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Sample records for griqualand west sequence

  1. A paleoweathering profile from Griqualand West, South Africa: evidence for a dramatic rise in atmospheric oxygen between 2.2 and 1.9 bybp.

    PubMed

    Holland, H D; Beukes, N J

    1990-01-01

    A core drilled near Wolhaarkop in Griqualand West, South Africa, intersected highly oxidized Kuruman Iron Formation below red beds of the Gamagara Formation. The lateral equivalents of the Kuruman Iron Formation in this drill hole consist largely of siderite, ankerite, magnetite, greenalite, and quartz. The oxidation of the Kuruman Iron Formation in WOL 2 occurred almost certainly during weathering prior to the deposition of the Gamagara Formation. The date of this weathering episode is bracketed between about 2.2 and 1.9 bybp by the age of the Ongeluk lavas in the Transvaal sequence below the unconformity and by the age of the Hartley lavas in the Olifantshoek Group above the unconformity. The ratio of iron to SiO2 in the several facies of the weathered Kuruman Iron Formation in WOL 2 is nearly the same as that in their unweathered equivalents. Since SiO2 loss during weathering was almost certainly minor, the similarity of the Fe/SiO2 ratio in the weathered and unweathered BIF indicates that nearly all the "FeO" in the Kuruman Iron Formation was oxidized and retained as FeO3 during weathering. Such a high degree of iron retention is best explained by an O2 content of the atmosphere > or = 0.03 atm at the time of weathering. Such an O2 pressure is very much greater than that suggested by the composition of paleosols developed on basalt > or = 2.2 bybp but is consistent with the highly oxidized nature of the 1.85 by Flin Flon paleosol. The new data suggest that PO2 rose dramatically from about 1 percent PAL (present atmospheric level) to > or = 15 percent PAL between 2.2 and 1.9 bybp.

  2. Microfossils from the Neoarchean Campbell Group, Griqualand West Sequence of the Transvaal Supergroup, and their paleoenvironmental and evolutionary implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altermann, W.; Schopf, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    The oldest filament- and colonial coccoid-containing microbial fossil assemblage now known is described here from drill core samples of stromatolitic cherty limestones of the Neoarchean, approximately 2600-Ma-old Campbell Group (Ghaap Plateau Dolomite, Lime Acres Member) obtained at Lime Acres, northern Cape Province, South Africa. The assemblage is biologically diverse, including entophysalidacean (Eoentophysalis sp.), probable chroococcacean (unnamed colonial coccoids), and oscillatoriacean cyanobacteria (Eomycetopsis cf. filiformis, and Siphonophycus transvaalensis), as well as filamentous fossil bacteria (Archaeotrichion sp.); filamentous possible microfossils (unnamed hematitic filaments) also occur. The Campbell Group microorganisms contributed to the formation of stratiform and domical to columnar stromatolitic reefs in shallow subtidal to intertidal environments of the Transvaal intracratonic sea. Although only moderately to poorly preserved, they provide new evidence regarding the paleoenvironmental setting of the Campbell Group sediments, extend the known time-range of entophysalidacean cyanobacteria by more than 400 million years, substantiate the antiquity and role in stromatolite formation of Archean oscillatoriacean cyanobacteria, and document the exceedingly slow (hypobradytelic) evolutionary rate characteristic of this early evolving prokaryotic lineage.

  3. Microfossils from the Neoarchean Campbell Group, Griqualand West Sequence of the Transvaal Supergroup, and their paleoenvironmental and evolutionary implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altermann, W.; Schopf, J. W.

    1995-01-01

    The oldest filament- and colonial coccoid-containing microbial fossil assemblage now known is described here from drill core samples of stromatolitic cherty limestones of the Neoarchean, approximately 2600-Ma-old Campbell Group (Ghaap Plateau Dolomite, Lime Acres Member) obtained at Lime Acres, northern Cape Province, South Africa. The assemblage is biologically diverse, including entophysalidacean (Eoentophysalis sp.), probable chroococcacean (unnamed colonial coccoids), and oscillatoriacean cyanobacteria (Eomycetopsis cf. filiformis, and Siphonophycus transvaalensis), as well as filamentous fossil bacteria (Archaeotrichion sp.); filamentous possible microfossils (unnamed hematitic filaments) also occur. The Campbell Group microorganisms contributed to the formation of stratiform and domical to columnar stromatolitic reefs in shallow subtidal to intertidal environments of the Transvaal intracratonic sea. Although only moderately to poorly preserved, they provide new evidence regarding the paleoenvironmental setting of the Campbell Group sediments, extend the known time-range of entophysalidacean cyanobacteria by more than 400 million years, substantiate the antiquity and role in stromatolite formation of Archean oscillatoriacean cyanobacteria, and document the exceedingly slow (hypobradytelic) evolutionary rate characteristic of this early evolving prokaryotic lineage.

  4. The transvaal sequence: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, P. G.; Schweitzer, J. K.; Bosch, P. J. A.; Schereiber, U. M.; Van Deventer, J. L.; Hatton, C. J.

    1993-02-01

    The 15 000 m of relatively unmetamorphosed clastic and chemical sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the 2550-2050 Ma Transvaal Sequence as preserved within the Transvaal and correlated Griqualand West basins of South Africa, and in the Kanye basin of Botswana are described. Immature clastic sedimentary and largely andesitic volcanic rocks of the Wolkberg, Godwan and Buffelsfontein Groups and the Bloempoort and Wachteenbeetje Formations probably represent rift-related sequences of Ventersdorp age. The thin sandstones of the Black Reef Formation, developed at the base of both the Kanye and Transvaal basin successions and correlated with the basal Vryburg siltstones of the Griqualand West Sequence, are considered here to be the basal unit of the Transvaal Sequence. The Black Reef fluvial deposits grade up into the epeiric marine carbonates of the Malmani Subgroup. These stromatolitic dolomites and interdbedded cherts were laid down within a steepened carbonate ramp setting; transgressions from an initial Griqualand West compartment towards the northeast covered both the Kanye and Transvaal basins. Iron formations of the succeeding Penge Formation and Griqualand West correlates are envisaged as relatively shallow water shelf deposits within the carbonate platform model; siliceous breccias of the Kanye basin are interpreted as reflecting subaerial brecciation of exposed silica gels. The Duitschland Formation overlying the Penge iron formations is seen as a final, regressive clastic and chemical sedimentary deposits as the Malmani-Penge sea retreated from the Transvaal basin. The interbedded sandstones and mudstones of the uncomformity-bounded Pretoria Group probably represent a combination of alluvial fan and fluviodeltaic complexes debouching into the largely lacustrine Transvaal and Kanye basins. A strong glacial influence in the lower Pretoria Group is reflected in the correlated Makganyene diamicities of the Griqualand West Sequence. Sedimentation across all three

  5. Models of hydrocarbon-bearing sequences of West Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Mkrtohyan, O.M.; Gogonenkov, G.N.; Pavlov, N.E. )

    1991-03-01

    The West Siberian province located within a young plate (platform) is one of the largest in the world in size, reserves, number of unique fields, and hydrocarbon production. The southern, central, and western areas of the province are dominantly oil-bearing, the northern portion gas-bearing. All commercial reserves are within the Devonian-Cenomanian stratigraphic interval. Small accumulations in fractured-vuggy Devon-Carboniferous rocks are located in the zone of unconformity between this sequence and the Jurassic. The potential of the pre-plate middle Paleozoic, platform upper Paleozoic, and Triassic sequences recognized by seismic data in the northern, deepest, part of the plate is not known yet. Most hydrocarbon pools are located in the Jurassic-Cretaceous hydrocarbon-bearing sequences (HBS) within the plate cover. Structural-depositional oil accumulations with very changeable flow rates, a large stratigraphic-depositional accumulation in high permeability basal (quartz) reservoirs, and an oil-condensate and a multiple-pool structural gas field are discovered in the Middle Jurassic composed of potential continental coal-bearing and marine deposits. In most HBS, there is still a prospect of discovering new hydrocarbon pools including pools in more complex traps.

  6. Fluviomarine sequences in the Lower Cretaceous of the west Netherlands basin

    SciTech Connect

    Van Der Zwan, K. ); Den Hartog Jager, D.; De Klerk, C. )

    1993-09-01

    The Lower Cretaceous of the West Netherlands Basin contains fluvial deposits of the Delfland Group, overlain by shallow marine sediments of the Rijnland Group. Sequence stratigraphy was applied to both succession, to study the nature of the transgression and to identify possible reservoir-seal pairs. A total of six depositional sequences has been identified using extensive new biostratigraphy and sedimentology. Three of the sequences contain fluvial sediments only, two are mixed fluvial and marine, and one is fully marine. The typical thickness per sequence is 200-400 m. Characteristic for the fluvial sequences is an overall fining-upward pattern. The sequence boundaries have been correlated on logs and on regional seismic. Each of the main depositional settings displays a characteristic seismic facies, which has been used to reconstruct the sedimentological facies distribution. The results demonstrate that the source direction of the Delfland Group was predominantly southeast, controlled by the tectonic grain. Strong thickness variations within the lowermost sequence indicate syndepositional rifting, which confined the main channel systems. The major intervening flood-plain shales correspond to base-level highstands, which implies they can be correlated regionally and may act as intraformational seals. The marine transgression entered the basin from the north during the late Valanginian. By the early Barremian, it covered the entire basin. Retrograding barrier sands from the transgressive systems tract are the best reservoirs within the marine succession. In both fluvial and marine settings, the use of sequence stratigraphy has enabled recognition of several types stratigraphic traps.

  7. Late Cretaceous - Early Paleogene bio- and sequence stratigraphy of west-central Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eweda, Shehta; Zakaria, Ahmed; El Bahrawy, Reda

    2017-06-01

    A sequence biostratigraphic analysis has been done for the Upper Cretaceous-Lower Paleogene sedimentary outcrops at Wadi Raha, Sudr El-Hetan and Wadi El-Giddi areas in west-central Sinai. The sequences are subdivided into four carbonate rock units; from base to top: the Wata, Themed, Sudr and Waseiyit formations. The biostratigraphic analysis of the studied samples led to the identification of two main planktonic foraminiferal zones, three benthic foraminiferal zones with the ammonite zone. Eleven microfacies associations are recorded in the rock units. Nine constitutes a limestone facies with one constitutes a dolostone facies and one a claystone facies. The stratigraphic data, and the facies study support the identification of three major breaks (sequence boundaries) and four depositional sequences. The depositional sequences are subdivided into four supercycles and seven cycles of 3rd order. The oldest break (∼90-88.5Ma.) exists at the top of the Wata Formation coincides with the intra Turonian drop in the global sea level with the initiation of the Syrian Arc inversion phase. The second major break (85 - ∼75Ma.) coincides with the major inversion phase and the evolution of the doubly plunging anticlines. The third major break (∼68 through ∼53Ma.) represents the last phase of the Syrian Arc inversion and complete the missing of Paleocene sequences.

  8. Genome Sequence Analysis of Dengue Virus 1 Isolated in Key West, Florida

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dongyoung; Richards, Stephanie L.; Alto, Barry W.; Bettinardi, David J.; Smartt, Chelsea T.

    2013-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is transmitted to humans through the bite of mosquitoes. In November 2010, a dengue outbreak was reported in Monroe County in southern Florida (FL), including greater than 20 confirmed human cases. The virus collected from the human cases was verified as DENV serotype 1 (DENV-1) and one isolate was provided for sequence analysis. RNA was extracted from the DENV-1 isolate and was used in reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to amplify PCR fragments to sequence. Nucleic acid primers were designed to generate overlapping PCR fragments that covered the entire genome. The DENV-1 isolate found in Key West (KW), FL was sequenced for whole genome characterization. Sequence assembly, Genbank searches, and recombination analyses were performed to verify the identity of the genome sequences and to determine percent similarity to known DENV-1 sequences. We show that the KW DENV-1 strain is 99% identical to Nicaraguan and Mexican DENV-1 strains. Phylogenetic and recombination analyses suggest that the DENV-1 isolated in KW originated from Nicaragua (NI) and the KW strain may circulate in KW. Also, recombination analysis results detected recombination events in the KW strain compared to DENV-1 strains from Puerto Rico. We evaluate the relative growth of KW strain of DENV-1 compared to other dengue viruses to determine whether the underlying genetics of the strain is associated with a replicative advantage, an important consideration since local transmission of DENV may result because domestic tourism can spread DENVs. PMID:24098658

  9. Sequence stratigraphic analysis of stratigraphic oil traps in the west Siberian Neocomian

    SciTech Connect

    Mkrtchyan, O.M.; Armentrout, J.M.

    1996-12-31

    Large depositional oil traps (Priob, Sugmut, etc.) have been discovered in the West Siberian Neocomian. Sequence stratigraphic analysis of well logs and seismic reflection profiles demonstrate that reservoirs of these fields represent sands deposited during lowstand, transgressive and highstand phases of relative sea level cycles. Transgressions and regressions advanced in regional longitudinal and local latitudinal directions. The regional longitudinal pattern is dominated by westward prograding clinoforms formed as the sediment supply exceeded the accommodation space. Local northward and northwestward prograding complexes appear to be controlled by local basin-floor topography. In each systems tract, the coastal zones were landward from the shelf-breaks resulting in dominance of marine facies at each depositional shelf-edge. Lowstand systems tracts are represented on the upper slope by prograding wedges with thin shelfal equivalents or correlative unconformities. Sands deposited in these lowstand regressive facies comprise the main reservoir at Sugmut and a subordinate reservoir at Priob. Transgressive systems tracts are dominantly shale but in the Priob field one early transgressive parasequence sand contains an oil accumulation where it immediately overlies a highstand shelf sand. Highstand systems tracts are represented by regional sheets over the shelf and by thick progradational complexes over the upper slope. Most of the sands occur within the late highstand parasequences and are difficult to correlate due to channel incision. Most Priob field reserves occur in the late highstand parasequences.

  10. Sequence stratigraphic analysis of stratigraphic oil traps in the west Siberian Neocomian

    SciTech Connect

    Mkrtchyan, O.M. ); Armentrout, J.M. )

    1996-01-01

    Large depositional oil traps (Priob, Sugmut, etc.) have been discovered in the West Siberian Neocomian. Sequence stratigraphic analysis of well logs and seismic reflection profiles demonstrate that reservoirs of these fields represent sands deposited during lowstand, transgressive and highstand phases of relative sea level cycles. Transgressions and regressions advanced in regional longitudinal and local latitudinal directions. The regional longitudinal pattern is dominated by westward prograding clinoforms formed as the sediment supply exceeded the accommodation space. Local northward and northwestward prograding complexes appear to be controlled by local basin-floor topography. In each systems tract, the coastal zones were landward from the shelf-breaks resulting in dominance of marine facies at each depositional shelf-edge. Lowstand systems tracts are represented on the upper slope by prograding wedges with thin shelfal equivalents or correlative unconformities. Sands deposited in these lowstand regressive facies comprise the main reservoir at Sugmut and a subordinate reservoir at Priob. Transgressive systems tracts are dominantly shale but in the Priob field one early transgressive parasequence sand contains an oil accumulation where it immediately overlies a highstand shelf sand. Highstand systems tracts are represented by regional sheets over the shelf and by thick progradational complexes over the upper slope. Most of the sands occur within the late highstand parasequences and are difficult to correlate due to channel incision. Most Priob field reserves occur in the late highstand parasequences.

  11. An overview of the geology of the Transvaal Sequence and Bushveld Complex, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, P. G.; Hattingh, P. J.; Altermann, W.

    1995-04-01

    The Late Archaean-Early Proterozoic Transvaal Sequence is preserved within the Transvaal, Kanye and Griqualand West basins, with the 2050 Ma Bushveld Complex intrusive into the upper portion of the succession within the Transvaal basin. Both Transvaal and Bushveld rocks are extensively mineralized, the former containing large deposits of iron, manganese, asbestos, andalusite, gold, fluorine, lead, zinc and tin ores, and the latter some of the World's major occurrences of PGE, chromium and vanadium ores. Transvaal sedimentation began with thin, predominantly clastic sedimentary rocks (Black Reef-Vryburg Formations) which grade up into a thick package of carbonate rocks and BIF (Chuniespoort-Ghaap-Taupone Groups). These lithologies reflect a carbonate-BIF platform sequence which covered much of the Kaapvaal craton, in reaction to thermal subsidence above Ventersdorp-aged rift-related fault systems. An erosional hiatus was followed by deposition of the clastic sedimentary rocks and volcanics of the Pretoria-Postmasburg-Segwagwa Groups within the three basins, under largely closed-basin conditions. An uppermost predominantly volcanic succession (Rooiberg Group-Loskop Formation) is restricted to the Transvaal basin. A common continental rift setting is thought to have controlled Pretoria Group sedimentation, Rooiberg volcanism and the intrusion of the mafic rocks of the Rustenburg Layered Suite of the Bushveld Complex. The dipping sheets of the Rustenburg magmas cut across the upper Pretoria Group stratigraphy and lifted up the Rooiberg lithologies to form the roof to the complex. Subsequent granitic rocks of the Lebowa and Rashoop Suites of the Bushveld Complex intruded both upper Rustenburg rocks and the Rooiberg felsites.

  12. Sequence Analyses of 2012 West Nile Virus Isolates from Texas Fail to Associate Viral Genetic Factors with Outbreak Magnitude

    PubMed Central

    Duggal, Nisha K.; D'Anton, Mary; Xiang, Jeannie; Seiferth, Robyn; Day, Joanne; Nasci, Roger; Brault, Aaron C.

    2013-01-01

    In 2012, Texas experienced the largest outbreak of human West Nile encephalitis (WNE) since the introduction of West Nile virus (WNV) in 2002. Despite the large number of WNV infections, data indicated the rate of reported WNE among human cases was no higher than in previous years. To determine whether the increase in WNV human cases could have been caused by viral genetic changes, the complete genomes of 17 isolates made from mosquito pools in Dallas and Montgomery Counties in 2012 were sequenced. The 2012 Texas isolates were found to be composed of two distinct clades, both circulating in Dallas and Montgomery Counties despite a 5-fold higher disease incidence in the former. Although minor genetic differences existed between Dallas and Montgomery WNV populations, there was weak support for population subdivision or adaptive changes. On the basis of these data, alternative explanations for increased WNV disease incidence in 2012 are proposed. PMID:23817333

  13. Depositional environments and sequence architecture of the Raha and Abu Qada formations (Cenomanian-Turonian), west central Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anan, Tarek I.; El-Shahat, Adam; Genedi, Adel; Grammer, Michael

    2013-06-01

    Cenomanian-Turonian deposits are important reservoirs for many oil fields in the Western Desert and the Gulf of Suez region of Egypt. Study of the Raha and Abu Qada formations (Cenomanian-Turonian), from five dip-oriented outcrop locations in west central Sinai; indicates deposition of a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate system on a ramp setting. The inner ramp facies (bivalve and benthonic foraminiferal wackestone) grades northward to the mid ramp facies (echinoderm calcisphere packstone, and oyster floatstone), and outer ramp facies (planktonic foraminiferal wackestone and calcisphere wackestone). The two studied formations comprise one second-order depositional sequence (duration of approximately 10 Million years). This large scale sequence includes four third-order depositional sequences, three of which are observed in the Raha Formation, with the other one recorded in the Abu Qada Formation. Because west central Sinai was tectonically stable during the Cenomanian and Turonian, the main factor controlling the lateral and vertical distribution of facies tracts is likely due to changes in the relative sea level. The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event is known as the largest oceanic anoxic event during the Cretaceous. This global event has been documented in three of the studied sections. The recorded δ13C excursions range from +3.04‰ to +5.24‰. These high positive excursions in δ13C are associated with highly negative values of δ18O (values range from -6.01‰ to -1.38‰).

  14. Phylogeography of West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua, inferred with mtDNA sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) (Diptera: Tephritidae), the West Indian fruit fly, is a frugivorous pest that occasionally finds its way to commercial growing areas outside its native distribution. It inhabits areas in Mexico, Central and South America, and the Caribbean, with occasional infestations...

  15. Facies analysis and sequence stratigraphy of the Cenomanian-Turonian mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sediments in west Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anan, Tarek I.

    2014-06-01

    The unconformity bounded Cenomanian-Turonian succession in west Sinai is subdivided into three formations: the Raha, Abu Qada, and Wata. These rock units were deposited in a mixed siliciclastic-carbonate system on a ramp setting. The studied ramp only includes inner and mid-ramp facies, whereas the outer ramp facies occurs in northern Sinai. Four sequence boundaries (SB) were recognized in the studied formations due to the presence of subaerial exposure or flooding events in the facies stacking pattern. The first and last sequence boundaries (SB1 and SB4) might be considered as Type 1 sequence boundary attributable to the presence of widespread erosion. It is difficult to determine type of the second and third sequence boundaries (SB2 and SB3) because of their minor unconformity and minimal erosion. Determination of systems tracts within the Wata Formation is debatable owing to the action of dolomitization that has destroyed both original components and sedimentary structures. The lowstand systems tracts of the recorded sequences are characterized by sandstones, siltstones, and sandy shales, while fossiliferous shale and limestone with oysters prevailed during sea level rise. The highstand systems tracts are generally characterized by shallow intertidal and subtidal deposits that are made up of abundant oyster wackestones with benthic foraminifera and ostracods.

  16. Thanetian transgressive-regressive sequences based on foraminiferal paleobathymetry at Gebel Matulla, west-central Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farouk, Sherif; Elamri, Zaineb; El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset

    2016-09-01

    Qualitative and quantitative analysis of Thanetian foraminiferal assemblages at Gebel Matulla in west-central Sinai has been carried out. Three benthic foraminiferal assemblages are recorded from shallowest to deepest as Cibicidoides pseudoacutus, Angulogavelinella avnimelechi, Gavelinella danica witch evidences of fluctuations from middle neritic to upper bathyal environments. Changes in the foraminiferal population enabled us to classify the Thanetian succession into two fourth order transgressive-regressive (T-R) sequences. Three sequence boundaries are identified, at the Selandian/Thanetian (S/T) boundary, within the Thanetian succession, and the Paleocene/Eocene (P/E) boundary. It occurs at the top part of the maximum regression associated with major discontinuities and changes in depositional regimes as well as vertical facies changes. Broad correlation with eustatic records based upon integrated microplanktonic biostratigraphy suggests that the fluctuations of foraminiferal population were controlled by global sea-level changes.

  17. Acute West Nile Virus Meningoencephalitis Diagnosed Via Metagenomic Deep Sequencing of Cerebrospinal Fluid in a Renal Transplant Patient.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M R; Zimmermann, L L; Crawford, E D; Sample, H A; Soni, P R; Baker, A N; Khan, L M; DeRisi, J L

    2017-03-01

    Solid organ transplant patients are vulnerable to suffering neurologic complications from a wide array of viral infections and can be sentinels in the population who are first to get serious complications from emerging infections like the recent waves of arboviruses, including West Nile virus, Chikungunya virus, Zika virus, and Dengue virus. The diverse and rapidly changing landscape of possible causes of viral encephalitis poses great challenges for traditional candidate-based infectious disease diagnostics that already fail to identify a causative pathogen in approximately 50% of encephalitis cases. We present the case of a 14-year-old girl on immunosuppression for a renal transplant who presented with acute meningoencephalitis. Traditional diagnostics failed to identify an etiology. RNA extracted from her cerebrospinal fluid was subjected to unbiased metagenomic deep sequencing, enhanced with the use of a Cas9-based technique for host depletion. This analysis identified West Nile virus (WNV). Convalescent serum serologies subsequently confirmed WNV seroconversion. These results support a clear clinical role for metagenomic deep sequencing in the setting of suspected viral encephalitis, especially in the context of the high-risk transplant patient population.

  18. Sequence stratigraphic setting of the Priob Field within the Neocomian prograding complex of the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Mkrtchyan, O.M.; Armentrout, J.M.

    1995-08-01

    The Neocomian strata of the West Siberian Basin are a prograding complex unique in its aerial extent, structure and hydrocarbon reserves, such as Priob Field in the Ob River area. Interpretation of the basin history is based on well data and seismic reflection profile. As many as 45 transgressive-regressive depositional sequences, called cyclites, prograde into the deep-water basin formed during Late Jurassic and Early Cretaceous. Each transgressive-regressive sequence is defined by a coarsening-upward cycle of shale, siltstone and sandstone, and is considered a chronostratigraphic subdivision of the prograding complex. Each sequence boundary is regionally correlatable on seismic reflection profiles, and is identified on well logs by sharp contacts between regressive sandstones below and thin transgressive shales above. Subordinate progradational wedges are locally developed within these sequences and contain major hydrocarbon reserves. These depositional wedges map as lens-shaped packages downlapping the outermost shelf (Priob zone) or as narrow progradational wedges downlapping the foreset reflections of the slope clinoforms immediately beyond the shelf break (Sugmut zone). Regressive facies of the shelf consist of thin but wide spread sandstones that also contain major hydrocarbon reserves. Pervasive sediment starvation during the Late Neocomian resulted in deposition of thin regionally extensive shales that provide top-seal to the Neocomian hydrocarbon system. At the Priob field, a deep erosional incision has been mapped at the AS11 shelf-edge. Sands transported through this incised valley were deposited as a prograding wedge along the shoreline, forming the reservoir facies for the Priob hydrocarbon accumulation. Stratigraphic aspects of the Priob trap include top and lateral shale seals and subtle regional structural tilt. Types of stratigraphic traps are discussed and the possibility of predicting additional such traps are analyzed.

