occurred only among participants who reported feeling disempowered in their everyday goals in life. Results support a RAM view of empowered religious idealism for anxiety management (cf. Armstrong, 2000; Inzlicht, McGregor, Hirsch, & Nash, 2009).

  5. A geographic distribution database of Mononychellus mites (Acari, Tetranychidae) on cassava (Manihot esculenta).

    PubMed

    Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Parsa, Soroush

    2014-01-01

    The genus Mononychellus is represented by 28 herbivorous mites. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a primary food crop in the tropics. With the exception of Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar), their geographic distribution is not widely known. This article therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence data of Mononychellus species associated with cassava. The dataset consists of 1,513 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT's Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC). Most of the records are from the genus' native range in South America and were documented between 1980 and 2000. Approximately 61% of the records belong to M. tanajoa, 25% to M. caribbeanae (McGregor), 10% to M. mcgregori (Flechtmann and Baker) and 2% to M. planki (McGregor). The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).

  6. A geographic distribution database of Mononychellus mites (Acari, Tetranychidae) on cassava (Manihot esculenta)

    PubMed Central

    Vásquez-Ordóñez, Aymer Andrés; Parsa, Soroush

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The genus Mononychellus is represented by 28 herbivorous mites. Some of them are notorious pests of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz), a primary food crop in the tropics. With the exception of Mononychellus tanajoa (Bondar), their geographic distribution is not widely known. This article therefore reports observational and specimen-based occurrence data of Mononychellus species associated with cassava. The dataset consists of 1,513 distribution records documented by the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT) between 1975 and 2012. The specimens are held at CIAT’s Arthropod Reference Collection (CIATARC). Most of the records are from the genus’ native range in South America and were documented between 1980 and 2000. Approximately 61% of the records belong to M. tanajoa, 25% to M. caribbeanae (McGregor), 10% to M. mcgregori (Flechtmann and Baker) and 2% to M. planki (McGregor). The complete dataset is available in Darwin Core Archive format via the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:24899828

  7. SpaceX Dragon Cargo Transfer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-06-13

    NASA Administrator Charles Bolden, left, and SpaceX CEO and Chief Designer Elon Musk, view the historic Dragon capsule, right, that returned to Earth on May 31 following the first successful mission by a private company to carry supplies to the International Space Station on Wednesday, June 13, 2012 at the SpaceX facility in McGregor, Texas. Bolden and Musk also thanked the more than 150 SpaceX employees working at the McGregor facility for their role in the historic mission. Some of the 1,367 pounds of cargo the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft returned to Earth from the space station are seen in a clean room to the left. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  8. Raw Magnetotelluric Data, McGregory Range, Fort Bliss, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Nash, Greg

    2017-01-01

    This is a zipped file containing raw magnetotelluric (MT) data collected as part of the Phase 2 Tularosa Basin geothermal play fairway analysis project in New Mexico. The data for each MT station are in standard .edi text files which are accompanied by graphic files illustrating details. These data cover part of McGregor Range, Fort Bliss, New Mexico. The MT survey was done by Quantec Geoscience.

  9. Postdeployment Symptom Changes and Traumatic Brain Injury and/or Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Men

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Naval Health Research Center Postdeployment Symptom Changes and Traumatic Brain Injury and/or Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Men Caroline A... disorder in men Caroline A. Macera, PhD;1 Hilary J. Aralis, MS;1* Andrew J. MacGregor, PhD;2 Mitchell J. Rauh, PhD, PT, MPH;1 Michael R. Galarneau, MS2...associated with blast-related TBI and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that were reported immedi- ately after deployment were compared with

  10. SSC San Diego Command History Calendar Year 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Ayax Ramirez , Willard Rask, James Ritchie, Jay Sakai, Brian Salisbury, James Schmit, Christian Seberino, Jim Senese, Samir Shammas, Paul Sheets...San Diego presented the 2005 Secretarial Awards at a special ceremony to Vicki Goren, Pam McGregor, Tara Kruger, and Sandy Tapia . Vicki Goren is in the...Oceanographic Systems Branch (Code 2642) assistant, and Sandy Tapia is the assistant for the Command, Control, Communications, Computers, and

  11. SSC San Diego Command History Calendar Year 2005

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    Phillips-Hipp, Nam Phuong, Steven Pucillo, Ayax Ramirez , Willard Rask, James Ritchie, Jay Sakai, Brian Salisbury, James Schmit, Christian Seberino, Jim...Sandy Tapia . Vicki Goren is in the Safety and Environmental Office (Code 2038), Pam McGregor is in the Facilities Management Group (Code 2036), Tara...Kruger is the Meteorological and Oceanographic Systems Branch (Code 2642) assistant, and Sandy Tapia is the assistant for the Command, Control

  12. Counterinsurgency in the Philippines. Problems and Prospects

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-10-01

    commitment to social justice and with appropriate military action. v COUNTERINSURGENCY IN THE PHILIPPINES: PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS Corazon Aquino took...percent of the respondents were satisfied with Aquint’s performance.6 Corazon Aquino came to power in February 1986 promising reform, not revolution...67. "A Survey of the Philippines," pp. 13-14. 68. David Rosenberg, p. 9. 69. A. James Gregor, " Corazon Aquino, The Philippines and U.S. Interests

  13. Computer-Aided Fabrication of Integrated Circuits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-30

    to MDBSs have been designed to generally ad- dress issues of the global schema approach. Among these are Multibase[1], Sirius-Delta 41, Mermaid [51, R...manipulate existing distributed data as a unique database. It is implemented using the existing services of the LDBs. Mermaid , developed at Unisys...Templeton, D. Brill, S. Dao, E. Lund, P. Ward, A. L. P.Chen, and R. MacGregor, " Mermaid -a front-end to distributed heterogeneous databases," Proceedings of

  14. Retrieving and Integrating IC Fabrication Data from Dissimilar Databases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    been designed to generally ad- dress issues of the global schema approach. Among these are Multibase[1], Sirius-Delta[4], Mermaid [5], R*[6], and...existing distributed data as a unique database. It is implemented using the existing services of the LDBs. Mermaid , developed at Unisys Corporation, is...E. Lund, P. Ward, A. L. P.Chen, and R. MacGregor, " Mermaid -a front-end to distributed heterogeneous databases," Proceedings of the EEE., vol, 75, pp

  15. Mechanical design of a completely open-foldable dome for EST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Kommers, Johannes N. M.; van Leverink, Simon J.; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Visser, Simon; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Sliepen, Guus

    2010-07-01

    In the context of the EST design study for a 4m-class solar telescope and a study for large open-foldable domes of the Dutch Technology Foundation STW, a design is made for the 20 to 30m diameter range. Detailed designs are made for three specific diameter sizes: 23, 28 and 33m. Smaller-size open-foldable domes based on tensioned cloth and in use at the Dutch Open Telescope (7m) and the GREGOR (9m) have proven to be all-weather stable and very effective for good seeing conditions for solar telescopes. The cloth has shown no degradation over the past 14 (DOT) resp. 6 (GREGOR) years of experience and no permanent elongation with the frequent de-tensioning and tensioning during opening and closing. The application of cloth permits a dome design leaving, when opened, the telescope completely free without any structure over the telescope and no massive structures besides or under it. Basis for the new design is the available prestretched stable cloth, which is nowadays produced in much stronger qualities than used for DOT and GREGOR. The larger curvature radius requires larger tension in the cloth, but combination with stronger cloth fits for the upscaling. Calculations show that the steel construction geometries of the GREGOR dome can be upscaled with a few adjustments. Bearings and drives remain within normal sizes. Cost calculations show that open-foldable domes of this size are remarkably lower in price than closed domes. In addition, an interesting option is presented for a semi-transparent windshield of which the position can be adapted to the wind direction. This shield gives an effective wind protection of the region around the primary mirror without disturbing the wind flows above the shield and without stagnant air or big eddies behind it. It is storm safe and the costs are only a fraction of the open-foldable dome costs.

  16. Preliminary Guide to the Onsite Identification and Delineation of the Wetlands of the Interior United States.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-01

    Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland, Vol II, The Biota of North America, University of North Carolina Press...McGregor, R. L. et al. 1977. Atlas of the Flora of the Great Plains, Iowa State University Press, Ames. Millar, J. B. 1976. "Wetland Classification in...and Bell, C. R. 1968. Manual of the Vascular Flora of the Carolinas, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. Radford, A. E. et al. 1974

  17. Investigation into the Reliefs of Generals Orlando Ward and Terry Allen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    and reader named below. Approved by: __________________________________ Monograph Director William J. Gregor, Ph.D...scattered across the Allied western front, reinforcing British and French units. In mid-February on the road between Sidi bou Zid and Sbeitla, Ward’s...he spent as a combat division commander. In the aftermath of the defeat at Sidi bou Zid it was widely recognized that U.S. combat power had not been

  18. Optical Embedded Dust Sensor for Engine Protection and Early Warning on M1 Abrams/Ground Combat Vehicles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-11

    Optical embedded dust sensor for engine protection and early warning on M1 Abrams/ground combat vehicles Hai Lina, Gregor A. Waldherrb, Timothy...Burch*a aIntelligent Optical Systems, 73 N. Vinedo Ave., Pasadena, CA, USA 91107-3759 bHal Technology, LLC, 7970 Cherry Avenue, Suite 303, Fontana, CA...the DoA, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. ABSTRACT The Dual Optical Embedded Dust Sensor (DOEDS) is designed

  19. The Radial Evolution of Solar Wind Speeds (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-05

    Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. 3NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, Maryland, USA. 4Space Plasma Physics, Department of Physics, University of New Hampshire, Durham...the solar wind speeds calculated by theWSAmodel out into the heliosphere. ENLIL is a 3‐DMagnetohydrodynamic heliospheric code that uses a thermal energy...density from an empirical fit to historic Helios observations [McGregor et al., 2011], and calculates tem- perature by assuming constant thermal

  20. Campaign Synergism: Operational Level Combat Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-04-30

    34 See Jominis Te Art of Wa , trans. H.H. Mendell --aid W.P. Craighill (Philade hia, a..: J.B. Li1)pncop and Co., 171.; reprint edition, Westport, C...D:trine," LjfiL 33 (Aug 33): 264-. Epy, Colonel (Ret) Trevor N. "Let’ Get SeriouAbtMliper, Aj 33 (May 83): 18-25. Ellison, Major Gregor W. "Operational Art

  1. Conceptual Clustering Using Relational Information.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-23

    consists of classifying objects based not only on their observable features, but also on features of their descendants and their ancestors. Gregor Mendel ...offspring. Mendel thus hypothesized the class of purebreds, peas which produce offspring with exactly the same features as the parent, and the class of...distinguishing, for example, between pure- breds with hybrids as parents and purebreds with purebreds as parents. Mendel continued his experiments, crossing peas

  2. The Search for Regularity: Four Aspects of Scientific Discovery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-01

    rules for garden peas, first enumerated by Gregor Mendel in 1866 can be viewed as reactions in which characteritics of the parents are transformed into...determined the exact form of this relationship. Similarly, plant and animal breeders knew that certain traits were passed on to offspring long before Mendel ...of reasoning. Suppose the system observed (as did Mendel ) that when certain green garden peas were self-fertilized, they produced only green offspring

  3. Cultural Influences on Intertemporal Reasoning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-11-30

    in terms of cognitive processes and in terms of cultural functions such as storytelling. Furthermore, the poetic quality of Arab culture favors an...contexts that place a relatively high value on traditionalism. Tainter, J.A. & MacGregor, D. G. Pashtun social structure: Cultural perceptions and...is on Arab culture, owing to the relative availability of resources published in English. Intended readers include those with an interest in this

  4. Concepts. The Journal of Defense Systems Aquisition Management. Autumn 1980. Volume 3. Number 4.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    manage- ment based on the assumption of Theory Y will be more profitable for the in- dividual and the organization.10 Frederick Herzberg has developed a...10. Douglas McGregor, The Human Side of Enterprise (New York: McGraw-Hill. 1960). 11. Frederick Herzberg , Bernard Mausner and Barbara Synderman, The...1900s, Frederick Taylor greatly influenced organizational structures used today with his theory of "scientific management." As an engineer, Taylor

  5. Proceedings of the International Wire and Cable Symposium (38th) Held in Atlanta, Georgia on November 14-16, 1989

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-11-01

    Bank. NJ 199 Carter. T. MacGregor, G. Nicholson, B. Smith. G. J, Analysis of Mass Fusion Splice Loss for Optical Semple and S . Rozenta. Telecom...considered here. Fig. 19t Screen or thernogravimetric analysis REFERENCES R.1 C. Blanco, S . CAmara, C.G. Cortines. 11. LIMITING OXYGEN INDEX "A...34, SPIE Proceeding, , . 717, p. 8, 1986. fiber-optics guided tissile development. 7. N to, S ., and MAklmoco, T., "* Analysis of i Prior to joining Hughes

  6. Experimental Units: The Historical Record

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    Advanced Technologies and Future Joint Warfighting, April 8–10, 1999: Summary of Proceedings, William J. Hurley, Phillip Gould, and Nancy P. Licato, IDA...Republic.” Quoted in Stanley Chodorow and MacGregor Knox, The Mainstream of Western Civilization, fifth edition (New York: Harcourt, Brace...Chandler, David. The Campaigns of Napoleon. New York: MacMillan, 1966. Chef der Heeresleitung. Die Truppenführung. Berlin, 1933. Chodorow , Stanley

  7. FY 2002 End of Year Report (Joint Advanced Warfighting Program)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-02-01

    and Nancy P. Li- cato, IDA Document D-2343, May 1999. G e n e r a l FY2002 End of Year Report, Theodore S. Gold et al., multi-volume set, Febru... Chodorow and MacGregor Knox, The...Warfighting, April 8–10, 1999: Summary of Proceedings, William J. Hurley, Phillip Gould, and Nancy P. Licato, IDA Document D-2343, May 1999

  8. Contract Incentives for Product Quality

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    organization are met to varying degrees. Maslow , as is well known, developed a hierarchy of needs (modified by McGregor),^for-individuals which in the...the military and private sectors. The private sector is divided into two subgroups ( commercial and pnvate aircraft). Private aircraft is further...Manufacturer to Customer/Regulatory Environment AFLC AFSC CMOS USAF OTHER DoD OTHER GOVERNMENT COMMERCIAL AIRLINES PRIVATE AC OPERATORS

  9. Experimentation Using the Mir Station as a Space Laboratory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    Institute for Machine Building (TsNIIMASH) Korolev, Moscow Region, Russia V. Teslenko and N. Shvets Energia Space Corporation Korolev, Moscow...N. Shvets Energia Space Corporation Korolev, Moscow Region, Russia J. A. Drakes/ D. G. Swann, and W. K. McGregor* Sverdrup Technology, Inc...and plume computations. Excitation of the plume gas molecular electronic states by solar radiation, geo- corona Lyman-alpha, and electronic impact

  10. Geothermal exploration methods used in the capital district of New York

    SciTech Connect

    Sneeringer, M.R.; Ruscetta, C.A.; Foley, D.

    1981-05-01

    Direct evidence of anomalous geothermal heat has been demonstrated through the measurement of temperature gradients in abandoned water wells throughout the Capital District. New and previous geochemical data support these results and indicate that the Saratoga and McGregor Faults are acting as major conduits for mineralized waters and thermally derived carbon dioxide. Issuant points for these waters and higher geothermal gradients correspond with gravity anomalies in the area which are also suggestive of conduits from depth.

  11. [Basilar impression as a cause of trigeminal neuralgia: report of a case].

    PubMed

    da Silva, J A; da Silva, E B

    1982-06-01

    A case of basilar impression associated with Arnold-Chiari malformation and with trigeminal neuralgia is reported. The radiological examination of the skull showed marked asymmetry of the petrous bone with the tip of the odontoid apophysis located 30 mm above the McGregor line. Treatment consisted of craiectomy of the posterior fossa and cervical laminetomy (C1 to C3). The postoperative course was uneventful with total disappearance of the trigeminal neuralgia.

  12. [Familial occurrence of basilar impression].

    PubMed

    Da Silva, J A; Da Silva, E B; de Souza, M B

    1978-09-01

    The authors studied nine members of the same family; two among them received surgical treatment for basilar impression and Arnold-Chiari malformation. In the other members of the family, several signs and symptoms of central nervous disease were observed. All patients had the apex of the odontoid apophysis above McGregor's line, 4 mm in the case 9, and 10 mm or more in the others.

  13. Inspection and Quality Assurance in Government Contracts.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-01

    the other hand, Forsberg & Gregory , Inc. involved a limited incremental inspection and approval procedure that was held to be reasonable. 9 1 In that...Gregor_= probably is distinguishable from Dale Construction Co.. First there was no suggestion in Forsberg & Gregory that having to correct defects...the other major distinction. In Forsberg & Gregory the delays were a result of a specific Government right in the contract to inspect and require

  14. Simulation-Based Testing of Distributed Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    represented by a finite state machine (FSM) specification. Surveys by Bochmann and Petrenko [4] and Lai [19] describe many of the algorithms that...accurately, but as pointed out by Bochmann and Petrenko , these extensions are not handled by basic FSM techniques. The greater expressiveness of discrete...USA, May 2005. [4] Gregor Bochmann and Alexandre Petrenko . Protocol testing: review of methods and relevance for software testing. In Proceedings of

  15. The Structured Intuitive Model for Product Line Economics (SIMPLE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-02-01

    of each one? f . What are the anticipated costs of each one? g. What are the relevant time horizons? (e.g., release dates, testing dates) 2. Formulate...Knauber, Peter; Bermejo , Jesus; Bockle, Gflnter; Leite, Julio; van der Linden, Frank; Northrop, Linda; Stark, Michael; & Weiss, David. "Quantifying...McGregor, John D. "Managing Metrics in an Iterative Environment." Object Magazine 5, 6 (1995): 65-7 1. [Mill 00] Mili, A.; Chmiel, S. F .; Gottumukkala, R

  16. Addendum to Final Audit Report on Contracting Practices for the Use and Operations of DoD-Sponsored Federally Funded Research and Development Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-04-19

    of writers and callers is fully protected. Acronyms ARPA Advanced Research Projects Agency ASD(C 31) Assistant Secretary of Defense (Command, Control...MANAGEMENT) ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE (FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT AND COMPTROLLER) DIRECTOR, ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY AUDITOR GENERAL, DEPARTMENT...Audit Program Director, at (703) 604-9332 (DSN 664-9332) or Mr. John M. Gregor, Audit Project Manager, at (703) 604-9321 (DSN 664-9321). Copies of the

  17. The animal farm philosophy of genetic discrimination.

    PubMed

    Wolbring, Gregor

    2004-01-01

    The paper by Dr. Gregor Wolbring addresses the issue of genetic discrimination from disabled people's rights perspective asking a) what the interpretation of genetic discrimination and the scope of Anti Genetic discrimination laws and law proposals is and b) whether the scope and interpretation of genetic discrimination and Anti Genetic discrimination laws and law proposal lead to more protection for-or increased discrimination against- disabled people"

  18. Hybrid Warfare: A Military Revolution or Revolution in Military Affairs?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-14

    4MacGregor Knox and Williamson Murray, eds., The Dynamics of Military Revolution 1300-2050 (Cambridge: Cambridge... Dynamics of Military Revolution 1300-2050.12 A case study helps compare the extrapolation of the analysis and synthesis of their writings on MR to...affairs as defined by Knox and Murray in their book The Dynamics of Military Revolution, 1300-2050. 37 Professors Knox and Murray, provide a conceptual

  19. The Role of Political and Economic Factors in Thailand’s Last Two Coups D’ Etat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    friend, Judy Wise for the hours of proof reading they graciously donated to me. xiv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK 1 I. INTRODUCTION The...1988), 5. 2 Gregor Ferguson, COUP D’ETAT: A Practical Manual (Poole, Dorset: Arms and Armour Press; New York, NY: Distributed in the USA by...Chatichai assumed office. The economy flourished under the presumption that Thailand was politically stable. Also noteworthy, gross national savings and

  20. Preliminary Investigations of the Archaic in the Region of Las Cruces, New Mexico

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    presented at the Ameri- can Archaeological Conference at Urbana , Illinois, in 1981, this field illustration explained the cultural sequence and...Shelter, New Mexico. Department of Anthropology, University of lllinois, Urbana . 1981 Fresnal Shelter, New Mexico: Preliminary dating and evidence for...the American Anthropological Association. McGregor, John C. 1965 Southwestern Archaeology, 2nd ed. University of Illinois Press, Urbana . Mera, H.P

  1. Solar adaptive optics at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soltau, Dirk; Berkefeld, Thomas; Schmidt, Dirk; von der Lühe, Oskar

    2013-10-01

    Observing the Sun with high angular resolution is difficult because the turbulence in the atmosphere is strongest during day time. In this paper we describe the principles of solar adaptive optics exemplified by the two German solar telescopes VTT and GREGOR at the Observatorio del Teide. With theses systems we obtain near diffraction limited images of the Sun. Ways to overcome the limits of conventional AO by applying multiconjugate adaptive optics (MCAO) are shown.

  2. Intensive Survey at 11-Jd-126, Jo Daviess County, Illinois. Volume 3. Data Sheets.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    identified: (1) a Trempealeau/ McGregor Phase component; (2) an Allamakee/ Millville Phase component; (3) a Maples Mills component; (4) a Keyes Phase...oint N(:E.,AMIC INVENTORY SITVE# IIJd126 LOT# 33 NECORDER: P. Lurevz, Jr. Nj \\10-W 0 DATE: 1 [/82 . k r,,vcl 3 FEATURE t:-: 9/32 COLL# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

  3. Summary Talk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenflo, J. O.

    2011-04-01

    I first discuss the role of “Solar Polarization” in the context of the development of modern astrophysics, and then show how a few failed projects stimulated the advance that led to the discovery of the Second Solar Spectrum and the development of ZIMPOL. The failed LEST project also helped pave the way for major high-resolution telescope projects like GREGOR, ATST, and EST. I conclude with a small poem in honor of this successful Workshop.

  4. The Interaction of Masculinity and Control and its Impact on the Experience of Suffering for an Older Man

    PubMed Central

    Canham, Sarah L.

    2009-01-01

    Previous work suggests that control and suffering are related to one another. Although it would be expected that within cultures which emphasize the importance of masculinity, as well as personal control, there would be greater suffering among individuals who lose their sense of masculinity or control, how these constructs relate to each other and are individually negotiated has been largely understudied. This paper takes a case study approach to further exploring how the constructs of control, masculinity, and suffering are related in the lived experience of an older European American man, Mr. Gregor. Analysis of this case shows that masculinity is related to control and that these constructs act as themes which interact over Mr. Gregor’s lifetime in a variety of ways. The level of control maintained by Mr. Gregor in different aspects of his life affects his sense of suffering. In some instances his sense of masculinity helps to protect Mr. Gregor against suffering; in others, it contributes to his suffering. These findings support the notion that there are culturally dependent possibilities for how control and masculinity are related. PMID:20161225

  5. Featured Image: A New Look at Fomalhaut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-06-01

    ALMA continuum image overlaid as contours on the Hubble STIS image of Fomalhaut. [MacGregor et al. 2017]This stunning image of the Fomalhaut star system was taken by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile. This image maps the 1.3-mm continuum emission from the dust around the central star, revealing a ring that marks the outer edge of the planet-forming debris disk surrounding the star. In a new study, a team of scientists led by Meredith MacGregor (Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics) examines these ALMA observations of Fomalhaut, which beautifully complement former Hubble images of the system. ALMAs images provide the first robust detection of apocenter glow the brightening of the ring at the point farthest away from the central star, a side effect of the rings large eccentricity. The authors use ALMAsobservations to measure properties of the disk, such as its span (roughly 136 x 14 AU), eccentricity (e 0.12), and inclination angle ( 66). They then explore the implications for Fomalhaut b, the planet located near the outer disk. To read more about the teams observations, check out the paper below.CitationMeredith A. MacGregor et al 2017 ApJ 842 8. doi:10.3847/1538-4357/aa71ae

  6. Gesture supports children's word learning (†).

    PubMed

    McGregor, Karla K

    2008-01-01

    This review paper, based on a keynote address to the 2007 Speech Pathology Australia National Conference, summarizes three recent research studies that pertain to gesture as an intervention tool. Specifically, the research concerns the utility of gestured input as a scaffold to children's comprehension of-and hence learning of-spoken words. The research is framed within the Emergentist Coalition Model. In Booth, McGregor, and Rohlfing we found evidence that toddlers of 28 - 30 months exploited both the attentional and intentional bases of gesture when fast mapping new words. In Capone and McGregor, toddlers of a similar age exploited representational gesture as a cue to linguistic meaning during both fast mapping and slow mapping stages of word learning. In McGregor and Capone we demonstrated that representational gestures are also useful for at-risk children who are acquiring an early lexicon. The overall purpose of this review paper is to motivate research efforts aimed at clinical applications of the gesture - language relationship.

  7. Long-term Effects of Parents' Education on Children's Educational and Occupational Success: Mediation by Family Interactions, Child Aggression, and Teenage Aspirations.

    PubMed

    Dubow, Eric F; Boxer, Paul; Huesmann, L Rowell

    2009-07-01

    We examine the prediction of individuals' educational and occupational success at age 48 from contextual and personal variables assessed during their middle childhood and late adolescence. We focus particularly on the predictive role of the parents' educational level during middle childhood, controlling for other indices of socioeconomic status and children's IQ, and the mediating roles of negative family interactions, childhood behavior, and late adolescent aspirations. Data come from the Columbia County Longitudinal Study, which began in 1960 when all 856 third graders in a semi-rural county in New York State were interviewed along with their parents; participants were reinterviewed at ages 19, 30, and 48 (Eron et al, 1971; Huesmann et al., 2002). Parents' educational level when the child was 8 years old significantly predicted educational and occupational success for the child 40 years later. Structural models showed that parental educational level had no direct effects on child educational level or occupational prestige at age 48 but had significant indirect effects that were independent of the other predictor variables' effects. These indirect effects were mediated through age 19 educational aspirations and age 19 educational level. These results provide strong support for the unique predictive role of parental education on adult outcomes 40 years later and underscore the developmental importance of mediators of parent education effects such as late adolescent achievement and achievement-related aspirations.

  8. Computer-assisted uncertainty assessment of k0-NAA measurement results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bučar, T.; Smodiš, B.

    2008-10-01

    In quantifying measurement uncertainty of measurement results obtained by the k0-based neutron activation analysis ( k0-NAA), a number of parameters should be considered and appropriately combined in deriving the final budget. To facilitate this process, a program ERON (ERror propagatiON) was developed, which computes uncertainty propagation factors from the relevant formulae and calculates the combined uncertainty. The program calculates uncertainty of the final result—mass fraction of an element in the measured sample—taking into account the relevant neutron flux parameters such as α and f, including their uncertainties. Nuclear parameters and their uncertainties are taken from the IUPAC database (V.P. Kolotov and F. De Corte, Compilation of k0 and related data for NAA). Furthermore, the program allows for uncertainty calculations of the measured parameters needed in k0-NAA: α (determined with either the Cd-ratio or the Cd-covered multi-monitor method), f (using the Cd-ratio or the bare method), Q0 (using the Cd-ratio or internal comparator method) and k0 (using the Cd-ratio, internal comparator or the Cd subtraction method). The results of calculations can be printed or exported to text or MS Excel format for further analysis. Special care was taken to make the calculation engine portable by having possibility of its incorporation into other applications (e.g., DLL and WWW server). Theoretical basis and the program are described in detail, and typical results obtained under real measurement conditions are presented.

  9. Silicon shallow doping by erbium and oxygen recoils implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feklistov, K. V.; Cherkov, A. G.; Popov, V. P.

    2016-09-01

    In order to get shallow high doping of Si with optically active complexes ErOn, Er followed by O recoils implantation was realized by means of subsequent Ar+ 250-290 keV implantation with doses 2×1015-1×1016 cm-2 through 50-nm deposited films of Er and then SiO2, accordingly. High Er concentration up to 5×1020 cm-3 to the depth of 10 nm was obtained after implantation. However, about a half of the Er implanted atoms become part of surface SiO2 during post-implantation annealing at 950 °C for 1 h in the N2 ambient under a SiO2 cap. The mechanism of Er segregation into the cap oxide following the moving amorphous-crystalline interface during recrystallization was rejected by the transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. Instead, the other mechanism of immobile Er atoms and redistribution of recoil-implanted O atoms toward cap oxide was proposed. It explains the observed formation of two Er containing phases: Er-Si-O phase with a high O content adjacent to the cap oxide and deeper O depleted Er-Si phase. The correction of heat treatments is proposed in order to avoid the above-mentioned problems.

  10. The Loom Knowledge Representation Language.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-05-01

    fied) 12 PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Mac Gregor, Robert; Bates, Raymond- -3a TYPE OF REPORT l1b. TIME COVERED 14. DATE OF REPORT (Yea, Month, Day) .PAGE COUNT...level knowledge. We in- ficient, but not necessary to recognize an instance of a elude discussions on some of the types of inference which concept. For...example, we can say that "all featherless can be performed by the Loom system. We begin by bipeds are human", i.e., defining the four broad types of

  11. Effects of a Commercial Drink on Acceleration Tolerance and Cognitive Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    funded by a $120,000 grant from Coca - Cola Company, Atlanta GA. The authors wish to thank Mr. Mac Baker, Capt Julia McGregor, Mr. Tom Beltran, and Mr...recommendation or endorsement of the Coca Cola Company or the product tested. v Approved for public release; distribution unlimited; Approved by 311 th...drink (Full Throttle®, made by the Coca - Cola Company, at volumes equating to a caffeine dose of 5 mg caffeine per kg of body weight), an uncaffeinated

  12. The Next Generation of Chromospheric Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarbell, T. D.

    2005-05-01

    I discuss the new measurements which we know will happen, from missions or observatories which are being developed now, as well as the measurements which should happen for further progress. The future is promising, with new missions such as Solar-B, SDO, and SunRise, and new or upgraded observatories, such as SVST, DOT, GREGOR, ATST, and FASR. I also point out significant needs for the future, such as detailed chromospheric spectroscopy of the type which would have been provided by NEXUS or similar instruments.

  13. Fatal and Severe Injury Motor Vehicle Crashes Involving Air Force Personnel 1988-1999

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    stronger than man. –G. K. Chesterton Motor vehicle accidents are the nation‘s most common and costly serious injury producer, and rob the young in...Public Health. 1998;112(5):289-95. 14 Laapotti S, Keskinen E. —Differences in fatal loss-of-control accidents between young male and female drivers... Accident Analysis and Prevention. 1998;30(4):435-42. 15 Doherty ST, Andrey JC, MacGregor C. —The situational risks of young drivers: the influence

  14. Genetic alterations in syndromes with oral manifestations.

    PubMed

    Anuthama, Krishnamurthy; Prasad, Harikrishnan; Ramani, Pratibha; Premkumar, Priya; Natesan, Anuja; Sherlin, Herald J

    2013-11-01

    Ever since Gregor Johan Mendel proposed the law of inheritance, genetics has transcended the field of health and has entered all walks of life in its application. Thus, the gene is the pivoting factor for all happenings revolving around it. Knowledge of gene mapping in various diseases would be a valuable tool in prenatally diagnosing the condition and averting the future disability and stigma for the posterity. This article includes an array of genetically determined conditions in patients seen at our college out-patient department with complete manifestation, partial manifestation and array of manifestations not fitting into a particular syndrome.

  15. Shaped by the environment--adaptation in plants: meeting report based on the presentations at the FEBS Workshop 'Adaptation Potential in Plants' 2009 (Vienna, Austria).

    PubMed

    Siomos, Maria F

    2009-09-01

    As sessile organisms that are unable to escape from inhospitable environments, plants are at the mercy of the elements. Nonetheless, plants have managed to adapt, evolve and survive in some of the harshest conditions on earth. The FEBS Workshop 'Adaptation Potential in Plants', held at the Gregor Mendel Institute of Molecular Plant Biology, Vienna, Austria from 19 to 21 March 2009, provided a forum (including 18 invited talks, 8 selected short talks and 69 posters) for about 100 plant biologists from 32 countries, working in the diverse fields of genetics, epigenetics, stress signalling, and growth and development, to come together and discuss adaptation potential in plants at all its levels.

  16. The sensorimotor system minimizes prediction error for object lifting when the object's weight is uncertain.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Jack; Thaler, Anne

    2017-08-01

    A reliable mechanism to predict the heaviness of an object is important for manipulating an object under environmental uncertainty. Recently, Cashaback et al. (Cashaback JGA, McGregor HR, Pun HCH, Buckingham G, Gribble PL. J Neurophysiol 117: 260-274, 2017) showed that for object lifting the sensorimotor system uses a strategy that minimizes prediction error when the object's weight is uncertain. Previous research demonstrates that visually guided reaching is similarly optimized. Although this suggests a unified strategy of the sensorimotor system for object manipulation, the selected strategy appears to be task dependent and subject to change in response to the degree of environmental uncertainty. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Birth and death processes and quantum spin chains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grünbaum, F. Alberto; Vinet, Luc; Zhedanov, Alexei

    2013-06-01

    This paper underscores the intimate connection between the quantum walks generated by certain semi-infinite spin chain Hamiltonians and classical birth and death processes. It is observed that transition amplitudes between single excitation states of the spin chains have an expression in terms of orthogonal polynomials which is analogous to the Karlin-McGregor representation formula of the transition probability functions for classes of birth and death processes. As an application, we present a characterization of spin systems for which the probability to return to the point of origin at some time is 1 or almost 1.

  18. Radiation emission from small particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, W. G.; Hilgeman, T. W.

    1984-04-01

    Measurements have been made of the IR radiation from monodisperse optically absorbing spherical particles of di-2-ethylhexyl sebacate. The purpose was to validate the Mie emission theory for particles that are small compared with the radiation wavelength. In contradiction to the Mie theory, McGregor has theoretically concluded that radiation absorption or emission is not possible at wavelengths longer than pi times the square root of 2 times the particle diameter for spherical particles. The present results on monodisperse spherical particles of 3, 1, and 0.5 microns emitting at a wavelength of 3.4 microns support the Mie theory predictions.

  19. Convex hull and tour crossings in the Euclidean traveling salesperson problem: implications for human performance studies.

    PubMed

    Van Rooij, Iris; Stege, Ulrike; Schactman, Alissa

    2003-03-01

    Recently there has been growing interest among psychologists in human performance on the Euclidean traveling salesperson problem (E-TSP). A debate has been initiated on what strategy people use in solving visually presented E-TSP instances. The most prominent hypothesis is the convex-hull hypothesis, originally proposed by MacGregor and Ormerod (1996). We argue that, in the literature so far, there is no evidence for this hypothesis. Alternatively we propose and motivate the hypothesis that people aim at avoiding crossings.

  20. Random walks with similar transition probabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiefermayr, Klaus

    2003-04-01

    We consider random walks on the nonnegative integers with a possible absorbing state at -1. A random walk is called [alpha]-similar to a random walk if there exist constants Cij such that for the corresponding n-step transition probabilities , i,j[greater-or-equal, slanted]0, hold. We give necessary and sufficient conditions for the [alpha]-similarity of two random walks both in terms of the parameters and in terms of the corresponding spectral measures which appear in the spectral representation of the n-step transition probabilities developed by Karlin and McGregor.

  1. The Ofpe/WN9 class in the Large Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohannan, Bruce; Walborn, Nolan R.

    1989-05-01

    The remarkable Ofpe/WN9 spectroscopic category in the LMC now contains ten members, including two newly identified here. Both photographic and digital spectrograms are presented, to establish the characteristics of the class in terms of the latter data, as a reference for future work. Two of these objects have shown large spectrum variations which transiently remove them from the class; one is currently undergoing a giant outburst which establishes it as a Luminous Blue Variable and suggests the possibility that the others may also be quiescent LBVs. Some significant correlations with the recent infrared spectral phenomenology of McGregor et al. (1988) are also pointed out.

  2. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Markov processes and a multiple generating function of product of generalized Laguerre polynomials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Poh-Aun

    1997-06-01

    From the spectral representation of the transition probability of birth-and-death processes, Karlin and McGregor show that the transition probability for the infinite server Markovian queue is in the form of a diagonal sum involving a product of Charlier polynomials. By using Meixner's bilinear generating formula for the Charlier polynomials and the Markov property, a multiple generating for the Charlier polynomials is deduced from the Chapman - Kolmogorov equation. The resulting formula possesses the same genre of a multiple generating function for the generalized Laguerre polynomials discussed by Messina and Paladimo, the explicit solution of which is recently given by the present author.

  3. Random Walk Weakly Attracted to a Wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Coninck, Joël; Dunlop, François; Huillet, Thierry

    2008-10-01

    We consider a random walk X n in ℤ+, starting at X 0= x≥0, with transition probabilities {P}(X_{n+1}=Xn±1|Xn=yge1)={1over2}mp{δover4y+2δ} and X n+1=1 whenever X n =0. We prove {E}Xn˜const. n^{1-{δ over2}} as n ↗∞ when δ∈(1,2). The proof is based upon the Karlin-McGregor spectral representation, which is made explicit for this random walk.

  4. Mission Bay facility's quest to be greener.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Alisdair; Naqvi, Afaan; Krehlik, Tyler

    2011-02-01

    A new integrated 289-bed hospital complex in San Francisco, the first phase of which is set for completion in 2014, will embrace a wide range of sustainable technologies and principles, with the key to the design being early involvement with, and buy-in from, all parties involved, to, a project-specific "sustainability plan". Here key project participants Alisdair McGregor and Afaan Naqvi, of the San Francisco offices of Arup, and Tyler Krehlik of Anshen + Allen, describe how a rigorous planning and design process should result in the new UCSF Mission Bay Hospital meeting tough environmental goals, while providing a highly therapeutic environment that stimulates and speeds patient recovery.

