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Sample records for grief disorder psychometric

  1. Prolonged Grief Disorder: Psychometric Validation of Criteria Proposed for DSM-V and ICD-11

    PubMed Central

    Prigerson, Holly G.; Horowitz, Mardi J.; Jacobs, Selby C.; Parkes, Colin M.; Aslan, Mihaela; Goodkin, Karl; Raphael, Beverley; Marwit, Samuel J.; Wortman, Camille; Neimeyer, Robert A.; Bonanno, George; Block, Susan D.; Kissane, David; Boelen, Paul; Maercker, Andreas; Litz, Brett T.; Johnson, Jeffrey G.; First, Michael B.; Maciejewski, Paul K.

    2009-01-01

    Background Bereavement is a universal experience, and its association with excess morbidity and mortality is well established. Nevertheless, grief becomes a serious health concern for a relative few. For such individuals, intense grief persists, is distressing and disabling, and may meet criteria as a distinct mental disorder. At present, grief is not recognized as a mental disorder in the DSM-IV or ICD-10. The goal of this study was to determine the psychometric validity of criteria for prolonged grief disorder (PGD) to enhance the detection and potential treatment of bereaved individuals at heightened risk of persistent distress and dysfunction. Methods and Findings A total of 291 bereaved respondents were interviewed three times, grouped as 0–6, 6–12, and 12–24 mo post-loss. Item response theory (IRT) analyses derived the most informative, unbiased PGD symptoms. Combinatoric analyses identified the most sensitive and specific PGD algorithm that was then tested to evaluate its psychometric validity. Criteria require reactions to a significant loss that involve the experience of yearning (e.g., physical or emotional suffering as a result of the desired, but unfulfilled, reunion with the deceased) and at least five of the following nine symptoms experienced at least daily or to a disabling degree: feeling emotionally numb, stunned, or that life is meaningless; experiencing mistrust; bitterness over the loss; difficulty accepting the loss; identity confusion; avoidance of the reality of the loss; or difficulty moving on with life. Symptoms must be present at sufficiently high levels at least six mo from the death and be associated with functional impairment. Conclusions The criteria set for PGD appear able to identify bereaved persons at heightened risk for enduring distress and dysfunction. The results support the psychometric validity of the criteria for PGD that we propose for inclusion in DSM-V and ICD-11. Please see later in the article for Editors

  2. Identifying vulnerability in grief: psychometric properties of the Adult Attitude to Grief Scale.

    PubMed

    Sim, Julius; Machin, Linda; Bartlam, Bernadette

    2014-05-01

    Grief is a reaction to a significant loss that can profoundly affect all aspects of life and capacity to function well. The consequences can vary from severe psychological distress through to physical disturbances and significant social problems. This study sought to identify a measure of vulnerability in grief, by examining the psychometric properties of the Adult Attitude to Grief (AAG) scale in a sample of 168 people seeking help in their bereavement. The factor structure of the scale, its internal consistency, its construct validity and optimum classification cutoffs were tested. Confirmatory factor analysis broadly supported the factor structure of the AAG, but identified one item that could profitably be reworded. Internal consistency of the three subscales was acceptable. Construct validity and discriminative validity were supported by correlations with allied constructs (depression and anxiety) and a significant difference between scores for clients with Prolonged Grief Disorder and those without. A correlation with counsellors' own clinical ratings of vulnerability demonstrated criterion-related validity of the AAG. Using receiver operating characteristic methods, optimum cutoff scores on the scale were identified for the classification of different levels of vulnerability. The AAG was found to be a psychometrically promising tool for identifying vulnerability in grief.

  3. Measuring Grief Following Miscarriage: Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Perinatal Grief Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Beatrice P. Y.; Chung, Tony K. H.; Lee, Dominic T. S.; Kong, Grace W. S.; Lok, Ingrid H.

    2013-01-01

    Grief following miscarriage is a complex psychological response. This study was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS). A total of 280 Chinese women completed the PGS immediately following a diagnosis of miscarriage (baseline) and were reassessed at 12 months follow-up. The factor…

  4. Measuring Grief Following Miscarriage: Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Perinatal Grief Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Beatrice P. Y.; Chung, Tony K. H.; Lee, Dominic T. S.; Kong, Grace W. S.; Lok, Ingrid H.

    2013-01-01

    Grief following miscarriage is a complex psychological response. This study was conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS). A total of 280 Chinese women completed the PGS immediately following a diagnosis of miscarriage (baseline) and were reassessed at 12 months follow-up. The factor…

  5. Grief

    MedlinePlus

    American Psychiatric Association. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders . 5th ed. Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing. 2013. Powell AD. Grief, bereavement, and adjustment disorders. ...

  6. Psychometric properties of the Dutch Inventories of Prolonged Grief for Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Spuij, Mariken; Prinzie, Peter; Zijderlaan, Jolanda; Stikkelbroek, Yvonne; Dillen, Let; de Roos, Carlijn; Boelen, Paul A

    2012-01-01

    A significant minority of bereaved adults develops prolonged grief disorder (PGD), a syndrome encompassing debilitating symptoms of grief distinct from depression and anxiety. Few studies have examined the phenomenology and correlates of PGD among children and adolescents. In part, this is due to the lack of a psychometrically sound questionnaire to assess PGD symptoms in these groups. Based on an adult measure of PGD, we developed two questionnaires of PGD symptoms for children and adolescents named the Inventory of Prolonged Grief for Children (IPG-C) and Inventory of Prolonged Grief for Adolescents (IPG-A), respectively. Psychometric properties of these measures were examined in three samples, including mostly parentally bereaved children (aged 8-12 years, total sample n = 169) and adolescents (aged 13-18 years, total sample n = 153). First, findings showed that items of the IPG-C and IPG-A represented one underlying dimension. Second, the internal consistency and temporal stability of both questionnaires were adequate. Third, findings supported the concurrent validity (e.g., significant correlations with measures of depression and post-traumatic stress-disorder [PTSD]), convergent and divergent validity (stronger correlations with similar questionnaires of 'traumatic grief' than with two dissimilar questionnaires of 'ongoing presence' and 'positive memories') and incremental validity (significant correlations with an index of functional impairment, even when controlling for concomitant depression and PTSD) of the IPG-C and IPG-A. This report provides further evidence of the clinical significance of PGD symptoms among children and adolescents and promising psychometric properties of questionnaires that can be used to assess these symptoms. The Inventory of Prolonged Grief for Children (IPG-C) and Inventory of Prolonged Grief for Adolescents (IPG-A) were developed to be able to assess symptoms of Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD) among children and adolescents. In

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Grief Cognitions Questionnaire for Children (GCQ-C).

    PubMed

    Spuij, Mariken; Prinzie, Peter; Boelen, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    Negative thinking is seen as an important mediating factor in the development of prolonged grief disorder (PGD), a syndrome encompassing debilitating symptoms of grief. No measure of specific grief related cognitions is available yet. Based on an adult measure of negative thinking in adults we developed a questionnaire for children, the Grief Cognitions Questionnaire for Children (GCQ-C). This study investigated several psychometric properties of the GCQ-C. Both reliability and validity were investigated in this study, in which hundred fifty-one children and adolescents (aged 8-18 years) participated. Findings showed that items of the GCQ-C represented one underlying dimension. Furthermore, the internal consistency and temporal stability were found to be adequate. Third, the findings supported the concurrent validity (e.g., significant positive correlations with self-report indices of PGD, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder), convergent and divergent validity of the GCQ-C. This study provides further evidence for the importance of negative thinking in PGD in children and adolescents.

  8. Diagnostic criteria for complicated grief disorder.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, M J; Siegel, B; Holen, A; Bonanno, G A; Milbrath, C; Stinson, C H

    1997-07-01

    Some prolonged and turbulent grief reactions include symptoms that differ from the DSM-IV criteria for major depressive disorder. The authors investigated a new diagnosis that would include these symptoms. They developed observer-based definitions of 30 symptoms noted clinically in previous longitudinal interviews of bereaved persons and then designed a plan to investigate whether any combination of these would serve as criteria for a possible new diagnosis of complicated grief disorder. Using a structured diagnostic interview, they assessed 70 subjects whose spouses had died. Latent class model analyses and signal detection procedures were used to calibrate the data against global clinical ratings and self-report measures of grief-specific distress. Complicated grief disorder was found to be characterized by a smaller set of the assessed symptoms. Subjects elected by an algorithm for these symptoms patterns did not significantly overlap with subjects who received a diagnosis of major depressive disorder. A new diagnosis of complicated grief disorder may be indicated. Its criteria would include the current experience (more than a year after a loss) of intense intrusive thoughts, pangs of severe emotion, distressing yearnings, feeling excessively alone and empty, excessively avoiding tasks reminiscent of the deceased, unusual sleep disturbances, and maladaptive levels of loss of interest in personal activities.

  9. Seasonal affective disorder, grief reaction, and adjustment disorder.

    PubMed

    Osborn, Justin; Raetz, Jacqueline; Kost, Amanda

    2014-09-01

    Seasonal affective disorder is a subtype of other affective disorders. The most studied treatment is light therapy, although second-generation antidepressants are also an option. Grief reactions are normal for patients experiencing loss, and primary care providers (PCPs) should be aware of both the expected course of grief and the more severe symptoms that indicate complex grief. Adjustment disorder is a time-limited abnormal response to a stressor. PCPs can manage patients with adjustment disorder by arranging counseling, screening for suicidality, assessing for substance abuse, and ruling out other psychiatric diagnoses. At present there are no reliable data to suggest medication management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Depressive disorder and grief following spontaneous abortion.

    PubMed

    Kulathilaka, Susil; Hanwella, Raveen; de Silva, Varuni A

    2016-04-12

    Abortion is associated with moderate to high risk of psychological problems such as depression, use of alcohol or marijuana, anxiety, depression and suicidal behaviours. The increased risk of depression after spontaneous abortion in Asian populations has not been clearly established. Only a few studies have explored the relationship between grief and depression after abortion. A study was conducted to assess the prevalence and risk factors of depressive disorder and complicated grief among women 6-10 weeks after spontaneous abortion and compare the risk of depression with pregnant women attending an antenatal clinic. Spontaneous abortion group consisted of women diagnosed with spontaneous abortion by a Consultant Obstetrician. Women with confirmed or suspected induced abortion were excluded. The comparison group consisted of randomly selected pregnant, females attending the antenatal clinics of the two hospitals. Diagnosis of depressive disorder was made according to ICD-10 clinical criteria based on a structured clinical interview. This assessment was conducted in both groups. The severity of depressive symptoms were assessed using the Patients Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Grief was assessed using the Perinatal Grief Scale which was administered to the women who had experienced spontaneous abortion. The sample consisted of 137 women in each group. The spontaneous abortion group (mean age 30.39 years (SD = 6.38) were significantly older than the comparison group (mean age 28.79 years (SD = 6.26)). There were more females with ≥10 years of education in the spontaneous abortion group (n = 54; SD = 39.4) compared to the comparison group (n = 37; SD = 27.0). The prevalence of depression in the spontaneous abortion group was 18.6 % (95 CI, 11.51-25.77). The prevalence of depression in the comparison group was 9.5 % (95 CI, 4.52-14.46). Of the 64 women fulfilling criteria for grief, 17 (26.6 %) also fulfilled criteria for a depressive episode. The relative risk of

  11. Diagnostic and clinical considerations in prolonged grief disorder

    PubMed Central

    Maercker, Andreas; Lalor, John

    2012-01-01

    This review focuses on the similarities and differences between prolonged grief disorder (PGD) and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). It highlights how a PTSD-related understanding aids the investigation and clinical management of PGD. Grief has long been understood as a natural response to bereavement, as serious psychological and physiological stress has been regarded as a potential outcome of extreme or traumatic stress. PTSD was first included in DSM-III in 1980. In the mid-1980s, the first systematic investigation began into whether there is an extreme or pathological form of mourning. Meanwhile, there is much research literature on complicated, traumatic, or prolonged grief This literature is reviewed in this article, with the following questions: Is it possible to distinguish normal from non-normal grief? Which clinical presentation does PGD have—and how does this compare with PTSD? Finally, diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic approaches and existing tools are presented. PMID:22754289

  12. [Bereavement and complicated grief: towards a definition of Prolonged Grief Disorder for DSM-5].

    PubMed

    Lombardo, Luigi; Lai, Carlo; Luciani, Massimiliano; Morelli, Emanuela; Buttinelli, Elena; Aceto, Paola; Lai, Silvia; D'Onofrio, Marianna; Galli, Federico; Bellizzi, Fernando; Penco, Italo

    2014-01-01

    Mourning is a natural response to a loss and a condition which most people experience several times during their lives. Most individuals adjust adequately to the loss of a relative, neverthless, a small but noteworthy proportion of bereaved individuals experience a syndrome of prolonged psychological distress in relation to bereavement. Prolonged distress and disability in connection with bereavement has been termed Complicated Grief (CG) or Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD). The purpose of this paper is to analyze the literature on loss and mourning making a review of the main studies published between 1993 and 2013, identified through a search conducted on Medline/PubMed, in order to describe the epidemiological and clinical aspects of "normal" grief and "complicated" grief, pointing out the path of the clinical definition of PGD and proposed diagnostic criteria for inclusion in the next edition of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth edition (DSM-5). The two main diagnostic systems proposed by Horowitz and Prigerson are also compared.

  13. Can Grief be a Mental Disorder?: An Exploration of Public Opinion.

    PubMed

    Breen, Lauren J; Penman, Emma L; Prigerson, Holly G; Hewitt, Lauren Y

    2015-08-01

    Despite growing empirical evidence, the distinction between normal and pathological grief remains controversial. Few studies have investigated public attitudes towards distinguishing normal from pathological grief. An international sample of 348 participants from a wide range of cultures was asked if certain expressions of grief could be considered a mental disorder and to explain their answer. Analysis revealed that the majority (74.7%) agreed that grief could be considered a mental disorder. The presence of pervasive distress, of harm to self and/or others, functional impairment, and persistent grief were described as the circumstances under which grief can be a mental disorder. Reasons grief is not a mental disorder were that it is normal, temporary, in response to an event, and that efforts to include it in diagnostic manuals will lead to medicalization and stigma. The investigation of public norms informs the inclusion of pathological grief in diagnostic nosology.

  14. An Initial Assessment of the Psychometric Properties of the Complicated Grief Questionnaire for People with Intellectual Disabilities (CGQ-ID)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerin, Suzanne; Dodd, Philip; Tyrell, Janette; McEvoy, John; Buckley, Sarah; Hillery, John

    2009-01-01

    Given the research evidence that people with intellectual disability (ID) do grieve following bereavement, the present study aimed to describe and gather preliminary psychometric data for a version of the Inventory of Complicated Grief [Prigerson, H. G., Maciejewski, P. K., Reynolds, C. F., Bierhals, A. J., Newsom, J. T., Fasiczka, A., et al.…

  15. Should prolonged grief be reclassified as a mental disorder in DSM-5?: reconsidering the empirical and conceptual arguments for complicated grief disorder.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Jerome C

    2012-06-01

    The proposed changes to DSM-5 will create new categories of mental disorder (referred to here generically as Prolonged Grief Disorder'' [PGD]) to diagnose individuals experiencing prolonged intense grief reactions to the loss of a loved one. Individuals could be diagnosed even if they have no depressive or anxiety symptoms but only symptoms typical of grief (e.g., yearning, avoidance of reminders, disbelief, feelings of emptiness). The main challenge for such proposals is to establish that the proposed diagnostic criteria validly discriminate a genuine psychiatric disorder of grief from intense normal grief. With this test in mind, I evaluate the soundness of four empirical arguments and one conceptual argument that have been put forward to support such proposals: (1) PGD has discriminant validity because distinctive, pathognomonic symptoms distinguish it from normal grief; (2) PGD has discriminant validity because it identifies grief symptoms that are of greater absolute severity than in normal grief; (3) PGD has predictive validity because it implies a chronic, interminable process of grieving, thus a derailment of the normal process of grief resolution; (4) PGD has predictive validity because it predicts negative mental and physical health outcomes unlikely in normal grief; and (5) PGD has conceptual validity because grief is analogous to a wound or, alternatively, lengthy grief is analogous to a wound that does not heal. Upon close examination, each of these arguments turns out to have serious empirical or conceptual deficiencies. I conclude that the proposed diagnostic criteria for PGD fail to discriminate disorder from intense normal grief and are likely to yield massive false-positive diagnoses. Consequently, the proposal to add pathological grief categories to DSM-5 should be withdrawn pending further research to identify more valid criteria for diagnosing PGD.

  16. Measuring grief and loss after spinal cord injury: Development, validation and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Grief and Loss item bank and short form

    PubMed Central

    Kalpakjian, Claire Z.; Tulsky, David S.; Kisala, Pamela A.; Bombardier, Charles H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To develop an item response theory (IRT) calibrated Grief and Loss item bank as part of the Spinal Cord Injury – Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) measurement system. Design A literature review guided framework development of grief/loss. New items were created from focus groups. Items were revised based on expert review and patient feedback and were then field tested. Analyses included confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), graded response IRT modeling and evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF). Setting We tested a 20-item pool at several rehabilitation centers across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs hospital. Participants A total of 717 individuals with SCI answered the grief and loss questions. Results The final calibrated item bank resulted in 17 retained items. A unidimensional model was observed (CFI = 0.976; RMSEA = 0.078) and measurement precision was good (theta range between −1.48 to 2.48). Ten items were flagged for DIF, however, after examination of effect sizes found this to be negligible with little practical impact on score estimates. Conclusions This study indicates that the SCI-QOL Grief and Loss item bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and computer adaptive tests are available. PMID:26010969

  17. Measuring grief and loss after spinal cord injury: Development, validation and psychometric characteristics of the SCI-QOL Grief and Loss item bank and short form.

    PubMed

    Kalpakjian, Claire Z; Tulsky, David S; Kisala, Pamela A; Bombardier, Charles H

    2015-05-01

    To develop an item response theory (IRT) calibrated Grief and Loss item bank as part of the Spinal Cord Injury--Quality of Life (SCI-QOL) measurement system. A literature review guided framework development of grief/loss. New items were created from focus groups. Items were revised based on expert review and patient feedback and were then field tested. Analyses included confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), graded response IRT modeling and evaluation of differential item functioning (DIF). We tested a 20-item pool at several rehabilitation centers across the United States, including the University of Michigan, Kessler Foundation, Rehabilitation Institute of Chicago, the University of Washington, Craig Hospital and the James J. Peters/Bronx Department of Veterans Affairs hospital. A total of 717 individuals with SCI answered the grief and loss questions. The final calibrated item bank resulted in 17 retained items. A unidimensional model was observed (CFI=0.976; RMSEA=0.078) and measurement precision was good (theta range between -1.48 to 2.48). Ten items were flagged for DIF, however, after examination of effect sizes found this to be negligible with little practical impact on score estimates. This study indicates that the SCI-QOL Grief and Loss item bank represents a psychometrically robust measurement tool. Short form items are also suggested and computer adaptive tests are available.

  18. An initial assessment of the psychometric properties of the Complicated Grief Questionnaire for People with Intellectual Disabilities (CGQ-ID).

    PubMed

    Guerin, Suzanne; Dodd, Philip; Tyrell, Janette; McEvoy, John; Buckley, Sarah; Hillery, John

    2009-01-01

    Given the research evidence that people with intellectual disability (ID) do grieve following bereavement, the present study aimed to describe and gather preliminary psychometric data for a version of the Inventory of Complicated Grief [Prigerson, H. G., Maciejewski, P. K., Reynolds, C. F., Bierhals, A. J., Newsom, J. T., Fasiczka, A., et al. (1995). Inventory of Complicated Grief: A scale to measure maladaptive symptoms of loss. Psychiatry Research, 59, 65-79] adapted for use with this population. Carers completed the Complicated Grief Questionnaire for People with ID (CGQ-ID) for 76 individuals with ID, half of whom had experienced a parental bereavement within the last 2 years. The final scale and subscales (Separation Distress and Traumatic Grief) showed very good internal and inter-rater reliability and distinguished between the two groups. While the findings suggest that the CGQ-ID is suitable for identifying complicated grief-type symptoms among adults with ID, further research must be conducted to ascertain whether the findings can be replicated.

  19. Complicated grief in those bereaved by violent death: the effects of post-traumatic stress disorder on complicated grief.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Satomi; Ito, Masaya; Shirai, Akemi; Konishi, Takako

    2012-06-01

    Violent death, such as homicide, accident, and suicide, is sudden, unexpected, and caused by intentional power, The prevalence of complicated grief among those bereaved by violent death is 12.5% to 78.0%. The factors affecting this prevalence rate are considered to be comorbid mental disorders, lack of readiness for the death, difficulty in making sense of the death, high level of negative appraisal about the self and others, and various social stressors. Post-traumatic stress disorder is, in particular, considered to contribute to the development of complicated grief by suppressing function of the medial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex, which works at facilitating the normal mourning process. An understanding of the mechanism and biological basis of complicated grief by violent death will be helpful in developing effective preventive intervention and treatment.

  20. Underutilization of Mental Health Services Among Bereaved Caregivers With Prolonged Grief Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenthal, Wendy G.; Nilsson, Matthew; Kissane, David W.; Breitbart, William; Kacel, Elizabeth; Jones, Eric C.; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study examined grief and mental health service use among 86 bereaved caregivers of advanced cancer patients. Methods Caregivers were assessed before (median=3.1 months) and after (median=6.6 months) patients’ deaths for prolonged grief disorder, axis I psychiatric disorders, mental health service use, suicidality, and health-related quality of life. Results Sixteen percent of the bereaved sample met criteria for prolonged grief disorder, which was significantly associated with suicidality and poorer health-related quality of life, but not with mental health service use. The majority of bereaved caregivers with prolonged grief disorder did not access mental health services. In multivariable analyses, having discussed psychological concerns with a health care professional when the patient was ill was the only significant predictor of mental health service use during bereavement. Conclusions Because bereaved caregivers with prolonged grief disorder underutilize mental health services, connecting them with services while the patient is still alive may be beneficial. PMID:21969652

  1. Associations between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaal, Susanne; Dusingizemungu, Jean-Pierre; Jacob, Nadja; Neuner, Frank; Elbert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that symptoms of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) represent a symptom cluster distinct from bereavement-related depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the present study was to confirm and extend these findings using the most recent criteria defining PGD. The authors interviewed…

  2. Associations between Prolonged Grief Disorder, Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, and Anxiety in Rwandan Genocide Survivors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaal, Susanne; Dusingizemungu, Jean-Pierre; Jacob, Nadja; Neuner, Frank; Elbert, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that symptoms of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) represent a symptom cluster distinct from bereavement-related depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the present study was to confirm and extend these findings using the most recent criteria defining PGD. The authors interviewed…

  3. Prolonged grief disorder and depression in a German community sample.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Susanne; Richter, Anne; Elbert, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The aims of this study were to examine rates and risk factors for prolonged grief and to investigate the association between prolonged grief and depression. The authors interviewed a heterogeneous bereaved sample of 61 Germans, 6 of whom had prolonged grief and depression, respectively. The 2 syndromes were strongly linked to one another. Risk factors for prolonged grief were being a woman and having high levels of religious beliefs and low levels of satisfaction with one's religious beliefs, emotional closeness to the deceased, and unanticipated loss. Symptoms of prolonged grief may endure years post-loss and often overlap with depression.

  4. Elevated rates of prolonged grief disorder in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, B; Morrison, R S; Vanderwerker, L C; Prigerson, H G

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD) in non-Whites is currently unknown. This study was performed to explore the prevalence of PGD in African Americans (AAs). Multivariable analysis of two studies of recently bereaved individuals found AAs to have significantly higher rates of PGD than Whites (21% [14 of 66] vs. 12% [55 of 471], respectively; p = 0.03). Experiencing a loved one's death as sudden or unexpected was also significantly associated with PGD over and above the effects of race/ethnicity. AAs may be at increased risk for the development of PGD. The development of effective interventions to treat PGD highlights the need to identify high-risk individuals and refer them to therapy and suggests the potential need for such therapies to adopt culturally sensitive approaches to care.

  5. Supporting Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder through Grief and Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hume, Kara; Regan, Tara; Megronigle, Laura; Rhinehalt, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    All student populations require support from school staff during times of grief and loss. The grief process is highly personalized and depends on multiple factors, including the type of bond and relationship with the person, the student's prior experience of loss, and the age and developmental stage of the student (Quinn-Lee, 2014). Grief…

  6. Supporting Students with Autism Spectrum Disorder through Grief and Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hume, Kara; Regan, Tara; Megronigle, Laura; Rhinehalt, Charlene

    2016-01-01

    All student populations require support from school staff during times of grief and loss. The grief process is highly personalized and depends on multiple factors, including the type of bond and relationship with the person, the student's prior experience of loss, and the age and developmental stage of the student (Quinn-Lee, 2014). Grief…

  7. Korean Version of Inventory of Complicated Grief Scale: Psychometric Properties in Korean Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to validate the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG)-Korean version among 1,138 Korean adolescents, representing a response rate of 57% of 1,997 students. Participants completed a set of questionnaires including demographic variables (age, sex, years of education, experience of grief), the ICG, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Lifetime Incidence of Traumatic Events-Child (LITE-C). Exploratory factor analysis was performed to determine whether the ICG items indicated complicated grief in Korean adolescents. The internal consistency of the ICG-Korean version was Cronbach's α=0.87. The test-retest reliability for a randomly selected sample of 314 participants in 2 weeks was r=0.75 (P<0.001). Concurrent validity was assessed using a correlation between the ICG total scores and the CDI total scores (r=0.75, P<0.001). The criterion-related validity based on the comparison of ICG total scores between adolescents without complicated grief (1.2±3.7) and adolescent with complicated grief (3.2±6.6) groups was relatively high (t=5.71, P<0.001). The data acquired from the 1,138 students was acceptable for a factor analysis (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy=0.911; Bartlett's Test of Sphericity, χ2=13,144.7, P<0.001). After omission of 3 items, the value of Cronbach's α increased from 0.87 for the 19-item ICG-Korean version to 0.93 for the 16-item ICG-Korean version. These results suggest that the ICG is a useful tool in assessing for complicated grief in Korean adolescents. However, the 16-item version of the ICG appeared to be more valid compared to the 19-item version of the ICG. We suggest that the 16-item version of the ICG be used to screen for complicated grief in Korean adolescents. PMID:26770046

  8. Korean Version of Inventory of Complicated Grief Scale: Psychometric Properties in Korean Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Han, Doug Hyun; Lee, Jung Jae; Moon, Duk-Soo; Cha, Myoung-Jin; Kim, Min A; Min, Seonyeong; Yang, Ji Hoon; Lee, Eun Jeong; Yoo, Seo Koo; Chung, Un-Sun

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to validate the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG)-Korean version among 1,138 Korean adolescents, representing a response rate of 57% of 1,997 students. Participants completed a set of questionnaires including demographic variables (age, sex, years of education, experience of grief), the ICG, the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI) and the Lifetime Incidence of Traumatic Events-Child (LITE-C). Exploratory factor analysis was performed to determine whether the ICG items indicated complicated grief in Korean adolescents. The internal consistency of the ICG-Korean version was Cronbach's α=0.87. The test-retest reliability for a randomly selected sample of 314 participants in 2 weeks was r=0.75 (P<0.001). Concurrent validity was assessed using a correlation between the ICG total scores and the CDI total scores (r=0.75, P<0.001). The criterion-related validity based on the comparison of ICG total scores between adolescents without complicated grief (1.2 ± 3.7) and adolescent with complicated grief (3.2 ± 6.6) groups was relatively high (t=5.71, P<0.001). The data acquired from the 1,138 students was acceptable for a factor analysis (Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy=0.911; Bartlett's Test of Sphericity, χ(2)=13,144.7, P<0.001). After omission of 3 items, the value of Cronbach's α increased from 0.87 for the 19-item ICG-Korean version to 0.93 for the 16-item ICG-Korean version. These results suggest that the ICG is a useful tool in assessing for complicated grief in Korean adolescents. However, the 16-item version of the ICG appeared to be more valid compared to the 19-item version of the ICG. We suggest that the 16-item version of the ICG be used to screen for complicated grief in Korean adolescents.

  9. Efficacy of an outpatient treatment for prolonged grief disorder: a randomized controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Rosner, Rita; Pfoh, Gabriele; Kotoučová, Michaela; Hagl, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal forms of grief, currently referred to as complicated grief or prolonged grief disorder, have been discussed extensively in recent years. While the diagnostic criteria are still debated, there is no doubt that prolonged grief is disabling and may require treatment. To date, few interventions have demonstrated efficacy. We investigated whether outpatients suffering from prolonged grief disorder (PGD) benefit from a newly developed integrative cognitive behavioural therapy for prolonged grief (PG-CBT). A total of 51 patients were randomized into two groups, stratified by the type of death and their relationship to the deceased; 24 patients composed the treatment group and 27 patients composed the wait list control group (WG). Treatment consisted of 20-25 sessions. Main outcome was change in grief severity; secondary outcomes were reductions in general psychological distress and in comorbidity. Patients on average had 2.5 comorbid diagnoses in addition to PGD. Between group effect sizes were large for the improvement of grief symptoms in treatment completers (Cohen׳s d=1.61) and in the intent-to-treat analysis (d=1.32). Comorbid depressive symptoms also improved in PG-CBT compared to WG. The completion rate was 79% in PG-CBT and 89% in WG. The major limitations of this study were a small sample size and that PG-CBT took longer than the waiting time. PG-CBT was found to be effective with an acceptable dropout rate. Given the number of bereaved people who suffer from PGD, the results are of high clinical relevance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The younger sibling of PTSD: similarities and differences between complicated grief and posttraumatic stress disorder

    PubMed Central

    Maercker, Andreas; Znoj, Hansjörg

    2010-01-01

    Just as traumatic experiences may lead to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in some individuals, grief may also be a serious health concern for individuals who have experienced bereavement. At present, neither the DSM-IV nor the ICD-10 recognizes any form of grief as a mental disorder. The aim of this review is to summarize recent advances in definition, assessment, prevention, and treatment of complicated grief disorder (CGD) and to compare CGD with PTSD. Four areas are identified to be of importance to clinicians and researchers: (a) the recently proposed consensus criteria of CGD for DSM-V and ICD-11, (b) available assessment instruments, (c) recent prevention and treatment techniques and related effectiveness studies, and (d) emerging disorder models and research on risks and protective factors. This review focuses on the similarities and differences between CGD and PTSD and highlights how a PTSD-related understanding aids the investigation and clinical management of CGD. PMID:22893801

  11. Complicated Grief

    MedlinePlus

    ... In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. 5th ed. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; ... al. Complicated grief and related bereavement issues for DSM-5. Depression and Anxiety. 2011;28:103. Coping ...

  12. Rates and risks for prolonged grief disorder in a sample of orphaned and widowed genocide survivors.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Susanne; Jacob, Nadja; Dusingizemungu, Jean-Pierre; Elbert, Thomas

    2010-07-06

    The concept of Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD) has been defined in recent years by Prigerson and co-workers, who have developed and empirically tested consensus and diagnostic criteria for PGD. Using these most recent criteria defining PGD, the aim of this study was to determine rates of and risks for PGD in survivors of the 1994 Rwandan genocide who had lost a parent and/or the husband before, during or after the 1994 events. The PG-13 was administered to 206 orphans or half orphans and to 194 widows. A regression analysis was carried out to examine risk factors of PGD. 8.0% (n = 32) of the sample met criteria for PGD with an average of 12 years post-loss. All but one person had faced multiple losses and the majority indicated that their grief-related loss was due to violent death (70%). Grief was predicted mainly by time since the loss, by the violent nature of the loss, the severity of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the importance given to religious/spiritual beliefs. By contrast, gender, age at the time of bereavement, bereavement status (widow versus orphan), the number of different types of losses reported and participation in the funeral ceremony did not impact the severity of prolonged grief reactions. A significant portion of the interviewed sample continues to experience grief over interpersonal losses and unresolved grief may endure over time if not addressed by clinical intervention. Severity of grief reactions may be associated with a set of distinct risk factors. Subjects who lose someone through violent death seem to be at special risk as they have to deal with the loss experience as such and the traumatic aspects of the loss. Symptoms of PTSD may hinder the completion of the mourning process. Religious beliefs may facilitate the mourning process and help to find meaning in the loss. These aspects need to be considered in the treatment of PGD.

  13. Rates and risks for prolonged grief disorder in a sample of orphaned and widowed genocide survivors

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The concept of Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD) has been defined in recent years by Prigerson and co-workers, who have developed and empirically tested consensus and diagnostic criteria for PGD. Using these most recent criteria defining PGD, the aim of this study was to determine rates of and risks for PGD in survivors of the 1994 Rwandan genocide who had lost a parent and/or the husband before, during or after the 1994 events. Methods The PG-13 was administered to 206 orphans or half orphans and to 194 widows. A regression analysis was carried out to examine risk factors of PGD. Results 8.0% (n = 32) of the sample met criteria for PGD with an average of 12 years post-loss. All but one person had faced multiple losses and the majority indicated that their grief-related loss was due to violent death (70%). Grief was predicted mainly by time since the loss, by the violent nature of the loss, the severity of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and the importance given to religious/spiritual beliefs. By contrast, gender, age at the time of bereavement, bereavement status (widow versus orphan), the number of different types of losses reported and participation in the funeral ceremony did not impact the severity of prolonged grief reactions. Conclusions A significant portion of the interviewed sample continues to experience grief over interpersonal losses and unresolved grief may endure over time if not addressed by clinical intervention. Severity of grief reactions may be associated with a set of distinct risk factors. Subjects who lose someone through violent death seem to be at special risk as they have to deal with the loss experience as such and the traumatic aspects of the loss. Symptoms of PTSD may hinder the completion of the mourning process. Religious beliefs may facilitate the mourning process and help to find meaning in the loss. These aspects need to be considered in the treatment of PGD. PMID:20604936

  14. Death by request in Switzerland: posttraumatic stress disorder and complicated grief after witnessing assisted suicide.

    PubMed

    Wagner, B; Müller, J; Maercker, A

    2012-10-01

    Despite continuing political, legal and moral debate on the subject, assisted suicide is permitted in only a few countries worldwide. However, few studies have examined the impact that witnessing assisted suicide has on the mental health of family members or close friends. A cross-sectional survey of 85 family members or close friends who were present at an assisted suicide was conducted in December 2007. Full or partial Post-Traumatic Distress Disorder (PTSD; Impact of Event Scale-Revised), depression and anxiety symptoms (Brief Symptom Inventory) and complicated grief (Inventory of Complicated Grief) were assessed at 14 to 24 months post-loss. Of the 85 participants, 13% met the criteria for full PTSD (cut-off≥35), 6.5% met the criteria for subthreshold PTSD (cut-off≥25), and 4.9% met the criteria for complicated grief. The prevalence of depression was 16%; the prevalence of anxiety was 6%. A higher prevalence of PTSD and depression was found in the present sample than has been reported for the Swiss population in general. However, the prevalence of complicated grief in the sample was comparable to that reported for the general Swiss population. Therefore, although there seemed to be no complications in the grief process, about 20% of respondents experienced full or subthreshold PTSD related to the loss of a close person through assisted suicide. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Prolonged grief disorder and depression in widows due to the Rwandan genocide.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Susanne; Elbert, Thomas; Neuner, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Should pathological grief be viewed as a nosological category, separate from other forms of mental diseases? Diagnostic criteria for "Prolonged Grief Disorder" (PGD) have recently been specified by Prigerson and her coworkers. We interviewed a total of 40 widows who had lost their husbands during the Rwandan genocide in 1994. We assessed Major Depression using the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview (M.I.N.I.) and prolonged grief reactions with the PG-13. In order to examine the distinctiveness of the two syndromes we performed a multitrait correlational matrix analysis using modified versions of Generalized Proximity Functions (GPFs). 12.5% (n = 5) of the sample fulfilled the criteria for a diagnosis of PGD; 40% (n = 16) met criteria for Major Depressive Episode. The two syndromes were strongly associated. No discriminant validity was found between the two constructs suggesting that PGD may rather be an appearance of depression than a separate nosological entity.

  16. Distinctiveness of prolonged grief disorder symptoms among survivors of the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Takumi; Hasegawa, Yukako; Hiraga, Masashi; Ishiki, Mikihito; Asukai, Nozomu

    2014-06-30

    Prolonged Grief Disorder (PGD) has been proposed for diagnostic classification as an independent psychiatric disorder. Previous research has investigated it in relation to other axis I disorders in order to determine whether it could be considered an independent nosological entity. The distinctiveness of this condition was apparent in cases of ordinary bereavement and in those following human-made disasters. However, this disorder may be expanded to include bereavement resulting from natural disasters. The present study aims to explore the differences between this disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder or major depressive disorder as experienced after the Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami. The subjects were 82 hospital workers. Each type of disorder was assessed by means of the Inventory of Complicated Grief, the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. Exploratory factor analysis showed 3 dimensions, with PGD items independently clustering in the same dimension. Our findings support the uniqueness of PGD even in a post-natural disaster situation in a non-Western culture and warrant grief intervention for high-risk bereaved survivors.

  17. Associations between prolonged grief disorder, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and anxiety in Rwandan genocide survivors.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Susanne; Dusingizemungu, Jean-Pierre; Jacob, Nadja; Neuner, Frank; Elbert, Thomas

    2012-02-01

    A number of studies have demonstrated that symptoms of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) represent a symptom cluster distinct from bereavement-related depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The aim of the present study was to confirm and extend these findings using the most recent criteria defining PGD. The authors interviewed a total of 400 orphaned or widowed survivors of the Rwandan genocide. The syndromes were strongly linked to each other with a high comorbidity. Principal axis factoring resulted in the emergence of 4 different factors. The symptoms of depression, along with the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral symptoms of PGD, loaded on the first factor, symptoms of anxiety on the second factor, symptoms of PTSD on the third factor, and the separation distress symptoms of PGD on the fourth factor. This indicates that the concept of PGD includes symptoms that are conceptually related to depression. However, the symptom cluster of separation distress presents a grief-specific dimension that may surface unrelated to depressive symptoms.

  18. Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder and Culture: Early and Prolonged Grief in Nepali Widows.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jane; Tol, Wietse A; Shrestha, Abina; Kafle, Hari Maya; Rayamajhi, Rajin; Luitel, Nagendra P; Thapa, Lily; Surkan, Pamela J

    2017-01-01

    Persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), has not been well studied in socioculturally diverse populations. Thus, this qualitative study examined (a) how widows in Nepal understand grief, (b) whether a local construct of PCBD exists, and (c) its comparability with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5), terminology. Using an adapted Explanatory Model Interview Catalogue (EMIC) framework, semistructured interviews with 25 widows and 12 key informants, as well as three focus-group discussions (n = 20), were conducted between October 2014 and April 2015. Through an inductive grounded theory-based approach, we used the constant comparative method, iteratively coding transcripts to identify themes and patterns in the data. Also, we created two lists of grief responses, one of early reactions and another all reactions to grief, based on the frequency of mention. No single term for grief was reported. Widows reported a local construct of PCBD, which was broadly compatible with DSM-5 terminology but with important variation reflecting societal influence. Surviving torture during conflict, economic and family stressors, and discrimination were mentioned as important determinants that prolong and complicate grief. Suicidal ideation was common, with about 31% and 62% of widows reporting past-year and lifetime suicidality, respectively. Findings may not be generalizable to all Nepali widows; participants were recruited from a non-governmental organization, from Kathmandu and its neighboring districts, and were primarily of reproductive age. While PCBD symptoms proposed in DSM-5 were mentioned as relevant by study participants, some components may need adaptation for use in non-Western settings, such as Nepal.

  19. Efficacy of an integrative CBT for prolonged grief disorder: A long-term follow-up.

    PubMed

    Rosner, Rita; Bartl, Helga; Pfoh, Gabriele; Kotoučová, Michaela; Hagl, Maria

    2015-09-01

    While some intervention trials have demonstrated efficacy in treating prolonged grief disorder (PGD), data on long-term treatment effects are scarce. Fifty-one outpatients with clinically relevant prolonged grief symptoms, who had participated in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), were followed up, on average, 1.5 years after integrative cognitive behavioral therapy for PGD (PG-CBT). Initial assessment procedures were repeated, with PGD symptom severity as the main outcome and general mental health symptoms as secondary outcomes. As results in the immediate and delayed treatment groups (former wait list) were similar, the follow-up data were pooled. Overall, 80% of the original ITT sample could be reached, that is 89% of the 37 treated participants, as well as 8 out of 14 participants who had dropped out of the RCT. The considerable short-term treatment success of PG-CBT was stable; pre to follow-up Cohen׳s d was large, with 1.24 in the ITT analysis and 2.22 for completers. The pre to post-improvement in overall mental health was maintained. Since the RCT wait list group had been treated after their waiting period as well, no controlled long-term outcomes are available. PG-CBT proved to be effective in the longer run. In comparison to other RCTs on prolonged grief this is the largest sample followed up for this long. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Efficacy of metacognitive therapy for prolonged grief disorder: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Wenn, Jenine; O'Connor, Moira; Breen, Lauren J; Kane, Robert T; Rees, Clare S

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Studies of effective psychotherapy for individuals suffering from the effects of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) are scarce. This paper describes the protocol for an evaluation of a metacognitive therapy programme designed specifically for PGD, to reduce the psychological distress and loss of functioning resulting from bereavement. Methods and analysis The proposed trial comprises three phases. Phase 1 consists of a review of the literature and semistructured interviews with key members of the target population to inform the development of a metacognitive therapy programme for Prolonged Grief. Phase 2 involves a randomised controlled trial to implement and evaluate the programme. Male and female adults (N=34) will be randomly assigned to either a wait list or an intervention group. Measures of PGD, anxiety, depression, rumination, metacognitions and quality of life will be taken pretreatment and posttreatment and at the 3-month and 6-month follow-up. The generalised linear mixed model will be used to assess treatment efficacy. Phase 3 will test the social validity of the programme. Discussion This study is the first empirical investigation of the efficacy of a targeted metacognitive treatment programme for PGD. A focus on identifying and changing the metacognitive mechanisms underpinning the development and maintenance of prolonged grief is likely to be beneficial to theory and practice. Ethics Ethics approval was obtained from Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (Approval number HR 41/2013.) Trial registration number ACTRN12613001270707. PMID:26646828

  1. Adult separation anxiety disorder in complicated grief: an exploratory study on frequency and correlates.

    PubMed

    Gesi, Camilla; Carmassi, Claudia; Shear, Katherine M; Schwartz, Theresa; Ghesquiere, Angela; Khaler, Julie; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2017-01-01

    Complicated grief (CG) has been the subject of increasing attention in the past decades but its relationship with separation anxiety disorder (SEPAD) is still controversial. The aim of the current study was to explore the prevalence and clinical significance of adult SEPAD in a sample of help-seeking individuals with CG. 151 adults with CG, enrolled in a randomized controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of (CG) treatment to that of interpersonal therapy, were assessed by means of the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D), the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS), the Adult Separation Anxiety Questionnaire (ASA-27), the Grief Related Avoidance Questionnaire (GRAQ), the Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ), and the Impact of Events Scale (IES). 104 (68.9%) individuals with CG were considered to have SEPAD (ASA-27 score ≥22). Individuals with SEPAD were more likely to have reported a CG related to the loss of another close relative or friend (than a parent, spouse/partner or a child) (p=.02), as well as greater scores on the ICG (p=<.001), PDEQ (p=.004), GRAQ (p<.001), intrusion (p<.001) and avoidance (p=<.001) IES subscales, HAM-D (p<.001) and WSAS (p=.006). ASA-27 total scores correlated with ICG (p<.0001), PDEQ (p<.001) GRAQ (p<.0001) scores and both the IES intrusion (p<.0001) and IES avoidance (p<.0001) subscale scores. People with SEPAD had higher rates of lifetime post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (p=.04) and panic disorder (PD) (p=.01). SEPAD is highly prevalent among patients with CG and is associated with greater symptom severity and impairment and greater comorbidity with PTSD and PD. Further studies will help to confirm and generalize our results and to determine whether adult SEPAD responds to CG treatment and/or moderates CG treatment response. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Efficacy of metacognitive therapy for prolonged grief disorder: protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Wenn, Jenine; O'Connor, Moira; Breen, Lauren J; Kane, Robert T; Rees, Clare S

    2015-12-08

    Studies of effective psychotherapy for individuals suffering from the effects of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) are scarce. This paper describes the protocol for an evaluation of a metacognitive therapy programme designed specifically for PGD, to reduce the psychological distress and loss of functioning resulting from bereavement. The proposed trial comprises three phases. Phase 1 consists of a review of the literature and semistructured interviews with key members of the target population to inform the development of a metacognitive therapy programme for Prolonged Grief. Phase 2 involves a randomised controlled trial to implement and evaluate the programme. Male and female adults (N=34) will be randomly assigned to either a wait list or an intervention group. Measures of PGD, anxiety, depression, rumination, metacognitions and quality of life will be taken pretreatment and posttreatment and at the 3-month and 6-month follow-up. The generalised linear mixed model will be used to assess treatment efficacy. Phase 3 will test the social validity of the programme. This study is the first empirical investigation of the efficacy of a targeted metacognitive treatment programme for PGD. A focus on identifying and changing the metacognitive mechanisms underpinning the development and maintenance of prolonged grief is likely to be beneficial to theory and practice. Ethics approval was obtained from Curtin University Human Research Ethics Committee (Approval number HR 41/2013.) ACTRN12613001270707. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  3. Distinguishing grief from depression during acute recovery from spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Klyce, Daniel W; Bombardier, Charles H; Davis, Trevor J; Hartoonian, Narineh; Hoffman, Jeanne M; Fann, Jesse R; Kalpakjian, Claire Z

    2015-08-01

    To examine whether grief is a psychometrically sound construct that is distinct from depression in individuals who have recently sustained a spinal cord injury (SCI). Cross-sectional survey. Inpatient rehabilitation units at 3 geographically diverse, university-affiliated medical centers. Patients with SCI (N=206) were recruited (163 men [79.1%]). Most patients were non-Hispanic whites (n=175 [85.0%]). Most patients sustained a cervical SCI (n=134 [64.4%]). Various injury etiologies were represented, with the majority being accounted for by falls (n=72 [31.5%]) and vehicle-related accidents (n=69 [33.5%]). The mean time since injury was 53.5±40.5 days. Not applicable. An adapted version of the 12-item structured clinical interview for Prolonged Grief Disorder was used to assess symptoms of grief, and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to measure depression. Demographic and injury-related data were also collected. A principal component analysis (with direct oblimin rotation) of the grief measure suggested a 2-component solution. The content of items loading on the separate components suggested 2 subscales: loss (6 items; Cronbach α=.810) and trauma (6 items; Cronbach α=.823). Follow-up principal component analyses including both grief and depression measures suggested clear differentiation of grief-related loss from depression. The prevalence of clinically significant levels of grief was low (6%), and levels of depression were consistent with previous findings related to inpatient rehabilitation (23.5%). The items used to assess grief symptoms in patients participating in inpatient rehabilitation for recently sustained SCI appear to capture a psychometrically reliable construct that is distinct from that of depression. Research is needed on the predictive validity of early grief symptoms after SCI and the relation of grief to other psychological constructs over time. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier

  4. When hope and grief intersect: rates and risks of prolonged grief disorder among bereaved individuals and relatives of disappeared persons in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Heeke, Carina; Stammel, Nadine; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2015-03-01

    Forced disappearance is a frequent phenomenon in violent conflicts and regimes, yet little is known about unresolved grief processes as a possible outcome of the disappearance of a loved one. This study investigates prolonged grief disorder (PGD) and its risk factors in a sample of persons who lost a significant other to disappearance as compared with a sample of bereaved individuals, both groups having experienced displacement due to the armed conflict in Colombia. In a cross-sectional study conducted in four Colombian provinces, 73 persons who lost a significant other to disappearance and 222 bereaved individuals completed measures of PGD (PG-13), depression (HSCL-25), and PTSD (PCL-C) via face-to-face interviews. Trauma- and loss-related variables, including the extent to which significant others of disappeared persons hoped that their loved one was still alive, were assessed. Results indicated that 23% of participants who lost a significant other to disappearance met criteria for PGD as compared to 31.5% in bereaved participants. No differences were found between the two groups in terms of symptom severity of PGD, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, or traumatic exposure. Regression analysis indicated that, among relatives and friends of disappeared persons, the extent of hope predicted PGD above and beyond depression severity whereas among bereaved persons, PGD was predicted by time since the loss, the number of traumatic events and symptom severity of PTSD and depression. The instruments were not validated for use in Colombia; generalizability of findings is limited. Forced disappearance is related to prolonged grief reactions, particularly when those left behind maintain hope that the disappeared person is still alive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Dreams of the Dead among Cambodian Refugees: Frequency, Phenomenology, and Relationship to Complicated Grief and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Devon E.; Field, Nigel P.; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A.; Simon, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the importance of dreams of the deceased in the experiencing of prolonged grief (PG) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Cambodian refugees who survived the Pol Pot genocide (1975-1979). Such dreams were frequent in the last month (52% of those surveyed), and most often involved a relative who died in the Pol…

  6. Dreams of the Dead among Cambodian Refugees: Frequency, Phenomenology, and Relationship to Complicated Grief and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Devon E.; Field, Nigel P.; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A.; Simon, Naomi

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the importance of dreams of the deceased in the experiencing of prolonged grief (PG) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Cambodian refugees who survived the Pol Pot genocide (1975-1979). Such dreams were frequent in the last month (52% of those surveyed), and most often involved a relative who died in the Pol…

  7. Validation of the Italian version Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG): a study comparing CG patients versus bipolar disorder, PTSD and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Carmassi, Claudia; Shear, M Katherine; Massimetti, Gabriele; Wall, Melanie; Mauro, Christine; Gemignani, Sara; Conversano, Ciro; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2014-07-01

    A minority (9%-20%) of bereaved individuals experience symptoms of persistent intense grief associated with significant distress and impairment. This recently identified distinct post-loss syndrome has been variously named complicated grief, prolonged grief disorder, traumatic grief and persistent complex bereavement disorder. The Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG) is a self-report instrument used to reliably identify this syndrome. We undertook a study to: 1) validate the Italian version of the ICG; 2) examine its performance in a clinical of bereaved individuals with complicated grief, post-traumatic stress disorder, bipolar disorder and healthy controls. Study participants included 171 bereaved individuals clinically diagnosed with complicated grief (n=64); post-traumatic stress disorder (n=72); bipolar disorder (n=35) and 58 bereaved healthy controls. Assessments included the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I/P) and the Italian version of the ICG. The mean total ICG score was significantly different among the study groups [F(3.228)=94.19, p<.001]. Post-hoc Games-Howell comparisons indicated significantly higher scores in complicated grief patients with respect to the other three groups and significantly lower scores in healthy controls compared to all other participants. The scale demonstrated a high level of internal consistency: Cronbach's alpha value for the whole sample was 0.947. Factor analyses demonstrated a single-factor solution. This study provides evidence of the validation of the Italian version of the ICG, tested in a large and well-characterized clinical help-seeking population. These data further support the existence of a unique grief-related syndrome different from bipolar and post-traumatic stress disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Understanding Grief and Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss > Understanding Grief and Loss Request Permissions Understanding Grief and Loss Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... of grief and mourning after a loss. Common grief reactions Reactions to loss, called grief reactions, vary ...

  9. Posttraumatic stress disorder and prolonged grief in refugees exposed to trauma and loss

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background While a large proportion of conflict-affected populations have been dually exposed to trauma and loss, there is inadequate research identifying differential symptom profiles related to bereavement and trauma exposure in these groups. The objective of this study were to (1) determine whether there are distinct classes of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and prolonged grief disorder (PGD) symptoms in bereaved trauma survivors exposed to conflict and persecution, and (2) examine whether particular types of refugee experiences and stressors differentially predict symptom profiles. Methods Participants were 248 Mandaean adult refugees who were assessed at an average of 4.3 years since entering Australia following persecution in Iraq. PTSD, PGD, trauma exposure, adjustment difficulties since relocation, and English proficiency were measured. Latent class analysis was used to elucidate symptom profiles of PTSD and PGD in this sample. Results Latent class analysis revealed four classes of participants: a combined PTSD/PGD class (16%), a predominantly PTSD class (25%), a predominantly PGD class (16%), and a resilient class (43%). Whereas membership in the PTSD/PGD class was predicted by exposure to traumatic loss, those in the PGD class were more likely to have experienced adaptation difficulties since relocation, and individuals in the PTSD class were more likely to have experienced difficulties related to loss of culture and support. Conclusions This study provides evidence that specific symptom patterns emerge following exposure to mass trauma and loss. These profiles are associated with distinct types of traumatic experiences and post-migration living difficulties. These results have substantial public health implications for assessment and intervention following mass trauma. PMID:24712883

  10. Posttraumatic stress disorder and prolonged grief in refugees exposed to trauma and loss.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Angela; Liddell, Belinda J; Maccallum, Fiona; Steel, Zachary; Silove, Derrick; Bryant, Richard A

    2014-04-09

    While a large proportion of conflict-affected populations have been dually exposed to trauma and loss, there is inadequate research identifying differential symptom profiles related to bereavement and trauma exposure in these groups. The objective of this study were to (1) determine whether there are distinct classes of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and prolonged grief disorder (PGD) symptoms in bereaved trauma survivors exposed to conflict and persecution, and (2) examine whether particular types of refugee experiences and stressors differentially predict symptom profiles. Participants were 248 Mandaean adult refugees who were assessed at an average of 4.3 years since entering Australia following persecution in Iraq. PTSD, PGD, trauma exposure, adjustment difficulties since relocation, and English proficiency were measured. Latent class analysis was used to elucidate symptom profiles of PTSD and PGD in this sample. Latent class analysis revealed four classes of participants: a combined PTSD/PGD class (16%), a predominantly PTSD class (25%), a predominantly PGD class (16%), and a resilient class (43%). Whereas membership in the PTSD/PGD class was predicted by exposure to traumatic loss, those in the PGD class were more likely to have experienced adaptation difficulties since relocation, and individuals in the PTSD class were more likely to have experienced difficulties related to loss of culture and support. This study provides evidence that specific symptom patterns emerge following exposure to mass trauma and loss. These profiles are associated with distinct types of traumatic experiences and post-migration living difficulties. These results have substantial public health implications for assessment and intervention following mass trauma.

  11. Psychometric evaluation of the depressive personality disorder inventory.

    PubMed

    Huprich, Steven K; Sanford, Keith; Smith, Marinell

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Depressive Personality Disorder Inventory (DPDI; Huprich, Margrett, Barthelemy, & Fine, 1996). The DPDI was found to have strong internal consistency in both an undergraduate and a veteran, psychiatric outpatient population. The DPDI had significant, positive correlations with other measures of depressive personality, supporting its convergent validity. These relationships remained even after controlling for state-like depression, suggesting that the DPDI has incremental validity. The DPDI also significantly predicted scores on measures of interpersonal loss, even after controlling for state-like depression, suggesting that the DPDI has good construct validity. In support of discriminant validity, the DPDI was more correlated with another measure of depressive personality than it was with measures of other personality disorders. Finally, the DPDI had strong diagnostic efficiency statistics: (a) Sensitivity = .82, (b) Specificity = .80, (c) Positive Predictive Power = .75, (d) Negative Predictive Power = .86, and (e) Overall Diagnostic Power = .81. It appears that the DPDI has good psychometric properties.

  12. Dreams of the dead among Cambodian refugees: frequency, phenomenology, and relationship to complicated grief and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Devon E; Field, Nigel P; Nickerson, Angela; Bryant, Richard A; Simon, Naomi

    2013-09-01

    The authors investigated the importance of dreams of the deceased in the experiencing of prolonged grief (PG) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among Cambodian refugees who survived the Pol Pot genocide (1975-1979). Such dreams were frequent in the last month (52% of those surveyed), and most often involved a relative who died in the Pol Pot period. Past month frequency was correlated with PG severity (r = .59) and PTSD severity (r = .52). The dreams were almost always deeply upsetting because the dreams indicated the deceased to be in a difficult spiritual state. Dreams of the deceased as a central component of PG and PTSD among Cambodian refugees is discussed.

  13. Psychometric properties of Conversion Disorder Scale- Revised (CDS) for children.

    PubMed

    Ijaz, Tazvin; Nasir, Attikah; Sarfraz, Naema; Ijaz, Shirmeen

    2017-05-01

    To revise conversion disorder scale and to establish the psychometric properties of the revised scale. This case-control study was conducted from February to June, 2014, at the Government College University, Lahore, Pakistan, and comprised schoolchildren and children with conversion disorder. In order to generate items for revised version of conversion disorder scale, seven practising mental health professionals were consulted. A list of 42 items was finalised for expert ratings. After empirical validation, a scale of 40 items was administered on the participants and factor analysis was conducted. Of the240 participants, 120(50%) were schoolchildren (controls group) and 120(50%)were children with conversion disorder (clinical group).The results of factor analysis revealed five factors (swallowing and speech symptoms, motor symptoms, sensory symptoms, weakness and fatigue, and mixed symptoms) and retention of all 40 items of revised version of conversion disorder scale. Concurrent validity of the revised scale was found to be 0.81 which was significantly high. Similarly, discriminant validity of the scale was also high as both clinical and control groups had significant difference (p<0.001) in scores. Cronbach's alpha of scale was a=0.91 while item total correlation ranged from 0.50 to 0.80. The sensitivity and specificity analysis indicated that the revised conversion disorder scale was 76% sensitive to predicting conversion disorder while specificity showed that the scale was 73% accurate in specifying participants of the control group. The revised version of conversion disorder scale was a reliable and valid tool to be used for screening of children with conversion disorder.