  19. Sedimentology and sequence stratigraphy of upper Pleistocene carbonates of southeastern Barbardos, West Indies

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, J.D.; Kimbell, T.N. )

    1990-11-01

    Upper Pleistocene reef-associated carbonates of southeastern Barbados have been studied in outcrop and core. Reef terraces, formed during glacio-eustatic sea level highstands and subsequently uplifted, are characterized by thick and areally extensive sequences of allochthonous and autochthonous fore-reef calcarenites. Depositional textures are primarily packstones, and grainstones, wackestones, and coral floatstones are volumetrically less significant. Sediments are coarse- to fine-grained reef-derived allochems and micrite, and autochthonous benthic foraminifera and coralline red algae. Rates of sediment accumulation of fore-reef calcarenites range from about 1 to 4 m/1,000 yr. Although of relatively small scale, the carbonate terraces of southeastern Barbados provide excellent analogs for sequence stratigraphic concepts in carbonate settings. The terraces are primarily highstand systems tract deposits separated by type 1 unconformities. These highstand deposits are characterized by reef development and the progradation of fore-reef calcarenites. Extensive fore-reef deposits resulted from mechanical erosion of the reef framework on this high-energy, windward coastline. Type 1 unconformities are characterized by thin caliche layers developed during lowstand subaerial exposure. Thin basal transgressive systems tract deposits are characterized by incorporation of extraformational clasts derived from the underlying sequence during sea level rise. Slope-front erosion, vertical shift in the position of freshwater lens, and shift in the position of coastal onlap are all consequences of the interplay between eustasy and tectonics. These effects and the development of facies geometries on Barbados are primarily controlled by the glacio-eustatic component, inasmuch as rates of eustatic changes of sea level are at least two orders of magnitude greater than the maximum average rates of tectonic uplift. 12 figs.

  20. Genome Sequence of the Multiple-Protease-Producing Strain Geobacillus thermoleovorans N7, a Thermophilic Bacterium Isolated from Paniphala Hot Spring, West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Bose, Sucharita; Mukherjee, Trinetra; Sen, Urmimala; Roy, Chayan; Rameez, Moidu Jameela; Ghosh, Wriddhiman

    2016-01-01

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Geobacillus thermoleovorans strain N7 (MCC 3175), isolated from Paniphala Hot Spring, West Bengal, India, which contains genes that encode several industrially and medically important thermostable enzymes like neutral protease, xylose isomerase, rhamnogalacturonan acetylesterase, nitrate and nitrite reductase, l-asparaginase, glutaminase, and RNase P. PMID:27789644

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of West Nile Virus Strains Used for the Formulation of CBER/FDA RNA Reference Reagents and Lot Release Panels for Nucleic Acid Testing

    PubMed Central

    Añez, Germán

    2014-01-01

    We report the complete sequences of two West Nile virus strains (FDA-Hu02 and NY99) used for the formulation of CBER/FDA RNA reference reagents and lot release panels for use with nucleic acid technology testing. PMID:25359905

  2. Genome Sequence of the Multiple-Protease-Producing Strain Geobacillus thermoleovorans N7, a Thermophilic Bacterium Isolated from Paniphala Hot Spring, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Bose, Sucharita; Mukherjee, Trinetra; Sen, Urmimala; Roy, Chayan; Rameez, Moidu Jameela; Ghosh, Wriddhiman; Mukhopadhyay, Subhra Kanti

    2016-10-27

    Here, we present the draft genome sequence of Geobacillus thermoleovorans strain N7 (MCC 3175), isolated from Paniphala Hot Spring, West Bengal, India, which contains genes that encode several industrially and medically important thermostable enzymes like neutral protease, xylose isomerase, rhamnogalacturonan acetylesterase, nitrate and nitrite reductase, l-asparaginase, glutaminase, and RNase P.

  3. Repetitive reef to ooid sequences near leeward margin of Caicos Platform, British West Indies

    SciTech Connect

    Waltz, M.; Rossinsky, V.; Wanless, H.R.

    1987-05-01

    Drill core transects and outcrops near the leeward margin of the Caicos Platform, BWI, reveal repetitive (one Holocene and two Pleistocene) shallowing-upward sequences of either (a) reefal boundstones overlain by layered oolitic grainstones or (b) burrowed oolitic grainstones overlain by layered oolitic grainstones. Each sediment sequence is separated from the other by a calcrete exposure surface. A transect, perpendicular to the trend of an exposed Pleistocene barrier reef/ooid sand complex, shows two separate sediment packages of reefal boundstones and reef-derived skeletal packstones overlain by layered oolitic grainstones. The well-exposed upper package consists of a shallowing-upward barrier reef, which is immediately overlain by burrowed and cross-bedded oolitic grainstones, beach rock blocks, and coral rubble, capped by layered oolitic grainstones. Separated by an exposure horizon, the lowermost package consists of coral and skeletal sands overlain by layered oolitic grainstones. Cores from a transect in a non-reefal setting north of the barrier reef complex reveal highly burrowed oolitic grainstones capped by layered oolitic grainstones. As a Holocene example, immediately offshore of this transect, modern reefs and bioturbated oolitic grainstones are presently being buried beneath coral rubble, beach rock blocks, and prograding oolitic beaches. Deposition of the capping layered oolitic grainstones appears to occur during stable and falling sea levels. This co-occurrence of reefal sediment and ooid sands suggests that the two are not mutually exclusive and that reef-ooid succession is a reoccurring part of leeward margin platform margin-building.

  4. Genetic Characterization of Fasciola Isolates from West Azerbaijan Province Iran Based on ITS1 and ITS2 Sequence of Ribosomal DNA

    PubMed Central

    GALAVANI, Hossein; GHOLIZADEH, Saber; HAZRATI TAPPEH, Khosrow

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fascioliasis, caused by Fasciola hepatica and F. gigantica, has medical and economic importance in the world. Molecular approaches comparing traditional methods using for identification and characterization of Fasciola spp. are precise and reliable. The aims of current study were molecular characterization of Fasciola spp. in West Azerbaijan Province, Iran and then comparative analysis of them using GenBank sequences. Methods: A total number of 580 isolates were collected from different hosts in five cities of West Azerbaijan Province, in 2014 from 90 slaughtered cattle (n=50) and sheep (n=40). After morphological identification and DNA extraction, designing specific primer were used to amplification of ITS1, 5.8s and ITS2 regions, 50 samples were conducted to sequence, randomly. Result: Using morphometric characters 99.14% and 0.86% of isolates identified as F. hepatica and F. gigantica, respectively. PCR amplification of 1081 bp fragment and sequencing result showed 100% similarity with F. hepatica in ITS1 (428 bp), 5.8s (158 bp), and ITS2 (366 bp) regions. Sequence comparison among current study sequences and GenBank data showed 98% identity with 11 nucleotide mismatches. However, in phylogenetic tree F. hepatica sequences of West Azerbaijan Province, Iran, were in a close relationship with Iranian, Asian, and African isolates. Conclusions: Only F. hepatica species is distributed among sheep and cattle in West Azerbaijan Province Iran. However, 5 and 6 bp variation in ITS1 and ITS2 regions, respectively, is not enough to separate of Fasciola spp. Therefore, more studies are essential for designing new molecular markers to correct species identification. PMID:27095969

  5. Detection and sequencing of West Nile virus RNA from human urine and serum samples during the 2014 seasonal period.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Anna; Bán, Enikő; Nagy, Orsolya; Ferenczi, Emőke; Farkas, Ágnes; Bányai, Krisztián; Farkas, Szilvia; Takács, Mária

    2016-07-01

    West Nile virus, a widely distributed mosquito-borne flavivirus, is responsible for numerous animal and human infections in Europe, Africa and the Americas. In Hungary, the average number of human infections falls between 10 and 20 cases each year. The severity of clinically manifesting infections varies widely from the milder form of West Nile fever to West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND). In routine laboratory diagnosis of human West Nile virus infections, serological methods are mainly applied due to the limited duration of viremia. However, recent studies suggest that detection of West Nile virus RNA in urine samples may be useful as a molecular diagnostic test for these infections. The Hungarian National Reference Laboratory for Viral Zoonoses serologically confirmed eleven acute human infections during the 2014 seasonal period. In three patients with neurological symptoms, viral RNA was detected from both urine and serum specimens, albeit for a longer period and in higher copy numbers with urine. Phylogenetic analysis of the NS3 genomic region of three strains and the complete genome of one selected strain demonstrated that all three patients had lineage-2 West Nile virus infections. Our findings reaffirm the utility of viral RNA detection in urine as a molecular diagnostic procedure for diagnosis of West Nile virus infections.

  6. The origin of high-frequency platform carbonate cycles and third-order sequences (Lower Ordovician El Paso GP, west Texas): Constraints from outcrop data and stratigraphic modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Goldhammer, R.K.; Lehmann, P.J.; Dunn, P.A. )

    1993-05-01

    The passive-margin succession of the Diablo Platform is represented by the second-order Sauk C supersequence set, consisting of a basal transgressive clastic unit (The Bliss Sandstone) above the breakup unconformity, marking the second-order basal lowstand transgressive phase, overlain by 750 m of drift-related, shallow-marine platform carbonate (the El Paso Group) recording the second-order highstand. Due to late Paleozoic structuring of the Gondwanan passive margin, present exposures in Texas are in an updip shelf position and lack internal stratal geometries across depositional strike, so sequences and systems tracts are identified solely by the vertical stacking patterns of depositional subfacies and higher-frequency, fifth-order cycles. By analysis of outcrop data the authors develop a sequence-stratigraphic model for lower Paleozoic passive-margin, shallow-water, platform carbonates that de-emphasizes the physical expression of sequence boundaries and systems-tract boundaries and focuses on the vertical and lateral, meter-scale cyclic and subfacies architecture of carbonate shelf deposits in the framework of third-order depositional sequences. They rely on analyses of stratal stacking patterns to bridge the gap from cycle-scale stratigraphy to seismic-scale sequence stratigraphy. In many settings, like the Permian of west Texas, sequence boundaries are often obvious, but in others, especially shallow-dipping ramps or flat-topped platforms on passive margins, third-order sequence boundaries are less obvious, particularly in deformed terranes lacking two-dimensional dip continuity.

  7. Helena, the hidden beauty: Resolving the most common West Eurasian mtDNA control region haplotype by massively parallel sequencing an Italian population sample.

    PubMed

    Bodner, Martin; Iuvaro, Alessandra; Strobl, Christina; Nagl, Simone; Huber, Gabriela; Pelotti, Susi; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata; Parson, Walther

    2015-03-01

    The analysis of mitochondrial (mt)DNA is a powerful tool in forensic genetics when nuclear markers fail to give results or maternal relatedness is investigated. The mtDNA control region (CR) contains highly condensed variation and is therefore routinely typed. Some samples exhibit an identical haplotype in this restricted range. Thus, they convey only weak evidence in forensic queries and limited phylogenetic information. However, a CR match does not imply that also the mtDNA coding regions are identical or samples belong to the same phylogenetic lineage. This is especially the case for the most frequent West Eurasian CR haplotype 263G 315.1C 16519C, which is observed in various clades within haplogroup H and occurs at a frequency of 3-4% in many European populations. In this study, we investigated the power of massively parallel complete mtGenome sequencing in 29 Italian samples displaying the most common West Eurasian CR haplotype - and found an unexpected high diversity. Twenty-eight different haplotypes falling into 19 described sub-clades of haplogroup H were revealed in the samples with identical CR sequences. This study demonstrates the benefit of complete mtGenome sequencing for forensic applications to enforce maximum discrimination, more comprehensive heteroplasmy detection, as well as highest phylogenetic resolution.

  8. Sequence diversity, population genetics and potential recombination events in grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus in Pacific North-West vineyards.

    PubMed

    Alabi, Olufemi J; Martin, Robert R; Naidu, Rayapati A

    2010-01-01

    Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus (GRSPaV; genus Foveavirus, family Flexiviridae) is present in many grape-growing regions of the world. A total of 84 full-length coat protein (CP) sequences and 57 sequences representing the helicase-encoding region (HR) of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase were obtained from wine grape cultivars grown in the Pacific North-West (PNW) of the United States and their molecular diversity was compared with corresponding sequences previously reported from other grape-growing regions. In pairwise comparisons, the CP sequences from PNW isolates showed identities between 80 and 100% at the nucleotide level and the HR sequences showed identities between 79 and 100%. A global phylogenetic analysis of the CP and HR sequences revealed segregation of GRSPaV isolates into four major lineages with isolates from PNW distributed in all four lineages, indicating a lack of clustering by geographical origin. Scion cultivars grafted onto rootstock were found to contain mixtures of more genetic variants belonging to different lineages than own-rooted cultivars. Assessment of population genetic parameters found that the CP was more variable than the HR region. The discordant gene phylogenies obtained for some CP and HR sequences and the identification of potential recombination events involving parents from different lineages provided strong evolutionary evidence for genetic diversity among GRSPaV isolates. These results underscore the highly variable nature of the virus with implications for grapevine health status and distribution of virus-tested planting materials. This study also contributes to an increased understanding of molecular population genetics of viruses infecting deciduous woody perennials.

  9. A conserved predicted pseudoknot in the NS2A-encoding sequence of West Nile and Japanese encephalitis flaviviruses suggests NS1' may derive from ribosomal frameshifting

    PubMed Central

    Firth, Andrew E; Atkins, John F

    2009-01-01

    Japanese encephalitis, West Nile, Usutu and Murray Valley encephalitis viruses form a tight subgroup within the larger Flavivirus genus. These viruses utilize a single-polyprotein expression strategy, resulting in ~10 mature proteins. Plotting the conservation at synonymous sites along the polyprotein coding sequence reveals strong conservation peaks at the very 5' end of the coding sequence, and also at the 5' end of the sequence encoding the NS2A protein. Such peaks are generally indicative of functionally important non-coding sequence elements. The second peak corresponds to a predicted stable pseudoknot structure whose biological importance is supported by compensatory mutations that preserve the structure. The pseudoknot is preceded by a conserved slippery heptanucleotide (Y CCU UUU), thus forming a classical stimulatory motif for -1 ribosomal frameshifting. We hypothesize, therefore, that the functional importance of the pseudoknot is to stimulate a portion of ribosomes to shift -1 nt into a short (45 codon), conserved, overlapping open reading frame, termed foo. Since cleavage at the NS1-NS2A boundary is known to require synthesis of NS2A in cis, the resulting transframe fusion protein is predicted to be NS1-NS2AN-term-FOO. We hypothesize that this may explain the origin of the previously identified NS1 'extension' protein in JEV-group flaviviruses, known as NS1'. PMID:19196463

  10. Next-generation sequencing shows West Nile virus quasispecies diversification after a single passage in a carrion crow (Corvus corone) in vivo infection model.

    PubMed

    Dridi, M; Rosseel, T; Orton, R; Johnson, P; Lecollinet, S; Muylkens, B; Lambrecht, B; Van Borm, S

    2015-10-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) occurs as a population of genetic variants (quasispecies) infecting a single animal. Previous low-resolution viral genetic diversity estimates in sampled wild birds and mosquitoes, and in multiple-passage adaptation studies in vivo or in cell culture, suggest that WNV genetic diversification is mostly limited to the mosquito vector. This study investigated genetic diversification of WNV in avian hosts during a single passage using next-generation sequencing. Wild-captured carrion crows were subcutaneously infected using a clonal Middle-East WNV. Blood samples were collected 2 and 4 days post-infection. A reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR approach was used to amplify the WNV genome directly from serum samples prior to next-generation sequencing resulting in an average depth of at least 700 ×  in each sample. Appropriate controls were sequenced to discriminate biologically relevant low-frequency variants from experimentally introduced errors. The WNV populations in the wild crows showed significant diversification away from the inoculum virus quasispecies structure. By contrast, WNV populations in intracerebrally infected day-old chickens did not diversify from that of the inoculum. Where previous studies concluded that WNV genetic diversification is only experimentally demonstrated in its permissive insect vector species, we have experimentally shown significant diversification of WNV populations in a wild bird reservoir species.

  11. Permafrost sequences on Kurungnakh Island, Lena Delta (NE Siberia, Russia) as key site of the late Quaternary environmental history of West Beringia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wetterich, S.; Kuzmina, S.; Andreev, A. A.; Kienast, F.; Meyer, H.; Schirrmeister, L.; Kuznetsova, T.; Sierralta, M.

    2009-04-01

    Late Quaternary permafrost sequences are widely distributed in the arctic lowlands of Siberia. Because the existence of permafrost has been sensitive to climate changes during the Quaternary past, such frozen deposits are regarded as an archive of palaeoenvironmental dynamics. Late Quaternary palaeoenvironments of the Siberian Arctic were reconstructed by combining data from several fossil bioindicators (pollen, plant macro-fossils, ostracods, insects, and mammal bones) with sedimentological and cryolithological data from permafrost deposits. The late Pleistocene to Holocene sequence on Kurungnakh Island (Lena Delta, NE Siberia) reflects the environmental history of West Beringia and covers glacial/interglacial and stadial/interstadial climate variations with a focus on the Middle Weichselian interstadial (50-32 kyr BP). The record mirrors the development of periglacial landscapes under changing sedimentation regimes which were meandering fluvial during the Early Weichselian, colluvial or proluvial on gently inclined plaines during the Middle and Late Weichselian, and thermokarst-affected during the Holocene. Palaeoecological records indicate the existence of tundra-steppe vegetation under cold continental climate conditions during the Middle Weichselian interstadial. Due to sedimentation gaps in the sequence between 32 and 17 kyr BP and 17 and 8 kyr BP, the Late Weichselian stadial is incompletely represented in the studied outcrops. Nevertheless, by several palaeoecological indications arctic tundra-steppe vegetation under extremely cold-arid conditions prevailed during the late Pleistocene. The tundra-steppe disappeared completely due to lasting paludification during the Holocene. Initially subarctic shrub tundra formed, which later retreated in course of the late Holocene cooling.

  12. Phylogenetic relationships of Irkut and West Caucasian bat viruses within the Lyssavirus genus and suggested quantitative criteria based on the N gene sequence for lyssavirus genotype definition.

    PubMed

    Kuzmin, Ivan V; Hughes, Gareth J; Botvinkin, Alexandr D; Orciari, Lillian A; Rupprecht, Charles E

    2005-07-01

    The nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P) and glycoprotein (G) genes of Irkut and West Caucasian bat viruses (WCBV) were sequenced and compared with those of other lyssaviruses. N gene nucleotide identities provided unequivocal separation of all lyssavirus genotypes with an identity threshold of 82%. On this basis, Irkut virus should be considered as a new genotype with particular relatedness to genotypes 4 and 5 (78.0-78.6% identity for N gene nucleotides and 90.4-92.6% for amino acids). Furthermore, genotypes 4-6, together with Aravan, Khujand and Irkut viruses, present a solid phylogroup of Old World bat lyssaviruses. This relationship is apparent using all three viral genes, and causes overlap between intragenotype and intergenotype identities for the P gene (Aravan, Khujand viruses and genotype 6) and for the G gene (Aravan, Khujand, genotypes 5 and 6). WCBV is the most divergent of known lyssaviruses with only limited relatedness to genotypes 2 and 3.

  13. Probing the Rare Biosphere of the North-West Mediterranean Sea: An Experiment with High Sequencing Effort

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, Bibiana G.; Wallhead, Philip J.; Logares, Ramiro; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing (HTS) techniques have suggested the existence of a wealth of species with very low relative abundance: the rare biosphere. We attempted to exhaustively map this rare biosphere in two water samples by performing an exceptionally deep pyrosequencing analysis (~500,000 final reads per sample). Species data were derived by a 97% identity criterion and various parametric distributions were fitted to the observed counts. Using the best-fitting Sichel distribution we estimate a total species richness of 1,568–1,669 (95% Credible Interval) and 5,027–5,196 for surface and deep water samples respectively, implying that 84–89% of the total richness in those two samples was sequenced, and we predict that a quadrupling of the present sequencing effort would suffice to observe 90% of the total richness in both samples. Comparing the HTS results with a culturing approach we found that most of the cultured taxa were not obtained by HTS, despite the high sequencing effort. Culturing therefore remains a useful tool for uncovering marine bacterial diversity, in addition to its other uses for studying the ecology of marine bacteria. PMID:27442429

  14. Probing the Rare Biosphere of the North-West Mediterranean Sea: An Experiment with High Sequencing Effort.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Bibiana G; Wallhead, Philip J; Logares, Ramiro; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    High-throughput sequencing (HTS) techniques have suggested the existence of a wealth of species with very low relative abundance: the rare biosphere. We attempted to exhaustively map this rare biosphere in two water samples by performing an exceptionally deep pyrosequencing analysis (~500,000 final reads per sample). Species data were derived by a 97% identity criterion and various parametric distributions were fitted to the observed counts. Using the best-fitting Sichel distribution we estimate a total species richness of 1,568-1,669 (95% Credible Interval) and 5,027-5,196 for surface and deep water samples respectively, implying that 84-89% of the total richness in those two samples was sequenced, and we predict that a quadrupling of the present sequencing effort would suffice to observe 90% of the total richness in both samples. Comparing the HTS results with a culturing approach we found that most of the cultured taxa were not obtained by HTS, despite the high sequencing effort. Culturing therefore remains a useful tool for uncovering marine bacterial diversity, in addition to its other uses for studying the ecology of marine bacteria.

  15. Genetic sequence stratigraphy of upper Desmoinesian Oswego limestone along northern shelf margin of Anadarko basin, West-Central Oklahoma

    SciTech Connect

    Derstine, T.P.

    1988-01-01

    The Pennsylvania Oswego limestone (upper Desmoinesian) in the vicinity of the northern shelf break of the Anadarko basin contains stratigraphic sequences and associated depositional facies that were controlled by eustatic variations in a slowly subsiding basin. Core descriptions, detailed well-log correlations, and facies maps of Oswego limestone in Dewey and Custer Counties, Oklahoma, supplemented by seismic data along dip profile, define at least two principal stratigraphic sequences separated by regional unconformities. In this area, oil and gas have been produced from phylloid algal-bank deposits that formed at the shelf margin. The algal-bank deposits that contain vuggy and moldic porosity are bound northward by wackestones of shelf facies and southward by tightly calcite-cemented packstones that formed on the seaward margin in relatively high-energy environments. The detailed well-log correlations that consider genetic units illustrate the evolution of these carbonate and locally clastic deposits along Oswego shelf-ramp-basin profiles as a consequence of sea level oscillations. Repeated succession of upward-coarsening shelf wackestones, algal-bank deposits with fringing packstones and scattered terrigenous clastics, and basinal shales are a depositional system tract associated with sea level lowstand. This lowstand system is capped in one of the principal stratigraphic sequences by a thin shale that reflects an episode of rapid relative sea level rise and flooding of the Oswego carbonate shelf. Black shales deposited during this rapid flooding event form a problematic downlapping unit, because terrigenous sediment was evidently supplied from both the Oklahoma-Kansas area to the north and the Wichita-Amarillo high to the south. Highstand carbonate facies system are not present in the shaly cyclic sequences indicating drowning or backstepping of carbonate sources.

  16. Planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Miocene sequence in the area between Wadi El-Tayiba and Wadi Sidri, west central Sinai, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillip, G.; Imam, M. M.; Abdel Gawad, G. I.

    1997-10-01

    The present work deals with the study of lithostratigraphy and the planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphy of the Early-Middle Miocene sequence in six measured stratigraphical surface sections in west central Sinai. They are namely, from north to south: Wadi El-Tayiba, Gabal Sarbut El-Gamal, Wadi Nukhul, Wadi Baba, Gabal Abu Alaqa and Wadi Sidri. The Miocene sequence, exposed in the study area, is represented lithostratigraphically by four rock units, arranged from base to top as follows: the Nukhul and Rudeis Formations (Early Miocene), the Sarbut El-Gamal Formation and the Hammam Faraun Member of the Belayim Formation (Middle Miocene). The planktonic foraminiferal biostratigraphical studies led to the recognition of 51 planktonic foraminiferal species. They are illustrated with the scanning electron microscope. Five planktonic foraminiferal biozones and one large benthonic foraminiferal zone have been recognised. They are arranged from top to bottom as follows: Orbulina suturalis/Globorotalia siakensis Zone (Middle Miocene); Borelis melo Zone (larger foraminiferal zone) (Middle Miocene); Globigerinoides sicanus Zone (Early Miocene); Globigerinoides trilobus Zone (Early Miocene); Globigerinoides altiaperturus-Catapsydrax dissimifis Zone (Early Miocene); Globigerinoides primordius Zone (Early Miocene). Correlation of these biozones with others from Egypt and the world is also attempted.

  17. High Throughput Sequencing to Detect Differences in Methanotrophic Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae in Surface Peat, Forest Soil, and Sphagnum Moss in Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, USA

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Evan; Nolan, Edward J.; Dillard, Zachary W.; Dague, Ryan D.; Semple, Amanda L.; Wentzell, Wendi L.

    2015-01-01

    Northern temperate forest soils and Sphagnum-dominated peatlands are a major source and sink of methane. In these ecosystems, methane is mainly oxidized by aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, which are typically found in aerated forest soils, surface peat, and Sphagnum moss. We contrasted methanotrophic bacterial diversity and abundances from the (i) organic horizon of forest soil; (ii) surface peat; and (iii) submerged Sphagnum moss from Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, using multiplex sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA (V3 region) gene amplicons. From ~1 million reads, >50,000 unique OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units), 29 and 34 unique sequences were detected in the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae, respectively, and 24 potential methanotrophs in the Beijerinckiaceae were also identified. Methylacidiphilum-like methanotrophs were not detected. Proteobacterial methanotrophic bacteria constitute <2% of microbiota in these environments, with the Methylocystaceae one to two orders of magnitude more abundant than the Methylococcaceae in all environments sampled. The Methylococcaceae are also less diverse in forest soil compared to the other two habitats. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analyses indicated that the majority of methanotrophs from the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae tend to occur in one habitat only (peat or Sphagnum moss) or co-occurred in both Sphagnum moss and peat. This study provides insights into the structure of methanotrophic communities in relationship to habitat type, and suggests that peat and Sphagnum moss can influence methanotroph community structure and biogeography. PMID:27682082

  18. High Throughput Sequencing to Detect Differences in Methanotrophic Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae in Surface Peat, Forest Soil, and Sphagnum Moss in Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, USA.

