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Sample records for grenville orogenic cycle

  1. The Grenville Orogenic Cycle (ca. 1350-1000 Ma): an Adirondack perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLelland, James; Daly, J. Stephen; McLelland, Jonathan M.

    1996-11-01

    The Adirondack Mountains are characterized by three major events that took place during the interval ca. 1350-1000 Ma. The earliest of these is the arc-related Elzevirian Orogeny (ca. 1350-1185 Ma) during which substantial volumes of juvenile calc-alkaline crust were added to the Adirondacks as well as to the northwest segment of the Central Metasedimentary Belt. Data from the southwestern United States as well as from Ireland and Baltica indicate that Elzevirian magmatism and orogeny were of global dimensions. Within the southwestern sector of the Grenville Province, the Elzevirian Orogeny culminated at ca. 1185 Ma when accretion of all outboard terranes was completed. Compressional orogeny related to this convergence resulted in overthickened crust and lithosphere which subsequently delaminated giving rise to orogen collapse and AMCG magmatism that swept southeastward from the Frontenac Terrane into the Adirondack Highlands during the interval ca. 1180-1130 Ma. Localized compressional events within neighboring parts of the Grenville Province emphasize the continued existence of contraction during this interval, although crustal extension caused local in sedimentary basins in which were deposited the Flinton and the St. Boniface Groups. The Adirondacks have not yet provided any record of events within the interval ca. 1125-1100 Ma, although there is evidence of contraction elsewhere in the southwestern Grenville Province at that time. At 1100-1090 Ma the northern Adirondack Highlands were invaded by mildly A-type hornblende granites (Hawkeye suite) that are interpreted to be the result of local crustal thinning contemporaneous with rifting and mafic magmatism taking place in the Midcontinent rift. Immediately following, at ca. 1090 Ma, the global-scale continental collision of the Ottawan Orogeny was initiated. Strong convergence, deformation, and metamorphism continued to at least ca. 1070 Ma, and rocks older than this are profoundly affected by this event

  2. The Grenville orogenic cycle of southern Laurentia: Unraveling sutures, rifts, and shear zones as potential piercing points for Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholomew, Mervin J.; Hatcher, Robert D., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The magnetic anomaly map of North America serves as a useful base from which to attempt palinspastic reconstruction of terranes accreted during the Elzevirian orogeny (1250-1200 Ma); the Shawinigan (1200-1150 Ma), Ottawan (1080-1020 Ma), and Rigolet (1020-1000 Ma) phases of the Grenvillian orogeny; and post-Grenvillian magmatism (760-600 Ma) and deformation prior to Iapetan rifting at 565 Ma. Accreted terranes had unique histories prior to amalgamation and share common tectonic events afterwards. Comparisons with magnetic signatures of the Paleozoic craton-craton suture, sutures of accreted terranes, and the Jurassic rifted-margin for the southern-central Appalachians provide a basis for discriminating among alternative Grenvillian sutures beneath the Appalachian orogen. The Elzevirian suture is partially preserved beneath the Appalachians where it separates the Reading Prong terrane from Laurentia (i.e., Adirondacks and composite-arc terrane and Canadian Grenville Province). The Shawinigan suture is partially preserved in the Llano area (Texas), but separated the now-fragmented and allochthonous Amazonian (as indicated from Pb-isotope data) blocks of the outboard Blue Ridge terrane from the Reading Prong terrane in the Appalachians. Isolated blocks of the Sauratown Mountains terrane are interpreted as outboard of the Blue Ridge terrane, but were also accreted during the Shawinigan phase. Within present-day Laurentia, the only fragment of a terrane believed to have been accreted during the main Ottawan phase is the Mars Hill terrane (North Carolina-Tennessee). This suggests that the outboard Ottawan suture may have served as the locus of Iapetan rifting along much of Laurentia. The Rigolet phase (1020-1000 Ma) is characterized by widespread "Basin and Range" type extension (NW-SE) associated with sinistral or dextral movement on the NY-AL lineament, mobilization of core-complexes (Adirondack Highlands), and AMCG magmatism along the outboard flank of the extensional

  3. Suturing and extensional reactivation in the Grenville orogen, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busch, Jay P.; Mezger, Klaus; van der Pluijm, Ben A.

    1997-06-01

    Sutures are zones of weakness within orogenic belts that have the potential to become reactivated during orogenic evolution. The Robertson Lake shear zone marks a major tectonic boundary in the southeastern Grenville orogen of Canada that has been intermittently active for at least 130 m.y. The shear zone played a major role in the compressional stage of the orogenic cycle as well as during postorogenic collapse. The zone separates the Elzevir terrane to the west and the Frontenac terrane to the east. Sphene ages (U-Pb) indicate that these two terranes have distinct tectonothermal histories and that the shear zone represents a “cryptic suture.” In its current state, the shear zone is a low angle (30°ESE dip) plastic to brittle extensional shear zone that separates the Mazinaw (footwall) and Sharbot Lake (hanging wall) domains. Integration of structural, metamorphic, and chronologic data leads to a model that describes the complete evolution of this fundamental tectonic boundary that evolved from an early compressional zone (ca. 1030 Ma) to a late extensional zone (until at least 900 Ma).

  4. Testing and refining a tectonic model for the Grenville orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivers, Toby

    2013-04-01

    Numerical modelling of large, hot, long-duration orogens (LHOs) has become an important conceptual driver in the quest to better understand the tectonic evolution of the late Mesoproterozoic to early Neoproterozoic Grenville orogen, in terms of both interpreting the tectonic style and assessing the roles of individual variables. However, since the appropriate values for many variables in the models are unknown (and perhaps unknowable) in ancient orogens, model results can vary widely and must be critically tested against empirical data. Maps of the hinterland of the Grenville orogen showing the distribution of pressure (depth) of the Ottawan (~1090-1020 Ma) peak metamorphism, coupled with representative P-T-t paths and structural / kinematic data for each crustal level, have proven useful in distinguishing between two alternative tectonic scenarios, i.e., whether the present distribution of metamorphic rocks primarily developed during compression by processes such as thrusting, tectonic extrusion or channel flow, or whether the compressional architecture was significantly modified by extension during later orogenic collapse. The hinterland is principally composed of gneissic granulite-facies mid crust (Ottawan P ~1000 MPa) and HP granulite- to eclogite-facies lower crust (Ottawan P ≥ 1500 MPa) in which peak metamorphism took place at ~1090-1050 Ma, that is tectonically juxtaposed against the amphibolite-facies upper crust (Ottawan P ~400-1000 MPa, metamorphic peak at ~1050-1020 Ma), and uppermost crust (Ottawan Orogenic Lid, OOL; Ottawan P ≤ 400 MPa) that lacks penetrative Ottawan deformation and was heated to < 500 °C after ~1020 Ma. Lithoprobe crustal-scale seismic studies show that the orogenic mid and lower crust presently forms regional domal structures resembling core complexes, whereas the OOL occupies adjacent basin-shaped graben. It is argued that the progressive younging of peak Ottawan metamorphism with height in the orogenic crust over ~70 Ma was a

  5. A Tale of Two Orogens: Comparing Crustal Processes in the Proterozoic Trans-Hudson and Grenville Orogens, Eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, F. A.; Bastow, I. D.; Gilligan, A.; Petrescu, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Precambrian core of North America is an assemblage of Archean cratons and Proterozoic orogenic belts, preserving over 3 billion years of Earth history. Here we focus on two of the largest collisional orogens, using recent and ongoing seismological studies to probe their present-day structure and tectonic history. The 1.8 Ga collision between the Western Churchill and Superior cratons, along with microcontinental and island arc terranes, formed the Trans-Hudson Orogen (THO), a collisional belt similar in scale and shape to the present-day Himalaya-Karakoram-Tibet Orogen (HKTO). In the Mesoproterozoic, a series of collisions reworked the SE margin of the Superior craton and added new material over a period of several hundred Ma, culminating in the Grenvillian orogeny and the assembly of the supercontinent Rodinia. The Grenville Orogen is thought to have been a large, hot, long-lived plateau which subsequently underwent orogenic collapse. While similar in spatial scale, the Trans-Hudson and Grenville Orogens have significantly different tectonic histories, notably in terms of longevity and tectonic evolution. Comparison of these collisional belts with each other, and with the HTKO, provide valuable insights into plate-tectonic history. Recently a number of broadband seismograph installations have allowed a detailed study of present-day crustal structure beneath the THO and the Grenville. Receiver-function and surface wave studies provide information on crustal thickness variations, bulk crustal composition and crustal heterogeneity. The crust beneath the orogens is generally thicker, more mafic and more heterogeneous than that beneath neighbouring Archean and Phanerozoic domains, with significant along-strike variability and Moho complexity. We review and interpret the new crustal structure information in the context of the tectonic processes affecting the two contrasting orogens.

  6. A tale of two orogens: Crustal processes in the Proterozoic Trans-Hudson and Grenville Orogens, eastern Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, F. A.; Bastow, I. D.; Petrescu, L.; Gilligan, A.; Thompson, D. A.

    2017-08-01

    The Precambrian core of North America was assembled in the Proterozoic by a series of collisions between Archean cratons. Among the orogenic belts, two stand out due to their significant spatial extent. The Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson Orogen (THO) and Mesoproterozoic Grenville Orogen extend for thousands of kilometers along strike and hundreds of kilometers across strike. Both have been compared to the present-day Himalayan-Karakoram-Tibetan Orogen (HKTO). Over the last 20-30 years, active and passive source seismic studies have contributed a wealth of information about the present-day crustal structure and composition of the two orogens in Canada. The Proterozoic orogenic crust is generally thicker than that of neighboring Archean terranes, with a more variable Moho character, ranging from relatively sharp to highly diffuse. Both orogens have a prominent high-velocity lower crustal layer, consistent with long-term preservation of a partially eclogitized root at the base of the crust and similar to that inferred beneath the western HKTO. Crustal structure in the northern THO strongly resembles the lower crustal structure of the HKTO, suggesting that Moho depths may have reached 60-70 km when the orogen was active. A prominent midcrustal discontinuity beneath the central Grenville Province and changes in the patterns of seismic anisotropy in the THO crust beneath Hudson Bay provide geophysical evidence that lower crustal flow likely played a role in the evolution of both orogens, similar to that inferred beneath the present-day HKTO. The seismic evidence from Canada supports the notion of tectonic uniformitarianism, at least as far back as the Paleoproterozoic.

  7. Evolution of the Late Mesoproterozoic Cordilleran-Type (not COLLISIONAL!) Sveconorwegian (grenville) Orogen in SW Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slagstad, T.; Sauer, S.; Roberts, N. M.; Marker, M. K.; Røhr, T. S.; Schiellerup, H.

    2011-12-01

    The Late Mesoproterozoic Sveconorwegian orogen in SW Baltica is traditionally interpreted as the eastward continuation of the Grenville orogen in Canada, resulting from collision with Amazonia and forming a central part in the assembly of the Rodinia supercontinent. We challenge this conventional view based on results from recent work in SW Norway that demonstrate voluminous subduction-related magmatism from ca. 1070 to 990 Ma, encompassing the period when collision is purported to have taken place. The rocks form a >100 km long and 50 km wide belt referred to as the Sirdal Magmatic Belt, intruding ca. 1500 Ma crust. Coeval granitoid magmatism up to 200 km to the east into the orogen has transitional calc-alkaline/A-type to A-type compositions, which we interpret to reflect continental back-arc magmatism. High-grade metamorphism in the region started at 1035 Ma with a peak at 1000 Ma, indicating that metamorphism may have resulted from plutonic activity, but not the other way around as would be expected in a collision setting. Following Sveconorwegian orogenesis, widespread A-type granite magmatism between 970 and 930 Ma (Hornblende-Biotite Granite Suite), and anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite magmatism (Rogaland Igneous Complex) between 930 and 915 Ma, is recorded in the Sveconorwegian Province. We interpret this evolution to suggest that the cessation of subduction-related magmatism at ca. 990 Ma did not involve continent-continent collision, but instead reflects a period of horizontal subduction between 990 and 930 Ma (or ca. 950 Ma), during which hydration of the overlying lower continental crust induced widespread crustal melting and A-type magmatism. Subsequent foundering of this underthrust oceanic crust and delamination of the arc's mantle root between 950 and 930 Ma may have given rise to the Rogaland Igneous Complex, the youngest massif-type anorthosite complex in the Grenville-Sveconorwegian orogen. Isotope data on the Sirdal Magmatic Belt indicate a

  8. Exhumed Himalayan-type syntaxis in the Grenville orogen, northeastern Laurentia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, Alexander E.; Valentino, David W.; Chiarenzelli, Jeffrey R.; Solar, Gary S.; Hamilton, Michael A.

    2004-04-01

    A deep-seated analog of the syntaxis developed in the Tibetan Plateau occurs in the Grenville Orogen of eastern Laurentia. During the final assembly of Rodinia, Amazonia collided with Laurentia and produced a series of large, conjugate, transcurrent, shear systems and pervasive strike-slip deformation that overprinted compressional structures related to the Ottawan Orogeny (the last orogenic phase of what is considered Grenvillian). A northeast-striking dextral system at least 35-km wide developed in the Reading Prong of New York (locally known as the Hudson Highlands), New Jersey, and Pennsylvania. U-Pb SHRIMP zircon geochronology and Ar/Ar thermochronology on the lowest grade cataclasites constrain the age of movement between 1008 and 876 Ma. A 60-km-wide, east-west striking, sinistral shear system developed across the central Adirondack Highlands. This system overprints rocks with granulite-facies metamorphic assemblages containing ca. 1050 Ma metamorphic zircons and is cut by a swarm of 950 Ma leucogranites. The timing, geometric relationships, and shear sense of the Adirondacks and Reading Prong shear systems suggest a conjugate system within a syntaxis with bulk compression directed ENE-WSW. This tectonic scenario invokes a component of strike-parallel deformation during the Ottawan Orogeny and provides a kinematic mechanism for an otherwise enigmatic, synchronous, late (ca. 930 Ma) extensional event including the Carthage-Colton mylonite zone in the northwest Adirondacks and Canada.

  9. Structure of the Carrizo Mountain Group, southeastern Carrizo Mountains, west Texas: A transpressional zone of the Grenville orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimes, Stephen W.; Mosher, Sharon

    2003-02-01

    The west Texas segment of the Grenville orogen includes an oblique, dextral, transpressive zone. The orogen exposed near Van Horn, Texas, displays a transition from the mid-amphibolite-facies metamorphic core to a foreland fold and thrust belt. In this paper, detailed structural mapping and analyses, presented for key exposures of the metamorphic rocks, the Mesoproterozoic Carrizo Mountain Group, show a southeastward increase in number of deformational phases and intensity of deformation. The central portion is dominated by oblique northwest convergence, which produced two phases of northwest verging folds and synchronous, oblique reverse and dextral shearing. The thick parts of pre-tectonic mafic plutons, which had been emplaced as locally discordant sills, control the spatial distribution of structures. Two dominant phases of folds form Type 0 interference patterns (essentially coaxial and coplanar; i.e., fold tightening was dominant). This central belt also contains en echelon reverse to oblique shear zones and comprises a transfer zone within the orogen between structurally higher and lower major shear zones. Overall, the mapped part of the central Carrizo Mountains represents localized dextral transpression within a larger region dominated by reverse motion, possibly indicating a change through time from orthogonal to oblique contraction. Further south in the Bass Canyon region, the earlier fold generations are refolded into Type 2 ("mushroom") interference patterns. These structures show a westward vergence and are kinematically linked to those further north across a zone of disharmonic folding and heterogeneous shear. The structure and kinematics of the polyphase deformation and ductile shearing in the metamorphic portion of the orogen is compatible with that seen in the foreland fold-thrust belt, suggesting that in both foreland and hinterland, transpression was a characteristic feature of the west Texas Grenville orogeny. The timing and kinematics of

  10. Mesoproterozoic plate tectonics: A collisional model for the Grenville-aged orogenic belt in the Llano uplift, central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosher, S.; Levine, J. S. F.; Carlson, W. D.

    2008-01-01

    The Llano uplift of central Texas, United States, exposes thecore of a Mesoproterozoic orogenic belt that formed along thesouthern margin of Laurentia during Grenville time. A new collisionalmodel is proposed that reconciles differences in structuralstacking, apparent tectonic transport, and deformation conditionsbetween the eastern and western portions of the uplift and explainsuplift and exhumation of high-pressure eclogitic rocks, emplacementof ophiolitic rocks, and subsequent late-stage to postcollisionalplutonism. Our model proposes that subduction with southwardpolarity resulted in collision of an exotic arc with Laurentia,emplacement of ophiolitic rocks, and telescoping of the interveningbasinal sediments, followed by overriding of the arc and marginof Laurentia by a southern continent with transport toward Laurentia.The model further proposes that convergence led to subductionof the Laurentian margin, resulting in high-pressure metamorphism,but buoyancy forces due to subduction of continental crust underthe southern continent resulted in uplift and retrotransportaway from Laurentia, in a manner similar to that proposed forthe Alpine orogeny. Slab breakoff resulted in upwelling of theasthenosphere, leading to intrusion of juvenile granitic plutons.Subduction along strike caused continued contraction that wanedwith time. The eastern uplift records continent-arc-continentcollision, whereas the western uplift records continent-continentcollision; the two regions also expose different crustal levelsin the orogen. The striking similarity with Phanerozoic orogens,including emplacement of ophiolites and formation of high-pressurerocks, implies that plate tectonic processes including subductionwere active prior to the Neoproterozoic.

  11. Sampling Laurentia: Detrital zircon geochronology offers evidence for an extensive Neoproterozoic river system originating from the Grenville orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rainbird, Robert H.; Hearnan, Larry M.; Young, Grant

    1992-04-01

    Neoproterozoic fluvial quartzarenites from the Shaler Group on Victoria Island in the western Canadian Arctic yield a diverse suite of detrital zircons. U-Pb ages from single zircons fall into three modes: Archean (3.01-2.62 Ga), Paleoproterozoic (1.97-1.84 Ga), and Meso proterozoic (1.64-1.03 Ga). Particularly intriguing is the unusually high proportion (50%) of the Mesoproterozoic mode, as the nearest exposed source is the Grenville structural province, ˜3000 km southeast of Victoria Island. Unimodal northwest paleocurrents, obtained from cross-bedding, are compatible with a southeasterly provenance. These data, supported by sedimentological evidence from the Shaler Group and from correlative strata in the northwestern Canadian Cordillera, imply the existence of a large, perennial river system flowing north-westward from the Grenville orogen. An analogy with the Llanos drainage basin in Venezuela and Colombia is proposed on the basis of similar geography, climate, and sedimentation. These data also provide a maximum age for the Shaler Group (basal Reynolds Point Formation) of about 1.11 Ga.

  12. Crustal thickness and VP/ VS variations in the Grenville orogen (Ontario, Canada) from analysis of teleseismic receiver functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, David W.; Dineva, Savka; Mereu, Robert

    2006-06-01

    We have developed a simple semblance-weighted stacking technique to estimate crustal thickness and average VP/ VS ratio using teleseismic receiver functions. We have applied our method to data from 32 broadband seismograph stations that cover a 700 × 400 km 2 region of the Grenville orogen, a 1.2-0.98 Ga Himalayan-scale collisional belt in eastern North America. Our seismograph network partly overlaps with L ITHOPROBE and other crustal refraction surveys. In 8 out of 9 cases where a crustal-refraction profile passes within 30 km of a seismograph station, the two independent crustal thickness estimates agree to within 7%. Our regional crustal-thickness model, constructed using both teleseismic and refraction observations, ranges between 34.0 and 52.4 km. Crustal-thickness trends show a strong correlation with geological belts, but do not correlate with surface topography and are far in excess of relief required to maintain local isostatic equilibrium. The thickest crust (52.4 ± 1.7 km) was found at a station located within the 1.1 Ga mid-continent (failed) rift. The Central Gneiss Belt, which contains rocks exhumed from deep levels of the crust, is characterized by VP/ VS ranging from 1.78 to 1.85. In other parts of the Grenville orogen, VP/ VS is found to be generally less than 1.80. The thinnest crust (34.5-37.0 km) occurs northeast of the 0.7 Ga Ottawa-Bonnechere graben and correlates with areas of high intraplate seismicity.

  13. Cooling and inferred uplift/erosion history of the Grenville Orogen, Ontario: Constraints from 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosca, Michael A.; Sutter, John F.; Essene, Eric J.

    1991-10-01

    Stepwise 40Ar/39Ar degassing experiments of 57 mineral separates of hornblende, muscovite, biotite, and perthitic microcline have been used in conjunction with petrologic observations to place regional constraints on the postmetamorphic cooling and the inferred uplift and erosion history of the Grenville Orogen in Ontario. The 40Ar/39Ar data support an interpretation of slow, nearly uniform cooling (1°-4°C/m.y.) from temperatures of ˜500°C to below ˜150°C. In the Central Gneiss Belt (CGB) hornblendes cooled through Ar closure between 930 and 1025 Ma, whereas in the Central Metasedimentary Belt (CMB) hornblendes record the following range in 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages: 1104 Ma in the Frontenac terrane, 1007-1067 Ma in the Sharbot Lake terrane, 919-1026 Ma in the Elzevir terrane, and 972 Ma in the Central Metasedimentary Belt Boundary Zone. Regional uplift/erosion rates of 0.03-0.14 km/m.y. have been estimated for the Grenville Orogen in Ontario based on the 40Ar/39Ar data, a model retrograde P-T path for rocks of the CGB, and an upper time constraint provided by flat, overlying Cambrian and Ordovician sediments. These erosion rates are consistent with rates estimated for other Proterozoic or Archean granulite terranes but are an order of magnitude slower than active orogens such as the Alps and Himalayas. A regular variation in hornblende 40Ar/39Ar cooling ages is observed in rocks that traverse highly strained often mylonitic shear zones that separate the four major terranes of the CMB. The pattern of 40Ar/39Ar ages is interpreted to reflect late-tectonic extension, consistent with field observations in the Central Metasedimentary Belt Boundary Zone and elsewhere in the CMB. Up to 13 km of vertical displacement is inferred for some rocks in the CMB between the time they cooled below closure to argon diffusion in hornblende (˜500°C) and their exposure at the surface (˜25°C).

  14. A Reconsideration of Pan African Orogenic Cycle in the Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hefferan, K. P.; Soulaimani, A.; Samson, S. D.; Admou, H.; Inglis, J.; Saquaque, A.; Heywood, N. C.

    2013-12-01

    The term 'Pan African' orogeny was first proposed in 1964 for a tectonothermal event in Africa ~ 500+/- 50 Ma. Over the past 50 years, the Pan African orogeny has been extended to as much as ~1050-450 Ma and recognized in other Gondwanan continents where regional names such as Brasiliano (South America), Adelaidean (Australian) and Bearmore (Antarctica) have been applied. The Pan African time span of ~500 million years is much longer than any Phanerozoic orogeny. However, it does correlate with time ranges of well defined Phanerozoic orogenic cycles such as the Appalachian cycle, extending from ~1,100 to 250 Ma, and the Cordilleran cycle of ~350 Ma to the present. A significant difference of course is that the Appalachian orogenic cycle has long been recognized as consisting of separate Grenville, Taconic, Acadian and Alleghenian orogenies. Similarly, the Mesozoic-Cenozoic Cordilleran orogenic cycle consists of distinct Antler, Sonoma, Nevadan, Sevier, Laramide and ongoing Cascadian-Andean orogenies. Until recently, the absence of precise geochronology in West Africa has prevented a more refined analysis of individual orogenic events within the Pan-African orogenic cycle. Since 2000, precision geochronologic dating by various researchers in the Anti-Atlas Mountains, Morocco, has provided critical data by which it is now appropriate to designate a Pan African orogenic cycle consisting of three separate orogenic events. We herein propose the following distinct orogenic events in the Anti-Atlas Mountains of Morocco: Iriri-Tichibanine orogeny (750-700 Ma), Bou Azzer orogeny (660-640 Ma) and the WACadomian orogeny (620-580 Ma). Generalized tectonic map of the Anti-Atlas Mountain inliers (Adapted from Ennih and Liégeois, 2008). Geodynamic model of the Pan African orogenic cycle in the Anti-Atlas Mountains. Modified from Walsh et al. (2012) and incorporating ideas from Thomas et al. (2002) and El Hadi et al. (2012).

  15. The fate of olivine in the lower crust: Pseudomorphs after olivine in coronitic metagabbro from the Grenville Orogen, Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendrick, J. L.; Jamieson, R. A.

    2016-09-01

    Orthopyroxene-oxide symplectites after olivine are among the most enigmatic features of corona assemblages in metagabbros. Two coronitic metagabbro bodies from the Algonquin suite in the Grenville Orogen, Ontario, contain exceptionally well preserved orthopyroxene + Fe-Ti oxide symplectite formed during prograde Ottawan (ca. 1060 Ma) granulite-facies metamorphism. Based on textural evidence, we propose a new hypothesis for the formation of these symplectites. Under oxidising conditions associated with fluid infiltration, magmatic olivine and ilmenite underwent a coupled reaction whereby magnetite produced by oxidation of olivine replaced adjacent igneous ilmenite. Ilmenite was re-precipitated as a fine-grained intergrowth with orthopyroxene and some magnetite in the former olivine sites. This hypothesis is supported by textural evidence showing partial replacement of magmatic ilmenite by magnetite and a close spatial association between magmatic oxides and orthopyroxene + Fe-Ti oxide symplectite, which locally radiates from ilmenite into olivine. Measured orthopyroxene/oxide ratios in the symplectite (20-35% oxides) agree with the ratio predicted from the proposed reaction (ca. 30%). Coronas and pseudomorphs formed during high-grade metamorphism, with increasing fO2 interpreted to result from fluid infiltration at near-peak conditions of ca. 13 kbar, 800 °C. The same samples contain red-brown fine-grained aggregates interpreted as iddingsite pseudomorphs after olivine. Raman spectroscopy suggests that the iddingsite consists largely of amorphous silica and Fe-hydroxide; textural evidence indicates that it formed by late-stage oxidation and hydration of olivine that survived earlier metamorphism. The unusual co-occurrence of granulite-facies pseudomorphs after olivine with an alteration product formed at near-surface conditions indicates that some olivine may survive protracted high-grade metamorphism in environments where fluid access is limited.

  16. Comparison of garnet-biotite, calcite-graphite, and calcite-dolomite thermometry in the Grenville Orogen; Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathmell, Mark A.; Streepey, Margaret M.; Essene, Eric J.; van der Pluijm, Ben A.

    The Elzevir Terrane of the Grenville Orogen in southern Ontario contains metapelites and abundant graphitic marbles that were regionally metamorphosed from the upper greenschist to upper amphibolite facies. Comparative thermometry was undertaken with widely used calibrations for the systems garnet-biotite, calcite-dolomite, and calcite-graphite. Temperatures that are obtained from matrix biotites paired with prograde garnet near-rim analyses are usually consistent with those determined using calcite-graphite thermometry. However, calcite-graphite thermometry occasionally yields low temperatures due to lack of equilibration of anomalously light graphite. Application of calcite-graphite and garnet-biotite systems may yield temperatures up to 70°C higher than calcite-dolomite in amphibolite facies rocks. Calcite-dolomite temperatures most closely approach those from calcite-graphite and garnet-biotite when the samples contain a single generation of dolomite and calcite grains contain no visible dolomite exsolution lamellae. However, some of these samples yield temperatures considerably lower than temperatures calculated from calcite-graphite and garnet-biotite thermometry, indicating that the calcite-dolomite thermometer may have been partially reset during retrogression. Estimated peak metamorphic temperatures of regional metamorphism between Madoc (upper greenschist facies) and Bancroft (upper amphibolite facies) range from 500 to 650°C. These results place the chlorite-staurolite isograd at 540°C, the kyanite-sillimanite isograd at 590°C, and the sillimanite-K-feldspar isograd at 650°C. Although each thermometer may have an absolute uncertainty of as much as +/-50°C, the 50 to 60°C temperature differences between the isograds are probably accurate to 10 to 20°C. An incomplete picture of the thermal gradients can result from the application of only one thermometer in a given area. Simultaneous application of several systems allows one to recognize and

  17. Cooling and inferred uplift/erosion history of the Grenville Orogen, Ontario: Constraints from sup 40 Ar/ sup 39 Ar thermochronology

    SciTech Connect

    Cosca, M.A.

    1989-01-01

    Thermochronological ({sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar) data are presented from 76 mineral separates of hornblende, muscovite, biotite, phlogopite, and K-feldspar. Samples were selected from regionally metamorphosed gneiss, amphibolite, metasediment, marble, metagabbro and pegmatite across the two major metamorphic belts of the Grenville Province, the Central Metasedimentary Belt (CMB) and the Central Gneiss Belt (CGB). When combined with published temperature estimates for closure to argon diffusion in the phases analyzed, cooling rates from {approximately}500 C to {approximately}120 C of 1-4 C/MA are calculated across the entire Grenville Province of Ontario. Regional uplift/erosion rates for the Grenville Orogen of Ontario have been estimated from the {sup 40}Ar/{sup 39}Ar data, a retrograde P-T path for rocks of the CGB, and an upper time constraint provided by flat, overlying Cambro-Ordovician sediments. Twenty-two of the hornblendes used for thermochronology have been quantitatively analyzed for major elements by microprobe, Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} by wet chemistry, and for H{sub 2}O by manometric measurement. Water activities calculated from hornblende equilibria are typically low (<0.01) because of the exponential dilutions in hornblende (tremolite) activity required by present activity-composition models. An oxyamphibole component of 25% further reduces any amphibole component and the H{sub 2}O activity by as much as 50% below that calculated with simplifying assumption. These findings indicate that different amphibole normalization schemes have a marked effect on the activity calculated for a specific amphibole or H{sub 2}O, and should be carefully evaluated.

  18. Reconstructing deep crustal dynamics in a large, hot orogen: Application of integrated zircon petrochronology and petrological modeling to the Canadian Grenville Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Jeffrey; Culshaw, Nicholas

    2014-05-01

    The timing and conditions of high pressure (HP) metamorphism, crustal anatexis, and shear zone formation are of primary importance in understanding lithosphere-scale dynamics of collisional orogens. Within the western Grenville Province, Ontario, Canada, a number of structural and metamorphic relationships are preserved that represent specific orogenic stages or processes. Lower allochthonous domains contain variably retrogressed mafic complexes that typically retain vestages of earlier HP metamorphic assemblages (e.g. garnet porphyroblasts, kyanite, and rutile) within a matrix dominated by incomplete decompression reactions (e.g. pseudomorphous diopside + sodic plagioclase intergrowths after omphacite and concentric coronas of aluminous minerals surrounding kyanite). Zircon from these samples yield U-Pb ages between 1085-1097 Ma, and exhibit REE characteristics consistent with crystallization in an eclogite-facies (garnet-rich, plagioclase-poor) mineral assemblage. REE partitioning between zircon and garnet suggests zircon growth coincided with the latter stages of garnet growth. Titanium concentrations in zircon constrain crystallization temperatures between ~678-736 °C, whereas Zr concentration in rutile yield crystallization temperatures of ~705-740 °C (for rutile inclusions in garnet) and 742-764 °C (for rutile in the matrix). Intersection of zircon and rutile crystallization temperature with the calculated stability field for the HP assemblage (Grt+Cpx+Ky+Rt+Zrn±Hbl) yields minimum pressures of ~15 kbar. Thus, HP metamorphism apparently occurred at ca. 1090 Ma across the orogen, at minimum depths of ~53 km and T ~700±50 °C, yielding a geothermal gradient of < 15 °C/km. Widespread high-T, medium-P metamorphism and migmatization in the surrounding gneisses apparently began around 1090-1080 Ma, suggesting a rapidly evolving thermal field synchronous with the exhumation of HP rocks to mid-crustal depths. Zircon U-Pb ages and REE patterns from a large

  19. Visualizing the sedimentary response through the orogenic cycle using multi-dimensional scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spencer, C. J.; Kirkland, C.

    2015-12-01

    Changing patterns in detrital provenance through time have the ability to resolve salient features of an orogenic cycle. Such changes in the age spectrum of detrital minerals can be attributed to fluctuations in the geodynamic regime (e.g. opening of seaways, initiation of subduction and arc magmatism, and transition from subduction to collisional tectonics with arrival of exotic crustal material). These processes manifest themselves through a variety of sedimentary responses due to basin formation, transition from rift to drift sedimentation, or inversion and basement unroofing. This generally is charted by the presence of older detrital zircon populations during basement unroofing events and is followed by a successive younging in the detrital zircon age signature either through arrival of young island arc terranes or the progression of subduction magmatism along a continental margin. The sedimentary response to the aforementioned geodynamic environment can be visualized using a multi-dimensional scaling approach to detrital zircon age spectra. This statistical tool characterizes the "dissimilarity" of age spectra of the various sedimentary successions, but importantly also charts this measure through time. We present three case studies in which multi-dimensional scaling reveals additional useful information on the style of basin evolution within the orogenic cycle. The Albany-Fraser Orogeny in Western Australia and Grenville Orogeny (sensu stricto) in Laurentia demonstrate clear patterns in which detrital zircon age spectra become more dissimilar with time. In stark contrast, sedimentary successions from the Meso- to Neoproterozoic North Atlantic Region reveal no consistent pattern. Rather, the North Atlantic Region reflects a signature consistent with significant zircon age communication due to a distal position from an orogenic front, oblique translation of terranes, and complexity of the continental margin. This statistical approach provides a mechanism to

  20. Sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) detrital zircon geochronology provides new evidence for a hidden neoproterozoic foreland basin to the Grenville Orogen in the eastern Midwest, U.S.A

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Santos, J.O.S.; Hartmann, L.A.; McNaughton, N.J.; Easton, R. M.; Rea, R.G.; Potter, P.E.

    2002-01-01

    A sensitive high resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP) was used in combination with backscattered electron (BSE) and cathodoluminescence (CL) images to determine the age of detrital zircons from sandstones in the Neoproterozoic Middle Run Formation of the eastern Midwest, United States. Eleven samples from seven drill cores of the upper part of the Middle Run Formation contain detrital zircons ranging in age from 1030 to 1982 Ma (84 analyses), with six distinctive modes at 1.96, 1.63, 1.47, 1.34, 1.15, and 1.08 Ga. This indicates that most, but not all, of the zircon at the top of the Middle Run Formation was derived from the Grenville Orogen. The youngest concordant detrital zircon yields a maximum age of 1048 ?? 22 Ma for the Middle Run Formation, indicating that the formation is younger than ca. 1026 Ma minus the added extra time needed for later uplift, denudation, thrusting, erosion, and transport to southwestern Ohio. Thus, as judged by proximity, composition, thickness, and geochronology, it is a North American equivalent to other Neoproterozoic Grenvillian-derived basins, such as the Torridon Group of Scotland and the Palmeiral Formation of South America. An alternate possibility, although much less likely in our opinion, is that it could be much younger, any time between 1048 ?? 22 Ma and the deposition of the Middle Cambrian Mount Simon Sandstone at about 510 Ma, and still virtually almost all derived from rocks of the Grenville Orogen.

  1. The Impact of Partial Melting in the Orogenic Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, P. F.; Teyssier, C.; Whitney, D. L.

    2010-12-01

    Open source, community driven numerical codes available at geodynamics.org allow geologists to model orogenic processes including partial melting and its consequences during orogenic cycles. Here we explore the role of partial melting during continental subduction and its impact on the evolution of orogenic plateaux and that of migmatite-cored metamorphic core complexes. Continental subduction and orogenic plateaux: Numerical experiments show that when continental slabs buried into the mantle meet their solidus, crustal melt is confined to the slab during its ascent and ponds at the Moho (Fig. 1a). The displaced overlying crust is extruded horizontally into the weak lower crust of the continent, resulting in Earth’s surface uplift to form an orogenic plateau, and Moho downward motion to accommodate the influx of material into the lower crust. This model suggests a link between continental subduction, melting and the build up of orogenic plateaux, and show that partial melting may be a significant process in exhumation of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) rocks. Model results are consistent with the common association of UHP rocks and migmatite. Growth and destruction of orogenic plateaux: The lateral growth of orogenic plateaux is often attributed to the flow of the plateau weak partially melted lower crust into its foreland in some cases over a distance > 1500 km in 15 myr. Using pre-thickening temperatures compatible with Tibet’s uplift history, we show that mass redistribution processes are dynamically coupled, and that CFE velocities are limited to less than 1 cm.yr-1 (~150 km in 15 myr) by cooling and crystallization of the melted channel in the foreland and by any upward deviation into metamorphic domes of the melted channel by extension in the plateau (Fig. 1b). Gravitational collapse and metamorphic core complexes: Localization of extension in the upper crust triggers convergent flow in the partially molten deep crust channel. This convergent flow leads to the

  2. Juvenile Middle Proterozoic crust in the Adirondack Highlands, Grenville province, northeastern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Daly, J.S. ); McLelland, J.M. )

    1991-02-01

    Nd isotope data indicate that minimal amounts of significantly older crust have contributed to the genesis of the oldest (ca. 1.3-13.5 Ga) plutons in the Adirondack Highlands. These are magmatic arc tonalites with positive initial {epsilon}{sub Nd} values and Sm-Nd depleted mantle model ages (t{sub DM}) that are within 70 m.y. of the time of their crystallization. Granitoids of the anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite suite, dated at 1,156-1,134 Ma, as well as the 1,100-1,050 Ma plutons, associated with the Ottawan phase of the Grenvillian orogenic cycle, also have positive initial {epsilon}{sub Nd} values and t{sub DM} ages similar to the tonalites. Derivation of both groups of granitoids by crustal melting of the magmatic arc is consistent with the available isotopic and geochemical data. Juvenile late Middle Proterozoic crust that formed during or just prior to the Grenville cycle appears to dominate the southwestern Grenville province as well as the Grenville inliers to the south. In contrast, most of the contiguous Grenville province in Canada comprises largely reworked older crust.

  3. Multiple thermal events in the Grenvillian orogenic cycle: geochronologic evidence from the northern Reading Prong, New York-New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Grauch, R.I.; Aleinikoff, J.N.

    1985-01-01

    The Grenville terrane of the northern Reading Prong, New York-New Jersey, has a far more complex thermal history than previously recognized. U-Pb zircon ages record at least five discrete thermal events between about 1300 and 900 Ma: (1) 1230 +/- 20 Ma--metamorphism of paragneiss; (2) 1150 +/- 30 Ma--crystallization of Storm King-type granite, protoliths of a leucogneiss, and a member of the Fordham Gneiss; (3) 1090 +/- 10 Ma--crystallization of a hornblende gneiss and the Canopus pluton; (4) 1015 +/- Ma--regional metamorphism, crystallization of the Canada Hill granite and pegmatitic alaskites; (5) 965 +/- 10 Ma--crystallization of pegmatites, formation of a monazite-xenotime rock, and closure of the U-Pb whole-rock system. Another problem that arises from these results is the past correlation throughout the Reading Prong of lithologic sequences whose zircon ages apparently do not agree. This complex sequence of Middle Proterozoic thermal events in the central Appalachians correlates fairly well with events recorded in the Grenville terrane of eastern Ontario, where at least two major orogenic events between 1300 and 900 Ma have been identified. The fit with identified events in the Adirondacks of northern New York and with Precambrian events of the southern Appalachians is not as good, but the early approx. = 1230 Ma and the late approx. = 960 Ma events seem to be present in both regions.

  4. Orogenic inheritance and continental breakup: Wilson Cycle-control on rift and passive margin evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffer, C.; Petersen, K. D.

    2016-12-01

    Rifts often develop along suture zones between previously collided continents, as part of the Wilson cycle. The North Atlantic is such an example, formed where Pangaea broke apart along Caledonian and Variscan sutures. Dipping upper mantle structures in E. Greenland and Scotland, have been interpreted as fossil subduction zones and the seismic signature indicates the presence of eclogite and serpentinite. We speculate that this orogenic material may impose a rheological control upon post-orogenic extension and we use thermo-mechanical modelling to explore such effects. Our model includes the following features: 1) Crustal thickness anomalies, 2) Eclogitised mafic crust emplaced in the mantle lithosphere, and 3) Hydrated mantle peridotite (serpentinite) formed in a pre-rift subduction setting. Our models indicate that the inherited structures control the location and the structural and magmatic evolution of the rift. Rifting of thin initial crust allows for relatively large amounts of serpentinite to be preserved within the uppermost mantle. This facilitates rapid continental breakup and serpentinite exhumation. Magmatism does not occur before continental breakup. Rifts in thicker crust preserve little or no serpentinite and thinning is more focused in the mantle lithosphere, rather than in the crust. Continental breakup is therefore preceded by magmatism. This implies that pre-rift orogenic properties may determine whether magma-poor or magma-rich conjugate margins are formed. Our models show that inherited orogenic eclogite and serpentinite are deformed and partially emplaced either as dipping structures within the lithospheric mantle or at the base of the thinned continental crust. The former is consistent with dipping sub-Moho reflectors often observed in passive margins. The latter provides an alternative interpretation of `lower crustal bodies' which are often regarded as igneous bodies. An additional implication of our models is that serpentinite, often

  5. Short-lived orogenic cycles and the eclogitization of cold crust by spasmodic hot fluids.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Alfredo; Lee, James K W; Hensen, Bastiaan J; Braun, Jean

    2005-06-30

    Collision tectonics and the associated transformation of continental crust to high-pressure rocks (eclogites) are generally well-understood processes, but important contradictions remain between tectonothermal models and petrological-isotopic data obtained from such rocks. Here we use 40Ar-39Ar data coupled with a thermal model to constrain the time-integrated duration of an orogenic cycle (the burial and exhumation of a particular segment of the crust) to be less than 13 Myr. We also determine the total duration of associated metamorphic events to be approximately 20 kyr, and of individual heat pulses experienced by the rocks to be as short as 10 years. Such short timescales are indicative of rapid tectonic processes associated with catastrophic deformation events (earthquakes). Such events triggered transient heat advection by hot fluid along deformation (shear) zones, which cut relatively cool and dry subducted crust. In contrast to current thermal models that assume thermal equilibrium and invoke high ambient temperatures in the thickened crust, our non-steady-state cold-crust model satisfactorily explains several otherwise contradictory geological observations.

  6. Grenville Zircon Fertility, Baby Boom, and Baby Boom Echo; Natural Bias in the Detrital Zircon Record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moecher, D. P.; Samson, S. D.

    2006-12-01

    Grenville-aged (~1150-1050 Ma) granitoids of eastern Laurentia exposed in Appalachian basement massifs are as much as 20 times more Zr-rich and much more fertile for crystallizing zircon compared to Paleozoic Laurentian granitoids of the Eastern Blue Ridge, Inner Piedmont, and Carolina terranes. Erosion of Grenville source rocks generates disproportionately large numbers and/or sizes of detrital zircon compared to less fertile magmatic sources. The latter are essentially undetectable by standard detrital zircon provenance methods (SHRIMP or LA-ICP-MS analysis of magmatic cores of >100 micron grains). Grenvillian zircon fertility biased the Neoproterozoic to Recent detrital record as a result of: (1) zircon durability and insolubility in aqueous fluids means detrital zircons eroded from Grenville basement terranes are recycled during repeated orogenesis; (2) inertness of zircon below upper amphibolite facies (onset of anatexis), and high Zr resulting from concentration of detrital zircon in sedimentary protoliths, means dominantly metasedimentary terranes will fail to generate sufficient new zircon corresponding in age to the time of accretion of those terranes to Laurentia. Zircon growth under incipient anatectic conditions generates new zircon as overgrowths on detrital magmatic cores; overgrowths are often too thin to analyze by ion or laser beam. In this case, metasedimentary terranes may be rendered essentially undetectable. New `magmatic' zircon may be generated with greater degrees of anatexis, but might be inferred to be of plutonic, not metamorphic, parentage. Grenville modes dominate detrital zircon age distributions for: Laurentian Neoproterozoic rift basins; Neoproterozoic to Lower Ordovician passive margin sequences; Appalachian Paleozoic syn-orogenic clastic sequences; Appalachian metasedimentary terranes; and modern rivers. The latter is surprising since Grenville terranes comprise <15% of exposed crust in the southern Appalachians, and were not

  7. Controlling factors of spatial and temporal preservation of the geochronological signal in sediments during an orogenic cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rat, Juliette; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Bernet, Matthias; Brichau, Stéphanie; Balvay, Mélanie; Garzanti, Eduardo; Ando, Sergio

    2017-04-01

    Detrital content of sediments preserved in basins provide constraints on the nature of source rocks, dynamics of sediment transport, and potentially on tectonics and climate changes. U-Pb dating method on detrital zircon is ideally suited for provenance studies due to the ability of U-Pb age data to resist several orogenic cycles. However, with the aim to track sediment source evolution over a single orogenic cycle and determine characteristic time and parameters controlling the geochronological signal preservation throughout the cycle from rifting, mountain building to post-collision evolution, low-temperature thermochronology combined with sediment petrography are more appropriate than the U-Pb dating approach taken alone. To better understanding processes at play in the long-term geochronological signal preservation we focus on the sediment record associated with the Iberia plate tectonic evolution, which is part of the OROGEN research project, co-financed by BRGM, TOTAL & CNRS. The Iberian plate recorded a period of extension in the Late Jurassic, followed during the Early Cretaceous (Aptian-Albian) by a major thinning event documented by thick syn-rift sediments in intraplate basins and plate-scale heating/cooling of the Iberia crust, as argued by published fission track ages. Paleogeographic reconstructions that are based on stratigraphic and lithofacies analyses in northern Iberia (Iberian Range, Pyrenees and Basque-Cantabrians Range), describe a large domain of continental/fluvial and shallow-marine siliciclastic deposition. The related detrital content was then recycled during the subsequent Pyrenean orogenic phase in the Ebro foreland basin, and eventually transfer to the Mediterranean realm during post-orogenic re-excavation of the Ebro basin. In this study, we complete the published time-temperature paths in the mesozoic syn-rift basins by providing new thermo-chronological analyses of well-dated syn-collision and post-collision stratigraphic sections

  8. Paleomagnetism and Monazite Dating of Grenville Rocks, Adirondack Mountains, NY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L.; McEnroe, S.; Jercinovic, M.

    2003-12-01

    Paleomagnetic studies on three rock units from the Adirondack Highlands, New York State yield stable magnetic directions. Electron microprobe monazite geochronology suggests a strong ca. 1050 Ma signature, corresponding to Ottawan granulite-facies metamorphism. Remnants of older (ca. 1130-1190 Ma) monazite, consistent with early-Grenville tectonomagmatic events are also documented. There is no evidence of younger (<1050 Ma) events with the exception of partial alteration (with Ca-enrichment) of some monazite. Sillimanite-microcline gneisses (gms) of the far-western Highlands, associated with negative aeromagnetic anomalies, exhibit strong stable magnetization dominated by titanohematite with abundant exsolutions of ilmenite, pyrophanite, rutile and spinel. Mean magnetic directions for 14 sites are I-62.8, D=289.2 and a-95=7.6. Sampled in the central Highlands is the post-orogenic fayalite ferro-hedenbergite Wanakena Granite. Samples contain magnetite with ilmenite oxy-exsolution, occurring as discrete grains and inclusions in silicates. Directions from the Wanakena are steeply negative with westerly declinations (I=-76.4, D=296.7, a-95=4.4, N=7). The Marcy meta-anorthosite was sampled in the central and eastern Highlands, although many of these sites proved unstable. Stable results were combined with unpublished data from Rob Hargraves for 13 sites (I=-64.4, D=286.2, a-95=9.1). Over half of the anorthosites and one gms site have normal directions; all Wanakena sites are reversed. Combined anorthosites and gms units give a pole position of 20S/151E; the Wanakena pole is at -29S/132E. Both poles fall in the southern extent of the Grenville loop. The thermodynamically constrained equilibrium phase diagram for ilm-hem predicts that very fine exsolution, most likely responsible for the stable magnetization of the gms rocks, starts to form around 390C, well below the conditions of granulite grade metamorphism. The abundant lamellae provide a stable NRM through the

  9. The Midcontinent Rift and Grenville connection

    SciTech Connect

    Cambray, F.W.; Fujita, K. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-04-01

    The Mid-Proterozoic, Midcontinent Rift System (MRS) is delineated by an inverted U shaped gravity and magnetic anomaly. It terminates in southeast Michigan but a less continuous series of anomalies and sediments, the Eastcontinent Rift occur on a north-south line through Ohio and Kentucky. The geometry allows for a north-south opening, the Lake Superior section being orthogonal to opening, the western arm transtensional and the north-south trending eastern arm a transform boundary offset by pull-apart basins. The opening and closing of the rift overlaps in time with the Grenville Orogeny. Grenville age rocks can also be found in the Llano uplift of Texas. The authors propose a model to explain the temporal and geographic association of the opening and closing of the MRS with the Grenville Orogeny that involves irregular suturing between two continental masses. Initiation of Grenville suturing, associated with south dipping subduction, in the northeast and in the Llano area of Texas would leave portion of unclosed ocean in between. Tensional stresses in the continental crust adjacent to the oceanic remnant could lead to its fragmentation and the formation of the MRS. The remaining oceanic lithosphere would eventually subduct, limiting the opening of the MRS. Continued convergence of the plates would induce compressional stresses thus accounting for the deformation of the MRS. An analogy is made with more recent opening of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden Rift System in association with irregular collision along the Zagros-Bitlis Sutures.

  10. Linking collisional and accretionary orogens during Rodinia assembly and breakup: Implications for models of supercontinent cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cawood, Peter A.; Strachan, Robin A.; Pisarevsky, Sergei A.; Gladkochub, Dmitry P.; Murphy, J. Brendan

    2016-09-01

    Periodic assembly and dispersal of continental fragments has been a characteristic of the solid Earth for much of its history. Geodynamic drivers of this cyclic activity are inferred to be either top-down processes related to near surface lithospheric stresses at plate boundaries or bottom-up processes related to mantle convection and, in particular, mantle plumes, or some combination of the two. Analysis of the geological history of Rodinian crustal blocks suggests that internal rifting and breakup of the supercontinent were linked to the initiation of subduction and development of accretionary orogens around its periphery. Thus, breakup was a top-down instigated process. The locus of convergence was initially around north-eastern and northern Laurentia in the early Neoproterozoic before extending to outboard of Amazonia and Africa, including Avalonia-Cadomia, and arcs outboard of Siberia and eastern to northern Baltica in the mid-Neoproterozoic (∼760 Ma). The duration of subduction around the periphery of Rodinia coincides with the interval of lithospheric extension within the supercontinent, including the opening of the proto-Pacific at ca. 760 Ma and the commencement of rifting in east Laurentia. Final development of passive margin successions around Laurentia, Baltica and Siberia was not completed until the late Neoproterozoic to early Paleozoic (ca. 570-530 Ma), which corresponds with the termination of convergent plate interactions that gave rise to Gondwana and the consequent relocation of subduction zones to the periphery of this supercontinent. The temporal link between external subduction and internal extension suggests that breakup was initiated by a top-down process driven by accretionary tectonics along the periphery of the supercontinent. Plume-related magmatism may be present at specific times and in specific places during breakup but is not the prime driving force. Comparison of the Rodinia record of continental assembly and dispersal with that

  11. Chronologic constraints on the tectonic evolution of the Wilson Lake terrane of the Grenville Province, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reno, B. L.; Korhonen, F. J.; Stout, J. H.; Waight, T.

    2010-12-01

    The Wilson Lake terrane in central Labrador, Canada is one of a number of terranes that make up the Grenville Province, representing the northern extent of the Grenville Orogen in North America. Many of these terranes record evidence of two orogenies: the Labradorian Orogeny at ca. 1710-1600 Ma, and the Grenville Orogeny at ca. 1080-980 Ma. The rocks in the Wilson Lake terrane are interpreted to have been subjected to peak pressures of ~0.95 GPa and ~930°C during the Labradorian Orogeny (Korhonen et al., in prep., Stability of sapphirine + quartz in the Wilson Lake terrane: calculated equilibria in NCKFMASHTO). The final amalgamation of the Wilson Lake terrane over the underlying Parautochthonous Belt is interpreted to have occurred during the Grenville Orogeny, when the terrane was subjected to a lower-T (500-350°C) overprinting. However, petrologic and chronologic evidence for the Grenville orogeny is limited in the Wilson Lake terrane. Here we present results from a monazite chemical (U-Th)-Pb chronologic study in order to provide constraints on the metamorphic history of the Wilson Lake terrane. Monazite was analyzed in samples of orthopyroxene + sillimanite + quartz bearing and sapphirine + quartz bearing gneisses from throughout the Wilson Lake terrane. These samples contain two distinct populations of monazite: 1) a population of large (up to ~500 μm) monazite exhibits distinct core and rim zoning in yttrium X-ray compositional maps, and occurs predominately in the melanosome of the rocks, and 2) a population of smaller (up to ~50 μm) unzoned monazite rarely occurs in quartz-rich layers of the rocks. In a majority of the melanosome-hosted monazite, (U-Th)-Pb chemical ages yield cores and rims with statistically similar Labradorian ages of ca. 1705-1675 Ma. However, one sample from the middle of the terrane yields monazite grains with Labradorian age cores (ca. 1710 Ma) and post-Labradorian rims (ca. 1590 Ma). Monazite from the second, quartz

  12. Accretionary orogens: definition, character, significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cawood, P. A.; Kroener, A.; Windley, B. F.

    2003-04-01

    Classic models of orogens involve a Wilson cycle of ocean opening and closing with orogenesis related to continent-continent collision. Such models fail to explain the geological history of a significant number of orogenic belts throughout the world in which deformation, metamorphism and crustal growth took place in an environment of on-going plate convergence. These belts are termed accretionary orogens but have also been refereed to as non-collisional orogens, Pacific-type orogens, Turkic-type and exterior orogens. Accretionary orogens evolve in generally curvilinear belts comprising dominantly mafic to silicic igneous rocks and their sedimentary products and accumulated largely in marine settings. They are variably deformed and metamorphosed by tectono-thermal events aligned parallel to, and punctuating, facies trends. Accretionary orogens form at sites of subduction of oceanic lithosphere and consist of magmatic arcs systems along with material accreted from the downgoing plate and eroded from the upper plate. Deformational features include structures formed in extension and compressive environments during steady-state convergence (arc/backarc vs. accretionary prism) that are overprinted by short regional compressive orogenic events. Orogenesis takes place through coupling across the plate boundary with strain concentrated in zones of mechanical and thermal weakening such as the magmatic arc and back arc region. Potential driving mechanisms for coupling include accretion of buoyant lithosphere (terrane accretion), flat slab subduction, and rapid absolute upper plate motion over-riding the downgoing plate. The Circum-Pacific region provides outstanding examples of accretionary orogens. The Pacific formed during breakup of Rodinia in the Neoproterozoic and has never subsequently closed, resulting in a series of overall ocean-ward younging orogenic systems that have always faced an open ocean, yet have been the sites of repeated tectono-thermal events and

  13. Structural investigation of the Grenville Province by radar and other imaging and nonimaging sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowman, P. D., Jr.; Blodget, H. W.; Webster, W. J., Jr.; Paia, S.; Singhroy, V. H.; Slaney, V. R.

    1984-01-01

    The structural investigation of the Canadian Shield by orbital radar and LANDSAT, is outlined. The area includes parts of the central metasedimentary belt and the Ontario gneiss belt, and major structures as well-expressed topographically. The primary objective is to apply SIR-B data to the mapping of this key part of the Grenville orogen, specifically ductile fold structures and associated features, and igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rock (including glacial and recent sediments). Secondary objectives are to support the Canadian RADARSAT project by evaluating the baseline parameters of a Canadian imaging radar satellite planned for late in the decade. The baseline parameters include optimum incidence and azimuth angles. The experiment is to develop techniques for the use of multiple data sets.

  14. A regional paleomagnetic study of lithotectonic domains in the Central Gneiss Belt, Grenville Province, Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constanzo Alvarez, Vincenzo; Dunlop, David J.

    1998-04-01

    We have made a regional paleomagnetic study of lithotectonic domains in the Central Gneiss Belt of the Grenville Province in Ontario along ten N-S and E-W traverses up to 200 km in length. Although originally intended to clarify the tectonic mechanism by which these exotic terranes were assembled and welded to the Archean Superior craton during the ˜1150-Ma Grenvillian orogeny, we actually learned much more about the timing of post-orogenic uplift of the various domains around 1000-900 Ma as they stabilized and became part of the Rodinia supercontinent. The normal (N) and reverse (R) natural remanent magnetizations (NRMs) of all domains, as well as those of reactivated regions flanking the Grenville Front (GF, the Superior-Grenville boundary) to the north and south, have paleomagnetic poles falling on the 980-920-Ma ( 40Ar/ 39Ar calibrated) portion of the Grenville apparent polar wander track for Laurentia. There is a general tendency for paleopoles to young with increasing distance of domains from the GF, implying that more southerly domains were uplifted and magnetized later, but two of the domains do not fit this pattern. Previously reported younging trends away from the GF, based on K/Ar thermochron maps and paleomagnetic 'zone poles', are untrustworthy because of hydrothermal alteration, which causes chemical remagnetization and anomalously old K/Ar ages near the GF. Another trend in our data is a regular increase in the R/N ratio with increasing distance south of the GF. In the reactivated zones flanking the GF, NRMs are overwhelmingly of N polarity, whereas well away from the GF, R/N is close to 50:50. Also, NRM intensities and susceptibility values increase 100-fold away from the GF, peaking ≈10 km south of the front, with a pulse-like pattern similar to that documented in anomalously high 40Ar/ 39Ar dates in the same region. Both the magnetic and Ar/Ar results are likely due to a 'wave' of hydrothermal alteration and remagnetization during which fluids

  15. Grenville-age, polyphase deformation of mid-Proterozoic basement, NW Van Horn Mountains, trans-Pecos, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Bristol, D.A.; Mosher, S. )

    1989-01-01

    Psammitic, pelitic, and mafic schists in a basement horst in the NW Van Horn Mountains of west Texas preserve evidence of a multiphase, synmetamorphic, Grenville-age ductile deformation. Three phase of progressive isoclinal folding followed by two later, less intense, nearly coaxial folding phases have been identified. The second phase of deformation produced the dominant foliation and foliation-intersection lineation observed throughout area. This deformation is inferred to have resulted from a regional-scale folding, possible associated with napped formation, at or near peak metamorphic conditions. Mineral assemblages indicated amphibolite facies, and Fe-Mg exchange thermometry provide maximum temperatures of 640 {plus minus} 50 C corresponding to mid-amphibolite facies conditions. Three subsequent fold generations (F{sub 3}-F{sub 5}) formed under progressively lower metamorphic conditions; F{sub 3} produced a weakly developed foliation (S{sub 3}) whereas neither of the two later folding phases formed a penetrative fabric. Fluids or heat associated with the widespread intrusion of late syn- to post-orogenic pegmatites facilitated a static recrystallization event which altered previously formed deformational fabrics. Other basement exposures in the Van Horn area record a later phase of Grenville-age brittle deformation that has wholly or partly obscured the earlier formed ductile features. The Grenville-age, progressive deformational history recorded in the basement rocks of the Van Horn area is similar to that noted in portions of the Llano Uplift of central Texas and in the Adirondack Mountains of New York and suggests that the Grenville orogeny was characterized by oblique convergence along the length of the North American craton.

  16. Grenville-era Crustal Architecture of Central Australia, and its Importance in Constraining Rodinia Models.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitken, A. R.; Betts, P. G.

    2007-12-01

    continuous and coherent northeast trending orogenic belt connecting the Albany Fraser, Musgrave and Warumpi provinces. The geometry and extent of this orogenic belt precludes a direct connection between the Musgrave Province and contemporaneous orogens in Laurentia. Any model of Australian orogenic activity during the Grenvillian era, must take account of the NE oriented architecture, and intracontinental termination of the orogenic belt. Continental reconfiguration within Australia via the rotation of the South Australian Craton can adequately explain the Grenville-aged architecture of Australia.

  17. Grenville foreland thrust belt hidden beneath the eastern US midcontinent

    SciTech Connect

    Hauser, E.C. )

    1993-01-01

    Grenville foreland thrust structures are observed beneath the eastern US midcontinent on COCORP (Consortium for Continental Reflection Profiling) line OH-1 and a short seismic line in southwest Ohio. These structures represent the first evidence for a significant Grenville foreland thrust belt preserved in eastern North America. On the COCORP lines, the structures include a thrust ramp anticline and an associated asymmetric syncline. The Grenville front tectonic zone appears to truncate these foreland structures, indicating a later, second phase expressed as a deeply penetrating, out-of-sequence thrust zone associated with the main uplift of the Grenville province on the east. A short, shallow seismic line in southwestern Ohio reveals an east-dipping sequence of prominently layered rocks that may lie above a footwall ramp to a deeper Grenville thrust fault. A drill hole into the less reflective top of this dipping sequence encountered unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks like those increasingly reported from other drill holes in southwestern Ohio and adjacent states. Although possibly part of a late Precambrian (Keweenawan ) rift, these clastic sedimentary rocks may instead preserve evidence of a heretofore unrecognized Grenville foreland basin in eastern North America. Alternatively these Precambrian sedimentary rocks together with an underlying, but yet undrilled, strongly layered sequence may correlate with similarly layered rocks observed on COCORP and industrial seismic lines within the Middle Proterozoic granite-rhyolite province to the west in Indiana and Illinois and indicate that unmetamorphosed sedimentary material is an important constituent of the granite-rhyolite province. 25 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Acadian orogen Which Acadian orogen

    SciTech Connect

    Ludman, A. )

    1993-03-01

    The Acadian orogeny is widely viewed as the climactic event in much of the Northern Appalachians, resulting from the closing of one or more ocean basins and the accretion of the Avalonian continent to ancestral North America. Unconformities have traditionally dated the Acadian orogeny as Middle Devonian in the east and Late Middle to Late Devonian in the western part of the orogen. The recent recognition that several post-Acadian'' plutons are actually Late Silurian suggests that the tectonic models are too simplistic; that accretion previously attributed to a Devonian (Acadian) event may have been a two-stage process: Late Silurian (Salinic ) and Acadian sensu stricto; that orogenic activity may have been continuous from Taconian through Acadian'' times. Differences between the records of the Taconic (Ordovician) and Acadian orogenies suggest different plate interactions: near-orthogonal subduction for the former vs transcurrent faulting for the latter as the dominant mechanisms. Distribution of Salinic'' unconformities across the Northern Appalachian orogen in Maine suggests that accretion of Avalon may have been completed by that Silurian event, but faunal provincialities displayed by fossils as young as Early Devonian in terranes bordering the Fredericton Trough argue for later (Devonian) accretion. A further complication is the imprecise knowledge of the extent to which post-Devonian tectonism is responsible for the current terrane configuration in the Northern Appalachians. Alleghenian folding and thrusting is well-established in some areas where post-Acadian (Carboniferous) strata are present, and is now being documented in older rocks in eastern Maine as well: transcurrent faulting as young as post-Mesozoic( ) along the Norumbega Fault Zone; east-directed thrusting involving the Early Devonian Center Pond pluton.

  19. Three Proterozoic orogenic cycles in the Livingstone Mountains, Tanzania: Evidence from petrology and ion microprobe dating of zircon and monazite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nitsche, Christoph; Schenk, Volker; Schmitt, Axel; Kazimoto, Emmanuel

    2017-04-01

    The Livingstone Mountains at Lake Nyasa in southern Tanzania are situated in an area where three orogenic belts seem to be overlapping: the Ubendian-Usagaran belts, the Irumide Belt and the East African Orogen, whose formations are linked to the assembly of the Proterozoic supercontinents of Columbia, Rodinia and Gondwana. Granulite-facies migmatitic metapelites and two orthogneisses were studied petrologically and by ion microprobe dating of monazite and zircon to decipher their tectono-metamorphic history and to find out if and to which degree the rocks of the Livingstone Mountains were affected by the different orogenies. Zircon dating of orthogneiss yielded a magmatic age of ca. 2.2 Ga. Texturally controlled ion microprobe U-Pb dating of monazite inclusions in garnet of a Grt-Sil-Bt migmatite in combination with discordant zircon data point to sillimanite-garnet grade metamorphism at 1857±27 Ma during the Ubendian-Usagaran orogeny. Oscillatory zoned concordant zircon of another orthogneiss was dated at 997±8.6 Ma, whereas the age of monazite inclusions in garnet and matrix of a garnet-sillimanite-gneiss revealed an associated high-grade metamorphism at 1067±20 Ma during the Irumide orogeny. Low Th/U overgrowths on orthogneiss zircon and concordant matrix monazite in metapelite are dated at 653±9.1 Ma, which is in agreement with the known ages of Pan-African events in the East African Orogen and in the Ubendian Belt (655-550 Ma) (Möller et al., 2000; Boniface et al, 2012). Garnet is homogeneous in Fe and Mg, but cores are mantled by Ca-rich garnet which shows rim-ward depletion in Ca. Thermobarometry using compositions of garnet rims and matrix minerals yielded 770-820 °C and 7-8 kbar, which we interpret to represent conditions during the Neoproterozoic metamorphic event. The high-grossular mantle might reflect earlier conditions of kyanite-grade metamorphism tentatively correlated with high-pressure metamorphism during the Mesoproterozoic Irumide orogeny

  20. The Grenville Front Tectonic Zone: Results from the 1986 Great Lakes Onshore Seismic Wide-Angle Reflection and Refraction Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Epili, Duryodhan; Mereu, Robert F.

    1991-09-01

    The Grenville Front, which marks the orogenic boundary between the Archean Superior Structural Province and the much younger Grenville Province to the southeast, is one of the major tectonic features of the Canadian Shield. Within Canada, it is approximately 1900 km in length extending from the north shore of Lake Huron across Ontario and Quebec to Labrador. In 1986, a major coincident onship near-vertical reflection and onshore wide-angle reflection/refraction experiment (GLIMPCE-Great Lakes International Multidisciplinary Program on Crustal Evolution) was conducted along a series of lines across the Great lakes. One of the lines, line J, ran across Georgian Bay and Lake Huron for a distance of 350 km and crossed the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone (GFTZ). The seismic signals from the air gun array source were well recorded by the onshore stations up to distances of 250 km with a seismic trace spacing of 50-62.5 m. The GFTZ had a profound effect on the nature of the reflector patterns observed on the onshore seismic sections. Data recorded by the stations on the east end of the line indicate that the crustal P phases are very complex and form a "shinglelike" pattern of reflected waves. Data recorded by stations at the center and at the western end of the line show that the Pg phases are normal and lack the shinglelike appearance. This character of arrivals was also observed on the corresponding S wave sections. A combined P and S wave forward modeling analysis shows that the GFTZ is composed of bands of reflectors dipping at angles of 20°-35° extending to the lower crust. These reflectors were also well imaged on the coincident near-vertical reflection data. Reflectors under the Britt domain to the east of the GFTZ have a shallower dip than those along the zone. The structure of the crust under the Manitoulin terrane to the west of the GFTZ is laterally homogeneous with a major intracrustal reflector at a depth of 17-20 km below the surface. Poisson's ratio is

  1. Middle to Late Proterozoic tectonic history of Grenville province at Van Horn, Trans-Pecos Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Soegaard, K.; Nielsen, K.C.; Manton, W.I. . Programs in Geosciences)

    1993-02-01

    Middle to Late Proterozoic volcanic and sedimentary sequences near Van Horn in west Texas record the pre- and syn-tectonic history of deformation from shallow crustal levels. Pre-deformational sequences include the Carrizo Mountain Group, the Allamoore and Tumbledown formations. The Carrizo Mountain Group is thrust northward, along the Streeruwitz fault, over a para-autochthonous sequence of unmetamorphosed carbonate and polymodal volcanic rocks of Allamoore and Tumbledown formations. Carbonates in the Allamoore Formation were deposited in shallow water and contain diverse stromatolites, desiccation cracks, and halite pseudomorphs. The Tumbledown formation unconformably overlies the Allamoore carbonate succession and consists of volcanic sandstones, agglomerates, pillow breccias, and mafic volcanic flows. Deformation of the pre-orogenic sequences led to deposition of more than 2,500 meters of immature alluvial fan conglomerates and eolian sandstones of the Hazel Formation. Based on clast composition of boulder conglomerates in the Hazel Formation, the principal source rocks were the Allamoore and Tumbledown formations and an unknown rhyolite terrain, with Carrizo Mountain Group lithologies notably absent. Alluvial megasequences in the alluvial fan conglomerates are aggradational and indicate at least two episodes of faulting accompanied Hazel sedimentation. A mismatch between source terrain and corresponding sediment composition, in addition to aggradation of alluvial fan megasequences, along the southern fault-bounded basin margin supports a transpressive regime for this orogenic belt in favor of a purely convergent margin. The Hazel orogenic sequence post-dated a 1,126--1,070 Ma old regional igneous event, whereas the Grenville deformation in the Llano uplift of central Texas pre-dated the igneous event.

  2. Grenville-age A-type and related magmatism in southern Laurentia, Texas and New Mexico, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yujia; Barnes, Melanie A.; Barnes, Calvin G.; Frost, Carol D.

    2007-08-01

    Large Grenville-age plutons are known to be present in the 1340-1370 Ma basement in Texas and eastern New Mexico, but their distribution and compositional ranges are poorly known. New U-Pb zircon dates (SHRIMP-RG, Stanford University) on subsurface samples have identified widespread presence of compositionally diverse Grenville-age (1070-1110 Ma) plutonic rocks. In the Texas Panhandle, core from a > 175 m thick, sill-like gabbroic intrusion yielded a date of 1081 ± 8.3 Ma. In situ differentiation of this tholeiitic magma led to a ˜ 7-fold increase in incompatible element concentrations as REE patterns remained essentially flat. Trace element data suggest an E-MORB-like source. To the south, alkali-feldspar granite with A-type affinities was recovered from drill core from the Abilene gravity minimum near Albany, Texas. It yielded a date of 1078 ± 23 Ma; similar to undeformed (post-orogenic) granites in the Llano uplift. Further west, an anorthosite xenolith from the Eocene Three Sisters intrusion in El Paso, Texas yielded a date of 1068 ± 30 Ma which is within error of the 1110 ± 19 Ma age determined for the main stage of the nearby A-type Red Bluff granitic suite. Xenoliths from Potrillo maar volcano in the center of the southern Rio Grande rift include monzonitic xenoliths with granulitic texture which yielded dates of ˜ 1072 Ma. In contrast, Potrillo maar xenoliths with igneous textures yielded U-Pb dates of ˜ 27 Ma. Development of the granulitic texture is interpreted to reflect granulite facies metamorphism during Tertiary time (26-27 Ma) on the basis of age zoning and U concentrations in the zircon crystals. Our results show that Grenville-age magmatism in the Texas and New Mexico subsurface was widespread and was coeval with syn- and post-deformation granites in the Llano uplift of central Texas. The compositions of dated samples suggest that mafic magmas were broadly tholeiitic in character and that granitic magmas were "A-type". These magmatic

  3. Anatomy of amphibolite facies strain gradients in granitoids of the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone, Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerbi, Christopher; Shulman, Deborah; Foley, Maura; Culshaw, Nicholas; Marsh, Jeffrey; Yates, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Observations of physical and chemical changes across strain gradients can provide information about the processes that lead to localization and therefore provide better tools for prediction of spatial and temporal strain patterns. Much of orogenic crust comprises granitoid lithologies, yet mechanisms for viscous localization at the kilometer scale in these rock types remain poorly documented. In contrast to mafic and pelitic compositions, granitoids have little capacity for changes in phase assemblage that can drive localization, so strain must focus due to other, mainly microstructural, factors. We describe microstructural and compositional data across several kilometer-scale amphibolite facies strain gradients from middle levels of the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone, Ontario, Canada. Whole rock analyses reveal only minor heterogeneity in major element distribution in the granite - attributable to the protolith - and homogeneity in the trace elements, indicating that strain did not affect the bulk rock composition. In contrast, microstructures and mineral chemistry vary with strain, in particular biotite, hornblende, and plagioclase compositions, the fraction of recrystallized grains, and the development of a mixed-phase matrix. The spatial distribution of the microscale changes indicates an evolution of deformation mechanisms with increased localization. Stress concentrations at the unit boundaries were insufficient to cause the strain gradient alone, but were sufficient to initiate the microstructural processes leading to rheological change. Homogenization algorithms based on phase assemblage, phase morphology, and intracrystalline deformation mechanisms do not predict the strength reduction indicated from the macroscale strain patterns. Thus, dynamic rock strength is likely lower than is immediately apparent from exhumed tectonites.

  4. Deep structure beneath Lake Ontario: Crustal-scale Grenville subdivisions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forsyth, D. A.; Milkereit, B.; Zelt, Colin A.; White, D. J.; Easton, R. M.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.

    1994-01-01

    Lake Ontario marine seismic data reveal major Grenville crustal subdivisions beneath central and southern Lake Ontario separated by interpreted shear zones that extend to the lower crust. A shear zone bounded transition between the Elzevir and Frontenac terranes exposed north of Lake Ontario is linked to a seismically defined shear zone beneath central Lake Ontario by prominent aeromagnetic and gravity anomalies, easterly dipping wide-angle reflections, and fractures in Paleozoic strata. We suggest the central Lake Ontario zone represents crustal-scale deformation along an Elzevir–Frontenac boundary zone that extends from outcrop to the south shore of Lake Ontario.Seismic images from Lake Ontario and the exposed western Central Metasedimentary Belt are dominated by crustal-scale shear zones and reflection geometries featuring arcuate reflections truncated at their bases by apparent east-dipping linear reflections. The images show that zones analogous to the interpreted Grenville Front Tectonic Zone are also present within the Central Metasedimentary Belt and support models of northwest-directed crustal shortening for Grenvillian deep crustal deformation beneath most of southeastern Ontario.A Precambrian basement high, the Iroquoian high, is defined by a thinning of generally horizontal Paleozoic strata over a crestal area above the basement shear zone beneath central Lake Ontario. The Iroquoian high helps explain the peninsular extension into Lake Ontario forming Prince Edward County, the occurrence of Precambrian inlier outcrops in Prince Edward County, and Paleozoic fractures forming the Clarendon–Linden structure in New York.

  5. Kyanite-bearing migmatites in the central Adirondack Mountains: Implications for late to post-orogenic metamorphism and melting in a collisional orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeder, J.; Metzger, E. P.; Bickford, M. E.; Leech, M. L.

    2016-12-01

    Sillimanite-rich felsic migmatites exposed at Ledge Mountain in the Central Adirondack Highlands (AH) represent the only location in the AH where kyanite is found. The texturally young kyanite is overprinted on sillimanite in largely undeformed pegmatitic leucosomes, suggesting a late episode of melting taking place deeper than previously thought, and requiring a counter-clockwise P-T path. A final phase of anatexis ca. 1050 Ma in the Eastern AH is consistent with an influx of fluid or decompression from extension in sillimanite-bearing migmatites. Temperatures both from this study and previous work are consistent with granulite-facies metamorphism; however, the presence of kyanite requires higher pressure conditions corresponding to deeper burial of rocks exposed in the central Adirondacks. The Adirondacks are associated with the Grenville Province of eastern North America, that formed during four orogenic events. The most recent (Grenville) orogeny consisted of two stages: crustal thickening and granulite facies metamorphism during the Ottawan phase (ca 1090-1020) then metamorphism and melting in the kyanite field during the much shorter Rigolet pulse (ca 1005-980 Ma). Preliminary U-Pb SHRIMP zircon ages from Ledge Mountain kyanite-bearing migmatites suggest that melting in the Central AH persisted into the Rigolet phase. On the basis of mineral composition and chemistry and the presence of distinctive quartz-sillimanite nodules, the Ledge Mountain migmatites closely resemble the K-rich phase of the Ottawan-age Lyon Mountain granite (LMG) and may represent LMG that was metamorphosed to sillimanite grade and then overprinted by a higher pressure, lower temperature assemblage. Kyanite-bearing felsic anatectites of Rigolet age have previously been observed only in the western portion of the Grenville Province. Documentation of a counterclockwise P-T path and post-Ottawan melting in the Ledge Mountain migmatites requires re-evaluation of current tectonic models for

  6. Structural and U/Pb chronology of superimposed folds, Adirondack Mountains: implications for the tectonic evolution of the Grenville Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusky, Timothy M.; Loring, David P.

    2001-10-01

    The Grenville Province of eastern Laurentia formed during Mesoproterozoic events that led to the formation of the supercontinent of Rodinia. Structural analysis and U-Pb geochronology of the Piseco antiform in the southern Adirondack Highlands part of the Grenville Province has shed new light on the geology and structural history of this orogen. An outcrop positioned on the northern limb of the Piseco antiform near Wells, NY, contains a major F 1 fold refolded by regional F 2 and F 3 axes. This is the first recognized large-scale F 1 fold in the Adirondack Highlands. Foliated leucocratic gneiss and deformed metagabbro dikes in the core of the antiform have yielded single-grain U-Pb zircon ages of 1172.4±2.2 and 1165.4±1.3 Ma, respectively. Discordant pegmatitic veins that crosscut the foliation in the metagabbro have yielded an estimated 207Pb/ 206Pb age of 1052.4 Ma. The geochronological data have several important implications. The 1172 Ma age of the Wells leucocratic gneiss is virtually identical with that of the syntectonic Hyde School gneiss, Rockport granite, and Wellesley granite from the Adirondack Lowlands and Frontenac terrane of the Central Metasedimentary Belt, thus extending the known distribution of magmas of this age to the southern Adirondack Highlands. We relate these syntectonic granitoids and F 1 folds to the suturing of the ca. 1350-1250 Ma Adirondack Highlands-Green Mountain arc to the composite arc terrane and Laurentia at 1220-1170 Ma. The 1165 Ma deformed metagabbro contains the S 2 but not the S 1 foliation, and we correlate the metagabbro with the ca. 1170-1125 Ma AMCG suite, interpreted to have formed in response to orogenic collapse and delamination following the collision. The Wells leucocratic gneiss and gabbro were folded by reclined isoclinal F 2 folds and upright F 3 folds, and cut by apparently undeformed ca. 1052.4 Ma pegmatitic dikes. Since the discordant pegmatites cut the S 1, S 2, and S 3 foliations which postdate the ca

  7. A Mantle Xenolith Window Into the Grenville Orogeny of Southern Laurentia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, H. P.; Lee, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    The creation and isolation of the craton, or stable SCLM, is intimately connected to orogenesis. However, the nature of the lithospheric mantle beneath orogenic belts is incompletely understood due to the general lack of mantle xenolith-bearing basaltic magmas in such regions. One such place where we are afforded the opportunity to study the deep lithosphere beneath an orogenic belt is in central Texas, United States. Mantle xenoliths occur in late Cretaceous alkali basaltic magmas erupted through the remnants of the Appalachian - Ouachita structural belt of eastern and southern Laurentia. The Appalachian - Ouachita structural belt, which is buried beneath most of the Gulf Plain, represents two dissimilar cycles of orogenesis. The earlier cycle was the culmination of a long period of Proterozoic juvenile crust formation along Laurentia's southern and eastern margin. The more recent (Paleozoic) cycle created the fold and thrust belts currently exposed in the Appalachian and Ouachita Mountains, but involved mainly thin-skin tectonics and accretion of terranes, rather than continental suprasubduction settings. We are interested in identifying the process which emplaced mantle lithosphere beneath this ancient orogenic belt, and whether the original lithospheric mantle has been preserved there. Here, we show that the xenoliths beneath west-central Texas are of continental origin. These samples also have geochemical signatures suggestive of a suprasubduction zone setting in the form of enrichments in fluid-mobile trace (e.g. La) elements over fluid-immobile trace elements (e.g. Nb). These observations imply that the original continental lithosphere created in the Proterozoic suprasubduction zone setting was likely preserved during continent-continent collision and did not undergo wholesale delamination over a billion year period. During this period, the mantle convectively resisted two episodes of supercontinent rifting. However, the lithospheric mantle may have been

  8. The Central Metasedimentary Belt (Grenville Province) as a failed back-arc rift zone: Nd isotope evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickin, A. P.; McNutt, R. H.

    2007-07-01

    Nd isotope data are presented for granitoid orthogneisses from the Central Metasedimentary Belt (CMB) of the Grenville Province in order to map the extent of juvenile Grenvillian-age crust within this orogenic belt that is composed mostly of older crustal terranes. The data reveal a 150 km-wide belt of juvenile crust in Ontario, but this belt contains a block of pre-Grenvillian crust (containing the Elzevir pluton) which yields an estimated crustal formation age of 1.5 Ga. The recognition of an older block within the CMB has profound implications for its structure and tectonic evolution, because it implies that juvenile Grenvillian crust, apparently forming a wide NE-SW belt, is in fact distributed in two narrower segments with approximately N-S strike. We suggest that the CMB comprises an en echelon series of ensimatic rift segments, created by back-arc spreading behind a continental margin arc. These rift segments extend southwards (in the subsurface) into the northeastern Unites States. The rift segments contain abundant marble outcrops, consistent with marine incursion into the rift zone, and these deposits also continue northwards into a 'Marble domain' of the CMB in Quebec. However, crustal formation ages in the latter domain are largely pre-Grenvillian, implying that the Quebec rift segment was ensialic. Hence, we interpret the CMB in Ontario and Quebec as the northern termination of a failed back-arc rift zone.

  9. Geophysical constraints on the presence of mafic material within the Scranton rift and its influence on later orogenic cycles of the Eastern North American Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, M. H.; Ebinger, C. J.; Crampton, M.