  14. Treating Complicated Grief

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Naomi M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The death of a loved one is one of life’s greatest, universal stressors to which most bereaved individuals successfully adapt without clinical intervention. For a minority of bereaved individuals, grief is complicated by superimposed problems and healing does not occur. The resulting syndrome of complicated grief causes substantial distress and functional impairment even years after a loss, yet knowing when and how to intervene can be a challenge. OBJECTIVE To discuss the differential diagnosis, risk factors for and management of complicated grief based on available evidence and clinical observations. EVIDENCE REVIEW MEDLINE was searched from January 1990 to October 2012. Additional citations were procured from references of select research and review articles. Available treatment studies targeting complicated grief were included. RESULTS A strong research literature led to inclusion of complicated grief in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fifth Edition) (termed persistent complex bereavement disorder as a subtype of other specified trauma and stressor-related disorders), although it is a condition for which more research is formally recommended, and there is still ongoing discussion about the optimal name and diagnostic criteria for the disorder. Reliable screening instruments are available, and the estimated prevalence rate is 7% of bereaved people. Randomized controlled data support the efficacy of a targeted psychotherapy including elements that foster resolution of complicating problems and facilitate the natural healing process. Preliminary studies suggest antidepressant medications may be helpful. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE Individuals with complicated grief have greater risk of adverse health outcomes, should be diagnosed and assessed for suicide risk and comorbid conditions such as depression and posttraumatic stress disorder, and should be considered for treatment. PMID:23917292

  15. Death and Grief

    MedlinePlus

    ... A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Death and Grief KidsHealth > For Teens > Death and Grief Print A ... Yourself en español Muerte y duelo What Is Grief? Grief is the reaction we have in response ...

  16. The Influence of Personality Disorder Indication, Social Support, and Grief on Alcohol and Cocaine Use among HIV-Positive Adults Coping with AIDS-Related Bereavement

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Nathan B.; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Vaughan, Ellen L.; Connell, Christian M.; Tate, David C.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2013-01-01

    Substance use is prevalent among HIV-positive adults and linked to a number of adverse health consequences; however little is known about risk and protective factors that influence substance use among HIV-positive adults coping with AIDS-related bereavement. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), male gender, diagnostic indications of antisocial and borderline personality disorders (PD), and grief severity were tested as risk factors, and social support as a protective factor, for alcohol and cocaine use among a diverse sample of 268 HIV-positive adults enrolled in an intervention for AIDS-related bereavement. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit the study data. Male gender, PD indication, and social support had direct effects on substance use. PD had significant indirect effects on both alcohol and cocaine use, mediated by social support, but not by grief. Finally, both PD and social support had significant, but opposite, effects on grief. Implications for intervention and prevention efforts are discussed. PMID:17846878

  17. The influence of personality disorder indication, social support, and grief on alcohol and cocaine use among HIV-positive adults coping with AIDS-related bereavement.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Nathan B; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E; Vaughan, Ellen L; Connell, Christian M; Tate, David C; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2009-04-01

    Substance use is prevalent among HIV-positive adults and linked to a number of adverse health consequences; however little is known about risk and protective factors that influence substance use among HIV-positive adults coping with AIDS-related bereavement. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), male gender, diagnostic indications of antisocial and borderline personality disorders (PD), and grief severity were tested as risk factors, and social support as a protective factor, for alcohol and cocaine use among a diverse sample of 268 HIV-positive adults enrolled in an intervention for AIDS-related bereavement. Results indicated that the hypothesized model fit the study data. Male gender, PD indication, and social support had direct effects on substance use. PD had significant indirect effects on both alcohol and cocaine use, mediated by social support, but not by grief. Finally, both PD and social support had significant, but opposite, effects on grief. Implications for intervention and prevention efforts are discussed.

  18. Understanding and Treating Complicated Grief: What Can We Learn from Posttraumatic Stress Disorder?

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, Anke

    2013-01-01

    The paper outlines possible parallels between the phenomenology and treatment of complicated grief and PTSD. In particular, it explores how treatment procedures used in Cognitive Therapy for PTSD (Ehlers & Clark, 2000) may be adapted for the treatment of complicated grief. Stimulus Discrimination may be helpful in breaking the link between everyday triggers and “felt presence” memories of the deceased. Memory Updating procedures may help the patient accept that the deceased is no longer alive and no longer suffering. Reclaiming your Life procedures may help the patient access autobiographical memories that are not linked to the deceased and counteract beliefs about the value of life without the deceased. The paper further addresses the necessity of specifying the idiosyncratic beliefs that prevent coming to terms with the death, of understanding the relationship between beliefs and coping strategies, and of distinguishing memories from rumination. PMID:23814410

  19. A Randomized Controlled Trial of an Internet-Based Therapist-Assisted Indicated Preventive Intervention for Prolonged Grief Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Litz, Brett T.; Schorr, Yonit; Delaney, Eileen; Au, Teresa; Papa, Anthony; Fox, Annie B.; Morris, Sue; Nickerson, Angela; Block, Susan; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2014-01-01

    This trial assessed the feasibility, acceptability, tolerability, and efficacy of an Internet-based therapist-assisted cognitive-behavioral indicated prevention intervention for prolonged grief disorder (PGD) called Healthy Experiences After Loss (HEAL). Eighty-four bereaved individuals at risk for PGD were randomized to either an immediate treatment group (n = 41) or a waitlist control group (n=43). Assessments were conducted at four time-points: prior to the wait-interval (for the waitlist group), pre-intervention, post-intervention, 6 weeks later, and 3 months later (for the immediate group only). Intent-to-treat analyses indicated that HEAL was associated with large reductions in prolonged grief (d=1.10), depression (d=.71), anxiety (d=.51), and posttraumatic stress (d=.91). Also, significantly fewer participants in the immediate group met PGD criteria post-intervention than in the waitlist group. Pooled data from both groups also yielded significant reductions and large effect sizes in PGD symptom severity at each follow-up assessment. The intervention required minimal professional oversight and ratings of satisfaction with treatment and usability of the Internet interface were high. HEAL has the potential to be an effective, well-tolerated tool to reduce the burden of significant pre-clinical PGD. Further research is needed to refine HEAL and to assess its efficacy and mechanisms of action in a large-scale trial. PMID:25113524

  20. Grief-related panic symptoms in Complicated Grief.

    PubMed

    Bui, Eric; Horenstein, Arielle; Shah, Riva; Skritskaya, Natalia A; Mauro, Christine; Wang, Yuanjia; Duan, Naihua; Reynolds, Charles F; Zisook, Sidney; Shear, M Katherine; Simon, Naomi M

    2015-01-01

    Although Complicated Grief (CG) has been associated with comorbid Panic Disorder (PD), little is known about panic attacks in CG, and whether panic symptoms may be grief-related. The present study examines the presence and impact of grief-related panic symptoms in CG. Individuals with CG (n=146, 78% women, mean (SD) age=52.4(15.0)) were assessed for CG, DSM-IV diagnoses, work and social impairment, and with the Panic Disorder Severity Scale modified to assess symptoms "related to or triggered by reminders of your loss" and anticipatory worry. Overall, 39.7% reported at least one full or limited-symptom grief-related panic attack over the past week, and 32.2% reported some level of anticipatory worry about grief-related panic. Of interest, 17% met DSM criteria for PD. Among those without PD, 34.7% reported at least one full or limited-symptom grief-related panic attack over the past week, and this was associated with higher CG symptom severity (t=-2.23, p<0.05), and functional impairment (t=-3.31, p<0.01). Among the full sample, controlling for CG symptom severity and current PD, the presence of at least one full or limited-symptom grief-related panic attack was independently associated with increased functional impairment (B(SE)=4.86(1.7), p<0.01). Limitations include a lack of assessment of non-grief-related panic symptoms and examination of a sample of individuals seeking treatment for CG. Grief-related panic symptoms may be prevalent among individuals with CG and independently contribute to distress and functional impairment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Getting straight about grief.

    PubMed

    Shear, M Katherine

    2012-06-01

    Acute grief is emotionally intense, cognitively preoccupying, and disruptive, but grief is not an illness; major depression and anxiety disorders are. Grief and mourning have a purpose. They provide an intense, focused opportunity to reregulate emotion and to engage in a learning process that is aimed at reconfiguring life without the deceased—both the internal life of the mind, and ongoing life in the world. A bereaved person needs to figure out how to find meaning, purpose, joy, and satisfaction in life without someone who has previously been central to these feelings. This reconfiguration is a very natural process that tends to occur in fits and starts as bereaved people move forward and deal with everyday life. Nevertheless, a knowledgeable, empathic and supportive clinician can foster good adjustment. Successful mourning is, however, not a given. For some people, the mourning process is derailed and acute grief is inordinately painful and prolonged. For others, the stress of bereavement triggers the onset or worsening of symptoms of MDD, an anxiety disorder or another psychiatric or medical condition, suicidality or negative health behaviors. Clinicians need to be alert to all of these problematic responses to loss. In the wake of bereavement, we need to both facilitate effective mourning and diagnose and treat co-occurring conditions.

  2. Validation of online psychometric instruments for common mental health disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Ballegooijen, Wouter; Riper, Heleen; Cuijpers, Pim; van Oppen, Patricia; Smit, Johannes H

    2016-02-25

    Online questionnaires for measuring common mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety disorders are increasingly used. The psychometrics of several pen-and-paper questionnaires have been re-examined for online use and new online instruments have been developed and tested for validity as well. This study aims to review and synthesise the literature on this subject and provide a framework for future research. We searched Medline and PsycINFO for psychometric studies on online instruments for common mental health disorders and extracted the psychometric data. Studies were coded and assessed for quality by independent raters. We included 56 studies on 62 online instruments. For common instruments such as the CES-D, MADRS-S and HADS there is mounting evidence for adequate psychometric properties. Further results are scattered over different instruments and different psychometric characteristics. Few studies included patient populations. We found at least one online measure for each of the included mental health disorders and symptoms. A small number of online questionnaires have been studied thoroughly. This study provides an overview of online instruments to refer to when choosing an instrument for assessing common mental health disorders online, and can structure future psychometric research.

  3. Suicide bereavement and complicated grief

    PubMed Central

    Tal Young, Ilanit; Iglewicz, Alana; Glorioso, Danielle; Lanouette, Nicole; Seay, Kathryn; Ilapakurti, Manjusha; Zisook, Sidney

    2012-01-01

    Losing a loved to suicide is one is one of life's most painful experiences. The feelings of loss, sadness, and loneliness experienced after any death of a loved one are often magnified in suicide survivors by feelings of quilt, confusion, rejection, shame, anger, and the effects of stigma and trauma. Furthermore, survivors of suicide loss are at higher risk of developing major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicidal behaviors, as well as a prolonged form of grief called complicated grief. Added to the burden is the substantial stigma, which can keep survivors away from much needed support and healing resources. Thus, survivors may require unique supportive measures and targeted treatment to cope with their loss. After a brief description of the epidemiology and circumstances of suicide, we review the current state of research on suicide bereavement, complicated grief in suicide survivors, and grief treatment for survivors of suicide. PMID:22754290

  4. Suicide bereavement and complicated grief.

    PubMed

    Tal Young, Ilanit; Iglewicz, Alana; Glorioso, Danielle; Lanouette, Nicole; Seay, Kathryn; Ilapakurti, Manjusha; Zisook, Sidney

    2012-06-01

    Losing a loved to suicide is one is one of life's most painful experiences. The feelings of loss, sadness, and loneliness experienced after any death of a loved one are often magnified in suicide survivors by feelings of quilt, confusion, rejection, shame, anger, and the effects of stigma and trauma. Furthermore, survivors of suicide loss are at higher risk of developing major depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicidal behaviors, as well as a prolonged form of grief called complicated grief. Added to the burden is the substantial stigma, which can keep survivors away from much needed support and healing resources. Thus, survivors may require unique supportive measures and targeted treatment to cope with their loss. After a brief description of the epidemiology and circumstances of suicide, we review the current state of research on suicide bereavement, complicated grief in suicide survivors, and grief treatment for survivors of suicide.

  5. What is "normal" in grief?

    PubMed

    Arizmendi, Brian J; O'Connor, Mary-Frances

    2015-05-01

    Research conducted over the past two decades has revealed that grief, a common phenomenon experienced by many people following the loss of a loved one, is rarely experienced as a steady progression from high acuity (intensity) to eventual resolution. Instead of this single "traditional" path, four distinct trajectories are supported by empirical data: resilience, chronic grief, depressed-improved, and chronic depression. Furthermore, a small subset of individuals never fully integrate the loss into their life, and continue to experience severe disruption in daily life many years after the loss event, a phenomenon known as Complicated Grief (CG). Continued empirical research will help further our understanding of the normative grief process and CG as a disorder. This information is crucial for informing clinicians of best practices when attending to those suffering from loss. Copyright © 2015 Australian College of Critical Care Nurses Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Grief counseling.

    PubMed Central

    Borins, M.

    1995-01-01

    Patients grieve the loss of loved ones, jobs, marriages, or even functioning. They seek comfort, understanding, respect, and especially hope. The "work of grief" progresses through stages. Mixed with the sadness can be feelings of anger, fear, and guilt. Psychotherapy can relieve self-destructive anger and guilt, advance the recovery phase, and stimulate psychological strength and personality growth. PMID:7647626

  7. Childhood Traumatic Grief

    MedlinePlus

    ... Educators Resources for Kids and Teens Childhood Traumatic Grief What is Childhood Traumatic Grief? Children grieve in their own way following the ... child may have a condition called Childhood Traumatic Grief (CTG). Thinking about the person who died—even ...

  8. Dealing with Your Grief

    MedlinePlus

    ... grief > Dealing with your grief Dealing with your grief E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... can do to help you feel better. Order bereavement materials Order our resources for grieving families , including ...

  9. Further Psychometric Properties of the Tourette's Disorder Scale-Parent Rated Version (TODS-PR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Soto, Ohel; Sajid, Muhammad; Allen, Pam; Roberti, Jonathan W.; Killiany, Erin M.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Tourette's Disorder Scale-Parent Rated (TODS-PR), a 15-item parent-rated instrument that assesses a range of common symptoms seen in childhood Tourette's Disorder (TD) patients including tics, obsessions, compulsions, inattention, hyperactivity, aggression, and emotional disturbances.…

  10. Further Psychometric Properties of the Tourette's Disorder Scale-Parent Rated Version (TODS-PR)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Geffken, Gary R.; Soto, Ohel; Sajid, Muhammad; Allen, Pam; Roberti, Jonathan W.; Killiany, Erin M.; Goodman, Wayne K.

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the Tourette's Disorder Scale-Parent Rated (TODS-PR), a 15-item parent-rated instrument that assesses a range of common symptoms seen in childhood Tourette's Disorder (TD) patients including tics, obsessions, compulsions, inattention, hyperactivity, aggression, and emotional disturbances.…

  11. Psychometric Analysis of the Systematic Observation of Red Flags for Autism Spectrum Disorder in Toddlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dow, Deanna; Guthrie, Whitney; Stronach, Sheri T.; Wetherby, Amy M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of the Systematic Observation of Red Flags as an observational level-two screening measure to detect risk for autism spectrum disorder in toddlers when used with a video-recorded administration of the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales. Psychometric properties of the Systematic…

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Parenting Stress Index with Parents of Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardas, L. A.; Ahmad, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and the theoretical structure of the Parenting Stress Index-short form (PSI-SF) with Jordanian parents of children with autistic disorder. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design for data collection, the convenience sample of the study was composed of 184 Jordanian…

  13. Psychometric Profile of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Anxious, and Healthy Vietnam Veterans: Correlations with Psychophysiologic Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, Scott P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Vietnam combat veterans who had posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, N=25), were anxious (N=7), or were healthy (N=18) completed psychometric test battery. PTSD subjects differed significantly from healthy subjects on almost all measures but showed fewer differences from anxious subjects. Typical PTSD subject was characterized as anxious,…

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Parenting Stress Index with Parents of Children with Autistic Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dardas, L. A.; Ahmad, M. M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and the theoretical structure of the Parenting Stress Index-short form (PSI-SF) with Jordanian parents of children with autistic disorder. Methods: Using a cross-sectional design for data collection, the convenience sample of the study was composed of 184 Jordanian…

  15. The Swedish Version of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders (DISCO-10). Psychometric Properties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nygren, Gudrun; Hagberg, Bibbi; Billstedt, Eva; Skoglund, Asa; Gillberg, Christopher; Johansson, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Psychometric properties of the Diagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders schedule (DISCO) have only been studied in the UK. The authorised Swedish translation of the tenth version of the DISCO (DISCO-10) was used in interviews with close relatives of 91 Swedish patients referred for neuropsychiatrical assessment. Validity…

  16. Conflict-related trauma and bereavement: exploring differential symptom profiles of prolonged grief and posttraumatic stress disorder.

    PubMed

    Heeke, Carina; Stammel, Nadine; Heinrich, Manuel; Knaevelsrud, Christine

    2017-03-29

    Exposure to trauma and bereavement is common in conflict-affected regions. Previous research suggests considerable heterogeneity in responses to trauma and loss with varying symptom representations. The purpose of the current study was to (1) identify classes of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom profiles among individuals who were exposed to both trauma and loss due to the Colombian armed conflict and (2) to examine whether sociodemographic, loss and trauma-related characteristics could predict class membership. Three hundred eight victims of internal displacement who had experienced trauma and loss were assessed through measures of PGD (PG-13), PTSD (PCL-C), and social support (DUKE-UNC). Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed to analyze differential profiles by symptoms of PGD and PTSD and multinomial logistic regression was used to analyze predictors of class membership. LCA revealed a four-class solution: a resilient class (23.6%), a PTSD-class (23.3%), a predominately PGD class (25.3%) and a high distress-class with overall high values of PGD and PTSD (27.8%). Relative to the resilient class, membership to the PGD class was predicted by the loss of a close family member and the exposure to a higher number of assaultive traumatic events, whereas membership to the PTSD class was predicted by the perception of less social support. Compared to the resilient class, participants in the high distress-class were more likely to be female, to have lost a close relative, experienced more accidental and assaultive traumatic events, and perceived less social support. Specific symptom profiles emerged following exposure to trauma and loss within the context of the Colombian armed conflict. Profiles were associated with distinct types of traumatic experiences, the degree of closeness to the person lost, the amount of social support perceived, and gender. The results have implications for identifying distressed subgroups and

  17. Complicated grief in late life

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Complicated grief (CG) is a syndrome that affects 10% to 20% of grievers regardless of age, although proportionally more will face the death of loved ones in late life, CG is characterized by preoccupying and disabling symptoms that can persist for decades such as an inability to accept the death, intense yearning or avoidance, frequent reveries, deep sadness, crying, somatic distress, social withdrawal, and suicidal ideation. This syndrome is distinct from major depression and post-traumatic stress disorder, but CG maybe comorbid with each. This communication will focus on the impact of CG in late life (over age 60) and will include a case vignette for illustrating complicated grief therapy. PMID:22754292

  18. Further Psychometric Examination of the Tourette's Disorder Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Lehmkuhl, Heather; Grabill, Kristen M.; Geffken, Gary R.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2007-01-01

    The Tourette's Disorder Scales (Shytle et al., 2003) are parent- (Tourette's Disorder Scales-Parent Rated; TODS-PR) and clinician-rated (Tourette's Disorder Scales-Clinician Rated; TODS-CR) measures that assess tics, obsessions, compulsions, inattention, hyperactivity, aggression, and emotional disturbances among children with tics. Although the…

  19. Further Psychometric Examination of the Tourette's Disorder Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storch, Eric A.; Merlo, Lisa J.; Lehmkuhl, Heather; Grabill, Kristen M.; Geffken, Gary R.; Goodman, Wayne K.; Murphy, Tanya K.

    2007-01-01

    The Tourette's Disorder Scales (Shytle et al., 2003) are parent- (Tourette's Disorder Scales-Parent Rated; TODS-PR) and clinician-rated (Tourette's Disorder Scales-Clinician Rated; TODS-CR) measures that assess tics, obsessions, compulsions, inattention, hyperactivity, aggression, and emotional disturbances among children with tics. Although the…

  20. Psychometric properties of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Inventory in a Canadian sample.

    PubMed

    Henderson, Leigh C; Antony, Martin M; Koerner, Naomi

    2014-05-01

    The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Inventory is a recently developed self-report measure that assesses symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder. Its psychometric properties have not been investigated further since its original development. The current study investigated its psychometric properties in a Canadian student/community sample. Exploratory principal component analysis replicated the original three-component structure. The total scale and subscales demonstrated excellent internal consistency reliability (α = 0.84-0.94) and correlated strongly with the Penn State Worry Questionnaire (r = 0.41-0.74, all ps <0.001) and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 (r = 0.55-0.84, all ps <0.001). However, only the total scale and cognitive subscale (r = 0.48-0.49, all ps <0.05) significantly predicted generalized anxiety disorder diagnosis established by diagnostic interview. The somatic subscale in particular may require revision to improve predictive validity. Revision may also be necessary given changes in required somatic symptoms for generalized anxiety disorder diagnostic criteria in more recent versions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (i.e. although major changes occurred from Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III-R to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV, changes in Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-5 were minimal) and the possibility of changes in the upcoming 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases.

  1. Lessons from the 2004 Asian tsunami: Nature, prevalence and determinants of prolonged grief disorder among tsunami survivors in South Indian coastal villages.

    PubMed

    Rajkumar, Anto P; Mohan, Titus Sp; Tharyan, Prathap

    2015-11-01

    Prolonged grief disorder (PGD), previously called complicated grief, is associated with significant distress and long-term disability, and it may complicate assessments for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after traumatic events. In order to distinguish PGD from PTSD, we conducted a cross-sectional survey among tsunami survivors in five tsunami-affected coastal villages in India, 9 months after the Asian tsunami. Prevalence of PGD among 643 tsunami survivors was 14.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 11.5%-16.9%) and among the 351 bereaved survivors was 25.9% (95% CI: 21.3%-30.5%). Spousal bereavement, extensive damage to homes, fewer years of education, and absence of tsunami-related physical injury differentiated those with PGD, after adjusting for potential confounders (p < .05). These factors were distinct from the factors associated with post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) among these survivors. Scores on the avoidance, hyper-arousal and intrusion subscales of the Impact of Events Scale-Revised were significantly lower in those with PGD alone than in those with PTSS or with both disorders. Our findings support the validity of PGD in a non-Western post-disaster community and its distinctness from PTSD. They have important public health implications in planning responses to natural disasters and for future revisions of diagnostic classifications. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Neuropsychological Correlates of Complicated Grief in Older Spousally Bereaved Adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Across many research domains, evidence for complicated grief as a distinct psychopathology continues to grow. Previous research from neuropsychology has shown an increased attentional bias to emotionally relevant stimuli in those suffering from complicated grief. This study furthers our understanding of the characteristics that distinguish complicated grief. We expand on previous research by (a) testing older adults, (b) excluding those with comorbid major depressive disorder, (c) using participant-chosen grief-related stimuli, and (d) using a married, nonbereaved control group. Methods. We recruited 76 older adults in 3 groups: spousally bereaved with complicated grief, spousally bereaved with noncomplicated grief, and nonbereaved controls. Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, Digit Span Backwards, and the emotional counting Stroop was examined. Results. Results indicate longer reaction time across 3 blocks of grief-related words in the complicated grief group but no difference across 3 blocks of the neutral words. The 3 groups performed comparably on the other neurocognitive tasks, indicating no cognitive differences in working memory or set shifting between groups. Furthermore, these effects of complicated grief generalize to older adults and appear independent of major depression. Discussion. Complicated grief has cognitive interference as a neuropsychological component highlighting it as distinct from noncomplicated grief. PMID:23551907

  3. Neuropsychological correlates of complicated grief in older spousally bereaved adults.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Mary-Frances; Arizmendi, Brian J

    2014-01-01

    Across many research domains, evidence for complicated grief as a distinct psychopathology continues to grow. Previous research from neuropsychology has shown an increased attentional bias to emotionally relevant stimuli in those suffering from complicated grief. This study furthers our understanding of the characteristics that distinguish complicated grief. We expand on previous research by (a) testing older adults, (b) excluding those with comorbid major depressive disorder, (c) using participant-chosen grief-related stimuli, and (d) using a married, nonbereaved control group. We recruited 76 older adults in 3 groups: spousally bereaved with complicated grief, spousally bereaved with noncomplicated grief, and nonbereaved controls. Performance on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task, Digit Span Backwards, and the emotional counting Stroop was examined. Results indicate longer reaction time across 3 blocks of grief-related words in the complicated grief group but no difference across 3 blocks of the neutral words. The 3 groups performed comparably on the other neurocognitive tasks, indicating no cognitive differences in working memory or set shifting between groups. Furthermore, these effects of complicated grief generalize to older adults and appear independent of major depression. Complicated grief has cognitive interference as a neuropsychological component highlighting it as distinct from noncomplicated grief.

  4. Children and grief

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000749.htm Children and grief To use the sharing features on this page, ... your own child, learn the normal responses to grief that children have and the signs when your ...

  5. Measuring Migratory Grief and Loss Associated with the Experience of Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casado, Banghwa Lee; Hong, Michin; Harrington, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The Migratory Grief and Loss Questionnaire (MGLQ) was designed to measure the grief experience associated with immigration. This article reports the development and psychometric properties of a Chinese-version of MGLQ. Methods: An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using maximum likelihood extraction with varimax rotation was conducted…

  6. Measuring Migratory Grief and Loss Associated with the Experience of Immigration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casado, Banghwa Lee; Hong, Michin; Harrington, Donna

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The Migratory Grief and Loss Questionnaire (MGLQ) was designed to measure the grief experience associated with immigration. This article reports the development and psychometric properties of a Chinese-version of MGLQ. Methods: An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) using maximum likelihood extraction with varimax rotation was conducted…

  7. [Complicated Grief in DSM-5 era].

    PubMed

    Carmassi, Claudia; Conversano, Ciro; Pinori, Marialisa; Bertelloni, Carlo Antonio; Dalle Luche, Riccardo; Gesi, Camilla; Dell'Osso, Liliana

    2016-01-01

    An increasing number of data has been recently focused on recognizing pathological grief reactions and on the distinction from physiological processes. Particularly, several studies have supported Complicated Grief (CG) as an independent disorder, in order to define the failure of spontaneous physiological mourning resolution. Upon these studies, the latest edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) with the name of "Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder". This article aims at retracing the history of clinical research about the physiological and psychopathological processes related to grief and aims at presenting the main scientific studies that have described the features of the CG defining it as a distinct disorder. Similarities and distinctions among CG and Depression, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Adjustment Disorder were also reported.

  8. Psychometric Properties of the Revised Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Brenda N.; Crawford, Susan G.; Green, Dido; Roberts, Gwen; Aylott, Alice; Kaplan, Bonnie J.

    2009-01-01

    The Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ) is a parent-completed measure designed to identify subtle motor problems in children of 8 to 14.6 years of age. The purpose of this study was to extend the lower age range to children aged 5 to 7 years, revise items to ensure clarity, develop new scoring, and evaluate validity of the…

  9. Penn Inventory for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Psychometric Properties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammarberg, Melvyn

    1992-01-01

    A three-phase study was conducted to develop and validate the Penn Inventory for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), a 26-item self-report measure. Results with 83 and 98 combat veterans and with 76 general population patients and disaster survivors support usefulness of the measure. (SLD)

  10. Bereavement and Complicated Grief

    PubMed Central

    Ghesquiere, Angela; Glickman, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Bereavement is a common experience in adults age 60 and older. Loss of a loved one usually leads to acute grief characterized by yearning and longing, decreased interest in ongoing activities, and frequent thoughts of the deceased. For most, acute grief naturally evolves into a state of integrated grief, where the bereaved is able to reengage with everyday activities and find interest or pleasure. About 7% of bereaved older adults, however, will develop the mental health condition of Complicated Grief (CG). In CG, the movement from acute to integrated grief is derailed, and grief symptoms remain severe and impairing. This article reviews recent publications on the diagnosis of CG, risk factors for the condition, and evidenced-based treatments for CG. Greater attention to complicated grief detection and treatment in older adults is needed. PMID:24068457

  11. Psychometric Properties of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire for DSM-IV Among Four Racial Groups

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Christina M.; Klenck, Suzanne C.; Norton, Peter J.

    2010-01-01

    The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Questionnaire-IV (GAD-Q-IV) is a self-report diagnostic measure of generalized anxiety disorder. Previous studies have established the psychometric properties of the GAD-Q-IV revealing excellent diagnostic specificity and sensitivity as well as good test-retest reliability and convergent and discriminant validity (Newman et al., 2002). Recent analyses with other measures of anxiety symptoms have revealed differences across racial or national groups. Given that the GAD-Q-IV was tested primarily on Caucasian (78%) participants, the purpose of this study was to demonstrate the psychometric properties of the GAD-Q-IV across four racial groups: African American, Caucasian, Hispanic/Latino, and Asian. A student sample of 585 undergraduate psychology students completed the GAD-Q-IV as well as other measures of anxiety symptoms. A clinical replication sample was obtained from 188 clinical participants who completed the GAD-Q-IV as part of a larger psychotherapy study. Results indicated excellent and very similar factor structures in the student sample, and similar psychometric properties across both samples across the racial groups. Implications for the use of the GAD-Q-IV across racial groups are discussed. PMID:20830629

  12. The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5): Development and Initial Psychometric Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Blevins, Christy A; Weathers, Frank W; Davis, Margaret T; Witte, Tracy K; Domino, Jessica L

    2015-12-01

    The Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist (PCL) is a widely used DSM-correspondent self-report measure of PTSD symptoms. The PCL was recently revised to reflect DSM-5 changes to the PTSD criteria. In this article, the authors describe the development and initial psychometric evaluation of the PCL for DSM-5 (PCL-5). Psychometric properties of the PCL-5 were examined in 2 studies involving trauma-exposed college students. In Study 1 (N = 278), PCL-5 scores exhibited strong internal consistency (α = .94), test-retest reliability (r = .82), and convergent (rs = .74 to .85) and discriminant (rs = .31 to .60) validity. In addition, confirmatory factor analyses indicated adequate fit with the DSM-5 4-factor model, χ2 (164) = 455.83, p < .001, standardized root mean square residual (SRMR) = .07, root mean squared error of approximation (RMSEA) = .08, comparative fit index (CFI) = .86, and Tucker-Lewis index (TLI) = .84, and superior fit with recently proposed 6-factor, χ2 (164) = 318.37, p < .001, SRMR = .05, RMSEA = .06, CFI = .92, and TLI = .90, and 7-factor, χ2 (164) = 291.32, p < .001, SRMR = .05, RMSEA = .06, CFI = .93, and TLI = .91, models. In Study 2 (N = 558), PCL-5 scores demonstrated similarly strong reliability and validity. Overall, results indicate that the PCL-5 is a psychometrically sound measure of PTSD symptoms. Implications for use of the PCL-5 in a variety of assessment contexts are discussed.

  13. Psychometric Properties of Eating Disorder Instruments in Black and White Young Women: Internal Consistency, Temporal Stability, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Boyd, Clarissa A.

    2007-01-01

    Most of the major instruments in the eating disorder field have documented psychometric support only in predominantly White samples. The current study examined the internal consistency, temporal stability, and convergent and discriminant validity of a variety of eating disorder measures in Black (n = 97) and White (n = 179) female undergraduates.…

  14. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Psychosocial Quality-of-Life Questionnaire for Individuals with Autism and Related Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Leslie A.; Reyes, Charina; Embacher, Rebecca A.; Speer, Leslie L.; Roizen, Nancy; Frazier, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Child and Family Quality of Life scale, a measure of psychosocial quality of life in those with autism and related developmental disorders. Parents of 212 children suspected of autism spectrum disorder completed the Child and Family Quality of Life prior to a diagnostic evaluation. Results…

  15. Psychometric Properties of Eating Disorder Instruments in Black and White Young Women: Internal Consistency, Temporal Stability, and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bardone-Cone, Anna M.; Boyd, Clarissa A.

    2007-01-01

    Most of the major instruments in the eating disorder field have documented psychometric support only in predominantly White samples. The current study examined the internal consistency, temporal stability, and convergent and discriminant validity of a variety of eating disorder measures in Black (n = 97) and White (n = 179) female undergraduates.…

  16. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Psychosocial Quality-of-Life Questionnaire for Individuals with Autism and Related Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitz, Leslie A.; Reyes, Charina; Embacher, Rebecca A.; Speer, Leslie L.; Roizen, Nancy; Frazier, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Child and Family Quality of Life scale, a measure of psychosocial quality of life in those with autism and related developmental disorders. Parents of 212 children suspected of autism spectrum disorder completed the Child and Family Quality of Life prior to a diagnostic evaluation. Results…

  17. Dementia Grief: A Theoretical Model of a Unique Grief Experience

    PubMed Central

    Blandin, Kesstan; Pepin, Renee

    2016-01-01

    Previous literature reveals a high prevalence of grief in dementia caregivers before physical death of the person with dementia that is associated with stress, burden, and depression. To date, theoretical models and therapeutic interventions with grief in caregivers have not adequately considered the grief process, but instead have focused on grief as a symptom that manifests within the process of caregiving. The Dementia Grief Model explicates the unique process of pre-death grief in dementia caregivers. In this paper we introduce the Dementia Grief Model, describe the unique characteristics dementia grief, and present the psychological states associated with the process of dementia grief. The model explicates an iterative grief process involving three states – separation, liminality, and re-emergence – each with a dynamic mechanism that facilitates or hinders movement through the dementia grief process. Finally, we offer potential applied research questions informed by the model. PMID:25883036

  18. Schizophrenia spectrum personality disorders in psychometrically identified schizotypes at two-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Bolinskey, P Kevin; Smith, Elizabeth A; Schuder, Kelly M; Cooper-Bolinskey, Dianna; Myers, Kevin R; Hudak, Daniel V; James, Alison V; Hunter, Helen K; Novi, Jonathan H; Guidi, Janice P; Gonzalez, Yelena; McTiernan, Erin F; Arnold, Kaitlin M; Iati, Carina A; Gottesman, Irving I

    2017-03-08

    Earlier (Bolinskey et al., 2015), we reported that psychometrically identified schizotypes displayed greater symptom levels and higher incidences of schizophrenia spectrum (schizotypal, schizoid, paranoid, and avoidant) personality disorders (PDs). In this study, 49 schizotypes and 39 matched controls participated in follow-up assessments after two years. Participants were previously identified as schizotypes or controls based on scores on the Chapman Psychosis Proneness Scales (CPPS), and were interviewed at baseline and follow-up with the Personality Disorder Interview for DSM-IV (PDI-IV). At follow-up, schizotypes displayed significantly higher symptom levels compared to controls, with medium to large effects, and appeared to meet criteria for diagnosis of each PD more often than controls, although significant differences were only observed for paranoid PD. Overall, schizotypes were more likely to have met criteria for a diagnosis at either baseline or follow-up. Finally, we observed a widening disparity over time between schizotypes and controls in avoidant and schizoid PDs. These results suggest that schizophrenia spectrum PDs, as well as subthreshold symptoms of these disorders, can represent a greater liability for schizophrenia in individuals identified as at-risk on the basis of psychometric means only. Furthermore, these findings demonstrate that such differences persist, and in some cases increase, over time.

  19. Abnormal Grief: Should We Consider a More Patient-Centered Approach?

    PubMed

    Moayedoddin, Babak; Markowitz, John C

    2015-01-01

    Grief, the psychological reaction to the loss of a significant other, varies complexly in its cause, experience, evolution, and prognosis. Although most bereaved individuals experience a normal grieving process, some develop complicated grief (CG) or major depressive disorder (MDD). The DSM-5, which controversially altered the nosology, recognizes grief-related major depression (GRMD) as a diagnostic subtype if a patient meets MDD criteria two weeks post bereavement. The (DSM-5) tries to distinguish between grief and MDD, but remains a symptom-based, centered approach to grief that is not patient centered. This article reviews grief in its normal and abnormal dimensions. Using an illustrative clinical case in which interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) was employed, we discuss the need for a more patient-centered approach to treating abnormal grief, considering the patient's personal history, perceptions, experiences of bereavement, and interpersonal environment. Clinical studies need to better identify subgroups of individuals susceptible to abnormal grief and to evaluate their response to early interventions.

  20. Psychometric properties of measures of eating disorder risk in Latina college women.

    PubMed

    Franko, Debra L; Jenkins, Amy; Roehrig, James P; Luce, Kristine H; Crowther, Janis H; Rodgers, Rachel F

    2012-05-01

    Latina college women are at risk for eating disorders (EDs), but assessment is problematic, because the psychometric properties of risk factor measures have not been evaluated with this group. Reliability and validity estimates of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, Body Esteem Scale, Sociocultural Attitudes Toward Appearance Questionnaire-3, and Body Shape Questionnaire were examined in a sample of 173 female Latina college students. Cronbach α coefficients (.75-.96) and intraclass coefficients (.65-.96) indicated good reliability. Most measures were significantly correlated, providing evidence for convergent validity. Confirmatory factor analyses resulted in good fit indices. These findings indicate that commonly used measures of ED risk have adequate reliability and validity in Latina college women. Comparison data suggest that ED risk may be similar or even higher in Latina college women relative to Caucasian college women. Prevention efforts with diverse groups are needed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [Psychometric properties of the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI-2) in adolescents].

    PubMed

    Salbach-Andrae, Harriet; Schneider, Nora; Bürger, Arne; Pfeiffer, Ernst; Lehmkuhl, Ulrike; Holzhausen, Martin

    2010-05-01

    The present study examines the psychometric properties of the German version of the Eating Disorder Inventory EDI-2 (1997) in 371 adolescents aged 13 to 18 years. Internal consistency, convergent and divergent validity were examined and a confirmatory factor analysis was conducted. Internal consistency was high for the group of patients and satisfactory for both control groups. Associations with other clinical instruments point in the expected direction and support the external validity of the EDI-2. The EDI-2 differentiated very well between the group of eating disorder patients (n=71) and the female (n=150) and male control groups (n=150). A discriminant analysis demonstrated that 86.0% of the cases were correctly classified, and a confirmatory factor analysis largely supported the six-factor structure generated by the German version of the EDI-2 (Thiel et al., 1997).

  2. Death and Grief

    MedlinePlus

    ... response to a death or loss. Grief can affect our body, mind, emotions, and spirit. People might notice or show grief in several ways: Physical reactions: These might be things like changes in appetite or sleep, an upset stomach, tight chest, crying, tense muscles, ...

  3. Understanding Grief & Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Judith

    1995-01-01

    Although death is the one certainty in life, death or the grieving process is rarely discussed. Grief includes physical, emotional, spiritual, and psychological reactions to loss, and is not limited to feelings about death. Grief can be the response to loss of home or country, separation or displacement, and changes resulting from new life stages.…

  4. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Revised Home Situations Questionnaire for Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Monali; Aman, Michael G.; Lecavalier, Luc; Smith, Tristram; Johnson, Cynthia; Swiezy, Naomi; McCracken, James T.; King, Bryan; McDougle, Christopher J.; Bearss, Karen; Deng, Yanhong; Scahill, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we adapted the Home Situations Questionnaire to measure behavioral non-compliance in everyday settings in children with pervasive developmental disorders. In this study, we further revised this instrument for use in autism spectrum disorder and examined its psychometric properties (referred to as the Home Situations…

  5. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Revised Home Situations Questionnaire for Autism Spectrum Disorder: The Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chowdhury, Monali; Aman, Michael G.; Lecavalier, Luc; Smith, Tristram; Johnson, Cynthia; Swiezy, Naomi; McCracken, James T.; King, Bryan; McDougle, Christopher J.; Bearss, Karen; Deng, Yanhong; Scahill, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we adapted the Home Situations Questionnaire to measure behavioral non-compliance in everyday settings in children with pervasive developmental disorders. In this study, we further revised this instrument for use in autism spectrum disorder and examined its psychometric properties (referred to as the Home Situations…

  6. Grief and mourning gone awry: pathway and course of complicated grief

    PubMed Central

    Shear, M. Katherine

    2012-01-01

    Complicated grief is a recently recognized condition that occurs in about 7% of bereaved people. People with this condition are caught up in rumination about the circumstances of the death, worry about its consequences, or excessive avoidance of reminders of the loss. Unable to comprehend the finality and consequences of the loss, they resort to excessive avoidance of reminders of the loss as they are tossed helplessly on waves of intense emotion. People with complicated grief need help, and clinicians need to know how to recognize the symptoms and how to provide help. This paper provides a framework to help clinicans understand bereavement, grief, and mourning. Evidence-based diagnostic criteria are provided to help clinicians recognize complicated grief, and differentiate it from depression as well as anxiety disorder. We provide an overview of risk factors and basic assumptions and principles that can guide treatment. PMID:22754284

  7. Development and Psychometric Evaluation of a Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder Scale

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, David G; Revicki, Dennis A; Canuso, Carla M; Turkoz, Ibrahim; Fu, Dong-Jing; Alphs, Larry; Ishak, K. Jack; Bartko, John J; Lindenmayer, Jean-Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder scale is a new rating scale adapted from the Clinical Global Impression scale for use in patients with schizoaffective disorder. The psychometric characteristics of the Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder are described. Design: Content validity was assessed using an investigator questionnaire. Inter-rater reliability was determined with 12 sets of videotaped interviews rated independently by two trained individuals. Test-retest reliability was assessed using 30 randomly selected raters from clinical trials who evaluated the same videos on separate occasions two weeks apart. Convergent and divergent validity and effect size were evaluated by comparing scores between the Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder and the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression, and Young Mania Rating Scale scales using pooled patient data from two clinical trials. Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder scores were then linked to corresponding Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale scores. Results: Content validity was strong. Inter-rater agreement was good to excellent for most scales and subscales (intra-class correlation coefficient ≥0.50). Test-retest showed good reproducibility, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from 0.444 to 0.898. Spearman correlations between Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder domains and corresponding symptom scales were 0.60 or greater, and effect sizes for Clinical Global Impression for Schizoaffective Disorder overall and domain scores were similar to Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale Young Mania Rating Scale, and 21-item Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression scores. Raters anticipated that the scale might be less effective in distinguishing negative from depressive symptoms, and, in fact, the results here may reflect that clinical reality. Conclusion

  8. Prolonged Grief in Palliative Family Caregivers: A Pilot Study in a Portuguese Sample.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Alexandra; Delalibera, Mayra; Barbosa, António; Lawlor, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Caregivers are particularly vulnerable to experience intense levels of distress following the loss. The aim of this prospective pilot study is to determine the incidence of prolonged grief disorder symptoms among caregivers. A total of 73 bereaved families responded to the Prolonged Grief Disorder Evaluation Instrument (PG-13) at 6 and 12 months following their loss. The incidence of prolonged grief disorder at the first assessment was 28.8%, and it decreased to 15.1% at the second assessment. The prevalence of prolonged grief disorder declined significantly over time (p = .041). In the second evaluation, six bereaved individuals continued to meet criteria for a diagnosis of prolonged grief disorder, 15 remitted, and 4 new (incident) cases emerged. The important differences in values that occur after 12 months suggest time is important in distinguishing between those at risk for persistent distress and those whose grief symptomatology will decrease with time.

  9. Assessment of stigma associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Psychometric evaluation of the ADHD Stigma Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Kellison, Ida; Bussing, Regina; Bell, Lindsay; Garvan, Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the ADHD Stigma Questionnaire (ASQ) among a community sample of 301 adolescents ages 11–19 years at high (n = 192) and low risk (n = 109) for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Study subjects were drawn from a cohort study assessing ADHD detection and service use. The 26-item ASQ demonstrated good internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis using random parceling supported a three factor structure with highly correlated subscales of Disclosure Concerns, Negative Self Image, and Concern with Public Attitudes, and a Schmid-Leiman analysis supported an overall stigma factor. Test-retest stability was assessed after two-weeks (n = 45) and found to be adequate for all three subscales. Construct validity was supported by relationships with related constructs, including clinical maladjustment, depression, self-esteem and emotional symptoms and the absence of a relationship with school maladjustment. Findings indicate that the ASQ has acceptable psychometric properties in a large community sample of adolescents, some of whom met DSM-IV criteria for ADHD. PMID:20580842

  10. Initial Psychometric Properties of a Brief Parent-Report Instrument for Assessing Tic Severity in Children with Chronic Tic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Susanna; Himle, Michael B.; Tucker, Benjamin T. P.; Woods, Douglas W.; Piacentini, John

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the development and initial psychometric properties of the Parent Tic Questionnaire (PTQ)--a new measure assessing the number, frequency, and intensity of motor and vocal tics in children and adolescents with Chronic Tic Disorder (CTD). Parents of 40 children with a CTD completed the PTQ as part of a larger assessment…

  11. Empirical Validation and Psychometric Evaluation of the Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Justin W.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Fresco, David M.; Hart, Trevor A.; Turk, Cynthia L.; Schneier, Franklin R.; Liebowitz, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    The Brief Fear of Negative Evaluation Scale (BFNE; M. R. Leary, 1983a) is often used to assess fear of negative evaluation, the core feature of social anxiety disorder. However, few studies have examined its psychometric properties in large samples of socially anxious patients. Although the BFNE yields a single total score, confirmatory factor…

  12. Psychometric Properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) in Children with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Alicia A.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) (Laurent et al. Psychol Asses 1: 326-338, 1999) in a sample of 139 children (ages 7-14 years) diagnosed with a principal anxiety disorder. Results from this study provided support for the convergent validity of the PANAS-C with…

  13. Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Child Version in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anna M.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Arnold, Elysse B.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) were examined in ninety-six youth with a primary/co-primary diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A confirmatory factor analysis revealed an acceptable model of fit with factors consisting of doubting/checking, obsessing, hoarding, washing,…

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory: Child Version in Children and Adolescents with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anna M.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Arnold, Elysse B.; McGuire, Joseph F.; Lewin, Adam B.; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Obsessive Compulsive Inventory-Child Version (OCI-CV) were examined in ninety-six youth with a primary/co-primary diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). A confirmatory factor analysis revealed an acceptable model of fit with factors consisting of doubting/checking, obsessing, hoarding, washing,…

  15. Psychometric Properties of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale in a Longitudinal Study of Latinos with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Courtney; Rodriguez, Benjamin F.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Perry, Ashley; Keller, Martin B.

    2012-01-01

    The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is one of the most commonly used measures of social anxiety symptoms. To date, no study has examined its psychometric properties in a Latino sample. The authors examined the reliability, temporal stability, and convergent validity of the LSAS in 73 Latinos diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. The original…

  16. Initial Psychometric Properties of a Brief Parent-Report Instrument for Assessing Tic Severity in Children with Chronic Tic Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Susanna; Himle, Michael B.; Tucker, Benjamin T. P.; Woods, Douglas W.; Piacentini, John

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the development and initial psychometric properties of the Parent Tic Questionnaire (PTQ)--a new measure assessing the number, frequency, and intensity of motor and vocal tics in children and adolescents with Chronic Tic Disorder (CTD). Parents of 40 children with a CTD completed the PTQ as part of a larger assessment…

  17. Psychometric Properties of the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale in a Longitudinal Study of Latinos with Anxiety Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beard, Courtney; Rodriguez, Benjamin F.; Weisberg, Risa B.; Perry, Ashley; Keller, Martin B.

    2012-01-01

    The Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS) is one of the most commonly used measures of social anxiety symptoms. To date, no study has examined its psychometric properties in a Latino sample. The authors examined the reliability, temporal stability, and convergent validity of the LSAS in 73 Latinos diagnosed with an anxiety disorder. The original…

  18. Psychometric properties of the Parenting Stress Index with parents of children with autistic disorder.

    PubMed

    Dardas, L A; Ahmad, M M

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and the theoretical structure of the Parenting Stress Index-short form (PSI-SF) with Jordanian parents of children with autistic disorder. Using a cross-sectional design for data collection, the convenience sample of the study was composed of 184 Jordanian parents of children with autistic disorder. The factor structure for the PSI-SF was examined using confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. We found that the modified three-factor model (30 items) fits the data significantly better than the 36-item model. The results showed that the 12 items of the Parental Distress sub-scale support the original scale structure. However, items in the Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction and Difficult Child sub-scales did not show stability in their structure. The results in this study showed that the PSI-SF in its 30-item model has endorsed the necessary validity of the scale with parents of children with autistic disorder. The study provides information on the effects of Arab culture on the validity of PSI-SF. It is recommended to use the new factors structure of the PSI-SF with the 30 items in the studies that intend to examine the stress among parents with children with autistic disorder in the Arab world. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Psychometric analysis of the Systematic Observation of Red Flags for autism spectrum disorder in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Dow, Deanna; Guthrie, Whitney; Stronach, Sheri T; Wetherby, Amy M

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the utility of the Systematic Observation of Red Flags as an observational level-two screening measure to detect risk for autism spectrum disorder in toddlers when used with a video-recorded administration of the Communication and Symbolic Behavior Scales. Psychometric properties of the Systematic Observation of Red Flags were examined in a sample of 247 toddlers of 16- to 24 months old: 130 with autism spectrum disorder, 61 with developmental delays, and 56 typically developing. Individual items were examined for performance to create an algorithm with improved sensitivity and specificity, yielding a total Composite score and Domain scores for Social Communication and Restricted Repetitive Behaviors. Codes indicating clear symptom presence were collapsed to yield a count of the number of Red Flags for the overall scale and each symptom domain. Results indicated significant group differences with large effects for the Composite, both Domain scores, and Red Flags score, and good discrimination (area under the curve = 0.84-0.87) between autism spectrum disorder and nonspectrum groups for the Composite, Social Communication Domain, and Social Communication Red Flags score. The Systematic Observation of Red Flags provides an observational screening measure for 16- to 24-month-olds with good discrimination, sensitivity, and specificity. A cutoff of 20 on the Composite is recommended to optimally detect autism spectrum disorder risk.

  20. Psychometric Properties of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale: Parent Report in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Jitlina, Katia; Zumbo, Bruno; Mirenda, Pat; Ford, Laurie; Bennett, Teresa; Georgiades, Stelios; Waddell, Charlotte; Smith, Isabel M; Volden, Joanne; Duku, Eric; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Szatmari, Peter; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Elsabbagh, Mayada

    2017-04-13

    Although anxiety is frequently reported in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), existing anxiety scales are often psychometrically inappropriate for this population. This study examined the internal structure, reliability, convergent and discriminant validity of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale-Parent Report (SCAS-P; Spence 1999) in 238 school-aged children with ASD. While confirmatory factor analysis did not support the original six-correlated-factor structure, structural support as well as acceptable internal consistency and convergent validity was found for Generalized Anxiety, Separation Anxiety, Panic, and Agoraphobia subscales. Use of the SCAS-P in its original form for assessment in children with ASD was not supported. However, four subscales showed viability, and may benefit re-analyses of existing SCAS-P data and future scale adaptations for research and clinical purposes.

  1. Psychometric properties of the Family Accommodation Scale for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder-Patient Version.

    PubMed

    Wu, Monica S; Pinto, Anthony; Horng, Betty; Phares, Vicky; McGuire, Joseph F; Dedrick, Robert F; Van Noppen, Barbara; Calvocoressi, Lisa; Storch, Eric A

    2016-03-01

    In obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), family accommodation is a frequently occurring phenomenon that has been linked to attenuated treatment response, increased obsessive-compulsive symptom severity, and lower levels of functioning. No patient-report version of family accommodation exists, with available measures relying on relatives as informants. However, adult patients with OCD often present to clinical services alone, frequently making it impractical to obtain information from these informants. Consequently, a standardized patient-reported measure of family accommodation proves salient in clinical practice. The present study examined the psychometric properties of the Family Accommodation Scale for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder-Patient Version (FAS-PV). Sixty-one adults with OCD were administered clinician-rated measures of OCD symptom severity and self-report questionnaires examining functional impairment, family functioning, and emotional/behavioral difficulties. Fifty-four relatives completed self-report measures assessing family accommodation and family functioning. The majority of the adult OCD participants (89%) endorsed at least 1 type of accommodating behavior in the previous week. The FAS-PV total score demonstrated good internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Convergent validity was evidenced by strong associations with scores on another measure of family accommodation, OCD symptom severity, OCD-related family functioning, anxiety, and functional impairment. Divergent validity was supported through nonsignificant correlations with depressive symptoms and impulsivity. The FAS-PV did not significantly differ from the relative-reported measure of family accommodation in terms of the internal consistency or mean of the total scores. Ultimately, the FAS-PV scores demonstrated sound psychometric properties and validity in assessing family accommodation from the patient's perspective, encouraging its use in research and clinical practice. (c

  2. Psychometric properties of the Italian version of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ-Italian).

    PubMed

    Caravale, Barbara; Baldi, Silvia; Capone, Luca; Presaghi, Fabio; Balottin, Umberto; Zoppello, Marina

    2014-11-14

    A valid tool that contributes to the diagnosis of Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) is represented by the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire 2007 (DCDQ'07). Recently we developed the Italian version of DCDQ (DCDQ-Italian). The aim of this study was to further analyze the psychometric properties in a sample of Italian school children aged 5-12 years and to establish cut-off scores with respect to age groups. A total of 698 parents completed the DCDQ-Italian and 45 of them repeated it after 2 weeks for test-retest reliability. One hundred and seventeen children were tested using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children. Confirmatory factor analysis supported this version to be consistent with the original. Cronbach's alpha for the total score was 0.89 and test-retest reliability was 0.88. Two-ways ANOVA for total and single subscales showed a significant main effect for age group only and not for gender. Sensitivity and specificity for our community based sample were 59% and 65% respectively, considering the cut-off scores for the 15th percentile of M-ABC and increasing when age groups were taken into account (ROC curve=0.62). The agreement with the original was good if 15th is considered. This is the first study on the psychometric property of DCDQ in a community sample of Italian children. The DCDQ-Italian could be used as a screening tool for motor coordination difficulties in Italian children. Slight differences in cut-offs should be considered when using this version. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Grief Experiences Among Female American and Arab Undergraduate College Students.

    PubMed

    Varga, Mary Alice; McClam, Tricia M; Hassane, Sofoh

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the incidence of grief among American and Arab female undergraduate students, the effects of their grief, and risk of prolonged grief disorder. A total of 471 female undergraduate students, 308 (65.4%) from the United Arab Emirates and 163 (34.6%) from the United States, completed a survey about their grief experiences. Students experiencing a significant loss also completed the Prolonged Grief Disorder Questionnaire. Findings revealed that overall approximately 38.4% (n = 181) of all 471 students experienced the loss of a significant person in their lives within the past 24 months; a similar percentage was found in each sub group. Students reported various grief effects with American students experiencing more effects related to sleep, relationships, academics, physical well-being, religion/spirituality, and outlook on life than Arab students. Only a small number (10, 5.52%) of students met the criteria for prolonged grief disorder; however, most students were female Arab students. Limitations of the study and recommendations for future research are provided.

  4. Treatment for complicated grief: state of the science and ways forward.

    PubMed

    Doering, Bettina K; Eisma, Maarten C

    2016-09-01

    There is increasing recognition that a minority of bereaved persons experiences persistent and disabling grief symptoms, also termed complicated grief. We review currently proposed criteria for complicated grief in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM 5) and the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-11), highlight controversies with regard to establishing complicated grief as a psychiatric disorder, summarize recent complicated grief treatment research within a cognitive behavioral treatment framework, and establish a novel and systematic research agenda for complicated grief treatment. Clinicians should be wary of overdiagnosis and misdiagnosis of complicated grief. Recent changes to definitions of complicated grief may threaten generalizability and clinical application of research findings. Universal treatment, treatment for at-risk groups and preventive complicated grief treatment appear ineffective. Although medication is often prescribed to bereaved persons, evidence for its effectiveness is equivocal. Face-to-face and internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy techniques appear most effective in targeting complicated grief. However, little is known about what, how, and for whom treatment works best. In light of these findings, we recommend systematic investigation of: what works best in complicated grief treatment, by conducting well designed, stepped effectiveness trials and treatment component dismantling studies; how it works, by conducting investigations on therapeutic theories and examining mediators of therapeutic change; and for whom it works, by examining potential moderators of treatment effects.

  5. Immunological and neuroimaging biomarkers of complicated grief.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Mary-Frances

    2012-06-01

    Complicated grief (CG) is a disorder marked by intense and persistent yearning for the deceased, in addition to other criteria. The present article reviews what is known about the immunologic and neuroimaging biomarkers of both acute grief and CG, Attachment theory and cognitive stress theory are reviewed as they pertain to bereavement, as is the biopsychosocial model of CG. Reduced immune cell function has been replicated in a variety of bereaved populations. The regional brain activation to grief cues frequently includes the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and insula, and also the posterior cingulate cortex. Using theory to point to future research directions, we may eventually learn which biomarkers are helpful in predicting CG, and its treatment.