    PubMed

    Lau, Evan; Iv, Edward J Nolan; Dillard, Zachary W; Dague, Ryan D; Semple, Amanda L; Wentzell, Wendi L

    2015-04-02

    Northern temperate forest soils and Sphagnum-dominated peatlands are a major source and sink of methane. In these ecosystems, methane is mainly oxidized by aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, which are typically found in aerated forest soils, surface peat, and Sphagnum moss. We contrasted methanotrophic bacterial diversity and abundances from the (i) organic horizon of forest soil; (ii) surface peat; and (iii) submerged Sphagnum moss from Cranesville Swamp Preserve, West Virginia, using multiplex sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA (V3 region) gene amplicons. From ~1 million reads, >50,000 unique OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units), 29 and 34 unique sequences were detected in the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae, respectively, and 24 potential methanotrophs in the Beijerinckiaceae were also identified. Methylacidiphilum-like methanotrophs were not detected. Proteobacterial methanotrophic bacteria constitute <2% of microbiota in these environments, with the Methylocystaceae one to two orders of magnitude more abundant than the Methylococcaceae in all environments sampled. The Methylococcaceae are also less diverse in forest soil compared to the other two habitats. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analyses indicated that the majority of methanotrophs from the Methylococcaceae and Methylocystaceae tend to occur in one habitat only (peat or Sphagnum moss) or co-occurred in both Sphagnum moss and peat. This study provides insights into the structure of methanotrophic communities in relationship to habitat type, and suggests that peat and Sphagnum moss can influence methanotroph community structure and biogeography.

  19. Neutralizing antibodies against West Nile virus identified directly from human B cells by single-cell analysis and next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Tsioris, Konstantinos; Gupta, Namita T.; Ogunniyi, Adebola O.; Zimnisky, Ross M.; Qian, Feng; Yao, Yi; Wang, Xiaomei; Stern, Joel N. H.; Chari, Raj; Briggs, Adrian W.; Clouser, Christopher R.; Vigneault, Francois; Church, George M.; Garcia, Melissa N.; Murray, Kristy O.; Montgomery, Ruth R.; Kleinstein, Steven H.; Love, J. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus infection (WNV) is an emerging mosquito-borne disease that can lead to severe neurological illness and currently has no available treatment or vaccine. Using microengraving, an integrated single-cell analysis method, we analyzed a cohort of subjects infected with WNV - recently infected and post-convalescent subjects - and efficiently identified four novel WNV neutralizing antibodies. We also assessed the humoral response to WNV on a single-cell and repertoire level by integrating next generation sequencing (NGS) into our analysis. The results from single-cell analysis indicate persistence of WNV-specific memory B cells and antibody-secreting cells in post-convalescent subjects. These cells exhibited class-switched antibody isotypes. Furthermore, the results suggest that the antibody response itself does not predict the clinical severity of the disease (asymptomatic or symptomatic). Using the nucleotide coding sequences for WNV-specific antibodies derived from single cells, we revealed the ontogeny of expanded WNV-specific clones in the repertoires of recently infected subjects through NGS and bioinformatic analysis. This analysis also indicated that the humoral response to WNV did not depend on an anamnestic response, due to an unlikely previous exposure to the virus. The innovative and integrative approach presented here to analyze the evolution of neutralizing antibodies from natural infection on a single-cell and repertoire level can also be applied to vaccine studies, and could potentially aid the development of therapeutic antibodies and our basic understanding of other infectious diseases. PMID:26481611

  20. The prevalence of badnaviruses in West African yams (Dioscorea cayenensis-rotundata) and evidence of endogenous pararetrovirus sequences in their genomes.

    PubMed

    Seal, Susan; Turaki, Aliyu; Muller, Emmanuelle; Kumar, P Lava; Kenyon, Lawrence; Filloux, Denis; Galzi, Serge; Lopez-Montes, Antonio; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2014-06-24

    Yam (Dioscorea spp.) is an important vegetatively-propagated staple crop in West Africa. Viruses are pervasive in yam worldwide, decreasing growth and yield, as well as hindering the international movement of germplasm. Badnaviruses have been reported to be the most prevalent in yam, and genomes of some other badnaviruses are known to be integrated in their host plant species. However, it was not clear if a similar scenario occurs in Dioscorea yam. This study was conducted to verify the prevalence of badnaviruses, and determine if badnavirus genomes are integrated in the yam genome. Leaf samples (n=58) representing eight species of yam from global yam collections kept at CIRAD, France, and 127 samples of D. rotundata breeding lines (n=112) and landraces (n=15) at IITA, Nigeria, were screened using generic badnavirus PCR primers. Positive amplification of an expected ca. 579bp fragment, corresponding to a partial RT-RNaseH region, was detected in 47 (81%) of 58 samples analysed from CIRAD collections, and 100% of the 127 IITA D. rotundata samples. All the D. cayenensis and D. rotundata samples from the CIRAD and IITA collections tested PCR-positive, and sequencing of a selection of the PCR products confirmed they were typical of the genus Badnavirus. A comparison of serological and nucleic acid techniques was used to investigate whether the PCR-positives were sequences amplified from badnavirus particles or putative endogenous badnavirus sequences in the yam genome. Protein A sandwich-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PAS-ELISA) with badnavirus polyclonal antisera detected cross-reacting viral particles in only 60% (92 of 153) of the CIRAD collection samples analysed, in contrast to the aforementioned 81% by PCR. Immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) of virus preparations of a select set of 16 samples, representing different combinations of positive and negative PCR and PAS-ELISA results, identified bacilliform particles in 11 of these samples. Three PCR

  1. The complete sequence of a West Nile virus lineage 2 strain detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in eastern Romania in 2013 revealed closest genetic relationship to strain Volgograd 2007.

    PubMed

    Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Marinov, Mihai; Kiss, Botond J; Alexe, Vasile; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In this study the first complete sequence of the West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 strain currently circulating in Romania was determined. The virus was detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a juvenile song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in the Romanian Danube Delta close to the city of Tulcea, end of August 2013. Our finding emphasizes the role of ticks in introduction and maintenance of WNV infections. Sequence analyses revealed close genetic relationship of the Romanian WNV strain to strain Reb_Volgograd_07_H, which was isolated from human brain tissue during an outbreak of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) in Russia in 2007. In 2010 the Eastern European lineage 2 WNV caused an outbreak of human WNND in Romania. Partial sequences from subsequent years demonstrated that this WNV strain became endemic in Eastern Europe and has been causing outbreaks of varying sizes in southern Russia since 2007 and in Romania since 2010.

  2. The Complete Sequence of a West Nile Virus Lineage 2 Strain Detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum Tick Collected from a Song Thrush (Turdus philomelos) in Eastern Romania in 2013 Revealed Closest Genetic Relationship to Strain Volgograd 2007

    PubMed Central

    Kolodziejek, Jolanta; Marinov, Mihai; Kiss, Botond J.; Alexe, Vasile; Nowotny, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    In this study the first complete sequence of the West Nile virus (WNV) lineage 2 strain currently circulating in Romania was determined. The virus was detected in a Hyalomma marginatum marginatum tick collected from a juvenile song thrush (Turdus philomelos) in the Romanian Danube Delta close to the city of Tulcea, end of August 2013. Our finding emphasizes the role of ticks in introduction and maintenance of WNV infections. Sequence analyses revealed close genetic relationship of the Romanian WNV strain to strain Reb_Volgograd_07_H, which was isolated from human brain tissue during an outbreak of West Nile neuroinvasive disease (WNND) in Russia in 2007. In 2010 the Eastern European lineage 2 WNV caused an outbreak of human WNND in Romania. Partial sequences from subsequent years demonstrated that this WNV strain became endemic in Eastern Europe and has been causing outbreaks of varying sizes in southern Russia since 2007 and in Romania since 2010. PMID:25279973

  3. Complete genome sequences and phylogenetic analysis of two West Nile virus strains isolated from equines in Argentina in 2006 could indicate an early introduction of the virus in the Southern Cone.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Cintia M; García, Jorge B; Morales, María Alejandra; Enría, Delia A; Levis, Silvana; Lanciotti, Robert S

    2014-11-01

    The complete nucleotide sequences of two West Nile virus (WNV) strains isolated in Argentina were determined. Phylogenetic trees were constructed from the aligned nucleic acid sequences of these two strains along with other previously published complete WNV genome sequences. Phylogenetic data showed that both strains belonged to clade 1a of lineage 1 and clustered in a subclade with American strains isolated during 1999-2002. These results suggest two independent routes of introduction of WNV in Argentina and that the virus could have been circulating in Argentina for some time before being isolated.

  4. Evolution of the polyploid north-west Iberian Leucanthemum pluriflorum clan (Compositae, Anthemideae) based on plastid DNA sequence variation and AFLP fingerprinting

    PubMed Central

    Greiner, Roland; Vogt, Robert; Oberprieler, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The genus Leucanthemum is a species-rich polyploid complex from southern and central Europe, comprising 41 species with ploidy ranging from 2x to 22x. The present contribution aims at reconstructing the evolutionary history of a geographically isolated species group (the L. pluriflorum clan) from the north-west Iberian Peninsula comprising the diploid L. pluriflorum, the tetraploids L. ircutianum subsp. pseudosylvaticum and L. × corunnense (a putative hybrid taxon based on crossing between L. pluriflorum and L. merinoi), and the hexaploids L. sylvaticum and L. merinoi. Methods Chromosome number variation (determined flow cytometrically) and sequence variation were analysed for two intergenic spacer regions on the plastid genome (psbA-trnH and trnC-petN) for individuals from 54 populations in combination with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting of 246 representative individuals from these populations. Key Results Plastid sequence data revealed that all surveyed members of the L. pluriflorum clan possess plastid haplotypes that are closely related to each other and distinctly separated from other Leucanthemum species. AFLP fingerprinting resulted in allopolyploid fragment patterns for most of the polyploid populations, except for the tetraploid L. × corunnense and a further tetraploid population in northern Galicia, which cluster with the diploids rather than with the other polyploids. In silico modelling of (auto)tetraploid AFLP genotypes further corroborates the allopolyploid nature of L. ircutianum subsp. pseudosylvaticum, L. sylvaticum and L. merinoi. Conclusions The present study provides evidence for recognizing one diploid (L. pluriflorum), one autotetraploid (L. corunnense), one allotetraploid (L. pseudosylvaticum) and one allohexaploid (L. sylvaticum with the two geographically and ecologically differentiated subspecies subsp. sylvaticum and subsp. merinoi) in the L. pluriflorum clan. It also has implications

  5. Evolution of the polyploid north-west Iberian Leucanthemum pluriflorum clan (Compositae, Anthemideae) based on plastid DNA sequence variation and AFLP fingerprinting.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Roland; Vogt, Robert; Oberprieler, Christoph

    2013-06-01

    The genus Leucanthemum is a species-rich polyploid complex from southern and central Europe, comprising 41 species with ploidy ranging from 2x to 22x. The present contribution aims at reconstructing the evolutionary history of a geographically isolated species group (the L. pluriflorum clan) from the north-west Iberian Peninsula comprising the diploid L. pluriflorum, the tetraploids L. ircutianum subsp. pseudosylvaticum and L. × corunnense (a putative hybrid taxon based on crossing between L. pluriflorum and L. merinoi), and the hexaploids L. sylvaticum and L. merinoi. Chromosome number variation (determined flow cytometrically) and sequence variation were analysed for two intergenic spacer regions on the plastid genome (psbA-trnH and trnC-petN) for individuals from 54 populations in combination with amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) fingerprinting of 246 representative individuals from these populations. Plastid sequence data revealed that all surveyed members of the L. pluriflorum clan possess plastid haplotypes that are closely related to each other and distinctly separated from other Leucanthemum species. AFLP fingerprinting resulted in allopolyploid fragment patterns for most of the polyploid populations, except for the tetraploid L. × corunnense and a further tetraploid population in northern Galicia, which cluster with the diploids rather than with the other polyploids. In silico modelling of (auto)tetraploid AFLP genotypes further corroborates the allopolyploid nature of L. ircutianum subsp. pseudosylvaticum, L. sylvaticum and L. merinoi. The present study provides evidence for recognizing one diploid (L. pluriflorum), one autotetraploid (L. corunnense), one allotetraploid (L. pseudosylvaticum) and one allohexaploid (L. sylvaticum with the two geographically and ecologically differentiated subspecies subsp. sylvaticum and subsp. merinoi) in the L. pluriflorum clan. It also has implications for the understanding of biogeographical patterns in

  6. Rapid fixation of a distinctive sequence motif in the 3' noncoding region of the clade of West Nile virus invading North America.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Austin L; Piontkivska, Helen; Foppa, Ivo

    2007-09-15

    Phylogenetic analysis of complete genomes of West Nile virus (WNV) by a variety of methods supported the hypothesis that North American isolates of WNV constitute a monophyletic group, together with an isolate from Israel and one from Hungary. We used ancestral sequence reconstruction in order to obtain evidence for evolutionary changes that might be correlated with increased virulence in this clade (designated the N.A. clade). There was one amino acid change (I-->T at residue 356 of the NS3 protein) that occurred in the ancestor of the N.A. clade and remained conserved in all N.A. clade genomes analyzed. There were four changes in the upstream portion of the 3' noncoding region (the AT-enriched region) that occurred in the ancestor of the N.A. clade and remained conserved in all N.A. clade genomes analyzed, changes predicted to alter RNA secondary structure. The AT-enriched region showed a higher rate of substitution in the branch ancestral to the N.A. clade, relative to polymorphism, than did the remainder of the noncoding regions, synonymous sites in coding regions, or nonsynonymous sites in coding regions. The high rate of occurrence of fixed nucleotide substitutions in this region suggests that positive Darwinian selection may have acted on this portion of the 3'NCR and that these fixed changes, possibly in concert with the amino acid change in NS3, may underlie phenotypic effects associated with increased virulence in North American WNV.

  7. Revision of the Cretaceous fossil plant-assemblage from Gardeshwar (Gujarat, India): A conifer dominated floral association from an Upper Gondwana sequence on the West Coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jana, Brajendra Nath; King, Sarah C.; Hilton, Jason

    2013-09-01

    A small but diverse fossil plant assemblage from Gardeshwar in Gujarat Province of western India is reinvestigated, based on analysis of recently collected specimens that represent previously unrecognised taxa in combination with a critical review of previously reported taxa from the site. The assemblage is dominated by conifers including Brachyphyllum Brongniart, Elatocladus Halle, Pagiophyllum Heer, the cone Conites Sternberg, and ovulate scales of an araucarian conifer. Other plant groups are rare but include notable occurrences of the pteridophytes Lycopodites Lindley and Hutton and Gleichenia Smith, and the seed fern Sphenopteris (Brongniart) Sternberg. This assemblage is important as it represents the only datable fossils available from the Gardeshwar Formation and from the information presented we conclude it belongs to the Lower Cretaceous Allocladus-Brachyphyllum-Pagiophyllum floral biozone. The Gardeshwar assemblage association is unusual as it lacks the distinctive genus Allocladus but includes other taxa more typical of the Lower Cretaceous fern-dominated Weichselia-Onychiopsis-Gleichenia floral biozone, and may represent a transitional assemblage with characters of both biozones. However, this investigation highlights the lack of detailed stratigraphic analyses on the Lower Cretaceous sedimentary sequences of the west coast of India from which it remains uncertain if these two ‘biozones' are of different ages or whether they represent stratigraphically contemporaneous but ecologically distinct environments.

  8. Coastal uplift west of Algiers (Algeria): pre- and post-Messinian sequences of marine terraces and rasas and their associated drainage pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Authemayou, Christine; Pedoja, Kevin; Heddar, Aicha; Molliex, Stéphane; Boudiaf, Azzedine; Ghaleb, Bassam; Van Vliet Lanoe, Brigitte; Delcaillau, Bernard; Djellit, Hamou; Yelles, Karim; Nexer, Maelle

    2017-01-01

    The North Africa passive margin is affected by the ongoing convergence between the African and Eurasian plates. This convergence is responsible for coastal uplift, folding, and reverse faulting on new and reactivated faults on the margin. The active deformation is diffuse and thus rather difficult to locate precisely. We aim to determine how a coastal landscape evolve in this geodynamic setting and gain insights into active tectonics. More particularly, we evidence and quantify coastal uplift pattern of the Chenoua, Sahel, and Algiers reliefs (Algeria), using sequences of marine terraces and rasas and computing several morphometric indices from the drainage pattern. Upper and Middle Pleistocene uplift rates are obtained by fossil shoreline mapping and preliminary U/Th dating of associated coastal deposits. Extrapolation of these rates combined to analyses of sea-level referential data and spatial relationships between marine terraces/rasas and other geological markers lead us to tentatively propose an age for the highest coastal indicators (purported the oldest). Values of morphometric indices showing correlations with uplift rate allow us to analyze uplift variation on area devoid of coastal sequence. Geological and geomorphological data suggest that coastal uplift probably occurred since the Middle Miocene. It resulted in the emergence of the Algiers massif, followed by the Sahel ridge massif. The Sahel ridge has asymmetrically grown by folding from west to east and was affected by temporal variation of uplift. Compared to previous study, the location of the Sahel fold axis has been shifted offshore, near the coast. The Chenoua fault vertical motion does not offset significantly the coastal sequence. Mean apparent uplift rates and corrected uplift rates since 120 ka are globally steady all along the coast with a mean value of 0.055 ± 0.015 mm/year (apparent) and of 0.005 ± 0.045 mm/year (corrected for eustasy). Mean apparent coastal uplift rates between 120 and

  9. [West Nile fever].

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2005-12-01

    West Nile virus was first detected in North America in 1999 and has spread throughout the United States and Canada and into Mexico and the Caribbean. The cases of encephalitis in New York were diagnosed as Saint Louis encephalitis which was endemic in the North America. However, dead crows and dead flamingo were found around the same time in New York. American birds seldom die by Saint Louis encephalitis virus infection. According to viral isolation and sequencing of the genome, the causative agent of unknown encephalitis was West Nile virus which was a member of Flaviviridae which cause fever, meningitis and encephalitis. West Nile virus is still active in North America in summer season, 1999 -2005. CDC enlightens people how to protect themselves and their community from West Nile virus. There are some reports that West Nile viral infections were occurred by blood transfusion, biologic products from blood and organ transfusion.

  10. Stratigraphic Framework and Depositional Sequences in the Lower Silurian Regional Oil and Gas Accumulation, Appalachian Basin: From Licking County, Ohio, to Fayette County, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryder, Robert T.

    2006-01-01

    wells drilled there since the late 1880s. However, new gas and local oil continues to be discovered in the deeper basin-center part (Zagorski, 1991; Pees, 1994; Petroleum Information Corporation, 1994). In general, only small quantities of gas have been produced from the Tuscarora Sandstone fields because of their generally poor reservoir quality and because of the low energy (Btu) content of the gas (Avary, 1996). Although fracture porosity is the dominant porosity type in the Tuscarora Sandstone gas reservoirs (Avary, 1996), there are several fields, such as Indian Creek, where intergranular porosity seems to be important (Bruner, 1983; Castle and Byrnes, 2005). In order to better understand the character and origin of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation and its component parts, six cross sections were drawn through the Lower Silurian strata in parts of New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. The locations of all six cross sections are shown on sheet 2 (figs. 1 and 2) of this report. Each cross section shows the stratigraphic framework, depositional setting, sequence stratigraphy, and hydrocarbon-producing intervals of the Lower Silurian sandstone reservoirs and adjoining strata. Cross section F-F' presented here is about 215 mi long and trends northwestward, approximately normal to the depositional strike of the Lower Silurian sandstone system, and extends through large stretches of the basin-center and hybrid-conventional parts of the Lower Silurian regional oil and gas accumulation.

  11. Thrust duplex deformation in the volcaniclastic sequence of the Fatima fold-and-thrust belt in the west-central Arabian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Shafei, Mohamed K.

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we present a field-based structural analysis of the unmetamorphosed Precambrian volcaniclastic sequences of the west-central Arabian Shield. The study area is known as the Fatima fold-and-thrust belt, which is an overturned synclinorium that developed during the Neoproterozoic era. This belt is composed primarily of green mudstone, green sandstone, an andesite flow, limestone, red mudstone and pyroclastic units. This stratigraphic succession, which presents different rheological multilayers, offers significant mesoscale folding and thrust-related structures. Mechanical anisotropy and thickness contrasts have played significant roles in controlling the style of the deformation. Deformed hinge zones, a simple duplex, a domino-style duplex, and imbricated and antiformal stacks are among the thrust-related structures presented and analyzed. The domino-style duplex observed on the backlimbs of the overturned anticlines formed a unique pattern that developed during thrust propagation. The results of this study indicate that the thrust duplex developed according to a thick-skinned model, and it represents a newly recognized tectonic regime in the Arabian Shield. Comprehensive field mapping and structural analyses revealed that the zone under study area was affected by four phases of deformation (D1-D4). The D1 and D2 phases present ductile deformation that developed during the final cratonization and assembly of the Arabian Shield, and they can be recognized at both the map and outcrop scales. The D1 phase represents a progressive regime and is indicated by a NW-SE stress orientation and the formation of a series of coaxial symmetrical NE-SW-plunging folds. NNW-directed thrust-related structures progressively developed during the D2 phase. An approximately fifty-three percent tectonic shortening can be calculated based on the restored structures. D3 and D4 have a brittle nature and are indicated by shearing and normal faulting, respectively.

  12. Rapid Fixation of a Distinctive Sequence Motif in the 3′Noncoding Region of the Clade of West Nile Virus Invading North America

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, Austin L.; Piontkivska, Helen; Foppa, Ivo

    2007-01-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of complete genomes of West Nile virus (WNV) by a variety of methods supported the hypothesis that North American isolates of WNV constitute a monophyletic group, together with an isolate from Israel and one from Hungary. We used ancestral sequence reconstruction in order to obtain evidence for evolutionary changes that might be correlated with increased virulence in this clade (designated the N.A. clade). There was one amino acid change (I→T at residue 356 of the NS3 protein) that occurred in the ancestor of the N.A. clade and remained conserved in all N.A. clade genomes analyzed. There were four changes in the upstream portion of the 3′ noncoding region (the AT-enriched region) that occurred in the ancestor of the N.A. clade and remained conserved in all N.A. clade genomes analyzed, changes predicted to alter RNA secondary structure. The AT-enriched region showed a higher rate of substitution in the branch ancestral to the N.A. clade, relative to polymorphism, than did the remainder of the non-coding regions, synonymous sites in coding regions, or nonsynonymous sites in coding regions. The high rate of occurrence of fixed nucleotide substitutions in this region suggests that positive Darwinian selection may have acted on this portion of the 3′NCR and that these fixed changes, possibly in concert with the amino acid change in NS3, may underlie phenotypic effects associated with increased virulence in North American WNV. PMID:17587514

  13. Hybrid channel flow-type mechanisms in the Greater Himalayan Sequence (West Nepal): new constraints from vorticity of flow and quartz petrofabric analyses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassi, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    Three main tectono-metamorphic units are classically recognized along the Himalayan belt: the Lesser Himalayan (LH), the Greater Himalayan sequence (GHS) and the Tibetan Sedimentary sequence (TSS). The GHS may be interpreted as a low-viscosity tabular body of mid-crustal rocks extruded southward in Miocene times beneath the Tibetan plateau between two parallel and opposite-sense crustal-scale shear zones: the Main Central thrust at the base, and the South Tibetan Detachment system at the top. The pre-/syn-shearing mineral assemblage documented within these crustal-scale shear zones indicates that the metamorphic grade increases toward the core of the GHS producing an inverted and a normal thermal gradient respectively on the top and on the bottom of the slab. In addition, thermal profiles estimated using both petrology- and microstructures/fabrics-based thermometers indicate that the metamorphic isograds are condensed. Although horizontal extension and vorticity estimates collected across the GHS could be strongly biased by the criteria used to define the map position of the MCT, published vorticity data document general shear flow (1>Wk>0) within the slab with a pure-shear component of flow slightly predominant within the core of the GHS whereas the simple-shear component seems to dominate at the top of the slab. The lower boundary of the GHS records a general shear flow with a comparable contribution of simple and pure shearing. The associated crustal extrusion is compatible with Couette - Poiseuille velocity flow profile as assumed in crustal-scale channel flow-type models In this study, the quartz c-axis petrofabrics, vorticity and deformation-temperature studies are integrated with microstructures and metamorphic studies to individuate the location of the MCT and to document the spatial distribution of ductile deformation patterns across the lower portion of the GHS exposed in the Chaudabise river valley in western Nepal. My results indicate that the Main

  14. Draft Genome Sequence of the Nonpathogenic, Thermotolerant, and Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bacillus anthracis Strain PFAB2 from Panifala Hot Water Spring in West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Aparna; Halder, Urmi; Chaudhry, Vasvi; Varshney, Rajeev K; Mantri, Shrikant; Bandopadhyay, Rajib

    2016-12-22

    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of fatal anthrax in both animals and humans. It is prevalently pathogenic. Here, we present a Bacillus anthracis PFAB2 strain from a relatively unexplored Panifala hot water spring in West Bengal, India. It is nonpathogenic, exopolysaccharide producing, and thermotolerant in nature.