  5. A Multi-Layer Extension of the Stochastic Heat Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, Neil; Warren, Jon

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by recent developments on solvable directed polymer models, we define a `multi-layer' extension of the stochastic heat equation involving non-intersecting Brownian motions. By developing a connection with Darboux transformations and the two-dimensional Toda equations, we conjecture a Markovian evolution in time for this multi-layer process. As a first step in this direction, we establish an analogue of the Karlin-McGregor formula for the stochastic heat equation and use it to prove a special case of this conjecture.

  6. Detection of the O I 11287 A line in the Seyfert 1 galaxy I ZW 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudy, Richard J.; Rossano, George S.; Puetter, R. C.

    1989-07-01

    This paper reports a detection of the infrared 11287 A transition of neutral oxygen in the Seyfert 1 galaxy I Zw 1. The observed strength of the feature is 6.5 x 10 to the -14th erg/sq cm sec. When this value is compared to the flux of O I 8446A measured by Persson and McGregor (1985), the ratio of the photon fluxes is unity, to within the measurement uncertainties. This is a direct confirmation that the broad permitted O I lines observed in Seyfert 1 galaxies and quasars arise through fluorescent excitation by Lyman Beta.

  7. Stueckelberg's Covariant Perturbation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacki, Jan

    After a period of intensive research in molecular physics, Stueckelberg, back in Switzerland, became interested in 1934 in quantum electrodynamics.1 He was then Privatdozent at the University of Zurich with Professor Gregor Wentzel. QED was at that time a prominent topic and many among the most renowned physicists were contributing.2 In a letter to the president of the Schulrat of E. T. H. in Zürich (8 March 1934), W. Pauli writes: Dr. Stuckelberg has stated his desire to get deeper involved with QED and agrees with the nomination of Mr. Weisskopf.3

  8. Scientific myth-conceptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allchin, Douglas

    2003-05-01

    Using several familiar examples - Gregor Mendel, H. B. D. Kettlewell, Alexander Fleming, Ignaz Semmelweis, and William Harvey - I analyze how educators currently frame historical stories to portray the process of science. They share a rhetorical architecture of myth, which misleads students about how science derives its authority. Narratives of error and recovery from error, alternatively, may importantly illustrate the nature of science, especially its limits. Contrary to recent claims for reform, we do not need more history in science education. Rather, we need different types of history that convey the nature of science more effectively.

  9. A Method for Computing the Flame Speed or a Laminar, Premixed, One Dimensional Flame.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-01-01

    a number of simplifications in the input data. These may affect the validity of his results, but do not change the basic numerical prob- lem . (The...Carlos, CA 94070 ATTN- H. Korman One Space Park 907 2 Rockwell International Corp. Redondo Beach, CA9 Rocketdyne Division ATTN: C. Obert 2 United...Universal Propulsion Co. Rocketdyne Division ATTN: H.j. McSpadden ATTN: W. Haymes P.O. Box 546 Tech Lib Riverside, CA 92502 McGregor, TX 76657 1 cieeor

  10. Is evolution finished?

    PubMed

    Davison, John A

    2004-01-01

    Since speciation seems to be no longer in progress, one is compelled to conclude that sexual reproduction is incompetent as a macroevolutionary device. I propose that the reason some might insist that evolution is still in progress stems primarily from the influence of two authorities, the geologist Charles Lyell, with his doctrine of uniformitarianism and Gregor Mendel, the discoverer of sexually mediated transmission genetics. William Bateson, the father of modern genetics, clearly foresaw the failure of Mendelism to explain macroevolutionary change, a perspective with which I am in full agreement.

  11. Early Detection of Risk Taking in Groups and Individuals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-25

    Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 49(1), 22-41. 44 e.g., Whyte, G., & Levi, A. S. (1994). The origins and function of the reference...8217 Sf. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION MacGregor Bates, Inc. REPORT NUMBER 1010...examining  linguistic  discourse  from  the  perspective  of   risk-­‐taking  lies  in  the  fundamental  nature  of   human

  12. 500 Contractors Receiving the Largest Dollar Volume of Prime Contract Awards for Research, Development, Test and Evaluation, Fiscal Year 1994.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    LTV AEROSPACE AND DEITNSE CO 275 B NATION INC 81 B LTV CORPORATION 175 N NATIONAL ACADEMY SCIENCES USA 228 B LUFKIN INDUJSTRIES INC 69 B NATIONAL... USA 54 B GTE CORPORAIION 142 B EATON CORPORATION 413 B GJILD ASSOCIATES INC 119 B EER SYSTEM CORPORATION 314 B HALLI BURTON; COMPANY 135 B EG&G INC...340 B NAVMAR APPLIED SCIENCES CORP 307 B MAC GREGOR-NAVIRE USA INC 299 B NCHIP, INC 173 B MADEN TECH CONSULTING INC 423 N NEUl MEXICO INST OP MIN

  13. Recent Australian Army Experience in the Design and Implementation of Personnel Evaluation Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-01

    Psychology, 1976, 61, 48-57 A.F. Kindall f J. Gatza Positive Programme for Performance Appraisal. Harvard Business Review , Nov-Dec 1963 A.K. Korman The...behaviour. Journal of Applied Psychology 1975, 60, 550-555 H. Levinson Appraisal of what Performance. Harvard Business Review , Jul-Aug 1976 A.R. Lowe...1969, 46, 40-46 D. McGregor An Uneasy look at Performance Appraisal Harvard Business Review , May-Jun 1957 C Margerison A constructive Approach to

  14. Cultural Resources Survey of 245 Acres at the White Oak Creek Wildlife Managment Area, Cass, Morris, and Titus Counties, Texas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    archeological research in Northeast Texas has a relatively long history, going as far back as 1911 with Clarence B. Moore’s river boat survey of sites...1991, 1993, 1994; Gadus, Fields, and Bousman 1992; Gadus, Fields, Bousman, Tomka, and Howard 6 1992; Gadus et al. 1991; Green et al. 1996; Jurney and...Bohlin 1993; Jurney et al. 1993; Lebo 1988; McGregor et al. 1996; Perttula 1988a, 1988b, 1989, 1990; Perttula, ed. 1989; Winchell et al. 1992). In the

  15. Contactless sub-millimeter displacement measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliepen, Guus; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.

    2008-07-01

    Weather effects on foldable domes, as used at the DOT and GREGOR, are investigated, in particular the correlation between the wind field and the stresses caused to both metal framework and tent clothing. Camera systems measure contactless the displacement of several dome points. The stresses follow from the measured deformation pattern. The cameras placed near the dome floor do not disturb telescope operations. In the set-ups of DOT and GREGOR, these cameras are up to 8 meters away from the measured points and must be able to detect displacements of less than 0.1 mm. The cameras have a FireWire (IEEE1394) interface to eliminate the need for frame grabbers. Each camera captures 15 images of 640 × 480 pixels per second. All data is processed on-site in real-time. In order to get the best estimate for the displacement within the constraints of available processing power, all image processing is done in Fourier-space, with all convolution operations being pre-computed once. A sub-pixel estimate of the peak of the correlation function is made. This enables to process the images of four cameras using only one commodity PC with a dual-core processor, and achieve an effective sensitivity of up to 0.01 mm. The deformation measurements are well correlated to the simultaneous wind measurements. The results are of high interest to upscaling the dome design (ELTs and solar telescopes).

  16. [Giant recurrent trochanteric pressure sore: A complex medico-surgical care].

    PubMed

    Pesenti, S; Ciceron, C; Toledano, E; Niddam, J; Tournebise, H

    2016-12-01

    Pressure sores are a frequent complication in spinal injured people. Their treatment is often long and complex. We report the case of a 60-year-old man affected with complete paraplegia who developed a right trochanteric pressure ulcer complicated with osteoarthritis of the coxofemoral joint. The treatment was done in three steps. First, a large excision of necrotic tissues and a femoral head-neck resection is performed. Then, the defect is partly covered with a Gluteus Maximus and a Biceps Femoris myocutaneous flaps. Finally, the residual defect is covered with a cutaneous pedicled groin flap called McGregor's flap. Later, the patient showed a right para-scrotal pressure sore on a heterotopic ossification of the ischial tuberosity. McGregor's flap is rarely employed for treating trochanteric pressure sores. It was here the only pedicled flap available. It was necessary to autonomize it in order to get enough length and to place a hip external fixation. The para-scrotal pressure sore illustrates the fact that bone resection surgery lifts the weight-bearing zones and can lead to pressure sores in unusual locations. The surgical treatment of these "giant" pressure sores requires a perfect collaboration between teams of rehabilitation and several surgical areas. Without a good adherence of the patient, the treatment is doomed to fail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Design of an adaptable Stokes polarimeter for exploring chromospheric magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louis, Rohan E.; Bayanna, A. Raja; Socas Navarro, Héctor

    2017-10-01

    The chromosphere is a highly complex and dynamic layer of the Sun, that serves as a conduit for mass and energy supply between two, very distinct regions of the solar atmosphere, namely, the photosphere and corona. Inferring magnetic fields in the chromosphere, has thus become an important topic, that can be addressed with large-aperture solar telescopes to carry out highly sensitive polarimetric measurements. In this article, we present a design of a polarimeter for investigating the chromospheric magnetic field. The instrument consists of a number of lenses, two ferro-electric liquid crystals, a Wollaston prism, and a CCD camera. The optical design is similar to that of a commercial zoom lens which allows a variable f# while maintaining focus and aberrations well within the Airy disc. The optical design of the Adaptable ChRomOspheric POLarimeter (ACROPOL) makes use of off-the-shelf components and is described for the 70 cm Vacuum Tower Telescope and the 1.5 m GREGOR telescope at Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. Our design shows that the optical train can be separated into two units where the first unit, consisting of a single lens, has to be changed while going from the VTT to the GREGOR configuration. We also discuss the tolerances within which, diffraction limited performance can be achieved with our design.

  18. Development of Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on pollen or mite diets and predation on Aculops pelekassi (Keifer) (Acari: Eriophyidae) in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Raul T; Childers, Carl C

    2007-02-01

    Development and reproduction of Iphiseiodes quadripilis (Banks) were evaluated on single food diets of pollen (Malephora crocea Jacquin [ice plant] or Quercus sp. [oak]), spider mites, [Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor) or Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae)], or the citrus rust mite Phyllocoptruta oleivora (Ashmead) (Acari: Eriophyidae). Experiments were conducted in an environmental chamber at 28 degrees +/- 1 degrees C, 14:10 (L:D) daylength, and 45% RH. I. quadripilis completed development and laid viable eggs that subsequently hatched on diets of either ice plant or oak pollen or eggs and motile stages of E. banksi. P. citri was acceptable as prey, but survival of larvae to adults was only 36%, whereas survival on E. banksi, ice plant pollen, and oak pollen was 48, 60, and 68%, respectively. The webbing produced by P. citri seemed to inhibit foraging behavior of I. quadripilis larvae and nymphs. Larvae of I. quadripilis developed only to the second nymphal instar on a diet of P. oleivora alone or water alone. Starved I. quadripilis females and deutonymphs were observed preying on the pink citrus rust mite, Aculops pelekassi (Keifer) (Eriophyidae). During 4-min observation trials, two series of I. quadripilis fed on 1.8 +/- 0.47 and 3.5 +/- 0.45 A. pelekassi motile stages after being starved for 6 and 24 h, respectively. I. quadripilis females did not prey on P. oleivora in arenas containing both rust mite species.

  19. Fitting peculiar spectral profiles in He I 10830Å absorption features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González Manrique, S. J.; Kuckein, C.; Pastor Yabar, A.; Collados, M.; Denker, C.; Fischer, C. E.; Gömöry, P.; Diercke, A.; Bello González, N.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Balthasar, H.; Berkefeld, T.; Feller, A.; Hoch, S.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.; Lagg, A.; Nicklas, H.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sigwarth, M.; Sobotka, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Verma, M.; Volkmer, R.; von der Lühe, O.; Waldmann, T.

    2016-11-01

    The new generation of solar instruments provides better spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution for a better understanding of the physical processes that take place on the Sun. Multiple-component profiles are more commonly observed with these instruments. Particularly, the He I 10830 Å triplet presents such peculiar spectral profiles, which give information on the velocity and magnetic fine structure of the upper chromosphere. The purpose of this investigation is to describe a technique to efficiently fit the two blended components of the He I 10830 Å triplet, which are commonly observed when two atmospheric components are located within the same resolution element. The observations used in this study were taken on 2015 April 17 with the very fast spectroscopic mode of the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS) attached to the 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope, located at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. We apply a double-Lorentzian fitting technique using Levenberg-Marquardt least-squares minimization. This technique is very simple and much faster than inversion codes. Line-of-sight Doppler velocities can be inferred for a whole map of pixels within just a few minutes. Our results show sub- and supersonic downflow velocities of up to 32 km s-1 for the fast component in the vicinity of footpoints of filamentary structures. The slow component presents velocities close to rest.

  20. General solution to gradient-induced transverse and longitudinal relaxation of spins undergoing restricted diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, W.; Gao, H.; Liu, J.-G.; Zhang, Y.; Ye, Q.; Swank, C.

    2011-11-01

    We develop an approach, by calculating the autocorrelation function of spins, to derive the magnetic field gradient-induced transverse (T2) relaxation of spins undergoing restricted diffusion. This approach is an extension to the method adopted by McGregor. McGregor's approach solves the problem only in the fast diffusion limit; however, our approach yields a single analytical solution suitable in all diffusion regimes, including the intermediate regime. This establishes a direct connection between the well-known slow diffusion result of Torrey and the fast diffusion result. We also perform free induction decay measurements on spin-exchange optically polarized 3He gas with different diffusion constants. The measured transverse relaxation profiles are compared with the theory and satisfactory agreement has been found throughout all diffusion regimes. In addition to the transverse relaxation, this approach is also applicable to solving the longitudinal relaxation (T1) regardless of the diffusion limits. It turns out that the longitudinal relaxation in the slow diffusion limit differs by a factor of 2 from that in the fast diffusion limit.

  1. Noncolliding Brownian Motion and Determinantal Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katori, Makoto; Tanemura, Hideki

    2007-12-01

    A system of one-dimensional Brownian motions (BMs) conditioned never to collide with each other is realized as (i) Dyson's BM model, which is a process of eigenvalues of hermitian matrix-valued diffusion process in the Gaussian unitary ensemble (GUE), and as (ii) the h-transform of absorbing BM in a Weyl chamber, where the harmonic function h is the product of differences of variables (the Vandermonde determinant). The Karlin-McGregor formula gives determinantal expression to the transition probability density of absorbing BM. We show from the Karlin-McGregor formula, if the initial state is in the eigenvalue distribution of GUE, the noncolliding BM is a determinantal process, in the sense that any multitime correlation function is given by a determinant specified by a matrix-kernel. By taking appropriate scaling limits, spatially homogeneous and inhomogeneous infinite determinantal processes are derived. We note that the determinantal processes related with noncolliding particle systems have a feature in common such that the matrix-kernels are expressed using spectral projections of appropriate effective Hamiltonians. On the common structure of matrix-kernels, continuity of processes in time is proved and general property of the determinantal processes is discussed.

  2. Efficacy of Silwet L-77 against several arthropod pests of table grape.

    PubMed

    Tipping, Christopher; Bikoba, Veronique; Chander, Gabriel J; Mitcham, Elizabeth J

    2003-02-01

    Silwet L-77, an organosilicone surfactant, was applied to several arthropod pests of California table grapes. Eggs of grape mealybug, Pseudococcus maritimus (Ehrhorn), and omnivorous leafroller, Platynota stultana Walsingham, were tolerant to 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5% treatment solutions; however, eggs of Pacific spider mite, Tetranychus pacificus McGregor, were highly susceptible with mortality >99.4% (0.1% Silwet L-77). Mortality of immature and adult stages of cotton aphid (Aphis gossypii Glover), Western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande), and Pacific spider mite (Tetranychus pacificus McGregor) was > or = 93.8, > or = 98.5, and > or = 99.4% for 0.1, 0.25, and 0.5% Silwet L-77, respectively. Grape mealybug crawlers had 100% mortality when treated with 0.5 and 1.0% Silwet L-77 solutions; however, mortality was only 6.7% when 0.1% Silwet L-77 was applied. 'Thompson Seedless' table grapes were not damaged when treated with up to 1% Silwet L-77; however, grapes treated with the 0.5 and 1.0% solutions appeared wet after removal from cold storage because of the effect of the surfactant spreading the water condensation. Grapes dried with the normal bloom on the berries when they reached room temperature.

  3. Reproductive biology of the band-tailed pigeon in Colorado and New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutierrez, R.J.; Braun, C.E.; Zapatka, T.P.

    1975-01-01

    Band-tailed pigeons (Columba fasciata) occur in two major populations in western North America, a coastal population (C. f. monilis) and an interior population (C. f. fasciata) (A.O.U. 1957). The interior population inhabits portions of Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, Texas, and the highlands of Mexico. This pigeon is one of several species of birds in western North America that show unseasonal and variable nesting periods (see Ligon 1971). Active nests have been found in some portion of the species' range in every month of the year (Swarth 1900, Thayer 1909, Stephens 1913, Lamb 1926, Abbott 1927, Vorhies 1928, Neff 1947, MacGregor and Smith 1955). Although several studies of the breeding biology of the Band-tailed Pigeon have been made on the Pacific coast population (Glover 1953, MacGregor and Smith 1955, Houston 1963, March and Sadleir 1970, Zeigler 1971) few studies have been done of the interior population (Fitzhugh 1970). The breeding cycle of the interior population is poorly understood, although many observations of individual nests have been reported (Neff 1947, Fitzhugh 1970). The purpose of this study was to document the gonadal cycles of free-living Band-tailed Pigeons in Colorado and New Mexico and to study the species' photoperiod responses. From this information we have attempted to explain the normal breeding cycle of the pigeon and to explain its occasional unseasonal breeding.

  4. metal-induced energy transfer (MIET) (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karedla, Narain V. S.; Isbaner, Sebastian; Chizhik, Alexey I.; Gregor, Ingo; Enderlein, Joerg; Chizhik, Anna M.

    2017-02-01

    We present a new concept for measuring distance values of single molecules from a surface with nanometer accuracy using the energy transfer from the excited molecule to surface plasmons of a metal film [1]. We measure the fluorescence lifetime of individual dye molecules deposited on a dielectric spacer as a function of a spacer thickness. By using our theoretical model [2], we convert the lifetime values into the axial distance of individual molecules. Similar to Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), this allows emitters to be localized with nanometer accuracy, but in contrast to FRET the distance range at which efficient energy transfer takes place is an order of magnitude larger. Together with orientation measurements [3], one can potentially use smMIET to localize single emitters with a nanometer precision isotropically, which will facilitate intra- and intermolecular distance measurements in biomolecules and complexes, circumventing the requirement of the knowledge of mutual orientations between two dipole emitters which severely limits the quantification of such distances from a conventional single-pair FRET (spFRET) experiment. [1] Karedla, N., Chizhik, A.I., Gregor, I., Chizhik, A.M., Schulz, O., Enderlein, J., ChemPhysChem, 15, 705-711 (2014). [2] Enderlein J., Biophyical Journal, 78, 2151-8 (2000). [3] Karedla, N., Stein, S. C., Hähnel, D., Gregor, I., Chizhik, A., and Enderlein, J., Physical Review Letters, 115, 173002 (2015).

  5. Flow and magnetic field properties in the trailing sunspots of active region NOAA 12396

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, M.; Denker, C.; Böhm, F.; Balthasar, H.; Fischer, C. E.; Kuckein, C.; Bello González, N.; Berkefeld, T.; Collados, M.; Diercke, A.; Feller, A.; González Manrique, S. J.; Hofmann, A.; Lagg, A.; Nicklas, H.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Pator Yabar, A.; Rezaei, R.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sigwarth, M.; Sobotka, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; von der Lühe, O.; Waldmann, T.

    2016-11-01

    Improved measurements of the photospheric and chromospheric three-dimensional magnetic and flow fields are crucial for a precise determination of the origin and evolution of active regions. We present an illustrative sample of multi-instrument data acquired during a two-week coordinated observing campaign in August 2015 involving, among others, the GREGOR solar telescope (imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy) and the space missions Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS). The observations focused on the trailing part of active region NOAA 12396 with complex polarity inversion lines and strong intrusions of opposite polarity flux. The GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph (GRIS) provided Stokes IQUV spectral profiles in the photospheric Si I λ1082.7 nm line, the chromospheric He I λ1083.0 nm triplet, and the photospheric Ca I λ1083.9 nm line. Carefully calibrated GRIS scans of the active region provided maps of Doppler velocity and magnetic field at different atmospheric heights. We compare quick-look maps with those obtained with the ``Stokes Inversions based on Response functions'' (SIR) code, which furnishes deeper insight into the magnetic properties of the region. We find supporting evidence that newly emerging flux and intruding opposite polarity flux are hampering the formation of penumbrae, i.e., a penumbra fully surrounding a sunspot is only expected after cessation of flux emergence in proximity to the sunspots.

  6. Completely open-foldable domes remaining cool in sunshine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Deelen, Sander; Hoogendoorn, Pieter W.; Kommers, Johannes N. M.; Sonner, Thomas; Simoes, Roberto; Grassin, Olivier; Fischer, Andreas; Visser, Simon; Thewissen, Kristof

    2016-07-01

    These open-foldable very light-weight domes, based on very strong textile membranes highly tensioned between steel bows, are designed for bad-weather protection and maintenance of instruments for astronomical, meteorological and civil-engineering measurements and have extremely high wind stability. The domes of the GREGOR telescope and the Dutch Open Telescope are the two existing prototypes. Improvements were developed with all parts light-colored to remain cool in solar light. The new specially made connection parts (eyes) between the textile parts are made from white-colored PETP, a very strong and UV-stable synthetic, and have a better geometrical shape giving higher stability. The rubber seal tubes on top of the dome were of black-colored chloride rubber CR (neoprene), strong and UV stable, but very warm in sunlight. New UV-stable EPDM rubber tubes were produced in natural light color. To get this rubber stiff enough to give good sealing, a black-colored stiff EPDM rubber is put inside the light-colored one. Tests were performed and the forces necessary for compression of the rubber tubes were measured. An inside black tube with a circa 1.3 times larger compression force than the original black tubes was applied. The assembling of the black tubes into the light-colored tubes was successfully applied at the DOT and GREGOR domes.

  7. El Paso County Geothermal Project at Fort Bliss. Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lear, Jon; Bennett, Carlon; Lear, Dan; Jones, Phil L.; Burdge, Mark; Barker, Ben; Segall, Marylin; Moore, Joseph; Nash, Gregory; Jones, Clay; Simmons, Stuart; Taylor, Nancy

    2016-02-01

    The El Paso County Geothermal Project at Fort Bliss was an effort to determine the scale and scope of geothermal resources previously identified on Fort Bliss’ McGregor Range in southern Otero County, New Mexico. The project was funded with a $5,000,000 grant to El Paso County from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 and a $4,812,500 match provided by private sector partners. The project was administered through the DOE Golden Field Office to awardee El Paso County. The primary subcontractor to El Paso County and project Principal Investigator - Ruby Mountain Inc. (RMI) of Salt Lake City, Utah - assembled the project team consisting of Evergreen Clean Energy Management (ECEM) of Provo, Utah, and the Energy & Geoscience Institute at the University of Utah (EGI) in Salt Lake City, UT to complete the final phases of the project. The project formally began in May of 2010 and consisted of two preliminary phases of data collection and evaluation which culminated in the identification of a drilling site for a Resource Confirmation Well on McGregor Range. Well RMI 56-5 was drilled May and June 2013 to a depth of 3,030 ft. below ground level. A string of slotted 7 inch casing was set in 8.75 inch hole on bottom fill at 3,017 ft. to complete the well. The well was drilled using a technique called flooded reverse circulation, which is most common in mineral exploration. This technique produced an exceptionally large and complete cuttings record. An exciting development at the conclusion of drilling was the suspected discovery of a formation that has proven to be of exceptionally high permeability in three desalinization wells six miles to the south. Following drilling and preliminary testing and analysis, the project team has determined that the McGregor Range thermal anomaly is large and can probably support development in the tens of megawatts.

  8. Correlations of Cervical Sagittal Alignment before and after Occipitocervical Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Matsubayashi, Yoshitaka; Shimizu, Takachika; Chikuda, Hirotaka; Takeshita, Katsushi; Oshima, Yasushi; Tanaka, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective radiographic study. Objective To investigate changes and correlations of cervical sagittal alignment including T1 slope before and after occipitocervical corrective surgery. We also investigated the relevance for preoperative planning. Methods We conducted a retrospective radiographic analysis of 27 patients who underwent surgery for occipitocervical deformity. There were 7 men and 20 women with a mean age of 56.0 years. Mean follow-up was 68.0 months (range 24 to 120). The radiographic parameters measured before surgery and at final follow-up included McGregor slope, T1 slope, occipito (O)–C2 angle, O–C7 angle, and C2–C7 angle. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to examine the correlation between the radiographic parameters. Results There was a stronger positive correlation between the T1 slope and the O–C7 angle both preoperatively and postoperatively (r = 0.72 and r = 0.83, respectively) than between the T1 slope and the C2–C7 angle (r = 0.60 and r = 0.76, respectively). The O–C2 angle and C2–C7 angle had inverse correlations to each other both pre- and postoperatively (r =  − 0.50 and −0.45). McGregor slope and T1 slope did not significantly change postoperatively at final follow-up. Increase in O–C2 angle after surgery (mean change, 10.7 degrees) inversely correlated with decrease in postoperative C2–C7 angle (mean change, 12.2 degrees). As result of these complementary changes, O–C7 angle did not statistically change. Conclusions Our results suggest that the O–C7 angle is regulated by T1 slope and the corresponding O–C7 angle is divided into the O–C2 and C2–C7 angles, which have inverse correlation to each other and then maintain McGregor slope (horizontal gaze). PMID:27190739

  9. Regional climate modeling of heat stress, frost, and water stress events in the agricultural region of Southwest Western Australia under the current climate and future climate scenarios.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kala, Jatin; Lyons, Tom J.; Abbs, Deborah J.; Foster, Ian J.

    2010-05-01

    Heat stress, frost, and water stress events have significant impacts on grain quality and production within the agricultural region (wheat-belt) of Southwest Western Australia (SWWA) (Cramb, 2000) and understanding how the frequency and intensity of these events will change in the future is crucial for management purposes. Hence, the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (Pielke et al, 1992) (RAMS Version 6.0) is used to simulate the past 10 years of the climate of SWWA at a 20 km grid resolution by down-scaling the 6-hourly 1.0 by 1.0 degree National Center for Environmental Prediction Final Analyses from December 1999 to Present. Daily minimum and maximum temperatures, as well as daily rainfall are validated against observations. Simulations of future climate are carried out by down-scaling the Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization (CSIRO) Mark 3.5 General Circulation Model (Gordon et al, 2002) for 10 years (2046-2055) under the SRES A2 scenario using the Cubic Conformal Atmospheric Model (CCAM) (McGregor and Dix, 2008). The 6-hourly CCAM output is then downscaled to a 20 km resolution using RAMS. Changes in extreme events are discussed within the context of the continued viability of agriculture in SWWA. Cramb, J. (2000) Climate in relation to agriculture in south-western Australia. In: The Wheat Book (Eds W. K. Anderson and J. R. Garlinge). Bulletin 4443. Department of Agriculture, Western Australia. Gordon, H. B., Rotstayn, L. D., McGregor, J. L., Dix, M. R., Kowalczyk, E. A., O'Farrell, S. P., Waterman, L. J., Hirst, A. C., Wilson, S. G., Collier, M. A., Watterson, I. G., and Elliott, T. I. (2002). The CSIRO Mk3 Climate System Model [Electronic publication]. Aspendale: CSIRO Atmospheric Research. (CSIRO Atmospheric Research technical paper; no. 60). 130 p McGregor, J. L., and Dix, M. R., (2008) An updated description of the conformal-cubic atmospheric model. High Resolution Simulation of the Atmosphere and Ocean, Hamilton, K. and Ohfuchi

  10. A New Method of Measuring the Occipitocervical Angle That Could be Applied as an Intraoperative Indicator During Occipitocervical Fusion.

    PubMed

    Nagashima, Shingo; Nagae, Masateru; Arai, Yuji; Tonomura, Hitoshi; Takatori, Ryota; Sukenari, Tsuyoshi; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Sawada, Koshiro; Mikami, Yasuo; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2017-08-01

    A method for measuring occipitocervical angle. To develop a new method of measurement for assessing the occipitocervical angle using intraoperative fluoroscopic imaging, and to examine its reliability. To avoid postoperative complications following occipitocervical fusion, it is vital to obtain a suitable fusion angle between the occipital bone and the upper cervical spine. The subjects were 30 cases with occipito-atlanto-axial lesions and 30 healthy volunteers. Lateral plain radiographs of the cervical spine in neutral position were used to draw the McGregor line, the line between the external occipital protuberance and the most caudal point on the midline occipital curve (Oc line), the tangential line of the inferior endplate of the C2 vertebra (C2 line), and the posterior longitudinal line of the C2 vertebra (Ax line). The angles formed by these 4 lines and the horizontal line were measured. The O-C2 angle and the Oc-Ax angle, the new indicator, were measured by 3 doctors and reliability was evaluated. In the disease group, mean intraobserver variances of the McGregor, Oc, C2, Ax, O-C2, and Oc-Ax angles were 0.7, 1.3, 1.5, 1.2, 1.6, and 1.9 degrees. Mean intraobserver intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.997, 0.994, 0.994, 0.997, 0.989, and 0.988, showing high intraobserver reliability for all angles. Mean interobserver intraclass correlation coefficients were 0.998, 0.996, 0.994, 0.997, 0.988, and 0.990, showing high interobserver reliability for all angles. The same reliability was obtained in the healthy group. The Oc-Ax angle is as reliable an indicator as the conventional O-C2 angle, and could be used as a new intraoperative indicator for occipitocervical fusion. It may be particularly useful in cases where it is difficult to identify the McGregor line and/or the inferior endplate of the C2 vertebra. Level 3-diagnostic study.

  11. Spring Meeting sail-in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanshaw, Bruce B.

    In May 1986, Ian MacGregor and I sailed into Baltimore's Inner Harbor to live aboard my boat while we attended the AGU Spring Meeting. During our stay at the Marina, which is only 400-500 m from the Convention Center, we ran into AGU members from several other boats. From these chance encounters an idea was born: Why not have a more coordinated sail-in for the meeting in 1987!! I have offered to act as the commodore/coordinator for this informal event. I'm willing to keep track of the boats that wish dock space and make arrangements with the marina so that boats associated with the sail-in will be together on one “finger” pier.

  12. Exploration for geothermal resources in the Capital District of New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sneeringer, M.R.; Dunn, J.R.

    1981-11-01

    Water chemistry, gas analyses, and geophysical methods including gravity and magnetic surveys, microseismic monitoring, and temperature gradient measurements were used in the Capital District area to evaluate the potential for a hydrothermal geothermal system. Water and gas chemistries provided indirect indicators, and temperature gradients provided direct indications of a geothermal system. Gravity results were supportive of gradient and chemistry data, but seismic and magnetic work have thus far provided little information on the potential system. Gradients throughout the area ranged from an average background value of about 10/sup 0/C/km to a high of roughly 44/sup 0/C/km. The highest gradient values, the most unusual water chemistries and largest carbon dioxide exhalations occur along the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, and indicate a good potential for a usable hydrothermal geothermal system at depth.

  13. Exploration and drilling for geothermal heat in the Capital District, New York. Volume 4. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The Capital District area of New York was explored to determine the nature of a hydrothermal geothermal system. The chemistry of subsurface water and gas, the variation in gravity, magnetism, seismicity, and temperature gradients were determined. Water and gas analyses and temperature gradient measurements indicate the existence of a geothermal system located under an area from Ballston Spa, southward to Altamont, and eastward toward Albany. Gravimetric and magnetic surveys provided little useful data but microseismic activity in the Altamont area may be significant. Eight wells about 400 feet deep, one 600 feet and one 2232 feet were drilled and tested for geothermal potential. The highest temperature gradients, most unusual water chemistries, and greatest carbon dioxide exhalations were observed in the vicinity of the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, New York, suggesting some fault control over the geothermal system. Depths to the warm fluids within the system range from 500 meters (Ballston Spa) to 2 kilometers (Albany).

  14. Exploration for geothermal resources in the Capital District of New York. Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    Water chemistry, gas analyses, and geophysical methods including gravity and magnetic surveys, microseismic monitoring, and temperature gradient measurements were used in the Capital District area to evaluate the potential for a hydrothermal geothermal system. Water and gas chemistries provided indirect indicators, and temperature gradients provided direct indications of a geothermal system. Gravity results were supportive of gradient and chemistry data, but seismic and magnetic work have thus far provided little information on the potential system. Gradients throughout the area ranged from an average background value of about 10/sup 0/C/km to a high of roughly 44/sup 0/C/km. The highest gradient values, the most unusual water chemistries and largest carbon dioxide exhalations occur along the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, and indicate a good potential for a usable hydrothermal geothermal system at depth.

  15. Re-discovering Mendel: The Case of Carl Correns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheinberger, Hans-Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Carl Erich Correns (1864-1933) is remembered in the annals of science as one of the three botanists who re-discovered Mendel's laws. He can also, however, be regarded as one of the founding figures of classical genetics in Germany. Between 1894 and 1899 he carried out the crossing experiments with corn and peas that led to the re-statement of Gregor Mendel's (1822-1884) results. Between 1900 and 1910, he explored the complications of these laws, including the coupling of factors due to their chromosomal location and the inheritance of sex, in a great number of plant species. In later years Correns became interested in and experimented on phenomena of extra-nuclear inheritance.

  16. Fort Bliss exploratory slimholes: Drilling and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Finger, J.T.; Jacobson, R.D.

    1997-12-01

    During November/96 to April/97 Sandia National Laboratories provided consulation, data collection, analysis and project documentation to the U.S. Army for a series of four geothermal exploratory slimholes drilled on the McGregor Range approximately 25 miles north of El Paso, Texas. This drilling was directed toward evaluating a potential reservoir for geothermal power generation in this area, with a secondary objective of assessing the potential for direct use applications such as space heating or water de-salinization. This report includes: representative temperature logs from the wells; daily drilling reports; a narrative account of the drilling and testing; a description of equipment used; a summary and preliminary interpretation of the data; and recommendations for future work.

  17. Exploration and drilling for geothermal heat in the Capital District, New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    The Capital District area of New York was explored to determine the nature of a hydrothermal geothermal system. The chemistry of subsurface water and gas, the variation in gravity, magnetism, seismicity, and temperature gradients were determined. Water and gas analyses and temperature gradient measurements indicate the existence of a geothermal system located under an area from Ballston Spa, southward to Altamont, and eastware toward Albany. Gravimetric and magnetic surveys provided little useful data but microseismic activity in the Altamont area may be significant. Eight wells about 400 feet deep, one 600 feet and one 2232 feet were drilled and tested for geothermal potential. The highest temperature gradients, most unusual water chemistries, and greatest carbon dioxide exhalations were observed in the vicinity of the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, New York, suggesting some fault control over the geothermal system. Depths to the warm fluids within the system range from 500 meters (Ballston Spa) to 2 kilometers (Albany).

  18. Achievement of genetics in plant reproduction research: the past decade for the coming decade.

    PubMed

    Suwabe, Keita; Suzuki, Go; Watanabe, Masao

    2010-01-01

    In the last decade, a variety of innovations of emerging technologies in science have been accomplished. Advanced research environment in plant science has made it possible to obtain whole genome sequence in plant species. But now we recognize this by itself is not sufficient to understand the overall biological significance. Since Gregor Mendel established a principle of genetics, known as Mendel's Laws of Inheritance, genetics plays a prominent role in life science, and this aspect is indispensable even in modern plant biology. In this review, we focus on achievements of genetics on plant sexual reproduction research in the last decade and discuss the role of genetics for the coming decade. It is our hope that this will shed light on the importance of genetics in plant biology and provide valuable information to plant biologists.

  19. Perspectives on the dental school learning environment: putting theory X and theory Y into action in dental education.

    PubMed

    Connor, Joseph P; Troendle, Karen

    2008-12-01

    Theory X and Theory Y are terms coined by Douglas McGregor to express the belief that managers' behaviors are shaped by their assumptions about the motivation of their subordinates. The theories were applied to dental education in a Perspectives article published in the August 2007 issue of the Journal of Dental Education. This article explains how those seemingly contradictory theories can be reconciled using the concept of the "emotional bank account" introduced by Stephen Covey in The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People. Understanding the underlying concept of an emotional bank account helps dental educators to bridge the generation gap between instructors, born during the baby boom period of 1946-63, and dental students, born after 1980, who are referred to as "Generation Y" or "millennials."

  20. Data, age uncertainties and ocean δ18O under the spotlight for Ocean2k Phase 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGregor, Helen V.; Martrat, Belen; Evans, Michael N.; Thompson, Diane; Reynolds, D.; Addison, Jason A.