  6. The heterogeneity of long-term grief reactions.

    PubMed

    Lotterman, Jenny H; Bonanno, George A; Galatzer-Levy, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Individuals experience the loss of a spouse in varied ways. There is growing recognition of major depressive disorder and complicated grief as distinct post-bereavement disorders. However, most studies focusing on these different courses of functioning have not examined pre-loss functioning. We used data from a prospective population based study to examine depression and grief among conjugally bereaved older adults. We compared latent trajectories of grief and depression symptoms based on data from pre-loss and 6, 18, and 48 months post-loss, and examined a number of pre- and post-loss predictor variables. The chronic grief and chronic depression trajectories did not differ in grief symptoms at any post-loss time point. However, a number of pre- and post-loss variables uniquely differentiated these two distinct trajectories. Measures used in the current study were based on self-report and compared only two trajectories. Additionally, the sample was restricted to older adults (M age=72) and thus our findings may not generalize to younger populations. These two distinct trajectories--chronic grief and chronic depression--may appear similar when examining grief symptoms alone, though it is apparent that they have different long-term courses of functioning. It is important to understand pre-loss functioning as well as variables associated with each group in order to appropriately target treatment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Grief among Family Members of Nursing Home Residents with Advanced Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Givens, Jane L.; Prigerson, Holly G.; Kiely, Dan K.; Shaffer, Michele L.; Mitchell, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To describe pre-loss and post-loss grief symptoms among family members of nursing home (NH) residents with advanced dementia, and to identify predictors of greater post-loss grief symptoms. Design Prospective cohort study. Setting 22 NHs in the greater Boston area. Participants 123 family members of NH residents who died with advanced dementia. Measurements Pre-loss grief was measured at baseline, and post-loss grief was measured 2 and 7 months post-loss using the Prolonged Grief Disorder scale. Independent variables included resident and family member sociodemographic characteristics, resident comfort, acute illness, acute care prior to death, family member depression, and family member understanding of dementia and of resident’s prognosis. Results Levels of pre-loss and post-loss grief were relatively stable from baseline to 7 months post-loss. Feelings of separation and yearning were the most prominent grief symptoms. After multivariable adjustment, greater pre-loss grief and the family member having lived with the resident prior to NH admission were the only factors independently associated with greater post-loss grief 7 months after resident death. Conclusions The pattern of grieving for some family members of NH residents with advanced dementia is prolonged and begins before resident death. Identification of family members at risk for post-loss grief during the pre-loss period may help guide interventions aimed at lessening post-loss grief. PMID:21606897

  8. A psychometric evaluation of the panic disorder severity scale for children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elkins, R Meredith; Pincus, Donna B; Comer, Jonathan S

    2014-06-01

    The Panic Disorder Severity Scale (PDSS; Shear et al., 1997) is a well-validated measure that assesses symptoms of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia (PDA) in adults. The Panic Disorder Severity Scale for Children (PDSS-C) is an adaptation of the PDSS for youth ages 11-17. The current study evaluated the psychometric properties of the PDSS-C. Participants included 60 adolescents from a randomized controlled trial investigating the efficacy of an intensive cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for adolescent PDA. Convergent and discriminant validity of PDSS-C scores were evaluated via observed associations between the PDSS-C and the Childhood Anxiety Sensitivity Index (CASI; Silverman, Fleisig, Rabian, & Peterson, 1991), Multidimensional Anxiety Scale for Children (MASC; March, Parker, Sullivan, Stallings, & Conners, 1997), and Children's Depression Inventory (CDI; Kovacs, 2003). Baseline and posttreatment data afforded the opportunity to evaluate the measure's sensitivity to treatment-related change. PDSS-C scores demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (α = .82) and adequate 1-day test-retest reliability (r = .79). Convergent and discriminant validity of the PDSS-C scores were supported through significant associations with the CASI and the MASC, and nonsignificant associations with the CDI, respectively. Linear regression analysis demonstrated sensitivity to treatment-related changes-that is, greater PDSS-C change scores were significantly associated with assignment to CBT vs. waitlist condition. Clinical utility was further established through significant associations between PDSS-C change scores and MASC and CASI change scores, and through nonsignificant associations with CDI change scores. Results support the use of PDSS-C scores as reliable, valid, and clinically useful for the assessment of youth panic disorder in research and clinical settings.

  9. Psychometric evaluation of the Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index-IV--adolescent version and parent version.

    PubMed

    Schuppert, H Marieke; Bloo, Josephine; Minderaa, Ruud B; Emmelkamp, Paul M G; Nauta, Maaike H

    2012-08-01

    The Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index-IV-adolescent and parent versions (BPDSI-IV-ado/p) are DSM-IV based semi-structured interviews for the assessment of the severity of symptoms of borderline personality disorder (BPD) in adolescents. The present study evaluates the psychometric properties of the BPDSI-IV-ado/p. The interviews were administered to 122 adolescents, aged 14-19 years and their parents/caretakers who were referred to mental health centres for emotion regulation problems, and to 45 healthy controls. The interrater reliability and internal consistency of all nine subscales (following the nine BPD symptoms in DSM-IV) proved to be good to excellent. Discriminant, concurrent, and construct validity were satisfactory. Cut-off scores that optimize sensitivity and specificity were derived. Informant agreement between adolescents and parents/caretakers was modest. The results of this study suggest that the BPDSI-IV adolescent and parent versions are valid and reliable instruments for the assessment of BPD symptom severity in adolescents.

  10. Experiences in Close Relationships – Psychometric properties among patients with personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Geir; Eikenæs, Ingeborg; Urnes, Øyvind; Skulberg, Guro Mikaelsen; Wilberg, Theresa

    2015-08-01

    Patients with personality disorders represent maladaptive attachment strategies, influencing the quality of their interpersonal relationships. Within these patient populations, it is important to have a measure, easily applied, to assess such strategies. A widely used instrument is Experiences in Close Relationships (ECR), assessing two constructs called avoidance and anxiety. Lately, two short forms of ECR have been proposed, called ECR-S and ECR-N12. The aim of this study is to investigate the psychometric properties of the Norwegian @version of ECR and its two short forms in a sample of patients with mainly personality disorders. An internal consistency and confirmatory factor analysis of ECR, ECR-S and ECR-N12 from 495 patients was conducted, as well as an exploratory factor analysis of ECR. The internal consistency of ECR was found questionable. Confirmatory factor analysis revealed a poor model fit based on ECR and ECR-S. The ECR-N12 revealed a mediocre fit, indicating a potential for improvement. Exploratory factor analysis indicated two different aspects of avoidance and three aspects of anxiety. This five-factor solution was called ECR-FF. Inferences from scores based on ECR should be derived with care. A revision of ECR and ECR-N12 is warranted, and further studies are needed to investigate the validity of ECR-FF. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. End of Life: Suicide Grief

    MedlinePlus

    ... suicide, overwhelming emotions can leave you reeling. Your grief might be heart wrenching. At the same time, ... you or leaving you with a legacy of grief — or angry with yourself or others for missing ...

  12. Complicated grief in older adults: a randomized controlled trial of complicated grief group therapy.

    PubMed

    Supiano, Katherine P; Luptak, Marilyn

    2014-10-01

    This study compared the efficacy of complicated grief therapy (CGT; Shear, K. [2003]. Complicated grief: A guidebook for therapists [Liberty Version]. New York State Office of Mental Heath; Shear, K., Frank, E., Houck, P. R., & Reynolds, C. F. 3rd [2005]. Treatment of complicated grief: A randomized controlled trial. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 293, 2601-2608) administered as group therapy (CGGT) with standard group therapy (treatment as usual [TAU]) in older adults presenting with complicated grief (CG). The design was a 2×4, prospective, randomized controlled clinical trial. The independent variable was group type, with 1 group receiving experimental methods based on the work of Shear et al. (Shear, K., Frank, E., Houck, P. R., & Reynolds, C. F. 3rd. [2005]. Treatment of complicated grief: a randomized controlled trial. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 293, 2601-2608), CGGT versus. TAU. The dependent variable was treatment response. CGGT participants demonstrated higher treatment response than TAU participants. Although participants in both groups showed improvement in CG measures, CGGT participants realized significantly greater improvement. More importantly, when CG was measured on Prolonged Grief Disorder Scale, nearly half of CGGT participants realized clinically significant improvement. All CGGT completers had Brief Grief Questionnaire scores upon follow-up that, had they scored at that level at pretest, would have disqualified them for study enrollment. The high level of clinical significance suggests that CGGT participants were effectively treated for CG. This study offers evidence that CGGT holds promise for treatment of CG in older adults and merits inquiry in other populations. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Psychometric properties of the Wender-Reimherr Adult Attention Deficit Disorder Scale.

    PubMed

    Marchant, Barrie K; Reimherr, Fred W; Robison, Diane; Robison, Reid J; Wender, Paul H

    2013-09-01

    The Wender-Reimherr adult attention deficit disorder scale (WRAADDS; Wender, 1995) is a clinician-rated scale based on the Utah Criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adults. It assesses ADHD symptom severity across 7 domains: attention difficulties, hyperactivity/restlessness, temper, affective lability, emotional over-reactivity, disorganization, and impulsivity. The normative sample consisted of 120 males and females ages 20-49 with no personal or family history of ADHD. Patients with ADHD met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) criteria, included males and females ages 20-60, and came from 5 clinical trials. Measures of reliability (test-retest r = .96; interrater r = .75) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.78) were acceptable. The WRAADDS correlated with the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale (CAARS; Conners, Erhardt, & Sparrow, 1999) total scores (r = .501, p < .001). WRAADDS hyperactivity + impulsivity correlated with the CAARS hyperactivity/impulsivity (r = .601, p < .001), and WRAADDS attention + disorganization correlated with the CAARS inattention (r = .430, p < .001). Discriminate validity (adults with vs. without ADHD) was significant for all domains (p < .001). Factor analysis yielded a 2-factor solution accounting for 58% of the variance, one containing the emotional dimensions and the second containing attention and disorganization. Hyperactivity/restlessness and impulsivity were split between both factors. Changes in response to treatment for the WRAADDS and CAARS were highly correlated (p < .001). These psychometric data support continued use of the WRAADDS in adults with ADHD.

  14. Complicated grief and related bereavement issues for DSM-5.

    PubMed

    Shear, M Katherine; Simon, Naomi; Wall, Melanie; Zisook, Sidney; Neimeyer, Robert; Duan, Naihua; Reynolds, Charles; Lebowitz, Barry; Sung, Sharon; Ghesquiere, Angela; Gorscak, Bonnie; Clayton, Paula; Ito, Masaya; Nakajima, Satomi; Konishi, Takako; Melhem, Nadine; Meert, Kathleen; Schiff, Miriam; O'Connor, Mary-Frances; First, Michael; Sareen, Jitender; Bolton, James; Skritskaya, Natalia; Mancini, Anthony D; Keshaviah, Aparna

    2011-02-01

    Bereavement is a severe stressor that typically incites painful and debilitating symptoms of acute grief that commonly progresses to restoration of a satisfactory, if changed, life. Normally, grief does not need clinical intervention. However, sometimes acute grief can gain a foothold and become a chronic debilitating condition called complicated grief. Moreover, the stress caused by bereavement, like other stressors, can increase the likelihood of onset or worsening of other physical or mental disorders. Hence, some bereaved people need to be diagnosed and treated. A clinician evaluating a bereaved person is at risk for both over-and under-diagnosis, either pathologizing a normal condition or neglecting to treat an impairing disorder. The authors of DSM IV focused primarily on the problem of over-diagnosis, and omitted complicated grief because of insufficient evidence. We revisit bereavement considerations in light of new research findings. This article focuses primarily on a discussion of possible inclusion of a new diagnosis and dimensional assessment of complicated grief. We also discuss modifications in the bereavement V code and refinement of bereavement exclusions in major depression and other disorders.

  15. COMPLICATED GRIEF AND RELATED BEREAVEMENT ISSUES FOR DSM-5

    PubMed Central

    Shear, M. Katherine; Simon, Naomi; Wall, Melanie; Zisook, Sidney; Neimeyer, Robert; Duan, Naihua; Reynolds, Charles; Lebowitz, Barry; Sung, Sharon; Ghesquiere, Angela; Gorscak, Bonnie; Clayton, Paula; Ito, Masaya; Nakajima, Satomi; Konishi, Takako; Melhem, Nadine; Meert, Kathleen; Schiff, Miriam; O’Connor, Mary-Frances; First, Michael; Sareen, Jitender; Bolton, James; Skritskaya, Natalia; Mancini, Anthony D.; Keshaviah, Aparna

    2010-01-01

    Bereavement is a severe stressor that typically incites painful and debilitating symptoms of acute grief that commonly progresses to restoration of a satisfactory, if changed, life. Normally grief does not need clinical intervention. However, sometimes acute grief can gain a foothold and become a chronic debilitating condition called complicated grief. Moreover, the stress caused by bereavement, like other stressors, can increase the likelihood of onset or worsening of other physical or mental disorders. Hence some bereaved people need to be diagnosed and treated. A clinician evaluating a bereaved person is at risk for both over-and under-diagnosis, either pathologizing a normal condition or neglecting to treat an impairing disorder. The authors of DSM IV focused primarily on the problem of over-diagnosis, and omitted complicated grief because of insufficient evidence. We revisit bereavement considerations in light of new research findings. This paper focuses primarily on a discussion of possible inclusion of a new diagnosis and dimensional assessment of complicated grief. We also discuss modifications in the bereavement V code and refinement of bereavement exclusions in major depression and other disorders. PMID:21284063

  16. Inpatients with major depressive disorder: Psychometric properties of the new Multidimensional Depression Scale.

    PubMed

    Darharaj, Mohammad; Habibi, Mojtaba; Power, Michael J; Farzadian, Farzaneh; Rahimi, Maesoumeh; Kholghi, Habibeh; Kazemitabar, Maryam

    2016-12-01

    The New Multi-dimensional Depression Scale (NMDS) is one of the most comprehensive scales that measures depression symptoms in four domains, including emotional, cognitive, somatic, and interpersonal. This study aimed to evaluate the factor structure and psychometric properties of the NMDS in a group of Iranian inpatients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). At first, the scale was translated into Persian and used as part of a battery consisting of the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), and Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). The battery was administered to 271 inpatients with MDD (90 men and 181 women) aged from 18 to 60 who had been referred to psychiatric hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Confirmatory factor analysis of the Persian version of the NMDS upheld its original four-factor structure. Moreover, the results showed its good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient ranging from 0.70 for the emotional subscale to 0.83 for the interpersonal subscale). In addition, the NMDS scores were correlated with other constructs in empirically and theoretically expected ways, which provides evidence for the convergent (positive significant relationships with anxiety and cognitive and somatic-affective symptoms of depression) and divergent (negative significant relationships with happiness and mental health and physical health) validity of the scale. These findings supported the Persian version of the NMDS as a reliable and valid measure for the assessment of depression symptoms in patients with MDD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Translation and psychometric properties of the kid's eating disorders survey (KEDS)-Spanish version.

    PubMed

    Zuñiga Partida, Oscar; Padrón, E

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the Kid s Eating Disorders Survey (KEDS)-Spanish version [Cuestionario infantil para trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (CITCA)]. The following instruments were applied to subjects aged 7-17 years: K-SADS-PL-MX, Eating Attitude Test-40 (EAT- 40) and CITCA (Spanish version of the KEDS). A total of 98 females, age 12.5 + 2.5 (7-17), participated. Cronbach's alpha coefficient for the total of the KEDS was 0.92. The scale items were grouped into two main components, which accounted for 74.4% of the variance. The convergent validity between the Spanish version of the KEDS and the EAT-40 was significant: r = 0.832 (p = 0.01). The criterion validity, on comparing the Spanish version of the KEDS with the K-SADS-PL-MX, was acceptable, with a r = 0.899 (p = 0.01). The test-retest at 15 days was positive: r = 0.967 (p = 0.01).

  18. Psychometric validation of the Geriatric Suicide Ideation Scale (GSIS) among older adults with bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    O'Rourke, Norm; Heisel, Marnin J; Canham, Sarah L; Sixsmith, Andrew; Yaghoubi-Shahir, Hamed; King, David B

    2017-04-24

    Across age groups, bipolar disorder (BD) carries the greatest risk of death by suicide of all psychiatric conditions; 25%-50% of those with BD will make one or more suicide attempt. Psychometrically sound instruments are required to reliably measure suicide ideation and risk of self-harm for older adults with BD. For this study, we validate the geriatric suicide ideation scale (GSIS) with adults 50+ years with BD. We recruited a global sample of 220 older adults with BD (M = 58.50 years of age) over 19 days using socio-demographically targeted, social media advertising and online data collection. To demonstrate the construct validation of GSIS responses by older adults with BD, we computed correlations and performed regression analyses to identify predictors of suicide ideation. Our analyses support a four-factor model of responses to the GSIS (ideation, death ideation, loss of personal and social worth, and perceived meaning in life) measuring a higher order latent construct. Older adults with BD reporting low satisfaction with life and current depressive symptoms, and who misuse alcohol, report significantly higher levels of suicide ideation. Sleep quality and cognitive failures are also correlated with GSIS responses. Results support the factorial validity of the GSIS with older adults with BD. Similar to other populations, the GSIS measures a four-factor structure of suicide ideation. Across BD subtypes, the GSIS appears to reliably measure suicide ideation among older adults with BD.

  19. Disoriented grief: a lens through which to view the experience of Katrina evacuees.

    PubMed

    Malone, Pamela A; Pomeroy, Elizabeth C; Jones, Barbara L

    2011-01-01

    Many studies on the impact of natural disasters have focused primarily on immediate stress reactions and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms rather than on evacuees' stories of grief and loss. Known categories of grief and loss do not fully capture the experiences of disaster survivors as evidenced by interviews of Hurricane Katrina evacuees in Austin, Texas. This article will describe their experiences through a resultant framework of Disoriented Grief.

  20. A psychometric comparison of two carer quality of life questionnaires in Huntington's disease: implications for neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Hagell, Peter; Smith, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The carer impact of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's disease (HD) is vast. Attempts to measure carer QoL in neurodegenerative disorders include the three-dimensional (Practical aspects of Caregiving, PC; Satisfaction with Life, SL; Feelings about Living with Huntington's disease, FL) Huntington's Disease Quality of Life Battery for Carers (HDQoL-C) and the unidimensional Alzheimer's Carer's Quality of Life Inventory (ACQLI). However, evidence regarding their psychometric properties is sparse. To test and compare the psychometric properties of the HDQoL-C, its short-form, and the ACQLI among HD carers. Data from 61 HD carers (36 women; mean age, 55) were analysed using traditional psychometric methods. Data completeness was good (>95% computable scale scores) but compromised for the PC and total HDQoL-C scales (≤80% computable scale scores). Scaling assumptions were supported for the SL and ACQLI scales (corrected item-total correlations ≥0.38; scaling success rates, 94-100%) but not for the PC, FL or total HDQoL-C scales (corrected item-total correlations ≥0.08; scaling success rates, 39-62%). Floor/ceiling effects were ≤9.8%. Reliabilities were ≥0.84, except for the PC scale (0.62). The HDQoL-C failed to exhibit suitability as a HD carer outcome measure, as two of its three scales did not meet basic psychometric criteria. The third scale (SL) did not outperform the ACQLI. This suggests that carer impact is not disease specific across neurodegenerative disorders.

  1. [Psychometric properties of three rating scales for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Chilean students].

    PubMed

    Urzúa, Alfonso; Domic, Marcos; Ramos, Mireya; Cerda, Andrea; Quiroz, Jael

    2010-03-01

    To assess, among Chilean students, the reliability and validity of three scales that measure attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-IV); the scale for evaluating attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity (EDAH); and Spain's version of the ADHD Rating Scale-IV (Spa-ADHD-IV). A study of the instruments was conducted with the tutors (n = 612) and teachers (n = 82) of a controlled sample of 640 children 6-11 years of age, who were students attending public schools (n = 228, 35.6% of total), subsidized schools (n = 200, 31.3%), or private schools (n = 212, 33.1%) in Antofagasta, Chile. The convergent validity of the ADHD rating instruments was determined using Stroop and Wechsler tests. All three scales studied had satisfactory levels of internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha of 0.88-0.97 for the scales; 0.76-0.97 for the items) and a factor structure that was theoretically-aligned for most of the assessment areas, although only the Spa-ADHD-IV with tutors and teachers and the ADHD-IV with teachers had comparative and relative fit indices greater than 0.90. Significant differences were found by age, gender, and type of evaluator (tutor or teacher). The ADHD-IV and Spa-ADHD-IV met all reliability and validity criteria; so both may be applied for screening and diagnosis in the Chilean population. The Spa-ADHD-IV scale offers the best psychometric properties based on its reliability and validity.

  2. Grief interventions for people bereaved by suicide: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Steinig, Jana; Nagl, Michaela; Kersting, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Background Adaption to the loss of a loved one due to suicide can be complicated by feelings of guilt, shame, responsibility, rejection, and stigmatization. Therefore people bereaved by suicide have an increased risk for developing complicated grief which is related to negative physical and mental disorders and an increased risk for suicidal behavior. Grief interventions are needed for this vulnerable population. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of the current state of evidence concerning the effectiveness of interventions that focus on grief for people bereaved by suicide. Methods We conducted a systematic literature search using PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO for articles published up until November 2016. Relevant papers were identified and methodological quality was assessed by independent raters. A narrative synthesis was conducted. Results Seven intervention studies met the inclusion criteria. Two interventions were based on cognitive-behavioral approaches, four consisted of bereavement groups, and one utilized writing therapy. As five of the seven interventions were effective in reducing grief intensity on at least one outcome measure, there is some evidence that they are beneficial. Bereavement groups tend to be effective in lowering the intensity of uncomplicated grief, as are writing interventions in lowering suicide-specific aspects of grief. Cognitive-behavioral programs were helpful for a subpopulation of people who had high levels of suicidal ideation. Limitation On average, methodological quality was low so the evidence for benefits is not robust. The stability of treatment effects could not be determined as follow-up assessments are rare. Generalizability is limited due to homogeneous enrollments of mainly female, white, middle-aged individuals. Conclusions People bereaved by suicide are especially vulnerable to developing complicated grief. Therefore, grief therapies should be adapted to and evaluated in this

  3. Grief interventions for people bereaved by suicide: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Linde, Katja; Treml, Julia; Steinig, Jana; Nagl, Michaela; Kersting, Anette

    2017-01-01

    Adaption to the loss of a loved one due to suicide can be complicated by feelings of guilt, shame, responsibility, rejection, and stigmatization. Therefore people bereaved by suicide have an increased risk for developing complicated grief which is related to negative physical and mental disorders and an increased risk for suicidal behavior. Grief interventions are needed for this vulnerable population. The aim of this systematic review was to provide an overview of the current state of evidence concerning the effectiveness of interventions that focus on grief for people bereaved by suicide. We conducted a systematic literature search using PubMed, Web of Science, and PsycINFO for articles published up until November 2016. Relevant papers were identified and methodological quality was assessed by independent raters. A narrative synthesis was conducted. Seven intervention studies met the inclusion criteria. Two interventions were based on cognitive-behavioral approaches, four consisted of bereavement groups, and one utilized writing therapy. As five of the seven interventions were effective in reducing grief intensity on at least one outcome measure, there is some evidence that they are beneficial. Bereavement groups tend to be effective in lowering the intensity of uncomplicated grief, as are writing interventions in lowering suicide-specific aspects of grief. Cognitive-behavioral programs were helpful for a subpopulation of people who had high levels of suicidal ideation. On average, methodological quality was low so the evidence for benefits is not robust. The stability of treatment effects could not be determined as follow-up assessments are rare. Generalizability is limited due to homogeneous enrollments of mainly female, white, middle-aged individuals. People bereaved by suicide are especially vulnerable to developing complicated grief. Therefore, grief therapies should be adapted to and evaluated in this population. Prevention of complicated grief may be

  4. Parental Grief Response to Perinatal Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Anne Clarke; Borgers, Sherry B.

    1989-01-01

    Examined grief responses of parents suffering perinatal loss and explored effects of gender, type of loss, time since loss, number of losses, and subsequent pregnancy on grief response. Responses to Grief Experience Inventory from 176 such parents revealed subjects suffering grief. Grief response was affected by subjects' perception that loss was…

  5. The influence of veteran race and psychometric testing on veterans affairs posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) disability exam outcomes.

    PubMed

    Marx, Brian P; Engel-Rebitzer, Eden; Bovin, Michelle J; Parker-Guilbert, Kelly S; Moshier, Samantha; Barretto, Kenneth; Szafranski, Derek; Gallagher, Matthew W; Holowka, Darren W; Rosen, Raymond C; Keane, Terence M

    2017-06-01

    This study examined the influence of veterans' race and examiners' use of psychometric testing during a Department of Veterans Affairs posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) disability examination on diagnostic and service connection status outcomes. Participants were 764 veterans enrolled in a national longitudinal registry. Current and lifetime PTSD diagnostic status was determined with the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID) and was compared with PTSD diagnosis conferred upon veterans by their compensation and pension (C&P) examiners as well as with ultimate Veterans Affairs (VA) PTSD service connected status. The concordance rate between independent SCID current PTSD diagnosis and PTSD disability examination diagnosis was 70.4%, and between SCID lifetime PTSD diagnosis and PTSD disability examination diagnosis was 77.7%. Among veterans with current SCID diagnosed PTSD, Black veterans were significantly less likely than White veterans to receive a PTSD diagnosis from their C&P examiner (odds ratio [OR] = .39, p = .003, confidence interval [CI] = .20-.73). Among veterans without current SCID diagnosed PTSD, White veterans were significantly more likely than Black veterans to receive a PTSD diagnosis from their C&P examiner (OR = 4.07, p = .005, CI = 1.51-10.92). Splitting the sample by use of psychometric testing revealed that examinations that did not include psychometric testing demonstrated the same relation between veteran race and diagnostic concordance. However, for examinations in which psychometric testing was used, the racial disparity between SCID PTSD status and disability exam PTSD status was no longer significant. Results suggest that psychometric testing may reduce disparities in VA PTSD disability exam outcomes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Comparative psychometric analyses of the SCL-90-R and its short versions in patients with affective disorders

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the widespread application of Symptom Checklist 90-R (SCL-90-R), its psychometric weaknesses have repeatedly been noted. This study aimed to comparatively assess the psychometric properties of the SCL-90-R scales and the scales of its short versions Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), Symptom Checklist-27 (SCL-27), Brief Symptom Inventory-18 (BSI-18), Symptom Checklist-14 (SCL-14), and Symptom Checklist short version-9 (SCL-K-9) in patients with affective disorders. Methods The data of 2,727 patients within the main treatment group of affective disorders were assessed according to the DSM-IV. Patients completed the SCL-90-R and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Results There were no significant differences regarding the internal consistency of the SCL-90-R scales and the scales of the short versions. The dimensional structure was only supported for the short versions BSI-18, SCL-14 and SCL-K-9. The assessment of convergent validity revealed high correlations. With regard to the discriminant validity, there were medium correlations. With regard to the sensitivity of change, no significant differences between the scales were found. Conclusions In summary, the scales of the short versions show mostly satisfactory psychometric properties in comparison to the scales of the SCL-90-R. The results support the application of the short versions as screening instruments, especially the BSI-18, and more economic variants of the SCL-90-R covering a wide range of psychopathological symptoms. PMID:23537095

  7. Communication During Grief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Charles U.

    The physical and psychological difficulties which accompany grief resulting from another's death are described, and the intrapersonal and interpersonal communication behaviors exhibited by bereaved individuals are outlined. The role of intrapersonal communication--the mourner communicating with himself--and interpersonal communication--the mourner…

  8. The Calculus of Grief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Lee Burdette

    2010-01-01

    On a college campus, educators and students live on the edge of tragedy. They walk that edge everyday, aware that the possibility of death is always one misstep away. One careless move by any of the hundreds or thousands of them walking that edge, and their whole community falls into a canyon of grief from which they will climb only after weeks,…

  9. Improving the understanding and treatment of complex grief: an important issue for psychotraumatology

    PubMed Central

    Boelen, Paul A.

    2016-01-01

    In the Netherlands, every year 500,000 people are confronted with the death of a close relative. Many of these people experience little emotional distress. In some, bereavement precipitates severe grief, distress, and dysphoria. A small yet significant minority of bereaved individuals develops persistent and debilitating symptoms of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) (also termed prolonged grief disorder), posttraumatic stress disorder, and depression. Knowledge about early identification of, and preventive care for complex grief has increased. Moreover, in recent years there has been an increase in treatment options for people for whom loss leads to persistent psychological problems. That said, preventive and curative treatments are effective for some, but not all bereaved individuals experiencing distress and dysfunction following loss. This necessitates further research on the development, course, and treatment of various stages of complex grief, including PCBD. Highlights of the article “Complex grief” is an informal term referring to debilitating, non-normative grief. It will likely be named Prolonged Grief Disorder in the forthcoming ICD-11. It is named Persistent Complex Bereavement Disorder in DSM-5. Research on the development, course, and treatment of complex grief is needed. This research should address different stages and manifestations of complex grief. PMID:27667723

  10. Cognition, structural brain changes and complicated grief. A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Saavedra Pérez, H C; Ikram, M A; Direk, N; Prigerson, H G; Freak-Poli, R; Verhaaren, B F J; Hofman, A; Vernooij, M; Tiemeier, H

    2015-05-01

    Several psychosocial risk factors for complicated grief have been described. However, the association of complicated grief with cognitive and biological risk factors is unclear. The present study examined whether complicated grief and normal grief are related to cognitive performance or structural brain volumes in a large population-based study. The present research comprised cross-sectional analyses embedded in the Rotterdam Study. The study included 5501 non-demented persons. Participants were classified as experiencing no grief (n = 4731), normal grief (n = 615) or complicated grief (n = 155) as assessed with the Inventory of Complicated Grief. All persons underwent cognitive testing (Mini-Mental State Examination, Letter-Digit Substitution Test, Stroop Test, Word Fluency Task, word learning test - immediate and delayed recall), and magnetic resonance imaging to measure general brain parameters (white matter, gray matter), and white matter lesions. Total brain volume was defined as the sum of gray matter plus normal white matter and white matter lesion volume. Persons with depressive disorders were excluded and analyses were adjusted for depressive symptoms. Compared with no-grief participants, participants with complicated grief had lower scores for the Letter-Digit Substitution Test [Z-score -0.16 v. 0.04, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.36 to -0.04, p = 0.01] and Word Fluency Task (Z-score -0.15 v. 0.03, 95% CI -0.35 to -0.02, p = 0.02) and smaller total volumes of brain matter (933.53 ml v. 952.42 ml, 95% CI -37.6 to -0.10, p = 0.04). Participants with complicated grief performed poorly in cognitive tests and had a smaller total brain volume. Although the effect sizes were small, these findings suggest that there may be a neurological correlate of complicated grief, but not of normal grief, in the general population.

  11. Psychometric Properties of Difficulties of Working with Patients with Personality Disorders and Attitudes Towards Patients with Personality Disorders Scales

    PubMed Central

    EREN, Nurhan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction In this study, we aimed to develop two reliable and valid assessment instruments for investigating the level of difficulties mental health workers experience while working with patients with personality disorders and the attitudes they develop tt the patients. Methods The research was carried out based on the general screening model. The study sample consisted of 332 mental health workers in several mental health clinics of Turkey, with a certain amount of experience in working with personality disorders, who were selected with a random assignment method. In order to collect data, the Personal Information Questionnaire, Difficulty of Working with Personality Disorders Scale (PD-DWS), and Attitudes Towards Patients with Personality Disorders Scale (PD-APS), which are being examined for reliability and validity, were applied. To determine construct validity, the Adjective Check List, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and State and Trait Anxiety Inventory were used. Explanatory factor analysis was used for investigating the structural validity, and Cronbach alpha, Spearman-Brown, Guttman Split-Half reliability analyses were utilized to examine the reliability. Also, item reliability and validity computations were carried out by investigating the corrected item-total correlations and discriminative indexes of the items in the scales. Results For the PD-DWS KMO test, the value was .946; also, a significant difference was found for the Bartlett sphericity test (p<.001). The computed test-retest coefficient reliability was .702; the Cronbach alpha value of the total test score was .952. For PD-APS KMO, the value was .925; a significant difference was found in Bartlett sphericity test (p<.001); the computed reliability coefficient based on continuity was .806; and the Cronbach alpha value of the total test score was .913. Analyses on both scales were based on total scores. Conclusion It was found that PD-DWS and PD-APS have good psychometric properties, measuring the

  12. Understanding Grief within a Cultural Context

    MedlinePlus

    ... Grief Within a Cultural Context Request Permissions Understanding Grief Within a Cultural Context Approved by the Cancer. ... son becomes the family leader. Personal differences in grief and mourning People adopt the beliefs and values ...

  13. Coping with Loss: Bereavement and Grief

    MedlinePlus

    ... with Loss: Bereavement and Grief Coping with Loss: Bereavement and Grief In our hearts, we all know that death ... suicide is particularly beneficial and advisable. Living with Grief Coping with death is vital to your mental ...

  14. Psychometric study of the Required Care Levels for People with Severe Mental Disorder Assessment Scale (ENAR-TMG).

    PubMed

    Lascorz, David; López, Victoria; Pinedo, Carmen; Trujols, Joan; Vegué, Joan; Pérez, Víctor

    2016-03-08

    People with severe mental disorder have significant difficulties in everyday life that involve the need for continued support. These needs are not easily measurable with the currently available tools. Therefore, a multidimensional scale that assesses the different levels of need for care is proposed, including a study of its psychometric properties. One-hundred and thirty-nine patients (58% men) with a severe mental disorder were assessed using the Required Care Levels for People with Severe Mental Disorder Assessment Scale (ENAR-TMG), the Camberwell Assessment of Need scale, and the Health of the Nation Outcome Scales. ENAR-TMG's psychometric features were examined by: a) evaluating 2 sources of validity evidence (evidence based on internal structure and evidence based on relations to other variables), and b) estimating the internal consistency, temporal stability, inter-rater reliability, and sensitivity to change of scores of the ENAR-TMG's subscales. Exploratory factor analyses revealed a one-factor structure for each of the theoretical dimensions of the scale, in which all but one showed a significant and positive correlation with the Camberwell Assessment of Need (range of r: 0.143-0.557) and Health of the Nation Outcome Scales (range of r: 0.241-0.474) scales. ENAR-TMG subscale scores showed acceptable internal consistency (range of ordinal α coefficients: 0.682-0.804), excellent test-retest (range of intraclass correlation coefficients: 0.889-0.999) and inter-rater reliabilities (range of intraclass correlation coefficients: 0.926-0.972), and satisfactory sensitivity to treatment-related changes (range of η(2): 0.003-0.103). The satisfactory psychometric behaviour of the ENAR-TMG makes the scale a promising tool to assess global functioning in people with a severe mental disorder. Copyright © 2016 SEP y SEPB. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Translation and psychometric evaluation of the Chinese version of functional digestive disorders quality of life questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Feng-Bin, Liu; Yong-Xing, Jin; Yu-Hang, Wu; Zheng-Kun, Hou; Xin-Lin, Chen

    2014-02-01

    Few useful patient-reported outcomes scales for functional dyspepsia exist in China. The purpose of this work was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the Functional Digestive Disorders Quality of Life Questionnaire (FDDQL) from the English version to Chinese (in Mandarin). The following steps were performed: forward translations, synthesis of the translations, backward translations, pre-testing and field testing of FDDQL. Reliability, validity, responsiveness, confirmatory factor analysis, item response theory and differential item functioning of the scale were analyzed. A total of 300 functional dyspepsia patients and 100 healthy people were included. The total Cronbach's alpha was 0.932, and split-half reliability coefficient was 0.823 with all test-retest coefficients greater than 0.9 except Coping With Disease domain. In construct validity analysis, every item correlated higher with its own domain than others. The comparative fit index of FDDQL was 0.902 and root mean square error of approximation was 0.076. Functional dyspepsia patients and healthy people had significant differences in all domains. After treatment, all domains had significant improvements except diet. Item response theory analysis showed the Person separation index of 0.920 and the threshold estimator of items was normally distributed with a mean of 0 and standard deviation of 1.27. The residuals of each item were between -2.5 and 2.5, without statistical significance. Differential item functioning analysis found that items had neither uniform nor non-uniform differential item functioning in different genders and age groups. The Chinese version of FDDQL has good psychometric properties and is suitable for measuring the health status of Chinese patients with functional dyspepsia.

  16. Postabortion Grief: Evaluating the Possible Efficacy of a Spiritual Group Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layer, Susan Dyer; Roberts, Cleora; Wild, Kelli; Walters, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Although not every woman is negatively affected by an abortion, researchers have identified a subgroup of women susceptible to grief and trauma. The primary providers for postabortion grief (PAG) groups are community faith-based agencies. Principle features of PAG are shame and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Method:…

  17. Postabortion Grief: Evaluating the Possible Efficacy of a Spiritual Group Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layer, Susan Dyer; Roberts, Cleora; Wild, Kelli; Walters, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: Although not every woman is negatively affected by an abortion, researchers have identified a subgroup of women susceptible to grief and trauma. The primary providers for postabortion grief (PAG) groups are community faith-based agencies. Principle features of PAG are shame and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Method:…

  18. A Meta-Analysis of the Cross-Cultural Psychometric Properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, William W.; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Accumulating studies have demonstrated that the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), a modern youth anxiety questionnaire with scales explicitly designed to map onto specific DSM-IV-TR anxiety disorders, has good psychometric properties for children and adolescents from various countries. However, no study has…

  19. A Meta-Analysis of the Cross-Cultural Psychometric Properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, William W.; Crocetti, Elisabetta; Raaijmakers, Quinten A. W.; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Accumulating studies have demonstrated that the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), a modern youth anxiety questionnaire with scales explicitly designed to map onto specific DSM-IV-TR anxiety disorders, has good psychometric properties for children and adolescents from various countries. However, no study has…

  20. Psychometric validation of the Korean version of Structured Interview for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (K-SIP).

    PubMed

    Kim, Won; Kim, Daeho; Seo, Ho-Jun; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Kim, Jung-Bum; Chung, Moon Yong; Koo, Young Jin; Ryu, Seong Gon; Kim, Eui Jung; Kim, Tae-Suk; Lim, Hyun-Kook; Woo, Jong-Min; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2009-02-01

    For diagnosis and management of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the easily administered assessment tool is essential. Structured Interview for PTSD (SIP) is a validated, 17-item, simple measurement being used widely. We aimed to develop the Korean version of SIP (K-SIP) and investigated its psychometric properties. Ninety-three subjects with PTSD, 73 subjects with mood disorder or anxiety disorder as a psychiatric control group, and 88 subjects as a healthy control group were enrolled in this study. All subjects completed psychometric assessments that included the K-SIP, the Korean versions of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and other assessment tools. The K-SIP presented good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha=0.92) and test-retest reliability (r=0.87). K-SIP showed strong correlations with CAPS (r=0.72). Among three groups including PTSD patients, psychiatric controls, and normal controls, there were significant differences in the K-SIP total score. The potential cut-off total score of K-SIP was 20 with highest diagnostic efficiency (91.9%). At this point, the sensitivity and specificity were 95.5% and 88.4%, respectively. Our result showed that K-SIP had good reliability and validity. We expect that K-SIP will be used as a simple but structured instrument for assessment of PTSD.

  1. Psychometric Validation of the Korean Version of Structured Interview for Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (K-SIP)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Won; Kim, Daeho; Seo, Ho-Jun; Lee, Sang-Yeol; Ryu, Seung-Ho; Kim, Jung-Bum; Chung, Moon Yong; Koo, Young Jin; Ryu, Seong Gon; Kim, Eui Jung; Kim, Tae-Suk; Lim, Hyun-Kook; Woo, Jong-Min

    2009-01-01

    For diagnosis and management of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), the easily administered assessment tool is essential. Structured Interview for PTSD (SIP) is a validated, 17-item, simple measurement being used widely. We aimed to develop the Korean version of SIP (K-SIP) and investigated its psychometric properties. Ninety-three subjects with PTSD, 73 subjects with mood disorder or anxiety disorder as a psychiatric control group, and 88 subjects as a healthy control group were enrolled in this study. All subjects completed psychometric assessments that included the K-SIP, the Korean versions of the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and other assessment tools. The K-SIP presented good internal consistency (Cronbach's α=0.92) and test-retest reliability (r=0.87). K-SIP showed strong correlations with CAPS (r=0.72). Among three groups including PTSD patients, psychiatric controls, and normal controls, there were significant differences in the K-SIP total score. The potential cut-off total score of K-SIP was 20 with highest diagnostic efficiency (91.9%). At this point, the sensitivity and specificity were 95.5% and 88.4%, respectively. Our result showed that K-SIP had good reliability and validity. We expect that K-SIP will be used as a simple but structured instrument for assessment of PTSD. PMID:19270809

  2. An examination of the psychometric structure of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory in temporomandibular disorder patients: a confirmatory factor analysis

    PubMed Central

    Andreu, Yolanda; Galdon, Maria J; Durá, Estrella; Ferrando, Maite; Pascual, Juan; Turk, Dennis C; Jiménez, Yolanda; Poveda, Rafael

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper seeks to analyse the psychometric and structural properties of the Multidimensional Pain Inventory (MPI) in a sample of temporomandibular disorder patients. Methods The internal consistency of the scales was obtained. Confirmatory Factor Analysis was carried out to test the MPI structure section by section in a sample of 114 temporomandibular disorder patients. Results Nearly all scales obtained good reliability indexes. The original structure could not be totally confirmed. However, with a few adjustments we obtained a satisfactory structural model of the MPI which was slightly different from the original: certain items and the Self control scale were eliminated; in two cases, two original scales were grouped in one factor, Solicitous and Distracting responses on the one hand, and Social activities and Away from home activities, on the other. Conclusion The MPI has been demonstrated to be a reliable tool for the assessment of pain in temporomandibular disorder patients. Some divergences to be taken into account have been clarified. PMID:17169143

  3. Facets of Pejorative Self-Processing in Complicated Grief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Ann-Marie J.; Dalgleish, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Complicated grief (CG) has been proposed as a psychiatric response to bereavement distinct from established mood and anxiety disorder diagnoses. Little is known about the nature of cognitive-affective processing in CG, nor any similarities or differences compared with the processing profiles associated with other emotional disorders.…

  4. Facets of Pejorative Self-Processing in Complicated Grief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Ann-Marie J.; Dalgleish, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Complicated grief (CG) has been proposed as a psychiatric response to bereavement distinct from established mood and anxiety disorder diagnoses. Little is known about the nature of cognitive-affective processing in CG, nor any similarities or differences compared with the processing profiles associated with other emotional disorders.…

  5. Screening Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) in children: Outcomes from utilitarian versus specialist psychometrics.

    PubMed

    Dovey, Terence M; Aldridge, Victoria K; Martin, Clarissa I; Wilken, Markus; Meyer, Caroline

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed the specificity and sensitivity of two commonly used psychometric methods to assess ARFID in children. To achieve this, a sample of 329 mothers and one father completed the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS) and the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS). A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated that both measures were able to successfully differentiate a known clinical sample from those of typically developing population. Although the BPFAS was more accurate at differentiating ARFID from the general population, the CFNS was acceptable and on some metrics better than its longer counterpart. The ability of a food neophobia scale to differentiate clinical and population samples, and detect gradation of food avoidance within the population sample, suggests that the multitude of psychometric measures available may be measuring similar constructs. Therefore, confidence can be expected in cross-site comparisons despite each using different psychometric measures of food avoidance in children.

  6. Emotional and physiological reactivity in Complicated Grief.

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Nicole J; Unger, Leslie D; McNally, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Grief is a psychobiological response to the loss of a loved one. Some grief theorists suggest that this predictable response may arise from withdrawal of psychobiological regulation previously provided by the deceased (e.g. assistance with emotion regulation). Accordingly, recovery from loss may require bereaved individuals to re-establish self-regulatory control to avoid developing Complicated Grief (CG). This model implies that adults with CG may exhibit aberrant emotional responding to environmental stimuli. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis. We recruited a sample of 23 bereaved adults with CG and 26 healthy bereaved adults to complete an emotional reactivity paradigm. Participants watched a series of emotional film clips and provided measures of their self-reported emotional response. We also assessed their heart rate, respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA), and skin conductance level in response to these clips. Though emotional and physiological differences between the groups were rare, the CG group exhibited attenuated RSA reactivity to some emotional film clips, suggesting blunted parasympathetic nervous system reactivity in those with the disorder. Limitations include the modest sample size and unequal group sizes. Individuals with CG do not exhibit pervasive differences in emotional and physiological reactivity compared to healthy bereaved individuals. However, we did observe evidence of blunted parasympathetic nervous system reactivity in individuals with CG, which may mediate emotional inflexibility among those who develop the disorder. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The grief map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteiro, L. H. A.

    2014-12-01

    Grieving is a natural human reaction to a significant loss. According to a psychiatric model, this process is characterized by a typical sequence of psychological changes. Here, I propose a discrete-time dynamical system, called the grief map, in order to represent the grieving process. The corresponding bifurcation diagram, which exhibits stationary, periodic, and chaotic behavior, is related to the stages of this sorrowful journey occurring during about 12 months post-loss.

  8. [Abnormal grief reaction].

    PubMed

    Meyer, J E

    1977-01-01

    Pathological grief reactions following the death of a child are reported on the basis of five case studies. In contrast to acute grief reactions these pathological syndromes are of long standing. One parent had not truly accepted the death of the child. The denial of reality is sometimes a defence against aggression towards the deceased, because of his having left one behind. The mourning process comes to no end but remains in its initial phase. At the same time the life of the mourner stands still, as in the house and the family everything is left unchanged. Family interactions alter, particularly between the parents. For the genesis of these grief syndromes the following is of relevance: The death occurs at a time, when another child cannot replace the one who died. Mature independence had not been reached by either parent or child. Death destroyed expectations that this child would succeed in that which the parent had been unable to achieve. The parent had not seen the child after death--a gap in the continuity of experiencing which made acceptance of the irreversibility of the loss even more difficult.

  9. The effectiveness of family-based cognitive-behavior grief therapy to prevent complicated grief in relatives of suicide victims: the mediating role of suicide ideation.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Marieke; Neeleman, Jan; van der Meer, Klaas; Burger, Huibert

    2010-10-01

    Grief interventions are more effective for high risk individuals. The presence of suicide ideation following suicide bereavement was examined to determine whether it indicates a high risk status. Using data from a randomized controlled trial (n = 122) on the effectiveness of cognitive-behavior therapy, the effect of suicide ideation on the effectiveness of grief therapy on the bereavement outcome at 13 months post loss was examined. Results show that suicide ideators more often have a history of mental disorder and suicidal behavior than non-ideators, and suicide ideation indicates a high risk for adverse bereavement outcome. Grief therapy likely reduces the risk of maladaptive grief reactions among suicide ideators. Therefore, suicide ideators may benefit from grief therapy following a loss through suicide.

  10. Psychometric Evaluation of the Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Justin W.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale (FPES; J. W. Weeks, R. G. Heimberg, & T. L. Rodebaugh, 2008) was designed to assess fear of positive evaluation, a proposed cognitive component of social anxiety. Although previous findings on the psychometric properties of the FPES have been highly encouraging, only 1 previous study has examined the…

  11. Psychometric Evaluation of the Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale in Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Justin W.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Goldin, Philippe R.; Gross, James J.

    2012-01-01

    The Fear of Positive Evaluation Scale (FPES; J. W. Weeks, R. G. Heimberg, & T. L. Rodebaugh, 2008) was designed to assess fear of positive evaluation, a proposed cognitive component of social anxiety. Although previous findings on the psychometric properties of the FPES have been highly encouraging, only 1 previous study has examined the…

  12. Comprehensive Psychometric Analysis of the Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeter, Kathryn; Zlomke, Kimberly; Shawler, Paul; Sullivan, Maureen

    2017-01-01

    Many assessment measures have only been validated for one specific diagnostic population, which is costly and reduces the clinical utility of assessments. The Eyberg Child Behavior Inventory (ECBI) is one popular measure designed to assess disruptive behavior problems in youth. The ECBI has sound psychometric properties in typically developing…

  13. Assessment of stigma associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: psychometric evaluation of the ADHD stigma questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Kellison, Ida; Bussing, Regina; Bell, Lindsay; Garvan, Cynthia

    2010-07-30

    This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Stigma Questionnaire (ASQ) among a community sample of 301 adolescents ages 11-19 years at high (n=192) and low risks (n=109) for ADHD. Study subjects were drawn from a cohort study assessing ADHD detection and service use. The 26-item ASQ demonstrated good internal consistency. Confirmatory factor analysis using random parceling supported a three-factor structure with highly correlated subscales of disclosure concerns, negative self image, and concern with public attitudes, and a Schmid-Leiman analysis supported an overall stigma factor. Test-retest stability was assessed after two weeks (n=45) and found to be adequate for all three subscales. Construct validity was supported by relationships with related constructs, including clinical maladjustment, depression, self-esteem, and emotional symptoms, and the absence of a relationship with school maladjustment. Findings indicate that the ASQ has acceptable psychometric properties in a large community sample of adolescents, some of whom met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) criteria for ADHD.

  14. Initial Development and Psychometric Properties of a New Measure of Substance Use Disorder "Recovery Progression": The Recovery Progression Measure (RPM).

    PubMed

    Elison, Sarah; Davies, Glyn; Ward, Jonathan

    2016-07-28

    There is a growing literature around substance use disorder treatment outcomes measures. Various constructs have been suggested as being appropriate for measuring recovery outcomes, including "recovery capital" and "treatment progression." However, these previously proposed constructs do not measure changes in psychosocial functioning during the recovery process. Therefore, a new psychometric assessment, the "Recovery Progression Measure" (RPM), has been developed to measure this recovery oriented psychosocial change. The aims of this study were to evaluate the reliability and factor structure of the RPM via data collected from 2218 service users being treated for their substance dependence. Data were collected from service users accessing the Breaking Free Online (BFO) substance use disorder treatment and recovery program, which has within its baseline assessment a 36-item psychometric measure previously developed by the authors to assess the six areas of functioning described in the RPM. Reliability analyses and exploratory factor analyses (EFA) were conducted to examine the underlying factor structure of the RPM measure. Internal reliability of the RPM measure was found to be excellent (α > .70) with the overall assessment to have reliability α = .89, with item-total correlations revealing moderate-excellent reliability of individual items. EFA revealed the RPM to contain an underlying factor structure of eight components. This study provides initial data to support the reliability of the RPM as a recovery measure. Further work is now underway to extend these findings, including convergent and predictive validity analyses.

  15. Psychometric properties of an instrument to measure activities and participation according to the ICF concept in patients with mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Brütt, Anna Levke; Schulz, Holger; Andreas, Sylke

    2015-01-01

    The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) conceptualizes the bio-psycho-social model of health and illness, but cannot be used as an assessment instrument in routine care. The objective of this study was to psychometrically test a self-report instrument for measuring activities and social participation (ICF-Mental-A&P) of psychotherapy patients. For the psychometric evaluation of the ICF-Mental-A&P, participants completed a questionnaire on symptoms, interpersonal problems and quality of life at admission and at discharge of in-patient treatment. A consecutive sample of 2256 patients diagnosed with at least one mental disorder was recruited from eight in-patient units in Germany. After item selection, the ICF-Mental-A&P contained 31 items comprising six subscales examined by confirmatory factor analysis. Subscales had acceptable internal consistency (α = 0.78-0.90) and test-retest correlations (r = 0.71-0.86). There were several expected correlations (r ≥ 0.6) between ICF-Mental-A&P scores and measures of symptoms and interpersonal problems. Findings suggest that the ICF-Mental-A&P is a comprehensive, reliable measure of activities and participation according to the ICF concept for patients with mental disorders. It may therefore be an important instrument in clinical practice and could help to determine and evaluate functioning-related and patient-focused treatment outcomes.

  16. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Frances B.

    2008-01-01

    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  17. How to Deal with Grief

    MedlinePlus

    ... 4:30 pm EST) http://www.fernside.org Grief information, resources, and support for grieving children and their families. RENEW: Center ... experienced a death or other loss, feelings of grief are part of a normal reaction. But ... and Bipolar Support Alliance (DBSA) 730 N. Franklin Street, Suite 501 ...

  18. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Frances B.

    2008-01-01

    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  19. Psychometric properties and validation of a four-item version of the Strauss-Carpenter scale in bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Alberich, Susana; Barbeito, Sara; González-Ortega, Itxaso; Ugarte, Amaia; Vega, Patricia; de Azúa, Sonia Ruiz; López, Purificación; Zorrilla, Iñaki; González-Pinto, Ana

    2016-12-01

    Bipolar disorder is a chronic illness that impairs functioning and affects the quality of life of patients. The onset of this illness usually occurs at an early age, and the risk of relapse remains high for decades. Thus, due to the great clinical relevance of identifying long-term predictors of functioning in bipolar disorder, Strauss and Carpenter developed a scale composed of items known to have prognostic value. To determine the clinical usefulness of the four-item Strauss-Carpenter scale in bipolar disorder, a 1-year prospective follow-up study was carried out. The internal consistency, convergent and discriminant validity, and test-retest reliability of the scale were assessed. We also compared the Strauss-Carpenter scale with the reference scales Global Assessment Functioning (GAF), Clinical Global Impression for Bipolar Disorder, the Modified Version (CGI-BIP-M) and the Sheehan Disability Scale (Sheehan). Additionally, a cut-off point for remission was established. The total sample was composed of 98 patients with a diagnosis of bipolar disorder. The four-item version of the Strauss-Carpenter scale showed to have appropriate psychometric properties, comparable to those of reference scales. The best cut-off point for remission was 14. The four-item version of the Strauss-Carpenter scale has suitable validity and reliability for the assessment of functioning in patients with bipolar disorder.

  20. Psychometric properties of seven self-report measures of posttraumatic stress disorder in college students with mixed civilian trauma exposure.

    PubMed

    Adkins, Jennifer W; Weathers, Frank W; McDevitt-Murphy, Meghan; Daniels, Jennifer B

    2008-12-01

    In this study psychometric properties of seven self-report measures of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were compared. The seven scales evaluated were the Davidson Trauma Scale (DTS), the PTSD Checklist (PCL), the Posttraumatic Stress Diagnostic Scale (PDS), the Civilian Mississippi Scale (CMS), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), the Penn Inventory for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (Penn), and the PK scale of the MMPI-2 (PK). Participants were 239 (79 male and 160 female) trauma-exposed undergraduates. All seven measures exhibited good test-retest reliability and internal consistency. The PDS, PCL and DTS demonstrated the best convergent validity; the IES-R, PDS, and PCL demonstrated the best discriminant validity; and the PDS, PCL, and IES-R demonstrated the best diagnostic utility. Overall, results most strongly support the use of the PDS and the PCL for the assessment of PTSD in this population.

  1. Competence and Adherence Scale for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CAS-CBT) for anxiety disorders in youth: Psychometric properties.

    PubMed

    Bjaastad, Jon Fauskanger; Haugland, Bente Storm Mowatt; Fjermestad, Krister W; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Havik, Odd E; Heiervang, Einar R; Öst, Lars-Göran

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Competence and Adherence Scale for Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CAS-CBT). The CAS-CBT is an 11-item scale developed to measure adherence and competence in cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety disorders in youth. A total of 181 videotapes from the treatment sessions in a randomized controlled effectiveness trial (Wergeland et al., 2014) comprising youth (N = 182, M age = 11.5 years, SD = 2.1, range 8-15 years, 53% girls, 90.7% Caucasian) with mixed anxiety disorders were assessed with the CAS-CBT to investigate interitem correlations, internal consistency, and factor structure. Internal consistency was good (Cronbach's alpha = .87). Factor analysis suggested a 2-factor solution with Factor 1 representing CBT structure and session goals (explaining 46.9% of the variance) and Factor 2 representing process and relational skills (explaining 19.7% of the variance). The sum-score for adherence and competence was strongly intercorrelated, r = .79, p < .001. Novice raters (graduate psychology students) obtained satisfactory accuracy (ICC > .40, n = 10 videotapes) and also good to excellent interrater reliability when compared to expert raters (ICC = .83 for adherence and .64 for competence, n = 26 videotapes). High rater stability was also found (n = 15 videotapes). The findings suggest that the CAS-CBT is a reliable measure of adherence and competence in manualized CBT for anxiety disorders in youth. Further research is needed to investigate the validity of the scale and psychometric properties when used with other treatment programs, disorders and treatment formats. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Quality of life impairments associated with diagnostic criteria for traumatic grief.