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of the Nonpathogenic, Thermotolerant, and Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bacillus anthracis Strain PFAB2 from Panifala Hot Water Spring in West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Banerjee, Aparna; Halder, Urmi; Chaudhry, Vasvi; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Mantri, Shrikant

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis is the causative agent of fatal anthrax in both animals and humans. It is prevalently pathogenic. Here, we present a Bacillus anthracis PFAB2 strain from a relatively unexplored Panifala hot water spring in West Bengal, India. It is nonpathogenic, exopolysaccharide producing, and thermotolerant in nature. PMID:28007848

  16. 13. VIEW TO WEST. DETAIL, WEST PIER, WEST APPROACH SPAN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW TO WEST. DETAIL, WEST PIER, WEST APPROACH SPAN, LOCKING GEAR AT WEST END OF SWING SPAN. (photographed from boat) - Gianella Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at State Highway 32, Hamilton City, Glenn County, CA

  17. High-throughput sequencing of complete human mtDNA genomes from the Caucasus and West Asia: high diversity and demographic inferences

    PubMed Central

    Schönberg, Anna; Theunert, Christoph; Li, Mingkun; Stoneking, Mark; Nasidze, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the demographic history of human populations from the Caucasus and surrounding regions, we used high-throughput sequencing to generate 147 complete mtDNA genome sequences from random samples of individuals from three groups from the Caucasus (Armenians, Azeri and Georgians), and one group each from Iran and Turkey. Overall diversity is very high, with 144 different sequences that fall into 97 different haplogroups found among the 147 individuals. Bayesian skyline plots (BSPs) of population size change through time show a population expansion around 40–50 kya, followed by a constant population size, and then another expansion around 15–18 kya for the groups from the Caucasus and Iran. The BSP for Turkey differs the most from the others, with an increase from 35 to 50 kya followed by a prolonged period of constant population size, and no indication of a second period of growth. An approximate Bayesian computation approach was used to estimate divergence times between each pair of populations; the oldest divergence times were between Turkey and the other four groups from the South Caucasus and Iran (∼400–600 generations), while the divergence time of the three Caucasus groups from each other was comparable to their divergence time from Iran (average of ∼360 generations). These results illustrate the value of random sampling of complete mtDNA genome sequences that can be obtained with high-throughput sequencing platforms. PMID:21487439

  18. Molecular characterization of Argulus bengalensis and Argulus siamensis (Crustacea: Argulidae) infecting the cultured carps in West Bengal, India using 18S rRNA gene sequences

    PubMed Central

    Patra, Avijit; Mondal, Anjan; Banerjee, Sayani; Adikesavalu, Harresh; Joardar, Siddhartha Narayan; Abraham, Thangapalam Jawahar

    2016-01-01

    The present study characterized Argulus spp. infecting the cultured carps using 18S rRNA gene sequences, estimated the genetic similarity among Argulus spp. and established their phylogenetic relationship. Of the 320 fish samples screened, 34 fish (10.6%) had Argulus infection. The parasitic frequency index (PFI) was observed to be high (20%) in Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and Labeo bata. The frequency of infection was high in September (PFI: 17%) and October (PFI: 12.9%). The 18S rRNA sequences of five A. bengalensis (KF583878, KF192316, KM016968, KM016969, and KM016970) and one A. siamensis (KF583879) of this study showed genetic heterogeneity and exhibited 77-99% homology among the 18S rRNA gene sequences of Argulus spp. of NCBI GenBank database. Among the Indian Argulus spp. the sequence homology was 87–100%. Evolutionary pair-wise distances between Indian Argulus spp. and other Argulus spp. ranged from 0 to 20.20%. In the phylogenetic tree, all the crustaceans were clustered together as a separate clade with two distinct lineages. The lineage-1 comprised exclusive of Branchiura (Argulus spp.). All Argulus bengalensis clustered together and A. siamensis (KF583879) was closely related to Argulus sp. JN558648. The results of the present study provided baseline data for future work on population structure analysis of Indian Argulus species. PMID:28097169

  19. Horizons West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitses, Jim

    The western is the most popular and enduring of Hollywood forms. It is one embodiment of a traditional theme in American culture: the West as both Garden of natural dignity and innocence and also as treacherous Desert resisting the gradual sweep of agrarian progress and community values. Westerns have in common: a) history, America's past; b)…

  20. Horizons West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitses, Jim

    The western is the most popular and enduring of Hollywood forms. It is one embodiment of a traditional theme in American culture: the West as both Garden of natural dignity and innocence and also as treacherous Desert resisting the gradual sweep of agrarian progress and community values. Westerns have in common: a) history, America's past; b)…

  1. Tectonic events, sequence stratigraphy and prediction of petroleum play elements in the Cretaceous and Tertiary of the northern Carnarvon Basin, north west shelf, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Romine, K.K.; Durrant, J.D.

    1996-12-31

    The Carnarvon Basin is one of Australia`s most prolific oil and gas provinces. A recent Paleocene discovery has initiated a shift in exploration interest from traditional Jurassic/Triassic plays to the younger Cretaceous and Tertiary section. To improve play element prediction, a sequence stratigraphic study has been completed, utilizing newly acquired, regional high-resolution seismic data and 80 wells. The occurrence and distribution of the key play elements, reservoir, source and seal, is controlled by the interaction of tectonic subsidence, eustasy and paleogeography, with traps and migration pathways set up and modified by regional tectonic events. For example, a major rifting event commenced in the latest Kimmeridgian-Tithonian that resulted in structuring of older Jurassic sediments and initiation of seafloor spreading in the adjacent Cuvier-Gascoyne Abyssal Plain in the Valanginian. This event was accompanied by a dramatic fall in eustasy that initiated the deposition of high-quality reservoir sandstones of the Tithonian-Valanginian age Barrow Delta. The post-rift phase of thermal cooling and rapid subsidence resulted in transgression, accompanied by deposition of backstepping parasequences of the Mardie Greensand, a potential thief zone and reservoir, and culminated in maximum transgression and deposition of seal and source facies of the Muclerong Shale. The improved sequence stratigraphic framework established in this study provides a predictive tool for the development and assessment of new plays.

  2. Tectonic events, sequence stratigraphy and prediction of petroleum play elements in the Cretaceous and Tertiary of the northern Carnarvon Basin, north west shelf, Australia

    SciTech Connect

    Romine, K.K. ); Durrant, J.D. )

    1996-01-01

    The Carnarvon Basin is one of Australia's most prolific oil and gas provinces. A recent Paleocene discovery has initiated a shift in exploration interest from traditional Jurassic/Triassic plays to the younger Cretaceous and Tertiary section. To improve play element prediction, a sequence stratigraphic study has been completed, utilizing newly acquired, regional high-resolution seismic data and 80 wells. The occurrence and distribution of the key play elements, reservoir, source and seal, is controlled by the interaction of tectonic subsidence, eustasy and paleogeography, with traps and migration pathways set up and modified by regional tectonic events. For example, a major rifting event commenced in the latest Kimmeridgian-Tithonian that resulted in structuring of older Jurassic sediments and initiation of seafloor spreading in the adjacent Cuvier-Gascoyne Abyssal Plain in the Valanginian. This event was accompanied by a dramatic fall in eustasy that initiated the deposition of high-quality reservoir sandstones of the Tithonian-Valanginian age Barrow Delta. The post-rift phase of thermal cooling and rapid subsidence resulted in transgression, accompanied by deposition of backstepping parasequences of the Mardie Greensand, a potential thief zone and reservoir, and culminated in maximum transgression and deposition of seal and source facies of the Muclerong Shale. The improved sequence stratigraphic framework established in this study provides a predictive tool for the development and assessment of new plays.

  3. HLA-E coding and 3' untranslated region variability determined by next-generation sequencing in two West-African population samples.

    PubMed

    Castelli, Erick C; Mendes-Junior, Celso T; Sabbagh, Audrey; Porto, Iane O P; Garcia, André; Ramalho, Jaqueline; Lima, Thálitta H A; Massaro, Juliana D; Dias, Fabrício C; Collares, Cristhianna V A; Jamonneau, Vincent; Bucheton, Bruno; Camara, Mamadou; Donadi, Eduardo A

    2015-12-01

    HLA-E is a non-classical Human Leucocyte Antigen class I gene with immunomodulatory properties. Whereas HLA-E expression usually occurs at low levels, it is widely distributed amongst human tissues, has the ability to bind self and non-self antigens and to interact with NK cells and T lymphocytes, being important for immunosurveillance and also for fighting against infections. HLA-E is usually the most conserved locus among all class I genes. However, most of the previous studies evaluating HLA-E variability sequenced only a few exons or genotyped known polymorphisms. Here we report a strategy to evaluate HLA-E variability by next-generation sequencing (NGS) that might be used to other HLA loci and present the HLA-E haplotype diversity considering the segment encoding the entire HLA-E mRNA (including 5'UTR, introns and the 3'UTR) in two African population samples, Susu from Guinea-Conakry and Lobi from Burkina Faso. Our results indicate that (a) the HLA-E gene is indeed conserved, encoding mainly two different protein molecules; (b) Africans do present several unknown HLA-E alleles presenting synonymous mutations; (c) the HLA-E 3'UTR is quite polymorphic and (d) haplotypes in the HLA-E 3'UTR are in close association with HLA-E coding alleles. NGS has proved to be an important tool on data generation for future studies evaluating variability in non-classical MHC genes.

  4. The anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and paleomagnetic results from Lower Triassic sequence of West Spitsbergen Fold-and-Thrust Belt - case study.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudzisz, Katarzyna; Szaniawski, Rafał; Michalski, Krzysztof; Manby, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    Ninety-three oriented rock samples from 12 sites (ca. 450 specimens) located in the Lower Triassic Vardebukta Formation were analyzed. The samples were collected from the Hornsund - Sørkapp area in the southern part of West Spitsbergen Fold and Thrust Belt (WSFTB). The aim of this study was to test the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) method for the determination of tectonic paleostress pattern during the formation of WSFTB. The principal ferro- and paramagnetic minerals were also identified and their influence on the magnetic suceptibility was assessed. The NRM structure was determined in an attempt to link the remagnetization episodes with the well recognized tectono-thermal events related to WSFTB evolution. The results suggest that the magnetic susceptibility is controlled mainly by the paramagnetic minerals evidenced by the wide range of magnetic susceptibility values (20 - 400*10-6 SI). Only in one site, COND1, were the ferromagnetic minerals more dominant. A considerable variation in the shape of the AMS ellipsoids was noted. In eleven sites a normal magnetic fabric of sedimentary origin was detected which was associated with a relatively good clustering of the maximum AMS axes, caused by the tectonic strain. Samples with normal fabric reveal the presence of strong foliation parallel to the bedding plane. The orientation of the magnetic lineation, which indicates the maximum tectonic strain, approximates the regional structural NNW-SSE trend of the WSFTB. These results seem to support an orthogonal compression model for the formation of the WSFTB. Furthermore, the correspondence of the orientation of the maximum AMS axes with regional WSFTB structural trend is in conflict with interpretations assuming a strong strike - slip regime during WSFTB tectogenesis. The remaining two sites had mixed and inverted fabrics, the latter probably arising from the presence of iron-bearing carbonates in the samples. Preliminary palaeomagnetic results show that

  5. West Nile virus (WNV) genome RNAs with up to three adjacent mutations that disrupt long distance 5'-3' cyclization sequence basepairs are viable

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Mausumi; Brinton, Margo A.

    2011-03-30

    Mosquito-borne flavivirus genomes contain conserved 5' and 3' cyclization sequences (CYC) that facilitate long distance RNA-RNA interactions. In previous studies, flavivirus replicon RNA replication was completely inhibited by single or multiple mismatching CYC nt substitutions. In the present study, full-length WNV genomes with one, two or three mismatching CYC substitutions showed reduced replication efficiencies but were viable and generated revertants with increased replication efficiency. Several different three adjacent mismatching CYC substitution mutant RNAs were rescued by a second site mutation that created an additional basepair (nts 147-10913) on the internal genomic side of the 5'-3' CYC. The finding that full-length genomes with up to three mismatching CYC mutations are viable and can be rescued by a single nt spontaneous mutation indicates that more than three adjacent CYC basepair substitutions would be required to increase the safety of vaccine genomes by creating mismatches in inter-genomic recombinants.

  6. A non-extensive statistical physics view to the spatiotemporal properties of the June 1995, Aigion earthquake (M6.2) aftershock sequence (West Corinth rift, Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallianatos, Filippos; Michas, Giorgos; Papadakis, Giorgos; Sammonds, Peter

    2012-06-01

    In the present study, the spatiotemporal properties of the Aigion earthquake (15 June 1995) aftershock sequence are being studied using the concept of non-extensive statistical physics (NESP). The cumulative distribution functions of the inter-event times and the inter-event distances are being estimated for the data set which is assumed to be complete and the analysis yielded the thermodynamic q parameter to be qT = 1.58 and q r = 0.53 for the two distributions, respectively. The results fit rather well to the inter-event distances and times distributions, implying the complexity of the spatiotemporal properties of seismicity and the usefulness of NESP in investigating such phenomena. The temporal structure is also being discussed using the complementary to NESP approach of superstatistics, which is based on a superposition of ordinary local equilibrium statistical mechanics. The result indicates that very low degrees of freedom describe the temporal evolution of the Aigion earthquake aftershock seismicity.

  7. West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    With its vast expanses of sand, framed by mountain ranges and exposed rock, northwestern Africa makes a pretty picture when viewed from above. This image was acquired by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The Canary Islands can be seen on the left side of the image just off Africa's Atlantic shore. The light brown expanse running through the northern two thirds of the image is the Sahara Desert. The desert runs up against the dark brown Haut Atlas mountain range of Morocco in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the semi-arid (light brown pixels) Sahelian region in the South. The Sahara, however, isn't staying put. Since the 1960s, the desert has been expanding into the Sahelian region at a rate of up to 6 kilometers per year. In the 1980s this desert expansion, combined with over cultivation of the Sahel, caused a major famine across west Africa. Over the summer months, strong winds pick up sands from the Sahara and blow them across the Atlantic as far west as North America, causing air pollution in Miami and damaging coral reefs in the Bahamas and the Florida Keys. The white outlines on the map represent country borders. Starting at the top-most portion of the map and working clockwise, the countries shown are Morocco, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Fasso, Nigeria, Mali (again), and Algeria. Image by Reto Stockli, Robert Simmon, and Brian Montgomery, NASA Earth Observatory, based on data from MODIS

  8. Large-Scale Genotyping-by-Sequencing Indicates High Levels of Gene Flow in the Deep-Sea Octocoral Swiftia simplex (Nutting 1909) on the West Coast of the United States

    PubMed Central

    Everett, Meredith V.; Park, Linda K.; Berntson, Ewann A.; Elz, Anna E.; Whitmire, Curt E.; Keller, Aimee A.; Clarke, M. Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Deep-sea corals are a critical component of habitat in the deep-sea, existing as regional hotspots for biodiversity, and are associated with increased assemblages of fish, including commercially important species. Because sampling these species is so difficult, little is known about the connectivity and life history of deep-sea octocoral populations. This study evaluates the genetic connectivity among 23 individuals of the deep-sea octocoral Swiftia simplex collected from Eastern Pacific waters along the west coast of the United States. We utilized high-throughput restriction-site associated DNA (RAD)-tag sequencing to develop the first molecular genetic resource for the deep-sea octocoral, Swiftia simplex. Using this technique we discovered thousands of putative genome-wide SNPs in this species, and after quality control, successfully genotyped 1,145 SNPs across individuals sampled from California to Washington. These SNPs were used to assess putative population structure across the region. A STRUCTURE analysis as well as a principal coordinates analysis both failed to detect any population differentiation across all geographic areas in these collections. Additionally, after assigning individuals to putative population groups geographically, no significant FST values could be detected (FST for the full data set 0.0056), and no significant isolation by distance could be detected (p = 0.999). Taken together, these results indicate a high degree of connectivity and potential panmixia in S. simplex along this portion of the continental shelf. PMID:27798660

  9. Large-Scale Genotyping-by-Sequencing Indicates High Levels of Gene Flow in the Deep-Sea Octocoral Swiftia simplex (Nutting 1909) on the West Coast of the United States.

    PubMed

    Everett, Meredith V; Park, Linda K; Berntson, Ewann A; Elz, Anna E; Whitmire, Curt E; Keller, Aimee A; Clarke, M Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Deep-sea corals are a critical component of habitat in the deep-sea, existing as regional hotspots for biodiversity, and are associated with increased assemblages of fish, including commercially important species. Because sampling these species is so difficult, little is known about the connectivity and life history of deep-sea octocoral populations. This study evaluates the genetic connectivity among 23 individuals of the deep-sea octocoral Swiftia simplex collected from Eastern Pacific waters along the west coast of the United States. We utilized high-throughput restriction-site associated DNA (RAD)-tag sequencing to develop the first molecular genetic resource for the deep-sea octocoral, Swiftia simplex. Using this technique we discovered thousands of putative genome-wide SNPs in this species, and after quality control, successfully genotyped 1,145 SNPs across individuals sampled from California to Washington. These SNPs were used to assess putative population structure across the region. A STRUCTURE analysis as well as a principal coordinates analysis both failed to detect any population differentiation across all geographic areas in these collections. Additionally, after assigning individuals to putative population groups geographically, no significant FST values could be detected (FST for the full data set 0.0056), and no significant isolation by distance could be detected (p = 0.999). Taken together, these results indicate a high degree of connectivity and potential panmixia in S. simplex along this portion of the continental shelf.

  10. Hydrothermal-metasomatic and tectono-metamorphic processes in the Isua supracrustal belt (West Greenland): a multi-isotopic investigation of their effects on the earth's oldest oceanic crustal sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frei, Robert; Rosing, Minik T.; Waight, Tod E.; Ulfbeck, David G.

    2002-02-01

    Despite superimposed metamorphic overprinting and metasomatic alterations, primary volcanic features remain preserved in low-strain domains of mafic volcanic sequences in the western Isua supracrustal belt (ISB, West Greenland). These basaltic successions represent the hitherto oldest known fragments of oceanic crust on Earth. Early Archean metasomatic fluids, rich in light rare earth elements (LREE), Th, U, Pb, Ba, and alkalies, invaded the supracrustal package and distinctively altered the basaltic sequences. Field relationships, source characteristics traced by Pb isotopes, and geochronological results provide indications that these fluids were genetically related to the emplacement of tonalite sheets into the ISB between 3.81 and 3.74 Ga ago. Subsequent early Archean metamorphism homogenized the mixed primary and metasomatic mineral parageneses of these metavolcanic rocks. Allanite occurs as the most characteristic and critical secondary metasomatic-metamorphic phase and is developed in macroscopically discernible zones of increased metsomatic alteration, even in domains of low strain. Because of its high concentration of LREE, Th, and U, this secondary mineral accounts for much of the disturbances recorded by the Sm-Nd and Th-U-Pb isotope systematics of the pillowed metabasalts. The supracrustal sequences were tectono-metamorphically affected to varying degrees during a late Archean, ˜2.6- to 2.8-Ga-old event, also recognized in the adjacent gneiss terranes of the Isuakasia area. The degree to which bulk rocks were isotopically reequilibrated is directly dependent on the different relative contributions of allanite-hosted parent-daughter elements to the overall whole-rock mass budget of the respective isotope systems. Although low-strained (initially only weakly metasomatized) pillow basalts remained more or less closed with respect to the U-Pb and Rb-Sr systems since ˜3.74 Ga, the Sm-Nd system appears to have been partially opened on a whole-rock scale

  11. 7. DETAIL VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF WEST BRIDGE ABUTMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL VIEW OF WEST SIDE OF WEST BRIDGE ABUTMENT AND UNKNOWN STRUCTURE FROM BELOW, FACING NORTHWEST - West Branch Bridge, South Carolina Road S-569 spanning West Branch of Pacolet River, Pacolet, Spartanburg County, SC

  12. West Nile virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... believe West Nile virus is spread when a mosquito bites an infected bird and then bites a ... avoid getting West Nile virus infection after a mosquito bite. People in good health generally do not ...

  13. Sequences in drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Khurdayan, V; Davies, S

    2005-04-01

    Sequences in Drug Discovery is a new series of distinct brief reports on breaking topics in the field of drug R&D. This month's Sequences in Drug Discovery contains the following reports: Spotlight on West Nile virus vaccines. p38alpha MAPK--a dynamic target in rheumatoid arthritis. The need for new contraceptives: targeting PDE3. Vasopeptidase inhibition with a triple mode of action. Current advances in the development of 5-HT(6) receptor antagonists.

  14. America's Historic West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardsley, Donna A.

    Settlers who pushed west over the Great Divide to the shores of the Pacific Ocean found the American West to be an expanse of extreme differences in time, topography, and ways of life. This paper elaborates on several historic sites in the American West. The purpose of the paper is to introduce a series of places to the students and teachers of…

  15. 13. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM THE WEST TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM THE WEST TOWER TO THE MAIN SUSPENSION CABLE WEST ANCHORAGE. February 1987 - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. 7. CLOSER OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST TRUSS AND WEST SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. CLOSER OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST TRUSS AND WEST SIDE OF SOUTH ABUTMENT; VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Mitchell's Mill Bridge, Spanning Winter's Run on Carrs Mill Road, west of Bel Air, Bel Air, Harford County, MD

  17. 110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    110. WEST CHESTNUT STREET PAPTIST CHURCH AT 1725 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, WEST SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  18. 300. VACANT LOTS BETWEEN WEST MADISON ALLEY AND WEST CHESTNUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    300. VACANT LOTS BETWEEN WEST MADISON ALLEY AND WEST CHESTNUT STREET, TOWARD WEST - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  19. 5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. EASTSIDE RESERVOIR, LOOKING WEST. WEST DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, QUARRIES TO LEFT MIDDLE GROUND OF PICTURE. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  20. Dominant simple-shear deformation during peak metamorphism for the lower portion of the Greater Himalayan Sequence in West Nepal: New implications for hybrid channel flow-type mechanisms in the Dolpo region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassi, Chiara

    2015-12-01

    I conducted new vorticity and deformation temperatures studies to test competing models of the exhumation of the mid-crustal rocks exposed in the Dolpo region (West Nepal). My results indicate that the Main Central Thrust is located ∼5 km structurally below the previous mapped locations. Deformation temperature increasing up structural section from ∼450 °C to ∼650 °C and overlap with peak metamorphic temperature indicating that penetrative shearing was responsible for the exhumation of the GHS occurred at "close" to peak metamorphic conditions. I interpreted the telescoping and the inversion of the paleo-isotherms at the base of the GHS as produced mainly by a sub-simple shearing (Wm = 0.88-1) pervasively distributed through the lower portion of the GHS. My results are consistent with hybrid channel flow-type models where the boundary between lower and upper portions of the GHS, broadly corresponding to the tectonometamorphic discontinuity recently documented in west Nepal, represents the limit between buried material, affected by dominant simple shearing, and exhumed material affected by a general flow dominates by pure shearing. This interpretation is consistent with the recent models suggesting the simultaneous operation of channel flow- and critical wedge-type processes at different structural depth.

  1. Recognizing Sequences of Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Kiebel, Stefan J.; von Kriegstein, Katharina; Daunizeau, Jean; Friston, Karl J.

    2009-01-01

    The brain's decoding of fast sensory streams is currently impossible to emulate, even approximately, with artificial agents. For example, robust speech recognition is relatively easy for humans but exceptionally difficult for artificial speech recognition systems. In this paper, we propose that recognition can be simplified with an internal model of how sensory input is generated, when formulated in a Bayesian framework. We show that a plausible candidate for an internal or generative model is a hierarchy of ‘stable heteroclinic channels’. This model describes continuous dynamics in the environment as a hierarchy of sequences, where slower sequences cause faster sequences. Under this model, online recognition corresponds to the dynamic decoding of causal sequences, giving a representation of the environment with predictive power on several timescales. We illustrate the ensuing decoding or recognition scheme using synthetic sequences of syllables, where syllables are sequences of phonemes and phonemes are sequences of sound-wave modulations. By presenting anomalous stimuli, we find that the resulting recognition dynamics disclose inference at multiple time scales and are reminiscent of neuronal dynamics seen in the real brain. PMID:19680429

  2. Geology of North Mountain in eastern West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, S.L. . Dept. of Geology); Lessing, P. ); Kulander, B.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-03-01

    The North Mountain fault is one of the largest overthrusts in the folded Appalachian mountain belt and serves as the boundary between the detached Massanutten-Blue Ridge overthrust sheet (i.e. Great Valley and Blue Ridge) and Valley and Ridge fold structures in eastern West Virginia, northwestern Virginia, west-central maryland and south-central Pennsylvania. Past work has shown the sedimentary rock section on North Mountain and immediately west of the North Mountain fault to consist of an overturned sequence of Upper Ordovician to Middle Devonian strata, with a break thrust on the west side of North Mountain, placing Silurian formations against Devonian strata. Recent 1:24,000 scale mapping by the West Virginia Geological Survey has delineated this break thrust and its continuity from Maryland, through West Virginia and into Frederick County, Virginia. This previously unnamed structure, designated Back Creek fault, formed as a footwall splay from the North Mountain fault complex. The structure of North Mountain is a horse, bounded by the North Mountain fault complex in the Great Valley to the east and Back Creek fault on the west side of North Mountain. The overturned stratigraphic sequence on North Mountain reverses dip on the western flank of the mountain just east of Back Creek in Berkeley County, West Virginia, creating Back Creek syncline. This structure is a classic fault propagation fold, formed by the emplacement of North Mountain fault and extending from Maryland into Frederick County, Virginia.

  3. West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Under the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Public Law 96-368, liquid high-level radioactive waste stored at the Western New York Nuclear Service Center in West Valley, New York, is to be solidified (vitrified) in borosilicate glass and transported to a federal repository for geologic disposal. This waste material resulted from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations conducted between 1966 and 1972. Project costs are shared by the US Department of Energy (90 percent) and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (10 percent). The site on which the Project is located is owned by New York State. This report is an overview of West Valley's plans and accomplishments.