    2012-12-01

    The transition zone between the modern-day northern and southern Appalachian mountains is located in Pennsylvania, where the there is a pronounced change in the orientation of structural features. The Appalachian orogenic belt steps eastward and wraps around the Scranton Bouguer gravity high, corresponding to a sector of the Taconic foreland basin. Vintage wide-angle crustal seismic studies suggest that crust beneath the thick foreland basin fill was thickened and heavily intruded in a failed Neoproterozoic rift (Hawman et al., 1992). Here, we investigate the role of this ancient crustal heterogeneity on the structure of the Appalachian orogen and subsequent Mesozoic rift structures through analyses of receiver function analysis from temporary and permanent stations throughout the region. Forward and inverse models of Bouguer gravity data constrain the geometry and depth extent of the high density zone, and seismic data constrain thickness and structure of the crust. Receiver functions were calculated using time-domain deconvolution, and then bulk crustal thickness and Vp/Vs values were found using Hk stacking analysis. A simple grid-search inversion which solved for layer thickness, Vs, and Poisson's ratio was applied to a subset of stations to identify mid-crustal discontinuities,. Results from the receiver function analysis suggest that the crust is ~47- 49 km thick beneath the gravity high, and that stations located within the high contain a 6-14 km thick layer in the lower crust with a Vs ~ 4.1 km/s and Vp 7.4 km/s. Seismic velocities of the upper crust are also higher than average for the eastern US. Based on the results of a Parker-Oldenberg inversion of Bouguer gravity data, the gravity high corresponds to a 400 kg m-3 density contrast in the lower crust. The top of the high density body at ~35 km depth strongly correlates to the depth to the high velocity layer found in the models produced from receiver function analysis. Furthermore, results from Euler

  10. The Grenville-age basement of the Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Victor A.

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of the basement of the Andes shows the strong Grenville affinities of most of the inliers exposed in the different terranes from Colombia to Patagonia. The terranes have different histories, but most of them participated in the Rodinia supercontinent amalgamation during the Mesoproterozoic between 1200 and 1000 Ma. After Rodinia break-up some terranes were left in the Laurentian side such as Cuyania and Chilenia, while others stayed in the Gondwanan side. Some of the terranes once collided with the Amazon craton remained attached, experiencing diverse rifting episodes all along the Phanerozoic, as the Arequipa and Pampia terranes. Some other basement inliers were detached in the Neoproterozoic and amalgamated again to Gondwana in the Early Cambrian, Middle Ordovician or Permian times. A few basement inliers with Permian metamorphic ages were transferred to Gondwana after Pangea break-up from the Laurentian side. Some of them were part of the present Middle America terrane. An exceptional case is the Oaxaquia terrane that was detached from the Gondwana margin after the Early Ordovician and is now one of the main Mexican terranes that collided with Laurentia. These displacements, detachments, and amalgamations indicate a complex terrane transfer between Laurentia and Gondwana during Paleozoic times, following plate reorganizations and changes in the absolute motion of Gondwana.

  11. Characterization and tectonic evolution of a Mesoproterozoic island arc in the southern Grenville Orogen, Llano uplift, central Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roback, Robert C.

    1996-11-01

    Integrated field and U-Pb geochronologic data document the presence and tectonic evolution of a distinct lithotectonic terrane in the southeastern Llano uplift, here termed the Coal Creek Domain (CCD). The CCD consists of tonalitic and amphibolitic gneisses, foliated gabbroic, tonalitic, and granodioritic intrusions, and the structurally emplaced Coal Creek Serpentinite. The oldest rocks in the CCD consist of tonalitic gneisses with protolith crystallization ages of 1326 Ma and 1301 Ma and pre-1292 Ma amphibolitic gneisses (all ages are U-Pb zircon). They were intruded by dominantly mafic and intermediate with subordinate amounts of felsic low-K plutonic rocks between 1286 Ma and 1275 Ma. High-temperature metamorphism and local anatexis that resulted in the formation of gneisses and migmatites occurred between 1301 Ma and 1286 Ma and is suggested to have occurred at ˜1292 Ma. Metamorphism at 1256 Ma resulted in the growth of zircons in mafic rocks. The regional significance of this metamorphic event is unclear but it may be related to dynamothermal metamorphism of the CCD. The contemporaneous emplacement of low-K gabbro, tonalite, and granodiorite and their spatial association with serpentinite, combined with published geochemical data, strongly suggest that the CCD represents an ensimatic arc. The Coal Creek Serpentinite is interpreted as a fragment of oceanic crust that formed either basement to the arc, or in a related back-arc or intra-arc setting. Combined field, U-Pb geochronologic, isotopic, and geochemical data indicate that the magmatic, metamorphic, and structural history of the CCD differs from that of coeval rocks elsewhere in the Llano uplift. The boundary between the CCD and deformed and metamorphosed granitic and supracrustal rocks to the north is a zone of intense mylonitization and polyphase deformation. This zone is interpreted as the structural boundary between the arc terrane and units to the north.

  12. Differential unroofing within the central metasedimentary Belt of the Grenville Orogen: constraints from 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosca, Michael A.; Essene, Eric J.; Kunk, Michael J.; Sutter, John F.

    1992-04-01

    An 40Ar/39Ar thermochronological investigation of upper greenschist to granulite facies gneiss, amphibolite and marble was conducted in the Central Metasedimentary Belt (CMB), Ontario, to constrain its cooling history. Incremental 40Ar/39Ar release spectra indicate that substantial differential unroofing occurred in the CMB between ˜ 1000 and ˜ 600 Ma. A consistent pattern of significantly older hornblende and phlogopite 40Ar/3Ar cooling ages on the southeast sides of major northeast striking shear zones is interpreted to reflect late displacement due to extensional deformation. Variations in hornblende 40Ar/39Ar age plateaus exceeding 200 Ma occur over distances less than 50 km with major age discontinuities occurring across the Robertson Lake shear zone and the Sharbot Lake mylonite zone which separate the Sharbot Lake terrane from the Elzevir and Frontenac terranes. Extensional displacements of up to 14 km are inferred between the Frontenac and Elzevir terranes of the CMB. No evidence for significant post argon-closure vertical displacement is indicated in the vicinity of the Perth Road mylonite within the Frontenac terrane. Variations of nearly 100 Ma in phlogopite 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages occur in undeformed marble on either side of the Bancroft Shear Zone. Phlogopites from sheared and mylonitized marble within the shear zone yield 40Ar/39Ar diffusional loss profiles, but have older geologically meaningless ages thought to reflect incorporation of excess argon. By ˜ 900 Ma, southeast directed extension was occurring throughout the CMB, possibly initiated along previous zones of compressional shearing. An easterly migration of active zones of extension is inferred, possibly related to an earlier, overall easterly migration of active zones of regional thrusting and easterly migration of an ancient subduction zone. The duration of extensional shearing is not well constrained, but must have ceased before ˜ 600 Ma as required by the deposition of overlying undeformed Cambrian and/or Ordovician sedimentary rocks.

  13. Differential unroofing within the central metasedimentary Belt of the Grenville Orogen: constraints from 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cosca, M.A.; Essene, E.J.; Kunk, M.J.; Sutter, J.F.

    1992-01-01

    An 40Ar/39Ar thermochronological investigation of upper greenschist to granulite facies gneiss, amphibolite and marble was conducted in the Central Metasedimentary Belt (CMB), Ontario, to constrain its cooling history. Incremental 40Ar/39Ar release spectra indicate that substantial differential unroofing occurred in the CMB between ??? 1000 and ??? 600 Ma. A consistent pattern of significantly older hornblende and phlogopite 40Ar/3Ar cooling ages on the southeast sides of major northeast striking shear zones is interpreted to reflect late displacement due to extensional deformation. Variations in hornblende 40Ar/39Ar age plateaus exceeding 200 Ma occur over distances less than 50 km with major age discontinuities occurring across the Robertson Lake shear zone and the Sharbot Lake mylonite zone which separate the Sharbot Lake terrane from the Elzevir and Frontenac terranes. Extensional displacements of up to 14 km are inferred between the Frontenac and Elzevir terranes of the CMB. No evidence for significant post argon-closure vertical displacement is indicated in the vicinity of the Perth Road mylonite within the Frontenac terrane. Variations of nearly 100 Ma in phlogopite 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages occur in undeformed marble on either side of the Bancroft Shear Zone. Phlogopites from sheared and mylonitized marble within the shear zone yield 40Ar/39Ar diffusional loss profiles, but have older geologically meaningless ages thought to reflect incorporation of excess argon. By ??? 900 Ma, southeast directed extension was occurring throughout the CMB, possibly initiated along previous zones of compressional shearing. An easterly migration of active zones of extension is inferred, possibly related to an earlier, overall easterly migration of active zones of regional thrusting and easterly migration of an ancient subduction zone. The duration of extensional shearing is not well constrained, but must have ceased before ??? 600 Ma as required by the deposition of overlying undeformed Cambrian and/or Ordovician sedimentary rocks. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  14. The Precambrian of Transangaria, Yenisei Ridge (Siberia): Neoproterozoic microcontinent, Grenville-age orogen, or reworked margin of the Siberian craton?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmichev, Alexander B.; Sklyarov, Eugene V.

    2016-01-01

    The Yenisei Ridge was traditionally perceived as an uplifted segment of the western Siberian craton affected by Neoproterozoic collision events. However, the suggestions for Archaean or Palaeoproterozoic ('Siberian') basement in Transangaria have not been confirmed by reliable geochronological data. A new view regards most of the Ridge, namely, its Transangarian segment, to be an exotic Neoproterozoic terrane that collided with Siberia in the late Neoproterozoic. This paper presents new U-Pb SHRIMP zircon ages demonstrating that Archaean rocks (2611 ± 12 Ma) actually exist in this territory. We also provide a review of published U-Pb zircon ages for igneous and metamorphic rocks of Transangaria together with our new age data. This geochronological dataset clarifies the geology of the Yenisei Ridge and leads to new conclusions, as follows. (1) It is likely that Transangaria was originally underlain by an Archaean-Palaeoproterozoic basement, similar to that of the Siberian craton. (2) Geochronological data do not confirm the idea of widespread "Greenvillian age" granitoides in Transangaria. (3) The Neoproterozoic evolution of the Yenisei Ridge segment of the Siberian craton margin includes the following events. (i) Collision of an unidentified terrane with the western margin (in recent coordinates) of the Siberian craton during 900-855 Ma. The colliding terrane is no longer present in the current structure. (ii) Dextral shearing during 830-800 Ma may have been caused by counter-clockwise rotation of the Siberian craton. (iii) Extensional conditions prevailed during 800-700 Ma. The Isakovka oceanic basin formed at this time interval. (iv) Thrusting of the Isakovka island arc and accretionary prism onto the Siberian margin occurred during the late Neoproterozoic (650-630 Ma) and caused high-pressure metamorphism.

  15. Timing and conditions of high-pressure metamorphism in the western Grenville Province: Constraints from accessory mineral composition and phase equilibrium modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Jeffrey H.; Culshaw, Nicholas G.

    2014-07-01

    Previous geochronological analyses of high pressure (HP) metamorphic rocks in the western Grenville Province, Ontario, Canada have yielded precise U-Pb zircon ages; however, uncertainty has remained as to whether these ages represent the timing of HP metamorphism or the granulite/amphibolite facies overprint accompanying exhumation to a hot middle orogenic crust. Detailed study of these HP rocks, involving garnet, rutile, and zircon trace element analysis, phase equilibrium modeling, and zircon U-Pb geochronology, has yielded much improved constraints on the timing and conditions of HP metamorphism. Zircon from five of the six HP samples yield anchored discordia upper intercept and 207Pb/206Pb weighted average ages between 1097 and 1085 Ma, and typically have trace element compositions consistent with growth in a garnet-rich, plagioclase-poor eclogite-type assemblage (i.e. no negative Eu anomaly and flat HREE trends). Titanium-in-zircon and Zr-in-rutile thermometry indicates that the range of zircon crystallization temperatures for most samples (643-767 °C) is close to that of rutile inclusions in garnet (668-753 °C) and matrix rutile (690-772 °C). Phase relations in a pseudosection calculated for the sample that best preserves the HP assemblage indicate that: (1) the stability field for the inclusions observed in garnet and kyanite is between 11.5 < P < 14 kbar and 600 < T < 700 °C, and (2) zircon and rutile crystallization temperatures intersect the inferred HP assemblage field (Grt + Cpx + Ky + Rt + Hbl + Qtz) and garnet and kyanite modal isopleths at P > ~ 15 kbar, indicating that the ca. 1090 Ma zircon ages date metamorphism at eclogite facies conditions. Thus, the deep burial of mafic lower crust that resulted in HP metamorphism in the western CGB occurred just prior to the main "Ottawan" phase of continental collision in the western Grenville Province (ca. 1080-1040 Ma).

  16. Reworked pre-Grenville crust and timing of Grenville orogenesis in the southeastern Llano Uplift, Texas: Results from U-Pb geochronometry

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, J.F.; Roback, R.C.; Walker, N.W. . Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Zircon geochronometry of metaigneous units in the southeastern Llano Uplift (1) show that 1355-1215 Ma rocks were tectonically reworked during the Grenville orogeny, (2) further constrain the timing of Grenville orogenesis along the southern margin of North America, and (3) necessitate revision of previously proposed stratigraphic and structural relations within the Llano Supergroup. Multigrain, abraded zircon fractions from a sample of quartzofeldspathic Valley Spring Gneiss (VSG) define a discordia trajectory with an upper intercept of 1355 [plus minus] 3 Ma, interpreted as the igneous crystallization age of the protolith. This age is the oldest thus far documented for Llano Supergroup protoliths and is substantially older than a recently reported age (1232 [plus minus]4 Ma) from a different part of the VSG. The lithologic and chronometric similarities of the old VSG to rocks to the Mid-continent Granite-Rhyolite terrane raise the possibility of genetic relations between these units. Thus components of the VSG are tentatively interpreted to represent a deformed and metamorphosed part of the southernmost Mid-Continent Granite-Rhyolite terrane. Alternatively, this rock could be part of an ensialic arc built upon the margin of southern North America and later deformed during the Grenville orogeny. Analyses from four abraded zircon fractions from a quartzofeldspathic gneiss in the structurally overlying Packsaddle Schist yield an upper intercept of 1215 [plus minus] 3 Ma, interpreted as the igneous protolith crystallization age. This age is the youngest yet determined for a polydeformed metamorphic rock in the Llano Uplift and more tightly brackets the timing of Grenville deformation in the southeastern Llano Uplift to post-1215 Ma and pre-1098 Ma.

  17. Seismic images of a tectonic subdivision of the Greenville Orogen beneath lakes Ontario and Erie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Forsyth, D. A.; Milkereit, B.; Davidson, A.; Hanmer, S.; Hutchinson, Deborah R.; Hinze, W. J.; Mereu, R. F.

    1994-01-01

    New seismic data from marine air-gun and Vibroseis profiles in Lake Ontario and Lake Erie provide images of subhorizontal Phanerozoic sediments underlain by a remarkable series of easterly dipping reflections that extends from the crystalline basement to the lower crust. These reflections are interpreted as structural features of crustal-scale subdivisions within the Grenville Orogen. Broadly deformed, imbricated, and overlapping thrust sheets within the western Central Metasedimentary Belt are succeeded to the west by a complex zone of easterly dipping, apparent thrust faults that are interpreted as a southwest subsurface extension of the boundary zone between the Central Metasedimentary Belt and the Central Gneiss Belt. The interpreted Central Metasedimentary Belt boundary zone has a characteristic magnetic anomaly that provides a link from the adjacent ends of lakes Ontario and Erie to structures exposed 150 km to the north. Less reflective, west-dipping events are interpreted as structures within the eastern Central Gneiss Belt. The seismic interpretation augments current tectonic models that suggest the exposed ductile structures formed at depth as a result of crustal shortening along northwest-verging thrust faults. Relatively shallow reflections across the boundary region suggest local, Late Proterozoic extensional troughs containing post-Grenville sediments, preserved possibly as a result of pre-Paleozoic reactivation of basement structures.

  18. Oral Histories in Meteoritics and Planetary Science--XVI: Grenville Turner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sears, Derek W. G.

    2012-03-01

    In this interview, Grenville Turner (Fig. 1) recounts how he became interested in meteorites during postdoctoral research with John Reynolds at the University of California, Berkeley, after completing a DPhil with Ken Mayne at the University of Oxford. At Berkeley, he worked on xenon isotopes with fellow students Bob Pepin and Craig Merrihue, but Reynolds' insistence that they analyze all the inert gases in their samples meant that they also made important contributions to Ne isotope studies and potassium-argon dating leading to the Ar-Ar technique. In 1964, Grenville obtained a teaching position at the University of Sheffield where he developed his own laboratory for inert gas isotope measurements. After the return of samples from the Moon by the Apollo program, he became involved in determining the chronology of volcanism and major impacts on the Moon. In 1988, Grenville and his team moved to the University of Manchester as part of a national reorganization of earth science departments. During the post Apollo years, Grenville's interest turned to the development of new instrumentation (resonance ionization mass spectrometry and the ion microprobe), and to problems in terrestrial isotope geochemistry, particularly the source of inert gases in fluid inclusions. He received the Leonard Medal of the Meteoritical Society in 1999, and he has also received awards from the Royal Society, the European Association of Geochemistry, and the Royal Astronomical Society.

  19. Deep crustal structure and seismic expression of the central Appalachian orogenic belt

    SciTech Connect

    Herman, G.C. Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ )

    1992-03-01

    Deep-seismic reflection profiles across parts of the Central Appalachian orogenic belt indicate that the crust here includes an exposed Paleozoic fold-and-thrust belt that is mainly soled in Proterozoic Grenville basement. Translation strain in the foreland and Highlands resulting from Paleozoic orogenesis is as much as 25 km, exclusive of layer-parallel-shortening penetrative strains. This estimate is limited by the slight structural relief beneath the Pocono plateau and by the lack of extensive Cambrian-Ordovician cover beneath the sole thrust. Earlier estimates of translation strain are much higher. To the southwest, this parautochthonous region is separated by an unrecognized structural transition from the more allochthonous parts of the central and southern Appalachian overthrust belt, marked by significantly larger translation strains. Crustal architecture in the hinterland part of the region is poorly understood due to data gaps.

  20. U-Pb zircon dates of morin anorthosite suite rocks, Grenville Province, Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    Doig, R. )

    1991-09-01

    U-Pb zircon ages of samples of anorthosite, pyroxene monzodiorite (jotunite), and pyroxene quartz monzonite (quartz mangerite) of the Morin anorthosite complex, Grenville Province, Quebec, are 1155 {plus minus} 3, 1146 {plus minus} 4 and 1135 {plus minus} 3 Ma, respectively. These dates are very similar to available dates for equivalent units of the Lac St-Jean and Adirondack anorthosite suite occurrences and slightly predate estimates of 1075-1100 Ma for peak metamorphic conditions during the Grenville orogeny in this region. {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr initial ratios of 0.7048-0.7051 for the three Morin units sampled permit a comagmatic origin if the different emplacement or cooling times can be reconciled. The mangerite sampled cannot have been formed by fusion of the upper crust, but may have been derived from a relatively juvenile crust at depth. All three units have interacted with continental crust, given the likely depleted nature of the mantle in this region.

  1. River Valley pluton, Ontario - A late-Archean/early-Proterozoic anorthositic intrusion in the Grenville Province

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, Lewis D.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents Nd, Sr, and Pb isotopic data indicating a late-Archean/early-Proterozoic age for the River Valley anorthositic pluton of the southwestern Grenville Province of Sudbury, Ontario. Pb-Pb isotopic data on 10 whole-rock samples ranging in composition from anorthosite to gabbro yield an age of 2560 + or - 155 Ma. The River Valley pluton is thus the oldest anorthositic intrusive yet recognized within the Grenville Province. The Sm-Nd isotopic system records an age of 2377 + or - 68 Ma. High Pb-208/Pb-204 of deformed samples relative to igneous-textured rocks implies Th introduction and/or U loss during metamorphism in the River Valley area. Rb-Sr data from igneous-textured and deformed samples and from mineral separates give an age of 2185 + or - 105 Ma, indicating substantial disturbance of the Rb-Sr isotopic system.

  2. Detrital mineral chronology of the Uinta Mountain Group: Implications for the Grenville flood in southwestern Laurentia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Paul A.; Foster, David A.; Mogk, David W.; Wooden, Joseph L.; Kamenov, George D.; Vogl, James J.

    2007-05-01

    Numerous studies have shown that large quantities of Grenville-age detritus dominate Neoproterozoic to Cambrian arenites in southwest Laurentia (southwestern United States). U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions of zircons and 40Ar/39Ar ages of white mica from clastic sedimentary rocks of the Neoproterozoic Uinta Mountain Group also indicate significant Mesoproterozoic detritus mixed with a variably abundant Archean component. Zircons with ages representative of the Paleoproterozoic basement in the eastern Uinta Mountains or the younger Paleoproterozoic rocks of the adjacent Yavapai-Mazatzal terranes were not observed. A limited range of initial ɛHf (˜90% between 3 and +3) for Mesoproterozoic zircons suggests derivation from a source region (or regions) characterized by mixing between juvenile and reworked older crust during Grenville orogenesis. The enriched Grenville-age basement proposed to underlie much of southeastern North America may be this source based on similarities of Hf isotopic data from Mesoproterozoic zircons in Mississippi River sand and available paleocurrent data. If so, then disruption of this supply in the Cambrian may be related to Iapetan rifting and, perhaps, the separation of the Precordillera terrane from Laurentia.

  3. Detrital mineral chronology of the Uinta Mountain Group: Implications for the Grenville flood in southwestern Laurentia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mueller, P.A.; Foster, D.A.; Mogk, D.W.; Wooden, J.L.; Kamenov, George D.; Vogl, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown that large quantities of Grenville-age detritus dominate Neo-proterozoic to Cambrian arenites in southwest Laurentia (southwestern United States). U-Pb ages and Hf isotopic compositions of zircons and 40Ar/39Ar ages of white mica from clastic sedimentary rocks of the Neoproterozoic Uinta Mountain Group also indicate significant Mesoproterozoic detritus mixed with a variably abundant Archean component. Zircons with ages representative of the Paleoproterozoic basement in the eastern Uinta Mountains or the younger Paleoproterozoic rocks of the adjacent Yavapai-Mazatzal terranes were not observed. A limited range of initial ??Hf (???90% between -3 and +3) for Mesoproterozoic zircons suggests derivation from a source region (or regions) characterized by mixing between juvenile and reworked older crust during Grenville orogenesis. The enriched Grenville-age basement proposed to underlie much of southeastern North America may be this source based on similarities of Hf isotopic data from Mesoproterozoic zircons in Mississippi River sand and available paleocurrent data. If so, then disruption of this supply in the Cambrian may be related to Iapetan rifting and, perhaps, the separation of the Precordillera terrane from Laurentia. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  4. Accretionary orogens through Earth history

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cawood, Peter A.; Kroner, A.; Collins, W.J.; Kusky, T.M.; Mooney, W.D.; Windley, B.F.

    2009-01-01

    Accretionary orogens form at intraoceanic and continental margin convergent plate boundaries. They include the supra-subduction zone forearc, magmatic arc and back-arc components. Accretionary orogens can be grouped into retreating and advancing types, based on their kinematic framework and resulting geological character. Retreating orogens (e.g. modern western Pacific) are undergoing long-term extension in response to the site of subduction of the lower plate retreating with respect to the overriding plate and are characterized by back-arc basins. Advancing orogens (e.g. Andes) develop in an environment in which the overriding plate is advancing towards the downgoing plate, resulting in the development of foreland fold and thrust belts and crustal thickening. Cratonization of accretionary orogens occurs during continuing plate convergence and requires transient coupling across the plate boundary with strain concentrated in zones of mechanical and thermal weakening such as the magmatic arc and back-arc region. Potential driving mechanisms for coupling include accretion of buoyant lithosphere (terrane accretion), flat-slab subduction, and rapid absolute upper plate motion overriding the downgoing plate. Accretionary orogens have been active throughout Earth history, extending back until at least 3.2 Ga, and potentially earlier, and provide an important constraint on the initiation of horizontal motion of lithospheric plates on Earth. They have been responsible for major growth of the continental lithosphere through the addition of juvenile magmatic products but are also major sites of consumption and reworking of continental crust through time, through sediment subduction and subduction erosion. It is probable that the rates of crustal growth and destruction are roughly equal, implying that net growth since the Archaean is effectively zero. ?? The Geological Society of London 2009.

  5. Petrologic, geochemical, and geochronologic constraints on the tectonic evolution of the southern Appalachian orogen, Blue Ridge Province of western North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Eric Douglas

    2011-07-01

    The Blue Ridge Province of western North Carolina contains a wide variety of metamorphosed igneous and sedimentary rocks that record the tectonic effects of Precambrian and Paleozoic orogenic cycles. Tectonic interpretations of the events that led to the present configuration are varied and often conflicting. This investigation examines metamorphosed mafic rocks that are widely interpreted to have formed during the closure of ocean basins. Metabasites, and specifically eclogites, have a tendency to mark tectonic sutures and frequently preserve pressure (P), temperature (T), and age data (t) that can be gleaned from mineral equilibria and U-Pb isotopic compositions. As such, the examination of the metabasites is considered the key to understanding the orogenic history of the southern Blue Ridge where these metabasites occur. Chapter 2 is an investigation of the retrograde reactions related to the decompression of sodic pyroxenes that react to form diopside-plagioclase-hornblende-quartz symplectites as stability fields are overstepped during isothermal decompression. In Chapter 3 metabasites from the central and eastern Blue Ridge are re-examined and P-T pathways of these lithologies are determined. The argument is made that the Taconic orogeny of the Blue Ridge is the result of a continent-continent collision event that culminated in a mega-melange that coincides with the Cullowhee terrane and the eastern Blue Ridge melange of western North Carolina. Chapter 4 contains the results of a geochronological investigation of the Precambrian basement complex of the eastern Great Smoky Mountains. Chapter 5 is a whole rock geochemical study of the same basement complex. In Chapter 6, a potential lithologic correlation between the southern Blue Ridge basement and the Arequipa-Antofalla block of Peru is discussed. The geologic history of western South America from the Mesoproterozoic through Cambrian is summarized, a potential isotope-based lithologic correlation is proposed

  6. Hydrous parental magmas of Early to Middle Permian gabbroic intrusions in western Inner Mongolia, North China: New constraints on deep-Earth fluid cycling in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Chong-Jin; Wang, Xuan-Ce; Xu, Bei; Luo, Zhi-Wen; Liu, Yi-Zhi

    2017-08-01

    The role of fluids in the formation of the Permian-aged Xigedan and Mandula gabbroic intrusions in western Inner Mongolia was significant to the evolution of the Xing'an Mongolia Orogenic Belt (XMOB), and the active northern margin of the North China Craton (NCC). Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) U-Pb zircon geochronology establishes that the Xigedan gabbroic intrusion in the northern NCC was emplaced at 266 Ma, and is therefore slightly younger than the ca 280 Ma Mandula gabbroic intrusion in the XMOB. Along with their felsic counterparts, the mafic igneous intrusions record extensive bimodal magmatism along the northern NCC and in the XMOB during the Early to Middle Permian. The Mandula gabbroic rocks have low initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7040-0.7043) and positive εNd(t) (+6.2 to +7.3) and εHf(t) values (+13.4 to +14.5), resembling to those of contemporaneous Mandula basalts. These features, together with the presence of amphibole and the enrichment of large ion lithophile elements (LILE, e.g., Rb, Ba, U and Sr) and depletion of Nb-Ta suggest that the parental magmas of the Mandula mafic igneous rocks were derived from a depleted mantle source metasomatized by water-rich fluids. In contrast, the Xigedan gabbroic rocks are characterised by high 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7078-0.7080) and zircon δ18O values (5.84-6.61‰), but low εNd(t) (-9.3 to -10.2) and εHf(t) values (-8.76 to -8.54), indicative of a long-term enriched subcontinental lithosphere mantle source that was metasomatized by recycled, high δ18O crustal materials prior to partial melting. The high water contents (4.6-6.9 wt%) and arc-like geochemical signature (enrichment of fluid-mobile elements and depletion of Nb-Ta) of the parental magmas of the Xigedan gabbroic rocks further establish the existence of a mantle hydration event caused by fluid/melts released from hydrated recycled oceanic crust. Incompatible element modelling shows that 5-10% partial melting of an enriched mantle source by

  7. A Paleomagnetic Traverse of the Frontenac, Sharbot Lake, Mazinaw and Elsevir Terranes, Grenville Province, Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brett, J. S.; Dunlop, D. J.

    2004-05-01

    A paleomagnetic traverse has been carried out across the Ontario section of the Central Metasedimentary Belt (CMB) of the Precambrian Grenville Province, between the St. Lawrence and Ottawa Rivers in the east and extending west as far as the Bancroft Terrane, where it links with an earlier traverse of the Central Gneiss Belt (CGB) and the CMB Boundary Zone (CMBBZ). 54 sites were sampled, 11 in the Frontenac (F) Terrane, 12 in the Sharbot Lake (SL) Terrane, 12 in the Mazinaw (M) Terrane, 3 in the Bancroft (B) Terrane, and 16 in the Elsevir Terrane, mainly in the Belmont Domain. Ar/Ar thermochronometric work across the CMB by Cosca et al. (Tectonics 10, 959-77, 1991; Contrib. Min. Petr. 110, 211-25, 1992) documented differential unroofing of different terranes and slow cooling (1.0-1.5 oC /Ma) along parallel T-t paths offset by 50-100 Ma for the Frontenac, the western and eastern Elsevir (Ew, Ee) and the CMBBZ. Around 1000 Ma, inferred burial depths were 20 km for the CMBBZ, 15 km for Ew, >20 km for Ee (or M), 10 km for F, and transitional (12-16 km) in SL between F and Ee/M. The very different hornblende, phlogopite, muscovite and biotite Ar/Ar ages between neighboring terranes should have a counterpart in the paleomagnetic results of the terranes because the interval 1100-850 Ma was a time of rapid paleolatitude shift. However our results and previous data from B, CMBBZ and the adjacent CGB (Costanzo-Alvarez & Dunlop, Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 157, 89-103, 1998) do not bear this out. F, SL and M have very similar R-polarity poles in the central part of the Grenville Track, while F and SL N-polarity poles are typical 980 Ma Grenville A poles. Cooling through 500oC occurred around 1100 Ma for F but the F poles do not resemble Keweenawan poles of this age. Cooling through 500oC occurred around 950 Ma for Ee/M but the M pole does not match this age. Our Ew mean pole, like that of the Tudor Gabbro, falls off the Grenville Track on a possible pre-Grenvillian track.

  8. Microdiamonds from the European Variscan Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotkova, J.; Jakubova, P.; Whitehouse, M.; Fedortchouk, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Diamond, along with coesite, has been discovered recently in the continental crustal rocks of the European Variscan orogenic belt, namely the Bohemian Massif (BM). In addition to the garnet-phengite gneiss in Germany, western BM, microdiamond occurs in major rock forming minerals - garnet, kyanite - and in zircon in ultrahigh-pressure rocks overprinted under high-pressure granulite facies conditions (c. 16-20 kbar, c. 1000°C) in the northern and eastern BM. Well-preserved 10-30 μm-sized microdiamonds from northern BM exhibit diverse morphologies (SEM data) depending upon the host rock type. Octahedral diamond occurs in felsic garnet-kyanite-feldspar-quartz rock (metasediment), whereas intermediate garnet-clinopyroxene-feldspar-quartz rock contains a cubo-octahedral variety. Diamond morphology can be thus controlled by solid impurities available in the medium of crystallization (K- vs. Ca-bearing fluids or melts), as shown by experiments. Pointed-bottom negatively oriented trigonal etch pits on the octahedral diamond faces developed due to diamond resorption at CO2-dominated environment (less than 50 wt % of H2O, experimental data), possibly by action of a residual fluid. SIMS determined δ13C values range from -22 to -21 ‰ for the felsic rock and from - 26 to - 33 for the intermediate one, corresponding to the typical range of organic carbon δ13C and inconsistent with a significant mantle carbon (δ13C ~ - 5 ‰) input. Diamond-bearing domains in zircon, also analysed by SIMS, yielded a Variscan U-Pb age of c. 340 Ma. The present stage of knowledge allows us to conclude that (i) metamorphic diamonds in the BM occur in lithologies of metasedimentary character, and their carbon source was organic; (ii) crustal-derived CO2-rich fluids with impurities played an important role in diamond formation and dissolution; (iii) diamonds formed during the Variscan orogenic cycle and (iv) diamonds are best preserved in the external domain of the Variscan orogenic belt.

  9. Ages and petrogenetic significance of igneous mangerite-charnockite suites associated with massif anorthosites, Grenville Province

    SciTech Connect

    Emslie, R.F.; Hunt, P.A. )

    1990-03-01

    U-Pb ages of zircon fractions of major anorthosite-mangerite-charnockite-granite (AMCG) igneous suites imply that this magmatism inaugurated what is widely regarded as the Grenvillian event between about 1.16 and 1.12 Ga ago over about two-thirds of the Grenville Province east, northeast, and southeast of the Central Metasedimentary Belt. Pre-Grenvillian AMCG suites about 1.36 and 1.64 Ga old have much more restricted distribution. An apparent time lag of about 0.05 to 0.10 Ga is indicated between culmination of AMCG magmatism and the widely recognized Grenvillian metamorphic peak (about 1.10 to 1.03 Ga), perhaps the most distinctive hallmark of the Grenville event. The time lag is consistent with conductive heating of thick subcontinental lithosphere that began with initiation of AMCG magmatism and continued until geotherms rose sufficiently to produce granulites in much of the lower to middle crust. Tectonic crustal thickening did not likely occur until later in the sequence of events, perhaps after some cooling from the metamorphic peak. Compressive forces were externally applied, possibly at a distant plate margin, while the continental lithosphere was still thermally weakened from preceding magmatic-metamorphic culminations.

  10. Baddeleyite-zircon relationships in coronitic metagabbro, Grenville Province, Ontario: implications for geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, A.; van Breemen, O.

    1988-11-01

    In the high grade gneiss terranes of the Grenville Province in Ontario, metagabbro with silicate coronas around primary olivine and Fe-Ti oxide contains trace amounts of both baddeleyite and zircon. Single baddeleyite crystals with radiating columnar coronas of polycrystalline zircon, in places with outer rims of garnet, are analogous to the coronas around olivine and ilmenite. Single crystals of zircon and baddeleyite without zircon coronas also occur in the same rocks. Both zirconium minerals have been isotopically dated at three widely separated localities. In each case baddeleyite records an igneous crystallization age of ca.1170 Ma, 125 Ma older than the ca.1045 Ma age of the zircons, interpreted to be the age of metamorphism. These data agree well with U-Pb ages obtained from other rocks in the same region and refute the alternative interpretation that silicate coronas in these metagabbros formed during cooling following magmatic crystallization. The age does not support direct correlation with diabase dykes of either the Sudbury or Abitibi swarms northwest of the Grenville Front.

  11. Coeval emplacement and orogen-parallel transport of gold in oblique convergent orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Upton, Phaedra; Craw, Dave

    2016-12-01

    Varying amounts of gold mineralisation is occurring in all young and active collisional mountain belts. Concurrently, these syn-orogenic hydrothermal deposits are being eroded and transported to form placer deposits. Local extension occurs in convergent orogens, especially oblique orogens, and facilitates emplacement of syn-orogenic gold-bearing deposits with or without associated magmatism. Numerical modelling has shown that extension results from directional variations in movement rates along the rock transport trajectory during convergence, and is most pronounced for highly oblique convergence with strong crustal rheology. On-going uplift during orogenesis exposes gold deposits to erosion, transport, and localised placer concentration. Drainage patterns in variably oblique convergent orogenic belts typically have an orogen-parallel or sub-parallel component; the details of which varies with convergence obliquity and the vagaries of underlying geological controls. This leads to lateral transport of eroded syn-orogenic gold on a range of scales, up to > 100 km. The presence of inherited crustal blocks with contrasting rheology in oblique orogenic collision zones can cause perturbations in drainage patterns, but numerical modelling suggests that orogen-parallel drainage is still a persistent and robust feature. The presence of an inherited block of weak crust enhances the orogen-parallel drainage by imposition of localised subsidence zones elongated along a plate boundary. Evolution and reorientation of orogen-parallel drainage can sever links between gold placer deposits and their syn-orogenic sources. Many of these modelled features of syn-orogenic gold emplacement and varying amounts of orogen-parallel detrital gold transport can be recognised in the Miocene to Recent New Zealand oblique convergent orogen. These processes contribute little gold to major placer goldfields, which require more long-term recycling and placer gold concentration. Most eroded syn-orogenic

  12. Lead isotope study of orogenic lherzolite massifs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamelin, Bruno; Allègre, Claude J.

    1988-12-01

    Orogenic lherzolites allow for almost "in-situ" observation of mantle isotopic heterogeneities on a restricted geographical scale, in contrast to basalts for which melting processes have averaged original mantle compositions over uncertain scales. Pb isotopes from whole rocks and clinopyroxenes from the massifs of Lherz (Pyrenees), Lanzo (Alps), Beni Bousera (Morocco) and Zabargad (Red Sea) show internal heterogeneities that encompass the entire range of variation observed in oceanic basalts. Some depleted lherzolites have a very unradiogenic composition similar to that of the most depleted ridge tholeiites. Pyroxenites from mafic layers generally have more radiogenic compositions, some of them comparable to the most radiogenic oceanic island results. The isotopic differences between lherzolites and pyroxenites vanish where layers are very closely spaced ( < 2 cm). In this case, the lherzolites may have equilibrated with the more Pb-rich pyroxenites through solid-state diffusion under mantle conditions. These results directly illustrate the smallest scales at which Pb isotopic heterogeneity may survive within the mantle. The genesis of these heterogeneities are discussed within the framework of the "marble cake" mantle model [1], where lherzolites are residues left over after oceanic crust extraction, whereas pyroxenites represent either basaltic or cumulate portions of the oceanic crust, reinjected by subduction and stretched by solid-state mixing during mantle convection. The Pb isotope data suggest that each massif was involved in several cycles of convective overturn, segregation and reinjection of the oceanic crust, during periods well over 1 Ga. If the upper mantle is made of interlayered radiogenic and unradiogenic layers, basalt heterogeneities may result from preferential melt-extraction from different layers depending on the degree of melting, as well as from large-scale, plume-related mantle heterogeneities. Orogenic lherzolites therefore allow direct

  13. Denudation of the Himalayan Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiede, R. C.; Ehlers, T.

    2008-12-01

    Quantifying spatial and temporal variations in denudation rates across orogenic belts are not only essential for measuring potential linkages between tectonics and climate, but also for understanding it's impact on regional and global evolution. The 2500 km long Himalayan Arc marked by spatial variations in deformation and climate, both of which would suggest non uniform exhumation histories of rocks exposed at the surface today, offers an ideal location to study this. It has been proposed that erosional exhumation may be highest in the orogen syntaxes forming the orogen termination with the Namche Barwa in the east and Nanga Parbat in the west, compared to the arc. Finally, growth of the Himalaya and the Tibetan plateau are significant events that modified global and regional climate by forming the Asian Monsoon, and furthermore, possibly triggered worldwide decrease of atmospheric CO2- concentration. Here we present ~850 compiled Apatite, Zircon Fission Track and 40Ar/39Ar-white mica and previous published mineral cooling ages obtained from in-situ samples across the Himalayan arc. We apply a 1D thermo-kinematic and erosional model to reconstruct and quantify denudation rates along the arc. Our results suggest that over the past ~23 Myr (1) the mountain front has tectonically reorganized itself and shifted location of focused denudation twice (17-15 and 3-2 Ma), (2) the denudation rates in the syntaxes have been similar to twice as high compared to the Himalayan front, and (3) in general our results are in great agreement with results from provenance of the foreland basin sediments.

  14. Composition of the crust in the Grenville and Appalachian Provinces of North America inferred from VP/VS ratios

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Musacchio, G.; Mooney, W.D.; Luetgert, J.H.; Christensen, N.I.

    1997-01-01

    We use the ratios between P and S wave velocities (VP/VS), derived from seismic refraction data, to infer the composition of the crust in the Grenville and the Appalachian Provinces of North America. The crust exhibits VP/VS increasing with depth from 1.64 to 1.84; there is a clear distinction between the Grenville Province (average VP/VS=1.81) and the Appalachian Province (average VP/VS=1.73) which persists at all depths. The boundary between these provinces is east dipping extending for 100 km east of the Champlain thrust. In the Appalachian Province the increase in VP/VS ratios with depth from 1.67 to 1.74 ?? 0.02 may reflect a normal decrease of silica content in the continental crust. In the Grenville Province beneath the Central Granulite Terrane, an anomalous VP/VS ratio of 1.82 ?? 0.02 is observed extending to a depth of 10 km; this correlates with the abundance of Ca-plagioclase in the Marcy Anorthosite. At greater depth (15-20 km), where seismic lamination and high electrical conductivity is observed, VP/VS is 1-84 ?? 0.02 and correlates with the Tahawus Complex, a layered mafic intrusion. Within the 25-km-thick lower crust of the Grenville Province the VP/VS is 1-84 ?? 0.02 and P-velocity is 7.0 ?? 0.1 km/s, which are typical for plagioclase-bearing rocks (gabbro-norite). The high VP/VS ratio in the Grenville Province has not been reported in crust of any other age. Since the Grenville Province contains 75% of the world's known anorthosites, high VP/VS ratio is related to high plagioclase. We suggest that the composition of the Grenville lower crust was significantly modified by the emplacement of the anorthosites in the mid-Proterozoic. Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  15. Continental deformation and the mid-lithospheric discontinuity along the Grenville Front

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrahams, L.; Long, M. D.; Ford, H. A.; Wirth, E. A.

    2015-12-01

    The existence of a mid-lithospheric discontinuity (MLD) within the stable continental mantle lithosphere of North America has been well established, but its interpretation remains difficult. Recent work with Ps receiver functions has found evidence for anisotropic structure at MLD depths within the western portion of the Granite-Rhyolite Province, suggesting that the MLD is the result of deformation associated with the formation of the continent. The last significant deformation to occur within the province was approximately 1.3-0.9 Ga and impacted the lithosphere east of the Grenville Front. In this study we analyzed six stations east of the front using Ps receiver functions in order to characterize anisotropy associated with the MLD in the region. Transverse and radial component Ps receiver functions were calculated for six stations (ACSO, BINY, ERPA, MCWV, SSPA, TZTN) using a multi-taper correlation technique and binned as a function of back azimuth and of epicentral distance. All six stations analyzed displayed significant positive phase energy on the radial component at ~6 seconds, which was interpreted as the Moho. At four of the six stations (ACSO, MCWV, SSPA, TZTN) the Moho showed moderate to significant complexity. At stations MCWV, SSPA, TZTN, all located along the Appalachian margin, there was significant transverse component energy at crustal depths with both two- and four-lobed anisotropy patterns observed. While ACSO, BINY, and ERPA displayed evidence of isotropic and/ or anisotropic crustal structure, a coherent pattern in back azimuth could not be established. The radial component receiver functions also exhibited negative phase energy, interpreted as the MLD, between 7.5 and 12.5 seconds (or ~80 to 120 km), at five of the six stations, with the exception of BINY, where no negative phase was observed. The transverse component receiver functions at stations ACSO, ERPA, SSPA and TZTN, also displayed a two-lobed pattern in back azimuth at MLD depths

  16. River Valley pluton, Ontario: A late-Archean/early-Proterozoic anorthositic intrusion in the Grenville Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashwal, L.D.; Wooden, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    The River Valley pluton is a ca. 100 km2 body of anorthositic and gabbroic rocks located about 50 km northeast of Sudbury, Ontario. The pluton is situated entirely within the Grenville Province, but its western margin is a series of imbricate thrust faults associated with the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone. It is dominated by coarse leuconorite and leucogabbro, with lesser anorthosite, gabbro, and rare ultramafics. Igneous textured rocks are abundant and consist of plagioclase (An60-70) charged with Fe-Ti oxide inclusions, low Ca pyroxene (orthopyroxene and/or inverted pigeonite) and augite. The most unfractionated rocks are minor olivine gabbros with Fo70-80. A variety of deformed and recrystallized equivalents of the igneous-textured rocks is also present, and these are composed largely of calcic plagioclase and hornblende. Ten samples, including both igneous and deformed lithologies give a Pb-Pb whole-rock isochron of 2560??155Ma, which is our best estimate of the time of primary crystallization. The River Valley pluton is thus the oldest anorthositic intrusive yet reported from the Grenville Province, but is more calcic and augitic than typical massifs, and lacks their characteristic Fe-Ti oxide ore deposits. The River Valley body may be more akin to similar gabbro-anorthosite bodies situated at the boundary between the Archean Superior Province and Huronian supracrustal belt of the Southern Province west of the Grenville Front. An Sm-Nd isochron from 3 igneous-textured leucogabbros and an augite mineral separate gives 2377 ?? 68 Ma, implying slight disturbance of the Sm-Nd whole-rock-mineral system during later metamorphism. The Rb-Sr system has been substantially disturbed, giving an age of 2185 ?? 105 Ma, which is similar to internal Pb-Pb isochron ages of 2165 ?? 130 Ma and 2100 ?? 35 Ma for two igneous-textured rocks. It is uncertain whether these ages correspond to a discrete event at this time or represent a partial resetting of the Rb-Sr and Pb

  17. River Valley pluton, Ontario: A late-Archean/early-Proterozoic anorthositic intrusion in the Grenville Province

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwal, L.D. ); Wooden, J.L. )

    1989-03-01

    The River Valley pluton is a ca. 100 km{sup 2} body of anorthositic and gabbroic rocks located about 50 km northeast of Sudbury, Ontario. The pluton is situated entirely within the Grenville Province, but its western margin is a series of imbricate thrust faults associated with the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone. It is dominated by coarse leuconorite and leucogabbro, with lesser anorthosite, gabbro, and rare ultramafics. Igneous textured rocks are abundant and consist of plagioclase (An{sub 60-70}) charged with Fe-Ti oxide inclusions, low Ca pyroxene (orthopyroxene and/or inverted pigeonite) and augite. The most unfractionated rocks are minor olivine gabbros with Fo{sub 70-80}. A variety of deformed and recrystallized equivalents of the igneous-textured rocks is also present, and these are composed largely of calcic plagioclase and hornblende. An Sm-Nd isochron from 3 igneous-textured leucogabbros and an augite mineral separate gives 2,377 {plus minus} 68 Ma, implying slight disturbance of the Sm-Nd whole-rock-mineral system during later metamorphism. The Rb-Sr system has been substantially disturbed, giving an age of 2,185 {plus minus} 105 Ma, which is similar to internal Pb-Pb isochron ages of 2,165 {plus minus} 130 Ma and 2,100 {plus minus} 35 Ma for two igneous-textured rocks. Initial isotopic ratios for the River Valley pluton correspond to single-stage model parameters of {mu} = 8.06, {epsilon}{sub Nd} = O to {minus}3, and I{sub Sr} = 0.7015 to 0.7021. Collectively, these suggest either an enriched mantle source or crustal contamination of a mantle-derived magma. The crustal component involved must have been older and more radiogenic than the majority of rocks exposed at the surface in the nearby Superior Province.

  18. Pb isotopic composition of Paleozoic sediments derived from the Appalachian orogen

    SciTech Connect

    Krogstad, E.J. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Differences in [sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb at restricted ranges of [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb are robust indicators of differences in the earliest history of crust or mantle reservoirs, surviving later changes in U/Pb that may be due to melting, metamorphism, or sedimentary reworking. Ayuso and Bevier (1991) have used the [sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb differences between Late Paleozoic granites in the N. Appalachians to trace their sources in either Laurentian (Grenville) lithosphere, or docked (Avalonian) lithosphere. If the Pb isotopic composition of Avalonian lithosphere is unique to that source among all lithospheric reservoirs in the Appalachian orogeny, the sediments shed off the orogen should record the first appearance of rocks with this extraneous Pb isotopic composition as they become accreted. The high [sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb at similar [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb that may be indicative of all outboard terranes occurs in sedimentary rocks younger than middle Ordovician in New York and Maine, and younger than Ordovician in Virginia. Older sediments (Hadrynian, Cambrian), as well as autochthonous basement and paraautochonous basement slices, have lower [sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb at similar [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb. The low [sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb at similar [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb shown by these rocks may be a locally diagnostic signature of Late Proterozoic Laurentian lithosphere. The high [sup 207]Pb/[sup 204]Pb at similar [sup 206]Pb/[sup 204]Pb may be a locally diagnostic signature of Late Proterozoic accreted terranes. Rocks with accreted terrane Pb isotopic composition became dominant in the provenance of sediments along the strike of the Appalachian orogen by middle Ordovician time.

  19. Newly discovered eclogite in the southern Appalachian orogen, northwestern North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willard, R. A.; Adams, Mark G.

    1994-05-01

    Recent detailed geologic mapping in the Blue Ridge belt of northwestern North Carolina has revealed the first reported eclogite ( sensu stricto) in the southern Appalachian orogen. The eclogite occurs at the base of the Ashe Metamorphic Suite within a shear zone that separates the Spruce Pine thrust sheet from the underlying Grenville-age basement rocks. This contact juxtaposes rocks of apparent oceanic affinities (predominantly metapelite, metabasite, and meta-ultramafic rocks) with rocks of the ancient North American craton. The primary metamorphic assemblage in the eclogite is garnet + omphacite + quartz + rutile. Hornblende and plagioclase occur only as retrograde amphibolite facies phases in the eclogite. Pressure-temperature estimates for the primary eclogite assemblage are consistent with minimum pressures of 13-17 kbar at 625-790°C, while the retrograde amphibolite facies assemblage suggests conditions of 8.5-12 kbar and 650-730°C. Ultramafic blocks also occur within the shear zone containing the eclogite. The presence of high-pressure metamorphic rocks associated with ultramafic rocks and pelitic schists within a shear zone separating continental rocks from oceanic rocks is strong evidence for an ancient subduction event and indicates that at least part of the Ashe Metamorphic Suite is a subduction-related, accretionary mélange.

  20. Topographic evolution of orogens: The long term perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robl, Jörg; Hergarten, Stefan; Prasicek, Günther

    2017-04-01

    The landscape of mountain ranges reflects the competition of tectonics and climate, that build up and destroy topography, respectively. While there is a broad consensus on the acting processes, there is a vital debate whether the topography of individual orogens reflects stages of growth, steady-state or decay. This debate is fuelled by the million-year time scales hampering direct observations on landscape evolution in mountain ranges, the superposition of various process patterns and the complex interactions among different processes. In this presentation we focus on orogen-scale landscape evolution based on time-dependent numerical models and explore model time series to constrain the development of mountain range topography during an orogenic cycle. The erosional long term response of rivers and hillslopes to uplift can be mathematically formalised by the stream power and mass diffusion equations, respectively, which enables us to describe the time-dependent evolution of topography in orogens. Based on a simple one-dimensional model consisting of two rivers separated by a watershed we explain the influence of uplift rate and rock erodibility on steady-state channel profiles and show the time-dependent development of the channel - drainage divide system. The effect of dynamic drainage network reorganization adds additional complexity and its effect on topography is explored on the basis of two-dimensional models. Further complexity is introduced by coupling a mechanical model (thin viscous sheet approach) describing continental collision, crustal thickening and topography formation with a stream power-based landscape evolution model. Model time series show the impact of crustal deformation on drainage networks and consequently on the evolution of mountain range topography (Robl et al., in review). All model outcomes, from simple one-dimensional to coupled two dimensional models are presented as movies featuring a high spatial and temporal resolution. Robl, J., S

  1. The Arequipa Massif of Peru: New SHRIMP and isotope constraints on a Paleoproterozoic inlier in the Grenvillian orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casquet, C.; Fanning, C. M.; Galindo, C.; Pankhurst, R. J.; Rapela, C. W.; Torres, P.

    2010-01-01

    The enigmatic Arequipa Massif of southwestern Peru is an outcrop of Andean basement that underwent Grenville-age metamorphism, and as such it is important for the better constraint of Laurentia-Amazonia ties in Rodinia reconstruction models. U-Pb SHRIMP zircon dating has yielded new evidence on the evolution of the Massif between Middle Paleoproterozoic and Early Paleozoic. The oldest rock-forming events occurred in major orogenic events between ca. 1.79 and 2.1 Ga (Orosirian to Rhyacian), involving early magmatism (1.89-2.1 Ga, presumably emplaced through partly Archaean continental crust), sedimentation of a thick sequence of terrigenous sediments, UHT metamorphism at ca. 1.87 Ga, and late felsic magmatism at ca. 1.79 Ga. The Atico sedimentary basin developed in the Late-Mesoproterozoic and detrital zircons were fed from a source area similar to the high-grade Paleoproterozoic basement, but also from an unknown source that provided Mesoproterozoic zircons of 1200-1600 Ma. The Grenville-age metamorphism was of low- P type; it both reworked the Paleoproterozoic rocks and also affected the Atico sedimentary rocks. Metamorphism was diachronous: ca. 1040 Ma in the Quilca and Camaná areas and in the San Juán Marcona domain, 940 ± 6 Ma in the Mollendo area, and between 1000 and 850 Ma in the Atico domain. These metamorphic domains are probably tectonically juxtaposed. Comparison with coeval Grenvillian processes in Laurentia and in southern Amazonia raises the possibility that Grenvillian metamorphism in the Arequipa Massif resulted from extension and not from collision. The Arequipa Massif experienced Ordovician-Silurian magmatism at ca. 465 Ma, including anorthosites formerly considered to be Grenvillian, and high-T metamorphism deep within the magmatic arc. Focused retrogression along shear zones or unconformities took place between 430 and 440 Ma.

  2. The Western Sierras Pampeanas: Protracted Grenville-age history (1330-1030 Ma) of intra-oceanic arcs, subduction-accretion at continental-edge and AMCG intraplate magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapela, C. W.; Pankhurst, R. J.; Casquet, C.; Baldo, E.; Galindo, C.; Fanning, C. M.; Dahlquist, J. M.

    2010-01-01

    basic amphibolites with geochemical fingerprints of emplacement in a more mature crust, and (ii) a 1027 ± 17 Ma TTG juvenile suite, which is the youngest Grenville-age magmatic event registered in the Western Sierras Pampeanas. The geodynamic history in both study areas reveals a complex orogenic evolution, dominated by convergent tectonics and accretion of juvenile oceanic arcs to the continent.

  3. Convergence rate controls seismicity styles in collision orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dal Zilio, Luca; van Dinther, Ylona; Gerya, Taras

    2016-04-01

    The 25 April 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal resulted from the unzipping of the previously locked Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) fault, along which the Himalayan wedge is thrust over India. Strong ground shaking caused the collapse of more than half a million homes, killing more than 8500 people. Can such a large magnitude event also occur within the populated European Alps? Or is there a distinctly different seismicity pattern in different orogens? We show that their long-term seismicity patterns are indeed different and that their differences can be explained by a single parameter: their convergence rate. To do so we present the first self-consistent seismic cycle model for continental collisional margins. We use the viscoelastoplastic continuum Seismo-Thermo-Mechanical model (STM) validated for seismic cycle applications against a laboratory model (van Dinther et al., 2013a) and natural observations (van Dinther et al., 2013b), which includes Drucker-Prager plasticity and spontaneous rupture events governed by strongly rate-dependent friction. The 2-D model setup consists of two continental plates separated by an oceanic plate, in which the incipient subduction phase is followed by collisional orogeny. Results show the physically consistent spontaneous emergence of complex rupture paths, both on and off the main frontal thrust. These off-main frontal thrust events within the upper and lower plate complement the main frontal thrust seismicity leading to a Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude distribution. This is a key observational feature of seismicity, which is typically not reproduced in seismic cycle models. The range of simulated b-values agrees with natural ranges, as we observe values from 0.97 up to 1.25 for convergence rates decreasing from 5 to 1 cm/yr. Decreasing convergence rates thus lead to relatively larger amounts of smaller earthquakes (increasing b-value) and lower maximum magnitudes. This change in b-value also observed to corresponds to

  4. Terrane transfer during the Grenville orogeny: tracing the Amazonian ancestry of southern Appalachian basement through Pb and Nd isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tohver, E.; Bettencourt, J. S.; Tosdal, R.; Mezger, K.; Leite, W. B.; Payolla, B. L.

    2004-11-01

    Whole rock Pb isotope data can be used to determine the provenance of different blocks within the Rodinia supercontinent, providing a test for paleogeographic reconstructions. Calculated isotopic values for the source region of the Grenville-deformed SW Amazon craton (Rondônia, Brazil), anchored by published U-Pb zircon ages, are compared to those from the Grenville belt of North America and "Grenvillian" basement inliers in the southern Appalachians. Both the SW Amazon craton and the allochthonous Blue Ridge/Mars Hill terrane are defined by a similar Pb isotopic signature, indicating derivation from an ancient source region with an elevated U/Pb ratio. In contrast, the Grenville Province of Laurentia (extending from Labrador to the Llano Uplift of Texas) is characterized by a source region with a distinctly lower, time-integrated U/Pb ratio. Published U-Pb zircon ages (ca. 1.8 Ga) and Nd model ages (1.4-2.2 Ga) for the Blue Ridge/Mars Hill terrane also suggest an ancient provenance very different from the rest of the adjacent Grenville belt, which is dominated by juvenile 1.3-1.5 Ga rocks. The presence of mature continental material in rocks older than 1.15 Ga in the Blue Ridge/Mars Hill terrane is consistent with characteristics of basement rocks from the SW Amazon craton. High-grade metamorphism of the Blue Ridge/Mars Hill basement resulted in purging of U, consistent with observations of the rest of the North American Grenville province. In contrast, the "Grenvillian" metamorphic history of the Amazon appears to have been much more heterogeneous, with both U enrichment and U depletion recorded locally. We propose that the Blue Ridge/Mars Hill portion of the Appalachian basement is of Amazonian provenance and was transferred to Laurentia during Grenvillian orogenesis after ∼1.15 Ga. The presence of these Amazonian rocks in southeastern Laurentia records the northward passage of the Amazon craton along the Laurentian margin, following the original collision

  5. Orogenic, Ophiolitic, and Abyssal Peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodinier, J.-L.; Godard, M.

    2003-12-01

    "Tectonically emplaced" mantle rocks include subcontinental, suboceanic, and subarc mantle rocks that were tectonically exhumed from the upper mantle and occur:(i) as dispersed ultramafic bodies, a few meters to kilometers in size, in suture zones and mountain belts (i.e., the "alpine," or "orogenic" peridotite massifs - De Roever (1957), Thayer (1960), Den Tex (1969));(ii) as the lower ultramafic section of large (tens of kilometers) ophiolite or island arc complexes, obducted on continental margins (e.g., the Oman Ophiolite and the Kohistan Arc Complex - Coleman (1971), Boudier and Coleman (1981), Burg et al. (1998));(iii) exhumed above the sea level in ocean basins (e.g., Zabargad Island in the Red Sea, St. Paul's islets in the Atlantic and Macquarie Island in the southwestern Pacific - Tilley (1947), Melson et al. (1967), Varne and Rubenach (1972), Bonatti et al. (1981)).The "abyssal peridotites" are samples from the oceanic mantle that were dredged on the ocean floor, or recovered from drill cores (e.g., Bonatti et al., 1974; Prinz et al., 1976; Hamlyn and Bonatti, 1980).Altogether, tectonically emplaced and abyssal mantle rocks provide insights into upper mantle compositions and processes that are complementary to the information conveyed by mantle xenoliths (See Chapter 2.05). They provide coverage to vast regions of the Earth's upper mantle that are sparsely sampled by mantle xenoliths, particularly in the ocean basins and beneath passive continental margins, back-arc basins, and oceanic island arcs.Compared with mantle xenoliths, a disadvantage of some tectonically emplaced mantle rocks for representing mantle compositions is that their original geodynamic setting is not exactly known and their significance is sometimes a subject of speculation. For instance, the provenance of orogenic lherzolite massifs (subcontinental lithosphere versus upwelling asthenosphere) is still debated (Menzies and Dupuy, 1991, and references herein), as is the original setting

  6. 13C 12C exchange between calcite and graphite: A possible thermometer in Grenville marbles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valley, J.W.; O'Neil, J.R.

    1981-01-01

    The fractionation of 13C between calcite and graphite, ??(Cc-Gr). is consistently small (2.6-4.8 permil) in 34 assemblages from upper amphibolite- and granulite-facies marbles of the Grenville Province. In 25 samples from the Adirondack Mountains, New York, it decreases regularly with increasing metamorphic temperature. The fractionations are independent of absolute ??13C values of calcite (-2.9 to +5.0). For T = 600-800??C, the Adirondack data are described by ??(Cc-Gr) = -0.00748T (??C) + 8.68. This good correlation between ?? and T suggests that carbon isotope equilibrium was attained in these high-grade marbles and that the theoretical calculations of this fractionation by Bottinga are approximately 2 permil too large in this temperature range. Because of the relatively high temperature sensitivity suggested by these results and by Bottinga's calculations, and the pressure independence of isotope fractionation, ??(Cc-Gr) may provide a very good thermometer for high-grade marbles. Comparison of this field calibration for ??(Cc-Gr) vs temperature with results from other terranes supports the utility of ??(Cc-Gr) for geothermometry and suggests that graphite is much more sluggish to exchange than calcite, that exchange between calcite and graphite occurs at temperatures as low as 300??C, and that equilibrium may normally be attained only when peak metamorphic temperatures are greater than 500-600??C. Because 13C exchange is an unavoidable metamorphic process at temperatures above 300??C, high values of ??13C(Gr) in moderate- to high-grade carbonate-bearing rocks do not provide a sufficient criterion to infer an abiogenic origin for the graphite. ?? 1981.

  7. 1.1 Ga K-rich alkaline plutonism in the SW Grenville Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corriveau, Louise; Heaman, Larry M.; Marcantonio, Franco; van Breemen, Otto

    1990-09-01

    U-Pb zircon and baddeleyite dating of six syenitic stocks establishes that the ultrapotassic, potassic alkaline and shoshonitic magmatism with island-arc affinities in the Central Metasedimentary Belt (CMB) of the southwestern Grenville Province, Canada took place between 1089 and 1076 Ma, along a 400-km-long, northeast-trending plutonic belt. These ages indicate that ultrapotassic rocks with arc affinities are not unique to the Phanerozoic. West to east emplacement ages along a northern and southern cross-section of this belt range from 1083±2 Ma (Kensington), through 1081±2 Ma (Lac Rouge) to 1076{-1/+3}Ma (Loranger) in the north, and from 1089{-3/+4}Ma (loon Lake) and 1088±2 Ma (Calabogie), to 1076±2 Ma (Westport) in the south. Although closely spaced in time, in detail these ages suggest a slight younging of this magmatic activity to the southeast. Integration of the geochronological data with the spatial extent and potassic character of the plutons shows that the K-rich alkaline suite is distinct from the nepheline-syenite belt of the Bancroft terrane and from the syenite-monzonite suite of the Frontenac terrane of the CMB, and it is considered to be a magmatic episode unique to the Elzevir terrane and its Gatineau segment. The timing and the postmetamorphic emplacement of these plutons indicate that the regional greenschist to granulite-facies metamorphism of the country rock (precise age unknown) is older than 1089 Ma throughout the entire Elzevir terrane. The potassic magmatism is interpreted as the initiation of the 1090 1050 Ma Ottawan Orogeny in the Elzevir terrane; thus, the regional metamorphism in this terrane, previously assigned to the Ottawan Orogeny, is an earlier event. The contemporaneous emplacement of this postmetamorphic plutonic belt with Keweenawan volcanism is at variance with current tectonic models which consider the Keweenawan rift to be formed at the same time as regional metamorphism in the CMB.

  8. Tectonics of Atlantic Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, H.; Dehler, S.A.; Grant, A.C.; Oakey, G.N.

    1999-01-01

    The tectonic history of Atlantic Canada is summarized according to a model of multiple ocean opening-closing cycles. The modern North Atlantic Ocean is in the opening phase of its cycle. It was preceded by an early Paleozoic lapetus Ocean whose cycle led to formation of the Appalachian Orogen. lapetus was preceded by the Neoproterozoic Uranus Ocean whose cycle led to formation of the Grenville Orogen. The phenomenon of coincident, or almost coincident orogens and modern continental margins that relate to repeated ocean opening-closing cycles is called the Accordion Effect. An understanding of the North Atlantic Ocean and its continental margins provides insights into the nature of lapetus and the evolution of the Appalachian Orogen. Likewise, an understanding of lapetus and the Appalachian Orogen raises questions about Uranus and the development of the Grenville Orogen. Modern tectonic patterns in the North Atlantic may have been determined by events that began before 1000 m.y.

  9. Orogen styles in the East African Orogen: A review of the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian tectonic evolution☆

    PubMed Central

    Fritz, H.; Abdelsalam, M.; Ali, K.A.; Bingen, B.; Collins, A.S.; Fowler, A.R.; Ghebreab, W.; Hauzenberger, C.A.; Johnson, P.R.; Kusky, T.M.; Macey, P.; Muhongo, S.; Stern, R.J.; Viola, G.

    2013-01-01

    The East African Orogen, extending from southern Israel, Sinai and Jordan in the north to Mozambique and Madagascar in the south, is the world́s largest Neoproterozoic to Cambrian orogenic complex. It comprises a collage of individual oceanic domains and continental fragments between the Archean Sahara–Congo–Kalahari Cratons in the west and Neoproterozoic India in the east. Orogen consolidation was achieved during distinct phases of orogeny between ∼850 and 550 Ma. The northern part of the orogen, the Arabian–Nubian Shield, is predominantly juvenile Neoproterozoic crust that formed in and adjacent to the Mozambique Ocean. The ocean closed during a protracted period of island-arc and microcontinent accretion between ∼850 and 620 Ma. To the south of the Arabian Nubian Shield, the Eastern Granulite–Cabo Delgado Nappe Complex of southern Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique was an extended crust that formed adjacent to theMozambique Ocean and experienced a ∼650–620 Ma granulite-facies metamorphism. Completion of the nappe assembly around 620 Ma is defined as the East African Orogeny and was related to closure of the Mozambique Ocean. Oceans persisted after 620 Ma between East Antarctica, India, southern parts of the Congo–Tanzania–Bangweulu Cratons and the Zimbabwe–Kalahari Craton. They closed during the ∼600–500 Ma Kuungan or Malagasy Orogeny, a tectonothermal event that affected large portions of southern Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Madagascar and Antarctica. The East African and Kuungan Orogenies were followed by phases of post-orogenic extension. Early ∼600–550 Ma extension is recorded in the Arabian–Nubian Shield and the Eastern Granulite–Cabo Delgado Nappe Complex. Later ∼550–480 Ma extension affected Mozambique and southern Madagascar. Both extension phases, although diachronous,are interpreted as the result of lithospheric delamination. Along the strike of the East African Orogen, different geodynamic settings

  10. Orogen styles in the East African Orogen: A review of the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian tectonic evolution.

    PubMed

    Fritz, H; Abdelsalam, M; Ali, K A; Bingen, B; Collins, A S; Fowler, A R; Ghebreab, W; Hauzenberger, C A; Johnson, P R; Kusky, T M; Macey, P; Muhongo, S; Stern, R J; Viola, G

    2013-10-01

    The East African Orogen, extending from southern Israel, Sinai and Jordan in the north to Mozambique and Madagascar in the south, is the world́s largest Neoproterozoic to Cambrian orogenic complex. It comprises a collage of individual oceanic domains and continental fragments between the Archean Sahara-Congo-Kalahari Cratons in the west and Neoproterozoic India in the east. Orogen consolidation was achieved during distinct phases of orogeny between ∼850 and 550 Ma. The northern part of the orogen, the Arabian-Nubian Shield, is predominantly juvenile Neoproterozoic crust that formed in and adjacent to the Mozambique Ocean. The ocean closed during a protracted period of island-arc and microcontinent accretion between ∼850 and 620 Ma. To the south of the Arabian Nubian Shield, the Eastern Granulite-Cabo Delgado Nappe Complex of southern Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique was an extended crust that formed adjacent to theMozambique Ocean and experienced a ∼650-620 Ma granulite-facies metamorphism. Completion of the nappe assembly around 620 Ma is defined as the East African Orogeny and was related to closure of the Mozambique Ocean. Oceans persisted after 620 Ma between East Antarctica, India, southern parts of the Congo-Tanzania-Bangweulu Cratons and the Zimbabwe-Kalahari Craton. They closed during the ∼600-500 Ma Kuungan or Malagasy Orogeny, a tectonothermal event that affected large portions of southern Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Madagascar and Antarctica. The East African and Kuungan Orogenies were followed by phases of post-orogenic extension. Early ∼600-550 Ma extension is recorded in the Arabian-Nubian Shield and the Eastern Granulite-Cabo Delgado Nappe Complex. Later ∼550-480 Ma extension affected Mozambique and southern Madagascar. Both extension phases, although diachronous,are interpreted as the result of lithospheric delamination. Along the strike of the East African Orogen, different geodynamic settings resulted in the evolution

  11. Orogen styles in the East African Orogen: A review of the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian tectonic evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H.; Abdelsalam, M.; Ali, K. A.; Bingen, B.; Collins, A. S.; Fowler, A. R.; Ghebreab, W.; Hauzenberger, C. A.; Johnson, P. R.; Kusky, T. M.; Macey, P.; Muhongo, S.; Stern, R. J.; Viola, G.

    2013-10-01

    The East African Orogen, extending from southern Israel, Sinai and Jordan in the north to Mozambique and Madagascar in the south, is the world´s largest Neoproterozoic to Cambrian orogenic complex. It comprises a collage of individual oceanic domains and continental fragments between the Archean Sahara-Congo-Kalahari Cratons in the west and Neoproterozoic India in the east. Orogen consolidation was achieved during distinct phases of orogeny between ∼850 and 550 Ma. The northern part of the orogen, the Arabian-Nubian Shield, is predominantly juvenile Neoproterozoic crust that formed in and adjacent to the Mozambique Ocean. The ocean closed during a protracted period of island-arc and microcontinent accretion between ∼850 and 620 Ma. To the south of the Arabian Nubian Shield, the Eastern Granulite-Cabo Delgado Nappe Complex of southern Kenya, Tanzania and Mozambique was an extended crust that formed adjacent to theMozambique Ocean and experienced a ∼650-620 Ma granulite-facies metamorphism. Completion of the nappe assembly around 620 Ma is defined as the East African Orogeny and was related to closure of the Mozambique Ocean. Oceans persisted after 620 Ma between East Antarctica, India, southern parts of the Congo-Tanzania-Bangweulu Cratons and the Zimbabwe-Kalahari Craton. They closed during the ∼600-500 Ma Kuungan or Malagasy Orogeny, a tectonothermal event that affected large portions of southern Tanzania, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Madagascar and Antarctica. The East African and Kuungan Orogenies were followed by phases of post-orogenic extension. Early ∼600-550 Ma extension is recorded in the Arabian-Nubian Shield and the Eastern Granulite-Cabo Delgado Nappe Complex. Later ∼550-480 Ma extension affected Mozambique and southern Madagascar. Both extension phases, although diachronous,are interpreted as the result of lithospheric delamination. Along the strike of the East African Orogen, different geodynamic settings resulted in the evolution of

  12. Orogenic Response to Augmented Erosion Associated with Northern Hemisphere Glaciation: The St. Elias Orogen of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, A. L.; Gulick, S. P.; Spotila, J. A.; Worthington, L. L.; Upton, P.; Jaeger, J. M.; Pavlis, T. L.

    2009-12-01

    Active orogens are thought to behave as internally deforming critical-taper wedges that are in rough long-term equilibrium with regional boundary conditions. Deformation, kinematics, and the thermal evolution of orogenic systems are therefore believed to be significantly influenced by spatial and temporal variations in climate. The exact role of cryosphere-geosphere interactions in natural systems, however, continues to be elusive. Here we quantify the spatial patterns of denudation and deformation, and their temporal variations, in the heavily glaciated St Elias orogen in southern Alaska. The tractable size and high latitude of the St. Elias orogen provides an ideal setting to address the real world orogenic response to focused denudation and climate change. Independent of any known change in regional tectonic convergence rate, the St. Elias orogen was subjected to the most severe transition in climate during Cenozoic time, the Late Neogene and Pleistocene onset and advance of glaciers. Low-temperature bedrock thermochronometry, thermokinematic modelling, and offshore seismic reflection and borehole data demonstrate an association between augmented glacial denudation and orogenic evolution. Coeval with the onset of enhanced glacier coverage in mid-Pleistocene time, onshore denudation and offshore sedimentation accelerated ~ten-fold, with the highest rates of exhumation (4 km/Myr (±25%)) located around a narrow zone where the mean Quaternary glacial equilibrium line altitude (ELA) intersects mean topography on the windward flank of the orogen. This climatically driven mass redistribution coincided with the transfer of strain away the seaward deformation front as well as accelerated motion along both a backthrust running the length of the orogen and a series of forethrusts that lie beneath the zone of highest glacial flux. In a cause and effect response, the expansion of glaciers thus appears to have driven an orogen scale structural reorganization leading to the

  13. The anatomy of a deep intracontinental orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimondo, Tom; Collins, Alan S.; Hand, Martin; Walker-Hallam, Althea; Smithies, R. Hugh; Evins, Paul M.; Howard, Heather M.

    2010-08-01

    The crustal architecture of central Australia has been profoundly affected by protracted periods of intracontinental deformation. In the northwestern Musgrave Block, the Ediacaran-Cambrian (600-530 Ma) Petermann Orogeny resulted in pervasive mylonitic reworking of Mesoproterozoic granites and granitic gneisses at deep crustal levels (P = 10-14 kbar and T = 700-800°C). SHRIMP and LA-ICPMS dating of zircon indicate that peak metamorphic conditions were attained at circa 570 Ma, followed by slow cooling to ˜600-660°C at circa 540 Ma driven by exhumation along the Woodroffe Thrust. Strong links between regional kinematic partitioning, pervasive high shear strains and partial melting in the orogenic core, and an anomalous lobate thrust trace geometry suggest that north vergent shortening was accompanied by the gravitational collapse and lateral escape of a broad thrust sheet. Like the present-day Himalayan-Tibetan system, the macroscopic structural, metamorphic, and kinematic architecture of the Petermann Orogen appears to be dominantly shaped by large-scale ductile flow of lower crustal material. We thus argue that the anatomy of this deep intracontinental orogen is comparable to collisional orogens, suggesting that the deformational response of continental crust is remarkably similar in different tectonic settings.

  14. Shear Zone Development and Rheology in the Deep Orogenic Crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, J. H.; Johnson, S. E.; Gerbi, C. C.; Culshaw, N. G.

    2008-12-01

    Within the Central Gneiss Belt (CGB) of the southwestern Grenville Province, Ontario, Canada, a number of allocthonous lithotectonic domains are juxtaposed along crustal-scale shear zones. Extensive exposure of variably reworked granulites of the interior Parry Sound domain (iPSD) has enabled investigation of the structural and petrologic character of domain-bounding shear zones within the deep orogenic crust. Recent detailed mapping and structural data collected along the southwestern margin of the iPSD is consistent with the suggestion of Culshaw et al. (in prep) that spaced outcrop-scale shear zones have coalesced and progressively reworked layered granulites into a transposed amphibolite-facies tectonite. The tectonites comprise the Twelve Mile Bay Shear Zone (TMBSZ), which separates the iPSD from para-autocthonous rocks to the south. This study investigates the grain- and outcrop-scale mechanisms involved in shear zone development and attempts to quantify the associated changes in rock rheology. Northwest of TMBSZ, samples collected across individual outcrop-scale shear zones (i.e., across large strain gradients) have distinct differences in mineralogy and microstructure. In mafic layers the original granulite texture and cpx + opx + pl + hbl +/- grt assemblage is commonly retained away from the shear zones within unsheared "panels". With proximity to the shear zones pyroxenes and garnet are progressively consumed in hydration reactions producing hornblende and biotite, which define a new planar foliation within the highly attenuated and deflected layering. Felsic layers generally have only minor mineralogical changes across the zones, but develop an increasingly intense and recrystallized structural fabric into the sheared margin. The shear zones are commonly cored by variably deformed pegmatite dikes that were emplaced prior to, or during the early stages of shearing. Evidence for incipient shear zone formation along mineralized fracture sets that cut

  15. High-pressure metamorphism in the southern New England Orogen: Implications for long-lived accretionary orogenesis in eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, G.; Offler, R.; Rubatto, D.; Phillips, D.

    2015-09-01

    New geochemical, metamorphic, and isotopic data are presented from high-pressure metamorphic rocks in the southern New England Orogen (eastern Australia). Conventional and optimal thermobarometry are augmented by U-Pb zircon and 40Ar/39Ar phengite dating to define pressure-temperature-time (P-T-t) histories for the rocks. The P-T-t histories are compared with competing geodynamic models for the Tasmanides, which can be summarized as (i) a retreating orogen model, the Tasmanides formed above a continuous, west dipping, and eastward retreating subduction zone, and (ii) a punctuated orogen model, the Tasmanides formed by several arc accretion, subduction flip, and/or transference events. Whereas both scenarios are potentially supported by the new data, an overlap between the timing of metamorphic recrystallization and key stages of Tasmanides evolution favors a relationship between a single, long-lived subduction zone and the formation, exhumation, and exposure of the high-pressure rocks. By comparison with the retreating orogen model, the following links with the P-T-t histories emerge: (i) exhumation and underplating of oceanic eclogite during the Delamerian Orogeny, (ii) recrystallization of underplated and exhuming high-pressure rocks at amphibolite facies conditions coeval with a period of rollback, and (iii) selective recrystallization of high-pressure rocks at blueschist facies conditions, reflecting metamorphism in a cooled subduction zone. The retreating orogen model can also account for the anomalous location of the Cambrian-Ordovician high-pressure rocks in the Devonian-Carboniferous New England Orogen, where sequential rollback cycles detached and translated parts of the leading edge of the overriding plate to the next, younger orogenic cycle.

  16. An isotopic perspective on growth and differentiation of Proterozoic orogenic crust: From subduction magmatism to cratonization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Simon P.; Korhonen, Fawna J.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Cliff, John B.; Belousova, Elena A.; Sheppard, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The in situ chemical differentiation of continental crust ultimately leads to the long-term stability of the continents. This process, more commonly known as 'cratonization', is driven by deep crustal melting with the transfer of those melts to shallower regions resulting in a strongly chemically stratified crust, with a refractory, dehydrated lower portion overlain by a complementary enriched upper portion. Since the lower to mid portions of continental crust are rarely exposed, investigation of the cratonization process must be through indirect methods. In this study we use in situ Hf and O isotope compositions of both magmatic and inherited zircons from several felsic magmatic suites in the Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia to highlight the differentiation history (i.e. cratonization) of this portion of late Archean to Proterozoic orogenic crust. The Capricorn Orogen shows a distinct tectonomagmatic history that evolves from an active continental margin through to intracratonic reworking, ultimately leading to thermally stable crust that responds similarly to the bounding Archean Pilbara and Yilgarn Cratons. The majority of magmatic zircons from the main magmatic cycles have Hf isotopic compositions that are generally more evolved than CHUR, forming vertical arrays that extend to moderately radiogenic compositions. Complimentary O isotope data, also show a significant variation in composition. However, combined, these data define not only the source components from which the magmas were derived, but also a range of physio-chemical processes that operated during magma transport and emplacement. These data also identify a previously unknown crustal reservoir in the Capricorn Orogen.

  17. Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd geochronology of garnet gneisses in the central Appalachians, U.S.: Implications for the timing and duration of Grenville Orogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervoort, Jeff; Ramsey, Molly; Mulcahy, Sean; Aleinikoff, John; Southworth, Scott

    2014-05-01

    The Grenville orogeny is one of the most significant geological events in Earth's history with remnants of this event prominent on virtually every continent. Constraining its timing and duration is important not only for understanding the tectonics of the Grenville itself, but also for understanding supercontinent cycles and other questions of Earth's evolution. In order to provide better constraints on the timing of Grenvillian metamorphism, we analyzed garnet-bearing Mesoproterozoic ortho and paragneisses, collected along a 150 km transect in the northern Blue Ridge Province, using combined Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd geochronology. The orthogneisses have U-Pb zircon crystallization ages of ~1140 and 1100 Ma. The paragneisses have maximum depositional ages ~1050 to 1020 Ma, based on the youngest detrital zircon populations. Zircon overgrowths and monazite ages suggest metamorphic events between ~1050 and 960 Ma. The Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd data for these samples both yield robust garnet ages with large spread of parent/daughter ratios, low age uncertainties, and low MSWD values. Lu-Hf ages define a narrow time span (1043±12 Ma to 1016±4 Ma; wtd. mean, 1024±7 Ma, 2σ). The Sm-Nd ages, determined on the same solutions as Lu-Hf, also define a narrow time range but are systematically younger (974±11 Ma to 932±5 Ma; wtd. mean, 957±10 Ma). The average difference between Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd ages is 67 Ma; the oldest Sm-Nd age is 40 Ma younger than the youngest Lu-Hf age. These large systematic differences in the ages are enigmatic. While Sm-Nd ages younger than Lu-Hf are not uncommon, these differences are typically small. There are, however, potential explanations for these differences. (1) Lu partitions strongly into garnet during growth resulting in high Lu/Hf ratios in the core and yielding ages weighted toward the beginning of growth (e.g., Skora, 2006); no similar partitioning exists in Sm/Nd and these ages reflect mean garnet growth. (2) Lu diffuses much faster than Hf at elevated

  18. GEOPHYSICS. Layered deformation in the Taiwan orogen.

    PubMed

    Huang, T-Y; Gung, Y; Kuo, B-Y; Chiao, L-Y; Chen, Y-N

    2015-08-14

    The underthrusting of continental crust during mountain building is an issue of debate for orogens at convergent continental margins. We report three-dimensional seismic anisotropic tomography of Taiwan that shows a nearly 90° rotation of anisotropic fabrics across a 10- to 20-kilometer depth, consistent with the presence of two layers of deformation. The upper crust is dominated by collision-related compressional deformation, whereas the lower crust of Taiwan, mostly the crust of the subducted Eurasian plate, is dominated by convergence-parallel shear deformation. We interpret this lower crustal shearing as driven by the continuous sinking of the Eurasian mantle lithosphere when the surface of the subducted plate is coupled with the orogen. The two-layer deformation clearly defines the role of subduction in the formation of the Taiwan mountain belt. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  19. Compressional intracontinental orogens: Ancient and modern perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raimondo, Tom; Hand, Martin; Collins, William J.