    2016-01-01

    The oceans make up 71% of the Earth’s surface area and are a major component of the global climate system. They are the world’s primary heat reservoir, and knowledge of the global ocean response to past and present radiative forcing is important for understanding climate change. PAGES’ Ocean2k working group aims to place marine climate of the past century within the context of the previous 2000 years (2k). Phase 1 (2011-2015) focused on constraining the forcing mechanisms most consistent with reconstructed sea surface temperature (SST) over the 2k interval (McGregor et al. 2015; Tierney et al. 2015). The 1st Ocean2k workshop assisted in the transition to Ocean2k Phase 2 (2015-2017), with the workshop goal to develop, coordinate and significantly advance community-identified and -driven activities.

  1. Fort Bliss Geothermal Area Data: Temperature profile, logs, schematic model and cross section

    DOE Data Explorer

    Adam Brandt

    2015-11-15

    This dataset contains a variety of data about the Fort Bliss geothermal area, part of the southern portion of the Tularosa Basin, New Mexico. The dataset contains schematic models for the McGregor Geothermal System, a shallow temperature survey of the Fort Bliss geothermal area. The dataset also contains Century OH logs, a full temperature profile, and complete logs from well RMI 56-5, including resistivity and porosity data, drill logs with drill rate, depth, lithology, mineralogy, fractures, temperature, pit total, gases, and descriptions among other measurements as well as CDL, CNL, DIL, GR Caliper and Temperature files. A shallow (2 meter depth) temperature survey of the Fort Bliss geothermal area with 63 data points is also included. Two cross sections through the Fort Bliss area, also included, show well position and depth. The surface map included shows faults and well spatial distribution. Inferred and observed fault distributions from gravity surveys around the Fort Bliss geothermal area.

  2. Open Principle for Large High-Resolution Solar Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Sliepen, Guus

    2009-04-01

    Vacuum solar telescopes solve the problem of image deterioration inside the telescope due to refractive index fluctuations of the air heated by the solar light. However, such telescopes have a practical diameter limit somewhat over 1 m. The Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) was the pioneering demonstrator of the open-telescope technology without need of vacuum, now pursued in the German GREGOR. Important ingredients for this technology are primary beam completely open to natural wind flow, stiff but still open design by principal stiff overall geometries in combination with carefully designed joints and completely open-foldable dome constructions based on tensioned strong cloth. Further developments to large sizes are made within the framework of the design study for a European Solar Telescope (EST).

  3. Francis Galton: his approach to polygenic disease.

    PubMed

    Galton, D J; Galton, C J

    1997-01-01

    Gregor Mendel is considered to be the founding father of modern genetics, and his laws of inheritance have led to the successful analysis of rare monogenic diseases such as cystic fibrosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, familial hypercholesterolaemia, and many others. Francis Galton chose multifactorial inheritance as his starting point, and his methods of analysis have withstood the test of time. He used detailed family records to study the inherited tendency of complex traits between parents and offspring, and between identical and non-identical twins to refine the analysis, and devised new statistics to attempt to measure the extent of inheritance. For all these reasons, he can be considered the founding father of quantitative genetics.

  4. On the relationship between coronae and mass loss in late-type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartmann, L.; Dupree, A. K.; Raymond, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    High-dispersion spectra taken with the IUE are used to examine the temperature stratification of the wind of the hybrid atmosphere star Alpha TrA (K4 II). C IV emission is shown to have a line width of 150-200 km/s, with Si III and C III exhibiting 100 km/s widths. It is suggested that the line widths reflect wind expansion, with C IV formed in an extended region flowing near the wind terminal velocity of 85 km/s. It is shown that the observed line widths can be accounted for by the stellar wind theory of Hartmann and MacGregor, in which the schematic dissipation of Alfven waves drives the outflow in addition to heating the wind. The observations of the warm expanding corona in Alpha TrA suggest a continuous progression between the high temperature low-mass-flux solar wind and the winds of luminous cool stars.

  5. Noble gas composition of subcontinental lithospheric mantle: An extensively degassed reservoir beneath Southern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalowitzki, Tiago; Sumino, Hirochika; Conceição, Rommulo V.; Orihashi, Yuji; Nagao, Keisuke; Bertotto, Gustavo W.; Balbinot, Eduardo; Schilling, Manuel E.; Gervasoni, Fernanda

    2016-09-01

    Patagonia, in the Southern Andes, is one of the few locations where interactions between the oceanic and continental lithosphere can be studied due to subduction of an active spreading ridge beneath the continent. In order to characterize the noble gas composition of Patagonian subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), we present the first noble gas data alongside new lithophile (Sr-Nd-Pb) isotopic data for mantle xenoliths from Pali-Aike Volcanic Field and Gobernador Gregores, Southern Patagonia. Based on noble gas isotopic compositions, Pali-Aike mantle xenoliths represent intrinsic SCLM with higher (U + Th + K)/(3He, 22Ne, 36Ar) ratios than the mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB) source. This reservoir shows slightly radiogenic helium (3He/4He = 6.84-6.90 RA), coupled with a strongly nucleogenic neon signature (mantle source 21Ne/22Ne = 0.085-0.094). The 40Ar/36Ar ratios vary from a near-atmospheric ratio of 510 up to 17700, with mantle source 40Ar/36Ar between 31100-6800+9400 and 54000-9600+14200. In addition, the 3He/22Ne ratios for the local SCLM endmember, at 12.03 ± 0.15 to 13.66 ± 0.37, are higher than depleted MORBs, at 3He/22Ne = 8.31-9.75. Although asthenospheric mantle upwelling through the Patagonian slab window would result in a MORB-like metasomatism after collision of the South Chile Ridge with the Chile trench ca. 14 Ma, this mantle reservoir could have remained unhomogenized after rapid passage and northward migration of the Chile Triple Junction. The mantle endmember xenon isotopic ratios of Pali-Aike mantle xenoliths, which is first defined for any SCLM-derived samples, show values indistinguishable from the MORB source (129Xe/132Xe =1.0833-0.0053+0.0216 and 136Xe/132Xe =0.3761-0.0034+0.0246). The noble gas component observed in Gobernador Gregores mantle xenoliths is characterized by isotopic compositions in the MORB range in terms of helium (3He/4He = 7.17-7.37 RA), but with slightly nucleogenic neon (mantle source 21Ne/22Ne = 0.065-0.079). We

  6. Integration of Planetary Protection Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.

    2000-01-01

    Research and activities under this grant have focused on a systematic examination and analysis of critical questions likely to impact planetary protection (PP) controls and implementation for Mars sample return missions (MSR). Four areas in the non-scientific and social realms were selected for special attention because of their importance to future mission planning and concern about critical timing or possible economic impacts on MSR mission implementation. These include: (1) questions of legal uncertainty and the decision making process, (2) public perception of risks associated with sample return, (3) risk communication and Education/Public Outreach , and (4) planetary protection implications of alternative mission architectures, for both robotic and human sample return missions. In its entirety, NAG 2-986 has encompassed three categories of activity: (1) research and analysis (Race), (2) subcontracted research (MacGregor/Decision Research), and (3) consulting services.

  7. Management for doctors. Getting the best from people.

    PubMed Central

    Owen, A. V.

    1995-01-01

    To get the best out of people the McGregor Theory 'Y' manager will be supportive and collaborative rather than controlling. The aim will be to appoint staff to properly designed jobs and to motivate them by working with them and agreeing joint goals, by encouraging self development and appropriate training, and by being both firm and fair. In essence this manager will care about colleagues and see them as a resource to be nurtured rather than competitors to be undermined or costs to be cut. If the doctor in the case study had been treated in this way perhaps he might still be motivated and treating British patients instead of going to Saudi Arabia where he feels more greatly valued both as an individual and a professional. PMID:7703755

  8. Mendel's use of mathematical modelling: ratios, predictions and the appeal to tradition.

    PubMed

    Teicher, Amir

    2014-01-01

    The seventh section of Gregor Mendel's famous 1866 paper contained a peculiar mathematical model, which predicted the expected ratios between the number of constant and hybrid types, assuming self-pollination continued throughout further generations. This model was significant for Mendel's argumentation and was perceived as inseparable from his entire theory at the time. A close examination of this model reveals that it has several perplexing aspects which have not yet been systematically scrutinized. The paper analyzes those aspects, dispels some common misconceptions regarding the interpretation of the model, and re-evaluates the role of this model for Mendel himself. In light of the resulting analysis, Mendel's position between nineteenth-century hybridist tradition and twentieth-century population genetics is reassessed, and his sophisticated use of mathematics to legitimize his innovative theory is uncovered.

  9. Role of chemical change in the paleomagnetic record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Subir K.; Reynolds, Richard L.

    To produce an outline of how either to isolate or capitalize on changes in magnetic properties resulting from chemical changes, the workshop, “Effects of Chemical Changes on Magnetization,” was held in Santa Fe, N. Mex. from August 13 to 16. It was sponsored by the Institute for Rock Magnetism (IRM) in Minneapolis, Minn., and funded by the National Science Foundation. Graduate students and established researchers in rockand paleomagnetism, mostly from the United States and Canada, participated. Ian McGregor and Mike Mayhew represented NSF. A special feature of the conference was five guest speakers from outside the field of rock magnetism who bridged the gap between chemistry and magnetism.

  10. [The neuroradiological diagnosis of the basilar impression in routine viewing of full size radiographs of the skull].

    PubMed

    Benkenstein, H; Sörgel, H J

    1979-11-01

    After a survey of the literature and the representation of the problems of the varied, frequently bony malformations of the cranivertebral transitional region, the basilar impression, neuroradiological measured values obtained by the authors for the craniocervical region are given. From the great variety of measuring methods three procedures, line after McGregor, bimastoid line and height index after Klaus, because of their informative value and simple application, were superimposed. The limiting values were obtained from the sum of mean value and standard deviation. The measured values used were obtained from 2,000 full-size skull radiographs and processed for statistical purposes. By means of this measuring pattern it is possible to assess quickly the transitional region of the general skull radiographs with respect to the presence of a basilar impression.

  11. tRNA genes of Streptomyces lividans: new sequences and comparison of structure and organization with those of other bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Sedlmeier, R; Werner, T; Kieser, H M; Hopwood, D A; Schmieger, H

    1994-01-01

    Three closely linked Streptomyces lividans tRNA genes encoding two tRNA(Lys)s and a tRNA(Gly) were cloned and sequences. The structure of tRNA(Gly) is unusual for eubacterial tRNAs. Including those in previous reports (R. Sedlmeier and H. Schmieger, Nucleic Acids Res. 18:4027, 1990, and R. Sedlmeier, G. Linti, K. Gregor, and H. Schmieger, Gene 132:125-130, 1993), 18 S. lividans tRNA genes were physically mapped on the chromosome of the closely related strain Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2). The structure and organization of tRNA genes of S. lividans and S. coelicolor are compared with those of Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. PMID:8071238

  12. The roles of the convex hull and the number of potential intersections in performance on visually presented traveling salesperson problems.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Douglas; Lee, Michael D; Dry, Matthew; Hughes, Peter

    2003-10-01

    The planar Euclidean version of the traveling salesperson problem requires finding the shortest tour through a two-dimensional array of points. MacGregor and Ormerod (1996) have suggested that people solve such problems by using a global-to-local perceptual organizing process based on the convex hull of the array. We review evidence for and against this idea, before considering an alternative, local-to-global perceptual process, based on the rapid automatic identification of nearest neighbors. We compare these approaches in an experiment in which the effects of number of convex hull points and number of potential intersections on solution performance are measured. Performance worsened with more points on the convex hull and with fewer potential intersections. A measure of response uncertainty was unaffected by the number of convex hull points but increased with fewer potential intersections. We discuss a possible interpretation of these results in terms of a hierarchical solution process based on linking nearest neighbor clusters.

  13. Pesticide compatibility with natural enemies for pest management in greenhouse gerbera daisies.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Cheri M; Braman, S K; Oetting, R D; Hinkle, N C

    2013-08-01

    Pesticides commonly used in commercial greenhouse management were evaluated for compatibility with two biological control agents: a leafminer parasitoid (Diglyphus isaea [Walker]), and a predatory mite (Neoseiulus californicus [McGregor]). These natural enemies were exposed to miticides, fungicides, and insecticides targeting leafminers, thrips, and whiteflies, according to label directions in laboratory vial assays, after which mortality at 12, 24, and 48 h was recorded. Greater mortality of predatory mites than leafminer parasitoids was observed overall, illustrating that fewer pesticides were compatible with predatory mites compared with the parasitoid. However, some commonly used pesticides were found to cause high mortality to both the leafminer parasitoid and predatory mites. Twospotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae Koch) infestations often disrupt leafminer (Liriomyza trifolii [Burgess]) biocontrol programs. Therefore, potentially compatible miticides (bifenazate, hexythiazox, spiromesifen, acequinocyl, etoxazole, and clofentezine) identified in laboratory trials were also evaluated in a greenhouse study and found to be compatible with leafminer biocontrol.

  14. STS-51 preparation: ACTS, ORFEUS, Discovery in VAB

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    In NASA's building AM on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, STS-51 mission specialist Carl Walz (right) and Deutsche Aerospace technician Gregor Dawidowitsch check over the scientific instruments mounted on the Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS) carrier (38573); The Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (ORFEUS) and SPAS is readied for hoisting into a test cell at the Vertical Processing Facility (VPF) (38574); Mating of the Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) with the Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS) booster is under way in the Payload Hazardous Servicing Facility (PHSF) (38575); The mated ACTS and TOS are ready to be moved from the PHSF to the Vertical Processsing Facility (VPF) (38576); The orbiter Discovery is rolled into the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) for mating with the external tank and twin solid rocket boosters (38577-8).

  15. Microscopic modelling of semi-insulating GaAs detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cola, A.; Vasanelli, L.; Reggiani, L.; Cavallini, A.; Nava, F.

    1997-08-01

    We present a drift-diffusion model of semi-insulating n-GaAs detectors, taking into account the presence of hot-carrier dynamics, conduction band features and the kinetics of trapping and detrapping from deep and shallow centres. We provide unambiguous evidence of a field-enhanced capture cross section for EL2 and EL3 centres as conjectured by McGregor [1] for the case of EL2. This result is shown to be strictly correlated with the active thickness of the detector varying almost linearly with the applied voltage, in excellent agreement with recent experimental measurements performed with the Optical Beam-Induced Currents (OBIC) technique. Evidence of Poole-Frenkel effects at the highest applied voltages is provided by the current-voltage characteristics.

  16. The multivariate Hahn polynomials and the singular oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genest, Vincent X.; Vinet, Luc

    2014-11-01

    Karlin and McGregor's d-variable Hahn polynomials are shown to arise in the (d+1)-dimensional singular oscillator model as the overlap coefficients between bases associated with the separation of variables in Cartesian and hyperspherical coordinates. These polynomials in d discrete variables depend on d+1 real parameters and are orthogonal with respect to the multidimensional hypergeometric distribution. The focus is put on the d = 2 case for which the connection with the three-dimensional singular oscillator is used to derive the main properties of the polynomials: forward/backward shift operators, orthogonality relation, generating function, recurrence relations, bispectrality (difference equations) and explicit expression in terms of the univariate Hahn polynomials. The extension of these results to an arbitrary number of variables is presented at the end of the paper.

  17. Quantum random walk polynomial and quantum random walk measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Yuanbao; Wang, Caishi

    2014-05-01

    In the paper, we introduce a quantum random walk polynomial (QRWP) that can be defined as a polynomial , which is orthogonal with respect to a quantum random walk measure (QRWM) on , such that the parameters are in the recurrence relations and satisfy . We firstly obtain some results of QRWP and QRWM, in which case the correspondence between measures and orthogonal polynomial sequences is one-to-one. It shows that any measure with respect to which a quantum random walk polynomial sequence is orthogonal is a quantum random walk measure. We next collect some properties of QRWM; moreover, we extend Karlin and McGregor's representation formula for the transition probabilities of a quantum random walk (QRW) in the interacting Fock space, which is a parallel result with the CGMV method. Using these findings, we finally obtain some applications for QRWM, which are of interest in the study of quantum random walk, highlighting the role played by QRWP and QRWM.

  18. On the total—and strict total—Positivity of the kernels associated with parabolic initial boundary value problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, E. J. P. Georg

    This paper is concerned with the total—and strict total—positivity of the integral kernels which relate the solutions of parabolic initial boundary value problems to the initial and boundary data. Maximum principle arguments, in conjunction with a characterisation of total positivity in terms of variation diminishing properties, are used to prove total positivity of both the initial value and boundary value kernels under mild assumptions; similar methods yield strict total positivity when the coefficients appearing in the equation are analytic in either the time or the space variable. In this way we extend results of Karlin and McGregor on the total positivity of the kernel associated with the initial data; their proofs used the determinantal definition of total positivity and exploited the work of Gohberg and Krein on the Green's functions of Sturm-Liouville operators.

  19. Exploration and drilling for geothermal heat in the Capital District, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneeringer, M. R.; Crist, W. K.; Dunn, J. R.

    1983-08-01

    The Capital District area of New York was explored to determine the nature of a hydrothermal geothermal system. The chemistry of sub-surface water and gas, the variation in gravity, magnetism, seismicity, and temperature gradient measurements indicate the existence of a geothermal system located under an area from Ballston Spa, southward to Altamont, and eastward toward Albany. Eight wells about 400-feet deep, one 600-foot well and one 2232-foot well were drilled and tested for geothermal potential. The highest temperature gradients, most unusual water chemistries, and greatest carbon dioxide exhalations were observed in the vicinity of the Saratoga and McGregor faults between Saratoga Springs and Schenectady, suggesting some fault control over the geothermal system. Depths to the warm fluids within the system range from 500 meters (Ballston Spa) to 2 kilometers (Albany).

  20. In memoriam In memoriam In memoriam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, John

    2010-12-01

    The preceding paper is a record of an invited paper presented by Beatrice Annaratone at the 29th ICPIG held in Cancún, Mexico in 2009. The principal author Beatrice Annaratone died, together with her husband Arturo Tanga, in a tragic car accident on 20 December 2009. As a result of this tragedy the paper has not received the usual final revision by its author. Some of the work described is incomplete, but it will certainly be of interest to researchers in the field, some of whom will carry it to fruition. A paper entitled 'In Memoriam Beatrice Maria Annaratone', by John Allen, Gregor Morfill and Hubertus Thomas was presented at the 37th EPS Conference on Plasma Physics held in Dublin in June 2010. See http://iopscience.iop.org/0741-3335/52/12/124001

  1. KSC-07pd3010

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-10-31

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Prior to a showing of the European Space Agency's Columbus Laboratory module, Gregor Woop (seated at right) talks to the media about the module. Woop is the European Space Agency's product assurance and safety manager. Columbus is the European Space Agency 's largest single contribution to the International Space Station. The laboratory module will expand the research facilities of the station, providing crew members and scientists around the world the ability to conduct a variety of life, physical and materials science experiments. The module is approximately 23 feet long and 15 feet wide, allowing it to hold 10 large racks of experiments. Columbus is scheduled to be transferred to Launch Pad 39A in early November, in preparation for its journey to the station. Columbus will fly aboard space shuttle Atlantis on the STS-122 mission, targeted for launch Dec. 6. Photo credit: NASA/George Shelton

  2. Isonymy and the genetic structure of Sicily.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Larralde, A; Pavesi, A; Scapoli, C; Conterio, F; Siri, G; Barrai, I

    1994-01-01

    The genetic structure of Sicily was analysed through the distribution of surnames of 758,793 users registered in the Italian Telephone Company, corresponding to 371 communes of the island. Estimates of the coefficient of consanguinity due to random isonymy, of Fisher's a, an indicator of abundance of surnames, and of Karlin-McGregor's v, an indicator of immigration rates, were obtained for each commune. Four different estimates of genetic distance between all possible pairs of communes within each province were also obtained, and their relationship with geographic distance was studied. The logarithmic transformation of Lasker's coefficient of relationship showed correlations with the log of geographic distance which range between -0.78 and -0.40; the strongest, for the province of Catania, was attributed to the presence of Mount Etna, and the weakest, for Palermo, to the high population density of this province.

  3. Comparison of conventional and integrated programs for control of Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Iwassaki, Larissa Akemi; Sato, Mário Eidi; Calegario, Fagoni Fayer; Poletti, Marcelo; Maia, Aline de Holanda Nunes

    2015-02-01

    The twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch, is one of the main pests on strawberry crops in Brazil. TSSM can be difficult to control due to acaricide resistance. The objective of this work was to compare the effect of conventional and integrated strawberry production (ISP) systems on mite abundance and acaricide resistance. The control of TSSM in ISP was based on the release of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) or application of a selective acaricide (propargite), when TSSM monitoring indicated the timing for the release of predaceous mites (1-3 mites per leaflet on 30% leaflets) or chemical intervention (>10 mites per leaflet). Only acaricides (abamectin, fenpyroximate) were applied in the conventional system. Integrated control of TSSM were sufficient to maintain a significantly lower pest infestation level, resulting in a sixfold reduction in the frequency of acaricide applications, and consequently, a lower selection pressure for acaricide resistance. Strategies for the management of TSSM in strawberry fields are described and discussed.

  4. Further results in multiset processing with neural networks.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Simon

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents new experimental results on the variadic neural network (VNN) [McGregor, S. (2007). Neural network processing for multiset data. In Proceedings: Vol. 4668. Artificial neural networks - ICANN 2007, 17th international conference (pp. 460-470). Springer]. The inputs to a variadic network are an arbitrary-length list of n-tuples of real numbers, where n is fixed, and the function computed by the network is unaffected by permutation of the inputs. This paper describes improvements in the training algorithm for the variadic perceptron, based on a constructive cascade topology, and performance of the improved networks on geometric problems inspired by vector graphics. Further development may allow practical application of these or similar networks to vector graphics processing and statistical analysis.

  5. Theoretical studies of chromospheres and winds in cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dupree, A. K.

    1981-01-01

    Calculated radiative losses from H, H-, Ca II, and Mg II show that cooling for the chromosphere of the supergiant epsilon Gem do not differ greatly from the solar law, although there are differences at approximately 6000K due to ionization effects. With a rough standard law for computation of stellar winds using the Hartmann-MacGregor theory and standard stellar evolutionary calculations, the wind velocities and temperatures in the HR diagram were systematically explored. Results show that cool winds with tempratures 1,000,00K are not possible for log g or = 2. Predicted wind velocities are approximately 1.5 to 2 x larger than observed, particularly for the most luminous cool stars. The ionization balance for the wind of alpha ORI and the hydrogen profile lines for T Tauri stars were computed using the PANDORA computer program.

  6. Motivating pharmacists.

    PubMed

    Donehew, G R

    1979-01-01

    Although pharmacists are developing interest in many types of pharmacy practice, they are still spending the bulk of their time in the prescription dispensing process. Any effort to provide motivation must consider the prescription dispensing process. The pharmacy literature includes only a few studies that dealt with pharmacists as people. The studies usually showed that pharmacists basically were unhappy with their jobs. In developing a motivational climate for pharmacists, pharmacy supervisors have several concepts to consider: the hierarchy of needs by Maslow; the expectancy theory by Hampton; the gygiene-motivator theory by Herzberg; and the Theory Y management approach by McGregor. Because pharmacists must be induced to enter and remain in an organization, supervisors should be aware of the need to use any technique available in developing a motivational climate.

  7. Motivating pharmacy employees.

    PubMed

    White, S J; Generali, J A

    1984-07-01

    Concepts from theories of motivation are used to suggest methods for improving the motivational environment of hospital pharmacy departments. Motivation--the state of being stimulated to take action to achieve a goal or to satisfy a need--comes from within individuals, but hospital pharmacy managers can facilitate motivation by structuring the work environment so that it satisfies employees' needs. Concepts from several theories of motivation are discussed, including McGregor's theory X and theory Y assumptions, Maslow's hierarchy of needs theory, Herzberg's motivation hygiene theory, and Massey's value system theory. Concepts from the Japanese style of management that can be used to facilitate motivation, such as quality circles, also are described. The autocratic, participative, and laissez faire styles of leadership are discussed in the context of the motivation theories, and suggested applications of theoretical concepts to practice are presented.

  8. Cognitive mechanisms of insight: the role of heuristics and representational change in solving the eight-coin problem.

    PubMed

    Öllinger, Michael; Jones, Gary; Faber, Amory H; Knoblich, Günther

    2013-05-01

    The 8-coin insight problem requires the problem solver to move 2 coins so that each coin touches exactly 3 others. Ormerod, MacGregor, and Chronicle (2002) explained differences in task performance across different versions of the 8-coin problem using the availability of particular moves in a 2-dimensional search space. We explored 2 further explanations by developing 6 new versions of the 8-coin problem in order to investigate the influence of grouping and self-imposed constraints on solutions. The results identified 2 sources of problem difficulty: first, the necessity to overcome the constraint that a solution can be found in 2-dimensional space and, second, the necessity to decompose perceptual groupings. A detailed move analysis suggested that the selection of moves was driven by the established representation rather than the application of the appropriate heuristics. Both results support the assumptions of representational change theory (Ohlsson, 1992).

  9. Reason for Cautious Optimism? Two Studies Suggesting Reduced Stigma Against Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Witte, Tracy K.; Smith, April R.; Joiner, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    We present data from two studies that aimed to investigate stigma against suicide. In Study 1, we employed Milgram et al.'s (1965) “lost letter” technique. We predicted that fewer letters addressed to a fictitious organization with the word “suicide” in its name would be returned than letters addressed to fictitious heart disease or diabetes organizations, presumably due to stigma. Contrary to expectation, there were no differences in the percentage of letters returned for each condition, despite power to detect small effects. In Study 2 we compared scores on the Suicide Opinion Questionnaire (SOQ; Domino, Gibson, Poling, & Westlake, 1980) from a study published in 1988 (Domino, MacGregor, & Hannah, 1988) to scores from a study conducted 19 years later. Results demonstrated reduced stigma toward suicide, with the belief that suicide is morally bad exhibiting the largest change. PMID:20455251

  10. Plant water stress, leaf temperature, and spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) outbreaks in California vineyards.

    PubMed

    Stavrinides, Menelaos C; Daane, Kent M; Lampinen, Bruce D; Mills, Nicholas J

    2010-08-01

    We evaluated the relationships between plant water status and leaf temperature, and between leaf temperature and spider mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) and predatory mite (Acari: Phytoseiidae) populations in eight vineyards in California in 2006 and 2007. Temperature of south-facing leaves increased significantly by 0.8°C for every 1.0°C increase in ambient air temperature, and by 5.3°C for every one MPa drop in leaf water potential. Peak population densities of Pacific spider mite, Tetranychus pacificus McGregor, increased significantly with increasing frequency of leaf temperatures above 31°C. In contrast, peak population densities of Willamette spider mite, Eotetranychus willamettei (McGregor), showed no relationship with the frequency of leaf temperatures above 31°C. This differential relationship between the two mite species and high leaf temperatures is consistent with their upper thresholds for development, which are 40°C for T. pacificus and 31°C for E. willamettei, as identified in a previous study. Predatory mite population densities showed no relationship with peak population densities of either spider mite species during the analysis period, but decreased with the frequency of leaf temperatures above 31°C. In addition, predatory mite population densities were significantly higher on south-facing than interior leaves after adjusting for the effect of leaf temperature. These results help to explain why outbreaks of T. pacificus occur in warmer or water-stressed vineyards, whereas E. willamettei develops higher populations in cooler or well-irrigated vineyards. In addition, these results suggest that regulated deficit irrigation should be implemented with caution, especially in those vineyards with a high risk of T. pacificus outbreaks.

  11. From Mendel's discovery on pea to today's plant genetics and breeding : Commemorating the 150th anniversary of the reading of Mendel's discovery.

    PubMed

    Smýkal, Petr; K Varshney, Rajeev; K Singh, Vikas; Coyne, Clarice J; Domoney, Claire; Kejnovský, Eduard; Warkentin, Thomas

    2016-12-01

    This work discusses several selected topics of plant genetics and breeding in relation to the 150th anniversary of the seminal work of Gregor Johann Mendel. In 2015, we celebrated the 150th anniversary of the presentation of the seminal work of Gregor Johann Mendel. While Darwin's theory of evolution was based on differential survival and differential reproductive success, Mendel's theory of heredity relies on equality and stability throughout all stages of the life cycle. Darwin's concepts were continuous variation and "soft" heredity; Mendel espoused discontinuous variation and "hard" heredity. Thus, the combination of Mendelian genetics with Darwin's theory of natural selection was the process that resulted in the modern synthesis of evolutionary biology. Although biology, genetics, and genomics have been revolutionized in recent years, modern genetics will forever rely on simple principles founded on pea breeding using seven single gene characters. Purposeful use of mutants to study gene function is one of the essential tools of modern genetics. Today, over 100 plant species genomes have been sequenced. Mapping populations and their use in segregation of molecular markers and marker-trait association to map and isolate genes, were developed on the basis of Mendel's work. Genome-wide or genomic selection is a recent approach for the development of improved breeding lines. The analysis of complex traits has been enhanced by high-throughput phenotyping and developments in statistical and modeling methods for the analysis of phenotypic data. Introgression of novel alleles from landraces and wild relatives widens genetic diversity and improves traits; transgenic methodologies allow for the introduction of novel genes from diverse sources, and gene editing approaches offer possibilities to manipulate gene in a precise manner.

  12. Probing deep photospheric layers of the quiet Sun with high magnetic sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagg, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Doerr, H.-P.; Martínez González, M. J.; Riethmüller, T.; Collados Vera, M.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Franz, M.; Feller, A.; Kuckein, C.; Schmidt, W.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Pastor Yabar, A.; von der Lühe, O.; Denker, C.; Balthasar, H.; Volkmer, R.; Staude, J.; Hofmann, A.; Strassmeier, K.; Kneer, F.; Waldmann, T.; Borrero, J. M.; Sobotka, M.; Verma, M.; Louis, R. E.; Rezaei, R.; Soltau, D.; Berkefeld, T.; Sigwarth, M.; Schmidt, D.; Kiess, C.; Nicklas, H.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Investigations of the magnetism of the quiet Sun are hindered by extremely weak polarization signals in Fraunhofer spectral lines. Photon noise, straylight, and the systematically different sensitivity of the Zeeman effect to longitudinal and transversal magnetic fields result in controversial results in terms of the strength and angular distribution of the magnetic field vector. Aims: The information content of Stokes measurements close to the diffraction limit of the 1.5 m GREGOR telescope is analyzed. We took the effects of spatial straylight and photon noise into account. Methods: Highly sensitive full Stokes measurements of a quiet-Sun region at disk center in the deep photospheric Fe i lines in the 1.56 μm region were obtained with the infrared spectropolarimeter GRIS at the GREGOR telescope. Noise statistics and Stokes V asymmetries were analyzed and compared to a similar data set of the Hinode spectropolarimeter (SOT/SP). Simple diagnostics based directly on the shape and strength of the profiles were applied to the GRIS data. We made use of the magnetic line ratio technique, which was tested against realistic magneto-hydrodynamic simulations (MURaM). Results: About 80% of the GRIS spectra of a very quiet solar region show polarimetric signals above a 3σ level. Area and amplitude asymmetries agree well with small-scale surface dynamo-magneto hydrodynamic simulations. The magnetic line ratio analysis reveals ubiquitous magnetic regions in the ten to hundred Gauss range with some concentrations of kilo-Gauss fields. Conclusions: The GRIS spectropolarimetric data at a spatial resolution of ≈0.̋4 are so far unique in the combination of high spatial resolution scans and high magnetic field sensitivity. Nevertheless, the unavoidable effect of spatial straylight and the resulting dilution of the weak Stokes profiles means that inversion techniques still bear a high risk of misinterpretating the data.

  13. Foldable dome climate measurements and thermal properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliepen, Guus; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.

    2010-07-01

    As part of a larger project for measuring various aspects of foldable domes in the context of EST and with support of the Dutch Technology Foundation STW, we have collected over a year of continuous temperature and humidity measurements, both inside and outside the domes of the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma5 and the GREGOR telescope on Tenerife.6 In addition, we have measured the wind field around each dome. Although the structure of both domes is similar, the DOT dome has a single layer of cloth, and is situated on top of an open tower. In contrast, the GREGOR dome has a double layer of cloth, and is situated on top of a tower-shaped building. These differences result in large differences in temperature and humidity insulation when the dome is closed. We will present the changes in temperature and humidity one can expect for each dome within one day, and the statistics for the variations throughout a year. In addition, we will show that the main advantage of a foldable dome is the near instantaneous equilibration of the air inside the volume originally enclosed by the dome and that of the environment outside the dome. This property allows one to operate a telescope without needing expensive air conditioning and dome skin temperature control in order to limit dome and shell seeing effects. The measurements give also information about the weather fluctuations at the sites of the domes. It was observed that on small time scales the temperature fluctuations are significantly greater during the day than during the night.

  14. Therapeutic effects of functional orthodontic appliances on cervical spine posture: a retrospective cephalometric study.

    PubMed

    Ohnmeiß, Maren; Kinzinger, Gero; Wesselbaum, Julia; Korbmacher-Steiner, Heike M

    2014-03-24

    Interactions between the cervical spine and the stomatognathic system have been discussed in literature. The present study was conducted to investigate whether, and to what extent, orthodontically induced mandibular advancement produces changes in cervical spine posture. Furthermore, possible appliance-specific effects should be distinguished. The cephalograms of 64 patients with skeletal class II were analysed before and after mandibular advancement. Linear and angular cephalometric parameters were identified to define the position of the atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial joints. The total example was divided into two subgroups (comprising 32 individuals each) according to the employed appliance: activator versus bite-jump appliance (BJA). Student's t-test and analysis of covariance were used for statistical analysis. Overall, a significant straightening of the cervical spine was observed during the treatment. This conclusion is based on changes of Chamberlain (p = 0.0055), CVT (p = 0.0003), OPT (p < 0.0001), Redlund-Johnell/Petersson (p < 0.0001), McGregor-mC2 (p = 0.0333) and AT-FH (p = 0.0445). Improvements in occipitoatlantal dislocation were also observed in the total sample. Appliance-specific changes were found in the activator subgroup for a number of linear parameters (Chamberlain, McGregor, CVT, OPT, Redlund-Johnell/Petersson). In contrast, only two linear parameters (OPT and Powers ratio) revealed statistically significant changes in the BJA subgroup. During skeletal class II treatment the position of upper cervical spine changes. In the activator subgroup the observed effects were more pronounced than those in the BJA subgroup. Further studies including a control group comprised with non-treated class II patients are needed to assess whether these effects may be caused directly by the appliances irrespective of growth.

  15. Therapeutic effects of functional orthodontic appliances on cervical spine posture: a retrospective cephalometric study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Interactions between the cervical spine and the stomatognathic system have been discussed in literature. The present study was conducted to investigate whether, and to what extent, orthodontically induced mandibular advancement produces changes in cervical spine posture. Furthermore, possible appliance-specific effects should be distinguished. Material and methods The cephalograms of 64 patients with skeletal class II were analysed before and after mandibular advancement. Linear and angular cephalometric parameters were identified to define the position of the atlanto-occipital and atlantoaxial joints. The total example was divided into two subgroups (comprising 32 individuals each) according to the employed appliance: activator versus bite-jump appliance (BJA). Student's t-test and analysis of covariance were used for statistical analysis. Results Overall, a significant straightening of the cervical spine was observed during the treatment. This conclusion is based on changes of Chamberlain (p = 0.0055), CVT (p = 0.0003), OPT (p < 0.0001), Redlund-Johnell/Petersson (p < 0.0001), McGregor-mC2 (p = 0.0333) and AT-FH (p = 0.0445). Improvements in occipitoatlantal dislocation were also observed in the total sample. Appliance-specific changes were found in the activator subgroup for a number of linear parameters (Chamberlain, McGregor, CVT, OPT, Redlund-Johnell/Petersson). In contrast, only two linear parameters (OPT and Powers ratio) revealed statistically significant changes in the BJA subgroup. Conclusions During skeletal class II treatment the position of upper cervical spine changes. In the activator subgroup the observed effects were more pronounced than those in the BJA subgroup. Further studies including a control group comprised with non-treated class II patients are needed to assess whether these effects may be caused directly by the appliances irrespective of growth. PMID:24661951

  16. Three-dimensional structure of a sunspot light bridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felipe, T.; Collados, M.; Khomenko, E.; Kuckein, C.; Asensio Ramos, A.; Balthasar, H.; Berkefeld, T.; Denker, C.; Feller, A.; Franz, M.; Hofmann, A.; Joshi, J.; Kiess, C.; Lagg, A.; Nicklas, H.; Orozco Suárez, D.; Pastor Yabar, A.; Rezaei, R.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Sigwarth, M.; Sobotka, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; von der Lühe, O.; Waldmann, T.