  4. 38. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT WEST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. SECOND FLOOR WEST SIDE APARTMENT WEST BEDROOM INTERIOR SHOWING PAIRED 6-LIGHT OVER 6-LIGHT DOUBLE-HUNG, WOOD-FRAME WINDOWS ON WEST WALL AND OPEN DOORWAY TO LIVING ROOM. VIEW TO WEST. - Lee Vining Creek Hydroelectric System, Triplex Cottage, Lee Vining Creek, Lee Vining, Mono County, CA

  5. West side of the north and west wings of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West side of the north and west wings of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army Corps Recreation & Administration Building, North Hickey Street, west side, 75 feet north of intersection of West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  6. West and south sides of the west wing of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    West and south sides of the west wing of the building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army Corps Recreation & Administration Building, North Hickey Street, west side, 75 feet north of intersection of West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  7. 7. West view of livestock market: west elevation, showing remnants ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. West view of livestock market: west elevation, showing remnants of the 1937 west exterior cattle pens in the center and circa 1970 south exterior pens at the right - Ewing Livestock Market, South side of First Avenue North, 500 feet west of Route 724, Ewing, Lee County, VA

  8. Purge at West Valley

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mack, Warren

    1977-01-01

    Tells how the adviser of the student newspaper at West Valley College (Saratoga, California) was dismissed after the newspaper published stories based on investigations into alleged wrongdoings by administration members. (GW)

  9. West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... strategies visit the MedlinePlus West Nile virus site . Credit: Credit: CDC This is an enlarged view of a ... The End of an Era Acknowledgments References Photo Credits Dr. Joseph Kinyoun: Selected Bibliography NIAID 60th Anniversary ...

  10. West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... you'll be infected with West Nile virus, mosquito bites can still be an itchy nuisance. The CDC advises people to protect themselves from mosquito bites by using mosquito repellent, especially at times ...

  11. West German Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alter, Henry C.

    1969-01-01

    The state of commercial, educational, and instructional television in West Germany is described, with emphasis on the facts that advertiser support has not restricted quality and that public support has not meant government control. (LS)

  12. West Union Green Downtown

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    West Union, Iowa, is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  13. WEST Physics Basis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdelle, C.; Artaud, J. F.; Basiuk, V.; Bécoulet, M.; Brémond, S.; Bucalossi, J.; Bufferand, H.; Ciraolo, G.; Colas, L.; Corre, Y.; Courtois, X.; Decker, J.; Delpech, L.; Devynck, P.; Dif-Pradalier, G.; Doerner, R. P.; Douai, D.; Dumont, R.; Ekedahl, A.; Fedorczak, N.; Fenzi, C.; Firdaouss, M.; Garcia, J.; Ghendrih, P.; Gil, C.; Giruzzi, G.; Goniche, M.; Grisolia, C.; Grosman, A.; Guilhem, D.; Guirlet, R.; Gunn, J.; Hennequin, P.; Hillairet, J.; Hoang, T.; Imbeaux, F.; Ivanova-Stanik, I.; Joffrin, E.; Kallenbach, A.; Linke, J.; Loarer, T.; Lotte, P.; Maget, P.; Marandet, Y.; Mayoral, M. L.; Meyer, O.; Missirlian, M.; Mollard, P.; Monier-Garbet, P.; Moreau, P.; Nardon, E.; Pégourié, B.; Peysson, Y.; Sabot, R.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Schneider, M.; Travère, J. M.; Tsitrone, E.; Vartanian, S.; Vermare, L.; Yoshida, M.; Zagorski, R.; Contributors, JET

    2015-06-01

    With WEST (Tungsten Environment in Steady State Tokamak) (Bucalossi et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 907-12), the Tore Supra facility and team expertise (Dumont et al 2014 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 56 075020) is used to pave the way towards ITER divertor procurement and operation. It consists in implementing a divertor configuration and installing ITER-like actively cooled tungsten monoblocks in the Tore Supra tokamak, taking full benefit of its unique long-pulse capability. WEST is a user facility platform, open to all ITER partners. This paper describes the physics basis of WEST: the estimated heat flux on the divertor target, the planned heating schemes, the expected behaviour of the L-H threshold and of the pedestal and the potential W sources. A series of operating scenarios has been modelled, showing that ITER-relevant heat fluxes on the divertor can be achieved in WEST long pulse H-mode plasmas.

  14. West Europe Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the majority local KGB directors are almost all ethnic Russians. Though Mos- cow is known to appoint ethnic Turks and Muslims as secretaries general...West German in the united Command for Jutland and Schleswig- Holstein . Like the Danes, the West Germans have Leopard tanks, but their armored personnel...Social Democratic Party has changed its position a great deal, for example, on the issue of an advanced defense in Schleswig- Holstein . We do not

  15. Mitogenome revealed multiple postdomestication genetic mixtures of West African sheep.

    PubMed

    Brahi, O H D; Xiang, H; Chen, X; Farougou, S; Zhao, X

    2015-10-01

    Notable diversity observed within African ovine breeds makes them of great interests, but limited studies on genetic origins and domestications remain poorly understood. Here, we investigate the evolutionary status of West African native breeds, Djallonke and Sahelian sheep using mitogenome sequencing. Compared with other ovine mitogenome sequences, West African sheep were revealed a Eurasian origin, and the initially tamed sheep breeds in West Africa have been genetically mixed with each other and mixed with European breeds. Worldwide domestic sheep is deemed the Eurasian origin and migrated west to Europe and Africa and east to the Far East, in which dispersed and received selection for acclimation to autochthonic environment independently and ultimately evolved into different native breeds, respectively. Our results contribute to the comprehensive understanding of the domestic sheep origin and reveal multiple postdomestication genetic amelioration processes.

  16. Charleston folio, West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Campbell, Marius R.

    1901-01-01

    The Charleston quadrangle embraces an area of 938 square miles, extending from latitude 38° on the south to 38°30' to the north, and from longitude 81° 30' on the east to 82° on the west.  The quadrangle is located in the State of West Virginia, including parts of the counties of Kanawha, Boone, Putnam, and Lincoln, and is named from the city of Charleston, which is situated at the junction of Elk and Kanawha rivers, in the north-eastern part of the quadrangle.

  17. 6. West side, details of west truss web and floorbeam ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. West side, details of west truss web and floor-beam bracing by steel plates and steel rod; looking northeast - Bridge No. 92101, Spanning Pike River at County Highway 373, Embarrass, St. Louis County, MN

  18. 51. Third Floor, Lake Forest, west center room, looking west, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Third Floor, Lake Forest, west center room, looking west, part of original Forest Cottage as of 1901. - Lake Placid Club, Forest Wing, East side of Mirror Lake Drive, North of State Route 86 & Main, North Elba, Essex County, NY

  19. VIEW WEST NORTHERN PORTION OF PADDOCK LOCATED WEST OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST - NORTHERN PORTION OF PADDOCK LOCATED WEST OF GRANDSTAND SECTION. WALKING RING TO LEFT OF FRAME AND SUNNY JIM LANE IN BACKGROUND: CD-W. - Hialeah Park Race Track, East Fourth Avenue, Hialeah, Miami-Dade County, FL

  20. 14. WEST ELEVATION OF COAL TOWER No. 2, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. WEST ELEVATION OF COAL TOWER No. 2, LOOKING WEST TO EAST FROM COAL TOWER No. 1 (FLOOR BELOW THE CRANE CONTROL) - Delaware County Electric Company, Chester Station, Delaware River at South end of Ward Street, Chester, Delaware County, PA

  1. INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF VERTICAL LAPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF VERTICAL LAPS PLACED ON ZONE III; ASPHALT ZONE IX) - Honey Run Bridge, Spanning Butte Creek, bypassed section of Honey Run Road (originally Carr Hill Road), Paradise, Butte County, CA

  2. 35. DETAIL VIEW, WEST WINDOW IN WEST ELEVATION GABLE (NOTE: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. DETAIL VIEW, WEST WINDOW IN WEST ELEVATION GABLE (NOTE: THE MOLDED STRINGCOURSE THAT PROJECTS FROM THE BASE OF THE FIRST FLOOR WINDOW ARCH AND VISIBLE WATERTABLE) - Kenworthy Hall, State Highway 14 (Greensboro Road), Marion, Perry County, AL

  3. 7. WEST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM WEST, SHOWING PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. WEST PORTAL AND DECK VIEW, FROM WEST, SHOWING PORTAL CONFIGURATION AND LATERAL BRACING, STEEL MESH FLOOR, AND METAL RAILINGS - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  4. 315. 1730 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, PART OF WEST SIDE, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    315. 1730 WEST CHESTNUT STREET, PART OF WEST SIDE, AND 617, PART OF NORTH SIDE - Russell Neighborhood, Bounded by Congress & Esquire Alley, Fifteenth & Twenty-first Streets, Louisville, Jefferson County, KY

  5. GOES-West Shows U.S. West's Record Rainfall

    NASA Image and Video Library

    A new time-lapse animation of data from NOAA's GOES-West satellite provides a good picture of why the U.S. West Coast continues to experience record rainfall. The new animation shows the movement o...

  6. 22. DETAIL, WEST ABUTMENT AND SHOE, WEST ARCH, UPSTREAM SIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. DETAIL, WEST ABUTMENT AND SHOE, WEST ARCH, UPSTREAM SIDE File photo, Caltrans Office of Structures Maintenance, August, 1953. Photographer unknown. Photocopy of photograph. - San Roque Canyon Bridge, State Highway 192, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. 9. WEST FACE OF OLD THEODOLITE BUILDING; WEST FACE OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. WEST FACE OF OLD THEODOLITE BUILDING; WEST FACE OF EAST PHOTO TOWER IN BACKGROUND - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  8. 20. DETAIL OF WEST ANCHOR SPAN, CANTILEVER ARMS AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL OF WEST ANCHOR SPAN, CANTILEVER ARMS AND WEST HALF OF SUSPENDED SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  9. 9. West elevation, west end of south wing wall, south ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. West elevation, west end of south wing wall, south abutment and south railing panel looking east - Western Maryland Railway Bridge, Spanning Maryland Route 51 at Spring Gap, Cumberland, Allegany County, MD

  10. 10. West elevation, west end of north wing wall, top ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. West elevation, west end of north wing wall, top of north abutment and oblique of railing panels looking northwest - Western Maryland Railway Bridge, Spanning Maryland Route 51 at Spring Gap, Cumberland, Allegany County, MD

  11. 5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View West. West side and rear elevations of c. 1890 first rear addition; partial north rear elevation of c. 1900 side ell addition; and north rear and west side elevation of final rear addition of c. 1940. - Vaughn Chevrolet Building, 101-109 East Main Street, Monongahela, Washington County, PA

  12. Emergence of West Nile virus in West Bengal, India: a new report.

    PubMed

    Khatun, Tanuja; Chatterjee, Shyamalendu

    2017-04-01

    The ICMR virus unit in Kolkata functions as an Appex Referral Laboratory for the detection of dengue (DENV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) infections in the eastern part of India. In spite of efforts for confirmatory diagnosis, some samples remain undiagnosed every year. West Nile virus (WNV) infection may mimic either dengue (flavivirus) or chikungunya (alphavirus) like illness. WNV is endemic in the tropical region where its principal/potential vectors are Aedes and Culex. We explored the existence of WNV within undiagnosed samples to identify the emergence of a new public health problem. Of 1278 sera samples, 574 were negative for DENV and CHIKV either by ELISA or by reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR. Of these 574 negative samples, 83 (14.5%) and 141 (24.56%) were positive for WNV by ELISA and RT-PCR, respectively; no samples were positive for WNV by both methods. After assembling raw sequencing data, partial envelope genome sequence of West Bengal isolates, WNV was compared through BLAST with other WNV Indian strains and 98% homology detected. Phylogenetic analysis of one West Bengal isolates (Accession No. KY421790) and 28 Indian isolates available in GenBank, indicated close clustering. The serological and molecular approaches have clearly established the emergence of WNV in West Bengal. Hence, for proper case management, detection of WNV in common febrile illness is strongly recommended.

  13. State summaries: West Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blake, B.M.; Fedorko, N.; McColloch, G.H.

    2006-01-01

    West Virginia mines coal, limestone, sandstone, gravel, clay and other nonfuel materials. Limestone production figures for 2005 are not yet available but in 2004, limestone production accounted for 85.7% of noncoal production on a tonnage basis. In 2005, 327 coal mines reported production during the year. Underground mining accounted for more than 60% overall production whereas surface mining accounted for 38%.

  14. A West African Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Angela; Davies, Penny

    2003-01-01

    The authors visited Ghana in West Africa to strengthen a link established the previous year as part of Channel 4's "On the Line" project. The initial link established in 1999/2000 was between an all-age special school in Enfield and a similar school in Accra. Over the course of that year further partnerships were created between five UK…

  15. West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread by mosquitoes. Mosquitoes become infected by biting birds that carry the virus. People can get West Nile virus when an infected mosquito bites them. This happens most often in the warm-weather months of spring, summer and early fall. You ...

  16. A West African Link

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Angela; Davies, Penny

    2003-01-01

    The authors visited Ghana in West Africa to strengthen a link established the previous year as part of Channel 4's "On the Line" project. The initial link established in 1999/2000 was between an all-age special school in Enfield and a similar school in Accra. Over the course of that year further partnerships were created between five UK…

  17. West Virginia and SREB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Regional Education Board (SREB), 2009

    2009-01-01

    The Southern Regional Education Board (SREB) is a nonprofit organization that works collaboratively with West Virginia and 15 other member states to improve education at every level--from pre-K to postdoctoral study--through many effective programs and initiatives. SREB's "Challenge to Lead" Goals for Education, which call for the region…

  18. West Virginia baseline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardi, V. P.; Baer, C.; Graham, A.; Hall, T.; Rankin, D.; Sweet, T. J.

    1981-04-01

    Baseline information on West Virginia is provided. The topics covered are terrestrial ecology, aquatic ecology, geology and climatology, socioeconomics, and a legal analysis of institutional accountability. The hydrology, water quality, endangered species, and clean streams of five river basins are described.

  19. West Indian Gallery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsaran, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews the poetry of Derek Walcott, a native of the West Indies, whose new volume 'Another Life' more resembles the poet-artists commentary on a gallery of scenes and portraits in Melvin Tolson's 'The Harlem Gallery' than anything else that has come from the English speaking Caribbean in the post-war period. (Author/JM)

  20. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Related Links Mosquito Surveillance Software General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... numbers of West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod- ...

  1. Genome Sequencing.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mansi; Kulshrestha, Samarth; Puri, Ayush

    2017-01-01

    Genome sequencing is an important step toward correlating genotypes with phenotypic characters. Sequencing technologies are important in many fields in the life sciences, including functional genomics, transcriptomics, oncology, evolutionary biology, forensic sciences, and many more. The era of sequencing has been divided into three generations. First generation sequencing involved sequencing by synthesis (Sanger sequencing) and sequencing by cleavage (Maxam-Gilbert sequencing). Sanger sequencing led to the completion of various genome sequences (including human) and provided the foundation for development of other sequencing technologies. Since then, various techniques have been developed which can overcome some of the limitations of Sanger sequencing. These techniques are collectively known as "Next-generation sequencing" (NGS), and are further classified into second and third generation technologies. Although NGS methods have many advantages in terms of speed, cost, and parallelism, the accuracy and read length of Sanger sequencing is still superior and has confined the use of NGS mainly to resequencing genomes. Consequently, there is a continuing need to develop improved real time sequencing techniques. This chapter reviews some of the options currently available and provides a generic workflow for sequencing a genome.

  2. West Candor Chasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    During its examination of Mars, the Viking 1 spacecraft returned images of Valles Marineris, a huge canyon system 5,000 km long, up to 240 km wide, and 6.5 km deep, whose connected chasma or valleys may have formed from a combination of erosional collapse and structural activity. The view shows west Candor Chasma, one of the connected valleys of Valles Marineris; north toward top of frame. The image is a composite of Viking high-resolution (about 80 m/pixel or picture element) images in black and white and low resolution (about 250 m/pixel) images in color. The Viking 1 craft landed on Mars in July of 1976. West Candor Chasma occupies the westernmost part of the large west-northwest-trending trough of Candor Chasma. This section is about 150 km wide. West Candor Chasma is bordered on the north and south by straight-walled cliffs, most likely faults, and on its west by two segments of north-northeast-trending cliffs. The north wall is dissected by landslide scars forming reentrants filled with landslide debris. The south wall shows spur-and-gully morphology and smooth sections. The high-standing central mesa, informally dubbed Red Mesa has several curvilinear reentrants carved into the caprock, whose anomalously colored layers were interpreted to be caused by young hydrothermal alteration products (Geissler et al., 1993, Icarus, v. 106, p. 380-391). Light-colored lobes flow away from the top of the interior stack and then flow around and embay the same layered stack from which they originated. One of these apparent flow features is composed of at least two or perhaps even three huge, superposed, vaguely layered, very rugged, light-colored lobes as much as 100 km long, 20 km wide, and over 2 km thick. The layered deposits below the caprock also merge with a chaotic material that has local lobate fronts and overlaps landslide deposits. Hummocky material, similar in hue to wall rock, fills the southwestern-most region of west Candor Chasma and is perhaps as much as 3

  3. West Virginia Forests 2013

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Susan J. Crocker; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Tonya W. Lister; William G. Luppold; William H. McWilliams; Patrick D. Miles; Mark D. Nelson; Charles H. (Hobie) Perry; Ronald J. Piva; James E. Smith; Jim Westfall; Richard H. Widmann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2016-01-01

    The annual inventory of West Virginia's forests, completed in 2013, covers nearly 12.2 million acres of forest land with an average volume of more than 2,300 cubic feet per acre. This report is based data collected from 2,808 plots located across the State. Forest land is dominated by the oak/hickory forest-type group, which occupies 74 percent of total forest...

  4. West Virginia's Forests 2008

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann; Gregory W. Cook; Charles J. Barnett; Brett J. Butler; Douglas M. Griffith; Mark A. Hatfield; Cassandra M. Kurtz; Randall S. Morin; W. Keith Moser; Charles H. Perry; Ronald J. Piva; Rachel Riemann; Christopher W. Woodall

    2012-01-01

    The first full annual inventory of West Virginia's forests reports 12.0 million acres of forest land or 78 percent of the State's land area. The area of forest land has changed little since 2000. Of this land, 7.2 million acres (60 percent) are held by family forest owners. The current growing-stock inventory is 25 billion cubic feet--12 percent more than in...

  5. West and Central Africa.

    PubMed

    Lydie, N; Robinson, N J

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews scientific and other literature during the 1990s that links migration and mobility with the spread of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including HIV/AIDS. The focus is on key population groups linked to the spread of HIV and STDs in West and Central Africa: migrant laborers, truck drivers, itinerant traders, commercial sex workers (CSWs), and refugees. Countries with high emigration and immigration tend to have high levels of HIV infection, with the exception of Senegal. The main destination of immigrants are Senegal, Nigeria, and Cote d'Ivoire in West Africa and Cameroon, Congo, Gabon, and Congo in Central Africa. The risk of infection and the spread of HIV is variable among migrants. There is little in the literature that substantiates hypotheses about the strong association between migration and HIV-positive status. Information is needed on the duration, frequency of return visits, living conditions, sexual activities with multiple partners, and information before departure, along the routes, at final destination, and at the time of returns. Action-based research in five West African countries (Burkina Faso, Cote d'Ivoire, Mali, Niger, and Senegal) should produce results in late 1998. Comparable studies in Central Africa are unknown. Regional studies should be complemented by local studies. Prevention would benefit from studies on the relative size of these five population groups by geographic location.

  6. Drought in West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  7. Drought in West Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Drought settled over West Africa's Ivory Coast region when wet season rains came late in 2007. Instead of beginning in February, the rainy season didn't start until March, and steady rains didn't start until late March, said the Famine Early Warning System Network. Though the rain had started to alleviate the drought, vegetation was still depressed in parts of Cote d'Ivoire (Ivory Coast) between March 22 and April 6, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured the data used to make this image. The image shows current vegetation conditions compared to average conditions recorded since 2000. Areas where plants are growing more slowly or more sparsely than average are brown, while areas where vegetation is denser than average are green. The brown tint that dominates the image indicates that plants through most of the country are more sparse than normal. Among the crops affected by the lack of rain was West Africa's cocoa crop. About 70 percent of the world's cocoa comes from West Africa, and Cote d'Ivoire is a top grower, said Reuters. Cocoa prices climbed as the crop fell short. Farmers called the drought the worst in living memory, Reuters said. The delay in rainfall also led to water shortages in parts of Cote d'Ivoire, according to the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs.

  8. Genomic Characterization of Nipah Virus, West Bengal, India

    PubMed Central

    Bandyopadhyay, Bhaswati T.; Ramdasi, Ashwini Y.; Jadi, Ramesh; Patil, Dilip R.; Rahman, Mehebubar; Majumdar, Monalisa; Banerjee, Parthasarthi S.; Hati, Amiyakumar K.; Goswami, Ramaprasad P.; Neogi, Dhruba Kumar; Mishra, Akhilesh C.

    2011-01-01

    An intrafamilial outbreak in West Bengal, India, involving 5 deaths and person-to-person transmission was attributed to Nipah virus. Full-genome sequence of Nipah virus (18,252 nt) amplified from lung tissue showed 99.2% nt and 99.8% aa identity with the Bangladesh-2004 isolate, suggesting a common source of the virus. PMID:21529409

  9. West Nile virus infection in killer whale, Texas, USA, 2007.

    PubMed

    St Leger, Judy; Wu, Guang; Anderson, Mark; Dalton, Les; Nilson, Erika; Wang, David

    2011-08-01

    In 2007, nonsuppurative encephalitis was identified in a killer whale at a Texas, USA, marine park. Panviral DNA microarray of brain tissue suggested West Nile virus (WNV); WNV was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated WNV antigen within neurons. WNV should be considered in cases of encephalitis in cetaceans.

  10. West Nile Virus Infection in Killer Whale, Texas, USA, 2007

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guang; Anderson, Mark; Dalton, Les; Nilson, Erika; Wang, David

    2011-01-01

    In 2007, nonsuppurative encephalitis was identified in a killer whale at a Texas, USA, marine park. Panviral DNA microarray of brain tissue suggested West Nile virus (WNV); WNV was confirmed by reverse transcription PCR and sequencing. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated WNV antigen within neurons. WNV should be considered in cases of encephalitis in cetaceans. PMID:21801643

  11. West Hackberry Tertiary Project

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth Haley; Travis Gillham; Demetrios Yannimaras

    1999-03-31

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can be combined with the Double Displacement Process to produce a tertiary recovery process that is both low cost and economic at current oil prices. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil by gravity drainage. In reservoirs with pronounced bed dip such as those found in West Hackberry and other Gulf Coast salt dome fields, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while waterdrive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery in the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% waterdrive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. In previous field tests, the Double Displacement Process has proven successful in generating tertiary oil recovery. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air's low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for accelerated oil recovery from the combustion process. If successful, this project will demonstrate that utilizing air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in reservoirs (such as Gulf Coast salt dome reservoirs) where any other tertiary process is presently uneconomic. Air injection on the West Hank began in November of 1994. Although West Flank air injection has increased reservoir pressure by 500 pounds per square inch (psi), production response has not yet occurred. The gas cap on the West Flank has not expanded sufficiently to push the oil rim down to the nearest down structure well. Cumulative injection to date is 1.6 BCF, only approximately 50% of the projected volume required to establish oil production response. Additional air injection is required to further expand the gas cap and thereby

  12. Niobium content of soils from West Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grimaldi, F.S.; Berger, I.A.

    1961-01-01

    Analysis of twenty lateritic soil samples from West Africa has shown them to contain an average 24 p.p.m. of niobium; four similar samples taken from within a few miles from a niobium deposit contain from 79 to 87 p.p.m. niobium. It has been shown that as the aluminum content of the soils increases, the following depletion sequence is obtained: Si > Nb > Al = Fe The data indicate that, in general, high enrichments of niobium are not to be expected in lateritic soils. ?? 1961.

  13. Oceanography of West Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Bemiasa

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Along selected hydrographical transects, a total of 182 CTD stations were conducted and ranged to a maximum of 3000 m depth. Water samples were also collected with Niskin bottles at predefined depths. A Seabird 911plus CTD was used to obtain vertical profiles of temperature, salinity and oxygen. As results, along the west and south coast of Madagascar, the shelf is narrow and widen slightly along the north-west coast. In all ten transects the isotherms showed stratified waters from the coast to offshore. A maximum salinity layer was observed at subsurface in all transects. Dissolved oxygen had a maximum at around 500 m depth in all transects. Low fluorescence values were observed in the upper 150-200 m, with maximum values in the range of 0.14-0.22 µg/l at intermediate layers. The conditions were consistent along and between the transects, with more variation observed at transect 9. No upwelling was observed along the western coast. The surface temperature (5 m depth) increased from 22°C in the south to 26°C in the north. The horizontal distribution of surface salinities showed homogenous conditions with values between 35.4psu (south) and 35.0 psu (north). Also starting from the coast to offshore, both the surface temperatures and surface salinities showed homogenous patterns.

  14. WEST ELK WILDERNESS, COLORADO.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gaskill, D.L.; Meeves, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral surveys of the West Elk Wilderness and adjacent areas were conducted and included geologic mapping, geochemical sampling, geophysical studies, and an investigation of mines and prospects. Areas with substantiated mineral-resource potential for bituminous coal with 75 million tons of demonstrated reserves and areas with probable mineral-resource potential for base and precious metals associated with igneous intrusions of Tertiary age were identified in this study. There is little promise for the discovery of oil and gas resources in the area.