    2014-03-01

    Compressional intracontinental orogens are major zones of crustal thickening produced at large distances from active plate boundaries. Consequently, any account of their initiation and subsequent evolution must be framed outside conventional plate tectonics theory, which can only explain the proximal effects of convergent plate-margin interactions. This review considers a range of hypotheses regarding the origins and transmission of compressive stresses in intraplate settings. Both plate-boundary and intraplate stress sources are investigated as potential driving forces, and their relationship to rheological models of the lithosphere is addressed. The controls on strain localisation are then evaluated, focusing on the response of the lithosphere to the weakening effects of structural, thermal and fluid processes. With reference to the characteristic features of intracontinental orogens in central Asia (the Tien Shan) and central Australia (the Petermann and Alice Springs Orogens), it is argued that their formation is largely driven by in-plane stresses generated at plate boundaries, with the lithosphere acting as an effective stress guide. This implies a strong lithospheric mantle rheology, in order to account for far-field stress propagation through the discontinuous upper crust and to enable the support of thick uplifted crustal wedges. Alternative models of intraplate stress generation, primarily involving mantle downwelling, are rejected on the grounds that their predicted temporal and spatial scales for orogenesis are inconsistent with the observed records of deformation. Finally, inherited mechanical weaknesses, thick sedimentary blanketing over a strongly heat-producing crust, and pervasive reaction softening of deep fault networks are identified as important and interrelated controls on the ability of the lithosphere to accommodate rather than transmit stress. These effects ultimately produce orogenic zones with architectural features and evolutionary

  20. The Honey Brook Upland: Multiple Accessory Phase Parageneses in a Grenville Terrane and Associated Cover Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyle, J. M.

    2004-05-01

    The Honey Brook Upland (HBU) of southeastern Pennsylvania is the only Grenville-age AMCG suite exposed between the Adirondacks and the anorthosite-bearing terranes of central and eastern Virginia. Several distinct accessory phase parageneses in the HBU and its Paleozoic metasedimentary cover sequence help: 1) to constrain the timing of known events affecting the HBU and cover; 2) to identify previously unknown events, and; 3) to elucidate the T-x conditions of the distinct metamorphic events. Granulite-facies gneisses (charnockites, mangerites) associated with the Honey Brook anorthosite contain primary Zrn, Aln, and Ap, but also texturally late Mnz in Bt+Hbl coronas around Opx, and (with Xno) as oriented acicular inclusions in primary Ap. The latter texture is interpreted as evidence of metasomatic infiltration (Harlov et al., Am Min, 2002), and Mnz-Xno pairs in Ap yield temperatures of 450° C-500° C. Amphibolite-facies felsic gneisses (metavolcanics) contain primary Zrn, Mnz, and Ap; Mnz rims are commonly replaced by Aln+Ep. Mnz in the metavolcanics has three distinct compositional domains; moderate-Y, low-Th cores, low-Y, high-Th outboards, and rare low-Y, low-Th rims. Garnets in the metavolcanics are only slightly zoned in Y (1000-800 ppm core to rim); Grt rims are typically replaced by Ep+Ms. Pairing of Grt compositions and Mnz core domains yields temperatures of 500° C-520° C, indicating preservation of prograde Mnz. The association of Qtz+Plg+Ms symplectites with high-Th Mnz domains suggests that this domain is representative of peak metamorphic conditions (650° C-750° C). Coexisting Mnz and Xno are found in metaquartzite (Chickies Formation) at the base of the HBU cover sequence; epitaxial overgrowths of Xno on oscillatory-zoned Zrn imply anin situ origin for Xno. Mnz-Xno pairs in the metaquartzite yield equilibration temperatures of 300° C-400° C. A provisional sequence of events in the HBU and cover, as determined from chemical Mnz ages, is as

  1. SVM-based base-metal prospectivity modeling of the Aravalli Orogen, Northwestern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porwal, Alok; Yu, Le

    2010-05-01

    The Proterozoic Aravalli orogen in the state of Rajasthan, northwestern India, constitutes the most important metallogenic province for base-metal deposits in India and hosts the entire economically viable lead-zinc resource-base of the country. The orogen evolved through near-orderly Wilson cycles of repeated extensional and compressional tectonics resulting in sequential opening and closing of intracratonic rifts and amalgamation of crustal domains during a circa 1.0-Ga geological history from 2.2 Ga to 1.0 Ga. This study develops a conceptual tectonostratigraphic model of the orogen based on a synthesis of the available geological, geophysical and geochronological data followed by deep-seismic-reflectivity-constrained 2-D forward gravity modeling, and links it to the Proterozoic base-metal metallogeny in the orogen in order to identify key geological controls on the base-metal mineralization. These controls are translated into exploration criteria for base-metal deposits, validated using empirical spatial analysis, and used to derive input spatial variables for model-based base-metal prospectivity mapping of the orogen. A support vector machine (SVM) algorithm augmented by incorporating a feature selection procedure is used in a GIS environment to implement the prospectivity mapping. A comparison of the SVM-derived prospectivity map with the ones derived using other established models such as neural-networks, logistic regression, and Bayesian weights-of-evidence indicates that the SVM outperforms other models, which is attributed to the capability of the SVM to return robust classification based on small training datasets.

  2. Petrogenesis of the Elzevir batholith and related trondhjemitic intrusions in the grenville province of eastern Ontario, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pride, C.; Moore, J. M.

    1983-06-01

    The Elzevir batholith belongs to a suite of trondhjemitic intrusions emplaced at ca. 1,240 Ma in the Grenville Province of eastern Ontario. New major and trace element data, including REE, combined with isotopic and petrographic data indicate that: 1) the batholith has calc-alkalic affinities; 2) the Elzevir parental magma is very similar to that of dacites in the nearby, coeval metavolcanic rocks; the magma formed by partial melting of crustal material at granulite grade; 3) chemical differences between the plutonic and volcanic rocks can be best explained by accumulation of plagioclase in the plutonic environment; 4) fractionation was dominated by plagioclase and quartz, with lesser biotite and epidote, and minor zircon and apatite. It is suggested that melting of sialic crust took place during the ‘docking’ of a partly-evolved, originally ensimatic arc system against the main cratonic mass to the northwest.

  3. SW U. S. diabase province: A 1. 1-Ga intrusion event of middle Grenville and middle Keweenawan age

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, C.M.; Elston, D.P. ); Wrucke, C.T. )

    1993-02-01

    Diabase in the southwestern US intrudes Middle Proterozoic stratified rocks as sills and Early and Middle Proterozoic crystalline rocks as subhorizontal sheets and subvertical dikes. It is discontinuous in a broad belt extending from western Texas to southeastern California. The best known intrusions are sills in Middle Proterozoic strata in Death Valley, Grand Canyon, and central Arizona. Sparse to rare dikes in some of these strata trend mostly north but range from north-northeast to west-northwest. Diabase dikes widespread in crystalline rocks in western Arizona and adjacent parts of southeastern California strike from north to west-northwest, but are predominantly northwesterly. Dikes and sheets are also present in crystalline rocks in the southern Pinaleno Mountains, southeastern Arizona, where dikes strike west-northwest. The northwest trend of the diabase province and prevalent northwesterly trend of dikes in crystalline rocks suggest that intrusion was controlled by an approximately horizontal least compressive stress field roughly parallel to the Grenville Front. Radiometric ages of Arizona and California diabase indicate emplacement at [approximately]1,100 Ma. Paleomagnetic poles from diabase sills and enclosing stratified rocks in Arizona correlate with poles reported from middle and early-late Keweenawan rocks of Lake Superior. Emplacement of the diabase coincides with: (1) the middle Keweenawan eruptive and intrusive episode of the Midcontinent Rift System; (2) a major episode of (middle) Grenville thrusting and deformation documented in the Van Horn area; and (3) a time of abrupt reversal in North American apparent polar wander. These interrelated manifestations presumably arose in response to a major episode of plate interaction and collision between North American and a plate that encroached from the southeast.

  4. Lead and barium sources in Cambrian siliciclastics and sediment provenance of a sector of the Taconic Orogen, Quebec: a mixing scenario based on Pb-isotopic evidence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schrijver, K.; Zartman, R.E.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    1994-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that siliciclastic rocks constituted the major source of Pb and Ba in barite-galena deposits of the Taconic Orogen, we determined Pb-isotope ratios in galena, barren rocks and contained minerals, as well as concentrations of Pb, U, Th and Ba in the latter (detrital feldspars, sandstones, mudstones, rock clasts and carbonate cements and clasts). Ranges in 206Pb/204Pb, 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb of 28 galena samples are 17.96-18.05, 15.56-15.59 and 37.75-37.93, respectively; ranges for 41 barren rocks and minerals are 16.17-23.31, 15.26-15.86 and 35.98-42.51, respectively. The lowest ratios are in feldspar, and the highest in carbonate and mudstone. Values of the mudstones samples overlap those of galena when corrected for in situ decay of U and Th since galena precipitation (???450 Ma). We thus propose that mudstones constituted a source of lead. Corrected ratios for anomalously Pb-rich mudstones are virtually identical to galena-Pb ratios and may be due to contamination by lead-bearing brines. Assuming that burial diagenesis did not disturb the Pb-isotope values of sandstones, these rocks contributed only a minor fraction of lead to the galena, estimated at ???20% for one deposit. The source of barite-Ba was probably perthite. Low Ba and Pb concentrations of sandstone adjacent to this deposit, compared to high concentrations remote from it, support leaching of barium (and minor lead) from feldspar penecontemporaneous with feldspar dissolution. Geological data indicate that the provenance of the siliciclastic rocks was mainly from Grenville terrane. A comparison of our Pb-isotopic data for Taconic perthite with those of Grenville K-feldspar, as well as ratios of trace elements, support this provenance for both sandstones and mudstones. The presence of carbonate platforms peripheral to the orogen, and the Middle Ordovician-Middle Devonian depositional range of the studied and Mississippi Valley type deposits north (Newfoundland) and south (U

  5. Flow of ultra-hot Precambrian orogens and the making of crustal layering in Phanerozoic orogenic plateaux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chardon, Dominique; Gapais, Denis; Cagnard, Florence; Jayananda, Mudlappa; Peucat, Jean-Jacques

    2010-05-01

    Reassessment of structural / metamorphic properties of ultra-hot Precambrian orogens and shortening of model weak lithospheres support a syn-convergence flow mode on an orogen scale, with a large component of horizontal finite elongation parallel to the orogen. This orogen-scale flow mode combines distributed shortening, gravity-driven flow, lateral escape, and three-dimensional mass redistribution of buried supracrustal rocks, magmas and migmatites in a thick fluid lower crust. This combination preserves a nearly flat surface and Moho. The upper crust maintains a nearly constant thickness by real-time erosion and near-field clastic sedimentation and by ablation at its base by burial of pop-downs into the lower crust. Steady state regime of these orogens is allowed by activation of an attachment layer that maintains kinematic compatibility between the thin and dominantly plastic upper crust and a thick "water bed" of lower crust. Because very thin lithospheres of orogenic plateaux and Precambrian hot orogens have similar thermomechanical structures, bulk orogenic flow comparable to that governing Precambrian hot orogens should actually operate through today's orogenic plateaux as well. Thus, syn-convergence flow fabrics documented on exposed crustal sections of ancient hot orogens that have not undergone collapse may be used to infer the nature of flow fabrics that are imaged by geophysical techniques beneath orogenic plateaux. We provide a detailed geological perspective on syn-convergence crustal flow in relation to magma emplacement and partial melting on a wide oblique crustal transition of the Neoarchean ultra-hot orogen of Southern India. We document sub-horizontal bulk longitudinal flow of the partially molten lower crust over a protracted period of 60 Ma. Bulk flow results from the interplay of (1) pervasive longitudinal transtensional flow of the partially molten crust, (2) longitudinal coaxial flow on flat fabrics in early plutons, (3) distributed, orogen

  6. Orogenic fluids and the origin of a synfolding remagnetization, Belden FM. , NW Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Fruit, D.; Elmore, R.D. . School of Geology and Geophysics); Gao, G. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1992-01-01

    The Pennsylvanian Belden Formation, consisting of shoaling upward carbonate cycles, was investigated on an asymmetric fold in MW Colorado to test for a connection between orogenic fluids and remagnetizations. The limestones have radiogenic Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios and are extensively mineralized by calcite along tectonic fractures. An apparent synfolding (Laramide) remagnetization varies in magnetic intensity and resides in magnetite that has replaced pyrite. This remagnetization superficially suggests a link with orogenic fluids which gained access to the rocks during deformation. There is no correlation, however, between intensity and proximity to the mineralized veins or to the degree of fracturing. There is a correlation between magnetic intensity and cyclical lithologic changes. In general, the intensity is highest in the coarser, grain-supported limestones in the upper part of the cycles. These results suggest a control by matrix permeability or chemical composition and not by fracture permeability. The remagnetization is interpreted to be chemical in origin, but is not related to the mineralizing syndeformational fluids. Two working hypotheses for the origin of the remagnetization are being tested: (1) a prefolding chemical mechanism, possibly fluid-related, and deflection of the magnetization into a synfolding configuration by strain or (2) a syndeformational chemical process such as diagenesis of organic matter that was mediated by low burial temperatures. Although the authors cannot as yet conclusively identify the chemical process responsible for the pyrite->magnetite reaction, the results raise doubts about a link between the Belden remagnetization and orogenic fluids.

  7. Metamorphic complexes in accretionary orogens: Insights from the Beishan collage, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dongfang; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Han, Chunming; Yang, Lei

    2016-10-01

    The sources of ancient zircons and the tectonic attributions and origins of metamorphic complexes in Phanerozoic accretionary orogens have long been difficult issues. Situated between the Tianshan and Inner Mongolia orogens, the Beishan orogenic collage (BOC) plays a pivotal role in understanding the accretionary processes of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), particularly the extensive metamorphic and high-strained complexes on the southern margin. Despite their importance in understanding the basic architecture of the southern CAOB, little consensus has been reached on their ages and origins. Our new structural, LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data from the Baidunzi, Shibandun, Qiaowan and Wutongjing metamorphic complexes resolve current controversial relations. The metamorphic complexes have varied lithologies and structures. Detrital zircons from five para-metamorphic rocks yield predominantly Phanerozoic ages with single major peaks at ca. 276 Ma, 286 Ma, 427 Ma, 428 Ma and 461 Ma. Two orthogneisses have weighted mean ages of 294 ± 2 Ma and 304 ± 2 Ma with no Precambrian inherited zircons. Most Phanerozoic zircons show positive εHf(t) values indicating significant crustal growth in the Ordovician, Silurian and Permian. The imbricated fold-thrust deformation style combined with diagnostic zircon U-Pb-Hf isotopic data demonstrate that the metamorphic rocks developed in a subduction-accretion setting on an arc or active continental margin. This setting and conclusion are supported by the nearby occurrence of Ordovician-Silurian adakites, Nb-rich basalts, Carboniferous-Permian ophiolitic mélanges, and trench-type turbidites. Current data do not support the presence of a widespread Precambrian basement in the evolution of the BOC; the accretionary processes may have continued to the early Permian in this part of the CAOB. These relationships have meaningful implications for the interpretation of the tectonic attributions and origins of other

  8. 1.45 Ga granulites in the southwestern Grenville province: Geologic setting, P-T conditions, and U-Pb geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketchum, J. W. F.; Jamieson, R. A.; Heaman, L. M.; Culshaw, N. G.; Krogh, T. E.

    1994-03-01

    In the southwestern Grenville province, the parautochthonous Britt domain includes a variety of pre-Grenvillian metamorphic and plutonic rocks that were reworked at upper amphibolite facies during the Grenvillian orogeny. Near Pointe-au-Baril, Ontario, a crustal block containing pre-Grenvillian granulite facies mineral assemblages and pre-Grenvillian to early Grenvillian tectonic fabrics has been identified. The block is bounded on the northwest and southeast by extensional shear zones that may have isolated it from regional late Gren- villian deformation. Multiequilibria pressure-temperature (P-T) calculations for orthopyroxene-bearing mafic rocks suggest conditions of 625-700 °C and 7.2-8.4 kbar for the pre-Grenvillian metamorphism. The granulite facies assemblages were locally overprinted during higher pressure Grenvillian metamorphism, which peaked at 720-775 °C and 10.8-11.5 kbar. U-Pb zircon data from migmatitic, mafic supracrustal gneiss indicate metamorphism and leucosome development at ca. 1450-1430 Ma, in agreement with other pre-Grenvillian metamorphic ages for the Central gneiss belt and Grenville Front tectonic zone. An expanding data base on pre-Grenvillian events in the southwestern Grenville province indicates that high-grade metamorphism at ca. 1450-1430 Ma affected a large region of crust and was coeval with widespread felsic to intermediate plutonism.

  9. Neoproterozoic, Paleozoic, and Mesozoic granitoid magmatism in the Qinling Orogen, China: Constraints on orogenic process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoxia; Wang, Tao; Zhang, Chengli

    2013-08-01

    The Qinling Orogen is one of the main orogenic belts in Asia and is characterized by multi-stage orogenic processes and the development of voluminous magmatic intrusions. The results of zircon U-Pb dating indicate that granitoid magmatism in the Qinling Orogen mainly occurred in four distinct periods: the Neoproterozoic (979-711 Ma), Paleozoic (507-400 Ma), and Early (252-185 Ma) and Late (158-100 Ma) Mesozoic. The Neoproterozoic granitic magmatism in the Qinling Orogen is represented by strongly deformed S-type granites emplaced at 979-911 Ma, weakly deformed I-type granites at 894-815 Ma, and A-type granites at 759-711 Ma. They can be interpreted as the products of respectively syn-collisional, post-collisional and extensional setting, in response to the assembly and breakup of the Rodinia supercontinent. The Paleozoic magmatism can be temporally classified into three stages of 507-470 Ma, 460-422 Ma and ˜415-400 Ma. They were genetically related to the subduction of the Shangdan Ocean and subsequent collision of the southern North China Block and the South Qinling Belt. The 507-470 Ma magmatism is spatially and temporally related to ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism in the studied area. The 460-422 Ma magmatism with an extensive development in the North Qinling Belt is characterized by I-type granitoids and originated from the lower crust with the involvement of mantle-derived magma in a collisional setting. The magmatism with the formation age of ˜415-400 Ma only occurred in the middle part of the North Qinling Belt and is dominated by I-type granitoid intrusions, and probably formed in the late-stage of a collisional setting. Early Mesozoic magmatism in the study area occurred between 252 and 185 Ma, with the cluster in 225-200 Ma. It took place predominantly in the western part of the South Qinling Belt. The 250-240 Ma I-type granitoids are of small volume and show high Sr/Y ratios, and may have been formed in a continental arc setting related to subduction

  10. Mantle refertilization and magmatism in old orogenic regions: The role of late-orogenic pyroxenites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    France, Lydéric; Chazot, Gilles; Kornprobst, Jacques; Dallai, Luigi; Vannucci, Riccardo; Grégoire, Michel; Bertrand, Hervé; Boivin, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    Pyroxenites and garnet pyroxenites are mantle heterogeneities characterized by a lower solidus temperature than the enclosing peridotites; it follows that they are preferentially involved during magma genesis. Constraining their origin, composition, and the interactions they underwent during their subsequent evolution is therefore essential to discuss the sources of magmatism in a given area. Pyroxenites could represent either recycling of crustal rocks in mantle domains or mantle originated rocks (formed either by olivine consuming melt-rock reactions or by crystal fractionation). Petrological and geochemical (major and trace elements, Sr-Nd and O isotopes) features of xenoliths from various occurrences (French Massif-Central, Jordan, Morocco and Cameroon) show that these samples represent cumulates crystallized during melt percolation at mantle conditions. They formed in mantle domains at pressures of 1-2 GPa during post-collisional magmatism (possibly Hercynian for the French Massif-Central, and Panafrican for Morocco, Jordan and Cameroon). The thermal re-equilibration of lithospheric domains, typical of the late orogenic exhumation stages, is also recorded by the samples. Most of the samples display a metasomatic overprint that may be either inherited or likely linked to the recent volcanic activity that occurred in the investigated regions. The crystallization of pyroxenites during late orogenic events has implications for the subsequent evolution of the mantle domains. The presence of large amounts of mantle pyroxenites in old orogenic regions indeed imparts peculiar physical and chemical characteristics to these domains. Among others, the global solidus temperature of the whole lithospheric domain will be lowered; in turn, this implies that old orogenic regions are refertilized zones where magmatic activity would be enhanced.

  11. Orogenic delamination - dynamics, effects, and geological expression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Kosuke; Gerya, Taras

    2010-05-01

    Unbundling of continental lithosphere and removal of its mantle portion have been described by two mutually rather exclusive models, convective thinning and integral delamination. Either disburdens the remaining lithosphere, weakens the remainder, and causes uplift and extension. Increased heat flux is likely to promote high-degree crustal melting, and has been viewed as a source for voluminous granitic intrusions in late or collapsing orogenic settings. Collapse may be driven by any of gravitational potential differences from orogen to foreland, by stress inversion in the unburdened domain, or by suction of a retreating trench. In this study, we investigate prerequisites, mechanism, and development paths for orogeny-related mantle lithosphere removal. Our experiments numerically reproduce delamination which self-consistently results from the dynamics of a decoupling collision zone. In particular, it succeeds without a seed facilitating initial separation of layers. External shortening of a continent - ocean - continent assembly, such as to initiate oceanic subduction, is lifted before the whole oceanic part is consumed, leaving slab pull to govern further convergence. Once buoyant continental crust enters, the collision zone locks, and convergence diminishes. Under favourable conditions, delamination then initiates close to the edge of the mantle wedge and at deep crustal levels. While it initially separates upper crust from lower crust according to the weakness minimum in the lithospheric strength profile, the lower crust is eventually also delaminated from the subducting lithospheric mantle, owing to buoyancy differences. The level of delamination within the lithosphere seems thus first rheology-controlled, then density-controlled. Subduction-coupled delamination is contingent on retreat and decoupling of the subducting slab, which in turn is dependent on effective rheological weakening of the plate contact. Weakening is a function of shear-heating and hereby of

  12. Ambient tremors in a collisional orogenic belt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chuang, Lindsay Yuling; Chen, Kate Huihsuan; Wech, Aaron G.; Byrne, Timothy; Peng, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Deep-seated tectonic tremors have been regarded as an observation tied to interconnected fluids at depth, which have been well documented in worldwide subduction zones and transform faults but not in a collisional mountain belt. In this study we explore the general features of collisional tremors in Taiwan and discuss the possible generation mechanism. In the 4 year data, we find 231 ambient tremor episodes with durations ranging from 5 to 30 min. In addition to a coseismic slip-induced stress change from nearby major earthquake, increased tremor rate is also highly correlated with the active, normal faulting earthquake swarms at the shallower depth. Both the tremor and earthquake swarm activities are confined in a small, area where the high attenuation, high thermal anomaly, the boundary between high and low resistivity, and localized veins on the surfaces distributed, suggesting the involvement of fluids from metamorphic dehydration within the orogen.

  13. Orogenic float of the Venezuelan Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monod, Bernard; Dhont, Damien; Hervouët, Yves

    2010-07-01

    The Venezuelan (or Mérida) Andes are a NE-trending intracontinental orogen that started to rise from the Middle Miocene due to the E-W far field convergence between the Maracaibo block to the northwest and the Guyana shield to the southeast. Oblique convergence is responsible for strain partitioning with thrusting along both foreland basins and right-lateral strike-slip faulting along the NE-SW Boconó fault cutting the Venezuelan Andes along-strike. The central part of the belt is also cut by the N-S left-lateral strike-slip Valera fault that connects the Boconó fault, both faults bounding the Trujillo block that escapes towards the NNE. Even though the regional geology of belt is well known, its structure at depth remains a matter of debate. Our work, based on the integration of geological and geophysical data aims to better constrain the deep geometry of faults and the tectonic evolution of the mountain belt. We used the orogenic float model to construct two NW-SE trans-Andean crustal scale balanced sections. The Late Neogene-Quaternary shortening varies from 40 km in the south to 30 km in the north across the Trujillo block, indicating that a quarter of the deformation seems to be absorbed by the tectonic escape process. More importantly, a major reorganization in the crust took place in the Early Pliocene. It is characterized by the imbrication of the Maracaibo crust into the Guyana crust. This resulted in the subduction of the Guyana lower crust and the formation of a NW-vergent basement thrust propagating upwards and surfacing along the Las Virtudes thrust. Rapid uplift of the northern flank of the belt subsequently occurred together with massive deposition of the Plio-Quaternary coarse grained Betijoque formation in the northwestern foreland basin.

  14. A 40Ar/ 39Ar study of post-tectonic cooling in the Britt domain of the Grenville Province, Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culshaw, N.; Reynolds, P. H.; Check, G.

    1991-08-01

    We report the results of a 40Ar/ 39Ar study of rocks from the Britt domain, northwestern Grenville Province. Most of the age spectra obtained for micas and amphiboles have well defined age plateaus. Typically, K-feldspars yielded spectra with age gradients and Arrhenius plots with kinks or offsets. Hence, some of the data were interpreted in terms of a multi-diffusion domain-size model. This 40Ar/ 39Ar data base (5 amphiboles, 9 micas, 4 K-feldspar), along with some recently acquired U&z.sbnd;Pb data, provide reasonable constraints on the post-peak metamorphic cooling history which began at depth in the upper amphibolite facies. Comparison of the data with exhumation paths generated by thermal models suggest that cooling, taking place over ˜ 400 Ma, was for the most part due to erosionally controlled exhumation. Although the decompression may have initiated with a short period of rapid (extensional?) uplift, the entire cooling history may have been erosionally controlled. There is an apparent difference in cooling ages between north and south in the 40Ar/ 39Ar mica and K-feldspar data for the Britt domain, which may be due to somewhat higher exhumation rates in the north and/or an elevated geotherm in the south.

  15. Proterozoic subduction and terrane amalgamation in the southwestern Grenville province, Canada: Evidence from ultrapotassic to shoshonitic plutonism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corriveau, Louise

    1990-07-01

    A late Grenvillian (1089-1076 Ma) subduction regime followed by terrane amalgamation is postulated as the paleoenvironment of a 400-km-long belt of potassium-rich alkaline and shoshonitic plutons in the Central metasedimentary belt of the southwestern Grenville province, Canada. Emplacement of the plutons postdates the regional metamorphism in the country rock, but predates major shear zones that form a structural boundary for the plutonic belt. The extent, timing, and magmatic affinities of the suite delineate the Gatineau domain within the current Mont-Laurier terrane of Quebec and are compelling evidence for the allochthonous nature of the Elzevir terrane and its extension eastward to Rideau Lake in Ontario and northward into the Gatineau domain. The belt trends northeast, the emplacement ages are younger to the southeast, and the magmatic affinities are those of island-arc ultrapotassic to shoshonitic rocks. This is interpreted to reflect the existence of a southeast-dipping, northeast-trending subduction zone beneath the combined Elzevir-Gatineau terrane between 1089 and 1076 Ma. Subsequent to subduction, amalgamation of the Elzevir terrane to the other terranes formed the Central metasedimentary belt, which then accreted and collided with the allochthonous polycyclic belt. These events provide evidence that the Ottawan orogeny commenced at ca. 1090 Ma in the Central metasedimentary belt. A modern analogue of this plutonism and its tectonic setting may have been the magmatism and arc-continent collision and subduction setting of the Sunda are, Indonesia.

  16. The U-Pb age and Hf isotope record of detrital zircons from Paleozoic sedimentary rocks of the proto-Andean accretionary orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahlburg, Heinrich

    2010-05-01

    The global record of detrital zircon ages is frequently interpreted as reflecting cycles of supercontinent assembly and dispersal. When peaks in zircon age distributions are combined with data on the relative production of juvenile crust through time, a coincidence between the data sets is discernible for events mainly in the Archean and Paleoproterozoic. Hawkesworth et al. (2009) recently concluded that peaks in U-Pb detrital ages (n=7000; Campbell and Allen, 2008) and juvenile crust production do not always coincide on a global scale, and that a link to supercontinent cycles may in fact not exist. The reason for this is seen in the poor preservation potential of juvenile magmatic arc crust of accretionary orogens relative to continental collisional systems. This is significant as juvenile crust tends to be produced at active margins where it is also prone to destruction by subduction erosion. Granitic magmatic systems in collisional mountain belts, which later may become prolific sources of detrital zircons when eroded, are often formed by partial melting of preexisting crust. They may be volumetrically smaller than arc systems but have a better preservation potential due to their position in the interior of the evolving orogenic belts. The difference in formation and preservation potential is seen as a potential bias of the detrital zircon record towards collisional mountain belts. In contrast, non-collisional accretionary orogens should have detrital zircon age records free of this bias. The SW Amazonia Orogenic System evolved by the episodic accretion of marginal orogenic belts to Amazonia from c. 2.3 to 0.9 Ga. From 0.9 to 0.25 Ga it was superseded by the Andean portion of the Terra Australis accretionary orogen. Recent reconsiderations of paleomagnetic data (e.g. Evans et al., 2010) together with the tectonic evolution of these orogens indicate that they reflect a c. 2 Ga long orogenic history free of major continental collisions. A compilation of U

  17. Mesoproterozoic syntectonic garnet within Belt Supergroup metamorphic tectonites: Evidence of Grenville-age metamorphism and deformation along northwest Laurentia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nesheim, T.O.; Vervoort, J.D.; McClelland, W.C.; Gilotti, J.A.; Lang, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Northern Idaho contains Belt-Purcell Supergroup equivalent metamorphic tectonites that underwent two regional deformational and metamorphic events during the Mesoproterozoic. Garnet-bearing pelitic schists from the Snow Peak area of northern Idaho yield Lu-Hf garnet-whole rock ages of 1085??2. Ma, 1198??79. Ma, 1207??8. Ma, 1255??28. Ma, and 1314??2. Ma. Garnet from one sample, collected from the Clarkia area, was micro-drilled to obtain separate core and rim material that produced ages of 1347??10. Ma and 1102??47. Ma. The core versus rim ages from the micro-drilled sample along with the textural and spatial evidence of the other Lu-Hf garnet ages indicate two metamorphic garnet growth events at ~. 1330. Ma (M1) and ~. 1080. Ma (M2) with the intermediate ages representing mixed ages. Some garnet likely nucleated and grew M1 garnet cores that were later overgrown by younger M2 garnet rims. Most garnet throughout the Clarkia and Snow Peak areas are syntectonic with a regional penetrative deformational fabric, preserved as a strong preferred orientation of metamorphic matrix minerals (e.g., muscovite and biotite). The syntectonic garnets are interpreted to represent one regional, coeval metamorphic and deformation event at ~. 1080. Ma, which overlaps in time with the Grenville Orogeny. The older ~. 1330. Ma ages may represent an extension of the East Kootenay Orogeny described in western Canada. These deformational and metamorphic events indicate that western Laurentia (North America) was tectonically active in the Mesoproterozoic and during the assembly of the supercontinent Rodinia. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Tectonic and Paleoclimate Controls on the Denudation of Orogen Syntaxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, T. A.; Mutz, S.

    2016-12-01

    A range of theoretical and observational studies have investigated the interactions between climate and tectonics in active orogens. Although observed denudation histories are commonly measured over time scales ranging from decades to millions of years, rarely is information about the paleoclimate evolution of orogens available to interpret denudation histories. We use a combination of high-resolution (T159, 80x80 km) global paleoclimate models (ECHAM5), thermomechanical numerical models, and thermochronometer data to investigate the (paleo)climate and tectonic drivers for denudation in active orogens. Our emphasis is on orogen syntaxes (e.g. Himalaya, SE Alaska, Cascadia, and Central Andes) that span a range of subducting plate geometries and modern climate gradients. Results from visco-plastic thermomechanical models indicate that the pattern of localized and rapid denudation in syntaxes is initiated by the 3D geometry of subducting plates. Thermochronometer observations from the Himalaya, SE Alaska, and Cascadia syntaxes support these results. However, pronounced changes in climate accompany the Cenozoic topographic evolution of orogens. Time-slice specific paleoclimate simulations from the Mid-Holocene, Last Glacial Maximum, and Late-Pliocene indicate modest ( 10%) changes in the median of mean annual precipitation (MAP), but large ( 100-300%) changes in the maximums in MAP. Most areas investigated show an increase in the maximum in MAP since the Pliocene. A cluster analysis indicates that changes in the MAP, precipitation amplitude, and near surface temperature and amplitude, change sufficiently between the Pliocene and modern to spatially redefine the climatology of each orogen. Finally, paleoclimate simulations that investigate changes in precipitation during orogen topographic growth document significant (50-100%) localized increases in MAP during topographic development between 50-100% of the present topography.Taken together, we find: (1) the geometry of

  19. A Critical Assessment of Orogenic Channel Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rey, P. F.; Teyssier, C.; Whitney, D. L.

    2011-12-01

    The eastward growth of the Tibetan plateau via the flow of the plateau lower crust into its foreland over a distance of 1500 km in 15 myr (eg. Royden et al., Science, 2008), and the erosion-driven exhumation of the plateau lower crust along its south margin (Beaumont et al., Nature, 2001) are concepts with far reaching implications, and as such they must be debated. The first proposition implies that the lower crust in many foreland regions of active and past orogenic domains is allochthonous, and therefore that the evolution of the lower continental crust is largely decoupled from that of the upper crust. The second proposition implies that localized erosion along plateau margins can suck up the lower crust to the surface, and drive large-scale deformation of the plateau lower crust. Fast (10 cm/yr) channel flow extrusion (CFE), as envisioned in east Tibet, requires that the deep crust was hot (and/or weak) prior to thickening. Triaxial thin sheet models suggest that Tibet's uplift rate and plateau elevation demand a pre-thickening Moho temperature of 500-600C (Rey et al., Lithosphere, 2010). Such temperatures are incompatible with CFE >1000 km and flow rates of 10 cm/yr. Two dimensional coupled thermomechanical numerical experiments taking into account pre-thickening temperatures compatible with Tibet's uplift history, show that mass redistribution processes (i.e. lateral channel flow, upward flow in gneiss domes, upper crust gravitational sliding) are dynamically coupled and that coupling is sensitive to rheology/temperature, channel buoyancy and boundary conditions. Overall, they show that CFE velocities are limited to less than 1 cm/yr by cooling in the foreland and by any upward deviation of the weak channel by extension in the plateau or by erosion at the plateau margin (Rey et al., Lithosphere, 2010). Channel flow driven by the erosion of plateau margins is also questionable, since it requires that erosion of the plateau margin be unrelated to the plateau

  20. Paleozoic orogens in New England, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinson, P.; Tucker, R.D.; Bradley, D.; Berry, H.N.; Osberg, P.H.

    1998-01-01

    Stratigraphy and isotope geochronology in the crystalline core of the Appalachians suggest revised interpretations of the extent, nature and timing of Paleozoic orogens in New England. Five major episodes of magmatism, deformation, and high-grade regional metamorphism are recognized: Taconian (455-442 Ma), Acadian (423-385 Ma), Neo-Acadian (366-350 Ma), Late Pennsylvanian (300-290 Ma) and Alleghanian (280-260 Ma). In the Taconian, the passive margin of Laurentia was subducted below a complex magmatic arc lasting from 480 to 442 Ma, founded in part on continental crust of a Medial New England terrane with possible affinities with Amazonia. Questions about Medial New England involve its coherence as a single plate, and the nature of its underlying crust. The Acadian began in Late Silurian as a collision between the amalgamated Laurentia-Medial New England and outer belts of Composite Avalon along a cryptic suture in coastal Maine, and progressed northwestward to the Connecticut Valley basin by mid-Devonian. Tonalitic-granitic magmatism and up to granulite-facies metamorphism culminated in Early Devonian, possibly tied to lithospheric detachment below the subducting northwestern plate and consequent asthenosphere upwelling. Newly discovered Neo-Acadian Late Devonian to Early Mississippian tonalitic-granitic magmatism, up to granulite-facies metamorphism, and severe deformation in central Massachusetts took place in a plate context poorly understood. Late Pennsylvanian effects include magmatism, metamorphism, and deformation near south New England gneiss domes and the Sebago batholith, and development of the right-lateral Norumbega fault system. Permian Alleghanian effects include penetrative deformation, granitic intrusions and up to sillimanite-grade metamorphism of Pennsylvanian beds in southeastern New England. These last two episodes relate to the arrival of Africa.

  1. Tectonometamorphic evolution of the Rhodope orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krenn, Kurt; Bauer, Christoph; Proyer, Alexander; KlöTzli, Urs; Hoinkes, Georg

    2010-08-01

    This study combines new data on tectonostratigraphy, macrostructures and microstructures, petrology, and geochronology to propose a comprehensive model for the tectonometamorphic evolution of the Rhodope orogen from the Jurassic to the early Paleogene. Rocks from two study areas in the central and eastern Greek Rhodope represent a continental suture zone (Rhodope Suture Zone), with the included material most likely forming an extensional allochthon south of the European continent during Permo/Triassic times that was subsequently subducted beneath Europe in the Early Jurassic (≥180 Ma). On the basis of comparable metamorphic ages and coherent structures but differences in metamorphic conditions and lithologies, the rocks of the Rhodope Suture Zone are subdivided into an upper and a lower part. The prograde history is linked with subduction-related structures in the lower part (uniaxial stretching, deformation stage D1). In metapelites, the earliest stage of metamorphism recorded at circa 180 Ma occurred at least under ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic conditions. The rocks of the upper part experienced isothermal decompression with partial anatexis. Exhumation paths of both parts differ in temperature because of the relative tectonic position within the exhuming wedge. Exhumation was forced by the Nestos Shear Zone that controlled the early phase of normal displacement by SW shearing at the base (lower part) and NE shearing on top (upper part) from the Late Jurassic to the Late Cretaceous (deformation stage D2). An intervening stage of mineral recrystallization and thermal reequilibration in the upper part was followed by a common exhumation history of both parts at pressures lower than about 12 kbar (35-40 km depth). During this stage, exhumation was controlled by southwest directed shearing and folding (deformation stage D3). Slab retreat to the south led to subsequent extension (deformation stage D4) and final exhumation coeval with the formation of basement domes

  2. Stalled Orogen Linked to East Antarctic Craton Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martos, Y. M.; Ferraccioli, F.; Finn, C.; Bell, R. E.; Jordan, T. A.; Damaske, D.

    2015-12-01

    The interior of East Antarctica is often regarded as a coherent Archean craton surrounded by Paleo to Neoproterozoic orogenic belts. Here we use recent aerogeophysical, satellite magnetic, satellite gravity and passive seismic results in central East Antarctica to challenge this view. Firstly, anomalously thick crust (compared to most other cratons) has been imaged in East Antarctica by both passive seismic and gravity modelling with values up to 60 km (Ferraccioli et al., 2011, Nature; An et al., 2015, JGR). The thick crust underlies both the Gamburtsev Subglacial Mountains and an elevated region between Lake Vostok and Dronning Maud Land, referred to as the East Antarctic Mountain Ranges plateau (An et al., 2015). Second, satellite magnetic data reveal that the Gamburtev Province lies in between the Ruker/Princess Elizabeth Land, Vostok, Nimrod/South Pole and Recovery provinces. The Nimrod/ South Pole province is a Paleo to Meso Proterozoic igneous province formed along the edges of the Archean/Paleoproterozoic Mawson continent (e.g. Goodge and Fanning, 2010 JGR). Our aerogeophysical and sediment provenance data interpretations suggest that the Gamburtsev Province represents a distinct Grenvillian-age orogenic belt. A stalled orogen with thick crust (i.e. an orogen where widespread orogenic collapse and root delamination has not occurred)- is preserved in the interior of East Antarctica resembling e.g. the Paleoproterozoic Trans Hudson Orogen and segments of Grenvillian orogens in Laurentia. The stalled orogen may relate to widespread accretionary and collisional events within Rodinia. However, passive seismic interpretations (An et al., 2015) favour linking crustal thickening to the Pan-African age assembly of Greater India, East Antarctica and Australia within Gondwana (e.g. Aitken et al., 2014 GRL). Further aerogeophysical observations over Princess Elizabeth Land are timely to enable more robust correlations with geological observations and to help dating the

  3. Linking magmatism with collision in an accretionary orogen

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Wilde, Simon A.; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Wen-Jiao; Guo, Qian-Qian

    2016-01-01

    A compilation of U-Pb age, geochemical and isotopic data for granitoid plutons in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), enables evaluation of the interaction between magmatism and orogenesis in the context of Paleo-Asian oceanic closure and continental amalgamation. These constraints, in conjunction with other geological evidence, indicate that following consumption of the ocean, collision-related calc-alkaline granitoid and mafic magmatism occurred from 255 ± 2 Ma to 251 ± 2 Ma along the Solonker-Xar Moron suture zone. The linear or belt distribution of end-Permian magmatism is interpreted to have taken place in a setting of final orogenic contraction and weak crustal thickening, probably as a result of slab break-off. Crustal anatexis slightly post-dated the early phase of collision, producing adakite-like granitoids with some S-type granites during the Early-Middle Triassic (ca. 251–245 Ma). Between 235 and 220 Ma, the local tectonic regime switched from compression to extension, most likely caused by regional lithospheric extension and orogenic collapse. Collision-related magmatism from the southern CAOB is thus a prime example of the minor, yet tell-tale linking of magmatism with orogenic contraction and collision in an archipelago-type accretionary orogen. PMID:27167207

  4. Linking magmatism with collision in an accretionary orogen.

    PubMed

    Li, Shan; Chung, Sun-Lin; Wilde, Simon A; Wang, Tao; Xiao, Wen-Jiao; Guo, Qian-Qian

    2016-05-11

    A compilation of U-Pb age, geochemical and isotopic data for granitoid plutons in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), enables evaluation of the interaction between magmatism and orogenesis in the context of Paleo-Asian oceanic closure and continental amalgamation. These constraints, in conjunction with other geological evidence, indicate that following consumption of the ocean, collision-related calc-alkaline granitoid and mafic magmatism occurred from 255 ± 2 Ma to 251 ± 2 Ma along the Solonker-Xar Moron suture zone. The linear or belt distribution of end-Permian magmatism is interpreted to have taken place in a setting of final orogenic contraction and weak crustal thickening, probably as a result of slab break-off. Crustal anatexis slightly post-dated the early phase of collision, producing adakite-like granitoids with some S-type granites during the Early-Middle Triassic (ca. 251-245 Ma). Between 235 and 220 Ma, the local tectonic regime switched from compression to extension, most likely caused by regional lithospheric extension and orogenic collapse. Collision-related magmatism from the southern CAOB is thus a prime example of the minor, yet tell-tale linking of magmatism with orogenic contraction and collision in an archipelago-type accretionary orogen.

  5. Oblique contractional reactivation of inherited heterogeneities: Cause for arcuate orogens

    PubMed Central

    Sokoutis, D.; Willingshofer, E.; Brun, J.‐P.; Gueydan, F.; Cloetingh, S.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We use lithospheric‐scale analog models to study the reactivation of pre‐existing heterogeneities under oblique shortening and its relation to the origin of arcuate orogens. Reactivation of inherited rheological heterogeneities is an important mechanism for localization of deformation in compressional settings and consequent initiation of contractional structures during orogenesis. However, the presence of an inherited heterogeneity in the lithosphere is in itself not sufficient for its reactivation once the continental lithosphere is shortened. The heterogeneity orientation is important in determining if reactivation occurs and to which extent. This study aims at giving insights on this process by means of analog experiments in which a linear lithospheric heterogeneity trends with various angles to the shortening direction. In particular, the key parameter investigated is the orientation (angle α) of a strong domain (SD) with respect to the shortening direction. Experimental results show that angles α ≥ 75° (high obliquity) allow for reactivation along the entire SD and the development of a linear orogen. For α ≤ 60° (low obliquity) the models are characterized by the development of an arcuate orogen, with the SD remaining partially non‐reactivated. These results provide a new mechanism for the origin of some arcuate orogens, in which orocline formation was not driven by indentation or subduction processes, but by oblique shortening of inherited heterogeneities, as exemplified by the Ouachita orogen of the southern U.S. PMID:28670046

  6. Oblique contractional reactivation of inherited heterogeneities: Cause for arcuate orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calignano, Elisa; Sokoutis, D.; Willingshofer, E.; Brun, J.-P.; Gueydan, F.; Cloetingh, S.

    2017-03-01

    We use lithospheric-scale analog models to study the reactivation of pre-existing heterogeneities under oblique shortening and its relation to the origin of arcuate orogens. Reactivation of inherited rheological heterogeneities is an important mechanism for localization of deformation in compressional settings and consequent initiation of contractional structures during orogenesis. However, the presence of an inherited heterogeneity in the lithosphere is in itself not sufficient for its reactivation once the continental lithosphere is shortened. The heterogeneity orientation is important in determining if reactivation occurs and to which extent. This study aims at giving insights on this process by means of analog experiments in which a linear lithospheric heterogeneity trends with various angles to the shortening direction. In particular, the key parameter investigated is the orientation (angle α) of a strong domain (SD) with respect to the shortening direction. Experimental results show that angles α ≥ 75° (high obliquity) allow for reactivation along the entire SD and the development of a linear orogen. For α ≤ 60° (low obliquity) the models are characterized by the development of an arcuate orogen, with the SD remaining partially non-reactivated. These results provide a new mechanism for the origin of some arcuate orogens, in which orocline formation was not driven by indentation or subduction processes, but by oblique shortening of inherited heterogeneities, as exemplified by the Ouachita orogen of the southern U.S.

  7. Oblique contractional reactivation of inherited heterogeneities: Cause for arcuate orogens.

    PubMed

    Calignano, Elisa; Sokoutis, D; Willingshofer, E; Brun, J-P; Gueydan, F; Cloetingh, S

    2017-03-01

    We use lithospheric-scale analog models to study the reactivation of pre-existing heterogeneities under oblique shortening and its relation to the origin of arcuate orogens. Reactivation of inherited rheological heterogeneities is an important mechanism for localization of deformation in compressional settings and consequent initiation of contractional structures during orogenesis. However, the presence of an inherited heterogeneity in the lithosphere is in itself not sufficient for its reactivation once the continental lithosphere is shortened. The heterogeneity orientation is important in determining if reactivation occurs and to which extent. This study aims at giving insights on this process by means of analog experiments in which a linear lithospheric heterogeneity trends with various angles to the shortening direction. In particular, the key parameter investigated is the orientation (angle α) of a strong domain (SD) with respect to the shortening direction. Experimental results show that angles α ≥ 75° (high obliquity) allow for reactivation along the entire SD and the development of a linear orogen. For α ≤ 60° (low obliquity) the models are characterized by the development of an arcuate orogen, with the SD remaining partially non-reactivated. These results provide a new mechanism for the origin of some arcuate orogens, in which orocline formation was not driven by indentation or subduction processes, but by oblique shortening of inherited heterogeneities, as exemplified by the Ouachita orogen of the southern U.S.

  8. Rotund versus skinny orogens: Well-nourished or malnourished gold?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldfarb, R.J.; Groves, D.I.; Gardoll, S.

    2001-01-01

    Orogenic gold vein deposits require a particular conjunction of processes to form and be preserved, and their global distribution can be related to broad-scale, evolving tectonic processes throughout Earth history. A heterogeneous distribution of formation ages for these mineral deposits is marked by two major Precambrian peaks (2800-2555 Ma and 2100-1800 Ma), a singular lack of deposits for 1200 m.y. (1800-600 Ma), and relatively continuous formation since then (after 600 Ma). The older parts of the distribution relate to major episodes of continental growth, perhaps controlled by plume-influenced mantle overturn events, in the hotter early Earth (ca. 1800 Ma or earlier). This worldwide process allowed preservation of gold deposits in cratons, roughly equidimensional, large masses of buoyant continental crust. Evolution to a less episodic, more continuous, modern-style plate tectonic regime led to the accretion of volcano-sedimentary complexes as progressively younger linear orogenic belts sorrounding the margins of the more buoyant cratons. The susceptibility of these linear belts to uplift and erosion can explain the overall lack of orogenic gold deposits at 1800-600 Ma, their exposure in 600-50 Ma orogens, the increasing importance of placer deposits back through the Phanerozoic since ca. 100 Ma, and the absence of gold deposits in orogenic belts younger than ca. 50 Ma.

  9. A geophysical model of the Variscan orogenic root (Bohemian Massif): Implications for modern collisional orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Alexandra; Edel, Jean-Bernard; Schulmann, Karel; Tomek, Čestmir; Lexa, Ondrej

    2011-05-01

    surface geology are interpreted as a result of Carboniferous partial overturn of low density lower crust and high and intermediate density crust in the area of central root and by viscous extrusion of low density orogenic lower crust over the high density Bruno-Vistulian continent. Comparison of these data with geophysical profiling of the Andean and the Tibetan plateaus suggests that modern orogenic systems reveal comparable deep crustal geophysical pattern. Based on these similarities we propose that the Variscan root represents a deep crustal section of above mentioned plateaus, which may have develop by the same orogenic process.

  10. The Relation of the Grenville/Appalachian Boundary to the April 20, 2002 Au Sable Forks, New York and the April 29, 2003 Fort Payne, Alabama Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detweiler, S. T.; Mooney, W. D.

    2003-12-01

    On April 20, 2002, an M=5.1 earthquake occurred near Au Sable Forks, New York at 10:50AM UTC (6:50AM locally). The significance of this event is twofold: first, such moderate earthquakes are relatively rare in this part of the North American continent, and second, the structure of the crust is well-known here because a major seismic investigation [Musacchio et al., 1997] took place before the Au Sable Forks event. That seismic survey derived detailed information about the deep subsurface, including the Champlain thrust fault, which was possibly the causative fault for this earthquake. The Champlain fault marks the local boundary between the Grenville and the Appalachian Provinces. On April 29, 2003 another event (M=4.6) occurred along the province boundary, this time in Fort Payne, Alabama. This second event is believed to have occurred on a nearly-vertical strike-slip fault. These two earthquakes are examples of the kind of temblors that the Grenville/Appalachian boundary is capable of producing, and we explore these events as they relate to seismic zones and background seismicity.

  11. Grenville age of basement rocks in Cape May NJ well: New evidence for Laurentian crust in U.S. Atlantic Coastal Plain basement Chesapeake terrane

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sheridan, R.E.; Maguire, T.J.; Feigenson, M.D.; Patino, L.C.; Volkert, R.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Chesapeake terrane of the U.S. mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain basement is bounded on the northwest by the Salisbury positive gravity and magnetic anomaly and extends to the southeast as far as the Atlantic coast. It underlies the Coastal Plain of Virginia, Maryland, Delaware and southern New Jersey. Rubidium/Strontium dating of the Chesapeake terrane basement yields an age of 1.025 ?? 0.036 Ga. This age is typical of Grenville province rocks of the Middle to Late Proterozoic Laurentian continent. The basement lithologies are similar to some exposed Grenville-age rocks of the Appalachians. The TiO2 and Zr/P2O5 composition of the metagabbro from the Chesapeake terrane basement is overlapped by those of the Proterozoic mafic dikes in the New Jersey Highlands. These new findings support the interpretation that Laurentian basement extends southeast as far as the continental shelf in the U.S. mid-Atlantic region. The subcrop of Laurentian crust under the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain implies unroofing by erosion of the younger Carolina (Avalon) supracrustal terrane. Dextral-transpression fault duplexes may have caused excessive uplift in the Salisbury Embayment area during the Alleghanian orogeny. This extra uplift in the Salisbury area may have caused the subsequent greater subsidence of the Coastal Plain basement in the embayment.

  12. The Queensborough mafic-ultramafic complex: a fragment of a Meso-Proterozoic ophiolite? Grenville Province, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, T. E.; Harris, M. J.

    1996-11-01

    The Queensborough mafic-ultramafic complex occurs as a fault-bounded block, up to 10 km wide and having an area > 220 km 2. It lies in the Grimsthorpe Domain of the Bancroft-Elzevir-Mazinaw-Sharbot Lake Terrane in the Central Metasedimentary Belt of the Grenville Province. It has been suggested, without adequate supporting data, that the complex may represent oceanic crust, a fragment of an ophiolite, or even a metavolcanic sequence made up of basaltic and komatiitic flows. The geological and tectonic significance of the complex is assessed using field relationships, petrography and geochemistry. Structurally the lowest part of the complex comprises a series of ultramafic rocks characterized by metre-scale compositional layering, represented by several different metamorphic assemblages of talc, chlorite, carbonate, anthophyllite, and actinolite-tremolite. These assemblages indicate that the original rocks were cumulate peridotites and pyroxenites. The ultramafic rocks are overlain structurally by a series of mafic rocks, predominantly massive to highly sheared gabbros. The gabbros are penetrated by a series of mafic dykes and include a few small enclaves of pillowed mafic volcanics. Major- and trace-element chemistry shows that the mafic rocks represent a fractionally crystallized sequence of tholeiitic gabbros, lavas, and mafic dykes and that the ultramafic cumulates are co-genetic. The regional geological setting, and the trace-element signatures of the mafic rocks suggest that they were formed in a back-arc basin. Comparison of the Queensborough Complex with Proterozoic and Phanerozoic igneous complexes suggests that it represents a partially preserved crustal section of a Mesoproterozoic ophiolite. In addition, the rocks of the Queensborough Complex are petrographically and geochemically similar to those of the Vavilov Basin which occurs in the deepest part of the Tyrrhenian Sea. By analogy with this Neogene back-arc basin we suggest that the Central

  13. Late Cenozoic Climate Change and its Implications on the Denudation of Orogen Syntaxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutz, Sebastian; Ehlers, Todd

    2017-04-01

    , resulting in a shift of the wettest regional climates eastward along the orogen towards the eastern syntax. The cluster-analysis results also suggest more climatic variability across latitudes east of the Andes in the PLIO climate than in other time-slice experiments conducted here. Results from the discriminant analysis show that the quantified differences in climate and the relative contribution to these differences by each of the analyzed parameters are highly variable in space for each of the paleoclimates. Taken together, these results highlight significant changes in Late Cenozoic regional climatology over active orogens on time scales ranging from glacial cycles to geologic. As a result, future interpretation of recent and paleo denudation rates in these areas from sediment flux inventories, cosmogenic radionuclides, or low-temperature thermochronology techniques warrant careful consideration of these changes.

  14. Sr, Nd and Pb isotopes in Proterozoic intrusives astride the Grenville Front in Labrador: Implications for crustal contamination and basement mapping

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ashwal, L.D.; Wooden, J.L.; Emslie, R.F.

    1986-01-01

    We report Sr, Nd and Pb isotopic compositions of mid-Proterozoic anorthosites and related rocks (1.45-1.65 Ga) and of younger olivine diabase dikes (1.4 Ga) from two complexes on either side of the Grenville Front in Labrador. Anorthositic or diabasic samples from the Mealy Mountains (Grenville Province) and Harp Lake (Nain-Churchill Provinces) complexes have very similar major, minor and trace element compositions, but distinctly different isotopic signatures. All Mealy Mountains samples have ISr = 0.7025-0.7033, ??{lunate}Nd = +0.6 to +5.6 and Pb isotopic compositions consistent with derivation from a mantle source depleted with respect to Nd/Sm and Rb/Sr. Pb isotopic compositions for the Mealy Mountains samples are slightly more radiogenic than model mantle compositions. All Harp Lake samples have ISr = 0.7032-0.7066, ??{lunate}Nd = -0.3 to -4.4 and variable, but generally unradiogenic 207Pb 204Pb and 206Pb 204Pb compared to model mantle, suggesting mixing between a mantle-derived component and a U-depleted crustal contaminant. Crustal contaminants are probably a variety of Archean high-grade quartzofeldspathic gneisses with low U/Pb ratios and include a component that must be isotopically similar to the early Archean (>3.6 Ga) Uivak gneisses of Labrador or the Amitsoq gneisses of west Greenland. This would imply that the ancient gneiss complex of coastal Labrador and Greenland is larger than indicated by present surface exposure and may extend in the subsurface as far west as the Labrador Trough. If Harp Lake and Mealy Mountains samples were subjected to the same degree of contamination, as suggested by their chemical similarities, then the Mealy contaminants must be much younger, probably early or middle Proterozoic in age. The Labrador segment of the Grenville Front, therefore, appears to coincide with the southern margin of the Archean North Atlantic craton and may represent a pre mid-Proterozoic suture. ?? 1986.

  15. Field Vectors to Metamorphosed Ores: A Prelude to Finding Currently Concealed Volcano-Plutonic Arc Settings and Their Mineral Deposits in The Grenville Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corriveau, L.; Bonnet, A.; van Breemen, O.

    2004-05-01

    Recent mineral deposits synthesis highlights the largely barren nature of the high-grade metamorphic terrains of the Canadian Shield in terms of large mining camps. No where is the gap most startling than in the Grenville Province even though a lot of its Paleo- to Mesoproterozoic crust consists of magmatic arcs renown worldwide to host IOCG, VHMS and Porphyry Cu deposits. All these deposit types have significant alteration halos that can serve as vectors to ore. The use of such vectors forced a complete reinterpretation of the nature of the La Romaine domain in the eastern Grenville Province. Mapped in the 70's as being a metasedimentary basin with >500 km2 of meta-arkose and minor pelite, quartzite, conglomerate and marble, the domain is herein reassessed as a major 1.5 Ga Pinwarian continental magmatic arc fertile in Cu-sulphides and Fe-oxides mineralizing systems. The original markers used to prognosticate a sedimentary origin can now be demonstrated to be a series of rhyolitic to dacitic lapillistone, sericitized tuff with Al nodules and veins, Al gneiss locally with lapilli textures, garnetite, ironstones and calc-silicate rocks. The distribution, paragenesis and mode of the Al-, Fe- and Ca-rich units significantly depart from those of normal metasediments but are very diagnostic of metamorphosed hydrothermal alteration zones and meta-exhalites. Mapping alteration vectors provided clues to search for and find the volcanic rocks concealed among the composite granitic gneiss, the zones of hydrothermal leaching (e.g., sericitic, argillic and advanced argillic alterations) and discharge, the cap rocks, and the Cu mineralization. Spatial and stratigraphic relationships provided a means to compare their settings with ore deposit models. Roof pendants of Ba-rich meta-exhalite in surrounding 1.5 Ga granitic plutons and intrusion of 1495 Ma Qtz-Kfs porphyry across hydrothermally altered 1500 Ma tuffs attest to coeval hydrothermal activity and sub-volcanic plutons. The

  16. The Capricorn Orogen Passive source Array (COPA) in Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gessner, K.; Yuan, H.; Murdie, R.; Dentith, M. C.; Johnson, S.; Brett, J.

    2015-12-01

    COPA is the passive source component of a multi-method geophysical program aimed at assessing the mineral deposits potential of the Proterozoic Capricorn Orogen. Previous results from the active source surveys, receiver functions and magnetotelluric studies show reworked orogenic crust in the orogen that contrasts with more simple crust in the neighbouring Archean cratons, suggesting progressive and punctuated collisional processes during the final amalgamation of the Western Australian craton. Previous seismic studies are all based on line deployment or single station analyses; therefore it is essential to develop 3D seismic images to test whether these observations are representative for the whole orogen. With a careful design that takes advantage of previous passive source surveys, the current long-term and short-term deployments span an area of approximately 500 x 500 km. The 36-month total deployment can guarantee enough data recording for 3D structure imaging using body wave tomography, ambient noise surface wave tomography and P- and S-wave receiver function Common Conversion Point (CCP) stacking techniques. A successive instrument loan from the ANSIR national instrument pool, provided 34 broadband seismometers that have been deployed in the western half of the orogen since March 2014. We expect approximately 40-km lateral resolution near the surface for the techniques we propose, which due to low frequency nature of earthquake waves will degrade to about 100 km near the base of the cratonic lithosphere, which is expected at depths between 200 to 250 km. Preliminary results from the first half of the COPA deployment will be presented in the light of the hypotheses that 1) distinct crustal blocks can be detected continuously throughout the orogen (using ambient noise/body wave tomography); 2) distinct lithologies are present in the crust and upper mantle across the orogen (using receiver function CCP images); and 3) crustal and lithosphere deformation along

  17. The Pan African Rengali Orogen, Eastern India: Implications for Gondwanaland.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, A.; Bell, E. A.; Haridas, H.

    2016-12-01

    Paleogeographic reconstructions suggest that the Australo-Antarctic Block and Greater India were proximally located at Equatorial latitudes at 1000-900 Ma and 600-500 Ma. Researchers broadly agree that the Grenvillian-age domain in the Eastern Ghats Granulite Belt (EGGB), India and the Rayner Complex, Antarctica were parts of a coherently evolved crustal domain. The question is, when the EGGB welded with Greater India. The WNW-trending Rengali accretionary orogen is sandwiched between the >2.9 Ga Singhbhum Craton in the north and the Grenvillian-age EGGB domain in the south. We combined monazite chemical dating and ion microprobe U-Pb dating of zircon with lithologic-structural mapping and P-T reconstructions of crustal domains in and neighboring the orogen to reconstruct the timing of the orogeny (Bhattacharya et al., 2016). Metamorphic and magmatic zircon ages ranged 0.9-2.8 Ga, dominantly ca. 2.4 Ga in the anatectic gneisses and granitoids in the core of the orogen. Monazite ages in these units are similar. But in the flanking supracrustal rocks, demonstrable metamorphic monazites is Pan African in age, although the core of these monazite grains yield variable and older (0.9-2.8 Ga) ages inferred to be inherited from the accreting crustal domains. The gneisses and granitoids within the orogen are interpreted to be a septum of the Bastar Craton (in the west) caught up within the Rengali orogen that welded the EGGB with the Singhbhum Craton during the Pan African. The integration of EGGB with Greater India, therefore, coincided with the final assembly of East Gondwanaland.

  18. Neoproterozoic to Paleozoic Geological Evolution of Mongolia: Constraints on Modes of "Crustal Growth" in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macdonald, F. A.; Bold, U.; Smith, E.; Olin, P. H.; Crowley, J. L.; Schmitz, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is widely considered the largest area of Phanerozoic juvenile crustal growth on Earth. However, the timing and nature of the orogenic events in the core of the CAOB in Mongolia has remained poorly constrained due to a dearth of detailed geological and geochronological studies. To bridge this gap and test models of crustal growth, here we refine the sequencing of geological events by focusing on the formation and destruction of Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic tectonic basins. Mongolia's basins record a complete Neoproterozoic to Cambrian Wilson cycle with rifting of the Mongolian continent at ca. 700 Ma, the development of a Cryogenian to Ediacaran thermally subsiding passive margin, an arc-continent collision at ca. 520 Ma, and a continent-arc-continent collision at ca. 500 Ma. During this collisional orogeny, that is the Cambrian Altaids, crustal growth occurred largely through the obduction of ophiolites. Rifting of the southern margin occurred during the Ordovician Period, with the development of a Silurian passive margin. Oblique northwest-dipping subduction was initiated during the Devonian and resulted in a transpressional accretionary orogen. The CAOB culminated with a continent-arc-continent collision and the accretion of the North China and Tarim Blocks in the latest Permian. The Devonian to early Permian accretionary orogen is associated not only with voluminous plutonism, but also, major translational structures oblique to the margin resulting in the appearance of many accreted terranes. These data are consistent with existing coarse Hf and Nd isotopic data, but also provide a framework for future detailed studies. Although our geological constraints suggest distinct periods of apparent crustal growth through either collisional or accretionary orogenies, net crustal growth after accounting for recycling is equivocal.

  19. Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes in Proterozoic intrusives astride the Grenville Front in Labrador - Implications for crustal contamination and basement mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Wooden, J. L.; Emslie, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Trace element and Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic compositions of anorthosites and related rocks, and of younger mafic dikes from Harp Lake and Mealy Mountains in Labrador, Canada are estimated and compared. The effects of crustal component contaminants on the isotopic compositions of the dikes are investigated. The correlation between the isotopic data and the crustal contamination model is studied. It is observed that for Harp Lake the initial Sr ratios are higher and the Nd values are lower than Mealy samples, and the data do not correspond to the crustal contamination model; however, the Pb isotope data favor a crustal contamination model. It is noted that the Labrador segment of the Grenville Front appears to coincide with the southern margin of the Archean North Atlantic craton, and may represent a pre mid-Proterozoic suture.

  20. Sr, Nd, and Pb isotopes in Proterozoic intrusives astride the Grenville Front in Labrador - Implications for crustal contamination and basement mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ashwal, L. D.; Wooden, J. L.; Emslie, R. F.

    1986-01-01

    Trace element and Pb, Sr, and Nd isotopic compositions of anorthosites and related rocks, and of younger mafic dikes from Harp Lake and Mealy Mountains in Labrador, Canada are estimated and compared. The effects of crustal component contaminants on the isotopic compositions of the dikes are investigated. The correlation between the isotopic data and the crustal contamination model is studied. It is observed that for Harp Lake the initial Sr ratios are higher and the Nd values are lower than Mealy samples, and the data do not correspond to the crustal contamination model; however, the Pb isotope data favor a crustal contamination model. It is noted that the Labrador segment of the Grenville Front appears to coincide with the southern margin of the Archean North Atlantic craton, and may represent a pre mid-Proterozoic suture.

  1. European Variscan orogenic evolution as an analogue of Tibetan-Himalayan orogen: Insights from petrology and numerical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maierová, P.; Schulmann, K.; Lexa, O.; Guillot, S.; Štípská, P.; Janoušek, V.; Čadek, O.

    2016-07-01

    The European Variscan orogeny can be compared to the Tibetan-Himalayan system for three main reasons: (1) The Variscan belt originated through progressive amalgamation of Gondwanan blocks that were subsequently squeezed between the Laurussia and Gondwana continents. Similarly, the Tibetan-Himalayan orogen results from amalgamated Gondwanan blocks squeezed between Asia and India. (2) The duration of the collisional period and the scale of the two orogens are comparable. (3) In both cases the collisional process resulted in formation of a thick crustal root and long lasting high-pressure granulite facies metamorphism. Recent petrological data allow a more detailed comparison pointing to similarities also in the midcrustal re-equilibration of the granulites and their association with specific (ultra)potassic magmatic rocks. In both orogens, the origin of the granulites was attributed to relamination and thermal maturation of lower crustal allochthon below upper plate crust. Subsequent evolution was explained by midcrustal flow eventually leading to extrusion of the high-grade rocks. We propose that the lower and middle crustal processes in hot orogens are connected by gravity overturns. Such laterally forced gravity-driven exchanges of material in the orogenic root were already documented in the Variscides, but the recent data from Tibet and Himalaya show that this process may have occurred also elsewhere. Using numerical models, we demonstrate that the exchange of the lower and middle crust can be efficient even for a minor density inversion and various characteristics of the crustal layers. The modeled pressure-temperature paths are compatible with two-stage metamorphism documented in Tibet and Himalaya.

  2. Structural inversion of the Tamworth Belt: Insights into the development of orogenic curvature in the southern New England Orogen, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, G.; Robinson, J.; Glen, R.; Roberts, J.

    2016-05-01

    The middle to late Permian Hunter Bowen Event is credited with the development of orogenic curvature in the southern New England Orogen, yet contention surrounds the structural dynamics responsible for the development of this curvature. Debate is largely centred on the roles of orogen parallel strike-slip and orogen normal extension and contraction to explain the development of curvature. To evaluate the dynamic history of the Hunter Bowen Event, we present new kinematic reconstructions of the Tamworth Belt. The Tamworth Belt formed as a Carboniferous forearc basin and was subsequently inverted during the Hunter Bowen Event. Kinematic reconstructions of the Tamworth Belt are based on new maps and cross-sections built from a synthesis of best-available mapping, chronostratigraphic data and new interpretations of depth-converted seismic data. The following conclusions are made from our study: (i) the Hunter Bowen Event was dominantly driven by margin normal contraction (east-west shortening; present-day coordinates), and; (ii) variations in structural style along the strike of the Tamworth Belt can be explained by orthogonal vs. oblique inversion, which reflects the angular relationship between the principal shortening vector and continental-arc margin. Given these conclusions, we suggest that curvature around the controversial Manning Bend was influenced by the presence of primary curvature in the continental margin, and that the Hastings Block was translated along a sinistral strike-slip fault system that formed along this oblique (with respect to the regional east-west extension and convergence direction) part of the margin. Given the available temporal data, the translation of the Hastings Block took place in the Early Permian (Asselian) and therefore preceded the Hunter Bowen Event. Accordingly, we suggest that the Hunter Bowen Event was dominantly associated with enhancing curvature that was either primary in origin, or associated with fault block translation

  3. Asymmetric exhumation across the Pyrenean orogen: implications for the tectonic evolution of a collisional orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, P. G.; Muñoz, J. A.; Coney, P. J.; Baldwin, S. L.

    1999-11-01

    The Pyrenees are a collisional mountain belt formed by convergence between the Afro-Iberian and European plates. Apatite fission track thermochronology from three vertical profiles along the ECORS seismic line constrain the exhumation history of the Pyrenean orogen and hence tectonic models for its formation. In the Eocene there is relatively uniform exhumation across the Pyrenees, but significantly more exhumation occurs on the southern flank of the axial zone in the Oligocene. The variation in exhumation patterns is controlled by a change in how convergence is accommodated within the Pyrenean double-wedge. Accommodation of thrusting on relict extensional features that leads to inversion dominated thrust stacking resulted in relatively slow exhumation in the Eocene. However, subsequent crustal wedging and internal deformation in the upper crust under the stacked duplex of antiformal nappes resulted in extremely rapid exhumation on the southern flank in the Oligocene. The Maladeta profile in the southern axial zone records extremely rapid Early Oligocene exhumation followed by dramatic slowing or cessation of exhumation in the middle Oligocene and the formation of an apatite partial annealing zone (PAZ). This PAZ has subsequently been exhumed 2-3 km since the Middle Miocene, supporting the observations of Coney et al. [J. Geol. Soc. London 153 (1996) 9-16] that the southern flank of the range was buried by ≤2-3 km of syntectonic conglomerates in the Oligocene and subsequently re-excavated from Late Miocene to Recent. The present-day topographic form of the Pyrenees is largely a relict of topography that formed in the Eocene and the Oligocene. Comparison with paleoclimatic records indicates that the Eocene-Oligocene exhumation patterns are controlled by tectonic forces rather than resulting from an orographic effect due to uplift of the Pyrenees.

  4. Flow of deep crust in orogens, associated surface dynamics, and the stabilization of continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teyssier, C. P.; Whitney, D. L.; Mulch, A.; Rey, P. F.

    2013-12-01

    Mountain building throws continental crust into an unstable state; subsequent stabilization of continental crust takes various forms, but flow of low-viscosity crust is the most common. Some of this low-viscosity crust remains at depth- it is the crust we see in the deep portions of Archean and Proterozoic cratons, typically granulite-migmatite terrains that have recorded ~10 kbar pressure, 600-800°C temperature, and intense deformation dominated by subhorizontal fabrics. In some places though, this deep crust reached the surface during the orogenic cycle. This is the case in the North American Cordillera where the deep crust leaked toward the surface and formed a series of metamorphic complexes that are cored by migmatite domes. Within the domes, complex structural overprints and decompression metamorphic paths indicate large-magnitude horizontal and vertical flow of partially molten crust relative to mantling rocks. No matter how the crust reached partial melting (thermal relaxation and/or heating) during continental under-thrusting, crustal thickening, lithosphere foundering, slab break-off, or slab window, the end result is one of an orogenic crust that contains a low viscosity layer at depth. This layer is mobile and opportunistic: it flows laterally and therefore helps keep a flat Moho; it may flow from a thick plateau and thicken the foreland region (mechanism of plateau growth); it fills gaps that open in the upper crust and therefore enhances orogenic collapse by transferring material from deep to shallow levels; ultimately, flow of this layer stabilizes the crust and may bring the end of orogeny. Thermal and mechanical numerical modeling can help evaluate quantitatively the relative importance of crust thickness, geothermal gradients, and tectonic boundary conditions in the evolution of orogenic systems. In the simple case of steady extension of a layered crust, results show that upper-crust extension is dynamically linked to lower crustal flow until

  5. Taconic plate kinematics as revealed by foredeep stratigraphy, Appalachian Orogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    Destruction of the Ordovician passive margin of eastern North America is recorded by an upward deepening succession of carbonates, shales, and flysch. Shelf drowning occurred first at the northern end of the orogen in Newfoundland, then at the southern end of the orogen in Georgia, and finally in Quebec. Diachronism is attributed to oblique collision between an irregular passive margin, that had a deep embayment in Quebec, and at least one east dipping subduction complex. The rate of plate convergence during collision is estimated at 1 to 2 cm/yr, and the minimum width of the ocean that closed is estimated at 500 to 900 km. The drowning isochron map provides a new basis for estimating tectonic transport distances of four of these allochthons (about 165 to 450 km), results not readily obtained by conventional structural analysis. -Author

  6. Jurassic sedimentary basins in the Central Asian orogenic belt

    SciTech Connect

    Bebeshev, I.I.

    1995-05-01

    The principal stages of development of Jurassic sedimentary basins (from their origin to the end of their existence) in the Central Asian orogenic belt are considered. The interrelations of the basins with the surrounding paleorises are investigated. Paleogeographic maps are compiled representing the evolution of paleolandscapes and revealing their interrelations in space and time for each stage. Areas with the highest prospects for coal are found.

  7. The eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: formation and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bei; Xu, Wenliang

    2017-08-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) extends from the northern Eurasian continent in the west via Mongolia, Inner Mongolia and northeast part of China to the Russia Far East in the east. It is characterized by complex trench-arc-basin subduction system, exotic terrane (microcontinents) accretion, massive generation of juvenile crust during the Neoproterozoic-Phanerozoic (e.g., Jahn et al., 2000, 2004; Sengör et al., 1993). A lot of papers about formation and evolution of the CAOB have been published and new field observations and geochemical data for key areas of the CAOB challenge to previous assessments. Several areas previously defined as juvenile are now shown to have mixed crustal compositions. For example, Kröner et al. (2014, in press) estimated that the distribution of various crustal provinces is truly juvenile crustal material ca. 20%, mixed crust ca. 30%, old crust ca. 50%,respectively, in the CAOB, similar to those in other accretionary orogens through Earth history. A two-stage model for the evolution of the CAOB has been suggested based on recent data from the Eastern Tianshan and Beishan (Gao et al., 2011; Su et al., 2011; Chen et al., 2016; Wang et al., 2017), which suggests the process of the formation and evolution of the CAOB includes closure of the Paleo Asian ocean (PAO), formation of orogenic belt before the late Paleozoic and crustal extension and magmatism resulted from plume upon the young orogenic belt after the late Paleozoic. This new model changes previous concept that the CAOB developed through the Paleozoic and is supported by recent researches on the eastern CAOB.

  8. Paleozoic tectonics of the Ouachita Orogen through Nd isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Gleason, J.D.; Patchett, P.J.; Dickinson, W.R.; Ruiz, J. . Dept. of Geosciences)

    1992-01-01

    A combined isotopic and trace-element study of the Late Paleozoic Ouachita Orogenic belt has the following goals: (1) define changing provenance of Ouachita sedimentary systems throughout the Paleozoic; (2) constrain sources feeding into the Ouachita flysch trough during the Late Paleozoic; (3) isolate the geochemical signature of proposed colliding terranes to the south; (4) build a data base to compare with possible Ouachita System equivalents in Mexico. The ultimate aim is to constrain the tectonic setting of the southern margin of North America during the Paleozoic, with particular emphasis on collisional events leading to the final suturing of Pangea. Nd isotopic data identify 3 distinct groups: (1) Ordovician passive margin sequence; (2) Carboniferous proto-flysch (Stanley Fm.), main flysch (Jackfork and Atoka Fms.) and molasse (foreland Atoka Fm.); (3) Mississippian ash-flow tuffs. The authors interpret the Ordovician signature to be essentially all craton-derived, whereas the Carboniferous signature reflects mixed sources from the craton plus orogenic sources to the east and possibly the south, including the evolving Appalachian Orogen. The proposed southern source is revealed by the tuffs to be too old and evolved to be a juvenile island arc terrane. They interpret the tuffs to have been erupted in a continental margin arc-type setting. Surprisingly, the foreland molasse sequence is indistinguishable from the main trough flysch sequence, suggesting the Ouachita trough and the craton were both inundated with sediment of a single homogenized isotopic signature during the Late Carboniferous. The possibility that Carboniferous-type sedimentary dispersal patterns began as early as the Silurian has important implications for the tectonics and paleogeography of the evolving Appalachian-Ouachita Orogenic System.

  9. Orogenic gold and geologic time: A global synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldfarb, R.J.; Groves, D.I.; Gardoll, S.

    2001-01-01

    Orogenic gold deposits have formed over more than 3 billion years of Earth's history, episodically during the Middle Archean to younger Precambrian, and continuously throughout the Phanerozoic. This class of gold deposit is characteristically associated with deformed and metamorphosed mid-crustal blocks, particularly in spatial association with major crustal structures. A consistent spatial and temporal association with granitoids of a variety of compositions indicates that melts and fluids were both inherent products of thermal events during orogenesis. Including placer accumulations, which are commonly intimately associated with this mineral deposit type, recognized production and resources from economic Phanerozoic orogenic-gold deposits are estimated at just over one billion ounces gold. Exclusive of the still-controversial Witwatersrand ores, known Precambrian gold concentrations are about half this amount. The recent increased applicability of global paleo-reconstructions, coupled with improved geochronology from most of the world's major gold camps, allows for an improved understanding of the distribution pattern of orogenic gold in space and time.

  10. Influence of structural setting on sulphur isotopes in Archean orogenic gold deposits, Eastern Goldfields Province, Yilgarn, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodkiewicz, P. F.; Groves, D. I.; Davidson, G. J.; Weinberg, R. F.; Hagemann, S. G.

    2009-02-01

    The published mean δ34S values of ore-related pyrites from orogenic gold deposits of the Eastern Goldfields Province, Yilgarn Craton lie between -4‰ and +4‰. As for orogenic gold deposits worldwide, most deposits have positive means and a restricted range of δ34S values, but some have negative means and wider ranges of δ34S values. Wall-rock carbonation and back-mixing of similar-source fluids with different fluid pathways can explain some of the more negative δ34S signatures. However, structural setting appears to be the most important factor controlling ore-fluid oxidation state and hence the distribution of δ34S values in gold-related pyrites. Shear-hosted deposits appear to have experienced fluid-dominated processes such as phase separation, whereas stockwork, vein-hosted or disseminated deposits formed under conditions of greater rock buffering. At Victory-Defiance, in particular, negative δ34S values are more common in gently dipping dilational structures, compared to more compressional steeply dipping structures. It appears most likely that fluid-pressure fluctuations during fault-valve cycles establish different fluid-flow regimes in structures with different orientations. Rapid fluid-pressure fluctuations in dilational structures during seismic activity can cause partitioning of reduced gas phases from the ore fluid during extreme phase separation and hence are an effective method of ore-fluid oxidation, leading to large, local fluctuations in oxidation state. It is thus not necessary to invoke mixing with oxidised magmatic fluids to explain δ34S signatures indicative of oxidation. In any case, available, robust geochronology in the Eastern Goldfields Province does not support the direct involvement of oxidised magmatic fluids from adjacent granitic intrusions in orogenic gold genesis. Thus, negative mean δ34S values and large variations in δ34S values of ore-related pyrites in world-class orogenic gold deposits are interpreted to result from

  11. Deformation during terrane accretion in the Saint Elias orogen, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bruhn, R.L.; Pavlis, T.L.; Plafker, G.; Serpa, L.