    2016-11-01

    Context. Active regions are the most prominent manifestations of solar magnetic fields; their generation and dissipation are fundamental problems in solar physics. Light bridges are commonly present during sunspot decay, but a comprehensive picture of their role in the removal of the photospheric magnetic field is still lacking. Aims: We study the three-dimensional configuration of a sunspot, and in particular, its light bridge, during one of the last stages of its decay. Methods: We present the magnetic and thermodynamical stratification inferred from full Stokes inversions of the photospheric Si i 10 827 Å and Ca i 10 839 Å lines obtained with the GREGOR Infrared Spectrograph of the GREGOR telescope at the Observatorio del Teide, Tenerife, Spain. The analysis is complemented by a study of continuum images covering the disk passage of the active region, which are provided by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. Results: The sunspot shows a light bridge with penumbral continuum intensity that separates the central umbra from a smaller umbra. We find that in this region the magnetic field lines form a canopy with lower magnetic field strength in the inner part. The photospheric light bridge is dominated by gas pressure (high-β), as opposed to the surrounding umbra, where the magnetic pressure is higher. A convective flow is observed in the light bridge. This flow is able to bend the magnetic field lines and to produce field reversals. The field lines merge above the light bridge and become as vertical and strong as in the surrounding umbra. We conclude that this occurs because two highly magnetized regions approach each other during the sunspot evolution. Movies associated to Figs. 2 and 13 are available at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Sensitivity of simulated tropical climate variability and its global teleconnections to reconstructed volcanic eruptions and solar irradiance fluctuations over the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khodri, Myriam; Servonnat, Jérome; Fluteau, Frédérique; Gastineau, Guillaume; Alexandrine Sicre, Marie; Mignot, Juliette

    2010-05-01

    Tropical climate variability based on proxy reconstructions for the last millennium suggests important interannual to decadal changes probably modulated by external forcing such as volcanic eruptions and solar irradiance fluctuations. For example these proxy reconstructions suggest a warming of the Pacific warm pool (Newton et al 2009), a low ENSO variance and a northward shift of the ITCZ during periods of increased Total Solar Irradiance (TSI) and low volcanic activity such as during the so-called Warm Medieval Period (Haug et al, 2001; McGregor et al, 2009). The opposite situation is suggested for the Little Ice Age (LIA), a climatic period around the Maunder Minimum characterised by higher volcanic activity and small, yet sizable reduction of the TSI. Furthermore, first evidence suggest a significant role played by such tropical changes in driving teleconnected megaflood/megadroughts and threshold-like response in monsoons over South and North America while modulating significantly the climate of the North Atlantic region during the Warm Medieval Period and the Little Ice Age (Rein et al., 2004; Moy et al., 2002; Conroy et al. 2009; McGregor et al, 2009; Seager et al, 2008; Sicre et al, 2008…). In link with these issues, we will explore tropical Pacific climate variability and its tropical and extra tropical teleconnections in particular over the Americas and North Atlantic, in externally forced and unforced millennial-long simulations run with the IPSL model. This will allow us evaluating the sensitivity of tropical Pacific internal dynamics and global teleconnections to the applied reconstructed volcanic and solar forcings for this period and hopefully shade some light on the processes underlying proxy-based reconstructions for the last millennium climate variability.

  18. Seeds of doubt: Mendel's choice of Hieracium to study inheritance, a case of right plant, wrong trait.

    PubMed

    Bicknell, Ross; Catanach, Andrew; Hand, Melanie; Koltunow, Anna

    2016-12-01

    In this review, we explore Gregor Mendel's hybridization experiments with Hieracium , update current knowledge on apomictic reproduction and describe approaches now being used to develop true-breeding hybrid crops. From our perspective, it is easy to conclude that Gregor Mendel's work on pea was insightful, but his peers clearly did not regard it as being either very convincing or of much importance. One apparent criticism was that his findings only applied to pea. We know from a letter he wrote to Carl von Nägeli, a leading botanist, that he believed he needed to "verify, with other plants, the results obtained with Pisum". For this purpose, Mendel adopted Hieracium subgenus Pilosella, a phenotypically diverse taxon under botanical study at the time. What Mendel could not have known, however, is that the majority of these plants are not sexual plants like pea, but instead are facultatively apomictic. In these forms, the majority of seed arises asexually, and such progeny are, therefore, clones of the maternal parent. Mendel obtained very few hybrids in his Hieracium crosses, yet we calculate that he probably emasculated in excess of 5000 Hieracium florets to even obtain the numbers he did. Despite that effort, he was perplexed by the results, and they ultimately led him to conclude that "the hybrids of Hieracium show a behaviour exactly opposite to those of Pisum". Apomixis is now a topic of intense research interest, and in an ironic twist of history, Hieracium subgenus Pilosella has been developed as a molecular model to study this trait. In this paper, we explore further Mendel's hybridization experiments with Hieracium, update current knowledge on apomictic reproduction and describe approaches now being used to develop true-breeding hybrid crops.

  19. Isonymy structure of Sucre and Táchira, two Venezuelan states.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Larralde, A; Barrai, I

    1997-10-01

    The isonymy structure of two Venezuelan states, Sucre and Táchira, is described using the surnames of the Register of Electors updated in 1991. The frequency distribution of surnames pooled together by sex was obtained for the 57 counties of Sucre and the 52 counties of Táchira, based on total population sizes of 158,705 and 160,690 individuals, respectively. The coefficient of consanguinity resulting from random isonymy (phi ii), Karlin and McGregor's ni (identical to v), and the proportion of the population included in surnames represented only once (estimator A) and in the seven most frequent surnames (estimator B) were calculated for each county. RST, a measure of microdifferentiation, was estimated for each state. The Euclidean distance between pairs of counties within states was calculated together with the corresponding geographic distances. The correlations between their logarithmic transformations were significant in both cases, indicating differentiation of surnames by distance. Dendrograms based on the Euclidean distance matrix were constructed. From them a first approximation of the effect of internal migration within states was obtained. Ninety-six percent of the coefficient of consanguinity resulting from random isonymy is determined by the proportion of the population included in the seven most frequent surnames, whereas between 72% and 88% of Karlin and McGregor's ni for Sucre and Táchira, respectively, is determined by the proportion of population included in surnames represented only once. Surnames with generalized and with focal distribution were identified for both states, to be used as possible indicators of the geographic origin of their carriers. Our results indicate that Táchira's counties, on average, tend to be more isolated than Sucre's counties, as measured by RST, estimator B, and phi ii. Comparisons with the results obtained for other. Venezuelan states and other non-Venezuelan populations are also given.

  20. Haze and cloud distribution in Uranus' atmosphere based on high-contrast spatially resolved polarization measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostogryz, Nadiia; Berdyugina, Svetlana; Gisler, Daniel; Berkefeld, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    In planetary atmospheres, main sources of opacity are molecular absorption and scattering on molecules, hazes and aerosols. Hence, light reflected from a planetary atmosphere can be linearly polarized. Polarization study of inner solar system planets and exoplanets is a powerful method to characterize their atmospheres, because of a wide range of observable phase angles. For outer solar system planets, observable phase angles are very limited. For instance, Uranus can only be observed up to 3.2 degrees away from conjunctions, and its disk-integrated polarization is close to zero due to the back-scattering geometry. However, resolving the disk of Uranus and measuring the center-to-limb polarization can help constraining the vertical atmospheric structure and the nature of scattering aerosols and particles. In October 2016, we carried out polarization measurements of Uranus in narrow-band filters centered at methane bands and the adjacent continuum using the GREGOR Planet Polarimeter (GPP). The GPP is a high-precision polarimeter and is mounted at the 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope, which is suitable for observing at night. In order to reach a high spatial resolution, the instrument uses an adaptive-optics system of the telescope. To interpret our measurements, we solve the polarized radiative transfer problem taking into account different scattering and absorption opacities. We calculate the center-to-limb variation of polarization of Uranus' disk in the continuum spectrum and in methane bands. By varying the vertical distribution of haze and cloud layers, we derive the vertical structure of the best-fit Uranus atmosphere.

  1. The applicability of the concept of treatment adherence in the context of the Brazilian mental health system.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Patricia Elizabeth Sanz de; Rosendo, Ernestina; Alchieri, João Carlos

    2016-06-01

    To present reflections on the type of research conducted on a treatment adherence among users of Public Mental Health System in Brazil and discuss the applicability of the concept of adherence to treatment in this context. Literature review in SciELO, LILACS, Cochrane Library and PubMed / MEDLINE using the Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS) treatment, adhesion and "mental health" and the specific vocabulary of the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "patient compliance/psychologist" y "mental health". They were included for review the complete texts and theses published between 2007-2012 in Portuguese, English and Spanish. 127 articles were recovered, 32 specifically related to mental health. Eight were excluded for duplicates and after reading the remaining 24 articles were selected for this study 10 conducted in the field of Mental Health in Brazil. No investigations have been identified with focus on adherence to psychosocial treatment offered in public mental health. disregard of the mental health legislation and reinforce the asylum model of assistance. Presentar reflexiones sobre el tipo de investigaciones realizadas en Brasil sobre la adhesión al tratamiento de los usuarios del Sistema Público de Salud Mental y discutir la aplicabilidad del concepto de adhesión al tratamiento en dicho contexto. Revisión bibliográfica en las bases SciELO, LILACS, Biblioteca Cochrane y PubMed/MEDLINE utilizando los descriptores de Ciencias de la Salud (DeCS) adhesión, tratamiento y "salud mental" y el vocabulario específico de Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) "patient compliance/psychologist" y "mental health". Se incluyeron los textos completos y las tesis publicadas entre 2007-2012, en portugués, inglés y español. F1eron recuperados 127 artículos, 32 específicamente de la salud mental. Se excluyeron los 8 duplicados y de los 24 restantes fueron seleccionados para el presente trabajo los 10 realizados en Brasil. No se identificaron enfoques sobre la adhesión al

  2. [Anatomopathological findings during development of diabetic cardiomyopathy in rats].

    PubMed

    Manjarrez-Gutiérrez, Gabriel; Hernández-Chávez, Victor; Neri-Gómez, Teresa; Boyzo-Montes de Oca, Alfonso; Mondragón-Herrera, José Antonio; Hernández-Rodríguez, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Antecedentes: la miocardiopatía diabética ocurre en ambos tipos de diabetes mellitus y en su patogenia intervienen la hiperglucemia y los cambios metabólicos asociados. Objetivo: caracterizar los diferentes cambios patológicos que aparecen durante la evolución de la miocardiopatía diabética en la rata. Material y métodos: estudio transversal comparativo en dos grupos de ratas diabéticas por la administración de estreptozotocina. A los 14, 21 y 30 días de la administración del tóxico se obtuvieron los corazones, que se colocaron en p-formaldehído al 4%. Se efectuaron cortes de 5 μm y se tiñeron con hematoxilina-eosina, tricrómica de Masson e inmunocitoquímica con anticuerpos anti β-tubulina. Resultados: a los 14 días de la aplicación de la estreptozotocina se observaron en el miocardio sinusoides dilatadas y depósito de colágena entre las fibras de Purkinje e intersticio cardiaco. A los 21 días disminuyó la luz arteriolar por hiperplasia de la capa media. A los 30 días del estudio se hicieron más evidentes los sinusoides cardiacos y los depósitos de colágena y un importante desarreglo del sistema microtubular de los cardiomiocitos. Conclusiones: los sinusoides cardiacos, que representan un patrón vascular fetal y la fibrosis intersticial en el miocardio y el desarreglo microtubular de los cardiomiocitos, apoyan el hecho de que el mecanismo fisiopatológico de la miocardiopatía diabética se inicia en la microcirculación coronaria debido a cambios en el metabolismo cardiaco que contribuyen a la disfunción miocárdica durante el estado diabético.

  3. Variations in the magnitude of non mass dependent sulfur fractionation in the Archean atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Claire, M.; Kasting, J. F.

    2010-12-01

    eroneous conclusions. [1] Danielache et al. (2008), Journal of Geophysical Research 113 D17314. [2] Pavlov and Kasting (2002) Astrobiology 2 27. [3] Ueno et al. (2009), Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (35) 14784-14789. [4] Zahnle, Claire, and Catling (2006), Geobiology 4 271-283. [5] Lyons (2007), Geophysical Research Letters 34, L22811. [6] Halevy et al 2010 Science, 10.1126 1190298. [7] Wolf and Toon (2010), Science 238, 1266-1268.

  4. Does whole-spine lateral radiograph with clavicle positioning reflect the correct cervical sagittal alignment?

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Min; Song, Kwang-Sup; Park, Seung-Hwan; Kang, Hyun; Daniel Riew, K

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the differences of cervical alignment between standing cervical lateral radiograph and whole-spine lateral radiograph with clavicle position. We prospectively evaluated 101 asymptomatic adults from whom standing cervical lateral radiograph with hands on both side followed by whole-spine lateral radiographs with clavicle position were obtained from April 2012 to December 2013. On two radiographs, cervical sagittal alignment from C2 to C7 was analyzed by Gore angle (GA) and Cobb angle (CA); head position was evaluated using the translation distance (TD, distance of the anterior tubercle of C1 compared with the vertical line through the posterior-inferior body of C7) and McGregor angle (MA, angle between the McGregor and horizontal lines). T1-slope was also evaluated. Cervical alignment on the cervical radiograph (GA -13.59° [-15.58 to -11.60], CA -9.76° [-11.65 to -7.86]) was significantly more lordotic than that on whole-spine radiographs (GA -6.28° [-8.65 to -3.91] and -4.14° [-6.40 to -1.89]). TD and MA on cervical radiographs (TD 34.98 mm [33.22-36.75]; MA 7.20° [6.35-8.35]) were meaningfully higher than those on whole-spine radiographs (TD 31.31 mm [29.47-33.16]; MA 6.32° [5.25-7.39]), but the MA values were not significant (p = 0.064). T1-slope was significantly lower in whole-spine radiographs (20.11° [18.88-21.35]) than in cervical radiographs (24.37° [23.14-25.6]). Values are expressed as mean (95 % confidence interval). Clavicle position during whole-spine radiograph caused a substantial decrease in the T1-slope; head position posteriorly translated followed by the cervical sagittal alignment became more hypo-lordotic, with slight downward gazing in comparison with the cervical radiograph.

  5. Horizontal flow fields in and around a small active region. The transition period between flux emergence and decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, M.; Denker, C.; Balthasar, H.; Kuckein, C.; González Manrique, S. J.; Sobotka, M.; Bello González, N.; Hoch, S.; Diercke, A.; Kummerow, P.; Berkefeld, T.; Collados, M.; Feller, A.; Hofmann, A.; Kneer, F.; Lagg, A.; Löhner-Böttcher, J.; Nicklas, H.; Pastor Yabar, A.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Schmidt, D.; Schmidt, W.; Schubert, M.; Sigwarth, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Soltau, D.; Staude, J.; Strassmeier, K. G.; Volkmer, R.; von der Lühe, O.; Waldmann, T.

    2016-11-01

    Context. The solar magnetic field is responsible for all aspects of solar activity. Thus, emergence of magnetic flux at the surface is the first manifestation of the ensuing solar activity. Aims: Combining high-resolution and synoptic observations aims to provide a comprehensive description of flux emergence at photospheric level and of the growth process that eventually leads to a mature active region. Methods: The small active region NOAA 12118 emerged on 2014 July 17 and was observed one day later with the 1.5-m GREGOR solar telescope on 2014 July 18. High-resolution time-series of blue continuum and G-band images acquired in the blue imaging channel (BIC) of the GREGOR Fabry-Pérot Interferometer (GFPI) were complemented by synoptic line-of-sight magnetograms and continuum images obtained with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). Horizontal proper motions and horizontal plasma velocities were computed with local correlation tracking (LCT) and the differential affine velocity estimator (DAVE), respectively. Morphological image processing was employed to measure the photometric and magnetic area, magnetic flux, and the separation profile of the emerging flux region during its evolution. Results: The computed growth rates for photometric area, magnetic area, and magnetic flux are about twice as high as the respective decay rates. The space-time diagram using HMI magnetograms of five days provides a comprehensive view of growth and decay. It traces a leaf-like structure, which is determined by the initial separation of the two polarities, a rapid expansion phase, a time when the spread stalls, and a period when the region slowly shrinks again. The separation rate of 0.26 km s-1 is highest in the initial stage, and it decreases when the separation comes to a halt. Horizontal plasma velocities computed at four evolutionary stages indicate a changing pattern of inflows. In LCT maps we find persistent flow patterns

  6. Predictive influence of sea surface temperature on teleconnection patterns in North Atlantic. A case study on winter seasonal forecast in NW Iberian Peninsula.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, I.; Lorenzo, M. N.; Taboada, J. J.; Gómez-Gesteira, M.; Ramos, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Seasonal forecast in medium latitudes is a research field not too much developed, but it is likely to improve considerable as the dynamics of atmosphere and ocean as a coupled system are better understood. The aim of this work is to study the relationship between the global sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) and the most important teleconnection patterns which affect the North Atlantic area: North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), East Atlantic pattern (EA), Scandinavia pattern (SCA), East Atlantic/Western Russia pattern (EA/WR) and Europe Polar/Eurasia pattern (POL). The relationship between SSTA and those patterns will be explored in autumn and winter, the seasons with the highest quantity of rainfall in the area under study. These teleconnection patterns have a relationship with climate characteristics in Europe. Therefore, any forecast skill over teleconnection patterns will mean a forecast skill on climate. The SST data was provided by the NOAA/OAR/ESRL PSD, Boulder, Colorado, USA. The teleconnection indices were taken from the Climate Prediction Center of the NOAA between 1950 and 2006. Monthly precipitation and temperature data from 1951-2006 for two locations at NW Iberian Peninsula were obtained from the database of MeteoGalicia, the forecast center of the Regional Government of Galicia. The methodology used in this work is the same one used in Phillips and McGregor, 2002 and Lorenzo el al., 2009. Results show that SST anomalies in certain areas of the world ocean have a great potential to improve seasonal climate forecast in the mid-latitudes. A potential predictability for NAO and EA patterns in winter and for SCA and EA patterns in autumn was obtained. The value of those kind of correlations have been studied for a particular region, located at the NW part of the Iberian Peninsula, highlighting the possibility of perform a climate forecast for autumn and winter. This work could serve like a reference for many other regions in Europe, whose climate is

  7. Toxicity of plant essential oils to acaricide-susceptible and -resistant Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Han, Jun; Choi, Byeoung-Ryeol; Lee, Sang-Gyeu; Kim, Soon Il; Ahn, Young-Joon

    2010-08-01

    The toxicity of 10 plant essential oils to adults of acaricide-susceptible, chlorfenapyr-resistant (CRT-53), fenpropathrin-resistant (FRT-53), pyridaben-resistant (PRT-53), and abamectin-resistant (ART-53) strains of Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and to female Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) was examined using spray or vapor-phase mortality bioassays. In bioassay with the susceptible adults, lemon eucalyptus (19.3 microg/cm3) was the most toxic oil, followed by peppermint, citronella Java, thyme red, caraway seed, clove leaf, and pennyroyal oils (LC50, 20.6-23.7 microg/cm3). The toxicity of these oils was almost identical against adults from either of the susceptible and resistant strains, even though CRT-53, FRT-53, PRT-53, and ART-53 adults exhibited high levels of resistance to chlorfenapyr (resistance ratio [RR], > 9,140), fenpropathrin (RR, 94), pyridaben (RR, > 390), and abamectin (RR, 85), respectively. Against female N. californicus, lemon eucalyptus (LC50, 21.4 microg/cm3) was the most toxic oil, whereas the LC50 values of the other nine oils ranged from 23.2 to 72.6 microg/cm3. N. californicus was 1-2 times more tolerant than T. urticae to the test essential oils. Thus, these essential oils merit further study as potential acaricides for the control of acaricide-resistant T. urticae populations as fumigants.

  8. Evaluation of thermobarometers for garnet peridotites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finnerty, A. A.; Boyd, F. R.

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-one geothermometers and six geobarometers are evaluated for accuracy and precision for garnet lherzolites, with a suite of well-equilibrated xenoliths from kimberlites of northern Lesotho. Accuracy was tested by comparison of P-T estimates for a diamond-bearing and a graphite-bearing xenolith with the experimentally determined diamond-graphite univariant curve and by comparison of P-T estimates for phlogopite-bearing xenoliths to the high-temperature stability limit of phlogopite. Precision was evaluated by measuring the scatter of P-T estimates for each of four xenoliths from a wide range of P and T when many point analyses of the constituent minerals are used for P-T estimation. Most satisfactory is a thermobarometer composed of the uncorrected diopside-enstatite miscibility gap of Lindsley and Dixon (1976), combined with the uncorrected isopleths for aluminum in enstatite coexisting with pyrope of MacGregor (1974). The inflection observed in the northern Lesotho paleogeotherm cannot be an artifact of the method of temperature estimation.

  9. Functional Responses and Prey-Stage Preferences of a Predatory Gall Midge and Two Predacious Mites with Twospotted Spider Mites, Tetranychus Urticae, as Host

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Yingfang; Osborne, Lance S.; Chen, Jianjun; McKenzie, Cindy L.

    2013-01-01

    The twospotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is an important pest of vegetables and other economically important crops. This study evaluated the functional responses and prey-stage preferences of three species of predators, a predatory gall midge, Feltiella acarisuga (Vallot) (Diptera: Cecidomyiidae), and two predatory mite species, Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Amblyseius swirskii (AnthiasHenriot), with T. urticae as the host, under laboratory conditions. The results showed that F. acarisuga was highly effective and the two species of predacious mites were moderately effective in feeding on T. urticae eggs. Logistic regression analysis suggested Type II (convex) functional responses for all three species. However, based on the estimates of the handling time and the attacking rates, the three predators had different predation capacities. Among the three species, F. acarisuga had the highest predation on T. urticae. The maximum daily predation by a larval F. acarisuga was 50 eggs/day, followed by a female N. californicus (25.6 eggs/day) and a female A. swirskii (15.1 eggs/day). A female N. californicus produced more eggs than a female A. swirskii did when they both fed on T. urticae eggs. In addition, all three predator species had no preystage preference for either prey eggs or nymphs. The findings from this study could help select better biological control agents for effective control of T. urticae and other pests in vegetable productions. PMID:23879370

  10. Spin-down dynamics of magnetized solar-type stars

    SciTech Connect

    Oglethorpe, R. L. F.; Garaud, P.

    2013-12-01

    It has long been known that solar-type stars undergo significant spin-down, via magnetic braking, during their main-sequence lifetimes. However, magnetic braking only operates on the surface layers; it is not yet completely understood how angular momentum is transported within the star and how rapidly the spin-down information is communicated to the deep interior. In this work, we use insight from recent progress in understanding internal solar dynamics to model the interior of other solar-type stars. We assume, following Gough and McIntyre, that the bulk of the radiation zone of these stars is held in uniform rotation by the presence of an embedded large-scale primordial field, confined below a stably stratified, magnetic-free tachocline by large-scale meridional flows downwelling from the convection zone. We derive simple equations to describe the response of this model interior to spin-down of the surface layers, which are identical to the two-zone model of MacGregor and Brenner, with a coupling timescale proportional to the local Eddington-Sweet timescale across the tachocline. This timescale depends both on the rotation rate of the star and on the thickness of the tachocline, and it can vary from a few hundred thousand years to a few Gyr, depending on stellar properties. Qualitative predictions of the model appear to be consistent with observations, although they depend sensitively on the assumed functional dependence of the tachocline thickness on the stellar rotation rate.

  11. KSC-2012-2888

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-21

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – At the NASA Railroad yard at Kennedy Space Center in Florida, helium tank cars are lifted from their trucks onto flat cars in preparation for a journey to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s tank cars will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  12. KSC-2012-3053

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A NASA Railroad train crosses the railroad’s Jay Jay Railroad Bridge north of Launch Complex 39 at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The train is on its way to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  13. KSC-2012-3056

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A NASA Railroad train has crossed the Indian River on the railroad’s Jay Jay Railroad Bridge north of Launch Complex 39 at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The train is on its way to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  14. KSC-2012-3051

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A NASA Railroad train crosses the railroad’s Jay Jay Railroad Bridge north of Launch Complex 39 at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The train is on its way to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  15. KSC-2012-3052

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A NASA Railroad train crosses the railroad’s Jay Jay Railroad Bridge north of Launch Complex 39 at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The train is on its way to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  16. KSC-2012-3050

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A NASA Railroad train crosses the railroad’s Jay Jay Railroad Bridge north of Launch Complex 39 at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The train is on its way to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  17. Interview with Heribert Hirt.

    PubMed

    Hirt, Heribert

    2016-01-01

    As a son of an engineer who traveled widely during his career, Heribert Hirt began his life in the exotic country of Iran, before receiving his high-school education in Germany and then studying biochemistry at the University of Cape Town and then later at the University of Vienna, from where he received his PhD in 1987. He then worked as a postdoctoral fellow in Vienna, Oxford, and Wageningen, before starting his own group at the University of Vienna in 1993. It was also in Vienna that he became professor of genetics in 1997, followed by vice-director of the Gregor Mendel Institute of Plant Molecular Biology, and later head of the Plant Molecular Biology Department of the University of Vienna. In 2007, he decided that it was time for new challenges and accepted an appointment in France to direct the Paris-based INRA-CNRS Plant Genomics Institute for the following 7 years. In 2014, Heribert embarked on yet another challenge by accepting the role to head up the Center for Desert Agriculture at King Abdullah University of Sciences and Technology (KAUST) in Saudi Arabia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Full Breadth of Mendel's Genetics.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Peter J; Ellis, T H Noel

    2016-12-01

    Gregor Mendel's "Experiments on Plant Hybrids" (1865/1866), published 150 years ago, is without doubt one of the most brilliant works in biology. Curiously, Mendel's later studies on Hieracium (hawkweed) are usually seen as a frustrating failure, because it is assumed that they were intended to confirm the segregation ratios he found in Pisum Had this been his intention, such a confirmation would have failed, since, unknown to Mendel, Hieracium species mostly reproduce by means of clonal seeds (apomixis). Here we show that this assumption arises from a misunderstanding that could be explained by a missing page in Mendel's first letter to Carl Nägeli. Mendel's writings clearly indicate his interest in "constant hybrids," hybrids which do not segregate, and which were "essentially different" from "variable hybrids" such as in Pisum After the Pisum studies, Mendel worked mainly on Hieracium for 7 years where he found constant hybrids and some great surprises. He also continued to explore variable hybrids; both variable and constant hybrids were of interest to Mendel with respect to inheritance and to species evolution. Mendel considered that their similarities and differences might provide deep insights and that their differing behaviors were "individual manifestations of a higher more fundamental law." Copyright © 2016 van Dijk and Ellis.

  19. The Development of Genetics in the Light of Thomas Kuhn's Theory of Scientific Revolutions.

    PubMed

    Portin, Petter

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a paradigm is in the key position in Thomas Kuhn's theory of scientific revolutions. A paradigm is the framework within which the results, concepts, hypotheses and theories of scientific research work are understood. According to Kuhn, a paradigm guides the working and efforts of scientists during the time period which he calls the period of normal science. Before long, however, normal science leads to unexplained matters, a situation that then leads the development of the scientific discipline in question to a paradigm shift--a scientific revolution. When a new theory is born, it has either gradually emerged as an extension of the past theory, or the old theory has become a borderline case in the new theory. In the former case, one can speak of a paradigm extension. According to the present author, the development of modern genetics has, until very recent years, been guided by a single paradigm, the Mendelian paradigm which Gregor Mendel launched 150 years ago, and under the guidance of this paradigm the development of genetics has proceeded in a normal fashion in the spirit of logical positivism. Modern discoveries in genetics have, however, created a situation which seems to be leading toward a paradigm shift. The most significant of these discoveries are the findings of adaptive mutations, the phenomenon of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance, and, above all, the present deeply critical state of the concept of the gene.

  20. [Research progress on the cloning of Mendel's gene in pea (Pisum sativum L.) and its application in genetics teaching].

    PubMed

    He, Feng-Hua; Zhu, Bi-Yan; Gao, Feng; Li, Shao-Shan; Li, Niang-Hui

    2013-07-01

    One hundred and fifty years ago, Gregor Mendel investigated the segregation of seven traits in pea (Pisum sativum) and established the law of segregation and the law of independent assortment in genetics. After the two laws of genetics were rediscovered in 1900, the seven traits have been extensively investigated in the fields of plant physiology and biochemistry as well as in the cell and molecular levels. Recently, with the development of molecular technology in genetics, four genes for seed shape (R), stem length (Le), cotyledon colour (I), and flower colour (A) have been cloned and sequenced; and another three genes for immature pod colour (Gp), fasciation (Fa) and pod form (V) have been located in the linkage groups, respectively. The identification and cloning of the four Mendel's genes will help deeply understand the basic concept of gene in many respects: like the diversity of gene function, the different origins for gene mutation in molecular level, and the molecular nature of a dominant gene or a recessive gene. In teaching of genetics, the introduction of most recent research advancements of cloning of Mendel's genes to the students and the interpretation of the Mendel's laws in molecular level will help students promote their learning interests in genetics and help students grasp the whole content from classical genetics to molecular genetics and the developmental direction of this subject.

  1. From Mendel to epigenetics: History of genetics.

    PubMed

    Gayon, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The origins of genetics are to be found in Gregor Mendel's memoir on plant hybridization (1865). However, the word 'genetics' was only coined in 1906, to designate the new science of heredity. Founded upon the Mendelian method for analyzing the products of crosses, this science is distinguished by its explicit purpose of being a general 'science of heredity', and by the introduction of totally new biological concepts (in particular those of gene, genotype, and phenotype). In the 1910s, Mendelian genetics fused with the chromosomal theory of inheritance, giving rise to what is still called 'classical genetics'. Within this framework, the gene is simultaneously a unit of function and transmission, a unit of recombination, and of mutation. Until the early 1950s, these concepts of the gene coincided. But when DNA was found to be the material basis of inheritance, this congruence dissolved. Then began the venture of molecular biology, which has never stopped revealing the complexity of the way in which hereditary material functions. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. A MODEL OF MAGNETIC BRAKING OF SOLAR ROTATION THAT SATISFIES OBSERVATIONAL CONSTRAINTS

    SciTech Connect

    Denissenkov, Pavel A.

    2010-08-10

    The model of magnetic braking of solar rotation considered by Charbonneau and MacGregor has been modified so that it is able to reproduce for the first time the rotational evolution of both the fastest and slowest rotators among solar-type stars in open clusters of different ages, without coming into conflict with other observational constraints, such as the time evolution of the atmospheric Li abundance in solar twins and the thinness of the solar tachocline. This new model assumes that rotation-driven turbulent diffusion, which is thought to amplify the viscosity and magnetic diffusivity in stellar radiative zones, is strongly anisotropic with the horizontal components of the transport coefficients strongly dominating over those in the vertical direction. Also taken into account is the poloidal field decay that helps to confine the width of the tachocline at the solar age. The model's properties are investigated by numerically solving the azimuthal components of the coupled momentum and magnetic induction equations in two dimensions using a finite element method.

  3. Grammatical morphology and perception of synthetic and natural speech in children with specific language impairments.

    PubMed

    Evans, Julia L; Viele, Kert; Kass, Robert E; Tang, Feng

    2002-06-01

    Studies investigating the relationship between the use of inflectional morphology and speech-perception abilities in children with SLI traditionally have employed synthetic speech stimuli. The purpose of this study was to replicate the findings reported in Leonard, McGregor, and Allen (1992) with an older group of children with SLI and to determine if the pattern of deficits seen for synthetic speech extends to perception of natural speech stimuli. The speech-perception abilities of 27 children between the ages of 6;11 and 8;11 (15 SLI and 12 NL) were compared using natural and synthetic versions of the [das]-[daS], [dabiba]-[dabuba], and [i]-[u] contrast pairs originally used in Leonard et al. The findings reported by Leonard et al. were replicated with synthetic speech but not for the natural speech. Use of inflectional morphology in obligatory contexts by the children with SLI was not significantly correlated with their perception abilities for any of the natural or synthetic speech-contrast pairs. Further, although both groups' ability to maintain the target contrast in memory declined over the span of the trials for all target contrasts for both natural and synthetic speech, the rate of decline did not differ significantly between the SLI and NL groups. Findings are discussed with respect to possible deficits in linking phonological representations to grammatical representations in children with SLI.

  4. Blinded taste panel evaluations to determine if fish from near the oil sands are preferred less than fish from other locations in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Barona, Brenda; Young, Rozlyn F; Fedorak, Phillip M; Wismer, Wendy V

    2011-02-15

    The oil sands industry is rapidly expanding surface mining and bitumen extraction operations near the Athabasca River in northeastern Alberta, Canada. There are anecdotal comments that the fish from the Athabasca River have an off-taste, implying that the oil sands operations are the cause. This study was done to determine if the taste of wild fishes caught near the Athabasca oil sands was less preferred than the taste of fishes collected from two other river basins in Alberta. In blinded experiments, consumer sensory panels, of 40 to 44 participants, tasted steamed samples of each of three fish species (walleye (Sander vitreus), northern pike (Esox lucius), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis)) from three different sources in Alberta (the Athabasca River, Buck Lake, and McGregor Lake). Data analyses showed that there was no evidence from the consumer preference rankings that the taste of the fish from the Athabasca River was preferred less than the taste of fish from two other water bodies in Alberta.

  5. COSMIC INHERITANCE RULES: IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE AND SCIENCE.

    PubMed

    Halberg, F; Cornélissen, G; Katinas, G S; Watanabe, Y; Siegelová, J

    2010-01-01

    Countering the trend in specialization, we advocate the trans-disciplinary monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate for signatures of environmental cyclic and other variabilities in space as well as terrestrial weather on the one hand, and for surveillance of personal and societal health on the other hand. New rules (if confirmed novel laws) emerge as we recognize our inheritance from the cosmos of cycles that constitute and characterize life and align them with inheritance from parents. In so doing, we happen to follow the endeavors of Gregor Mendel, who recognized the segregation and independent assortment of what became known as genes. Circadians, rhythms with periods, τ, between 20 and 28 hours, and cycles with frequencies that are higher (ultradian) or lower (infradian) than circadian, are genetically anchored. An accumulating long list of very important but aeolian (nonstationary) infradian cycles, characterizing the incidence patterns of sudden cardiac death, suicide and terrorism, with drastically different τs, constitutes the nonphotic (corpuscular emission from the sun, heliogeomagnetics, ultraviolet flux, gravitation) Cornélissen-series.

  6. Achievement goals, competition appraisals, and the psychological and emotional welfare of sport participants.

    PubMed

    Adie, James W; Duda, Joan L; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2008-06-01

    Grounded in the 2x2 achievement goal framework (Elliot & McGregor, 2001), a model was tested examining the hypothesized relationships between approach and avoidance (mastery and performance) goals, challenge and threat appraisals of sport competition, and positive and negative indices of well-being (i.e., self-esteem, positive, and negative affect). A further aim was to determine the degree to which the cognitive appraisals mediated the relationship between the four achievement goals and the indicators of athletes' welfare. Finally, measurement and structural invariance was tested with respect to gender in the hypothesized model. An alternative model was also estimated specifying self-esteem as an antecedent of the four goals and cognitive appraisals. Four hundred and twenty-four team sport participants (Mage=24.25) responded to a multisection questionnaire. Structural equation modeling analyses provided support for the hypothesized model only. Challenge and threat appraisals partially mediated the relationships observed between mastery-based goals and the well-being indicators. Lastly, the hypothesized model was found to be invariant across gender.

  7. Inhibition of herbivory on young holly leaves: evidence for the defensive role of saponins.

    PubMed

    Potter, Daniel A; Kimmerer, Thomas W

    1989-03-01

    Response of the southern red mite, Oligonychus ilicis McGregor, to young and one year old leaves of Ilex opaca Aiton was studied on three dates during the period of leaf expansion in the spring. Young foliage, which is rich in nutrients but also contains high levels of saponins, was found to be unsuitable for colonization by this oligophagous herbivore until the leaves had matured and levels of saponins had declined. Mites preferentially colonized and had higher survival and reproduction on sclerophyllous, one-year old leaves than on young leaves in early spring. High levels of saponins in young, second-flush leaves of shoots that had earlier been damaged by frost were again correlated with low mite survival in June. Laboratory preference tests with the fall webworm, Hyphantria cunea Drury, and the eastern tent caterpillar, Malacosoma americanum (F.), indicated that young, saponin-rich holly foliage is especially unpalatable to these highly polyphagous caterpillars. Fifth instar fall webworms required significantly longer to complete their development, attained lower weights, and had greater mortality on artificial diet amended with low concentrations of purified holly saponins than on control diet. These results support the hypothesis that the high levels of saponins in young holly leaves provide protection from herbovores until the leaves have matured and their structural defenses are developed.

  8. RESPONSES OF MALE TROPICAL MOCKINGBIRDS TO VARIATION IN WITHIN-SONG AND BETWEEN-SONG VERSATILITY.

    PubMed

    Botero, Carlos A; Vehrencamp, Sandra L

    2007-01-01

    Despite their large vocal repertoires and otherwise highly versatile singing style, male mockingbirds sometimes sing in a highly repetitive fashion. We conducted a playback experiment to determine the possible signal value of different syllable presentation patterns during simulated male intrusions in the Tropical Mockingbird (Mimus gilvus) testing the hypothesis that more repetitive singing represents a stronger threat and generates a stronger aggressive response. Responses were measured in terms of approach and singing behavior and were analyzed using McGregor's (1992) multivariate method. We also introduce the use of survival analysis for analyzing response variables for which subjects do not perform the behavior in question in at least one of the replicates (known as 'right-censored variables' in the statistical literature). As predicted by theory, experimental subjects responded more aggressively to songs composed of a single note than to variable ones. However, versatility at the between-song level had an opposite effect as high song switching rates generated stronger responses than low ones. Given the lack of a statistical interaction between within-song versatility and switching rate, we conclude that these two parameters may serve independent purposes and possibly transmit different information. We discuss the possibility that the signal value of variation in vocal versatility lies in the mediation of territorial conflicts, the attraction of female partners and/or the mediation of conflicts over access to reproductive females.

  9. Chemical alternatives to malathion for controlling Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), and their side effects on natural enemies in Spanish citrus orchards.