  15. JPRS Report, West Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    in French 24 Jun 87 p 2 [Article by Ch. B.] [Text] A crisis? In the PSC? You’re dreaming . Or else you are seeking to destroy stability in the...partners. The ups and downs of recent weeks have done him harm, and it said that he dreams of distancing himself somewhat. If only Willy De Clercq were...a lucid and objective account of his subject matter. It is still quite common for more or less well-informed West Europeans to use the term

  16. West Arabia Barchans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    16 July 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows small barchan dunes on the floor of a crater in western Arabia Terra. Similar dunes are found in most of the larger craters of the region. The steepest slopes on these dunes, their slipfaces, point toward the west-southwest, indicating that dominant winds blow from the east-northeast (upper right).

    Location near: 10.9oN, 2.8oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Northern Autumn

  17. West Desert Pumping Project

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    office 0 ELECTE Salt Lake City, Utah JA 0 6 1994 July, 1986 A document ens n appo for ublic relleeasse cand ssa1 its V4 awn% Ita MI II United States...Department of the Interior BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT SALT LAKE DISTRICT OFFICE2370 Sot 23 West 1792 Salt L~e City. Utah $4119 (U-022) Dear Reader...1labIrv’y -’odes Aka-l e;,d or Prepared By Dist BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR DTK•••D Q’AJATY INSPECTED 8 UTAH STATE DIRECTOR 94 1, 5

  18. West Philly Hybrid X Team

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-06-06

    NASA Chief Technologist Bobby Braun sits in the West Philly X Prize hybrid sports car as Sowande Gay, a student member of the West Philly Hybrid Team at West Philadelphia High School, explains the modifications made to the car, in Philadelphia, Monday, June 7, 2010. The prize-winning West Philly Hybrid X Team has drawn international recognition as the only high school among 22 finalists in the Progressive Insurance Automotive X Prize (PIAXP) competition to develop cars that achieve over 100 MPG. Photo Credit: (NASA/Bill Ingalls)

  19. West Hackberry Tertiary Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gillham, Travis; Yannimaras, Demetrios

    1999-11-03

    The West Hackberry Tertiary Project is a field test of the concept that air injection can generate tertiary oil recovery through the Double Displacement Process. The Double Displacement Process is the gas displacement of a water invaded oil column for the purpose of recovering tertiary oil through gravity drainage. The novel aspect of this project is the use of air as the injection fluid. In Gulf Coast oil reservoirs with pronounced bed dip, reservoir performance has shown that gravity drainage recoveries average 80% to 90% of the original oil in place while water drive recoveries average 50% to 60% of the original oil in place. The target for tertiary oil recovery with the Double Displacement Process is the incremental oil between the 50% to 60% water drive recoveries and the 80% to 90% gravity drainage recoveries. The use of air injection in this process combines the benefits of air's low cost and universal accessibility with the potential for improved oil recovery resulting from spontaneous in situ combustion. If successful, this project will demonstrate that utilizing air injection in the Double Displacement Process will result in an economically viable tertiary process in many Gulf Coast oil reservoirs where other tertiary processes are presently uneconomic. The West Hackberry Tertiary Project receives matching funds from the United States Department of Energy (DOE) as part of the DOE's Class 1 Program for the development of advance recovery technologies in fluvial dominated deltaic reservoirs. In addition, the Petroleum Engineering Department at Louisiana State University (LSU) provides independent study and technology transfer.

  20. 42. WEST TO CIRCA 1900 JOINER ALONG WEST INTERIOR WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. WEST TO CIRCA 1900 JOINER ALONG WEST INTERIOR WALL OF FACTORY, BEHIND WHICH ARE MOUNTED JIGS AND PATTERNS FOR WINDMILL AND STEEL WATER TANK CONSTRUCTION, AS WELL AS THIN SHEET STEEL STENCILS USED FOR MARKING PRODUCTS WITH PAINT. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  1. 18. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM WEST. WEST CRUDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW OF CRUDE ORE BINS FROM WEST. WEST CRUDE ORE BIN AND TRESTLE FROM TWO JOHNS TRAMLINE TO SOUTH, CRUDE ORE BIN IN FOREGROUND. MACHINE SHOP IN BACKGROUND. THE TRAM TO PORTLAND PASSED TO NORTH OF MACHINE SHOP. - Bald Mountain Gold Mill, Nevada Gulch at head of False Bottom Creek, Lead, Lawrence County, SD

  2. 29. VIEW SHOWING WEST APPROACH OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST. No ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. VIEW SHOWING WEST APPROACH OF BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST. No date. (The field welding was by the Teleweld Corporation of Chicago, with four Lincoln welders from Tuesday, April 19 to Monday, May 16, 1949. 528 man hours of welders' time) - Benton Street Bridge, Spanning Iowa River at Benton Street, Iowa City, Johnson County, IA

  3. 8. WEST DAM, LOOKING DUE NORTH OVER TOP OF WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. WEST DAM, LOOKING DUE NORTH OVER TOP OF WEST DAM, SHOWING RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OUTLET TO RIGHT OF DAM, NEW PUMP PLANT BUILDING AND CANAL TO LEFT OF DAM. - Eastside Reservoir, Diamond & Domenigoni Valleys, southwest of Hemet, Hemet, Riverside County, CA

  4. 87. DETAIL OF THE WEST WALL OF THE WEST WING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    87. DETAIL OF THE WEST WALL OF THE WEST WING. SHOWS CONCRETE AND WOODEN WINDOWS. DRIP CAST IN THE EAVES. AND SEA OF DARKNESS TILE MOSAIC SET IN THE WALL. SAME VIEW AS PA-107-14. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  5. 14. DETAIL OF THE WEST WALL OF THE WEST WING. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. DETAIL OF THE WEST WALL OF THE WEST WING. SHOWS CONCRETE AND WOODED WINDOWS, DRIP CAST IN THE EAVES, AND SEA OF DARKNESS TILE MOSAIC SET IN THE WALL. - Moravian Pottery & Tile Works, Southwest side of State Route 313 (Swamp Road), Northwest of East Court Street, Doylestown, Bucks County, PA

  6. 66. View of west Woodstock Valley, looking west from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. View of west Woodstock Valley, looking west from the south peak Carriage Road loop, in Billings Park (town of Woodstock). The view includes a rustic log bench. The distant valley meadows at left contain the Riverside Cemetery extension, and the Woodstock Union High School. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  7. 34. View of west Woodstock Valley, looking west from the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. View of west Woodstock Valley, looking west from the south peak Carriage Road loop, in Billings Park (town of Woodstock). The view includes a rustic log bench. The distant valley meadows at left contain the Riverside Cemetery extension, and the Woodstock Union High School. - Marsh-Billings-Rockefeller National Historical Park, 54 Elm Street, Woodstock, Windsor County, VT

  8. 37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. WEST REAR OF POWERHOUSE AND CAR BARN: West rear of powerhouse and car barn, showing the turntable and tracks used to move cars in and out of the building's repair and storage area. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. Sequence landscapes.

    PubMed Central

    Clift, B; Haussler, D; McConnell, R; Schneider, T D; Stormo, G D

    1986-01-01

    We describe a method for representing the structure of repeating sequences in nucleic-acids, proteins and other texts. A portion of the sequence is presented at the bottom of a CRT screen. Above the sequence is its landscape, which looks like a mountain range. Each mountain corresponds to a subsequence of the sequence. At the peak of every mountain is written the number of times that the subsequence appears. A data structure called a DAWG, which can be built in time proportional to the length of the sequence, is used to construct the landscape. For the 40 thousand bases of bacteriophage T7, the DAWG can be built in 30 seconds. The time to display any portion of the landscape is less than a second. Using sequence landscapes, one can quickly locate significant repeats. PMID:3753762

  10. Forests of West Virginia, 2013

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann

    2014-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of the forest resources in West Virginia based upon inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. Information about the FIA program is available online at http://fia.fs.fed.us. Since 2004, FIA has implemented an annual inventory in West Virginia. For...

  11. Sequencing technologies and genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Pareek, Chandra Shekhar; Smoczynski, Rafal; Tretyn, Andrzej

    2011-11-01

    The high-throughput - next generation sequencing (HT-NGS) technologies are currently the hottest topic in the field of human and animals genomics researches, which can produce over 100 times more data compared to the most sophisticated capillary sequencers based on the Sanger method. With the ongoing developments of high throughput sequencing machines and advancement of modern bioinformatics tools at unprecedented pace, the target goal of sequencing individual genomes of living organism at a cost of $1,000 each is seemed to be realistically feasible in the near future. In the relatively short time frame since 2005, the HT-NGS technologies are revolutionizing the human and animal genome researches by analysis of chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to DNA microarray (ChIP-chip) or sequencing (ChIP-seq), RNA sequencing (RNA-seq), whole genome genotyping, genome wide structural variation, de novo assembling and re-assembling of genome, mutation detection and carrier screening, detection of inherited disorders and complex human diseases, DNA library preparation, paired ends and genomic captures, sequencing of mitochondrial genome and personal genomics. In this review, we addressed the important features of HT-NGS like, first generation DNA sequencers, birth of HT-NGS, second generation HT-NGS platforms, third generation HT-NGS platforms: including single molecule Heliscope™, SMRT™ and RNAP sequencers, Nanopore, Archon Genomics X PRIZE foundation, comparison of second and third HT-NGS platforms, applications, advances and future perspectives of sequencing technologies on human and animal genome research.

  12. Geothermal investigations in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Hendry, R.; Hilfiker, K.; Hodge, D.; Morgan, P.; Swanberg, C.; Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1982-11-01

    Deep sedimentary basins and warm-spring systems in West Virginia are potential geothermal resources. A temperature gradient map based on 800 bottom-hole temperatures for West Virginia shows that variations of temperature gradient trend northeasterly, parallel to regional structure. Highest temperature gradient values of about 28/sup 0/C/km occur in east-central West Virginia, and the lowest gradients (18/sup 0/C/km) are found over the Rome Trough. Results from ground-water geochemistry indicate that the warm waters circulate in very shallow aquifers and are subject to seasonal temperature fluctuations. Silica heat-flow data in West Virginia vary from about 0.89 to 1.4 HFU and generally increase towards the west. Bouguer, magnetic, and temperature gradient profiles suggest that an ancient rift transects the state and is the site of several deep sedimentary basins.

  13. Ebola in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-03-15

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can't withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease.

  14. West of Meridiani

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    7 January 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows an eroded landscape occurring west of Sinus Meridiani, the region in which the Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity, landed nearly a year ago. The bedrock at this location is buried beneath a mantle of dust, sand, and granules, but remnants of younger layers of bedrock now stand high in the form of buttes in the lower right quarter of the image. The two circular mesas were once meteor impact craters. They were filled, buried, and fossilized within the rock, then later exhumed. This scene is located near 1.5oN, 6.2oW. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across, and is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  15. Ebola in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Raka, Lul; Guardo, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Ebola viral disease (EVD) is a severe and life-threatening disease. The current Ebola outbreak in West Africa entered its second year and is unprecedented because it is the largest one in history, involved urban centers and affected a large number of health care workers. It quickly escalated from medical into a humanitarian, social, economic, and security crisis. The primary pillars to prevent EVD are: early diagnosis, isolation of patients, contact tracing and monitoring, safe burials, infection prevention and control and social mobilization. The implementation of all these components was challenged in the field. Key lessons from this Ebola outbreak are that countries with weak health care systems can’t withstand the major outbreaks; preparedness to treat the first confirmed cases is a national emergency; all control measures must be coordinated together and community engagement is the great factor to combat this disease. PMID:27275217

  16. West Candor Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    11 December 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows light-toned, layered, sedimentary rock exposures in western Candor Chasma, part of the vast Valles Marineris trough system. Most of west Candor's interior includes exposures of layered rock with very few superimposed impact craters. The rock may be very ancient, but the lack of craters suggests that the erosion of these materials is on-going.

    Location near: 6.3oS, 76.0oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: lower left Season: Southern Summer

  17. West Nile Virus

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Shannan L.; Ross, Ted M.; Evans, Jared D.

    2010-01-01

    Overview Since its isolation in Uganda in 1937, West Nile virus (WNV) has been responsible for thousands of cases of morbidity and mortality in birds, horses, and humans. Historically, epidemics were localized to Europe, Africa, the Middle East, and parts of Asia, and primarily caused a mild febrile illness in humans. However, in the late 1990’s, the virus became more virulent and expanded its geographical range to North America. In humans, the clinical presentation ranges from asymptomatic (approximately 80% of infections) to encephalitis/paralysis and death (less than 1% of infections). There is no FDA-licensed vaccine for human use, and the only recommended treatment is supportive care. Individuals that survive infection often have a long recovery period. This article will review the current literature summarizing the molecular virology, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, immunology, and protective measures against WNV and WNV infections in humans. PMID:20513541

  18. FAQ: West Nile Virus and Dead Birds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education Public Service Videos West Nile Virus & Dead Birds Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On This ... dead bird sightings to local authorities. How do birds get infected with West Nile virus? West Nile ...

  19. Sample sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Prange, C.

    1994-04-01

    The goal of the Human Genome Project is to sequence all 3 billion basepairs of human DNA. At Lawrence Livermore Lab, attention is focused on Chromosome 19, which has been estimated to contain approximately 2000 genes. So far, only 200 have been mapped to specific areas on the chromosome. For this reason, a simple method is needed to predict the most likely locations of the coding regions in the DNA. In addition, there is also a need for unique market sites (STS`s) along the chromosome. Sample sequencing uses standard cloning techniques to prepare DNA for sequencing. Once sequence is obtained, it is analyzed using databases to predict the regions most likely to contain genes. All sequences may also be used to generate STS`s. So far, 21 fragments from five different clones have been completely sequenced, with fragments from eight more clones in progress. Constant improvement of methods to increase efficiency and accuracy combined with utilization of the most current databases available make sample sequencing a useful tool for reaching the goals of the Human Genome Project.

  20. Dna Sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Tabor, Stanley; Richardson, Charles C.

    1995-04-25

    A method for sequencing a strand of DNA, including the steps off: providing the strand of DNA; annealing the strand with a primer able to hybridize to the strand to give an annealed mixture; incubating the mixture with four deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates, a DNA polymerase, and at least three deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates in different amounts, under conditions in favoring primer extension to form nucleic acid fragments complementory to the DNA to be sequenced; labelling the nucleic and fragments; separating them and determining the position of the deoxyribonucleoside triphosphates by differences in the intensity of the labels, thereby to determine the DNA sequence.

  1. Zooplankton of West Madagascar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemiasa, John; Remanevy, Sitraka

    2014-05-01

    During six week survey (August - October 2009) in Western and Northern coast of Madagascar, the R/V 'Dr. Fridtjof Nansen' has carried out a study of the pelagic ecosystem. In collaboration with Agulhas & Somali Current Large Marine Ecosystems project (ASCLME) and South West Indian Ocean Fisheries Project (SWIOFP), the aim of the survey was to establish the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the Western Madagascar shelf region as a whole. Zooplankton samples were collected with Hydrobios Multinet at all environmental stations ranging from 200 m depth to the surface. The Multinet was equipped with 5 nets for depth-stratified sampling. The nets were fitted with 180 µm mesh size and the water flow through the nets was measured. The Multinet was deployed and retrieved at a rate of ~ 1.5 m per second and was obliquely hauled. The five nets were triggered at the pre-selected depth intervals 0-25m, 25-50m, 50-80m, 80-120m and 120-200m. All samples were stored in marked bottles and preserved with buffered formaldehyde of 4% for further analysis. As results,the zooplankton abundance was influenced by physico-chemical factors. During the study period 34 Family of zooplankton were identified which are dominated by Copepoda (58,69%) followed by Radiolaria (12,06%), Appendicularia (6,47%), Sagitta (5,11%), Larvae (4,57%), Ostracoda (3,13%), pelagic Foraminifera (2,15%). Family of zooplankton with abundance <1% were also recorded, namely Salpidae (0,94%), Euphausiacea (0,44%), Tintinnidae (0,39%), Annélidae Polychètes (0,34%), Mysidacea (0,21%), Ptéropodae (0,13%). Highest number of zooplankton were found at the depth below the maximum of fluorescence during the day. Copepods distribution depends on site and depth. During this study, the number of identified species is always superior to 50 for all sampling sites. The findings of the present study will help to improve the scientific knowledge of the marine ecosystem of the west coast of Madagascar.

  2. 46. View looking west, toward west gate. Planks were laid ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. View looking west, toward west gate. Planks were laid in the mud (center left) so that visitors could view the inside of the south, forebay crib and examine the unusual right-handed counter foil. A visiting engineer perceived this as quite 'modern'. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  3. 51. WEST ACROSS CLUTTER TO WEST WALL OF WELLSERVICE SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. WEST ACROSS CLUTTER TO WEST WALL OF WELL-SERVICE SHED ADDITION ON REAR OF FACTORY BUILDING. AT LOWER RIGHT FOREGROUND IS 1960S PICKUP TRUCK, THE LAST MOTOR VEHICLE USED IN WELL SERVICE BY THE KREGEL WINDMILL COMPANY. MOST OF THE OBJECTS VISIBLE IN THIS VIEW ARE CLUTTER NOT RELATED TO THE WELL SERVICE BUSINESS. - Kregel Windmill Company Factory, 1416 Central Avenue, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  4. [West Nile virus infection].

    PubMed

    Pérez Ruiz, Mercedes; Gámez, Sara Sanbonmatsu; Clavero, Miguel Angel Jiménez

    2011-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is an arbovirus usually transmitted by mosquitoes. The main reservoirs are birds, although the virus may infect several vertebrate species, such as horses and humans. Up to 80% of human infections are asymptomatic. The most frequent clinical presentation is febrile illness, and neuroinvasive disease can occur in less than 1% of cases. Spain is considered a high-risk area for the emergence of WNV due to its climate and the passage of migratory birds from Africa (where the virus is endemic). These birds nest surrounding wetlands where populations of possible vectors for the virus are abundant. Diagnosis of human neurological infections can be made by detection of IgM in serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid samples, demonstration of a four-fold increase in IgG antibodies between acute-phase and convalescent-phase serum samples, or by detection of viral genome by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (especially useful in transplant recipients). Since WNV is a biosafety level 3 agent, techniques that involve cell culture are restricted to laboratories with this level of biosafety, such as reference laboratories. The National Program for the Surveillance of WNV Encephalitis allows the detection of virus circulation among birds and vectors in areas especially favorable for the virus, such as wetlands, and provides information for evaluation of the risk of disease in horses and humans.

  5. GeoPowering the West

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-02-01

    Summary brochure of GeoPowering the West (GPW) activities, and areas of technology transfer and market transformation. It also provides current contact information for key DOE and national laboratory staff representing the GPW program.

  6. Mental Status after West Nile Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sadek, Joseph; Pergam, Steven; Echevarria, Leonor A.; Davis, Larry E.; Goade, Diane; Harnar, Joanne; Nofchissey, Robert A.; Sewel, C. Mack; Ettestad, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Mental status after acute West Nile virus infection has not been examined objectively. We compared Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status scores of 116 patients with West Nile fever or West Nile neuroinvasive disease. Mental status was poorer and cognitive complaints more frequent with West Nile neuroinvasive disease (p = 0.005). PMID:16965710

  7. 21 CFR 808.98 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false West Virginia. 808.98 Section 808.98 Food and... and Local Exemptions § 808.98 West Virginia. (a) The following West Virginia medical device... has exempted them from preemption: West Virginia Code, sections 30-26-14 (b) and (c) and section 30-26...

  8. Sedimentary sequence evolution in a Foredeep basin: Eastern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Bejarano, C.; Funes, D.; Sarzalho, S.; Audemard, F.; Flores, G.

    1996-08-01

    Well log-seismic sequence stratigraphy analysis in the Eastern Venezuela Foreland Basin leads to study of the evolution of sedimentary sequences onto the Cretaceous-Paleocene passive margin. This basin comprises two different foredeep sub-basins: The Guarico subbasin to the west, older, and the Maturin sub-basin to the east, younger. A foredeep switching between these two sub-basins is observed at 12.5 m.y. Seismic interpretation and well log sections across the study area show sedimentary sequences with transgressive sands and coastal onlaps to the east-southeast for the Guarico sub-basin, as well as truncations below the switching sequence (12.5 m.y.), and the Maturin sub-basin shows apparent coastal onlaps to the west-northwest, as well as a marine onlap (deeper water) in the west, where it starts to establish. Sequence stratigraphy analysis of these sequences with well logs allowed the study of the evolution of stratigraphic section from Paleocene to middle Miocene (68.0-12.0 m.y.). On the basis of well log patterns, the sequences were divided in regressive-transgressive-regressive sedimentary cycles caused by changes in relative sea level. Facies distributions were analyzed and the sequences were divided into simple sequences or sub- sequences of a greater frequencies than third order depositional sequences.

  9. Complete Genome Sequence of an Ebola Virus Isolate Imported from Sierra Leone to Germany Determined by Circle Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Mengel, Jan Philipp; Lissin, Artur; Biedenkopf, Nadine; Schultze, Tilman; Mannala, Gopala Krishna; Schudt, Gordian; Kann, Gerrit; Wolf, Timo; Eickmann, Markus; Becker, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    We report here a complete genome sequence of Ebola virus Makona from a nonfatal patient sample that originated in Sierra Leone during the last Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa (species Zaire ebolavirus) using a highly accurate circle sequencing (Cir-seq) method. PMID:27795234

  10. South side to the west of CO172BU5, west of corridor ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South side to the west of CO-172-BU-5, west of corridor connecting to building 511. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Administration Building, Southeast Corner of West McAfee Avenue & South Eighth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  11. How the West Was Warmed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoerling, M.; Eischeid, J.

    2006-05-01

    Is the West getting warmer? To be sure, the summer of 2005 was one of record heat in the West, and recent period of western US drought during 1998-2004 was also accompanied by unusual warmth. But warm conditions accompanied the Dust Bowl era of the 1930s and the 1950s. The question remains open whether recent western warming has been part of a externally forced climate trend, or whether other processes have been at play like urbanization or the inherent natural fluctuations of climate paterns? We perform analysis of the Fourth Assessment coupled ocean-atmosphere models for the period 1895-2005, together with atmospheric general circulation model experiments. These reveal that the recent warming of the West has very likely been a consequence of increasing greenhouse gases. In fact, no single member of 40 availabl GHG-forced simulations failed to warm the West during the past century. We further show that a warming of the tropical oceanic warm pool regions, itself a greenhouse gas forced response, has been a major contributor to the warming of the West since 1970.

  12. 51. View looking west, toward the west bay of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. View looking west, toward the west bay of the lock. A derrick parked on a bench adjacent to U.S. 24 lowers its harness for the raising of a crib back wall section. The flat bed truck used to transport the timbers to the holding tank can be seen in the background, to the right, beyond the crane. - Wabash & Erie Canal, Lock No. 2, 8 miles east of Fort Wayne, adjacent to U.S. Route 24, New Haven, Allen County, IN

  13. MSLICE Sequencing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crockett, Thomas M.; Joswig, Joseph C.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Norris, Jeffrey S.; Morris, John R.

    2011-01-01

    MSLICE Sequencing is a graphical tool for writing sequences and integrating them into RML files, as well as for producing SCMF files for uplink. When operated in a testbed environment, it also supports uplinking these SCMF files to the testbed via Chill. This software features a free-form textural sequence editor featuring syntax coloring, automatic content assistance (including command and argument completion proposals), complete with types, value ranges, unites, and descriptions from the command dictionary that appear as they are typed. The sequence editor also has a "field mode" that allows tabbing between arguments and displays type/range/units/description for each argument as it is edited. Color-coded error and warning annotations on problematic tokens are included, as well as indications of problems that are not visible in the current scroll range. "Quick Fix" suggestions are made for resolving problems, and all the features afforded by modern source editors are also included such as copy/cut/paste, undo/redo, and a sophisticated find-and-replace system optionally using regular expressions. The software offers a full XML editor for RML files, which features syntax coloring, content assistance and problem annotations as above. There is a form-based, "detail view" that allows structured editing of command arguments and sequence parameters when preferred. The "project view" shows the user s "workspace" as a tree of "resources" (projects, folders, and files) that can subsequently be opened in editors by double-clicking. Files can be added, deleted, dragged-dropped/copied-pasted between folders or projects, and these operations are undoable and redoable. A "problems view" contains a tabular list of all problems in the current workspace. Double-clicking on any row in the table opens an editor for the appropriate sequence, scrolling to the specific line with the problem, and highlighting the problematic characters. From there, one can invoke "quick fix" as described

  14. West African crude production diversifies

    SciTech Connect

    Aalund, L.

    1983-06-01

    Nigeria, with its seven crude-oil export streams, dominated West African production and accounted for over 70% of the depressed 1.8 million b/d output from the region last year. However, during the 1970s a flurry of new producing fields, primarily off the African coast, diversified production among a number of countries and touched off a wave of oil activity. The Journal takes a close look at the quality of West African oil in this installment of assays on world export crudes. This issue covers, in alphabetical order, Bonny Light (Nigeria) to Espoir (Ivory Coast). A following issue will wrap up West Africa by presenting assays on crudes from Forcados Blend (Nigeria) to Zaire Crude (Zaire).