    2004-01-01

    The Saint Elias orogen of southern Alaska and adjacent Canada is a complex belt of mountains formed by collision and accretion of the Yakutat terrane into the transition zone from transform faulting to subduction in the northeast Pacific. The orogen is an active analog for tectonic processes that formed much of the North American Cordillera, and is also an important site to study (1) the relationships between climate and tectonics, and (2) structures that generate large- to great-magnitude earthquakes. The Yakutat terrane is a fragment of the North American plate margin that is partly subducted beneath and partly accreted to the continental margin of southern Alaska. Interaction between the Yakutat terrane and the North American and Pacific plates causes significant differences in the style of deformation within the terrane. Deformation in the eastern part of the terrane is caused by strike-slip faulting along the Fairweather transform fault and by reverse faulting beneath the coastal mountains, but there is little deformation immediately offshore. The central part of the orogen is marked by thrusting of the Yakutat terrane beneath the North American plate along the Chugach-Saint Elias fault and development of a wide, thin-skinned fold-and-thrust belt. Strike-slip faulting in this segment may he localized in the hanging wall of the Chugach-Saint Elias fault, or dissipated by thrust faulting beneath a north-northeast-trending belt of active deformation that cuts obliquely across the eastern end of the fold-and-thrust belt. Superimposed folds with complex shapes and plunging hinge lines accommodate horizontal shortening and extension in the western part of the orogen, where the sedimentary cover of the Yakutat terrane is accreted into the upper plate of the Aleutian subduction zone. These three structural segments are separated by transverse tectonic boundaries that cut across the Yakutat terrane and also coincide with the courses of piedmont glaciers that flow from

  12. Orogenic structural inheritance and rifted passive margin formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar Mora, Claudio A.; Huismans, Ritske S.

    2016-04-01

    Structural inheritance is related to mechanical weaknesses in the lithosphere due to previous tectonic events, e.g. rifting, subduction and collision. The North and South Atlantic rifted passive margins that formed during the breakup of Western Gondwana, are parallel to the older Caledonide and the Brasiliano-Pan-African orogenic belts. In the South Atlantic, 'old' mantle lithospheric fabric resulting from crystallographic preferred orientation of olivine is suggested to play a role during rifted margin formation (Tommasi and Vauchez, 2001). Magnetometric and gravimetric mapping of onshore structures in the Camamu and Almada basins suggest that extensional faults are controlled by two different directions of inherited older Brasiliano structures in the upper lithosphere (Ferreira et al., 2009). In the South Atlantic Campos Basin, 3D seismic data indicate that inherited basement structures provide a first order control on basin structure (Fetter, 2009). Here we investigate the role of structural inheritance on the formation of rifted passive margins with high-resolution 2D thermo-mechanical numerical experiments. The numerical domain is 1200 km long and 600 km deep and represents the lithosphere and the sublithospheric mantle. Model experiments were carried out by creating self-consistent orogenic inheritance where a first phase of orogen formation is followed by extension. We focus in particular on the role of varying amount of orogenic shortening, crustal rheology, contrasting styles of orogen formation on rifted margin style, and the time delay between orogeny and subsequent rifted passive formation. Model results are compared to contrasting structural styles of rifted passive margin formation as observed in the South Atlantic. Ferreira, T.S., Caixeta, J.M., Lima, F.D., 2009. Basement control in Camamu and Almada rift basins. Boletim de Geociências da Petrobrás 17, 69-88. Fetter, M., 2009. The role of basement tectonic reactivation on the structural evolution

  13. Sand fairway mapping as a tool for tectonic restoration in orogenic belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Rob

    2016-04-01

    geomorphology. The stratigraphic records are preserved in many parts of the Alpine-Mediterranean region. Examples are drawn from the Eo-Oligocene of the western Alps and the early Miocene of the Maghreb-Apennine system to illustrate how turbidite sedimentology, linked to studies of basin structure, can inform understanding of tectonic processes on regional and local scales. In both examples, sediment was delivered across deforming basin arrays containing contractional structures, sourced from beyond the immediate orogenic segments. The depositional systems show that multiple structures were active in parallel, rather than develop in any particular sequence. Both systems show that significant deformation occurs, emerging to the syn-orogenic surface ahead of the main orogenic wedge. The cycling of uplift and subsidence of "massifs" can be significantly more complex that the histories resolved from thermochronological data alone.

  14. Fault behavior in convergent analogue sand wedges and its implications on the evolution of orogenic belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santimano, Tasca; Rosenau, Matthias; Oncken, Onno

    2013-04-01

    contributing to growth in height when reactivated. The magnitude of displacement in the vertical and horizontal component, of a reactivated fault is controlled by the critical taper. Specifically, for weak wedges the rate of displacement over time is constant in the vertical component but increases in the horizontal component. In addition, fault reactivation is not a continuous event but occurs episodically with increased frequency towards the end of an accretion cycle. These preliminary observations in the sand box experiments may shed light on the deformation in fault networks or the evolutionary stage of a natural orogenic belt. References Davis, D., Suppe, J., Dahlen, F.A., 1983: Mechanics of Fold-and-Thrust Belts and Accretionary Wedges. Journal of Geophysical Research 88, 1153-1172.

  15. Exhumation at orogenic indentor corners under long-term glacial conditions: Example of the St. Elias orogen, Southern Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spotila, James A.; Berger, Aaron L.

    2010-07-01

    Syntaxial bends in convergent plate boundaries, or indentor corners, display some of the most intriguing deformation patterns on Earth and are type localities for "aneurysms" of coupled erosion, thermal weakening, and strain. The St. Elias orogen in Alaska is a small, young convergent system that has been dominated by a glacial climate for much of its history and exhibits two prominent indentor corners that are not well understood. We have added 40 new apatite (U-Th)/He ages to the already extensive dataset for the low-temperature cooling history of this orogen to constrain the pattern of exhumation in these indentor corners. Ages from the western syntaxis show minor variation across the structural hinge, suggesting that the bend has little effect on the pattern of exhumation and that structures, including the Bagley fault, connect smoothly from the orogen core to the subduction zone to the southwest. Rock uplift on the north flank of the range appears to increase steadily towards the eastern syntaxis, which represents the apex in the right-angle bend between a transform fault in the south and the collision zone in the west. Based on age-elevation relationships, zones of relative rock uplift can be defined in which the Mt. Logan massif, or the area just north of the eastern syntaxis, experienced ˜ 4.8 km greater rock uplift than background levels northwest of the western syntaxis. A bulge in relative rock uplift is symmetric about the hinge in the eastern indentor corner. However, rates of denudation in this bulge are not as rapid as the core of the fold and thrust belt and are lower than those implied by detrital cooling ages from beneath the Seward Glacier. This implies that a large bull's eye of ultra-rapid (˜ 5 mm/yr) exhumation does not occur and that the subpopulation of young detrital ages may be sourced from a narrow transpressional zone along the Fairweather fault. Unlike the Himalayan syntaxes, it thus appears that an aneurysm of coupled erosion

  16. Thermo-kinematic evolution of the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri Himalaya, central Nepal: The Composite Orogenic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, A. J.; Law, R. D.; Lloyd, G. E.; Phillips, R. J.; Searle, M. P.

    2016-04-01

    The Himalayan orogen represents a "Composite Orogenic System" in which channel flow, wedge extrusion, and thrust stacking operate in separate "Orogenic Domains" with distinct rheologies and crustal positions. We analyze 104 samples from the metamorphic core (Greater Himalayan Sequence, GHS) and bounding units of the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri Himalaya, central Nepal. Optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses provide a record of deformation microstructures and an indication of active crystal slip systems, strain geometries, and deformation temperatures. These data, combined with existing thermobarometry and geochronology data are used to construct detailed deformation temperature profiles for the GHS. The profiles define a three-stage thermokinematic evolution from midcrustal channel flow (Stage 1, >700°C to 550-650°C), to rigid wedge extrusion (Stage 2, 400-600°C) and duplexing (Stage 3, <280-400°C). These tectonic processes are not mutually exclusive, but are confined to separate rheologically distinct Orogenic Domains that form the modular components of a Composite Orogenic System. These Orogenic Domains may be active at the same time at different depths/positions within the orogen. The thermokinematic evolution of the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri Himalaya describes the migration of the GHS through these Orogenic Domains and reflects the spatial and temporal variability in rheological boundary conditions that govern orogenic systems.

  17. Isolating active orogenic wedge deformation in the southern Subandes of Bolivia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss, Jonathan R.; Brooks, Benjamin A.; Foster, James H.; Bevis, Michael; Echalar, Arturo; Caccamise, Dana; Heck, Jacob; Kendrick, Eric; Ahlgren, Kevin; Raleigh, David; Smalley, Robert; Vergani, Gustavo

    2016-08-01

    A new GPS-derived surface velocity field for the central Andean backarc permits an assessment of orogenic wedge deformation across the southern Subandes of Bolivia, where recent studies suggest that great earthquakes (>Mw 8) are possible. We find that the backarc is not isolated from the main plate boundary seismic cycle. Rather, signals from subduction zone earthquakes contaminate the velocity field at distances greater than 800 km from the Chile trench. Two new wedge-crossing velocity profiles, corrected for seasonal and earthquake affects, reveal distinct regions that reflect (1) locking of the main plate boundary across the high Andes, (2) the location of and loading rate at the back of orogenic wedge, and (3) an east flank velocity gradient indicative of décollement locking beneath the Subandes. Modeling of the Subandean portions of the profiles indicates along-strike variations in the décollement locked width (WL) and wedge loading rate; the northern wedge décollement has a WL of ~100 km while accumulating slip at a rate of ~14 mm/yr, whereas the southern wedge has a WL of ~61 km and a slip rate of ~7 mm/yr. When compared to Quaternary estimates of geologic shortening and evidence for Holocene internal wedge deformation, the new GPS-derived wedge loading rates may indicate that the southern wedge is experiencing a phase of thickening via reactivation of preexisting internal structures. In contrast, we suspect that the northern wedge is undergoing an accretion or widening phase primarily via slip on relatively young thrust-front faults.

  18. Late-orogenic, post-orogenic, and anorogenic granites: Distinction by major-element and trace-element chemistry and possible origins

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, J.J.W.; Greenberg, J.K. )

    1990-05-01

    Granites classified into four categories based solely on tectonics of occurrence and associated rock types also have compositional characteristics that are consistent within groups and different among groups. Orogenically related granites include late-orogenic varieties (LO) associated with calc-alkaline batholiths, and post-orogenic varieties (PO), which occur in broad zones of isolated diapiric plutons in recently deformed orogenic belts. Inclined REE patterns, moderate Sr contents, and K{sub 2}O-SiO{sub 2} relationships show that late-orogenic granites formed by fractionation of plagioclase, clinopyroxene, and amphibole from calcalkaline magmas. Flatter REE patterns and K{sub 2}O contents near 5%, plus the absence of associated magmatic rocks, indicate that the post-orogenic granites developed by partial melting of subduction-produced mafic/intermediate magmatic rocks. Both the late- and post-orogenic granites can be part of material newly added to continental crust as a result of orogeny. Anorogenic granites in anorthosite/rapakivi complexes (AR) or alkaline ring complexes (RC) have LIL contents too high to have been equilibrated with a mafic mineral assemblage. These anorogenic rocks probably formed by partial melting of preexisting sialic crust and do not represent new crustal increment.

  19. Formation of orogenic wedges and tectonic nappes during continental collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmalholz, Stefan Markus

    2017-04-01

    The concept of an orogenic wedge has been applied to explain the tectonic evolution of many orogens worldwide. Orogenic wedges are characterized by (1) a first-order shear zone which underthrusts the mantle lithosphere and lower crust beneath the adjacent mantle lithosphere and (2) a sequence of second-order shear zones which form tectonic nappes mainly in the upper crust. Shear zone and tectonic nappe formation in a deforming lithosphere is, however, incompletely understood. We perform two dimensional thermo-mechanical numerical simulations of lithospheric shortening to study shear zone and tectonic nappe formation, and associated nappe stacking and orogenic wedge formation. The only initial perturbation in the model lithosphere is a different temperature at the left (1300 °C) and right (1400 °C) half of the model bottom. The simulations show the self-consistent and spontaneous formation of first- and second-order shear zones which result from a conversion of mechanical work into heat and the associated thermal softening due to temperature-dependent viscosity. The shear zone thickness is physics-controlled, hence mesh-insensitive, and numerically resolved in the simulations. The numerically calculated differential stress (30 - 260 MPa), temperature (280 - 380 °C) and strain rate (10-13 s-1) inside ductile crustal shear zones agree with corresponding estimates for natural shear zones. This agreement between modelled differential stress, temperature and strain rate with corresponding natural estimates supports previous results which indicate that thermal softening is a controlling softening mechanism for natural shear zone formation. Temperature increase inside crustal shear zones is ca. 100 °C. The tectonic overpressure inside upper crustal shear zones is up to 250 MPa and can be twice the value of the corresponding deviatoric stress. Lateral spacing of upper crustal shear zones is controlled by the depth of the upper/lower crust boundary which acts as

  20. Early Proterozoic transcontinental orogenic belts in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Van Schmus, W.R. . Dept. of Geology); Bickford, M.E. . Dept. of Geology); Condie, K.C. . Dept. Geoscience)

    1993-02-01

    It has been recognized for many years that Early Proterozoic orogenic rocks in the western US range from 1.8 to 1.6 Ga, with a general distribution such that 1.8 to 1.7 Ga rocks underlie Colorado, northern Arizona, and northern New Mexico and 1.7 to 1.6 Ga rocks underlie southern Arizona and southern New Mexico. Recent U-Pb geochronologic and Sm-Nd isotopic studies by a variety of research groups have refined crustal history in the western region and have extended knowledge eastward into the buried midcontinent basement. As a result, the authors propose that 1.8 Ga to 1.6 Ga crust of the US by divided into two distinct, but overlapping, orogenic belts: a 1.8 to 1.7 Ga Inner Accretionary Belt and a 1.7 to 1.6 Ga Outer Tectonic Belt. The Inner Accretionary Belt (IAB) comprises rock suites with compositions and isotopic signatures compatible with origin as juvenile crustal terranes formed as oceanic or off-shore and related terranes that were accreted to southern Laurentia between 1.8 and 1.6 Ga. The IAB includes the Yavapai Province of Arizona, Early Proterozoic basement of Colorado and southern Wyoming, and the basement of Nebraska. The Mojave Province of California may be part of this belt, although it also includes components derived from older Proterozoic or Archean crust. Extension of the IAB eastward from Nebraska is uncertain at present, although coeval rocks that may be eastern manifestations of this 1.8 to 1.7 Ga orogenesis occur in Wisconsin (1.76 Ga granite-rhyolite suite), Ontario (Killarney granite), Labrador (Makkovic Province) and southern Greenland (Ketilidian orogen). The Outer Tectonic Belt (OTB) comprises rock suites which have compositions, structures, and isotopic signature compatible with origin in continental margin tectonic settings between 1.7 and 1.6 Ga.

  1. The appalachian-Ouachita orogen in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Hatcher, R.D. Jr.; Thomas, W.A.; Viele, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents information from more than 1,000 sources in academia, state and federal agencies, and industry on the geology and geophysics of the crustal plates in the Appalachian and Ouachita mountains of the U.S. Discusses the tectonics, magnetic and gravity anomaly patterns, regional stress fields, thermal aspects, seismicity, and neotectonics of the area. Other topics include energy resources of the Appalachian orogen; stratigraphy, sedimentology, and depositional setting of reorogenic rocks; and mineral deposits and resources of the Ouachita Mountains. Includes separate maps and charts.

  2. Regional and local controls on mineralization and pluton emplacement in the Bondy gneiss complex, Grenville Province, Canada interpreted from aeromagnetic and gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufréchou, G.; Harris, L. B.; Corriveau, L.; Antonoff, V.

    2015-05-01

    The Bondy gneiss complex in the Grenville Province of Southwest Quebec hosts a mineralized iron oxide- and copper-rich hydrothermal system. The northern part of the complex overlies the lithospheric-scale Mont-Laurier lineament and is cut by the regional Mont-Laurier South shear zone interpreted from Bouguer gravity. A sinistral 6 km wide strike-slip corridor defined by several second-order shears (the Mont-Laurier South shear zone) in the complex was identified from geophysical data, including a new high-resolution airborne magnetic survey, and field observations. The spatial association of a metamorphosed alteration system, several pre- to post-metamorphic mineralized zones and mafic intrusions within the Mont-Laurier South shear zone suggests that (i) underlying basement structures controlled hydrothermal fluid migration during the formation of epithermal-IOCG mineralization and associated alteration system before ca. 1.2 Ga high-grade metamorphism and penetrative ductile deformation in the complex; (ii) post-metamorphic reactivation allowed magma ascent and pluton emplacement in the complex and adjacent supracrustal rocks within dilatational sites; and (iii) brittle-ductile shears that postdate high-grade metamorphism provided channel ways for fluid migration associated with magnetite-related mineralization. Although the complex does not host an economic mineral deposit, the role between structures at different levels and the combination of gravity and aeromagnetics at different scales provides an example of an approach for mineral exploration in similar high grade gneiss terrains.

  3. Field evidence of hydraulic connections between bedrock aquifers and overlying granular aquifers: examples from the Grenville Province of the Canadian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Sandra K.; Chesnaux, Romain; Rouleau, Alain; Morin, Roger; Walter, Julien; Rafini, Silvain

    2014-12-01

    Field evidence of hydraulic connections between a bedrock aquifer and an overlying granular aquifer in the Canadian Shield (Grenville Province) is presented. This issue is rarely considered and investigated despite its important hydraulic and chemical consequences and its widespread occurrence worldwide. The methodology employed is based on complementary field tests conducted at specific experimental sites instrumented both in the rock and in the overlying deposits. One of the bedrock sites revealed a natural hydraulic connection with the overlying granular aquifer caused by the weathered surface of the uppermost bedrock. Another site revealed an artificial hydraulic connection between the bedrock and the granular aquifer created by an improperly sealed casing. A regional study showed that hydraulic connections yield an erroneous interpretation of the true hydraulic properties of the tested aquifer. The detection of hydraulic connections is therefore essential to properly define well-capture areas and contamination conditions. It is recommended to practitioners that pumping tests be performed as well as hydrochemical comparisons of each existing aquifer unit. Falling-head permeability tests are also helpful in verifying the quality of the seal at the bedrock-casing contact. More effective procedural controls and better well-construction practices are necessary to reduce the risks of cross-contamination induced by defective seals.

  4. A Paleozoic Japan-type subduction-accretion system in the Beishan orogenic collage, southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Dongfang; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Han, Chunming; Tian, Zhonghua

    2015-05-01

    Magmatic arcs ascribed to oceanic lithosphere subduction played a dominant role in the construction of the accretionary Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The Beishan orogenic collage, situated between the Tianshan Orogen to the west and the Inner Mongolia Orogen to the east, is a key area to understanding the subduction and accretionary processes of the southern CAOB. However, the nature of magmatic arcs in the Beishan and the correlation among different tectonic units along the southern CAOB are highly ambiguous. In order to investigate the subduction-accretion history of the Beishan and put a better spatial and temporal relationship among the tectonic belts along the southern CAOB, we carried out detailed field-based structural geology and LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb geochronological as well as geochemical studies along four cross-sections across crucial litho-tectonic units in the central segment of the Beishan, mainly focusing on the metamorphic assemblages and associated plutons and volcanic rocks. The results show that both the plutonic and volcanic rocks have geochemical characteristics similar to those of subduction-related rocks, which favors a volcanic arc setting. Zircons from all the plutonic rocks yield Phanerozoic ages and the plutons have crystallization ages ranging from 464 ± 2 Ma to 398 ± 3 Ma. Two volcanic-sedimentary rocks yield zircons with a wide age range from Phanerozoic to Precambrian with the youngest age peaks at 441 Ma and 446 Ma, estimated to be the time of formation of the volcanic rocks. These new results, combined with published data on ophiolitic mélanges from the central segment of the Beishan, favor a Japan-type subduction-accretion system in the Cambrian to Carboniferous in this part of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. The Xichangjing-Niujuanzi ophiolite probably represents a major suture zone separating different tectonic units across the Beishan orogenic collage, while the Xiaohuangshan-Jijitaizi ophiolitic mélange may represent a

  5. Late Paleozoic metallogenesis and evolution of the East Tianshan Orogenic Belt (NW China, Central Asia Orogenic Belt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Chunming; Xiao, Wenjiao; Zhao, Guochun; Su, Benxun; Sakyi, Patrick Asamoah; Ao, Songjian; Wan, Bo; Zhang, Jien; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2014-11-01

    One of the most largest known and important metallogenic provinces in China is East Tianshan, where seven major types of Late Paleozoic metal deposits have been recognized: (1) porphyry-type Cu-Mo-(Au) ore deposits, (2) volcanic Fe-Cu deposits, (3) orogenic lode gold deposits, (4) magmatic Cu-Ni sulfide deposits, (5) epithermal gold deposits, (6) volcanic hydrothermal Cu deposits, and (7) skarn Cu-Ag deposits. Tectonically, the development of these Late Paleozoic metal mineral deposits was closely associated with the subduction and closure of the ancient Tianshan ocean intervening between the Tarim craton and the Junggar-Kazakhstan block. In the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous, the northern margin of the Tarim craton existed as a passive-type continental margin, whereas the ancient Tianshan ocean was subducted beneath the southern margin of the Junggar-Kazakhstan block, resulting in the formation of the Dananhu-Tousuquan magmatic arc and associated porphyry-type Cu-Mo-(Au) deposits. In the Middle Carboniferous, the ancient Tianshan ocean began to subduct beneath the northern margin of the Tarim craton, leading to the formation of the Aqishan-Yamansu magmatic arc and associated volcanic Fe-Cu deposits. In the Late Carboniferous, the ancient Tianshan ocean was closed, and a continent-arc collision occurred, leading to the formation of the Tianshan orogen. Following the collision was an extensional event, which was associated with the emplacement of large amounts of ultramafic-mafic complexes and the formation of a number of large- to medium-scale magmatic copper-nickel ore deposits along the Kangger suture zone. In the Early Permian, East Tianshan entered into a post-collision stage, associated with the widespread emplacement of granitoid bodies and eruption of within-plate volcanism, which led to the formation of volcanic hydrothermal copper deposits, skarn-type Cu-Ag deposits, post-orogenic gold deposits, and epithermal gold deposits in East Tianshan.

  6. Plume-orogenic lithosphere interaction recorded in the Haladala layered intrusion in the Southwest Tianshan Orogen, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Peng-Li; Huang, Xiao-Long; Xu, Yi-Gang; Li, Hong-Yan; Wang, Xue; Li, Wu-Xian

    2016-03-01

    The plume-orogenic lithosphere interaction may be common and important for the generation of large igneous provinces. The information regarding such a process is recorded by the Haladala gabbroic intrusion (~300 Ma), the largest layered ultramafic-mafic intrusion hosting V-Ti magnetite deposits in the Southwest Tianshan Orogen, NW China. The Haladala gabbros exhibit unfractionated chondrite-normalized rare earth element patterns with negative Nb and Ta anomalies and positive Pb anomaly on the primitive mantle-normalized multielement variation diagram. They are characterized by low initial Sr isotopes, slightly decoupled but high positive bulk rock ɛNd(t) and ɛHf(t), and high 207Pb/204Pb and 208Pb/204Pb relative to 206Pb/204Pb, delineating a DUPAL signature in the sources. The Haladala gabbros cannot be arc or postcollisional magmatism, given the lack of hydrous minerals and low K contents, respectively. This is further supported by the relatively low oxygen fugacity required for the gradual enrichment of V-Ti magnetite during the magma fractionation and by an overall anhydrous mantle source suggested by troctolite mineral assemblage (olivine + plagioclase). The emplacement age of the Haladala gabbros is identical to that of the Wajilitag kimberlites in the Tarim's interior, which have been interpreted as the first magmatic expression of the Tarim mantle plume. We thus propose that the Haladala gabbroic intrusion was generated in a hybrid geodynamic setting in which the Southwest Tianshan Orogen was impacted by an upwelling mantle plume. In this sense, the Haladala layered gabbroic intrusion records the early phase of magmatism of the Tarim plume, which was preferentially emplaced in a lithospheric weak zone.

  7. Orogen-scale L tectonite domain in the Tongbai orogenic belt, central China: Geological setting and origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huan; Lin, Shoufa; Song, Chuanzhong

    2017-01-01

    L tectonite is well developed and widely distributed in the Tongbai orogenic belt in central China. The orogenic belt as a whole has an antiformal geometry and the hinge of the antiform is subhorizontal and trends NW-SE. The L tectonite occurs in the core of the antiform, in a zone that is 10-30 km wide and over 100 km long. Lineations in the L tectonite are sub-horizontal, parallel to the hinge of the antiform. Sheath folds are also well developed associated with the L tectonite, with the hinges parallel to the lineations. Migmatite occurs in the core and structurally below the L tectonite and has a gradational relationship with the L tectonite. The domain of L tectonite is bounded by three ductile shear zones, on the north, at the top and on the south, respectively. Well-developed shear sense indicators indicate that the southern, the overlying and the northern shear zones have a dextral, top-to-NW and sinistral sense of shear, respectively. These geometrical and kinematic data indicate that the three shear zones are likely part of a single shear zone that wraps around the L-tectonite domain. The L-tectonite zone in the core moves southeast relative to the hanging wall. The development of the tectonite is interpreted to be a result of this special geometry and kinematics and reflects a post-collisional orogen-parallel extension synchronous with migmatization and the continuing convergence between the Yangtze Block and the North China Block in the Early Cretaceous.

  8. Post-orogenic thermal evolution of newborn Archean continents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaupart, C.; Mareschal, J.-C.

    2015-12-01

    The post-orogenic thermal evolution of newborn cratons in the Archean is marked by high-temperature metamorphism and plutonic activity that lag accretion by several tens of million years. The source of the heat that is required remains controversial. Here, we show that such late activity is consistent with the thermal evolution of new continental crust that adjusts to heat released by radioactive decay. Quantitative results depend on the total amount of radioactive elements in the newborn crust. Using heat flow and heat production data from the Archean Superior Province of the Canadian Shield, we show that temperatures ≈800-900 °C were reached in the lower crust a few tens of million years after the final accretion event. The timing of post-orogenic metamorphism is sensitive to the thermal structure acquired at the end of accretion. For the Superior Province, the relatively short time-lag between the end of accretion and metamorphism suggests that the lithosphere was thin or had been heated up by sustained magma percolation.

  9. Continuation of the New England Orogen, Australia, beneath the Queensland Plateau and Lord Howe rise

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mortimer, N.; Hauff, F.; Calvert, A.T.

    2008-01-01

    Greywacke, argillite, greyschist and hypabyssal igneous rocks have been obtained from an Ocean Drilling Program core on the Queensland Plateau and from xenoliths in a volcanic breccia dredged from the crest of the Lord Howe Rise. Low to intermediate detrital quartz contents, 260-240 Ma K-Ar ages, and only moderately radiogenic Sr and Nd isotope compositions, suggest a correlation with the New England Orogen of eastern Australia, rather than with Australia's Lachlan Orogen or other adjacent geological provinces. Our results indicate that the New England Orogen terranes continue towards New Zealand at least as far as the southern Lord Howe Rise. The projected offshore boundaries of the major east Australian orogens are now known with more confidence, and do not appear to require any major cross-orogen offsets.

  10. The Andes as a peripheral orogen of the breaking-up Pangea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomize, M. G.

    2008-05-01

    Formation conditions of the peripheral orogen are expressed most fully in the Central Andes, a mountain system almost not yielding in height to the Himalayan-Tibetan system but formed at the margin of ocean without any relations to intercontinental collision. The marine transgression and rejuvenation of subduction in the Early Jurassic during the origination of foldbelt at the margin of Pangea marked the transition to a new supercontinental cycle, and the overall further evolution began and continues now in the frame of the first half of this cycle. The marginal position of this belt above the subduction zone, the rate and orientation of convergence of the lithospheric plates, the age of “absolute” movement of the continental plate, variation in slab velocity, and subduction of heterogeneities of the oceanic crust were the crucial factors that controlled the evolution of the marginal foldbelt. At the stage of initial subsidence (Jurassic-Mid-Cretaceous), during extension of the crust having a moderate thickness (30-35 km), the Andean continental margin comprises the full structural elements of an ensialic island arc that resembled the present-day Sunda system. These conditions changed with the separation and onset of the western drift of the South American continent. Being anchored in the mantle and relatively young, the slab of the Andean subduction zone served as a stop that brought about compression that controlled the subsequent evolution. Due to the contribution of deep magma sources along with marine sediments and products of tectonic erosion removed to a depth, the growth of crust above the subduction zone was favorable for heating of the crust. By the middle Eocene, when compression enhanced owing to the acceleration of subduction, the thermal evolution of the crust had already prepared the transition to the orogenic stage of evolution, i.e., to the progressive viscoplastic shortening and swelling of the mechanically weakened lower crust and the

  11. Pliocene-Quaternary orogenic systems in Central Mediterranean: The Apulia-Southern Apennines-Tyrrhenian Sea example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milia, Alfonsa; Torrente, Maurizio M.; Iannace, Pietro

    2017-08-01

    In the Central Mediterranean the Africa-Eurasia convergence led to the development of complex orogenic systems and back-arc basins. Throughout Pliocene-Quaternary times the Southern Apennines accretionary prism migrated toward the Apulia foreland and, contemporaneously, the Tyrrhenian Sea back-arc basin opened. In this study, we investigated the offshore of the southern Apulia foreland and the Southern Apennines. Using seismic reflection profiles and well data in a dedicated GIS software, we made a detailed stratigraphic analysis, reconstructed the structural pattern, and built 2-D geological models of the main geological surfaces. The structure of the Apulia region formed during two main tectonic stages: lower Pleistocene complex extensional faulting developed in a transtensional regime and middle-upper Pleistocene transpression/shortening. The Southern Apennines accretionary prism developed through the Pliocene-early lower Pleistocene and was overprinted by late lower Pleistocene-middle Pleistocene NW-SE sinistral faults. Through linking new data from the accretionary prism and the foreland with previous information from the Tyrrhenian Sea back-arc, we provide an original interpretation for the relationships between the various provinces that make the Central Mediterranean crustal puzzle and reconstruct the main phases of the evolution of its Pliocene-Quaternary orogenic cycle. We recognized collisional stages of uncoupled plates, followed by late lower-middle Pleistocene postcollisional stages of coupled continental plates. This Pleistocene plate reorganization of Central Mediterranean was probably due to the rupture of the Apulia/Ionian slab or to NNW intraplate shortening transmitted from Africa.

  12. Crustal Development in the Northeast Asian Orogenic Belt and its comparison with the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, Bor-ming

    2016-04-01

    The Northeast Asian Orogenic Belt is a Mesozoic-Cenozoic accretionary orogenic collage, and it constitutes the northern and principal part of the "Nipponides" (Sengor and Natal'in, 1996). The tectonic framework was formed in Mesozoic and Cenozoic, and it continues to evolve along the modern Pacific arc-trench systems. Generally, a oceanward younging of tectonic units may be discerned, but such a simple pattern is disrupted in many places by extensive strike-slip faulting, most of which is left-lateral. In this talk, the issue of crustal development in the sector of Sikhote-Alin and Japanese Islands will be discussed based on the geochemical and isotopic analyses of granitoids that intruded in various tectonostratigraphic terrains. The majority of granitoids in the NE Asian Orogenic Belt formed from Jurassic to late Cenozoic, with Cretaceous as the dominant period of granitic magmatism and tectonothermal events. A few Early Paleozoic granitic rocks (500 to 450 Ma) have been identified in SW Japan (Kurosegawa Belt) as well as in NE Japan (Kitakami Belt), among them the ca. 500 Ma diorites and tonalites of southern Kitakami are the oldest rocks in Japan and interpreted as the first TTG crust of proto-Japan (Isozaki et al., 2015). Cretaceous granitoids are widespread in Sikhote-Alin and in NE and SW Japan. However, granitoids were emplaced only in the Cenozoic in Sakhalin (ca. 44 - 42 Ma) and Hokkaido (45, 37 and 18 Ma). Most granitoids from Sikhote-Alin are of I-type and have ISr = 0.7040 to 0.7083, and ɛNd(T) = +3.0 to -6.0 (mostly 0 to -5). The Sr-Nd isotopic data fall within the range of granitoids from SW Japan (0.704 to 0.712; +5.0 to -13.0), and the data of Cretaceous granitoids from Sikhote-Alin and SW Japan overlap almost completely. The Cenozoic granitoids of Hokkaido are characterized by ISr = 0.7044 - 0.7061, ɛNd(T) = +1.0 to +4.7, and Sm-Nd model-1 ages = 400-1000 Ma. This is remarkably similar to the Sakhalin granitoids with ISr = 0.7047 - 0.7050,

  13. Stress Dynamics of Magma Activity during Orogenic Evolution: An Example from Kinmen Island, SE China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ping-Chuan; Yeh, En-Chao; Lin, Jian-Wei; Lee, Chi-Yu; Chen, Rou-Fei; Lin, Wayne; Hsieh, Pei-Shan; Lin, Cheng-Kuo; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki

    2016-04-01

    During orogeny, a mountain belt experienced different orogenic stages with various conditions of temperature, pressure, stress and fluid pressure. The speculation, that the orogenic stresses evolve from reverse faulting via strike-slip faulting to normal faulting stress regimes corresponding to syn-orogenic, post-orogenic and an-orogenic stage respectively, has been proposed but has not been proved yet. Here we report the study of dikes from Kinmen Island can shed light on understanding the stress evolution of orogeny. The Kinmen Island, located in the southeastern continental margin of Mainland China, cropped out the middle to lower crust of NE structural grain, which was experienced deformation and metamorphism during Late Yenshanian Orogeny(LYO). Based on previous studies of geochemistry, geochronology, and P-T conditions, various types of dike have been identified. They are syn-orognic dikes of amphibolite (130-110Ma), post-orogenic dikes of pegmatite and aplite (110-100Ma), and an-orogenic dike of gabbro (94-76Ma). During syn-orogenic stage of LYO, dike intrusion appeared as low-angle dip, which reflected that reverse faulting regime and horizontal maximum stress direction in E-W orientation. In post-orogenic stage, stress would be divided into two sub-stages. The early one was strike-slip faulting regime and horizontal maximum stress was in NW-SE orientation. The late one was normal faulting regime and horizontal maximum stress direction returned to E-W orientation. Finally, an-orogenic dike intrusion striked NE-SW with vertical dip, which displayed that normal faulting regime and NE-SW horizontal maximum stress direction. Our observation is consistent with the expected stress evolution during orogeny. Deviatoric stresses from new findings were decreased at early post-orogenic stage but increased after late post-orogenic stage, indicating the change of fluid pressure ratio with time. The spatiotemporal variation of stress field might be suggested the change

  14. Collision-Orogen provenance: Modern sands from big Himalayan rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, E.; Vezzoli, G.; Andò, S.; France-Lanord, C.; Singh, S. K.; Clift, P.

    2003-04-01

    The Himalayan orogen represents the most important source of terrigenous detritus on Earth. The Ganga-Brahmaputra river system ranks first in terms of sediment load, and together with the Indus carried to the Indian Ocean ca 2 billion tons of sediments annually. Stored in the Bengal and Indus fans, the world's largest turbiditic cones by far, are ca 15*10^6km^3 of detritus derived from the Himalayas since the Paleogene. Nevertheless, petrographic and mineralogic composition of sediments transported by big Himalayan rivers has been poorly documented so far. This high-resolution actualistic study provides a key to interpret detrital modes of Tertiary foreland basin strata, and sheds light on diagnostic features of collision-orogen provenance. Composition of Himalayan-derived sands indicates dominant contribution from amphibolite-facies rocks exposed both south and north of the Indus-Tsangpo suture, reflecting extreme uplift and widespread exhumation of the deep roots of the orogen. Hornblende-dominated dense-mineral suites of both Indus and Brahmaputra sands are largely derived from Asian active-margin plutons. The Indus sands in particular reflect major supply from arc batholiths, widely exposed in Ladakh, Kohistan, and along the Karakorum and Hindukush belts. The Ganga sands are instead chiefly derived from High-Himalayan nappes with Tertiary metamorphism up to sillimanite-grade. Intermediate composition characterizes the Brahmaputra sands, shed largely from High Himalayan crystalline rocks subject to very rapid erosion around the Namche-Barwa syntaxis, and subordinately from Gangdese batholiths in the Tibetan tract and from plutonic rocks of the Mishmi hills farther downstream. Supply from sedimentary covers and recycling of accreted foreland-basin strata are significant, whereas volcanic and ophiolitic detritus is volumetrically negligible. Carbonate grains, common in the Indus sands and present in the Ganga sands, are negligible in the Brahmaputra sands

  15. Gravitational removal of volcanic arc roots in Cordilleran orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, C. A.; Ducea, M. N.; DeCelles, P. G.; Beaumont, C.

    2013-12-01

    Cordilleran orogens, such as the central Andes, form above subduction zones and their evolution depends on processes associated with oceanic plate subduction and continental plate shortening. Such orogens are characterized by abundant arc volcanism and the formation of thick (>30 km) granitoid batholiths. The magma composition is consistent with a multi-stage model, in which parental mantle-derived basaltic magmas stagnate within the continental lithosphere and then undergo differentiation. Felsic partial melts rise through the crust, leaving a high-density garnet pyroxenite root in the deep lithosphere. Here, we study the dynamics of gravitational removal of this root using regional two-dimensional thermal-mechanical models of subduction below a continent. In the models, the volcanic arc location is determined dynamically based on subduction zone thermal structure, and formation of the batholith-root complex is simulated by changing the density of the volcanic arc lithosphere over time. For the lithosphere structure used in our models, arc roots that undergo even a small density increase are readily removed through gravitational foundering for a wide range of root strengths and subduction rates. The dynamics of removal depend on the relative rates of downward gravitational growth and horizontal shearing by subduction-induced mantle flow. Gravitational growth dominates for high root densification rates, high root viscosities and low subduction rates, leading to drip-like removal of the root as a single downwelling over 1-3 Myr. At lower growth rates, the root is removed over ~6 Myr through shear entrainment, as it is carried sideways by mantle flow and then subducted on top of the oceanic plate. In all models, >80% of the root is removed, making this an effective way to thin mantle lithosphere in the volcanic arc region. This can help resolve the mass problem in the central Andes, where observations indicate a thin mantle lithosphere, despite significant crustal

  16. Orogen parallel britlle extension in the Inner Northwestern Alps.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Champagnac, J. D.; Sue, C.; Delacou, B.; Burkhard, M.

    2003-04-01

    Rising attention has been recently paid to the latest extensional structures in the Alps, which took place under increasingly brittle conditions (e.g. Bistacchi, et al. 2000, Sue and Tricart 2002). Some of these structures seems to be still active . This brittle extension mainly occurs in the core of the arc, in the internal zones and could be linked to the ongoing extension observed under the light of seismotectonics studies (Sue, et al. 1999). Here we analyze the brittle deformation in the internal zone of the Northwestren Alps, from the Simplon fault zone (to the Northeast) to the Vanoise area (to the South). Our analysis is based on systematic mapping of the fault patterns, using remote sensing analysis combined with field work. The fault pattern we studied crosscuts all the ductile compression-related structures and piles of nappes. Thus, this brittle deformation postdates the ductile deformations, and is associated to one of the latter tectonic event in the belt during the recent-alpine history (Neogene times). The determination of paleostress field(s), based on the inversion of a large database of fault/stria measurements constrain the behaviour of this fault pattern: The results indicate a major large scale extensional paleostress field, in the NE-SW direction. In the South Valais, this orogen-parallel extension could be linked to the normal/dextral Simplon-Rhône fault zone dynamics. Further to the South, the paleostress fields also locally indicate NE-SW extension, but the driving forces remains a matter of debate. The orogen-parallel extension observed in this study have to be linked to the orogen-radial extension observed by (Sue and Tricart 2002) in the Briançonnais area, further to the South. We must also determine the relationship between the large scale brittle extension and the seismotectonics radial-to-the-arc extension. The geographic and/or temporal variations of the (paleo)stress fields remain to be constrain to precise the recent geodynamics

  17. Critical elements in Carlin, epithermal, and orogenic gold deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Simmons, Stuart F.

    2016-01-01

    Carlin, epithermal, and orogenic gold deposits, today mined almost exclusively for their gold content, have similar suites of anomalous trace elements that reflect similar low-salinity ore fluids and thermal conditions of metal transport and deposition. Many of these trace elements are commonly referred to as critical or near-critical elements or metals and have been locally recovered, although typically in small amounts, by historic mining activities. These elements include As, Bi, Hg, In, Sb, Se, Te, Tl, and W. Most of these elements are now solely recovered as by-products from the milling of large-tonnage, base metal-rich ore deposits, such as porphyry and volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits.A combination of dominance of the world market by a single country for a single commodity and a growing demand for many of the critical to near-critical elements could lead to future recovery of such elements from select epithermal, orogenic, or Carlin-type gold deposits. Antimony continues to be recovered from some orogenic gold deposits and tellurium could potentially be a primary commodity from some such deposits. Tellurium and indium in sphalerite-rich ores have been recovered in the past and could be future commodities recovered from epithermal ores. Carlin-type gold deposits in Nevada are enriched in and may be a future source for As, Hg, Sb, and/or Tl. Some of the Devonian carbonaceous host rocks in the Carlin districts are sufficiently enriched in many trace elements, including Hg, Se, and V, such that they also could become resources. Thallium may be locally enriched to economic levels in Carlin-type deposits and it has been produced from Carlin-like deposits elsewhere in the world (e.g., Alsar, southern Macedonia; Lanmuchang, Guizhou province, China). Mercury continues to be recovered from shallow-level epithermal deposits, as well as a by-product of many Carlin-type deposits where refractory ore is roasted to oxidize carbon and pyrite, and mercury is then

  18. Granulite-Facies High-sulfidation VHMS-like Hydrothermal System in the La Romaine Area, Eastern Grenville Province, Quebec: a Metamorphic and Geochemical Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, A.; Corriveau, L.; Laflèche, M. R.

    2004-05-01

    An extensive Cu-mineralized hydrothermal system has been recognized among the 1.5 Ga La Romaine volcano-sedimentary belt, in the eastern Grenville Province. This high-grade metamorphosed supracrustal belt occurs as a narrow basin within coeval granitoids. Granulite-facies alteration halos, encompassing rocks diagnostic of advanced argillic alteration (sillimanite-garnet-cordierite gneiss), silicification (quartz-cordierite gneiss) and sericite alteration (quartz-muscovite-sillimanite-iron oxide nodules or veins), are mapped among rhyolitic to dacitic tuffs and lapillistones. Some of these altered rocks have preserved primary lapilli textures. Amphibolite units of uncertain volcanic or intrusive origin overly the felsic pyroclastics and form a structurally coherent, east-west oriented unit. A narrow zone of ironstones (magnetite-rich amphibolite and biotite gneiss), carbonated zones (epidote-, diopside-, anorthite-, Ca garnet-, and/or calcite-rich calc-silicate rocks) and disseminated Cu sulphides, is found across its trend and testify of focused fluid discharge and mineralization. Structural and petrographic data suggest that mineralization and alteration are controlled by synvolcanic faults, with the amphibolite unit serving as a cap rock. Despite high-grade metamorphism, the volcanic and granitic rocks preserve a reproducible signature of calc-alkaline affinity. Element ratios analysis indicates that these rocks have not experienced significant LILE depletion and that metamorphism was, for the most part, isochemical. Element mobility of altered rocks is thus interpreted as produced by hydrothermal activity. AFM, ACF and AKF ternary plots of altered rocks and their protolith, define diagnostic alteration vectors, which reflect major elements mobility for the various alteration facies. Strong silica mobility is revealed by mass-balance calculations for altered pyroclastics. REE patterns of these rocks also show the mobility of heavy REE, in particular Tb, Dy and Ho

  19. Origin of magmatic sulfides in a Proterozoic island arc—an example from the Portneuf-Mauricie Domain, Grenville Province, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sappin, Anne-Aurélie; Constantin, Marc; Clark, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    The Portneuf-Mauricie Domain (PMD), located in the south-central part of the Grenville province, contains Mesoproterozoic Ni-Cu ± platinum-group element (PGE) prospects hosted in a variety of plutonic intrusions (layered, with simple structures, or zoned) and emplaced in a mature island arc setting. A two-stage model is envisaged to explain the formation of magmatic sulfides. An early loss of a small amount of sulfides in the conduits of primitive, hydrous mantle-derived melts under high fO2, resulted in depletion of the magmas in chalcophile and precious metals (Cu/Pd ratios vary from initial mantle values up to 1.6 × 106). Then, nearer the mineralized zones, the magmas interacted with sulfide-bearing country rocks, resulting in felsification of the magmas, assimilation of crustal sulfur ( δ 34S values up to +5.5‰), and the formation of an immiscible sulfide liquid. Liquid-sulfide formation was followed by variable interactions between the silicate and sulfide magmas, which were responsible for the enrichment of sulfides in Ni, Cu, and, locally, PGE. Indeed, low R factors are found for prospects hosted in intrusions with a simple internal structure and in layered intrusions whereas high R factors are found for prospects hosted in zoned intrusions. Finally, sulfide melt may have been partly incorporated into later pulses of magma and injected into shallow magma chambers to form the PMD prospects. The PMD prospects share common characteristics with other well-known deposits (Aguablanca, Vammala, Stormyrplunen, and deposits in Alaskan/Ural-type intrusions), attesting to the Ni, Cu, and PGE potential of deposits associated with subduction-zone settings.

  20. The Grenville orogeny in the Llano Uplift, Texas: A record of collision and contraction along the southern margin of North America

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, J.F. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    Precambrian metamorphic rocks in the SE Llano Uplift record NE-directed ductile thrusting and regional-scale polyphase folding. This deformation is in response to Grenville-age shortening and crustal thickening associated with the collision of a south-lying tectonic block with the southern margin of North America. In the SE Llano Uplift, the most intense and pervasive deformational event, D2, is characterized in the Packsaddle Schist (PS) and Valley Spring Gneiss (VSG) by SSE-plunging, NE-verging isoclinal folds (F2) with an associated SW-dipping axial planar metamorphic layering (S2), and SW-dipping mylonite zones with kinematic indicators showing top-to-the-NE motion. In the Red Mountain and augen-bearing Big Branch gneisses, D2 structures are SW-dipping mylonite zones parallel to S2, and a SW-plunging stretching lineation. Taken together, this suite of structures indicates tectonic transport was to the NE, perpendicular to the NW trending regional structural and metamorphic grain. D2 structures were reoriented by at least two later phases of folding. Timing of all ductile deformation in the SE Llano Uplift is constrained from post-1,215 Ma (deformed PS) to pre-1,098 Ma (undeformed melarhyolite dike). From south to north, metatonalitic, arc-derived Big Branch Gneiss ([approximately] 1,303 Ma) and older mafic schist country rock, previously interpreted as possible ophiolitic melange, structurally overlie much younger, lithologically heterogeneous PS units (1,248-1,215 Ma), previously considered as arc flank deposits. In turn, the PS has been tectonically emplaced above the predominantly felsic VSG (1,270-1,232 Ma). The presence of older zircons in the VSG, of similar age ([approximately]1360 Ma) to Western Granite-Rhyolite Terrane rocks to the north, suggests that the VSG formed in a settling proximal to North America.

  1. Magmatism in the Carolina terrane: Isotopic evidence for a Grenville-age source for Late Proterozoic volcanics and a mantle source for Silurian Concord syenite

    SciTech Connect

    Kozuch, M.; Heatherington, A.L.; Mueller, P.A. . Dept. of Geology); Offield, T.W.; Koeppen, R.P.; Klein, T.L. )

    1992-01-01

    Rhyolitic to andesitic volcanic rocks from the central portion of the Carolina slate belt in North Carolina were analyzed for Sr and Nd isotopic composition and dated by U-Pb zircon geochronology. Samples were from the greenschist-facies Late Proterozoic Albemarle Group, Uwharrie Formation, and the informal Virginia sequence. A rhyolite from the Cid Formation of the Albemarle Group dated by U-Pb zircon geochronology yielded a Pb-207/Pb-206 age of 575 [+-] 7.6 Ma, consistent with its position below strata containing the Late Proterozoic trace fossil Pteridinium and above rocks previously dated at 586 [+-] 10 Ma. Rb-Sr isotopic analyses of late Proterozoic rocks showed average initial Sr-87/Sr-86 ratios of approximately 0.704, indicating a moderately depleted source for these samples. E[sub ND] values at 600 Ma are moderately positive (+0.7 [minus] +2.3) and T(DM) values range from 1.19--1.04 Ga. These isotopic data, along with major and trace element data, suggest that andesites and rhyolites of the Carolina slate belt may have formed by partial melting of attenuated, Grenville-aged continental lithosphere during a 600 Ma episode of arc volcanism. In contrast, Sr and Nd data for the younger ([approximately]400 Ma) Concord pluton indicate it was derived from a depleted mantle source (Sr-87/Sr-86 = 0.7021 and E[sub ND] = +0.4 at 400 Ma) without significant involvement of older lithosphere (T(DM) = 370 Ma).

  2. The Arctic Eurekan Orogen : A plate tectonic conundrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guest, B.; Hill, M.; Beauchamp, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Eurekan orogen is a fold and thrust belt that extends from West Spitsbergen across northernmost Greenland and into Ellesmere Island and the eastern Canadian Arctic Archipelago. The favored mechanisms for generating this orogenic belt are: 1. Counterclockwise rotation of Greenland; subduction and collision between Greenland and Ellesmere Island along Nares Straight and transpression between Greenland and Spritbergen along Fram Straight. 2. Wedge-like northward indentation of Greenland into Spitsbergen and Ellesmere island driven by seafloor spreading to the southeast and southwest, and accommodated along the dextral Spitsbergen transform to the northeast and the Wegener transform to the northwest. Both of these models have problems. The widely accepted rotation and collision model requires that Nares Straight is the final remnant of a former oceanic trough and that enough old, cold oceanic crust was present so as to initiate foundering of the oceanic lithosphere and negative buoyancy driven rotation and collision between Greenland (lower plate) and Ellesmere Island. However, evidence of an accretionary complex, clear collisional suture or a subduction-related volcanic edifice are lacking. The second, Greenland indentor, model lacks a viable source of potential energy. Contractional deformation of continental crust is usually associated with continental collision which is a process driven by the subduction of oceanic crust attached to or surrounding a continent (the potential energy of a sinking oceanic slab is converted into the kinetic energy of collision). Calling on "ridge push" to induce continental deformation and uplift is problematic because the ridge lacks the potential energy required to deform high standing continental crust. Further, the extensional stresses at ridges are significantly lower than the stresses required to break rocks in compression so it is hard to envision a scenario whereby ridge push could have much effect. Adding to the troubles of

  3. Neoproterozoic and Paleozoic accretionary orogens exposed at different crustal levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroener, A.

    2002-12-01

    Accretionary orogens in the upper crust are dominated by trench and forearc deposits, obducted ophiolite fragments, exotic terranes and well defined structural boundaries such as major shear zones. The Neoproterozoic Arabian-Nubian shield (ANS) of western Arabia and NE Africa, the huge terrain of the Neoproterozoic to Palaeozoic Central Asian mobile belt (CAMB) and the present Indonesian Archipelago are prime examples of such orogens. In the ANS and CAMB, field relationships, rock associations, differences in structural style and metamorphic grade, and geochronology have led to the recognition of terrane assemblages that are related to processes of lateral accretion as now observed in the southwest Pacific and lasting for several hundred my. In the ANS, ocean crust and arc formation began about 900 Ma ago, and terrane accretion was completed by ~600 Ma, whereas in the CAMB the oldest oceanic crust formed some 1000 Ma ago, and terrane accretion continued into the late Palaeozoic. Typical rock associations are trench and forearc sediments, island-arc volcanics, calc-alkaline granitoids, dismembered ophiolite suites and gneissic rocks (microcontinents?) constituting exotic terranes and mostly of distinctly older age and more complex tectono-metamorphic history than the surrounding lower grade rocks. Shear zones frequently separate the terranes and in the ANS also constitue seismic discontinuities extending to the lower crust. The middle to lower crustal high grade assemblages of the Neoproterozoic Mozambique belt (MB) of East Africa, Madagascar, southernmost India, Sri Lanka and East Antarctica are considered to be a deep crustal analogue to the upper crustal accretionary belts described above. Typical characteristics are (1) voluminous calc-alkaline granitoid suites, now layered gneisses, and interpreted as root zones of arc terranes, (2) tectonic interdigitation of Archaean to Palaeoproterozoic gneisses with Neoproterozoic rocks, probably brought about during

  4. Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating of the oldest glacial successions in the Himalayan orogen: Ladakh Range, northern India

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Owen, L.A.; Caffee, M.W.; Bovard, K.R.; Finkel, R.C.; Sharma, M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide surface exposure dating of moraine boulders and alluvial fan sediments define the timing of five glacial advances over at least the last five glacial cycles in the Ladakh Range of the Transhimalaya. The glacial stages that have been identified are: the Indus Valley glacial stage, dated at older than 430 ka; the Leh glacial stage occurring in the penultimate glacial cycle or older; the Karglacial stage, occurring during the early part of the last glacial cycle; the Bazgo glacial stage, at its maximum during the middle of the last glacial cycle; and the early Holocene Khalling glacial stage. The exposure ages of the Indus Valley moraines are the oldest observed to date throughout the Himalayan orogen. We observe a pattern of progressively more restricted glaciation during the last five glacial cycles, likely indicating a progressive reduction in the moisture supply necessary to sustain glaciation. A possible explanation is that uplift of Himalayan ranges to the south and/or of the Karakoram Mountains to the west of the region may have effectively blocked moisture supply by the south Asian summer monsoon and mid-latitude westerlies, respectively. Alternatively, this pattern of glaciation may reflect a trend of progressively less extensive glaciation in mountain regions that has been observed globally throughout the Pleistocene. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  5. Complexities of Lu-Hf geochronology in convergent orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulcahy, S. R.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Subduction, terrane accretion, and arc magmatism leave a complex and sometimes incomplete record of metamorphism and deformation. The range of metamorphic temperatures and assemblages produced throughout the tectonic evolution of a single orogen often requires multiple isotopic systems to date distinct events. Lu-Hf geochronology, notably, has proven successful for dating metamorphism from a variety of bulk compositions spanning temperatures <350-850 C. We review the success of applying Lu-Hf geochronology in combination with other isotopic systems to date metamorphism from range of metamorphic conditions within convergent margins. We then discuss some complexities of Lu-Hf geochronology when dating samples with complicated metamorphic histories. Garnet and lawsonite isochrons often exhibit excess scatter (high MSWD's) that can be attributed to a number of factors: secondary mineral inclusions, prolonged garnet growth durations, disequilibrium at low temperatures, and polyphase metamorphic histories. Samples with high-Hf inclusions in isotopic equilibrium host phases can lead to decreased precision, but still produce meaningful ages. At high temperatures Lu-Hf ages may date peak metamorphism, cooling from peak temperatures, or result in spurious ages because of preferential retention of 176Hf over 176Lu in garnet. Despite these complexities, and perhaps because of them, new aspects of the metamorphic history may be revealed that are not readily recorded by other isotopic systems. Minerals other than garnet and lawsonite, particularly apatite, and perhaps epidote, offer exciting new possibilities for Lu-Hf geochronology. Careful fieldwork, detailed petrology and geochemistry, and collaborative efforts using multiple isotopic systems offer the best approach to solving tectonic problems in convergent orogens.

  6. On the orogenic status of the Central Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahn, M. K.

    2003-04-01

    In a simplified way, the history of every orogen can be divided into an initial stage of formation, an intermediate stage of maturity and a final stage of decay. For the Central European Alps, the initial stage started with the continent-continent collision in the Eocene. The intermediate stage may be divided into several substages of quiescence and further growth. The youngest stage of growth, the Grindelwald stage, has led to shortening and thrusting within the Central crystalline massifs (Aar, Gotthard) and to major exhumation of these units and possibly a northward thrusting of the overlying sediments (Helvetic nappes) onto more external basin sediments (Molasse Basin). During the last 10 myr, however, the Central Alps are characterized by the formation of dome structures aligned along a major thrust zone (Penninic front thrust) that seems to have acted in a normal sense since that time. A contoured compilation of fission track apatite ages reveals the absence of structures with compressional movements during that time interval. Compression was restricted to the northern Alpine border and to the Jura Mountains, an external chain of thin-skin tectonic folds and thrust faults, which is separated from the Alpine body by some tens of kilometres of tectonically undisturbed sediments of the Molasse Basin. Folding and thrusting in the Jura Mountains, starting some time between 9 and 5 Ma and being completed at about 3.5 Ma, was contemporaneous to exhumation and erosion in the Molasse Basin. The Alpine border thrust, where Helvetic sediments thrust on top of Molasse Basin sediments towards N to NW has been active at around 10 Ma. Younger, N-directed thrusting can also be showm from boreholes within nearby Molasse sediments. During the last few myr, the Central Alps, however, seem to have been dominated by normal faulting and doming, indicating that the general status of the Central Alps is that of a quiet or even decaying orogen.

  7. Ultrahigh-Pressure Orogenic Garnet Peridotites: A Prospective View

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, J.; Zhang, R.; Ernst, W.

    2006-12-01

    Mantle-derived garnet peridotites are a minor component in many ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terranes that formed during continental subduction and collision. These mantle rocks contain trace amounts of zircon, and micron-size inclusions; the constituent minerals exhibit pre- and post-subduction microstructures including polymorphic transformation and mineral exsolution. Recent studies on orogenic peridotites have yielded numerous significant findings: (1) Many orogenic peridotites were derived from a depleted, metasomatized mantle or crustal cumulate, and were later subjected to subduction-zone UHP metamorphism. (2) Some peridotites preserve a record of ultradeep origin revealed by mineral exsolution and persistence of UHP polymorphs. (3) Several peridotites contain dense hydrous magnesian silicates that are stable only at mantle depths. (4) Some garnet peridotites and their host continental crust underwent coeval subduction-zone UHP metamorphism under P-T conditions characterized by low thermal gradients (< 5°C/km), based on SHRIMP U-Pb ages of zircon separates from both rock types. How we distinguish the petrochemical processes taking place in a mantle wedge setting from those deeply subducted ultramafic rocks of the continental lithosphere remains to be challenged. It requires detailed examination of micron-size minerals, exsolution textures and polymorphic transformations using novel techniques involving high spatial, temporal, and energy resolution. For example, garnet nodules in the Western Gneiss Region, Norway, formed prior to emplacement in the Caledonian subduction zone. Numerous lines of evidence suggest continental subduction depths > 200 km for some UHP terranes; these include the occurrence of supersilicic titanite in marble, exsolution lamellae of Qtz or K-fsp ± Phn in diopside from diamond-bearing marble and gneiss, and nanometric inclusions of aragonite and magnesite in microdiamonds from the Kokchetav massif, and α- PbO2 - type TiO2 between

  8. Vorticity analysis in the Zagros orogen, Shiraz area, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkarinejad, Khalil; Heibati, Zahra

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative vorticity analyses in orogenic belts are essential for studying the kinematics of deformation and can be performed using a range of methods. The combination of microstructural analysis for vorticity with other methods creates a more rigorous analysis. In order to determine the degree of non-coaxiality and spatial pattern of vorticity during deformation in the Zagros Orogenic Belt, a study area containing the boundary of the Zagros Folded Belt and the Zagros Fold-and-Thrust Belt is selected. The study area is situated in the Shiraz region of E-Zagros in Iran. The kinematic vorticity analysis is carried out using 4 methods based on: (1) the degree of asymmetry of the calcite c-axis fabric, (2) the assumption that the orientation of the long axes of calcite within an oblique stylolite foliation delineates the direction of the instantaneous stretching axis, (3) the assumption that the tension gash tips determine the direction of the instantaneous stretching axis and (4) stylolite teeth determine the direction of the instantaneous stretching axis. C-axis data from calcite give a kinematic vorticity number between 0.68 and 0.83, and the orientation of the long axes of calcite grains yields a range between 0.5 and 0.84. Stylolites provide a kinematic vorticity number between 0.5 and 0.79, and tension gashes provide a kinematic vorticity number between 0.56 and 0.81. This range of vorticity numbers confirms the contributions of both simple (33-59%) and pure shear (41-67%). Twining of calcite also reveals that the last stage of deformation occurred at a temperature of 170-200 °C. Spatial analysis reveals an increase in the simple shear component from the SW of the Zagros Folded Belt to the NE of the Zagros Fold-and-Thrust Belt.

  9. Seismic anisotropy and mantle creep in young orogens

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meissner, R.; Mooney, W.D.; Artemieva, I.

    2002-01-01

    Seismic anisotropy provides evidence for the physical state and tectonic evolution of the lithosphere. We discuss the origin of anisotropy at various depths, and relate it to tectonic stress, geotherms and rheology. The anisotropy of the uppermost mantle is controlled by the orthorhombic mineral olivine, and may result from ductile deformation, dynamic recrystallization or annealing. Anisotropy beneath young orogens has been measured for the seismic phase Pn that propagates in the uppermost mantle. This anisotropy is interpreted as being caused by deformation during the most recent thermotectonic event, and thus provides information on the process of mountain building. Whereas tectonic stress and many structural features in the upper crust are usually orientated perpendicular to the structural axis of mountain belts, Pn anisotropy is aligned parallel to the structural axis. We interpret this to indicate mountain-parallel ductile (i.e. creeping) deformation in the uppermost mantle that is a consequence of mountain-perpendicular compressive stresses. The preferred orientation of the fast axes of some anisotropic minerals, such as olivine, is known to be in the creep direction, a consequence of the anisotropy of strength and viscosity of orientated minerals. In order to explain the anisotropy of the mantle beneath young orogens we extend the concept of crustal 'escape' (or 'extrusion') tectonics to the uppermost mantle. We present rheological model calculations to support this hypothesis. Mountain-perpendicular horizontal stress (determined in the upper crust) and mountain-parallel seismic anisotropy (in the uppermost mantle) require a zone of ductile decoupling in the middle or lower crust of young mountain belts. Examples for stress and mountain-parallel Pn anisotropy are given for Tibet, the Alpine chains, and young mountain ranges in the Americas. Finally, we suggest a simple model for initiating mountain parallel creep.

  10. Young upper crustal chemical composition of the orogenic Japan Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Togashi, Shigeko; Imai, Noboru; Okuyama-Kusunose, Yasuko; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Okai, Takashi; Koma, Takeshi; Murata, Yasuaki

    2000-11-01

    A new geochemical estimate of the young (mainly Paleozoic age to present) upper crust of the Japan Arc shows a dacitic composition in contrast to the idea that andesite is predominant in active orogenic arcs. Temporal changes in composition are not significant from the Paleozoic age to the present for the Japan Arc. The major element composition is similar to previous models of old cratonic upper crusts. The coincidence in the major elements between young and old crusts indicates that essential mechanisms during crust formation have not changed from the Archean era to the present. In trace element compositions the average young upper crust of the Japan Arc has higher Sb and As concentrations and lower concentrations of alkaline, light rare earth, and high field strength elements with respect to previous models of continental upper crusts. The large degree of constancy of trace element composition in marine sedimentary rocks is in contrast to the large variety in igneous rocks. However, the averages for both accretionary and nonaccretionary sedimentary rocks are almost identical to the average for the igneous rocks of the Japan Arc, with the exceptions of high Sb and As concentrations in unmetamorphosed sedimentary rocks. The compositional homogeneity among different types of rocks on an arc scale implies that recycling processes mechanically mix the arc-derived igneous materials to homogenize the chemical composition during erosion, transportation, sedimentation, accretion, and uplifting. Since the contribution of oceanic crust to the composition of arc crust is small, the recycling processes have not changed the bulk upper crustal composition of the active continental margin except increase the Sb and As from sediments. Instead, the influx of differentiated acidic rocks from depth is essential to characterize the orogenic crust formation of the young Japan Arc. The characteristically low incompatible element content of the Japanese upper arc crust appears

  11. Vorticity analysis in the Zagros orogen, Shiraz area, Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkarinejad, Khalil; Heibati, Zahra

    2017-09-01

    Quantitative vorticity analyses in orogenic belts are essential for studying the kinematics of deformation and can be performed using a range of methods. The combination of microstructural analysis for vorticity with other methods creates a more rigorous analysis. In order to determine the degree of non-coaxiality and spatial pattern of vorticity during deformation in the Zagros Orogenic Belt, a study area containing the boundary of the Zagros Folded Belt and the Zagros Fold-and-Thrust Belt is selected. The study area is situated in the Shiraz region of E-Zagros in Iran. The kinematic vorticity analysis is carried out using 4 methods based on: (1) the degree of asymmetry of the calcite c-axis fabric, (2) the assumption that the orientation of the long axes of calcite within an oblique stylolite foliation delineates the direction of the instantaneous stretching axis, (3) the assumption that the tension gash tips determine the direction of the instantaneous stretching axis and (4) stylolite teeth determine the direction of the instantaneous stretching axis. C-axis data from calcite give a kinematic vorticity number between 0.68 and 0.83, and the orientation of the long axes of calcite grains yields a range between 0.5 and 0.84. Stylolites provide a kinematic vorticity number between 0.5 and 0.79, and tension gashes provide a kinematic vorticity number between 0.56 and 0.81. This range of vorticity numbers confirms the contributions of both simple (33-59%) and pure shear (41-67%). Twining of calcite also reveals that the last stage of deformation occurred at a temperature of 170-200 °C. Spatial analysis reveals an increase in the simple shear component from the SW of the Zagros Folded Belt to the NE of the Zagros Fold-and-Thrust Belt.

  12. Controls of erosional denudation in the orogen on foreland basin evolution: The Oligocene central Swiss Molasse Basin as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlunegger, Fritz; Jordan, Teresa E.; Klaper, Eva Maria

    1997-10-01

    A high-resolution three-dimensional reconstruction of the 25-m.y.-old central Swiss Molasse Basin reveals two sedimentary domains separated by a ˜5-km-wide flood-plain. The proximal domain of the basin attained a width of 20 km, and its basement is steeply flexed (6°-7° dip). Petrographic data indicate that it was filled by sediment from the Rigi dispersal system derived from the central Alps of eastern Switzerland and by locally sourced bajadas. In contrast, the distal sedimentary domain, located farther north, was gently dipping (<2°) and was filled by the meandering Lac Léman and Honegg dispersal systems. Chronological data reveal that sedimentation in the northern proximal part of the basin started at ˜27 Ma, when sediment supply to the basin started to increase. Deflection of the foreland plate at ˜25 Ma is successfully simulated by flexural modeling of the thrust load and the sediment load. The model reveals that the Lac Léman and Honegg dispersal systems are located on a buried flexural bulge. Furthermore, it shows that burial and suppression of the flexural bulge at ˜27 Ma as well as an increase of the basin wavelength were controlled by the contemporaneous increase in the sediment supply rate of the Rigi system. The model presented suggests that the tectonic subsidence of the Molasse Basin was mainly controlled by tectonic events in the northern part of the orogen, within ˜70 km distance from the tip of the orogenic wedge. Crustal thickening in this part of the orogen is reflected in the proximal Molasse by sedimentary cycles characterized by an increase in the sediment accumulation rates up section and by the presence of locally sourced bajada fans at the top of each cycle. Although south vergent back thrusting along the Insubric Line ˜150 km south of the foreland basin contributed little to flexure, it resulted in an increase of the sediment supply to the foreland basin. This is reflected in the Molasse by coarsening and thickening upward

  13. Mechanisms of doubly-vergent vs. single-sided orogens: insights from numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogt, K.; Matenco, L. C.; Gerya, T.; Cloetingh, S.

    2014-12-01

    Zones of continent collision form mountain ranges with high topographies and complex geometries. Compressional stresses during ongoing convergence result in crustal thickening and localized deformation, where crustal material is transported and redistributed within the orogen. We use numerical high-resolution thermo-mechanical models to investigate the physical processes of continent collision zones and its implications on rock exhumation. We demonstrate that compression of two continental blocks, separated by a rheologically weak suture zone can result in (i) doubly-vergent (Fig. A) or (ii) single-sided orogens (Fig. B), with distinct geometries, deformation and exhumation patterns. The transition between these different modes of collision is strongly controlled by the rheology of the continental lithosphere and therefore its temperature distribution. Doubly-vergent orogens form at relatively high thermal gradients, while single-sided orogens are typical for lower ones. Doubly-vergent orogens (Fig. A) are formed in response to the gradual accretion of crustal material to the upper plate along retro-shears. In these models continental subduction results in upper plate deformation and nested exhumation against retro-shears. Typical examples include the collision recorded by the Swiss Alps and the Pyrenees. In contrast, single-sided orogens are characterized by large-scale lower plate deformation and are accompanied by the subduction of lower crustal material (Fig. B). Modeling infers that shortening and associated exhumation will gradually propagate towards the foreland. In this situation, no significant retro-shear formation is observed, which is in agreement with recent physical modelling studies on deformation of the continental lithosphere [Willingshofer et al., 2013]. Natural examples of such single sided orogens are common in the Mediterranean (Carpathians, Dinarides, Apennines, Betics) or the SE Asia subduction zones. We conclude that deformation and

  14. Lithospheric controls on the formation of provinces hosting giant orogenic gold deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bierlein, F.P.; Groves, D.I.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Dube, B.

    2006-01-01

    Ages of giant gold systems (>500 t gold) cluster within well-defined periods of lithospheric growth at continental margins, and it is the orogen-scale processes during these mainly Late Archaean, Palaeoproterozoic and Phanerozoic times that ultimately determine gold endowment of a province in an orogen. A critical factor for giant orogenic gold provinces appears to be thickness of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath a province at the time of gold mineralisation, as giant gold deposits are much more likely to develop in orogens with subducted oceanic or thin continental lithosphere. A proxy for the latter is a short pre-mineralisation crustal history such that thick SCLM was not developed before gold deposition. In constrast, orogens with protracted pre-mineralisation crustal histories are more likely to be characterised by a thick SCLM that is difficult to delaminate, and hence, such provinces will normally be poorly endowed. The nature of the lithosphere also influences the intrinsic gold concentrations of potential source rocks, with back-arc basalts, transitional basalts and basanites enriched in gold relative to other rock sequences. Thus, segments of orogens with thin lithosphere may enjoy the conjunction of giant-scale fluid flux through gold-enriched sequences. Although the nature of the lithosphere plays the crucial role in dictating which orogenic gold provinces will contain one or more giant deposits, the precise siting of those giants depends on the critical conjunction of a number of province-scale factors. Such features control plumbing systems, traps and seals in tectonically and lithospherically suitable terranes within orogens. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  15. Hanging-wall topographic expression in oblique contractional orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, K. L.; Wegmann, K. W.

    2010-12-01

    Tectonic activity along mountain fronts is often reflected by distinct topographic signatures in landscapes. The Mongolian Altai is an intracontinental oblique contractional orogen related to the far-field effects of the Indo-Asia collision, some 2500 km to the south. Uplifted fault blocks within the Altai are bounded by oblique right-lateral reverse faults. The Hoh Serh Range, which is bounded on the west by the Hoh Serh-Tsagaa Salaa fault, is the most prominent of these uplifted range fronts. Recent work along the Hoh Serh-Tsagaan Salaa fault shows a late Pleistocene oblique NNW deformation vector of ~0.8 mm/yr (~0.3 mm/yr shortening; ~0.9 mm/yr right-lateral shear). However, along-strike changes in the topographic character of the range suggest that this rate may vary along the length of the mountain front. We analyzed catchment relief, mean slope, drainage basin volume to drainage basin area ratio (Rva), and trunk channel concavity for 41 non-glaciated basins along the western Hoh Serh range front using ASTER Global DEM data to investigate linkages between drainage basin evolution, along strike variations in rock uplift, and fault growth. All four topographic metrics increase systematically from their lowest values at the northern and southern fault tips toward the center of the uplifted hanging wall. In each case this suggests along-strike gradients in displacement and displacement rate with the highest fault offset and rock uplift rate being near the center of the hanging wall. In addition, there is a nearly 1:1 correlation between mean catchment slope and Rva, implying that as channels incise to keep pace with rock uplift hillslopes steepen and sediment flux increases. These observations indicate that patterns of displacement in oblique contractional orogens can be spatially (and temporally) variable and that these landscapes adjust to changes in deformation fastest near fault tips, possibly where adjacent segments are in the process of linking and similar

  16. Accessing The Fourth Dimension In Orogenic Reconstruction Using Granitoid Thermobarometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, E.; Wielicki, M. M.; Harrison, M.; Lovera, O. M.; DePaolo, D.

    2016-12-01

    Tectonic models for the Tibetan-Himalayan orogen predict very different crustal thickness histories, providing a possible test of these various hypotheses. However, reconstructing the evolution of the Tibetan-Himalayan crust is a four-dimensional problem. Knowing the 2D distribution of U-Pb zircon dated samples permits insights into changes in magmatic style, but understanding of N-S thickening history requires depth information. In S. Tibet, voluminous granitoids emplaced between 200-20 Ma provides a spatiotemporal window into the tectonic evolution of the Tibetan crust. A thermoisotopic model utilizing systematic N-S ɛNd variations as a crustal thickness proxy indicates that, at the time of collision, the crust beneath the Indus-Tsangpo suture was relatively thin ( 20 km), increasing to >45 km 100 km to the N. Given evidence of little post-50 Ma upper-crustal shortening, the Tibetan crust appears to have reached its present 85 km thickness via 20 km of tectonic accretion, 15 km of juvenile magma input, as well as the underthrusted Indian crust. Since zircon ɛHf correlates well with whole rock ɛNd, using it together with in situ δ18O, Ti-thermometry and trace element analyses, has provided a refined picture of the relative roles of assimilation and recharge in granitoid formation. To understand the spatiotemporal progression of thickening, we utilize two thermobarometers to reconstruct crystallization depths: Al-in-hornblende and Ti-in-quartz. While Al-in-hornblende has been more widely tested on igneous systems, our data show that it may be sensitive to closure effects during high T storage and hydrothermal alteration. In contrast, Ti-in-quartz preserves magmatic Ti signatures, and quartz's exclusive structure and resistance to alteration provides a more robust proxy for emplacement conditions. Using these thermobarometers in conjunction with Ti-in-zircon thermometry can establish emplacement depth of syn-collisional Lhasa block granites providing the missing

  17. Petrology of mafic and ultramafic intrusions from the Portneuf-Mauricie Domain, Grenville Province, Canada: Implications for plutonic complexes in a Proterozoic island arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sappin, A.-A.; Constantin, M.; Clark, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Portneuf-Mauricie Domain (PMD), located in the south-central part of the Grenville Province, comprises several mafic and ultramafic intrusions hosting Ni-Cu ± platinum-group element (PGE) prospects and a former small mining operation (Lac Édouard mine). These meter- to kilometer-scale, sulfide-bearing intrusions display diverse forms, such as layered and tabular bodies with no particular internal structure, and zoned plutons. They were injected ~ 1.40 Ga into a mature oceanic arc, before and during accretion of the arc to the Laurentian margin. The pressure-temperature conditions of the magmas at the beginning of their emplacement were 3 kbar and 1319-1200 °C (according to the petrologic modeling results from this study). The PMD mineralized intrusions are interpreted to represent former magma chambers or magma conduits in the roots of the oceanic arc. The parent magmas of the mineralized intrusions resulted mainly from the partial melting of a mantle source composed of spinel-bearing lherzolite. Petrologic modeling and the occurrence of primary amphibole in the plutonic rocks indicate that these parent melts were basaltic and hydrous. In addition, fractional crystallization modeling and Mg/Fe ratios suggest that most of the intrusions may have formed from evolved magmas, with Mg# = 60, resulting from the fractionation of more primitive magmas (primary magmas, with Mg# = 68). Petrologic modeling demonstrates that 30% fractional crystallization resulted in the primitive to evolved characteristics of the studied intrusive rocks (as indicated by the crystallization sequences and mineral chemistry). Exceptions are the Réservoir Blanc, Boivin, and Rochette West parent magmas, which may have undergone more extensive fractional crystallization, since these intrusions contain pyroxenes that are more iron rich and have lower Mg numbers than pyroxenes in the other PMD intrusions. The PMD mafic and ultramafic intrusions were intruded into an island arc located

  18. How Orogen-scale Exhumed Strike-slip Faults Initiate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, S.; Neubauer, F.

    2015-12-01

    Orogen-scale strike-slip faults present one the most important geodynamic processes affecting the lithosphere-asthenosphere system. In specific subtypes, faulting is virtually initiated along hot-to-cool boundaries, e.g. at such of hot granite intrusions or metamorphic core complexes to cool country rocks. Such fault zones are often subparallel to mountain ranges and expose a wide variety of mylonitic, cataclastic and non-cohesive fault rocks, which were formed at different structural levels of the crust and are stacked within each other ("telescoping"). Exhumation of rocks is, therefore, a common feature of such strike-slip faults implying major transtensive and/or transpressive processes accompanying pure strike-slip motion. The hot-to-cool thermal structure across the fault zone significantly influences the physical fault rock properties. One major question is how and where a major strike-slip initiates and further development. Here, we propose a model in which major continental exhumed strike-slip faults potentially evolve along rheologically weak zones such as plutons or margins of metamorphic complexes. As an example, we propose a model for the Ailao Shan-Red River (ASRR) fault, SE Asia, which initiated along the edge of a plutonic belt and evolved in response to India-Asia collision with four tectonic phases.

  19. Late Paleozoic orogenic episodes, Trans-Pecos Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Muehlberger, W.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-04-01

    The onset of the Ouachita orogeny is marked by the absence of rock of Early Mississippian age. This is interpreted to be the result of the narrowing of the trans-equatorial seaway between North America and the oncoming South American plate. Foredeep filling (Pulse I) began in Early Meramecian time with northward-prograding Tesnus Fm siliciclastic turbidites. Pulse 2 began in Atokan time with northward-prograding siliciclastic turbidites of the Haymond Fm. The thrust belt to the south had now intersected the edge of the NAm carbonate platform as shown by clasts of Middle Cambrian carbonates, as well as Ouachita facies clasts, and rounded clasts of Precambrian quartzite, metarhyolite, and gneiss of unknown source. During Late Pennsylvanian time deltaic sediments prograded across the Marathon region into the southern Permian Basin (Gaptank Fm). In Early Wolfcampian time (Pulse 3), all these units were translated on the Dugout Creek thrust, then (Pulse 4 ) translated finally on a frontal imbricate before deposition of Upper Wolfcampian units across the eroded toes of the thrust sheets. Permian Basin orogenic phases parallel those outlined above. Transgressive clastics from the south and the subdivision of the earlier broad, shallow Tobosa Basin into the uplifts and basins that characterize the Permian Basin began in the Mississippian and became prominent structural units by Late Mississippian time.

  20. Kinematics of Orogenic Flow and Dynamic Plateau Support in the Paleoproterozoic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, J. C.

    2006-12-01

    Evolution of the modern iconic example of continent-continent collision within the Himalayan-Tibet orogen is concomitant with both an extensive plateau, and corresponding deep crust; that is crust within granulite grade conditions. However, direct examination of lower crustal flow inferred from geodynamic, geodetic and seismological data is restricted to sections extruded within the High Himalaya. Collision between the Archean Superior and Rae cratons in the Ungava - Baffin Island transect of the Paleoproterozoic Trans-Hudson orogen has generated a remarkably continuous lower crustal section. The latter extends from metamorphosesd foreland basin units of the lower plate (Superior) through plutonic and supercrustal units in the core of the orogen to sedimentary cover and basement of the upper plate (Rae). Subsequent folding has exposed the Superior craton-Paleoproterozoic contact, allowing study of both across-strike and down-dip variation in kinematics. The Archean (basement)-Paleoproterozoic (cover) protolith boundary provides a marker that can be followed for several hundred kilometers down-dip into the heart of the orogen. This crustal section has been proposed as an ancient analogue for the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen, but explicitly without a corresponding zone of focused orogenic flow (channel flow). Geometric, kinematic and metamorphic arguments in this presentation demonstrate the existence of a wholly exposed "channel". Unlike the Himalayan-Tibet case where the "channel" is currently observable only as the result of extrusion, Ungava-Bafffin exposes a full-width flow channel of approximately 20 kilometres thickness that has been exhumed during isostatic adjustment of thickened crust and erosional removal of the upper plate. Hence, the large expanses of high P/T metamorphic terranes are analogous to the "orogenic ooze" invoked beneath Tibet. Not only does the preservation of such a zone support suppositions on current plateau dynamics, it provides access to

  1. Anatexis witnessed post-collisional evolution of the Dabie orogen, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Haijin; Zhang, Junfeng

    2017-09-01

    Crustal anatexis plays a significant role in the processes of orogenic evolution. We carried out a combined study of structure, U-Pb age and trace element on zircons from leucosome-based migmatites in the North Dabie zone to provide information on crustal anatexis during the evolution of the Dabie orogen. Protoliths of the migmatites are Middle Neoproterozoic (ca. 780-710 Ma) magmatic rocks that belong to the South China Block. They underwent a relatively low-T eclogite-facies metamorphism during the Middle to Late Triassic (235-225 Ma) continental subduction and collision. An over-thickened crustal root was formed and the Dabie orogen entered into the stage of post-collisional evolution after the Triassic. The earliest anatexis occurred at ca. 185 Ma; the anatexis in the Jurassic was weak and gentle due to episodic flow of metamorphic fluids with a prolonged interval. Nevertheless, it indicates that the crustal root started to become ductile and unstable at that time. Extensive epsodic anatexis occurred between ca. 160 Ma and 110 Ma. As the anatexis became stronger, more extensive and uninterrupted, the anatectic products changed gradually from low-degree migmatites to high-degree migmatites. The beginning of extensive anatexis at ∼160 Ma marks the beginning of orogenic activation. The duration of ca. 160-145 Ma corresponds to the orogenic activation when the collision-thickened crust still remained, whereas the period of ca. 145-110 Ma is in accordance with the orogenic collapse. The peak period of anatexis (ca. 145-125 Ma) was accompanied by plutonism, high-T granulite-facies metamorphism, extensional uplift and subsequent delamination of crustal root. After that, the anatexis trailed off until ca. 110 Ma. The long lasting multistage anatexis recorded in the migmatites has witnessed the evolution of the Dabie orogen in the postcollisional stage.