    PubMed

    Urbaneja, Alberto; Chueca, Patricia; Montón, Helga; Pascual-Ruiz, Sara; Dembilio, Oscar; Vanaclocha, Pilar; Abad-Moyano, Raquel; Pina, Tatiana; Castañera, Pedro

    2009-02-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is one of the most important fruit pests worldwide. Mediterranean fruit fly control in Spain has been based on organophosphate sprays, especially malathion, mixed with protein baits. However, this insecticide has recently been excluded from annex 1 of the Directive 91/414 CEE, which lists authorized active ingredients for pest control in the European Union. This article reports on the efficacy of four alternative baited insecticides on Mediterranean fruit fly and their side effects on three natural enemies [Cryptolaemus montrouzieri (Mulsant), Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor), and Aphidius colemani (Viereck)] relevant for pest control in citrus agroecosystems. A high Mediterranean fruit fly mortality was obtained for all baited insecticides (phosmet and spinosad) except lambdacyhalothrin, which caused the lowest mortality and showed a novel disabling effect on surviving Mediterranean fruit fly adults. Spinosad proved to be the most selective bait treatment for C. montrouzieri and N. californicus, whereas for A. colemani the most selective bait was phosmet and lambda-cyhalothrin. These findings would contribute to a sustainable chemical control of C. capitata populations under an integrated pest management system in Spanish citrus orchards.

  10. Beyond the simplicity of Mendelian inheritance.

    PubMed

    Schacherer, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Elucidating the underlying rules that govern the phenotypic diversity observed in natural populations is an old but still unaccomplished goal in biology. In 1865, Gregor Mendel paved the way for the dissection of the underlying genetic basis of traits by setting out to understand the principles of heredity. To date, we still lack a global overview of the spectrum and continuum existing between Mendelian and complex traits within any natural population. In this respect, we recently performed a species-wide survey of Mendelian traits across a large population of isolates using the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By analyzing the distribution and the inheritance patterns of the trait, we have clearly shown that monogenic mutations can display a significant, variable, and continuous expressivity across different genetic backgrounds. Our study also demonstrated that combining the elegancy of both classical genetics and high-throughput genomics is more than valuable to dissect the genotype-phenotype relationship in natural populations. Copyright © 2016 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Large fully retractable telescope enclosures still closable in strong wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Sliepen, Guus

    2008-07-01

    Two prototypes of fully retractable enclosures with diameters of 7 and 9 m have been built for the high-resolution solar telescopes DOT (Dutch Open Telescope) and GREGOR, both located at the Canary Islands. These enclosures protect the instruments for bad weather and are fully open when the telescopes are in operation. The telescopes and enclosures also operate in hard wind. The prototypes are based on tensioned membrane between movable but stiff bows, which fold together to a ring when opened. The height of the ring is small. The prototypes already survived several storms, with often snow and ice, without any damage, including hurricane Delta with wind speeds up to 68 m/s. The enclosures can still be closed and opened with wind speeds of 20 m/s without any problems or restrictions. The DOT successfully demonstrated the open, wind-flushing concept for astronomical telescopes. It is now widely recognized that also large future telescopes benefit from wind-flushing and retractable enclosures. These telescopes require enclosures with diameters of 30 m until roughly 100 m, the largest sizes for the ELTs (Extreme Large Telescopes), which will be built in the near future. We discuss developments and required technology for the realization of these large sizes.

  12. Dutch Open Telescope: status, results, prospects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutten, Robert J.; Sütterlin, Peter; de Wijn, Alfred G.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Hoogendoorn, Piet W.; Jägers, Aswin P. L.

    2002-12-01

    The Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) on La Palma is a revolutionary telescope achieving high-resolution imaging of the solar surface. The DOT combines a pioneering open design at an excellent wind-swept site with image restoration through speckle interferometry. Its open principle is now followed in major solar-telescope projects elsewhere. In the past three years the DOT became the first solar telescope to regularly obtain 0.2" resolution in extended image sequences, i.e., reaching the diffraction limit of its 45-cm primary mirror. Our aim for 2003-2005 is to turn the DOT into a 0.2" tomographic mapper of the solar atmosphere with frequent partnership in international multi-telescope campaigns through student-serviced time allocation. After 2005 we aim to triple the DOT resolution to 0.07" by increasing the aperture to 140 cm and to renew the speckle cameras and the speckle pipeline in order to increase the field size and sequence duration appreciably. These upgrades will maintain the DOT's niche as a tomographic high-resolution mapper in the era when GREGOR, Solar-B and SDO set the stage.

  13. Fast foldable tent domes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jägers, Aswin P. L.; Sliepen, Guus; Bettonvil, Felix C. M.; Hammerschlag, Robert H.

    2008-07-01

    In the near future ELTs (Extreme Large Telescopes) will be built. Preferably these telescopes should operate without obstructions in the near surrounding to reach optimal seeing conditions and avoid large turbulences with wind-gust accelerations around large obstacles. This applies also to future large solar telescopes. At present two foldable dome prototypes have been built on the Canary Islands: the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT, La Palma) and the GREGOR Telescope (Tenerife), having a diameter of 7 and 9 meter, respectively. The domes are usually fully retracted during observations. The research consists of measurements on the two domes. New camera systems are developed and placed inside the domes for precise dome deformation measurements within 0.1 mm over the whole dome size. Simultaneously, a variety of wind-speed and -direction sensors measure the wind field around the dome. In addition, fast sensitive air-pressure sensors placed on the supporting bows measure the wind pressure. The aim is to predict accurately the expected forces and deformations on up-scaled, fully retractable domes to make their construction more economically. The dimensions of 7 and 9 meter are large enough for realistic on-site tests in gusty wind and will give much more information than wind tunnel experiments.

  14. KSC-2012-3034a

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Engineers board a NASA Railroad train in preparation for its departure from the NASA Railroad Yard at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The train is headed for the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  15. KSC-2012-2890

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-21

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – At the NASA Railroad yard at Kennedy Space Center in Florida, helium tank cars have been removed from their trucks and loaded onto flat cars in preparation for a journey to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s tank cars will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  16. KSC-2012-3037a

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A NASA Railroad train passes in front of the 525-foot-tall Vehicle Assembly Building, left, and the twin bays of the Orbiter Processing Facility, right, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The train is on its way to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  17. KSC-2012-3038a

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A NASA Railroad train passes in front of the 525-foot-tall Vehicle Assembly Building, left, and the twin bays of the Orbiter Processing Facility, right, at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The train is on its way to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  18. KSC-2012-3036a

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A NASA Railroad train passes in front of the twin bays of the Orbiter Processing Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The train is on its way to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  19. KSC-2012-2889

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-21

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – At the NASA Railroad yard at Kennedy Space Center in Florida, cranes are enlisted to lift helium tank cars from their trucks onto flat cars in preparation for a journey to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s tank cars will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The yard is located in Kennedy’s Launch Complex 39 near the 525-foot-tall Vehicle Assembly Building, in the background. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  20. KSC-2012-3039a

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A NASA Railroad train passes in front of the 525-foot-tall Vehicle Assembly Building at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. At the far right is the Orbiter Processing Facility. The train is on its way to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  1. KSC-2012-3035a

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A NASA Railroad train passes in front of the twin bays of the Orbiter Processing Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The train is on its way to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  2. Prospects of Solar Physics from the Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichenmaier, Rolf

    The solar magnetism, its origin, and its impact on the earth are of primary interest for solar physicists. The understanding of the solar dynamo in the convection zone and the coupling of the magnetic fields up to the corona and the heliosphere calls for synoptic as well as for high spatial resolution observations of the Sun. Understanding the interactions between radiative and magneto-convective processes at the interface between the solar interior and the atmosphere requires spectro-polarimetric observations at high spatial and spectral resolution with high polarimetric accuracy. Thus large-aperture telescopes are needed to resolve the small scales and to collect enough photons to study the evolution of the magnetic processes. For assembling the mosaic of the solar dynamo and its magnetic coupling out to the heliosphere, large scale properties and hence synoptic observations play a crucial role. I present my personal perspective of the prospects in ground-based solar physics, and comment on the planned and upcoming new facilities including SOLIS, GREGOR, NST, SUNRISE, and ATST, as well as ALMA and FASR, but also mention the upcoming space missions HMI@SDO and SOLAR-B.

  3. The "useful questions of heredity" before Mendel.

    PubMed

    Orel, Vítezslav

    2009-01-01

    Now Emeritus Head of the Mendelianum (Mendel Museum) in Brno, Czech Republic, Vítezslav Orel began his academic career as a student at the Brno Agriculture University. His work was interrupted first by the Nazi invasion and then by the communist revolution, when the science of genetics was denounced and replaced by Lysenko pseudogenetics. V. O. was dismissed from his position at the Poultry Research Institute and assigned to work at a small duck farm outside Brno. When the "Lysenkoist madness" subsided, Professor Jaroslav Krizenecky (1896-1964), teacher of V. O., was allowed to develop the museum in recognition of Mendel's contributions. V. O. assisted him by conducting research on the history of Mendel and of genetics. On Jaroslav Krizenecky's death, V. O. became head of the Mendelianum. V. O. has become an internationally recognized figure in the study of the history of science, having published nearly 200 papers in Czech and 10 other languages. Orel's most recent books, published by Oxford University Press, make use of the rich archives of the Mendelianum that he helped create. Gregor Mendel-The First Geneticist (Orel 1996) is the definitive biography of Mendel, and in 2001, V. O. and co-author R. J. Wood published Genetic Prehistory in Selective Breeding: A Prelude to Mendel. (Biography from Margaret H. Peaslee).

  4. Quantifying characters: polygenist anthropologists and the hardening of heredity.

    PubMed

    Hume, Brad D

    2008-01-01

    Scholars studying the history of heredity suggest that during the 19th-century biologists and anthropologists viewed characteristics as a collection of blended qualities passed on from the parents. Many argued that those characteristics could be very much affected by environmental circumstances, which scholars call the inheritance of acquired characteristics or "soft" heredity. According to these accounts, Gregor Mendel reconceived heredity--seeing distinct hereditary units that remain unchanged by the environment. This resulted in particular traits that breed true in succeeding generations, or "hard" heredity. The author argues that polygenist anthropology (an argument that humanity consisted of many species) and anthropometry in general should be seen as a hardening of heredity. Using a debate between Philadelphia anthropologist and physician, Samuel G. Morton, and Charleston naturalist and reverend, John Bachman, as a springboard, the author contends that polygenist anthropologists hardened heredity by conceiving of durable traits that might reappear even after a race has been eliminated. Polygenists saw anthropometry (the measurement of humans) as one method of quantifying hereditary qualities. These statistical ranges were ostensibly characteristics that bred true and that defined racial groups. Further, Morton's interest in hybridity and racial mixing demonstrates that the polygenists focused as much on the transmission and recognition of "amalgamations" of characters as they did on racial categories themselves. The author suggests that seeing race science as the study of heritable, statistical characteristics rather than broad categories helps explain why "race" is such a persistent cultural phenomenon.

  5. Emphasizing the History of Genetics in an Explicit and Reflective Approach to Teaching the Nature of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Cody Tyler; Rudge, David Wÿss

    2016-05-01

    Science education researchers have long advocated the central role of the nature of science (NOS) for our understanding of scientific literacy. NOS is often interpreted narrowly to refer to a host of epistemological issues associated with the process of science and the limitations of scientific knowledge. Despite its importance, practitioners and researchers alike acknowledge that students have difficulty learning NOS and that this in part reflects how difficult it is to teach. One particularly promising method for teaching NOS involves an explicit and reflective approach using the history of science. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of a historically based genetics unit on undergraduates' understanding of NOS. The three-class unit developed for this study introduces students to Mendelian genetics using the story of Gregor Mendel's work. NOS learning objectives were emphasized through discussion questions and investigations. The unit was administered to undergraduates in an introductory biology course for pre-service elementary teachers. The influence of the unit was determined by students' responses to the SUSSI instrument, which was administered pre- and post-intervention. In addition, semi-structured interviews were conducted that focused on changes in students' responses from pre- to post-test. Data collected indicated that students showed improved NOS understanding related to observations, inferences, and the influence of culture on science.

  6. U.S. and U.S.S.R agree on ocean research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostenso, Ned A.

    On June 1, 1990, George Bush and Mikhail S. Gorbachev signed a renegotiated bilateral agreement for cooperation in oceanographic research. The original agreement for “Studies of the World Ocean,” signed in 1972, did not provide for the protection of intellectual property. The new agreement is administered by executive secretaries from both countries working under the U.S.-U.S.S.R. Joint Committee on Cooperation in Ocean Studies. The committee held its first meeting in Moscow September 14-17, 1990, at the headquarters of the U.S.S.R. State Committee for Science and Technology (GKNT).The U.S. delegation was led by John A. Knauss, undersecretary of commerce for oceans and atmosphere and administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and included Ned A. Ostenso, executive secretary of the agreement; Thomas E. Murray, NOAA; M. Grant Gross, National Science Foundation; Robert S. Winokur, U.S. Navy; Bonnie McGregor Stubblefield, U.S. Geological Survey; William S. Busch, Office of Science and Technology Policy; and William A. Erb, Eric Green, and Sidney Smith, Department of State.

  7. TRANSFORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  8. It Doesn't Take a Rocket Scientist: Great Amateurs of Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, John

    2002-10-01

    Did you know. . . . . . that the woman who discovered the largest and most complete T. rex fossil on record was a high-school dropout who became one of the world's greatest fossil hunters? . . . that the great British scientist Michael Faraday was the son of a blacksmith and had very little formal education? . . . that Gregor Mendel had time to study inherited traits in garden peas because he failed the test to qualify as a high school science teacher? This is just a small sampling of the many surprises you'll find in this enlightening survey of the mavericks, misfits, and unschooled investigators who have been responsible for some of the greatest scientific discoveries in history. It Doesn't Take a Rocket Scientist explains the achievements of each of these accomplished amateurs, describes how they approached their investigations, and discusses the impact of their discoveries. In these amazing and inspiring stories, you'll learn about: Grote Reber and the birth of radio astronomy Arthur C. Clarke's vision of communication satellites Joseph Priestley and the discovery of oxygen Felix d'Herelle's pinpointing of bacteriophages, killers of bacteria Thomas Jefferson and the science of archaeology You'll also discover which fields of science still offer great opportunities for modern amateurs eager to make a name for themselves. After all, it doesn't take a rocket scientist!

  9. Efficacy of five selected acaricides against Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and their side effects on relevant natural enemies occurring in citrus orchards.

    PubMed

    Urbaneja, Alberto; Pascual-Ruiz, Sara; Pina, Tatiana; Abad-Moyano, Raquel; Vanaclocha, Pilar; Montón, Helga; Dembilio, Oscar; Castañera, Pedro; Jacas, Josep A

    2008-08-01

    Three groups of natural enemies are fundamental in citrus IPM in Spain: coccinellid and phytoseiid predators and hymenopteran parasitoids. Tetranychus urticae Koch is an important pest affecting citrus, for which biological control has not yet been achieved; therefore, acaricides are commonly used to control it. The goal of this study was to measure the efficacy of different acaricides on this mite and their side effects on three natural enemies relevant for citrus (Cryptolaemus montrouzieri Mulsant, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and Aphidius colemani Viereck). Some products proved highly effective against T. urticae and harmless to A. colemani (mineral oil, tebufenpyrad, clofentezine and fenazaquin). However, almost all products tested were slightly harmful for both the predators considered. Fenazaquin was even moderately harmful for N. californicus. Further studies, like that presented here, are necessary to gain a better understanding of integrating biological and chemical controls. When considering both efficacy and side effects on beneficial arthropods, the best options would seem to be mineral oil, tebufenpyrad and clofentezine. However, it is urgent to complete testing of the side effects of the acaricides used in citrus. This question is crucial if the fact that two recently introduced Tetranychidae are being controlled in citrus by chemical means exclusively is considered.

  10. DNA barcoding as a screening tool for cryptic diversity: an example from Caryocolum, with description of a new species (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae)

    PubMed Central

    Huemer, Peter; Karsholt, Ole; Mutanen, Marko

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We explore the potential value of DNA barcode divergence for species delimitation in the genus Caryocolum Gregor & Povolný, 1954 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae), based on data from 44 European species (including 4 subspecies). Low intraspecific divergence of the DNA barcodes of the mtCOI (cytochrome c oxidase 1) gene and/or distinct barcode gaps to the nearest neighbor support species status for all examined nominal taxa. However, in 8 taxa we observed deep splits with a maximum intraspecific barcode divergence beyond a threshold of 3%, thus indicating possible cryptic diversity. The taxonomy of these taxa has to be re-assessed in the future. We investigated one such deep split in Caryocolum amaurella (Hering, 1924) and found it in congruence with yet unrecognized diagnostic morphological characters and specific host-plants. The integrative species delineation leads to the description of Caryocolum crypticum sp. n. from northern Italy, Switzerland and Greece. The new species and the hitherto intermixed closest relative C. amaurella are described in detail and adults and genitalia of both species are illustrated and a lectotype of C. amaurella is designated; a diagnostic comparison of the closely related C. iranicum Huemer, 1989, is added. PMID:24843272

  11. Development and reproduction of Panonychus citri (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) on different species and varieties of citrus plants.

    PubMed

    Zanardi, Odimar Zanuzo; Bordini, Gabriela Pavan; Franco, Aline Aparecida; de Morais, Matheus Rovere; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-12-01

    The species and varieties of citrus plants that are currently grown can favor the population growth of the citrus red mite Panonychus citri (McGregor) (Prostigmata: Tetranychidae) and alter the pest management programs in citrus groves. In this study we evaluated, in the laboratory, the development and reproduction of P. citri and estimated its life table parameters when reared on four varieties of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (Valencia, Pera, Natal, and Hamlin), one variety of Citrus reticulata Blanco (Ponkan) and one variety of Citrus limon (L.) Burm. (Sicilian). The incubation period and egg viability were not affected by the host plant. However, the development and survival of the immature stage were significantly lower on Hamlin orange than on Valencia, Pera and Natal oranges, Ponkan mandarin and Sicilian lemon. The fecundity and oviposition period of females were lower on Hamlin orange than on the other hosts. Mites reared on Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon had a higher net reproductive rate (R 0 ), intrinsic growth rate (r) and finite rate of increase (λ), and a shorter interval between generations (T) than on Pera, Natal and Hamlin oranges and Ponkan mandarin. On the other hand, mites reared on Hamlin orange had the lowest R 0 , r and λ and the highest T among the hosts. Based on the results obtained we recommend that for Valencia orange and Sicilian lemon, the mite monitoring programs should be more intense to detect the initial infestation of pest, avoiding the damage in plants and the increase in production costs.

  12. Fanniidae (Diptera): new synonym, new records and an updated key to males of European species of Fannia

    PubMed Central

    Barták, Miroslav; Preisler, Jiří; Kubík, Štěpán; Šuláková, Hana; Sloup, Vladislav

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Based on revision of large recent collections of the authors, the following five species are first recorded from the Czech Republic: Fannia collini d’Assis-Fonseca, 1966 (simultaneously first record in Central Europe), Fannia lugubrina (Zetterstedt, 1838), Fannia melania (Dufour, 1839), Fannia slovaca Gregor & Rozkošný, 2005, and Fannia brinae Albuquerque, 1951 (simultaneously first record from low altitudes). Another species, Fannia alpina Pont, 1970, is first recorded from Slovak Republic, and Fannia cothurnata (Loew, 1873) is first recorded from Kazakhstan. An updated key to males of European species of Fannia is presented. A list of Czech and Slovak Fanniidae is appended. One new synonym is established: Fannia lucida Chillcott, 1961 is considered junior synonym of Fannia norvegica Ringdahl, 1934. Altogether two species are first recorded from Bohemia [Fannia cothurnata (Loew, 1873) and Fannia vespertilionis Ringdahl, 1934] and three for Moravia [Fannia alpina Pont, 1970, Fannia conspecta Rudzinski, 2003, and Fannia limbata (Tiensuu, 1938) – this species considered in Central Europe very rare was found in numbers near waters both running and standing in early spring under unusually warm temperature conditions]. PMID:27408553

  13. Excitability in Dictyostelium development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, David

    2013-03-01

    Discovering how populations of cells reliably develop into complex multi-cellular structures is a key challenge in modern developmental biology. This requires an understanding of how networks at the single-cell level, when combined with intercellular signaling and environmental cues, give rise to the collective behaviors observed in cellular populations. I will present work in collaboration with the Gregor lab, showing that the signal-relay response of starved cells of the amoebae Dictyostelium discoideum can be well modeled as an excitable system. This is in contrast to existing models of the network that postulate a feed-forward cascade. I then extend the signal-relay model to describe how spatial gradient sensing may be achieved via excitability. One potential advantage of relying on feedback for gradient sensing is in preventing ``cheaters'' that do not produce signals from taking over the population. I then combine these models of single-cell signaling and chemotaxis to perform large-scale agent-based simulations of aggregating populations. This allows direct study of how variations in single-cell dynamics modify population behavior. In order to further test this model, I use the results of a screen for mutant cell lines that exhibit altered collective patterns. Finally, I use an existing FRET movie database of starved cell populations at varying cell densities and dilution rates to study heterogeneity in repeated spatio-temporal activity patterns.

  14. Do undergraduates' motives for studying change as they progress through their degrees?

    PubMed

    Lieberman, David A; Remedios, Richard

    2007-06-01

    Research has suggested that students can approach their studies with different goals, one goal being to understand material (mastery) and another to obtain better grades than others (performance). The main aim of this study was to assess whether these goals change as students progress through their degrees. 1857 students at a Scottish university. Students were asked to complete a questionnaire as they waited to register for their courses. The questionnaire was based on an achievement motivation questionnaire developed by Elliot and McGregor (2001) to assess students' mastery and performance goals; there were also questions on students' expectations about their courses. Students in years 2, 3 and 4 were substantially less likely to want to master their subjects than students in year 1. They were also more concerned with grades and less likely to expect to enjoy their courses. The decline in students' motivation to master their subjects raises potentially important questions about whether pressures for grades undermine students' interest in their studies.

  15. CNS repair and axon regeneration: Using genetic variation to determine mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tedeschi, Andrea; Omura, Takao; Costigan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The importance of genetic diversity in biological investigation has been recognized since the pioneering studies of Gregor Johann Mendel and Charles Darwin. Research in this area has been greatly informed recently by the publication of genomes from multiple species. Genes regulate and create every part and process in a living organism, react with the environment to create each living form and morph and mutate to determine the history and future of each species. The regenerative capacity of neurons differs profoundly between animal lineages and within the mammalian central and peripheral nervous systems. Here, we discuss research that suggests that genetic background contributes to the ability of injured axons to regenerate in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), by controlling the regulation of specific signaling cascades. We detail the methods used to identify these pathways, which include among others Activin signaling and other TGF-β superfamily members. We discuss the potential of altering these pathways in patients with CNS damage and outline strategies to promote regeneration and repair by combinatorial manipulation of neuron-intrinsic and extrinsic determinants.

  16. Mendelian controversies: a botanical and historical review.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, D J; Rytting, B

    2001-05-01

    Gregor Mendel was a 19(th) century priest and botanist who developed the fundamental laws of inheritance. The year 2000 marked a century since the rediscovery of those laws and the beginning of genetics. Although Mendel is now recognized as the founder of genetics, significant controversy ensued about his work throughout the 20(th) century. In this paper, we review five of the most contentious issues by looking at the historical record through the lens of current botanical science: (1) Are Mendel's data too good to be true? (2) Is Mendel's description of his experiments fictitious? (3) Did Mendel articulate the laws of inheritance attributed to him? (4) Did Mendel detect but not mention linkage? (5) Did Mendel support or oppose Darwin?A synthesis of botanical and historical evidence supports our conclusions: Mendel did not fabricate his data, his description of his experiments is literal, he articulated the laws of inheritance attributed to him insofar as was possible given the information he had, he did not detect linkage, and he neither strongly supported nor opposed Darwin.

  17. Evolution of genetic techniques: past, present, and beyond.

    PubMed

    Durmaz, Asude Alpman; Karaca, Emin; Demkow, Urszula; Toruner, Gokce; Schoumans, Jacqueline; Cogulu, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    Genetics is the study of heredity, which means the study of genes and factors related to all aspects of genes. The scientific history of genetics began with the works of Gregor Mendel in the mid-19th century. Prior to Mendel, genetics was primarily theoretical whilst, after Mendel, the science of genetics was broadened to include experimental genetics. Developments in all fields of genetics and genetic technology in the first half of the 20th century provided a basis for the later developments. In the second half of the 20th century, the molecular background of genetics has become more understandable. Rapid technological advancements, followed by the completion of Human Genome Project, have contributed a great deal to the knowledge of genetic factors and their impact on human life and diseases. Currently, more than 1800 disease genes have been identified, more than 2000 genetic tests have become available, and in conjunction with this at least 350 biotechnology-based products have been released onto the market. Novel technologies, particularly next generation sequencing, have dramatically accelerated the pace of biological research, while at the same time increasing expectations. In this paper, a brief summary of genetic history with short explanations of most popular genetic techniques is given.

  18. Conditional mutations in Drosophila melanogaster: On the occasion of the 150th anniversary of G. Mendel's report in Brünn.

    PubMed

    Chadov, Boris F; Fedorova, Nina B; Chadova, Eugenia V

    2015-01-01

    The basis for modern genetics was laid by Gregor Mendel. He proposed that traits belonging to the intraspecific variability class be studied. However, individuals of one species possess traits of another class. They are related to intraspecific similarity. Individuals never differ from each other in these traits. By analogy with traits varying within a species and determined by genes, it is conjectured that intraspecific similarity is determined by genes, too. If so, mutations in these genes can be obtained. This paper provides a review of works published in 2000-2014 that: (1) propose breeding methods for detection of mutations in Drosophila melanogaster genes that lead intraspecific similarity; these mutations were called conditional; (2) describe collections of conditional mutations in chromosomes X, 2, and 3 of Drosophila; (3) show unusual features of epigenetic nature in the mutants; and (4) analyze these features of the mutants. Based on the peculiarities of manifestation it is supposed that the recognized conditional mutations occur in genes responsible for intraspecific similarity. The genes presumably belong to the so-called regulatory network of the Drosophila genome. This approach expands the scope of breeding analysis introduced by G. Mendel for heredity studies 150 years ago.

  19. 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii', a novel basal group rickettsia detected in Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic.

    PubMed

    Hajduskova, Eva; Literak, Ivan; Papousek, Ivo; Costa, Francisco B; Novakova, Marketa; Labruna, Marcelo B; Zdrazilova-Dubska, Lenka

    2016-04-01

    A novel rickettsial sequence in the citrate synthase gltA gene indicating a novel Rickettsia species has been detected in 7 out of 4524 Ixodes ricinus ticks examined within several surveys performed in the Czech Republic from 2005 to 2009. This new Candidatus Rickettsia sp. sequence has been found in 2 nymphs feeding on wild birds (Luscinia megarhynchos and Erithacus rubecula), in a male tick from vegetation, and 4 ticks feeding on a dog (3 males, 1 female tick). Portions of the ompA, ompB, sca4, and htrA genes were not amplifiable in these samples. A maximum likelihood tree of rickettsiae based on comparisons of partial amino acid sequences of citrate synthase and nucleotide sequences of 16S rDNA genes and phylogenetic analysis revealed a basal position of the novel species in the proximity of R. bellii and R. canadensis. The novel species has been named 'Candidatus Rickettsia mendelii' after the founder of genetics, Gregor Mendel.

  20. Rice artificial hybridization for genetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Sha, Xueyan

    2013-01-01

    Artificial hybridization has probably been practiced since ancient time; however, the science of genetics did not initiate until Gregor Mendel conducted a series of crosses between different pure lines of garden pea and made careful observations and systematical analyses of their offspring. Artificial hybridization or crossing between carefully chosen parents has been and still is the primary way to transfer genes from different germplasm for self-pollinated rice. Through gene recombination, novel genetic variation is created by different arrangements of genes existing in parental lines. Procedures of artificial hybridization involve the selection of appropriate panicles from representative plants of the female parents, the emasculation of female parents, and the pollination of emasculated panicles with abundant pollens of selected male parents. Of the numerous proposed methods, hot water and vacuum emasculation have proven to be the most robust and reliable ones. A successful and efficient hybridization program also relies on the knowledge of parental lines or germplasm, the reproductive biology and development of rice, the conditions needed to promote flowering and seed development, and the techniques to synchronize flowering of diverse parents.

  1. Description of Pseudomonas gregormendelii sp. nov., a Novel Psychrotrophic Bacterium from James Ross Island, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Kosina, Marcel; Švec, Pavel; Černohlávková, Jitka; Barták, Miloš; Snopková, Kateřina; De Vos, Paul; Sedláček, Ivo

    2016-07-01

    During the microbiological research performed within the scope of activities of Czech expeditions based at the Johann Gregor Mendel Station at James Ross Island, Antarctica, two psychrotrophic gram-stain negative non-fluorescent strains CCM 8506T and CCM 8507 from soil were extensively characterized using genotypic and phenotypic methods. Initial characterization using ribotyping with HindIII restriction endonuclease and phenotyping implies that both isolates belong to a single Pseudomonas species. Sequencing of rrs, rpoB, rpoD and glnA genes of strain CCM 8506(T) confirmed affiliation of investigated strains within the genus Pseudomonas. Further investigation using automated ribotyping with EcoRI (RiboPrinter(®) Microbial Characterisation System), whole-cell protein profiling using the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer system, extensive biochemical testing and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments confirmed that both investigated strains are members of a single taxon which is clearly separated from all hitherto described Pseudomonas spp. Based on all findings, we describe a novel species Pseudomonas gregormendelii sp. nov. with the type strain CCM 8506(T) (=LMG 28632T).

  2. Darwin's Influence on Mendel: Evidence from a New Translation of Mendel's Paper.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, Daniel J; Abbott, Scott

    2016-10-01

    Gregor Mendel's classic paper, Versuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden (Experiments on Plant Hybrids), was published in 1866, hence 2016 is its sesquicentennial. Mendel completed his experiments in 1863 and shortly thereafter began compiling the results and writing his paper, which he presented in meetings of the Natural Science Society in Brünn in February and March of 1865. Mendel owned a personal copy of Darwin's Origin of Species, a German translation published in 1863, and it contains his marginalia. Its publication date indicates that Mendel's study of Darwin's book could have had no influence while he was conducting his experiments but its publication date coincided with the period of time when he was preparing his paper, making it possible that Darwin's writings influenced Mendel's interpretations and theory. Based on this premise, we prepared a Darwinized English translation of Mendel's paper by comparing German terms Mendel employed with the same terms in the German translation of Origin of Species in his possession, then using Darwin's counterpart English words and phrases as much as possible in our translation. We found a substantially higher use of these terms in the final two (10th and 11th) sections of Mendel's paper, particularly in one key paragraph, where Mendel reflects on evolutionary issues, providing strong evidence of Darwin's influence on Mendel.

  3. Diurnal temperature variations affect development of a herbivorous arthropod pest and its predators.

    PubMed

    Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Audenaert, Joachim; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Verhoeven, Ruth; Gobin, Bruno; Tirry, Luc; De Clercq, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The impact of daily temperature variations on arthropod life history remains woefully understudied compared to the large body of research that has been carried out on the effects of constant temperatures. However, diurnal varying temperature regimes more commonly represent the environment in which most organisms thrive. Such varying temperature regimes have been demonstrated to substantially affect development and reproduction of ectothermic organisms, generally in accordance with Jensen's inequality. In the present study we evaluated the impact of temperature alternations at 4 amplitudes (DTR0, +5, +10 and +15°C) on the developmental rate of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and their natural prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). We have modelled their developmental rates as a function of temperature using both linear and nonlinear models. Diurnally alternating temperatures resulted in a faster development in the lower temperature range as compared to their corresponding mean constant temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed in the higher temperature range. Our results indicate that Jensen's inequality does not suffice to fully explain the differences in developmental rates at constant and alternating temperatures, suggesting additional physiological responses play a role. It is concluded that diurnal temperature range should not be ignored and should be incorporated in predictive models on the phenology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies and their performance in biological control programmes.

  4. Spin-down Dynamics of Magnetized Solar-type Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oglethorpe, R. L. F.; Garaud, P.

    2013-12-01

    It has long been known that solar-type stars undergo significant spin-down, via magnetic braking, during their main-sequence lifetimes. However, magnetic braking only operates on the surface layers; it is not yet completely understood how angular momentum is transported within the star and how rapidly the spin-down information is communicated to the deep interior. In this work, we use insight from recent progress in understanding internal solar dynamics to model the interior of other solar-type stars. We assume, following Gough & McIntyre, that the bulk of the radiation zone of these stars is held in uniform rotation by the presence of an embedded large-scale primordial field, confined below a stably stratified, magnetic-free tachocline by large-scale meridional flows downwelling from the convection zone. We derive simple equations to describe the response of this model interior to spin-down of the surface layers, which are identical to the two-zone model of MacGregor & Brenner, with a coupling timescale proportional to the local Eddington-Sweet timescale across the tachocline. This timescale depends both on the rotation rate of the star and on the thickness of the tachocline, and it can vary from a few hundred thousand years to a few Gyr, depending on stellar properties. Qualitative predictions of the model appear to be consistent with observations, although they depend sensitively on the assumed functional dependence of the tachocline thickness on the stellar rotation rate.

  5. Genetic networks and the flow of positional information in embryonic development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialek, William

    When we study a biological system, we make inferences about the underlying mechanisms and dynamics. But biological systems themselves must also solve inference problems, as when our brains draw conclusions about the world given (often quite limited) data from our eyes and ears. My colleagues and I have been exploring both of these inference problems as they play out in the first hours of development in the fruit fly embryo. In this system, the concentrations of particular molecules encode the position of each cell in the embryo, and these concentrations are the outputs of a genetic network. Putting ourselves in the place of the cells, we have been able to read the code, building a dictionary that maps gene expression levels back into estimates of position. If our dictionary really is the one used by the embryo, then mutants should build predictably distorted body plans, and preliminary results show quantitative agreement with these predictions. Independent of their role as carriers of information, we can also analyze the patterns of gene expression to draw inferences about the underlying network. Finally, it is possible that the network architecture and parameters have been chosen to optimize the flow of information, and we see signatures of this optimization. Joint work with CG Callan, JO Dubuis, T Gregor, D Krotov, M Petkova, TR Sokolowski, G Tkacik, AM Walczak, and EF Wieschaus.

  6. Truthfulness in transplantation: non-heart-beating organ donation

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The current practice of organ transplantation has been criticized on several fronts. The philosophical and scientific foundations for brain death criteria have been crumbling. In addition, donation after cardiac death, or non-heartbeating-organ donation (NHBD) has been attacked on grounds that it mistreats the dying patient and uses that patient only as a means to an end for someone else's benefit. Verheijde, Rady, and McGregor attack the deception involved in NHBD, arguing that the donors are not dead and that potential donors and their families should be told that is the case. Thus, they propose abandoning the dead donor rule and allowing NHBD with strict rules concerning adequate informed consent. Such honesty about NHBD should be welcomed. However, NHBD violates a fundamental end of medicine, nonmaleficience, "do no harm." Physicians should not be harming or killing patients, even if it is for the benefit of others. Thus, although Verheijde and his colleages should be congratulated for calling for truthfulness about NHBD, they do not go far enough and call for an elimination of such an unethical procedure from the practice of medicine. PMID:17718917

  7. KSC-2012-1210

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-08

    MCGREGOR, Texas -- Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) completes a full-duration, full-thrust firing of its new SuperDraco engine prototype at the company’s Rocket Development Facility in McGregor, Texas. The firing was in preparation for the ninth milestone to be completed under SpaceX's funded Space Act Agreement (SAA) with NASA's Commercial Crew Program (CCP). SpaceX is working with CCP during Commercial Crew Development Round 2 (CCDev2) in order to mature the design and development of its Dragon spacecraft with the overall goal of accelerating a United States-led capability to the International Space Station. Eight SuperDracos would be built into the sidewalls of the Dragon capsule to carry astronauts to safety should an emergency occur during launch or ascent. The goal of CCP is to drive down the cost of space travel as well as open up space to more people than ever before by balancing industry’s own innovative capabilities with NASA's 50 years of human spaceflight experience. Six other aerospace companies also are maturing launch vehicle and spacecraft designs under CCDev2, including Alliant Techsystems Inc. (ATK), Blue Origin, The Boeing Co., Excalibur Almaz Inc., Sierra Nevada Corp. and United Launch Alliance (ULA). For more information, visit www.nasa.gov/commercialcrew

  8. KSC-2012-1208

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-08

    MCGREGOR, Texas -- Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) completes a full-duration, full-thrust firing of its new SuperDraco engine prototype at the company’s Rocket Development Facility in McGregor, Texas. The firing was in preparation for the ninth milestone to be completed under SpaceX's funded Space Act Agreement (SAA) with NASA's Commercial Crew Program (CCP). SpaceX is working with CCP during Commercial Crew Development Round 2 (CCDev2) in order to mature the design and development of its Dragon spacecraft with the overall goal of accelerating a United States-led capability to the International Space Station. Eight SuperDracos would be built into the sidewalls of the Dragon capsule to carry astronauts to safety should an emergency occur during launch or ascent. The goal of CCP is to drive down the cost of space travel as well as open up space to more people than ever before by balancing industry’s own innovative capabilities with NASA's 50 years of human spaceflight experience. Six other aerospace companies also are maturing launch vehicle and spacecraft designs under CCDev2, including Alliant Techsystems Inc. (ATK), Blue Origin, The Boeing Co., Excalibur Almaz Inc., Sierra Nevada Corp. and United Launch Alliance (ULA). For more information, visit www.nasa.gov/commercialcrew

  9. KSC-2012-1209

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-01-08

    MCGREGOR, Texas -- Space Exploration Technologies (SpaceX) completes a full-duration, full-thrust firing of its new SuperDraco engine prototype at the company’s Rocket Development Facility in McGregor, Texas. The firing was in preparation for the ninth milestone to be completed under SpaceX's funded Space Act Agreement (SAA) with NASA's Commercial Crew Program (CCP). SpaceX is working with CCP during Commercial Crew Development Round 2 (CCDev2) in order to mature the design and development of its Dragon spacecraft with the overall goal of accelerating a United States-led capability to the International Space Station. Eight SuperDracos would be built into the sidewalls of the Dragon capsule to carry astronauts to safety should an emergency occur during launch or ascent. The goal of CCP is to drive down the cost of space travel as well as open up space to more people than ever before by balancing industry’s own innovative capabilities with NASA's 50 years of human spaceflight experience. Six other aerospace companies also are maturing launch vehicle and spacecraft designs under CCDev2, including Alliant Techsystems Inc. (ATK), Blue Origin, The Boeing Co., Excalibur Almaz Inc., Sierra Nevada Corp. and United Launch Alliance (ULA). For more information, visit www.nasa.gov/commercialcrew

  10. Mendel's genes: toward a full molecular characterization.

    PubMed

    Reid, James B; Ross, John J

    2011-09-01

    The discipline of classical genetics is founded on the hereditary behavior of the seven genes studied by Gregor Mendel. The advent of molecular techniques has unveiled much about the identity of these genes. To date, four genes have been sequenced: A (flower color), LE (stem length), I (cotyledon color), and R (seed shape). Two of the other three genes, GP (pod color) and FA (fasciation), are amenable to candidate gene approaches on the basis of their function, linkage relationships, and synteny between the pea and Medicago genomes. However, even the gene (locus) identity is not known for certain for the seventh character, the pod form, although it is probably V. While the nature of the mutations used by Mendel cannot be determined with certainty, on the basis of the varieties available in Europe in the 1850s, we can speculate on their nature. It turns out that these mutations are attributable to a range of causes-from simple base substitutions and changes to splice sites to the insertion of a transposon-like element. These findings provide a fascinating connection between Mendelian genetics and molecular biology that can be used very effectively in teaching new generations of geneticists. Mendel's characters also provide novel insights into the nature of the genes responsible for characteristics of agronomic and consumer importance.