    PubMed

    Silverman, G K; Jacobs, S C; Kasl, S V; Shear, M K; Maciejewski, P K; Noaghiul, F S; Prigerson, H G

    2000-07-01

    This study examined the association between a diagnosis of traumatic grief and quality of life outcomes. METHOD. Sixty-seven widowed persons were interviewed at a median of 4 months after their loss. The multiple regression procedure was used to estimate the effects of a traumatic grief diagnosis on eight quality of life domains, controlling for age, sex, time from loss and diagnoses of major depressive episode and post-traumatic stress disorder. A positive traumatic grief diagnosis was significantly associated with lower social functioning scores, worse mental health scores, and lower energy levels than a negative traumatic grief diagnosis. In each of these domains, traumatic grief was found to be a better predictor of lower scores than either major depressive episode or post-traumatic stress disorder. The results suggest that a traumatic grief diagnosis is significantly associated with quality of life impairments. These findings provide evidence supporting the criterion validity of the proposed consensus criteria and the newly developed diagnostic interview for traumatic grief the Traumatic Grief Evaluation of Response to Loss (TRGR2L).

  3. Building metaphors and extending models of grief.

    PubMed

    VandeCreek, L

    1985-01-01

    Persons in grief turn to metaphors as they seek to understand and express their experience. Metaphors illustrated in this article include "grief is a whirlwind," "grief is the Great Depression all over again" and "grief is gray, cloudy and rainy weather." Hospice personnel can enhance their bereavement efforts by identifying and cultivating the expression of personal metaphors from patients and families. Two metaphors have gained wide cultural acceptance and lie behind contemporary scientific explorations of grief. These are "grief is recovery from illness" (Bowlby and Parkes) and "death is the last stage of growth and grief is the adjustment reaction to this growth" (Kubler-Ross). These models have developed linear perspectives of grief but have neglected to study the fluctuating intensity of symptoms. Adopting Worden's four-part typology of grief, the author illustrates how the pie graph can be used to display this important aspect of the grief experience, thus enhancing these models.

  4. Psychometric Evaluation of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and Short Drug Abuse Screening Test with Psychiatric Patients in India

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Kate B.; Carey, Michael P.; Chandra, Prabha S.

    2008-01-01

    Background The Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) and the short Drug Abuse Screen Test (DAST-10) are brief self-report screens for alcohol and drug problems that have not been evaluated for use with psychiatric patients in developing countries. This study was designed to evaluate the feasibility, factor structure, reliability, validity, and utility of the AUDIT and the DAST-10 in an Indian psychiatric hospital. Method Consecutive inpatient admissions from April to December 2001 were sampled. Patients were diagnosed with substance use disorders or psychiatric disorders according to ICD-10 criteria. All patients completed both the AUDIT and the DAST-10 during their intake evaluation. Results Of the 2286 admissions to the hospital, 1349 were enrolled in the study (30% women); 361 patients (27%) had primary substance use disorders and 988 patients (73%) had primary psychiatric disorders. Both the AUDIT and the DAST-10 were unidimensional and internally consistent. Total scores significantly differentiated the subsamples with primary substance use from those with primary psychiatric disorders (p < .0001). Using cut-off scores of ≥8 on the AUDIT and ≥3 on the DAST-10, only 10% (n = 100) of the psychiatric subsample exceeded either cut-off, whereas 99% (n = 358) of the substance abuse subsample exceeded one or both cut-offs. Within the primary psychiatric subsample, 77% (n = 65) of the patients who were identified as high risk on the AUDIT did not receive an additional alcohol use disorder diagnosis at discharge, and 59% (n = 16) of those identified as high risk on the DAST-10 did not receive an additional discharge diagnosis of drug use disorder. Conclusion The AUDIT and the DAST-10 demonstrate strong psychometric properties when used in an Indian psychiatric hospital. Routine use of these brief screens can facilitate detection of substance use disorders among psychiatric patients. PMID:12934976

  5. Psychometric Evaluation of the Theory of Mind Inventory (ToMI): A Study of Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Tiffany L.; Prelock, Patricia A.; Bonazinga, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined the psychometric properties of the Theory of Mind Inventory (ToMI). In Study One, 135 caregivers completed the ToMI for children (ages 3 through 17) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Findings revealed excellent test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Principle Components Analysis revealed three subscales related…

  6. Strategies Used by Families to Simplify Tasks for Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders: Psychometric Analysis of the Task Management Strategy Index (TMSI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Winter, Laraine; Dennis, Marie P.; Corcoran, Mary; Schinfeld, Sandy; Hauck, Walter W.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about the specific behavioral strategies used by families to manage the physical dependency of persons with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD). This study reports the psychometric properties of the Task Management Strategy Index (TMSI), a measure designed to identify actions taken by caregivers to simplify…

  7. Strategies Used by Families to Simplify Tasks for Individuals with Alzheimer's Disease and Related Disorders: Psychometric Analysis of the Task Management Strategy Index (TMSI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gitlin, Laura N.; Winter, Laraine; Dennis, Marie P.; Corcoran, Mary; Schinfeld, Sandy; Hauck, Walter W.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about the specific behavioral strategies used by families to manage the physical dependency of persons with Alzheimer's disease and related disorders (ADRD). This study reports the psychometric properties of the Task Management Strategy Index (TMSI), a measure designed to identify actions taken by caregivers to simplify…

  8. Psychometric Evaluation of the Theory of Mind Inventory (ToMI): A Study of Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchins, Tiffany L.; Prelock, Patricia A.; Bonazinga, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Two studies examined the psychometric properties of the Theory of Mind Inventory (ToMI). In Study One, 135 caregivers completed the ToMI for children (ages 3 through 17) with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Findings revealed excellent test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Principle Components Analysis revealed three subscales related…

  9. Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG): toward integrated treatment of symptoms related to traumatic loss

    PubMed Central

    Smid, Geert E.; Kleber, Rolf J.; de la Rie, Simone M.; Bos, Jannetta B. A.; Gersons, Berthold P. R.; Boelen, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Traumatic events such as disasters, accidents, war, or criminal violence are often accompanied by the loss of loved ones, and may then give rise to traumatic grief. Traumatic grief refers to a clinical diagnosis of persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) with comorbid (symptoms of) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and/or major depressive disorder (MDD) following confrontation with a traumatic loss. Trauma survivors, who are frequently from different cultural backgrounds, have often experienced multiple losses and ambiguous loss (missing family members or friends). Current evidence-based treatments for PTSD do not focus on traumatic grief. Objective To develop a treatment for traumatic grief combining treatment interventions for PTSD and PCBD that may accommodate cultural aspects of grief. Method To provide a rationale for treatment, we propose a cognitive stress model of traumatic grief. Based on this model and on existing evidence-based treatments for PTSD and complicated grief, we developed Brief Eclectic Psychotherapy for Traumatic Grief (BEP-TG) for the treatment of patients with traumatic grief. The treatment is presented along with a case vignette. Results Processes contributing to traumatic grief include inadequately integrating the memory of the traumatic loss, negative appraisal of the traumatic loss, sensitivity to matching triggers and new stressors, and attempting to avoid distress. BEP-TG targets these processes. The BEP-TG protocol consists of five parts with proven effectiveness in the treatment of PCBD, PTSD, and MDD: information and motivation, grief-focused exposure, memorabilia and writing assignments, finding meaning and activation, and a farewell ritual. Conclusion Tailored to fit the needs of trauma survivors, BEP-TG can be used to address traumatic grief symptoms related to multiple losses and ambiguous loss, as well as cultural aspects of bereavement through its different components. PMID:26154434

  10. Palliative Care Caregivers' Grief Mediators: A Prospective Study.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Alexandra M; Delalibera, Mayra A; Barbosa, António

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study is to identify the mediators of complicated grief in a Portuguese sample of caregivers. Grief mediators were prospectively evaluated using a list of risk factors completed by the palliative care team members, during the predeath and bereavement period. More than 6 months after the death, we applied PG-13 to diagnose prolonged grief disorder (PGD). The sample was composed of 64 family caregivers. Factors associated with PGD were insecure and dependent relationship, unresolved family crisis, and the perceived deterioration and disfigurement of the patient. The results show relational factors are relevant, but we must consider the reciprocal influence among factors, as well as their impact on specific symptoms. © The Author(s) 2015.

  11. The psychometric properties of the iowa personality disorder screen in methadone-maintained patients: an initial investigation.

    PubMed

    Beitel, Mark; Peters, Skye; Savant, Jonathan D; Cutter, Christopher J; Cecero, John J; Barry, Declan T

    2015-02-01

    The psychometric properties of the Iowa Personality Disorder Screen (IPDS) were examined in 150 methadone-maintained patients who completed measures of demographic, psychopathology, substance use, pain, and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) characteristics. An exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor solution that explained 45% of the scale variance. The first factor captured internalizing tendencies, such as inhibition and hypersensitivity to others. The second factor comprised externalizing tendencies, such as impulsivity and insensitivity to others. The IPDS item subsets, derived factors, and the total score were significantly related to race/ethnicity but not sex. The effects of race/ethnicity were controlled statistically when the IPDS was compared to other measures of psychopathology, self-reported substance use, pain variables, and MMT characteristics. In general, the IPDS appears to be reliable and valid for use with methadone-maintained patients. The two-factor structure found in this study may have clinical utility and merits further investigation in other MMT samples.

  12. Psychometric Validation of the English and French Versions of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5)

    PubMed Central

    Ashbaugh, Andrea R.; Houle-Johnson, Stephanie; Herbert, Christophe; El-Hage, Wissam; Brunet, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the psychometric properties of a French version of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and to further validate the existing English version of the measure. Undergraduate students (n = 838 English, n = 262 French) completed the PCL-5 as well as other self-report symptom measures of PTSD and depression online. Both the English and French versions PCL-5 total scores demonstrated excellent internal consistency (English: α = .95; French: α = .94), and strong convergent and divergent validity. Strong internal consistency was also observed for each of the four subscales for each version (α’s > .79). Test-retest reliability for the French version of the measure was also very good (r = .89). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the four-factor DSM-5 model was not a good fit of the data. The seven-factor hybrid model best fit the data in each sample, but was only marginally superior to the six-factor anhedonia model. The French version of the PCL-5 demonstrated the same psychometric qualities as both the English version of the same measure and previous versions of the PCL. Thus clinicians serving French-speaking clients now have access to this highly used screening instrument. With regards to the structural validity of the PCL-5 and of the new PTSD diagnostic structure of the DSM-5, additional research is warranted. Replication of our results in clinical samples is much needed. PMID:27723815

  13. Psychometric Validation of the English and French Versions of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5).

    PubMed

    Ashbaugh, Andrea R; Houle-Johnson, Stephanie; Herbert, Christophe; El-Hage, Wissam; Brunet, Alain

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the psychometric properties of a French version of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5), a self-report measure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and to further validate the existing English version of the measure. Undergraduate students (n = 838 English, n = 262 French) completed the PCL-5 as well as other self-report symptom measures of PTSD and depression online. Both the English and French versions PCL-5 total scores demonstrated excellent internal consistency (English: α = .95; French: α = .94), and strong convergent and divergent validity. Strong internal consistency was also observed for each of the four subscales for each version (α's > .79). Test-retest reliability for the French version of the measure was also very good (r = .89). Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the four-factor DSM-5 model was not a good fit of the data. The seven-factor hybrid model best fit the data in each sample, but was only marginally superior to the six-factor anhedonia model. The French version of the PCL-5 demonstrated the same psychometric qualities as both the English version of the same measure and previous versions of the PCL. Thus clinicians serving French-speaking clients now have access to this highly used screening instrument. With regards to the structural validity of the PCL-5 and of the new PTSD diagnostic structure of the DSM-5, additional research is warranted. Replication of our results in clinical samples is much needed.

  14. Disenfranchised Grief and Physician Burnout.

    PubMed

    Lathrop, Deborah

    2017-07-01

    Over the span of their career, physicians experience changes to their professional role and professional identity. The process of continual adaptation in their work setting incurs losses. These losses can be ambiguous, cumulative, and may require grieving. Grief in the workplace is unsanctioned, and may contribute to physicians' experience of burnout (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, low sense of achievement). Acknowledging loss, validating grief, and being prescient in dealing with physician burnout is essential. © 2017 Annals of Family Medicine, Inc.

  15. Anticipatory Grief: A Mere Concept?

    PubMed

    Moon, Paul J

    2016-06-01

    Anticipatory grief (AG) has been studied, debated, and written about for several decades. This type of grief is also recognized in hospice and palliative care (HPC). The question, however, is whether the reality of AG is sufficiently upheld by professionals at the point of concrete service delivery. In other words, is AG a mere concept or is everyday practice of HPC duly informed of AG as evidenced by the resulting care delivery? © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Factor structure and psychometric properties of the revised Home Situations Questionnaire for autism spectrum disorder: The Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Monali; Aman, Michael G; Lecavalier, Luc; Smith, Tristram; Johnson, Cynthia; Swiezy, Naomi; McCracken, James T; King, Bryan; McDougle, Christopher J; Bearss, Karen; Deng, Yanhong; Scahill, Lawrence

    2016-07-01

    Previously, we adapted the Home Situations Questionnaire to measure behavioral non-compliance in everyday settings in children with pervasive developmental disorders. In this study, we further revised this instrument for use in autism spectrum disorder and examined its psychometric properties (referred to as the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder). To cover a broader range of situations and improve reliability, we prepared seven new items describing situations in which children with autism spectrum disorder might display non-compliance. Parents completed ratings of 242 children with autism spectrum disorder with accompanying disruptive behaviors (ages 4-14 years) participating in one of two randomized clinical trials. Results from an exploratory factor analysis indicated that the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder consists of two 12-item factors: Socially Inflexible (α = 0.84) and Demand Specific (α = 0.89). One-to-two-week test-retest reliability was statistically significant for all scored items and also for subscale totals. The pattern of correspondence between the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder and parent-rated problem behavior, clinician-rated repetitive behavior, adaptive behavior, and IQ provided evidence for concurrent and divergent validity of the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder. Overall, the results suggest that the Home Situations Questionnaire-Autism Spectrum Disorder is an adequate measure for assessing non-compliance in a variety of situations in this population, and use of its two subscales will likely provide a more refined interpretation of ratings.

  17. Psychometric Properties of a Self-Report Instrument for the Assessment of Tic Severity in Adults With Tic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Abramovitch, Amitai; Reese, Hannah; Woods, Douglas W; Peterson, Alan; Deckersbach, Thilo; Piacentini, John; Scahill, Lawrence; Wilhelm, Sabine

    2015-11-01

    The gold-standard measure of tic severity in tic disorders (TD), the Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS), is a semistructured clinician-administered interview that can be time consuming and requires highly trained interviewers. Moreover, the YGTSS does not provide information regarding frequency and intensity of specific tics because all motor and all vocal tics are rated as a group. The aim of the present study is to describe and test the Adult Tic Questionnaire (ATQ), a measure for the assessment of tic severity in adults, and to report its preliminary psychometric properties. The ATQ is a brief self-report questionnaire that provides information regarding frequency, intensity, and severity of 27 specific tics. In addition, the ATQ produces total frequency, intensity, and severity scores for vocal and motor tics, as well as a global total tic severity score. Results showed that the ATQ demonstrated very good internal consistency and temporal stability. The total, vocal, and motor tic severity scales of the ATQ showed strong correlation with corresponding subscales of the YGTSS, indicating strong convergent validity. Weak correlations with measures of severity of obsessive-compulsive disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, indicated strong discriminant validity. The ATQ, a promising measure for the assessment of tic severity in adults with TD, may be a valuable supplement to the current recommended assessment battery for TD. Furthermore, the ATQ enables clinicians and researchers to track changes in the frequency and intensity of specific tics, which is important given their complex and dynamic nature.

  18. An Initial Psychometric Evaluation of the CBCL 6–18 in a Sample of Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Pandolfi, Vincent; Magyar, Caroline I.; Dill, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often present with co-occurring emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). The Child Behavior Checklist 6–18 (CBCL; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) is an EBD measure that contains several norm-referenced scales derived through factor analysis of data from the general pediatric population. The psychometric properties of this widely used and well-researched measure have not been evaluated in samples of youth with ASD. This study evaluated the CBCL’s internal structure, scale reliability, criterion-related validity, and diagnostic accuracy using archival data from a well-characterized sample of youth with ASD (N = 122). Confirmatory factor analyses supported the unidimensionality of the CBCL’s syndrome scales and its Internalizing-Externalizing factor structure. Significance tests indicated that many scales discriminated between two subgroups: a group of individuals with ASD+EBD and a group with ASD alone. Diagnostic accuracy analyses indicated that the CBCL had good sensitivity but low specificity for detecting co-occurring disorders. Results supported the use of the CBCL in conjunction with other clinical data when assessing for EBD in youth with ASD. PMID:22059091

  19. Tlaxcalan constructions of acute grief.

    PubMed

    Fabrega, H; Nutini, H

    1994-12-01

    In rural Tlaxcala, Mexico, the sudden and unexpected death of infants and young children was a relatively common occurrence during the time when this study was conducted. Not surprisingly, the deaths constituted major social tragedies and operated as psychological traumas to the family, especially the parents. Acute grief reactions inevitably resulted and these were suffused with bodily and psychological disturbances of different types, some of which were handled in the society as illness. The article grows out of a longitudinal study about these tragedies to families of the region. Attention is given to the grief reactions of parents, with special emphasis placed on psychological and behavioral manifestations. Of particular interest is the way local, cultural symbols pertaining to the cause of the deaths, which involved the malevolent attack of blood-sucking witches, were configured in the verbalizations and behavioral reactions that comprised the grief reactions. Details of the way symbols entered into the construction of meaningful accounts of the tragedies during the ordeal of the grief reactions are discussed and analyzed. Although the manifestations of grief could be said to have clinical, psychiatric implications, it is the way these manifestations served to explain the tragedies, in the process regulating and restoring social relations, that is given principal attention. A description of one mother's grief reaction is provided as a case illustration.

  20. Themes of grief.

    PubMed

    Carter, S L

    1989-01-01

    A thematic analysis of 30 narrative accounts of bereavement revealed nine themes that included five core themes in bereavement--being stopped, hurting, missing, holding, and seeking; three meta-themes about bereavement--change, expectations, and inexpressibility; and a contextual theme--personal history. The themes were compared with three theoretical perspectives on bereavement by Freud, Kübler-Ross, and one defined as existential-phenomenological. Features of bereavement that are dissimilar or unaddressed by the theoretical perspectives were: (a) the quality of grief's changing character, including "waves" and intense pain which may be triggered years after the death; (b) holding, an individual process of preserving the fact and meaning of the loved one's existence; (c) expectations, both social and personal, as to how the bereaved should be overlaying the experience; and (d) the critical importance of personal history in affecting the quality and meaning of individual bereavement.

  1. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Preschool Children: Examining Psychometric Properties Using Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Clear and empirically supported diagnostic symptoms are important for proper diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. Unfortunately, the symptoms of many disorders presented in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) lack sufficient psychometric…

  2. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Preschool Children: Examining Psychometric Properties Using Item Response Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purpura, David J.; Wilson, Shauna B.; Lonigan, Christopher J.

    2010-01-01

    Clear and empirically supported diagnostic symptoms are important for proper diagnosis and treatment of psychological disorders. Unfortunately, the symptoms of many disorders presented in the "Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders" (4th ed., text rev.; DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) lack sufficient psychometric…

  3. Impact of obesity on the psychometric properties of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Zimmerman, Mark; Hrabosky, Joshua I; Francione, Caren; Young, Diane; Chelminski, Iwona; Dalrymple, Kristy; Galione, Janine N

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is associated with several symptoms that are components of the diagnostic criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). Compared with nonobese individuals, obese individuals report more fatigue, sleep disturbance, and overeating. Obesity might, therefore, impact the psychometric properties of the MDD criteria. The goal of the present report from the Rhode Island Hospital Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services project was to examine the impact of obesity on the psychometric characteristics of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition symptom criteria for major depression. Two thousand four hundred forty-eight psychiatric outpatients were administered a semistructured diagnostic interview. We inquired about all symptoms of depression for all patients. The mean sensitivity of the 9 criteria in the nonobese and obese patients was nearly identical (74.6% vs 74.3%). The mean specificity was slightly higher in the nonobese patients (82.0% vs 79.5%). No symptom was more specific in the obese than the nonobese patients, whereas the specificity of increased appetite, increased weight, and fatigue was more than 5% lower in the obese patients. Increased appetite, increased weight, hypersomnia, and fatigue had a higher sensitivity in the obese than the nonobese patients, whereas decreased appetite, weight loss, and diminished concentration had a higher sensitivity in the nonobese than the obese patients. Thus, although there were small differences between obese and nonobese patients in the operating characteristics of some symptoms, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria for MDD generally performed equally well for obese and nonobese patients.

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Consensus Sleep Diary in Those With Insomnia Disorder.

    PubMed

    Maich, Kristin H G; Lachowski, Angela M; Carney, Colleen E

    2016-05-27

    The Consensus Sleep Diary (CSD) is a standardized, prospective tool for tracking nightly subjective sleep. The current study evaluated the validity and utility of the CSD, with consideration for challenges inherent to psychometric evaluation of diary measures. Results showed that the CSD indices differentiated good sleepers from those with insomnia and were associated with similar objective indices and a subjective insomnia severity measure. The ability to detect treatment improvements after cognitive behavior therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) was tested by comparing pre- and post-CBT-I CSD indices with a subjective rating of insomnia symptom severity. Improvement in insomnia symptom severity was significantly related to improvement on the CSD indices. Completion rate of the CSD amongst participants across all 14 days was 99.8%. These findings provide support for the validity, clinical utility, and usability of the CSD.

  5. Psychometric evaluation of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder Screener GAD-7, based on a large German general population sample.

    PubMed

    Hinz, Andreas; Klein, Annette M; Brähler, Elmar; Glaesmer, Heide; Luck, Tobias; Riedel-Heller, Steffi G; Wirkner, Kerstin; Hilbert, Anja

    2017-03-01

    The Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scales GAD-7 and GAD-2 are instruments for the assessment of anxiety. The aims of this study are to test psychometric properties of these questionnaires, to provide normative values, and to investigate associations with sociodemographic factors, quality of life, psychological variables, and behavioral factors. A German community sample (n=9721) with an age range of 18-80 years was surveyed using the GAD-7 and several other questionnaires. Confirmatory factor analyses confirmed the unidimensionality and measurement invariance of the GAD-7 across age and gender. Females were more anxious than males (mean scores: M=4.07 vs. M=3.01; effect size: d=0.33). There was no linear age trend. A total of 5.9% fulfilled the cut-off criterion of 10 and above. Anxiety was correlated with low quality of life, fatigue, low habitual optimism, physical complaints, sleep problems, low life satisfaction, low social support, low education, unemployment, and low income. Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption were also associated with heightened anxiety, especially in women. When comparing the GAD-7 (7 items) with the ultra-short GAD-2 (2 items), the GAD-7 instrument was superior to the GAD-2 regarding several psychometric criteria. The response rate (33%) was low. Because of the cross-sectional character of the study, causal conclusions cannot be drawn. A further limitation is the lack of a gold standard for diagnosing anxiety. The GAD-7 can be recommended for use in clinical research and routine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Grief, Bereavement, and Coping with Loss (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Caregiver Questions to Ask about Advanced Cancer Research Grief, Bereavement, and Coping With Loss (PDQ®)–Patient Version Overview ... a resource to help caregivers of cancer patients. Bereavement and Grief Key Points Bereavement is the period ...

  7. Psychometric properties of the Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score for Children (KOOS-Child) in children with knee disorders.

    PubMed

    Ortqvist, Maria; Iversen, Maura D; Janarv, Per-Mats; Broström, Eva W; Roos, Ewa M

    2014-10-01

    The Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) is a self-administered valid and reliable questionnaire for adults with joint injury or degenerative disease. Recent data indicate a lack of comprehensibility when this is used with children. Thus, a preliminary KOOS-Child was developed. This study aims to evaluate psychometric properties of the final KOOS-Child when used in children with knee disorders. 115 children (boys/girls 51/64, 7-16 years) with knee disorders were recruited. All children (n=115) completed the KOOS-Child, the Child-Health Assessment Questionnaire (CHAQ) and the EQ-5D-Youth version (EQ-5D-Y) at baseline to evaluate construct validity. Two additional administrations (1-3 weeks and 3 months) were performed for analyses of reliability (internal consistency and test-retest; n=72) and responsiveness (n=91). An anchor-based approach was used to evaluate responsiveness and interpretability. After item reduction, the final KOOS-Child consists of 39 items divided into five subscales. No floor or ceiling effects (≤15%) were found. An exploratory factor analysis on subscale level demonstrated that items in all subscales except for Symptoms loaded on one factor (Eigenvalues 3.1-5.5, Symptom: 2 factors, Eigenvalue >1). Sufficient homogeneity was found for all subscales (Cronbach's α = 0.80-0.90) except for the Symptoms subscale (α = 0.59). Test-retest reliability was substantial to excellent for all subscales (Intraclass Correlation Coefficient 0.78-0.91, Smallest Detectable Change (SDC)ind 14.6-22.6, SDCgroup 1.7-2.7). Construct validity was confirmed, and greater effect sizes were seen in those reporting improved clinical status. Minimal important changes greater than the SDCs were found for patients reporting to be better and much better. The final KOOS-Child demonstrates good psychometric properties and supports the use of the KOOS-Child when evaluating children with knee disorders. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited

  8. Psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) in children with anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Alicia A; Kendall, Philip C

    2009-09-01

    This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Positive and Negative Affect Scale for Children (PANAS-C) (Laurent et al. Psychol Asses 1: 326-338, 1999) in a sample of 139 children (ages 7-14 years) diagnosed with a principal anxiety disorder. Results from this study provided support for the convergent validity of the PANAS-C with established measures of childhood anxiety and depression. As predicted, negative affect was significantly associated with measures of anxiety and depression whereas positive affect was associated with depression. However, weaknesses in discriminant validity were found, most notably with regard to social anxiety. Consistent with previous research, social anxiety was significantly associated with low levels of positive affect (PA). Furthermore, results from regression analyses indicated that PA made a significant unique contribution to the prediction of social anxiety as well as depression scores. Findings are discussed with regard to the usefulness of the PANAS-C to differentiate anxiety and depression in children with anxiety disorders.

  9. Content and psychometric evaluations of questionnaires for assessing physical function in people with neck disorders: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wiitavaara, Birgitta; Heiden, Marina

    2017-06-02

    The purpose was to investigate how physical function is assessed in people with musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) in the neck. Specifically, we aimed to determine: (1) Which questionnaires are used to assess physical function in people with MSD in the neck? (2) What do those questionnaires measure? (3) What are the measurement properties of the questionnaires? A systematic review was performed to identify questionnaires and psychometric evaluations. The content of the questionnaires was categorized according to the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health, and the psychometric properties were quality-rated using the COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments checklist. Ten questionnaires and 32 articles evaluating measurement properties were analyzed. Most questionnaires covered only the components body functions and activity and participation, more often activity participation than body function. Internal consistency was adequate in most questionnaires, whereas responsiveness was generally low. Neck Disability Index was most evaluated, but the evaluations of all questionnaires tended to cover most properties in the checklist. The questionnaires differed substantially in items and extent to which their psychometric properties had been evaluated. Focus of measurement was on activities in daily life rather than physical function as such. Implications for Rehabilitation To provide early diagnostics and effective treatment for patients with neck disorders, valid and reliable instruments that measure relevant aspects of the disorders are needed. This paper presents an overview of content and quality of questionnaires used to assess physical function in neck disorders, which may facilitate informed decisions about which measurement instruments to use when evaluating the course of neck disorders. Most of the questionnaires need more testing to judge the quality, however the NDI was the most frequently tested

  10. Report on Bereavement and Grief Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Genevro, Janice L.

    2004-01-01

    Research on bereavement and grief has burgeoned in the past 20 years, with the publication of scores of research reports, reviews, and compendia. This report therefore serves as a road map to information identified in that time period as critical to understanding advances in research on bereavement and grief, with a focus on grief and health. It…

  11. Psychometric properties of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale in patients with gambling disorders, hypersexuality, and methamphetamine dependence.

    PubMed

    Reid, Rory C; Cyders, Melissa A; Moghaddam, Jacquelene F; Fong, Timothy W

    2014-11-01

    Although the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS; Patton, Stanford, & Barratt, 1995) is a widely-used self-report measure of impulsivity, there have been numerous questions about the invariance of the factor structure across clinical populations (Haden & Shiva, 2008, 2009; Ireland & Archer, 2008). The goal of this article is to examine the factor structure of the BIS among a sample consisting of three populations exhibiting addictive behaviors and impulsivity: pathological gamblers, hypersexual patients, and individuals seeking treatment for methamphetamine dependence to determine if modification to the existing factors might improve the psychometric properties of the BIS. The current study found that the factor structure of the BIS does not replicate in this sample and instead produces a 12-item three-factor solution consisting of motor-impulsiveness (5 items), non-planning impulsiveness (3 items), and immediacy impulsiveness (4 items). The clinical utility of the BIS in this population is questionable. The authors suggest future studies to investigate comparisons with this modified version of the BIS and other impulsivity scales such as the UPPS-P Impulsive Behavior Scale in clinical populations when assessing disposition toward rash action. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Traumatic grief and traumatic stress in survivors 12 years after the genocide in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Mutabaruka, Jean; Séjourné, Nathalène; Bui, Eric; Birmes, Philippe; Chabrol, Henri

    2012-10-01

    The relationship between exposure to traumatic events and traumatic grief and the role of mediating and moderating variables [peritraumatic distress, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and symptoms of depression] were studied in survivors of the genocide of Batutsi in Rwanda in 1994. One hundred and two survivors (70 women, mean age 45 ± 7.53 years) participated in this retrospective study. All of them had lost a member of their family. The severity of traumatic exposure (Comprehensive Trauma Inventory), peritraumatic distress (Peritraumatic Distress Inventory), current PTSD symptoms (PTSD Checklist), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory) and traumatic grief symptoms (Inventory of Traumatic Grief) was evaluated. A hierarchical multiple regression analysis was then conducted to examine the relative contribution of each variable to the symptoms of traumatic grief. The severity of traumatic exposure was related to traumatic grief symptoms (B=0.06, R=0.6, R(2) =0.36 and ß=0.6, t=7.54, p=0.00). The Baron and Kenny procedure (1986) (including three separate regressions), along with the Sobel test, was used to test mediation effects. Peritraumatic distress and PTSD symptoms may be mediating variables between traumatic exposure and traumatic grief. Traumatic grief is a complex but assessable entity, where previous distress and suffering result from both psychological trauma and the loss of a loved one.

  13. Preliminary evaluation of psychometric properties of the Finnish Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index: Oulu-BPD-Study.

    PubMed

    Leppänen, Virpi; Lindeman, Sari; Arntz, Arnoud; Hakko, Helinä

    2013-10-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe disorder decreasing the functional ability of the patient and places an extensive burden on the healthcare system. There is a need for a reliable and valid instrument with which unstable recent BPD symptoms can be assessed in a short-term perspective, and which is applicable for clinical evaluations and treatment-outcome research. We evaluated the psychometric properties of the Borderline Personality Disorder Severity Index IV (BPDSI-IV) interview in a sample of Finnish BPD patients. Our study is a part of the randomized, monocentre Oulu-BPD trial, which compares the effectiveness of treatment by experts with treatment as usual. Patients (n = 71) were enrolled in a 2-year randomized controlled trial. The BPDSI-IV was used to assess recent manifestations of BPD. The internal consistency of the BPDSI-IV in the Finnish patient sample was analysed with Cronbach's alpha coefficient and mean item-total correlation. Discriminant validity was examined by comparing the Finnish BPD patient sample with the Dutch BPD patient and non-patient samples. The Cronbach's alphas ranged from 0.58 to 0.79 being highest in Dissociation and lowest in Relationships. A total of five subscales out of nine exceeded the acceptable limit (≥ 0.70). With respect to mean item-total correlation, seven out of nine subscales had an acceptable correlation ≥ 0.30. The BPDSI-IV interview was applied for the first time in a Finnish sample of BPD patients. It appears to be a useful instrument for measuring and following the severity and the change of symptoms of patients with BPD.

  14. Psychometric Properties of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) in Public First Responders.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Hyeonseok S; Park, Shinwon; Lim, Soo Mee; Ma, Jiyoung; Kang, Ilhyang; Kim, Jungyoon; Kim, Eui-Jung; Choi, Yejee J; Lim, Jae-Ho; Chung, Yong-An; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Yoon, Sujung; Kim, Jieun E

    2017-03-21

    Problematic alcohol consumption is prevalent among first responders because alcohol is commonly used to cope with occupational stress and frequent exposure to traumatic incidents, making them an at-risk population for alcohol use disorders (AUD). This study investigated the psychometric properties of the Korean version of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption (AUDIT-C) among public first responders. The Structured Clinical Interview for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV-Text Revision (SCID), AUDIT-C, AUDIT, and CAGE were administered to 222 public first responders, who were recruited by convenience sampling. One-week test-retest reliability was evaluated in a subsample (n = 24). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses were conducted to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and estimate the optimal cut-off scores for any AUD and alcohol dependence. Three different analytic criteria were utilized to calculate the cut-off scores. The AUDIT-C demonstrated good test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient for test-retest reliability = 0.91) and satisfactory convergent validity. The areas under the ROC curves for any AUD and alcohol dependence of the AUDIT-C were 0.87 and 0.93, respectively. For any AUD, all three criteria suggested a cut-off score of 7.5 (sensitivity = 81.8%, specificity = 79.8%), whereas for alcohol dependence, a cut-off score of 8.5 (sensitivity = 85.7%, specificity = 86.1%) was derived from two criteria. In conclusion, the AUDIT-C demonstrated good reliability and validity and proved to be a brief and effective screening test for AUD among first responders.

  15. Psychometric comparison of the generalized anxiety disorder scale-7 and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire for measuring response during treatment of generalised anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Dear, Blake F; Titov, Nickolai; Sunderland, Matthew; McMillan, Dean; Anderson, Tracy; Lorian, Carolyn; Robinson, Emma

    2011-01-01

    The Penn State Worry Questionnaire (PSWQ) is a widely used measure of the worry characteristic of generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). The 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7) is a new brief screening tool for GAD, which is being increasingly used in research and clinical practice. The present study sought to provide comparison data on the relative psychometric properties of these two scales. The data of 195 adults who met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for GAD and who participated in two randomised treatment controlled trials were used. Factor analyses, internal consistency, correlational analyses, responsiveness to change, and agreement between the scales based on indentified clinical cutoffs were conducted. Factor analyses confirmed a one-factor structure for the GAD-7 and a three-factor structure involving two method factors for the PSWQ. Both the GAD-7 and the PSWQ demonstrated adequate internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha: .79-.91 and .86-.91, respectively), and moderate correlations (r = .51-.71) were observed between the scales across the treatment time points. The scales exhibited small correlations with the Sheehan Disability Scale at pretreatment (GAD-7 r = .38; PSWQ r = .26), but moderate correlations at posttreatment and follow-up (r = .59-.79). Agreement between the scales was limited using various clinical cutoffs identified within the literature. Both measures were sensitive to change, although the GAD-7 appeared to be more sensitive and may, therefore, confer some advantages in clinical work.

  16. Perinatal grief and mourning.

    PubMed

    Menke, J A; McClead, R E

    1990-01-01

    The grief and mourning that parents experience following a perinatal loss is as devastating as the loss of an older loved one. The pattern of mourning can be anticipated and interventions can be implemented. With proper help, the parents can pass through this catastrophic time in their lives with a minimum of scars. If the physician stops, reaches out, listens, and supports the parents, he or she can have a dramatic effect on the lives of these parents. In the same manner in which we started this paper, we close with a quotation from another parent who suffered a loss: Daughters may die, But why? For even daughters can't live with half a heart. Three days isn't much a life. But long enough to remember thin blue lips, uneven gasps in incubators, Racking breaths that cause a pain to those who watched. Long enough to remember I never held her Or felt her softness Or counted her toes. I didn't even know the color of her eyes. Dead paled hands not quite covered by the gown she Was to go home in. Moist earth smell. One small casket. And the tears. You see, I hold in my hand but souvenirs of an occasion. A sheet of paper filled with statistics, A certificate with smudged footprints, A tiny bracelet engraved "Girl, Smith." You say that you are sorry That you know how I feel. But you can't know because I don't feel. Not yet.

  17. Complicated grief after perinatal loss.

    PubMed

    Kersting, Anette; Wagner, Birgit

    2012-06-01

    The loss of an infant through stillbirth, miscarriage, or neonatal death is recognized as a traumatic life event. Predictors of development of complicated grief after prenatal loss include lack of social support, pre-existing relationship difficulties, or absence of surviving children, as well as ambivalent attitudes or heightened perception of the reality of the pregnancy. Risk of complicated grief was found to be especially high after termination of a pregnancy due to fetal abnormality. Studies have revealed that men and women show different patterns of grief, potentially exacerbating decline in a relationship. Although it is clear that prenatal loss has a large psychological impact, it is concluded that there is a substantial lack of randomized controlled studies in this field of research.

  18. A concept analysis of nurses' grief.

    PubMed

    Wisekal, Ashley E

    2015-10-01

    The psychological and personal well-being of nurses can change the way they care for patients. If nurses' grief is not properly managed, the nursing shortage will continue to grow. Consequently, a need exists for the identification of nurses' grief and effective interventions to manage grief to ensure the successful development and growth of the nursing profession. This concept analysis sought to properly define nurses' grief and the role it plays in the day-to-day requirements of nurses. A review of the literature was conducted using CINAHL®, BioMed, EBSCOhost, and MEDLINE® and the following key words. Nurses' grief must be incorporated into the nursing curriculum and addressed by employers. In particular, facility leaders should help promote a healthy work environment and address the need for proper grief management. Educators, managers, and nurses can benefit from acknowledging the current gap in managing nurses' grief.

  19. Motives for online gaming questionnaire: Its psychometric properties and correlation with Internet gaming disorder symptoms among Chinese people.

    PubMed

    Wu, Anise M S; Lai, Mark H C; Yu, Shu; Lau, Joseph T F; Lei, Man-Wai

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims Internet gaming disorder (IGD) imposes a potential public health threat worldwide. Gaming motives are potentially salient factors of IGD, but research on Chinese gaming motives is scarce. This study empirically evaluated the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire (C-MOGQ), the first inventory that measures seven different gaming motives applicable to all type of online games. We also investigated the associations between various gaming motives and IGD symptoms among Chinese gamers. Methods Three hundred and eighty-three Chinese adult online gamers (Mean age = 23.7 years) voluntarily completed our online, anonymous survey in December 2015. Results The confirmatory factor analysis results supported a bi-factor model with a general factor subsuming all C-MOGQ items (General Motivation) and seven uncorrelated domain-specific factors (Escape, Coping, Fantasy, Skill Development, Recreation, Competition, and Social). High internal consistencies of the overall scale and subscales were observed. The criterion-related validity of this Chinese version was also supported by the positive correlations of C-MOGQ scale scores with psychological need satisfaction and time spent gaming. Furthermore, we found that high General Motivation (coupled with high Escape motive and low Skill Development motive) was associated with more IGD symptoms reported by our Chinese participants. Discussion and conclusions Our findings demonstrated the utility of C-MOGQ in measuring gaming motives of Chinese online gamers, and we recommend the consideration of both its total score and subscale scores in future studies.

  20. Psychometric properties of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in Brazilian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Isolan, Luciano; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Osowski, Andrea Tochetto; Amaro, Estácio; Manfro, Gisele Gus

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED) in a large community sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. A total of 2410 students completed the 41-item Brazilian-Portuguese version of the SCARED. The one-factor and the five-factor structure of the SCARED fit this sample well. However, the five-factor model had a significantly better fit than the one-factor model and an adequate fit for age and gender subgroups. Anxiety symptoms in Brazilian youth were reported at a moderate-high level as compared to other studies. Females were found to score significantly higher on the total score and on all of the subscales as compared to the males. The total score and each of the five factors for both children and adolescents showed good internal consistency, test-retest and construct validity. According to our findings the Brazilian-Portuguese version of the SCARED is a reliable and valid instrument to assess anxiety in Brazilian children and adolescents.

  1. Sensitivity to the prototype in children with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder: An example of Bayesian cognitive psychometrics.

    PubMed

    Voorspoels, Wouter; Rutten, Isa; Bartlema, Annelies; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Vanpaemel, Wolf

    2017-03-13

    We present a case study of hierarchical Bayesian explanatory cognitive psychometrics, examining information processing characteristics of individuals with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD). On the basis of previously published data, we compare the classification behavior of a group of children with HFASD with that of typically developing (TD) controls using a computational model of categorization. The parameters in the model reflect characteristics of information processing that are theoretically related to HFASD. Because we expect individual differences in the model's parameters, as well as differences between HFASD and TD children, we use a hierarchical explanatory approach. A first analysis suggests that children with HFASD are less sensitive to the prototype. A second analysis, involving a mixture component, reveals that the computational model is not appropriate for a subgroup of participants, which implies parameter estimates are not informative for these children. Focusing only on the children for whom the prototype model is appropriate, no clear difference in sensitivity between HFASD and TD children is inferred.

  2. The Psychometric Properties of the Iowa Personality Disorder Screen in Methadone-Maintained Patients: An Initial Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Beitel, Mark; Peters, Skye; Savant, Jonathan D.; Cutter, Christopher J.; Cecero, John J.; Barry, Declan T.

    2012-01-01

    The psychometric properties of the Iowa Personality Disorder Screen (IPDS) were examined in 150 methadone-maintained patients who completed measures of demographic, psychopathology, substance use, pain, and methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) characteristics. An exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor solution that explained 45 percent of the scale variance. The first factor captured internalizing tendencies, such as inhibition and hypersensitivity to others. The second factor comprised externalizing tendencies, such as impulsivity and insensitivity to others. The IPDS item subsets, derived factors, and the total score were significantly related to race/ethnicity but not sex. The effects of race/ethnicity were controlled statistically when the IPDS was compared to other measures of psychopathology, self-reported substance use, pain variables, and MMT characteristics. In general, the IPDS appears to be reliable and valid for use with methadone-maintained patients. The two-factor structure found in this study may have clinical utility and merits further investigation in other MMT samples. PMID:23398100

  3. How do researchers conceive of spousal grief after cancer? A systematic review of models used by researchers to study spousal grief in the cancer context.

    PubMed

    Fasse, Léonor; Sultan, Serge; Flahault, Cécile; Mackinnon, Christopher J; Dolbeault, Sylvie; Brédart, Anne

    2014-02-01

    Although spouses bereaved after cancer are considered vulnerable people, there have been few empirical studies to explore grief specifically in this context. Using PsycINFO, Medline, and the PRISMA statement, we systematically searched the literature by intersecting 'cancer' and 'grie*', 'cancer' and 'bereave*', and 'cancer' and 'mourn*'. Gathering 76 studies (2000-2013) that met the inclusion criteria for bereavement in adulthood, bereavement of an adult loved one and evidence-based research, we found the following: Spousal relationships are not systematically examined in the current dominant models of grief. Theoretically derived determinants of spousal grief after cancer and empirically derived ones converge toward the necessity to include the caregiving experience as determining grief reactions. A growing body of literature concerning prolonged grief disorders now provides integrative reflections regarding the characteristics of spousal loss, predictors, and associated therapeutic interventions in the cancer context. Few empirical studies (20 of 76) target spousal bereavement specifically after cancer. The process of adaptation to loss is usually decontextualized, removing any consideration of the relationship to the deceased or the experience of caregiving and dying. Our findings suggest that this topic warrants more studies that use both prospective and mixed methodologies, as well as explore typical grief needs and experiences of bereaved spouses. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. THE STRUCTURED CLINICAL INTERVIEW FOR COMPLICATED GRIEF: RELIABILITY, VALIDITY, AND EXPLORATORY FACTOR ANALYSIS.

    PubMed

    Bui, Eric; Mauro, Christine; Robinaugh, Donald J; Skritskaya, Natalia A; Wang, Yuanjia; Gribbin, Colleen; Ghesquiere, Angela; Horenstein, Arielle; Duan, Naihua; Reynolds, Charles; Zisook, Sidney; Simon, Naomi M; Shear, M Katherine

    2015-07-01

    Complicated grief (CG) has been recently included in the DSM-5, under the term "persistent complex bereavement disorder," as a condition requiring further study. To our knowledge, no psychometric data on any structured clinical interview for CG (SCI-CG) is available to date. In this manuscript, we introduce the SCI-CG, a 31-item "SCID-like" clinician-administered instrument to assess the presence of CG symptoms. Participants were 281 treatment-seeking adults with CG (77.9% [n = 219] women, mean age = 52.4, standard deviation [SD] = 17.8) who were assessed with the SCI-CG and measures of depression, posttraumatic stress, anxiety, functional impairment. The SCI-CG exhibited satisfactory internal consistency (α = .78), good test-retest reliability (interclass correlation [ICC] 0.68, 95% CI [0.60-0.75]), and excellent interrater reliability (ICC = 0.95, 95% CI [0.89-0.98]). Exploratory factor analyses revealed that a five-factor structure, explaining 50.3% of the total variance, was the best fit for the data. The clinician-rated SCI-CG demonstrates good internal consistency, reliability, and convergent validity in treatment-seeking individuals with CG and therefore can be a useful tool to assess CG. Although diagnostic criteria for CG have yet to be adequately validated, the SCI-CG may facilitate this process. The SCI-CG can now be used as a validated instrument in research and clinical practice. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. A psychometric investigation of gender differences and common processes across borderline and antisocial personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Chun, Seokjoon; Harris, Alexa; Carrion, Margely; Rojas, Elizabeth; Stark, Stephen; Lejuez, Carl; Lechner, William V; Bornovalova, Marina A

    2017-01-01

    The comorbidity between borderline personality disorder (BPD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is well-established, and the 2 disorders share many similarities. However, there are also differences across disorders: most notably, BPD is diagnosed more frequently in women and ASPD in men. We investigated if (a) comorbidity between BPD and ASPD is attributable to 2 discrete disorders or the expression of common underlying processes, and (b) if the model of comorbidity is true across sex. Using a clinical sample of 1,400 drug users in residential substance abuse treatment, we tested 3 competing models to explore whether the comorbidity of ASPD and BPD should be represented by a single common factor, 2 correlated factors, or a bifactor structure involving a general and disorder-specific factors. Next, we tested whether our resulting model was meaningful by examining its relationship with criterion variables previously reported to be associated with BPD and ASPD. The bifactor model provided the best fit and was invariant across sex. Overall, the general factor of the bifactor model significantly accounted for a large percentage of the variance in criterion variables, whereas the BPD and AAB specific factors added little to the models. The association of the general and specific factor with all criterion variables was equal for men and women. Our results suggest common underlying vulnerability accounts for both the comorbidity between BPD and AAB (across sex), and this common vulnerability drives the association with other psychopathology and maladaptive behavior. This in turn has implications for diagnostic classification systems and treatment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Exploration of dimensionality and psychometric properties of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index in cases with temporomandibular disorders

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study assessed the dimensional structure of sleep quality with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and investigated its psychometric properties in cases with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). Methods A convenience sample of 609 TMD cases (age: 37.1 ± 13.1 yrs, 18–67 yrs, 85% female) of the multi-center Validation Project meeting Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD) and with sufficient PSQI data were included in this study. To investigate PSQI scores’ dimensionality, exploratory factor analysis was used. Factors were identified using the Scree plot. To investigate internal consistency, Cronbach’s alpha was calculated. Analyses were separately performed for TMD cases with (N = 496) and TMD cases withouta pain-related diagnosis (N = 113). Results The mean PSQI score for all TMD cases was 7.1 ± 4.0 units, range: 0–19. The exploratory factor analysis identified one factor for cases with at least one pain-related TMD diagnosis as well as one factor for cases with a pain-free TMD diagnosis that explained 41% of the variance in cases with pain-related TMD and 37% in cases with pain-free TMD. Internal consistency for PSQI scores was alpha of 0.75 in cases with pain-related TMD, alpha of 0.66 in cases with pain-free TMD and alpha = 0.75 for all TMD cases. Conclusions Sleep quality in TMD patients is a unidimensional construct and can therefore be represented by one summary score; a finding that is in line with previous reports in TMD patients. PMID:24443942

  7. Psychometric Properties of the Korean Version of the Clinical Language Disorder Rating Scale (CLANG)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seon-Cheol; Jang, Eun Young; Lee, Kang Uk; Lee, Jung Goo; Lee, Hwa-Young; Choi, Joonho

    2016-01-01

    Objective Our study aimed to measure inter-rater and test-retest reliability, concurrent and convergent validity, and factor solutions of the Korean version of the Clinical Language Disorder Rating Scale (CLANG). Methods The Korean version of the CLANG for assessing thought, language, and communication, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale, and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia were used to evaluate language disorder, formal thought disorder, positive and negative symptoms, manic symptoms, and depressive symptoms, respectively, in 167 hospitalized patients with schizophrenia. The factor solution was obtained by the direct oblimin method. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to find the optimal cut-off score for discriminating schizophrenia patients with and without disorganized speech. Results Inter-rater reliability was considered moderate (intraclass coefficient=0.67, F=3.30, p=0.04), and test-retest reliability was considered high (r=0.94, p<0.001). Five factors, namely, pragmatics, disclosure, production, prosody, and association, were identified. An optimal cut-off score of 7 points with 84.5% sensitivity and 81.7% specificity was proposed for distinguishing schizophrenia patients with and without disorganized speech. Conclusion Our findings suggest that the Korean version of the CLANG is a promising tool for evaluating language disorder in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:26792040

  8. Descriptive Characteristics and Initial Psychometric Properties of the Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Disorder Scale.

    PubMed

    Victor, Sarah E; Davis, Tchiki; Klonsky, E David

    2016-06-07

    Non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) is highly prevalent and associated with tissue damage, emotional distress, and psychiatric disorders. While often discussed in the context of Borderline Personality Disorder and suicide, research demonstrates that NSSI is distinct from these constructs and should be viewed as an independent diagnostic category. Recently, Non-Suicidal Self-Injury Disorder (NSSID) was included in the revised Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as a condition for further study. In this article, we describe the properties of a self-report measure designed to assess proposed criteria for NSSID. Undergraduate students at 2 large, public universities completed the NSSID Scale (NSSIDS) along with other measures of NSSI characteristics and psychopathology. Among participants with a history of NSSI, approximately half (54.55%) met diagnostic criteria for NSSID. Participants were most frequently excluded from an NSSID diagnosis on the basis of criterion A (frequency of NSSI) and criterion E (distress or impairment related to NSSI), while participants were least likely to be excluded from diagnosis on the basis of criterion D (NSSI method exclusions) and criterion F (diagnostic "rule-outs"). Consistent with previous literature, the most commonly reported precipitants to NSSI were negative feelings or thoughts (criterion C2). Participants who met criteria for NSSID reported more severe depression, anxiety, and NSSI than participants who engaged in NSSI but did not meet criteria for NSSID. These results support the use of the NSSIDS as a reliable and valid self-report measure of NSSID symptoms.

  9. Psychometric Testing of the Personal Internet Gaming Disorder Evaluation-9: A New Measure Designed to Assess Internet Gaming Disorder.

    PubMed

    Pearcy, Benjamin T D; Roberts, Lynne D; McEvoy, Peter M

    2016-05-01

    Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) is in the early stages of recognition as a disorder, following its inclusion in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5; American Psychiatric Association(1)) as a condition for further study. Existing measures of Internet gaming pathology are limited in their ability to measure IGD as defined in the DSM-5. We present the initial development and validation of a new measure derived from the proposed DSM-5 criteria for IGD, the Personal Internet Gaming Disorder Evaluation-9 (PIE-9). A student sample (n = 119) and a community sample (n = 285), sourced through a variety of online gaming forums, completed an online survey comprising the new measure, existing measures of IGD, and a range of health and demographic questions. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis supported a single factor structure for the 9-item PIE-9. Internal consistency (α = 0.89) and test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation [ICC] = 0.77) were high. Convergent validity was demonstrated with similar gaming addiction measures. Predictive validity was established through significant differences in distress and disability between those who met the criteria for IGD and those who did not. The distress and disability associated with meeting IGD criteria fell within the range of other common DSM-5 disorders. Preliminary testing of the PIE-9 has demonstrated that it is an efficient and straightforward measure for use in further research of IGD, and as a potential screening measure in clinical practice.

  10. Children and Grief. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEntire, Nancy

    Noting that the death of a loved one brings grief to children as well as adults, this Digest draws on research to examine how children respond to death and the role of parents and teachers in helping children cope with loss. The Digest delineates children's "tasks" during mourning that are essential to their adjustment to loss, such as…

  11. Reading Guidance: Death and Grief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Alice Gullen

    1989-01-01

    Gives guidelines for the librarian using reading guidance (similar to bibliotherapy). Provides a nine-item annotated bibliography of novels for children and adolescents on the subject of death and grief. Appends an embryo list of categories suitable for content analysis of any file librarians might wish to keep on books suitable for use in this…

  12. Reading Guidance: Death and Grief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Alice Gullen

    1989-01-01

    Gives guidelines for the librarian using reading guidance (similar to bibliotherapy). Provides a nine-item annotated bibliography of novels for children and adolescents on the subject of death and grief. Appends an embryo list of categories suitable for content analysis of any file librarians might wish to keep on books suitable for use in this…

  13. Helping Teens Work Through Grief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perschy, Mary Kelly

    Teens who have experienced the death of a parent, grandparent, friend, or relative often find it difficult to grieve openly. When adults whom teens trust are aware of the cycle of grief, they can provide a safe atmosphere to allow teens to experience the turmoil of the intense and conflicting emotions in order to move toward healing. This guide is…

  14. Death Education and Grief Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mille, Nancy A.

    This paper explores ways in which school counselors can help young people with death-related concerns. It is often assumed that school counselors have the necessary skills for working with students who experience grief, but most graduate counseling curricula do not require courses in death education; thus, many counselors feel uncomfortable in…

  15. Helping Teens Work Through Grief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perschy, Mary Kelly

    Teens who have experienced the death of a parent, grandparent, friend, or relative often find it difficult to grieve openly. When adults whom teens trust are aware of the cycle of grief, they can provide a safe atmosphere to allow teens to experience the turmoil of the intense and conflicting emotions in order to move toward healing. This guide is…

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Chinese Version of the Eating Attitudes Test in Young Female Patients with Eating Disorders in Mainland China.

    PubMed

    Kang, Qing; Chan, Raymond C K; Li, Xiaoping; Arcelus, Jon; Yue, Ling; Huang, Jiabin; Gu, Lian; Fan, Qing; Zhang, Haiyin; Xiao, Zeping; Chen, Jue

    2017-10-09

    The study aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of the Chinese version of the eating attitudes test (EAT-26) among female adolescents and young adults in Mainland China. This scale was administered to 396 female eating disorder patients and 406 noneating disorder healthy controls, in addition 35 healthy controls completed a retest after a 4-week intervals. Tests for reliability, convergent validity and receiver operating characteristic analysis were performed to detect the psychometric properties. The EAT-26 demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.822-0.922), test-retest reliability (interclass correlation coefficient = 0.817) and convergent validity(r = 0.450-0.750). The receiver operating characteristic analysis showed that the cut-off 14 for anorexia nervosa and 15 for bulimia nervosa represented good compromises with approximate sensitivity (0.66-0.68) and specificity (0.85-0.86). Our findings provided evidence that the Chinese version of the EAT-26 was a psychometrically reliable and valid self-rating instrument for identifying people suffering from an eating disorder in Mainland China. A clinical cut-off range between 14 and 15 could be used, but caution should be exercised because of the low sensitivity of the tool. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  17. Prevalence and predictors of parental grief and depression after the death of a child from cancer.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Maria C; Clarke, Naomi E; Ting, Cheng Lin; Conroy, Rowena; Anderson, Vicki A; Heath, John A

    2010-11-01

    To investigate patterns of grief and depression in a sample of parents whose child had died of cancer, and to examine factors related to burden of illness and end-of-life care as potential predictors of parental grief and depression outcomes. Fifty-eight parents completed standardized self-report questionnaires measuring prolonged grief disorder (Inventory of Complicated Grief-Revised [ICG-R]) and depression (Beck Depression Inventory-Second Edition [BDI-II]) and participated in structured interviews designed to elicit their perceptions of their child's end-of-life care and burden of illness. The majority of participants were mothers (84%) and the mean length of time since child death was 4.5 (standard deviation [SD] = 2.4) years (range, 1.0-9.8 years). Rates of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) were similar to those reported in other bereaved populations (10.3%); however, 41% of parents met diagnostic criteria for grief-related separation distress. Twenty-two percent of parents reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. Time since death and parental perception of the oncologist's care predicted parental grief symptoms but not depressive symptoms. Perceptions of the child's quality of life during the last month, preparedness for the child's death, and economic hardship also predicted grief and depression outcomes. A minority of parents met criteria for PGD and depression, however, almost half the sample was experiencing significant separation distress associated with persistent longing and yearning for their child. Time since death is a significant predictor of parental psychological distress. This study also highlights the importance of end-of-life factors in parents' long-term adjustment and the need for optimal palliative care to ensure the best possible outcomes for parents.