  2. Conflicting Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd ages in the garnet gneisses of the Central Appalachians, Eastern U.S.: Implications for the timing and duration of Grenville Orogeny and a case for using coupled Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vervoort, J. D.; Ramsey, M.; Aleinikoff, J. N.; Southworth, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Grenville orogeny is one of the most significant geological events in Earth's history with remnants of this event prominent on virtually every continent. Constraining its timing and duration is important not only for understanding the tectonics of the Grenville itself, but also for understanding supercontinent cycles and other questions of Earth's evolution. In order to provide better constraints on the timing of Grenvillian metamorphism, we analyzed garnet-bearing Mesoproterozoic ortho- and paragneisses, collected along a 150 km transect in the northern Blue Ridge Province, using combined Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd geochronology. The orthogneisses have U-Pb zircon crystallization ages of ~1140 and 1100 Ma. The paragneisses have maximum depositional ages ~1050-1020 Ma, based on the youngest detrital zircon populations. Zircon overgrowths and monazite suggest metamorphic events between ~1050 and 960 Ma. The Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd data for these samples both yield robust garnet ages with large spread of parent/daughter ratios, low age uncertainties, and low MSWD values. Lu-Hf ages define a narrow time span (1043×12 Ma to 1016×4 Ma; wtd. mean, 1024×7 Ma, 2σ). The Sm-Nd ages, determined on the same solutions as Lu-Hf, also define a narrow time range but are systematically younger (974×11 Ma to 932×5 Ma; wtd. mean, 957×10 Ma). The average difference between Lu-Hf and Sm-Nd ages is 67 Ma; the oldest Sm-Nd age is 40 Ma younger than the youngest Lu-Hf age. These large systematic differences in the ages are enigmatic. While Sm-Nd ages younger than Lu-Hf are not uncommon, these differences are typically small; nothing of this magnitude has been previously reported. There are, however, potential explanations for these differences. (1) Lu partitions strongly into garnet during growth yielding ages weighted toward the beginning of growth (e.g., Skora, 2006); no similar partitioning exists in Sm-Nd and these ages reflect mean garnet growth. (2) Lu diffuses much faster than Hf at

  3. Tectono-metamorphic evolution of the internal zone of the Pan-African Lufilian orogenic belt (Zambia): Implications for crustal reworking and syn-orogenic uranium mineralizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eglinger, Aurélien; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier; André-Mayer, Anne-Sylvie; Goncalves, Philippe; Zeh, Armin; Durand, Cyril; Deloule, Etienne

    2016-01-01

    The internal zone of the Pan-African Lufilian orogenic belt (Zambia) hosts a dozen uranium occurrences mostly located within kyanite micaschists in a shear zone marking the contact between metasedimentary rocks attributed to the Katanga Neoproterozoic sedimentary sequence and migmatites coring domes developed dominantly at the expense of the pre-Neoproterozoic basement. The P-T-t-d paths reconstructed for these rocks combining field observations, microstructural analysis, metamorphic petrology and thermobarometry and geochronology indicate that they have recorded burial and exhumation during the Pan-African orogeny. Both units of the Katanga metasedimentary sequence and pre-Katanga migmatitic basement have underwent minimum peak P-T conditions of 9-11 kbar and 640-660 °C, dated at ca. 530 Ma by garnet-whole rock Lu-Hf isochrons. This suggests that this entire continental segment has been buried up to a depth of 40-50 km with geothermal gradients of 15-20 °C.km- 1 during the Pan-African orogeny and the formation of the West Gondwana supercontinent. Syn-orogenic exhumation of the partially molten root of the Lufilian belt is attested by isothermal decompression under P-T conditions of 6-8 kbar at ca. 530-500 Ma, witnessing an increase of the geothermal gradients to 25-30 °C·km- 1. Uranium mineralizations that consist of uraninite and brannerite took place at temperatures ranging from 600 to 700 °C, and have been dated at ca. 540-530 Ma by U-Pb ages on uraninite. The main uranium deposition thus occurred at the transition from the syn-orogenic burial to the syn-orogenic exhumation stages and has been then partially transposed and locally remobilized during the post-orogenic exhumation accommodated by activation of low-angle extensional detachment.

  4. Deformation of the Songshugou ophiolite in the Qinling orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shengsi; Dong, Yunpeng

    2017-04-01

    The Qinling orogen, middle part of the China Central Orogenic Belt, is well documented that was constructed by multiple convergences and subsequent collisions between the North China and South China Blocks mainly based on geochemistry and geochronology of ophiolites, magmatic rocks as well as sedimentary reconstruction. However, this model is lack of constraints from deformation of subduction/collision. The Songshugou ophiolite outcropped to the north of the Shangdan suture zone represents fragments of oceanic crust and upper mantle. Previous works have revealed that the ophiolite was formed at an ocean ridge and then emplaced in the northern Qinling belt. Hence, deformation of the ophiolite would provide constraints for the rifting and subduction processes. The ophiolite consists chiefly of metamorphosed mafic and ultramafic rocks. The ultramafic rocks contain coarse dunite, dunitic mylonite and harzburgite, with minor diopsidite veins. The mafic rocks are mainly amphibolite, garnet amphibolite and amphibole schist, which are considered to be eclogite facies and retrograde metamorphosed oceanic crust. Amphibole grains in the mafic rocks exhibit a strong shape-preferred orientation parallel to the foliation, which is also parallel to the lithologic contacts between mafic and ultramafic rocks. Electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) analyses show strong olivine crystallographic preferred orientations (CPO) in dunite including A-, B-, and C-types formed by (010)[100], (010)[001] and (100)[001] dislocation slip systems, respectively. A-type CPO suggests high temperature plastic deformation in the upper mantle. In comparison, B-type may be restricted to regions with significantly high water content and high differential stress, and C-type may also be formed in wet condition with lower differential stress. Additionally, the dunite evolved into amphibolite facies metamorphism with mineral assemblages of olivine + talc + anthophyllite. Assuming a pressure of 1.5 GPa

  5. The nature of orogenic crust in the central Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Susan L.; Zandt, George

    2002-10-01

    The central Andes (16°-22°S) are part of an active continental margin mountain belt and the result of shortening of the weak western edge of South America between the strong lithospheres of the subducting Nazca plate and the underthrusting Brazilian shield. We have combined receiver function and surface wave dispersion results from the BANJO-SEDA project with other geophysical studies to characterize the nature of the continental crust and mantle lithospheric structure. The major results are as follows: (1) The crust supporting the high elevations is thick and has a felsic to intermediate bulk composition. (2) The relatively strong Brazilian lithosphere is underthrusting as far west (65.5°W) as the high elevations of the western part of the Eastern Cordillera (EC) but does not underthrust the entire Altiplano. (3) The subcrustal lithosphere is delaminating piecemeal under the Altiplano-EC boundary but is not completely removed beneath the central Altiplano. The Altiplano crust is characterized by a brittle upper crust decoupled from a very weak lower crust that is dominated by ductile deformation, leading to lower crustal flow and flat topography. In contrast, in the high-relief, inland-sloping regions of the EC and sub-Andean zone, the upper crust is still strongly coupled across the basal thrust of the fold-thrust belt to the underthrusting Brazilian Shield lithosphere. Subcrustal shortening between the Altiplano and Brazilian lithosphere appears to be accommodated by delamination near the Altiplano-EC boundary. Our study suggests that orogenic reworking may be an important part of the "felsification" of continental crust.

  6. Propagation tectonics and multiple accretionary processes of the Qinling Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yunpeng; Zhang, Xiaoning; Liu, Xiaoming; Li, Wei; Chen, Qing; Zhang, Guowei; Zhang, Hongfu; Yang, Zhao; Sun, Shengsi; Zhang, Feifei

    2015-05-01

    The Qinling Orogen was built through collision between the North China and South China Blocks. Previous detailed geological, geochemical and geochronological investigations revealed that the mountain range can be divided into four tectonic units with distinct tectono-lithostratigraphy, which are, from north to south, the southern sector of the North China Block, North Qinling Belt, South Qinling Belt and northern sector of the South China Block, separated by the Kuanping, Shangdan and Mianlue sutures. According to the petrology, geochemistry and geochronology of ophiolitic mélanges and related magmatic rocks, as well as the features of sedimentary units, we think that the North China Block, the North Qinling Belt and the South China Block were originally independent continental units while the South Qinling Belt had been the northern part of the South China Block. These units experienced three episodes of accretionary tectonic processes and amalgamation from south to north. The Neoproterozoic accretion took place along the Luonan-Luanchuan Fault and Kuanping ophiolitic mélange belt as a result of southward subduction and subsequent collision between the North Qinling and North China Blocks during ca. 1.0-0.8 Ga related to the formation of the supercontinent of Rodinia. The Paleozoic accretion occurred along the Shangdan suture resulted from northward subduction of oceanic lithosphere in the Early Paleozoic and subsequent continental subduction in the Late Paleozoic. Late Triassic accretion took place along the Mianlue suture between the South Qinling and South China Blocks due to northward subduction of the Mianlue oceanic lithosphere during the Permian-Early Triassic and subsequent collision in the Late Triassic. After the Late Triassic collision along the Mianlue suture the whole Qinling Mountain range entered the phase of intense intracontinental deformation.

  7. Record of modern-style plate tectonics in the Palaeoproterozoic Trans-Hudson orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, O. M.; St-Onge, M. R.

    2017-03-01

    The Trans-Hudson orogen of North America is a circa 1,800 million year old, middle Palaeoproterozoic continental collisional belt. The orogen may represent an ancient analogue to the Himalayan orogen, which began forming 50 million years ago and remains active today. Both mountain belts exhibit similar length scales of deformation and timescales of magmatism and metamorphism. A notable divergence in this correlation has been the absence of high-pressure, low-temperature metamorphic rocks in the Trans-Hudson compared with the Himalaya. It has been debated whether this absence reflects a secular tectonic change, with the requisite cool thermal gradients precluded by warmer ambient mantle temperatures during the Palaeoproterozoic, or a lack of preservation. Here we identify eclogite rocks within the Trans-Hudson orogen. These rocks, which typically form at high pressures and cool temperatures during subduction, fill the gap in the comparative geologic record between the Trans-Hudson and Himalayan orogens. Through the application of phase equilibria modelling and in situ U-Pb monazite dating we show that the pressure-temperature conditions and relative timing of eclogite-facies metamorphism are comparable in both orogenies. The results imply that modern-day plate tectonic processes featuring deep continental subduction occurred at least 1,830 million years ago. This study highlights that the global metamorphic rock record (particularly in older terrains) is skewed by overprinting and erosion.

  8. Variations in erosional efficiency modulate orogenic growth of the Alborz Mountains (N Iran)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballato, Paolo; Landgraf, Angela; Stockli, Daniel; Ghasemi, Mohammad; Strecker, Manfred; Kirby, Eric

    2014-05-01

    The recognition that redistribution of mass by erosion governs orogenic evolution has radically changed our perspective on the coupling between climate and mountain building processes. Climate modulates the efficiency of surface processes, which modifies crustal stresses and this is expected to produce the cessation of shortening at the orogenic front, onset of out-of-sequence thrusting, and increased rates of rock -uplift and sediment supply. Unambiguous characterization of these multiple responses through field-based studies, however, has remained challenging. Here, we show that coordinated changes in the rates and patterns of exhumation and deformation during the development of the Alborz Mountains (N Iran) were driven by abrupt, large magnitude (0.6 to 1.5 km) fluctuations in base level in the adjacent Caspian Sea. We argue that sustained regression of the paleoshoreline from ~6 to 3.2 Ma enhanced erosional efficiency of fluvial systems and increased exhumation within the axial orogenic zone and along the northern range flank which, in turn, drove coordinated retreat of the deformation fronts. When base level rose again at 3.2 Ma, exhumation in the orogen interior slowed and range-bounding faults were reactivated. This was associated with the progressive establishment of positive feedbacks loop between orographically-induced precipitation, focused erosion, exhumation, and rock uplift. Overall, these coordinated changes offer compelling evidence that enhanced erosion can indeed trigger a structural reorganization within an actively deforming orogen.

  9. Early Cretaceous extensional reworking of the Triassic HP-UHP metamorphic orogen in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, W.; Ji, W.; Faure, M.; Wu, L.; Li, Q. L.; Shi, Y.; Scharer, U.; Wang, F.; Wang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Corresponding to the Early Mesozoic continental subduction between the North China Block (NCB) and the South China Block (SCB), the Tongbaishan-Hong'an-Dabieshan-Sulu massifs are famous for their HP-UHP metamorphism. More than 50% of the HP-UHP Orogenic Belt was significantly reworked by Early Cretaceous extensional tectonics. This Early Cretaceous event with a fast cooling period, at 130-120 Ma, superimposed on the Early Mesozoic HP-UHP orogenic belt and intensively changed the architecture of this orogen. Each individual segment documents different Early Cretaceous extensional structures, namely the central Tongbaishan domain is a metamorphic core complex (MCC) represented by an A-type non-cylindrical antiform; the central Dabieshan domain is a typical Cordilleran-type migmatite-cored MCC; the Southern Sulu UHP domain is a "wedge-shaped" structure exhumed by a simple detachment fault. These late stage extensional structures expose the previous HP-UHP orogenic belt as fragments along the NCB-SCB boundary. The geodynamic setting of this Early Cretaceous extensional tectonics along the HP-UHP orogen is a part of a 1000 km-scale crustal extension belt that is widespread in eastern Eurasia continent from Trans-Baikal to the central part of the South China Block. Convective erosion or delamination of the mantle lithosphere might be considered as a possible mechanism for mantle removal.

  10. Early Cretaceous extensional reworking of the Triassic HP-UHP metamorphic orogen in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei; Ji, Wenbin; Faure, Michel; Wu, Lin; Li, Qiuli; Shi, Yonghong; Scharer, Urs; Wang, Fei; Wang, Qingchen

    2015-11-01

    Corresponding to the Early Mesozoic continental subduction between the North China Block (NCB) and the South China Block (SCB), the Tongbaishan-Hong'an-Dabieshan-Sulu massifs are famous for their HP-UHP metamorphism. More than 50% of the HP-UHP Orogenic Belt was significantly reworked by Early Cretaceous extensional tectonics. This Early Cretaceous event with a fast cooling period, at 130-120 Ma, superimposed on the Early Mesozoic HP-UHP orogenic belt and intensively changed the architecture of this orogen. Each individual segment documents different Early Cretaceous extensional structures, namely the central Tongbaishan domain is a metamorphic core complex (MCC) represented by an A-type non-cylindrical antiform; the central Dabieshan domain is a typical Cordilleran-type migmatite-cored MCC; the Southern Sulu UHP domain is a "wedge-shaped" structure exhumed by a simple detachment fault. These late stage extensional structures expose the previous HP-UHP orogenic belt as fragments along the NCB-SCB boundary. The geodynamic setting of this Early Cretaceous extensional tectonics along the HP-UHP orogen is a part of a 1000 km-scale crustal extension belt that is widespread in eastern Eurasia continent from Trans-Baikal to the central part of SCB. Convective erosion or delamination of the mantle lithosphere might be considered as a possible mechanism for mantle removal.

  11. Crustal Architecture along BABEL and FIRE profiles - Insight in the Growth of the Svecofennian Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korja, Annakaisa

    2016-04-01

    The Precambrian Svecofennian orogen is characterized by LP- HT metamorphism and voluminous granitoid magmatism that usually develop in transitional to plateau stages of a collisional orogeny. Deep seismic reflection profiles BABEL and FIRE have been interpreted using PURC concepts: prowedge, retrowedg, uplifted plug, subduction conduit and elevated plateau. BABEL profiles image a transitional orogen with several nuclei displaying prowedge-uplifted plug-retrowedge architecture above paleo-subduction conduits. Prowedge and -continent are on the south-southwestern side and retrowedge and -continent on the north-northwestern side. This implies a long-lived southwesterly retreating convergent margin, where transitional accretionary orogens have developed. FIRE1-3 profiles images a hot orogen with a pronounced super-infra structure, typical of an elevated plateau stage, below the Central Finland Granitoid Complex. Large volumes of granitoid intrusions suggest large scale melting of the middle and/or lower crust. Reflection structures, analogue and numerical modeling suggest midcrustal flow. The plateau is flanked by prowedges that are characterized by HT-LP migmatite belts. The Svecofennian orogeny has progressed to an elevated plateau stage in the thickest core of the orogen, west of the arc-continent collision zone.

  12. Magnetotelluric imaging beneath the Taiwan orogen: An arc-continent collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Edward A.; Unsworth, Martyn J.; Chiang, Chih-Wen; Chen, Chow-Son; Chen, Chien-Chih; Wu, Francis T.; TürkoǧLu, Ersan; Hsu, Han-Lun; Hill, Graham J.

    2012-01-01

    The Taiwan orogen has formed since the late Miocene by oblique collision between the Luzon Volcanic Arc on the Philippine Sea Plate, and the Eurasian continental margin. This oblique collision has produced an orogen that decreases in age from north to south, and permits study of the temporal evolution of an arc-continent collision. These factors make Taiwan a favorable location to study the process of arc-continent collision. The first long-period magnetotelluric (MT) measurements were recorded in Taiwan as part of the Taiwan Integrated Geodynamics Research (TAIGER) project in 2006-7. Measurements were made at 82 sites on three transects across south, central and north Taiwan, that span the breadth of the orogen and cross all major tectonic boundaries. Robust, remote reference processing of the MT time series data resulted in high-quality soundings that were modeled in both 2 and 3-dimensions. These MT models support predictions of lithospheric deformation (i.e., thick-skinned tectonics) beneath the Central Ranges in south and central Taiwan, but are inconsistent with predictions of orogen-scale thin-skinned models. The MT resistivity model for northern Taiwan is consistent with dewatering of the subducting Philippine slab, and with deformation described by the subducting-indenter tectonic model. Modeling the TAIGER MT data has definitively shown that conductive, and seismically active crustal structures, exist to 30+ km beneath the orogen. These conductive regions, interpreted as interconnected fluid, map pervasive zones of collisional deformation that are lithospheric in scale.

  13. U–Pb, Rb–Sr, and U-series isotope geochemistry of rocks and fracture minerals from the Chalk River Laboratories site, Grenville Province, Ontario, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neymark, Leonid; Peterman, Zell E.; Moscati, Richard J.; Thivierge, R. H.

    2013-01-01

    As part of the Geologic Waste Management Facility feasibility study, Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. (AECL) is evaluating the suitability of the Chalk River Laboratories (CRL) site in Ontario, situated in crystalline rock of the southwestern Grenville Province, for the possible development of an underground repository for low- and intermediate-level nuclear waste. This paper presents petrographic and trace element analyses, U–Pb zircon dating results, and Rb–Sr, U–Pb and U-series isotopic analyses of gneissic drill core samples from the deep CRG-series characterization boreholes at the CRL site. The main rock types intersected in the boreholes include hornblende–biotite (±pyroxene) gneisses of granitic to granodioritic composition, leucocratic granitic gneisses with sparse mafic minerals, and garnet-bearing gneisses with variable amounts of biotite and/or hornblende. The trace element data for whole-rock samples plot in the fields of within-plate, syn-collision, and volcanic arc-type granites in discrimination diagrams used for the tectonic interpretation of granitic rocks.Zircons separated from biotite gneiss and metagranite samples yielded SHRIMP-RG U–Pb ages of 1472 ± 14 (2σ) and 1045 ± 6 Ma, respectively, in very good agreement with widespread Early Mesoproterozoic plutonic ages and Ottawan orogeny ages in the Central Gneiss Belt. The Rb–Sr, U–Pb, and Pb–Pb whole-rock errorchron apparent ages of most of the CRL gneiss samples are consistent with zircon U–Pb age and do not indicate substantial large-scale preferential element mobility during superimposed metamorphic and water/rock interaction processes. This may confirm the integrity of the rock mass, which is a positive attribute for a potential nuclear waste repository. Most 234U/238U activity ratios (AR) in whole rock samples are within errors of the secular equilibrium value of one, indicating that the rocks have not experienced any appreciable U loss or gain within the past 1

  14. Redefinition of the Lac-St.-Jean Anorthosite, Central Grenville Province, Québec, Based on Compositional, Structural, Geochronological, and Mineral Deposit Features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, C.; van Breemen, O.

    2004-05-01

    The Lac-St.-Jean Anorthosite was previously recognized as one of the biggest anorthositic masses in the world (20,000 km2). Recent field and geochronological work has demonstrated that this anorthositic mass is, in fact, an assemblage resulting from four temporally distinct magmatic episodes, which took place between 1327 and 1012 Ma. This discovery has required the redefinition of the Lac-St.-Jean Anorthosite in terms of its component units. The 1327 ± 16 Ma De La Blache Mafic Plutonic Suite occupies the northeastern limb of the former Lac-St.-Jean Anorthosite. This suite is characterized by labradorite-type anorthosite, a large volume of olivine-bearing anorthositic rocks, a wide gabbronoritic fringe, and Fe-Ti and Ni-Cu occurrences. This magmatic body is constrained by a paired, dextral and sinistral strike-slip fault system. The Lac-St.-Jean Anorthositic Suite represents that part of the former Lac St.-Jean Anorthosite that was emplaced between 1160 and 1140 Ma. The suite still occupies the largest area of any anorthositic mass in the Central Grenville Province. It is characterized by labradorite- and andesine-type anorthositic rocks, is bordered by gabbronoritic fringes along its northern and southeastern margins, and contains sizeable Ti-Fe-P and Ni-Cu occurrences. The western part of this huge anorthositic mass is undeformed, whereas the eastern part was pervasively affected by a system of thrust and strike-slip faults, which resulted in a high degree of recrystallization of the anorthositic rocks. The 1180-1160 Ma Vanel Anorthosite occupies a large part of the eastern margin of the former Lac-St.-Jean-Anorthosite. This unit is characterized by labradorite- and andesine-type anorthositic rocks containing typically pink-colored and almost ubiquitously recristallized plagioclase. It includes abundant coronitic leuconorite, orthopyroxene-bearing leucotroctolite, and norite, and contains a few Ti-Fe-P occurrences. The 1012 +6/-4 Ma Mattawa Anorthosite is an

  15. Orogen-perpendicular structures in the central Tasmanides and implications for the Paleozoic tectonic evolution of eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Rashed; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2017-01-01

    The curvilinear E-W structures of the southern Thomson Orogen are approximately orthogonal to the general N-S structural trend of the Tasmanides of eastern Australia. The origin of these orogen-perpendicular structures and their implications to tectonic reconstructions of eastern Gondwana are not fully understood. Here we use geophysical data to unravel the geometry, kinematics and possible timing of major structures along the boundary between the Thomson Orogen and the southern Tasmanides (Delamerian and Lachlan orogens). Aeromagnetic data from the southern Thomson Orogen show WNW, E-W and/or ENE trending structural grains, corresponding to relatively long wavelength linear geophysical anomalies. Kinematic analyses indicate strike-slip and transpressional deformation along these geophysically defined faults. Structural relationships indicate that faulting took place during the Benambran (Late Ordovician to Middle Silurian) and Tabberabberan (late Early to Middle Devonian) orogenies. However, some of the described crustal-scale structures may have developed in the Cambrian during the Delamerian Orogeny. Interpretation of deep seismic data shows that the crust of the southern Thomson Orogen is substantially thicker than the Lachlan Orogen crust, which is separated from the Thomson Orogen by the north-dipping Olepoloko Fault. A major lithospheric-scale change across this boundary is also indicated by a contrast in seismic velocities. Together with evidence for the occurrence of Delamerian deformation in both the Koonenberry Belt and northeastern Thomson Orogen, and a significant contrast in the width of the northern Tasmanides versus the southern Tasmanides, it appears that the southern Thomson Orogen may represent the locus of orogen-perpendicular segmentation, which may have occurred in response to along-strike plate boundary variations.

  16. Trondhjemitic, 1.35-1.31 Ga gneisses of the Mount Holly Complex of Vermont: evidence for an Elzevirian event in the Grenville Basement of the United States Appalachians

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ratcliffe, N.M.; Aleinikoff, J.N.; Burton, W.C.; Karabinos, P.

    1991-01-01

    A newly recognized suite of trondhjemite-tonalite and dacitic gneiss forms a 10 km wide belt of rocks within the Mount Holly Complex in the central part of the Green Mountain massif. Field relationships and chemistry indicate that these gneisses are calc-alkaline, volcanic, and hypabyssal plutonic rocks older than the Middle Proterozoic regional deformation that affected the Mount Holly Complex. U-Pb zircon dates indicate ages as great as 1.35 Ga for crystallization of the volcanic protoliths and for intrusion of crossing trondhjemite. Tonalitic plutonism continued until 1.31 Ga. The Mount Holly intrusives and volcanics may have formed during 1.35-1.31 Ga ensialic volcanic-arc activity, contemporaneous with ensimatic arc activity during the early part of the Elzevirian phase of the Grenville orogeny. -from Authors

  17. Architecture of orogenic belts and convergent zones in Western Ishtar Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Head, James W.; Vorderbruegge, R. W.; Crumpler, L. S.

    1989-01-01

    Linear mountain belts in Ishtar Terra were recognized from Pioneer-Venus topography, and later Arecibo images showed banded terrain interpreted to represent folds. Subsequent analyses showed that the mountains represented orogenic belts, and that each had somewhat different features and characteristics. Orogenic belts are regions of focused shortening and compressional deformation and thus provide evidence for the nature of such deformation, processes of crustal thickening (brittle, ductile), and processes of crustal loss. Such information is important in understanding the nature of convergent zones on Venus (underthrusting, imbrication, subduction), the implications for rates of crustal recycling, and the nature of environments of melting and petrogenesis. The basic elements of four convergent zones and orogenic belts in western Ishtar Terra are identified and examined, and then assess the architecture of these zones (the manner in which the elements are arrayed), and their relationships. The basic nomenclature of the convergent zones is shown.

  18. Orogenic plateau magmatism of the Arabia-Eurasia collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, M. B.; Neill, I.; Kheirkhah, M.; van Hunen, J.; Davidson, J. P.; Meliksetian, Kh.; Emami, M. H.

    2012-04-01

    generally applicable as melt triggers. Enigmatic lavas are erupted over the thick lithosphere of Kurdistan Province, Iran. These alkali basalts and basanites have the chemical characteristics of small degree (<1%) melts in the garnet stability field. Most possess supra-subduction zone chemistry (La/Nb = 1-3), but this signature is highly variable. Similar La/Nb variability occurs in the basic lavas of Damavand volcano in the Alborz Mountains of northern Iran. Modelling suggests the depletion of residual amphibole during the progression of partial melting can explain the observed La/Nb range. This melting may occur as the result of lithospheric thickening. At depths of ~90 km, amphibole-bearing peridotite crosses an experimentally-determined "backbend" in its solidus. Melting can continue while the source remains hydrated. Such "compression" melting may apply to parts of other orogenic plateaux, including Tibet.

  19. Relating shortening, erosion, and exhumation to orogen width during Alpine collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Claudio; Berger, Alfons; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Bousquet, Romain

    2014-05-01

    The width of orogens may change through time depending on the amount of shortening, on the efficiency of erosion, on the strength and thickness of the plates, or on the occurrence of pre-existing and newly formed weaknesses within the plates. The effect of erosion rates on the width of the Alps was controversially discussed, based on estimates of paleo-erosion rates and paleo-widths of the orogen. However, both parameters are difficult to reconstruct. In this contribution we investigate the causes of present-day, along-strike changes of width of the Eastern and the Central Alps to understand its width changes through time. Based on a series of 6 orogen-scale cross-sections and their retro-deformation we set the width of the thickened accreted lower plate in relation to the amount of collisional shortening and exhumation. We conclude that higher amounts of shortening systematically coincide with smaller widths of the thickened, accreted lower plate, i.e. the width of the mountain chain north of the South-Alpine indenters. Changes of width by a factor 2 along orogen segments of less than 200 km length cannot result from long-term climatic differences and sedimentary or paleontological evidences suggesting such differences are lacking. Therefore, erosional processes did not directly control the width of the orogen, which did not behave as a critical taper. Higher amounts of shortening coincide with larger amplitudes of orogen-scale, upright folds, with larger amounts of exhumation, and with higher exhumation rates. Hence, erosion did play a major role in reducing by up to 35 km the vertical crustal thickness in order to accommodate and allow shortening by folding, but along-strike changes of erosion rates were governed by different amounts of shortening, not by different climate.

  20. Basin-mountain structures and hydrocarbon exploration potential of west Junggar orogen in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X.; Qi, X.; Zheng, M.

    2015-12-01

    Situated in northern Xinjiang, China, in NE-SW trend, West Junggar Orogen is adjacent to Altai fold belt on the north with the Ertix Fault as the boundary, North Tianshan fold belt on the south with the Ebinur Lake Strike-slip Fault as the boundary, and the Junggar Basin on the southeast with Zaire-Genghis Khan-Hala'alat fold belt as the boundary. Covering an area of about 10×104 km2 in China, there are medium and small intermontane basins, Burqin-Fuhai, Tacheng, Hefeng and Hoxtolgay, distributing inside the orogen. Tectonically West Junggar Orogen lies in the middle section of the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain where the Siberia, Kazakhstan and Tarim Plates converge, and is the only orogen trending NE-SW in the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain. Since the Paleozoic, the orogen experienced pre-Permian plate tectonic evolution and post-Permian intra-plate basin evolution. Complex tectonic evolution and multi-stage structural superimposition not only give rise to long term controversial over the basin basement property but also complex basin-mountain coupling relations, structures and basin superimposition modes. According to analysis of several kinds of geological and geophysical data, the orogen was dominated by compressive folding and thrust napping from the Siberia plate in the north since the Late Paleozoic. Compressive stress weakened from north to south, corresponding to subdued vertical movement and enhanced horizontal movement of crustal surface from north to south, and finally faded in the overthrust-nappe belt at the northwest margin of the Junggar Basin. The variation in compressive stress is consistent with the surface relief of the orogen, which is high in the north and low in the south. There are two kinds of basin-mountain coupling relationships, i.e. high angle thrusting and overthrusting and napping, and two kinds of basin superimposition modes, i.e. inherited and progressive, and migrating and convulsionary modes. West Junggar orogen has rich oil and gas

  1. La Escalerilla pluton, San Luis Argentina: The orogenic and post-orogenic magmatic evolution of the famatinian cycle at Sierras de San Luis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morosini, Augusto Francisco; Ortiz Suárez, Ariel Emilio; Otamendi, Juan Enrique; Pagano, Diego Sebastián; Ramos, Gabriel Alejandro

    2017-01-01

    Field relationships, geochemical analysis and two new absolute ages (LA-MC-ICP-MS U/Pb-zircon) allow the division of the La Escalerilla pluton (previously considered to be a single granitic body) into two different plutons: a new La Escalerilla pluton (s.s.), dated at 476.7 ± 9.6 Ma, that represents the northern portion, and the El Volcán pluton, dated at 404.5 ± 8.5 Ma, located in the southern sector. The La Escalerilla pluton is composed of three facies: (1) biotite-bearing granodiorite, (2) porphyritic biotite-bearing granite, and (3) porphyritic two micas-bearing leucogranite, being the presence of late-magmatic dykes in these facies common. The El Volcán pluton is composed of two main facies: 1) porphyritic biotite-bearing granite, and 2) two micas-bearing leucogranite, but amphibole-bearing monzodioritic and tonalititic mega-enclaves are also common, as well as some dykes of amphibole and clinopyroxene-bearing syenites. A peculiarity between the two plutons is that their most representative facies (porphyritic biotite-bearing granites) have, apart from different absolute ages, distinctive geochemical characteristics in their concentrations of trace elements; the La Escalerilla granite is comparatively poorer in Ba, Sr, Nb, La, Ce, P, and richer in Rb, Tb, Y, Tm and Yb. The El Volcán granite is notably enriched in Sr and depleted in Y, resulting in high Sr/Y ratios (12.67-39.08) compared to the La Escalerilla granite (1.11-2.41). These contrasts indicate that the separation from their sources occurred at different depths: below 25 km for the La Escalerilla, and above 30 km for the El Volcán. Moreover, the contrasts allow us to interpret a thin crust linked to an environment of pre-collisional subduction for the first case, and a thickened crust of post-collisional environment for the second, respectively.

  2. Trans-Hudson Orogen of North America and Himalaya-Karakoram-Tibetan Orogen of Asia: Structural and thermal characteristics of the lower and upper plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St-Onge, Marc R.; Searle, Michael P.; Wodicka, Natasha

    2006-08-01

    The Trans-Hudson Orogen (THO) of North America and the Himalaya-Karakoram-Tibetan Orogen (HKTO) of Asia preserve a Paleoproterozoic and Cenozoic record, respectively, of continent-continent collision that is notably similar in scale, duration and character. In THO, the tectonothermal evolution of the lower plate involves (1) early thin-skinned thrusting and Barrovian metamorphism, (2) out-of-sequence thrusting and high-T metamorphism, and (3) fluid-localized reequilibration, anatexis, and leucogranite formation. The crustal evolution of the Indian lower plate in HKTO involves (1) early subduction of continental crust to ultrahigh pressure (UHP) eclogite depths, (2) regional Barrovian metamorphism, and (3) widespread high-T metamorphism, anatexis, and leucogranite formation. The shallow depths of the high-T metamorphism in HKTO are consistent with early to mid-Miocene ductile flow of an Indian lower plate midcrustal channel, from beneath the southern Tibetan Plateau to the Greater Himalaya. Melt weakening of the lower plate in THO is not observed at a similar scale probably due to the paucity of pelitic lithologies. Tectonothermal events in the upper plate of both orogens include precollisional accretion of crustal blocks, emplacement of Andean-type plutonic suites, and high-T metamorphism. Syncollisional to postcollisional events include emplacement of garnet-biotite-muscovite leucogranites, anatectic granites, and sporadic metamorphism (up to 90 Myr following the onset of collision in THO). Comparing the type and duration of tectonothermal events for THO and HKTO supports the notion of tectonic uniformitarianism for at least the later half of dated Earth history and highlights the complementary nature of the rock record in an older "exhumed" orogen compared to one undergoing present-day orogenesis.

  3. Feeding the ';aneurysm': Orogen-parallel mass flux into Nanga Parbat and the western Himalayan syntaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whipp, D. M.; Beaumont, C.; Braun, J.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last ~2 Ma, exhumation of the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh massif (NPHM) in the western Himalayan syntaxis region has occurred at rates that are more than double the exhumation rates in the central Himalaya (up to 13 mm/a). Coupled with surface elevations comparable to the rest of the Himalaya, this suggests an additional source of mass flux, over and above that supplied by normal convergence, is required to sustain localized, very rapid exhumation of the NPHM. The ';tectonic aneurysm' model provides an explanation for localized, rapid exhumation in the NPHM based on incision by the Indus River, but the source of the excess mass is not clear. One source capable of providing the requisite crustal mass is orogen-parallel (OP) mass transport as a result of strain partitioning along the Himalayan thrust front, where convergence is variably oblique, with obliquity up to ~40°. Conceptual and analog models of strain partitioning in convergent orogens have indicated how orogen-normal thrust motion results in OP mass transport within oblique orogenic wedges. However, there has been no quantitative demonstration that this may lead to the development of NPHM-type structures. We use geometrically simple 3D mechanical numerical experiments of an obliquely convergent orogen to demonstrate that the OP mass transport flux resulting from strain partitioning is capable of sustaining syntaxis topography and rapid exhumation rates. The model design includes a frictional-plastic orogenic wedge with predefined weak shear zones at its base and rear, and a neighboring plateau underlain by low-viscosity middle-lower crust. The geometry of the orogen thrust front is segmented, such that there is a region of oblique convergence at 45° obliquity bounded by two regions of orogen-normal convergence. Analytical and numerical results show that strain partitioning in the critical wedge orogen requires both the basal and rear shear zones to be very weak, with angles of internal friction of ~2

  4. The crustal structures from Wuyi-Yunkai orogen to Taiwan orogen: the onshore-offshore wide-angle seismic experiment of TAIGER and ATSEE projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuochen, H.; Kuo, N. Y. W.; Wang, C. Y.; Jin, X.; Cai, H. T.; Lin, J. Y.; Wu, F. T.; Yen, H. Y.; Huang, B. S.; Liang, W. T.; Okaya, D. A.; Brown, L. D.

    2015-12-01

    The crustal structure is key information for understanding the tectonic framework and geological evolution in the southeastern China and its adjacent area. In this study, we integrated the data sets from the TAIGER and ATSEE projects to resolve onshore-offshore deep crustal seismic profiles from the Wuyi-Yunkai orogen to the Taiwan orogen in southeastern China. Totally, there are three seismic profiles resolved and the longest profile is 850 km. Unlike 2D and 3D first arrival travel-time tomography from previous studies, we used both refracted and reflected phases (Pg, Pn, PcP, and PmP) to model the crustal structures and the crustal reflectors. 40 shots, 2 earthquakes, and about 1,950 stations were used and 15,319 arrivals were picked among three transects. As a result, the complex crustal evolution since Paleozoic era are shown, which involved the closed Paleozoic rifted basin in central Fujian, the Cenozoic extension due to South China sea opening beneath the coastline of southern Fujian, and the on-going collision of the Taiwan orogen.

  5. Crustal structures from the Wuyi-Yunkai orogen to the Taiwan orogen: The onshore-offshore wide-angle seismic experiments of the TAIGER and ATSEE projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Yao-Wen; Wang, Chien-Ying; Kuo-Chen, Hao; Jin, Xin; Cai, Hui-Teng; Lin, Jing-Yi; Wu, Francis T.; Yen, Horng-Yuan; Huang, Bor-Shouh; Liang, Wen-Tzong; Okaya, David; Brown, Larry

    2016-12-01

    Knowledge of the crustal structure is important for understanding the tectonic framework and geological evolution of southeastern China and adjacent areas. In this study, we integrated the datasets from the TAIGER (TAiwan Integrated GEodynamic Research) and ATSEE (Across Taiwan Strait Explosion Experiment) projects to resolve onshore-offshore deep crustal seismic profiles from the Wuyi-Yunkai orogen to the Taiwan orogen in southeastern China. Three seismic profiles were resolved, and the longest profile was 850 km. Unlike 2D and 3D first arrival travel-time tomography from previous studies, we used both refracted and reflected phases (Pg, Pn, PcP, and PmP) to model the crustal structures and the crustal reflectors. In total, data from 40 shots, 2 earthquakes, and approximately 1,950 stations were used; 15,612 arrivals were selected among three transects. Using these data, we determined the complex crustal evolution since the Paleozoic era , involving the closed Paleozoic rift basin in central Fujian, the Cenozoic extension due to the South China Sea opening beneath the coastline of southern Fujian, and the on-going collision of the Taiwan orogen. The shape of the Moho, which also reflects the crustal evolution, can be summarized as follows: 30 km deep to the west of Fujian, deepening toward central Fujian ( 35 km), becoming shallower toward the Taiwan Strait ( 28 km), deepening again toward the mountain belt of Taiwan ( 42 km), and becoming shallower toward the Pacific Ocean ( 10 km).

  6. How does the mid-crust accommodate deformation in large, hot collisional orogens? A review of recent research in the Himalayan orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cottle, John M.; Larson, Kyle P.; Kellett, Dawn A.

    2015-09-01

    The presence of hot, weak crust is a central component of recent hypotheses that seek to explain the evolution of continent-continent collisions, and in particular may play an important role in accommodating the >3000 km of convergence within the Himalaya-Tibetan collision over the last ∼55 Myr. Models that implicate flow of semi-viscous midcrustal rocks south toward the front of the Himalayan orogen, 'channel flow', are able to account for many geologic observations in the Himalaya, while alternative models of collision, particularly 'thrust-wedge taper', demonstrate that much of the observed geology could have formed in the absence of a low-viscosity mid-crustal layer. Several recent studies, synthesized here, have prompted a shift from initial assumptions that channel flow and thrust-wedge taper processes are by definition mutually exclusive. These new studies reveal the presence of several tectonometamorphic discontinuities in the midcrust that appear to reflect a continuum of deformation in which both channel- and wedge-type processes operate in spatially and temporally distinct domains within the orogen, and further, that the system may migrate back and forth between these types of behavior. This continuum of deformation styles within the collisional system is of crucial importance for explaining the evolution of the Himalayan orogen and, hence, for understanding the evolution of Earth's many continent-continent collision zones.

  7. Sulfur- and lead-isotope signatures of orogenic gold mineralisation associated with the Hill End Trough, Lachlan Orogen, New South Wales, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes, P. M.; Seccombe, P. K.; Carr, G. R.

    2008-11-01

    The Hill End Trough (HET) is a deformed middle Silurian to Early Devonian sediment-dominated rift within the northeastern Lachlan Orogen. The HET hosts the Hill End, Hargraves, Napoleon Reefs, Stuart Town and Windeyer low-sulfide orogenic gold deposits. Adjacent to the HET are the Bodangora and Gulgong gold deposits. In this study we present 91 new sulfur- and 18 new lead-isotope analyses and collate a further 25 sulfur- and 32 lead-isotopes analyses from unpublished sources for these deposits. Larger gold deposits in the HET have near 0 δ34S‰ values indicating that sulfur in these systems was sourced from a magmatic reservoir. The dominant lead isotope signature for HET-hosted deposits reflects a crustal source however some mantle-derived lead has been introduced into the HET. Sulfur- and lead-isotopic results suggest that gold was sourced from mantle-derived magmatic units beneath the HET. The study supports earlier studies at Hill End by concluding that the majority of orogenic gold mineralisation in and adjacent to the HET formed during the Early Carboniferous period.

  8. A study of models and controls for basin formation during continental collision: (1) Australian lithosphere along Banda orogen (Indonesia) and (2) Alboran Sea basin (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tandon, Kush

    Mechanisms for the formation of a foreland basin at the beginning of continental collision (Pliocene-Recent Australian continental foreland along the Banda orogen) and a post-orogenic, continental, Miocene extensional basin (Alboran Sea) are studied. Such a study investigates the controls on the basin formation during the start of the Wilson cycle and later during the break up of a thickened continent in a collisional environment. Effective Elastic Thickness (EET) of the Australian continental lithosphere from Roti to the Kai Plateau ({˜}121sp°{-}137sp°E longitude) are estimated using an elastic-half beam model to match the sea floor bathymetry and the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Range of constant EET values from 27-75 km across the shelf of Australian lithosphere shows a variation of 64% with the highest value in the vicinity of central Timor where the collision is most advanced. Downdip on the Australian continental lithosphere from shelf to beneath the Banda orogen, the reduction in EET is from ˜90 km-˜30 km (66%). Variations in EET can be explained by inelastic yielding (brittle and plastic failure, crust-mantle decoupling in the lower crust and brittle-ductile decoupling in the upper-middle crust) in the Australian lithosphere. Change in EET occurred at the start of continental subduction due to change in curvature, both in map and cross-sectional view. Oroclinal bending of the continental Australian lithosphere increased the inelastic failure in the eastern end. Different mechanisms of basin formation at a site of post-orogenic collapse are studied by constraining the timing of rifting in the western, eastern, and northern parts of the Alboran Sea basin on seismic reflectors via synthetic seismograms using ODP Leg 161 and Andalucia A-1 data. Regions of adjacent coeval compression and extension are found in the Alboran Sea basin. Normal faulting continues in parts of the eastern Alboran Sea basin later than in the western Alboran Sea basin. The development

  9. The eye of the field geologist and the mind of the tectonician: one view of dynamic crustal rheology in convergent orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M.

    2004-05-01

    -depleted rocks, implying that they were quasi-continuously drained. Studies of migmatitic granulites demonstrate that melt migrates from grain boundaries to mesoscale networks of structures (mm to m) to steeply-inclined conduits recorded by rod or tabular granite intrusions (m to dm). Melt loss from lower crust yields residual rocks composed of strong minerals (feldspar, pyroxene and garnet) with only minor melt on grain boundaries. Thus, weakening of lower crust due to melting is followed by its strengthening. Around the brittle-to-viscous transition zone granite accumulates in subhorizontal tabular plutons, which implies transient presence of significantly weaker layers in shallow orogenic crust; these are potential detachment horizons. Field studies of exhumed orogens suggest deformation commonly is laterally, transversely and vertically diachronous, reflecting the spatial and temporal variation in the weakening-to-strengthening cycle. There may be important sub-horizontal movement horizons, which allow (partial) decoupling of crustal layers. At upper-to-middle crustal levels rocks are metamorphosed in greenschist-amphibolite facies, with local enhancement by pluton-advected heat to amphibolite-granulite facies and thrust-style brittle-ductile deformation (e.g., Acadian, NH). Rocks from middle crustal levels are in amphibolite facies and have penetrative steep fabrics (e.g., Acadian, western ME) or exhibit a complex network of shallowly- and steeply-dipping fabrics (e.g., St. Malo, France). Rocks from lower crustal levels are in amphibolite-granulite facies and have shallow fabrics due to crustal flow, although these may be steepened by later deformation including core-complex formation (e.g., S. Brittany, France).

  10. An Early Cretaceous garnet pressure-temperature path recording synconvergent burial and exhumation from the hinterland of the Sevier orogenic belt, Albion Mountains, Idaho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, Eric D.; Hoisch, Thomas D.; Wells, Michael L.; Vervoort, Jeffrey D.; Beyene, Mengesha A.

    2015-08-01

    Rocks may undergo complex pressure-temperature ( P- T) histories during orogenesis in response to alternating episodes of synconvergent burial and exhumation. In this study, chemical zoning in garnets combined with textural and chemical evidence from the schist of Willow Creek in the Albion Mountains of south-central Idaho (USA), reveals a complex P- T path during the early stages of Sevier orogenesis. The distribution of quartz inclusions combined with internal resorption features establishes a hiatus in garnet growth. Chemical zoning was simulated using a G-minimization approach to yield a P- T path consisting of three distinct pressure changes during increasing temperature, defining an "N" shape. Lu-Hf isochron ages from multiple garnet fractions and whole-rock analyses in two samples are 132.1 ± 2.4 and 138.7 ± 3.5 Ma. The samples were collected from the hanging wall of the Basin-Elba thrust fault and yielded results similar to those previously obtained from the footwall. This leads to several conclusions: (1) Both the hanging wall and footwall experienced the same metamorphic event, (2) the paths document a previously unrecognized crustal thickening and synorogenic extension cycle that fills an important time gap in the shortening history of the Sevier retroarc, suggesting progressive eastward growth of the orogen rather than a two-stage history, and (3) episodes of extensional exhumation during protracted convergent orogenesis are increasingly well recognized and highlight the dynamic behavior of orogenic belts.

  11. Rheological Consequences of Rapid Erosion in Active Orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koons, P. O.; Meltzer, A. S.; Zeitler, P. K.

    2003-12-01

    It has long been recognized that erosion can influence the geodynamics of an orogen by redistributing mass. However, only recently has it become appreciated that rapid exhumation can locally alter the three-dimensional thermal structure of the crust, profoundly changing its rheology and weakening portions of the crustal profile. This process in turn permits feedbacks between erosion, rheology, and deformation. Specifically, based on geological and geophysical observations at Nanga Parbat in the northwestern Himalaya, we have proposed the "tectonic aneurysm" model, in which significant erosion (at Nanga Parbat, along the large Indus River valley) is sufficient to weaken the crust and divert crustal flow into the region. This in turn facilitates coupled rock uplift and erosion, which further weaken the crust as the shallow thermal gradient steepens, localizing and enhancing deformation. Geological observations at the Nanga Parbat antiform in support of this model include a concentric distribution of metamorphic facies distribution with high-T/low-P granulites at the center, a bulls-eye distribution of very young cooling ages and Neogene decompression melts, and the prevalence of compressional deformation for all young and active structures (which young towards the interior of the antiform). Geophsyical data in the form of dense seismic tomography, distribution of microseismicity, and magnetotelluric measurements document a volume of warm, weak, and resistive crust localized beneath the antiform, none of which appears to be molten to any significant degree. Three-dimensional mechanical models of active incision into a lithosphere with thermally activated lower crust can initialize the aneurysm behavior when fluvial incision occurs along a valley with approximately the same width as the thickness of the frictional upper crust. As the aneurysm grows through positive feedback of advective heating and thermal weakening, the rheological effect becomes dominant over the

  12. Thermochemical cycles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funk, J. E.; Soliman, M. A.; Carty, R. H.; Conger, W. L.; Cox, K. E.; Lawson, D.

    1975-01-01

    The thermochemical production of hydrogen is described along with the HYDRGN computer program which attempts to rate the various thermochemical cycles. Specific thermochemical cycles discussed include: iron sulfur cycle; iron chloride cycle; and hybrid sulfuric acid cycle.

  13. Paleomagnetic data from the New England Orogen (eastern Australia) and implications for oroclinal bending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaanan, Uri; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Pisarevsky, Sergei; Speranza, Fabio

    2015-11-01

    Orogenic curvatures (oroclines) are common in modern and ancient orogens, but the geodynamic driving forces of many oroclines remain controversial. Here we focus on the New England oroclines of eastern Australia, the formation of which had been previously broadly constrained to the Early-Middle Permian. This time interval encompasses periods of both back-arc extension (at ~ 300-280 Ma) and subsequent contractional deformation (Hunter-Bowen Orogeny) that commenced at ~ 270 Ma along the paleo-Pacific and Gondwanan subduction plate boundary. We present new paleomagnetic data from volcanic rocks that were extruded during the transition from extension to contraction (at ~ 272 Ma), and we show that the oroclinal structure must have formed prior to the emplacement of the volcanic rocks. Our results thus indicate that oroclinal bending in the southernmost New England Orogen has been completed prior to the onset of Middle Permian contractional deformation. It is therefore concluded that the oroclines have likely formed during back-arc extension, and that a major contribution to the orogenic curvature was driven by trench retreat.

  14. Post-collisional magmatism in the central East African Orogen: The Maevarano Suite of north Madagascar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goodenough, K.M.; Thomas, Ronald J.; De Waele, B.; Key, R.M.; Schofield, D.I.; Bauer, W.; Tucker, R.D.; Rafahatelo, J.-M.; Rabarimanana, M.; Ralison, A.V.; Randriamananjara, T.

    2010-01-01

    Late tectonic, post-collisional granite suites are a feature of many parts of the Late Neoproterozoic to Cambrian East African Orogen (EAO), where they are generally attributed to late extensional collapse of the orogen, accompanied by high heat flow and asthenospheric uprise. The Maevarano Suite comprises voluminous plutons which were emplaced in some of the tectonostratigraphic terranes of northern Madagascar, in the central part of the EAO, following collision and assembly during a major orogeny at ca. 550 Ma. The suite comprises three main magmatic phases: a minor early phase of foliated gabbros, quartz diorites, and granodiorites; a main phase of large batholiths of porphyritic granitoids and charnockites; and a late phase of small-scale plutons and sheets of monzonite, syenite, leucogranite and microgranite. The main phase intrusions tend to be massive, but with variably foliated margins. New U-Pb SHRIMP zircon data show that the whole suite was emplaced between ca. 537 and 522 Ma. Geochemically, all the rocks of the suite are enriched in the LILE, especially K, and the LREE, but are relatively depleted in Nb, Ta and the HREE. These characteristics are typical of post-collisional granitoids in the EAO and many other orogenic belts. It is proposed that the Maevarano Suite magmas were derived by melting of sub-continental lithospheric mantle that had been enriched in the LILE during earlier subduction events. The melting occurred during lithospheric delamination, which was associated with extensional collapse of the East African Orogen. ?? 2009 Natural Environment Research Council.

  15. The role of radiogenic heat in prolonged intraplate reworking: The Capricorn Orogen explained?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korhonen, Fawna J.; Johnson, Simon P.

    2015-10-01

    Links between intraplate crustal deformation and the thermal regime of the lithosphere have been investigated using numerical models, but these conceptual models must be tested using well-constrained natural systems. The Proterozoic Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia is ideally suited for such a study; after arc accretion, it records a protracted history of intracrustal differentiation and over one billion years of subsequent tectonic reworking. The early addition of juvenile arc material initially reduced the heat production of the crust, whereas subsequent recycling of the deep crust ultimately produced radiogenic granites in the shallow crust. Using whole rock and magmatic zircon compositions, we show that the shallow crust of the Capricorn Orogen has been progressively enriched in heat-producing elements with time. The high heat production is mainly controlled by thorium, concentrated in LREE-enriched phosphates that grew during the late stages of crystallization of crustally-derived granites. Using a numerical model, we investigate the thermal effects of this evolved crustal stratification and compare them with quantitative data on the pressure-temperature-time evolution of a non-magmatic Mesoproterozoic reworking event. The results provide new information concerning the process by which the thermal conditions necessary for the reworking of orogenic crust are generated and sustained for prolonged timescales (>110 Ma). Furthermore, we demonstrate that perturbations to the radiogenic crust lead to warmer geotherms and consequent lithospheric weakening, which has a fundamental control on intraplate reworking of long-lived orogens.

  16. Evidence of Early Cretaceous transpression in the Sulu orogenic belt, eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Chang, Su-Chin; Lin, Peijun; Zhu, Xiaoqing; Fu, Yongtao; Zhang, Haichun

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies have documented marine turbidites with syn-sedimentary deformation features in the central Sulu orogenic belt of eastern China. These units preserve essential information on the Late Mesozoic evolution of the Sulu orogenic belt. Referred to as the Baxiandun Formation, the turbidites exhibit similar lithologic characteristics to nearby units such as the Lingshandao Formation that have been well studied even though precise geochronologic constraints are lacking for a more precise correlation. This study reports detrital zircon Usbnd Pb age data that correlate the Baxiandun Formation turbidites of the central Sulu orogenic belt to the Early Cretaceous Lingshandao Formation. We also report Al-in-hornblende emplacement depth estimates for granitic intrusions of the Sulu orogenic belt's Laoshan mountain. A sharp contact between the Laoshan granites and the marine Baxiandun Formation indicates that the Baxiandun basin rapidly subsided to the emplacement depth of the Laoshan plutons. Lateral correlation among the marine turbidites, the Lingshandao and Baxiandun Formations, combined with information established by previous studies indicates initiation of transpressional tectonics at 122-121 Ma. Transpression ceased with the emplacement of the Laoshan granites, whose A1-type composition indicates a return to extensional tectonics at ca. 111 Ma.

  17. Orogen-parallel deformation of the Himalayan midcrust: Insights from structural and magnetic fabric analyses of the Greater Himalayan Sequence, Annapurna-Dhaulagiri Himalaya, central Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, A. J.; Ferré, E. C.; Law, R. D.; Lloyd, G. E.; Phillips, R. J.; Searle, M. P.

    2016-11-01

    The metamorphic core of the Himalaya (Greater Himalayan Sequence, GHS), in the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri region, central Nepal, recorded orogen-parallel stretching during midcrustal evolution. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility and field-based structural analyses suggest that midcrustal deformation of the amphibolite facies core of the GHS occurred under an oblate/suboblate strain regime with associated formation of low-angle northward dipping foliation. Magnetic and mineral stretching lineations lying within this foliation from the top of the GHS record right-lateral orogen-parallel stretching. We propose that oblate strain within a midcrustal flow accommodated oblique convergence between India and the arcuate orogenic front without the need for strain partitioning in the upper crust. Oblate flattening may have also promoted orogen-parallel melt migration and development of melt-depleted regions between km3 scale leucogranite culminations at 50-100 km intervals along orogen strike. Following the cessation of flow, continued oblique convergence led to upper crustal strain partitioning between orogen-perpendicular convergence on thrust faults and orogen-parallel extension on normal and strike-slip faults. In the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri Himalaya, orogen-parallel stretching lineations are interpreted as a record of transition from midcrustal orogen-perpendicular extrusion to upper crustal orogen-parallel stretching. Our findings suggest that midcrustal flow and upper crustal extension could not be maintained simultaneously and support other studies from across the Himalaya, which propose an orogen-wide transition from midcrustal orogen-perpendicular extrusion to upper crustal orogen-parallel extension during the mid-Miocene. The 3-D nature of oblate strain and orogen-parallel stretching cannot be replicated by 2-D numerical simulations of the Himalayan orogen.

  18. North-vergent thrust fault between Baltica and Laurentian affinity rocks in the frontal part of Romanzof orogen, NE Brooks Range, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, T. E.; O'Sullivan, P. B.

    2012-12-01

    One of the most striking features of Arctic physiography is the long, linear Canadian Arctic margin of the Arctic Basin, which extends from the Lincoln Sea north of Greenland to the eastern Beaufort Sea and projects into northeastern Alaska. Among other ideas, this margin has been proposed to have developed by sinistral transform faulting in the Middle Devonian as a result of tectonic escape of terranes from the Caledonites (the so-called "Northwest Passage"). The faults on which the transform motion might have occurred, however, have not been recognized along the northern margin of North America. One candidate for such a fault is exposed at the southern boundary of the Sadlerochit Mountains province in the Tertiary frontal part of the NE Brooks Range. In the Plunge Creek area of the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, a contact between rocks of Laurentian affinity and Baltica affinity is exposed on the back limb of a basement-involved map-scale thrust block formed by Brookian thrusting. The regional unconformity at the base of the Mississippian to Triassic Ellesmerian Sequence provides a near flat-lying datum that overlaps the contact between the pre-Mississippian tectonic units and demonstrates that it was not reactivated by Brookian thrusting. The Sadlerochit Mountains succession to the north of the contact consists of a Neoproterozoic and lower Paleozoic carbonate sequence that rests on metaclastic rocks that yield Grenville-Sveconorwegian (0.95-1.2 Ga) and other Mesoproterozoic detrital zircon U-Pb age populations similar to those reported from the northern parts of Baltica and eastern Greenland. In contrast, the Romanzof Mountains succession to the south consists of Neoproterozoic deep-marine clastic rocks (Neruokpuk Quartzite) and overlying lower Paleozoic chert and argillite. Detrital zircon U-Pb age populations from the Neruokpuk are very similar to those from Laurentian-derived clastic rocks in the Canadian margin of North America. Field relations show that

  19. Shear-zone systems and melts: feedback relations and self-organization in orogenic belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Michael; Solar, Gary S.

    1998-03-01

    In orogenic belts, the common spatial and temporal association of granites with crustal-scale shear-zone systems suggests melt transfer from source to upper crust was the result of a feedback relation. In this relation, the presence of melt in the crust profoundly affects the rheology, and induces localization of strain within shear-zone systems. Consequently, melt is moved out of the source preferentially along high-strain zones, which helps the system to accommodate strain. Because actively deforming orogenic belts are non-equilibrium systems, they may generate dissipative structure by self-organization; we interpret crustal-scale shear-zone systems and their associated granites as the manifestation of this self-organization. The architecture and permeability structure are controlled by the type of shear-zone system (transcurrent, normal, reverse or oblique); this is the primary control on melt transfer in orogenic belts. During active deformation, movement of melt is by percolative flow and melt essentially is pumped through the system parallel to the maximum principal finite elongation direction. If a build-up of melt pressure occurs, melt-enhanced embrittlement enables tensile and dilatant shear fracturing, and transfer of melt is by channelized flow. We illustrate feedback relations between migmatites, crustal-scale shear-zone systems and granites using examples from the Cadomian belt of western France and the northern Appalachian orogen of the eastern U.S.A. In orogenic belts dominated by transcurrent shear, where the maximum principal finite elongation direction may have a shallow to subhorizontal plunge, granite arrested during ascent through the system commonly develops C- S fabrics. This suggests percolative flow is not effective in expelling melt from these systems; the resulting build-up of melt pressure enables fracturing and channelized transfer of melt, which crystallizes during persistent deformation (e.g. the St. Malo migmatite belt, Cadomian belt

  20. Lateral variations in lithospheric and landscape evolution at both ends of the Himalaya-Tibet orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeitler, P. K.; Schmidt, J. L.; Meltzer, A.

    2015-12-01

    At the broadest scale, like many orogens the Himalaya encompass a range of orogenic features that are remarkably similar along much of the length of the mountain belt and its neighboring terranes. At one scale of consideration, these similarities appear to be a signal that fundamental processes associated with lithospheric collision have been active. However, the vast size of the Himalaya and Tibet, the different climate regimes experienced by the orogen across time and space, and the along-strike variations in the continental and arc margins that faced one another before collision, make it at once remarkable that any similarities exist, and important to more critically evaluate their nature. The eastern and western Himalayan syntaxes confound any attempt to generalize too much about the Himalaya-Tibet orogen. By area these features occupy at least 25% of the orogenic belt, and compared to the "main" portions of the arc they show clear differences in their lithospheric structures, landscapes, and evolution. The boundary and initial conditions that shaped the eastern and western indentor corners were and are different, as is the nature and timing of erosional exhumation. Some of the most active geologic processes on Earth have recently been in play within the syntaxes, and the evolution of landscapes and fluvial systems, important in developing the sedimentary record of the Himalaya-Tibet system, has been complex and variable in space and time. Southeasternmost Tibet and the Lhasa Block in particular exemplify this complexity both in its complex topographic evolution linked to surface processes and climate, and in lateral variability in lithospheric structure. Taking a system viewpoint, an important question to debate is the degree to which there are features in the Himalaya-Tibet system that are robustly emergent, given the broad boundary conditions of the continental collision plus the suite of local and regional geodynamical processes that have operated during

  1. Lithosphere structure of the west Qinling orogenic belt revealed by deep seismic reflection profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.

    2009-12-01

    The west Qinling orogen located in the northeastern margin of the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, is transformation zone between the N-S-trending and E-W-trending tectonics in the Chinese continent. Further study of the fine crust structure of the west Qinling orogen and its relationships with surrounding basins have very important significance for understanding tectonic response of the northeastern margin of the plateau about collision convergence of the Indian block and Asian block and learning formation and evolution of the plateau. In 2009, we reprocessed the data of the Tangke-Hezuo deep seismic reflection profiles collected in 2004 across the west Qinling orogen and the northern Songpan block. The new results show the lithosphere fine structure of the west Qinling orogen. Reflection features indicate that an interface at 6.0-7.0s (TWT) divided the crust into the upper and lower crust, whose structural style and deformation are totally different. Integrating geological data, we deduce that the interface at 6.0-7.0s (depth with 18-21 km) was the basement detachment, which made deformation decoupled of the upper and lower crust. The multi-layered reflections in the upper crust reveal the sedimentary covers of the west Qinling orogen, disclose the thickness of the various structure layer and deformation degree, and provide a basis for the prospective evaluation of a multi-metallic mineral and energy exploration. The north dipping strong reflection characteristics of the lower crust in the west Qinling orogen constituted imbricate structure, such imbricate structural features provide seismology evidence for researching the west Qinling thrusting toward the northern Songpan block, and have great significance for studying formation and evolution of the Songpan-Garze structure. Moho reflections are observed around 17.0-17.2s, characterized by nearly horizontal reflections, which implies the west Qinling orogen underwent an intense extension post orogeny caused the lithosphere

  2. Three Dimensional Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Rheology in Orogens: A Field Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, M.; Solar, G.

    2001-12-01

    To understand mountain building, we require knowledge of behavior and mechanics of deformation of lithosphere materials. Based on deformation experiments at high-strain-rates, including work by Mervyn Paterson, and data from field studies of rocks inferred to have been melt-bearing during deformation at natural strain rates, melt-bearing rocks generally are weaker than those at subsolidus conditions. Further, we require knowledge of how material behavior changes in 3-d during mountain building as geotherms evolve and rocks melt and melt migrates and ponds at shallower levels. Data to address this issue come from the field, where relations among melt flow (continuous vs. cyclic), rheological transitions [brittle-viscous transition zone (BVTZ) and anatectic front (AF)] and deformation (viscous vs. brittle) yield natural constraints for use in dynamic models of orogenesis. In the Acadian Orogen of New England, based on high-precision ages, Lower Paleozoic rocks were deformed synchronously with greenschist-granulite facies metamorphism and emplacement of plutons. Based on geochemistry, migmatites are residual and peraluminous leucogranite was derived from a similar source, implying a genetic relation. In middle crust, below the BVTZ [in part below the AF (in migmatite)] deformation involved non-coaxial non-plane strain flow in which the inclined vorticity vector was stretched along its length and deformation partitioned into steeply inclined S-L and L>>S tectonite zones. Metamorphic field gradient is of low dP/dT type, P-T paths are clockwise and thermal peak was late syntectonic, reflecting regionally elevated thermal gradients and pluton-driven thermal pulses. In migmatite, leucosome relations with tectonite fabrics and dilatant shear surfaces, and sheets and cylinders of cumulate-dominated granite, suggest cyclic failure and batch melt transport by shear surface and channel flow (conditional open-system behavior). Below the AF, differential stress is low and if melt

  3. Tectonic controls of Mississippi Valley-type lead-zinc mineralization in orogenic forelands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, D.C.; Leach, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    Most of the world's Mississippi Valley-type (MVT) zinc-lead deposits occur in orogenic forelands. We examine tectonic aspects of foreland evolution as part of a broader study of why some forelands are rich in MVT deposits, whereas others are barren. The type of orogenic foreland (collisional versus Andean-type versus inversion-type) is not a first-order control, because each has MVT deposits (e.g., Northern Arkansas, Pine Point, and Cevennes, respectively). In some MVT districts (e.g., Tri-State and Central Tennessee), mineralization took place atop an orogenic forebulge, a low-amplitude (a few hundred meters), long-wavelength (100-200 km) swell formed by vertical loading of the foreland plate. In the foreland of the active Banda Arc collision zone, a discontinuous forebulge reveals some of the physiographic and geologic complexities of the forebulge environment, and the importance of sea level in determining whether or not a forebulge will emerge and thus be subject to erosion. In addition to those on extant forebulges, some MVT deposits occur immediately below unconformities that originated at a forebulge, only to be subsequently carried toward the orogen by the plate-tectonic conveyor (e.g., Daniel's Harbour and East Tennessee). Likewise, some deposits are located along syn-collisional, flexure-induced normal and strike-slip faults in collisional forelands (e.g., Northern Arkansas, Daniel's Harbour, and Tri-State districts). These findings reveal the importance of lithospheric flexure, and suggest a conceptual tectonic model that accounts for an important subset of MVT deposits-those in the forelands of collisional orogens. The MVT deposits occur both in flat-lying and in thrust-faulted strata; in the latter group, mineralization postdated thrusting in some instances (e.g., Picos de Europa) but may have predated thrusting in other cases (e.g., East Tennessee).

  4. Early tectonic evolution of the Thomson Orogen in Queensland inferred from constrained magnetic and gravity data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spampinato, Giovanni P. T.; Betts, Peter G.; Ailleres, Laurent; Armit, Robin J.

    2015-05-01

    The crustal architecture as well as the kinematic evolution of the Thomson Orogen in Queensland is poorly resolved because the region is concealed under thick Phanerozoic sedimentary basins and the basement geology is known from limited drill holes. Combined potential field and seismic interpretation indicates that the Thomson Orogen is characterized by prominent regional NE- and NW-trending structural grain defined by long wavelength and low amplitude geophysical anomalies. The 'smooth' magnetic signature is interpreted to reflect deeply buried source bodies in the mid- to lower crust. Short wavelength positive magnetic features that correlate with negative gravity anomalies are interpreted to represent shallower granitic intrusions. They appear to be focused along major fault zones that might have controlled the locus for magmatism. The eastern Thomson Orogen is characterized by a prominent NE structural grain and orthogonal faults and fold interference patterns resulting in a series of troughs and highs. The western Thomson Orogen consists of a series of NW-trending structures interpreted to reflect reverse faults. Sedimentation and basin development are interpreted to have initiated in the Neoproterozoic to Early Cambrian during E-W- to ENE-WSW extension, possibly related to the Rodinia break-up. This extensional event was followed by Late Cambrian shortening recorded in the Maneroo Platform and the Diamantina River Domain which possibly correlates with the Delamerian Orogeny. Renewed deposition and volcanism occurred during the Ordovician and may have continued until Late Silurian, resulting in thinned Proterozoic basement crust and extensive basin systems that formed in a distal continental back-arc environment. Our interpretation places the Thomson Orogen to the west of the Neoproterozoic passive margin preserved in the Anakie Inlier. The region is likely to represent the internal extensional architecture during the Rodinia break-up that has been

  5. Lateral thinking: 2-D interpretation of thermochronology in convergent orogenic settings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batt, Geoffrey E.; Brandon, Mark T.

    2002-05-01

    Lateral motion of material relative to the regional thermal and kinematic frameworks is important in the interpretation of thermochronology in convergent orogens. Although cooling ages in denuded settings are commonly linked to exhumation, such data are not related to instantaneous behavior but rather to an integration of the exhumation rates experienced between the thermochronological 'closure' at depth and subsequent exposure at the surface. The short spatial wavelength variation of thermal structure and denudation rate typical of orogenic regions thus renders thermochronometers sensitive to lateral motion during exhumation. The significance of this lateral motion varies in proportion with closure temperature, which controls the depth at which isotopic closure occurs, and hence, the range of time and length scales over which such data integrate sample histories. Different chronometers thus vary in the fundamental aspects of the orogenic character to which they are sensitive. Isotopic systems with high closure temperature are more sensitive to exhumation paths and the variation in denudation and thermal structure across a region, while those of lower closure temperature constrain shorter-term behaviour and more local conditions. Discounting lateral motion through an orogenic region and interpreting cooling ages purely in terms of vertical exhumation can produce ambiguous results because variation in the cooling rate can result from either change in kinematics over time or the translation of samples through spatially varying conditions. Resolving this ambiguity requires explicit consideration of the physical and thermal framework experienced by samples during their exhumation. This can be best achieved through numerical simulations coupling kinematic deformation to thermal evolution. Such an approach allows the thermochronological implications of different kinematic scenarios to be tested, and thus provides an important means of assessing the contribution of

  6. Orogenic gold deposits: a proposed classification in the context of their crustal distribution and relationship to other gold deposit types

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groves, D.I.; Goldfarb, R.J.; Gebre-Mariam, M.; Hagemann, S.G.; Robert, F.

    1998-01-01

    The so-called 'mesothermal' gold deposits are associated with reginally metamorphosed terranes of all ages. Ores were formed during compressional to transpressional deformation processes at convergent plate margins in accretionary and collisional orogens. In both types of orogen, hydrated marine sedimentary and volcanic rocks have been added to continental margins during tens to some 100 million years of collision. Subduction-related thermal events, episodically raising geothermal gradients within the hydrated accretionary sequences, initiate and drive long-distance hydrothermal fluid migration. The resulting gold-bearing quartz veins are emplaced over a unique depth range for hydrothermal ore deposits, with gold deposition from 15-20 km to the near surface environment. On the basis of this broad depth range of formation, the term 'mesothermal' is not applicable to this deposit types as a whole. Instead, the unique temporal and spatial association of this deposit type with orogeny means that the vein systems are best termed orogenic gold deposits. Most ores are post-orogenic with respect to to tectonism of their immediate host rocks, but are simultaneously syn-orogenic with respect to ongoing deep-crustal, subduction-related thermal processes and the prefix orogenic satisfies both these conditions. On the basis of their depth of formation, the orogenic deposits are best subdivided into epizonal (12 km) classes.

  7. Possible polyphase metamorphic evolution of high grade metabasic rocks from the Songshugou ophiolite, Qinling orogen, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belic, Maximilian; Hauzenberger, Christoph; Dong, Yunpeng; Chen, Danling

    2014-05-01

    cycle or developed during a separate event. The financial support by Eurasia-Pacific Uninet is gratefully acknowledged. Dong, Y.P., Zhou, M.F., Zhang, G.W., Zhou, D.W., Liu, L., Zhang, Q., 2008. The Grenvillian Songshugou ophiolite in the Qinling Mountains, Central China: implications for the tectonic evolution of the Qinling orogenic belt. Journal of Asian Earth Science 32 (5-6), 325-335. Zhang, Z.J., 1999. Metamorphic evolution of garnet-clinopyroxene-amphibole rocks from the Proterozoic Songshugou mafic-ultramafic complex, Qinling Mountains, central China. The Island Arc, 8, 259-280.

  8. Relationship between sediment provenance of foreland basin and kinematics of orogenic belt in southwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Kun-An; Yang, Kenn-Ming; Chien, Chih-Wei; Wu, Leh-chyun

    2017-04-01

    The foreland basin in southwestern Taiwan offers an idealistic example for geologists to study the tectonostratigraphy in the foreland basin development from initial to latest stages. The subsidence analysis indicate that the initial stage of foreland basin development had started in the Mid Pliocene, and the basin went through two rapid subsidence events, along with forebulge moving back-and-forth in the E-W direction during the Late Pliocene to the Pleistocene. Thus, the tectonostratigraphic sequences deposited from the Late Pliocene to the later periods would provide crucial evidences for the relationship between foreland basin and its adjacent orogenic belt. Based on the tectonostratigraphic sequences in the late stage (Upper Pliocene to Pleistocene) of foreland basin development in SW Taiwan, this study aims to explore the mode of interaction between the evolution of foreland basin and kinematics of orogenic belt primarily based on petrofacies analysis. The results of petrofacies analysis were interpreted with the tectonostratigraphic and biostratigraphic frameworks of previous studies to infer the regional and local sediment provenances and transportation modes. The the craton had been the sediment source to the west of the study area in the pre-orogenic period. The maturity of these sediments was high due to slow exhumation rates and long transportation distance. In the initial stage of foreland basin development, the forebulge slowly elevated and started to partially or totally obstruct sediment supplies from the craton. Before the period of NN19 when the forebulge steadily moved westward, the forebulge not only became the barrier of the most continental sediment supplies from the west but also shed a minor amount of detritus into the adjacent area. In addition, regional topographic relief, which was due to syn-orogenic normal faulting during the NN11-15, locally changed the composition and transportation modes of the sediments; the exposed basement of the

  9. Recycling of crustal materials through study of ultrahigh-pressure minerals in collisional orogens, ophiolites, and mantle xenoliths: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Juhn G.; Tsujimori, Tatsuki; Yang, Jingsui; Zhang, R. Y.; Ernst, W. G.

    2014-12-01

    Newly recognized occurrences of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) minerals including diamonds in ultrahigh-temperature (UHT) felsic granulites of orogenic belts, in chromitites associated with ophiolitic complexes, and in mantle xenoliths suggest the recycling of crustal materials through deep subduction, mantle upwelling, and return to the Earth's surface. This circulation process is supported by crust-derived mineral inclusions in deep-seated zircons, chromites, and diamonds from collision-type orogens, from eclogitic xenoliths in kimberlites, and from chromitities of several Alpine-Himalayan and Polar Ural ophiolites; some of these minerals contain low-atomic number elements typified by crustal isotopic signatures. Ophiolite-type diamonds in placer deposits and as inclusions in chromitites together with numerous highly reduced minerals and alloys appear to have formed near the mantle transition zone. In addition to ringwoodite and inferred stishovite, a number of nanometric minerals have been identified as inclusions employing state-of-the-art analytical tools. Reconstitution of now-exsolved precursor UHP phases and recognition of subtle decompression microstructures produced during exhumation reflect earlier UHP conditions. For example, Tibetan chromites containing exsolution lamellae of coesite + diopside suggest that the original chromitites formed at P > 9-10 GPa at depths of >250-300 km. The precursor phase most likely had a Ca-ferrite or a Ca-titanite structure; both are polymorphs of chromite and (at 2000 °C) would have formed at minimum pressures of P > 12.5 or 20 GPa respectively. Some podiform chromitites and host peridotites contain rare minerals of undoubted crustal origin, including zircon, feldspars, garnet, kyanite, andalusite, quartz, and rutile; the zircons possess much older U-Pb ages than the time of ophiolite formation. These UHP mineral-bearing chromitite hosts evidently had a deep-seated evolution prior to extensional mantle upwelling and partial

  10. Laser-probe 40Ar/39Ar dating of strain fringes: Mid-Cretaceous synconvergent orogen-parallel extension in the interior of the Sevier orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Michael L.; Spell, Terry L.; Hoisch, Thomas D.; Arriola, Tonia; Zanetti, Kathleen A.

    2008-06-01

    UV and CO2 laser-probe 40Ar/39Ar in situ analyses of phlogopite and muscovite in fibrous strain fringes from greenschist-facies metamorphic rocks document mica growth ages at temperatures lower than their closure temperatures, and therefore directly date deformation. The new dates resolve the age of the earliest ductile fabric recorded in the Raft River-Albion-Grouse Creek metamorphic core complex of Utah and Idaho. Phlogopite was dated in quartz-calcite-phlogopite strain fringes around pyrite in Pennsylvanian-Permian rocks from the Grouse Creek Mountains (Utah) using both the UV and CO2 laser probe; muscovite was dated in quartz-muscovite strain fringes around pyrite in deformed Jurassic sills from the Black Pine Mountains (Idaho) using the CO2 laser probe. Phlogopite 40Ar/39Ar ages for individual strain fringes (Grouse Creek Mountains) range from 92 Ma to 110 Ma, with the most reliable ages ranging from 101 Ma to 110 Ma (mean age, 105.0 ± 5.8 Ma). Muscovite 40Ar/39Ar ages for individual strain fringes (Black Pine Mountains) range from 97 Ma to 112 Ma (mean age, 104.7 ± 5.8 Ma). Strain fringes are associated with a subhorizontal foliation and a generally N-trending elongation lineation exhibiting components of top-to-the-north simple shear and coaxial strain accommodating N-S extension and subvertical shortening. Midcrustal northward flow at 105 (±6) Ma within the interior of the Sevier orogen, coeval with east-directed shortening in the foreland and with plate convergence, records orogen-parallel synconvergent extension. We favor gravitational relaxation of structural culminations resulting from focused crustal shortening as a driving mechanism for orogen-parallel flow.

  11. Extensional orogenic collapse captured by strike-slip tectonics: Constraints from structural geology and Usbnd Pb geochronology of the Pinhel shear zone (Variscan orogen, Iberian Massif)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Rubén Díez; Pereira, Manuel Francisco

    2016-11-01

    The late Paleozoic collision between Gondwana and Laurussia resulted in the polyphase deformation and magmatism that characterizes the Iberian Massif of the Variscan orogen. In the Central Iberian Zone, initial continental thickening (D1; folding and thrusting) was followed by extensional orogenic collapse (D2) responsible for the exhumation of high-grade rocks coeval to the emplacement of granitoids. This study presents a tectonometamorphic analysis of the Trancoso-Pinhel region (Central Iberian Zone) to explain the processes in place during the transition from an extension-dominated state (D2) to a compression-dominated one (D3). We reveal the existence of low-dipping D2 extensional structures later affected by several pulses of subhorizontal shortening, each of them typified by upright folds and strike-slip shearing (D3, D4 and D5, as identified by superimposition of structures). The D2 Pinhel extensional shear zone separates a low-grade domain from an underlying high-grade domain, and it contributed to the thermal reequilibration of the orogen by facilitating heat advection from lower parts of the crust, crustal thinning, decompression melting, and magma intrusion. Progressive lessening of the gravitational disequilibrium carried out by this D2 shear zone led to a switch from subhorizontal extension to compression and the eventual cessation and capture of the Pinhel shear zone by strike-slip tectonics during renewed crustal shortening. High-grade domains of the Pinhel shear zone were folded together with low-grade domains to define the current upright folded structure of the Trancoso-Pinhel region, the D3 Tamames-Marofa-Sátão synform. New dating of syn-orogenic granitoids (SHRIMP Usbnd Pb zircon dating) intruding the Pinhel shear zone, together with the already published ages of early extensional fabrics constrain the functioning of this shear zone to ca. 331-311 Ma, with maximum tectonomagmatic activity at ca. 321-317 Ma. The capture and apparent cessation

  12. Subduction and Slab Advance at Orogen Syntaxes: Predicting Exhumation Rates and Thermochronometric Ages with Numerical Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nettesheim, Matthias; Ehlers, Todd A.; Whipp, David M.