  11. Knowledge data base system for twins study.

    PubMed

    Reina, S; Miozza, F

    1994-01-01

    The medical research on twins, carried out at the Gregor Mendel Institute for Medical Genetics and Twin Study in Rome over the past four decades, has resulted in a vast collection of clinical paper records. A challenge was presented by the need for a more secure method of storage to preserve this enormously valuable historical and scientific patrimony and to render its contents more easily accessible for research purposes. We met the challenge by planning and developing the computerization of this material. New concepts, currently being explored in biomedical informatics, were applied to build a Knowledge Data Base System, using a fourth-generation language (SQL). This architecturally innovative computer system enables its users to manipulate data supplied, rather than just simply storing it. Based on heuristic relational criteria between variables and parameters, the system is employed to solve problems of sibling design analysis typically arising from twins' records, but is also equipped to meet future data base requirements. Another feature of the system is its users' ability to pull off data in the form of regular automated reports, which are distributed through a Local Area Network (LAN). Through a Bulletin Board System (BBS) and modem, any scientist (outside as well as within the Institute) is thus able to access data and exchange scientific information.

  12. An international validation study of two achievement goal measures in a pharmacy education context.

    PubMed

    Alrakaf, Saleh; Abdelmageed, Ahmed; Kiersma, Mary; Coulman, Sion A; John, Dai N; Tordoff, June; Anderson, Claire; Noreddin, Ayman; Sainsbury, Erica; Rose, Grenville; Smith, Lorraine

    2014-01-01

    Achievement goal theory helps us understand what motivates students to participate in educational activities. However, measuring achievement goals in a precise manner is problematic. Elliot and McGregor's Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ) and Elliot and Murayama's revised Achievement Goal Questionnaire (AGQ-R) are widely used to assess students' achievement goals. Both instruments were developed and validated using undergraduate psychology students in the USA. In this study, our aims were to first of all, assess the construct validity of both questionnaires using a cohort of Australian pharmacy students and, subsequently, to test the generalizability and replicability of these tools more widely in schools of pharmacy in other English-speaking countries. The AGQ and the AGQ-R were administered during tutorial class time. Confirmatory factor analysis procedures, using AMOS 19 software, were performed to determine model fit. In contrast to the scale developers' findings, confirmatory factor analysis supported a superior model fit for the AGQ compared with the AGQ-R, in all countries under study. Validating measures of achievement goal motivation for use in pharmacy education is necessary and has implications for future research. Based on these results, the AGQ will be used to conduct future cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses of the achievement goals of undergraduate pharmacy students from these countries.

  13. Electric-field distribution in Au-semi-insulating GaAs contact investigated by positron-lifetime technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, C. C.; Shek, Y. F.; Huang, A. P.; Fung, S.; Beling, C. D.

    1999-02-01

    Positron-lifetime spectroscopy has been used to investigate the electric-field distribution occurring at the Au-semi-insulating GaAs interface. Positrons implanted from a 22Na source and drifted back to the interface are detected through their characteristic lifetime at interface traps. The relative intensity of this fraction of interface-trapped positrons reveals that the field strength in the depletion region saturates at applied biases above 50 V, an observation that cannot be reconciled with a simple depletion approximation model. The data, are, however, shown to be fully consistent with recent direct electric-field measurements and the theoretical model proposed by McGregor et al. [J. Appl. Phys. 75, 7910 (1994)] of an enhanced EL2+ electron-capture cross section above a critical electric field that causes a dramatic reduction of the depletion region's net charge density. Two theoretically derived electric field profiles, together with an experimentally based profile, are used to estimate a positron mobility of ~95+/-35 cm2 V-1 s-1 under the saturation field. This value is higher than previous experiments would suggest, and reasons for this effect are discussed.

  14. Reexamination of relaxation of spins due to a magnetic field gradient: Identity of the Redfield and Torrey theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, R.; Rohm, Ryan M.; Swank, C. M.

    2011-02-01

    There is an extensive literature on magnetic-gradient-induced spin relaxation. Cates, Schaefer, and Happer, in a seminal publication, have solved the problem in the regime where diffusion theory (the Torrey equation) is applicable using an expansion of the density matrix in diffusion equation eigenfunctions and angular momentum tensors. McGregor has solved the problem in the same regime using a slightly more general formulation using the Redfield theory formulated in terms of the autocorrelation function of the fluctuating field seen by the spins and calculating the correlation functions using the diffusion-theory Green’s function. The results of both calculations were shown to agree for a special case. In the present work, we show that the eigenfunction expansion of the Torrey equation yields the expansion of the Green’s function for the diffusion equation, thus showing the identity of this approach with that of the Redfield theory. The general solution can also be obtained directly from the Torrey equation for the density matrix. Thus, the physical content of the Redfield and Torrey approaches are identical. We then introduce a more general expression for the position autocorrelation function of particles moving in a closed cell, extending the range of applicability of the theory.

  15. Progressive halo-vest traction preceding posterior occipitocervical instrumented fusion for irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation and basilar invagination.

    PubMed

    Li, Peng; Bao, Deming; Cheng, Huijuan; Meng, Fanshuai; Li, Junwei

    2017-09-05

    Surgical treatment of irreducible atlantoaxial dislocation (IAAD) with basilar invagination (BI) is associated with high rates of severe complications, including mortality. This retrospective study investigated the safety and efficacy of progressive halo-vest traction for IAAD with BI prior to posterior occipitocervical instrumented fusion. Between 2009 and 2013, 39 patients with IAAD with BI underwent preoperative reduction by progressive halo-vest traction for 20.82±4.21days. Instrumented fusion was then performed through a posterior approach. Clinical outcomes were based on pain scale and Japanese Orthopedic Association (JOA) scores. Radiographic analysis evaluated changes in atlantodental distance, McGregor's line violation, spinal canal width at the craniocervical junction, cervicomedullary angle, C2-C7 lordosis angle, and the occiput-C2 angle. Follow-ups ranged from 48 to 96 months. Both atlantodental distance and BI significantly improved in all patients. The rates of complete anatomical reduction were 85% for IAAD, and 95% for BI. Most of the patients reported satisfactory pain relief and improvement in daily activity; the mean JOA scores at baseline and last follow-up were 9.10 and 15.92, respectively. Although complications occurred in 10 patients (25.64%), all of which healed uneventfully. The bony fusion rate was 100%. Progressive halo-vest traction before surgery is safe and effective for reduction of IAAD with BI. The technique we describe is a promising method for treatment of complex craniocervical junction deformity. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. COSMIC INHERITANCE RULES: IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH CARE AND SCIENCE1

    PubMed Central

    Halberg, F.; Cornélissen, G.; Katinas, G. S.; Watanabe, Y.; Siegelová, J.

    2010-01-01

    Countering the trend in specialization, we advocate the trans-disciplinary monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate for signatures of environmental cyclic and other variabilities in space as well as terrestrial weather on the one hand, and for surveillance of personal and societal health on the other hand. New rules (if confirmed novel laws) emerge as we recognize our inheritance from the cosmos of cycles that constitute and characterize life and align them with inheritance from parents. In so doing, we happen to follow the endeavors of Gregor Mendel, who recognized the segregation and independent assortment of what became known as genes. Circadians, rhythms with periods, τ, between 20 and 28 hours, and cycles with frequencies that are higher (ultradian) or lower (infradian) than circadian, are genetically anchored. An accumulating long list of very important but aeolian (nonstationary) infradian cycles, characterizing the incidence patterns of sudden cardiac death, suicide and terrorism, with drastically different τs, constitutes the nonphotic (corpuscular emission from the sun, heliogeomagnetics, ultraviolet flux, gravitation) Cornélissen-series. PMID:21603087

  17. Legacies of Garrod's brilliance. One hundred years--and counting.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, L E

    2008-10-01

    One hundred years ago--in 1908--Archibald Garrod delivered his four Croonian Lectures. In these formerly forgotten, but now famous, dissertations, Garrod first used the expression, 'inborn errors of metabolism', to describe four rare disorders: albinism, alkaptonuria, cystinuria, and pentosuria. This prescient work proposed that such disorders resulted from enzymatic defects in the catabolic pathways for amino acids and sugars. Thus, Garrod can rightfully be called the first human geneticist. Much influenced by his colleague Bateson, who brought Mendel's work to his attention, Garrod then was the first to apply Gregor Mendel's law of gene segregation to humans, the first to propose recessive inheritance in humans, and the first to point out the importance of consanguinity. He even mentioned the role of ethnicity in inherited disorders. This would have been legacy enough, but Garrod did much more. He wrote about such other 'modern' topics as genetic predisposition to common disorders; the critical importance of physicians who were also scientists; and the proper role of the university in society. Although Garrod's work and ideas were not appreciated during his lifetime, they have echoed and reverberated ever since. He can rightly be deemed one of the most profound intellectuals of the 20th century, whose bequests to science and medicine continue to increase in value. All of us who study inborn errors of metabolism and who apply our knowledge in the hope of improving the diagnosis and treatment of affected patients are, in a genuine sense, Garrodians.

  18. Analysis of Measurement Accuracy for Craniovertebral Junction Pathology : Most Reliable Method for Cephalometric Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ho Jin; Kim, Il Sup; Kwon, Jae Yeol; Lee, Sang Won

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to determine the most reliable cephalometric measurement technique in the normal population and patients with basilar invagination (BI). Methods Twenty-two lateral radiographs of BI patients and 25 lateral cervical radiographs of the age, sex-matched normal population were selected and measured on two separate occasions by three spine surgeons using six different measurements. Statistical analysis including intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was carried out using the SPSS software (V. 12.0). Results Redlund-Johnell and Modified (M)-Ranawat had a highest ICC score in both the normal and BI groups in the inter-observer study. The M-Ranawat method (0.83) had a highest ICC score in the normal group, and the Redlund-Johenll method (0.80) had a highest ICC score in the BI group in the intra-observer test. The McGregor line had a lowest ICC score and a poor ICC grade in both groups in the intra-observer study. Generally, the measurement method using the odontoid process did not produce consistent results due to inter and intra-observer differences in determining the position of the odontoid tip. Opisthion and caudal point of the occipital midline curve are somewhat ambiguous landmarks, which induce variable ICC scores. Conclusion On the contrary to other studies, Ranawat method had a lower ICC score in the inter-observer study. C2 end-plate and C1 arch can be the most reliable anatomical landmarks. PMID:24294449

  19. Basilar impression of the skull in patients with adult coeliac disease and after gastric surgery.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, L J; Banerji, N K

    1972-02-01

    Chamberlain's, McGregor's and Bull's angle measurements for basilar impression of the skull were made on 22 adult patients with idiopathic steatorrhoea (probable gluten enteropathy), 24 patients who had had previous gastric surgery, and 48 control subjects. For each of the three measurements a value greater than the mean plus two standard deviations was taken as the upper limit of normal. In seven patients with adult steatorrhoea all three measurements were abnormal suggesting basilar impression, while basilar impression was probable in only one patient who had gastric surgery. The trend towards abnormal measurements was significant in the steatorrhoea patients but not in those who had gastric surgery. Basilar impression also was present in patients who did not have rickets or present evidence of osteomalacia. It was argued that this study could support a hypothesis that some cases of primary basilar impression of the skull are secondary to bone softening associated with malabsorption in early life, the evidence of which may have disappeared in adult life.

  20. Cervical characteristics of Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Jun J; Yabunaka, Tomoe; Moriyama, Keiji

    2014-04-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES A short neck and low posterior hairline are characteristics of Noonan syndrome (NS) and are hallmarks of basilar invagination/impression. However, it is seldom that NS has been directly linked with this symptom. Thus, this study aimed to investigate basilar impression in NS subjects compared with control subjects and individuals exhibiting Turner Syndrome (TS). SUBJECTS/METHODS The degree of basilar impression and vertical positional differences of the third and fourth cervical vertebrae and hyoid bone in NS (n = 9, mean age: 12.1 years), TS (n = 9, mean age: 12.1 years), and control subjects (n = 9, mean age: 12.0 years) were investigated using lateral cephalometric radiographs. Differences between the three groups were compared using the Steel-Dwass test. Vertical positional differences in the anatomical structures within each group were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test accompanied by a Bonferroni-Holm correction. RESULTS The distance by which the odontoid tip extended past McGregor's line in subjects with NS was significantly greater compared with TS and control subjects. The third and fourth cervical vertebrae were positioned significantly superiorly in subjects with NS compared with TS and control subjects and, in NS, were also significantly superior to the hyoid bone. There was no difference in the position of the hyoid bone itself between the groups. CONCLUSION/IMPLICATION These results suggest that basilar impression may be a frequently found symptom of NS.

  1. Revision of the Afrotropical Phaeogenini (Ichneumonidae, Ichneumoninae), with description of a new genus and twelve new species

    PubMed Central

    Rousse, Pascal; van Noort, Simon; Diller, E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We revise the 10 genera and 23 species of the tribe Phaeogenini (Ichneumonidae: Ichneumoninae) known to occur in the Afrotropical region. We describe the following 13 new taxa: Kibalus Rousse, van Noort & Diller, gen. n.; K. toro Rousse, van Noort & Diller, sp. n.; K. mubfs Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; Arearia oxymoron Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; Chauvinia nyanga Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; Dicaelotus asantesana Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; D. hoerikwaggoensis Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; D. tablemountainensis Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; Heterischnus mfongosi Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; H. mkomazi Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; Lusius flummox Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; Tycherus amatola Rousse & van Noort, sp. n.; and T. nardousberg Rousse & van Noort, sp. n. New distribution records: Heterischnus africanus (Heinrich, 1936) from South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda; H. krausi Schönitzer, 1999 from Rwanda; Lusius tenuissimus (Heinrich, 1938) from Democratic Republic of Congo, Malawi, Nigeria, South Africa, and Zimbabwe. A doubtful record of Aethecerus foveolatus Gregor, 1940 from Sao Tome is additionaly reported in the appendix. We provide illustrated diagnoses and identification notes. Online interactive dichotomous and matrix Lucid keys to genera and species are available at http://www.waspweb.org. PMID:24294101

  2. How to Implement JITT - Just In Time Teaching?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Carolina; Hay, Katrina

    2010-03-01

    Reforms in education and the desire to improve the quality of learning were the incentive to search for more efficient teaching strategies [1]. Here is presented Just In Time Teaching, JITT, which is an exciting methodology [2] intended to engage students by using feedback from pre-class web assignments. In this process the students are more in control of the learning process and they become more active and interested learners. Even though some examples from physics are presented, this method can be successfully implemented in almost all the fields. The implementation of this method at SUNY Oswego, and Pacific Lutheran University is discussed. [4pt] [1]John D. Bransford, Ann L. Brown, and Rodney R. Cocking - editors, How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School, Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning; National Research Council; National Academy Press 1999[0pt] [2] Gregor M. Novak, Evelyn T. Patterson, Andrew D. Gavrin and Wolfgang Christian, Just in Time Teaching -- Blending Active Learning with Web Technology, Prentice Hall Series in Educational Innovation, 1999.

  3. Evolution of Genetic Techniques: Past, Present, and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Durmaz, Asude Alpman; Karaca, Emin; Schoumans, Jacqueline; Cogulu, Ozgur

    2015-01-01

    Genetics is the study of heredity, which means the study of genes and factors related to all aspects of genes. The scientific history of genetics began with the works of Gregor Mendel in the mid-19th century. Prior to Mendel, genetics was primarily theoretical whilst, after Mendel, the science of genetics was broadened to include experimental genetics. Developments in all fields of genetics and genetic technology in the first half of the 20th century provided a basis for the later developments. In the second half of the 20th century, the molecular background of genetics has become more understandable. Rapid technological advancements, followed by the completion of Human Genome Project, have contributed a great deal to the knowledge of genetic factors and their impact on human life and diseases. Currently, more than 1800 disease genes have been identified, more than 2000 genetic tests have become available, and in conjunction with this at least 350 biotechnology-based products have been released onto the market. Novel technologies, particularly next generation sequencing, have dramatically accelerated the pace of biological research, while at the same time increasing expectations. In this paper, a brief summary of genetic history with short explanations of most popular genetic techniques is given. PMID:25874212

  4. Diurnal Temperature Variations Affect Development of a Herbivorous Arthropod Pest and its Predators

    PubMed Central

    Vangansbeke, Dominiek; Audenaert, Joachim; Nguyen, Duc Tung; Verhoeven, Ruth; Gobin, Bruno; Tirry, Luc; De Clercq, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The impact of daily temperature variations on arthropod life history remains woefully understudied compared to the large body of research that has been carried out on the effects of constant temperatures. However, diurnal varying temperature regimes more commonly represent the environment in which most organisms thrive. Such varying temperature regimes have been demonstrated to substantially affect development and reproduction of ectothermic organisms, generally in accordance with Jensen’s inequality. In the present study we evaluated the impact of temperature alternations at 4 amplitudes (DTR0, +5, +10 and +15°C) on the developmental rate of the predatory mites Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot and Neoseiulus californicus McGregor (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and their natural prey, the two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae). We have modelled their developmental rates as a function of temperature using both linear and nonlinear models. Diurnally alternating temperatures resulted in a faster development in the lower temperature range as compared to their corresponding mean constant temperatures, whereas the opposite was observed in the higher temperature range. Our results indicate that Jensen’s inequality does not suffice to fully explain the differences in developmental rates at constant and alternating temperatures, suggesting additional physiological responses play a role. It is concluded that diurnal temperature range should not be ignored and should be incorporated in predictive models on the phenology of arthropod pests and their natural enemies and their performance in biological control programmes. PMID:25874697

  5. Evaluating the importance of the convex hull in solving the Euclidean version of the traveling salesperson problem: reply to Lee and Vickers (2000).

    PubMed

    MacGregor, J N; Ormerod, T C

    2000-10-01

    Lee and Vickers (2000) suggest that the results of MacGregor and Ormerod (1996), showing that the response uncertainty to traveling salesperson problems (TSPs) increases with increasing numbers of nonboundary points, may have resulted as an artifact of constraints imposed in the construction of stimuli. The fact that similar patterns of results have been obtained for our "constrained" stimuli, for a stimulus constructed under different constraints, for 13 randomly generated stimuli, and for random and patterned 48-point problems provides empirical evidence that the results are not artifactual. Lee and Vickers further suggest that, even if not artifactual, the results are in principle limited to arrays of fewer than 50 points and that, beyond this, the total number of points and number of nonboundary points are "diagnostically equivalent." This claim seems to us incorrect, since arrays of any size can be constructed that will permit experimental tests of whether problem difficulty is influenced by the number of nonboundary points, or the total number of points, or both. We present a reanalysis of our original data using hierarchical regression analysis which indicates that both factors may influence problem complexity.

  6. Modelling avian biodiversity using raw, unclassified satellite imagery

    PubMed Central

    St-Louis, Véronique; Pidgeon, Anna M.; Kuemmerle, Tobias; Sonnenschein, Ruth; Radeloff, Volker C.; Clayton, Murray K.; Locke, Brian A.; Bash, Dallas; Hostert, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Applications of remote sensing for biodiversity conservation typically rely on image classifications that do not capture variability within coarse land cover classes. Here, we compare two measures derived from unclassified remotely sensed data, a measure of habitat heterogeneity and a measure of habitat composition, for explaining bird species richness and the spatial distribution of 10 species in a semi-arid landscape of New Mexico. We surveyed bird abundance from 1996 to 1998 at 42 plots located in the McGregor Range of Fort Bliss Army Reserve. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index values of two May 1997 Landsat scenes were the basis for among-pixel habitat heterogeneity (image texture), and we used the raw imagery to decompose each pixel into different habitat components (spectral mixture analysis). We used model averaging to relate measures of avian biodiversity to measures of image texture and spectral mixture analysis fractions. Measures of habitat heterogeneity, particularly angular second moment and standard deviation, provide higher explanatory power for bird species richness and the abundance of most species than measures of habitat composition. Using image texture, alone or in combination with other classified imagery-based approaches, for monitoring statuses and trends in biological diversity can greatly improve conservation efforts and habitat management. PMID:24733952

  7. Against UNESCO: Gedda, Gini and American scientific racism.

    PubMed

    Cassata, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article is to shed light on the ideological, institutional and intellectual connections between Italian eugenics and American scientific racism, from 1953 to 1967. The paper pays special attention to the scientific links between fascist demographer Corrado Gini (the first president of the Italian Central Statistical Institute - Istat), and geneticist Luigi Gedda (the president of the Gregor Mendel Institute in Rome and head of the Catholic political association Azione Cattolica) on the one hand, and on the other, the members of the IAAEE (International Association for the Advancement of Ethnology and Eugenics) and their journal, "The Mankind Quarterly". Corrado Gini and Luigi Gedda were both members of the honorary advisory board of "The Mankind Quarterly", and Gini was also assistant editor in 1962. Despite the theoretical differences between the "neo-Lamarckians" Gini and Gedda, and the "Mendelians" Robert Gayre and Reginald Ruggles Gates--editor and associate editor of "The Mankind Quarterly"--the relationship grew stronger because of a sort of strategic alliance in the ideological fight against UNESCO's Statements on Race. The main source of the paper is Corrado Gini's personal archive, deposited in Rome at the National State Archive (ACS).

  8. Exposure to Diflubenzuron Results in an Up-Regulation of a Chitin Synthase 1 Gene in Citrus Red Mite, Panonychus citri (Acari: Tetranychidae)

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Wen-Kai; Ding, Tian-Bo; Niu, Jin-Zhi; Liao, Chong-Yu; Zhong, Rui; Yang, Wen-Jia; Liu, Bin; Dou, Wei; Wang, Jin-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Chitin synthase synthesizes chitin, which is critical for the arthropod exoskeleton. In this study, we cloned the cDNA sequences of a chitin synthase 1 gene, PcCHS1, in the citrus red mite, Panonychus citri (McGregor), which is one of the most economically important pests of citrus worldwide. The full-length cDNA of PcCHS1 contains an open reading frame of 4605 bp of nucleotides, which encodes a protein of 1535 amino acid residues with a predicted molecular mass of 175.0 kDa. A phylogenetic analysis showed that PcCHS1 was most closely related to CHS1 from Tetranychus urticae. During P. citri development, PcCHS1 was constantly expressed in all stages but highly expressed in the egg stage (114.8-fold higher than in the adult). When larvae were exposed to diflubenzuron (DFB) for 6 h, the mite had a significantly high mortality rate, and the mRNA expression levels of PcCHS1 were significantly enhanced. These results indicate a promising use of DFB to control P. citri, by possibly acting as an inhibitor in chitin synthesis as indicated by the up-regulation of PcCHS1 after exposure to DFB. PMID:24590130

  9. Cell Theory, Specificity, and Reproduction, 1837–1870

    PubMed Central

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2015-01-01

    The cell is not only the structural, physiological, and developmental, but also the reproductive unit of life. So far, however, this aspect of the cell has received little attention by historians and philosophers of biology. I will argue that cell theory had far-reaching consequences for how biologists conceptualized the reproductive relationships between germs and adult organisms. Cell theory, as formulated by Theodor Schwann in 1839, implied that this relationship was a specific and lawful one, i.e. that germs of a certain kind, all else being equal, would produce adult organisms of the same kind, and vice versa. Questions of preformation and epigenesis took on a new meaning under this presupposition. The question now was whether cells could be considered as independent agents producing adult organisms of a given species, or whether they were the product of external, organizing forces and thus a stage in the development of the whole organism only. The question was an important one for nineteenth-century biology. As I will demonstrate, it was the view of cells as independent agents which helped both Charles Darwin and Gregor Mendel to think of differential reproduction as a lawful process. PMID:20934643

  10. Application of vertical-mode initialization to a limited-area model in flux form

    SciTech Connect

    Sashegyi, K.D. ); Madala, R.V. )

    1993-01-01

    The vertical-mode initialization procedure of Bourke and McGregor is applied to a limited-area weather prediction model that is formulated in flux form and is shown to be successful in reducing the undesirable gravity-wave oscillations in integrations of the numerical model. Alternative boundary conditions are developed for the scheme so that the changes to the wind at the lateral boundaries of the model are consistent with the changes in the integrated mass divergence and vorticity over the domain. The convergence of the modified scheme is shown to be rapid for two different grids. For a grid with significant topography along the lateral boundaries, use of increased diffusion in the boundary zone is shown to negatively impact the convergence of the scheme. Model integrations are performed to show the effectiveness of the scheme with improved boundary conditions in removing the gravity-wave oscillations. The results are compared with the damping of the gravity waves in the boundary zone by the time-integration scheme and by different lateral boundary treatments. The influence of noisy boundary values is also tested. 15 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Parents' grief in the context of adult child mental illness: a qualitative review.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Meg; Cobham, Vanessa; Murray, Judith; McDermott, Brett

    2011-03-01

    Research indicates that parents and other family members often grieve their child or relative's mental illness. This grief appears resultant from a profound sense of loss, which has been described as complicated and nonfinite (e.g., Atkinson in Am J Psychiatry 151(8):1137-1139, 1994; Davis and Schultz in Soc Sci Med 46(3):369-379, 1998; Jones in Br J Soc Work 34:961-979, 2004; MacGregor in Soc Work 39(2):160-166, 1994; Osborne and Coyle in Couns Psychol Q 15(4):307-323, 2002; Ozgul in Aust N Z J Fam Ther 25(4):183-187, 2004; Tuck et al. in Arch Psychiatric Nurs 11(3):118-125, 1997). This paper reviews existent research in this emerging field, with a focus on parents' grief experience in relation to their adult child's mental disorder. Studies that explore parents' and family members' grief, using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are considered. Research evidence for the association between parents' and family members' grief and other outcomes are discussed. Findings concerning the prediction of grief in parents and family members who have a child or relative with a mental disorder will be reviewed. Finally, this paper considers methodological and theoretical issues associated with existent research and presents options for further study.

  12. Synchronization in Disordered Josephson Junction Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trees, B. R.; Dissanayake, S. T. M.

    2002-03-01

    We have studied the dynamics of a ladder array of overdamped Josephson junctions with periodic boundary conditions. The junctions have critical current and resistive disorder, are current biased above the critical current, and their voltages oscillate with nonidentical bare frequencies. We have been interested in the onset of synchronization in the rung junctions of the ladder, in which nearest neighbor interactions of strength α renormalize the bare frequencies to a common value. The degree of synchronization of the array is measured by an order parameter, r (0<= r<= 1), as a function of α and the spread of bare frequencies. For a given frequency spread, a synchronization phase transition is clearly visible with an increase in α. We have also determined that a time-averaged version of the resistively-shunted junction equations can be used as an accurate description of the dynamics of the junctions. The solutions to the averaged equations exhibit phase slips between pairs of junctions for certain ranges of values of α and also demonstrate that the relationship between the array size, N, and the critical coupling strength for the onset of synchronization scales as N^2. This research was partially funded by a grant to Ohio Wesleyan University from the McGregor Foundation to support student research.

  13. Synchronization in Disordered Josephson Junction Arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissanayake, S. T. M.; Trees, B. R.

    2001-10-01

    There is considerable scientific and technological interest in the time-dependent behavior of arrays of non-identical Josephson junctions, whose voltages oscillate with individual bare frequencies that can be made, through interactions, to renormalize their frequencies to a common value. We have studied the degree of synchronization of a subset of overdamped junctions in a ladder geometry, in which the voltages across the ``rung'' junctions of the ladder oscillate with the same, renormalized frequency and a fixed phase difference. We measure the degree of synchronization of the junctions with an order parameter, r (0<= r<= 1), as a function of the nearest-neighbor junction coupling strength. We also determined that a time-averaged version of the resistively-shunted junction (RSJ) equations could be used as an accurate description of the dynamics of the junctions. The solutions to the averaged equations exhibit phase slips between pairs of junctions for certain ranges of the junction coupling strength and also demonstrated that the relationship between the array size N and the critical coupling strength for all junctions to oscillate with the same frequency scales as N^2. This research was partially funded by a grant to Ohio Wesleyan University from the McGregor Foundation to support student research.

  14. Numerical Simulations Of The Impact Of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9: Plume Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palotai, Csaba J.; Korycansky, D.; Deming, D.; Harrington, J.; Reese, C.

    2007-10-01

    We present results of our three-dimensional, hydrodynamic simulations of the impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) into the atmosphere of Jupiter. In the current phase of the research we focus on the plume blowout and splashback phases of the SL9 event. We have modified the Zeus-MP/2 model (Hayes et al. 2006) to be suitable for our investigation, adding a Jovian atmospheric profile, Tillotson equation of state for the impactor, and the Coriolis terms. As an initial condition of our high-resolution simulations we use the energy deposition profile taken from the SL9 impact modeling of Korycansky et al. (2006). The effects of the Coriolis force during the shockwave propagation are tested through sensitivity tests. The viscosity in the splash model is adjusted until the outer part of the plume re-entry shock matches the expanding infrared rings (McGregor et al. 1996). The molecular viscosity being well-known, this will place a strong constraint on the Jovian eddy viscosity. We add radiative terms from previous 2D splash calculation of Deming and Harrington (2001) to allow us to calculate realistic wavelength-dependent lightcurves and low-resolution spectra for direct comparison to data. This work is supported by National Science Foundation Grant No. 0307638 and National Aeronautics and Space Administration Grant No. NNG 04GQ35G.

  15. Electron paramagnetic resonance of [(CH3)3NH]CuCl3.2H2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritter, Mark B.; Drumheller, John E.; Kite, Terence M.; Snively, Leslie O.; Emerson, Kenneth

    1983-11-01

    The electron paramagnetic resonance of [(CH3)3NH]CuCl3.2H2O has been studied in the temperature range of 4 K to room temperature. This compound is known to behave magnetically as a spin- 1/2 , one-dimensional Heisenberg ferromagnetic with ordering below 1K. In the high-temperature regime the EPR data show a rich angular dependence of the linewidths as the magnetic field is rotated away from the chain. The data were analyzed in manner similar to that used by McGregor and Soos, who used the Blume-Hubbard result for spin dynamics and extracted exchange anisotropies in one dimension. For adequate fit, we reduced the symmetry of symmetric anisotropic exchange to orthorhombic and included the antisymmetric exchange. Isotropic symmetric, dipolar, anisotropic symmetric, and antisymmetric exchange therefore were included with the room temperature results of J0=0.8 K, Dd=0.058 K, De=0.032 K, and d=0.043 K, respectively, and further show about a 12% XY character to the exchange. These results are reasonably consistent with the previous results on this compound. Splitting of the EPR lines indicate that there are two inequivalent chains along the needle axis. Data to 4 K indicate no significant changes in the angle dependence but an anomalous monotonic broadening of the linewidths is observed as temperature is lowered.

  16. The circumstellar envelope of S 106 - IRS 4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felli, M.; Simon, M.; Fischer, J.; Hamann, F.

    1985-04-01

    The authors present new observations that help set the parameters of the ionized circumstellar envelope of S 106-IRS 4. The part of the envelope that is optically thick at 1.35 cm wavelength is smaller than 0arcsec.15 diameter which corresponds to 90 AU at 600 pc distance. The profiles of the Brackett-α and -γ lines are somewhat different with half power widths of 121±10 and 181±15 km s-1, respectively. The He I (21P-21S) line is detected at the S 106 nebula but not at IRS 4. The He I line emission of the nebula indicates that the central star of IRS 4 must have an effective temperature of about 35,000K. Comparison of the wind model scenario presented by Felli et al. (1984) with the present data and the Paschen line and Paschen edge data of McGregor et al. (1984) shows that the model encounters difficulties when observables that require details of the velocity field and of the innermost regions of the flow are considered.

  17. A study of ultraviolet spectra of Zeta Aurigae/VV Cephei systems. VII - Chromospheric density distribution and wind acceleration region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroeder, K.-P.

    1985-06-01

    Chromospheric eclipse spectra have been obtained for three Zeta Aurigae binary systems using the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spacecraft. In order to fit average density models to the chromospheres, 3 samples of column densities (for 31 Cygni, 32 Cygni, and Zeta Aurigae K giants) were used. Wind velocities were derived assuming a continuous outflow of matter and a known M-dot value. It is shown that wind acceleration region of Zeta Aurigae underwent a temporary energy deficiency and mass loss at the time of the 1979 eclipse. The density gradients and wind acceleration regions of 31 Cygni and 32 Cygni, were found to be very similar in the corresponding eclipses of 1981 and 1982. The density and velocity structure of 31 and 32 Cygni are represented by power laws which correspond to the Alfven wave driven wind models of Hartmann and McGregor (1980). The location of the main power input per unit mass is also discussed. A sketch of the eclipse geometry of 31 Cygni is provided.

  18. Implementation of a Semi-Lagrangian scheme for water vapour and tracer advection in RegCM4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tefera Diro, Gulilat; Tompkins, Adrian; Giorgi, Filippo; Bonaventura, Luca

    2013-04-01

    A semi-Lagrangian approach is introduced in the latest version of the ICTP regional climate model (RegCM4) for water vapor and tracer advection. A 'quasi' cubic interpolation and McGregor's third order accurate trajectory calculation are used in the advection scheme. The modified scheme is evaluated on idealized as well as realistic case studies and its results are compared against those of the Eulerian scheme originally employed in RegCM4. In the idealized test cases the semi-Lagrangian scheme appears to be superior to the Eulerian scheme in terms of the dissipative and dispersive errors, especially when large gradients are present in the advected quantity. Two realistic cases of meso-scale phenomena over the European domain were also tested in a short range mode for specific humidity transport. In both cases, the semi-Lagrangian scheme has captured better the detailed structure and improved the overall pattern of the vertically integrated humidity field. In the present preliminary implementation, the scheme is more expensive than the Eulerian one. This is because the same time step is used for tracer advection as the explicit time discretization employed by the dynamical core. However, greater computational gains are expected as the number of tracers considered increases, for instance when the gas phase chemistry is switched on.

  19. Isotopic geochemistry of the Saratoga springs: Implications for the origin of solutes and source of carbon dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Donald I.; Lesniak, Keri A.; Stute, Martin; Frape, Shaun

    2004-03-01

    We report the results of an isotopic study designed to determine the source of solutes and carbon dioxide in the famed Saratoga Springs (New York) mineral waters. These waters have thousands of milligrams per liter total dissolved solid concentrations and are highly charged with carbon dioxide gas. The spring waters are cold (˜12 °C) and there is no local, deep-seated thermal anomaly. They emerge through thick shale caprock along the surface expression of normal faults. The δ13C (-5.8‰ to +0.8‰ Vienna Peedee belemnite) of the dissolved inorganic carbon and elevated 3He/4He ratios suggest that the source of the CO2 is the mantle or an ancient deep crystallized igneous melt. The stable isotopic content of the spring waters defines a mixing line between modern local meteoric waters (δ ˜ 70‰) and a component with heavier δD but similar δ18O values. This trend and that of 87Sr/86Sr of dissolved strontium versus 1/Sr are consistent with the hypothesis that Canadian Shield type brines contribute salinity to the springs. These brines plausibly migrate from the Adirondack Mountains to the topographically low McGregor fault system in the Hudson River lowlands, where the Saratoga springs discharge.