  18. The special case of complicated grief in women at high risk for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wellisch, David K; Cohen, Marie M

    2010-03-01

    Exploration of complicated grief focusing on the relationship of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complicated grief in a population of women at high risk for developing breast cancer. Special reference is made to women who have experienced a material death. We reflected on the clinical attributes of the Revlon UCLA High Risk Clinic population in terms of their own perceived risk of developing breast cancer. For part of our population, their perceived risk was coupled with their reactions to the loss of their mothers to breast cancer. We compared and contrasted this pattern of reactions to those described by Licihtenthal et al. (2004) in their developmental review of complicated grief as a distinct disorder. We concluded that our population of women differed from Lichtenthal et al.'s (2004) model for complicated grief. Lichtenthal's group postulated that the key element of complicated grief involves the protracted nature of separation anxiety and distress and excludes PTSD. In our populations, the daughter with complicated grief experiences a combination of separation anxiety and a type of PTSD involving anxiety over the perceived certainty of her own future diagnosis of breast cancer. It was noteworthy that Lichtenthal's model population was composed of individuals caring for terminally ill spouses. Significantly, the spousal caretakers did not have an ongoing genetic link to their partners whereas our population is genetically linked. We postulate that this accounts for the unique presentation of complicated grief and ptsd in our population. We submit that this combination of complicated grief and PTSD requires a cognitive reframing of their perceived inevitability of developing breast cancer and desensitization techniques to help high risk women pursue preventative health care rather than avoiding it.

  19. End of Life: Dealing with Grief and Confronting Painful Emotions

    MedlinePlus

    ... will experience that dagger in the heart called grief. Dealing with grief is a challenge like no other. How can ... challenging and devastating the raw, intense emotions of grief can be, because it's happened to me. Nearly ...

  20. Grief as pathology: The evolution of grief theory in psychology from Freud to the present.

    PubMed

    Granek, Leeat

    2010-02-01

    The emergence of grief as a topic worthy of psychological study is an early 20th century invention. Freud published his influential essay on mourning and melancholia in 1917. Since he proposed the concept of "grief work," contemporary psychologists have examined his theory empirically and have claimed that grief is a pathology that should be included within the psychological domain. How, and why, has grief theory evolved within the discipline of psychology in this way? In what ways do these changes in the understanding of grief coincide with other historical developments within the discipline? In this article, I trace the development of grief, originally conceived by Freud within a psychoanalytic and nonpathological framework, to the current conceptualization of grief within the disease model. I show how grief theory has evolved within the discipline of psychology to become (a) an object worthy of scientific study within the discipline, and subsequently, (b) a pathology to be privatized, specialized, and treated by mental health professionals.

  1. Psychometric Properties of Brief Screening Tests for Alcohol Use Disorders during Pregnancy in Argentina.

    PubMed

    López, Mariana Beatriz; Lichtenberger, Aldana; Conde, Karina; Cremonte, Mariana

    2017-07-01

    Background Considering the physical, mental and behavioral problems related to fetal alcohol exposure, prenatal clinical guides suggest a brief evaluation of alcohol consumption during pregnancy to detect alcohol intake and to adjust interventions, if required. Even if any alcohol use should be considered risky during pregnancy, identifying women with alcohol use disorders is important because they could need a more specific intervention than simple advice to abstain. Most screening tests have been developed and validated in male populations and focused on the long-term consequences of heavy alcohol use, so they might be inappropriate to assess consumption in pregnant women. Objective To analyze the internal reliability and validity of the alcohol screening instruments Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test - Consumption (AUDIT-C), Tolerance, Worried, Eye-Opener, Amnesia and Cut-Down (TWEAK), Rapid Alcohol Problems Screen - Quantity Frequency (RAPS-QF) and Tolerance, Annoyed, Cut-Down and Eye-Opener (T-ACE) to identify alcohol use disorders in pregnant women. Methods A total of 641 puerperal women were personally interviewed during the 48 hours after delivery. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves and the sensitivity and specificity of each instrument using different cut-off points were analyzed. Results All instruments showed areas under the ROC curves above 0.80. Larger areas were found for the TWEAK and the AUDIT. The TWEAK, the T-ACE and the AUDIT-C showed higher sensitivity, while the AUDIT and the RAPS-QF showed higher specificity. Reliability (internal consistency) was low for all instruments, improving when optimal cut-off points were used, especially for the AUDIT, the AUDIT-C and the RAPS-QF. Conclusions In other cultural contexts, studies have concluded that T-ACE and TWEAK are the best instruments to assess pregnant women. In contrast, our results evidenced the low reliability

  2. The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Dutch non-clinical sample: psychometric properties including the adult separation anxiety disorder scale.

    PubMed

    Möller, Eline L; Bögels, Susan M

    2016-09-01

    With DSM-5, the American Psychiatric Association encourages complementing categorical diagnoses with dimensional severity ratings. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales, a set of brief dimensional scales that are consistent in content and structure and assess DSM-5-based core features of anxiety disorders. Participants (285 males, 255 females) completed the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales for social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder that were included in previous studies on the scales, and also for separation anxiety disorder, which is included in the DSM-5 chapter on anxiety disorders. Moreover, they completed the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders Adult version (SCARED-A). The DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales demonstrated high internal consistency, and the scales correlated significantly and substantially with corresponding SCARED-A subscales, supporting convergent validity. Separation anxiety appeared present among adults, supporting the DSM-5 recognition of separation anxiety as an anxiety disorder across the life span. To conclude, the DSM-5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales are a valuable tool to screen for specific adult anxiety disorders, including separation anxiety. Research in more diverse and clinical samples with anxiety disorders is needed. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales in a Dutch non‐clinical sample: psychometric properties including the adult separation anxiety disorder scale

    PubMed Central

    Bögels, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract With DSM‐5, the American Psychiatric Association encourages complementing categorical diagnoses with dimensional severity ratings. We therefore examined the psychometric properties of the DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales, a set of brief dimensional scales that are consistent in content and structure and assess DSM‐5‐based core features of anxiety disorders. Participants (285 males, 255 females) completed the DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales for social anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, specific phobia, agoraphobia, and panic disorder that were included in previous studies on the scales, and also for separation anxiety disorder, which is included in the DSM‐5 chapter on anxiety disorders. Moreover, they completed the Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders Adult version (SCARED‐A). The DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales demonstrated high internal consistency, and the scales correlated significantly and substantially with corresponding SCARED‐A subscales, supporting convergent validity. Separation anxiety appeared present among adults, supporting the DSM‐5 recognition of separation anxiety as an anxiety disorder across the life span. To conclude, the DSM‐5 Dimensional Anxiety Scales are a valuable tool to screen for specific adult anxiety disorders, including separation anxiety. Research in more diverse and clinical samples with anxiety disorders is needed. © 2016 The Authors International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27378317

  4. Psychometric properties of self-reported questionnaires for the evaluation of symptoms and functional limitations in individuals with rotator cuff disorders: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    St-Pierre, Corinne; Desmeules, François; Dionne, Clermont E; Frémont, Pierre; MacDermid, Joy C; Roy, Jean-Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    To conduct a systematic review of the psychometric properties (reliability, validity and responsiveness) of self-report questionnaires used to assess symptoms and functional limitations of individuals with rotator cuff (RC) disorders. A systematic search in three databases (Cinahl, Medline and Embase) was conducted. Data extraction and critical methodological appraisal were performed independently by three raters using structured tools, and agreement was achieved by consensus. A descriptive synthesis was performed. One-hundred and twenty articles reporting on 11 questionnaires were included. All questionnaires were highly reliable and responsive to change, and showed construct validity; seven questionnaires also shown known-group validity. The minimal detectable change ranged from 6.4% to 20.8% of total score; only two questionnaires (American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeon questionnaire [ASES] and Upper Limb Functional Index [ULFI]) had a measurement error below 10% of global score. Minimal clinically important differences were established for eight questionnaires, and ranged from 8% to 20% of total score. Overall, included questionnaires showed acceptable psychometric properties for individuals with RC disorders. The ASES and ULFI have the smallest absolute error of measurement, while the Western Ontario RC Index is one of the most responsive questionnaires for individuals suffering from RC disorders. All included questionnaires are reliable, valid and responsive for the evaluation of individuals with RC disorders. As all included questionnaires showed good psychometric properties for the targeted population, the choice should be made according to the purpose of the evaluation and to the construct being evaluated by the questionnaire. The WORC, a RC-specific questionnaire, appeared to be more responsive. It should therefore be used to evaluate change in time. If the evaluation is time-limited, shorter questionnaires or short versions should be considered (such as

  5. The Psychometric Properties of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale in Hispanic Americans with English or Spanish Language Preference

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Sarah D.; Fox, Rina S.; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Roesch, Scott C.; Champagne, Brian R.; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2014-01-01

    The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale (GAD-7) is a self-report questionnaire that is widely used to screen for anxiety. The GAD-7 has been translated into numerous languages, including Spanish. Previous studies evaluating the structural validity of the English and Spanish versions indicate a uni-dimensional factor structure in both languages. However, the psychometric properties of the Spanish language version have yet to be evaluated in samples outside of Spain, and the measure has not been tested for use among Hispanic Americans. This study evaluated the reliability, structural validity, and convergent validity of the English and Spanish language versions of the GAD-7 for Hispanic Americans in the United States. A community sample of 436 Hispanic Americans with an English (n = 210) or Spanish (n = 226) language preference completed the GAD-7. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the goodness of fit of the uni-dimensional factor structure of the GAD-7 across language-preference groups. Results from the multiple-group CFA indicated a similar unidimensional factor structure with equivalent response patterns and item intercepts, but different variances, across language-preference groups. Internal consistency was good for both English and Spanish language-preference groups. The GAD-7 also evidenced good convergent validity as demonstrated by significant correlations in expected directions with the Perceived Stress Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Physical health domain of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF assessment. The uni-dimensional GAD-7 is suitable for use among Hispanic Americans with an English or Spanish language preference. PMID:25045957

  6. The psychometric properties of the generalized anxiety disorder-7 scale in Hispanic Americans with English or Spanish language preference.

    PubMed

    Mills, Sarah D; Fox, Rina S; Malcarne, Vanessa L; Roesch, Scott C; Champagne, Brian R; Sadler, Georgia Robins

    2014-07-01

    The Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 scale (GAD-7) is a self-report questionnaire that is widely used to screen for anxiety. The GAD-7 has been translated into numerous languages, including Spanish. Previous studies evaluating the structural validity of the English and Spanish versions indicate a unidimensional factor structure in both languages. However, the psychometric properties of the Spanish language version have yet to be evaluated in samples outside of Spain, and the measure has not been tested for use among Hispanic Americans. This study evaluated the reliability, structural validity, and convergent validity of the English and Spanish language versions of the GAD-7 for Hispanic Americans in the United States. A community sample of 436 Hispanic Americans with an English (n = 210) or Spanish (n = 226) language preference completed the GAD-7. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to examine the goodness-of-fit of the unidimensional factor structure of the GAD-7 across language-preference groups. Results from the multiple-group CFA indicated a similar unidimensional factor structure with equivalent response patterns and item intercepts, but different variances, across language-preference groups. Internal consistency was good for both English and Spanish language-preference groups. The GAD-7 also evidenced good convergent validity as demonstrated by significant correlations in expected directions with the Perceived Stress Scale, the Patient Health Questionnaire-9, and the Physical Health domain of the World Health Organization Quality of Life-BREF assessment. The unidimensional GAD-7 is suitable for use among Hispanic Americans with an English or Spanish language preference.

  7. Motives for online gaming questionnaire: Its psychometric properties and correlation with Internet gaming disorder symptoms among Chinese people

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Anise M. S.; Lai, Mark H. C.; Yu, Shu; Lau, Joseph T. F.; Lei, Man-wai

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Internet gaming disorder (IGD) imposes a potential public health threat worldwide. Gaming motives are potentially salient factors of IGD, but research on Chinese gaming motives is scarce. This study empirically evaluated the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Motives for Online Gaming Questionnaire (C-MOGQ), the first inventory that measures seven different gaming motives applicable to all type of online games. We also investigated the associations between various gaming motives and IGD symptoms among Chinese gamers. Methods Three hundred and eighty-three Chinese adult online gamers (Mean age = 23.7 years) voluntarily completed our online, anonymous survey in December 2015. Results The confirmatory factor analysis results supported a bi-factor model with a general factor subsuming all C-MOGQ items (General Motivation) and seven uncorrelated domain-specific factors (Escape, Coping, Fantasy, Skill Development, Recreation, Competition, and Social). High internal consistencies of the overall scale and subscales were observed. The criterion-related validity of this Chinese version was also supported by the positive correlations of C-MOGQ scale scores with psychological need satisfaction and time spent gaming. Furthermore, we found that high General Motivation (coupled with high Escape motive and low Skill Development motive) was associated with more IGD symptoms reported by our Chinese participants. Discussion and conclusions Our findings demonstrated the utility of C-MOGQ in measuring gaming motives of Chinese online gamers, and we recommend the consideration of both its total score and subscale scores in future studies. PMID:28264590

  8. Psychometric properties of the Affective Lability Scale (54 and 18-item version) in patients with bipolar disorder, first-degree relatives, and healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Aas, Monica; Pedersen, Geir; Henry, Chantal; Bjella, Thomas; Bellivier, Frank; Leboyer, Marion; Kahn, Jean-Pierre; Cohen, Renaud F; Gard, Sebastien; Aminoff, Sofie R; Lagerberg, Trine V; Andreassen, Ole A; Melle, Ingrid; Etain, Bruno

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of the original 54 item version (ALS-54) and the short 18 item version (ALS-18) of the Affective Lability Scale (ALS) in patients with bipolar disorders, their first-degree relatives and healthy controls. Internal Consistency and Confirmatory Factor Analysis were performed, comparing clinical and non-clinical group comparisons on ALS scores. A total of 993 participants (patients with bipolar disorders [n=422], first-degree relatives [n=201] and controls [n=370]) were recruited from France and Norway. Diagnosis and clinical characteristics were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I disorders (SCID-I), or the Diagnostic Interview for Genetic Studies (DIGS). Affective lability was measured using the ALS-54 and ALS-18. Both ALS-54 and ALS-18 showed high internal consistency, but the subdimensions of both versions were highly inter-correlated. From confirmatory factor analysis both versions revealed acceptable to good model fit. Patients had significantly higher ALS scores compared to controls, with affected first-degree relatives presenting intermediate scores. Both the original ALS-54 version and the short ALS-18 version showed good psychometric properties. They also discriminated between patients with a bipolar disorder (high ALS), first degree relatives (intermediate ALS), and healthy controls (low ALS). A high correlation between ALS items for both versions was observed. Our study supports reducing the scale from 54 to 18 items. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Informing the Symptom Profile of Complicated Grief

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Naomi M.; Wall, Melanie M.; Keshaviah, Aparna; Dryman, M. Taylor; LeBlanc, Nicole J.; Shear, M. Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Background Complicated Grief (CG) is under consideration as a new diagnosis in DSM5. We sought to add empirical support to the current dialogue by examining the commonly used Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG) scale completed by 782 bereaved individuals. Methods We employed IRT analyses, factor analyses, and sensitivity and specificity analyses utilizing our full sample (n=782), and also compared confirmed CG cases (n=288) to non-cases (n=377). Confirmed CG cases were defined as individuals bereaved at least 6 months who were seeking care for CG, had an ICG ≥ 30, and received a structured clinical interview for CG by a certified clinician confirming CG as their primary illness. Non-cases were bereaved individuals who did not present with CG as a primary complaint (including those with depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorders and controls) and had an ICG<25. Results IRT analyses provided guidance about the most informative individual items and their association with CG severity. Factor analyses demonstrated a single factor solution when the full sample was considered, but within CG cases, six symptom clusters emerged: 1) yearning and preoccupation with the deceased, 2) anger and bitterness, 3) shock and disbelief, 4) estrangement from others, 5) hallucinations of the deceased, and 6) behavior change, including avoidance and proximity seeking. The presence of at least one symptom from three different symptom clusters optimized sensitivity (94.8%) and specificity (98.1%). Conclusions These data, derived from a diverse and predominantly clinical help seeking population, add an important perspective to existing suggestions for DSM5 criteria for CG. PMID:21284064

  10. Potential Use of Ayahuasca in Grief Therapy.

    PubMed

    González, Débora; Carvalho, María; Cantillo, Jordi; Aixalá, Marc; Farré, Magí

    2017-01-01

    The death of a loved one is ultimately a universal experience. However, conventional interventions employed for people suffering with uncomplicated grief have gathered little empirical support. The present study aimed to explore the potential effects of ayahuasca on grief. We compared 30 people who had taken ayahuasca with 30 people who had attended peer-support groups, measuring level of grief and experiential avoidance. We also examined themes in participant responses to an open-ended question regarding their experiences with ayahuasca. The ayahuasca group presented a lower level of grief in the Present Feelings Scale of Texas Revised Inventory of Grief, showing benefits in some psychological and interpersonal dimensions. Qualitative responses described experiences of emotional release, biographical memories, and experiences of contact with the deceased. Additionally, some benefits were identified regarding the ayahuasca experiences. These results provide preliminary data about the potential of ayahuasca as a therapeutic tool in treatments for grief.

  11. [A Clinical Case of Grief Hallucination through the Mourning Work Normal Grief and Spiritual Care].

    PubMed

    Kurotori, Isaku; Kato, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Auditory or visual hallucinations of a deceased person are well known in the normal course of the bereavement process. According to DSM-5, this symptom is included in the associated features supporting diagnosis of persistent complex bereavement disorder. In Japan, however, little is known about these hallucinatory experiences during grieving, and few reports on their prevalence are available. Here, we have reported a clinical case of such experiences following the loss of a spouse. A 66-year-old patient presented to the outpatient department with insomnia after her husband's death. She was preoccupied with a sense of loss and absolute loneliness. One day, she confessed to regularly encountering her husband's ghost at night; the ghost was distinguishable from a dream and provided the bereaved wife with some degree of comfort. The appearances lasted for 15 months and occurred several times a week without disturbing her social functioning. She gradually became aware that her husband was returning from the spirit world to give her solace. Her treatment was focused on resolving her conflicting feelings concerning her grief at his death and her relief at his no longer suffering from disease. While accepting her experiences, she started to review the days they spent together and appreciated his attachment. Therefore she completed the work of mourning and the ghost no longer appeared. One year after the departure of the ghost, she still attends the hospital regularly and there has been no recurrence. A reconstruction of her internal world leads us to conclude that the support of normal grief with such hallucinations prevents the intense experience of loss from generating pathological grief. Furthermore, we suggest reconsidering the importance of the mourning work and the inclusion of both the bereaved and deceased person in the medical context.

  12. Pathological grief: two Victorian case studies.

    PubMed

    Ramchandani, D

    1996-01-01

    Despite 75 years of investigation, the concept of pathological grief remains tenuous and controversial. The author turns to the stories of two nineteenth century women, one real and the other fictitious to examine the syndrome of grief gone away. He concludes that pathological grief may be best viewed on a continuum of psychopathology, the expression of which depends upon the interaction between the personality of the patient, the nature of the lost relationship, and the circumstances of its loss.

  13. The Work and Social Adjustment Scale: Psychometric properties and validity among males and females, and outpatients with and without personality disorders.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, G; Kvarstein, E H; Wilberg, T

    2017-07-05

    The Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS) is an outcome measure assessing degree of functional impairment. Its psychometric properties, validity and sensitivity to change have been supported in several studies. However, no explicit psychometric or validity study of WSAS has been performed on data from a large sample of psychiatric outpatients, with and without personality disorders. The aim of this study was therefore to provide additional knowledge of the properties of WSAS in such a sample. The material comprised data from 1371 patients, from 15 different units participating in the Norwegian Network of Personality-Focused Treatment Programs. Psychometric properties of the scale, such as measurement invariance among males and females, longitudinal invariance, as well as associations with other clinical measures and sensitivity to change were analysed. The results confirm that WSAS constitutes a reliable, unidimensional and gender invariant measure, sensitive to change and to severity of mental distress. Although highly associated with levels of depression, WSAS measures a clinically important aspect of impairment. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Psychometric and Genetic Architecture of Substance Use Disorder and Behavioral Disinhibition Measures for Gene Association Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hicks, Brian M.; Schalet, Benjamin D.; Malone, Stephen M.; Iacono, William G.; McGue, Matt

    2010-01-01

    Using large twin, family, and adoption studies conducted at the Minnesota Center for Twin and Family Research, we describe our efforts to develop measures of substance use disorder (SUD) related phenotypes for targets in genome wide association analyses. Beginning with a diverse set of relatively narrow facet-level measures, we identified 5 constructs of intermediate complexity: nicotine, alcohol consumption, alcohol dependence, illicit drug, and behavioral disinhibition. The 5 constructs were moderately correlated (mean r = .57) reflecting a general externalizing liability to substance abuse and antisocial behavior. Analyses of the twin and adoption data revealed that this general externalizing liability accounted for much of the genetic risk in each of the intermediate-level constructs, though each also exhibited significant unique genetic and environmental risk. Additional analyses revealed substantial effects for age and sex, significant shared environmental effects, and that the mechanism of these shared environmental effects operates via siblings rather than parents. Our results provide a foundation for genome wide association analyses to detect risk alleles for SUDs as well as novel insights into SUDs. PMID:21153693

  15. Psychometric evaluation of the Disordered Eating Attitude Scale (DEAS). English version.

    PubMed

    Alvarenga, Marle Santos; Pereira, Raquel Franzini; Scagliusi, Fernanda Baeza; Philippi, Sonia Tucunduva; Estima, Camilla Chermont Prochnik; Croll, Jillian

    2010-10-01

    Eating attitudes are defined as beliefs, thoughts, feelings, behaviors and relationship with food. They could influence people's food choices and their health status. This study aimed to adapt from Portuguese to English the Disordered Eating Attitude Scale (DEAS) and evaluate its validity and reliability. The original scale in Portuguese was translated and adapted into English and was applied to female university students of University of Minnesota-USA (n=224). Internal consistency was determined (Cronbach's Alpha). Convergent validity was assessed by correlations between Eating Attitude Test-26 (EAT-26) and Restrain Scale (RS). Reliability was evaluated applying twice the scale to a sub-sample (n=30). The scale was back translated into Portuguese and compared with the original version and discrepancies were not found. The internal consistency was .76. The DEAS total score was significantly associated with EAT-26 (r=0.65) and RS (r=0.69) scores. The correlation between test-retest was r=0.9. The English version of DEAS showed appropriate internal consistency, convergent validity and test-retest reliability and will be useful to assess eating attitudes in different population groups in English spoken countries.

  16. The Spectrum of Grief: Identification and Management

    PubMed Central

    Barnes, Daphne

    1989-01-01

    Loss is a common human experience, and grief is frequently seen in a physician's office. Grief occurs not only after a death, but also during chronic or serious illness, infertility, divorce, job changes, surgery, rape, and so forth. Some patients somatize distress, presenting with physical symptoms rather than acknowledging their grief. Bereavement increases the risk of both psychiatric and physical disease and can exacerbate pre-existing illness. In the majority, grief resolves normally, but in some the process becomes morbid. The family physician is in a unique position to identify, educate, assess, and intervene with the grieving patient and his family. PMID:21248941

  17. Complicated grief after death of a relative in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Kentish-Barnes, Nancy; Chaize, Marine; Seegers, Valérie; Legriel, Stéphane; Cariou, Alain; Jaber, Samir; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Floccard, Bernard; Renault, Anne; Vinatier, Isabelle; Mathonnet, Armelle; Reuter, Danielle; Guisset, Olivier; Cohen-Solal, Zoé; Cracco, Christophe; Seguin, Amélie; Durand-Gasselin, Jacques; Éon, Béatrice; Thirion, Marina; Rigaud, Jean-Philippe; Philippon-Jouve, Bénédicte; Argaud, Laurent; Chouquer, Renaud; Adda, Mélanie; Dedrie, Céline; Georges, Hugues; Lebas, Eddy; Rolin, Nathalie; Bollaert, Pierre-Edouard; Lecuyer, Lucien; Viquesnel, Gérard; Léone, Marc; Chalumeau-Lemoine, Ludivine; Garrouste, Maïté; Schlemmer, Benoit; Chevret, Sylvie; Falissard, Bruno; Azoulay, Élie

    2015-05-01

    An increased proportion of deaths occur in the intensive care unit (ICU). We performed this prospective study in 41 ICUs to determine the prevalence and determinants of complicated grief after death of a loved one in the ICU. Relatives of 475 adult patients were followed up. Complicated grief was assessed at 6 and 12 months using the Inventory of Complicated Grief (cut-off score >25). Relatives also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale at 3 months, and the Revised Impact of Event Scale for post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms at 3, 6 and 12 months. We used a mixed multivariate logistic regression model to identify determinants of complicated grief after 6 months. Among the 475 patients, 282 (59.4%) had a relative evaluated at 6 months. Complicated grief symptoms were identified in 147 (52%) relatives. Independent determinants of complicated grief symptoms were either not amenable to changes (relative of female sex, relative living alone and intensivist board certification before 2009) or potential targets for improvements (refusal of treatment by the patient, patient died while intubated, relatives present at the time of death, relatives did not say goodbye to the patient, and poor communication between physicians and relatives). End-of-life practices, communication and loneliness in bereaved relatives may be amenable to improvements. Copyright ©ERS 2015.

  18. Quality of life in Iranian patients with bipolar disorder: a psychometric study of the Persian Brief Quality of Life in Bipolar Disorder (QoL.BD).

    PubMed

    Modabbernia, Amirhossein; Yaghoubidoust, Mohammadhossein; Lin, Chung-Ying; Fridlund, Bengt; Michalak, Erin E; Murray, Greg; Pakpour, Amir H

    2016-07-01

    To assess the reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Persian Brief Quality of Life in Bipolar Disorder (QoL.BD) in Iranian patients with bipolar disorder (BD). After translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Brief QoL.BD, we administered the questionnaire to 184 patients diagnosed with BD. To determine factor structure, we performed both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. To investigate the reliability, we assessed internal consistency, reproducibility and agreement. Construct validity was assessed by calculating correlations between the Brief QoL.BD and the Short Form-36 (SF-36), Positive And Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire Short Form (Q-LES-Q-SF). We also investigated gender differences in interpretations of QoL.BD items. The results obtained from reliability analysis confirmed internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha was 0.87 and 0.89 for two assessments) and reproducibility and agreement (the intraclass correlation coefficient ranged between 0.74 and 0.94). Validity analyses showed that the items loaded on a single-factor structure. The inter-item correlations varied from 0.31 to 0.68. Significantly lower scores on the Brief QoL.BD were observed in people diagnosed with BD I compared to BD II. Significant correlations were observed between the Brief QoL.BD and SF-36 summary measures, HAMD, YMRS, Q-LES-Q-SF and PANAS subscales. Items in the Brief QoL.BD were interpreted similarly by men and women. The Brief Persian QoL.BD is a psychometrically sound measure with acceptable validity and reliability and provides a rapid assessment tool for measuring QoL in patients with BD.

  19. Autonomy and social norms in a three factor grief model predicting perinatal grief in India.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lisa R; Lee, Jerry W

    2014-01-01

    Perinatal grief following stillbirth is a significant social and mental health burden. We examined associations among the following latent variables: autonomy, social norms, self-despair, strained coping, and acute grief-among poor, rural women in India who experienced stillbirth. A structural equation model was built and tested using quantitative data from 347 women of reproductive age in Chhattisgarh. Maternal acceptance of traditional social norms worsens self-despair and strained coping, and increases the autonomy granted to women. Greater autonomy increases acute grief. Greater despair and acute grief increase strained coping. Social and cultural factors were found to predict perinatal grief in India.

  20. Music therapy as grief therapy for adults with mental illness and complicated grief: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Iliya, Yasmine A

    2015-01-01

    This randomized, controlled, mixed-methods pilot study examined the effectiveness and experiences of grief-specific music therapy, in addition to standard care, with adults (N=10) who have complicated grief (CG) and mental illness, as compared to standard care alone. The study tested Worden's (2009) theories of grief therapy as well as a new grief-specific music therapy intervention, based on Shear, Frank, Houck, and Reynolds' (2005) imaginal dialogue intervention and Austin's (2008) method of vocal psychotherapy. Results demonstrated that participants in the experimental group had a greater decrease of grief symptoms, as measured by the ICG-R, as compared with the control group.

  1. Psychometric properties of the Turkish versions of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) and the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) in the prison setting.

    PubMed

    Evren, Cuneyt; Ogel, Kultegin; Evren, Bilge; Bozkurt, Muge

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate psychometric properties of the Drug Use Disorders Identification Test (DUDIT) and the Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST-10) in prisoners with (n = 124) or without (n = 78) drug use disorder. Participants were evaluated with the DUDIT, the DAST-10, and the Addiction Profile Index-Short (API-S). The DUDIT and the DAST-10 were found to be psychometrically sound drug abuse screening measures with high convergent validity when compared with each other (r = 0.86), and API-S (r = 0.88 and r = 0.84, respectively), and to have a Cronbach's α of 0.93 and 0.87, respectively. In addition, a single component accounted for 58.28% of total variance for DUDIT, whereas this was 47.10% for DAST-10. The DUDIT had sensitivity and specificity scores of 0.95 and 0.79, respectively, when using the optimal cut-off score of 10, whereas these scores were 0.88 and 0.74 for the DAST-10 when using the optimal cut-off score of 4. Additionally, both the DUDIT and the DAST-10 showed good discriminant validity as they differentiated prisoners with drug use disorder from those without. Findings support the Turkish versions of both the DUDIT and the DAST-10 as reliable and valid drug abuse screening instruments that measure unidimensional constructs.

  2. Dream Work in Grief Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Noronha, Konrad Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Working with dreams is useful with grief and loss clients who present with dreams. Adlerian dream analysis is one-way of exploring dreams. It incorporates the life-style of the client. This case report demonstrates how Adlerian dream analysis was used with a client. Progress was noted in improved life-style once the client began to talk about her dream. PMID:25035561

  3. Validation of the Psychometric Properties of the Self-Compassion Scale. Testing the Factorial Validity and Factorial Invariance of the Measure among Borderline Personality Disorder, Anxiety Disorder, Eating Disorder and General Populations.

    PubMed

    Costa, Joana; Marôco, João; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Ferreira, Cláudia; Castilho, Paula

    2016-09-01

    During the last years, there has been a growing interest in self-compassion. Empirical evidences show that self-compassion is associated with psychological benefits among young adults and it might be considered a buffer factor in several mental disorders. The aim of this study was to validate the psychometric properties of the Self-compassion Scale (SCS: Neff, 2003a) after the initial lack of replicating the original six-factor structure. Data were collected from the overall database of a research centre (56 men and 305 women; mean age = 25.19) and comprised four groups: borderline personality disorder, anxiety disorder, eating disorder and general population. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a two-factor model (self-compassionate attitude versus self-critical attitude) with good internal consistencies, construct-related validity and external validity. Configural, weak measurement and structural invariance of the two-factor model of SCS were also shown. Findings support the generalizability of the two-factor model and show that both properties and interpretations of scores on self-compassion are equivalent across these population groups. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. A two-factor structure of SCS with strong psychometric validity was supported in clinical and non-clinical samples. Helping individuals with limited experiences of compassion to develop positive internal processing systems seems to be related with better mental health, self-acceptance and self-nurturing abilities. The non-probabilistic sampling limits the generalization of our conclusions. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Divergent Gene Expression Responses to Complicated Grief and Non-complicated Grief

    PubMed Central

    Irwin, Michael R.; Arevalo, Jesusa M. G.; Cole, Steven W.

    2014-01-01

    The “widowhood effect” (i.e., morbidity/mortality in recently bereaved spouses) may be related to changes in immune function, but little is known about the impact of bereavement on gene transcription in immune cells. This study examined how Complicated Grief and Non-complicated Grief responses to bereavement differentially affect leukocyte gene expression. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling and bioinformatic analyses were completed on 63 older adults. Thirty-six of them had lost their spouse/partner on average 2 years ago, and 27 were nonbereaved, married controls. Twelve of the bereaved participants met criteria for Complicated Grief. Compared to nonbereaved controls, bereavement (both Complicated Grief and Non-complicated Grief) was associated with upregulated expression of genes involved in general immunologic activation and a selective downregulation of genes involved in B lymphocyte responses. However, Complicated Grief and Non-complicated Grief differed markedly in their expression of Type I interferon-related transcripts, with Non-complicated Grief subjects showing substantial upregulation relative to nonbereaved controls and Complicated Grief subjects showing substantial downregulation. Bereavement significantly modulates immune function gene expression. The magnitude of bereavement-related distress (i.e., Complicated Grief vs. Non-complicated Grief) is linked to differential patterns of transcription factor activation and gene expression involved in innate antiviral responses. These findings provide a molecular framework for understanding the health effects of bereavement, as well as new insights into the particular gene modules that are most sensitive to the individual's psychological response to loss. PMID:24380850

  5. Complicated spiritual grief I: relation to complicated grief symptomatology following violent death bereavement.

    PubMed

    Burke, Laurie A; Neimeyer, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    Losing a loved one to violent death has been associated with poor mental health outcomes, including posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and complicated grief (CG), a protracted, debilitating, and sometimes life-threatening reaction to loss. In addition, recent research suggests that traumatic loss can violate mourners' basic assumptive worldviews, and can precipitate a spiritual crisis following loss, also known as complicated spiritual grief (CSG). The present cross-sectional study investigated these multidimensional outcomes in a diverse sample of 150 grievers. The authors found that (a) violently bereaved individuals reported greater CG and CSG than did individuals bereaved by natural death; (b) CG and CSG were correlated across the larger sample, and yet are theoretically different constructs; and (c) specific cause of death (natural anticipated, natural sudden, homicide, suicide, or fatal accident) differentially predicted levels of CG and CSG. Implications of these findings for a clearer understanding of spiritual coping in the wake of troubling loss are noted, as well as for intervention with mourners struggling with clinical complications.

  6. Complicated grief associated with hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Shear, M Katherine; McLaughlin, Katie A; Ghesquiere, Angela; Gruber, Michael J; Sampson, Nancy A; Kessler, Ronald C

    2011-08-01

    Although losses are important consequences of disasters, few epidemiological studies of disasters have assessed complicated grief (CG) and none assessed CG associated with losses other than death of loved one. Data come from the baseline survey of the Hurricane Katrina Community Advisory Group, a representative sample of 3,088 residents of the areas directly affected by Hurricane Katrina. A brief screen for CG was included containing four items consistent with the proposed DSM-V criteria for a diagnosis of bereavement-related adjustment disorder. Fifty-eight and half percent of respondents reported a significant hurricane-related loss: Most-severe losses were 29.0% tangible, 9.5% interpersonal, 8.1% intangible, 4.2% work/financial, and 3.7% death of loved one. Twenty-six point one percent respondents with significant loss had possible CG and 7.0% moderate-to-severe CG. Death of loved one was associated with the highest conditional probability of moderate-to-severe CG (18.5%, compared to 1.1-10.5% conditional probabilities for other losses), but accounted for only 16.5% of moderate-to-severe CG due to its comparatively low prevalence. Most moderate-to-severe CG was due to tangible (52.9%) or interpersonal (24.0%) losses. Significant predictors of CG were mostly unique to either bereavement (racial-ethnic minority status, social support) or other losses (prehurricane history of psychopathology, social competence.). Nonbereavement losses accounted for the vast majority of hurricane-related possible CG despite risk of CG being much higher in response to bereavement than to other losses. This result argues for expansion of research on CG beyond bereavement and alerts clinicians to the need to address postdisaster grief associated with a wide range of losses. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. Complicated grief associated with Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    Shear, M. Katherine; McLaughlin, Katie A.; Ghesquiere, Angela; Gruber, Michael J.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Kessler, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    Background Although losses are important consequences of disasters, few epidemiological studies of disasters have assessed complicated grief (CG) and none assessed CG associated with losses other than death of loved one. Methods Data come from the baseline survey of the Hurricane Katrina Community Advisory Group (CAG), a representative sample of 3,088 residents of the areas directly affected by Hurricane Katrina. A brief screen for CG was included containing four items consistent with the proposed DSM 5 criteria for a diagnosis of bereavement-related adjustment disorder. Results 58.5% of respondents reported a significant hurricane-related loss: Most-severe losses were 29.0% tangible, 9.5% interpersonal, 8.1% intangible, 4.2% work-financial, and 3.7% death of loved one. 26.1% of respondents with significant loss had possible CG and 7.0% moderate-severe CG. Death of loved one was associated with the highest conditional probability of moderate-severe CG (18.5%, compared to 1.1–10.5% conditional probabilities for other losses) but accounted for only 16.5% of moderate-severe CG due to its comparatively low prevalence. Most moderate-severe CG was due to tangible (52.9%) or interpersonal (24.0%) losses. Significant predictors of CG were mostly unique to either bereavement (racial-ethnic minority status, social support) or other losses (pre-hurricane history of psychopathology, social competence.). Conclusions Non-bereavement losses accounted for the vast majority of hurricane-related possible CG despite risk of CG being much higher in response to bereavement than to other losses. This result argues for expansion of research on CG beyond bereavement and alerts clinicians to the need to address post-disaster grief associated with a wide range of losses. PMID:21796740

  8. Post-traumatic stress disorder, coping strategies and type 2 diabetes: psychometric assessment after L'Aquila earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ciocca, Giacomo; Carosa, Eleonora; Stornelli, Maria; Limoncin, Erika; Gravina, Giovanni L; Iannarelli, Rossella; Sperandio, Alessandra; Di Sante, Stefania; Lenzi, Andrea; Lauro, Davide; Jannini, Emmanuele A

    2015-06-01

    After natural and collective catastrophes, many behavioral phenomena can occur through psychobiological responses that involve also the diabetic condition.The aim of this study was to investigate post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and coping strategies in type 2 diabetic patients after L'Aquila earthquake, with a particular attention to the newly diagnosed patients and to the gender differences. Among the local diabetic population, we recruited 100 diabetic patients (46 women and 54 men). Sixty of these had diabetes before the earthquake (pre-quake patients), and other 40 received diabetes diagnosis after the earthquake (post-quake patients). A psychometric protocol composed by Davidson Trauma Scale for PTSD and Brief-COPE for coping strategies was administered. We found significant differences in the levels of PTSD when comparing both post-quake with pre-quake patients (post-quake = 51.72 ± 26.05 vs. pre-quake = 31.65 ± 22.59; p < 0.05) and the female patients with males (women = 53.50 ± 27.01 vs. men = 31.65 ± 23.06; p < 0.05) and also in the prevalence [post-quake = 27/40 (67.5 %) vs. pre-quake = 20/60 (33.3 %); p < 0.05], [women = 27/46 (58.69 %) vs. men = 16/54 (29.62 %); p < 0.05]. Moreover, maladaptive coping was a predictive factor for PTSD in the post-quake group only (OR 1.682; 95 % CI 1.155-2.450; p = 0.006). Our results revealed that PTSD may be considered an important comorbidity factor in newly diagnosed patients and in diabetic women. Hence, a psychological support seems particularly important in these patients after a collective traumatic event to help them react to both PTSD and diabetes and to help them improve their coping skills.

  9. The Grief Resolution Process in Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, John F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compares grief in divorce to the Kubler-Ross model of grief resolution in bereavement in 17 persons who wrote essays about their divorce. The results suggested a conceptual model based on three chronological stages with linear progression through the stages, characterized by circularity within each stage. (JAC)

  10. Integrating Buddhist Psychology into Grief Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wada, Kaori; Park, Jeeseon

    2009-01-01

    The field of grief counseling has yet to see an integration of Buddhist psychology. Drawing on Buddhist psychology literature and Western models of grief, this article explores possible integrations of two approaches. To lay the foundation for this discussion, the authors introduced a brief overview of the history of Buddhism as well as a Buddhist…

  11. The Child in Grief: Implications for Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hare, Jan; And Others

    The purpose of this paper is to increase teachers' understanding of children's conceptualizations of death to enable them to respond to the symptoms of grief in both early and middle childhood. John Bowlby's theoretical framework of childhood mourning is elaborated, and research on teachers' facilitation of children's grief is briefly noted. The…

  12. The Grief Resolution Process in Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crosby, John F.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Compares grief in divorce to the Kubler-Ross model of grief resolution in bereavement in 17 persons who wrote essays about their divorce. The results suggested a conceptual model based on three chronological stages with linear progression through the stages, characterized by circularity within each stage. (JAC)

  13. Grief Counseling: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daneker, Darlene; Cashwell, Craig

    2005-01-01

    Grief counseling has grown over the past two decades to become a well respected specialty within the field of counseling. This article examines books, articles, and literature developed by leading agencies in the field. Grief counseling is an interdisciplinary field focusing on the clinical aspects of working with individuals involved in dying and…

  14. Integrating Buddhist Psychology into Grief Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wada, Kaori; Park, Jeeseon

    2009-01-01

    The field of grief counseling has yet to see an integration of Buddhist psychology. Drawing on Buddhist psychology literature and Western models of grief, this article explores possible integrations of two approaches. To lay the foundation for this discussion, the authors introduced a brief overview of the history of Buddhism as well as a Buddhist…

  15. The Continuing Process of Parental Grief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Joan; Gemma, Penelope Buschman

    2008-01-01

    The death of a child is an incomprehensible and devastating loss. Grief for parents is lifelong, becoming the connection between parent and child. To extend and deepen current understanding of parental grief, a new survey instrument was developed, combining quantitative and qualitative measures. The qualitative findings from this combined…

  16. Grief and Loss: A Social Work Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Jennifer E.

    2013-01-01

    Despite the wealth of research that exists in the area of death, grief, and loss, the scarcity of literature examining the impact upon social work practitioners is troubling. This article initially draws upon a case study to explore this impact through the theoretical framework of disenfranchised grief. Further comment is made regarding the…

  17. The Continuing Process of Parental Grief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Joan; Gemma, Penelope Buschman

    2008-01-01

    The death of a child is an incomprehensible and devastating loss. Grief for parents is lifelong, becoming the connection between parent and child. To extend and deepen current understanding of parental grief, a new survey instrument was developed, combining quantitative and qualitative measures. The qualitative findings from this combined…

  18. The Appraisal of Social Concerns Scale: Psychometric Validation with a Clinical Sample of Patients with Social Anxiety Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Luke T.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Rodebaugh, Thomas L.; Schneier, Franklin R.; Liebowitz, Michael R.; Telch, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    The Appraisal of Social Concerns (ASC) Scale was created by Telch et al. (2004) to improve upon existing self-report measures of social anxiety-related cognition. In a largely nonclinical sample, the ASC was found to possess three factors and was psychometrically sound. In a smaller clinical sample, the ASC demonstrated sensitivity to the effects…

  19. Psychometric Properties of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents and Use for Youth with Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince-Embury, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    This study examines psychometric properties of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA) in two clinical samples: one child sample (n = 110) and one adolescent sample (n = 178). The purpose of the study was to examine the distribution characteristics and internal consistency of RSCA scale, subscale, and index scores for youth who…

  20. Psychometric Evaluation of a Brief Parent- and Teacher-Rated Screen for Children at Risk of Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncombe, Melissa E.; Havighurst, Sophie S.; Holland, Kerry A.; Frankling, Emma J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the Conduct Problems Risk Screen (CPRS), a seven-item screen derived from DSM-IV-TR criteria that can be completed by parents or teachers. The sample consisted of 4,752 Australian five- to nine-year-old primary school children. The results showed the parent and teacher screens had very good…

  1. Psychometric Properties of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents and Use for Youth with Psychiatric Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince-Embury, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    This study examines psychometric properties of the Resiliency Scales for Children and Adolescents (RSCA) in two clinical samples: one child sample (n = 110) and one adolescent sample (n = 178). The purpose of the study was to examine the distribution characteristics and internal consistency of RSCA scale, subscale, and index scores for youth who…

  2. The Grief Account: Dimensions of a Contemporary Bereavement Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Michael Robert

    2008-01-01

    The genre of the grief account is identified to include published narratives of surviving grief. Thematic analysis of Andrew Holleran's (2006) "Grief: A Novel," Lolly Winston's (2004) "Good Grief: A Novel," Joan Didion's (2005) "The Year of Magical Thinking," and J. Canfield and M. V. Hansen's (2003) "Chicken Soup for the Grieving Soul: Stories…

  3. Grief Counseling: An Investigation of Counselors' Training, Experience, and Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ober, Anne M.; Granello, Darcy Haag; Wheaton, Joe E.

    2012-01-01

    Grief is prevalent in counseling, but little is known about the current status of counselors' preparation and competencies to provide effective care. This exploratory study surveyed counselors (N = 369) on grief training, personal and professional experiences with grief, and grief counseling competence. Multiple regression analyses found training…

  4. The Grief Account: Dimensions of a Contemporary Bereavement Genre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Michael Robert

    2008-01-01

    The genre of the grief account is identified to include published narratives of surviving grief. Thematic analysis of Andrew Holleran's (2006) "Grief: A Novel," Lolly Winston's (2004) "Good Grief: A Novel," Joan Didion's (2005) "The Year of Magical Thinking," and J. Canfield and M. V. Hansen's (2003) "Chicken Soup for the Grieving Soul: Stories…

  5. The Role of Defense Mechanisms, Personality and Demographical Factors on Complicated Grief following Death of a loved one by Cancer.

    PubMed

    Rahimian Boogar, Isaac; Talepasand, Siavash

    2015-04-01

    Identification of the risk factors and psychological correlates of prolonged grief disorder is vital for health promotions in relatives of persons who died of cancer. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of defense mechanisms, character dimension of personality and demographic factors on complicated grief following a loss of a family member to cancer. A number of 226 persons who had lost a family member to cancer in a cancer institute at Tehran University of Medical Science were selected through compliance sampling and completed the Inventory of complicated Grief-Revised (ICG-R), the Defense Styles Questionnaire (DSQ), the Character dimension of Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the Demographical questionnaire. Data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis, using the PASW version 18. Findings revealed that neurotic defense style had a significant positive predictive role in the complicated grief; and cooperativeness, age of the deceased person, self-transcendence and mature defense style had a significant negative predictive role in complicated grief (p<0.001). R2 was 0.73 for the final model (p<.001). The results revealed that two character dimensions (low cooperativeness and self-transcendence), high neurotic defense style and young age of the deceased person were involved in the psychopathological course of the complicated and prolonged grief. It was concluded that personality characteristics of the grieving persons and demographics of the deceased person should be addressed in designing tailored interventions for complicated grief.

  6. The Role of Defense Mechanisms, Personality and Demographical Factors on Complicated Grief following Death of a loved one by Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rahimian Boogar, Isaac; Talepasand, Siavash

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Identification of the risk factors and psychological correlates of prolonged grief disorder is vital for health promotions in relatives of persons who died of cancer. The aim of this research was to investigate the role of defense mechanisms, character dimension of personality and demographic factors on complicated grief following a loss of a family member to cancer. Method: A number of 226 persons who had lost a family member to cancer in a cancer institute at Tehran University of Medical Science were selected through compliance sampling and completed the Inventory of complicated Grief-Revised (ICG-R), the Defense Styles Questionnaire (DSQ), the Character dimension of Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), and the Demographical questionnaire. Data were analyzed by stepwise multiple regression analysis, using the PASW version 18. Results: Findings revealed that neurotic defense style had a significant positive predictive role in the complicated grief; and cooperativeness, age of the deceased person, self-transcendence and mature defense style had a significant negative predictive role in complicated grief (p<0.001). R2 was 0.73 for the final model (p<.001). Conclusion: The results revealed that two character dimensions (low cooperativeness and self-transcendence), high neurotic defense style and young age of the deceased person were involved in the psychopathological course of the complicated and prolonged grief. It was concluded that personality characteristics of the grieving persons and demographics of the deceased person should be addressed in designing tailored interventions for complicated grief. PMID:26884783

  7. Psychometric properties of the PTSD Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (PCL-5) in veterans.

    PubMed

    Bovin, Michelle J; Marx, Brian P; Weathers, Frank W; Gallagher, Matthew W; Rodriguez, Paola; Schnurr, Paula P; Keane, Terence M

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (PCL-5; Weathers, Litz, et al., 2013b) in 2 independent samples of veterans receiving care at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center (N = 468). A subsample of these participants (n = 140) was used to define a valid diagnostic cutoff score for the instrument using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5; Weathers, Blake, et al., 2013) as the reference standard. The PCL-5 test scores demonstrated good internal consistency (α = .96), test-retest reliability (r = .84), and convergent and discriminant validity. Consistent with previous studies (Armour et al., 2015; Liu et al., 2014), confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the data were best explained by a 6-factor anhedonia model and a 7-factor hybrid model. Signal detection analyses using the CAPS-5 revealed that PCL-5 scores of 31 to 33 were optimally efficient for diagnosing PTSD (κ(.5) = .58). Overall, the findings suggest that the PCL-5 is a psychometrically sound instrument that can be used effectively with veterans. Further, by determining a valid cutoff score using the CAPS-5, the PCL-5 can now be used to identify veterans with probable PTSD. However, findings also suggest the need for research to evaluate cluster structure of DSM-5. (PsycINFO Database Record

  8. Parents' grief in the context of adult child mental illness: a qualitative review.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Meg; Cobham, Vanessa; Murray, Judith; McDermott, Brett

    2011-03-01

    Research indicates that parents and other family members often grieve their child or relative's mental illness. This grief appears resultant from a profound sense of loss, which has been described as complicated and nonfinite (e.g., Atkinson in Am J Psychiatry 151(8):1137-1139, 1994; Davis and Schultz in Soc Sci Med 46(3):369-379, 1998; Jones in Br J Soc Work 34:961-979, 2004; MacGregor in Soc Work 39(2):160-166, 1994; Osborne and Coyle in Couns Psychol Q 15(4):307-323, 2002; Ozgul in Aust N Z J Fam Ther 25(4):183-187, 2004; Tuck et al. in Arch Psychiatric Nurs 11(3):118-125, 1997). This paper reviews existent research in this emerging field, with a focus on parents' grief experience in relation to their adult child's mental disorder. Studies that explore parents' and family members' grief, using both qualitative and quantitative methodologies, are considered. Research evidence for the association between parents' and family members' grief and other outcomes are discussed. Findings concerning the prediction of grief in parents and family members who have a child or relative with a mental disorder will be reviewed. Finally, this paper considers methodological and theoretical issues associated with existent research and presents options for further study.

  9. Mourning and Grief on Facebook.

    PubMed

    Willis, Erin; Ferrucci, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Facebook not only changed the way we communicate but also the way we mourn and express grief. The social networking site allows users to interact with deceased users' walls after death. This study utilized textual analysis to categorize Facebook posts ( N = 122) on 30 deceased users' walls according to uses and gratifications theory. Most posts were found to be motivated by entertainment, followed by integration and social interaction. Facebook users posted memories, condolences, and interacted with friends and family members in the deceased user's network. Implications and potential future research are discussed.

  10. Perinatal grief in Latino parents.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Claudia; Kavanaugh, Karen; Klima, Carrie

    2010-01-01

    Extensive research exists that describes the meaning of perinatal loss to some parents, but the experience of loss from the perspective of Latino parents is not clearly understood. Additionally, current perinatal bereavement practices used often to facilitate memory making for parents (such as viewing or holding the baby, taking photographs, or collecting mementos) are based on research done primarily with non-Latino families. Are these common practices appropriate for this population? Because there is a paucity of research on this topic, this article describes what has been written over the past 30 years on the topic of grief and perinatal loss in Latino culture.

  11. Perinatal Grief in Latino Parents

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Claudia; Kavanaugh, Karen; Klima, Carrie

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research exists that describes the meaning of perinatal loss to some parents, but the experience of loss from the perspective of Latino parents is not clearly understood. Additionally, current perinatal bereavement practices used often to facilitate memory-making for parents (such as viewing or holding the baby, taking photographs, or collecting mementos) are based upon research done primarily with non-Latino families. Are these common practices appropriate for this population? Because there is a paucity of research on this topic, this article describes what has been written over the past 30 years on the topic of grief and perinatal loss in Latino culture. PMID:20975393

  12. The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5): Development and First Psychometric Evidence of a New Scale for Assessing Anxiety Disorders Symptoms of Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Muris, Peter; Simon, Ellin; Lijphart, Hester; Bos, Arjan; Hale, William; Schmeitz, Kelly

    2017-02-01

    The Youth Anxiety Measure for DSM-5 (YAM-5) is a new self- and parent-report questionnaire to assess anxiety disorder symptoms in children and adolescents in terms of the contemporary classification system. International panels of childhood anxiety researchers and clinicians were used to construct a scale consisting of two parts: part one consists of 28 items and measures the major anxiety disorders including separation anxiety disorder, selective mutism, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, whereas part two contains 22 items that focus on specific phobias and (given its overlap with situational phobias) agoraphobia. In general, the face validity of the new scale was good; most of its items were successfully linked to the intended anxiety disorders. Notable exceptions were the selective mutism items, which were frequently considered as symptoms of social anxiety disorder, and some specific phobia items especially of the natural environment, situational and other type, that were regularly assigned to an incorrect category. A preliminary investigation of the YAM-5 in non-clinical (N = 132) and clinically referred (N = 64) children and adolescents indicated that the measure was easy to complete by youngsters. In addition, support was found for the psychometric qualities of the measure: that is, the internal consistency was good for both parts, as well as for most of the subscales, the parent-child agreement appeared satisfactory, and there was also evidence for the validity of the scale. The YAM-5 holds promise as a tool for assessing anxiety disorder symptoms in children and adolescents.

  13. The Grief and Meaning Reconstruction Inventory (GMRI): Initial Validation of a New Measure.

    PubMed

    Gillies, James M; Neimeyer, Robert A; Milman, Evgenia

    2015-01-01

    Although increasing numbers of grief theorists, researchers, and therapists have begun to focus on the quest for meaning in lives disrupted by loss, no convenient and psychometrically validated measure of meanings made specifically in bereavement has been available to guide their efforts. To construct such a measure, the authors began with a systematic content analysis of sense-making, benefit finding, and identity reconstruction themes gleaned from the narrative responses of a sample of 162 adults who were diverse in their age, ethnicity, relationship to the decedent, cause of death, and severity of their grief response. These were then formulated into a set of 65 candidate items in a Likert scale format representing the level of the respondent's endorsement of the item in the past week. Subsequent administration to a second sample of 300 bereaved respondents permitted factor analysis of this pilot version of the Grief and Meaning Reconstruction Inventory (GMRI), and reduced the items to 29, which loaded on 5 distinct factors, labeled Continuing Bonds, Personal Growth, Sense of Peace, Emptiness and Meaninglessness, and Valuing Life. Both the overall GMRI and its constituent factors showed good internal consistency and strong convergent validity in the form of negative correlations with established measures of bereavement-related negative emotions, symptoms of complicated grief, and more general psychological distress and mental health symptomatology, and positive correlations with grief related personal growth. The authors close by noting several specific research and clinical applications of the measure, which could play a useful role in testing and refining contemporary models of meaning made in the wake of loss.

  14. The effectiveness of Grief-Help, a cognitive behavioural treatment for prolonged grief in children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There is growing recognition of a syndrome of disturbed grief referred to as prolonged grief disorder (PGD). PGD is mostly studied in adults, but clinically significant PGD symptoms have also been observed in children and adolescents. Yet, to date no effective treatment for childhood PGD exists. The aims of this study are: (1) to investigate the effectiveness of Grief-Help, a nine-session cognitive-behavioural treatment for childhood PGD, combined with five sessions of parental counselling, immediately after the treatment and at three, six and twelve months follow-up; (2) to examine tentative mediators of the effects of Grief-Help, (i.e., maladaptive cognitions and behaviours and positive parenting), and (3) to determine whether demographic variables, child personality, as well as symptoms of PGD, anxiety, and depression in parents moderate the treatment effectiveness. Methods/Design We will conduct a Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) in which 160 children and adolescents aged 8–18 years are randomly allocated to cognitive behavioural Grief-Help or to a supportive counselling intervention; both treatments are combined with five sessions of parental counselling. We will recruit participants from clinics for mental health in the Netherlands. The primary outcome measure will be the severity of Prolonged Grief Disorder symptoms according to the Inventory of Prolonged Grief for Children (IPG-C). Secondary outcomes will include PTSD, depression and parent-rated internalizing and externalizing problems. Mediators like positive parenting and maladaptive cognitions and behaviours will be identified. We will also examine possible moderators including demographic variables (e.g. time since loss, cause of death), psychopathology symptoms in parents (PGD, anxiety and depression) and child personality. Assessments will take place in both groups at baseline, after the treatment-phase and three, six and twelve months after the post-treatment assessment. Discussion We

  15. The effectiveness of Grief-Help, a cognitive behavioural treatment for prolonged grief in children: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Spuij, Mariken; Prinzie, Peter; Dekovic, Maja; van den Bout, Jan; Boelen, Paul A

    2013-11-20

    There is growing recognition of a syndrome of disturbed grief referred to as prolonged grief disorder (PGD). PGD is mostly studied in adults, but clinically significant PGD symptoms have also been observed in children and adolescents. Yet, to date no effective treatment for childhood PGD exists. The aims of this study are: (1) to investigate the effectiveness of Grief-Help, a nine-session cognitive-behavioural treatment for childhood PGD, combined with five sessions of parental counselling, immediately after the treatment and at three, six and twelve months follow-up; (2) to examine tentative mediators of the effects of Grief-Help, (i.e., maladaptive cognitions and behaviours and positive parenting), and (3) to determine whether demographic variables, child personality, as well as symptoms of PGD, anxiety, and depression in parents moderate the treatment effectiveness. We will conduct a Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) in which 160 children and adolescents aged 8-18 years are randomly allocated to cognitive behavioural Grief-Help or to a supportive counselling intervention; both treatments are combined with five sessions of parental counselling. We will recruit participants from clinics for mental health in the Netherlands. The primary outcome measure will be the severity of Prolonged Grief Disorder symptoms according to the Inventory of Prolonged Grief for Children (IPG-C). Secondary outcomes will include PTSD, depression and parent-rated internalizing and externalizing problems. Mediators like positive parenting and maladaptive cognitions and behaviours will be identified. We will also examine possible moderators including demographic variables (e.g. time since loss, cause of death), psychopathology symptoms in parents (PGD, anxiety and depression) and child personality. Assessments will take place in both groups at baseline, after the treatment-phase and three, six and twelve months after the post-treatment assessment. We aim to contribute to the improvement

  16. Psychometric assessment of subjective sleep quality using the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-J) in psychiatric disordered and control subjects.