    2017-04-01

    The change in plate boundary orientation and subducting plate geometry along orogen syntaxes may have major control on the subduction and exhumation dynamics at these locations. Previous work documents that the curvature of subducting plates in 3D at orogen syntaxes forces a buckling and flexural stiffening of the downgoing plate. The geometry of this stiffened plate region, also called indenter, can be observed in various subduction zones around the world (e.g. St. Elias Range, Alaska; Cascadia, USA; Andean syntaxis, South America). The development of a subducting, flexurally stiffened indenter beneath orogen syntaxes influences deformation in the overriding plate and can lead to accelerated and focused rock uplift above its apex. Moreover, the style of deformation in the overriding plate is influenced by the amount of trench or slab advance, which is the amount of overall shortening not accommodated by underthrusting. While many subduction zones exhibit little to no slab advance, the Nazca-South America subduction and especially the early stages of the India-Eurasia collision provide end-member examples. Here, we use a transient, lithospheric-scale, thermomechanical 3D model of an orogen syntaxis to investigate the effects of subducting a flexurally stiffened plate geometry and slab advance on upper plate deformation. A visco-plastic upper-plate rheology is used, along with a buckled, rigid subducting plate. The free surface of the thermomechanical model is coupled to a landscape evolution model that accounts for erosion by fluvial and hillslope processes. The cooling histories of exhumed rocks are used to predict the evolution of low-temperature thermochronometer ages on the surface. With a constant overall shortening for all simulations, the magnitude of slab advance is varied stepwise from no advance, with all shortening accommodated by underthrusting, to full slab advance, i.e. no motion on the megathrust. We show that in models where most shortening is

  13. The deep structure of Alpine-type orogens: how important is rift-inheritance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tugend, Julie; Manatschal, Gianreto; Mohn, Geoffroy

    2016-04-01

    Collisional belts are commonly thought to result from the closure of oceanic basins and subsequent inversion of former rifted margins. The formation and evolution of collisional belts should therefore be closely interlinked with the initial architecture of former rifted margins. Reflection and refraction seismic data from present-day magma-poor rifted margins show the omnipresence of hyperextended domains (severely thinned continental crust (<10 km) and/or exhumed serpentinized mantle with minor magmatic additions) between unequivocal continental and oceanic domains. Integrating these new observations and exploring their impact on mountain building processes may result in alternative interpretations of the lithospheric structure of collisional orogens. We focus on the Pyrenees and Western to Central Alps, respectively resulting from the inversion of a Late Jurassic to Mid Cretaceous and an Early to Mid Jurassic rift system eventually floored by hyperextended crust, exhumed mantle or proto-oceanic crust. The rift-related pre-collisional architecture of the Pyrenees shows many similarities with that proposed for the Alps; although the width of the hyperextended and in particular of the proto-oceanic domains is little constrained. Contrasting with the Pyrenees, remnants of these domains are largely affected by orogeny-related deformation and show a HP-LT to HT-MP metamorphic overprint in the Alps. Nevertheless, in spite of the occurrence of these highly deformed and metamorphosed rocks constituting the internal parts of the Alps, the overall crustal and lithospheric structure looks surprisingly comparable. High resolution tomographic images across both orogens unravel the occurrence of a velocity anomaly dipping underneath the internal domains and progressively attenuated at depth that we interpret as former hyperextended domains subducted/underthrusted during collision. This interpretation contrasts with the classical assumption that the subducted material is made of

  14. Crustal Structure And Magmatism, Coast Mountains Orogen, Latitude 52-53 degrees North, British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusmore, M. E.; Gehrels, G.; Woodsworth, G. J.

    2007-12-01

    New geologic data and U-Pb ages reveal complex history of arc accretion, crustal thickening and migration of magmatic fronts during deformation. Plutonic ages define distinct western and eastern Jurassic - mid Cretaceous arcs that share a common history after ~90 Ma. Juxtaposition of these arcs occurred during mid- Cretaceous crustal shortening in a dominantly SW-vergent crustal-scale thrust belt. Significant crustal thickening buried 151 Ma granitic clasts to pressures > 6 kb, and mid-Cretaceous plutons were emplaced at this depth along the axis of the orogen. Thrusting continued after establishment of the 90 Ma arc; a regional SW-verging thrust emplaced high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Yukon-Tanana terrane and deep-seated plutons over low- grade rocks of the Alexander and Wrangellia terranes. The shear zone is coincident with the western boundary of 82-89 Ma plutons and a regionally extensive, late-kinematic, sill-like pluton. Dextral shear zones preserved on the flanks of the orogen suggest a component of Late Cretaceous transpression. By 75 Ma, metamorphism, deformation, and magmatism had migrated central portions of the orogen and there is no evidence of ductile deformation and syn-kinematic metarmorphism younger than ~70 - 65 along the western flank of the orogen. The Coast shear zone localized 62-58 Ma synkinematic plutons during NE-side up displacement, creating a sharp western magmatic front. Sparse cooling ages suggest plutons and metamorphic rocks adjacent to the CSZ cooled through 500-600 deg between 54-58 Ma during exhumation along the shear zone. Voluminous granitic plutons were emplaced from ~55-50 Ma, but significant crustal extension that affected the eastern side of the orogen farther north is not evident along this transect. This history supports previous models of crustal subcretion and the generation of arc magmas in thickened crust. Definition of two pre-90 Ma arcs negates models calling for simple Andean-style orogen prior to mid

  15. Cyclicity and paleo-environmental dynamics of 1 1. 9 Ga passive-margin carbonate terrace, Wopmay Orogen, N. W. T

    SciTech Connect

    Grotzinger, J.P.

    1985-02-01

    The 1.90-1.89 billion year old Rocknest Formation in the Northwest Territories is a west-facing, passive-margin carbonate terrace in the foreland of Wopmay orogen. Initial outbuilding of an accretionary stromatolite rim over downslope facies was followed by upbuilding of the rim, local backstepping of the rim, and terminal subduction-related drowning of the entire shelf. The rim was flanked to the west by deep-water slope rhythmite and breccia, and on the east by a carbonate-shoal complex, separating the ocean from a broad (100-200 km wide) lagoon with a siliciclastic eastern shoreline. Concurrently, the shoal complex underwent repeated eastward expansion over the lagoon to form about 150 shoaling-upward cycles (1-25 m thick), consisting of carbonate tidal-flat tufa that overlies storm-dominated, mixed carbonate-siliciclastic lagoonal facies. Correlation of cycles for over 200 km parallel with and 100 km across depositional strike shows that cycle boundaries abut facies boundaries, indicating that complete shoaling of the lagoon to sea level was not required to induce the next submergence increment, suggesting an allocyclic rather than autocyclic mechanism. Radiometric constraints bracket cycle periodicity between 25,000-40,000 yr/cycle. These values are within the range of known earth orbital cycles (periods at 19,000, 23,000, 41,000, and 100,000 yr), the likely cause of Pleistocene glacio-eustatic sea level oscillations, and possibly Rocknest cyclicity. Rocknest cycles can be modeled using period and amplitude of sea level oscillation, and subsidence and sedimentation rates as variables. Resulting computer-generated cyclic stratigraphies are compared to actual Rocknest cyclic stratigraphy in order to constrain variables responsible for cycle development.

  16. Two cryptic anatectic events within a syn-collisional granitoid from the Araçuaí orogen (southeastern Brazil): Evidence from the polymetamorphic Carlos Chagas batholith

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, M. G.; Stevens, G.; Lana, C.; Pedrosa-Soares, A. C.; Frei, D.; Alkmim, F. F.; Alkmin, L. A.

    2017-04-01

    calculated via Theriak-Domino, in combination with in situ U-Pb monazite and zircon dating, provide new constraints on the thermal evolution of the back-arc region of the Araçuaí orogen. Data from assemblage 1 suggests P-T conditions for the first granulite-facies metamorphic event (M1) at 790-820 °C and 9.5-10.5 kbar, while the assemblage 2 records P-T conditions for a second granulite-facies metamorphism (M2) of around 770 °C and 6.6 kbar. Monazite and zircon within garnets from the different assemblages give age peaks at 570-550 Ma (M1) and 535-515 Ma (M2), recording two anatectic events in the CCB during a single orogenic cycle. The PT conditions for these metamorphic events can be related to: i) M1, striking crustal thickening, probably involving thrusting of the magmatic arc onto the back-arc region; and ii) M2, decompression related to the gravitational collapse of the Araçuaí orogen.

  17. Geology of the Byrd Glacier Discontinuity (Ross Orogen): New survey data from the Britannia Range, Antarctica

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carosi, R.; Giacomini, F.; Talarico, F.; Stump, E.

    2007-01-01

    Field activities in the Britannia Range (Transantarctic Mountains, Antarctica) highlighted new geological features around the so-called Byrd Glacier discontinuity. Recent field surveys revealed the occurrence of significant amounts of medium- to high-grade metamorphic rocks, intruded by abundant coarse-grained porphyritic granitoids. Most of the granitoids are deformed, with foliation parallel to the regional foliation in the metamorphics. Two main episodes of deformation are observed. Tight to isoclinal folds and penetrative axial plane foliation are related to the D1 phase, open folds to the D2. The main foliation (D1) trends nearly E-W in agreement with the trend in the southern portion of the Byrd Glacier. In most outcrops, granitic dykes are folded and stretched by the D2 deformation, which shows similar characteristics with the D2 deformation south of the Byrd Glacier. This suggests the occurrence in the Ross orogen of an orogen-normal structure south and north of the Byrd Glacier.

  18. Basin-mountain structures and hydrocarbon exploration potential of west Junggar orogen in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xiaozhi; He, Dengfa; Qi, Xuefeng

    2016-04-01

    Situated in northern Xinjiang, China, in NE-SW trend, West Junggar Orogen is adjacent to Altai fold belt on the north with the Ertix Fault as the boundary, North Tianshan fold belt on the south with the Ebinur Lake Strike-slip Fault as the boundary, and the Junggar Basin on the southeast with Zaire-Genghis Khan-Hala'alat fold belt as the boundary. Covering an area of about 10×104 km2 in China, there are medium and small intermontane basins, Burqin-Fuhai, Tacheng, Hefeng and Hoxtolgay, distributing inside the orogen. Tectonically West Junggar Orogen lies in the middle section of the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain where the Siberia, Kazakhstan and Tarim Plates converge, and is the only orogen trending NE-SW in the Palaeo-Asian tectonic domain. Since the Paleozoic, the orogen experienced pre-Permian plate tectonic evolution and post-Permian intra-plate basin evolution. Complex tectonic evolution and multi-stage structural superimposition not only give rise to long term controversial over the basin basement property but also complex basin-mountain coupling relations, structures and basin superimposition modes. According to analysis of several kinds of geological and geophysical data, the orogen was dominated by compressive folding and thrust napping from the Siberia plate in the north since the Late Paleozoic. Compressive stress weakened from north to south, corresponding to subdued vertical movement and enhanced horizontal movement of crustal surface from north to south, and finally faded in the overthrust-nappe belt at the northwest margin of the Junggar Basin. The variation in compressive stress is consistent with the surface relief of the orogen, which is high in the north and low in the south. There are two kinds of basin-mountain coupling relationships, i.e. high angle thrusting and overthrusting and napping, and two kinds of basin superimposition modes, i.e. inherited and progressive, and migrating and convulsionary modes. West Junggar orogen has rich oil and gas

  19. Axial Belt Provenance: modern river sands from the core of collision orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resentini, A.; Vezzoli, G.; Paparella, P.; Padoan, M.; Andò, S.; Malusà, M.; Garzanti, E.

    2009-04-01

    Collision orogens have a complex structure, including diverse rock units assembled in various ways by geodynamic processes. Consequently, orogenic detritus embraces a varied range of signatures, and unravelling provenance of clastic wedges accumulated in adjacent foreland basins, foredeeps, or remnant-ocean basins is an arduous task. Dickinson and Suczek (1979) and Dickinson (1985) recognized the intrinsically composite nature of orogenic detritus, but did not attempt to establish clear conceptual and operational distinctions within their broad "Recycled Orogenic Provenance". In the Alpine and Himalayan belts, the bulk of the detritus is produced by focused erosion of the central backbone of the orogen, characterized by high topography and exhumation rates (Garzanti et al., 2004; Najman, 2006). Detritus derived from such axial nappe pile, including slivers of thinned continental-margin lithosphere metamorphosed at depth during early collisional stages, has diagnostic general features, which allows us to define an "Axial Belt Provenance" (Garzanti et al., 2007). In detail, "Axial Belt" detrital signatures are influenced by metamorphic grade of source rocks and relative abundance of continental versus oceanic protoliths, typifying distinct subprovenances. Metasedimentary cover nappes shed lithic to quartzolithic detritus, including metapelite, metapsammite, and metacarbonate grains of various ranks; only amphibolite-facies metasediments supply abundant heavy minerals (e.g., almandine garnet, staurolite, kyanite, sillimanite, diopsidic clinopyroxene). Continental-basement nappes shed hornblende-rich quartzofeldspathic detritus. Largely retrogressed blueschist to eclogite-facies metaophiolites supply albite, metabasite and foliated antigorite-serpentinite grains, along with abundant heavy minerals (epidote, zoisite, clinozoisite, lawsonite, actinolitic to barroisitic amphiboles, glaucophane, omphacitic clinopyroxene). Increasing metamorphic grade and deeper

  20. Association of orogenic activity with the Ordovician radiation of marine life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. I.; Mao, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Ordovician radiation of marine life was among the most substantial pulses of diversification in Earth history and coincided in time with a major increase in the global level of orogenic activity. To investigate a possible causal link between these two patterns, the geographic distributions of 6576 individual appearances of Ordovician vician genera around the world were evaluated with respect to their proximity to probable centers of orogeny (foreland basins). Results indicate that these genera, which belonged to an array of higher taxa that diversified in the Middle and Late Ordovician (trilobites, brachiopods, bivalves, gastropods, monoplacophorans), were far more diverse in, and adjacent to, foreland basins than they were in areas farther removed from orogenic activity (carbonate platforms). This suggests an association of orogeny with diversification at that time.

  1. Tectonic implications of U-Pb zircon ages of the himalayan orogenic belt in nepal

    PubMed

    DeCelles; Gehrels; Quade; LaReau; Spurlin

    2000-04-21

    Metasedimentary rocks of the Greater Himalaya are traditionally viewed as Indian shield basement that has been thrust southward onto Lesser Himalayan sedimentary rocks during the Cenozoic collision of India and Eurasia. Ages determined from radioactive decay of uranium to lead in zircon grains from Nepal suggest that Greater Himalayan protoliths were shed from the northern end of the East African orogen during the late Proterozoic pan-African orogenic event. These rocks were accreted onto northern Gondwana and intruded by crustal melts during Cambrian-Ordovician time. Our data suggest that the Main Central thrust may have a large amount of pre-Tertiary displacement, that structural restorations placing Greater Himalayan rocks below Lesser Himalayan rocks at the onset of Cenozoic orogenesis are flawed, and that some metamorphism of Greater Himalayan rocks may have occurred during early Paleozoic time.

  2. Association of orogenic activity with the Ordovician radiation of marine life

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. I.; Mao, S.

    1995-01-01

    The Ordovician radiation of marine life was among the most substantial pulses of diversification in Earth history and coincided in time with a major increase in the global level of orogenic activity. To investigate a possible causal link between these two patterns, the geographic distributions of 6576 individual appearances of Ordovician vician genera around the world were evaluated with respect to their proximity to probable centers of orogeny (foreland basins). Results indicate that these genera, which belonged to an array of higher taxa that diversified in the Middle and Late Ordovician (trilobites, brachiopods, bivalves, gastropods, monoplacophorans), were far more diverse in, and adjacent to, foreland basins than they were in areas farther removed from orogenic activity (carbonate platforms). This suggests an association of orogeny with diversification at that time.

  3. Miocene thrusting in the eastern Sila Massif: Implication for the evolution of the Calabria-Peloritani orogenic wedge (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignaroli, G.; Minelli, L.; Rossetti, F.; Balestrieri, M. L.; Faccenna, C.

    2012-05-01

    Alpine orogens in the central Mediterranean region have revealed the concomitance of crustal extension in back-arc domain and crustal shortening in frontal domain. Quantitative data of deformation in the frontal orogenic wedges are necessary to understand how the shortening-extension pair evolves in terms of structures, orogenic transport, timing, and exhumation rate. This paper deals with kinematics and ages of the frontal thrust systems of the Calabria-Peloritani Arc (Italy) exposed in the eastern Sila Massif. We first present structural fieldwork, onshore and offshore well log data, and new apatite fission-track (AFT) thermochronology. Then, we describe the structural architecture of the studied area as an ENE-verging stacking of thrust sheets involving basement units and syn-orogenic sediments. The AFT study documents that thrust sheets entered the partial annealing zone from 18 Ma to 13 Ma. This Early-Middle Miocene thrusting phase was coeval with exhumation of high-pressure/low temperature metamorphic rocks in the hinterland of the orogen (Coastal Chain area), mainly driven by top-to-the-W extensional tectonics. Opposite kinematic shear senses (contractional top-to-the-E and extensional top-to-the-W) and different exhumation rates (slow in the frontal, more rapid in the hinterland) are framed in a tectonic scenario of a critically tapered orogenic wedge during the eastward retreating of the Apennine slab.

  4. Forearc basin correlations from around the Texas Orocline, New England Orogen, east Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoy, Derek; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Shaanan, Uri; Wormald, Richard

    2014-05-01

    The late Paleozoic to early Mesozoic New England Orogen occupies much of the eastern seaboard of Australia. The orogen formed by west-dipping subduction (present-day coordinates) of the paleo-Pacific plate beneath eastern Gondwana. The southern part of the orogen exhibits a series of tight bends (oroclines) that are evident in the curvature of a Devonian-Carboniferous subduction complex, in particular the forearc basin and accretionary complex. The Emu Creek Block is thought to be part of the forearc basin that is exposed in the eastern limb of the Texas Orocline, but until now the tectonostratigraphic origin of the Emu Creek Block has only been inferred from limited geological data. Here we present detrital zircon geochronology (U/Pb ICP-MS ages), a new geological map of the block, and a revised stratigraphic section. Lithological investigation of strata within the block and the age distribution of detrital zircons indicate that the sediments in the Emu Creek Block were derived from a Carboniferous magmatic arc and were most likely deposited in a forearc basin. Our new geochronological constraints indicate deposition during the late Carboniferous. We therefore propose that rocks in the Emu Creek Block are arc-distal correlatives of the forearc basin in the opposing (western) limb of the Texas Orocline, specifically the Willuri and Currabubula formations. Extensive orocline-parallel structures in the forearc basin indicate that the eastern limb of the Texas Orocline was rotated in the course of oroclinal bending by approximately 135 degrees relative to the western limb. The correlation of the forearc basin blocks on opposite limbs of the Texas Orocline provides an independent constraint on its geometry and further improves our understanding of New England Orogen tectonostratigraphy and the crustal structure of eastern Australia.

  5. Application of the Orogenic Float Model for the Structural Evolution of the Venezuelan Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhont, D.; Monod, B.; Hervouet, Y.; Klarica, S.

    2010-12-01

    The Venezuelan (or Mérida) Andes form a NE-SW-striking intracontinental orogen that started to uplift in the Middle Miocene due to E-W convergence between the Maracaibo block to the northwest and the Guyana shield to the southeast. Oblique collision resulted in strain partitioning accommodated by (1) transverse shortening along thrust faults bounding the belt on both flanks, (2) right-lateral slip along the Bocono fault running more or less along the chain axis and (3) tectonic escape of the Trujillo block moving towards the NE in between the Bocono and the N-S-striking sinistral Valera faults. Even though the surface geology of the Venezuelan Andes is well known, its structure at depth remains a matter of debate. Among the mechanisms that have proposed to account for the crustal architecture and evolution of the mountain belt, we develop the idea that the deformation process in this orogen is consistent with a model of orogenic float where the upper crust is decoupled from its underlying lithosphere above a large-scale mid-crustal detachment zone. According to this model, all the major faults involved in the strain partitioning sole into the detachment horizon and may therefore be considered as upper crustal faults. The integration of the orogenic float into a coherent evolutionary model provides further insight on both the crustal structure of the Venezuelan Andes and on the tectonic history of the region. A major reorganization in the crust occurred in the Early Pliocene when the Maracaibo block penetrated as a wedge into the Guyana crust. This event was accompanied by a rapid uplift of the Venezuelan Andes in association with the NE-ward crustal escape of the Trujillo block whose motion is accompanied by the lateral spreading of the upper crust.

  6. Early proterozoic evolution of the saskatchewan craton and its allochthonous coyer, trans-hudson Orogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chiarenzelli, J.; Aspler, L.; Villeneuve, M.; Lewry, J.

    1998-01-01

    The composition, chronology, and structural relations of the Saskatchewan Craton and enveloping mylonitic rocks exposed in basement windows of the Glennie Domain, Trans-Hudson Orogen, have been determined by geochemical, geochronologic, and structural studies accompanying detailed field mapping. Basement windows lie along the hinge zone of a regional crustal culmination and consist mostly of 2.4-2.5 Ga felsic plutonic rocks enveloped by the Nistowiak Thrust. The Nistowiak Thrust is a folded, 1-2 km thick, upper amphibolite facie??s mylonite zone formed during emplacement of the Flin Flon-Glennie Complex across the Saskatchewan Craton. It is likely correlative to the Pelican Thrust, which envelops basement windows in the Hanson Lake Block -100 km to the east. An internal high strain zone within the overlying nappe pile, the Guncoat Thrust, is composed primarily of mylonitized porphyroclastic pelitic and psammitic migmatites. U-Pb geochronological results suggest calc-alkaline plutonism from 1889-1837 Ma, thrust stacking, peak metamorphism and associated anatexis between 1837 and 1809 Ma, isotopic closure of titanite at 1790-1772 Ma, and intrusion of late granitic rocks at 1770-1762 Ma. This is in agreement with ages from the Hanson Lake Block, and La Ronge, Kisseynew, and Flin-Flon domains in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, and from the Ungava-Baffin portion of Trans-Hudson Orogen, suggesting broadly synchronous thermotectonic processes along a strike length of 2000 km. We speculate that the Saskatchewan Craton, rather than representing an exotic continental fragment, rifted from the Superior and/or Hearne Provinces at ca. 2.1 Ga and that the Trans-Hudson Orogen is an internal orogen. In this scenario the Maniwekan Ocean, developed between the Rae-Hearne and Superior cratons, opened and closed about similar pole(s) of plate motion. ?? 1998 by The University of Chicago. All rights reserved.

  7. The structure, stratigraphy, tectonostratigraphy, and evolution of the southernmost part of the Appalachian Orogen

    SciTech Connect

    Higgins, M.W.; Atkins, R.L.; Crawford, T.J.; Crawford, R.F. III; Brooks, R.; Cook, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    The southernmost part of the Appalachian Orogen is composed of three stacks of folded thrust sheets, which preserve rocks formed in a variety of environments that virtually spanned the Iapetus Ocean. All of the metamorphism, deformation, and plutonism in the southernmost Appalachians can be related to the movement of the thrust sheets and stacks. Thrusting took place continuously from Early Ordovician through Carboniferous time. An account is given of the origins, assembly, transport, and arrival of the thrust sheets and stacks.

  8. Nature and provenance of the Beishan Complex, southernmost Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Rongguo; Li, Jinyi; Xiao, Wenjiao; Zhang, Jin

    2017-08-01

    The ages and origins of metasedimentary rocks, which were previously mapped as Precambrian, are critical in rebuilding the orogenic process and better understanding the Phanerozoic continental growth in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The Beishan Complex was widely distributed in the southern Beishan Orogenic Collage, southernmost CAOB, and their ages and tectonic affinities are still in controversy. The Beishan Complex was previously proposed as fragments drifted from the Tarim Craton, Neoproterozoic Block or Phanerozoic accretionary complex. In this study, we employ detrital zircon age spectra to constrain ages and provenances of metasedimentary sequences of the Beishan Complex in the Chuanshanxun area. The metasedimentary rocks here are dominated by zircons with Paleoproterozoic-Mesoproterozoic age ( 1160-2070 Ma), and yield two peak ages at 1454 and 1760 Ma. One sample yielded a middle Permian peak age (269 Ma), which suggests that the metasedimentary sequences were deposited in the late Paleozoic. The granitoid and dioritic dykes, intruding into the metasedimentary sequences, exhibit zircon U-Pb ages of 268 and 261 Ma, respectively, which constrain the minimum deposit age of the metasedimentary sequences. Zircon U-Pb ages of amphibolite (274 and 216 Ma) indicate that they might be affected by multi-stage metamorphic events. The Beishan Complex was not a fragment drifted from the Tarim Block or Dunhuang Block, and none of cratons or blocks surrounding Beishan Orogenic Collage was the sole material source of the Beishan Complex due to obviously different age spectra. Instead, 1.4 Ga marginal accretionary zones of the Columbia supercontinent might have existed in the southern CAOB, and may provide the main source materials for the sedimentary sequences in the Beishan Complex.

  9. Topography of the Variscan orogen in Europe: failed-not collapsed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Wolfgang

    2014-07-01

    The Variscan orogenic collage consists of three subduction-collision systems (Rheno-Hercynian, Saxo-Thuringian and Massif Central-Moldanubian). Devonian to early Carboniferous marine strata are widespread not only in the individual foreland fold and thrust belts, but also in post-tectonic basins within these foreland belts and on the Cadomian crust of peri-Gondwanan microcontinental fragments, which represent the upper plates of the subduction/collision zones. These marine basins preclude high elevations in the respective areas and also in their neighbourhood. Widespread late Carboniferous intra-montane basins with their coal-bearing sequences are likewise incompatible with high and dry plateaus. While narrow belts with high elevations remain possible along active margins within the orogen, comparison of the Variscides with the Himalaya/Tibetan plateau is unfounded. Plausible reasons for the scarcity of high Variscan relief include subduction of oceanic and even continental crust, subduction erosion, orogen-parallel extension and—most important—lithospheric thinning accompanied by high heat flow and magmatism. In many areas, timing and areal array of magmatism and HT metamorphism are not compatible with a model of tectonic thickening and subsequent gravitational collapse. It is suggested, instead, that lithospheric thinning and heating are due to mantle activities caused by the Tethys rift. The lower and middle crust were thermally softened and rendered unfit for stacking and isostatic uplift: in terms of topography, the Variscides represent a failed orogen. The HT regime also explains the abundance of granitoids and HT/LP metamorphic rocks typical of the Variscides. Melting in the HT regime extracted mafic components from Variscan and Cadomian crust as well as from Cadomian metasomatized lithospheric mantle, thus mimicking subduction-related magmatism. The onset of the HT regime at c. 340 Ma may also have triggered the final ascent of HP/UHP felsic metamorphic

  10. Topography and subduction geometry in the central Andes: Clues to the mechanics of a noncollisional orogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gephart, John W.

    1994-01-01

    The central Andeean orogen between 12 deg and 32 deg S latitude exhibits a high degree of spatial order: principally an extraordinary bilateral symmetry that is common to the Earth's surface, the underlying Wadati-Benioff zone, and the Nazca/South America plate kinematics, which has been stable since the mid-Tertiary. This spatial order must reflect the physical mechanisms of mountain building in this noncollisional orogen. The shapes of the topography and subduction zone can be reduced to symmetric and antisummeric components relative to any verical symmetry plane; the particular plaen which minimizes the antisymmetry (and maximizes the symmetry) is well resolved and is essentially coincident with the stable Euler equator of Nacza/South America relative motion since the mid-Tertiary. That the topography, subduction geometry, and persistent mid-Tertiary plate kinematics share common spatial and geometric elements suggests that he distribution of topography in this orogen depends strongly on the dynamics of subduction. Other factors that might affect the topography and underlying tectonics, such as climate and inherited strutura fabric, which have different spatial characterisitcs, must be of less significance at a continental scale. Furthermore, the small components of asymmetry among the various elements of the orogen appear to be mutually relate in a simple way; it is possible that this coupled asymmetry is associated with a late Teriary change in plate kinematics. These observations suggest that there is a close connection between plate tectonics and the form of the Earth's surface in this noncollisional setting. It follows hta the distribution of topography near convergent plate boundaries may provide a powerful constraing for understanding the dynamics of subduction.

  11. Anatexis of mafic and felsic lower crust: Geochemistry and Nd, Sr and Pb isotopes of late-orogenic granodiorites and leucogranites (Damara orogen, Namibia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterhus, Lennart; Jung, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    The Damara orogen (Namibia) represents a well-exposed and deeply eroded orogenic mobile belt consisting of the north-south trending Kaoko belt and the northeast-southwest trending intracontinental Damara belt. The latter has been subdivided into a Northern, a Central and a Southern Zone based on stratigraphy, metamorphic grade, structure and geochronology. The late-orogenic granodioritic to leucogranitic Gawib pluton is a cross-cutting, pear-shaped post-tectonic stock within the southern Central Zone which is elsewhere dominated by basement rocks, high-grade metasedimentary rocks of the Tinkas Formation and syn-orogenic granites (Salem-type). The non-foliated granodiorites consist of plagioclase, quartz, microcline, hornblende and biotite whereas the leucogranites consist of microcline, quartz, plagioclase and biotite. Major element variation of the granodiorites show two distinct magma types were some samples have high TiO2, MgO and Fe2O3 and low Al2O3 and others have low TiO2, MgO and Fe2O3 and high Al2O3. Based on high REE, Nb, Zr and Y concentrations some granodiorites can be classified as A-type granitoids. Strontium concentrations are high in the granodiorites (up to 939 ppm) and decrease to < 200 ppm in the leucogranites. Rb/Sr ratios are low (1) in the leucogranites. Granodiorites have moderately radiogenic initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7088-0.7132), strongly negative initial ɛ Nd values (ca. -12) and comparatively unradiogenic Pb isotope data, the latter obtained on acid-leached feldspar separates. Leucogranites have more radiogenic initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7223-0.7336) and more negative initial ɛ Nd values (ca. -18). Pb isotopes tend to be less radiogenic than in the granodiorites. The mean crustal residence ages of the granodiorites, expressed as depleted mantle Nd model ages, are ca. 2.0 Ga but the leucogranites tend to have older Nd model ages (2.5 Ga). Therefore, a likely source for the granodiorites and leucogranites is a sequence of mafic to

  12. An isotopic perspective on growth and differentiation of Proterozoic orogenic crust: From subduction magmatism to cratonization

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Simon P.; Korhonen, Fawna J.; Kirkland, Christopher L.; Cliff, John B.; Belousova, Elena A.; Sheppard, Stephen

    2017-01-01

    The in situ chemical differentiation of continental crust ultimately leads to the long-term stability of the continents. This process, more commonly known as ‘cratonization’, is driven by deep crustal melting with the transfer of those melts to shallower regions resulting in a strongly chemically stratified crust, with a refractory, dehydrated lower portion overlain by a complementary enriched upper portion. Since the lower to mid portions of continental crust are rarely exposed, investigation of the cratonization process must be through indirect methods. In this study we use in situ Hf and O isotope compositions of both magmatic and inherited zircons from several felsic magmatic suites in the Capricorn Orogen of Western Australia to highlight the differentiation history (i.e. cratonization) of this portion of late Archean to Proterozoic orogenic crust. The Capricorn Orogen shows a distinct tectonomagmatic history that evolves from an active continental margin through to intracratonic reworking, ultimately leading to thermally stable crust that responds similarly to the bounding Archean Pilbara and Yilgarn Cratons.

  13. Recycling plus: A new recipe for the formation of Alpine-Himalayan orogenic mantle lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prelević, Dejan; Jacob, Dorrit E.; Foley, Stephen F.

    2013-01-01

    The origin of the lithospheric mantle beneath accretionary orogens is enigmatic; although severe compression of the buoyant crust occurs, the mantle lithosphere is generally thought to be removed and returned to the convecting mantle. We suggest that during the accretion of oceanic arcs and small continental blocks in the Mediterranean region, and more generally throughout the whole Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt, the mantle lithosphere is newly created and composed of intimately mixed peridotite and crustal material from the forearc region. Potassium-rich volcanic rocks emplaced sometimes more than 30 Ma after the formation of this lithosphere carry evidence for the presence of extremely depleted peridotite in their sources, but also for mica-bearing pyroxenites formed by reaction between subducted continental sediments and peridotite. Olivines crystallized from the magmas and mantle-xenocrysts derived from the enriched mantle, have elevated concentrations of Li that correlate positively with 87Sr/86Sr of the lavas, indicative of an origin from continental crust-derived sediments. If much of the continental crust is formed in accretionary orogens of this type, then extensive tracts of the continental lithosphere may contain mixtures of ultradepleted peridotite and recycled crustal material. In this case a portion of the subducted sediment is not returned to the convecting mantle, but becomes stored within the subcontinental lithospheric mantle.

  14. Denudational rate control on orogenic wedge growth - a scaled sandbox approach.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoth, S.; Adam, J.; Kukowski, N.; Oncken, O.

    2003-04-01

    Orogenic wedges are expressions of dynamic equilibrium between tectonic, gravitational and basal shear stresses. Denudation and sedimentation modify the amount and spatial distribution of gravitational stresses. Thus, surface and tectonic processes are directly coupled. Denudation focuses deformation decreasing the strength of faults, whereas sedimentation does the opposite, causing either deformation to propagate toward the foreland or thickening of the orogen. According to field studies, numerical and analogue modelling, as well as theoretical considerations, denudation and sedimentation are processes which simply modify the spatial extent of exhumation and its position relative to topography and deformation in an evolving orogenic belt. However, denudation rates may exert a dominant control over the rates of tectonic mass-transfer in collisional orogens. The purpose of this study, which is based on scaled sandbox-experiments including denudation modes for text{f}luvial and text{g}lacial-text{d}ominated text{o}rogenic wedges, is to describe qualitatively and quantitatively the temporal and spatial evolution of the upper crustal displacement field in a bivergent orogen. The models presented here were run in a 2D shearbox with two converging sand layers of 6 cm thickness (˜ 6 km in nature). Upper crustal deformation is simulated by granular flow of sifted quartz sand (0.02-0.63 mm), which is characterised by a friction-controlled elastic/plastic rheology with strain hardening and softening. To allow frontal and basal accretion, a thin glass-bead layer (mid-level detachment) was incorporated. Using a vacuum cleaner, incremental denudation at every 10 cm of convergence was simulated. The maximum (1 cm) of material removed at any one location corresponds to a denudation rate of 5 cm/yr if one assume a convergence rate of 5 cm/yr. In the linear denudation mode (fdo), denudation decreases linearly from the top (1 cm) of the sand-orogen to the toe (0 cm) of either the

  15. Formation of Secondary Lherzolite and Refertilization of the Subcontinental Lithospheric Mantle: The Record of Orogenic Peridotites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, Carlos J.; Varas-Reus, María Isabel; Bodinier, Jean-Louis; Marchesi, Claudio; Bosch, Delphine; Hidas, Károly

    2016-04-01

    Correlations observed between major and minor transition elements in tectonically-emplaced orogenic peridotites have classically been ascribed to variable degrees of melt extraction. There is a growing body of evidence indicating that these chemical variations mostly reflect melt redistribution and near solidus reactions superimposed onto previous melting depletion events. Here we will assess this hypothesis using a large database of peridotites from orogenic peridotites in the westernmost Mediterranean (Ronda and Beni Bousera peridotites). We show that lherzolite samples show some trends in major elements and modal variations that are inconsistent with their interpretation as depleted MORB mantle (DMM). These trends are more consistent with the secondary formation of lherzolites by refertilization processes involving a least two different near-solidus, melt-processes: refertilization by pyroxenite-derived melts and by hydrous melts leading, respectively, to secondary lherzolites with Ol/Opx and Cpx/Opx ratios greater than those expected from residues from a primitive upper mantle source. Together with their N-MORB, LREE-depleted pattern, their fertile lherzolitic composition may have been acquired as a result of melt-rock interaction processes associated with the thermomechanical erosion of lithospheric mantle by asthenosphere. Major refertilization of depleted subcontinental mantle is an alternative to the small degrees of melt extraction to account for LREE depletion in otherwise fertile orogenic lherzolites.

  16. Orogen-parallel mass transport along the arcuate Himalayan front into Nanga Parbat and the western Himalayan syntaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whipp, David; Beaumont, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Along the length of the Himalayan arc, Quaternary rock exhumation rates are highest in the Himalayan syntaxes at the lateral ends of the arc. In the western Himalayan syntaxis, these rates may exceed 10 mm/a over the past 2 Ma, requiring an additional source of crustal mass into this region to maintain the high-elevation topography. We have previously demonstrated that strain partitioning of oblique convergence can produce a significant orogen-parallel mass flux into the syntaxis of a Himalaya-like orogen and balance the rapid rates of surface denudation. However, the magnitude of this orogen parallel mass flux and whether strain is partitioned across the Himalayan thrust front is affected by the strength of the material bounding and within the Himalayan orogenic wedge, the dip angle of the basal detachment and the convergence obliquity angle γ. Strain partitioning is expected for a finite-length Himalaya-like segmented linear orogen with an obliquity of γ = 30 - 40°, but the obliquity angle in the Himalayan arc varies from 0 at the center of the arc to ˜ 40° in the western Himalayan syntaxis region. Thus, the conditions in which strain partitioning will occur may not be met along much of the length of the arc. Though there is clear evidence of strain partitioning in the Himalaya, preliminary results from 3D numerical geodynamic models of an orogen with an arcuate geometry based on the Himalaya suggest strain partitioning does not occur for the same conditions observed in earlier models of segmented linear orogens or orogens with a smaller arc radius. In those models, the proportion of the orogen length with a high obliquity angle was greater, which favors strain partitioning. In numerical experiments of an arcuate Himalayan orogen with weak material (friction angle φ ≤ 5°) at the back of the orogenic wedge, strain partitioning is only observed in the toe of the orogenic wedge (10-15 km from the thrust front) at the western end of the arc, rather than for

  17. Window into the Caledonian orogen: Structure of the crust beneath the East Shetland platform, United Kingdom

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McBride, J.H.; England, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    Reprocessing and interpretation of commercial and deep seismic reflection data across the East Shetland platform and its North Sea margin provide a new view of crustal subbasement structure beneath a poorly known region of the British Caledonian orogen. The East Shetland platform, east of the Great Glen strike-slip fault system, is one of the few areas of the offshore British Caledonides that remained relatively insulated from the Mesozoic and later rifting that involved much of the area around the British Isles, thus providing an "acoustic window" into the deep structure of the orogen. Interpretation of the reflection data suggests that the crust beneath the platform retains a significant amount of its original Caledonian and older architecture. The upper to middle crust is typically poorly reflective except for individual prominent dipping reflectors with complex orientations that decrease in dip with depth and merge with a lower crustal layer of high reflectivity. The three-dimensional structural orientation of the reflectors beneath the East Shetland platform is at variance with Caledonian reflector trends observed elsewhere in the Caledonian orogen (e.g., north of the Scottish mainland), emphasizing the unique tectonic character of this part of the orogen. Upper to middle crustal reflectors are interpreted as Caledonian or older thrust surfaces that were possibly reactivated by Devonian extension associated with post-Caledonian orogenic collapse. The appearance of two levels of uneven and diffractive (i.e., corrugated) reflectivity in the lower crust, best developed on east-west-oriented profiles, is characteristic of the East Shetland platform. However, a north-south-oriented profile reveals an interpreted south-vergent folded and imbricated thrust structure in the lower crust that appears to be tied to the two levels of corrugated reflectivity on the east-west profiles. A thrust-belt origin for lower crustal reflectivity would explain its corrugated

  18. Evidence for large-scale imbrication during Eocene syn-orogenic exhumation of the Hellenic subduction channel (Cyclades, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grasemann, Bernhard; Huet, Benjamin; Schneider, David; Rice, Hugh; Lemonnier, Nicolas; Tschegg, Cornelius

    2017-04-01

    In the Cyclades, Miocene post-orogenic back-arc extension overprinted the exhumed syn- orogenic Eocene subduction channel. Whereas the exact geometry and kinematics of the syn-orogenic exhumation are still controversial, but must have involved a floor thrust and an apparent normal fault at the roof, the post-orogenic extension, leading to the exhumation of Cordilleran-type metamorphic core complexes, is well constrained by several major detachment systems. On the island of Milos, which is part of the South Aegean Volcanic Arc, minor outcrops of schist occur. New data indicate that these witnessed Eocene blueschist facies metamorphism at 8.5 kbar and 400°C, but escaped the Miocene extensional overprint, as they lie in the hanging wall of the West Cycladic Detachment System. In contrast, eclogite pebbles in "Green Lahars" on Milos yield metamorphic conditions of 19.5 kbar at 550°C. Both high-pressure units belong to the Cycladic Blueschist Unit and can only have been juxtaposed by thrusting. This indicates that two nappes, the newly defined Cycladic Blueschist Nappe and the overlying Cycladic Eclogite Nappe, both comprising rocks of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit, exist on Milos. These nappes probably also form the other Cycladic islands, separated by a syn-orogenic thrust, which we name the Trans Cycladic Thrust. The Trans Cycladic Thrust, which traces the orientation of the syn-orogenic exhumation channel, is partly offset by the post-orogenic Miocene extensional detachment systems. As a result of the Mid- to Late Miocene clockwise crustal block rotation, the syn-orogenic channel, and hence the Trans Cycladic Thrust, bends through 90° at Milos, changing from a W-E trending to a N-S trending extrusion-related stretching lineation. Restoration of the Miocene block-rotation and extension results in syn-orogenic thrusting kinematics (top-SSW) in the Cycladic Blueschist Nappe and along the Trans Cycladic Thrust and syn-orogenic apparent normal faulting kinematics (top

  19. Deep structures and surface boundaries among Proto-Tethyan micro-blocks: Constraints from seismic tomography and aeromagnetic anomalies in the Central China Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Wenjun; Li, Sanzhong; Liu, Xin; Santosh, M.; Zhao, Shujuan; Guo, Lingli; Cao, Huahua; Yu, Shan; Dai, Liming; Zhang, Yong

    2015-09-01

    The Qinling-Qilian orogen preserves the records of Early Paleozoic convergence among the Proto-Tethyan micro-blocks. In this study, we analyze the seismic velocity structure and the aeromagnetic anomalies in the Qinling-Qilian orogen and its adjacent areas, showing that the northernmost boundaries of these Proto-Tethyan micro-blocks are defined by the Guyuan-Longshoushan Fault in the Qilian orogen and by the Luonan-Luanchuan Fault in the Qinling orogen, respectively. The lithosphere north of the Qinling-Qilian orogen subducted southward under the Qinling-Qilian orogen. The boundaries of the micro-blocks in the Qinling-Qilian orogen of the Proto-Tethys domain are mostly EW- or NE-trending. Combined with Early Paleozoic geological records, our results indicate that the south-dipping low-velocity anomaly under the Alxa block and the south-dipping high-velocity ones under the North Qilian orogen and the North China block might indicate that the Alxa block, the North Qilian Oceanic slab and the North China block subducted southward. The south-dipping high-velocity anomaly under the North Qilian orogen is interpreted as the remnant of the Proto-Tethys Ocean in that area. However, the north-dipping low-velocity anomaly under the South Qinling and the North Qinling orogens, the Qaidam block and the north-dipping high-velocity one under the Yangtze and the Bikou blocks suggest that the South Qinling and the North Qinling orogens, the Qaidam, the Yangtze and the Bikou blocks subducted northward. The present spatial framework of the Qinling-Qilian orogen is related to Early Paleozoic convergence among the Proto-Tethyan micro-blocks.

  20. Late Paleozoic closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean along the Irtysh/Chara shear zone and implications for arc amalgamation and oroclinal bending in the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pengfei; Sun, Min; Rosenbaum, Gideon

    2016-04-01

    The Irtysh/Chara Shear Zone is one of the largest strike-slip systems in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). It records collisional processes of the peri-Siberian orogenic system with the West Junggar-Kazakhstan-Tianshan orogenic system following the closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean, but the exact timing of these events remains enigmatic. We conducted detailed structural analysis along the Irtysh Shear Zone (NW China), which together with new geochronological data allows us to reconstruct the tectonic evolution during the final closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean. Our results showed that subduction-accretion processes lasted at least until the Late Carboniferous in the Chinese Altai and the East/West Junggar. The subsequent arc amalgamation is characterized by a cycle of crustal thickening, orogenic collapse and transpressional thickening. On a larger scale, the West Junggar- Kazakhstan -Tianshan orogenic system defines a U-shape oroclinal structure (e.g. Xiao et al., 2010). A major phase of oroclinal bending that involved ~110° rotation may have occurred during the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous (Levashova et al., 2012). Previous authors have linked oroclinal bending with the late Paleozoic amalgamation of the western CAOB, and proposed that a quasi-linear West Junggar- Kazakhstan -Tianshan orogenic system was buckled during the convergence of the Siberian and Tarim cratons following the closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean (in the north) and the South Tianshan Ocean (in the south) (e.g. Abrajevitch et al., 2008). This model, however, is not supported by our new data that constrain the closure of the Ob-Zaisan Ocean to the Late Carboniferous. Alternatively, we propose that oroclinal bending may have involved two phases of bending, with the ~110° rotation in the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous possibly associated with trench retreat. Further tightening may have occurred in response to the convergence of the Siberian and Tarim cratons during the Late

  1. Crustal thickening or isostatic rebound of orogenic wedge deduced from tectonostratigraphic units in Indosinian foreland basin, Longmen Shan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Li, Haibing; Zhou, Rongjun; Su, Dechen; Yan, Liang; Yan, Zhaokun

    2014-04-01

    Longmen Shan is located at the boundary between the Sichuan Basin and Tibetan Plateau, representing the steepest gradient of any edges of the plateau. Three endmember models of uplift process and mechanism have been proposed, including crustal thickening, crustal flow, and crustal isostatic rebound. Here, we use tectonostratigraphic units in the Late Triassic foreland basin to restraint uplift process and mechanism in the Longmen Shan during Indosinian orogeny. The Late Triassic foreland basin developed as a flexural foredeep on the Yangtze passive continental margin during the Indosinian orogeny. The basin fill includes the Maantang Formation, the Xiaotangzi Formation and the Xujiahe Formation, and it is divided into four tectonostratigraphic units with wedge-shaped or tabular cross-sectional geometry by unconformities and flooding surfaces in this paper. The first and third ones are wedge-shaped tectonostratigraphic units and correspond to underfilled condition with basal unconformities or major flooding surfaces, the high rate of subsidence and sediment accumulation, coarsening-upward succession and a dual sediment supply, and them may link to strong active thrust loading events or the rapidly advance rate of the orogenic wedge; the second and fourth ones are tabular tectonostratigraphic units and correspond to overfilled condition with the unconformity, the low rate of subsidence and sediment accumulation, fining-upward succession, a single sediment supply, the mass emergence of conglomerate layers, and they may be related to isostatic rebound and erosion unloading. Two endmember models of uplift process and mechanism in the Longmen Shan during Indosinian cycle have been proposed by coeval Late Triassic sedimentary sequences in the foreland basin here: (1) crustal thickening during the wedge-shaped tectonostratigraphic units, (2) crustal isostatic rebound during the tabular tectonostratigraphic units. This two endmember models proposed in this paper may be

  2. Crustal structure of the Carpathian orogen from receiver function analysis: how craton subduction and active delamination affect the crust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrescu, Laura; Tataru, Dragos; Grecu, Bogdan

    2017-04-01

    The Carpathian arc is an uncommon curved collisional system, involving the subduction of the Eastern European craton and the Proterozoic Moesian platform beneath younger European microplates. The Cenozoic collision led to the closure of the Tethys Oceanic basin, portions of which are actively breaking off or delaminating beneath the orogen, generating deep mantle earthquakes. Neogene volcanism, possibly related to subduction slab roll-back, also formed a band of presently extinct volcanoes in the back-arc region. The Carpathian embayment is thus an ideal laboratory to investigate crustal processes related to subduction of cratonic material, multiple plate junctions and active delamination. To better understand how the crustal structure changes from the Eastern European cratonic foreland, across the curved subduction zone, to the younger European microplates, we analyse teleseismic earthquakes recorded at broadband seismic stations located across eastern and southern Carpathians, in Romania and Moldova. We processed data from permanent seismic networks (The Romanian National Seismic Network) as well as data from temporary deployments such as CALIXTO (Carpathian Arc Lithosphere X-Tomography) and SCP (South Carpathian Project). Using extended multi-taper spectral division, we compute and analyse radial and transverse receiver functions. Energy on the transverse component may be an indicator of crustal anisotropy or the existence of intracrustal dipping interfaces. Using phase-weighted H-k stacking of receiver functions, we estimate the crustal thickness and the bulk crustal Poisson's ratio as well as the seismic sharpness of the Moho discontinuity. Furthermore, we invert receiver functions to obtain the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath individual stations, which provide concurrent information on the Moho nature. Our results provide a better understanding of crustal structure across complex collisional systems involving the subduction of

  3. Zircon (U-Th)/He evidence for pre-Eocene orogenic exhumation of eastern North Pyrenean massifs, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternois, Sébastien; Vacherat, Arnaud; Pik, Raphaël; Ford, Mary; Tibari, Bouchaïb

    2017-04-01

    Orogens and their associated foreland basins are considered as part of a single dynamic system evolving from an early, non equilibrated, growth stage to a late, mature, steady-state stage. Most of our understanding in foreland basins, in particular early convergence-stage deposition, comes from the subducting plate, so that the classic paradigm for foreland basins is the pro-wedge. Models that clearly depict the relationship between erosion of the orogenic wedge and sedimentation into its associated foreland basin only focus on the late post-orogenic phase. Relatively little is known and understood about the very long phase of initiation of orogenesis. In the doubly wedged Pyrenean orogen, where we know and understand relatively little about how the early retro-wedge developed, the record of the onset of orogenic denudation from massifs is quite limited, not only in time but also in space. As part of the OROGEN project funded by TOTAL and the BRGM, this study presents first single-grain zircon (U-Th)/He data from two Palaeozoic massifs of the external Northern Pyrenean Zone, the Agly and Salvezines massifs. It aims at constraining the exhumation history of eastern Pyrenean massifs and understanding what is their significance for early orogenic wedge growth. The Pyrenean orogeny was generated from end Santonian (84 Ma) to Oligocene-Miocene due to convergence of the Iberian and European plates. Aquitaine foreland basin history (Ariège region) indicates that convergence took place in two phases, Campanian to Maastrichian and Eocene, separated by a quiet Paleocene phase. Yet, only Eocene cooling events are recorded by low-temperature thermochronometers in the central Pyrenean massifs (Arize and Trois-Seigneurs). Nine bedrock samples were collected along a WNW-ESE traverse (Salvezines and Saint-Arnac granites, Belesta-Caramany gneisses) and analysed for ZHe dating. Zircon (U-Th)/He data for the Agly and Salvezines massifs, together with forward modelling of data for

  4. An accreted micro-continent in the north of the Dabie Orogen, East China: Evidence from detrital zircon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guang; Wang, Yongsheng; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Shuai; Liu, Cheng; Gu, Chengchuan; Li, Yunjian

    2017-02-01

    Continent-continent collision between the North China Block (NCB) and South China Block (SCB) took place along the Qinling-Tongbai-Hong'an-Dabie orogens during the Triassic. A micro-continent with Paleozoic arc magmatism has been recognized in the northern Qinling-Tongbai orogens; however, it remains unclear whether the micro-continent extended to the Dabie Orogen to form a ribbon-shaped micro-continent, due to later burial by the Hefei Basin in the north. To solve this problem, we conducted LA-ICP-MS Usbnd Pb dating of zircons from Silurian to Cretaceous sandstones and volcanic rocks from the southern margin of the basin. The age spectra of detrital zircons suggest that the Dabie Orogen and later basin cover were the sources of the analyzed sandstones. The detrital and inherited zircons indicate Neoproterozoic, early and late Paleozoic magmatism in the Beihuaiyang unit in the north of the Dabie Orogen. The zircon and previous geophysical data show that a micro-continent bounded by the Feizhong Suture in the north and the Xiaotian-Mozitang Suture in the south existed between the NCB and the Triassic Dabie Orogen, and its northern half is buried by the Jurassic-Paleogene Hefei Basin. The Beihuaiyang micro-continent experienced early Paleozoic arc magmatism caused by southward subduction of the Erlangping oceanic crust and late Paleozoic magmatism related to northward subduction of the Paleotethyan oceanic crust. The micro-continent was accreted to the southern edge of the NCB at the end of the Early Devonian (ca. 400 Ma) via arc-continent collision. Similarly to the Qinling-Tongbai orogens, the Dabie Orogen contains a Paleozoic accretionary system in the north and a Triassic collisional system in the south; thus, it is suggested that a ribbon-shaped micro-continent, > 900 km long and 50-100 km wide, was present along the entire Qinling-Tongbai-Hong'an-Dabie orogens prior to the middle Paleozoic. This micro-continent might have originated as a result of middle

  5. Spatially Concentrated Erosion Focuses Deformation Within the Himalayan Orogenic Wedge: Sutlej Valley, NW Himalaya, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thiede, R. C.; Arrowsmith, J.; Bookhagen, B.; McWilliams, M.; Sobel, E. R.; Strecker, M. R.

    2004-12-01

    Long-term erosion processes in the NW-Himalaya have not only shaped the distribution of topography and relief, but may also exert a regional control on the kinematic history of the Himalayan orogenic wedge. The topographic front of the orogenic wedge forms the southern margin of the High Himalaya and may be related to subsurface structures such as a crustal ramp or a blind thrust. Drastic along- and across-strike erosional gradients characterize the modern Himalaya and range from high-erosion regions along the southern High Himalayan front where monsoonal precipitation is able to penetrate far into the range, to low-erosion sectors across the moderately elevated Lesser Himalaya to the south and the high-elevation, arid sectors to the north. Published paleo-elevation estimates from the Thakkhola Graben (Nepal) suggest that by ~11 Ma the southern Tibetan Plateau and probably the High Himalaya had been uplifted to elevations comparable to the recent conditions. Thus, the presently observed pronounced erosional gradients have likely existed across the orogen since then. However, the cause of high rock-uplift and exhumation rates along distinct segments of the southern front of the High Himalaya are still a matter of debate. New apatite fission track (AFT) and 40Ar/39Ar data sampled along an orogen-perpendicular transect following the Sutlej Valley, approximately perpendicular to the Himalayan orogen, constrain the distribution patterns of rapid cooling related to rock uplift and exhumation. Combined with published thermochronologic data, this comprehensive AFT dataset from south of the High Himalaya mountain front to the interior of the Tethyan Himalaya allows us to derive a regional uplift and exhumation scenario. Our new 40Ar/39Ar ages ranging between 17 and 4 Ma reveal diachronous exhumation of two crystalline nappes (Higher and Lesser Himalayan crystalline) during Miocene-Pliocene time. In contrast, the AFT data ranging from 1.3 to 4.6 Ma indicate synchronous, fast

  6. Discriminating fluid source regions in orogenic gold deposits using B-isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert-Smith, James S.; Rocholl, Alexander; Treloar, Peter J.; Lawrence, David M.

    2016-12-01

    The genesis of orogenic gold deposits is commonly linked to hydrothermal ore fluids derived from metamorphic devolatilization reactions. However, there is considerable debate as to the ultimate source of these fluids and the metals they transport. Tourmaline is a common gangue mineral in orogenic gold deposits. It is stable over a very wide P-T range, demonstrates limited volume diffusion of major and trace elements and is the main host of B in most rock types. We have used texturally resolved B-isotope analysis by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to identify multiple fluid sources within a single orogenic gold ore district. The Loulo Mining District in Mali, West Africa hosts several large orogenic gold ore bodies with complex fluid chemistry, associated with widespread pre-ore Na- and multi-stage B-metasomatism. The Gara deposit, as well as several smaller satellites, formed through partial mixing between a dilute aqueous-carbonic fluid and a hypersaline brine. Hydrothermal tourmaline occurs as a pre-ore phase in the matrix of tourmalinite units, which host mineralization in several ore bodies. Clasts of these tourmalinites occur in mineralized breccias. Disseminated hydrothermal and vein hosted tourmaline occur in textural sites which suggest growth during and after ore formation. Tourmalines show a large range in δ11B values from -3.5 to 19.8‰, which record a change in fluid source between paragenetic stages of tourmaline growth. Pre-mineralization tourmaline crystals show heavy δ11B values (8-19.8‰) and high X-site occupancy (Na ± Ca; 0.69-1 apfu) suggesting a marine evaporite source for hydrothermal fluids. Syn-mineralization and replacement phases show lighter δ11B values (-3.5 to 15.1‰) and lower X-site occupancy (0.62-0.88 apfu), suggesting a subsequent influx of more dilute fluids derived from devolatilization of marine carbonates and clastic metasediments. The large, overlapping range in isotopic compositions and a skew toward the

  7. Rift inheritance in orogenes: a case study from the Western Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masini, E.; Manatschal, G.; Tugend, J.; Kusznir, N. J.; Flament, J.

    2012-12-01

    In plate tectonics, there is a general assumption that rifted margins represent most of the former material accreted into collisional orogenic prisms. In this regard, the former architecture, structures and composition of rifted margins, i.e. the pre-orogenic inheritances, play undoubtedly a major role during tectonic inversion. Studies have shown that rifted margins are more complex than a succession of tilted blocks. Indeed, the discovery of hyper-extended domains, where low-angle detachments replace high-angle normal faults and mantle material is exhumed to the seafloor implies a revision of the margin's template used in orogenic models. Because of overprint, the role of rift inheritance in orogenes remains often underestimated. The Pyrenees, located along the Iberian-European plate boundary, can be considered as one of the best places to study the reactivation of hyper-extended rifts. In this orogen, the Late Cretaceous and Tertiary convergence overprints a Latest Jurassic to Lower Cretaceous intracontinental rift linked with the opening of the North Atlantic. There, Albian hyper-extended rift basins developed where deep crustal and mantle rocks were exhumed along low-angle detachments to the seafloor. In this work we discuss the example of the Mauléon-Arzacq domain, which escaped from the most pervasive deformation because of its specific location between the western termination of the chain and the Bay of Biscay oceanic domain. Combining field study with subsurface geophysical and drillhole data, we show that the overall rift domain is asymmetric. The northern European upper plate is on the hangingwall of low-angle detachment systems affecting the southern Iberian Lower plate. The upper plate records depth-dependent crustal thinning and the development of a syn-rift sag basin. In contrast, the lower plate resulted from the hyper-extension of Iberian continental crust accommodated at the surface by two diachronous top-basement detachment systems. The first

  8. Diachronous post-orogenic magmatism within a developing orocline in Iberia, European Variscides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    GutiéRrez-Alonso, Gabriel; FernáNdez-SuáRez, Javier; Jeffries, Teresa E.; Johnston, Stephen T.; Pastor-GaláN, Daniel; Murphy, J. Brendan; Franco, M. Piedad; Gonzalo, J. Carlos

    2011-10-01

    U-Pb (zircon) crystallization ages of 52 late-Variscan granitoid intrusions from NW Iberia (19 from new data, 33 from previous studies) constrain the lithospheric evolution of this realm of the Variscan belt of Western Europe and allow assessment of the relationship between oroclinal development and magmatism in late-Carboniferous-early Permian times. The U-Pb ages, in conjunction with a range of geological observations, are consistent with the following sequence of events: (i) oroclinal bending starts at 310-305 Ma producing lithospheric thinning and asthenospheric upwelling in the outer arc of the orocline accompanied by production of mantle and lower crustal melts; (ii) between 305 and 300 Ma, melting continues under the outer arc of the orocline (Central Iberian Zone of the Iberian Variscan belt) and mid-crustal melting is initiated. Coevally, the lithospheric root beneath the inner arc of the orocline thickened due to progressive arc closure; (iii) between 300 and 292 Ma, foundering of the lithospheric root followed by melting in the lithospheric mantle and the lower crust beneath the inner arc due to upwelling of asthenospheric mantle; (iv) cooling of the lithosphere between 292 and 286 Ma resulting in a drastic attenuation of lower crustal high-temperature melting. By 285 Ma, the thermal engine generated by orocline-driven lithospheric thinning/delamination had cooled down beyond its capability to produce significant amounts of mantle or crustal melts. The model proposed explains the genesis of voluminous amounts of granitoid magmas in post-orogenic conditions and suggests that oroclines and similar post-orogenic granitoids, common constituents of numerous orogenic belts, may be similarly related elsewhere.

  9. Exhumation of the southern Pyrenean fold-thrust belt (Spain) from orogenic growth to decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rushlow, Caitlin R.; Barnes, Jason B.; Ehlers, Todd A.; Vergés, Jaume

    2013-07-01

    The deformation and exhumation history of an orogen reflects the interactions between tectonic and surface processes. We investigate orogenic wedge deformation, erosion, and sedimentation in the Pyrenees by (a) quantifying the spatiotemporal patterns of exhumation across the southern fold-thrust belt (FTB) with bedrock apatite fission track (AFT) thermochronology and (b) comparing the results with existing deformation, exhumation, and sedimentation chronologies. Eighteen new samples record exhumation during and after orogenesis between 90 and 10 Ma. Rocks from the range core (Axial Zone) record rapid exhumation that progresses east to west and north to south, consistent with patterns of tectonically driven uplift. Synorogenic sediments shed into piggyback basins on the southern fold-thrust belt during mountain building retain a detrital exhumation signal from the Axial Zone. In contrast, samples from other structural positions record exhumation of the thin-skinned Pyrenean thrust sheets, suggesting sediment burial and heating of sufficient magnitudes to reset the AFT system (> 3 km). In some locations, exhumation of these fold-thrust structures is likely an erosional response to thrust-driven rock uplift. We identify an exhumation phase 25-20 Ma that occurs along the central and eastern Spanish Pyrenees at the boundary between thick- and thin-skinned portions of the wedge. We suggest that this distributed exhumation event records (a) a taper response in the southern orogenic wedge to sediment loading and/or (b) a shift to wetter, stormier climate conditions following convergence-driven uplift and full topographic development. A final exhumation phase between 20 and 10 Ma may record the excavation of the southern fold-thrust system following base level lowering in the Ebro Basin.

  10. Feeding the "aneurysm": Orogen-parallel mass transport into Nanga Parbat and the western Himalayan syntaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whipp, David M.; Beaumont, Christopher; Braun, Jean

    2014-06-01

    The Nanga Parbat-Haramosh massif (NPHM; western Himalayan syntaxis) requires an influx of mass exceeding that in the adjacent Himalayan arc to sustain high topography and rapid erosional exhumation rates. What supplies this mass flux and feeds this "tectonic aneurysm?" We show, using a simple 3-D model of oblique orogen convergence, that velocity/strain partitioning results in horizontal orogen-parallel (OP) crustal transport, and the same behavior is inferred for the Himalaya, with OP transport diverting converging crust toward the syntaxis. Model results also show that the OP flow rate decreases in the syntaxis, thereby thickening the crust and forming a structure like the NPHM. The additional crustal thickening, over and above that elsewhere in the Himalayan arc, sustains the rapid exhumation of this "aneurysm." Normally, velocity/strain partitioning would be minimal for the Himalayan arc where the convergence obliquity is no greater than ~40°. However, we show analytically that the Himalayan system can act both as a critical wedge and exhibit strain partitioning if both the detachment beneath the wedge and the bounding rear shear zone, which accommodates OP transport, are very weak. Corresponding numerical results confirm this requirement and demonstrate that a Nanga Parbat-type shortening structure can develop spontaneously if the orogenic wedge and bounding rear shear zone can strain rate soften while active. These results lead us to question whether the position of NPHM aneurysm is localized by river incision, as previously suggested, or by a priori focused tectonic shortening of the crust in the syntaxis region as demonstrated by our models.

  11. Chemical remagnetization and paleomagnetic dating of fluid migration events: Testing the orogenic fluid hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Douglas, E.R. )

    1993-11-01

    Remagnetization, the acquisition of a secondary magnetization, is now recognized as a widespread phenomenon in sedimentary rocks. The recognition that many sedimentary rocks were remagnetized long after deposition has not only led to a reevaluation of the paleomagnetic database, but also has led to a new application of the paleomagnetic method to other areas of earth science. Many secondary magnetizations are tangible evidence of a chemical event caused by rock-fluid interactions. Recent studies demonstrate that isolation of a chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) and comparison of the corresponding pole position to the apparent polar wander path can provide essential constraints on the timing of a diagenetic event. Many CRMs can be spatially correlated with orogenic belts and temporally related to orogeny. In this talk several case studies will be presented where paleomagnetic and geochemical results are used to date diagenetic events and test the role of orogenic fluids as agents of remagnetization. The Ordovician Viola Limestone contains a pervasive Pennsylvanian CRM and a localized Permian CRM that occurs in a halo around veins mineralized by saline radiogenic fluids. The Permian CRM can be related to alteration by the basinal fluids. The pervasive CRM, which is similar to many other CRMs that have been related to orogenic fluids, occurs in relatively unaltered limestone. The acquisition of this CRM was caused by an as yet unidentified chemical mechanism that was not triggered by externally-derived fluids. Preliminary results, however, suggest a connection between the CRM and organic matter in the limestone. Radiogenic Cambrian-Ordovician dolomites near the Ouachita Mountains in southern Oklahoma that have been altered by basinal fluids contain a late Paleozoic CRM. Understanding the origin of these CRMs will require tests of mechanisms that do not rely on externally-derived fluids.

  12. Linked basin sedimentation and orogenic uplift: The Neogene Barinas basin sediments derived from the Venezuelan Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erikson, Johan P.; Kelley, Shari A.; Osmolovsky, Peter; Verosub, Kenneth L.

    2012-11-01

    The Venezuelan Andes are an asymmetric, doubly vergent orogen that is flanked on its southeastern side by the Barinas basin. Analyses of sedimentary facies, sandstone petrography, apatite fission-tracks, and magnetostratigraphy were completed on a 1750-m section of the syn-orogenic Neogene Parángula and Río Yuca formations in the Barinas side foothills of the Venezuelan Andes. Our sedimentary facies analyses record a progression of sedimentary environments from floodplain and floodplain channel deposits through the 560-m thick Parángula Formation transitioning to distal alluvial fan deposits in the lower Río Yuca Formation and finally to an alternation of distal alluvial fan and two, ˜100-m thick organic-rich lacustrine deposits in the upper third of the section. Major- and minor-mineral petrographic analysis reveals unroofing of the Venezuelan Andes, with quartz arenite composition low in the section succeeded by metamorphic and igneous clasts and potassium feldspar appearing near the base of the Río Yuca Formation. Apatite fission-track (AFT) analysis of sandstones and pebbles generated ages of 11.2 ± 1.3 - 13.8 ± 2.0 Ma over ˜1100 m of stratigraphic section. Thermal modeling of the detrital AFT and vitrinite data from the lower Río Yuca Formation indicates exhumation of the source area was occurring by 12-13 Ma, surface exposure at 10-9 Ma, maximum burial by 4-2 Ma and exhumation of the sedimentary package starting 3-2 Ma. Accumulation of the Río Yuca Formation is contemporaneous with a basinward migration of the deformation front. Regional considerations indicate that the Venezuelan Andes evolved from a primarily singly vergent orogen to its current double vergence over the interval of Neogene-Quaternary sedimentation.

  13. Erosion and Sediment Transport Across Pronounced Topographic and Climatic Gradients in the Himalayan Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strecker, M. R.; Bookhagen, B.

    2014-12-01

    The interaction between the NW-directed trajectories of moisture transport associated with the Indian Summer Monsoon circulation and the high topography of the Himalayan orogen results in one of the most efficient orographic barriers on Earth. The steep topographic gradients, the impact of focused rainfall along the southern flank of the range, and northward shifts of rainfall during frequent intensified Indian Summer Monsoons are responsible for an efficient erosional regime, with some of the highest known erosion rates. The spatiotemporal correlation between various topographic, tectonic, climatic, and exhumational phenomena in this region has resulted in the formulation of models of possible long-term erosional and tectonic feedback processes that drive the lateral expansion and vertical growth of the mountain belt. However, despite an increase in thermochronologic, cosmogenic radionuclide, and sedimentological datasets that help explain the underlying mechanisms, the true nature of these relationships is still unclear and controversies particularly exist concerning the importance of the different forcing factors that drive exhumation and, ultimately, deformation. Here, we synthesize and assess these controversies with observations from studies conducted perpendicular to and along strike of the orogen, and combine them with our new basin-wide erosion-rate data from the Sutlej Valley in the NW Himalaya. In our regional comparison we highlight the importance of large river systems and climate-controlled aspects of weathering concerning fluvial mass distribution as there appear to be positive feedbacks between tectonics and surface processes. In contrast, observations from smaller catchments along the orogenic front suggest a negative correlation. Similar to other environments with steep topographic and climatic gradients, our observations from the Sutlej catchments emphasize that erosional processes in the Himalayan realm are most efficient in geomorphic

  14. Noble gases fingerprint a metasedimentary fluid source in the Macraes orogenic gold deposit, New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodwin, Nicholas R. J.; Burgess, Ray; Craw, Dave; Teagle, Damon A. H.; Ballentine, Chris J.

    2017-02-01

    The world-class Macraes orogenic gold deposit (˜10 Moz resource) formed during the late metamorphic uplift of a metasedimentary schist belt in southern New Zealand. Mineralising fluids, metals and metalloids were derived from within the metasedimentary host. Helium and argon extracted from fluid inclusions in sulphide mineral grains (three crush extractions from one sample) have crustal signatures, with no evidence for mantle input (R/Ra = 0.03). Xenon extracted from mineralised quartz samples provides evidence for extensive interaction between fluid and maturing organic material within the metasedimentary host rocks, with 132Xe/36Ar ratios up to 200 times greater than air. Similarly, I/Cl ratios for fluids extracted from mineralised quartz are similar to those of brines from marine sediments that have interacted with organic matter and are ten times higher than typical magmatic/mantle fluids. The Macraes mineralising fluids were compositionally variable, reflecting either mixing of two different crustal fluids in the metasedimentary pile or a single fluid type that has had varying degrees of interaction with the host metasediments. Evidence for additional input of meteoric water is equivocal, but minor meteoric incursion cannot be discounted. The Macraes deposit formed in a metasedimentary belt without associated coeval magmatism, and therefore represents a purely crustal metamorphogenic end member in a spectrum of orogenic hydrothermal processes that can include magmatic and/or mantle fluid input elsewhere in the world. There is no evidence for involvement of minor intercalated metabasic rocks in the Macraes mineralising system. Hydrothermal fluids that formed other, smaller, orogenic deposits in the same metamorphic belt have less pronounced noble gas and halogen evidence for crustal fluid-rock interaction than at Macraes, but these deposits also formed from broadly similar metamorphogenic processes.

  15. Porphyry molybdenum deposits in the Tianshan-Xingmeng orogenic belt, northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Qingdong; Qin, Kezhang; Liu, Jianming; Li, Guangming; Zhai, Mingguo; Chu, Shaoxiong; Guo, Yunpeng

    2015-06-01

    Molybdenum (Mo) exploration activity in China has increased tremendously over the past decade, and China is now known to have the largest Mo reserves in the world. The Tianshan-Xingmeng orogenic belt, the second largest Mo metallogenic belt, possesses over 8.2 Mt of Mo reserves. Porphyry Mo deposits contain 99 % of the Mo reserves in the Tianshan-Xingmeng orogenic belt; other Mo deposits contain 1 % of the Mo reserves. Five subtypes of the porphyry Mo deposits can be distinguished by deposit associations, such as Mo, Mo-Cu, Mo-W, Mo-Pb-Zn-Ag, and Cu-Mo deposits. These porphyry Mo deposits are formed at different stages: during the Ordovician, Devonian, Carboniferous, Late Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, and Cretaceous Periods. The polystage porphyry Mo mineralizations indicate that polystage tectonic-magmatic activity occurred in the orogenic belt. The Ordovician-Carboniferous porphyry Cu-Mo deposits are formed in an island-arc setting; the Late Permian porphyry Mo deposits are formed in a syn-collisional tectonic setting; and the Triassic porphyry Mo deposits are formed in a syn-collisional to post-collisional tectonic setting. The Ordovician-Triassic porphyry deposits are related to the Paleo-Asian Ocean tectonic system. The Jurassic porphyry Mo deposits are formed at the eastern margin of the Asian continent and are associated with a Paleo-Pacific plate-subduction tectonic setting. Cretaceous porphyry Mo deposits are formed in a lithospheric thinning setting and are related to the rollback of the Paleo-Pacific subduction plate.

  16. Orogenic Float Model: an Explanation for the Dynamics of the Venezuelan Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monod, B.; Dhont, D.; Hervouet, Y.

    2008-12-01

    The Venezuelan (or Merida) Andes are a NE-trending intracontinental orogen that started to rise from the late Miocene due to the E-W far field convergence between the Maracaibo block to the northwest and the Guyana shield to the southeast. Oblique convergence is responsible for strain partitioning with thrusting along both foreland basins and right-lateral strike-slip faulting along the NE-SW Bocono fault cutting the Venezuelan Andes along-strike. The central part of the belt is also cut by the N-S left-lateral strike-slip Valera fault that branches the Bocono fault in the triple junction geometry, favoring the crustal escape of the Trujillo triangular block towards the NE. Onset of strike-slip motion along major faults and their geometry at depth remains a matter of debate. Our work, based on the integration of geologic and geophysical data aims to better constrain both the geometry and the tectonic evolution of the major tectonic structures. We use the orogenic float model (Oldow et al., 1990) as a first hypothesis to construct two NW-SE trans-Andean crustal scale balanced sections. The late Neogene-Quaternary shortening varies from 40 km in the south to 30 km in the north across the Trujillo block, indicating that a quarter of the deformation seems to be absorbed by the tectonic escape process. The cross-sections served also as the basis for the building of a 3-D geologic model of the Venezuelan Andes, permitting to clearly understand the link and geometry of the faults at depth. The decollement level used for the orogenic float model, located at 20 km depth, is crucial for the motion of the Trujillo block. Both the Bocono and Valera faults have listric shapes connecting to the decollement level. The connexion of the two fault surfaces forms a hinge line dipping towards the north in a geometry favoring the escape of the Trujillo block and allowing the gravity forces to play an important role in the process. Oldow J. S., Bally A. W., Ave Lallemant H. G., 1990

  17. Modification of the Himalayan Orogenic Wedge by Late Cenozoic Southeastward Flow of Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodges, K. V.; Whipple, K. X.; Kirby, E.; Arrowsmith, R.; Shirzaei, M.

    2014-12-01

    Continental plateaus are reservoirs of excess gravitational energy that can influence the late-stage geodynamic evolution of adjacent orogenic wedges. In the central Himalaya (80-88˚E), most late Cenozoic deformation has involved roughly N-S shortening within the Himalayan orogenic wedge. Within this region, all 1976-2014 Mw 5 and larger earthquakes had thrust mechanisms associated with slip along major arc-parallel structures within or at the base of the orogenic wedge. In contrast, the segment of the wedge between 88˚E and 91˚E - including easternmost Nepal, the Sikkim region of India, and Bhutan - is characterized by a complex deformation field that includes thrusting on arc-parallel wedge structures but also transcurrent faulting at high angles to the Himalayan arc. In fact, over the same 1976-2014 period, all but one of the Mw 5 and larger earthquakes in this region had transcurrent fault mechanisms, mostly consistent with dextral strike-slip along NW-striking faults. We refer to this region as the central-eastern Himalayan transition zone. Although direct field evidence of the surface breaks of these faults has not been established, the orientations of nodal planes of large earthquakes, as well as alignments of microearthquake arrays, suggest that they may connect northward to a discontinuous family of arc-parallel faults - most showing evidence for oblique slip, with variable normal and dextral-transcurrent components - which we interpret as the long-term structural manifestation of the boundary between the distinctive modern strain fields of Tibet (E-W extension) and the central Himalaya (N-S shortening). In addition, transverse faults of the central-eastern Himalayan transition zone may project southward, beneath sediments near the Ganges and Bhramaputra confluence, as dextral tear faults linking the active thrust front of the central Himalaya to the active thrust front of the Shillong Plateau in northeastern India. We hypothesize that the broadening of

  18. Tectonic and kinematics of curved orogenic systems: insights from AMS analysis and paleomagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cifelli, Francesca; Mattei, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    During the past few years, paleomagnetism has been considered a unique tool for constraining kinematic models of curved orogenic systems, because of its great potential in quantifying vertical axis rotations and in discriminating between primary and secondary (orocline s.l.) arcs. In fact, based on the spatio-temporal relationships between deformation and vertical axis rotation, curved orogens can be subdivided as primary or secondary (oroclines s.l.), if they formed respectively in a self-similar manner without undergoing important variations in their original curved shape or if their curvature in map-view is the result of a bending about a vertical axis of rotation. In addition to the kinematics of the arc and the timing of its curvature, a crucial factor for understanding the origin of belts curvature is the knowledge of the geodynamic process governing arc formation. In this context, the detailed reconstruction of the rotational history is mainly based on paleomagnetic and structural analyses (fold axes, kinematic indicators), which include the magnetic fabric. In fact, in curved fold and thrust belts, assuming that the magnetic lineation is tectonically originated and formed during layer-parallel shortening (LPS) before vertical axis rotations, the orientation of the magnetic lineation often strictly follows the curvature of the orogeny. This assumption represents a fundamental prerequisite to fully understand the origin of orogenic arcs and to unravel the geodynamic processes responsible for their curvature. We present two case studies: the central Mediterranean arcs and the Alborz Mts in Iran. The Mediterranean area has represented an attractive region to apply paleomagnetic analysis, as it shows a large number of narrow arcs, whose present-day shape has been driven by the space-time evolution of the Mediterranean subduction system, which define a irregular and rather diffuse plate boundary. The Alborz Mts. form a sinuous range over 1,200 km long, defining

  19. Flake tectonics in the Sulu orogen in eastern China as revealed by seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peifen; Liu, Futian; Ye, Kai; Wang, Qingchen; Cong, Bolin; Chen, Hui

    2002-05-01

    Seismic tomographic image reveals a crocodile-like P-waves velocity structure beneath the Sulu orogenic belt, which marks the subduction/collision zone between the Sino-Korean block (SK) and Yangtze block (YZ) in eastern China. It may imply that the upper crust of the YZ was detached from its lower crust and thrust over the SK for a maximum of ~400 km in the Sulu region, whereas the remnant of the subducted Yangtze lithosphere was lay beneath the SK. This crustal detached structure (flake tectonics) might have occurred after the Triassic subduction/collision.

  20. The pre-orogenic detrital zircon record of the Variscan orogeny: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Tobias; Kroner, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    To test plate-tectonic constellations in consideration of the long-term development of sedimentary transport paths, temporally and spatially highly resolved records of provenance analysis are mandatory. The interpretation of existing studies focus on small-scale areas within an orogen thereby neglecting the differing distribution of provenance data in the entire orogenic system. This study reviews a large data set of compiled geochronological data to document the development of pre-orogenic tectonic units on the example of the Variscan orogeny. Constrained by tectonic and geological models, the temporal distribution of U-Pb detrital zircon ages, used as a proxy for sedimentary provenance, shows that some minima and maxima of zircon abundance are nearly synchronous for thousands of kilometres along the orogeny. Age spectra of Precambrian to Lower Palaeozoic samples were constructed on the basis of 38729 U-Pb ages from 685 samples that were compiled from 102 publications. The age compilation combines thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS), laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS), sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe (SHRIMP), and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analyses. The data was re-processed using a common age calculation and concordance filter to ensure comparability. The concordance of each zircon grain was calculated from 206Pb/238U and 207Pb/235U ages to guarantee that only concordant grains, i.e., with <10% normal and <5% reverse discordance, were included in the age compilation. In order to ignore a metamorphic overprint and hence a blur of the younger age spectra, the compilation is constrained to age data older than 400 Ma only. If a precise sample age is not documented by the author, the weighted-mean age of the youngest zircon population (n > 3) is used for the maximum age of deposition. In addition to the location of >600 samples, the precise depositional ages result in a spatially and temporally high

  1. High-pressure mafic granulites of the South Muya Block (Central Asian Orogenic Belt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skuzovatov, S. Yu.; Shatsky, V. S.; Dril, S. I.

    2017-04-01

    Mineralogical, petrographic, and geochemical studies of mafic granulites of the South Muya Block (Central Asian Orogenic Belt) have been carried out. The granulite protoliths were olivine- and plagioclase- rich cumulates of ultramafic-mafic magmas with geochemical affinities of suprasubduction rocks. The isotope-geochemical characteristics of the granulites indicate the enriched nature of their source, associated with recycling into the mantle of either ancient crust or oceanic sediments, or intracrustal contamination of melts at the basement of the ensialic arc. Formation of garnet-bearing parageneses has occurred during high-pressure granulite metamorphism associated with accretion in the eastern part of the Baikal-Muya composite terrane.

  2. Carbonatitic metasomatism in orogenic dunites from Lijiatun in the Sulu UHP terrane, eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Bin; Chen, Yi; Guo, Shun; Chu, Zhu-Yin; Liu, Jing-Bo; Gao, Yi-Jie

    2016-10-01

    Among orogenic peridotites, dunites suffer the weakest crustal metasomatism at the slab-mantle interface and are the best lithology to trace the origins of orogenic peridotites and their initial geodynamic processes. Petrological and geochemical investigations of the Lijiatun dunites from the Sulu ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) terrane indicate a complex petrogenetic history involving melt extraction and multistage metasomatism (carbonatitic melt and slab-derived fluid). The Lijiatun dunites consist mainly of olivine (Fo = 92.0-92.6, Ca = 42-115 ppm), porphyroblastic orthopyroxene (En = 91.8-92.8), Cr-spinel (Cr# = 50.4-73.0, TiO2 < 0.2 wt.%) and serpentine. They are characterized by refractory bulk-rock compositions with high MgO (45.31-47.07 wt.%) and Mg# (91.5-91.9), and low Al2O3 (0.48-0.70 wt.%), CaO (0.25-0.44 wt.%) and TiO2 (< 0.03 wt.%) contents. Whole-rock platinum group elements (PGE) are similar to those of cratonic mantle peridotites and Re-Os isotopic data suggest that dunites formed in the early Proterozoic ( 2.2 Ga). These data indicate that the Lijiatun dunites were the residues of 30% partial melting and were derived from the subcontinental lithospheric mantle (SCLM) beneath the North China craton (NCC). Subsequent carbonatitic metasomatism is characterized by the formation of olivine-rich (Fo = 91.6-92.6, Ca = 233-311 ppm), clinopyroxene-bearing (Mg# = 95.9-96.7, Ti/Eu = 104-838) veins cutting orthopyroxene porphyroblasts. Based on the occurrence of dolomite, mass-balance calculation and thermodynamic modeling, carbonatitic metasomatism had occurred within the shallow SCLM (low-P and high-T conditions) before dunites were incorporated into the continental subduction channel. These dunites then suffered weak metasomatism by slab-derived fluids, forming pargasitic amphibole after pyroxene. This work indicates that modification of the SCLM beneath the eastern margin of the NCC had already taken place before the Triassic continental subduction. Orogenic

  3. Structural development of an Archean Orogen, Western Point Lake, Northwest Territories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kusky, Timothy M.