  20. KSC-07pd3009

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-10-31

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- Prior to a showing of the European Space Agency's Columbus Laboratory module, Gregor Woop, in front of the screen, provides information about the module for the media gathered at the table. Woop is the European Space Agency's product assurance and safety manager. Standing at left is Debbie Hahn, NASA mission manager. Columbus is the European Space Agency 's largest single contribution to the International Space Station. The laboratory module will expand the research facilities of the station, providing crew members and scientists around the world the ability to conduct a variety of life, physical and materials science experiments. The module is approximately 23 feet long and 15 feet wide, allowing it to hold 10 large racks of experiments. Columbus is scheduled to be transferred to Launch Pad 39A in early November, in preparation for its journey to the station. Columbus will fly aboard space shuttle Atlantis on the STS-122 mission, targeted for launch Dec. 6. Photo credit: NASA/George Shelton

  1. An intergrative factor analysis of leadership measures and theories.

    PubMed

    Sweney, A B; Fiechtner, L A; Samores, R J

    1975-05-01

    Since the instruments for measuring most of the current leadership models have never been reconciled, it is important that the relationships between them be clearly understood before assumptions of similarity are made. A sample of 103 male working students were given a battery of tests measuring leadership orientations. The tests included role preference and role pressure measures from Sweney's Response to Power Model, the California F Scale, Fiedler's Least Preferred Co-Worker Scale and Assumed Similarity Between Opposites Scale, Costley and Downey's six scales to measure McGregor's "Theory X" and "Theory Y" constructs, modified scales for the Blake and Mouton Managerial Grid, and relevant scales from the 16 PF. The results were intercorrelated and yielded 11 varimax factors based upon a Guttman criterion, as follows: Authoritarian Role Preferance, Authoritarian Role Pressure, Equalitarian Role Preferance, Equalitarian Role Pressure, Balanced Manager, People Oriented Manager, Assumed Similarity Between Opposites, Contemptuous Indulgence, Supportive Values, People Tolerance, and Organizational Tolerance. The instruments measuring authoritarianism loaded the first factor in the right direction, but most of them had their primary loadings elsewhere, suggesting greater conceptual complexity to this area than previously recognized.

  2. Random walk with long-range interaction with a barrier and its dual: Exact results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huillet, Thierry

    2010-03-01

    We consider the random walk on , with up and down transition probabilities given the chain is in state x[set membership, variant]{1,2,...}: Here [delta]>=-1 is a real tuning parameter. We assume that this random walk is reflected at the origin. For [delta]>0, the walker is attracted to the origin. The strength of the attraction goes like for large x and so is long-ranged. For [delta]<0, the walker is repelled from the origin. This chain is irreducible and periodic; it is always recurrent, either positive or null recurrent. Using Karlin-McGregor's spectral representations in terms of orthogonal polynomials and first associated orthogonal polynomials, exact expressions are obtained for first return time probabilities to the origin (excursion length), eventual return (contact) probability, excursion height and spatial moments of the walker. All exhibit power-law decay in some range of the parameter [delta]. In the study, an important role is played by the Wall duality relation for birth and death chains with reflecting barrier. Some qualitative aspects of the dual random walk (obtained by interchanging px and qx) are therefore also included.

  3. Suspension of Egg Hatching Caused by High Humidity and Submergence in Spider Mites.

    PubMed

    Ubara, Masashi; Osakabe, Masahiro

    2015-08-01

    We tested the effects of high humidity and submergence on egg hatching of spider mites. In both the high humidity and submergence treatments, many Tetranychus and Panonychus eggs did not hatch until after the hatching peak of the lower humidity or unsubmerged controls. However, after humidity decreased or water was drained, many eggs hatched within 1-3 h. This was observed regardless of when high humidity or submergence treatments were implemented: either immediately after oviposition or immediately before hatching was due. Normal eyespot formation was observed in most eggs in the high humidity and submergence treatments, which indicates that spider mite embryos develop even when eggs are underwater. Therefore, delays in hatching are not caused by delayed embryonic development. A delay in hatching was always observed in Panonychus citri (McGregor) but was more variable in Tetranychus urticae Koch and Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida. The high humidity and submergence treatments affected but did not suppress larval development in these species. In contrast, many Oligonychus eggs died following the high humidity treatments. In Tetranychus and Panonychus spider mites, suspension of egg hatching may mitigate the adverse effects of rainfall.

  4. Exploring the nature of science through courage and purpose: a case study of Nikolai Vavilov and plant biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joel I; Loskutov, Igor G

    2016-01-01

    Historical biographies facilitate teaching the 'nature of science'. This case study focuses on how Nikolai Vavilov's unrelenting sense of purpose, courage, and charismatic personality was maintained during violent revolutionary change in Russia. The rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's laws of inheritance provided Vavilov with a scientific foundation for crop improvement, this foundation was later bolstered by Vavilov's personal drive to conserve plant biodiversity. As he advanced theories and pragmatic approaches for genetic improvement and conservation of plants, political leaders in Russian came to reject Mendel's principles and eventually Vavilov's work. This rejection occurred because Joseph Stalin was desperate for a quick remedy to the famine and suffering from forced collective agriculture. Vavilov's work continued, modernizing Russian crop research while inspiring other scientists to save seeds stored in the world's first gene bank. Three themes illustrating the nature of science help examine Vavilov's life: explaining natural phenomena, uncompromising human endeavor, and revising scientific knowledge. The case study concludes with four questions to stimulate student inquiry and self-guided research. They also deepen student understanding of Vavilov's personal sacrifices to ensure use and conservation of plant biodiversity.

  5. (Semi)volatile organic compounds and microbiological entities in snow during OASIS Barrow 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariya, P.; Kos, G.

    2009-12-01

    Gregor Kos (1), Nafissa Adechina (2), Dwayne Lutchmann (2) , Roya Mortazavi, and Parisa Ariya* (1), (2) (1) McGill University, Department of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, 805 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2K6, Canada (2) McGill University, Department of Chemistry, 801 Sherbrooke Street West, Montreal, Quebec, H3A 2K6, Canada an active medium for the deposition of (semi-)volatile (bio)organic compounds. We collected surface snow samples during the OASIS Barrow campaign in March 2009 for analysis of semi-volatile organic compounds using solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (SPME-GC/MS). Additioal gab samples were taken for analysis of non-methane hydrocarbons in air. More over, we analyzed for microbial species in air and snow. Identifed organic compounds covered a wide range of functionalities andmolecular weigts, including oxygenated reactive speces such as aldehydes (e.g., hexanal to decanal), alcohols (e.g., hexanol, octanol) and aromatic species (e.g., methyl- and ethylbenzenes). Quantification data for selected aromatic species are presented with concentrations in the upper ng/L range. We will present our preliminary data on microbiological species, and will discuss the potential mplications of the results for organic snow chemistry.

  6. Atlantic gyres variability during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignot, Juliette; Sicre, Marie-Alexandrine; Khodri, Myriam; Ezat, Ullah; Jacob, Jérémy; Hall, Ian; Servonnat, Jérome; Xuang Truong, Minh

    2010-05-01

    We investigate the low frequency variability of the Atlantic subpolar and subtropical gyres over the last millennium. First, a compilation of the several recent proxy recontructions (e.g. Sicre et al. 2008, Richter et al. 2009 for the subpolar gyre, Mc Gregor et al. 2007 and unpublished data from Sicre et al. in the subtropical gyre) will allow to assess the low frequency hydrographic variability in key areas related to the horizontal circulation in the Atlantic and the upper limb of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Second, we use a simulation of the IPSL model to explore the link between the gyres circulation and the local hydrography. In a simulation reproducing the climate over the last millennium, we assess the low frequency variability of the gyres circulation over this period and the role of the external forcing and low frequency atmospheric variability in the northern North Atlantic. The aim is to help the interpretation of the data cited above at the basin-scale.

  7. Taxonomic review of Physconelloides (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) from the Columbiformes (aves), including descriptions of three new species.

    PubMed

    Price, R D; Clayton, D H; Hellenthal, R A

    1999-03-01

    We provide a comprehensive taxonomic review of Physconelloides, a genus of ischnoceran chewing lice found on pigeons and doves (Columbiformes). Thirteen previously known Physconelloides species are redescribed and 16 new synonymies are designated: P. rubripes Carriker, P. rubripes longulus Tendeiro, P. piotrowskii Tendeiro and P. auritae Tendeiro are synonyms of P. zenaidurae (McGregor); P. recurvatus Eichler, P. chocoensis Carriker and P. montana Carriker are synonyms of P. ceratoceps Ewing; P. silvestris Tendeiro is a synonym of P. perijae Carriker; P. keleri Kaddou and P. branderi Kaddou are synonyms of P. spenceri Emerson and Ward; P. wolfdietrichi Kaddou is a synonym of P. anolaimae Carriker; and Goniocotacanthus mattogrossensis Guimaraes, P. passerinae Emerson, P. eurysema pretiosa Carriker, P. talpacoti Carriker and P. picuii Tendeiro are synonyms of P. eurysema (Carriker). Three new species are also described: P. moyeri (type host Geotrygon linearis), P. johnsoni (type host Columbina passerina bahamensis), and P. robbinsi (type host Metriopelia ceciliae). A key is provided for identification of the 16 recognized species.

  8. Correcting for cell-type effects in DNA methylation studies: reference-based method outperforms latent variable approaches in empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Hattab, Mohammad W; Shabalin, Andrey A; Clark, Shaunna L; Zhao, Min; Kumar, Gaurav; Chan, Robin F; Xie, Lin Ying; Jansen, Rick; Han, Laura K M; Magnusson, Patrik K E; van Grootheest, Gerard; Hultman, Christina M; Penninx, Brenda W J H; Aberg, Karolina A; van den Oord, Edwin J C G

    2017-01-30

    Based on an extensive simulation study, McGregor and colleagues recently recommended the use of surrogate variable analysis (SVA) to control for the confounding effects of cell-type heterogeneity in DNA methylation association studies in scenarios where no cell-type proportions are available. As their recommendation was mainly based on simulated data, we sought to replicate findings in two large-scale empirical studies. In our empirical data, SVA did not fully correct for cell-type effects, its performance was somewhat unstable, and it carried a risk of missing true signals caused by removing variation that might be linked to actual disease processes. By contrast, a reference-based correction method performed well and did not show these limitations. A disadvantage of this approach is that if reference methylomes are not (publicly) available, they will need to be generated once for a small set of samples. However, given the notable risk we observed for cell-type confounding, we argue that, to avoid introducing false-positive findings into the literature, it could be well worth making this investment.Please see related Correspondence article: https://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10/1186/s13059-017-1149-7 and related Research article: https://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13059-016-0935-y.

  9. Interspecific interactions involving Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis (Acari: Stigmaeidae) as predators of Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari: Tenuipalpidae).

    PubMed

    da Silva, Marcos Zatti; Sato, Mário Eidi; de Oliveira, Carlos Amadeu Leite; Nicastro, Roberto Lomba

    2015-03-01

    Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes) is associated with the transmission of Citrus leprosis which is considered the main viral disease for the Brazilian citrus production. Mites of the families Stigmaeidae and Phytoseiidae coexist in various agricultural crops, often promoting the biological control of pest mites. The aim of this work was to study the interactions of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) (Phytoseiidae) and Agistemus brasiliensis Matioli, Ueckermann & Oliveira (Stigmaeidae), in the presence or absence of B. phoenicis. Two experiments were carried out. In the first, a N. californicus female was placed in each leaf disc arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and A. brasiliensis as food sources. In the second, an A. brasiliensis female was placed in each arena, with eggs of B. phoenicis and N. californicus as food sources. Adults of both predators were able to consume both types of eggs available as food sources, but they fed on considerably higher proportions of B. phoenicis than on eggs of the predator. Eggs of A. brasiliensis were not a suitable food source for N. californicus, which produced only 0.1 egg per female per day when only eggs of that species were present in the experimental unit. The results suggest that eggs of N. californicus were a suitable food source for A. brasiliensis, which oviposited 1.12 eggs per day, when only eggs of N. californicus were provided to the stigmaeid mite. The possible interactions among N. californicus, A. brasiliensis and B. phoenicis in citrus orchards are discussed.

  10. Widespread Contamination of Arabidopsis Embryo and Endosperm Transcriptome Data Sets[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    A major goal of global gene expression profiling in plant seeds has been to investigate the parental contributions to the transcriptomes of early embryos and endosperm. However, consistency between independent studies has been poor, leading to considerable debate. We have developed a statistical tool that reveals the presence of substantial RNA contamination from maternal tissues in nearly all published Arabidopsis thaliana endosperm and early embryo transcriptomes generated in these studies. We demonstrate that maternal RNA contamination explains the poor reproducibility of these transcriptomic data sets. Furthermore, we found that RNA contamination from maternal tissues has been repeatedly misinterpreted as epigenetic phenomena, which has resulted in inaccurate conclusions regarding the parental contributions to both the endosperm and early embryo transcriptomes. After accounting for maternal RNA contamination, no published genome-wide data set supports the concept of delayed paternal genome activation in plant embryos. Moreover, our analysis suggests that maternal and paternal genomic imprinting are equally rare events in Arabidopsis endosperm. Our publicly available software (https://github.com/Gregor-Mendel-Institute/tissue-enrichment-test) can help the community assess the level of contamination in transcriptome data sets generated from both seed and non-seed tissues. PMID:28314828

  11. Mendel’s Genes: Toward a Full Molecular Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Reid, James B.; Ross, John J.

    2011-01-01

    The discipline of classical genetics is founded on the hereditary behavior of the seven genes studied by Gregor Mendel. The advent of molecular techniques has unveiled much about the identity of these genes. To date, four genes have been sequenced: A (flower color), LE (stem length), I (cotyledon color), and R (seed shape). Two of the other three genes, GP (pod color) and FA (fasciation), are amenable to candidate gene approaches on the basis of their function, linkage relationships, and synteny between the pea and Medicago genomes. However, even the gene (locus) identity is not known for certain for the seventh character, the pod form, although it is probably V. While the nature of the mutations used by Mendel cannot be determined with certainty, on the basis of the varieties available in Europe in the 1850s, we can speculate on their nature. It turns out that these mutations are attributable to a range of causes—from simple base substitutions and changes to splice sites to the insertion of a transposon-like element. These findings provide a fascinating connection between Mendelian genetics and molecular biology that can be used very effectively in teaching new generations of geneticists. Mendel’s characters also provide novel insights into the nature of the genes responsible for characteristics of agronomic and consumer importance. PMID:21908742

  12. KSC-2011-7939

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-11-25

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – An educational news conference to explore "Why Mars Excites and Inspires Us" begins in NASA Kennedy Space Center's Press Site auditorium in Florida during prelaunch activities for the agency’s Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) launch. Participants are, from left, Leland Melvin, NASA associate administrator for Education; Clara Ma, student, NASA contest winner for naming Curiosity, Shawnee Mission East High School, Prairie Village, Kansas; Scott Anderson, teacher and science department chairman, Da Vinci School for Science and the Arts, El Paso, Texas; Lauren Lyons, graduate student, Harvard University, FIRST robotics alumna; and Veronica McGregor, manager, Media Relations Office, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. MSL's car-sized Martian rover, Curiosity, has 10 science instruments designed to search for signs of life, including methane, and help determine if the gas is from a biological or geological source. Ma's entry was selected the winner from 9,000 entries in NASA's nationwide student contest to name the rover. At the time, she was a twelve-year-old sixth-grade student at the Sunflower Elementary school in Lenexa, Kansas. Liftoff of MSL aboard a United Launch Alliance Atlas V rocket from Space Launch Complex-41 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station is planned during a launch window which extends from 10:02 a.m. to 11:45 a.m. EST on Nov. 26. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/msl. Photo credit: NASA/Kim Shiflett

  13. Mites occurrence on Pachira aquatica Aubl. including aspects of external mouthpart morphology of Brachytydeus formosa (Acari: Tydeidae).

    PubMed

    Lorençon, J R; Andrade, S C; Andrade, D J

    2016-02-01

    Pachira aquatica Aubl. is commonly used as an ornamental plant in urban areas of Brazil. The objective of the study was to investigate the occurrence of mites on P. aquatica, with emphasis on Brachytydeus formosa (Cooreman), and to describe aspects the external features of its mouthpart. The study was conducted in 2012 in Jaboticabal, State of São Paulo, Brazil. Ten trees of P. aquatica were selected for the experiment. Approximately 130 leaflets were collected from each tree, which were located in different quadrants (north, south, east, and west) and strata (upper, middle, and lower). The leaflets were placed in paper bags and transported to the laboratory. The mites were prepared on optical microscope slides. A total of eleven species of mites were found, belonging to eight different families. The species and genera of the organisms included B. formosa, Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor), Agistemus sp., Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank, 1781), Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes), Brevipalpus sp., Cheletogenes sp., Iphiseiodes zuluagai Denmark & Muma, Euseius sp., Neoseiulus sp., and only one specimen from the Bdellidae family. The predominant species was B. formosa, with 8,142 mites equally distributed among the four quadrants and mostly in the middle and upper strata of the plant. B. formosa mites from leaflets of P. aquatica were separated for the study of the external mouthpart morphology by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  14. DNA barcoding as a screening tool for cryptic diversity: an example from Caryocolum, with description of a new species (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae).

    PubMed

    Huemer, Peter; Karsholt, Ole; Mutanen, Marko

    2014-01-01

    We explore the potential value of DNA barcode divergence for species delimitation in the genus Caryocolum Gregor & Povolný, 1954 (Lepidoptera, Gelechiidae), based on data from 44 European species (including 4 subspecies). Low intraspecific divergence of the DNA barcodes of the mtCOI (cytochrome c oxidase 1) gene and/or distinct barcode gaps to the nearest neighbor support species status for all examined nominal taxa. However, in 8 taxa we observed deep splits with a maximum intraspecific barcode divergence beyond a threshold of 3%, thus indicating possible cryptic diversity. The taxonomy of these taxa has to be re-assessed in the future. We investigated one such deep split in Caryocolum amaurella (Hering, 1924) and found it in congruence with yet unrecognized diagnostic morphological characters and specific host-plants. The integrative species delineation leads to the description of Caryocolum crypticum sp. n. from northern Italy, Switzerland and Greece. The new species and the hitherto intermixed closest relative C. amaurella are described in detail and adults and genitalia of both species are illustrated and a lectotype of C. amaurella is designated; a diagnostic comparison of the closely related C. iranicum Huemer, 1989, is added.

  15. Cell theory, specificity, and reproduction, 1837-1870.

    PubMed

    Müller-Wille, Staffan

    2010-09-01

    The cell is not only the structural, physiological, and developmental unit of life, but also the reproductive one. So far, however, this aspect of the cell has received little attention from historians and philosophers of biology. I will argue that cell theory had far-reaching consequences for how biologists conceptualized the reproductive relationships between germs and adult organisms. Cell theory, as formulated by Theodor Schwann in 1839, implied that this relationship was a specific and lawful one, that is, that germs of a certain kind, all else being equal, would produce adult organisms of the same kind, and vice versa. Questions of preformation and epigenesis took on a new meaning under this presupposition. The question then became one of whether cells could be considered as autonomous agents producing adult organisms of a given species, or whether they were the product of external, organizing forces and thus only a stage in the development of the whole organism. This question became an important issue for nineteenth-century biology. As I will demonstrate, it was the view of cells as autonomous agents which helped both Charles Darwin and Gregor Mendel to think of inheritance as a lawful process.

  16. Comparative Demography of the Spider Mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus, on four Date Palm Varieties in Southwestern Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Chaaban, Sameh Ben; Chermiti, Brahim; Kreiter, Serge

    2011-01-01

    The date palm mite, Oligonychus afrasiaticus (McGregor) (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a serious pest of palm date fruits. Life cycle, fecundity, and longevity of this mite were studied on fruits of four date palms, Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecales: Arecaceae)(varieties: Deglet Noor, Alig, Kentichi, and Besser), under laboratory conditions at 27 = 1 °C, 60 ± 10% RH. Total development time of immature female was shorter on Deglet Noor fruits than on the other cultivars. O. afrasiaticus on Deglet Noor had the highest total fecundity per female, while low fecundity values occurred on Besser. The comparison of intrinsic rates of natural increase (rm), net reproductive rates (Ro), and the survival rates of immature stage of O. afrasiaticus on the host plants suggests that O. afrasiaticus performs better on Deglet Noor fruits. The mite feeding on Alig showed the lowest intrinsic rate of natural population increase (rm = 0.103 day 1). The estimation of difference in susceptibility of cultivars to O. afrasiaticus is crucial for developing efficient pest control programs. Indeed, less susceptible cultivars can either be left unsprayed or sprayed at low threshold. PMID:22233420

  17. Predatory behaviors of Neoseiulus californicus and Galendromus helveolus (Acari: Phytoseiidae) attacking Oligonychus perseae (Acari: Tetranychidae).

    PubMed

    Takano-Lee, M; Hoddle, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Predatory behaviors of Neosieulus californicus (McGregor) and Galendromus helveolus (Chant) attacking Oligonychus perseae Tuttle, Baker and Abbatiello on avocado leaves were videotaped and analyzed. Behaviors were recorded for "fresh" predators that were used < or = 48 hr post receipt from a commercial insectary and "cold stored" predators that were maintained at 12 degrees C for approximately 14 days. Fresh and cold stored G. helveolus were observed to attack O. perseae only after invading webbed nests. Conversely. fresh and cold stored N. californicus employed three different modes of predatory attack: (1) intercepting and attacking migrant O. perseae outside of web nests: (2) attacking prey through nest webbing; or (3) invading and attacking O. perseae inside nests. Predatory efficacy of both N. californicus and G. helveolus was reduced following cold storage. as both species engaged in certain predatory behaviors less frequently in comparison to predators that were not stored at low temperatures. Our observed results for N. californicus and G. helveolus attacking O. perseae are interpreted in relation to the chaetotaxy hypothesis, which proposes that phytoseiid invasion efficiency and propensity of webbed nests is facilitated by dorsal setal lengths.

  18. Coincidental intraguild predation by caterpillars on spider mites.

    PubMed

    Shirotsuka, Kanako; Yano, Shuichi

    2012-01-29

    Intraguild predation (IGP) is defined as the killing and eating of prey species by a predator that also can utilize the resources of the prey. It is mainly reported among carnivores that share common herbivorous prey. However, a large chewing herbivore could prey upon sedentary and/or micro herbivores in addition to utilizing a host plant. To investigate such coincidental IGP, we observed the behavioral responses of the polyphagous mite Tetranychus kanzawai Kishida (Acari: Tetranychidae) when its host plant Cayratia japonica (Thunb.) Gagnep. (Vitaceae) was attacked by hornworms, Theretra japonica Boisduval (Sphingidae) and T. oldenlandiae Fabricius (Sphingidae). We also examined an interaction between the oligophagous mite Panonychus citri McGregor (Acari: Tetranychidae) and caterpillars of the swallowtail Papilio xuthus L. (Papilionidae) that share citrus plants as their main food source. Although all T. kanzawai and some active stage P. citri tried to escape from the coincidental IGP, some were consumed together with eggs, quiescent mites, and host plant leaves, suggesting that coincidental IGP occurs on spider mites in the wild. Moreover, neither hornworms nor swallowtail caterpillars distinguished between spider mite-infested and uninfested leaves, suggesting that the mite-infested leaves do not discourage caterpillar feeding. The reasons that the mites have no effective defense against coincidental IGP other than escaping are discussed.

  19. Characterization of optical turbulence at the solar observatory at the Mount Teide, Tenerife

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sprung, Detlev; Sucher, Erik

    2013-10-01

    Optical turbulence represented by the structure function parameter of the refractive index Cn2 is regarded as one of the chief causes of image degradation of ground-based astronomical telescopes operating in visible or infrared wavebands. Especially, it affects the attainable spatial resolution. Therefore since the middle of September 2012 the optical turbulence has been monitored between two German solar telescopes at the Observatory in Tenerife /Canary Islands /Spain. It comprises the solar telescope GREGOR and the vacuum tower telescope VTT mounted on two 30 m high towers. Between the two towers at the level of the telescopes, Cn2 was measured using a Laser-Scintillometer SLS40 (Scintec, Rottenburg, Germany). The horizontal distance of the measurement path was 75 m. The first results of the measurements starting from the 15th September 2012 up to the end of December 2012 are presented and analyzed using simultaneous measured meteorological data of wind, temperature and humidity. Daily and seasonal variations are shown and discussed.

  20. On the origin of genetics and beginnings of medical genetics of diseases of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Eknoyan, Garabed

    2006-04-01

    The twentieth century has been termed the century of the gene. Although the term "gene" was introduced in 1909, interest in reproduction and heredity has occupied humankind since its transition from hunter-gatherers to farmers and herders. Heredity, as it applies to diseases, began with Greek medicine. The humoral theory of the Hippocratic Corpus provided an etiological explanation for susceptibility of individuals to certain diseases well into the nineteenth century and was variously termed diathesis, temperament, and constitution. The application of the new probability math to quantify the hybridization of sweet peas by Gregor Mendel (1822-1884) in 1866 provided a scientific basis to inheritance, which had theretofore been an amalgam of scattered empirical observations. The near simultaneous publication of Origin of Species by Charles Darwin (1809-1882) in 1859 was a key catalyst in the transfer of what had been studies in plant biology into studies of populations and humans. The subsequent growth of genetics has been the outcome of interplay of technological breakthroughs in statistical analysis, cytology, biochemistry, physics, and computer science, coupled with the insightful analysis of workers in the field, several of whom have been the recipients of the Nobel Prize in medicine or chemistry since 1933. Application of these techniques to molecular biology and medical genetics is just beginning to yield insight into diseases of the kidney and provide visions of their likely therapies in the future.

  1. The Full Breadth of Mendel’s Genetics

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Peter J.; Ellis, T. H. Noel

    2016-01-01

    Gregor Mendel’s “Experiments on Plant Hybrids” (1865/1866), published 150 years ago, is without doubt one of the most brilliant works in biology. Curiously, Mendel’s later studies on Hieracium (hawkweed) are usually seen as a frustrating failure, because it is assumed that they were intended to confirm the segregation ratios he found in Pisum. Had this been his intention, such a confirmation would have failed, since, unknown to Mendel, Hieracium species mostly reproduce by means of clonal seeds (apomixis). Here we show that this assumption arises from a misunderstanding that could be explained by a missing page in Mendel’s first letter to Carl Nägeli. Mendel’s writings clearly indicate his interest in “constant hybrids,” hybrids which do not segregate, and which were “essentially different” from “variable hybrids” such as in Pisum. After the Pisum studies, Mendel worked mainly on Hieracium for 7 years where he found constant hybrids and some great surprises. He also continued to explore variable hybrids; both variable and constant hybrids were of interest to Mendel with respect to inheritance and to species evolution. Mendel considered that their similarities and differences might provide deep insights and that their differing behaviors were “individual manifestations of a higher more fundamental law.” PMID:27927898

  2. A search for Potential Impact Sites in Southern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rocca, M. C. L.

    The Southern part of Argentina is composed of five Provinces; Tierra del Fuego, Santa Cruz, Chubut, Rio Negro and Neuquen. A search for potential impact sites was performed by the author through the examination of 76 color LANDSAT satellite images ( 1:250,000 - resolution = 250 meters ) at the Instituto Geografico Militar ( IGM ) of Buenos Aires city. When a potential candidate was found a more detailed study of the site was done. If available the radar X-SAR satellite images of the Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fur Luft-und Raumfahrt, (DLR), Berlin, Germany , were also examined. The final step was to perform a review of the available published geologic information of each site at the Servicio Geologico y Minero Argentino ( SEGEMAR ), ( =Geological Survey of Argentina ), in Buenos Aires. The resulting catalogue contains information about sites where possible simple crater or complex impact structures could be present. Each case demands future detailed and `in situ' research by an impact cratering specialist. --Tierra del Fuego: TF1 ) Ushuaia 5569-II, No 218. Cerro Taarsh, Estancia San Justo. Possible complex structure. Semi-circular area of concentric low ridges. Estimated diameter : 12 km. Probably very eroded. --Santa Cruz: SC1 ) Gobernador Gregores 4969-I, No 127. Estancia La Aragonesa Possible eroded complex structure. Circular area of low ridges, estimated diameter: 10 km.. Bull's eye like morphology. SC2 ) Gobernador Gregores 4969-I, No 127. Gran Altiplanicie Central. Possible simple crater in basalts. Diameter: 1 km.. SC3 ) Tres Lagos 4972-IV, No 106. Meseta del Bagual Chico. Possible perfectly circular simple crater in basalts. Diameter: 1.0 km.. SC4 )Paso Rio Bote 5172-II, No 20. Rio Pelque, Ruta Provincial No 5. A circular bowl-shaped structure is present on fluvial deposits of pleistocenic age. Diameter: 3.5 km.. SC5 ) Caleta Olivia 4769-II, No 28. North of Cerro Doce Grande. Possible complex structure of concentric circular rings of ridges. SC6 ) Caleta

  3. Proterozoic SCLM domains beneath Southern Patagonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mundl, Andrea; Ntaflos, Theodoros; Ackerman, Lukas; Bizimis, Michael; Bjerg, Ernesto

    2014-05-01

    Alkali basalt hosted mantle xenoliths from 3 different areas in South Patagonia were studied with regard to their petrography and chemical, as well as their Re-Os and Lu-Hf isotopic compositions. The Pali Aike Volcanic Field (PAVF) located in the very south of Patagonia comprises sample localities Salsa, El Ruido and Potrok Aike. About 300 km north, in the western part of Patagonia, samples were collected at Tres Lagos and further north-east, within and at the edge of the Deseado massif, are sample localities Gobernador Gregores and Don Camilo, respectively. The collected sample suite comprises sp-lherzolites, sp-harzburgites, one sp-dunite and exclusively within PAVF also sp-gt-lherzolites and sp-gt-harzburgites. Textures are mostly protogranular with very few samples showing weak foliation. Whole rock Al2O3 and CaO contents range from 0.63 to 3.54 wt.% and 0.24 to 3.44 wt.%, respectively and exhibit a linear correlation with MgO ranging from 39.2 to 49 wt.%. The more refractory peridotites are represented by samples from the PAVF while samples from the Deseado massif are generally more fertile. Indications for the formation age of SCLM domains can be provided using the Re-Os isotopic system. A suite of 24 modally unmetasomatised sp-lherzolites and sp-harzburgites analyzed for Re-Os isotopic composition reveals Neo- to Paleoproterozoic rhenium depletion ages. Don Camilo and Gobernador Gregores lherzolites indicate a SCLM formation in Mesoproterozoic times (0.9 to 1.3 Ga). Tres Lagos harzburgites reveal slightly older formation ages with a max. TRD of 1.7 Ga. Samples from within the PAVF vary more strongly in 187Os/188Os ratios with Neo- to late Paleoproterozoic TRDs. 3 refractory samples indicate an at least 2.4 Ga old formation age of the SCLM domain underneath PAVF. Hf isotopic data combined with the information obtained from Os isotopic analyses provide new information on potential metasomatic overprints and their probable timing. Negative to low positive

  4. The residual and direct effects of reduced-risk and conventional miticides on twospotted spider mites, Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

    SciTech Connect

    Liburd, O.E.; White, J.C.; Rhodes, E.M.; Browdy, A.A.

    2007-03-15

    The residual effects of several reduced-risk and conventional miticides were evaluated in strawberries (Fragaria z ananassa Duchesne) on the twospotted spider mite (TSSM), Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae) and on 2 predatory mites, Neoseiulus californicus McGregor and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot (Acari: Phytoseiidae). Experiments were conducted in the laboratory and greenhouse. The greenhouse experiments also tested the direct effects of the miticides on TSSM. The efficacy of conventional and reduced-risk miticides was evaluated on strawberry leaf discs and on whole plants for control of TSSM. Furthermore, the residual effects of these miticides were evaluated on whole strawberry plants against selective predatory mites. For TSSM, 5 treatments were evaluated: a conventional miticide; fenbutatin-oxide (Vendex[reg]) and 3 reduced-risk miticides; binfenazate (Acramite 50WP[reg]), activated garlic extract (Repel[reg]), sesame seed and castor oil (Wipeout[reg]), and a water-treated control. For predatory mites, the residual effects of only Acramite[reg] and Vendex[reg] were evaluated. Acramite[reg] was the most effective acaricide in reducing TSSM populations in both the laboratory and greenhouse experiments. Vendex[reg] and Wipeout[reg] were also effective in the laboratory, but did not cause significant reduction of TSSM in the greenhouse. Repel[reg] was the least effective of the 4 pesticides evaluated. Neither Acramite[reg] nor Vendex[reg] had a significant effect on either predatory mite species. However, there appeared to be more predatory mites on the Vendex[reg]-treated plants than on the Acramite[reg]-treated plants. There were significantly more predatory mites of both species on the cue plants, which were inoculated with TSSM versus the non-cue plants, which were not inoculated. (author) [Spanish] Los efectos residuales en poblaciones de la 'arana roja', Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranichidae) y de los acaros predadores

  5. Lithological and structural controls for glacial valley development in the Valais, Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valla, P. G.; Herman, F.; Champagnac, J.-D.

    2009-04-01

    Quaternary glaciations affected most modern mountain ranges and shaped glacial landscapes including U-shaped valleys, overdeepenings, cirques and ridgelines. Glacial valley formation has been explained using qualitative morphometric evidence or small-scale models (e.g., MacGregor et al., 2000); however glacial erosion rates and the timing of glacial valley formation are presently poorly understood. Glacial erosion is often approximated by scaling erosion rates to the basal sliding velocity of ice (e.g., Herman and Braun, 2008); and several studies show that the faster erosion occurs at the Equilibrium Line Altitude (ELA, e.g., Anderson et al., 2006). Furthermore it has been proposed that lithology and structural control influence glacial erosion (Harbor, 1995). The Valais in the Swiss Alps is an ideal natural laboratory to better understand these issues. This area is mainly drained by the Rhône valley, a large and overdeepened U-shaped valley; with several high relief transverse valleys. The geology of the area is contrasted, most transverse valleys cut into Penninic metamorphic rocks, whereas the Rhône valley lies mainly on soft Mesozoic sedimentary sequences, highly fracturated by the long-lived Rhône-Simplon fault zone (e.g., Hubbard and Mancktelow, 1992; Champagnac et al., 2003). This context is thus ideal to test potential lithological and/or structural controls on glacial valley formation. We used a 2D numerical model (Herman and Braun, 2008) that is calibrated using the sediment budget record since the Last Glacial Maximum (Hinderer, 2001), LGM ice-surface geometry (Kelly et al., 2004), and field observations. We first explore the effects of initial topographic conditions on the computed erosion patterns. Using a uniform lithology, the predicted glacial erosion patterns do not enable explaining the contrast between the overdeepened Rhône valley and its lateral tributaries. Lithological dependent erosion law is therefore necessary to explain these spatial

  6. Monitoring of active layer thermal regime and depth on CALM-S site, James Ross Island, Eastern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrbáček, Filip; Kňažková, Michaela; Nývlt, Daniel; Láska, Kamil; Mueller, Carsten W.; Ondruch, Jakub

    2017-04-01

    Active layer thickness and its dynamic are considered one of the key parameters of permafrost-affected ground. They variability are very sensitive to specific local conditions, especially climate, vegetation, snow cover or soil texture and moisture. To better understand the local variability of active layer thickness in Antarctica, the original Circumpolar Active Layer Monitoring protocol (CALM) was adapted as its southern form (CALM-S) with respect to specific conditions of Antarctica. To date, almost 40 CALM-S sites were registered across the Antarctic continent with the highest density on western Antarctic Peninsula (South Shetlands) and Victoria Land in East Antarctica (McMurdo region). On James Ross Island, CALM-S site was established in February 2014 as the first CALM-S in the eastern Antarctic Peninsula region. The CALM-S site is located near the Johann Gregor Mendel Station on the northern coast of James Ross Island. The area delimited to 80 × 70 m is elevated at 8 to 11 m asl. Geologically it consists of a Holocene marine terrace ( 80% of CALM-S area) with typical sandy material and passes to lithified to poorly disintegrated sedimentary rocks of Cretaceous Whisky Bay Formation ( 20% of CALM-S area) with a more muddy material and a typical bimodal composition. For both geologically different parts of CALM-S site, ground temperature was measured at two profiles at several levels up to 200 cm depth using resistance thermometers Pt100/8 (accuracy ± 0.15 °C). The air temperature at 2 m above surface was monitored at the automatic weather station near Johann Gregor Mendel Station using resistance thermometer Pt100/A (accuracy ± 0.15 °C). Data used in this study were obtained during the period from 1 March 2013 to 6 February 2016. Mechanical probing of active layer depth was performed in 72 grid points at the end of January, or beginning of February in 2014 to 2016. During the whole study period, mean annual air temperature varied between -7.0 °C (2013

  7. Coastal and Oceanic SST variability along the western Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, F.; Gómez Gesteira, M.; Decastro, M.; Álvarez, I.

    2010-09-01

    Trends in coastal and oceanic Sea Surface Temperature (SST) were analyzed along the western Iberian Peninsula for the period 1900-2008. SST data were obtained from the UK Meteorological Office, Hadley Centre (http://badc.nerc.ac.uk/data/hadisst). Nodes were distributed on a 1°x1° grid with monthly periodicity. Twelve points were considered from 37°N to 43°N, six at coastal locations (9°W) and six at oceanic locations (14°W). SST has undergone several periods of warming and cooling during the last century. In particularly, two warming periods (from 1900 to 1955 and from 1970 to 2008), and one cooling period (from 1955 to 1975). In addition, the increment of SST (ΔSST) has been calculated as the SST difference between coastal and ocean locations at the same latitude. This parameter has been used by some authors to characterize the upwelling (Nykjaer & VanCamp, 1994). In the inter-annual evolution of the average of ΔSST: two of increase (from 1920 to 1950 and from 1980 to 2008) and one of decrease (from 1950 to 1980). The same study was carried out seasonally. Three seasons were selected according to the periods of high, moderate or low ΔSST: November-February (NDJF); March-June (MAMJ) and July-October (JASO). The greatest differences between coast and ocean were observed during JASO and lowest ones during MAMJ. Negative values were detected during the whole year being more negative from July to September coinciding with the upwelling season (Alvarez et al., 2005). The seasonal ΔSST shows the same increase and decrease cycles as the annual ΔSST evolution. SST patterns showed that warming and cooling trends were less intense near coast than in the ocean. The possible causes of this behavior were analyzed. If the mechanism described by Bakun (1990) and McGregor et al., (2007) is assumed, coastal upwelling is revealed as the main cause of this behavior. On the contrary, when upwelling index evolution is calculated from wind data, coastal upwelling is not

  8. Four centuries of tropical Pacific sea-surface temperature from coral archives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emile-Geay, J.; Guillot, D.; Cobb, K. M.; Cole, J. E.; Correge, T.; Tudhope, A. W.; Rajaratnam, B.