    PubMed

    Doi, Y; Minowa, M; Uchiyama, M; Okawa, M; Kim, K; Shibui, K; Kamei, Y

    2000-12-27

    Subjective sleep quality has been identified as an important clinical construct in psychiatric disordered patients. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), one of the most widely used standardized measures to assess subjective sleep quality, generates a global score and scores seven components. The present study psychometrically assessed clinical profiles of subjective sleep quality in 82 control and 92 psychiatric disordered subjects (primary insomnia, n=14; major depression, n=30; generalized anxiety disorder, n=24; and schizophrenia, n=24), using the Japanese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI-J). The overall reliability coefficient of the PSQI-J was high (Cronbach's alpha=0.77). Correlation coefficients between the PSQI-J global and component scores were statistically significant. The PSQI-J global and component mean scores were significantly higher in psychiatric disordered subjects than control subjects, except for the component of sleep duration. Using a cut-off point of 5.5 in the PSQI-J global score, estimations of sensitivity and specificity provided 85.7 and 86.6% for primary insomnia, 80.0 and 86.6% for major depression, 83.3 and 86.6% for generalized anxiety disorder, and 83.3 and 86.6% for schizophrenia, respectively. The present study supports the utility of the PSQI-J as a reliable and valid measure for subjective sleep quality in clinical practice and research.

  17. The Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: psychometric features within a clinical population and a cut-off point to differentiate clinical patients from healthy controls.

    PubMed

    Krabbenborg, Manon A M; Danner, Unna N; Larsen, Junilla K; van der Veer, Nienke; van Elburg, Annemarie A; de Ridder, Denise T D; Evers, Catharine; Stice, Eric; Engels, Rutger C M E

    2012-07-01

    The Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) is a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. Research has provided evidence of the reliability and validity of this scale in non-clinical populations. Our study is the first to examine the psychometric features of the EDDS in a clinical population of eating disordered patients. We identified a cut-off point that differentiates clinical patients from healthy controls. A clinical group of 59 Dutch female eating disordered patients and a control group of 45 Dutch students completed the EDDS, the Eating Disorder Examination Interview, the Body Attitude Test and the Beck Depression Inventory--II. The EDDS showed good test-retest reliability, internal consistency, criterion validity and convergent validity with other scales assessing eating and general pathology. An overall symptom composite cut-off score of 16.5 accurately distinguished clinical patients from healthy controls. The EDDS may be a useful instrument in clinical settings and in aetiologic, prevention and treatment research.

  18. The social construction of anticipatory grief.

    PubMed

    Fulton, G; Madden, C; Minichiello, V

    1996-11-01

    As medical technology prolongs life and facilitates the early diagnosis of terminal illnesses such as AIDS, the concept of anticipatory grief requires further scrutiny. The original concept of anticipatory grief has become widely accepted. This paper, however, argues that the uncritical acceptance of this concept rests primarily on the authority of the biomedical model, which has focused analysis on the predictable symptomatology of the grief process, integrating this understanding into health care. This paper provides a critical review of the concept of anticipatory grief, highlighting conceptual shifts which are required if the concept is to be relevant to the subjective experiences of people who are confronted with life-threatening illness. The paper discusses the relevance of understanding the conceptual confusion which exists in the literature between "anticipatory grief" and "forewarning of loss". It is argued that grief may be the response to a loss of meaning, and that the psychological process of adjustment to loss requires individuals to engage in the reconstitution of purpose and meaning in their lives. Distinguishing between what is being expressed for past and present losses and what responses occur when individuals focus on various aspects of their future may shed light on some of the inconsistent and contradictory findings surrounding research on anticipatory grief.

  19. Normal grief and its correlates in Lubumbashi, an urban city in the Democratic Republic of Congo

    PubMed Central

    Joe, Katabwa Kabongo; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Manyonga, Tshibangu; Mwadianvita, Costa Kazadi; Valérien, Mutombo; Stanis, Wembonyama; Kavulu, Mukendi; Espérance, Kashala

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Grief is a universal experience faced at one time or another by most people during their lives. Response to grief and bereavement losses can lead to psychiatric disorders such as mood disorders, post traumatic responses, insomnia loss of appetite, anxiety, and depression. The aim of our study is to value in our community the physical and psychological complications of a normal grief. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study from March 2012 to September 2012 in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Two questionnaires, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory scale were used as screening tool. A snow ball sampling method was performed and the questionnaires were administered only to those who consented to participate in the study. Results A total of 78 subjects were included in the study of which 87.2% were aged between 14-50 years old. The majority of the subjects were female 65.4%, and about a quarter (28%) was unemployed. The main correlates of the grief reported in the present study were being treated as witchcraft or accused to be responsible of a death (68%), being rejected by family and not being allowed to inherit (32%). Being homeless was reported in 26%. The main psychological symptoms reported were psychological distress after 1 year (65%) and related physical health problems after the death (72%). Depression and mild anxiety were the most reported disorders, with respectively 92.3% and 74.4% of the subjects. Conclusion Grief in Lubumbashi is associated with a large number of psychological, social and health problems. Health problems such as gastric is, high blood pressure were often reported. Being accused of witchcraft remains the main social impact. Depression and anxiety were the most psychological problem associated with grief. PMID:27583088

  20. Normal grief and its correlates in Lubumbashi, an urban city in the Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Joe, Katabwa Kabongo; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Manyonga, Tshibangu; Mwadianvita, Costa Kazadi; Valérien, Mutombo; Stanis, Wembonyama; Kavulu, Mukendi; Espérance, Kashala

    2016-01-01

    Grief is a universal experience faced at one time or another by most people during their lives. Response to grief and bereavement losses can lead to psychiatric disorders such as mood disorders, post traumatic responses, insomnia loss of appetite, anxiety, and depression. The aim of our study is to value in our community the physical and psychological complications of a normal grief. We conducted a cross-sectional study from March 2012 to September 2012 in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo. Two questionnaires, the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and the Beck Depression Inventory scale were used as screening tool. A snow ball sampling method was performed and the questionnaires were administered only to those who consented to participate in the study. A total of 78 subjects were included in the study of which 87.2% were aged between 14-50 years old. The majority of the subjects were female 65.4%, and about a quarter (28%) was unemployed. The main correlates of the grief reported in the present study were being treated as witchcraft or accused to be responsible of a death (68%), being rejected by family and not being allowed to inherit (32%). Being homeless was reported in 26%. The main psychological symptoms reported were psychological distress after 1 year (65%) and related physical health problems after the death (72%). Depression and mild anxiety were the most reported disorders, with respectively 92.3% and 74.4% of the subjects. Grief in Lubumbashi is associated with a large number of psychological, social and health problems. Health problems such as gastric is, high blood pressure were often reported. Being accused of witchcraft remains the main social impact. Depression and anxiety were the most psychological problem associated with grief.

  1. Effectiveness of psychosocial interventions in reducing grief experienced by family carers of people with dementia: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Sally; Toye, Christine; Aoun, Samar; Slatyer, Susan; Moyle, Wendy; Beattie, Elizabeth

    2017-03-01

    Family carers of people living and dying with dementia experience grief. The prevalence, predictors and associated factors of grief in this population have been identified, and psychosocial interventions to decrease grief symptoms have been implemented. However, the effect of psychosocial interventions on family carers' grief, loss or bereavement has not been examined. To synthesize the existing evidence regarding the impact of psychosocial interventions to assist adjustment to grief, pre- and post-bereavement, for family carers of people with dementia. Family carers of older persons with dementia (>65 years). Psychosocial interventions in health and social care facilities, and community settings designed to assist family carers adjust to grief during the dementia trajectory and/or following death. No treatment, standard care or treatment as usual, or an alternative intervention. Experimental and epidemiological study designs. Grief in family carers including anticipatory, complicated and prolonged grief disorder measured with validated instruments. A three-step strategy sought to identify both published and unpublished studies from 1995. Assessed by two independent reviewers using standardized critical appraisal tools from the Joanna Briggs Institute Meta Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI). The standardized data extraction tool from JBI-MAStARI was used by two reviewers independently. Statistical pooling of results was not possible due to the heterogeneity of the interventions and the outcome measures. Data were extracted from three studies. Study designs were a randomized controlled trial; a pre-test, multiple post-test quasi-experimental; and a single group, repeated measures. The interventions were multi-component, had durations of nine to 26 weeks and were delivered while care recipients were alive. All studies were undertaken in the United States. There were 327 family carers, of which 197 received a psychosocial

  2. The Short Inventory of Problems - revised (SIP-R): psychometric properties within a large, diverse sample of substance use disorder treatment seekers.

    PubMed

    Kiluk, Brian D; Dreifuss, Jessica A; Weiss, Roger D; Morgenstern, Jon; Carroll, Kathleen M

    2013-03-01

    Assessment of the adverse consequences of substance use serves an important function in both clinical and research settings, yet there is no universally agreed upon measure of consequences relevant to multiple types of substance use disorders. One of the most commonly used measures, the Short Inventory of Problems (SIP), has been adapted and evaluated in several specific populations, but evidence is needed of its reliability and validity across broader samples of persons with substance use disorders. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of a revised version of the SIP (SIP-R) in a large combined sample of alcohol and drug use disorder treatment seekers, with participants pooled from two national, multisite, randomized clinical trials. A total of 886 participants across 10 outpatient treatment facilities completed a common assessment battery that included the SIP-R, Addiction Severity Index (ASI), University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA), HIV Risk Behavior Scale (HRBS), and a substance use calendar. Results supported the SIP-R's internal reliability (α = .95). Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated that the hypothesized 5-factor model with one higher-order factor produced the best fit. Convergent validity was evident through the SIP-R's correlation with several composite scores from the ASI and the URICA, and analyses supported its conceptual distinction from quantity indices of drug/alcohol use. The SIP-R also demonstrated an ability to predict treatment retention, with higher scores associated with poorer retention. These results provide support for the SIP-R's psychometric properties as a measure of consequences across a broad sample of treatment-seeking drug and alcohol users.

  3. Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of 3 Depression Measures in a Sample of Persons With Traumatic Brain Injury and Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Joshua R; Williams, Ryan; Bombardier, Charles H; Vannoy, Steven; Fann, Jesse R

    2016-01-01

    To explore the psychometric properties of 3 widely used measures of depression in a sample of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and major depressive disorder and refine them to maximize efficiency. Secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial of cognitive-behavioral therapy for depression after TBI. Nationwide recruitment from community and clinical settings. One hundred adults within 10 years of complicated mild to severe TBI. Telephone and in-person cognitive-behavioral therapy. Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Symptom Checklist-20, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. We used Rasch rating scale analysis and multilevel modeling to investigate the 3 measures. Measurement properties of each of the depression measures were strong. We explored modifications to the rating scales to improve efficiency while retaining strong psychometric characteristics. Correlations among these revised measures were high. Treatment effects of each revised depression measure were compared using a multilevel model, and effect size estimates were comparable among the revised PHQ-9, Symptom Checklist-20, and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Although each of the 3 measures demonstrated adequate reliability, the efficiency of all 3 instruments was improved with rating scale analysis. The PHQ-9 required the fewest modifications and functions well as a measure of depression among those with TBI.

  4. "Psychometric properties of the PTSD Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (PCL-5) in veterans": Correction to Bovin et al. (2016).

    PubMed

    2017-06-01

    Reports an error in "Psychometric properties of the PTSD Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (PCL-5) in veterans" by Michelle J. Bovin, Brian P. Marx, Frank W. Weathers, Matthew W. Gallagher, Paola Rodriguez, Paula P. Schnurr and Terence M. Keane (Psychological Assessment, 2016[Nov], Vol 28[11], 1379-1391). In the article, the departments and affiliations were incorrectly listed for authors Michelle J. Bovin, Brian P. Marx, Matthew W. Gallagher, Paola Rodriguez, Paula P. Schnurr, and Terence M. Keane. The first department and affiliation for authors Michelle J. Bovin, Brian P. Marx, Matthew W. Gallagher, Paola Rodriguez, and Terence M. Keane and should have read "National Center for PTSD at VA Boston Healthcare System, Boston, Massachusetts". The first department and affiliation for author Paula P. Schnurr should have read "National Center for PTSD, White River Junction, Vermont." The online version of this article has been corrected. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2015-55809-001.) This study examined the psychometric properties of the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fifth Edition (PCL-5; Weathers, Litz, et al., 2013b) in 2 independent samples of veterans receiving care at a Veterans Affairs Medical Center (N = 468). A subsample of these participants (n = 140) was used to define a valid diagnostic cutoff score for the instrument using the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5; Weathers, Blake, et al., 2013) as the reference standard. The PCL-5 test scores demonstrated good internal consistency (α = .96), test-retest reliability (r = .84), and convergent and discriminant validity. Consistent with previous studies (Armour et al., 2015; Liu et al., 2014), confirmatory factor analysis revealed that the data were best explained by a 6-factor anhedonia model and a 7-factor hybrid model. Signal detection

  5. Predictors of Complicated Grief among Adolescents Exposed to a Peer's Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melhem, Nadine M.; Day, Nancy; Shear, M. Katherine; Day, Richard; Reynolds, Charles F.; Brent, David

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the predictors of complicated grief, depression, and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adolescents exposed to the suicide of a peer. One hundred and forty six peers of adolescent suicide victims were interviewed at 6, 12-18, and 36 months following the suicide. The roles of previous psychiatric…

  6. BEREAVEMENT BY TRAUMATIC MEANS: THE COMPLEX SYNERGY OF TRAUMA AND GRIEF

    PubMed Central

    NERIA, YUVAL; LITZ, BRETT T.

    2013-01-01

    When people lose intimates unexpectedly, in particular from malicious acts of violence, they are at risk for chronic grief reactions. The phenomenology, clinical symptoms, clinical needs, and risk factors associated with loss by traumatic means and the combined influences of loss and trauma exposure are yet to be systematically studied. We review the complex interplay between trauma and loss by traumatic means. The distinctions between normal and traumatic loss, and complicated and traumatic grief, are contrasted with the traditional conceptualization of posttraumatic stress disorder. The role of various mediators such as concurrent or life-span trauma exposure and interpersonal factors, particularly the degree of attachment to the individual or group traumatically lost, is discussed. We offer a more integrated and focused view of traumatic grief, its predictors, and future directions for the integrative study of trauma and loss outcomes. PMID:23633929

  7. Attachment style dimensions can affect prolonged grief risk in caregivers of terminally ill patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Lai, Carlo; Luciani, Massimiliano; Galli, Federico; Morelli, Emanuela; Cappelluti, Roberta; Penco, Italo; Aceto, Paola; Lombardo, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the predictive role of attachment dimensions on the risk of prolonged grief. Sixty caregivers of 51 terminally ill patients with cancer who had been admitted in a hospice were selected. Caregivers were interviewed using Attachment Scale Questionnaire, Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale, and Prolonged Grief Disorder 12 (PG-12). The consort caregivers showed higher PG-12 level compared to the sibling caregivers. Anxiety, depression, need for approval, and preoccupation with relationships levels were significantly correlated with PG-12 scores. Female gender, high levels of depression, and preoccupation with relationships significantly predicted higher levels of prolonged grief risk. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. Divergent gene expression responses to complicated grief and non-complicated grief.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Mary-Frances; Schultze-Florey, Christian R; Irwin, Michael R; Arevalo, Jesusa M G; Cole, Steven W

    2014-03-01

    The "widowhood effect" (i.e., morbidity/mortality in recently bereaved spouses) may be related to changes in immune function, but little is known about the impact of bereavement on gene transcription in immune cells. This study examined how Complicated Grief and Non-complicated Grief responses to bereavement differentially affect leukocyte gene expression. Genome-wide transcriptional profiling and bioinformatic analyses were completed on 63 older adults. Thirty-six of them had lost their spouse/partner on average 2years ago, and 27 were nonbereaved, married controls. Twelve of the bereaved participants met criteria for Complicated Grief. Compared to nonbereaved controls, bereavement (both Complicated Grief and Non-complicated Grief) was associated with upregulated expression of genes involved in general immunologic activation and a selective downregulation of genes involved in B lymphocyte responses. However, Complicated Grief and Non-complicated Grief differed markedly in their expression of Type I interferon-related transcripts, with Non-complicated Grief subjects showing substantial upregulation relative to nonbereaved controls and Complicated Grief subjects showing substantial downregulation. Bereavement significantly modulates immune function gene expression. The magnitude of bereavement-related distress (i.e., Complicated Grief vs. Non-complicated Grief) is linked to differential patterns of transcription factor activation and gene expression involved in innate antiviral responses. These findings provide a molecular framework for understanding the health effects of bereavement, as well as new insights into the particular gene modules that are most sensitive to the individual's psychological response to loss. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A psychometric investigation of the hypersexual disorder screening inventory among highly sexually active gay and bisexual men: an item response theory analysis.

    PubMed

    Parsons, Jeffrey T; Rendina, H Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Cook, Karon F; Grov, Christian; Mustanski, Brian

    2013-12-01

    The Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) was designed as an instrument for the screening of hypersexuality by the American Psychiatric Association's taskforce for the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. Our study sought to conduct a psychometric analysis of the HDSI, including an investigation of its underlying structure and reliability utilizing item response theory (IRT) modeling, and an examination of its polythetic scoring criteria in comparison to a standard dimensionally based cutoff score. We examined a diverse group of 202 highly sexually active gay and bisexual men in New York City. We conducted psychometric analyses of the HDSI, including both confirmatory factor analysis of its structure and IRT analysis of the item and scale reliabilities. We utilized the HDSI. The HDSI adequately fit a single-factor solution, although there was evidence that two of the items may measure a second factor that taps into sex as a form of coping. The scale showed evidence of strong reliability across much of the continuum of hypersexuality, and results suggested that, in addition to the proposed polythetic scoring criteria, a cutoff score of 20 on the severity index might be used for preliminary classification of HD. The HDSI was found to be highly reliable, and results suggested that a unidimensional, quantitative conception of hypersexuality with a clinically relevant cutoff score may be more appropriate than a qualitative syndrome comprised of multiple distinct clusters of problems. However, we also found preliminary evidence that three clusters of symptoms may constitute an HD syndrome as opposed to the two clusters initially proposed. Future research is needed to determine which of these issues are characteristic of the hypersexuality and HD constructs themselves and which are more likely to be methodological artifacts of the HDSI. © 2013 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  10. A psychometric investigation of the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory among highly sexually active gay and bisexual men: An item response theory analysis

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Rendina, H. Jonathon; Ventuneac, Ana; Cook, Karon F.; Grov, Christian; Mustanski, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory (HDSI) was designed as an instrument for the screening of hypersexuality by the American Psychiatric Association’s DSM-5 taskforce. Aim Our study sought to conduct a psychometric analysis of the HDSI, including an investigation of its underlying structure and reliability utilizing Item Response Theory (IRT) modeling, and an examination of its polythetic scoring criteria in comparison to a standard dimensionally-based cutoff score. Methods We examined a diverse group of 202 highly sexually active gay and bisexual men in New York City. We conducted psychometric analyses of the HDSI, including both confirmatory factor analysis of its structure and item response theory analysis of the item and scale reliabilities. Main Outcome Measures We utilized the Hypersexual Disorder Screening Inventory. Results The HDSI adequately fit a single-factor solution, although there was evidence that two of the items may measure a second factor that taps into sex as a form of coping. The scale showed evidence of strong reliability across much of the continuum of hypersexuality and results suggested that, in addition to the proposed polythetic scoring criteria, a cutoff score of 20 on the severity index might be used for preliminary classification of HD. Conclusion The HDSI was found to be highly reliable and results suggested that a unidimensional, quantitative conception of hypersexuality with a clinically relevant cutoff score may be more appropriate than a qualitative syndrome comprised of multiple distinct clusters of problems. However, we also found preliminary evidence that three clusters of symptoms may constitute an HD syndrome as opposed to the two clusters initially proposed. Future research is needed to determine which of these issues are characteristic of the hypersexuality and HD constructs themselves and which are more likely to be methodological artifacts of the HDSI. PMID:23534845

  11. Predicting grief intensity after recent perinatal loss.

    PubMed

    Hutti, Marianne H; Myers, John; Hall, Lynne A; Polivka, Barbara J; White, Susan; Hill, Janice; Kloenne, Elizabeth; Hayden, Jaclyn; Grisanti, Meredith McGrew

    2017-08-02

    The Perinatal Grief Intensity Scale (PGIS) was developed for clinical use to identify and predict intense grief and need for follow-up after perinatal loss. This study evaluates the validity of the PGIS via its ability to predict future intense grief based on a PGIS score obtained early after a loss. A prospective observational study was conducted with 103 international, English-speaking women recruited at hospital discharge or via the internet who experienced a miscarriage, stillbirth, or neonatal death within the previous 8weeks. Survey data were collected at baseline using the PGIS and the Perinatal Grief Scale (PGS). Follow-up data on the PGS were obtained 3months later. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, Cronbach's alpha, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and confirmatory factor analysis. Cronbach's alphas were ≥0.70 for both instruments. PGIS factor analysis yielded three factors as predicted, explaining 57.7% of the variance. The optimal cutoff identified for the PGIS was 3.535. No difference was found when the ability of the PGIS to identify intense grief was compared to the PGS (p=0.754). The PGIS was not inferior to the PGS (AUC=0.78, 95% CI 0.68-0.88, p<0.001) in predicting intense grief at the follow-up. A PGIS score≥3.53 at baseline was associated with increased grief intensity at Time 2 (PGS: OR=1.97, 95% CI 1.59-2.34, p<0.001). The PGIS is comparable to the PGS, has a lower response burden, and can reliably and validly predict women who may experience future intense grief associated with perinatal loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Emotion regulation in disordered eating: Psychometric properties of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale among Spanish adults and its interrelations with personality and clinical severity.

    PubMed

    Wolz, Ines; Agüera, Zaida; Granero, Roser; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Gratz, Kim L; Menchón, José M; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the study were to (1) validate the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) in a sample of Spanish adults with and without eating disorders, and (2) explore the role of emotion regulation difficulties in eating disorders (ED), including its mediating role in the relation between key personality traits and ED severity. One hundred and thirty four patients (121 female, mean age = 29 years) with anorexia nervosa (n = 30), bulimia nervosa (n = 54), binge eating (n = 20), or Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorders (n = 30) and 74 healthy control participants (51 female, mean age = 21 years) reported on general psychopathology, ED severity, personality traits and difficulties in emotion regulation. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the psychometrics of the DERS in this Spanish sample (Aim 1). Additionally, to examine the role of emotion regulation difficulties in ED (Aim 2), differences in emotion regulation difficulties across eating disorder subgroups were examined and structural equation modeling was used to explore the interrelations among emotion regulation, personality traits, and eating disorder severity. RESULTS support the validity and reliability of the DERS within this Spanish adult sample and suggest that this measure has a similar factor structure in this sample as in the original sample. Moreover, emotion regulation difficulties were found to differ as a function of eating disorder subtype and to mediate the relation between two specific personality traits (i.e., high harm avoidance and low self-directedness) and ED severity. Personality traits of high harm avoidance and low self-directedness may increase vulnerability to ED pathology indirectly, through emotion regulation difficulties.

  13. Emotion regulation in disordered eating: Psychometric properties of the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale among Spanish adults and its interrelations with personality and clinical severity

    PubMed Central

    Wolz, Ines; Agüera, Zaida; Granero, Roser; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Gratz, Kim L.; Menchón, José M.; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aims of the study were to (1) validate the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) in a sample of Spanish adults with and without eating disorders, and (2) explore the role of emotion regulation difficulties in eating disorders (ED), including its mediating role in the relation between key personality traits and ED severity. Methods: One hundred and thirty four patients (121 female, mean age = 29 years) with anorexia nervosa (n = 30), bulimia nervosa (n = 54), binge eating (n = 20), or Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorders (n = 30) and 74 healthy control participants (51 female, mean age = 21 years) reported on general psychopathology, ED severity, personality traits and difficulties in emotion regulation. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the psychometrics of the DERS in this Spanish sample (Aim 1). Additionally, to examine the role of emotion regulation difficulties in ED (Aim 2), differences in emotion regulation difficulties across eating disorder subgroups were examined and structural equation modeling was used to explore the interrelations among emotion regulation, personality traits, and eating disorder severity. Results: Results support the validity and reliability of the DERS within this Spanish adult sample and suggest that this measure has a similar factor structure in this sample as in the original sample. Moreover, emotion regulation difficulties were found to differ as a function of eating disorder subtype and to mediate the relation between two specific personality traits (i.e., high harm avoidance and low self-directedness) and ED severity. Conclusions: Personality traits of high harm avoidance and low self-directedness may increase vulnerability to ED pathology indirectly, through emotion regulation difficulties. PMID:26175710

  14. Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Body Weight, Image and Self-Esteem Evaluation Questionnaire in patients with severe mental disorders.

    PubMed

    Al-Halabi, Susana; Garcia-Portilla, Maria Paz; Saiz, Pilar Alejandra; Fonseca, Eduardo; Bobes-Bascaran, Maria Teresa; Galván, Gonzalo; Iglesias, Celso; Arrojo, Manuel; Benabarre, Antoni; Goikolea, José Manuel; Sanchez, Emilio; Sarramea, Fernando; Bobes, Julio

    2012-11-01

    Clinicians need brief and valid instruments to monitor the psychosocial impact of weight gain in persons with psychiatric disorders. We examined the psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the Body Weight, Image and Self-Esteem Evaluation (B-WISE) questionnaire in patients with severe mental disorders. The data come from a naturalistic, cross-sectional, validation study conducted at 6 centres in Spain. A total of 211 outpatients with severe mental disorders, 118 with schizophrenia and 93 with bipolar disorder, were evaluated using the B-WISE, the Visual Analogue Scale for Weight and Body Image, and the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S). The body mass index was also obtained. The principal component analysis confirms 3 components explaining 50.93% of the variance. The Cronbach α values for B-WISE scales ranged between .55 and .73. Significant Pearson correlations were found between B-WISE total score and CGI-S (r = -0.25; P < .001) and Visual Analogue Scale for Weight and Body Image (r = 0.47; P < .001). The B-WISE discriminates among patients with mild, moderate, and severe mental disorders according to CGI-S scores (F = 6.52; P < .005). Body mass index categorization significantly influenced total B-WISE scores (F = 3.586, P < .050). The B-WISE score corresponding to the 5th and 10th percentiles was 22. We were able to demonstrate that the Spanish version of the B-WISE is a valid instrument for assessing psychosocial impact of weight gain in patients with severe mental disorders in daily clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Checklist and DSM-5 PTSD Symptom Set in a Long-Term Postearthquake Cohort in Armenia.

    PubMed

    Demirchyan, Anahit; Goenjian, Armen K; Khachadourian, Vahe

    2015-10-01

    Psychometric properties of the Armenian-language posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) Checklist-Civilian version (PCL-C) and the DSM-5 PTSD symptom set were examined in a long-term cohort of earthquake survivors. In 2012, 725 survivors completed the instruments. Item-/scale-level analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed for both scales. In addition, exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted for DSM-5 symptoms. Also, the differential internal versus external specificity of PTSD symptom clusters taken from the most supported PTSD structural models was examined. Both scales had Cronbach's alpha greater than .9. CFA of PCL-C structure demonstrated an excellent fit by a four-factor (reexperiencing, avoidance, numbing, and hyperarousal) model known as numbing model; however, a superior fit was achieved by a five-factor model (Elhai et al.). EFA yielded a five-factor structure for DSM-5 symptoms with the aforementioned four domains plus a negative state domain. This model achieved an acceptable fit during CFA, whereas the DSM-5 criteria-based model did not. The Armenian-language PCL-C was recommended as a valid PTSD screening tool. The study findings provided support to the proposed new classification of common mental disorders, where PTSD, depression, and generalized anxiety are grouped together as a subclass of distress disorders. Recommendations were made to further improve the PTSD diagnostic criteria.

  16. Psychometric Properties of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and Norms for Rural and Urban Adolescent Males and Females in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Penelo, Eva; Raich, Rosa M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To contribute new evidence to the controversy about the factor structure of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and to provide, for the first time, norms based on a large adolescent Mexican community sample, regarding sex and area of residence (urban/rural). Methods A total of 2928 schoolchildren (1544 females and 1384 males) aged 11-18 were assessed with the EDE-Q and other disordered eating questionnaire measures. Results Confirmatory factor analysis of the attitudinal items of the EDE-Q did not support the four theorized subscales, and a two-factor solution, Restraint and Eating-Shape-Weight concern, showed better fit than the other models examined (RMSEA = .054); measurement invariance for this two-factor model across sex and area of residence was found. Satisfactory internal consistency (ω ≥ .80) and two-week test-retest reliability (ICCa ≥ .84; κ ≥ .56), and evidence for convergent validity with external measures was obtained. The highest attitudinal EDE-Q scores were found for urban females and the lowest scores were found for rural males, whereas the occurrence of key eating disorder behavioural features and compensatory behaviours was similar in both areas of residence. Conclusions This study reveals satisfactory psychometric properties and provides population norms of the EDE-Q, which may help clinicians and researchers to interpret the EDE-Q scores of adolescents from urban and rural areas in Mexico. PMID:24367587

  17. Exploring Outcomes Related to Anxiety and Depression in Completers of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Complicated Grief Treatment.

    PubMed

    Glickman, Kim; Shear, M Katherine; Wall, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    The present study examines a more fine-grained analysis of anxiety-related and depression-related outcomes amongst a sample of treatment completers who were assigned to complicated grief treatment (CGT) (n = 35) or interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) (n = 34) in a previously reported randomized controlled trial. We examined effects of antidepressant use and measures of anxiety and depression, focusing especially on guilt related to the death or deceased and grief-related avoidance in order to further understand the differential effectiveness of CGT and IPT amongst participants who received the full course of treatment. Analyses showed that CGT produced greater reductions in anxiety and depressive symptoms including negative thoughts about the future and grief-related avoidance. CGT's advantage over IPT in lowering depression was most pronounced amongst those not taking antidepressants. Our results further elucidate CGT effects and support the idea that CG and major depressive disorder are distinct conditions. Targeted treatment for complicated grief (CG) produces benefits in associated mood and anxiety symptoms and CG symptoms. Amongst patients with CG, interpersonal psychotherapy seems relatively ineffective in ameliorating depressive symptoms. Grief-related depressive symptoms may not respond to standard treatments unless CG symptoms are also addressed. Reducing grief-related symptoms, such as anxieties about the future, guilt related to the death or deceased and avoidance of reminders of the loss may be important aspects in reducing CG. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Psychometric Characteristics of a Measure of Emotional Dispositions Developed to Test a Developmental Propensity Model of Conduct Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lahey, Benjamin B.; Applegate, Brooks; Chronis, Andrea M.; Jones, Heather A.; Williams, Stephanie Hall; Loney, Jan; Waldman, Irwin D.

    2008-01-01

    Lahey and Waldman proposed a developmental propensity model in which three dimensions of children's emotional dispositions are hypothesized to transact with the environment to influence risk for conduct disorder, heterogeneity in conduct disorder, and comorbidity with other disorders. To prepare for future tests of this model, a new measure of…

  19. Grief: Coping with the Reminders After a Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... but also allow yourself to experience joy and happiness. As you celebrate special times, you might find ... life, consult a grief counselor or other mental health provider. Unresolved or complicated grief can lead to ...

  20. Early Family Deaths May Create 'Grief Gap' for Blacks

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_163190.html Early Family Deaths May Create 'Grief Gap' for Blacks Compared to whites, they are ... earlier ages than whites, creating a potentially devastating "grief gap," new research suggests. Studying more than 42, ...

  1. Grief in the context of HIV: recommendations for practice.

    PubMed

    Mallinson, R Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Grief is a universal human response to loss. While the symptoms of grief are distressing and uncomfortable, they usually diminish over time without therapy. For persons grieving an HIV-related death, however, a variety of unique factors may interfere with the healthy resolution of symptoms. When the grief process becomes complicated, a person may experience serious alterations in physical health and/or disruptions in daily functioning. To assess grief, nurses need to apply interpersonal skills and therapeutic communication techniques in a compassionate manner; currently, no one screening instrument is optimal for evaluating grief in the clinical setting. The person experiencing grief or complicated grief may be referred for support services or counseling, pharmacologic interventions, or cognitive behavioral therapy. This report summarizes evidence from the literature and clinical practice to support recommendations for the practice of nurses caring for persons with HIV-associated grief; recommended strategies are illustrated through an exemplar case study.

  2. Culinary Grief Therapy: Cooking for One Series.

    PubMed

    Nickrand, Heather L; Brock, Cara M

    2017-02-01

    Although loss of loved ones is a universal experience, individuals who experience this loss grieve in different ways. Complicated grief involves the development of trauma symptoms, such as flashbacks, anxiety, and fear associated with daily activities after a death that disrupts the healthy grieving process. Daily activities such as eating, meal planning, grocery shopping, managing finances, and household maintenance can become painful and isolating for those experiencing complicated grief. Cognitive behavioral therapy is used to address irrational beliefs, feelings of depression or anger, and avoidance or numbing behaviors with a goal of leading the individual to adapting to a life, which no longer includes the lost loved one. As part of the bereavement counseling program in a hospice, a need was identified in individuals who had lost loved ones and were having difficulty with adjusting to meal planning, grocery shopping, and cooking for one. To address this need for grief counseling centered on meal planning, grocery shopping, meal preparations, and eating meals alone, "Culinary Grief Therapy: Cooking for One Series" was developed with a local Culinary Arts Program. Partnering with a local community college culinary arts program, the Cooking for One Series provides an interactive venue for cognitive behavioral therapy centered on meal planning and meal times. Along with demonstrations and hands-on experiences, participants are engaged in bereavement counseling with hospice staff. Initial reactions to Culinary Grief Therapy have been positive. Many attendees have participated in multiple workshops, and the number of participants grows for each offering. Culinary Grief Therapy is a novel approach to the needs of those experiencing the loss of a loved one and may reduce or prevent complicated grief associated with meal planning, grocery shopping, and cooking for one.

  3. What causes grief in dementia caregivers?

    PubMed

    Warchol-Biedermann, Katarzyna; Mojs, Ewa; Gregersen, Rikke; Maibom, Kirsten; Millán-Calenti, José C; Maseda, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease in the world. Most AD patients become dependent on their relatives, i.e. family caregivers. Providing care to a person with AD influences caregiver's life and leads to feelings of grief, which often precede caregiver depression. The purpose of the article was to evaluate the Meuser and Marwit Caregiver Grief Inventory (MM-CGI-50) for use in Polish family caregivers and to find out determinants of grief of family caregivers of AD individuals living in Poland. A sample of 151 spouse and adult child caregivers of community-dwelling AD patients (95 females and 56 males) was interviewed to determine the influence of such factors as caregiver's age, gender, family relation to the care recipient (CR) and caregiving-related changes in caregiver's working time, leisure time and material status to find out the impact of caregiving role on intensity of caregiver grief. Caregiver grief was measured by means of MM-CGI-50. Additionally, carers were administered a questionnaire including patient's and caregiver's demographics. Also, CR's dementia assessment was informant-based and determined with investigator-administered clinical dementia rating (CDR) scale. Of all analyzed factors, only caregiver's informant dementia rating significantly influenced caregiver grief. To conclude, the effect of caregiver's age, gender, family relation to the CR and caregiving-related changes in caregiver's working time; leisure time and material status could not be found. To add, MM-CGI-50 can be effectively used to assess grief in Polish family caregivers of AD patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Acute versus chronic grief: the case of pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Lasker, J N; Toedter, L J

    1991-10-01

    Conceptual and measurement problems in identifying those at risk of chronic grief are reviewed, and results are presented of a longitudinal study of people who have experienced pregnancy loss. Coping resources, particularly prior mental health and social support, were the best predictors of low scores on subscales of the Perinatal Grief Scale that indicate chronic grief reactions. Results also offer some evidence of delayed grief responses, especially among men and those who experienced early losses.

  5. The assessment of generalized anxiety disorder: psychometric validation of the Spanish version of the self-administered GAD-2 scale in daily medical practice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Aim To psychometrically validate the Spanish version of the self-administered 2-item GAD-2 scale for screening probable patients with generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). Methods The GAD-2 was self-administered by patients diagnosed with GAD according to DSM-IV criteria and by age- and sex-matched controls who were recruited at random in mental health and primary care centres. Criteria validity was explored using ROC curve analysis, and sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were determined for different cut-off values. Concurrent validity was also established using the HAM-A, HADS, and WHODAS II scales. Results The study sample consisted of 212 subjects (106 patients with GAD) with a mean age of 50.38 years (SD = 16.76). No items of the scale were left blank. Floor and ceiling effects were negligible. No patients with GAD had to be assisted to complete the questionnaire. Reliability (internal consistency) was high; Cronbach’s α = 0.875. A cut-off point of 3 showed adequate sensitivity (91.5%) and specificity (85.8%), with a statistically significant area under the curve (AUC = 0.937, p < 0.001), to distinguish GAD patients from controls. Concurrent validity was also high and significant with HAM-A (0.806, p < 0.001), HADS (anxiety domain, 0.825, p < 0.001) and WHO-DAS II (0.642, p < 0.001) scales. Conclusion The Spanish version of the GAD-2 scale has been shown to have appropriate psychometric properties to rapidly detect probable cases of GAD in the Spanish cultural context under routine clinical practice conditions. PMID:22992432

  6. Psychometric evaluation of a radio electric auricular treatment for stress related disorders: a double-blinded, placebo-controlled controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim of this double-blind randomized study is to test the efficacy of a radio electric stimulator device using an auricular reflex therapy protocol for stress-related symptoms. Methods The study has been carried out on 200 subjects (138 females, 62 males) that voluntarily came to our Institute declaring to "feel stressed". The participants were randomly allocated with a computerized procedure: 150 were treated with auricular therapeutic protocol with radio electric stimulator device (REAC) and 50 were treated with an inactivated, placebo REAC. Psychological stress was evaluated trough the self-administered questionnaire Psychological Stress Measure (PSM). Assessment data were collected at 2 time points: before the treatment (T0) and immediately after the therapy cycle of 18 sessions about 4 weeks later (T1). Results In the group treated with REAC, the psychometric evaluation after the therapy's cycle showed a significant reduction of PSM total scores, from 107.8 ± 23,13 at T0 to 87.1 ± 16,21 at T1 (p < 0.5), while in the control group no significant variation in decreasing stress-related symptomatology has been noted (107.86 ± 25,80 at T0 and 106.32 ± 25,88 at T1 (p = NS). Conclusions The protocol of the auricular treatment with REAC seems to reduce the subjective perception of stress, as "psychometrically" demonstrated by the significant reduction in PSM test total score. This therapeutical procedure also provides a non invasive, not painful and very simple innovative approach to treat the widely diffused stress related disorders. Trial Registration This trial has been registered in the Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) with the number: ACTRN12607000529448 PMID:20302662

  7. The assessment of generalized anxiety disorder: psychometric validation of the Spanish version of the self-administered GAD-2 scale in daily medical practice.

    PubMed

    García-Campayo, Javier; Zamorano, Enric; Ruiz, Miguel A; Pérez-Páramo, María; López-Gómez, Vanessa; Rejas, Javier

    2012-09-19

    To psychometrically validate the Spanish version of the self-administered 2-item GAD-2 scale for screening probable patients with generalised anxiety disorder (GAD). The GAD-2 was self-administered by patients diagnosed with GAD according to DSM-IV criteria and by age- and sex-matched controls who were recruited at random in mental health and primary care centres. Criteria validity was explored using ROC curve analysis, and sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values were determined for different cut-off values. Concurrent validity was also established using the HAM-A, HADS, and WHODAS II scales. The study sample consisted of 212 subjects (106 patients with GAD) with a mean age of 50.38 years (SD = 16.76). No items of the scale were left blank. Floor and ceiling effects were negligible. No patients with GAD had to be assisted to complete the questionnaire. Reliability (internal consistency) was high; Cronbach's α = 0.875. A cut-off point of 3 showed adequate sensitivity (91.5%) and specificity (85.8%), with a statistically significant area under the curve (AUC = 0.937, p < 0.001), to distinguish GAD patients from controls. Concurrent validity was also high and significant with HAM-A (0.806, p < 0.001), HADS (anxiety domain, 0.825, p < 0.001) and WHO-DAS II (0.642, p < 0.001) scales. The Spanish version of the GAD-2 scale has been shown to have appropriate psychometric properties to rapidly detect probable cases of GAD in the Spanish cultural context under routine clinical practice conditions.

  8. Psychometric Properties of the Sexual Interest and Desire Inventory-Female for Diagnosis of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: The Persian Version.

    PubMed

    Malary, Mina; Pourasghar, Mehdi; Khani, Soghra; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2016-10-01

    Objective: Hypoactive sexual desire Disorder (HSDD) is a common sexual problem among women. Sexual interest and desire inventory -female (SIDI-F) has been widely validated and used to measure sexual desire in women. The aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the Persian version of SIDI-F for Iranian population. Method: This was a methodological study on the psychometric properties of SIDI -F. This report describes the process and principles used in the translation and cultural adaptation of the SIDI-F on 40 women of reproductive age who were selected using convenience sampling method. The content validity of this inventory was proved by analyzing the feedback solicited from women of reproductive age; professions specialized in health, sociology and psychology. Reliability was assessed through test-retest and internal consistency reliability. Results: Few cultural differences were identified and considered during the process of translation and validation. In Content Validity Ratio (CVR) measurement, the total score of SIDI-F was higher than Lawsche table (%51 for 14 experts), indicating the importance of including the mentioned items in the tool. CVR scores for all items were equal or more than 0.79. The internal consistency reliability measured for the whole tool was 0.89, showing considerable total reliability. Conclusion: The Persian version of the SIDI-F seems to be valid and reliable and can be used to identify women with low sexual desire through research and sexual health programs provided by the health centers in Iran, and to design appropriate interventions to treat HSDD.

  9. Psychometric Properties of the Sexual Interest and Desire Inventory-Female for Diagnosis of Hypoactive Sexual Desire Disorder: The Persian Version

    PubMed Central

    Malary, Mina; Pourasghar, Mehdi; Khani, Soghra; Moosazadeh, Mahmood; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Hypoactive sexual desire Disorder (HSDD) is a common sexual problem among women. Sexual interest and desire inventory –female (SIDI-F) has been widely validated and used to measure sexual desire in women. The aim of this study was to determine the psychometric properties of the Persian version of SIDI-F for Iranian population. Method: This was a methodological study on the psychometric properties of SIDI –F. This report describes the process and principles used in the translation and cultural adaptation of the SIDI-F on 40 women of reproductive age who were selected using convenience sampling method. The content validity of this inventory was proved by analyzing the feedback solicited from women of reproductive age; professions specialized in health, sociology and psychology. Reliability was assessed through test-retest and internal consistency reliability. Results: Few cultural differences were identified and considered during the process of translation and validation. In Content Validity Ratio (CVR) measurement, the total score of SIDI-F was higher than Lawsche table (%51 for 14 experts), indicating the importance of including the mentioned items in the tool. CVR scores for all items were equal or more than 0.79. The internal consistency reliability measured for the whole tool was 0.89, showing considerable total reliability. Conclusion: The Persian version of the SIDI-F seems to be valid and reliable and can be used to identify women with low sexual desire through research and sexual health programs provided by the health centers in Iran, and to design appropriate interventions to treat HSDD. PMID:28050188

  10. Financial Perils in Higher Education--Good Grief!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Kenneth A.; Britton, Thomas C.

    The premise that institutions pass through a grief process in adjusting to declining resources and radical changes, is proposed. In addition, strategies that administrators can use to respond to institutional grief are suggested. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's paradigm of five grief stages/reactions to serious loss are described: denial, anger,…

  11. Brief Information on Childhood Traumatic Grief for School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This information sheet summarizes material found in the "In-Depth General Information Guide to Childhood Traumatic Grief" and "In-Depth Information on Childhood Traumatic Grief for School Personnel." Childhood traumatic grief is a condition that some children develop after the death of a close friend or family member. Children who develop…

  12. Anticipatory Grief and AIDS: Strategies for Intervening with Caregivers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Rebecca J.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Anticipatory grief may have beneficial effects for caregivers of people with HIV infection or AIDS. Illness duration, stigmatization, and multiple losses may impede the caregiver's ability to effectively engage in the grief process, however. Discusses the impact of these aspects of the disease on the anticipatory grief process and mourning tasks…

  13. Complicated Grief and Suicidal Ideation in Adult Survivors of Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Ann M.; Kim, Yookyung; Prigerson, Holly G.; Mortimer, Mary Kay

    2005-01-01

    While the prevalence of complicated grief has been demonstrated to be elevated in survivors of suicide, the association between complicated grief and suicidal ideation among adult survivors of suicide has not been explored. The purpose of the present study is to examine the association between complicated grief and suicidal ideation in suicide…

  14. Tweeting Prayers and Communicating Grief over Michael Jackson Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Jimmy; Cheong, Pauline Hope

    2010-01-01

    Death and bereavement are human experiences that new media helps facilitate alongside creating new social grief practices that occur online. This study investigated how people's postings and tweets facilitated the communication of grief after pop music icon Michael Jackson died. Drawing on past grief research, religion, and new media studies, a…

  15. Financial Perils in Higher Education--Good Grief!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Kenneth A.; Britton, Thomas C.

    The premise that institutions pass through a grief process in adjusting to declining resources and radical changes, is proposed. In addition, strategies that administrators can use to respond to institutional grief are suggested. Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's paradigm of five grief stages/reactions to serious loss are described: denial, anger,…

  16. Grief reactions in dementia carers: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chan, Diana; Livingston, Gill; Jones, Louise; Sampson, Elizabeth L

    2013-01-01

    Supporting dementia carers is an identified target of the UK government, yet we know little about such family carers' grief before and after the death of the person with dementia for whom they care. We systematically review the existing literature on characteristics, prevalence, predictors and associations of grief in dementia carers before and after death. We searched electronic databases and found 31 publications meeting predetermined criteria. Grief in dementia carers, which may be normal or complicated, is a complex reaction to losses occurring before and after death. Carers experience anticipatory grief as multiple losses for themselves (companionship, personal freedom and control) and the person with dementia. Anticipation and ambiguity about the future, anger, frustration and guilt are core features. Anticipatory grief is greatest in moderate to severe stage dementia and spouse carers, especially when the person with dementia is institutionalised. There was poor quality evidence about the prevalence of grief; studies reported anticipatory grief between 47% and 71%, and complicated grief after death is estimated around 20%. Carer depression increases with anticipatory grief. Being a spouse carer and being depressed are the strongest predictors of complicated and normal grief after death. Grief in dementia carers can be expected; however, those at risk of distressing anticipatory and complicated grief may be identified and targeted for intervention when necessary. Higher quality research from a wider range of samples and countries is needed to explore this complex and emergent topic. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Brief Information on Childhood Traumatic Grief for School Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Child Traumatic Stress Network, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This information sheet summarizes material found in the "In-Depth General Information Guide to Childhood Traumatic Grief" and "In-Depth Information on Childhood Traumatic Grief for School Personnel." Childhood traumatic grief is a condition that some children develop after the death of a close friend or family member. Children who develop…

  18. Residential Grief Camps: An Initial Phenomenological Study of Staff Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Tiffany B.; Kimball, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Research has focused primarily on the impact of death on family functioning and the stages and tasks of grief, though little attention has been given to grief camps or the experiences of those who work there. This study explored the experiences of staff at a four-day overnight children's grief camp. Eight participants reported their experience of…

  19. Tweeting Prayers and Communicating Grief over Michael Jackson Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderson, Jimmy; Cheong, Pauline Hope

    2010-01-01

    Death and bereavement are human experiences that new media helps facilitate alongside creating new social grief practices that occur online. This study investigated how people's postings and tweets facilitated the communication of grief after pop music icon Michael Jackson died. Drawing on past grief research, religion, and new media studies, a…

  20. Goodbye Therapy: Use of Imagery Techniques for Problematic Grief Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, James C.

    This document addresses the issue of problematic grief reactions, reactions which tend to be more common than are often realized and which may be a source of "existential" anxiety. It presents a treatment model which can be used with any loss-elicited grief reaction including the acute grief reaction typically encountered subsequent to the death…

  1. Evaluating the Psychometric Properties and Responsiveness to Change of 3 Depression Measures in a Sample of Persons With Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury and Major Depressive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ryan T; Heinemann, Allen W; Neumann, Holly Demark; Fann, Jesse R; Forchheimer, Martin; Richardson, Elizabeth J; Bombardier, Charles H

    2016-06-01

    To compare the measurement properties and responsiveness to change of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-20 (HSCL-20), and the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) in people with spinal cord injury (SCI) diagnosed with major depressive disorder (MDD). Secondary analysis of depression symptoms measured at 6 occasions over 12 weeks as part of a randomized controlled trial of venlafaxine XR for MDD in persons with SCI. Outpatient and community settings. Individuals (N=133) consented and completed the drug trial. Eligibility criteria were age at least 18 years, traumatic SCI, and diagnosis of MDD. Venlafaxine XR. Patients completed the PHQ-9 and the HSCL-20 depression scales; clinical investigators completed the HAM-D and the Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) Dissociative Disorders, which was used as a diagnostic criterion measure. All 3 instruments were improved with rating scale analysis. The HSCL-20 and the HAM-D contained items that misfit the underlying construct and that correlated weakly with the total scores. Removing these items improved the internal consistency, with floor effects increasing slightly. The HAM-D correlated most strongly with Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Dissociative Disorders diagnoses. Improvement in depression was similar on all outcome measures in both treatment and control groups. The psychometric properties of the revised depression instruments are more than adequate for routine use in adults with SCI and are responsive to clinical improvement. The PHQ-9 is the simplest instrument with measurement properties as good as or better than those of the other instruments and required the fewest modifications. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. [ASRS v.1.1., a tool for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder screening in adults treated for addictive behaviors: psychometric properties and estimated prevalence].

    PubMed

    Pedrero Pérez, Eduardo J; Puerta García, Carmen

    2007-01-01

    ASRS v.1.1. is a self-applied brief instrument for the screening of individuals presenting symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and proposed by the WHO. The purpose of the present work was to test the instrument and examine the results of its application to a sample of 280 individuals in treatment for substance-related disorders (cross-sectional descriptive study). We administered simultaneously in the initial phases of treatment the ASRS v.1.1. (short form) and the MCMI-II to the full sample and the Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS), ADHD-Rating Scale-IV and ASRS v.1.1. (complete form) to various sub-samples. Diagnostic interviews were also carried out and the psychometric properties and factorial structure of ASRS v.1.1. were explored. Good convergent validity, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic capability were obtained for the six-item version of ASRS v.1.1., even though 4 out of 6 items did not discriminate between Axis I and II disorders assessed through the MCMI-II and diagnostic interviews. According to DSM-IV-TR criteria the estimated prevalence of ADHD in the sample of addicts was 8.2%. ASRS v.1.1. is criticized as a specific instrument for ADHD detection, since most of its items appear to measure a non-specific dimension of compulsiveness/impulsiveness, common to Axis-I and Axis-II disorders. Other criticisms made in the discussion concern the lack of specificity of DSM criteria and the confusion they generate among the concepts of symptom, sign and trait (including the impact on study results), the general use of the A criterion but the omission of the B, C, D and E criteria of the DSM category, differences in samples (with regard to both severity and selection criteria), and the artifactual increases in prevalence found in many studies.

  3. Psychometric Evaluation and Norms for the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA) in a Clinical Eating Disorders Sample.

    PubMed

    Brown, Tiffany A; Berner, Laura A; Jones, Michelle D; Reilly, Erin E; Cusack, Anne; Anderson, Leslie K; Kaye, Walter H; Wierenga, Christina E

    2017-09-01

    Altered interoceptive awareness (IA) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of eating disorders; however, few comprehensive self-report measures of IA exist in eating disorders. The present study sought to validate the Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness (MAIA), originally developed to assess IA in individuals practicing mind-body therapies, in an eating disorder sample. Adult and adolescent patients (n = 376) completed assessments upon admission to a partial hospital programme. Analyses examined the factor structure of the MAIA, scale means, scale-scale correlations, internal consistency and construct validity. Analyses also examined associations between MAIA subscales and eating disorder symptoms. Results supported the original eight-factor structure of the MAIA. Internal consistency was acceptable, and the scales converged with associated measures. Importantly, Not Distracting, Self-regulation, Body Listening and Trusting were most strongly associated with eating disorder symptoms. Results support use of the MAIA among eating disorders and provide further support for the relevance of IA in eating disorders. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  4. [Family Focused Grief Therapy - A Suitable Model for the Palliative Care of Cancer Patients and their Families?].

    PubMed

    Weißflog, Gregor; Mehnert, Anja

    2015-11-01

    Loss is a universal human experience. Within the context of cancer and especially in the palliative care of oncological patients, anticipated and real losses and their management play a crucial role. A high proportion of patients and family members develop a treatment requiring psychiatric comorbidity (for both groups between 20 and 30%, mainly adjustment and anxiety disorders and depression). Approximately 15% of the bereaved persons suffer from complicated grief after the death of their relative. Within the early palliative care, the implementation of the Family Focused Grief Therapy (FFGT) has the potential to reduce psychological distress incl. mental comorbidities in patients and their relatives. Simultaneously, the incidence of the prolonged grief disorder in bereaved persons could be diminished (after the death of their relative). Thus, the FFGT can make a substantial contribution in order to improve the palliative care of cancer patients and their bereaved persons. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. An Initial Psychometric Evaluation of the CBCL 6-18 in a Sample of Youth with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pandolfi, Vincent; Magyar, Caroline I.; Dill, Charles A.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often present with co-occurring emotional and behavioral disorders (EBD). The Child Behavior Checklist 6-18 (CBCL; Achenbach & Rescorla, 2001) is an EBD measure that contains several norm-referenced scales derived through factor analysis of data from the general pediatric population. The…

  6. Grief in children and adolescents bereaved by sudden parental death.

    PubMed

    Melhem, Nadine M; Porta, Giovanna; Shamseddeen, Wael; Walker Payne, Monica; Brent, David A

    2011-09-01

    Major advances have been made in our understanding of the phenomenology and course of grief in adults. However, little is known about the course of grief in children and adolescents. We report on the course of children's and adolescents' grief reactions after sudden parental death and the effect of those reactions on subsequent psychiatric and functional status. Longitudinal study (July 1, 2002, through January 16, 2007) of bereaved children, adolescents, and families, with yearly comprehensive assessments as long as 3 years after parental death. Bereaved children and adolescents and their surviving parents recruited through coroners' records and a newspaper advertisement. A total of 182 parentally bereaved children and adolescents aged 7 through 18 years whose parent died due to suicide, unintentional injury, or sudden natural causes. Grief, functional impairment, and incident depression. Three distinct trajectories of grief reactions were observed in the study participants. In 1 group, which consisted of 10.4% of the sample, grief reactions showed no change 33 months after death. Children and adolescents with prolonged grief reactions had higher rates of previous personal history of depression. Prolonged grief made unique contributions to increased levels of functional impairment, even after controlling for the clinical characteristics before and after the death. Conversely, prolonged grief in children, adolescents, and the surviving caregiver predisposed children and adolescents to an increased hazard of incident depression. Another group (30.8%) showed increased grief reactions 9 months after the death, which gradually decreased over time. Despite this finding, grief reactions in this group also were associated with functional impairment and increased risk of incident depression. Grief reactions abate over time for most children and adolescents bereaved by sudden parental death; however, a subset shows increased or prolonged grief reactions, which in turn

  7. The grief involved in change.

    PubMed

    Linney, B J

    1999-01-01

    In this era of rapid change, people need to be helped through the grieving process at work. "By acknowledging and articulating what is involved, you facilitate people's movement through it ... successful people in growing organizations need to learn to move through the process as quickly and efficiently as possible and help others do the same." Morris Shectman, in Working Without a Net says, "Contrary to the old paradigm--which held that others don't have a right to know about your personal life--the new paradigm says that it's a necessity that they know." If people are to move through the grief that is caused by undesired change, they will have to tell some of their personal feelings. "Each stage of the process--shock and denial, anger, bargaining, depression, and acceptance--is functional ... when people go through the process in a healthy manner, they'll recycle through it in a diluted fashion." Leaders in the organization can help people start the process or move through it if they get stuck at a particular stage.