    1991-08-01

    The Point Lake orogen in the central Archean Slave Province of northwestern Canada preserves more than 10 km of structural relief through an eroded antiformal thrust stack and deeper anastomosing midcrustal mylonites. Fault restoration along a 25 km long transect requires a minimum of 69 km slip and 53 km horizontal shortening. In the western part of the orogen the basal decollement places mafic plutonic/volcanic rocks over an ancient tonalitic gneiss complex. Ten kilometers to the east in the Keskarrah Bay area, slices of gneiss unroofed on brittle thrusts shed molasse into several submerged basins. Conglomerates and associated thinly bedded sedimentary rocks are interpreted as channel, levee, and overbank facies of this thrust-related sedimentary fan system. The synorogenic erosion surface at the base of the conglomerate truncates premetamorphic or early metamorphic thrust faults formed during foreland propagation, while other thrusts related to hinterland-progressing imbrication displace this unconformity. Tightening of synorogenic depositional troughs resulted in the conglomerates' present localization in synclines to the west of associated thrust faults and steepening of structural dips. Eastern parts of the orogen consist of isoclinally folded graywackes composed largely of Mutti and Ricci-Lucchi turbidite facies B, C, and D, interpreted as submarine fan deposits eroded from a distant volcanic arc. Thrust faults in the metasedimentary terrane include highly disrupted slate horizons with meter-scale duplex structures, and recrystallized calcmylonites exhibiting sheath folds and boudin trains with very large interboudin distances. The sequence of fabric development and the overall geometry of this metasedimentary terrane strongly resembles younger forearc accretionary prisms. Conditions of deformation along the thrusts parallel the regional metamorphic zonation: amphibolite facies in the basal decollement through greenschist facies shear zones to cataclastic

  4. Spatial and temporal characterization of progressive deformation during orogenic growth: Example from the Fuegian Andes, southern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres Carbonell, Pablo J.; Cao, Sebastián J.; Dimieri, Luis V.

    2017-06-01

    Superposed structural fabrics in the easternmost Fuegian Andes reveal two distinct, non-coaxial deformation phases across the transition from the orogenic core to the thrust-fold belt. Each phase is characterized by different metamorphic conditions and consistently different orientations, which allow the structural correlation between the orogenic core and the internal thrust-fold belt. The first deformation phase was coeval with regional metamorphism reaching upper greenschist facies, and featured simple shear deformation of the basement (Paleozoic and Jurassic) and cover (Cretaceous) in the top of the underthrusting South American plate. The second phase developed during collision of the orogenic wedge with the Río Chico Arch, a promontory in the underthrusting plate; this phase was characterized by thrust sheet emplacement and formation of a crustal duplex, with rock uplift and consequent low to very-low grade metamorphism. Buttressing against the Río Chico Arch is responsible for the change in shortening orientation that distinguishes both phases.

  5. Application of electron spin resonance (ESR) dating to ductile shearing: Examples from the Qinling orogenic belt, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shenglian; Song, Chuanzhong; Li, Jiahao

    2016-04-01

    Shear zones are common structures in orogenic belts and elucidation of the tectonic evolution of these orogenic belts to a large degree depends on understanding the kinematics and timing of shear deformation. However, there is a lack of an accurate, fast and convenient way to determine the timing of deformation. In this paper, we apply the ESR (electron spin-resonance spectroscopy) dating method to three syntectonic quartz veins from the Funiushan tectonic belt in the Qinling orogenic belt in central China. The results agree well with the available ages of deformation in the area obtained through other dating methods. This demonstrates the accuracy and feasibility of using the ESR method to date quartz crystals formed during deformation. The method is fast and convenient, and satisfies the accuracy requirement. It is an effective means for determining the timing of deformation, especially in areas with intensive fluid activity during deformation.

  6. Zirconolite, zircon and monazite-(Ce) U-Th-Pb age constraints on the emplacement, deformation and alteration history of the Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex, Halls Creek Orogen, Kimberley region, Western Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downes, Peter J.; Dunkley, Daniel J.; Fletcher, Ian R.; McNaughton, Neal J.; Rasmussen, Birger; Jaques, A. Lynton; Verrall, Michael; Sweetapple, Marcus T.

    2016-04-01

    In situ SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zirconolite in clinopyroxenite from the Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex, situated in the southern Halls Creek Orogen, Kimberley region, Western Australia, has provided a reliable 207Pb/206Pb age of emplacement of 1009 ± 16 Ma. Variably metamict and recrystallised zircons from co-magmatic carbonatites, including a megacryst ~1.5 cm long, gave a range of ages from ~1043-998 Ma, reflecting partial isotopic resetting during post-emplacement deformation and alteration. Monazite-(Ce) in a strongly foliated dolomite carbonatite produced U-Th-Pb dates ranging from ~900-590 Ma. Although the monazite-(Ce) data cannot give any definitive ages, they clearly reflect a long history of hydrothermal alteration/recrystallisation, over at least 300 million years. This is consistent with the apparent resetting of the Rb-Sr and K-Ar isotopic systems by a post-emplacement thermal event at ~900 Ma during the intracratonic Yampi Orogeny. The emplacement of the Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex probably resulted from the reactivation of a deep crustal structure within the Halls Creek Orogen during the amalgamation of Proterozoic Australia with Rodinia over the period ~1000-950 Ma. This may have allowed an alkaline carbonated silicate magma that was parental to the Cummins Range carbonatites, and generated by redox and/or decompression partial melting of the asthenospheric mantle, to ascend from the base of the continental lithosphere along the lithospheric discontinuity constituted by the southern edge of the Halls Creek Orogen. There is no evidence of a link between the emplacement of the Cummins Range Carbonatite Complex and mafic large igneous province magmatism indicative of mantle plume activity. Rather, patterns of Proterozoic alkaline magmatism in the Kimberley Craton may have been controlled by changing plate motions during the Nuna-Rodinia supercontinent cycles (~1200-800 Ma).

  7. Quaternary history and landscape evolution of a high-altitude intermountain basin at the western end of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen, Waqia Valley, Chinese Pamir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedrick, Kathryn A.; Owen, Lewis A.; Chen, Jie; Robinson, Alex; Yuan, Zhaode; Yang, Xiaodong; Imrecke, Daniel B.; Li, Wenqiao; Caffee, Marc W.; Schoenbohm, Lindsay M.; Zhang, Boxuan

    2017-05-01

    Quaternary valley fills and landforms in the Waqia valley of the Chinese Pamir were examined using geomorphic mapping, geomorphic and sedimentological analysis of landforms and sediments, and cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure dating. Six sets of moraines (M-1 to M-6) are identified and date to the penultimate or an older glacial cycle (M-1), penultimate glacial cycle (M-2), early last glacial and probably Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage (MIS) 4 (M-3), MIS 2 (M-4), Late Glacial (M-5), and early Holocene (M-6). Younger moraines are also present, but these were not examined in detail. Alluvial fans and outwash/river terraces are present throughout the valley. Four surfaces on alluvial fans and river terraces were dated to 580 ka (T-1), 120 ka (T-2), 100 ka (T-3), and 70 ka (T-4). Large landslide and lacustrine deposits are common within the valley fills and represent periods of major slope instability and possible damming of drainages. Glacial processes dominate the western side of the valley; landsliding is the leading process on its eastern side. Defining the nature and timing of landform formation in this valley highlights the punctuated nature of landform evolution in the Himalaya and Tibet and provides a framework for considering the abundant valley fill successions elsewhere in the orogen.

  8. A crustal model of the ultrahigh-pressure Dabie Shan orogenic belt, China, derived from deep seismic refraction profiling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Chun-Yong; Zeng, Rong-Sheng; Mooney, W.D.; Hacker, B.R.

    2000-01-01

    We present a new crustal cross section through the east-west trending ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) Dabie Shan orogenic belt, east central China, based on a 400-km-long seismic refraction profile. Data from our profile reveal that the cratonal blocks north and south of the orogen are composed of 35-km-thick crust consisting of three layers (upper, middle, and lower crust) with average seismic velocities of 6.0±0.2 km/s, 6.5±0.1 km/s, and 6.8±0.1 km/s. The crust reaches a maximum thickness of 41.5 km beneath the northern margin of the orogen, and thus the present-day root beneath the orogen is only 6.5 km thick. The upper mantle velocity is 8.0±0.1 km/s. Modeling of shear wave data indicate that Poisson's ratio increases from 0.24±0.02 in the upper crust to 0.27±0.03 in the lower crust. This result is consistent with a dominantly felsic upper crustal composition and a mafic lower crustal composition within the amphibolite or granulite metamorphic facies. Our seismic model indicates that eclogite, which is abundant in surface exposures within the orogen, is not a volumetrically significant component in the middle or lower crust. Much of the Triassic structure associated with the formation of the UHP rocks of the Dabie Shan has been obscured by post-Triassic igneous activity, extension and large-offset strike-slip faulting. Nevertheless, we can identify a high-velocity (6.3 km/s) zone in the upper (<5 km depth) crustal core of the orogen which we interpret as a zone of ultrahigh-pressure rocks, a north dipping suture, and an apparent Moho offset that marks a likely active strike-slip fault.

  9. A comparative analysis of pre-Silurian crustal building blocks of the northern and the southern Appalachian orogen

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hibbard, J.P.; van Staal, C.R.; Rankin, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    The New York promontory serves as the divide between the northern and southern segments of the Appalachian orogen. Antiquated subdivisions, distinct for each segment, implied that they had lithotectonic histories that were independent of each other. Using new lithotectonic subdivisions we compare first order features of the pre-Silurian orogenic 'building blocks' in order to test the validity of the implication of independent lithotectonic histories for the two segments. Three lithotectonic divisions, termed here the Laurentian, Iapetan, and the peri-Gondwanan realms, characterize the entire orogen. The Laurentian realm, composed of native North American rocks, is remarkably uniform for the length of the orogen. It records the multistage Neoproterozoic-early Paleozoic rift-drift history of the Appalachian passive margin, formation of a Taconic Seaway, and the ultimate demise of both in the Middle Ordovician. The Iapetan realm encompasses mainly oceanic and magmatic arc tracts that once lay within the Iapetus Ocean, between Laurentia and Gondwana. In the northern segment, the realm is divisible on the basis of stratigraphy and faunal provinciality into peri-Laurentian and peri-Gondwanan tracts that were amalgamated in the Late Ordovician. South of New York, stratigraphic and faunal controls decrease markedly; rock associations are not inconsistent with those of the northern Appalachians, although second-order differences exist. Exposed exotic crustal blocks of the peri-Gondwanan realm include Ganderia, Avalonia, and Meguma in the north, and Carolinia in the south. Carolinia most closely resembles Ganderia, both in early evolution and Late Ordovician-Silurian docking to Laurentia. Our comparison indicates that, to a first order, the pre-Silurian Appalachian orogen developed uniformly, starting with complex rifting and a subsequent drift phase to form the Appalachian margin, followed by the consolidation of Iapetan components and ending with accretion of the peri

  10. Preliminary results of fine crustal structure obtained from deep seismic reflection profiles across the Xing'anling-Mongolian orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, H.; Gao, R.; Li, Q.; Xiong, X.; Zhu, X.; Li, W.; Li, H.

    2011-12-01

    Xing'anling Mongolian Orogenic Belt (XMOB) is the eastern extension of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) in China. It is the general term of the Paleozoic orogenic belt include different period of the formation of Caledonian and Variscan orogenic belts in the middle-east inner Mongolian and west of Songliao basin. The XMOB at present is a known giant orogenic belt with the longest development history and the most complicated tectono-magmatic activities, marks the boundary between the Sino-Korean Craton and the Siberian block. It has long been controversial about the understanding of the evolution process and tectonic framework of this orogenic belt and its neighboring area. Current tectonic models are largely speculative and models range from a single, giant arc system to accretion of multiple arc/backarc systems. Is the process of disappear of paleo-Asian ocean a single way subduction or two way? How far and how depth of the subduction oceanic crust? Is there a main suture or multi-sequence merging during the closing of paleo ocean? The answers to these questions are very important to study the final closure of paleo-Asian ocean and the development of orogenic belt, and to know the accretion process of east Asia continental and the mineralization. Thus,the deep background and ore-forming mechanism of this orogenic and metallogenic belt needs further probe. Under the support of SinoProbe-02 and China geological sruvey we have finished a 630km deep seismic reflection profile across the margin of North China Craton to the north part of Sino-Mongolia border, and a parallel 80km dense survey line in metallogenic belt in northernmost China (Fig1a blue lines). To get more deep knowledge of this belt, we are undergoing a deep seismic reflection profile that firstly across the Daxinganling in north-east China to connect with previously oil-industry profiles (grey lines) stoped in both side of the mountain (red line). From preliminary stack in field we identify the

  11. Sequential kinetic modelling: A new tool decodes pulsed tectonic patterns in early hot orogens of Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhowmik, Santanu Kumar; Chakraborty, Sumit

    2017-02-01

    Tectonic styles in an early hot Earth were different from the present-day situation governed by plate tectonics. Processes in such hot settings remain poorly understood because they often occur on timescales that are below the resolution of conventional isotopic clocks, the rock records are fragmentary, and these have been superposed by later high-temperature events. We have developed a tool based on diffusion kinetics to overcome these difficulties and reconstruct sequences of short-lived episodes. Application of the method to a rock from the ultra-hot c.1.6 Ga orogenic domain of the Central Indian Tectonic Zone, where additional data are available to verify the results, shows that pulses of approach and roll-back of colliding plates preceded the final closure and collision. We demonstrate that cooling from ultra-high temperature metamorphic conditions in the orogen took place in multiple pulses that occurred with a periodicity of about 10 Myr at rates that vary between 100's to 10's °C/Myr, and burial-/exhumation-rates that vary between 30 and 2 km/Myr, respectively. Such details of tectonic processes in the Precambrian, with quantification of variable heating-, cooling-, burial-, and exhumation-rates of individual stages, have not been accessible until now. Application of this method to other regions would provide a means of exploring the thermal viability of the inferred long durations (>100 Myr) for some ultra-high temperature orogenies.

  12. Exhumation and shortening distribution in the Taiwan orogen: insights from thermomechanical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouthereau, F.; Yamato, P.; Burov, E.

    2007-12-01

    The Taiwan orogen has long been regarded as a case example for studying exhumation and erosion processes in association with mountain building. In the recent years, the increasing number of thermochronometric data (mainly ZFT and AFT ages) has allowed to better understanding the deep-seated tectonic processes. For instance, using thermomechanical wedge modelling, up to 50% of underplating has been proposed to explain the observed distribution of FT ages. So it would appear that a large amount of materials added to the orogen originated in more deeper and ductile parts of the crust. The nature of this additional flux (velocity, mechanism of deformation) is however poorly constrained in the current thermomechanical model. Our concern is to use a fully- coupled visco-elasto-plastic themomechanical numerical model to reproduce the observed FT ages and long- term distribution of shortening. To this aim we use the numerical code PARA(O)VOZ based on F.L.A.C. (Fast Lagrangian Analysis of Continua) algorithm. Our results show that the particular distribution of shortening across the Taiwan belt as well as the rapid exhumation and thermal conditions in the hinterland are well accounted for by two superimposed flows of upper and lower crustal rocks decoupled from the subducting Eurasian mantle.

  13. Nappes, STEPs and the depth-dependence of orogenic arc formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wortel, Rinus; Govers, Rob; Polonia, Alina

    2017-04-01

    In spite of the classical nature of the subject, our understanding of nappe emplacement and the role of nappes in orogenic arc formation is still far from complete. We propose this stems from a lack of attention for the deeper, sub-crustal levels of the arc formation process. In this study we place the subject into a lithospheric scale perspective. Recent results concerning the present-day deformation of the Calabrian accretionary wedge and the underlying basement in the central Mediterranean (Polonia et al., Tectonophysics, 2016) provide an excellent starting point for exploring the role of lithospheric-scale tear faults near edges of subducting slabs (STEPs, Govers and Wortel, EPSL, 2005) in nappe emplacement and orogenic arc formation. Analysis of the Calabria-Sicily region leads us to propose a depth-dependent model for arc formation which distinguishes the near-surface nappes in the upper crustal depth range from the plate boundary evolution - through STEP activity - at the lithospheric scale, which dominates the deeper part. This new perspective accounts for several hitherto puzzling features of arc formation, in the Alpine-Mediterranean region (Alps, Apennines, Carpathians, Anatolia) and elsewhere, such as strongly variable nappe emplacement directions and the formation of very tightly curved arcs and series of juxtaposed arc-shaped thrust fronts. A likely setting of the proposed process is that of a region in a terminal stage of convergence, with (nearby) imminent continental or arc-continent collision.

  14. Origin of unusual HREE-Mo-rich carbonatites in the Qinling orogen, China

    PubMed Central

    Song, Wenlei; Xu, Cheng; Smith, Martin P.; Kynicky, Jindrich; Huang, Kangjun; Wei, Chunwan; Zhou, Li; Shu, Qihai

    2016-01-01

    Carbonatites, usually occurring within intra-continental rift-related settings, have strong light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment; they rarely contain economic heavy REE (HREE). Here, we report the identification of Late Triassic HREE-Mo-rich carbonatites in the northernmost Qinling orogen. The rocks contain abundant primary HREE minerals and molybdenite. Calcite-hosted fluid inclusions, inferred to represent a magmatic-derived aqueous fluid phase, contain significant concentrations of Mo (~17 ppm), reinforcing the inference that these carbonatitic magmas had high Mo concentrations. By contrast, Late Triassic carbonatites in southernmost Qinling have economic LREE concentrations, but are depleted in HREE and Mo. Both of these carbonatite types have low δ26Mg values (−1.89 to −1.07‰), similar to sedimentary carbonates, suggesting a recycled sediment contribution for REE enrichment in their mantle sources. We propose that the carbonatites in the Qinling orogen were formed, at least in part, by the melting of a subducted carbonate-bearing slab, and that 10 Ma younger carbonatite magmas in the northernmost Qinling metasomatized the thickened eclogitic lower crust to produce high levels of HREE and Mo. PMID:27857170

  15. Origin of unusual HREE-Mo-rich carbonatites in the Qinling orogen, China.

    PubMed

    Song, Wenlei; Xu, Cheng; Smith, Martin P; Kynicky, Jindrich; Huang, Kangjun; Wei, Chunwan; Zhou, Li; Shu, Qihai

    2016-11-18

    Carbonatites, usually occurring within intra-continental rift-related settings, have strong light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment; they rarely contain economic heavy REE (HREE). Here, we report the identification of Late Triassic HREE-Mo-rich carbonatites in the northernmost Qinling orogen. The rocks contain abundant primary HREE minerals and molybdenite. Calcite-hosted fluid inclusions, inferred to represent a magmatic-derived aqueous fluid phase, contain significant concentrations of Mo (~17 ppm), reinforcing the inference that these carbonatitic magmas had high Mo concentrations. By contrast, Late Triassic carbonatites in southernmost Qinling have economic LREE concentrations, but are depleted in HREE and Mo. Both of these carbonatite types have low δ(26)Mg values (-1.89 to -1.07‰), similar to sedimentary carbonates, suggesting a recycled sediment contribution for REE enrichment in their mantle sources. We propose that the carbonatites in the Qinling orogen were formed, at least in part, by the melting of a subducted carbonate-bearing slab, and that 10 Ma younger carbonatite magmas in the northernmost Qinling metasomatized the thickened eclogitic lower crust to produce high levels of HREE and Mo.

  16. Devonian sedimentation in the Xiqingshan Mountains: Implications for paleogeographic reconstructions of the SW Qinling Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhen; Aitchison, Jonathan C.; Fu, Changlei; Guo, Xianqing; Xia, Wenjing; Niu, Manlan

    2016-08-01

    The Qinling Orogen between the North China and Yangtze plates comprises various accreted and collisional terranes, recording the evolution of the Proto-Tethyan Ocean and the formation of east Asia. Knowledge of the provenance and tectonic setting of a thick succession of E-W striking Devonian sedimentary rocks sandwiched tectonically between the Shangdan and Mianlue ophiolitic suture zones in this belt is essential to understanding the evolution of the Qinling Orogen and the assembly of the North China and Yangtze plates during the Late Paleozoic. Systematic studies of the Devonian sedimentary facies in the Xiqingshan Mountains indicate the northern margin of the South Qinling belt was uplifted prior to the Early Devonian. Lower Devonian sandstones are dominated by feldspathic litharenite (Q12-31F18-37L40-65), indicative of a continental arc derivation. Detrital zircon U-Pb data demonstrate that the Lower and Middle Devonian sandstones were derived respectively from ca. 770 Ma and ca. 400 Ma felsic arc-related magmatic sources. Devonian sedimentation in the Xiqingshan Mountains is interpreted to have occurred in a foreland basin between the Yangtze plate and the North Qinling continental arc.

  17. Origin of unusual HREE-Mo-rich carbonatites in the Qinling orogen, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wenlei; Xu, Cheng; Smith, Martin P.; Kynicky, Jindrich; Huang, Kangjun; Wei, Chunwan; Zhou, Li; Shu, Qihai

    2016-11-01

    Carbonatites, usually occurring within intra-continental rift-related settings, have strong light rare earth element (LREE) enrichment; they rarely contain economic heavy REE (HREE). Here, we report the identification of Late Triassic HREE-Mo-rich carbonatites in the northernmost Qinling orogen. The rocks contain abundant primary HREE minerals and molybdenite. Calcite-hosted fluid inclusions, inferred to represent a magmatic-derived aqueous fluid phase, contain significant concentrations of Mo (~17 ppm), reinforcing the inference that these carbonatitic magmas had high Mo concentrations. By contrast, Late Triassic carbonatites in southernmost Qinling have economic LREE concentrations, but are depleted in HREE and Mo. Both of these carbonatite types have low δ26Mg values (‑1.89 to ‑1.07‰), similar to sedimentary carbonates, suggesting a recycled sediment contribution for REE enrichment in their mantle sources. We propose that the carbonatites in the Qinling orogen were formed, at least in part, by the melting of a subducted carbonate-bearing slab, and that 10 Ma younger carbonatite magmas in the northernmost Qinling metasomatized the thickened eclogitic lower crust to produce high levels of HREE and Mo.

  18. Sediment-hosted/orogenic gold mineral systems exploration using PALSAR remote sensing data in Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiranvand Pour, Amin; Hashim, Mazlan

    2016-06-01

    The Bentong-Raub Suture Zone (BRSZ) is genetically related to the sediment-hosted/orogenic gold deposits associated with the major lineaments and form-lines in the Central Gold Belt of Peninsular Malaysia. In this investigation, the Phased Array type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) satellite remote sensing data were used to analyse major geological structures in Peninsular Malaysia and provide detailed characterization of lineaments and form-lines in the BRSZ, as well as its implications for sediment-hosted/orogenic gold exploration in tropical environments. The pervasive array of N-S faults in the study area and surrounding terrain is mainly linked to the N-S trending of the BRSZ Suture Zone. N-S striking lineaments are often cut by younger NE-SW and NW-SE-trending lineaments. Three generations of folding event have been discerned from remote sensing structural analysis. Gold mineralized trends lineaments are associated with the intersection of N-S, NE-SW, NNW-SSE and ESE-WNW faults and curvilinear features in shearing and alteration zones. Compressional tectonics structures such as NW-SE trending thrust, ENE-WSW oriented faults in mylonite and phyllite, recumbent folds and asymmetric anticlines in argillite are high potential zones for gold prospecting.

  19. Shallow, old, and hydrologically insignificant fault zones in the Appalachian orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malgrange, Juliette; Gleeson, Tom

    2014-01-01

    The permeability of fault zones impacts diverse geological processes such as hydrocarbon migration, hydrothermal fluid circulation, and regional groundwater flow, yet how fault zones affect groundwater flow at a regional scale (1-10 km) is highly uncertain. The objective of this work is to determine whether faults affect regional patterns of groundwater flow, by using radioactive radon and chloride to quantify groundwater discharge to lakes underlain by faults and not underlain by faults. We sampled lakes overlying the Paleozoic Appalachian fold and thrust belt in the Eastern Townships in Québec, and compared our results to a previous study in a crystalline watershed in the Canadian Shield. The field data was analyzed with an analytical geochemical mixing model. The uncertainties of model parameters were assessed in a sensitivity analysis using Monte Carlo simulation, and the difference between lakes tested with statistical analysis. While the model results indicate non-negligible groundwater discharge for most of the lakes in the Paleozoic orogen, the difference between the groundwater discharge rate into the lakes located on faults and the other lakes is not statistically significant. However, the groundwater discharge rate to lakes in the Paleozoic orogeny is significantly higher than lakes that overlay crystalline bedrock, which is consistent with independent estimates of permeability. The rate of groundwater discharge is not significantly enhanced or diminished around the thrust fault zones, suggesting that in a regional scale, permeability of fault zones is not significantly different from the bedrock permeability at shallow depth in this old, tectonically- inactive orogen.

  20. Ediacaran 2,500-km-long synchronous deep continental subduction in the West Gondwana Orogen.

    PubMed

    Ganade de Araujo, Carlos E; Rubatto, Daniela; Hermann, Joerg; Cordani, Umberto G; Caby, Renaud; Basei, Miguel A S

    2014-10-16

    The deeply eroded West Gondwana Orogen is a major continental collision zone that exposes numerous occurrences of deeply subducted rocks, such as eclogites. The position of these eclogites marks the suture zone between colliding cratons, and the age of metamorphism constrains the transition from subduction-dominated tectonics to continental collision and mountain building. Here we investigate the metamorphic conditions and age of high-pressure and ultrahigh-pressure eclogites from Mali, Togo and NE-Brazil and demonstrate that continental subduction occurred within 20 million years over at least a 2,500-km-long section of the orogen during the Ediacaran. We consider this to be the earliest evidence of large-scale deep-continental subduction and consequent appearance of Himalayan-scale mountains in the geological record. The rise and subsequent erosion of such mountains in the Late Ediacaran is perfectly timed to deliver sediments and nutrients that are thought to have been necessary for the subsequent evolution of sustainable life on Earth.

  1. Crustal structure of the alaska range orogen and denali fault along the richardson highway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, M.A.; Pellerin, L.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Ratchkovski, N.A.; Glen, J.M.G.

    2007-01-01

    A suite of geophysical data obtained along the Richardson Highway crosses the eastern Alaska Range and Denali fault and reveals the crustal structure of the orogen. Strong seismic reflections from within the orogen north of the Denali fault dip as steeply as 25?? north and extend downward to depths between 20 and 25 km. These reflections reveal what is probably a shear zone that transects most of the crust and is part of a crustal-scale duplex structure that probably formed during the Late Cretaceous. These structures, however, appear to be relict because over the past 20 years, they have produced little or no seismicity despite the nearby Mw = 7.9 Denali fault earthquake that struck in 2002. The Denali fault is nonreflective, but we interpret modeled magnetotelluric (MT), gravity, and magnetic data to propose that the fault dips steeply to vertically. Modeling of MT data shows that aftershocks of the 2002 Denali fault earthquake occurred above a rock body that has low electrical resistivity (>10 ohm-m), which might signify the presence of fluids in the middle and lower crust. Copyright ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America.

  2. Menstrual Cycle

    MedlinePlus

    ... receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit The menstrual cycle Day 1 starts with the first day of ... drop around Day 25 . This signals the next menstrual cycle to begin. The egg will break apart and ...

  3. The early Cretaceous orogen-scale Dabieshan metamorphic core complex: implications for extensional collapse of the Triassic HP-UHP orogenic belt in east-central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wenbin; Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Shi, Yonghong; Wang, Qingchen

    2016-03-01

    The Dabieshan massif is famous as a portion of the world's largest HP-UHP metamorphic belt in east-central China that was built by the Triassic North-South China collision. The central domain of the Dabieshan massif is occupied by a huge migmatite-cored dome [i.e., the central Dabieshan dome (CDD)]. Origin of this domal structure remains controversial. Synthesizing previous and our new structural and geochronological data, we define the Cretaceous Dabieshan as an orogen-scale metamorphic core complex (MCC) with a multistage history. Onset of lithospheric extension in the Dabieshan area occurred as early as the commencement of crustal anatexis at the earliest Cretaceous (ca. 145 Ma), which was followed by primary (early-stage) detachment during 142-130 Ma. The central Dabieshan complex in the footwall and surrounding detachment faults recorded a consistently top-to-the-NW shearing. It is thus inferred that the primary detachment was initiated from a flat-lying detachment zone at the middle crust level. Removal of the orogenic root by delamination at ca. 130 Ma came into the extensional climax, and subsequently isostatic rebound resulted in rapid doming. Along with exhumation of the footwall, the mid-crustal detachment zone had been warped as shear zones around the CDD. After 120 Ma, the detachment system probably experienced a migration accommodated to the crustal adjustment, which led to secondary (late-stage) detachment with localized ductile shearing at ca. 110 Ma. The migmatite-gneiss with HP/UHP relicts in the CDD (i.e., the central Dabieshan complex) was product of the Cretaceous crustal anatexis that consumed the deep-seated part of the HP-UHP slices and the underlying para-autochthonous basement. Compared with the contemporaneous MCCs widely developed along the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent, we proposed that occurrence of the Dabieshan MCC shares the same tectonic setting as the "destruction of the North China craton". However, geodynamic trigger

  4. Cenozoic landforms and post-orogenic landscape evolution of the Balkanide orogen: Evidence for alternatives to the tectonic denudation narrative in southern Bulgaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunnell, Y.; Calvet, M.; Meyer, B.; Pinna-Jamme, R.; Bour, I.; Gautheron, C.; Carter, A.; Dimitrov, D.

    2017-01-01

    Continental denudation is the mass transfer of rock from source areas to sedimentary depocentres, and is typically the result of Earth surface processes. However, a process known as tectonic denudation is also understood to expose deep-seated rocks in short periods of geological time by displacing large masses of continental crust along shallow-angle faults, and without requiring major contributions from surface erosion. Some parts of the world, such as the Basin and Range in the USA or the Aegean province in Europe, have been showcased for their Cenozoic tectonic denudation features, commonly described as metamorphic core-complexes or as supradetachment faults. Based on 22 new apatite fission-track (AFT) and 21 helium (AHe) cooling ages among rock samples collected widely from plateau summits and their adjacent valley floors, and elaborating on inconsistencies between the regional stratigraphic, topographic and denudational records, this study frames a revised perspective on the prevailing tectonic denudation narrative for southern Bulgaria. We conclude that conspicuous landforms in this region, such as erosion surfaces on basement-cored mountain ranges, are not primarily the result of Paleogene to Neogene core-complex formation. They result instead from "ordinary" erosion-driven, subaerial denudation. Rock cooling, each time suggesting at least 2 km of crustal denudation, has exposed shallow Paleogene granitic plutons and documents a 3-stage wave of erosional denudation which progressed from north to south during the Middle Eocene, Oligocene, Early to Middle Miocene, and Late Miocene. Denudation initially prevailed during the Paleogene under a syn-orogenic compressional regime involving piggyback extensional basins (Phase 1), but subsequently migrated southward in response to post-orogenic upper-plate extension driven by trench rollback of the Hellenic subduction slab (Phase 2). Rare insight given by the denudation pattern indicates that trench rollback

  5. The early Cretaceous orogen-scale Dabieshan metamorphic core complex: implications for extensional collapse of the Triassic HP-UHP orogenic belt in east-central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wenbin; Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Shi, Yonghong; Wang, Qingchen

    2017-06-01

    The Dabieshan massif is famous as a portion of the world's largest HP-UHP metamorphic belt in east-central China that was built by the Triassic North-South China collision. The central domain of the Dabieshan massif is occupied by a huge migmatite-cored dome [i.e., the central Dabieshan dome (CDD)]. Origin of this domal structure remains controversial. Synthesizing previous and our new structural and geochronological data, we define the Cretaceous Dabieshan as an orogen-scale metamorphic core complex (MCC) with a multistage history. Onset of lithospheric extension in the Dabieshan area occurred as early as the commencement of crustal anatexis at the earliest Cretaceous (ca. 145 Ma), which was followed by primary (early-stage) detachment during 142-130 Ma. The central Dabieshan complex in the footwall and surrounding detachment faults recorded a consistently top-to-the-NW shearing. It is thus inferred that the primary detachment was initiated from a flat-lying detachment zone at the middle crust level. Removal of the orogenic root by delamination at ca. 130 Ma came into the extensional climax, and subsequently isostatic rebound resulted in rapid doming. Along with exhumation of the footwall, the mid-crustal detachment zone had been warped as shear zones around the CDD. After 120 Ma, the detachment system probably experienced a migration accommodated to the crustal adjustment, which led to secondary (late-stage) detachment with localized ductile shearing at ca. 110 Ma. The migmatite-gneiss with HP/UHP relicts in the CDD (i.e., the central Dabieshan complex) was product of the Cretaceous crustal anatexis that consumed the deep-seated part of the HP-UHP slices and the underlying para-autochthonous basement. Compared with the contemporaneous MCCs widely developed along the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent, we proposed that occurrence of the Dabieshan MCC shares the same tectonic setting as the "destruction of the North China craton". However, geodynamic trigger

  6. Late Mesozoic deformations of the Verkhoyansk-Kolyma orogenic belt, Northeast Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridovsky, Valery

    2016-04-01

    The Verkhoyansk-Kolyma orogenic belt marks the boundary between the Kolyma-Omolon superterrane (microcontinent) and the submerged eastern margin of the North Asian craton. The orogenic system is remark able for its large number of economically viable gold deposits (Natalka, Pavlik, Rodionovskoe, Drazhnoe, Bazovskoe, Badran, Malo-Tarynskoe, etc.). The Verkhoyansk - Kolyma orogenic belt is subdivided into Kular-Nera and the Polousny-Debin terranes. The Kular-Nera terrane is mainly composed of the Upper Permian, Triassic, and Lower Jurassic black shales that are metamorphosed at lower greenschist facies conditions. The Charky-Indigirka and the Chai-Yureya faults separate the Kular-Nera from the Polousny-Debin terrane that is predominantly composed of the Jurassic flyschoi dturbidites. The deformation structure of the region evolved in association with several late Mesozoic tectonic events that took place in the north-eastern part ofthe Paleo-Pacific. In Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous several generations of fold and thrust systems were formed due to frontal accretion of the Kolyma-Omolon superterrane to the eastern margin of the North Asian craton.Thrusting and folding was accompanied by granitic magmatism, metamorphic reworking of the Late Paleozoic and the Early Mesozoic sedimentary rocks, and formation of Au-Sn-W mineralization. Three stages of deformation related to frontal accretion can be distinguished. First stage D1 has developed in the north-eastern part of the Verkhoyansk - Kolyma orogenic belt. Early tight and isoclinal folds F1 and assosiated thrusts are characteristic of D1. Major thrusts, linear concentric folds F2 and cleavage were formed during D2. The main ore-controlling structures are thrust faults forming imbricate fan systems. Frontal and oblique ramps and systems of bedding and cross thrusts forming duplexes are common. It is notable that mineralized tectonized zones commonly develop along thrusts at the contacts of rocks of contrasting competence

  7. The Palaeoproterozoic crustal evolution: evidences from granulite-gneiss belts, collisional and accretionary orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mints, M. V.; Konilov, A. N.

    2003-04-01

    The Palaeoproterozoic juvenile assemblages were emplaced within two types of mobile belts: (1) high-grade or "granulite-gneiss" belts; (2) low- and medium-grade volcano-sedimentary and volcano-plutonic belts. Type (1) belts resulted from plume-induced heating, magmatism, emergence of riftogenic basins and volcano-tectonic depressions, their filling with rift-type sediments and juvenile but strongly contaminated lavas and ash-flow deposits, high-grade recrystallization of the lower- and mid-crustal assemblages including the filling of the basins and depressions that followed in intraplate and back-arc settings, and final thrusting and exhumation caused by collision-related tectonism. Type (2) belts represent sutures containing MORB- and arc-related assemblages, together with initial rift-related assemblages formed during evolution of the short-lived, mainly Red Sea-type oceans (intracontinental collisional orogens) and systems of oceanic, island-arc and back-arc terranes amalgamated along continent margins (peripheral accretionary orogens). Palaeoproterozoic history can be subdivided into five periods: (1) 2.51-2.44 Ga superplume activity and displacement of Fennoscandia; (2) 2.44-2.0 (2.11) Ga quiescent within-plate development complicated by local plume- and plate tectonics-related processes; (3) a 2.0-1.95 Ga superplume event; (4) 1.95-1.75 (1.71) Ga combined plume- and plate tectonics-related evolution, resulting in the partial disruption of the continental crust, and formation of accretionary orogens along some margins of the supercontinent and rebirth of the supercontinent entity, and (5) < 1,75 Ga post- and anorogenic magmatism and metamorphism. Magmatic and thermal activity during the early Palaeoproterozoic was almost exclusively concentrated within Laurentia (comprising North American and Fennoscandian cratons). In contrast, late Palaeoproterozoic assemblages are distributed within all continents. The simultaneous appearance of within-plate plume

  8. Lawsonite Blueschists in Recycled Mélange Involved in K-Rich Orogenic Magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Prelevic, D.; Foley, S. F.; Buhre, S.; Galer, S. J. G.

    2014-12-01

    The origin of K-rich orogenic magmatism in the Alpine-Himalayan belt and its relationship to the large-scale elevations in several massifs of the orogen is controversial, particularly the significance of the widespread presence of a geochemical signal typical for recycled continental crust. Two competing scenarios invoke direct melting of continental crust during deep intercontinental subduction and removal of heavily metasomatised mantle lithosphere by delamination into the convecting mantle. Here we investigate the coupling of high Th/La ratio with crustal isotopic signatures in K-rich orogenic lavas that does not occur in volcanic rocks from other collisional environments to distinguish between these two models. High-pressure experimental results on a phyllite representing upper crustal composition and a detailed mineral and geochemical study of blueschists from Tavşanlı mélange, Turkey, indicate that this geochemical fingerprint originates by melting of subducted mélange. Melting of crust at the top of the subducted continental lithosphere cannot produce observed fingerprint, whereas lawsonites, especially those with terrigenous sediment origin from blueschists with high Th/La can. Lawsonites that grow in various components of a subduction mélange inherit the geochemical characteristics of either oceanic or continental protoliths. It is currently uncertain whether those carrying the high Th/La signature originate by direct melting of continental blocks in the mélange or by the introduction of supercritical fluids from lawsonite blueschist of continental origin that infiltrate oceanic sediment blocks. Either way, the high Th/La is later released into subsequently formed melts. This confirms the supposition that lawsonite is the main progenitor of the high Th/La and Sm/La ratio. However, lawsonite must break down completely to impart this unique feature to subsequent magmas. The source regions of the potassic volcanic rocks consist of blueschist facies m

  9. Alpine-type tectonics in the Paleoproterozoic Lapland-Kola Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudruk, S. V.; Balagansky, V. V.; Gorbunov, I. A.; Raevsky, A. B.

    2013-07-01

    The Kola region in the northeastern Baltic Shield is characterized by diverse Paleoproterozoic collision processes. The Keivy Terrane is one of the major tectonic units in the northeastern foreland of the Paleoproterozoic Lapland-Kola Collisional Orogen, which markedly differs in a number of parameters from other tectonic units of the Kola region. The study of the Keivy Terrane allowed us to unravel one more basic difference: the large Paleoproterozoic sheath synform of the Serpovidny (Crescentic) Range localized in this terrane. Its core is occupied by volcanic and sedimentary rocks, which correlate with the fill of the Imandra-Varzuga Rift; the limbs are composed of metamorphosed mature sedimentary rocks known as Keivy paraschists of Neoarchean or Paleoproterozoic age. The lower limb of the Serpovidny Synform is strongly squeezed, whereas the upper limb consists of almost undeformed rocks. The deformed rocks underwent ductile flow under conditions of simple or general shear. In the degree of its asymmetry and main parameters, the Serpovidny Synform is similar to the plunging and recumbent anticlines in the Helvetic nappes of the Alps. It is concluded that the Paleoproterozoic core of the Serpovidny Sheath Synform, or plunging anticline, is a fragment of the almost completely eroded deep Serpovidny Nappe of the Helvetic type. During the collision related to the Lapland-Kola Orogeny (1.9-2.0 Ga), this nappe was pushed out northward from the Paleoproterozoic Imandra-Varzuga Rift, which is situated 50 km south of the Serpovidny structure, and thrust over the Keivy paraschists. The latter, together with underlying the Lebyazhka Gneiss, were folded in the process of thrusting and were involved in the structure of the Serpovidny Synform. The Keivy paraschists make up a para-autochthon or a separate nappe of the Pennine type. The Archean Lebyazhka metafelsic volcanics underlie the Keivy paraschists and overlie granitoids of the Archean basement that remained undeformed

  10. Tectonic processes during oblique collision: Insights from the St. Elias orogen, northern North American Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlis, T.L.; Picornell, C.; Serpa, L.; Bruhn, R.L.; Plafker, G.

    2004-01-01

    Oblique convergence in the St. Elias orogen of southern Alaska and northwestern Canada has constructed the world's highest coastal mountain range and is the principal driver constructing all of the high topography in northern North America. The orogen originated when the Yakutat terrane was excised from the Cordilleran margin and was transported along margin-parallel strike-slip faults into the subduction-transform transition at the eastern end of the Aleutian trench. We examine the last 3 m.y. of this collision through an analysis of Euler poles for motion of the Yakutat microplate with respect to North America and the Pacific. This analysis indicates a Yakutat-Pacific pole near the present southern triple junction of the microplate and' predicts convergence to dextral-oblique convergence across the offshore Transition fault, onland structures adjacent to the Yakutat foreland, or both, with plate speeds increasing from 10 to 30 mm/yr from southeast to northwest. Reconstructions based on these poles show that NNW transport of the collided block into the NE trending subduction zone forced contraction of EW line elements as the collided block was driven into the subduction-transform transition. This suggests the collided block was constricted as it was driven into the transition. Constriction provides an explanation for observed vertical axis refolding of both earlier formed fold-thrust systems and the collisional suture at the top of the fold-thrust stack. We also suggest that this motion was partially accommodated by lateral extrusion of the western portion of the orogen toward the Aleutian trench. Important questions remain regarding which structures accommodated parts of this motion. The Transition fault may have accommodated much of the Yakutat-Pacific convergence on the basis of our analysis and previous interpretations of GPS-based geodetic data. Nonetheless, it is locally overlapped by up to 800 m of undeformed sediment, yet elsewhere shows evidence of young

  11. Lateral flow in the middle crust - Analogue experiments from the Svecofennian orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikkilä, Kaisa; Koyi, Hemin; Korja, Annakaisa; Eklund, Olav

    2013-04-01

    The exposed Svecofennian crust (50-65 km) has been suggested to have thickened in continental accretion between Archean and Paleoproterozoic terranes, probably at a high convergence rate. It is likely that this thickened orogen experienced lateral spreading during its final stages. This post-orogenic event has reshaped the collisional framework and modified its bulk appearance. In this study, we have used scaled analogue centrifuge modeling to simulate extensional lateral flow at the Archean- Paleoproterozoic boundary zone during final stages of the Svecofennian orogeny. The analogue models simulate both the evolution of a mechanical boundary between two rheologically different tectonic blocks, and the role of pre-existing weaknesses at moderate angles (representing the old stacking structures). In models the upper layer is brittle, the middle layer is ductile, and the lower layer is more viscous. The layers represent upper, middle and lower crust, respectively. The Proterozoic layers have lower viscosity values than the Archean layers at similar depths. The materials are based on the plastilina modelling putty, which is mixed with acid oil, silicone, sweetener and/or barium sulphate to get the appropriate composition for each layer. Both the Archean and the Paleoproterozoic blocks have a low-viscous middle crust. The three layered models are extended unilaterally. The model results show that during extension the rheologically different layers deform and spread at different rates during the tectonic collapse. This results in 1) vertical rotation of the Archean and Proterozoic boundary; 2) the pre-existed faults become listric and discontinuous; and 3) the upward flow of the low viscosity middle layer to fill the newly-formed gaps between the upper layer blocks. The experiments show geometrically similar crustal-scale structures to those observed in the deep seismic reflection profiles (FIRE). Thus it is possible that lateral flow has taken place in the core of the

  12. Origin of allanite in gneiss and granite in the Dabie orogenic belt, Central East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Haihao; Xiao, Yilin; Xu, Lijuan; Sun, He; Huang, Jian; Hou, Zhenhui

    2017-03-01

    Allanite is a common accessory mineral phase, representing an important carrier of rare earth elements, Th, U, Sr and other trace elements in most continental rocks. As Th and U can be incorporated into the allanite lattice, the mineral is a good geochronological tool for constraining geological events. Moreover, the trace element features δEu, Th/U ratio and common lead content of allanite are indicators of the forming conditions. Allanite and coexisting epidote-group minerals are abundant in ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks from the Dabie-Sulu orogen in central East China. However, if these minerals formed in the Neoproterozoic as magmatic phases, or in the Triassic as metamorphic phases is a matter of long-standing controversy. We report major and trace element analyses of whole rocks, allanite and coexisting epidote-group minerals, together with U-Th-Pb isotopic compositions of allanite in UHP gneiss from the Dabie-Sulu orogen, and allanite in the adjacent Jingshan granite. The granite is emplaced along the southeastern margin of the North China Craton and considered a product of partial melting of the subducted Dabie-Sulu gneiss. Trace elements (low Th/U and La/Sm, high δEu and high Sr) and high common lead concentrations indicate a metamorphic origin of allanite-epidote in the UHP gneiss. On the other hand, coarse-grained allanite from the Jingshan granite shows a corrosion core and a magmatic rim with common 208Pb up to 70% in the core and less than 30% in the rim. The allanite cores are of peritectic and the rims of magmatic origin with ages of ∼160 Ma, consistent with the granite crystallization age. In combination with previous studies, we conclude that the allanite of the Jingshan granite has form from the subducted and remolten Dabie-Sulu gneiss. Allanite records Triassic UHP metamorphic ages as well as Jurassic peritectic-magmatic ages as a part of the evolution of the Dabie-Sulu orogen.

  13. Orogenic inheritance in Death Valley region, western US Basin and Range: implications for Neogene crustal extension.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, R. D.; Hayman, N. W.; Prior, M. G.; Stockli, D. F.; Kelly, E. D.

    2016-12-01

    Deformation and temperature evolution during orogenic stages may influence later fabric development, thus controlling large-scale extensional processes that can occur millions of years later. Here, we describe pressure-temperature and fabric evolution from the Death Valley (DV) region and show how inherited fabrics, formed in late orogenic stages during Late Cretaceous time, influenced later Neogene age Basin and Range (BR) extension. The DV region is one of the most extended and thinned regions in the western US BR province, and the two of the ranges that bound the eastern valley expose basement rocks exhumed during the Neogene extension. In the Funeral range, it has been established that older (Precambrian) basement underwent Mesozoic age syn-deformational metamorphism during the Sevier-Laramide orogeny. In contrast, the Black Mountains record widespread tectonic stretching and magmatism of Miocene age on Precambrian basement, and have, overall, been lacking previous evidence of Mesozoic metamorphism and fabric development. In the Funeral Range Late Cretaceous migmatitic fabrics were overprinted by zones of high-strain fabrics formed due to melt-consuming reaction that define an overall P-T cooling path likely during late- to post-orogenesis. These fabrics form interconnected layers of quartz + biotite aggregates, in which individual quartz grains lack evidence of intracrystalline plastic deformation and show consistently random [c]-axis microfabrics. This suggests coupled reaction-diffusion processes that favored diffusion-assisted creep. New geochronometric results of melt products in the Black Mountains show evidence of partial melting of Late Cretaceous age. Contrasting with the neighboring Funeral Range, overprinting by extensional fabrics of Miocene age is widespread, and consists of high-strain, anastomosing foliation composed of retrograde products from preexisting, higher-temperature fabrics. These include interconnected fine-grained chlorite + quartz

  14. Kinematics of post-orogenic extension and exhumation of the Taku Schist, NE Peninsular Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Md Ali, M. A.; Willingshofer, E.; Matenco, L.; Francois, T.; Daanen, T. P.; Ng, T. F.; Taib, N. I.; Shuib, M. K.

    2016-09-01

    Recent studies imply that the formation and evolution of many SE Asian basins was driven by extensional detachments or systems of low-angle normal faults that created significant crustal exhumation in their footwalls. In this context, the architecture of the Triassic Indosinian orogen presently exposed in Peninsular Malaysia is compatible with significant extension post-dating the orogenic event. In this study we performed a kinematic analysis based on fieldwork and microstructural observations in the Taku Schist, Kemahang granite and the surrounding Gua Musang sediments of northern Peninsular Malaysia in order to shed light on processes related to the build-up and subsequent demise of the Indosinian orogen. The first three phases of deformation were related to an overall period of E-W oriented contraction and burial metamorphism. These phases of deformation are characterized by isoclinal folding with flat lying axial plane cleavages (D1), asymmetrical folding, top-to-the-W-SW shearing (D2) and upright folding (D3). All are in general agreement with observations of the previously inferred Permo-Triassic Indosinian orogeny. During these times, the Taku Schist, a sequence of Paleozoic clastic sediments with mafic intercalations was metamorphosed to amphibolite facies. These rocks are most likely equivalent to the ones exposed in the Bentong-Raub suture zone. Structural relations suggest that the Triassic Kemahang pluton is syn-kinematic, which provides important constraints for the timing of these contractional events. We demonstrate that the overall shortening was followed by a hitherto undescribed extension in NW-SE direction resulting in the formation of a large-scale detachment, the Taku detachment, in northern Peninsular Malaysia. Extension probably reactivated the former subduction plane as a detachment and exhumed previously buried and metamorphosed rocks of similar lithological composition to the neighboring Bentong-Raub suture zone. Such a mechanism is

  15. New constraints on fluid sources in orogenic gold deposits, Victoria, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Bin; Kendrick, Mark A.; Fairmaid, Alison M.; Phillips, David; Wilson, Christopher J. L.; Mernagh, Terrence P.

    2012-03-01

    Fluid inclusion microthermometry, Raman spectroscopy and noble gas plus halogen geochemistry, complemented by published stable isotope data, have been used to assess the origin of gold-rich fluids in the Lachlan Fold Belt of central Victoria, south-eastern Australia. Victorian gold deposits vary from large turbidite-hosted `orogenic' lode and disseminated-stockwork gold-only deposits, formed close to the metamorphic peak, to smaller polymetallic gold deposits, temporally associated with later post-orogenic granite intrusions. Despite the differences in relative timing, metal association and the size of these deposits, fluid inclusion microthermometry indicates that all deposits are genetically associated with similar low-salinity aqueous, CO2-bearing fluids. The majority of these fluid inclusions also have similar 40Ar/36Ar values of less than 1500 and 36Ar concentrations of 2.6-58 ppb (by mass) that are equal to or much greater than air-saturation levels (1.3-2.7 ppb). Limited amounts of nitrogen-rich fluids are present at a local scale and have the highest measured 40Ar/36Ar values of up to 5,700, suggesting an external or distinct source compared to the aqueous fluids. The predominance of low-salinity aqueous-carbonic fluids with low 40Ar/36Ar values, in both `orogenic' and `intrusion-related' gold deposits, is attributed to fluid production from common basement volcano-sedimentary sequences and fluid interaction with sedimentary cover rocks (turbidites). Aqueous fluid inclusions in the Stawell-Magdala deposit of western Victoria (including those associated with N2) preserve mantle-like Br/Cl and I/Cl values. In contrast, fluid inclusions in deposits in the eastern structural zones, which contain more abundant shales, have elevated molar I/Cl ratios with maximum values of 5,170 × 10-6 in the Melbourne Zone. Br/I ratios in this zone range from 0.5 to 3.0 that are characteristic of fluid interaction with organic-rich sediments. The maximum I/Cl and characteristic

  16. Origin and structure of major orogen-scale exhumed strike-slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Shuyun; Neubauer, Franz

    2016-04-01

    The formation of major exhumed strike-slip faults represents one of the most important dynamic processes affecting the evolution of the Earth's lithosphere and surface. Detailed models of the potential initiation and properties and architecture of orogen-scale exhumed strike-slip faults and how these relate to exhumation are rare. In this study, we deal with key properties controlling the development of major exhumed strike-slip fault systems, which are equivalent to the deep crustal sections of active across fault zones. We also propose two dominant processes for the initiation of orogen-scale exhumed strike-slip faults: (1) pluton-controlled and (2) metamorphic core complex-controlled strike-slip faults. In these tectonic settings, the initiation of faults occurs by rheological weakening along hot-to-cool contacts and guides the overall displacement and ultimate exhumation. These processes result in a specific thermal and structural architecture of such faults. These types of strike-slip dominated fault zones are often subparallel to mountain ranges and expose a wide variety of mylonitic, cataclastic and non-cohesive fault rocks, which were formed at different structural levels of the crust during various stages of faulting. The high variety of distinctive fault rocks is a potential evidence for recognition of these types of strike-slip faults. Exhumation of mylonitic rocks is, therefore, a common feature of such reverse oblique-slip strike-slip faults, implying major transtensive and/or transpressive processes accompanying pure strike-slip motion during exhumation. Some orogen-scale strike-slip faults nucleate and initiate along rheologically weak zones, e.g. at granite intrusions, zones of low-strength minerals, thermally weakened crust due to ascending fluids, and lateral borders of hot metamorphic core complexes. A further mechanism is the juxtaposition of mechanically strong mantle lithosphere to hot asthenosphere in continental transform faults (e.g., San

  17. The switch of magmatic evolution between early and late Paleozoic in the northern Beishan, southern Central Asia Orogenic belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Y.; Zong, K.; He, Z.

    2016-12-01

    The Beishan Orogenic Belt locates in the southernmost of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), which plays a key role in understanding the formation and evolution of the CAOB. However, the petrogenesis and geodynamic settings of widely distributed Paleozoic granitoids in the Beishan Orogenic Belt are poorly understood. In this study, we found that petrogenesis and tectonic settings are distinguished between the early and late Paleozoic granitoids in the Mazongshan unit located in the northern Beishan Orogenic Belt. The early Paleozoic intrusions are represented by Hongliuxia granite and Shibanjing complex which intruded at 460-430 Ma. On one hand, they display large range of zircon ɛHf(t) values from -17.1 to +14.2, implying both the juvenile and ancient crust material were involved in their petrogenesis. Noticeable, their zircon Hf model ages range from 0.5 Ga to 2.1 Ga and peaks at 0.9 Ga, 1.2 Ga and 1.8 Ga that are accordance with the formation time of the ancient continental crust in the southern Beishan Orogenic Belt. On the other hand, their geochemical and petrographic signatures reveal a classic high-K I-type granite affinity (e.g., weak peraluminous, moderate A/CNK values (0.72-1.27) , low Ga/Al ratios (1.87-2.41) and occurrence of hornblende). Moreover, they display relative enrichment of LILEs and LREEs but pronounced depletion of Nb, Ta and Ti. Thus, we suggest the early Paleozoic granitoids in the Beishan Orogenic Belt are generated in the continental arc setting. In contrast, the late Paleozoic granitoids are represented by Shuangjingzi complex which emplaced at 330 and 280 Ma. They are characterized by the positive zircon ɛHf(t) values of 5.4-12.8, supporting their magma source are dominated by partial melting of juvenile crust material in the extension setting. Therefore, the early and late Paleozoic magmatic evolutions in the Beishan Orogenic belt are distinguished by the reworking of ancient crust and remelting of juvenile crust materials

  18. Transient Landscape Evolution is Characteristic of Post-Orogenic Decay: An Example from the Southern Appalachians, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallen, S. F.

    2016-12-01

    Long-term landscape evolution in post-orogenic settings remains an outstanding question in the geosciences. Despite conventional wisdom that topography in dead orogens will slowly and steadily decay through time, observations from around the globe show that dynamic, unsteady (e.g. transient) landscape evolution is the norm. Unraveling the mechanisms that drive unsteadiness in dead orogens is paramount to understanding the stratigraphic record of offshore basins and the geologic factors that contribute to the high biodiversity common in these settings. Here we address the enigma of unsteady post-orogenic landscape evolution with a study of the geomorphology of southern Appalachians, U.S.A. We focus on the 58,000 km2 Upper Tennessee River Basin that covers portions of the fold-and-thrust belt (Valley and Ridge), foreland basin (Appalachian Plateau), and a deeply exhumed thrust sheet (Blue Ridge) of this dead orogen. Using published millennial-scale erosion rates and quantitative analysis of fluvial topography, we show that this region is in a transient state of adjustment to 400 m of base level fall. Ongoing adjustment to base level drop is observed as a zone of high erosion rates, steep river channels and numerous knickpoints located upstream of and surrounding the contact between the Valley and Ridge and adjacent lithotectonic units. We argue that the association of adjusting landscapes and the Valley and Ridge contact is due to the rapid response time of rivers incising soft Valley and Ridge rocks, relative to the harder metamorphic rocks in the Blue Ridge and resistant capstone in the Appalachian Plateau. We propose that base level fall was triggered by incision through the Appalachian Plateau capstone into underlying weaker rocks that set off a wave of transient adjustment, drainage reorganization and ultimately capture of the paleo-Upper Tennessee Basin. Our results indicate that transient landscape evolution is characteristic of post-orogenic settings, as

  19. Climate Variability and Surface Processes in Tectonically Active Orogens: Insights From the Southern Central Andes and the Northwest Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strecker, M. R.; Bookhagen, B.

    2008-12-01

    The Southern Central Andes of NW Argentina and the NW Himalaya are important orographic barriers that intercept moisture-bearing winds associated with monsoonal circulation. Changes in both atmospheric circulation systems on decadal to millennial timescales fundamentally influence differences in the amount and location of rainfall in both orogens. In India, the eastern arm of the monsoonal circulation draws moisture from the Bay of Bengal and transports humid air masses along the southern Himalayan front to the northwest. There, at the end of the monsoonal conveyer belt, rainfall is diminished and moisture typically does not reach far into the orogen interior. Similar conditions apply to the NW Argentine Andes, which are located within the precipitation regime of the South American Monsoon. Here, pronounced local relief blocks humid air masses from the Amazon region, resulting in extreme gradients in rainfall that leave the orogen interior dry. However, during negative ENSO years (La Niña) and intensified Indian Summer Monsoon years, moisture penetrates farther into the Andean and Himalayan orogens, respectively. Structurally pre- conditioned valley systems may enhance this process and funnel moisture far into the orogen interior. The greater availability of moisture increases runoff, lateral scouring of mountin streams, and ultimately triggers intensified hillslope processes on decadal to centennial timescales. In both environments, the scenario of intensified present-day surface processes and rates is analogous to protracted episodes of enhanced mass removal from hillslopes via deep-seated landslides during the early Holocene and late Pleistocene. Apparently, these episodes were also associated with transient storage of voluminous conglomerates and lacustrine deposits in narrow intermontane basins. Subsequently, these deposits were incised, partly removed, and the fluvial systems adjusted themselves to the pre-depositional base levels through a readjustment and

  20. Carboniferous rifted arcs leading to an archipelago of multiple arcs in the Beishan-Tianshan orogenic collages (NW China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Zhonghua; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian F.; Zhang, Ji'en; Zhang, Zhiyong; Song, Dongfang

    2016-12-01

    The Beishan and East Tianshan Orogenic Collages in the southernmost Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) record the final stages of evolution of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. These collages and their constituent arcs have an important significance for resolving current controversies regarding their tectonic setting and age, consequent accretionary history of the southern CAOB, and the closure time of the Paleo-Asian Ocean. In this paper, we present our work on the southern Mazongshan arc and the northern Hongyanjing Basin in the Beishan Orogenic Collage (BOC), and our comparison with the Bogda arc and associated basins in the East Tianshan Orogenic Collage. Field relationships indicate that the Pochengshan fault defines the boundary between the arc and basin in the BOC. Volcanic rocks including basalts and rhyolites in the Mazongshan arc have bimodal calc-alkaline characteristics, an enrichment in large ion lithophile elements such as Rb, Ba, and Pb and depletion in high field-strength elements (e.g., Nb and Ta), which were probably developed in a subduction-related tectonic setting. We suggest that these bimodal calc-alkaline volcanic rocks formed in rifted arcs instead of post-orogenic rifts with mantle plume inputs. By making detailed geochemical comparisons between the Mazongshan arc and the Bogda arc to the west, we further propose that they are similar and both formed in arc rifts, and helped generate a Carboniferous archipelago of multiple arcs in the southern Paleo-Asian Ocean. These data and ideas enable us to postulate a new model for the tectonic evolution of the southern CAOB.

  1. Meso-Cenozoic building of the northern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Thermotectonic history of the Tuva region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Grave, Johan; De Pelsmaeker, Elien; Zhimulev, Fedor I.; Glorie, Stijn; Buslov, Mikhail M.; Van den haute, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Tuvinian and West-Sayan mountain ranges form part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB); more specifically, they align along the Altai-Sayan-Hangay zone. Its Precambrian-Paleozoic basement has been subjected to Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic reactivation. Two north-south transects across the mountain belts and intervening basins of Tuva were sampled for apatite fission-track (AFT) thermochronology in order to elucidate the thermal history of the Tuvinian basement in relation to the Mesozoic and Cenozoic reactivation of the CAOB. Most AFT ages are Late Cretaceous and range between 55 and 115 Ma. Mean lengths of confined fission tracks are relatively long with most values between 13 and 14 μm. Thermal history modeling shows a rapid Late Jurassic-Cretaceous cooling for the sampled Tuvinian crystalline rocks, related to exhumation of the Paleozoic basement. This exhumation is possibly related to the building and subsequent orogenic collapse of the Mongol-Okhotsk orogen that formed between the Siberian and North China-Mongolian (Sino-Korean or Amurian) continental blocks during the Late Mesozoic. Far-field effects of this orogeny and its collapse, might have affected the Baikal, Altai and Sayan units of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, including the Tuvinian basement. Also, at the Mesozoic southern Eurasian margin, growth of the Asian continent continued and several collision-accretion events asserted distal tectonic influence into the CAOB. After a Paleogene period of stability, thermal history models for some samples hint at a renewed period of basement cooling during the Neogene. In support of this Neogene event, a single sample from the main West Sayan fault zone contains an apatite population with ~ 2 Ma reset AFT ages. This is interpreted in the framework of ongoing building of the modern Central Asian orogens and associated fault movements and exhumation of the basement, presumably related with the ongoing India-Eurasia convergence.

  2. Hillslope response to knickpoint migration in the Southern Appalachians: Implications for the evolution of post-orogenic landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wegmann, S.F.G.; Franke, K.L.; Hughes, S.; Lewis, R.Q.; Lyons, N.; Paris, P.; Ross, K.; Bauer, J.B.; Witt, A.C.

    2011-01-01

    The southern Appalachians represent a landscape characterized by locally high topographic relief, steep slopes, and frequent mass movement in the absence of significant tectonic forcing for at least the last 200 Ma. The fundamental processes responsible for landscape evolution in a post-orogenic landscape remain enigmatic. The non-glaciated Cullasaja River basin of south-western North Carolina, with uniform lithology, frequent debris flows, and the availability of high-resolution airborne lidar DEMs, is an ideal natural setting to study landscape evolution in a post-orogenic landscape through the lens of hillslope-channel coupling. This investigation is limited to channels with upslope contributing areas >2.7 km2, a conservative estimate of the transition from fluvial to debris-flow dominated channel processes. Values of normalized hypsometry, hypsometric integral, and mean slope vs elevation are used for 14 tributary basins and the Cullasaja basin as a whole to characterize landscape evolution following upstream knickpoint migration. Results highlight the existence of a transient spatial relationship between knickpoints present along the fluvial network of the Cullasaja basin and adjacent hillslopes. Metrics of topography (relief, slope gradient) and hillslope activity (landslide frequency) exhibit significant downstream increases below the current position of major knickpoints. The transient effect of knickpoint-driven channel incision on basin hillslopes is captured by measuring the relief, mean slope steepness, and mass movement frequency of tributary basins and comparing these results with the distance from major knickpoints along the Cullasaja River. A conceptual model of area-elevation and slope distributions is presented that may be representative of post-orogenic landscape evolution in analogous geologic settings. Importantly, the model explains how knickpoint migration and channel- hillslope coupling is an important factor in tectonically-inactive (i

  3. Paleozoic accretionary orogenesis in the eastern Beishan orogen: constraints from zircon U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ao, Songjian; Xiao, Wenjiao; Windley, Brian; Mao, Qigui

    2016-04-01

    The continental growth mechanism of the Altaids in Central Asia is still in controversy between models of continuous subduction-accretion versus punctuated accretion by closure of multiple oceanic basins. The Beishan orogenic belt, located in the southern Altaids, is a natural laboratory to address this controversy. Key questions that are heavily debated are: the closure time and subduction polarity of former oceans, the emplacement time of ophiolites, and the styles of accretion and collision. This paper reports new structural data, zircon ages and Ar-Ar dates from the eastern Beishan Orogen that provide information on the accretion process and tectonic affiliation of various terranes. Our geochronological and structural results show that the younging direction of accretion was northwards and the subduction zone dipped southwards under the northern margin of the Shuangyingshan micro-continent. This long-lived and continuous accretion process formed the Hanshan accretionary prism. Our field investigations show that the emplacement of the Xiaohuangshan ophiolite was controlled by oceanic crust subduction beneath the forearc accretionary prism of the Shuangyingshan-Mazongshan composite arc to the south. Moreover, we address the age and terrane affiliation of lithologies in the eastern Beishan orogen through detrital zircon geochronology of meta-sedimentary rocks. We provide new information on the ages, subduction polarities, and affiliation of constituent structural units, as well as a new model of tectonic evolution of the eastern Beishan orogen. The accretionary processes and crustal growth of Central Asia were the result of multiple sequences of accretion and collision of manifold terranes. Reference: Ao, S.J., Xiao, W., Windley, B.F., Mao, Q., Han, C., Zhang, J.e., Yang, L., Geng, J., Paleozoic accretionary orogenesis in the eastern Beishan orogen: Constraints from zircon U-Pb and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology. Gondwana Research, doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j

  4. Deep origin and hot melting of an Archaean orogenic peridotite massif in Norway.

    PubMed

    Spengler, Dirk; van Roermund, Herman L M; Drury, Martyn R; Ottolini, Luisa; Mason, Paul R D; Davies, Gareth R

    2006-04-13

    The buoyancy and strength of sub-continental lithospheric mantle is thought to protect the oldest continental crust (cratons) from destruction by plate tectonic processes. The exact origin of the lithosphere below cratons is controversial, but seems clearly to be a residue remaining after the extraction of large amounts of melt. Models to explain highly melt-depleted but garnet-bearing rock compositions require multi-stage processes with garnet and clinopyroxene possibly of secondary origin. Here we report on orogenic peridotites (fragments of cratonic mantle incorporated into the crust during continent-continent plate collision) from Otrøy, western Norway. We show that the peridotites underwent extensive melting during upwelling from depths of 350 kilometres or more, forming a garnet-bearing cratonic root in a single melting event. These peridotites appear to be the residue after Archaean aluminium depleted komatiite magmatism.

  5. Tectonic Setting and Structural Evolution of the Late Cenozoic Gobi Altai Orogen, Mongolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, W. D.

    2009-12-01

    The Gobi Altai is an intraplate, intracontinental transpressional orogen in southern Mongolia that formed in the Late Cenozoic as a distant response to the Indo-Eurasia collision. The modern range formed within crust constructed by successive terrane accretion and ocean suturing events and widespread granite plutonism throughout the Paleozoic. Modern reactivation of the Gobi Altai crust and the kinematics of Quaternary faults are fundamentally controlled by Paleozoic basement structural trends, the location of rigid Precambrian blocks, orientation of SHmax and possible thermal weakening of the lower crust due to an extensive history of Mesozoic-Cenozoic basaltic volcanism in the region, and the presence of thermally elevated asthenosphere under the Hangay Dome to the north. Modern mountain building processes in the Gobi Altai typically involve reactivation of NW-striking basement structures in thrust mode and development of linking E-W left-lateral strike-slip faults which crosscut basement structures within an overall left-lateral transpressional regime. Restraining bends, other transpressional ridges and thrusted basement blocks are the main range type, but are discontinuously distributed and separated by internally drained basins filling with modern alluvial deposits. Unlike a contractional thrust belt, there is no orogenic foreland or hinterland, and thrusts are both NE and SW directed with no evidence for a basal decollement. Normal faults related to widespread Cretaceous rifting in the region appear to be unfavourably oriented for Late Cenozoic reactivation despite widespread topographic inversion of Cretaceous basin sequences. The discovery of major Cretaceous normal fault systems in the Gobi Altai has important implications for workers investigating the region's neotectonic development, because the pre-existing rift basin architecture may have influenced the modern orogenic architecture and network of seismically active faults. Although the Gobi Altai has

  6. Fault dating in the Canadian Rocky Mountains: Evidence for late Cretaceous and early Eocene orogenic pulses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van der Pluijm, B.A.; Vrolijk, P.J.; Pevear, D.R.; Hall, C.M.; Solum, J.

    2006-01-01

    Fault rocks from the classic Rocky Mountain foreland fold-and-thrust belt in south-western Canada were dated by Ar analysis of clay grain-size fractions. Using X-ray diffraction quantification of the detrital and authigenic component of each fraction, these determinations give ages for individual faults in the area (illite age analysis). The resulting ages cluster around 72 and 52 Ma (here called the Rundle and McConnell pulses, respectively), challenging the traditional view of gradual forward progression of faulting and thrust-belt history of the area. The recognition of spatially and temporally restricted deformation episodes offers field support for theoretical models of critically stressed wedges, which result in geologically reasonable strain rates for the area. In addition to regional considerations, this study highlights the potential of direct dating of shallow fault rocks for our understanding of upper-crustal kinematics and regional tectonic analysis of ancient orogens. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  7. The Western Chugach-St. Elias Orogen, Alaska: Strain Partitioning and the Effect of Glacial Erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, A. L.; Spotila, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    The ongoing collision between the Yakutat terrane and the North American plate in southeastern Alaska's St. Elias orogen is a modern analog for the tectonic processes which produced, and shaped, much of the Cordillera. With convergence rates comparable to that of the Himalaya (>4 cm/yr), a young and dynamic zone of thin-skinned interplate deformation has constructed the highest coastal relief on Earth, and given rise to the second and third highest peaks in North America (5,959 and 5,489 m). The orogen receives upwards of 4 m precipitation annually, has been heavily glaciated for the last 5 Ma, and contains some of the fastest short-term erosion rates known. Over the last few years, evidence has steadily mounted that within such tectonic settings, climate and tectonics exist as a coupled system (i.e. Taiwan and Nanga Parbat). Our ongoing research, aimed at quantifying spatial patterns in exhumation rate as well as the location of active structures within the western half of the St. Elias orogen, bolsters this new paradigm. Bedrock ([U-Th]/He) cooling ages in apatite show that exhumation is currently focused on the windward side of the orogen. Time- averaged, long-term, exhumation rates near the coast are generally ~2-3 mm/yr, versus <0.5 mm/yr on the leeward side of the range. However, the rapid exhumation rates along the windward flank are not spatially uniform with the highest rates measured thus far >~5.5 mm/yr (0.4 Ma cooling age) situated near the Bering and Steller Glaciers. This locus of exhumation could reflect a redistribution of strain by focused erosion beneath these large outlet glaciers. Yet, the structural mechanism of this focused strain is still speculative. Pairs of helium ages spanning the foot-wall and hanging-wall of the Chugach-St. Elias thrust, the suture between the North American plate and colliding Yakutat terrane, imply that the thrust became inactive at some time between 2 and 5 Ma. Because of the coincidence in timing between this

  8. Drainage Pattern, Along-Strike Topography and Three-Dimensional Construction of the Himalayan orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, A.

    2005-12-01

    Past studies on the Himalayan orogen have mostly emphasized its 2-D evolution in cross-section view. As a result, how the orogen has grown in 3-D remains poorly understood. For example, it is not clear if the >1500-km long Main Central Thrust (MCT) and Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) were initiated synchronously along the whole orogen or started at one segment and then propagated laterally during subsequent fault motion. To clarify this issue, I examined the Himalayan drainage pattern, along-strike topography, and geometry and kinematics of growing contractional structures across both the Himalayan front and the Shillong Plateau. The main observations may be summarized as follows. (1) The five rivers that cut across the Himalaya are arranged approximately symmetric with respect to the Himalayan-arc axis (~85° E): the Arun River (87° E) is in the middle with the Sutlej (77° E) and Indus (72° E) Rivers in the west and the Subansiri (93° E) and Yalu-Brahmaputra (96° E) Rivers in the east. (2) Between the eastern and western syntaxes, south-flowing drainages east of 85.5° E are consistently deflected to the east by east-growing anticlines and thrusts, whereas drainages west of 85.5°E are deflected systematically to the west by west-growing anticlines and thrusts along the Himalayan front. The only region where no drainage deflection is observed is the Bhutan Himalaya. There all rivers flow straight across the Himalayan front. (3) The deflected drainage pattern indicates that the Shillong Plateau south of the eastern Himalaya has been growing westward. (4) The along-crest Himalayan topographic profile concaves downward, starting from ~5200 m just inside the two syntaxes and reaching 8848 m at Mt. Everest (~87° E). (5) There are a total of 17 major growing contractional structures in the Main Frontal Thrust Zone (MFTZ), with 10 in the west and 7 in the east. Each structure has a length between ~20 km and >150 km, but the west-growing structures in the west are

  9. Modeling Landscape Evolution and Climate: How Erosion and Precipitation are Linked in Active Orogens (Preliminary Results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lynch, B.; Yanites, B.; Shen, H.; Poulsen, C. J.

    2016-12-01

    The tectonic history and the climate driven erosional processes acting in a region are the primary controls on the evolution of a landscape. Quantifying these controls is essential to our understanding of uplift and erosion histories in mountain ranges. Our understanding of how landscapes respond to tectonic forcings is generally well constrained but the influence of climate on landscape evolution remains unclear. This uncertainty is especially apparent when comparing field experiments; some studies have demonstrated a positive feedback between climate and erosion, while others have not. To complement the field experiments and gain important quantitative insight into what climatic properties influence landscape evolution, we implement a numerical modeling approach. We investigate climate-landscape interactions by coupling a high-resolution climate model, Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF), and a landscape evolution model, Landlab. The Andes act as the climatic setting for this study, due to the variation in climate along the length of the orogen, and serve as a natural laboratory to test controls on erosion. Discharge is quantified across the landscape with the WRF Hydro model. Discharge and topography are passed between the models, allowing for a feedback relationship to form between topography and precipitation. We will present our preliminary model runs that result from an asynchronous model coupling approach. These results will allow us to run further experiments to test feedbacks between topography and climate by monitoring topographic metrics and erosion histories. This work provides a necessary next step in landscape evolution modeling by using an actively evolving climate to model real precipitation dynamics. This next step allows for modeling more accurate representations of precipitation through the development of an orogen. This will result in an improved understanding of the co-evolution of climate and topography in these settings.

  10. Southern Costa Rica: an Island-arc Segment That Behaves Like a Doubly Vergent Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandes, C.; Winsemann, J.

    2007-12-01

    Southern Central America is a Mesosoic/Cenozoic island-arc that evolved from the subduction of the Farallón Plate below the Caribbean Plate. The southern Costa Rican land-bridge comprises deformed fore-arc and back-arc basins in the west and east, respectively, separated by the up to 3.8 km high Talamanca Range. The structure of the southern Central American island-arc is similar to doubly vergent and asymmetric orogens. The deformed fore-arc basin in the west and the Limon fold-and-thrust belt in the east can be interpreted as pro-wedge and retro-wedge, respectively. The Talamanca Range represents the uplifted block in between. The pro-wedge is wider and has a lower slope angle than the retro-wedge. The uplift of the Talamanca Range is probably related to a system of conjugate shear zones. Precipitation is unevenly distributed, with orographic effects concentrating precipitation in SW Costa Rica, which has caused pro-wedge denudation, leading to exhumation of granitic rocks at in the interior of the mountain range. The large-scale structure of the Central American island-arc in southern Costa Rica can be described using models of continental collision zones. Previous studies attributed the deformation and uplift pattern to the subduction/collision of the Cocos Ridge. Another reasonable driving mechanism for the evolution of such an orogen in an oceanic island-arc setting is the basal traction due to long-term subduction of the Cocos Plate at a very low angle.

  11. Retrodeformable cross sections for 3-dimensional structural analysis, Ouachita orogen, Arkansas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, H. E.; Wiltschko, D. V.

    2010-12-01

    A fundamental tectonic problem is how deformation proceeds from hinterland to foreland in a fold and thrust belt (FTB). Wedge models explain many of the first-order observations found in most FTBs such as the internal deformation of material, thickening of hinterland, presence of a basal décollement, and an overall wedge shape that tapers to the foreland. These models currently have not been tested at the scale of the individual folds and faults. Moreover, most of the data available on, for instance, the sequence of events is best dated in the syntectonic sediments. Timing of uplift and motion of interior structures are not clear when using dates from these syntectonic sediments to some extent because an absolute connection between them is lacking. The purpose of this project is to develop a model for the evolution of the Ouachita orogen through the construction of a series of retrodeformable cross sections. A novel aspect of these cross sections is the combination of new and published thermal (i.e., illite ‘crystallinity’) and thermochronologic (i.e., zircon fission track) data collected at a variety of stratigraphic depths along the lines of section. These data will help to determine the cessation of thrust motion as well as the initial depth from which the thrust sheet emerged. An Ordovician Mazarn sample in the eastern exposed orogenic core has zircon grains with 55% reset fission track ages, whereas an overlying Ordovician Blakely sample about ~30 km to the southwest along strike has 15% being reset. Illite ‘crystallinity’ (IC) values indicate maximum burial metamorphism temperatures of anchizone (~250-350°C) coinciding with the location of the Ordovician Mazarn sample. Regionally, IC decreases from the culmination of the Benton Uplift and to the southwest along regional strike for samples that have similar stratigraphic age. These new timing and thermal constraints on an improved kinematic model are the necessary first steps in testing wedge models

  12. Seismological structure of the 1.8 Ga Trans-Hudson Orogen of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilligan, Amy; Bastow, Ian D.; Darbyshire, Fiona A.

    2016-06-01

    Precambrian tectonic processes are debated: what was the nature and scale of orogenic events on the younger, hotter, and more ductile Earth? Northern Hudson Bay records the Paleoproterozoic collision between the Western Churchill and Superior plates—the ˜1.8 Ga Trans-Hudson Orogeny (THO)—and is an ideal locality to study Precambrian tectonic structure. Integrated field, geochronological, and thermobarometric studies suggest that the THO was comparable to the present-day Himalayan-Karakoram-Tibet Orogen (HKTO). However, detailed understanding of the deep crustal architecture of the THO, and how it compares to that of the evolving HKTO, is lacking. The joint inversion of receiver functions and surface wave data provides new Moho depth estimates and shear velocity models for the crust and uppermost mantle of the THO. Most of the Archean crust is relatively thin (˜39 km) and structurally simple, with a sharp Moho; upper-crustal wave speed variations are attributed to postformation events. However, the Quebec-Baffin segment of the THO has a deeper Moho (˜45 km) and a more complex crustal structure. Observations show some similarity to recent models, computed using the same methods, of the HKTO crust. Based on Moho character, present-day crustal thickness, and metamorphic grade, we support the view that southern Baffin Island experienced thickening during the THO of a similar magnitude and width to present-day Tibet. Fast seismic velocities at >10 km below southern Baffin Island may be the result of partial eclogitization of the lower crust during the THO, as is currently thought to be happening in Tibet.

  13. Sand petrology and focused erosion in collision orogens: the Brahmaputra case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzanti, Eduardo; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Andò, Sergio; France-Lanord, Christian; Singh, Sunil K.; Foster, Gavin

    2004-03-01

    The high-relief and tectonically active Himalayan range, characterized by markedly varying climate but relatively homogeneous geology along strike, is a unique natural laboratory in which to investigate several of the factors controlling the composition of orogenic sediments. Coupling of surface and tectonic processes is most evident in the eastern Namche Barwa syntaxis, where the Tsangpo-Siang-Brahmaputra River, draining a large elevated area in south Tibet, plunges down the deepest gorge on Earth. Here composition of river sands changes drastically from lithic to quartzofeldspathic. After confluence with the Lohit River, draining the Transhimalayan-equivalent Mishmi arc batholiths, sediment composition remains remarkably constant across Assam, indicating subordinate contributions from Himalayan tributaries. Independent calculations based on petrographical, mineralogical, and geochemical data indicate that the syntaxis, representing only ∼4% of total basin area, contributes 35±6% to the total Brahmaputra sediment flux, and ∼20% of total detritus reaching the Bay of Bengal. Such huge anomalies in erosion patterns have major effects on composition of orogenic sediments, which are recorded as far as the Bengal Fan. In the Brahmaputra basin, in spite of very fast erosion and detrital evacuation, chemical weathering is not negligible. Sand-sized carbonate grains are dissolved partially in mountain reaches and completely in monsoon-drenched Assam plains, where clinopyroxenes are selectively altered. Plagioclase, instead, is preferentially weathered only in detritus from the Shillong Plateau, which is markedly enriched in microcline. Most difficult to assess is the effect of hydraulic sorting in Bangladesh, where quartz, garnet and epidote tend to be sequestered in the bedload and trapped on the coastal plain, whereas cleavable feldspars and amphiboles are concentrated in the suspended load and eventually deposited in the deep sea. High-resolution petrographic and

  14. Asymmetric vs. symmetric deep lithospheric architecture of intra-plate continental orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calignano, Elisa; Sokoutis, Dimitrios; Willingshofer, Ernst; Gueydan, Frédéric; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2015-08-01

    The initiation and subsequent evolution of intra-plate orogens, resulting from continental plate interior deformation due to transmission of stresses over large distances from the active plate boundaries, is controlled by lateral and vertical strength contrasts in the lithosphere. We present lithospheric-scale analogue models combining 1) lateral strength variations in the continental lithosphere, and 2) different vertical rheological stratifications. The experimental continental lithosphere has a four-layer brittle-ductile rheological stratification. Lateral heterogeneity is implemented in all models by increased crustal strength in a central narrow block. The main investigated parameters are strain rate and strength of the lithospheric mantle, both playing an important role in crust-mantle coupling. The experiments show that the presence of a strong crustal domain is effective in localizing deformation along its boundaries. After deformation is localized, the evolution of the orogenic system is governed by the mechanical properties of the lithosphere such that the final geometry of the intra-plate mountain depends on the interplay between crust-mantle coupling and folding versus fracturing of the lithospheric mantle. Underthrusting is the main deformation mode in case of high convergence velocity and/or thick brittle mantle with a final asymmetric architecture of the deep lithosphere. In contrast, lithospheric folding is dominant in case of low convergence velocity and low strength brittle mantle, leading to the development of a symmetric lithospheric root. The presented analogue modelling results provide novel insights for 1) strain localization and 2) the development of the asymmetric architecture of the Pyrenees.