    2012-12-01

    Our ability to judge the significance of recent climate change is fundamentally limited by the shortness and sparsity of the instrumental record. It is therefore crucial to extend the latter, particularly in the tropical Pacific where powerful air/sea interactions orchestrate global-scale low-frequency climate variability. Reconstructions of tropical sea-surface temperature (SST) variability have traditionally relied heavily on extratropical proxy records, particularly dendrochronological ones. Such dependence hinders a rigorous examination of the links between tropical SST and continental hydroclimate in the pre-instrumental era. Here we use an expanded network of high-resolution coral proxies and a novel statistical methodology (GraphEM Guillot et al., in revision) to reconstruct tropical Pacific SST back to 1600 C.E solely from annually-banded coral archives. The network and method prove able to capture ˜ 30% of interannual SST variability in the NINO3.4 region, but systematically under-represents El Nino events, especially strong ones, which negatively affect coral physiology at some sites. La Nina events, however, are more faithfully captured. The reconstructed NINO3.4 displays no long-term trend since 1600 C.E, contradicting claims that the twentieth century is anomalous with respect to a long-term baseline (McGregor et al., 2010). Changes in the preponderance of ENSO 'flavors' (Eastern Pacific vs Central Pacific El Nino events) are assessed using the methodology of (Yeh et al., 2009), and suggests that the late twentieth century trend towards increased CP El Nino occurrences is within historic norms, consistent with results employing a multivariate red noise model (Newman et al., 2011). The link to North American droughts is assessed by comparison to the Palmer Drought Severity Index from the North American Drought Atlas v2a (Cook et al., 2004; Cook, 2008): the pattern corresponding to notable droughts in the US southwest is cool tropical Pacific, both

  9. Universe Clinopyroxene barometer -recalibrations on the results of the orthopyroxene thermobarometry and experimental results and applications to the clinopyroxene geotherms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashchepkov, I. V.

    2009-04-01

    The internal exchange of Jd-Di components on clinopyroxene allow to calibrate the universal clinopyroxene thermobarometer (Ashchepkov, 2001; 2002; 2003) based on experimental data for different systems including peridotitic, eclogitic and igneous which are represented by the augite cumulates as well as salites from the basic granulates from low crust. The equation to the peridotitic system was calibrated on the results of the othopyroxene thermobarometry (Brey. Kohler,1990- McGregor,1974). Modifications allow receiving the better agreement with the orthopyroxene estimates and results of polymineral thermobarometry (Brey, Kohler, 1990) as well as the clinopyroxene thermobarometry (Nimis, Taylor, 2000). The following equation allows working with the peridotite of the mantle lithosphere beneath cratons (30-80) kbar. P(Ash2009)=0.32 (1-0.2*Na/Al+0.012*Fe/Na)*Kd^(3/4)*ToK/(1+Fe)-35*ln(1273/ToK)*(Al+Ti+2.5Na+1.5Fe3+)+(0.9-CaO)*10+Na20/Al2O3*ToK /200 with the second iteration P=(0.0000002* P4 +0.000002+P^3-0.0027*P^2+1.2241*P) Checking of the HP experiments (Brey et al 2008, Walter, 1998; Falloon, Green, 1989; Dasgupta et al., 2007 etc.) it show the precision close to those of the best barometers (McGregor, 1974) ~5-7 but much more wider compositional range including metasomatic associations and The equation for the Al - rich assemblages allow to obtain the pressure estimates fro the megacrystalls and Al - rich peridotitic clinopyroxenes from the mantle xenoliths carried by alkaline basalts: P(Ash2009)=0.035*Kd*ToK(1+2.44Fe)-50.2 ln(1273/ToK) (Al+Ti+Na) Together with the clinopyroxene thermometer (Nimis, Taylor, 2000) it produces the TP estimates very close to those obtained with (Brey, Kohler, 1990) and values of experiments for the melting of basalts. The meagacrystalls show the polybaric origin and their range of estimated pressure corresponds well to determined for mantle peridotites and pyroxenites. The clinopyroxene geotherms for S. Africa (Boyd, Nixon, 1974

  10. The use of the cannibalistic habit and elevated relative humidity to improve the storage and shipment of the predatory mite Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    PubMed

    Ghazy, Noureldin Abuelfadl; Amano, Hiroshi

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using the cannibalistic habits of the mite Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) and controlling the relative humidity (RH) to prolong the survival time during the storage or shipment of this predatory mite. Three-day-old mated and unmated females were individually kept at 25 ± 1 °C in polypropylene vials (1.5 mL), each containing one of the following items or combinations of items: a kidney bean leaf disk (L), N. californicus eggs (E), and both a leaf disk and the eggs (LE). Because the leaf disk increased the RH in the vials, the RH was 95 ± 2 % under the L and LE treatments and 56 ± 6 % under the E treatment. The median lethal time (LT50) exceeded 50 days for the mated and unmated females under the LE treatment. However, it did not exceed 11 or 3 days for all females under the L or E treatments, respectively. Under the LE treatment, the mated and unmated females showed cannibalistic behavior and consumed an average of 5.2 and 4.6 eggs/female/10 days. Some of the females that survived for LT50 under each treatment were transferred and fed normally with a constant supply of Tetranychus urticae Koch. Unmated females were provided with adult males for 24 h for mating. Only females previously kept at LE treatment produced numbers of eggs equivalent to the control females (no treatment is applied). The results suggested that a supply of predator eggs and leaf material might have furnished nutrition and water vapor, respectively, and that this combination prolonged the survival time of N. californicus during storage. Moreover, this approach poses no risk of pest contamination in commercial products.

  11. Evolution of Sedimentary Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veizer, J.; MacKenzie, F. T.

    2003-12-01

    For almost a century, it has been recognized that the present-day thickness and areal extent of Phanerozoic sedimentary strata increase progressively with decreasing geologic age. This pattern has been interpreted either as reflecting an increase in the rate of sedimentation toward the present (Barrell, 1917; Schuchert, 1931; Ronov, 1976) or as resulting from better preservation of the younger part of the geologic record ( Gilluly, 1949; Gregor, 1968; Garrels and Mackenzie, 1971a; Veizer and Jansen, 1979, 1985).Study of the rocks themselves led to similarly opposing conclusions. The observed secular (=age) variations in relative proportions of lithological types and in chemistry of sedimentary rocks (Daly, 1909; Vinogradov et al., 1952; Nanz, 1953; Engel, 1963; Strakhov, 1964, 1969; Ronov, 1964, 1982) were mostly given an evolutionary interpretation. An opposing, uniformitarian, approach was proposed by Garrels and Mackenzie (1971a). For most isotopes, the consensus favors deviations from the present-day steady state as the likely cause of secular trends.This chapter attempts to show that recycling and evolution are not opposing, but complementary, concepts. It will concentrate on the lithological and chemical attributes of sediments, but not deal with the evolution of sedimentary mineral deposits (Veizer et al., 1989) and of life ( Sepkoski, 1989), both well amenable to the outlined conceptual treatment. The chapter relies heavily on Veizer (1988a) for the sections dealing with general recycling concepts, on Veizer (2003) for the discussion of isotopic evolution of seawater, and on Morse and Mackenzie (1990) and Mackenzie and Morse (1992) for discussion of carbonate rock recycling and environmental attributes.

  12. Magnetic fields of opposite polarity in sunspot penumbrae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franz, M.; Collados, M.; Bethge, C.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Borrero, J. M.; Schmidt, W.; Lagg, A.; Solanki, S. K.; Berkefeld, T.; Kiess, C.; Rezaei, R.; Schmidt, D.; Sigwarth, M.; Soltau, D.; Volkmer, R.; von der Luhe, O.; Waldmann, T.; Orozco, D.; Pastor Yabar, A.; Denker, C.; Balthasar, H.; Staude, J.; Hofmann, A.; Strassmeier, K.; Feller, A.; Nicklas, H.; Kneer, F.; Sobotka, M.

    2016-11-01

    Context. A significant part of the penumbral magnetic field returns below the surface in the very deep photosphere. For lines in the visible, a large portion of this return field can only be detected indirectly by studying its imprints on strongly asymmetric and three-lobed Stokes V profiles. Infrared lines probe a narrow layer in the very deep photosphere, providing the possibility of directly measuring the orientation of magnetic fields close to the solar surface. Aims: We study the topology of the penumbral magnetic field in the lower photosphere, focusing on regions where it returns below the surface. Methods: We analyzed 71 spectropolarimetric datasets from Hinode and from the GREGOR infrared spectrograph. We inferred the quality and polarimetric accuracy of the infrared data after applying several reduction steps. Techniques of spectral inversion and forward synthesis were used to test the detection algorithm. We compared the morphology and the fractional penumbral area covered by reversed-polarity and three-lobed Stokes V profiles for sunspots at disk center. We determined the amount of reversed-polarity and three-lobed Stokes V profiles in visible and infrared data of sunspots at various heliocentric angles. From the results, we computed center-to-limb variation curves, which were interpreted in the context of existing penumbral models. Results: Observations in visible and near-infrared spectral lines yield a significant difference in the penumbral area covered by magnetic fields of opposite polarity. In the infrared, the number of reversed-polarity Stokes V profiles is smaller by a factor of two than in the visible. For three-lobed Stokes V profiles the numbers differ by up to an order of magnitude.

  13. Male 11-ketotestosterone levels change as a result of being watched in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens.

    PubMed

    Dzieweczynski, Teresa L; Eklund, Amy C; Rowland, William J

    2006-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of nesting status and the presence of an audience on 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) levels in male Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Prior studies have demonstrated that both nesting status, an indicator of territory-holding power and reproductive state, and the sex of a conspecific audience lead to differences in male behavior during aggressive encounters. Since behavioral changes have already been demonstrated, we chose to investigate whether 11KT levels were also influenced by nesting status and audience presence as 11KT both stimulates, and is stimulated by, reproductive and aggressive behaviors in male teleosts. Male 11KT levels were measured from water samples taken from containers holding fish both before and after interaction. Males interacted under three treatment conditions: no audience, female audience, and male audience. Within these treatments were two nest paradigms: both males had nests or neither male had a nest. 11KT levels varied depending on nesting status and audience type. In general, 11KT levels were lower in interacting males when a female audience was present or when males had nests. Overall, 11KT showed increases or decreases as aggression increased or decreased, as shown by already established behavioral findings [see Dzieweczynski T.L., Green T.M., Earley R.L., Rowland W.J., 2005. Audience effect is context dependent in Siamese fighting fish, Betta splendens. Behav. Ecol. 16, 1025-1030; Doutrelant, C., McGregor, P.K., Oliveira, R.F., 2001. Effect of an audience on intrasexual communication in male Siamese fighting fish (Betta splendens). Behav. Ecol. 12, 283-286.]. Our results suggest that 11KT levels are influenced by reproductive status, as indicated by nest ownership, and audience presence and are most likely modulated by territorial behavior and social environment.

  14. KSC-2012-3054

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A NASA Railroad train crosses the railroad’s Jay Jay Railroad Bridge north of Launch Complex 39 at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The train is on its way to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The helium tank cars are positioned in the front and rear of the train. The long, thin tank car in the middle was used for liquid hydrogen, followed by a much larger tank car used for liquid oxygen. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  15. KSC-2012-3055

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A NASA Railroad train crosses the railroad’s Jay Jay Railroad Bridge north of Launch Complex 39 at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The train is on its way to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The helium tank cars are positioned in the front and rear of the train. The long, thin tank car in the middle was used for liquid hydrogen, followed by a much larger tank car used for liquid oxygen. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  16. [Fifty years ago, the double helix gave birth to molecular biology].

    PubMed

    Lunardi, J

    2003-01-01

    Fifty years ago, a paper signed by two young scientists, James Watson and Francis Crick, and reporting a model for DNA based on a double helix structure was published in the scientific review Nature in date of april 25, 1953. Although this model of striking simplicity and rare elegance was actually worked out in a few months by the two men, it was the result of quite 100 years of research aimed at the definition of the structure of the genetic material present in living organisms. The double helix was the outcome of a multidisciplinary approach initiated in the mid 19th century by the genetic laws of Gregor Mendel and the discovery of the chemical nature of the desoxyribonucleic acid by Johann Friedrich Miesher. The discovery of the DNA structure had been at the origin of major scientific progress regarding mechanisms that rule the replication and the expression of the genetic information. Theses researches have given birth to a new scientific field, molecular biology, which everyone will see very soon is actually part in a quasi symbiotic manner of all other biological fields dealing with life. The spectacular development of molecular biology during the last fifty years was in great part possible thanks to a concomitant enormous development of the different methods of investigation of the biological molecules and structure. The present rising of biotechnology applications is the direct consequence of the tremendous amount of fundamental knowledge gained during the last few decennia. They open very important and attractive perspectives both on medical or on socio-economic point of views. There is no doubt that the next fifty years will be as fruitful as the last ones.

  17. KSC-2012-3045

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Manatees relax in the Indian River near the NASA Railroad’s Jay Jay Railroad Bridge north of Launch Complex 39 at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The manatees were spotted by a cameraman on hand to photograph a NASA Railroad train on its way to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  18. KSC-2012-3046

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A manatee relaxes in the Indian River near the NASA Railroad’s Jay Jay Railroad Bridge north of Launch Complex 39 at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The manatee was spotted by a cameraman on hand to photograph a NASA Railroad train on its way to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  19. KSC-2012-3047

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Preparations are under way at the NASA Railroad’s Jay Jay Railroad Bridge north of Launch Complex 39 at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida for the passage of the NASA Railroad train on its way to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The permanent configuration of the drawbridge span is open, but the span will be lowered for a train to cross. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  20. KSC-2012-3044

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A manatee relaxes in the Indian River near the NASA Railroad’s Jay Jay Railroad Bridge north of Launch Complex 39 at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The manatee was spotted by a cameraman on hand to photograph a NASA Railroad train on its way to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  1. The sudden appearance of CO emission in LHA 115-S 65

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksala, M. E.; Kraus, M.; Arias, M. L.; Borges Fernandes, M.; Cidale, L.; Muratore, M. F.; Curé, M.

    2012-10-01

    Molecular emission has been detected in several Magellanic Cloud B[e] supergiants. In this Letter, we report on the detection of CO band head emission in the B[e] supergiant LHA 115-S 65, and present a K-band near-infrared spectrum obtained with the Spectrograph for INtegral Field Observation in the Near-Infrared (SINFONI; R= 4500) on the ESO VLT UT4 telescope. The observed molecular band head emission in S65 is quite surprising in the light of a previous non-detection by McGregor, Hyland & McGinn, as well as a high-resolution (R= 50 000) Gemini/Phoenix spectrum of this star taken nine months earlier showing no emission. Based on analysis of the optical spectrum by Kraus, Borges Fernandes & de Araújo, we suspect that the sudden appearance of molecular emission could be due to density build-up in an outflowing viscous disc, as seen for Be stars. This new discovery, combined with variability in two other similar evolved massive stars, indicates an evolutionary link between B[e] supergiants and luminous blue variables. Based on observations obtained with ESO telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 088.D-044 and at the Gemini Observatory which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (USA), the Science and Technology Facilities Council (UK), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação (Brazil) and Ministerio de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación Productiva (Argentina), under programme ID GS-2010B-Q-31.

  2. New mite invasions in citrus in the early years of the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Ferragut, Francisco; Navia, Denise; Ochoa, Ronald

    2013-02-01

    Several mite species commonly attack cultivated citrus around the world. Up to 104 phytophagous species have been reported causing damage to leaves, buds and fruits, but only a dozen can be considered major pests requiring control measures. In recent years, several species have expanded their geographical range primarily due to the great increase in trade and travel worldwide, representing a threat to agriculture in many countries. Three spider mite species (Acari: Tetranychidae) have recently invaded the citrus-growing areas in the Mediterranean region and Latin America. The Oriental red mite, Eutetranychus orientalis (Klein), presumably from the Near East, was detected in southern Spain in 2001. The Texas citrus mite, Eutetranychus banksi (McGregor), is widely distributed in North, Central and South America. It was first reported in Europe in 1999 on citrus in Portugal; afterwards the mite invaded the citrus orchards in southern Spain. In Latin America, the Hindustan citrus mite, Schizotetranychus hindustanicus (Hirst), previously known only from citrus and other host plants in India, was reported causing significant damage to citrus leaves and fruits in Zulia, northwest Venezuela, in the late 1990s. Later, this mite species spread to the southeast being detected on lemon trees in the state of Roraima in northern Brazil in 2008. Whereas damage levels, population dynamics and control measures are relatively well know in the case of Oriental red mite and Texas citrus mite, our knowledge of S. hindustanicus is noticeably scant. In the present paper, information on pest status, seasonal trends and natural enemies in invaded areas is provided for these species, together with morphological data useful for identification. Because invasive species may evolve during the invasion process, comparison of behavior, damage and management options between native and invaded areas for these species will be useful for understanding the invader's success and their ability to

  3. KSC-2012-3040a

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – Bubbles form around a dolphin splashing in the Indian River near the NASA Railroad’s Jay Jay Railroad Bridge north of Launch Complex 39 at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The dolphin was spotted by a cameraman on hand to photograph a NASA Railroad train on its way to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  4. KSC-2012-3042

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A dolphin swims in the Indian River near the NASA Railroad’s Jay Jay Railroad Bridge north of Launch Complex 39 at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The dolphin was spotted by a cameraman on hand to photograph a NASA Railroad train on its way to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  5. KSC-2012-3041a

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – A dolphin plays in the Indian River near the NASA Railroad’s Jay Jay Railroad Bridge north of Launch Complex 39 at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The dolphin was spotted by a cameraman on hand to photograph a NASA Railroad train on its way to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  6. Intraguild predation among Scolothrips longicornis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), Neoseiulus californicus and Typhlodromus bagdasarjani (Acari: Phytoseiidae) under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Farazmand, Azadeh; Fathipour, Yaghoub; Kamali, Karim

    2015-04-01

    This study was carried out on the ability of predatory thrips Scolothrips longicornis Priesner to feed on 2 phytoseiid species and vice versa. Also the effect of predation of Neoseiulus californicus (McGregor) on Typhlodromus bagdasarjani Wainstein and Arutunjan and vice versa was evaluated. The larvae, prepupae, and pupae of thrips and the eggs, larvae, and protonymphs of phytoseiids were selected as intraguild prey. The intraguild predation (IGP) among S. longicornis and 2 phytoseiid species was unidirectional and in favor of phytoseiids, i.e., S. longicornis was not able to feed on larval stages of 2 phytoseiids. However, N. californicus and T. bagdasarjani fed on the 1st instar larvae (1.39 and 0.80 per day), 2nd instar larvae (0.87 and 0.55 per day), prepupae (0.51 and 0.48 per day), and pupae of thrips (0.51 and 0.49 per day, respectively). Both phytoseiids fed on eggs, larvae, and protonymphal stages of each other. Females of N. californicus consumed more phytoseiid larvae (2.49 per day) than T. bagdasarjani, which consumed 1.08 N. californicus larvae per day. When Tetranychus urticae was presented as an extraguild prey, intensity of IGP between 2 species of phytoseiids and on larval stages of S. longicornis reduced significantly. Therefore, it is concluded that (i) IGP existed among the 3 examined species and lack of feeding of S. longicornis on 2 phytoseiid species can be justified by its feeding type (monophagy), (ii) N. californicus was much more prone to IGP than was T. bagdasarjani. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  7. KSC-2012-3031a

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – NASA Railroad locomotive No. 3 is enlisted to deliver tank cars from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla. The locomotive is one of three NASA Railroad locomotives built for the Toledo, Peoria and Western, or TP&W, between 1968 and 1970. It is a GM Electromotive Division SW-1500 switcher. The locomotive was acquired by NASA from the TP&W in 1984 and painted in the NASA Railroad paint scheme. The power plant was completely overhauled in 2009. The locomotive will pull the train to the interchange in Titusville, where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  8. KSC-2012-3048

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – NASA Railroad locomotive No. 3 delivers tank cars from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla. The locomotive is one of three NASA Railroad locomotives built for the Toledo, Peoria and Western, or TP&W, between 1968 and 1970. It is a GM Electromotive Division SW-1500 switcher. The locomotive was acquired by NASA from the TP&W in 1984 and painted in the NASA Railroad paint scheme. The power plant was completely overhauled in 2009. The locomotive will pull the train to the interchange in Titusville, where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  9. KSC-2012-3032a

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – At the NASA Railroad Yard at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, preparations are under way for the departure of a train made up of tank cars. The train will pass by Kennedy’s 525-foot-tall Vehicle Assembly Building in the background. The train is headed for the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  10. KSC-2012-3049

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – NASA Railroad locomotive No. 3 delivers tank cars from NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida to the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla. The locomotive is one of three NASA Railroad locomotives built for the Toledo, Peoria and Western, or TP&W, between 1968 and 1970. It is a GM Electromotive Division SW-1500 switcher. The locomotive was acquired by NASA from the TP&W in 1984 and painted in the NASA Railroad paint scheme. The power plant was completely overhauled in 2009. The locomotive will pull the train to the interchange in Titusville, where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  11. KSC-2012-3033a

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-05-23

    CAPE CANAVERAL, Fla. – At the NASA Railroad Yard at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, preparations are under way for the departure of a train made up of tank cars. The railroad’s track runs past Kennedy’s 525-foot-tall Vehicle Assembly Building in the background. The train is headed for the Florida East Coast Railway interchange in Titusville, Fla., where the train’s helium tank cars, a liquid oxygen tank car, and a liquid hydrogen dewar or tank car will be transferred for delivery to the SpaceX engine test complex outside McGregor, Texas. The railroad cars were needed in support of the Space Shuttle Program but currently are not in use by NASA following the completion of the program in 2011. Originally, the tankers belonged to the U.S. Bureau of Mines. At the peak of the shuttle program, there were approximately 30 cars in the fleet. About half the cars were returned to the bureau as launch activity diminished. Five tank cars are being loaned to SpaceX and repurposed to support their engine tests in Texas. Eight cars previously were shipped to California on loan to support the SpaceX Falcon 9 rocket launches from Space Launch Complex-4 on Vandenberg Air Force Base. SpaceX already has three helium tank cars previously used for the shuttle program at Space Launch Complex-40 on Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida. For more information, visit http://www.nasa.gov/spacex. Photo credit: NASA/Jim Grossmann

  12. A study of abrupt phentermine cessation in patients in a weight management program.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Ed J; Greenway, Frank L

    2011-07-01

    Phentermine is the most widely used antiobesity drug in the United States. Although no evidence of phentermine addiction has been published, fear that phentermine has addiction potential has contributed to curtailment of its worldwide use in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the abuse and addiction potential of long-term phentermine pharmacotherapy in patients in a weight management program. Thirty-five patients in a weight management program who abruptly stopped taking prescribed phentermine on their own initiative were examined using the 18-item Kampman Cocaine Selective Severity Assessment scale modified for phentermine. The Kampman Cocaine Selective Severity Assessment scale has also been modified by McGregor for amphetamines to assess withdrawal from amphetamine in amphetamine-addicted subjects. For comparison, 35 new patients were examined with the same scale before any treatment was initiated. Data from the treated and untreated groups were compared by t test with each other and with published data from amphetamine-addicted subjects. There were no significant differences in individual items or total scores between the patients who stopped phentermine abruptly and the patients who had never taken phentermine. There was a striking and significant difference in individual and total scores between the phentermine-treated subjects and the amphetamine-dependent subjects. Cravings for the substance abused, the hallmark characteristic of substance dependence and withdrawal, were entirely absent in the phentermine-treated subjects. Abrupt cessation of long-term phentermine therapy does not induce amphetamine-like withdrawal. Long-term phentermine therapy does not induce phentermine cravings. Symptoms observed after abrupt phentermine cessation represent loss of therapeutic effect and are not withdrawal.

  13. ELECTRONIC SCHOLARLY PUBLISHING: FOUNDATIONS OF GENETICS

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Robbins

    2002-11-10

    As the Human Genome Project (HGP) moves toward its successful completion, more and more people have become interested in understanding this project and its results. Since the HGP has significant ethical, legal, and social implications for all citizens, the number of individuals who do, or should wish to become familiar with the project is high. In addition to its importance in the training of professional geneticists, the HGP is of special relevance for undergraduate training in basic biology, and even for high-school and other K-12 education. Understanding the results of HGP research requires a familiarity with the notions of basic genetics. Unlike other disciplines that evolved over centuries, modern genetics began abruptly with the rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's work in 1900. Within a few years, fundamental concepts were elaborated and the foundations of genetics established. Because genetics developed so rapidly in just a few decades after 1900, the literature of that period constitutes a valuable resource even now. It may be read profitably by students and scientists wishing to understand the foundations of their field, as well as by laymen or historians of science. Unfortunately, the early literature is rapidly becoming almost inaccessible. Newer libraries do not hold older journals and even established libraries are moving their materials from that era into hard-to-reach (and impossible to browse) long-term storage in remote warehouses. To be sure, key studies from the early work are discussed in nearly all textbooks, but a comparison of these presentations with the actual literature shows that most textbook treatments have essentially mythologized the early work so that real understanding is lost. There have been several collections of classic works developed over the years (although none lately), but these suffer from the effects of the necessary, but nonetheless pernicious, highly selective sampling that accompanies these projects. Such selectivity

  14. Penumbral thermal structure below the visible surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrero, J. M.; Franz, M.; Schlichenmaier, R.; Collados, M.; Asensio Ramos, A.

    2017-05-01

    Context. The thermal structure of the penumbra below its visible surface (i.e., τ5 ≥ 1) has important implications for our present understanding of sunspots and their penumbrae: their brightness and energy transport, mode conversion of magneto-acoustic waves, sunspot seismology, and so forth. Aims: We aim at determining the thermal stratification in the layers immediately beneath the visible surface of the penumbra: τ5 ∈ [1,3] (≈70-80 km below the visible continuum-forming layer) Methods: We analyzed spectropolarimetric data (i.e., Stokes profiles) in three Fe i lines located at 1565 nm observed with the GRIS instrument attached to the 1.5-m solar telescope GREGOR. The data are corrected for the smearing effects of wide-angle scattered light and then subjected to an inversion code for the radiative transfer equation in order to retrieve, among others, the temperature as a function of optical depth T(τ5). Results: We find that the temperature gradient below the visible surface of the penumbra is smaller than in the quiet Sun. This implies that in the region τ5 ≥ 1 the penumbral temperature diverges from that of the quiet Sun. The same result is obtained when focusing only on the thermal structure below the surface of bright penumbral filaments. Conclusions: We interpret these results as evidence of a thick penumbra, whereby the magnetopause is not located near its visible surface. In addition, we find that the temperature gradient in bright penumbral filaments is lower than in granules. This can be explained in terms of the limited expansion of a hot upflow inside a penumbral filament relative to a granular upflow, as magnetic pressure and tension forces from the surrounding penumbral magnetic field hinder an expansion like this.

  15. Complex reconstruction of the dorsal hand using the induced membrane technique associated with bone substitute: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Guillier, David; Rizzi, Philippe; De Taddeo, Alice; Henault, Benoit; Tchurukdichian, Alain; Zwetyenga, Narcisse

    2016-01-01

    Introduction High-energy trauma of the hand often causes tissue loss involving bone, tendon and skin and is sometimes accompanied by devascularization of digits. Bone stabilization is the first step in the management of such injuries. Materials and methods A young patient presented composite tissue loss of the dorsum of his right (dominant) hand following an accident with a surface planer. Tissue loss involved the diaphyses of the first 4 metacarpals, tendons and skin with almost complete amputation of the 3rd finger. Bone stabilization comprised osteosynthesis using pins associated with cement to fill the bone defect. Hunter tendon rods were used for tendon repair and a pedicle groin flap (McGregor) was used to achieve skin coverage. The cement was replaced with autologous cortico-cancellous bone graft combined with bone paste (Nanostim) 3 months after the cement stabilization. Results Eleven months after the accident, the patient was able to return to work as a carpenter. Pinch and Grasp strength in the injured hand were half that in the contralateral hand, but there was no loss of sensitivity. Mobility was very satisfactory with a Kapandji score of 9 and a mean TAM of 280°. The patient can write, open a bottle and does not feel limited for everyday activities. Radiographically, the bone of the 3 reconstructed metacarpals appears consolidated. Conclusion The induced membrane technique allowed the reconstruction of small bone deficits in the long bones of the hand in a two-step procedure, the first step taking place in an emergency context of composite tissue trauma. PMID:27077131

  16. Models of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 Impacts. I. Ballistic Monte Carlo Plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrington, Joseph; Deming, Drake

    2001-11-01

    We model the plumes raised by impacting fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 to calculate synthetic plume views, atmospheric infall fluxes, and debris patterns. Our plume is a swarm of ballistic particles with one of several mass-velocity distributions (MVDs). The swarm is ejected instantaneously and uniformly into a cone from its apex. On falling to the ejection altitude, particles slide with horizontal deceleration following one of several schemes. The model ignores hydrodynamic and Coriolis effects. Initial conditions come from observations of plume heights and calculated or estimated properties of impactors. We adjust the plume tilt, opening angle, and minimum velocity and choose MVDs and sliding schemes to create impact patterns that match observations. Our best match uses the power-law MVD from the numerical impact model of Zahnle & Mac Low, with velocity cutoffs at 4.5 and 11.8 km s-1, a cone opening angle of 75°, a cone tilt of 30° from vertical, and a sliding constant deceleration of 1.74 m s-2. A mathematically derived feature of Zahnle & Mac Low's published cumulative MVD is a thin shell of mass at the maximum velocity, corresponding to the former atmospheric shock front. This vanguard contains 22% of the mass and 45% of the energy of the plume and accounts for several previously unexplained observations, including the large, expanding ring seen at 3.2 μm by McGregor et al. and the ``third precursors'' and ``flare'' seen near 300 and 1000 s, respectively, in the infrared light curves. We present synthetic views of the plumes in flight and after landing and derive infall fluxes of mass, energy, and vertical momentum as a function of time and position on the surface. These fluxes initialize a radiative-hydrodynamic atmosphere model (Paper II of this series) that calculates the thermal and dynamical response of the atmosphere and produces synthetic light curves.

  17. Models of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 Impacts. II. Radiative-Hydrodynamic Modeling of the Plume Splashback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, Drake; Harrington, Joseph

    2001-11-01

    We model the plume ``splashback'' phase of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 (SL9) collisions with Jupiter. We modified the ZEUS-3D hydrodynamic code to include radiative transport in the gray approximation and present validation tests. After initializing with a model Jovian atmosphere, we couple mass and momentum fluxes of SL9 plume material, as calculated by the ballistic Monte Carlo plume model of Paper I of this series. A strong and complex shock structure results. The shock temperatures produced by the model agree well with observations, and the structure and evolution of the modeled shocks account for the appearance of high-excitation molecular line emission after the peak of the continuum light curve. The splashback region cools by radial expansion as well as by radiation. The morphology of our synthetic continuum light curves agrees with observations over a broad wavelength range (0.9-12 μm). Much of the complex structure of these light curves is a natural consequence of the temperature dependence of the Planck function and the plume velocity distribution. A feature of our ballistic plume is a shell of mass at the highest velocities, which we term the ``vanguard.'' Portions of the vanguard ejected on shallow trajectories produce a lateral shock front, whose initial expansion accounts for the ``third precursors'' seen in the 2 μm light curves of the larger impacts and for hot methane emission at early times observed by Dinelli and coworkers. Continued propagation of this lateral shock approximately reproduces the radii, propagation speed, and centroid positions of the large rings observed at 3-4 μm by McGregor and coworkers. The portion of the vanguard ejected closer to the vertical falls back with high z-component velocities just after maximum light, producing CO emission and the ``flare'' seen at 0.9 μm. The model also produces secondary maxima (``bounces''), whose amplitudes and periods are in agreement with observations.

  18. Variability in solar irradiance observed at two contrasting Antarctic sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkov, Boyan H.; Láska, Kamil; Vitale, Vito; Lanconelli, Christian; Lupi, Angelo; Mazzola, Mauro; Budíková, Marie

    2016-05-01

    The features of erythemally weighted (EW) and short-wave downwelling (SWD) solar irradiances, observed during the spring-summer months of 2007-2011 at Johann Gregor Mendel (63°48‧S, 57°53‧W, 7 m a.s.l.) and Dome Concordia (75°06‧S, 123°21‧E, 3233 m a.s.l.) stations, placed at the Antarctic coastal region and on the interior plateau respectively, have been analysed and compared to each other. The EW and SWD spectral components have been presented by the corresponding daily integrated values and were examined taking into account the different geographic positions and different environmental conditions at both sites. The results indicate that at Mendel station the surface solar irradiance is strongly affected by the changes in the cloud cover, aerosols and albedo that cause a decrease in EW between 20% and 35%, and from 0% to 50% in SWD component, which contributions are slightly lower than the seasonal SWD variations evaluated to be about 71%. On the contrary, the changes in the cloud cover features at Concordia station produce only a 5% reduction of the solar irradiance, whilst the seasonal oscillations of 94% turn out to be the predominant mode. The present analysis leads to the conclusion that the variations in the ozone column cause an average decrease of about 46% in EW irradiance with respect to the value found in the case of minimum ozone content at each of the stations. In addition, the ratio between EW and SWD spectral components can be used to achieve a realistic assessment of the radiation amplification factor that quantifies the relationship between the atmospheric ozone and the surface UV irradiance.

  19. Seasonal variation of air temperature at the Mendel Station, James Ross Island in the period of 2006-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laska, Kamil; Prošek, Pavel; Budík, Ladislav

    2010-05-01

    Key words: air temperature, seasonal variation, James Ross Island, Antarctic Peninsula Recently, significant role of the atmospheric and oceanic circulation variation on positive trend of near surface air temperature along the Antarctic Peninsula has been reported by many authors. However, small number of the permanent meteorological stations located on the Peninsula coast embarrasses a detail analysis. It comprises analysis of spatiotemporal variability of climatic conditions and validation of regional atmospheric climate models. However, geographical location of the Czech Johann Gregor Mendel Station (hereafter Mendel Station) newly established on the northern ice-free part of the James Ross Island provides an opportunity to fill the gap. There are recorded important meteorological characteristics which allow to evaluate specific climatic regime of the region and their impact on the ice-shelf disintegration and glacier retreat. Mendel Station (63°48'S, 57°53'W) is located on marine terrace at the altitude of 7 m. In 2006, a monitoring network of several automatic weather stations was installed at different altitudes ranging from the seashore level up to mesas and tops of glaciers (514 m a.s.l.). In this contribution, a seasonal variation of near surface air temperature at the Mendel Station in the period of 2006-2009 is presented. Annual mean air temperature was -7.2 °C. Seasonal mean temperature ranged from +1.4 °C (December-February) to -17.7 °C (June-August). Frequently, the highest temperature occurred in the second half of January. It reached maximum of +8.1 °C. Sudden changes of atmospheric circulation pattern during winter caused a large interdiurnal variability of air temperature with the amplitude of 30 °C.

  20. Morphometry of the cranial base and the cranial-cervical-mandibular system in young patients with type II, division 1 malocclusion, using tomographic cone beam.

    PubMed

    Bedoya, Antonio; Landa Nieto, Zury; Zuluaga, Liliana L; Rocabado, Mariano

    2014-07-01

    Traditionally, diagnosis and treatment planning of structural and three-dimensional anomalies have been performed using two-dimensional X-rays. Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), the technology utilized in this study, allows creation of specialized images from the craniofacial region that provide more precise and reliable results. The growth of the cranial base, position and size of the cervical system, and the hyoid bone has an influence upon the morphogenesis and the growth of the maxillofacial complex. The data obtained through this current study offer a better understanding of the origin and manifestation of malocclusions, and will, therefore, offer a better therapeutic approach. The objective of the current study is to describe the measurements of the cranial base and the cranial-cervical-mandibular system in young patients with type II, division 1 malocclusion, using CBCT. Twenty-four CBCT images were obtained for young patients with type II, division 1 malocclusion. The i-CAT Vision (Imaging Sciences International, Hatfield, PA, USA) was used to view the images. Linear and angular measurements were obtained in the mid-sagittal plane. Univariate and bivariate analyses, as well as a multivariate analysis of principal components, were conducted. The only metric with a statistically significant difference regarding gender was S-N major in the male participants. The metrics SNA-SNB and SNPg are positively related and inversely proportional to the angles BA-S-N and PO-P McGregor. The inclination of the upper incisor showed an inverse relationship with the angles SNA-SNB and SNpg. The craniovertebral angle was diminished in the entire sample, and the variable that vertically relates the hyoid was independent of the other variables. After evaluating 24 images of young patients with type II, division 1 malocclusion using helical spiral CBCT, it was concluded that relationships exist between the cranial base structures, the structures that determine the sagittal