  8. Grief, consolation, and religions: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Klass, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Consolation is grief's traditional amelioration, but contemporary bereavement theory lacks a conceptual framework to include it. The article begins to develop that framework. The article argues that grief is inter-subjective, even at the biological level. Consolation and grief happen in the same inter-subjective space. Material from the histories of several religions sets the article in a cross-cultural and historical environment. The article examines consolation in interpersonal relationships, and then moves to consolation in cultural/religious resources that range from the literal image of God as an idealized parent to the abstract architecture of Brahm's Requiem. The most common consolation in the histories of religions comes within continuing bonds that are accessed in a wide variety of beliefs, rituals, and devotional objects. The article closes by briefly drawing the connection between consolation and faith.

  9. Pediatric nurses' grief experience, burnout and job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Adwan, Jehad Z

    2014-01-01

    Correlations among grief, burnout, and job satisfaction among highly satisfied pediatric nurses were examined using the Revised Grief Experience Inventory (RGEI), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and Index of Work Satisfaction (IWS). Results showed that grief had significant correlations; positive with burnout, negative with job satisfaction. RN's reported significantly higher emotional exhaustion if their primary patients died and higher guilt if patients died younger. Conclusions suggest a dynamic statistical interaction among nurses' grief, burnout, and job satisfaction representing a pathway to intention to leave their unit, organization, or nursing. Recommendations include implementation and evaluation of grief intervention and education programs.

  10. The grief account: dimensions of a contemporary bereavement genre.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Michael Robert

    2008-01-01

    The genre of the grief account is identified to include published narratives of surviving grief. Thematic analysis of Andrew Holleran's (2006) Grief: A Novel, Lolly Winston's (2004) Good Grief: A Novel, Joan Didion's (2005) The Year of Magical Thinking, and J. Canfield and M. V. Hansen's (2003) Chicken Soup for the Grieving Soul: Stories About Life, Death and Overcoming the Loss of a Loved One is informed by recent scholarship regarding eulogies and illness and dying narratives. Six dimensions (restorative, evaluative, interpretive, affirmative, affective, transformative) of contemporary grief accounts are recognized as sources of inspiration for the practice and experience of bereavement.

  11. Grief following pet and human loss: Closeness is key.

    PubMed

    Eckerd, Lizabeth M; Barnett, James E; Jett-Dias, Latishia

    2016-01-01

    The authors compared grief severity and its predictors in two equivalent college student samples who had experienced the death of a pet (n = 211) or a person (n = 146) within the past 2 years. The human death sample reported higher grief severity, p < .01, but effect sizes were small (ds = .28-.30). For both samples, closeness to the deceased was overwhelmingly the strongest predictor of grief severity; other predictors generally dropped out with closeness added to the model. Results highlight the importance of including closeness to deceased in grief research, and its centrality in understanding grief counseling clients.

  12. Effects of Mental Health Support on the Grief of Bereaved People Caused by Sewol Ferry Accident.

    PubMed

    Han, Hyesung; Noh, Jin Won; Huh, Hyu Jung; Huh, Seung; Joo, Ji Young; Hong, Jin Hyuk; Chae, Jeong Ho

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have assessed the overall effects of multi-centered, complicated mental health support on the grief process. This study investigated the broader influence of mental health support provided practically to the bereaved family on the severity of complicated grief. Ninety-three bereaved family members of the Sewol ferry accident were recruited. Severity of complicated grief, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive disorder was assessed through self-reporting questionnaire, inventory of complicated grief (ICG), PTSD Check List-5 (PCL-5) and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). We also included demographic, socioeconomic, health-related variables, and Functional Social Support Questionnaire (FSSQ), which affect the ICG score. Participants were divided into 4 groups based on the experience of psychotherapy or psychiatry clinic service before the accident and mental health support after the disaster. In univariate analysis, these 4 groups showed a significant difference in the mean ICG score (P = 0.020). Participants who received mental health support only after the Sewol ferry accident (group 2) showed a lower mean ICG score than those who received neither psychotherapy or psychiatry clinic service before the disaster nor mental health support after the accident (group 4). There was no significant correlation between the ICG score and other variables except for subjective health status measured 1 month after the disaster (P = 0.005). There was no significant difference in PCL-5 (P = 0.140) and PHQ-9 scores (P = 0.603) among groups, respectively. In conclusion, mental health support significantly reduced the severity of grief only in those participants who had not received any psychotherapy or psychiatry clinic service before the accident. © 2017 The Korean Academy of Medical Sciences.

  13. The narrative dynamics of grief after homicide.

    PubMed

    Rynearson, Edward K

    2012-01-01

    The homicidal death of a loved one is horrific. Dying from homicide can be more sudden, frightening, and stigmatizing than natural dying and may be followed by a sub-type of prolonged grief complicated by vivid narrative reenactment of the dying, intense feelings of remorse, and nihilistic despair. After a literature review of grief after homicide, the author clarifies the salient narrative themes of homicidal dying and their specific effects on trauma and separation distress. A preliminary model is then developed and illustrated in a therapy case outlining a technique (imaginative exposure) to diminish the disabling fixation of reenactment imagery, remorse, and despair.

  14. Online grief support groups: facilitators' attitudes.

    PubMed

    Lubas, Margaret; De Leo, Gianluca

    2014-01-01

    Although bereaved individuals report positive experiences from participating in online support groups, little is known from a facilitator perspective. Using a web-based survey, data was collected from a national sample of grief facilitators (N = 64). Respondents reported more favorable attitudes toward in-person groups over online and indicated a low likelihood of facilitating an online group in the next year. However, 62% of the sample (n = 37) reported willingness to refer to online groups. This attitude may reflect facilitator acknowledgment of the need to increase the presence and availability of grief services; a need that bereaved individuals' express, as shown in previous research.

  15. [Grief and crises in Norse literature].

    PubMed

    Høyersten, J G

    1993-03-30

    The significance of literature for psychiatry and vice versa is commented on, as an introduction to a study of Norse literature. This was written down mainly in Iceland in the 13th Century on the basis of oral traditions, some of which date back to the 9th century. From a psychological point of view, the Icelandic Sagas, the Royal Sagas of Snorri Sturluson and the earliest hero-poems of the Edda are of particular interest. This literature includes detailed descriptions of grief and crisis reactions, the management and rituals of grief, and the associated rituals. These patterns have a striking similarity to modern principles of crisis intervention.

  16. Grief, Depressive Symptoms, and Physical Health Among Recently Bereaved Spouses

    PubMed Central

    Utz, Rebecca L.; Caserta, Michael; Lund, Dale

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Widowhood is among the most distressing of all life events, resulting in both mental and physical health declines. This paper explores the dynamic relationship between physical health and psychological well-being among recently bereaved spouses. Design and Methods: Using a sample of 328 bereaved persons who participated in the “Living After Loss” study, we modeled trends in physical health, somatic symptoms, and psychological well-being over the first year and a half of widowhood. The primary focus is whether physical health at the time of widowhood modifies psychological well-being over time. Results: There were considerable somatic symptoms during the earliest months of bereavement but no major health declines over the first year and half of bereavement. Those in poor health had initially higher levels of grief and depressive symptoms, but the trajectories or changes over time were similar regardless of health status. Those with poor health at the time of widowhood had significantly higher risks of complicated grief and major depression disorder. Implications: Bereavement requires physical and emotional adjustment, but the psychological trajectory of bereavement may be somewhat universal. Bereavement support ought to include a focus on self-care and health promotion in addition to emotional support, especially because those with poor health initially may be most susceptible to prolonged and intense clinical distress. PMID:22156713

  17. Grief, depressive symptoms, and physical health among recently bereaved spouses.

    PubMed

    Utz, Rebecca L; Caserta, Michael; Lund, Dale

    2012-08-01

     Widowhood is among the most distressing of all life events, resulting in both mental and physical health declines. This paper explores the dynamic relationship between physical health and psychological well-being among recently bereaved spouses.   Using a sample of 328 bereaved persons who participated in the "Living After Loss" study, we modeled trends in physical health, somatic symptoms, and psychological well-being over the first year and a half of widowhood. The primary focus is whether physical health at the time of widowhood modifies psychological well-being over time.   There were considerable somatic symptoms during the earliest months of bereavement but no major health declines over the first year and half of bereavement. Those in poor health had initially higher levels of grief and depressive symptoms, but the trajectories or changes over time were similar regardless of health status. Those with poor health at the time of widowhood had significantly higher risks of complicated grief and major depression disorder.   Bereavement requires physical and emotional adjustment, but the psychological trajectory of bereavement may be somewhat universal. Bereavement support ought to include a focus on self-care and health promotion in addition to emotional support, especially because those with poor health initially may be most susceptible to prolonged and intense clinical distress.

  18. Grief and loss for patients before and after heart transplant.

    PubMed

    Poole, Jennifer; Ward, Jennifer; DeLuca, Enza; Shildrick, Margrit; Abbey, Susan; Mauthner, Oliver; Ross, Heather

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to examine the loss and grief experiences of patients waiting for and living with new hearts. There is much scholarship on loss and grief. Less attention has been paid to these issues in clinical transplantation, and even less on the patient experience. Part of a qualitative inquiry oriented to the work of Merleau-Ponty, a secondary analysis was carried out on audiovisual data from interviews with thirty participants. Patients experience loss and three forms of grief. Pre-transplant patients waiting for transplant experience loss and anticipatory grief related to their own death and the future death of their donor. Transplanted patients experience long-lasting complicated grief with respect to the donor and disenfranchised grief which may not be sanctioned. Loss as well as anticipatory, complicated and disenfranchised grief may have been inadvertently disregarded or downplayed. More research and attention is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Prolonged grief and depression after unnatural loss: Latent class analyses and cognitive correlates.

    PubMed

    Boelen, Paul A; Reijntjes, Albert; J Djelantik, A A A Manik; Smid, Geert E

    2016-06-30

    This study sought to identify (a) subgroups among people confronted with unnatural/violent loss characterized by different symptoms profiles of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) and depression, and (b) socio-demographic, loss-related, and cognitive variables associated with subgroup membership. We used data from 245 individuals confronted with the death of a loved one due to an accident (47.3%), suicide (49%) or homicide (3.7%). Latent class analysis revealed three classes of participants: a resilient-class (25.3%), a predominantly PGD-class (39.2%), and a combined PGD/Depression-class (35.5%). Membership in the resilient-class was predicted by longer time since loss and lower age; membership in the combined class was predicted by lower education. Endorsement of negative cognitions about the self, life, the future, and one's own grief-reactions was lowest in the Resilient-class, intermediate in the PGD-class, and highest in the combined PGD/Depression-class. When all socio-demographic, loss-related, and cognitive variables were included in multinomial regression analyses predicting class-membership, it was found that negative cognitions about one's grief was the only variable predicting membership of the PGD-class. Negative cognitions about the self, life, and grief predicted membership of the combined PGD/Depression-class. These findings provide valuable information for the development of interventions for different subgroups of bereaved individuals confronted with unnatural/violent loss. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Features of Prolonged Grief Symptoms in Chinese and Swiss Bereaved Parents.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Daiming; Maercker, Andreas; Woynar, Stefanie; Geirhofer, Bettina; Yang, Yuting; Jia, Xiaoming

    2016-09-01

    This study investigates clinical expressions of prolonged grief in samples of 32 Chinese and 33 Swiss bereaved parents, according to the proposed International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision model of prolonged grief disorder (PGD). Sex differences and predictors (cultural attitudes, sense of coherence, and posttraumatic growth) of PGD were analyzed. In result, after controlling for sociodemographic and loss-related sample differences, both samples showed similar PGD symptom profiles, with Swiss parents exhibiting more severe grief-related preoccupation and Chinese parents exhibiting some accessory symptoms and functional impairment to a greater extent. Multivariate analyses revealed for the Chinese sample primary predictions of PGD by life satisfaction, general health and one's world view (social cynicism) and for the Swiss sample by female sex, sense of coherence, and life satisfaction. The findings substantiate the basic appropriateness of the International Classification of Diseases, 11th Revision PGD in distinct cultural groups and may contribute to a better understanding of grief expression and its potential predictors across different cultures.

  1. Perinatal loss and parental grief: the challenge of ambiguity and disenfranchised grief.

    PubMed

    Lang, Ariella; Fleiszer, Andrea R; Duhamel, Fabie; Sword, Wendy; Gilbert, Kathleen R; Corsini-Munt, Serena

    2011-01-01

    Following perinatal loss, a type of ambiguous loss, bereaved couples struggle with and experience distress due to various forms of ambiguity. Moreover, the juxtaposition of their grief with society's minimization often disenfranchises them from traditional grieving processes. The purpose of this study was to explore sources of ambiguity and disenfranchised grief related to perinatal loss. Audio-taped interviews with 13 bereaved couples at 2, 6, and 13 months following the death of their fetus or infant were analyzed. Several categories of ambiguity and disenfranchised grief emerged, pertaining to: (a) the viability of the pregnancy; (b) the physical process of pregnancy loss; (c) making arrangements for the remains; and (d) sharing the news. This study uncovers the many sources of ambiguity and disenfranchised grief that bereaved couples face in interactions with family, friends, society, and healthcare professionals. These insights may inform healthcare professionals in their attempts to ease distress related to perinatal loss.

  2. The Italian version of the Inventory of Interpersonal Problems Personality Disorders Scales (IIP-47): psychometric properties and clinical usefulness as a screening measure.

    PubMed

    Ubbiali, Alessandro; Chiorri, Carlo; Donati, Deborah

    2011-08-01

    The Inventory of Interpersonal Problems-47 (IIP-47) is a brief and valid self-report measure for screening Personality Disorders (PDs). This study examined internal consistency, factor structure, criterion validity, temporal stability, and operating characteristics of the Italian version of the IIP-47 in two independent samples: PD subjects (n = 120) and nonclinical subjects (n = 475). Alpha coefficients ranged from .70 to .90. Multiple-Group Confirmatory Factor Analyses showed that the five-correlated-factor model reported in literature had the highest measurement invariance across the two groups. Criterion validity was supported by correlations among IIP-47 scale scores and scores on established measures of personality dimensions and pathology. Test-retest indices ranged from .71 to .95. PD subjects scored significantly higher than nonclinical subjects on all IIP-47 scales and cut-off scores for different levels of specificity and sensibility are reported. It is concluded that the psychometric properties of the original IIP-47 were preserved in its Italian version.

  3. Psychometric Properties of a Structured Diagnostic Interview for DSM-5 Anxiety, Mood, and Obsessive-Compulsive and Related Disorders.

    PubMed

    Tolin, David F; Gilliam, Christina; Wootton, Bethany M; Bowe, William; Bragdon, Laura B; Davis, Elizabeth; Hannan, Scott E; Steinman, Shari A; Worden, Blaise; Hallion, Lauren S

    2016-03-17

    Three hundred sixty-two adult patients were administered the Diagnostic Interview for Anxiety, Mood, and OCD and Related Neuropsychiatric Disorders (DIAMOND). Of these, 121 provided interrater reliability data, and 115 provided test-retest reliability data. Participants also completed a battery of self-report measures that assess symptoms of anxiety, mood, and obsessive-compulsive and related disorders. Interrater reliability of DIAMOND anxiety, mood, and obsessive-compulsive and related diagnoses ranged from very good to excellent. Test-retest reliability of DIAMOND diagnoses ranged from good to excellent. Convergent validity was established by significant between-group comparisons on applicable self-report measures for nearly all diagnoses. The results of the present study indicate that the DIAMOND is a promising semistructured diagnostic interview for DSM-5 disorders. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Psychometric properties of the Spanish version of the screening scale for DSM-IV Generalized Anxiety Disorder of Carroll and Davidson.

    PubMed

    Bobes, J; García-Calvo, C; Prieto, R; García-García, M; Rico-Villademoros, F

    2006-01-01

    The aim was to validate the Spanish version of the screening scale for DSM-IV General Anxiety Disorder of Carroll and Davidson for use in research and clinical practice in Spain for screening and assessing specific anxiety symptoms of patients with Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD). Observational, prospective, multisite, study comparing between patients with DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD (group A), starting or switching treatment (group A1) or stable patients (group A2), followed-up for 6 months (group A1) or 2 weeks (group A2) versus healthy control subjects (group B), assessed in a single visit. Among 223 valuable subjects the scale showed: a) adequate feasibility with a mean time of administration: 6.53 and 4.49 min (TD: 5.48 and 3.56) in groups A and B, and percentage of patients without response <5 %; b) adequate reliability (Kuder-Richardson coefficient: 0.85 and 0.79 in groups A1 and A2, and CCI coefficient: 0.89 in group A2); c) adequate validity, showing capability for discriminating between patients and controls, with area under curve AUC: 0.9713 (IC 95 %: 0.9510-0.9917), and obtaining a high correlation with HARS (r=0.88) and CGI-G (r=0.87) scales, y d) adequate sensitivity to clinical changes from start and end of treatment (SES: -1.6, -3.1 and -3.8 after 1, 3 and 6 months), spite of the high percentage of patients with highest score in group A1 (38.6 %). The Spanish version of the screening scale for DSM-IV GAD showed adequate psychometric properties for use in research and clinical practice in Spain as well as an screening as evaluative measure for patients with GAD, spite of the ceiling effect showed in severe patients.

  5. Development of the Little Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire for Preschoolers and Preliminary Evidence of Its Psychometric Properties in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rihtman, Tanya; Wilson, Brenda N.; Parush, Shula

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The early identification of motor coordination challenges before school age may enable close monitoring of a child's development and perhaps ameliorate some of the social, psychological and behavioral sequela that often accompany unrecognized Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD). The purpose of this study was to develop and assess…

  6. Psychometric Properties of a Chinese Version of the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire in Community-Based Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tseng, Mei-Hui; Fu, Chung-Pei; Wilson, Brenda N.; Hu, Fu-Chang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to adapt and evaluate the Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ) for use in Chinese-speaking countries. A total of 1082 parents completed the DCDQ and 35 parents repeated it after 2 weeks for test-retest reliability. Two items were deleted after examination of test consistency. Cronbach's [alpha] for the…

  7. Symptoms of Major Depression and Complicated Grief

    MedlinePlus

    ... Depression It’s common for people to have sadness, pain, anger, bouts of crying, and a depressed mood after a loved one dies. It’s important to know about normal grief responses so that you can know if the bereaved ...

  8. Treating Childhood Traumatic Grief: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Knudsen, Kraig

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the potential efficacy and specific timing of treatment response of individual child and parent trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy for childhood traumatic grief (CTG), a condition in which trauma symptoms impinge on the child's ability to successfully address the normal tasks of grieving. Method: Twenty-two children…

  9. Grief and Horses: Putting the Pieces Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symington, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of grief counseling may be enhanced through the utilization of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP). An experiential, solution-focused, and natural approach, EAP provides clients with the opportunity to discover solutions to challenges that exist within themselves. Counselors and equine specialists team with horses to provide a…

  10. Treating Childhood Traumatic Grief: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Judith A.; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Knudsen, Kraig

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To examine the potential efficacy and specific timing of treatment response of individual child and parent trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy for childhood traumatic grief (CTG), a condition in which trauma symptoms impinge on the child's ability to successfully address the normal tasks of grieving. Method: Twenty-two children…

  11. The Challenge of Grief: Counseling the Survivors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Winifred; Honer, Mary

    This paper focuses on the stress and struggles faced by survivors, following physical and/or emotional loss. It explains how counselors must be prepared to assist when grief strikes the nation, the classroom, or the individual. Each incident carries its own uniqueness and must be dealt with in light of the victim's personal need and their belief…

  12. Nursing 433: Uncomplicated Grief and Bereavement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kane, James J.

    A description is provided of "Uncomplicated Grief and Bereavement," a course designed to provide the graduate nursing student with the assessment, diagnosis, planning, intervention, and evaluation skills required to facilitate a normal bereavement outcome among persons experiencing the loss of a significant other. The course description first…

  13. Children and Grief: When a Parent Dies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worden, J. William

    The research findings on childhood grief are often inconsistent and differ among studies. This book presents major findings from the Child Bereavement Study and looks at the implications of these of these findings for intervention with bereaved children and their families. Following an introduction describing the methodology of the Child…

  14. Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief…

  15. Grief Support Group Curriculum: Facilitator's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Linda; Jimerson, Shane R.; Gaasch, Ann

    This handbook is designed for facilitators of grief support groups for mourning children. The first chapter discusses the history, philosophy, and format of a specific curriculum - the Mourning Child curriculum. This curriculum, originally written in 1986 and later expanded and revised, has been used with hundreds of children. Chapter two covers…

  16. Living with Grief: Children, Adolescents, and Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doka, Kenneth J., Ed.

    Noting that the best way to help and prepare children to cope with death and trauma is through education and understanding of the day-to-day ramifications that loss and grief have on them, this book is designed to help adults involved with children and adolescents to provide that education and understanding. Chapters in the first section of the…

  17. Grief as a Social Emotion: Theoretical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakoby, Nina R.

    2012-01-01

    The article explores a sociological perspective on grief as a social emotion. Focusing on the social bond with the deceased, the self-concept of the survivor or the power of feeling rules, general sociological theories of emotions (symbolic interactionism, structural theory, behavioral theory) have the potential to deepen the understanding of…

  18. Grief and Horses: Putting the Pieces Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symington, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    The effectiveness of grief counseling may be enhanced through the utilization of equine-assisted psychotherapy (EAP). An experiential, solution-focused, and natural approach, EAP provides clients with the opportunity to discover solutions to challenges that exist within themselves. Counselors and equine specialists team with horses to provide a…

  19. Grief Experiences and Expectance of Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wojtkowiak, Joanna; Wild, Verena; Egger, Jos

    2012-01-01

    Suicide is generally viewed as an unexpected cause of death. However, some suicides might be expected to a certain extent, which needs to be further studied. The relationships between expecting suicide, feeling understanding for the suicide, and later grief experiences were explored. In total, 142 bereaved participants completed the Grief…

  20. Coping Style Use Predicts Posttraumatic Stress and Complicated Grief Symptom Severity Among College Students Reporting a Traumatic Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnider, Kimberly R.; Elhai, Jon D.; Gray, Matt J.

    2007-01-01

    Problem-focused coping, and active and avoidant emotional coping were examined as correlates of grief and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity among 123 college students reporting the unexpected death of an immediate family member, romantic partner, or very close friend. The authors administered to participants, via the Internet, 5…

  1. An investigation of the validity of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition avoidant personality disorder construct as a prototype category and the psychometric properties of the diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Hummelen, Benjamin; Wilberg, Theresa; Pedersen, Geir; Karterud, Sigmund

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated several aspects of the validity of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition avoidant personality disorder (APD) construct, with emphasis on the psychometric properties of the diagnostic criteria and the prototype nature of the construct. A sample of 1,058 patients from the Norwegian Network of Psychotherapeutic Day Hospitals was examined by means of exploratory factor analysis, correlation, and diagnostic efficiency statistics, chi(2) analysis, and frequency distribution. The results indicated that APD is a 1-dimensional construct with good internal consistency. The criteria had acceptable diagnostic efficiency; criterion 3 performed poorest. Number of APD criteria showed no distinct threshold between No-APD and patients with APD. Sixty-two different combinations of any 4 APD criteria occurred. It can be concluded that the prototype model fitted the data well and that the APD diagnostic criteria perform well in the current classification system. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition hierarchy of criteria was not supported.

  2. Risk factors for complicated grief in older adults.

    PubMed

    Bruinsma, Sophie M; Tiemeier, Henning W; Verkroost-van Heemst, Jolande; van der Heide, Agnes; Rietjens, Judith A C

    2015-05-01

    Older adults grieving the death of a spouse have been found to have a higher risk of complicated grief compared with younger adults. The study objective was to find out whether personal characteristics of the patient and the bereaved partner, or characteristics of the patient's illness, end-of-life care, and the nature of death are risk factors for complicated grief in older adults. We performed a nested case-control study within the Rotterdam Study. We selected 100 couples of which one person had deceased and the other person experienced "complicated grief," and 100 control couples of which one person had deceased and the other person experienced "normal grief." Complicated grief was assessed with a 17-item Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG). Determinants were assessed using several sources of information that were available for all participants of the Rotterdam Study. Additionally, medical files of the deceased were manually screened. Logistic regression analysis was performed. Only depression at baseline was significantly associated with complicated grief. Bereaved partners with depression at baseline had a higher risk of complicated grief compared to bereaved partners without depression (OR=3.48; 95% CI=1.40-8.68). Our results suggest that complicated grief in older adults is not clearly related to the circumstances of dying of the deceased partner. Preexisting conditions such as depression seem to be more important in explaining the occurrence of complicated grief.

  3. Physiological and psychological symptoms of grief in widows.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Susan D; Bondmass, Mary D

    2008-02-01

    In this cross-sectional descriptive survey of 173 widows, we describe their grief symptoms using an open-ended questionnaire and the Revised Grief Experience Inventory. Self-reported physical symptoms included pain, gastro-intestinal problems, medical/surgical conditions, sleep disturbances, and neurological/circulatory issues. Psychological symptoms were reported as depression, anxiety, and loneliness. The mean total grief score was 71.4 +/- 30.2 (possible range 22-132). Physical symptoms were significantly correlated with the total mean grief score, and subscales of physical distress, depression, existential tension, and guilt. When the subjects were grouped by years since loss, (range 1-5 years), there was no significant decrease found in overall grief scores, suggesting symptoms of grief experienced by widows may continue up to at least 5 years. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. "It may not be pretty, but it's honest": examining parental grief on the Callapitter blog.

    PubMed

    DeGroot, Jocelyn M; Carmack, Heather J

    2013-01-01

    Following the death of a child, parents are turning to alternative means of communication to express their grief In this instrumental case study, the authors explore how 1 woman, Amy Ambrusko, communicates her grief experience on her blog, emotionally negotiating loss and parental grief. Guided by M. S. Miles's (1984) parental grief model, the authors argue that the Callapitter blog serves as a case study illustration of online parental grief. Specifically, Ambrusko displays parental grief in three ways: (re)questioning reality, experiencing discursive and corporeal guilt, and rationalizing a "new normal." This analysis highlights the changing nature of communicating about grief and underscores how grief blogs challenge contemporary social death rules.

  5. Complicated grief and manic comorbidity in the aftermath of the loss of a son.

    PubMed

    Carmassi, Claudia; Shear, M Katherine; Socci, Chiara; Corsi, Martina; Dell'osso, Liliana; First, Michael B

    2013-09-01

    Based on the recommendations of the sub-workgroup on trauma and dissociative disorders, the American Psychiatric Association (APA) removed the "bereavement exclusion" from the criteria for major depression in DSM-5. In addition, proposed DSM-5 research criteria for persistent complex bereavement disorder (PCBD) were included in the new manual in a section for conditions and criteria needing further research. We describe a case that warranted such a diagnosis. The patient was a 52- year-old woman who was admitted to the inpatient unit of our clinic on the birthday of her son who had died 18 months earlier. She was diagnosed with a manic episode with psychotic symptoms according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR) criteria and was treated accordingly. Three months after discharge, she made a suicide attempt and was admitted and re-assessed. During this admission, she completed the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG), the Mood-Spectrum Rating Scale (MOODS-SR), and the Trauma and Loss Spectrum questionnaire (TALS-SR). She endorsed symptoms of intense yearning for her son, feelings of shock and disbelief, anger and bitterness related to his death, estrangement from others, auditory, tactile and visual hallucinations of the deceased, and intense emotional reactivity to memories of her son. These symptoms were sufficiently prolonged and severe to meet criteria for complicated grief. While complicated grief appeared to be the primary diagnosis for this patient, when she was diagnosed using only DSMIV-TR criteria, her treatment failed to address herprimary problem. This case draws attention to the occurrence of manic-like symptoms as well as depression-like manifestations following bereavement and highlights the importance of including the syndrome of complicated grief in the diagnostic nomenclature.

  6. Birth mother grief and the challenge of adoption reunion contact.

    PubMed

    March, Karen

    2014-07-01

    A large body of work exists on the grief expressed by birth mothers over the loss of their children to adoption. Less is known about the grief emotions that surface when these women are contacted by adopted adults who seek contact relationships. The themes of mourning, grief, and bereavement that emerged in the qualitative interview data of 33 reunited birth mothers indicate more attention be given to these social psychological processes. Suggestions for future research possibilities and implications for clinical practice are explored.

  7. Psychometric properties of the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale in antepartum women from Ghana and Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Dana; Barkmann, Claus; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Bindt, Carola

    2014-12-01

    To explore the psychometric properties of the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7) in West African pregnant women. In a cross-sectional study, the GAD-7, the PHQ-9 (depression module of the Patient Health Questionnaire) and the WHO-DAS II (12-item World Health Organization Disability Scale) were administered to n=647 Ivorian and n=395 Ghanaian antepartum women with low-risk pregnancies (third trimester; gestational age range: 28-40 weeks) in 2010-2011. Statistical analyses combined classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT). Cronbach׳s α was close to acceptable (α=.69 in Côte d'Ivoire; α=.67 in Ghana). Construct validity was demonstrated by correlations between the GAD-7 and both the PHQ-9 and the WHO-DAS II. Results regarding factorial validity were ambiguous: confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses indicated that the data fit the unidimensionality assumption; however, the explained variance was low. IRT methods suggested excellent item infit and outfit measures. Yet, residual principal component analyses showed a lack of unidimensionality. Rasch analyses revealed that the response options were not used as intended. Item-person-fit was not optimal since the items did not discriminate well on the range of the latent construct where most of the women drawn from the general population were located. Both samples were somewhat homogenous regarding gestational age and urban residence; test-retest reliability was not investigated. The GAD-7 met the requirements of CTT. However, applying the stricter criteria of IRT suggested areas for potential improvements. Cross-cultural adaption and a dichotomized response format might ameliorate the GAD-7 for the use in sub-Saharan countries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Mediating processes in bereavement: the role of rumination, threatening grief interpretations, and deliberate grief avoidance.

    PubMed

    van der Houwen, Karolijne; Stroebe, Margaret; Schut, Henk; Stroebe, Wolfgang; van den Bout, Jan

    2010-11-01

    Limited research so far has examined coping processes that mediate between risk factors and bereavement outcome. Knowledge of these pathways is important, since it helps establish why some bereaved persons are more vulnerable than others and suggests possibilities for intervention. In this international longitudinal study, three potentially critical mediators, namely rumination, threatening grief interpretations and deliberate grief avoidance, were examined in relationship to previously established risk factors (e.g., expectedness of the death, attachment style) and four major outcome variables (grief, depressive symptoms, emotional loneliness and positive mood). Individuals who were recently bereaved (maximum 3 years) filled in questionnaires at three points in time. Results showed that rumination and--to a somewhat lesser extent--threatening grief interpretations played an important role in mediating the effects of various risk factors on outcomes. However, the contribution of these two mediators was dependent on the specific risk factor and outcome measure under consideration. For example, whereas the effect of neuroticism on grief was mediated by both processes (to the extent of 73%), the effect of neuroticism on positive mood was only mediated by rumination and to a smaller extent (23%). A few risk factors, such as current financial situation and spirituality, were not mediated by either coping strategy. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  9. Counseling Families of Children with Communication Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friehe, Mary J.; Bloedow, Alison; Hesse, Stacey

    2003-01-01

    Intended for speech-language pathologists, this article considers the challenges for families when a child has a significant and long-term communication disorder and explores two types of grief: stage and episodic. It examines loss/grieving theory and grief and the therapeutic relationship, and offers guidelines to speech language pathologists for…

  10. Sudden-On-Chronic Death and Complicated Grief in Bereaved Dementia Caregivers: Two Case Studies of Complicated Grief Group Therapy.

    PubMed

    Supiano, Katherine P; Andersen, Troy C; Haynes, Lara Burns

    2015-01-01

    Caring for a person with Alzheimer's disease is challenging and often has negative health and mental health effects that, for 7-20% of caregivers, persist into bereavement in the form of complicated grief. Complicated grief is a state of prolonged and ineffective mourning. An under-recognized phenomenon in dementia care and bereavement is "sudden-on-chronic death." In these situations, the caregiver is preparing for a gradual dying process from dementia, but the care recipient dies instead from a sudden death. In this study, an application of complicated grief group therapy for bereaved dementia caregivers with complicated grief is presented, and the effect of therapy with two bereaved caregivers who experienced the sudden death of their spouses who had a diagnosis of dementia is described. The unique treatment elements of complicated grief group therapy facilitated resolution of the 'trauma-like" features of bereavement and progression to a healthy grief process.

  11. The grief process: a preparation for death.

    PubMed

    Curry, L C; Stone, J G

    1991-01-01

    Despite the multitude of losses we experience in our lifetime, death is likely to be the most paramount. Acceptance of losses and death takes time and energy as an individual passes through various phases of a process known as the grief process. Elisabeth Kübler-Ross (1969) has defined five stages in the grief process that individuals pass through in moving toward acceptance of losses. A case study has been presented to share one family's journey through these five stages. If a strict disease-oriented viewpoint is adopted, then the case was a failure: the patient died. From an emotional and spiritual viewpoint, however, this individual and his family achieved success, as they had time to complete their journey to acceptance.

  12. AN INTERNET TOOL TO NORMALIZE GRIEF*

    PubMed Central

    DOMINICK, SALLY A.; IRVINE, A. BLAIR; BEAUCHAMP, NATASHA; SEELEY, JOHN R.; NOLEN-HOEKSEMA, SUSAN; DOKA, KENNETH J.; BONANNO, GEORGE A.

    2009-01-01

    This research evaluated the efficacy of a psycho-educational Internet self-help tool to educate and support recently (1–6 months) bereaved individuals. The goal of the website was to help users normalize their grief to enhance their adaptive adjustment. A randomized controlled trial evaluated the gains in social cognitive theory constructs and state anxiety. Compared to the control group (N = 34), treatment participants (N = 33) reported significant multivariate gains (eta-square = .191). Significant program effects were obtained on all three outcome measures: attitude (eta-square = .177), self-efficacy (eta-square = .106), and state anxiety (eta-square = .083). These findings suggest the potential efficacy of an Internet-based grief support tool to enhance adaptive adjustment of the bereaved. PMID:20039532

  13. Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale in Young Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Psychometrics and Associations With Child and Parent Variables

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Stephanie L.; Duku, Eric; Vaillancourt, Tracy; Szatmari, Peter; Bryson, Susan; Fombonne, Eric; Volden, Joanne; Waddell, Charlotte; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Roberts, Wendy; Mirenda, Pat; Bennett, Teresa; Elsabbagh, Mayada; Georgiades, Stelios

    2015-01-01

    Objective The factor structure and validity of the Behavioral Pediatrics Feeding Assessment Scale (BPFAS; Crist & Napier-Phillips, 2001) were examined in preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Methods Confirmatory factor analysis was used to examine the original BPFAS five-factor model, the fit of each latent variable, and a rival one-factor model. None of the models was adequate, thus a categorical exploratory factor analysis (CEFA) was conducted. Correlations were used to examine relations between the BPFAS and concurrent variables of interest. Results The CEFA identified an acceptable three-factor model. Correlational analyses indicated that feeding problems were positively related to parent-reported autism symptoms, behavior problems, sleep problems, and parenting stress, but largely unrelated to performance-based indices of autism symptom severity, language, and cognitive abilities, as well as child age. Conclusion These results provide evidence supporting the use of the identified BPFAS three-factor model for samples of young children with ASD. PMID:25725217

  14. Grief and Traumatic Grief in Children in the Context of Mass Trauma.

    PubMed

    Dyregrov, Atle; Salloum, Alison; Kristensen, Pål; Dyregrov, Kari

    2015-06-01

    Children who have had someone close die as a result of a mass trauma event such as war, armed conflict, acts of terror, political violence, torture, mass accidents, and natural disasters are at risk for biopsychosocial problems. Research on how to classify when grief becomes complicated or traumatic in children is scarce, and while functioning level may provide a good indication, assessing functioning may be difficult in mass trauma environments where routines and structure are often lacking. There are promising trauma- and grief-focused interventions for children post-mass trauma, which are mostly provided in school settings. However, more advanced multi-method interventions are needed that address grief and trauma in the context of the child's overall mental health, parent/caregiver role in assisting the child, family system issues, ways to provide safe caring environments amidst chaos and change, and interventions that take into account local consumer perspectives, including the voices of children.

  15. Using multidimensional grief theory to explore the effects of deployment, reintegration, and death on military youth and families.

    PubMed

    Kaplow, Julie B; Layne, Christopher M; Saltzman, William R; Cozza, Stephen J; Pynoos, Robert S

    2013-09-01

    To date, the US military has made major strides in acknowledging and therapeutically addressing trauma and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in service members and their families. However, given the nature of warfare and high rates of losses sustained by both military members (e.g., deaths of fellow unit members) and military families (e.g., loss of a young parent who served in the military), as well as the ongoing threat of loss that military families face during deployment, we propose that a similar focus on grief is also needed to properly understand and address many of the challenges encountered by bereaved service members, spouses, and children. In this article, we describe a newly developed theory of grief (multidimensional grief theory) and apply it to the task of exploring major features of military-related experiences during the phases of deployment, reintegration, and the aftermath of combat death--especially as they impact children. We also describe implications for designing preventive interventions during each phase and conclude with recommended avenues for future research. Primary aims are to illustrate: (1) the indispensable role of theory in guiding efforts to describe, explain, predict, prevent, and treat maladaptive grief in military service members, children, and families; (2) the relevance of multidimensional grief theory for addressing both losses due to physical death as well as losses brought about by extended physical separations to which military children and families are exposed during and after deployment; and (3) a focus on military-related grief as a much-needed complement to an already-established focus on military-related PTSD.

  16. Using Multidimensional Grief Theory to Explore Effects of Deployment, Reintegration, and Death on Military Youth and Families

    PubMed Central

    Kaplow, Julie B.; Layne, Christopher M.; Saltzman, William R.; Cozza, Stephen J.; Pynoos, Robert S.

    2015-01-01

    To date, the U.S. military has made major strides in acknowledging and therapeutically addressing trauma and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) in service members and their families. However, given the nature of warfare and high rates of losses sustained by both military members (e.g., deaths of fellow unit members) and military families (e.g., loss of a young parent who served in the military), as well as the ongoing threat of loss that military families face during deployment, we propose that a similar focus on grief is also needed to properly understand and address many of the challenges encountered by bereaved service members, spouses, and children. In this article, we describe a newly developed theory of grief (Multidimensional Grief Theory) and apply it to the task of exploring major features of military-related experiences during the phases of deployment, reintegration, and the aftermath of combat death—especially as they impact children. We also describe implications for designing preventive interventions during each phase and conclude with recommended avenues for future research. Primary aims are to illustrate: (1) the indispensable role of theory in guiding efforts to describe, explain, predict, prevent, and treat maladaptive grief in military service members, children, and families; (2) the relevance of multidimensional grief theory for addressing both losses due to physical death as well as losses brought about by extended physical separations to which military children and families are exposed during and after deployment; and (3) a focus on military-related grief as a much-needed complement to an already-established focus on military-related PTSD. PMID:23760905

  17. John Bowlby's Model of Grief and the Problem of Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klass, Dennis

    1988-01-01

    Asserts that John Bowlby's model of grief is inadequate to account for phenomena associated with most grief. Also examines work of Freud and the Freudians, and works of Parkes, Raphael, and Worden. Suggests possible modifications in the Bowlby model by reviewing the work of Attig, Lopata, and Marris. (Author/NB)

  18. Grief and Loss: Towards an Existential Phenomenology of Child Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Western cultures have taken on a death-denying and grief-avoiding dimension, suggesting that children in particular are to be protected from the harshness of loss and death. As a result, many children grow up without having consciously experienced the pain of major loss and grief. It is argued that having been spared from suffering, from the pain…

  19. Coping with Grief: Guidelines and Resources for Assisting Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Melissa Allen; Leavy, Deon; Hansen, Kristina; Ryan, Katherine; Lawrence, Lacey; Sonntag, Amy Gerritsen

    2008-01-01

    This article provides basic information for school-based mental health professionals, teachers, staff, and administrators to support students coping with grief, and more specifically, grief related to death. The information is consolidated into guidelines and key points in providing support; suggested children's books and activities; Web sites…

  20. The Role of Hardiness in the Resolution of Grief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Jane; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Investigated relation of personality factor of hardiness to resolution of grief. In anonymous sample of 70 widows, hardiness was significant predictor of grief resolution in addition to general mental health, time since death, and widow's age. Whether death was expected did not relate to course of resolution. (Author/NB)

  1. Attachment, Loss of Spouse, and Grief in Elderly Adults.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Pat

    1991-01-01

    Administered Texas Inventory of Grief to and conducted interviews with 81 widows between the ages of 26 and 82. Compared to younger women, older women showed more intense grief at time of interview and reported more feelings of anxiety and depression. Findings showed that older women did not tolerate or adapt to bereavement more successfully than…

  2. The Grief Grapevine: Facebook Memorial Pages and Adolescent Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Mardi

    2014-01-01

    How adolescents use the social networking site Facebook to express grief is a growing area of research. In reviewing current literature, it is evident that many questions still remain unanswered. Additionally, this ever-evolving platform for grief, mourning and bereavement may hold many implications for educators, policy developers and school…

  3. Rhetorical Dimensions of the Post-September Eleventh Grief Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartzman, Roy; Tibbles, David

    2005-01-01

    This essay examines Presidential rhetoric and popular culture practices in light of the stages of grief enumerated by Elisabeth Kubler-Ross. The authors find a consistent retrenchment of grief into the anger phase, where the pain of losing national invulnerability is transferred to externalized aggression. Reconciliation is suggested by means of…

  4. Families and the Grief Process. ARCH Factsheet Number 21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braza, Kathleen

    This fact sheet points out that knowledge of the process of grief (defined as one's own personal experience of loss) and ways of helping individuals and families cope with their loss experiences can be an invaluable asset to crisis nurseries and respite care programs and their service providers. The fact sheet lists the emotions of grief, and…

  5. Grief and Loss: Towards an Existential Phenomenology of Child Spirituality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walters, David A.

    2008-01-01

    Western cultures have taken on a death-denying and grief-avoiding dimension, suggesting that children in particular are to be protected from the harshness of loss and death. As a result, many children grow up without having consciously experienced the pain of major loss and grief. It is argued that having been spared from suffering, from the pain…

  6. John Bowlby's Model of Grief and the Problem of Identification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klass, Dennis

    1988-01-01

    Asserts that John Bowlby's model of grief is inadequate to account for phenomena associated with most grief. Also examines work of Freud and the Freudians, and works of Parkes, Raphael, and Worden. Suggests possible modifications in the Bowlby model by reviewing the work of Attig, Lopata, and Marris. (Author/NB)

  7. Grief and Loss Education: Recommendations for Curricular Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty Horn, Elizabeth A.; Crews, Judith A.; Harrawood, Laura K.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (2009) does not require course work on grief and loss, and it is possible for counselors to practice without any formal training in the area. The purpose of this article is to highlight the need for additional grief and loss education in the curriculum, provide…

  8. Alexithymia and Grief Reactions in Bereaved Japanese Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Kashiwagi, Masayo; Yano, Eiji

    2005-01-01

    To examine the relationship between grief reactions and alexithymia, 54 Japanese women (33 outpatients attending a psychosomatic clinic and 21 normal healthy participants) completed the Texas Inventory of Grief (TIG), the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20), and the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Each woman had experienced the death of a…

  9. Grief Counseling Groups in a Medium-Security Prison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Margaret J.; McEwen, Margaret A.

    2004-01-01

    The authors discuss their facilitation of four grief counseling groups with male inmates in a state prison over a two-year period. Worden's Tasks of Mourning were used as a guide for the group process. Disenfranchised grief and gender and cultural issues in grieving are explored. Catalytic exercises are described, and written feedback from inmates…

  10. Strengthening Grief Support for Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sormanti, Mary; Ballan, Michelle S.

    2011-01-01

    Although a sizable literature investigates and describes children's grief, the majority of information focuses on typically developing children. Far less has been published about the loss and grief of children with developmental disabilities (DD), even though this population experiences significant and multiple losses, increasing their…

  11. Personal Fear of Death and Grief in Bereaved Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Peter; Cacciatore, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    The study explored the relation of fear of death (Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale) to maternal grief (Perinatal Grief Scale-33) following miscarriage, stillbirth, neonatal death, or infant/child death. The 400 women participants were recruited from the website, e-mail lists, and parent groups of an organization that supports bereaved parents.…

  12. The Grief Grapevine: Facebook Memorial Pages and Adolescent Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Mardi

    2014-01-01

    How adolescents use the social networking site Facebook to express grief is a growing area of research. In reviewing current literature, it is evident that many questions still remain unanswered. Additionally, this ever-evolving platform for grief, mourning and bereavement may hold many implications for educators, policy developers and school…

  13. Continuing Relationships with the Deceased: Disentangling Bonds and Grief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schut, Henk A. W.; Stroebe, Margaret S.; Boelen, Paul A.; Zijerveld, Annemieke M.

    2006-01-01

    Some studies of the relationship between continuing bonds and grief intensity have claimed that continuing bonds lead to poor adaptation to bereavement. However, operationalizations of continuing bonds and grief intensity appear to overlap conceptually. Thus, it is still unclear what character the connection between continuing bonds and grief…

  14. Grief and Loss Education: Recommendations for Curricular Inclusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doughty Horn, Elizabeth A.; Crews, Judith A.; Harrawood, Laura K.

    2013-01-01

    Currently, the Council for Accreditation of Counseling and Related Educational Programs (2009) does not require course work on grief and loss, and it is possible for counselors to practice without any formal training in the area. The purpose of this article is to highlight the need for additional grief and loss education in the curriculum, provide…

  15. Coping with Grief: Guidelines and Resources for Assisting Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Melissa Allen; Leavy, Deon; Hansen, Kristina; Ryan, Katherine; Lawrence, Lacey; Sonntag, Amy Gerritsen

    2008-01-01

    This article provides basic information for school-based mental health professionals, teachers, staff, and administrators to support students coping with grief, and more specifically, grief related to death. The information is consolidated into guidelines and key points in providing support; suggested children's books and activities; Web sites…

  16. Resolving Child and Adolescent Traumatic Grief: Creative Techniques and Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edgar-Bailey, Meredith; Kress, Victoria E.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a review of creative interventions that can be helpful in facilitating the resolution of traumatic grief in children and adolescents. Traumatic grief is conceptualized as a condition in which a person loses a close loved one (e.g., a parent or a sibling) in a traumatic manner, and ensuing trauma-related symptoms disrupt the…

  17. Radical Acceptance: A Nondual Psychology Approach to Grief and Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theriault, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the application of nondual psychology in transforming grief and loss into the experience of nondual consciousness. Nondual consciousness is the collapse of the dualistic notions of self and other through the direct realization of the stateless state of no-self. The experience of grief and loss serves as a catalyst to this…

  18. Personal Fear of Death and Grief in Bereaved Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barr, Peter; Cacciatore, Joanne

    2008-01-01

    The study explored the relation of fear of death (Multidimensional Fear of Death Scale) to maternal grief (Perinatal Grief Scale-33) following miscarriage, stillbirth, neonatal death, or infant/child death. The 400 women participants were recruited from the website, e-mail lists, and parent groups of an organization that supports bereaved parents.…

  19. Radical Acceptance: A Nondual Psychology Approach to Grief and Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Theriault, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the application of nondual psychology in transforming grief and loss into the experience of nondual consciousness. Nondual consciousness is the collapse of the dualistic notions of self and other through the direct realization of the stateless state of no-self. The experience of grief and loss serves as a catalyst to this…

  20. "It May Not Be Pretty, but It's Honest": Examining Parental Grief on the Callapitter Blog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGroot, Jocelyn M.; Carmack, Heather J.

    2013-01-01

    Following the death of a child, parents are turning to alternative means of communication to express their grief. In this instrumental case study, the authors explore how 1 woman, Amy Ambrusko, communicates her grief experience on her blog, emotionally negotiating loss and parental grief. Guided by M. S. Miles's (1984) parental grief model, the…

  1. Parental Grief Responses and Personal Growth Following the Death of a Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Linda P.; LaMontagne, Lynda L.; Hepworth, Joseph T.; Murphy, Barbara A.

    2007-01-01

    Conceptualizing parental grief as a psychosocial transition, this cross-sectional study of bereaved mothers (N = 35) examined the relationship of dispositional factors, grief reactions, and personal growth. More optimistic mothers reported less intense grief reactions and less distress indicative of complicated grief. Additionally, mothers who…

  2. "It May Not Be Pretty, but It's Honest": Examining Parental Grief on the Callapitter Blog

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeGroot, Jocelyn M.; Carmack, Heather J.

    2013-01-01

    Following the death of a child, parents are turning to alternative means of communication to express their grief. In this instrumental case study, the authors explore how 1 woman, Amy Ambrusko, communicates her grief experience on her blog, emotionally negotiating loss and parental grief. Guided by M. S. Miles's (1984) parental grief model, the…

  3. Hierarchies of loss: a critique of disenfranchised grief.

    PubMed

    Robson, Patricia; Walter, Tony

    Two aspects of the concept of disenfranchised grief are examined: its binary assumption that grief is either enfranchised or disenfranchised; and its emancipatory agenda that grief should not be socially regulated. Focusing on the mourner's relationship to the deceased, we argue that social norms about the legitimacy of bereavement are not binary (yes-no), but are scalar or hierarchical, or even more complex still. We report on a tool for identifying hierarchies of loss, and describe the hierarchy identified by this tool in one British study. If norms about loss are not binary but hierarchical, how has disenfranchised grief--which claims to be a theory of norms--become an uncontested concept within bereavement research and clinical practice? We point to its rhetorical value in the postmodern politics of grief and its seductive emancipatory symbolism within the clinic; its value both for clinical practice and for empirical research into bereavement norms, however, may be limited.

  4. Grief functions as an honest indicator of commitment.

    PubMed

    Winegard, Bo M; Reynolds, Tania; Baumeister, Roy F; Winegard, Benjamin; Maner, Jon K

    2014-05-01

    Grief is a puzzling phenomenon. It is often costly and prolonged, potentially increasing mortality rates, drug abuse, withdrawal from social life, and susceptibility to illness. These costs cannot be repaid by the deceased and therefore might appear wasted. In the following article, we propose a possible solution. Using the principles of social selection theory, we argue that an important selective pressure behind the human grief response was the social decisions of other humans. We combine this with insights from signaling theory, noting that grief shares many properties with other hard-to-fake social signals. We therefore contend that grief was shaped by selective forces to function as a hard-to-fake signal of (a) a person's propensity to form strong, non-utilitarian bonds and (b) a person's current level of commitment to a group or cause. This theory explains many of the costly symptoms of grief and provides a progressive framework for future research.

  5. Dementia Caregiver Grief and Bereavement: An Integrative Review.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Elizabeth H; Paun, Olimpia

    2017-06-01

    Alzheimer's disease and related dementias make up the fifth leading cause of death for individuals of 65 years of age and older in the United States. Seventy percent of these individuals will die in long-term care settings. The aim of this integrative review was to examine and synthesize the evidence on grief and bereavement in Alzheimer's disease and related dementias caregivers. This review identified five critical gaps in the existing evidence: (a) a lack of ethnic and gender diversity among caregivers studied, (b) limited use of valid instruments to study dementia caregiver grief and bereavement, (c) no substantive research examining dementia caregiver grief and bereavement for caregivers whose family members die in long-term care, (d) a lack of evidence examining the effect of hospice services on dementia caregiver grief and bereavement, and (e) a lack of grief and bereavement interventions for dementia caregivers whose family members die in long-term care.

  6. Psychometric properties of the HI-FI problem checklist in a sample of adults with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders: factors contributing to life satisfaction after long-term disability.

    PubMed

    Mitrushina, Maura; Tomaszewski, Robert

    2017-03-01

    Purpose To assess psychometric properties of the problem checklist (PCL) in a sample of individuals with neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders many years after trauma; to identify factors that impact life satisfaction and promote functional competence after long-term disability. Method Cross-sectional, interview- and assessment-based study. Participants were community-dwelling adults with disabilities resulting from neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders (N = 53), who participated in a pre-vocational readiness and social skills training program. The Problem Checklist from the New York University Head Injury Family Interview (PCL), a battery of self-rated and clinician-rated measures of social/emotional status, and neuropsychological tests were main outcome measures. Results PCL is a valid and reliable instrument with acceptable psychometric properties (reliability coefficients for two scales and the total score are above (0.795). Use of maladaptive coping strategies in our sample was reflected in inverse relationship between depression and denial of disability, and in the tendency to overrate self-reported symptoms by participants with acquired trauma. Considerably lower self-ratings of symptoms across all PCL scales were seen in those of our participants who live with parents. Conclusions The study offers initial support for the use of PCL as a measure of long-term functional outcome in individuals with neurological and neuropsychiatric diagnoses. The goal of rehabilitation in patients with long-term disabilities is increase in life satisfaction. Implications for Rehabilitation An important goal of rehabilitation and training programs for individuals with long-term disabilities due to dysfunction of the central nervous system is to improve their quality of life. The HI-FI Problem Checklist (PCL) is a brief and efficient instrument for assessing functional outcomes after long-term disability. This study demonstrated acceptable psychometric properties

  7. Helping Children in Times of Need: Grief, Loss, Separation & Divorce. A Handbook for Parents Assisting Children through Grief and Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Judith A.

    Although a world of uncertainty and continual change is difficult to explain to children, by exploring and discussing the process of grief, parents can begin to understand the significance and necessity of the grief process and help their children to cope with difficult events. This booklet offers parents advice on how to talk with children about…

  8. Helping Children in Times of Need: Grief, Loss, Separation & Divorce. A Handbook for Parents Assisting Children through Grief and Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Judith A.

    Although a world of uncertainty and continual change is difficult to explain to children, by exploring and discussing the process of grief, parents can begin to understand the significance and necessity of the grief process and help their children to cope with difficult events. This booklet offers parents advice on how to talk with children about…

  9. An aid for diagnosing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at adulthood: psychometric properties of the French versions of two Wender Utah Rating Scales (WURS-25 and WURS-K).

    PubMed

    Caci, Hervé M; Bouchez, Jacques; Baylé, Franck J

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that affects up to 4% of the adults in the general population. The Utah criteria were devised in the 1970s to help a retrospective diagnosis of ADHD during childhood, a necessary but not sufficient condition for diagnosing ADHD at adulthood. A sample of 466 adults was collected from a referral center and a large university. We investigated the psychometric properties (reliability and factor structure) of the original WURS-25 and the WURS-K, two shortened versions of the Wender Utah Rating Scale. These scales have similar psychometric properties; both have a 3-factor structure with only the first two factors highly and positively correlated. The third factor in the WURS-K, antisocial behavior, is less specific to the construct of ADHD than the third factor in the WURS-25, mood/self-esteem. The 18-item Adult ADHD Self-Rating Scale (ASRS) was used as a screening tool for actual ADHD. The composite total scores and the factorial scores correlated moderately with ASRS total and subscores. Research is warranted to assess the cutoff scores against a diagnosis of ADHD using a structured interview. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Factorial structure of complicated grief: associations with loss-related traumatic events and psychosocial impacts of mass conflict amongst West Papuan refugees.

    PubMed

    Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Rees, Susan; Chen, Jack; Kareth, Moses; Silove, Derrick

    2016-03-01

    Definitions of complicated grief vary across diagnostic systems, being represented as persistent complex bereavement (PCB) in DSM-5 and prolonged grief disorder (PGD) in the proposed revision of the ICD system. A past study in a high-income country has identified a six-factor structure for complicated grief, but there are no data testing this or any other model across cultures. The present study reports findings from a survey amongst West Papuan refugees (n = 230, response rate = 92 %) residing in Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea. We applied culturally adapted measures of conflict-related traumatic event (TEs) (drawing specifically on domains of conflict and loss), symptoms of complicated grief adapted and modified to the culture, and a multidimensional psychosocial index of the broader effects of conflict and displacement. Confirmatory factor analysis yielded a single higher order construct of complicated grief comprising six factors of yearning/preoccupation; shock/disbelief; anger/negative appraisal; behavioural change; estrangement from others/impairment; and a novel dimension of confusion/diminished identity. In contrast, our analysis failed to support DSM or ICD models of PCB or PGD. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes (MIMIC) model revealed that traumatic loss and the sense of injustice each were associated with the unitary construct of complicated grief and its subdomains of yearning/preoccupation; shock/disbelief; anger/negative appraisal (exclusive to injustice); and estrangement from others/social impairment (exclusive to TE domain of conflict and loss). Conflict and loss associated with feelings of injustice may be especially pathogenic in generating the anger/negative appraisal component of complicated grief amongst refugees.