  15. Active Tectonics in crossroads of an evolving orogen and morphological consequences: Anatolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koral, Hayrettin

    2016-04-01

    Anatolia lies in a curved setting of the active Alpine Mountain Range and is located in crossroads of the European and Asian terrains. It is one of the fastest deforming land in the world, manifested by seismicity, characteristic landforms and GPS measurements. Active tectonics in Anatolia provides not only a comparable geological model for the past orogens, but also a laboratory case for morphological consequences of an orogenic processes. Anatolia comprise different tectonic subsettings with its own characteristics. Northern part is influenced by tectonic characteristics of the Black Sea Basin, the Pontides and the Caucasian Range; northwestern part by the Balkanides; eastern-southeastern part by the Bitlis-Zagros suture; and south-southwestern part by the eastern Mediterranean subduction setting. Much of its present tectonic complexity was inherited from the convergence dominant plate tectonic setting of the platelets prior to the Middle-Neogene. Beginning about 11 Ma ago, the deformed and uplifted landmass unable to accommodate further deformation in Anatolia and ongoing tectonic activity gave rise to rearrangement of tectonic forces and westerly translational movements. Formation of major strike-slip faults in Anatolia including the North and East Anatolian Faults and a new platelet called the Anatolian Plate are the consequences of this episode. Such change in the tectonic regime has led to modification of previously-formed landscape, modification and sometimes termination of previously-formed basins. Evidence is present in the Plio-Quaternary stratigraphy, tectonic characteristics and morphology of the well-studied areas. This presentation will discuss active tectonic features of the northwestern, southwestern and eastern Anatolian subsettings and their influence on morphology that is closely related to sites of pre-historical human settlement.

  16. Self-consistent orogenic wedge formation and shear zone propagation due to thermal softening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaquet, Yoann; Duretz, Thibault; Schmalholz, Stefan M.

    2016-04-01

    We present two dimensional numerical simulations of orogenic wedge formation for a viscoelastoplastic lithosphere under compression. The thermo-mechanical model is based on the principle of energy conservation and includes temperature-dependent rheologies. With this approach, shear zones caused by thermal softening develop spontaneously in the absence of strain softening. The initial locus of shear localization is controlled by either lateral temperature variations (100°C) at the model base or by lateral variations in crustal thickness. The first episode of strain localization occurs after 15% bulk shortening. With ongoing strain, a series of shear zones arise and propagate towards the foreland leading to the self-consistent formation of an orogenic wedge. We investigate the impact of bulk shortening rates, erosion and rheology on the dynamics of wedge formation, the associated topography and uplift rates. The maximum topography reaches up to 10 km and the surface morphology evolves according to shear zone activation and deactivation. Uplift rates are transient and peak values are maintained only on very short time scales. A running average of the uplift rate versus time curves with a time-window of 4 My provides average uplift rates in the order of a few millimeters per year. Erosion is an important parameter for the formation and the evolution of the wedge (e.g. can control the spacing of shear zones by modifying crustal thickness). Rheological parameters, such as the friction angle or the upper crustal viscosity, control the occurrence of strain localization. Bulk shortening rates between 10-15 and 10-16 s-1 do not have a major impact on the resulting wedge structure.

  17. Iberseis: A Deep Seismic Reflection Image of A Variscan Transpresive Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonell, R.; Simancas, F.; Juhlin, C.; Ayarza, P.; Gonzalez-Loderio, F.; Perez-Estaun, A.; Plata, J.; Iberseis Group

    As part of EUROPROBE's SW Iberia project a 303 km long deep seismic reflection profile was acquired along one of the most complete transects of the Variscan Oro- gen providing key knowledge on fundamental questions about the dynamics of the southwestern European lithosphere. The seismic profile (IBERSEIS) crosses two su- tures that separate three main tectonic terranes which are: South Portuguese Zone, Ossa-Morena Zone and Central Iberian Zone. A prominent mid- lower crustal seismic fabric is observed along the involved terranes. The geometry of the most prominent surface sutures such as the Beja-Acebuches ophiolite and the Badajoz-Córdoba shear zone are clearly identified. A well defined horizontal Moho reveals an approximately constant crustal thikness of 30-33 km along the entire profile. The South Portuguese Zone features a typical geometry of a thrust and fold belt architecture. The high res- olution achieved by the relatively close receiver and shot spacing has imaged very detailed structures within this thin skinned tectonic unit, including thust staks and du- plexes which implying a realtively large crustal shortning. Good structural detail has also been obtained in the Ossa-Morena Zone, which is characterized by the presence of folded recumbent folds and thrusts. At mid-crutal level a high 2-3 s thick band of high reflectivity has been identified across the Ossa-Morena and Central Iberian Zones which is a unique feature among tanspresive orogens. This seismic image provably re- veals the strain partitioning during the oblique transpression tectonics that build up the orogen.

  18. Some comparisons of the structure and evolution of the southern Appalachian Ouachita orogen and portions of the Trans-European Suture Zone region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, G. Randy; Hatcher, Robert D.

    1999-12-01

    Many aspects of the tectonic history of the Appalachian-Ouachita orogen and the Trans-European suture region are similar. In a tectonic sense, they are geographically linked, because at the end of the Paleozoic, one could travel from Texas to Poland following a continuous orogenic belt. Much of each of these orogenic belts is, however, buried by younger strata, and thus geophysical studies are a key element of efforts to better understand them. Many more geophysical data are needed to provide a comprehensive picture of the deep structure, but in several areas new models of the lithospheric structure are emerging. In this paper, we review some of these models and introduce two new ones for the southern Appalachians. In addition, we explore the implications of these models for the evolution of these orogenic belts, drawing attention to similarities and differences in their structure and evolution. The Appalachian and Caledonian orogens represent temporally parallel development along irregular Late Proterozoic continental margins, but the crustal structure is different because of different accretionary elements and complications in the geometry of the original margins. Lateral transport via thrusting can confuse efforts to tie geologic structures identified on the surface with deep structures. For example, in the Appalachian-Ouachita orogen, the thrust-related transport distance for major features such as the Blue Ridge-Piedmont sheet and the Benton uplift is at least 200 km. On a crustal scale, deformation in the Appalachian-Ouachita orogen varies greatly in style and intensity. In the Ouachita orogen, the Late Proterozoic continental margin seems to be preserved, while in the northern Appalachians crustal-scale deformation is intense. Along the US Appalachians, the major crustal structure variation is the thin, dense crust of Avalonia abutting the relatively thick crust of Laurentia. Along the Ouachita orogen, several large crustal blocks can be identified that are

  19. Orogenic gold: Common or evolving fluid and metal sources through time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldfarb, Richard J.; Groves, David I.

    2015-09-01

    Orogenic gold deposits of all ages, from Paleoarchean to Tertiary, show consistency in chemical composition. They are the products of aqueous-carbonic fluids, with typically 5-20 mol% CO2, although unmixing during extreme pressure fluctuation can lead to entrapment of much more CO2-rich fluid inclusions in some cases. Ore fluids are typically characterized by significant concentrations of CH4 and/or N2, common estimates of 0.01-0.36 mol% H2S, a near-neutral pH of 5.5, and salinities of 3-7 wt.% NaCl equiv., with Na > K > > Ca,Mg. This fluid composition consistency favors an ore fluid produced from a single source area and rules out mixing of fluids from multiple sources as significant in orogenic gold formation. Nevertheless, there are broad ranges in more robust fluid-inclusion trapping temperatures and pressures between deposits that support a model where this specific fluid may deposit ore over a broad window of upper to middle crustal depths. Much of the reported isotopic and noble gas data is inconsistent between deposits, leading to the common equivocal interpretations from studies that have attempted to define fluid and metal source areas for various orogenic gold provinces. Fluid stable isotope values are commonly characterized by the following ranges: (1) δ18O for Precambrian ores of + 6 to + 11‰ and for Phanerozoic ores of + 7 to + 13‰; (2) δD and δ34S values that are extremely variable; (3) δ13C values that range from - 11 to - 2‰; and (4) δ15N of + 10 to + 24‰ for the Neoarchean, + 6.5 to + 12‰ for the Paleoproterozoic, and + 1.5 to + 10‰ for the Phanerozoic. Secular variations in large-scale Earth processes appear to best explain some of the broad ranges in the O, S, and N data. Fluid:rock interaction, particularly in ore trap areas, may cause important local shifts in the O, S, and C ratios. The extreme variations in δD mainly reflect measurements of hydrogen isotopes by bulk extraction of waters from numerous fluid inclusion

  20. The Tyrrhenian stage geodinamic evolution of Apenninic-Maghrebian orogen (Southern Apennines and Sicily)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lentini, F.; Carbone, S.; Barreca, G.

    2009-04-01

    In the Central Mediterranean region the foreland domains are represented by two continental blocks, the Apulian Block to the north and the Pelagian Block to the south, respectively belonging to the Adria and to the Africa plates. They are separated since Permo-Triassic times by the oceanic crust of the Ionian Sea. The Apenninic-Maghrebian orogen is located between two oceanic crusts: the old Ionian crust, at present time subducting beneath the Calabrian Arc, and the new crust of the opening Tyrrhenian Sea. The orogenic belt is represented by a multilayer allochthonous edifice, composed of the Calabride Chain (CC) tectonically overlying the Apenninic-Maghrebian Chain (AMC), which in turn overthrust onto the Upper Miocene and Pliocene top-levels of a deep seated thrust system, originating by the deformation of the innermost carbonates of the Pelagian/Apulian blocks (External Thrust System: ETS). The AMC tectonic units derive from the orogenic transport during Oligo-Miocene times of sedimentary sequences deposited in palaeogeographical domains located between the Europe and the Afro-Adriatic plates. These units are composed of Meso-Cenozoic shallow-water carbonate successions detached from a continental type crust sector, the Panormide/Apenninic Block, recognizable by means of seismic lines shot in the Tyrrhenian offshore of Southern Apennines and Northern Sicily. The Meso-Cenozoic basinal units, that compose the AMC, can be distinguished into two main groups of sequences, originally located on oceanic crusts separated by the Panormide/Apenninic Block: the external ones (Ionides) related to an original basin belonging to branches of the Ionian Palaeobasin involved in the orogenesis, and the internal ones ascribed to the Alpine Tethys (Sicilide Units). The terrigenous deposits of the basinal sequences belonging to the Ionides are represented by Tertiary foreland/foredeep deposits, whose relationships with the substratum are occasionally preserved, although large

  1. Zircon dating of Neoproterozoic and Cambrian ophiolites in West Mongolia and implications for the timing of orogenic processes in the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Ping; Kröner, Alfred; Jahn, Bor-ming; Windley, Brian F.; Shi, Yuruo; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Fuqin; Miao, Laicheng; Tomurhuu, Dondov; Liu, Dunyi

    2014-06-01

    We present new isotopic and trace element data to review the geochronological/geochemical/geological evolution of the central part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB), and find a fundamental geological problem in West Mongolia, which has traditionally been subdivided into northwestern early Paleozoic (formerly Caledonian) and southerly late Paleozoic (formerly Hercynian) belts by the Main Mongolian Lineament (MML). We resolve this problem with SHRIMP zircon dating of ophiolites and re-evaluation of much published literature. In Northwest Mongolia the Dariv-Khantaishir ophiolite marks the boundary between the Lake arc in the west and the Dzabkhan-Baydrag microcontinent in the east. Zircons from a microgabbro and four plagiogranites yielded weighted mean 206Pb/238U ages of 568 ± 5 Ma, 567 ± 4 Ma, 560 ± 8 Ma (Dariv), 573 ± 8 Ma and 566 ± 7 Ma (Khantaishir) that we interpret as reflecting the time of ophiolite formation (ca. 573-560 Ma). Metamorphic zircons from an amphibolite on a thrust boundary between the Khantaishir ophiolite and the Dzabkhan-Baydrag microcontinent formed at 514 ± 8 Ma, which we interpret as the time of overthrusting. In South Mongolia the Gobi Altai ophiolite and the Trans-Altai Gurvan Sayhan-Zoolen forearc with an ophiolite basement were investigated. Zircons of a layered gabbro (lower ophiolite crust) and a leucogabbro (mid-upper crust) of the Gobi Altai ophiolite yielded crystallization ages of 523 ± 5 Ma and 518 ± 6 Ma. The age data constrain the formation time of ophiolite within ca. 523-518 Ma. Zircons from four samples of the Gurvan Sayhan-Zoolen forearc, with similar hybrid adakite-boninite affinities, yielded 519 ± 4 Ma for an anorthosite, ≥ 512 ± 4 Ma for a hornblendite and 520 ± 5 and 511 ± 5 Ma for two diorites. The ophiolite basement has an upper age limit of 494 ± 6 Ma, determined by dating a tonalite dike cutting the Zoolen ophiolite. Integrating available zircon ages as well as geochemical and geological data

  2. U-Pb zircon geochronology of the Adirondack Mountains and implications for their geologic evolution

    SciTech Connect

    McLelland, J. ); Chiarenzelli, J. ); Whitney, P.; Ischsen, Y. )

    1988-10-01

    U-Pb zircon studies of metamorphosed igneous rocks in the Adirondack Mountains have yielded preliminary ages within the range 1420-990 Ma. Several geochronologically and geochemically distinct episodes of igneous intrusion and at least one pre-granulite facies dynamothermal metamorphic event are documented. This information is consistent with recent field and geochronological studies throughout the Grenville province and suggests that a complex sequence of events occurred in the Adirondack Mountains prior to the widespread deformation and metamorphism commonly attributed to the {approximately} 1100-1000 Ma Ottawan phase of the Grenvillian orogenic cycle.

  3. Rivers, re-entrants, and 3D variations in orogenic wedge development: a case study of the NW Indian Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, A. G.; Yu, H.; Hendershott, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Orogenic wedges are standard elements of collisional plate tectonics, from accretionary prisms to retro-arc basins. Recent study of orogenic wedge development has focused on links between mechanisms of internal deformation and surface processes. Models of orogenic wedges are commonly presented in the cross-section plane, which is generally effective as wedges largely develop via plane strain. The 3rd dimension can be utilized to explore effects of differences in controlling parameters on wedge evolution. We are investigating a stretch of the western Himalayan orogenic wedge that has two prominent changes in along-strike morphology: (1) a tectonic window (the Kullu Window) that appears to be strongly influenced by erosion along the 3rd largest river in the Himalayan system, the Sutlej River and (2) the Kangra Re-entrant, the largest re-entrant along the Himalayan arc. In addition to the along-strike heterogeneity, a key advantage of the proposed study area is its rich stratigraphy, with the most known diversity in the Himalayan arc. The stratigraphic wealth, combined with the along-strike heterogeneity in exposure level, offers a high resolution view of regional structural geometry. Our preliminary reconstructions suggest that the Sutlej River erosion increases the exposure depth and shortening budget across a narrow segment of the orogen, strongly warping the Kullu Window. Previous models have suggested that the out-of-sequence Munsiari thrust is the main structure associated with Kullu window formation, while our work suggests that most of this uplift and warping is accomplished by antiformal stacking of basement thrust horses. Late Miocene ages (U-Pb ages of zircons and Th-Pb ages of monazites) from a leucogranite in the core of the Kullu Window along the Sutlej River further suggests that this segment of the orogen represents a middle ground between plane strain orogenic wedge development and a tectonic aneurysm model. We have constructed a palinspastic

  4. Cycle Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Steven A.

    2012-03-20

    1. The Cycle Analysis code is an Microsoft Excel code that performs many different types of thermodynamic cycle analysis for power producing systems. The code will calculate the temperature and pressure and all other thermodynamic properties at the inlet and outlet of each component. The code also calculates the power that is produced, the efficiency, and the heat transported in the heater, gas chiller and recuperators. The code provides a schematic of the loop and provides the temperature and pressure at each location in the loop. The code also provides a T-S (temperature-entropy) diagram of the loop and often it provides an pressure enthalpy plot as well. 2. This version of the code concentrates on supercritical CO2 power cycles, but by simply changing the name of the working fluid many other types of fluids can be analyzed. The Cycle Analysis code provided here contains 18 different types of power cycles. Each cycle is contained in one worksheet or tab that the user can select. The user can change the yellow highlighted regions to perform different thermodynamic cycle analysis.

  5. Erosional Mass Balance for a Transtensional Orogen: From the Colorado Plateau to the Salton Trough and Northern Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, R. J.; Lazear, G. D.

    2011-12-01

    Most studies of erosional mass balance in orogens focus on convergent settings where the growth of topography by tectonic influx of crust is countered by erosion and transfer of material out of the orogen to flanking sedimentary basins. Less commonly studied is the opposite case of an extensional or transtensional orogen, where subsidence due to crustal thinning is countered by accumulation of sediment transferred into the orogen from adjacent eroding sources. The Salton Trough and northern Gulf of California represent an active transtensional orogen where 10-12-km deep basins straddling the Pacific - North America plate boundary are rapidly filled with sediment that is eroded from the Colorado Plateau and delivered by the Colorado River. Roughly 220,000 - 340,000 km3 of Colorado River sediment has accumulated in these basins since 5.3 Ma (Dorsey, 2010). The volume of crust eroded from the Colorado Plateau in Late Cenozoic time is estimated at 250,000 - 370,000 km3 based on mapping of 10-Ma basalt flows and new thermochronologic data. We infer that most of this erosion took place after ~6 Ma based on studies showing that this is when the river system was integrated and erosion rates increased dramatically. Assuming an average density of 2.3-2.5 g/cc for sedimentary rock eroded from the source and sediments stored in deep basinal sinks, the total mass transferred is roughly 5.1-9.3 x 1014 tons, representing an average flux rate of ~100-200 Mt/yr over 5.3 m.y. This is similar to the range of historical pre-dam sediment discharge rates measured at Yuma in the early 1900's (Meade and Parker, 1985). Our sediment budget yields long-term, catchment-averaged erosion rates of ca. 160 +/- 30 m/m.y. for the Colorado Plateau, similar to erosion rates calculated from cosmogenic isotopes for modern river sand (Matmon et al., 2010) and sediment-discharge data. While large uncertainties prevent a more detailed comparison, the overall consistency of different data sets suggests

  6. Petrological and zircon evidence for the Early Cretaceous granulite-facies metamorphism in the Dabie orogen, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xiao-Ying; Zhang, Qiang-Qiang; Zheng, Yong-Fei; Chen, Yi-Xiang

    2017-07-01

    An integrated study of petrology, mineralogy, geochemistry, and geochronology was carried out for contemporaneous mafic granulite and diorite from the Dabie orogen. The results provide evidence for granulite-facies reworking of the ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rock in the collisional orogen. Most zircons from the granulite are new growth, and their U-Pb ages are clearly categorized into two groups at 122-127 Ma and 188 ± 2 Ma. Although these two groups of zircons show similarly steep HREE patterns and variably negative Eu anomalies, the younger group has much higher U, Th and REE contents and Th/U ratios, much lower εHf(t) values than the older group. This suggests their growth is associated with different types of dehydration reactions. The older zircon domains contain mineral inclusions of garnet + clinopyroxene ± quartz, indicating their growth through metamorphic reactions at high pressures. In contrast, the young zircon domains only contain a few quartz inclusions and the garnet-clinopyroxene-plagioclase-quartz barometry yields pressures of 4.9 to 12.5 kb. In addition, the clinopyroxene-garnet Fe-Mg exchange thermometry gives temperatures of 738-951 °C. Therefore, the young zircon domains would have grown through peritectic reaction at low to medium pressures. The younger granulite-facies metamorphic age is in agreement not only with the adjacent diorite at 125 ± 1 Ma in this study but also the voluminous emplacement of coeval mafic and felsic magmas in the Dabie orogen. Mineral separates from both mafic granulite and its adjacent diorite show uniformly lower δ18O values than normal mantle, similar to those for UHP eclogite-facies metaigneous rocks in the Dabie orogen. In combination with major-trace elements and zircon Lu-Hf isotope compositions, it is inferred that the protolith of mafic granulites shares with the source rock of diorites, both being a kind of mafic metasomatites at the slab-mantle interface in the continental subduction channel

  7. Menstrual Cycle

    MedlinePlus

    ... to the Professional version Home Women's Health Issues Biology of the Female Reproductive System Menstrual Cycle Follicular ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of the Female Reproductive System Overview of the ...

  8. Kinematics of back-arc extension driven by the interference of subduction and/or collisional zones: application to a number of Mediterranean orogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matenco, L.; Cloetingh, S.

    2013-12-01

    The large number and distribution of roll-back systems in Mediterranean orogens infers the possibility of interacting extensional back-arc deformation driven by different slabs. Classical models of orogenic evolution assume that such back arc basins form in the hinterland of orogens, collapsing the upper plate above oceanic subduction zones. This is a common characteristic thought to apply to all low-topography orogens of Mediterranean type driven by the fast roll-back of genetically related slabs, or to other analogues such as the Miocene to recent evolution of the SE Asia subduction zones. This extension may take place far at the interior of the upper plate, as is the case in various segments of the Carpathians or in the core of the SE Asian domain, but in most cases of the Dinarides, Apennines or Hellenides it take place superposed or far into the foreland when compared with the position of oceanic suture zones. Mediterranean orogens often diverge from the typical scenario by widespread extensional deformation taking place during moments of continent-continent collision and by the interference of such deformation driven by different subduction zones. For instance, the formation of the Pannonian back-arc basin is generally related to the rapid Miocene roll-back of a slab attached to the European continent. The present-day extensional geometry of the Pannonian back-arc formed essentially during the Carpathians collision and was also driven by an additional Middle Miocene roll-back of a Dinaridic slab. In other orogenic systems, the back-arc extension takes place during continent-continent collision along major detachments that are located in the core of the orogen (Rif, Betics), in the accreted crustal material of the lower plate (Apennines, Dinarides) or even in a presumed former fore-arc (Aegean, Sunda-Banda arc). In all these subduction zones, collision has largely duplicated crustal blocks from the lower plate and has gradually shifted subduction zone far

  9. Cycling injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, G. C.

    1993-01-01

    Bicycle-related injuries have increased as cycling has become more popular. Most injuries to recreational riders are associated with overuse or improper fit of the bicycle. Injuries to racers often result from high speeds, which predispose riders to muscle strains, collisions, and falls. Cyclists contact bicycles at the pedals, seat, and handlebars. Each is associated with particular cycling injuries. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8471908

  10. Timing of tectonic evolution of the East Kunlun Orogen, Northern Tibet Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yunpeng

    2017-04-01

    The East Kunlun Orogen, located at the northern Tibet Plateau, represents the western segment of the Central China Orogenic Belt which was formed by amalgamation of the North China blocks and South China blocks. It is a key to understanding the formation of Eastern Asian continent as well as the evolution of the Pangea supercontinent. Based on detailed geological mapping, geochemical and geochronological investigations, the orogen is divided into three main tectonic belts, from north to south, including the Northern Qimantagh, Central Kunlun and Southern Kunlun Belts by the Qimantagh suture, Central Kunlun suture and South Kunlun fault. The Qimantagh suture is marked by the Early Paleozoic ophiolites outcropped in the Yangziquan, Wutumeiren, and Tatuo areas, which consist mainly of peridotites, gabbros, diabases and basalts. Besides, the ophiolite in the Wutumeiren is characterized by occurring anorthosite while the ophiolite in the Tatuo occurring chert. The basalts and diabases from both Yaziquan and Tatuo areas display depletion of Nb, Ta, P and Ti, and enrichment of LILE, suggesting a subduction related tectonic setting. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age of 421 Ma for the diabase represents the formation age of the Yaziquan ophiolite, while the U-Pb ages of 490 Ma and 505 Ma for gabbro and anorthosite, respectively, constrain the formation age of the Tatuo ophiolite. The basaltic rocks in the Wutumeiren area display flat distribution of HFSEs (such as Nb, Ta, K, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Zr, Sm, Eu, Ti, Dy, Y, Yb and Lu) and slightly enrichment in LREEs, while the peridotites showing depletion in MREEs. The LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb age of 431 Ma for the gabbro represents the formation age of the Wutumeiren ophiolite. Together with regional geology, we suggest herewith a back-arc basin tectonic setting during ca. 505-421 Ma at least for the Qimantagh suture. The Central Kunlun suture is represented by the ophiolite in the Wutuo area, which is characterized by depletion of Nb, Ta, P

  11. Metamorphic evolution and geochronology of the Dunhuang orogenic belt in the Hongliuxia area, northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hao Y. C.; Wang, Juan; Wang, Guo-Dong; Lu, Jun-Sheng; Chen, Hong-Xu; Peng, Tao; Zhang, Hui C. G.; Zhang, Qian W. L.; Xiao, Wen-Jiao; Hou, Quan-Lin; Yan, Quan-Ren; Zhang, Qing; Wu, Chun-Ming

    2017-03-01

    Garnet-bearing mafic granulites and amphibolites from the Hongliuxia area of the southern Dunhuang orogenic belt, northwestern China, commonly occur as lenses or boudinages enclosed within metapelite or marble, which represent the block-in-matrix feature typical of orogenic mélange. Three to four generations of metamorphic mineral assemblages are preserved in these rocks. In the high-pressure amphibolites, prograde mineral assemblages (M1) occur as inclusions (hornblende + plagioclase + quartz ± chlorite ± epidote ± ilmenite) preserved within garnet porphyroblasts, and formed at 550-590 °C and 7.7-9.2 kbar based on geothermobarometry. The metamorphic peak mineral assemblages (M2) are composed of garnet + hornblende + plagioclase + quartz + clinopyroxene, as well as titanite + zircon + rutile + apatite as accessory minerals in the matrix, and are estimated to have formed at 640-720 °C and 14.1-16.0 kbar. The first retrograde assemblages (M3) are characterized by "white-eye socket" symplectites (hornblende + plagioclase + quartz ± biotite ± epidote ± magnetite) rimming garnet porphyroblasts, which formed at the expense of the garnet rims and adjacent matrix minerals during the decompression stage under P-T conditions of 610-630 °C and 5.6-11.8 kbar. The second retrograde assemblages (M4) are intergrowths of actinolite and worm-like quartz produced by the breakdown of the matrix hornblendes, and formed under P-T conditions of ∼490 °C and ∼2.8 kbar. For the high-pressure mafic granulites, the prograde assemblages (M1) are represented by plagioclase + quartz preserved within the garnet porphyroblasts. The metamorphic peak assemblages (M2) are garnet + matrix minerals (clinopyroxene + plagioclase + quartz + hornblende + rutile + zircon) and were estimated to have formed at ∼680 °C and ∼15.4 kbar. The retrograde assemblages (M3) are characterized by fine-grained patches of hornblende + plagioclase + quartz rimming the garnet porphyroblasts, as well as

  12. Deformation processes in orogenic wedges: New methods and application to Northwestern Washington State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thissen, Christopher J.

    Permanent deformation records aspects of how material moves through a tectonic environment. The methods required to measure deformation vary based on rock type, deformation process, and the geological question of interest. In this thesis we develop two new methods for measuring permanent deformation in rocks. The first method uses the autocorrelation function to measure the anisotropy present in two-dimensional photomicrographs and three-dimensional X-ray tomograms of rocks. The method returns very precise estimates for the deformation parameters and works best for materials where the deformation is recorded as a shape change of distinct fabric elements, such as grains. Our method also includes error estimates. Image analysis techniques can focus the method on specific fabric elements, such as quartz grains. The second method develops a statistical technique for measuring the symmetry in a distribution of crystal orientations, called a lattice-preferred orientation (LPO). We show that in many cases the symmetry of the LPO directly constrains the symmetry of the deformation, such axial flattening vs. pure shear vs. simple shear. In addition to quantifying the symmetry, the method uses the full crystal orientation to estimate symmetry rather than pole figures. Pole figure symmetry can often be misleading. This method works best for crystal orientations measured in samples deformed by dislocation creep, but otherwise can be used on any mineral without requiring information about slip systems. In Chapter 4 we show how deformation measurements can be used to inform regional tectonic and orogenic models in the Pacific Northwestern United States. A suite of measurements from the Olympic Mountains shows that uplift and deformation of the range is consistent with an orogenic wedge model driven by subduction of the Juan de Fuca plate, and not northward forearc migration of the Oregon block. The deformation measurements also show that deformation within the Olympic Mountains

  13. Magma-assisted strain localization in an orogen-parallel transcurrent shear zone of southern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tommasi, AndréA.; Vauchez, Alain; Femandes, Luis A. D.; Porcher, Carla C.

    1994-04-01

    In a lithospheric-scale, orogen-parallel transcurrent shear zone of the Pan-African Dom Feliciano belt of southern Brazil, two successive generations of magmas, an early calc-alkaline and a late peraluminous, have been emplaced during deformation. Microstructures show that these granitoids experienced a progressive deformation from magmatic to solid state under decreasing temperature conditions. Magmatic deformation is indicated by the coexistence of aligned K-feldspar, plagioclase, micas, and/or tourmaline with undeformed quartz. Submagmatic deformation is characterized by strain features, such as fractures, lattice bending, or replacement reactions affecting only the early crystallized phases. High-temperature solid-state deformation is characterized by extensive grain boundary migration in quartz, myrmekitic K-feldspar replacement, and dynamic recrystallization of both K-feldspar and plagioclase. Decreasing temperature during solid-state deformation is inferred from changes in quartz crystallographic fabrics, decrease in grain size of recrystallized feldspars, and lower Ti amount in recrystallized biotites. Final low-temperature deformation is characterized by feldspar replacement by micas. The geochemical evolution of the synkinematic magmatism, from calc-alkaline metaluminous granodiorites with intermediate 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio to peraluminous granites with very high 87Sr/86Sr initial ratio, suggests an early lower crustal source or a mixed mantle/crustal source, followed by a middle to upper crustal source for the melts. Shearing in lithospheric faults may induce partial melting in the lower crust by shear heating in the upper mantle, but, whatever the process initiating partial melting, lithospheric transcurrent shear zones may collect melt at different depths. Because they enhance the vertical permeability of the crust, these zones may then act as heat conductors (by advection), promoting an upward propagation of partial melting in the crust

  14. Orogenic wedge formation starting from hyper-extended passive margins: a self-consistent modelling study with application to the Western Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candioti, Lorenzo Giuseppe; Duretz, Thibault; Picazo, Suzanne; Schmalholz, Stefan Markus

    2017-04-01

    The concept of orogenic wedges has been applied to explain the geodynamic evolution of many orogens worldwide. Recent numerical modelling studies have investigated orogenic wedge formation in a shortening lithosphere which was initially homogeneous, that is, having initially a constant crustal thickness. However, many orogens, such as the Western Alps, are characterised by the collision of hyper-extended passive margins which exhibited a significant variation of crustal thickness from the onset of orogenic wedge formation. Also, the pre-Alpine Piemonte-Liguria basin likely lacked significant amounts of embryonic oceanic crust and consisted of inherited and refertilised exhumed subcontinental mantle. To study the impact of hyper-extended passive margins and exhumed subcontinental mantle on subsequent orogenic wedge formation we perform 2D thermo-mechanical numerical simulations. We model first the formation of a hyper-extended margin with exhumed subcontinental mantle during lithospheric extension and then subsequently shorten the evolved basin to model orogenic wedge formation. Hence, the starting configuration for orogenic wedge formation has been modelled in a self-consistent way by a prior extension model. We investigate the effect of (i) immediate shortening after exhumation of the subcontinental lithospheric mantle as well as (ii) the impact of a non-deforming and cooling period prior to the compression. We also study the impact of various density structures on the modelling results. The densities are thereby either calculated by simplified equations of state, where density is a simple function of temperature and pressure, or by petrological phase diagrams for specific mantle compositions. Potential applications of the model results to the Western Alpine orogeny are discussed.

  15. Clinoform deposition across a boundary between orogenic front and foredeep - an example from the Lower Cretaceous in Arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Houseknecht, David W.; Wartes, Marwan A.

    2013-01-01

    The Lower Cretaceous Fortress Mountain Formation occupies a spatial and temporal niche between syntectonic deposits at the Brooks Range orogenic front and post-tectonic strata in the Colville foreland basin. The formation includes basin-floor fan, marine-slope and fan-delta facies that define a clinoform depositional profile. Texture and composition of clasts in the formation suggest progressive burial of a tectonic wedge-front that included older turbidites and mélange. These new interpretations, based entirely on outcrop study, suggest that the Fortress Mountain Formation spans the boundary between orogenic wedge and foredeep, with proximal strata onlapping the tectonic wedge-front and distal strata downlapping the floor of the foreland basin. Our reconstruction suggests that clinoform amplitude reflects the structural relief generated by tectonic wedge development and load-induced flexural subsidence of the foreland basin.

  16. Mass flux into the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh massif: Orogen-parallel transport, lower crustal flow, or both?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whipp, D. M.; Beaumont, C.; Braun, J.

    2011-12-01

    Relative to most of the Himalaya, the Nanga Parbat-Haramosh massif requires an additional mass flux into its base to balance extreme rates of surface denudation (>10 mm/a) over the last ~2-3 Ma. One proposed source is middle to lower crustal flow into the massif (e.g., Zeitler et al., 2001), which while likely inactive elsewhere along strike, may be sustainable by very rapid surface denudation, a high geothermal gradient, and thermal weakening of rocks beneath the syntaxes. An alternative source is orogen-parallel (OP) transport due to oblique convergence and strain partitioning along the Himalayan arc (e.g., Seeber and Pêcher, 1998). Several observations including (1) predominantly orogen-normal slip on the frontal thrusts deduced from seismic events, (2) OP extension accommodated on orogen-normal structures, and (3) distributed and segmented strike-slip faulting trending parallel to the arc are consistent with strain partitioning and OP mass transport. A key question is can this mechanism supply sufficient mass to the Nanga Parbat syntaxis, or is local channel flow required? We explore mass transport into the western Himalayan syntaxis region using lithospheric-scale 3D mechanical and coupled thermo-mechanical models of an arcuate orogen. The crust is either frictional plastic or power-law viscous, with a constant low viscosity lower crust present in some experiments. Applied velocity boundary conditions are transmitted to the base of the crust by a strong frictional plastic mantle lithosphere, and mantle detachment/subduction drives formation of a bivergent, arcuate orogen. To assess the magnitude of mass transport from strain partitioning, we first explore purely mechanical experiments featuring a 5-km-high Tibet-like plateau above a weak lower crust and with a frictional plastic decollement that dips at 10° beneath the incipient orogen, similar to the Himalayan basal detachment. Preliminary results show gravitational feedback from the plateau drives

  17. Orogen-parallel mass transport along the arcuate Himalaya into Nanga Parbat and the western Himalayan syntaxis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whipp, David; Beaumont, Christopher

    2017-04-01

    The Himalayan syntaxes have been the focus of much previous research, in part owing to the extreme rates of rock exhumation observed within the core of the syntaxes, the powerful river systems cutting across them, and the resulting spectacular relief produced. Quaternary rates of rock exhumation in the western Himalayan syntaxis, for example, exceed 10 mm/a. Combined with mountain peak elevations comparable to the central Himalaya, these high rates require a source of rock flux greater than that added to the Himalayan orogenic wedge elsewhere along strike to compensate for rapid denudation. One potential source of mass is along-strike translation of the orogenic wedge toward the western Himalayan syntaxis as a result of strain partitioning across the thrust front. Where convergence across the thrust front is oblique, strain partitioning can partially or completely divert the component of convergence parallel to the frontal thrust into an orogen-parallel velocity in the orogenic wedge. This results in mass being driven along strike into the syntaxis where the convergence obliquity decreases and the crustal mass accumulates. Active faults like the Karakoram Fault and Western Nepal Fault system provide evidence of strain partitioning in the western Himalaya, but the rate of orogen-parallel wedge transport is debated. This rate is central to a test of the viability of strain partitioning as a source of crustal mass into the western Himalayan syntaxis. Preliminary results from 3D numerical geodynamic modelling experiments demonstrate that moderate strain partitioning can be expected in some cases for a geometry similar to the Himalayan arc, though the uplift rate in the model syntaxis as a result of strain partitioning is lower than observed in the western Himalayan syntaxis. We consider a 1600 × 1600 × 80km crustal block corresponding to the western half of the Himalayan arc with pre-defined zones where frictional material strengths can be varied. The two main zones

  18. Orogenic superstructure behaviour and mid-crustal plastic flow in the central Nepal Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godin, L.; Kellett, D. A.; Larson, K. P.

    2007-12-01

    In the central Nepal Himalaya, the Tethyan sedimentary sequence (TSS) forms the superstructure to mid-crustal infrastructure rocks of the Greater Himalayan sequence (GHS); the top-to-the-north South Tibetan detachment system (STDS) defines their contact. North-verging folds, opposite to the main orogenic vergence, structurally dominate the TSS. Although the absolute age of this folding is unknown, structural observations and 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology indicate that it formed between 50-23 Ma, predating the dominant Miocene motion on the STDS. The GHS records a two-stage post-collisional history, marked by ca. 35 Ma burial metamorphism, followed by high-T, low-P, ca. 22 Ma metamorphism. Dominant top-to-the-south shear fabrics developed at peak temperatures at ca. 22 Ma pervasively transpose linear and planar features within the GHS. Vorticity analyses yield kinematic vorticity numbers between 0.29 and 0.80 (81-41% pure shear), with a significant amount of stretch parallel to the flow plane (34-53%). 40Ar/39Ar thermochronological data indicate that southward extrusion of the GHS terminated with cessation of movement on the STDS at 19 Ma. Our data suggest that the orogenic superstructure actively influenced the behaviour of the infrastructure in the early stages of orogenesis through fold-thrust belt formation leading to prograde 35 Ma metamorphism in the GHS. Associated melt weakening in the infrastructure allowed the initiation of southward plastic flow of the GHS, locally modifying the vergence of superstructural folds towards the north. As melt weakening in the middle crust intensified and the rheological contrast between superstructure and infrastructure increased, the upper crust decoupled from the middle crust and deformation in the upper crust temporarily ceased. By 17 Ma the extruded mid-crustal rocks cooled sufficiently to require the upper, brittle component of the STDS to become active. As cooling continued (17-14 Ma), the superstructure and underlying

  19. Syn-Uralian orogenic heavy mineral provenance analysis from southeastern Taimyr, Arctic Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Pease, V.; Scott, R. A.

    2012-12-01

    The Taimyr peninsula is on the northern margin of the Siberian craton and divides into the southern, central and northern NE - SW trending domains. The southern Taimyr domain represents the passive margin of Siberia and is dominated by a Paleozoic, extending into the early Mesozoic, succession. The central Taimyr domain accreted to the southern domain during Late Precambrian time, followed by collision with the northern Taimyr domain of Baltican affinity during the Late Paleozoic as part of Uralian orogenesis. The Carboniferous - Permian sedimentary succession, which was deposited during the later stage of Uralian Orogeny, can provide crucial information about the extent of contemporaneous Uralian orogensis and its influence on the tectonic evolution of southern Taimyr. Three Carboniferous - Permian samples from southeastern Taimyr were analyzed for petrography and heavy mineral analysis to define their sedimentary and provenance characteristics. The Upper Carboniferous to Lower Permian sample (VP10-25, Turuzovskya Formation, C2-P1tr), the Lower Permian sample (VP10-14, Sokolinskaya Formation, P1sk) and the Upper Permian sample (VP10-12, Baykurskaya Formation, P2bk)) classify as subarkose, lithic arkose and feldspathic litharenite, respectively- they record decreasing sediment maturity through time. While all the samples represent a 'recycled orogen' source based on QtFL plots, the C2-P1tr sample represents a recycled quartzite, while the P1sk sample plots within the mixed field, and the P2bk sample is transitional on QmFLt plots. According to the heavy mineral analysis results, the C2-P1tr sample and P1sk sample show great similarity in heavy mineral assemblage, dominated by zircon, apatite and rutile. The P2bk sample shows distinct differences, containing apatite, tourmaline, garnet and zircon. The prominent increase of garnet suggests a metamorphic source. These similarities and variations among the three samples are also shown in other discrimination diagrams

  20. Intraplate geodynamics and magmatism in the evolution of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Kuzmin, M. I.; Ernst, R. E.

    2014-10-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) was produced as a consequence of the successive closure of the Paleoasian Ocean and the accretion of structures formed within it (island arcs, oceanic islands, and backarc basins) to the Siberian continent. The belt started developing in the latest Late Neoproterozoic, and this process terminated in the latest Permian in response to the collision of the Siberian and North China continents that resulted in closure of the Paleoasian ocean (Metcalfe, 2006; Li et al., 2014; Liu et al., 2009; Xiao et al., 2010; Didenko et al., 2010). Throughout the whole evolutionary history of this Orogenic Belt, a leading role in its evolution was played by convergent processes. Along with these processes, an important contribution to the evolution of the composition and structure of the crust in the belt was made by deep geodynamic processes related to the activity of mantle plumes. Indicator complexes of the activity of mantle plumes are identified, and their major distribution patterns in CAOB structures are determined. A number of epochs and areas of intraplate magmatism are distinguished, including the Neoproterozoic one (Rodinia breakup and the origin of alkaline rock belt in the marginal part of the Siberian craton); Neoproterozoic-Early Cambrian (origin of oceanic islands in the Paleoasian Ocean); Late Cambrian-Early Ordovician (origin of LIP within the region of Early Caledonian structures in CAOB); Middle Paleozoic (origin of LIP in the Altai-Sayan rift system); Late Paleozoic-Early Mesozoic (origin of the Tarim flood-basalt province, Central Asian rift system, and a number of related zonal magmatic areas); Late Mesozoic-Cenozoic (origin of continental volcanic areas in Central Asia). Geochemical and isotopic characteristics are determined for magmatic complexes that are indicator complexes for areas of intraplate magmatism of various age, and their major evolutionary trends are discussed. Available data indicate that mantle plumes

  1. Moho depth model from GOCE gravity gradient data for the Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guy, Alexandra; Holzrichter, Nils; Ebbing, Jörg

    2016-04-01

    GOCE gravity gradient data are used together with published seismic data to determine the Moho geometry and the isostatic state of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). The CAOB is an accretionary orogen formed during the Palaeozoic at the periphery of the Siberian cratonic nucleus by the successive amalgamation of different types of crust (cratonic, oceanic, passive margin, magmatic arc, back-arc, ophiolites, accretionary wedge) followed by an oroclinal bending during Permian-Triassic times. This large area was and is still of great interest for geoscientific studies mainly because of its potential in mineral and fossil resources and also for its outstanding, but still misunderstood, geodynamic evolution. However, the geophysical investigations remain scarce due to the remoteness of the area. A systematic analysis of the crustal thickness has been omitted yet, although the geometry of the crust-mantle boundary (Moho boundary) provides crucial information on the evolution of the lithosphere and on the coupling between upper mantle and the crust - particularly interesting for oroclinal bending processes. In this study, the gravity gradient data of GOCE are used to investigate the topography of the Moho for Mongolia and its surroundings. In addition, we used inversion of gravity data and calculation of the isostatic Moho from topographic data to the World Gravity Map (WGM) 2012 satellite-terrestrial model of the Earth's gravity anomalies and these results are compared together with those obtained for the GOCE gravity data. The results of the gravity inversion are constrained by the few xenolith studies and the seismic data available: the receiver function seismic method for north and central Mongolia, deep seismic sounding and seismic reflection profiles in northern China; and tomography in southern Siberia. Then, the effects of isostatic compensation are evaluated by the comparison between the results of the gravity inversion and the isostatic Moho. Finally, a 3D

  2. A Late Cretaceous Orogen Triggering the Tertiary Rifting of the West Sunda Plate; Andaman Sea Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sautter, B.; Pubellier, M. F.; Menier, D.

    2015-12-01

    Rifted Basins often develop in internal zones of orogenic belts, although the latter may not be easy to unravel. We chose the example of the super-stretched Andaman sea region affected by several stages of rifting in the internal zone of a composite collage of allochthonous terranes. We made use of a set of geophysical, geochronological and structural data to analyze the rifting evolution and reconstruct the previous compressional structures. - Starting in the late Oligocene the East Andaman Basin opened as a back arc in a right-lateral pull- apart. The rifting propagated Westward to the central Andaman basin in the Middle Miocene, and to the oceanic spreading stage in the Pliocene. - An early extension occurred in the Paleogene, marked by widespread opening of isolated continental basins onshore Malay Peninsula and offshore Andaman Shelf and Malacca Straits. The rifting was accommodated by LANF's along preexisting weakness zones such as hinges of folds and granitic batholiths. Continuous extension connected the isolated basins offshore, whereas onshore, the grabens remained confined. There, AFT data show an uplift phase around 30Ma. In the Late Cretaceous, a major deformation occurred oblique to the pre-existing Indosinian basement fabrics. The convergence was partitioned into thrusting and uplift of the Cretaceous volcanic arc in Thailand and Myanmar, inversion of Mesozoic basins, and coeval wrenching responsible for large phacoid-shaped crustal slivers bounded by wide strike slip fault zones. The slivers share similar characteristics: a thick continental core of lower Paleozoic sedimentary basins units surrounded by Late Cretaceous granitoids. Radiometric data and fission tracks indicate a widespread thermal anomaly in all West Sunda Plate synchronous to a strong uplift. In the Latest Mesozoic, the Western Margin of Sunda plate was subjected to a major E-W compression, accommodated by oblique conjugate strike slip faults, leading to the formation of a large

  3. Modelling temporal gravity changes through the south of the Taiwan Orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouyen, Maxime; Masson, Frédéric; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Hwang, Cheinway; Cheng, Ching-Chung

    2010-05-01

    The Taiwan mountain belt results from the collision between Philippine Sea and Eurasian plates. Taiwan island experiences high tectonic deformation due to fast convergence between the two plates. It has been and is still widely studied and is often considered as a natural laboratory for orogeny studies. Since 2006, the French-Taiwanese scientific project AGTO (Absolute Gravity in the Taiwanese Orogen) measures the gravity change along a transect through the south of the island. It includes 10 absolute and 45 relative gravity measurements sites. The aim of this project is to validate the use of temporal gravity data for tectonic purposes. In particular, this method should be interesting to monitor deep mass transfers involved in the Taiwanese orogeny. Deep tectonic processes occuring in Taiwan are indeed still discussed, as shown by the existence of several tectonic hypotheses, and gravity can bring useful contribution to this discussion. The value of g in a particular place physically depends on the density distribution around this place. Change of this density distribution will result in a change of g, to which we try to give a tectonic meaning. However it is worth noting that other factors, like hydrology, might also be responsible for temporal g variations. Gravity modelling should therefore provide significant help in interpreting measurements. First, it can be used to estimate non-tectonic factors like hydrology, erosion or landslides, which both are supposed to modify g value through time. Albeit interesting, these effects must be properly removed from our measures before attempting any tectonic interpretation. Second, modelling is a valuable step in this study as it can help to propose deep mass transfers hypothesis constrained by gravity data and in accordance with Taiwan tectonic context. In this work, we present results of both types, computed for the south of the Taiwan orogen. Water effects on gravity have been estimated using rainfall data and global

  4. Quantifying transient erosion of orogens with detrital thermochronology from syntectonic basin deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahl, Jeffrey M.; Ehlers, Todd A.; van der Pluijm, Ben A.

    2007-04-01

    The evolution of an orogen is marked by phases of topographic growth, equilibrium, and decay. During these phases erosion rates vary in response to temporal and spatial changes in climate, topographic relief and slope, and deformation. Detrital thermochronometer cooling-age data collected from syntectonic basin deposits are a promising tool for quantifying erosion histories during orogenic evolution. Previous studies typically assume steady-state erosion for interpreting detrital data, although in many situations this assumption is not justified. Here we present a new numerical modeling approach that predicts thermochronometer cooling ages in a stratigraphic section where sediment is sourced from a region with a temporally variable erosion history. Multiple thermochronometer cooling ages are predicted at different stratigraphic horizons as a function of variable erosion histories, rock cooling rates in the hinterland, and thermophysical material properties and boundary conditions. The modeling approach provides the context for the interpretation of natural data, including geologically realistic situations with a temporally varying erosion rate. The results of three end-member hinterland erosion histories are explored: (1) steady-state erosion; (2) increasing erosion rate with time; and (3) decreasing erosion rate with time. Results indicate that for steady erosion rates between 0.2 and 1.0 mm/yr, up to 30 m.y. will pass following a change in erosion rate before the detrital ages have adjusted to reflect a new erosion regime. In simulations with transient erosion, the estimation of erosion rates from a detrital record using assumption of thermal steady-state will generally be in error, often by as much as - 25 to 100%. These results highlight that assumptions of steady erosion in mountain belts should be used with caution. Application of the model to thermochronometer cooling ages preserved in syntectonic sediments sourced from the Nanga Parbat region, Himalaya

  5. Magnetic signatures of the orogenic crust of the Patagonian Andes with implication for planetary exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Michelena, Marina; Kilian, Rolf

    2015-11-01

    The Patagonian Andes represent a good scenario of study because they have outcrops of diverse plutonic rocks representative of an orogenic crust on Earth and other planets. Furthermore, metamorphic surface rocks provide a window into deeper crustal lithologies. In such remote areas, satellite and aerial magnetic surveys could provide important geological information concerning exposed and not exposed rocks, but they integrate the magnetic anomalies in areas of kilometres. For the southernmost Andes long wavelength satellite data show clear positive magnetic anomalies (>+100 nT) for the Patagonian Batholith (PB), similar as parts of the older martian crust. This integrated signal covers regions with different ages and cooling histories during magnetic reversals apart from the variability of the rocks. To investigate the complex interplay of distinct magnetic signatures at short scale, we have analysed local magnetic anomalies across this orogen at representative sites by decimeter-scale magnetic ground surveys. As expected, the investigated sites have positive and negative local anomalies. They are related to surface and subsurface rocks, and their different formation and alternation processes including geomagnetic inversions, distinct Curie depths of the magnetic carriers, intracrustal deformation among other factors. Whole rock chemistry (ranging from 45 to >80 wt.% SiO2 and from 1 to 18 wt.% FeOtot.), magnetic characteristics (susceptibilities, magnetic remanence and Königsberger ratios) as well as the composition and texture of the magnetic carriers have been investigated for representative rocks. Rocks of an ultramafic to granodioritic intrusive suite of the western and central PB contain titanomagnetite as major magnetic carrier. Individual magnetic signatures of these plutonic rocks reflect their single versus multidomain status, complex exolution processes with ilmenite lamella formations and the stoichiometric proportions of Cr, Fe and Ti in the oxides. At

  6. Paleozoic tectonics in the eastern part of Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongjiang; Li, Weimin; Feng, Zhiqiang; Neubauer, Franz

    2017-04-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) is the largest accretionary orogen in the world, which is responsible for considerable Phanerozoic juvenile crustal growth. The NE China and its adjacent areas compose the eastern segment of the CAOB, which is a key area for providing important evidence of the CAOB evolution and understanding the NE Asian tectonics. The eastern segment of the CAOB is composed tectonically of four micro-blocks and four sutures, i.e. Erguna block (EB), Xing'an block (XB), Songliao-Xilinhot block (SXB), Jiamusi block (JB), Xinlin-Xiguitu suture (XXS), Heihe-Hegenshan suture (HHS), Mudanjiang-Yilan suture (MYS) and Solonker-Xar Moron-Changchun-Yanji suture (SXCYS). The EB and XB were amalgamated by westward subduction, oceanic island accretions and final collision in ca. 500 Ma. The XB and SXB were amalgamated by subduction-related Early Paleozoic marginal arc, Late Paleozoic marginal arc and final collision in the late Early Carboniferous to early Late Carboniferous. The JB probably had been attached to the SXB in the Early Paleozoic, but broken apart from the SXB in the Triassic and collided back in the Jurassic. The closure of Paleo-Asian Ocean had experienced a long continue/episodic subduction-accretion processes on margins of the NCC to the south and the SXB to the north from the Early to Late Paleozoic. The final closure happened along the SXCYS, from west Solonker, Sonid Youqi, Kedanshan (Keshenketengqi), Xar Moron River through Songliao Basin via Kailu, Tongliao, Horqin Zuoyizhongqi, Changchun, to the east Panshi, Huadian, Dunhua, Yanji, with a scissors style closure in time from the Late Permian-Early Triassic in the west to the Late Permian-Middle Triassic in the east. The amalgamated blocks should compose a united micro-continent, named as Jiamusi-Mongolia Block (JMB) after Early Carboniferous, which bounded by Mongo-Okhotsk suture to the northwest, Solonker-Xar Moron-Changchun suture to the south and the eastern margin of JB to the

  7. Using large dynamite shots to image the structure of the Moho from deep seismic reflection experiment between the Sichuan basin and Qinling orogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongqiang; Gao, Rui; Wang, Haiyan; Li, Wenhui; Xiong, Xiaosong

    2016-12-01

    The Qinling orogen was formed as a result of the collision between the North and South China blocks. The Qinling orogen represents the location at which the southern and northern parts of the Chinese mainland collided, and it's also the intersection of the Central China orogen and the north-south tectonic belt. There is evidence of strong deformation in this orogen, and it has had a long and complex geological history. We investigated the structure of the Moho in the southern Qinling orogen using large dynamite shot imaging techniques. By integrating the analysis of the single-shot and the move-out corrections profile, we determined the structure of the Moho beneath the northern Dabashan thrust belt and the southern Qinling orogen, including the mantle suture beneath Fenghuang mountain. The Moho is divided into two parts by the mantle suture zone beneath Fenghuang mountain: (1) from Ziyang to Hanyin, the north-dipping Moho is at about 45-55 km depth and the depth increases rapidly; and (2) from Hanyin to Ningshan, the south-dipping Moho is at about 40-45 km depth and shallows slowly. The mantle suture is located beneath Fenghuang mountain, and the Moho overlaps at this location: the shallower Moho is connected to the northern part of China, and the deeper Moho is connected to the southern part. This may indicate that the lithosphere in the Sichuan basin subducts to the Qinling block and that the subduction frontier reaches at least as far as Fenghuang mountain.

  8. The northern margin of the Capricorn Orogen, Western Australia—an example of an Early Proterozoic collision zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyler, I. M.; Thorne, A. M.

    The Early Proterozoic (2200-1600 Ma) Capricorn Orogen is a major zone of deformation, metamorphism and granite emplacement between the Archaean Yilgarn and Pilbara Cratons of northwest Australia. Capricorn Orogen structures are recognized along the southern margin of the Pilbara Craton deforming the Archaean granite-greenstone terrain of the Sylvania Inlier together with rocks of the Hamersley, Ashburton and Blair Basins. In the Sylvania Inlier deformation is characterized by large-scale shear zones interpreted as NNE-directed thrusts. In the Hamersley Basin, orogenic deformation forms the Ophthalmia Fold Belt and can be divided into two groups of structures: in the southwest large-scale dome-and-basin folds (pre-Ashburton Basin) are present; in the southeast folds and faults are part of a younger (syn-Ashburton Basin) N-directed foreland fold and thrust belt directly linked to deformation in the Sylvania Inlier. The deformed Ashburton Basin and adjacent parts of the Hamersley Basin form the Ashburton Fold Belt. Two periods of deformation are recognized: early recumbent folding ( D1a, post-Ashburton Basin-pre-Blair Basin), and later dextral wrench faulting and associated folding ( D2a, syn- or post-Blair Basin). Capricorn Orogen structures are interpreted as the result of an oblique continent-continent collision between the Pilbara and Yilgarn Cratons. Along the southern Pilbara margin, collision first occurred in the southeast and migrated northwest, with the Ashburton Basin evolving as a foreland basin. Late-stage dextral wrench faulting was the result of westward extrusion of material caught between the opposing craton margins.

  9. A Major Out of Sequence Fault in Central Range and Its Implication to Mountain Building Process of Taiwan Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y. H.

    2015-12-01

    A Major Out of Sequence Fault in Central Range and Its Implication to Mountain Building Process of Taiwan Orogenic Belt Yuan-Hsi Lee1, Wei Lo2, Wei-Hau Wang1, Tim-Byrne 3, Ruey-Juen Rau 41. Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Cheng University, Taiwan, R.O.C. 2. Department of Materials and Mineral Resources Engineering, Taipei, National Taipei University of Technology, Taiwan, R.O.C. 3. Center for Integrative Geosciences, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA 4. Department of Earth Science, National Chen-Kung University, Taiwan, R.O.C. Taiwan mountain belt results from collision between Eurasia continental crust and Philippine Sea plate that result in exposing the metamorphic complex with high exhumation rate in eastern Central Range of Taiwan orogenic belt. In this study we combine with field survey, zircon fission track (ZFT), metamorphic grade, and tomography data to identify there exists a major out of sequence fault (MOSF) in eastern Central Range of Taiwan orogenic belt. This MOSF extends from north to south of eastern central Range with several segments and the total length is more than 250 km. The ZFT shows total annealing age of ca.1-3 Ma on the hanging wall and partial annealing ages on the foot wall. The seismicity data indicates the MOSF is still active from central to southern central Range. We consider that the MOSF is related with crustal channel flow in depth. To the western side of crustal flow it shows thrusting mechanism associated with MOSF and the normal faults (or normal shearing zone) develop in eastern side of the crustal channel flow. This crustal channel flow is also related with exposing the metamorphic complex in Central Range that is important mechanism for the mountain building process of Taiwan orogenic belt.

  10. Mass elevation and lee effects markedly lift the elevational distribution of ground beetles in the Himalaya-Tibet orogen.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Joachim; Böhner, Jürgen; Brandl, Roland; Opgenoorth, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Mass elevation and lee effects markedly influence snow lines and tree lines in high mountain systems. However, their impact on other phenomena or groups of organisms has not yet been quantified. Here we quantitatively studied their influence in the Himalaya-Tibet orogen on the distribution of ground beetles as model organisms, specifically whether the ground beetle distribution increases from the outer to the inner parts of the orogen, against latitudinal effects. We also tested whether July temperature and solar radiation are predictors of the beetle's elevational distribution ranges. Finally, we discussed the general importance of these effects for the distributional and evolutionary history of the biota of High Asia. We modelled spatially explicit estimates of variables characterizing temperature and solar radiation and correlated the variables with the respective lower elevational range of 118 species of ground beetles from 76 high-alpine locations. Both July temperature and solar radiation significantly positively correlated with the elevational ranges of high-alpine beetles. Against the latitudinal trend, the median elevation of the respective species distributions increased by 800 m from the Himalayan south face north to the Transhimalaya. Our results indicate that an increase in seasonal temperature due to mass elevation and lee effects substantially impact the regional distribution patterns of alpine ground beetles of the Himalaya-Tibet orogen and are likely to affect also other soil biota there and in mountain ranges worldwide. Since these effects must have changed during orogenesis, their potential impact must be considered when biogeographic scenarios based on geological models are derived. As this has not been the practice, we believe that large biases likely exist in many paleoecological and evolutionary studies dealing with the biota from the Himalaya-Tibet orogen and mountain ranges worldwide.

  11. Early Mesozoic granitoid and rhyolite magmatism of the Bureya Terrane of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Age and geodynamic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorokin, A. A.; Kotov, A. B.; Kudryashov, N. M.; Kovach, V. P.

    2016-09-01

    Early Mesozoic granitoids and volcanic rocks are widespread throughout the structures of all of the continental massifs in the eastern part of the Central Asian Orogenic Belt, although its tectonic setting is not yet clear. Generally, they are associated with subduction and plume processes or rifting. Such uncertainty is mostly explained by the unequal investigation of Early Mesozoic magmatism. This paper presents the results of geochemical, Sm-Nd isotope, and U-Pb geochronologic (ID-TIMS) studies of "key-type" Early Mesozoic magmatic rock complexes of the Bureya Terrane. This is one of the largest continental massifs in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt and knowledge of its geological structure is of fundamental importance in understanding the history of its formation. It has been established that the leucogranites of the Altakhtinsky Complex and the trachyrhyolites of the Talovsky Complex are practically coeval ( 209-208 Ma). The subalkaline leucogranites of the Kharinsky Complex have a slightly younger age of 199 Ma. These data correspond to the general stage of Early Mesozoic magmatic and metamorphic events (236-180 Ma) in most continental massifs in the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. We believe that large-scale Early Mesozoic events were related to the amalgamation of the continental massifs of the eastern Central Asian Orogenic Belt into a single continental structure (the Amur superterrane or microcontinent Amuria) and collision with the North Asian Craton. It should be noted that the collision processes were followed by crustal thickening, thus creating the conditions for metamorphism and formation of magmatic rock complexes of various geochemical types.

  12. Role of Neogene Exhumation and Sedimentation on Critical-Wedge Kinematics in the Zagros Orogenic Belt, Northeastern Iraq, Kurdistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koshnaw, R. I.; Horton, B. K.; Stockli, D. F.; Barber, D. E.; Tamar-Agha, M. Y.; Kendall, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Zagros orogenic belt and foreland basin formed during the Cenozoic Arabia-Eurasia collision, but the precise histories of shortening and sediment accumulation remain ambiguous, especially at the NW extent of the fold-thrust belt in Iraqi Kurdistan. This region is characterized by well-preserved successions of Cenozoic clastic foreland-basin fill and deformed Paleozoic-Mesozoic hinterland bedrock. The study area provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the linkage between orogenic wedge behavior and surface processes of erosion and deposition. The aim of this research is to test whether the Zagros orogenic wedge advanced steadily under critical to supercritical wedge conditions involving in-sequence thrusting with minimal erosion or propagated intermittently under subcritical condition involving out-of-sequence deformation with intense erosion. These endmember modes of mountain building can be assessed by integrating geo/thermochronologic and basin analyses techniques, including apatite (U-Th)/He thermochronology, detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology, stratigraphic synthesis, and seismic interpretations. Preliminary apatite (U-Th)/He data indicate activation of the Main Zagros Fault (MZF) at ~10 Ma with frontal thrusts initiating at ~8 Ma. However, thermochronometric results from the intervening Mountain Front Flexure (MFF), located between the MZF and the frontal thrusts, suggest rapid exhumation at ~6 Ma. These results suggest that the MFF, represented by the thrust-cored Qaradagh anticline, represents a major episode of out-of-sequence deformation. Detrital zircon U-Pb analyses from the Neogene foreland-basin deposits show continuous sediment derivation from sources to the NNE in Iraq and western Iran, suggesting that out-of-sequence thrusting did not significantly alter sedimentary provenance. Rather, intense hinterland erosion and recycling of older foreland-basin fill dominated sediment delivery to the basin. The irregular distribution of

  13. Orogeny processes of the western Jiangnan Orogen, South China:Insights from Neoproterozoic igneous rocks and a deep seismic profile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Jinbao; Dong, Shuwen; Zhang, Yueqiao; Li, Yong; Chen, Xuanhua; Ma, Licheng; Chen, Jiansheng

    2017-01-01

    The Jiangnan Orogen is a collisional suture belt between the Yangtze and Cathaysia Blocks in South China, with many unanswered questions regarding its tectonic evolution. Using the basement structure of the Jiangnan Orogen, we investigate the granite and dacite exposed along the western Jiangnan Orogen and present new LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb ages, Hf isotopes, and whole rock geochemistry data. The results suggest that the granite plutons belong to the calc-alkaline series and are typical S-type granites. It yields a mean U-Pb age of 854 ± 2 Ma, which is determined from the core of zircon and possibly inherited from its source or wall rocks. The initial emplacement age of granite may be 826-805 Ma, whereas the dacites yield an age of 805 ± 1.6 Ma and belong to the shoshonite series. The initial Hf-isotope ratios (176Hf/177Hf) in the granite sample are mostly negative εHf(t), with a few of positive value with 1.38-1.6 Ga TDM and 1.67-2.06 Ga TDM2, whereas the dacite samples have mostly positive εHf(t), with a 0.78-1.6 Ga TDM and 0.83-2.2 Ga TDM2t. A comparison of the εHf(t) and TDM2t with the corresponding intruded strata, helps illustrate the origin of the magma and the finals stages ofcollision. Based on our results, we conclude that the western Jiangnan Orogen was a back-arc foreland basin that developed on the margin of the Yangtze continent and collided with the Cathaysia Block, forming a continent-arc-continent accretionary orogeny between 860 and 800 Ma.

  14. Active intracontinental transpressional mountain building in the Mongolian Altai: Defining a new class of orogen [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cunningham, Dickson

    2005-12-01

    Mountain ranges that are actively forming around the western and northern perimeter of the Indo-Eurasia collisional deformational field, such as the Mongolian Altai, comprise a unique class of intracontinental intraplate transpressional orogen with structural and basinal elements that are distinct from contractional and extensional orogens. Late Cenozoic uplift and mountain building in the Mongolian Altai is dominated by regional-scale dextral strike-slip faults that link with thrust and oblique-slip faults within a 300-km-wide deforming belt sandwiched between the more rigid Junggar Basin block and Hangay Precambrian craton. Dominant orogenic elements in the Mongolian Altai include double restraining bends, terminal restraining bends, partial restraining bends, single thrust ridges, thrust ridges linked by strike-slip faults, and triangular block uplifts in areas of conjugate strike-slip faults. The overall pattern is similar to a regional strike-slip duplex array; however, the significant amount of contractional and oblique-slip displacement within the range and large number of historical oblique-slip seismic events renders the term "transpressional duplex" more accurate. Intramontane and range flanking basins can be classified as ramp basins, half-ramp basins, open-sided thrust basins, pull-apart basins, and strike-slip basins. Neither a classic fold-and-thrust orogenic wedge geometry nor a bounding foredeep exists. The manner in which upper crustal transpressional deformation is balanced in the lower crust is unknown; however, crustal thickening by lower crustal inflation and northward outflow of lower crustal material are consistent with existing geological and geodetic data and could account for late Cenozoic regional epeirogenic uplift in the Russian Altai and Sayan regions.

  15. Mass elevation and lee effects markedly lift the elevational distribution of ground beetles in the Himalaya-Tibet orogen

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Joachim; Böhner, Jürgen; Brandl, Roland; Opgenoorth, Lars

    2017-01-01

    Mass elevation and lee effects markedly influence snow lines and tree lines in high mountain systems. However, their impact on other phenomena or groups of organisms has not yet been quantified. Here we quantitatively studied their influence in the Himalaya–Tibet orogen on the distribution of ground beetles as model organisms, specifically whether the ground beetle distribution increases from the outer to the inner parts of the orogen, against latitudinal effects. We also tested whether July temperature and solar radiation are predictors of the beetle’s elevational distribution ranges. Finally, we discussed the general importance of these effects for the distributional and evolutionary history of the biota of High Asia. We modelled spatially explicit estimates of variables characterizing temperature and solar radiation and correlated the variables with the respective lower elevational range of 118 species of ground beetles from 76 high-alpine locations. Both July temperature and solar radiation significantly positively correlated with the elevational ranges of high-alpine beetles. Against the latitudinal trend, the median elevation of the respective species distributions increased by 800 m from the Himalayan south face north to the Transhimalaya. Our results indicate that an increase in seasonal temperature due to mass elevation and lee effects substantially impact the regional distribution patterns of alpine ground beetles of the Himalaya–Tibet orogen and are likely to affect also other soil biota there and in mountain ranges worldwide. Since these effects must have changed during orogenesis, their potential impact must be considered when biogeographic scenarios based on geological models are derived. As this has not been the practice, we believe that large biases likely exist in many paleoecological and evolutionary studies dealing with the biota from the Himalaya-Tibet orogen and mountain ranges worldwide. PMID:28339461

  16. Decoupled Upper and Lower Crustal Deformation Mechanisms in the Pamir Mountains: Implications for Lower Crustal Flow in Orogenic Plateaus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, J.; Robinson, A. C.; Carrapa, B.; Kapp, P. A.; Worthington, J.; Villarreal, D. P.; Gadoev, M.; Oimahmadov, I.

    2016-12-01

    The Pamir Mountains form a high-elevation orogenic plateau with 70 km thick crust. Exposures of lower crust within a series of extensional gneiss domes, including the giant Shakhdara-Alichur dome, make the Pamir an ideal laboratory for examining the interrelatedness of upper and lower crustal deformation mechanisms. The Pamir gneiss domes have Eocene to Oligocene prograde metamorphic ages interpreted to reflect crustal thickening associated with the India-Asia collision. We investigated upper crustal deformation in the South Pamir terrane, in the hangingwall of the Shakhdara-Alichur dome. Structural reconstructions indicate <10% shortening in the South Pamir since the Jurassic and detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology and detrital zircon fission track analysis of syn-orogenic strata in the South Pamir suggest that the majority of this deformation is Cretaceous in age and accumulated prior to the India-Asia collision. Moreover, zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronology and field relationships show that the South Pamir has been above sea-level since the early Cretaceous and that there has been no significant exhumation since that time. There is not enough Cenozoic upper crustal shortening to account for the lower crustal prograde metamorphic ages. Lower crustal flow into the South Pamir from adjacent terranes or India is required to account for initial Paleogene crustal thickening as well as to offset Miocene crustal thinning related to gneiss dome extension and exhumation. The results suggest that upper and lower crustal deformation is locally decoupled in orogenic plateaus and that the cool upper crust may not fully record orogenic histories. Prolonged injection of lower crust may lead to vertical extrusion and plateau expansion rather than discrete periods of crustal extension or shortening.

  17. Tectonically driven fluid flow and gold mineralisation in active collisional orogenic belts: comparison between New Zealand and western Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craw, D.; Koons, P. O.; Horton, T.; Chamberlain, C. P.

    2002-04-01

    Hydrothermal activity and mesothermal-styled gold mineralisation occurs near the main topographic divide of most active or young collisional mountain belts. The Southern Alps of New Zealand is used in this study as a model for the mineralising processes. The collisional tectonics results in a two-sided wedge-shaped orogen into which rock is transported horizontally. Upper crustal rocks pass through the orogen and leave the orogen by erosion, whereas lower crustal rocks are deformed into the mountain roots. High relief drives meteoric water flow to near the brittle-ductile transition. Lower to upper greenschist facies metamorphic reactions, driven by deformation at the crustal decollement and in the root, release water-rich fluids that rise through the orogen. Intimate chemical interaction between fluid and rock results in dissolution and later precipitation of gold, arsenic and sulphur. Fluid flow and mineralisation in the topographic divide region is facilitated by a network of steeply dipping faults and associated rock damage zones where oblique strike-slip faults intersect the thrust faults that strike subparallel to the main mountain range. The Nanga Parbat massif of the western Himalaya is an example of an active collisional zone which hosts hydrothermal activity but no gold mineralisation. The lack of gold mineralisation is due to the following factors: CO 2-dominated rising metamorphic fluid in dehydrated amphibolite-granulite facies metamorphic rocks does not dissolve gold and arsenic; hot (up to 400 °C) meteoric water confined to fractures in the gneiss limits dissolution of gold and arsenic; low density of hot water/dry steam, and low reduced sulphur content of fluid, restrict solubility of gold and arsenic; absence of fracture networks in the core of the massif and the small volumes of circulating fluid limit metal concentration; and lack of reactive rock compositions limits chemically mediated metal deposition.

  18. Large along-strike variations in the onset of Subandean exhumation: Implications for Central Andean orogenic growth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lease, Richard O.; Ehlers, T.A.; Enkelmann, E.

    2016-01-01

    Plate tectonics drives mountain building in general, but the space-time pattern and style of deformation is influenced by how climate, geodynamics, and basement structure modify the orogenic wedge. Growth of the Subandean thrust belt, which lies at the boundary between the arid, high-elevation Central Andean Plateau and its humid, low-elevation eastern foreland, figures prominently into debates of orogenic wedge evolution. We integrate new apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometer data with previously published apatite fission-track data from samples collected along four Subandean structural cross-sections in Bolivia between 15° and 20°S. We interpret cooling ages vs. structural depth to indicate the onset of Subandean exhumation and signify the forward propagation of deformation. We find that Subandean growth is diachronous south (11 ± 3 Ma) vs. north (6 ± 2 Ma) of the Bolivian orocline and that Subandean exhumation magnitudes vary by more than a factor of two. Similar north-south contrasts are present in foreland deposition, hinterland erosion, and paleoclimate; these observations both corroborate diachronous orogenic growth and illuminate potential propagation mechanisms. Of particular interest is an abrupt shift to cooler, more arid conditions in the Altiplano hinterland that is diachronous in southern Bolivia (16-13 Ma) vs. northern Bolivia (10-7 Ma) and precedes the timing of Subandean propagation in each region. Others have interpreted the paleoclimate shift to reflect either rapid surface uplift due to lithosphere removal or an abrupt change in climate dynamics once orographic threshold elevations were exceeded. These mechanisms are not mutually exclusive and both would drive forward propagation of the orogenic wedge by augmenting the hinterland backstop, either through surface uplift or spatially variable erosion. In summary, we suggest that diachronous Subandean exhumation was driven by piecemeal hinterland uplift, orography, and the outward

  19. Age and provenance constraints on seismically-determined crustal layers beneath the Paleozoic southern Central Asian Orogen, Inner Mongolia, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Ping; Kröner, Alfred; Shi, Yuruo; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Yaran; Windley, Brian F.; Jahn, Bor-ming; Zhang, Liqao; Liu, Dunyi

    2016-06-01

    We present 110 ages and 51 in-situ δ18O values for zircon xenocrysts from a post-99 Ma intraplate basaltic rock suite hosted in a subduction-accretion complex of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt in order to constrain a seismic profile across the Paleozoic Southern Orogen of Inner Mongolia and the northern margin of the North China Craton. Two zircon populations are recognized, namely a Phanerozoic group of 70 zircons comprising granitoid-derived (ca. 431-99 Ma; n = 31; peak at 256 Ma), meta-granitoid-derived (ca. 449-113 Ma; n = 24; peak at 251 Ma) and gabbro-derived (436-242 Ma; n = 15; peaks at 264 and 244 Ma) grains. Each textural type is characterized by a distinct zircon oxygen isotope composition and is thus endowed with a genetic connotation. The Precambrian population (2605-741 Ma; n = 40) exhibits a prominent age peak at 2520 Ma (granulite-facies metamorphism) and four small peaks at ca. 1900, 1600, and 800 Ma. Our new data, together with literature zircon ages, significantly constrain models of three seismically-determined deep crustal layers beneath the fossil subduction zone-forearc along the active northern margin of the North China Craton, namely: (1) an upper arc crust of early to mid-Paleozoic age, intruded by a major Permian-Triassic composite granitoid-gabbroic pluton (8-20 km depth); (2) a middle crust, predominantly consisting of mid-Meso- to Neoproterozoic felsic and mafic gneisses; and (3) a lower crust composed predominantly of late Archean granulite-facies rocks. We conclude that the Paleozoic orogenic crust is limited to the upper crustal level, and the middle to lower crust has a North China Craton affinity. Furthermore, integrating our data with surface geological, petrological and geochronological constraints, we present a new conceptual model of orogenic uplift, lithospheric delamination and crustal underthrusting for this key ocean-continent convergent margin.

  20. The pre-Devonian tectonic framework of Xing'an-Mongolia orogenic belt (XMOB) in north China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bei; Zhao, Pan; Wang, Yanyang; Liao, Wen; Luo, Zhiwen; Bao, Qingzhong; Zhou, Yongheng

    2015-01-01

    A new tectonic division of the Xing'an-Mongolia orogenic belt (XMOB) in north China has been presented according to our research and a lot of new data of tectonics, geochronology and geochemistry. Four blocks and four sutures have been recognized in the XMOB, including the Erguna (EB), Xing'an-Airgin Sum (XAB), Songliao-Hunshandake (SHB), and Jiamusi (JB), and Xinlin-Xiguitu (XXS), Xilinhot-Heihe (XHS), Mudanjiang (MS) and Ondor Sum-Yongji sutures (OYS). The framework of the XMOB is characterized by a tectonic collage of the blocks and orogenic belts between them. Different Precambrian basements have been found in the blocks, including the Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks and plutons in the EB, the Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks in western and eastern of segments of the XAB, Mesoproterozoic and Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks in middle segments of the XAB, respectively, the Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks and Mesoproterozoic volcanic rocks and plutons in the SHB, and Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks in the JB. The XXS resulted from a northwestward subduction of the XAB beneath the EB during the Cambrian, which was followed by the forming of the XHS and OYS in the northwest and south margins of the SHB in the Silurian, respectively. The MS was caused by a westward subduction of the JB beneath the east margin of the SHB during the middle Devonian. The three Cambrian, Silurian and middle Devonian events indicate that the XMOB belongs to a pre-middle Devonian multiple orogenic belt in the Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). Forming of the XMOB suggests that the southeast part of the Paleo Asian Ocean closed before the middle Devonian.

  1. Large along-strike variations in the onset of Subandean exhumation: Implications for Central Andean orogenic growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lease, Richard O.; Ehlers, Todd A.; Enkelmann, Eva

    2016-10-01

    Plate tectonics drives mountain building in general, but the space-time pattern and style of deformation is influenced by how climate, geodynamics, and basement structure modify the orogenic wedge. Growth of the Subandean thrust belt, which lies at the boundary between the arid, high-elevation Central Andean Plateau and its humid, low-elevation eastern foreland, figures prominently into debates of orogenic wedge evolution. We integrate new apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He thermochronometer data with previously published apatite fission-track data from samples collected along four Subandean structural cross-sections in Bolivia between 15° and 20°S. We interpret cooling ages vs. structural depth to indicate the onset of Subandean exhumation and signify the forward propagation of deformation. We find that Subandean growth is diachronous south (11 ± 3 Ma) vs. north (6 ± 2 Ma) of the Bolivian orocline and that Subandean exhumation magnitudes vary by more than a factor of two. Similar north-south contrasts are present in foreland deposition, hinterland erosion, and paleoclimate; these observations both corroborate diachronous orogenic growth and illuminate potential propagation mechanisms. Of particular interest is an abrupt shift to cooler, more arid conditions in the Altiplano hinterland that is diachronous in southern Bolivia (16-13 Ma) vs. northern Bolivia (10-7 Ma) and precedes the timing of Subandean propagation in each region. Others have interpreted the paleoclimate shift to reflect either rapid surface uplift due to lithosphere removal or an abrupt change in climate dynamics once orographic threshold elevations were exceeded. These mechanisms are not mutually exclusive and both would drive forward propagation of the orogenic wedge by augmenting the hinterland backstop, either through surface uplift or spatially variable erosion. In summary, we suggest that diachronous Subandean exhumation was driven by piecemeal hinterland uplift, orography, and the outward

  2. Prolonged high relief in the northern Cordilleran orogenic front during middle and late Eocene extension based on stable isotope paleoaltimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Majie; Constenius, Kurt N.; Dettman, David L.

    2017-01-01

    The paleoelevation and size of the North America Cordilleran orogen during the late Cretaceous-Paleogene contractional and subsequent extensional tectonics remain enigmatic. We present new estimates of paleorelief of the northern Cordilleran orogenic front during the middle and late Eocene using oxygen isotope compositions of unaltered molluscan fossils and paleosol carbonates in the Kishenehn basin. Bounded by several mountains ranges to the east, the Kishenehn basin was a half graben developed during middle Eocene to early Miocene collapse of the Cordilleran orogen. These mollusk taxa include three sympatric groups with affinities to wet tropical, semi-arid subtropical, and temperate environments. Our reconstructed surface water δ18O values vary between -19.8‰ and -6.3‰ (VSMOW) during the middle and late Eocene. The large differences in paleoenvironments and surface water δ18O values suggest that the catchment of the Kishenehn basin was at variable elevation. The estimated paleorelief between the basin and the surrounding mountains, based on both Rayleigh condensation model and predictions of Eocene precipitation isotope values using an isotope-enabled global climate model, is ∼4 km, and the basin floor was <1.5 km high. This high topography and high relief paleogeography suggest that the Cordilleran orogenic front reached an elevation of at least 4 km, and the crust thickness may have reached more than 55 km before Eocene gravitational collapse. We attribute the maintenance of high Eocene topography to the combination of an inherited thick crust, thermal uplift caused by mantle upwelling, and isostatic uplift caused by removing lower lithosphere or oceanic slab.

  3. Crustal surface wave velocity structure of