  15. Insertion Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Mahillon, Jacques; Chandler, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Insertion sequences (ISs) constitute an important component of most bacterial genomes. Over 500 individual ISs have been described in the literature to date, and many more are being discovered in the ongoing prokaryotic and eukaryotic genome-sequencing projects. The last 10 years have also seen some striking advances in our understanding of the transposition process itself. Not least of these has been the development of various in vitro transposition systems for both prokaryotic and eukaryotic elements and, for several of these, a detailed understanding of the transposition process at the chemical level. This review presents a general overview of the organization and function of insertion sequences of eubacterial, archaebacterial, and eukaryotic origins with particular emphasis on bacterial elements and on different aspects of the transposition mechanism. It also attempts to provide a framework for classification of these elements by assigning them to various families or groups. A total of 443 members of the collection have been grouped in 17 families based on combinations of the following criteria: (i) similarities in genetic organization (arrangement of open reading frames); (ii) marked identities or similarities in the enzymes which mediate the transposition reactions, the recombinases/transposases (Tpases); (iii) similar features of their ends (terminal IRs); and (iv) fate of the nucleotide sequence of their target sites (generation of a direct target duplication of determined length). A brief description of the mechanism(s) involved in the mobility of individual ISs in each family and of the structure-function relationships of the individual Tpases is included where available. PMID:9729608

  16. Vocational Education in West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton. Planning and Research Branch.

    This report describes vocational education in West Germany from a Canadian viewpoint. Chapter 1 discusses education in the Federal Republic of Germany since 1949, including findings and govermental agencies/departments. A resume of the school system is provided in chapter 2. It covers kindergarten and preschool facilities, primary school, three…

  17. Cerebral gigantism with West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ray, Munni; Malhi, P; Bhalla, A K; Singhi, P D

    2003-07-01

    A case of cerebral gigantism (Sotos syndrome) with West syndrome in a one-year-old male child is reported. The case had a large stature, typical facies and neurodevelopmental delay along with infantile spasms, which were refractory to treatment with valproate and clonazepam.

  18. Articulating Success in West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Antoni, Kathy J.; Coulson, Gene

    2008-01-01

    Two years in West Virginia, college filing cabinets were stacked high with articulation agreements. College faculty members were traveling to and from area high schools in an effort to develop and finalize articulation agreements; all part of the process. And to what end? Less than 1 percent of students in the state were taking advantage of the…

  19. Improvisation in West African Musics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, David

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)

  20. West Virginia's forest resources, 2008

    Treesearch

    R.H. Widmann; B.J. Butler; G.W. Cook

    2010-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resource attributes for West Virginia based on an annual inventory conducted by the Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program at the Northern Research Station of the U.S. Forest Service. These estimates, along with web-posted core tables, will be updated annually. For more information please refer to page 4 of this...

  1. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  2. Forests of West Virginia, 2016

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin; Grant M. Domke; Brian F. Walters

    2017-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resources in West Virginia based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. For annual inventory years 2002-2013, the sample length was equal to 5 years. Beginning in 2014, the cycle length was changed to 7 years. For the 2016...

  3. Project Canada West. Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Curriculum Project on Canada Studies, Edmonton (Alberta).

    This first interim report of project Canada West, initiated in April, 1970, includes three papers. "Curriculum Development in Urbanization," by Dr. R. H. Sabey, Acting Executive Director, is an overview of the Project's history, purpose, and the 5 year plan for phases of research development. (See SO 000 283 for complete abstract.) Two…

  4. Forests of West Virginia, 2015

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin

    2016-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resources in West Virginia based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. For annual inventory years 2002-2013, the sample length was equal to 5 years. Beginning in 2014, the cycle length was changed to 7 years. For the 2015...

  5. Forests of West Virginia, 2014

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin; Richard H. Widmann

    2015-01-01

    This publication provides an overview of forest resources in West Virginia based on inventories conducted by the U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program of the Northern Research Station. For annual inventory years 2002-2013, the sample length was equal to 5 years. Beginning in 2014, the cycle length was changed to 7 years. For the 2014...

  6. Primary Schooling in West Bengal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Amartya

    2010-01-01

    With his Nobel Prize award money, Amartya Sen set up the Pratichi Trust which carries out research, advocacy and experimental projects in basic education, primary health care, and women's development in West Bengal and Bangladesh. Professor Sen himself took active interest in this work--helping set the agenda, looking at the evidence from…

  7. B-WEST Mentorship Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jennice, Comp.; Benedetti, Marie L., Ed.

    This program guide is intended for use by mentors of women who have completed the preemployment training component of the B-WEST (Building Workers Entering Skilled Trades) project and who are now entering a trade or technical occupation. The first section contains a definition of mentoring and mentor, protegee, and trainer profiles. Sections 2-6…

  8. West Virginia High School Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Virginia, Ed.; And Others

    Compiled from information gathered through questionnaires and other sources, this handbook documents educational practices conducted in the 55 counties of West Virginia. The data contained in this guide were collected in the spring of 1990. The text is divided into two parts: county profiles and high school descriptions. The high school…

  9. Improvisation in West African Musics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, David

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)

  10. Faculty Handbook. West Virginia University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia Univ., Morgantown.

    Policies and procedures of West Virginia University are presented in the 1976 edition of the faculty handbook. Major sections deal with: university organization; conditions of employment; payment and benefits; graduate school; off-campus education; research; student relations; support services; and other university policies. Appendices consider…

  11. Articulating Success in West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Antoni, Kathy J.; Coulson, Gene

    2008-01-01

    Two years in West Virginia, college filing cabinets were stacked high with articulation agreements. College faculty members were traveling to and from area high schools in an effort to develop and finalize articulation agreements; all part of the process. And to what end? Less than 1 percent of students in the state were taking advantage of the…

  12. West Flank Downhole Temperature Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Doug Blankenship

    2008-03-01

    Downhole temperature data for the three wells inside the West Flank FORGE footprint; 83-11, TCH 74-2 and TCH 48-11. TCH 74-2 and TCH 48-11 were both collected before 1990 and 83-11 was collected in 2009. The are compiled into one spreadsheet for ease of visualization.

  13. 78 FR 2916 - Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway, West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed... Intracoastal Waterway, in West Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship,...

  14. 27 CFR 9.172 - West Elks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false West Elks. 9.172 Section 9... TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.172 West Elks. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “West Elks.” (b) Approved maps...

  15. 27 CFR 9.172 - West Elks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false West Elks. 9.172 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.172 West Elks. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “West Elks.” (b) Approved maps...

  16. 27 CFR 9.172 - West Elks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false West Elks. 9.172 Section 9... TREASURY LIQUORS AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.172 West Elks. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “West Elks.” (b) Approved maps...

  17. 27 CFR 9.172 - West Elks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false West Elks. 9.172 Section 9... TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.172 West Elks. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “West Elks.” (b) Approved...

  18. The West Virginia Folk Arts Apprenticeship Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augusta Heritage Center, Elkins, WV.

    This booklet describes an apprenticeship program that encourages and perpetuates West Virginia folk arts. The program is an ongoing project administered by the Augusta Heritage Center located on the campus of Davis and Elkins College in West Virginia. Folk art is the artistic expression of values shared by communities of people. In West Virginia,…

  19. 33 CFR 117.622 - West Bay

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Bay 117.622 Section 117.622 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Massachusetts § 117.622 West Bay The draw of the West Bay Bridge, mile 1.2...

  20. Recent developments: West Germany and Namibia

    SciTech Connect

    1990-07-01

    Recent developments in the nuclear power industry in West Germany and Namibia are reviewed. The basic structure of the West German nuclear fuel industry following the Nukem ownership changes is discussed. The nationalization of the South West Africa People`s Organization (SWAPO) is described.

  1. 15. BUILDING 1: FOURTH FLOOR (West Section), TOP LEVEL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. BUILDING 1: FOURTH FLOOR (West Section), TOP LEVEL OF TUBS, SOUTH AND WEST WALLS. OPEN METAL BREWER'S STAIR VISIBLE ALONG WEST WALL - Boston Beer Company, 225-249 West Second Street, South Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  2. Lyman-alpha observations of Comet West /1975n/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opal, C. B.; Carruthers, G. R.

    1977-01-01

    The rate of hydrogen production of Comet West is studied through rocket observation of solar Lyman-alpha radiation resonantly scattered by the escaping hydrogen atoms. Two sets of Lyman-alpha exposure sequences are used to obtain computer-smoothed brightness contour (isophote) maps covering a density range of 100:1. A simple radial outflow model is applied to the contour maps to determine the rate of hydrogen production (3.2 by 10 to the 30th power atoms/sec.) Discrepancies between the observed shape of the outer isophotes and predicted models may be explained by optical depth effects, or by the presence of small pieces of the comet's nucleus distributed along the orbit. Hydrogen, carbon, and oxygen production for Comet West and Comet Kohoutek are compared; differences may be accounted for by variations in the composition or evolution of the two comets.

  3. Tectonic evolution of the West Junggar Region, Xinjiang, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Y.; Coleman, R. G.; Tilton, G.; Xiao, X.

    1989-08-01

    The West Junggar region of northwestern China consists of a Hercynian-age fold belt occupying a late Paleozoic zone of convergence between three major Eurasian plates: Siberian, Tarim, and Kazakhstan. The northern part of the West Junggar area includes part of the Irtysh-Zaysan fold belt that extends to the northwest into the USSR, where it marks a broad boundary between the Siberian and Kazakhstan plates. The central part of the West Junggar area includes the southeastern extension of the Chingiz-Tarbgatay early Paleozoic island arc sequence. The southern part of the West Junggar area is truncated by the deep fundamental Junggar-Alakol fault that has brought the Yili microplate into juxtaposiition with the West Junggar region in the vicinity of Ebin Nur Lake. To the east the Junggar area is covered by sediments of the Junggar Basin. Paleogeographic reconstructions and geologic evidence indicates that these plates began converging in the Middle Carboniferous, and by Late Carboniferous alkali granites began invading the imbricated leading edges of the coalescing plates. Paleomagnetic data reveals that the plates continued to move along strike-slip faults, bringing the Tarim plate and Yili microplate into their present positions sometime in the early Mesozoic. Six separate ophiolite occurrences in the West Junggar region are strongly tectonized and dismembered. The Tangbale ophiolite is considered to be Late Cambrian (508 ± 20 Ma.) and represents the earliest known oceanic crust in Western China. Petrologic and chemical data indicate that the Tangbale ophiolite represents a possible back arc or forearc tectonic setting situated close to a developing island arc. The Darbut ophiolite has been tectonized to a melange and is overlain by Late Devonian flysch. Ages of the radiolaria in the cherts associated with the pillow lavas indicate that it formed in the Middle Devonian. Other occurrences of ophiolite melange in the northern part of the West Junggar region may be as

  4. 1. West portal of the mudshed abutting the west portal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. West portal of the mudshed abutting the west portal of Tunnel 5, view to the northwest, 135mm lens. The flat-roofed reinforced concrete mudsheds, rocksheds, and snowsheds are a common feature of the Natron Cutoff over the summit of the Cascades. With the railroad located on a sidehill bench cut into the precipitous slopes, the sheds protect the track from rock and mud slides, as well as from avalanches. With a solid wall on the uphill side and a series of columns on the downhill side, they form a gallery-like effect from within. This mudshed was built concurrent with the tunnel, in 1927. Though none of the mudsheds on the line are scheduled to be modified, this shed was documented as an integral element of Tunnel 5. - Southern Pacific Railroad Natron Cutoff, Tunnel 5, Milepost 545.2, McCredie Springs, Lane County, OR

  5. Tectonosedimentary history of the sedimentary basins in northern west Siberia

    SciTech Connect

    Kunin, N.Ya.; Segalovich, I.E. )

    1993-09-01

    Sedimentary basins of northern west Siberia belong to the Arctic tectonosedimentary province. This basin evolved dissimilarly compared to those in the Urengoy and more southern areas, which resulted in substantial differences in the geologic characteristics. Seismic surveys indicate that the basement surface in northern west Siberia occurs at great depths, in places exceeding 15 km. The depressions of the basement surfaces are filled with the thick Paleozoic and Mesozoic sequences. The paper discussed the results of seismostratigraphic analysis of more than 13,000 km of regional common-depth-point profiles. These profiles identified systems of east-west-trending and isometric structures in the region. Some of the structures are buried; others are mapped in the upper horizons of the sedimentary cover and decrease in magnitude with depth. Cretaceous marine sediments that were deposited under deep-water conditions and did not compensate for the tectonic subsidence are widely present in the region. Noncompensated sedimentation was the longest from the Late Jurassic to the Hauterivian-Barremian on the Gydan peninsula and in adjacent areas. The Jurassic section is dominate by ingressive marine sediments. Sediments that did not compensate for tectonic subsidence widely occurred in the Early Jurassic and resulted in deposition of petroleum source rocks. Triassic and Jurassic strata occur conformable in most of northern west Siberia. Significant deformation of the Triassic sediments are identified in the periphery of the Triassic marine basin. This indicates that surrounding structures were thrust against northern west Siberia at the Triassic and Jurassic time boundary. Isometric structures of high magnitude were formed during the Paleozoic structure stage and these structures continued to grow through the Triassic and Jurassic. These and other results of seismostratigraphic analysis suggest the high oil potential of the region.

  6. West Nile Virus in California

    PubMed Central

    Lothrop, Hugh; Chiles, Robert; Madon, Minoo; Cossen, Cynthia; Woods, Leslie; Husted, Stan; Kramer, Vicki; Edman, John

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) was first isolated in California during July 2003 from a pool of Culex tarsalis collected near El Centro, Imperial County. WNV transmission then increased and spread in Imperial and Coachella Valleys, where it was tracked by isolation from pools of Cx. tarsalis, seroconversions in sentinel chickens, and seroprevalence in free-ranging birds. WNV then dispersed to the city of Riverside, Riverside County, and to the Whittier Dam area of Los Angeles County, where it was detected in dead birds and pools of Cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus. By October, WNV was detected in dead birds collected from riparian corridors in Los Angeles, west to Long Beach, and through inland valleys south from Riverside to San Diego County. WNV was reported concurrently from Arizona in mid-August and from Baja, Mexico, in mid-November. Possible mechanisms for virus introduction, amplification, and dispersal are discussed. PMID:15496236

  7. Disintegration phenomena in Comet West

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1976-01-01

    Two peculiarities of Comet West, the multiple splitting of the nucleus as seen in telescope observations and the complex structure of the dust tail, are discussed. A method of analysis based on the premise that the observed rate of separation of a fragment from the principal nucleus is determined by the difference in effective solar attraction acting on the bodies is applied to investigate the motion of the four fragments that separated from the nucleus of Comet West. The predicted motion of the fragments is in good agreement with available observations. It is suggested that the 'synchronic' bands of the dust tail consist of tiny fragments from relatively large particles that burst after release from the comet. The unusual orientation of these bands and their high surface brightness relative to the diffuse tail are explained by a sudden increase in the particle acceleration and in the total scattering surface as the result of the disintegration of the larger particles.

  8. Forest statistics for West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Robert D. Wray; Robert D. Wray

    1952-01-01

    This is the first in a new series of reports on forest areas and timber volumes in the State of West Virginia. It also shows how fast the timber in the State is growing, how much is being cut, and in general how good it is. This report is a product of the forest survey of the Northeast, carried on by the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station as part of the Nation-wide...

  9. Genomic analysis identifies candidate pathogenic variants in 9 of 18 patients with unexplained West syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hino-Fukuyo, Naomi; Kikuchi, Atsuo; Arai-Ichinoi, Natsuko; Niihori, Tetsuya; Sato, Ryo; Suzuki, Tasuku; Kudo, Hiroki; Sato, Yuko; Nakayama, Tojo; Kakisaka, Yosuke; Kubota, Yuki; Kobayashi, Tomoko; Funayama, Ryo; Nakayama, Keiko; Uematsu, Mitsugu; Aoki, Yoko; Haginoya, Kazuhiro; Kure, Shigeo

    2015-06-01

    West syndrome, which is narrowly defined as infantile spasms that occur in clusters and hypsarrhythmia on EEG, is the most common early-onset epileptic encephalopathy (EOEE). Patients with West syndrome may have clear etiologies, including perinatal events, infections, gross chromosomal abnormalities, or cases followed by other EOEEs. However, the genetic etiology of most cases of West syndrome remains unexplained. DNA from 18 patients with unexplained West syndrome was subjected to microarray-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH), followed by trio-based whole-exome sequencing in 14 unsolved families. We identified candidate pathogenic variants in 50% of the patients (n = 9/18). The array CGH revealed candidate pathogenic copy number variations in four cases (22%, 4/18), including an Xq28 duplication, a 16p11.2 deletion, a 16p13.1 deletion and a 19p13.2 deletion disrupting CACNA1A. Whole-exome sequencing identified candidate mutations in known epilepsy genes in five cases (36%, 5/14). Three candidate de novo mutations were identified in three cases, with two mutations occurring in two new candidate genes (NR2F1 and CACNA2D1) (21%, 3/14). Hemizygous candidate mutations in ALG13 and BRWD3 were identified in the other two cases (14%, 2/14). Evaluating a panel of 67 known EOEE genes failed to identify significant mutations. Despite the heterogeneity of unexplained West syndrome, the combination of array CGH and whole-exome sequencing is an effective means of evaluating the genetic background in unexplained West syndrome. We provide additional evidence for NR2F1 as a causative gene and for CACNA2D1 and BRWD3 as candidate genes for West syndrome.

  10. [Differential diagnoses of West syndrome].

    PubMed

    Fejerman, Natalio

    2013-09-06

    This study describes the clinical and electroencephalographic characteristics of epileptic spasms, and more especially those that occur during the first two years of life (infantile spasms). West syndrome has been clearly defined as the association between infantile spasms with an electroencephalographic pattern of hypsarrhythmia. Although intellectual deficit appears in almost all cases in which infantile spasms are not controlled with medication, this is a developmental aspect of the condition and not a manifestation that must necessarily be present in order to define the syndrome. The analysis of the interictal and ictal electroencephalogram readings, together with the clinical characteristics of the spasms and the neurological examination of patients, provides some orientation as regards the causations. Despite the spectrum that the title of this work focuses on, the study does not cover the treatment of early infants with West syndrome. Emphasis is placed on the differential diagnoses of West syndrome with other epileptic syndromes that manifest in the first two years of life, and more especially with a series of abnormal non-epileptic motor phenomena that occur in early infants. All these last non-epileptic disorders are displayed in a table, but benign myoclonus of early infancy or Fejerman syndrome is given as a paradigmatic example for the differential diagnosis. The primordial aim is to prevent neurologically healthy early infants from receiving antiepileptic drugs and even adrenocorticotropic hormone or corticoids due to a mistaken diagnosis.

  11. Endoscopic capacity in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Perl, Daniel; Leddin, Desmond; Bizos, Damon; Veitch, Andrew; N'Dow, James; Bush-Goddard, Stephanie; Njie, Ramou; Lemoine, Maud; Anderson, Suzanne T; Igoe, John; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Shah, Brijen

    2016-03-01

    Levels of endoscopic demand and capacity in West Africa are unclear. This paper aims to: 1. describe the current labor and endoscopic capacity, 2. quantify the impact of a mixed-methods endoscopy course on healthcare professionals in West Africa, and 3. quantify the types of diagnoses encountered. In a three-day course, healthcare professionals were surveyed on endoscopic resources and capacity and were taught through active observation of live cases, case discussion, simulator experience and didactics. Before and after didactics, multiple-choice exams as well as questionnaires were administered to assess for course efficacy. Also, a case series of 23 patients needing upper GI endoscopy was done. In surveying physicians, less than half had resources to perform an EGD and none could perform an ERCP, while waiting time for emergency endoscopy in urban populations was at least one day. In assessing improvement in medical knowledge among participants after didactics, objective data paired with subjective responses was more useful than either alone. Of 23 patients who received endoscopy, 7 required endoscopic intervention with 6 having gastric or esophageal varices. Currently the endoscopic capacity in West Africa is not sufficient. A formal GI course with simulation and didactics improves gastrointestinal knowledge amongst participants.

  12. [West Nile fever/encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Takasaki, Tomohiko

    2007-12-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), a member of the family Flaviviridae (genus Flavivirus), is a mosquito-borne virus first isolated in 1937 in the West Nile district of Uganda. The disease in humans is characterized by a dengue-like illness with fever, and a more severe form is characterized by central nervous system involvement, including encephalitis, meningitis, and myelitis. WN encephalitis was first reported in the Western Hemisphere in the summer of 1999, there was an outbreak in New York City. Epidemic WNV strains in North America are severely pathogenic, however, attenuated WNV strains were found in Texas and Mexico in 2003. The principal vectors of WNV transmission in North America are Culex. pipiens, Cx. Quinquefasciatus, Cx. restuans, Cx salinarius and Cx talsalis. The number of WN fever case has exceeded 27,000 since 1999 in the United States and 4,600 since 2002 in Canada. The first imported case of West Nile fever in Japan was confirmed in September, 2005. The patient had returned to Japan from the United States and developed symptoms the next day. There is currently no WN vaccine for use in humans. An inactivated WNV vaccine for use in horses has been available since 2001. A DNA vaccine, a chimeric live attenuated vaccine, and a recombinant vaccine have also been licensed for use in horses.

  13. White sulphur springs, West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, J.W.

    1996-05-01

    A large, historic, health-oriented mineral springs resort, The Greenbrier, occupies 2,600 ha (6,500 acres) in an upland valley of the Allegheny Mountains near the West Virginia-Virginia border in the eastern US Natural mineral water at 17{degree}C (62.5{degree}F) and with a high sulfate content is piped to individual soaking tubs of the mineral-bath wing, where it is heated by electricity to the desired temperature. Tubs are drained and filled after each use, so no chemical treatment is required. Water from a fresh-water spring is piped to an outdoor pool and the Grand Indoor Pool, where it is treated with chlorine and heated by steam. Thus, this mineral spring is not really geothermal, but has a two-century history of use by a spa resort. A chemical analysis of the spring gives a flow of 1.6 L/s (25 gpm) with sulphate 1400 mg/L, bicarbonate 210 mg/L, magnesium 130 mg/L, sodium 22 mg/L, silica 17 mg/L, chloride 17 mg/L, hydrogen sulfide 13 mg/L, potassium 1.2 mg/L and iron 1.1 mg/L (from Springs of West Virginia, West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey, 1986).

  14. Lower Palaeozoic of North-Western and West-Central Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Holland, C.H.

    1985-01-01

    The first compilation in English of the stratigraphy, palaeontology, sedimentology, palaeogeography, and palaeoclimatology of the Lower Palaeozoic found in this area. The fourth volume in the Lower Palaeozoic Rocks of the World Series discusses geological formations such as the lower Cambrian tribolite-bearing sequences of Morocco, those showing evidence of late Ordovician glaciation in West-Central Africa, and the Silurian-Devonian sequences of Morocco and Algeria.

  15. Psychiatric morbidity among West Africans and West Indians living in London.

    PubMed

    Rwegellera, G G

    1977-05-01

    All west Africans and West Indians living in Camberwell who made a psychiatric contact between 1 January 1965 and 31 December 1968 were selected using the Camberwell Psychiatric Register as a sampling frame. Inception rates of psychiatric illness were then calculated using the 1966 10% census figures for West Africans and West Indians in Camberwell. The rates found were compared to those among the British living in Camberwell. For each major diagnostic caterogy, with the exception of reactive depression and paranoid states, the inception rates are significantly higher among West Africans than West Indians. They are also significantly higher among West Indians than British. However, the differences in inception rates are generally greater between West Africans and West Indians than between the latter and the British.

  16. West Nile Virus Isolated from a Virginia Opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Northwestern Missouri, USA, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica R.; Lash, R. Ryan; Weiss, Sonja; Langevin, Stanley; Savage, Harry M.; Godsey, Marvin S.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Root, J. Jeffrey; Gidlewski, Thomas; Nicholson, William L.; Brault, Aaron C.; Komar, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, Flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology. PMID:25098303

  17. West Nile virus isolated from Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Northwest Missouri 2012

    DOE PAGES

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica; Lash, R. Ryan; ...

    2014-12-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Furthermore, sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology.

  18. An Active Classroom: The Emerging Scholars Program at West Virginia University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshler, Jessica M.; Miller, David; Pascal, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to support the success of minority students and to incorporate inquiry-based learning (IBL) into the calculus sequence of courses at West Virginia University, a modified version of the Emerging Scholars Program (ESP) was implemented in the fall of 2009. Since then, approximately 100 students have taken ESP Calculus I, with many of…

  19. Genetic relatedness of dengue viruses in Key West, Florida, USA, 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Jordán, Jorge L; Santiago, Gilberto A; Margolis, Harold; Stark, Lillian

    2013-04-01

    Sequencing of dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) strains isolated in Key West/Monroe County, Florida, indicate endemic transmission for >2 years of a distinct and predominant sublineage of the American-African genotype. DENV-1 strains isolated elsewhere in Florida grouped within a separate Central American lineage. Findings indicate endemic transmission of DENV into the continental United States.

  20. Close Relationship between West Nile Virus from Turkey and Lineage 1 Strain from Central African Republic

    PubMed Central

    Ergunay, Koray; Bakonyi, Tamas; Nowotny, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    We sequenced West Nile viruses (WNVs) from Turkey and found close relationships to WNV lineage 1 strain ArB310/67 from the Central African Republic, distinct from other WNVs circulating in the Mediterranean Basin, eastern Europe, and the Middle East. These findings suggest independent introductions of WNV strains from Africa to the Middle East. PMID:25625703

  1. An Active Classroom: The Emerging Scholars Program at West Virginia University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshler, Jessica M.; Miller, David; Pascal, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    In an effort to support the success of minority students and to incorporate inquiry-based learning (IBL) into the calculus sequence of courses at West Virginia University, a modified version of the Emerging Scholars Program (ESP) was implemented in the fall of 2009. Since then, approximately 100 students have taken ESP Calculus I, with many of…

  2. How Golden West College Is Addressing Pedagogical, Assessment, and Accountability Concerns through Integrated Spoken Communication Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Norma Landa

    This paper describes how results of the Golden West College Speech Department's program review led to the alignment of performance-based communication prerequisite and outcome expectations for: student placement recommendation; consistency of course curriculum and sequencing; measures of content-based competencies; and measures of…

  3. The sequence of sequencers: The history of sequencing DNA.

    PubMed

    Heather, James M; Chain, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Determining the order of nucleic acid residues in biological samples is an integral component of a wide variety of research applications. Over the last fifty years large numbers of researchers have applied themselves to the production of techniques and technologies to facilitate this feat, sequencing DNA and RNA molecules. This time-scale has witnessed tremendous changes, moving from sequencing short oligonucleotides to millions of bases, from struggling towards the deduction of the coding sequence of a single gene to rapid and widely available whole genome sequencing. This article traverses those years, iterating through the different generations of sequencing technology, highlighting some of the key discoveries, researchers, and sequences along the way.