  11. The MM-CGI Cerebral Palsy: modification and pretesting of an instrument to measure anticipatory grief in parents whose child has cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Al-Gamal, Ekhlas; Long, Tony

    2014-07-01

    To establish the potential of a modified version of the MM-CGI Childhood Cancer to assess anticipatory grief in parents of children with cerebral palsy, to amend the existing scale for use with the specific patient group, to test the psychometric properties of the modified version (MM-CGI Cerebral Palsy) and to review the clinical potential of the new scale. Parents of children with cerebral palsy may experience reactions similar to parents of children with other enduring or life-limiting conditions, and anticipatory grief may be one such psychological reaction. While the burden of caring is sometimes balanced by positive perceptions of the child, which enhance coping ability, for many parents the outcome is damage to their physical and mental health and impaired family functioning. A cross-sectional, descriptive, correlational design. The MM-CGI Cerebral Palsy was administered in structured interviews with 204 parents. Standardised measures of caregivers' depression, stress and perceived social support were also administered. Mothers and fathers were recruited from healthcare centres and schools for special education. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess internal consistency, and Pearson's product-moment correlation was used to assess construct validity. The subscales were each found to measure a single dimension of anticipatory grief, and significant correlations were established with existing instruments. The instrument demonstrated excellent internal consistency reliability and good construct validity. The MM-CGI Cerebral Palsy could be useful for diagnosing anticipatory grief among parents of children with cerebral palsy. This preliminary work moves the programme on to testing in intervention studies. In the absence of an existing measure for the assessment of anticipatory grief, specifically in parents of children with cerebral palsy, the MM-CGI Cerebral Palsy could prove to be an effective assessment tool for clinicians and researchers. © 2013 John Wiley

  12. Psychometrics: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furr, Mike; Bacharach, Verne R.

    2007-01-01

    The authors center their presentation of material around a conceptual understanding of psychometric issues, such as validity and reliability, and on purpose rather than procedure, the "why" rather than the "how to." Their goal is to introduce psychometric principles at a level that is deeper and more focused than found in introductory…

  13. Psychometrics: An Introduction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furr, Mike; Bacharach, Verne R.

    2007-01-01

    The authors center their presentation of material around a conceptual understanding of psychometric issues, such as validity and reliability, and on purpose rather than procedure, the "why" rather than the "how to." Their goal is to introduce psychometric principles at a level that is deeper and more focused than found in introductory…

  14. [A nurse's experience applying grief counseling to a bereaved family].

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Wen-Ling

    2010-04-01

    This case report describes a nurse's experience applying William Worden's Grief Counseling on a young woman whose mother had passed away after a brief period in a coma. The report describes how the nurse facilitated this case and assisted the woman though the grief process, during which the woman completed the four tasks of mourning. Seven behavioral process records were analyzed base on Worden's grief responses. Emotional reactions included shock, denial, guilt and fear. Insomnia was the sole physical reaction indicated. Cognitive reactions included disbelief with regard to the death and preoccupation with her mother. Social withdrawal, avoidance of mentioning her mother, calling out, sighing and crying comprised the main behavioral reactions. The author applied the concepts and principles of grief counseling by accompanying and supporting this case though the grief process, and helping the patient complete the four tasks of mourning, which are: (1) to experience the pain of grief, (2) to accept the reality of the death, (3) to adjust to life after the death, and (4) to move on with life. It is hoped that this case report will help nursing staffs be more sensitive and receptive to family grieving and be better equipped to provide proper grief care.

  15. Grief and Women: Stillbirth in the Social Context of India

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Lisa R.; Anderson, Barbara A.; Lee, Jerry W.; Montgomery, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Few in Western society would argue the potentially devastating impact of stillbirth related grief; but in many developing countries where stillbirth remains the highest in the world, perinatal grief is barely recognized as an issue. The purpose of this study was to explore how poor, rural central Indian women perceive and cope with stillbirths. METHODS Seventeen key informant interviews and two focus groups (N = 33) with local health care providers, family members, and women who experienced stillbirth were conducted over a 1-month period in 2011 and then systematically coded for emerging themes using grounded theory methods to explore how women experienced stillbirth. RESULTS Although usually never talked about and not recognized as an issue, perinatal grief emerged as a significant shared experience by all. The perceptions of stillbirth-related grief emerged in three major themes and bear evidence of gender and power issues and indicate that local social norms negatively factor heavily into their perinatal grief experiences. DISCUSSION The findings in this richly textured study add to the limited literature regarding rural, central Indian women's experiences with stillbirth and factors influencing their resulting perinatal grief. In light of the void of recognition of this phenomenon in Indian society, a better understanding of the context in which poor Indian women experience perinatal grief will be a first step toward developing much needed culturally rooted interventions to positively impact the women's abilities to better cope with stillbirth in the context of their realities. PMID:26594592

  16. Family Anticipatory Grief: An Integrative Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Alexandra; Barbosa, António

    2017-09-01

    Despite all the investment in research, uncertainty persists in anticipatory grief (AG) literature, concerning its nuclear characteristics and definition. This review aimed to synthesize recent research in order to develop further knowledge about the family experience of AG during a patient's end of life. An integrative review was performed using standard methods of analysis and synthesis. The electronic databases Medline, Web of Knowledge, and EBSCO and relevant journals were systematically searched since 1990 to October 2015. Twenty-nine articles were selected, the majority with samples composed of caregivers of terminally ill patients with cancer. From systematic comparison of data referring to family end-of-life experience emerged 10 themes, which correspond to AG nuclear characteristics: anticipation of death, emotional distress, intrapsychic and interpersonal protection, exclusive focus on the patient care, hope, ambivalence, personal losses, relational losses, end-of-life relational tasks, and transition. For the majority of family caregivers in occidental society, AG is a highly stressful and ambivalent experience due to anticipation of death and relational losses, while the patient is physically present and needed of care, so family must be functional and inhibit grief expressions. The present study contributes to a deeper conceptualization of this term and to a more sensitive clinical practice.

  17. The grief process for patient, family, and physician.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Christine A

    2002-09-01

    In the grieving process, patient, family, and health professionals have the same needs-rest, relaxation, nourishment, a sense of security, trust, hope in the future, and humor among them. Grief, defined as a shared, universal, and natural neuropsychobiologic expression in response to loss, is distinct from mourning, a practice that varies in expression across diverse cultures. To aid in an understanding of grief and its effects, the author looks at the models for grief proposed by Kubler-Ross, Bowlby, Parkes, Worden, and Wolfelt. Addressing patients' concerns requires physicians be empathic, attentive, and respective and have willingness to take time, be present, and listen.

  18. Keeping the Music Alive: Using the "Grief and Hope Box" with Adult Offenders with Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Use Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Robert; Springer, Paul; Bitar, George; Drew, Faith; Graff, Chad

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorder (COD) present unique challenges for counselors. When individuals are incarcerated, they suffer unique forms of losses, including the loss and grief of their family members. In addition, they often struggle with stigma and cultural stereotypes that are oppressive and…

  19. Keeping the Music Alive: Using the "Grief and Hope Box" with Adult Offenders with Co-Occurring Mental Health and Substance Use Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, Robert; Springer, Paul; Bitar, George; Drew, Faith; Graff, Chad

    2005-01-01

    Individuals with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorder (COD) present unique challenges for counselors. When individuals are incarcerated, they suffer unique forms of losses, including the loss and grief of their family members. In addition, they often struggle with stigma and cultural stereotypes that are oppressive and…

  20. Grief Processing and Deliberate Grief Avoidance: A Prospective Comparison of Bereaved Spouses and Parents in the United States and the People's Republic of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonanno, George A.; Papa, Anthony; Lalande, Kathleen; Zhang, Nanping; Noll, Jennie G.

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the authors measured grief processing and deliberate grief avoidance and examined their relationship to adjustment at 4 and 18 months of bereavement for 2 types of losses (spouse, child) in 2 cultures (People's Republic of China, United States). Three hypotheses were compared: the traditional grief work assumption, a conditional…

  1. Psychometric properties of the Japanese version of the Adult Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Self-Report Scale (ASRS-J) and its short scale in accordance with DSM-5 diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Toshinobu; Tsuji, Yui; Kurita, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    We developed the Japanese version of the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS-J) and report its psychometric properties. The ASRS-J and other questionnaires were administered to 48 adults with ADHD, 46 adults with non-ADHD psychiatric disorders, 96 non-clinical adults, and 894 university students. ADHD diagnoses were made using the Japanese semi-structured diagnostic interview for adult ADHD, which is compatible with the DSM-5. The ASRS-J, its subscales, and the short form, all had Cronbach's α values of around 0.80. Total scores on the ASRS-J and the ASRS-J-6 were highly correlated with readministration after a two-week interval. The total and 18 individual item scores in the ASRS-J were significantly higher in the ADHD group than the other three groups. ASRS-J scores were correlated with scores on the Japanese version of Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scales-Self Report subscales (0.59≤r≤0.77), with one exception. ASRS-J scores were also correlated (albeit more weakly; r=0.38) with Beck Depression Inventory-II total scores. Employing optimal cut-offs, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the ASRS-J and ASRS-J-6 are all above 0.69. The ASRS-J and ASRS-J-6 showed acceptable psychometric properties, although further study is necessary.

  2. Planting hope in loss and grief: self-care applications of horticultural therapy for grief caregivers in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yeh-Jen; Lin, Chi Yun; Li, Yu-Chan

    2014-01-01

    In 2008, the Taiwan Association for Care and Counseling for Loss organized a workshop about Horticultural Therapy, conducted as a participatory action research (PAR). Nineteen grief caregivers participated. Specific goals were designed according to a survey of participant expectations and focus-group discussions. The workshop content included lectures and interactive activities. Results demonstrated that most participants displayed an increased awareness of personal loss and meaning in grief, indicating that horticulture and nature appreciation might relieve individual grief and stress. The report introduces the rationale, evolution, execution, and results of the program development.

  3. Brief Internet-based intervention reduces posttraumatic stress and prolonged grief in parents after the loss of a child during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kersting, Anette; Dölemeyer, Ruth; Steinig, Jana; Walter, Franziska; Kroker, Kristin; Baust, Katja; Wagner, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    The loss of a child during pregnancy causes significant psychological distress for many women and their partners, and may lead to long-lasting psychiatric disorders. Internet-based interventions using exposure techniques and cognitive restructuring have proved effective for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and prolonged grief. This study compared the effects of an Internet-based intervention for parents after prenatal loss with a waiting list condition (WLC). The Impact of Event Scale - Revised assessed symptoms of PTSD; the Inventory of Complicated Grief and the Brief Symptom Inventory assessed depression, anxiety, and general mental health. The 228 participants (92% female) were randomly allocated to a treatment group (TG; n = 115) or a WLC group (n = 113). The TG received a 5-week cognitive behavioral intervention including (1) self-confrontation, (2) cognitive restructuring, and (3) social sharing. The TG showed significantly reduced symptoms of posttraumatic stress, prolonged grief, depression, and anxiety relative to the WLC control group. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed treatment effects of between d = 0.84 and d = 1.02 for posttraumatic stress and prolonged grief from pre- to posttreatment time points. Further significant improvement in all symptoms of PTSD and prolonged grief was found from the posttreatment evaluation to the 12-month follow-up. The attrition rate of 14% was relatively low. The Internet-based intervention proved to be a feasible and cost-effective treatment, reducing symptoms of posttraumatic stress, grief, depression, anxiety, and general mental health after pregnancy loss. Low-threshold e-health interventions should be further evaluated and implemented routinely to improve psychological support after pregnancy loss. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Anxiety Sensitivity in Bereaved Adults with and without Complicated Grief

    PubMed Central

    Robinaugh, Donald J.; McNally, Richard J.; LeBlanc, Nicole J.; Pentel, Kimberly Z.; Schwarz, Noah R.; Shah, Riva M.; Nadal-Vicens, Mireya F.; Moore, Cynthia W.; Marques, Luana; Bui, Eric; Simon, Naomi M.

    2014-01-01

    Complicated grief (CG) is a bereavement specific syndrome chiefly characterized by symptoms of persistent separation distress. Physiological reactivity to reminders of the loss and repeated acute pangs or waves of severe anxiety and psychological pain are prominent features of CG. Fear of this grief-related physiological arousal may contribute to CG by increasing the distress associated with grief reactions and increasing the likelihood of maladaptive coping strategies and grief-related avoidance. Here, we examined anxiety sensitivity (i.e., the fear of anxiety-related sensations; AS) in two studies of bereaved adults with and without CG. In both studies, bereaved adults with CG exhibited elevated AS relative to those without CG. In Study 2, AS was positively associated with CG symptom severity among those with CG. These findings are consistent with the possibility that AS contributes to the development or maintenance of CG symptoms. PMID:25075646

  5. Insomnia and complicated grief symptoms in bereaved college students.

    PubMed

    Hardison, Heather Gaines; Neimeyer, Robert A; Lichstein, Kenneth L

    2005-01-01

    In this study, we extended previous research by concentrating on sleep- and grief-related symptoms in a cohort of bereaved college students, in view of the potential for each of these problems to exacerbate the other. A sample of 815 college students completed the Inventory of Complicated Grief (H. G. Prigerson & S. C. Jacobs, 2001), along with an assessment of diagnostic criteria for insomnia and associated sleep behaviors. As predicted, the rate of insomnia was significantly higher (22%) in the bereaved sample than in a nonbereaved comparison group (17%), a difference that was particularly pronounced in terms of middle insomnia. Also as hypothesized, bereaved insomniacs reported higher complicated grief scores than bereaved noninsomniacs, and several specific sleep variables (including sleep-onset insomnia related to nighttime rumination about the loss and sleep-maintenance insomnia associated with dreaming of the deceased) were significantly related to complicated grief symptomatology.

  6. Predictors of grief in bereaved family caregivers of person's with Alzheimer's disease: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Romero, Melissa M; Ott, Carol H; Kelber, Sheryl T

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to identify factors in 66 spouses and adult child caregivers of person's with Alzheimer's disease prior to the death that predicted higher levels of grief in bereavement. A hierarchical regression model was tested. Predeath grief, dysfunctional coping, depression, social support, and decreased positive states of mind explained 54.7% of the variance in postdeath grief. Factors that contributed significantly to postdeath grief included predeath grief and depression. Results from this study indicate that risk factors for postdeath grief can be predicted prior to the death.

  7. Towards a cognitive-behavioural intervention for adult grief reactions.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, D J

    1990-09-01

    Published accounts of behavioural interventions for grief have relied on exposure and habituation to grief cues as the primary strategy. Such an approach is excessively narrow, since it does not adequately confront the challenges that are posed by a bereavement. Many people cope with a bereavement by themselves, and for those, intervention may well be counterproductive. A cognitive-behavioural intervention, following models for depression/anxiety, can assist vulnerable individuals obtain a more rapid or complete adjustment.

  8. Child and adolescent homicide survivors. Complicated grief and altered worldviews.

    PubMed

    Vigil, Gloria J; Clements, Paul T

    2003-01-01

    The act of homicide may influence the worldviews of children and adolescents. Problematic beliefs of uncertainty, inadequacy, perceiving the world as dangerous, self-denial, and lack of control can contribute to complicated grief in children and adolescents, and can potentially disrupt their normal psychosocial growth and development. Mental health professionals' understanding of grief after the homicide of a family member enhances their ability to intervene with and support young people struggling to cope with and adapt to a sudden loss.

  9. Health-Related Quality of Life in Bereaved HIV-Positive Adults: Relationships between HIV Symptoms, Grief, Social Support, and Axis II Indication

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Nathan B.; Vaughan, Ellen L.; Cavanaugh, Courtenay E.; Connell, Christian M.; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated a model of the impact of borderline and antisocial personality disorder indications on HIV symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in AIDS-bereaved adults, accounting for grief severity, social support and years since HIV diagnosis. Design Structural Equation modeling was used to test the proposed model in a sample of 268 HIV-seropositive adults enrolled in an intervention for coping with AIDS-related bereavement. Main Outcome Measures Functional Assessment of HIV Infection, HIV symptoms. Results The proposed model demonstrated excellent fit with study data and all hypothesized paths were supported. Personality disorder indication was directly related to HIV symptoms and HRQoL, and indirectly related through both social support and grief severity. Social support was negatively related to HIV symptoms and positively related to HRQoL, while grief severity was positively related to HIV symptoms and negatively related to HRQoL. Finally, HIV symptoms had a direct negative relationship with HRQoL. Conclusion Personality disorders have a direct negative effect on HIV symptoms and HRQoL, and indirect effects through grief severity and social support. PMID:19290717

  10. Grief elaboration in families with handicapped member.

    PubMed

    Calandra, C; Finocchiaro, G; Raciti, L; Alberti, A

    1992-01-01

    Families with handicapped member seem to follow the same five stages (rejection and isolation, anger, dealing with the problem, depression, acceptance) of Kubler-Ross grief elaboration theory while dealing with the narcissistic wound of a handicapped child. Some of these families show a block in one of the stages. The effort of psychotherapy is to remove the block and let them reach the last stage. In this paper families under systemic psychotherapeutic treatment are analyzed, who had in common the birth of a child with low or modest invalidating signs and psychotic or autistic features. The families structure did not show the characteristics of a psychotic family. Nevertheless either one or both parents ignored the evidence of their child disease and they built a "disease-incongrous" wait around the child, trying to push away the painful reality. The authors explain the importance of this approach for the improvement of the autistic traits.

  11. The Nature of Attachment Relationships and Grief Responses in Older Adults: An Attachment Path Model of Grief.

    PubMed

    Kho, Yan; Kane, Robert T; Priddis, Lynn; Hudson, Josephine

    2015-01-01

    Various researchers have theorized that bereaved adults who report non-secure attachment are at higher risk of pathological grief. Yet past findings on avoidant attachment representations and grief have yielded limited and contradictory outcomes. Little research has been conducted with older adults to identify the psychological processes that mediate between self-reported attachment representations and the patterns of grief. To examine the impacts of avoidant attachment and anxious attachment dimensions on emotion and non-acceptance, in response to the loss of a conjugal partner, and the mediating effect of yearning thoughts. Men (N = 21) and women (N = 68) aged 60 years and above who had lost a partner within the last 12 to 72 months were invited to participate. Participants rated their levels of yearning thoughts about the deceased, emotions and non-acceptance on the Texas Revised Inventory of Grief (TRIG-Present), and their type and level of general romantic attachment on the Experiences In Close Relationship questionnaire (ECR). Structural equation modelling (SEM) indicated that individuals who reported higher levels of avoidant attachment reported less emotional responses and less non-acceptance. SEM also showed that individuals who reported higher levels of anxious attachment reported greater emotional responses and greater non-acceptance. SEM further indicated that these relationships were mediated by yearning thoughts. People adopt different grief coping patterns according to their self-reported attachment representations, with the nature of their yearning thoughts influencing the process. Grief therapy may be organized according to individual differences in attachment representations.

  12. Clinical features distinguishing grief from depressive episodes: A qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Parker, Gordon; McCraw, Stacey; Paterson, Amelia

    2015-05-01

    The independence or interdependence of grief and major depression has been keenly argued in relation to recent DSM definitions and encouraged the current study. We report a phenomenological study seeking to identify the experiential and phenomenological differences between depression and grief as judged qualitatively by those who had experienced clinical (n=125) or non-clinical depressive states (n=28). Analyses involving the whole sample indicated that, in contrast to grief, depression involved feelings of hopelessness and helplessness, being endless and was associated with a lack of control, having an internal self-focus impacting on self-esteem, being more severe and stressful, being marked by physical symptoms and often lacking a justifiable cause. Grief was distinguished from depression by the individual viewing their experience as natural and to be expected, a consequence of a loss, and with an external focus (i.e. the loss of the other). Some identified differences may have reflected the impact of depressive "type" (e.g. melancholia) rather than depression per se, and argue for a two-tiered model differentiating normative depressive and grief states at their base level and then "clinical" depressive and 'pathological' grief states by their associated clinical features. Comparative analyses between the clinical and non-clinical groups were limited by the latter sub-set being few in number. The provision of definitions may have shaped subjects׳ nominated differentiating features. The study identified a distinct number of phenomenological and clinical differences between grief and depression and few shared features, but more importantly, argued for the development of a two-tiered model defining both base states and clinical expressions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. To what extent does the anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) detect specific types of anxiety disorder in primary care? A psychometric study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anxiety scales may help primary care physicians to detect specific anxiety disorders among the many emotionally distressed patients presenting in primary care. The anxiety scale of the Four-Dimensional Symptom Questionnaire (4DSQ) consists of an admixture of symptoms of specific anxiety disorders. The research questions were: (1) Is the anxiety scale unidimensional or multidimensional? (2) To what extent does the anxiety scale detect specific DSM-IV anxiety disorders? (3) Which cut-off points are suitable to rule out or to rule in (which) anxiety disorders? Methods We analyzed 5 primary care datasets with standardized psychiatric diagnoses and 4DSQ scores. Unidimensionality was assessed through confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). We examined mean scores and anxiety score distributions per disorder. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to determine optimal cut-off points. Results Total n was 969. CFA supported unidimensionality. The anxiety scale performed slightly better in detecting patients with panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) and post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) than patients with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and specific phobia. ROC-analysis suggested that ≥4 was the optimal cut-off point to rule out and ≥10 the cut-off point to rule in anxiety disorders. Conclusions The 4DSQ anxiety scale measures a common trait of pathological anxiety that is characteristic of anxiety disorders, in particular panic disorder, agoraphobia, social phobia, OCD and PTSD. The anxiety score detects the latter anxiety disorders to a slightly greater extent than GAD and specific phobia, without being able to distinguish between the different anxiety disorder types. The cut-off points ≥4 and ≥10 can be used to separate distressed patients in three groups with a relatively low, moderate and high probability of having one or more anxiety disorders. PMID:24761829

  14. Psychometric profiles and facial pain.

    PubMed

    Eversole, L R; Stone, C E; Matheson, D; Kaplan, H

    1985-09-01

    The myofacial pain-dysfunction syndrome and atypical facial pain are the most prevalent chronic pain disorders of the facial region. Previously, the myofacial pain-dysfunction syndrome included all TMJ/masticatory muscle pain, jaw dysfunction, and joint clicking. We have segregated two major subgroups subsumed within this diagnostic classification and have assigned them to a myogenic facial pain (MFP) group and a TMJ internal derangement (TMJID) group. Significant age and personality differences were uncovered when these subpopulations were compared to subjects with atypical facial pain (AFP). Both MFP and TMJID groups are relatively homologous, involving younger persons than AFP subjects. Alternatively, when MFP, TMJID, and AFP subjects were compared for differences in MMPI psychometric scales, MFP and AFP subjects exhibited significantly higher scores, particularly for hypochondriasis, depression, and hysteria, than did TMJID subjects. It is concluded that subcategorization of myofascial pain-dysfunction patients into a myogenic pain group and a TMJ internal derangement group is justified on the basis of psychometric differences. Furthermore, psychopathologic factors are more significant among MFP and AFP subjects than among TMJID patients.

  15. Consulting with Teachers in Two Areas: Grief and Mourning: Relaxation Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBeath, Marcia

    1980-01-01

    Consultation with teachers remains untried by many counselors. Possible consultation areas are grief management and relaxation training. Grief is the normal reaction to loss. Being aware of the various stages is the first step in helping someone through the grief process. Relaxation techniques can be learned with proper guidance. (Author/BEF)

  16. Do Grief Self-Help Books Convey Contemporary Perspectives on Grieving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Michael Robert

    2012-01-01

    Grief therapy and psychology literatures of the modern Western world conceptualized bereavement and grief as processes to be "worked through" so that other relationships could be pursued. In the last decade or so, however, grief theorists have endorsed the value of attaining new meaning(s) and continuing bonds with our lost loved ones instead of…

  17. The effects of gestational age and gender on grief after pregnancy loss.

    PubMed

    Goldbach, K R; Dunn, D S; Toedter, L J; Lasker, J N

    1991-07-01

    The roles of gestational age and gender in grief reactions following loss of pregnancy were explored. Parents with losses later in pregnancy reported more intense grief than did those whose losses were earlier. Women expressed higher levels of grief than did men six to eight weeks after the loss; however, this difference had decreased by one and two years after the loss.

  18. Sudden Death and Bereavement Outcomes: The Impact of Resources on Grief Symptomatology and Detachment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    Examined grief, family detachment, and impact of resources following sudden bereavement among family members of victims of suicide and accidental deaths. Most grief-stricken survivors were more detached from family. Self-esteem emerged as strongest predictor of grief and played role in mediating influences of religious participation and exercise…

  19. The Experience of Grief after Bereavement: A Phenomenological Study with Implications for Mental Health Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Elizabeth D.; Thompson, Charles L.

    2003-01-01

    Phenomenological methods were used to explore the experience of grief after bereavement. Nine bereaved adults volunteered to participate in interviews in which they discussed their experience of grief after the death of a loved one. An analysis of the interviews revealed the following themes in the experience of grief after bereavement: Coping,…

  20. Do Grief Self-Help Books Convey Contemporary Perspectives on Grieving?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennis, Michael Robert

    2012-01-01

    Grief therapy and psychology literatures of the modern Western world conceptualized bereavement and grief as processes to be "worked through" so that other relationships could be pursued. In the last decade or so, however, grief theorists have endorsed the value of attaining new meaning(s) and continuing bonds with our lost loved ones instead of…

  1. Grief and Loss in Schools: A Perspective for School Social Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massat, Carol Rippey; Moses, Helene; Ornstein, Eric

    2008-01-01

    Students and other members of a school community frequently experience grief and loss. This article uses a dual process model to describe students' grief and loss. It also describes the manifestations of grief at different stages of children's development, as well as interventions at different levels of the school environment. The ability to help…

  2. Grief Counseling Groups for Adolescents Based on Re-Membering Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granados, Stephanie; Winslade, John; De Witt, Megan; Hedtke, Lorraine

    2009-01-01

    Focusing on "re-membering" practices is new to grief counseling. Traditional approaches to grief counseling are guided by the concepts of stages or tasks, usually to move the person toward accepting the reality of loss and to "say goodbye" to their deceased loved one. This alternative approach to grief counseling, driven by…

  3. Internet-Based Exposure and Behavioral Activation for Complicated Grief and Rumination: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Eisma, Maarten C; Boelen, Paul A; van den Bout, Jan; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Schut, Henk A W; Lancee, Jaap; Stroebe, Margaret S

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the effectiveness and feasibility of therapist-guided Internet-delivered exposure (EX) and behavioral activation (BA) for complicated grief and rumination. Forty-seven bereaved individuals with elevated levels of complicated grief and grief rumination were randomly assigned to three conditions: EX (N=18), BA (N=17), or a waiting-list (N=12). Treatment groups received 6 homework assignments over 6 to 8weeks. Intention-to-treat analyses showed that EX reduced complicated grief, posttraumatic stress, depression, grief rumination, and brooding levels relative to the control group at posttreatment (d=0.7-1.2). BA lowered complicated grief, posttraumatic stress, and grief rumination levels at posttreatment (d=0.8-0.9). At 3-month follow-up, effects of EX were maintained on complicated grief and grief rumination (d=0.6-1.2), and for BA on complicated grief, posttraumatic stress, and grief rumination (d=0.8-0.9). EX reduced depression more strongly than BA (d=0.6). Completers analyses corroborated results for EX, and partially those for BA, but no group differences were detected. BA suffered from high dropout (59%), relative to EX (33%) and the waiting-list (17%). Feasibility appeared higher for EX than BA. Results supported potential applicability of online exposure but not behavioral activation to decrease complicated grief and rumination. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Acts of Resistance: Breaking the Silence of Grief Following Traffic Crash Fatalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breen, Lauren J.; O'Connor, Moira

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical arguments and empirical evidence demonstrate the limited utility of a narrow construction of "normal" grief. Sudden and violent death, the young age of the deceased, and perceptions of death preventability are associated with grief reactions that extend beyond an expected grief response. Interviews were conducted with 21…

  5. An Investigation of the Relationship of Personality, Coping, and Grief Intensity among Bereaved Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Tristan; Marwit, Samuel J.

    2006-01-01

    A mediational model of grief intensity (Meuser & Marwit, 2000) was examined in a population at risk for complicated grief. Coping strategies (emotion-oriented, task-oriented, and avoidance-oriented coping) were hypothesized to mediate the influence of personality factors (neuroticism and extraversion) on grief. Bereaved mothers (N =138)…

  6. African Americans in bereavement: grief as a function of ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Laurie, Anna; Neimeyer, Robert A

    2008-01-01

    Few empirical studies have explored the grieving process among different ethnic groups within the United States, and very little is known about how African Americans and Caucasians may differ in their experience of loss. The purpose of this study was to examine the African-American experience of grief, with particular emphasis on issues of identity change, interpersonal dimensions of the loss, and continuing attachments with the deceased. Participants were 1,581 bereaved college students (940 Caucasians and 641 African Americans) attending classes at a large southern university. Each participant completed the Inventory of Complicated Grief-Revised, the Continuing Bonds Scale, and questions regarding the circumstances surrounding his or her loss. Results revealed that African Americans experienced more frequent bereavement by homicide, maintenance of a stronger continuing bond with the deceased, greater grief for the loss of extended kin beyond the immediate family, and a sense of support in their grief, despite their tendency to talk less with others about the loss or seek professional support for it. Overall, African Americans reported higher levels of complicated grief symptoms than Caucasians, especially when they spent less time speaking to others about their loss experience. Implications of these findings for bereavement support services for African Americans were briefly noted.

  7. Grief and its complications in individuals with intellectual disability.

    PubMed

    Brickell, Claire; Munir, Kerim

    2008-01-01

    Bereavement and loss have significant impact on the lives of individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Although there is a growing impetus to define the symptoms of grief that predict long-term functional impairment, little is known about maladaptive grieving among individuals with ID. We examine the literature concerning the phenomenology of traumatic grief (TG) in the general population, along with what is known about the manifestations of grief in individuals with ID. We then apply modern theories of grief and grief resolution to individuals with ID in order to highlight potential areas of vulnerability in this population and to lay the groundwork for interventions that will facilitate their adaptation to loss. We provide a theoretical framework for the proposition that individuals (including children and adults) with ID are more susceptible to TG, based on an increased risk of secondary loss, barriers to communicating about the loss, and difficulty finding meaning in the loss. We conclude that individuals with ID should be considered as potential candidates for targeted bereavement interventions. Further research is required, however, in order to develop population-appropriate measurement scales for testing these hypotheses.

  8. Grief and its Complications in Individuals with Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Brickell, Claire; Munir, Kerim

    2011-01-01

    Bereavement and loss have significant impact on the lives of individuals with intellectual disability (ID). Although there is a growing impetus to define the symptoms of grief that predict long-term functional impairment, little is known about maladaptive grieving among individuals with ID. We examine the literature concerning the phenomenology of traumatic grief (TG) in the general population, along with what is known about the manifestations of grief in individuals with ID. We then apply modern theories of grief and grief resolution to individuals with ID in order to highlight potential areas of vulnerability in this population and to lay the groundwork for interventions that will facilitate their adaptation to loss. We provide a theoretical framework for the proposition that individuals (including children and adults) with ID are more susceptible to TG, based on an increased risk of secondary loss, barriers to communicating about the loss, and difficulty finding meaning in the loss. We conclude that individuals with ID should be considered as potential candidates for targeted bereavement interventions. Further research is required, however, in order to develop population-appropriate measurement scales for testing these hypotheses. PMID:18306095

  9. The Course of Grief in Children Bereaved by Sudden Parental Death

    PubMed Central

    Melhem, Nadine M.; Porta, Giovanna; Shamseddeen, Wael; Payne, Monica Walker; Brent, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Context There have been major advances in our understanding of the phenomenology and course of grief in adults. However, little is known about the course of grief in children. Objective We report on course and impact of children’s grief reactions following parental sudden death on subsequent psychiatric and functional status. Design Longitudinal study of bereaved children and families with yearly comprehensive assessments up to three years after parental death. Setting Bereaved children and their surviving parents recruited through the coroners’ records and advertisement. Participants 182 parentally bereaved children between 7 and 18 years of age whose parent died from suicide, accident, or sudden natural deaths. Main Exposure Sudden parental death. Main Outcome Measures Grief, functional impairment, incident depression. Results There were 3 distinct trajectories of grief reactions with a group, consisting of 10.4% of the sample, with increased grief reactions that showed no change 33 months post-death. Youths with prolonged grief reactions had higher rates of previous personal history of depression. Prolonged grief made unique contribution to increased levels of functional impairment even after controlling for clinical characteristics antecedent and following the death. Conversely, prolonged grief, both in youths and the surviving caregiver, predisposed to an increased hazard of incident depression. Another group (30%) showed increased grief reactions 9 months following the death, which gradually decreased over time. Despite this, grief reactions in this group were also associated with functional impairment and increased risk of incident depression. Conclusions Grief reactions abate over time for most children bereaved by sudden parental death; however, a subset show increased or prolonged grief reactions, which in turn increases the risk for functional impairment and depression. Research on interventions designed to relieve the burden of grief in bereaved

  10. Concept clarification of grief in mothers of children with an addiction.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Donna M; Dion, Kimberly; McKeever, Roxanna P

    2015-04-01

    To report an analysis of the concept of grief in mothers of children with an addiction. The concept of grief in this context is poorly understood and often synonymously used with concepts depression, loss and chronic sorrow. In the US, the core concept grief has been recently revised by both NANDA and the DSM-V in efforts to better understand and characterize the concept. The plethora of literature on grief worldwide often characterizes grief as a response to a death. Concept analysis. Search terms 'parental grief' and 'substance abuse' yielded 30 articles. A second review using terms 'grief' and 'substance abuse' yielded 323 articles, in PsychInfo, CINAHL, PubMed databases from 1980-2013. Limits for articles in English and for the terms 'death' and 'child' yielded 13 usable articles. The hybrid model of concept analysis, using a theoretical phase, an empirical phase and a final phase when a clarified definition of grief emerged. Definitions in the literature and defining characteristics of grief outline bio-psycho-social aspects of the concept. For one mother grief was accompanied by recurring feelings of sadness across time, while for the other mother grief was seen as coping, after having passed through a variety of stages of grief. For both, grief was seen to fall on a continuum. Grief is a universal concept and has a trajectory. Case study data have been essential in clarifying understandings of grief as experienced by mothers of addicted children and will provide direction for meaningful and tailored interventions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Complicated grief therapy as a new treatment approach

    PubMed Central

    Wetherell, Julie Loebach

    2012-01-01

    Complicated grief therapy (CGT) is a relatively new psychotherapy model designed to address symptoms of complicated grief. Drawn from attachment theory and with roots in both interpersonal therapy (IPT) and cognitive-behavioral therapy, CGT includes techniques similar to prolonged exposure (repeatedly telling the story of the death and in vivo exposure activities). The treatment also involves focusing on personal goals and relationships. CGT has been demonstrated to be effective in a trial in which participants with complicated grief were randomly assigned to CGT or IPT; individuals receiving CGT responded more quickly and were more likely to respond overall (51 % vs 28%). This article briefly summarizes the conceptual underpinnings of CGT, discusses the empirical evidence for its efficacy, describes its techniques, and presents a case example of a client treated in a 16-session manualized CGT protocol. The article concludes with a description of future research directions for CGT. PMID:22754288

  12. Social acknowledgement as a predictor of post-traumatic stress and complicated grief after witnessing assisted suicide.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Birgit; Keller, Valerie; Knaevelsrud, Christine; Maercker, Andreas

    2012-07-01

    In Switzerland, right-to-die organizations such as Exit Deutsche Schweiz offer suicide assistance to their members. However, there is limited knowledge of the impact that witnessing assisted suicide has on the post-traumatic stress severity or the grief process of family members. Low perceived social acknowledgement may affect mental health. A cross-sectional survey of 85 family members who were present at an assisted suicide was conducted in December 2007. The Inventory of Complicated Grief and the Impact of Event Scale were used to assess symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and complicated grief (CG) at 14 to 24 months post-loss. Further, the Social Acknowledgement Questionnaire was used to examine the impact that the social environment's acknowledgement of the end-of-life decision had on respondents' mental health. As expected, social acknowledgement as a survivor was related to PTSD symptoms and CG. In particular, perceived general disapproval was strongly correlated with all outcome measures, whereas recognition was not significantly related to PTSD or CG (intrusion and avoidance). Family members of patients who use assisted suicide may hesitate to disclose the manner of death, and the community and societal environment may express strong views concerning the end-of-life decision. This can lead to increased levels of PTSD and CG.

  13. Social Interpretation Bias in Children and Adolescents with Anxiety Disorders: Psychometric Examination of the Self-Report of Ambiguous Social Situations for Youth (SASSY) Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Araceli; Rozenman, Michelle; Langley, Audra K.; Kendall, Philip C.; Ginsburg, Golda S.; Compton, Scott; Walkup, John T.; Birmaher, Boris; Albano, Anne Marie; Piacentini, John

    2017-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental health problems in youth, and faulty interpretation bias has been positively linked to anxiety severity, even within anxiety-disordered youth. Quick, reliable assessment of interpretation bias may be useful in identifying youth with certain types of anxiety or assessing changes on…

  14. Exploring Oncology Nurses’ Grief: A Self-study

    PubMed Central

    Barbour, Lisa C.

    2016-01-01

    Oncology nursing, like many other nursing fields, often provides nurses with the opportunity to get to know their patients and their families well. This familiarity allows oncology nurses to show a level of compassion and empathy that is often helpful to the patient and their family during their struggle with cancer. However, this familiarity can also lead to a profound sense of grief if the patient loses that struggle. This self-study provided me the opportunity to systematically explore my own experience with grief as an oncology nurse, helping me to identify specific stressors and also sources of stress release. PMID:27981166

  15. Complicated grief after suicide bereavement and other causes of death.

    PubMed

    Tal, Ilanit; Mauro, Christine; Reynolds, Charles F; Shear, M Katherine; Simon, Naomi; Lebowitz, Barry; Skritskaya, Natalia; Wang, Yuanjia; Qiu, Xin; Iglewicz, Alana; Glorioso, Danielle; Avanzino, Julie; Wetherell, Julie Loebach; Karp, Jordan F; Robinaugh, Don; Zisook, Sidney

    2016-11-28

    The authors compared baseline demographic characteristics, clinical features, and grief-related thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individuals bereaved by suicide, accident/homicide and natural causes participating in a complicated grief (CG) treatment clinical trial. Severity of CG and depression and current depression diagnosis did not vary by loss type. After adjusting for baseline demographic features, time since death and relationship to the deceased, those with CG after suicide had the highest rates of lifetime depression, preloss passive suicidal ideation, self-blaming thoughts, and impaired work and social adjustment. Even among this treatment-seeking sample of research participants with CG, suicide survivors may face unique challenges.

  16. Psychometric Properties and Correlates of the Beck Hopelessness Scale in Family Caregivers of Nigerian Patients with Psychiatric Disorders in Southwestern Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Aloba, Olutayo; Ajao, Olayinka; Alimi, Taiwo; Esan, Olufemi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To examine the construct and correlates of hopelessness among family caregivers of Nigerian psychiatric patients. Materials and Methods: This is a cross-sectional, descriptive study involving 264 family caregiver-patients’ dyads recruited from two university teaching hospitals psychiatric clinics in Southwestern Nigeria. Results: Exploratory factor analysis revealed a two-factor 9-item model of the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS) among the family caregivers. Confirmatory factor analysis of the model revealed satisfactory indices of fitness (goodness of fit index = 0.97, comparative fit index = 0.96, Chi-square/degree of freedom (CMIN/DF) = 1.60, root mean square error of approximation = 0.048, expected cross-validation index = 0.307, and standardized root mean residual = 0.005). Reliability of the scale was modestly satisfactory (Cronbach's alpha 0.72). Construct validity of scale was supported by significant correlations with the family caregivers’ scores on the Zarit Burden Interview, mini international neuropsychiatric interview suicidality module, General Health Questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), and Patient Health Questionnaire-9. The greatest variance in the family caregivers’ scores on the BHS was contributed by their scores on the psychological distress scale (GHQ-12). Conclusions: The BHS has adequate psychometric properties among Nigerian psychiatric patients’ family caregivers. There is the need to pay attention to the psychological well-being of the family caregivers of Nigerian psychiatric patients. PMID:28163498

  17. Chronic Grief Management for Dementia Caregivers in Transition: Intervention Development and Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Paun, Olimpia; Farran, Carol J.

    2013-01-01

    Research reveals that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) caregivers (CGs) do not relinquish their role after placing a family member in long-term care. Caregivers report increased emotional upset around the time of placement, with sustained losses over time leading to chronic grief. Chronic grief increases caregivers’ risk for depression and suicide. There are no documented interventions designed to decrease CGs chronic grief post placement. The Chronic Grief Management Intervention (CGMI) builds on existing evidence to target caregiver chronic grief in the transition of a family member into long-term care. The intervention is structured into three major components: 1) knowledge, 2) skill in communication and conflict resolution, and 3) chronic grief mangement skill. The 12-week intervention was pilot tested with thirty four caregivers for feasibility and preliminary effects on caregiver skill, knowledge, chronic grief, and depression. This article presents a general study description while focusing on the development and implementation of the CGMI. PMID:22084962

  18. Psychometric Research in Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Frederick B.

    This review of psychometric research in reading analyzes the factors which seem related to reading comprehension skills. Experimental analysis of reading comprehension by L. E. Thorndike revealed two major components: knowledge of word meanings and verbal reasoning abilities. Subsequent analysis of experimental studies of reading comprehension…

  19. Acculturation: A Psychometric Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olmedo, Esteban L.

    1979-01-01

    Traditional measurement models based on cultural group or generational typologies do not adequately address conceptual and methodological problems in the psychometric approach to acculturation. A model is proposed that provides for the examination of relationships between multidimensional sets of quantitatively defined cultural variables.…

  20. Development and Psychometric Validation of the EDE-QS, a 12 Item Short Form of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q)

    PubMed Central

    Gideon, Nicole; Hawkes, Nick; Mond, Jonathan; Saunders, Rob; Tchanturia, Kate; Serpell, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to develop and validate a short form of the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) for routine, including session by session, outcome assessment. Method The current, 28-item version (6.0) of the EDE-Q was completed by 489 individuals aged 18–72 with various eating disorders recruited from three UK specialist eating disorder services. Rasch analysis was carried out on factors identified by means of principal component analysis, which in combination with expert ratings informed the development of an EDE-Q short form. The shortened questionnaire’s reliability, validity and sensitivity was assessed based on online data collected from students of a UK university and volunteers with a history of eating disorders recruited from a national eating disorders charity aged 18–74 (N = 559). Results A 12-item short form, the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire Short (EDE-QS) was derived. The new measure showed high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = .913) and temporal stability (ICC = .93; p < .001). It was highly correlated with the original EDE-Q (r = .91 for people without ED; r = .82 for people with ED) and other measures of eating disorder and comorbid psychopathology. It was sufficiently sensitive to distinguish between people with and without eating disorders. Discussion The EDE-QS is a brief, reliable and valid measure of eating disorder symptom severity that performs similarly to the EDE-Q and that lends itself for the use of sessional outcome monitoring in treatment and research. PMID:27138364

  1. Media exposure and prolonged grief: A study of bereaved parents and siblings after the 2011 Utøya Island terror attack.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, Pål; Dyregrov, Kari; Dyregrov, Atle; Heir, Trond

    2016-11-01

    After terror attacks, the media coverage can be a potential secondary stressor for bereaved families. In the present study, we aimed to examine the level of prolonged grief (PG), and to explore the association between media exposure and PG in parents and siblings of individuals who were killed in a terror attack. Parents and siblings (n = 103) from 42 different families bereaved by the 2011 Utøya Island mass shooting participated in a survey 18 months after the attack. The survey measured the amount of media exposure experienced by the bereaved during the first month after the attack. PG was self-reported using the Inventory of Complicated Grief (ICG). Data was analyzed with multilevel methods with mixed effects models. Of the total sample of participants, 78.6% (n = 81/103) had sum scores higher than the designated cutoff >25 on ICG, indicating a probable prolonged grief disorder (PGD). Multilevel analysis showed significantly higher level of PG among those who reported high exposure to the media coverage (>4 hours daily) the first month after the attack, among females, and among those who were in contact with their son/daughter/brother/sister by telephone during the attack. With the cross-sectional design, caution should be taken about making interpretations about causal effects. Media exposure may trigger or maintain prolonged grief reactions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Prolonged grief, depression, and posttraumatic stress in disaster-bereaved individuals: latent class analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lenferink, Lonneke I. M.; de Keijser, Jos; Smid, Geert E.; Djelantik, A. A. A. Manik J.; Boelen, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Hundreds of individuals lost one or more significant others in the MH17 plane crash in 2014 in Ukraine. The current study is the first to explore subgroups of disaster-bereaved individuals based on presence of psychopathology clusters. This may inform the development of diagnostic instruments and tailored interventions. Objective: Aims of the current study were to examine (1) subgroups based on presence of prolonged grief disorder (PGD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters and (2) associations between class membership, disaster-related variables (i.e. experiencing multiple losses, conducting multiple burials for the same deceased, and time to confirmation of death), and a sense of unrealness. Method: Self-rated PGD (10 items of the Traumatic Grief Inventory represented in two symptom clusters), MDD (16-item Quick Inventory Of Depressive Symptomatology represented in one symptom cluster), and PTSD (20-item PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 represented in four symptom clusters) from 167 participants were subjected to latent class analysis to identify subgroups (i.e. classes). Correlates of class membership were assessed using the three-step approach. Results: A three-class solution yielded the best model fit. Class 1 (Resilient class; 20.0%) was predominantly characterized by low probability of PGD, MDD, and PTSD symptom clusters, class 2 (PGD class; 41.8%) by moderate to high probability of presence of PGD, and class 3 (Combined class; 38.2%) by moderate to high probability of presence of PGD, MDD, and PTSD symptom clusters. Compared with the Resilient class, a sense of unrealness was more likely to be experienced by individuals in the PGD class and the Combined class. Conclusions: Our results indicate that subgroups of disaster-bereaved individuals can be distinguished based on the presence of PGD, MDD, and PTSD symptom clusters. A sense of unrealness was the strongest distinguishing feature of the

  3. Prolonged grief, depression, and posttraumatic stress in disaster-bereaved individuals: latent class analysis.

    PubMed

    Lenferink, Lonneke I M; de Keijser, Jos; Smid, Geert E; Djelantik, A A A Manik J; Boelen, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    Background: Hundreds of individuals lost one or more significant others in the MH17 plane crash in 2014 in Ukraine. The current study is the first to explore subgroups of disaster-bereaved individuals based on presence of psychopathology clusters. This may inform the development of diagnostic instruments and tailored interventions. Objective: Aims of the current study were to examine (1) subgroups based on presence of prolonged grief disorder (PGD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptom clusters and (2) associations between class membership, disaster-related variables (i.e. experiencing multiple losses, conducting multiple burials for the same deceased, and time to confirmation of death), and a sense of unrealness. Method: Self-rated PGD (10 items of the Traumatic Grief Inventory represented in two symptom clusters), MDD (16-item Quick Inventory Of Depressive Symptomatology represented in one symptom cluster), and PTSD (20-item PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 represented in four symptom clusters) from 167 participants were subjected to latent class analysis to identify subgroups (i.e. classes). Correlates of class membership were assessed using the three-step approach. Results: A three-class solution yielded the best model fit. Class 1 (Resilient class; 20.0%) was predominantly characterized by low probability of PGD, MDD, and PTSD symptom clusters, class 2 (PGD class; 41.8%) by moderate to high probability of presence of PGD, and class 3 (Combined class; 38.2%) by moderate to high probability of presence of PGD, MDD, and PTSD symptom clusters. Compared with the Resilient class, a sense of unrealness was more likely to be experienced by individuals in the PGD class and the Combined class. Conclusions: Our results indicate that subgroups of disaster-bereaved individuals can be distinguished based on the presence of PGD, MDD, and PTSD symptom clusters. A sense of unrealness was the strongest distinguishing feature of the subgroups.

  4. Data mining the ScanBrit study of a gluten- and casein-free dietary intervention for children with autism spectrum disorders: behavioural and psychometric measures of dietary response.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Lennart; Parlar, Sarah; Kvist, Kajsa; Whiteley, Paul; Shattock, Paul

    2014-09-01

    We previously reported results based on the examination of a gluten- and casein-free diet as an intervention for children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder as part of the ScanBrit collaboration. Analysis based on grouped results indicated several significant differences between dietary and non-dietary participants across various core and peripheral areas of functioning. Results also indicated some disparity in individual responses to dietary modification potentially indicative of responder and non-responder differences. Further examination of the behavioural and psychometric data garnered from participants was undertaken, with a view to determining potential factors pertinent to response to dietary intervention. Participants with clinically significant scores indicative of inattention and hyperactivity behaviours and who had a significant positive changes to said scores were defined as responders to the dietary intervention. Analyses indicated several factors to be potentially pertinent to a positive response to dietary intervention in terms of symptom presentation. Chronological age was found to be the strongest predictor of response, where those participants aged between 7 and 9 years seemed to derive most benefit from dietary intervention. Further analysis based on the criteria for original study inclusion on the presence of the urine compound, trans-indolyl-3-acryloylglycine may also merit further investigation. These preliminary observations on potential best responder characteristics to a gluten- and casein-free diet for children with autism require independent replication.

  5. Innovative Moments in Grief Therapy: Reconstructing Meaning Following Perinatal Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alves, Daniela; Mendes, Ines; Goncalves, Miguel M.; Neimeyer, Robert A.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an intensive analysis of a good outcome case of constructivist grief therapy with a bereaved mother, using the Innovative Moments Coding System (IMCS). Inspired by M. White and D. Epston's narrative therapy, the IMCS conceptualizes therapeutic change as resulting from the elaboration and expansion of unique outcomes (or as we…

  6. Grief in Two Guises: "Mourning and Melancholia" Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Viviane

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a re-reading of Freud's classic paper. The themes of mourning and melancholia are viewed in relation to children and adolescents with illustrations from case histories. Mourning is interpreted in a broader sense: not only as grief (both expectable and traumatic) but as a response to the developmental process itself as phases of…

  7. Helping People Cope with Tragedy and Grief: Information, Resources & Linkages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R., Ed.; Kirkman, Chris J.

    Following the horrific experiences of September 11th, 2001, efforts were undertaken to gather information to provide counselors with the help they need for counseling those in the face of tragedy. With this publication, information about trauma and grief counseling becomes readily available. Guides for responding to tragedies are included from…

  8. Race as a Factor in Teachers' Responses to Children's Grief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Trudie L.

    1982-01-01

    Investigated how teachers respond to children in death-related situations. When Black and non-Black teachers were compared, no differences were evident in attitudes toward death or belief in an afterlife. However, significant differences appeared in the responses they chose to children's grief. (Author)

  9. Play and Healing: Therapeutic Recreation's Role in Coping with Grief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Beth; King, Kathryn

    1999-01-01

    Camp Releaf, a weekend camp in North Carolina, uses therapeutic recreation to help children in grades K-8 develop positive coping skills for dealing with the recent death of a family member. The camp's therapeutic activities are described. Sidebars outline the nature of grief in different age groups and suggestions for working with grieving…

  10. Strengthening Grief Support for Adolescents Coping with a Peer's Death

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balk, David E.; Zaengle, Donna; Corr, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    This article offers suggestions for strengthening school-based grief support following an adolescent's death. Such interventions must be considered within the context of: (a) development during adolescence; (b) the role of peers in adolescent development; and (c) the fact that an adolescent peer's death is a non-normative life crisis in developed…

  11. Religiosity Related to Grief Levels of Bereaved Mothers and Fathers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bohannon, Judy Rollins

    1991-01-01

    Examined religiosity and bereaved mothers' (n=143) and fathers' (n=129) scores on Grief Experience Inventory. High church attendance had significant inverse relationship with death anxiety. Mothers who attended church more frequently reported significantly less loss of control, rumination, depersonalization, and optimism/despair. Church attendance…

  12. Grief in Two Guises: "Mourning and Melancholia" Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Viviane

    2013-01-01

    This paper is a re-reading of Freud's classic paper. The themes of mourning and melancholia are viewed in relation to children and adolescents with illustrations from case histories. Mourning is interpreted in a broader sense: not only as grief (both expectable and traumatic) but as a response to the developmental process itself as phases of…

  13. The Grief Group: A University and Hospice Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Daniel; Fry, Michele

    2013-01-01

    This report describes a joint effort of a community hospice and a university counseling center to provide a campus grief group for university students led by a hospice counselor and a counseling center clinical psychologist. Hospice provided a curriculum outlining topics and activities for each of the group's six meetings. Notices announcing…

  14. Group Composition and Group Therapy for Complicated Grief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, William E.; Ogrodniczuk, John S.; Joyce, Anthony S.; Weideman, Rene; Rosie, John S.

    2007-01-01

    This prospective study investigated the impact of group composition on the outcome of 2 forms of time-limited, short-term group therapy (interpretive, supportive) with 110 outpatients from 18 therapy groups, who presented with complicated grief. The composition variable was based on the patient's level of quality of object relations. The higher…

  15. Grief and social support after the death of a spouse.

    PubMed

    Kaunonen, M; Tarkka, M T; Paunonen, M; Laippala, P

    1999-12-01

    The death of a spouse is one of the most stressful events in a person's life. Social support has been shown to be widely beneficial in moderating the effects of both chronic and acute stress. The answers of Finnish widows and widowers (n=318) were analysed in order to investigate the sources of social support, what is the nature of support received, and whether social support is connected with coping with grief. The Hogan Grief Reactions Checklist was used to describe the grief as well as answers to open-ended questions about what helped the widowed persons cope with their grief. Kahn's theory of social support was used as a framework in the content analysis of the open-ended answers. The results showed that Finnish widows and widowers receive social support most often from their own family and friends. They perceived the received support most helpful, but also the support that the grieving person can give to other family members is seen as important. Results suggest that those who had had social support were able to grieve by allowing themselves to disorganize and experience panic behaviour.

  16. Group Composition and Group Therapy for Complicated Grief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, William E.; Ogrodniczuk, John S.; Joyce, Anthony S.; Weideman, Rene; Rosie, John S.

    2007-01-01

    This prospective study investigated the impact of group composition on the outcome of 2 forms of time-limited, short-term group therapy (interpretive, supportive) with 110 outpatients from 18 therapy groups, who presented with complicated grief. The composition variable was based on the patient's level of quality of object relations. The higher…

  17. Predictors of Complicated Grief: A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobb, Elizabeth A.; Kristjanson, Linda J.; Aoun, Samar M.; Monterosso, Leanne; Halkett, Georgia K. B.; Davies, Anna

    2010-01-01

    A systematic review of the literature on predictors of complicated grief (CG) was undertaken with the aim of clarifying the current knowledge and to inform future planning and work in CG following bereavement. Predictors of CG prior to the death include previous loss, exposure to trauma, a previous psychiatric history, attachment style, and the…

  18. Scrapbooking as an Intervention for Grief Recovery with Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Kristie; Lent, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    This article describes scrapbooking in the context of bereavement counseling. For the purposes of this article, scrapbooking combines many different types of art-related therapy interventions into one concrete format to utilize in counseling with children who are working to overcome grief or trauma related to the loss of a parent. A case…

  19. Assessment of Emotional Experience and Emotional Recognition in Complicated Grief

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Alcántara, Manuel; Cruz-Quintana, Francisco; Pérez-Marfil, M. N.; Catena-Martínez, Andrés; Pérez-García, Miguel; Turnbull, Oliver H.

    2016-01-01

    There is substantial evidence of bias in the processing of emotion in people with complicated grief (CG). Previous studies have tended to assess the expression of emotion in CG, but other aspects of emotion (mainly emotion recognition, and the subjective aspects of emotion) have not been addressed, despite their importance for practicing clinicians. A quasi-experimental design with two matched groups (Complicated Grief, N = 24 and Non-Complicated Grief, N = 20) was carried out. The Facial Expression of Emotion Test (emotion recognition), a set of pictures from the International Affective Picture System (subjective experience of emotion) and the Symptom Checklist 90 Revised (psychopathology) were employed. The CG group showed lower scores on the dimension of valence for specific conditions on the IAPS, related to the subjective experience of emotion. In addition, they presented higher values of psychopathology. In contrast, statistically significant results were not found for the recognition of emotion. In conclusion, from a neuropsychological point of view, the subjective aspects of emotion and psychopathology seem central in explaining the experience of those with CG. These results are clinically significant for psychotherapists and psychoanalysts working in the field of grief and loss. PMID:26903928

  20. Effectiveness of Grief Therapy: A Meta-Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allumbaugh, Denise Litterer; Hoyt, William T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes analyses based on 35 studies on effectiveness of Grief Therapy. Clients with no-treatment control groups showed little improvement, possibly because of the relatively long delay between loss and treatment. Client selection procedures appear to contribute strongly to variability in effect size (ESs). The majority of studies involving…