  4. West Nile virus in the British Virgin Islands.

    PubMed

    Anthony, S J; Garner, M M; Palminteri, L; Navarrete-Macias, I; Sanchez-Leon, M D; Briese, T; Daszak, P; Lipkin, W I

    2014-06-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) first emerged in the US in 1999 and has since spread across the Americas. Here, we report the continued expansion of WNV to the British Virgin Islands following its emergence in a flock of free-roaming flamingos. Histologic review of a single chick revealed lesions consistent with WNV infection, subsequently confirmed with PCR, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. Full genome analysis revealed 99% sequence homology to strains circulating in the US over the past decade. This study highlights the need for rapid necropsy of wild bird carcasses to fully understand the impact of WNV on wild populations.

  5. West Nile virus in wild resident birds, Southern France, 2004.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, E; Schuffenecker, I; Korimbocus, J; Reynard, S; Murri, S; Kayser, Y; Gauthier-Clerc, M; Sabatier, P; Zeller, H G

    2007-01-01

    An equine West Nile virus (WNV) outbreak occurred in 2004 in the Camargue, a wetland area in the south of France where the virus was first reported in 1962 and re-emerged in 2000. WNV neutralizing antibodies were detected in resident birds and two isolates from a House Sparrow (Passer domesticus) and a Common Magpie (Pica pica) were completely sequenced. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that these isolates are closely related to strains previously found in horses in southern Europe and North Africa. More extensive investigation is required to determine whether WNV has been re-introduced or has become endemic in the Camargue.

  6. WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST ELEVATION OF USAIR MAINTENANCE HANGAR AT GREATER BUFFALO INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT. A BOEING 737-200 HAS BEEN TOWED IN FOR AN OVERNIGHT (BALANCE) CHECK. THE TAIL DOCK STANDS ARE IN POSITION AT THE REAR OF THE AIRCRAFT TO FACILITATE INSPECTION. MAINTENANCE CREWS PERFORM NIGHTLY SERVICE ON UP TO 6 AIRCRAFT. THE NORMAL SEQUENCE OF 12 ROUTINE CHECKS COVERS SEVEN BASIC AREAS: INTERIOR, EXTERIOR, WINGS, LANDING GEAR, TAIL, AUXILIARY POWER UNIT (APU), AND ENGINES. THE WORK FORCE CONSISTS OF 5 INSPECTORS, 3 LEAD MECHANICS, AND 24 MECHANICS; NIGHTLY SCHEDULES ARE COORDINATED BY A PLANNER. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  7. Stratigraphic sequence analysis of the Antler foreland

    SciTech Connect

    Silberling, N.J.; Nichols, K.M.; Macke, D.L. )

    1993-04-01

    Mid-Upper Devonian to Upper Mississippian strata in western Utah were deposited in the distal Antler foreland. They record lateral and vertical changes in depositional environments that define five successive stratigraphic sequences, each representing a third-order transgressive-regressive cycle. In ascending order, these sequences are informally named the Langenheim (LA) of late Frasnian to mid-Famennian age, the Gutschick (GU) of late Famennian to early Kinderhookian age, the Morris (MO) of late Kinderhookian age; the Sadlick (SA) of Osagean to early Meramecian age, and the Maughan (MA) of mid-Meramecian to Chesterian age. MO is widespread and recognized within carbonate rocks of the Fitchville Formation and Joana Limestone. SA formed in concert with and to the east and south of the Wendover foreland high; the Delle phosphatic event marks maximum marine flooding during SA deposition. The transgressive systems tract of MA includes rhythmic-bedded limestone in the upper part of the Deseret Limestone in west-central Utah and, farther west, the hypoxic limestone and black shale of the Skunk Spring Limestone Bed and part of the overlying Chainman Shale. Traced westward into Nevada, MA first oversteps SA and then MO. Lithostratigraphic correlation of these sequences still farther west into the Eureka thrust belt (ETB) could mean that the youngest strata truncated by the Roberts Mountains thrust belong to the MA and that this thrust is simply part of the post-Mississippian ETB. However, some strata in central Nevada that lithically resemble those of the MA are paleontologically dated as Early Mississippian, the age of sequences overstepped by MA not far to the east. Thus, at least some imbricates of the ETB may contain a sequence stratigraphy which reflects local tectonic control.

  8. Division of the Cenozoic reference section of the Kvachina Bay, West Kamchatka, and problems of its correlation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladenkov, Yu. B.

    2016-11-01

    A reference section of the Paleogene and Neogene located in the Kvachina Bay, West Kamchatka, is characterized in detail with description of ancient sequences and their lithological and paleontological features. Debatable problems of division and correlation of the section are reported. Its importance for deciphering of the geological events of the region is examined, as well as for the development of the stratigraphic scheme of the Cenozoic of West Kamchatka.

  9. Preserving sequence annotations across reference sequences.

    PubMed

    Tatum, Zuotian; Roos, Marco; Gibson, Andrew P; Taschner, Peter Em; Thompson, Mark; Schultes, Erik A; Laros, Jeroen Fj

    2014-01-01

    Matching and comparing sequence annotations of different reference sequences is vital to genomics research, yet many annotation formats do not specify the reference sequence types or versions used. This makes the integration of annotations from different sources difficult and error prone. As part of our effort to create linked data for interoperable sequence annotations, we present an RDF data model for sequence annotation using the ontological framework established by the OBO Foundry ontologies and the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO). We defined reference sequences as the common domain of integration for sequence annotations, and identified three semantic relationships between sequence annotations. In doing so, we created the Reference Sequence Annotation to compensate for gaps in the SO and in its mapping to BFO, particularly for annotations that refer to versions of consensus reference sequences. Moreover, we present three integration models for sequence annotations using different reference assemblies. We demonstrated a working example of a sequence annotation instance, and how this instance can be linked to other annotations on different reference sequences. Sequence annotations in this format are semantically rich and can be integrated easily with different assemblies. We also identify other challenges of modeling reference sequences with the BFO.

  10. Preserving sequence annotations across reference sequences

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Matching and comparing sequence annotations of different reference sequences is vital to genomics research, yet many annotation formats do not specify the reference sequence types or versions used. This makes the integration of annotations from different sources difficult and error prone. Results As part of our effort to create linked data for interoperable sequence annotations, we present an RDF data model for sequence annotation using the ontological framework established by the OBO Foundry ontologies and the Basic Formal Ontology (BFO). We defined reference sequences as the common domain of integration for sequence annotations, and identified three semantic relationships between sequence annotations. In doing so, we created the Reference Sequence Annotation to compensate for gaps in the SO and in its mapping to BFO, particularly for annotations that refer to versions of consensus reference sequences. Moreover, we present three integration models for sequence annotations using different reference assemblies. Conclusions We demonstrated a working example of a sequence annotation instance, and how this instance can be linked to other annotations on different reference sequences. Sequence annotations in this format are semantically rich and can be integrated easily with different assemblies. We also identify other challenges of modeling reference sequences with the BFO. PMID:25093075

  11. Eolian permian deposits in west and northwest Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limarino, C. O.; Spalletti, L. A.

    1986-08-01

    The sedimentary and stratigraphic characteristics of eolian Permian deposits exposed in Mendoza, La Rioja and San Juan Provinces (west and northwest Argentina) are described in this paper. The eolianites are fine and medium sandstones with large-scale cross-bedding, multiple parallel truncation planes and some asymmetrical ripples. Three genetic types of deposits have been identified: dune facies, eolian sand-sheet facies and mixed fluvial-eolian facies. Fine and medium sandstones with large-scale cross-bedding and multiple parallel truncation planes are here interpreted as dune deposits (mainly crescentic dunes), and unstratified or flat-bedded sandstones as eolian sand-sheet deposits. Mixed fluvial and eolian sequences, composed of sandstones, mudstones and some matrix-supported conglomerates, represent a transitional facies between those formed in eolian and fluvial environments. This considerable deposition of eolian sediments was probably brought about by the existence of an extensive, medium to low-latitude continent and the withdrawal of marine environments. The environments with highest aridity occurred towards the south and west of the region. The eolian circulation pattern was controlled by a long ensialic volcanic arc emerging towards the west of the basin.

  12. West Nile Virus in Mosquitoes of Iranian Wetlands.

    PubMed

    Bagheri, Masoomeh; Terenius, Olle; Oshaghi, Mohammad Ali; Motazakker, Morteza; Asgari, Sassan; Dabiri, Farrokh; Vatandoost, Hassan; Mohammadi Bavani, Mulood; Chavshin, Ali Reza

    2015-12-01

    The West Nile virus (WNV) transmission cycle includes a wide range of migratory wetland birds as reservoirs, mosquitoes as biological vectors, and equines and humans as dead-end hosts. Despite the presence of potential vector species, there is no information about the existence of WNV in mosquito vectors in Iran. The Iranian West Azerbaijan Province is located in the northwestern part of Iran and has borders with Turkey, Iraq, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan. The current study was conducted to identify the wetland mosquitoes of the West Azerbaijan Province and their infection with WNV. In this study, 2143 specimens were collected, comprising 1541 adults and 602 larvae. Six species belonging to four genera were collected and identified: Anopheles maculipennis sensu lato (s.l.), Culex (Cx.) hortensis, Cx. pipiens s.l., Cx. theileri, Culiseta longiareolata, and Aedes (Ae.) (Ochlerotatus) caspius. In total, 45 pools of mosquitoes were examined. Two of the adult pools collected from the same location showed the presence of WNV in Ae. (Och.) caspius, from Sangar, Makoo County, as confirmed by PCR and sequencing. Due to the discovery of WNV in the mosquito population of the region, and the presence of wetlands and significant populations of migratory birds, the health sector should carefully monitor the factors involved in the cycle of this disease.

  13. West Valley Demonstration Project, West Valley, New York: Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    Under the West Valley Demonstration Project Act, Public Law 96-368, liquid high-level radioactive waste stored at the Western New York Nuclear Services Center, West Valley, New York, that resulted from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing operations conducted between 1966 and 1972, is to be solidified in borosilicate glass and transported to a federal repository for geologic disposal. A major milestone was reached in May 1988 when the Project began reducing the volume of the liquid high-level waste. By the end of 1988, approximately 15 percent of the initial inventory had been processed into two waste streams. The decontaminated low-level liquid waste is being solidified in cement. The high-level waste stream is being stored in an underground tank pending its incorporation into borosilicate glass. Four tests of the waste glass melter system were completed. These tests confirmed equipment operability, control system reliability, and provided samples of waste glass for durability testing. In mid-1988, the Department validated an integrated cost and schedule plan for activities required to complete the production of the waste borosilicate glass. Design of the radioactive Vitrification Facility continued.

  14. West Nile virus and "poliomyelitis".

    PubMed

    Sejvar, James J

    2004-07-27

    West Nile virus (WNV) has recently been associated with a syndrome of acute flaccid paralysis. Most cases of WNV-associated weakness have clinical, histopathologic, and electrophysiologic characteristics indistinguishable from those of poliomyelitis caused by infection with poliovirus. There is debate about the nomenclature of this manifestation of WNV infection. An historical perspective of the term "poliomyelitis" suggests that the term "WNV poliomyelitis" seems appropriate, but members of the neurologic and infectious disease communities should engage in discussion regarding the terminology of this syndrome.

  15. West Nile Virus: an overview.

    PubMed

    Hale, Deborah

    2015-05-01

    West Nile Virus is the most frequent cause of arboviral disease in the United States. It was first identified in the United States in 1999. Since that time, each of the 48 contiguous states in the United States has seen the disease, and it has been found in 96% of the U.S. counties in infected humans, mosquitoes, birds, horses, or other mammals. Although most often the disease resolves on its own, patients can develop serious and life-threatening complications, and may need further monitoring and treatment. This article reviews the prevalence, transmission, signs and symptoms, complications, treatment, surveillance, and prevention of the disease.

  16. 41. West end of McHugh Basin, looking west toward Dingle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. West end of McHugh Basin, looking west toward Dingle Basin. Photo by Brian C. Morris, PUget Power, 1989. - Puget Sound Power & Light Company, White River Hydroelectric Project, 600 North River Avenue, Dieringer, Pierce County, WA

  17. SIGNAL BRIDGE WEST OF TOWER AT MILEPOST 203.2, LOOKING WEST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SIGNAL BRIDGE WEST OF TOWER AT MILEPOST 203.2, LOOKING WEST, EQUIPPED WITH B&O COLOR-POSITION-LIGHT SIGNAL HEADS FOR EASTBOUND TRAINS. - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Z Tower, State Route 46, Keyser, Mineral County, WV

  18. 4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW WEST, WEST SIDE, SHOWING CHANNELS 1ST AND 2ND VERTICAL BRACED DOUBLE ANGLES, DIAGONAL BRACING AND CROSS BRACED RAILING - Thirty-Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning Rabbit River, Hamilton, Allegan County, MI

  19. The relationships between West Nile and Kunjin viruses.

    PubMed Central

    Scherret, J. H.; Poidinger, M.; Mackenzie, J. S.; Broom, A. K.; Deubel, V.; Lipkin, W. I.; Briese, T.; Gould, E. A.; Hall, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    Until recently, West Nile (WN) and Kunjin (KUN) viruses were classified as distinct types in the Flavivirus genus. However, genetic and antigenic studies on isolates of these two viruses indicate that the relationship between them is more complex. To better define this relationship, we performed sequence analyses on 32 isolates of KUN virus and 28 isolates of WN virus from different geographic areas, including a WN isolate from the recent outbreak in New York. Sequence comparisons showed that the KUN virus isolates from Australia were tightly grouped but that the WN virus isolates exhibited substantial divergence and could be differentiated into four distinct groups. KUN virus isolates from Australia were antigenically homologous and distinct from the WN isolates and a Malaysian KUN virus. Our results suggest that KUN and WN viruses comprise a group of closely related viruses that can be differentiated into subgroups on the basis of genetic and antigenic analyses. PMID:11585535

  20. The seismicity of Marapi volcano, West Sumatra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Auria, L.

    2009-04-01

    Marapi is one of the active volcanoes in West Sumatra. It is a stratovolcano with an edifice that is elongated in the ENE-WSW direction. Its elevation is about 2,900 m a.s.l. The summit area is characterized by a caldera that contains some active craters aligned along the ENE-WSW direction. The Marapi volcano is an attractive region for tourists and hosts many small communities its surrounding areas. The recent history of Mt. Marapi is characterized by explosive activity at the summit craters. No lava flows have passed the rim of the summit caldera in recent times. The last eruption occurred on August 5, 2004, and consisted of moderate explosive activity from the central crater. In 1975 an eruption with magmatic and phreatic explosive phases and mudflows and lahars occurred that caused fatalities in the surrounding areas. Since 1980 other eruptions have occurred at Marapi volcano. Even if the explosive intensities of those eruptions have been small to moderate, in some cases, there were fatalities. A cooperation project started between Italy and Indonesia (COVIN) for the monitoring of volcanoes in West Sumatra. In the context of this project a monitoring centre has been set up at the Bukittinggi Observatory and a seismological monitoring system for Marapi volcano has been realized. This system is based on a broadband seismic network including 4 three-component stations. The data acquired by the broadband network of Marapi volcano are continuous recordings of the seismic signals starting from 19/10/2006. Volcano-Tectonic and Long Period events of Marapi volcano together with regional and teleseismic earthquakes are recorded. Several events of high magnitude located at short distances from the network were also recorded such as on March 6, 2007, when two events of Magnitudes Mw 6.4 and 6.3 were recorded with the epicentres near the Marapi volcano. During the following days, there was a sequence of hundreds of aftershocks. The preliminary analysis of the seismicity of

  1. West Nile Virus and wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marra, P.P.; Griffing, S.; Caffrey, C.; Kilpatrick, A.M.; McLean, R.; Brand, C.; Saito, E.; Dupuis, A.P.; Kramer, Laura; Novak, R.

    2004-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America, resulting in human deaths and in the deaths of untold numbers of birds, mammals, and reptiles. The virus has reached Central America and the Caribbean and may spread to Hawaii and South America. Although tens of thousands of birds have died, and studies of some bird species show local declines, few regionwide declines can be attributed to WNV. Predicting future impacts of WNV on wildlife, and pinpointing what drives epidemics, will require substantial additional research into host susceptibility, reservoir competency, and linkages between climate, mosquitoes, and disease. Such work will entail a collaborative effort between scientists in governmental research groups, in surveillance and control programs, and in nongovernmental organizations. West Nile virus was not the first, and it will not be the last, exotic disease to be introduced to the New World. Its spread in North America highlights the need to strengthen animal monitoring programs and to integrate them with research on disease ecology.

  2. Surface winds over West Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bromwich, David

    1993-01-01

    Five winter months (April-August 1988) of thermal infrared satellite images were examined to investigate the occurrence of dark (warm) signatures across the Ross Ice Shelf in the Antarctic continent. These features are inferred to be generated by katabatic winds that descend from southern Marie Byrd Land and then blow horizontally across the ice shelf. Significant mass is added to this airstream by katabatic winds blowing from the major glaciers that flow through the Transantarctic Mountains from East Antarctica. These negatively buoyant katabatic winds can reach the northwestern edge of the shelf - a horizontal propagation distance of up to 1,000 km - 14 percent of the time. Where the airstream crosses from the ice shelf to the ice-covered Ross Sea, a prominent coastal polynya is formed. Because the downslope buoyancy force is near zero over the Ross Ice Shelf, the northwestward propagation of the katabatic air mass requires pressure gradient support. The study shows that the extended horizontal propagation of this atmospheric density current occurred in conjunction with the passage of synoptic cyclones over the southern Amundsen Sea. These cyclones can strengthen the pressure gradient in the interior of West Antarctica and make the pressure field favorable for northwestward movement of the katabatic winds from West Antarctica across the ice shelf in a geostrophic direction. The glacier winds from East Antarctica are further accelerated by the synoptic pressure gradient, usually undergo abrupt adjustment beyond the exit to the glacier valley, and merge into the mountain-parallel katabatic air mass.

  3. Quaternary faults of west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, E.W.; Raney, J.A. . Bureau of Economic Geology)

    1993-04-01

    North- and northwest-striking intermontane basins and associated normal faults in West Texas and adjacent Chihuahua, Mexico, formed in response to Basin and Range tectonism that began about 24 Ma ago. Data on the precise ages of faulted and unfaulted Quaternary deposits are sparse. However, age estimates made on the basis of field stratigraphic relationships and the degree of calcic soil development have helped determine that many of the faults that bound the basin margins ruptured since the middle Pleistocene and that some faults probably ruptured during the Holocene. Average recurrence intervals between surface ruptures since the middle Pleistocene appear to be relatively long, about 10,000 to 100,000 yr. Maximum throw during single rupture events have been between 1 and 3 m. Historic seismicity in West Texas is low compared to seismicity in many parts of the Basin and Range province. The largest historic earthquake, the 1931 Valentine earthquake in Ryan Flat/Lobo Valley, had a magnitude of 6.4 and no reported surface rupture. The most active Quaternary faults occur within the 120-km-long Hueco Bolson, the 70-km-long Red Light Bolson, and the > 200-km-long Salt Basins/Wild Horse Flat/Lobo Valley/Ryan Flat.

  4. FTM-West : fuel treatment market model for U.S. West

    Treesearch

    Peter J. Ince; Andrew Kramp; Henry Spelter; Ken Skog; Dennis Dykstra

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents FTM–West, a partial market equilibrium model designed to project future wood market impacts of significantly expanded fuel treatment programs that could remove trees to reduce fire hazard on forestlands in the U.S. West. FTM–West was designed to account for structural complexities in marketing and utilization that arise from unconventional size...

  5. 78 FR 22193 - Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, Intracoastal Waterway; West Palm Beach, FL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary Final Rule... Palm Beach, Florida, during the West Palm Beach Triathlon Championship, on Saturday, June 1,...

  6. Monogeneans of West African Cichlid Fish: Evolution and Cophylogenetic Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Mendlová, Monika; Desdevises, Yves; Civáňová, Kristína; Pariselle, Antoine; Šimková, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    The goals of this paper were to investigate phylogenetic and evolutionary patterns of cichlid fish from West Africa and their Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus monogenean parasites, to uncover the presence of host-parasite cospeciation and to assess the level of morphological adaptation in parasites. This required the following steps, each one representing specific objectives of this paper: (1) to build phylogenetic trees for Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus species based on ribosomal DNA sequences, (2) to investigate phylogenetic relationships within West African cichlid fish based on the analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b DNA sequences, (3) to investigate host-parasite cophylogenetic history to gain clues on parasite speciation process, and (4) to investigate the link between the morphology of the attachment apparatus and parasite phylogeny. Phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyletic origin of the Cichlidogyrus/Scutogyrus group, and suggested that Cichlidogyrus is polyphyletic and that Scutogyrus is monophyletic. The phylogeny of Cichlidae supported the separation of mouthbrooders and substrate-brooders and is consistent with the hypothesis that the mouthbrooding behavior of Oreochromis and Sarotherodon evolved from substrate-brooding behavior. The mapping of morphological characters of the haptor onto the parasite phylogenetic tree suggests that the attachment organ has evolved from a very simple form to a more complex one. The cophylogenetic analyses indicated a significant fit between trees using distance-based tests, but no significant cospeciation signal using tree-based tests, suggesting the presence of parasite duplications and host switches on related host species. This shed some light on the diversification process of Cichlidogyrus species parasitizing West African cichlids. PMID:22662139

  7. Contrasting Sequence Groups by Emerging Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Kang; Zaïane, Osmar R.

    Group comparison per se is a fundamental task in many scientific endeavours but is also the basis of any classifier. Contrast sets and emerging patterns contrast between groups of categorical data. Comparing groups of sequence data is a relevant task in many applications. We define Emerging Sequences (ESs) as subsequences that are frequent in sequences of one group and less frequent in the sequences of another, and thus distinguishing or contrasting sequences of different classes. There are two challenges to distinguish sequence classes: the extraction of ESs is not trivially efficient and only exact matches of sequences are considered. In our work we address those problems by a suffix tree-based framework and a similar matching mechanism. We propose a classifier based on Emerging Sequences. Evaluating against two learning algorithms based on frequent subsequences and exact matching subsequences, the experiments on two datasets show that our model outperforms the baseline approaches by up to 20% in prediction accuracy.

  8. Shotgun protein sequencing.

    SciTech Connect

    Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Heffelfinger, Grant S.

    2009-06-01

    A novel experimental and computational technique based on multiple enzymatic digestion of a protein or protein mixture that reconstructs protein sequences from sequences of overlapping peptides is described in this SAND report. This approach, analogous to shotgun sequencing of DNA, is to be used to sequence alternative spliced proteins, to identify post-translational modifications, and to sequence genetically engineered proteins.

  9. 77 FR 40793 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement 30 CFR Part 948 West Virginia Regulatory Program AGENCY: Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), Interior. ACTION: Interim final rule... Virginia regulatory program (the West Virginia program) under the Surface Mining Control and...

  10. Environmental History in the American West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Hal K.

    1994-01-01

    Asserts that environmental history is an important component of the history of the American west. Discusses the historiography of the American west in relationship to environmental issues. Concludes that environmental history opened the door for scholars to study the way human beings interact with the physical world around them. (CFR)

  11. 21 CFR 808.98 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.98 West Virginia. (a) The following West Virginia medical...

  12. 21 CFR 808.98 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.98 West Virginia. (a) The following West Virginia medical...

  13. Energy, Colonialism, and the American West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Eugene H., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Energy development has led many people concerned with the American West to consider it a powerless colony of outside interests. The characteristics of colonies, particularly external control by energy companies and the federal government, and the applicability of these characteristics to the West are discussed. (IS)

  14. West African Folktales [and] Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Steven H.

    Traditionally, an important function of folktales in West Africa has been to educate, as the older generation imparts knowledge to younger members of the family, tribe, societal unit, or ethnic group both informally in everyday life and more formally within the context of the bush schools. This anthology of West African folk literature offers more…

  15. An Introduction to West African Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taiwo, Oladele

    Intended to provide help for those interested in studying West African literature, this book is divided into three parts. Part One provides background information: the various African oral traditions are discussed, related to the way of life of the people, and examined for the extent to which they form the basis of present West African literary…

  16. Forest resources of west central Alabama

    Treesearch

    A.R. Spillers

    1940-01-01

    Lying west of Birmingham and north of Demopolis, West Central Alabama (Forest survey Unit Alabama No. 4) includes almost 4.5 million acres within the following 9 counties: Bibb, Fayette, Greene, Hale, Lamar, Marion, Perry, Pickens, and Tuscaloosa (map, fig. 1). This distinctly rural area includes only one incorporated city or town with a population of 2,500 people or...

  17. Rural watershed partnerships: lessons from West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Steve W. Selin; Alan Collins; Susan Hunter

    1998-01-01

    The goal of this study is to examine the efforts by one state government (West Virginia) to facilitate collaborative, watershed-based planning. This paper provides an overview of the state watershed planning process and includes a summary of a baseline study of rural watershed partnerships operating within West Virginia. Implication of the study for state policies and...

  18. Syntactic Variation in West African English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bamiro, Edmund O.

    1995-01-01

    Describes syntactic variation in West African English with examples from West African English literature and identifies and describes subjectless sentences, deletion of the -ly morpheme in manner adjuncts, omission of function words, reduplication, tag questions, substitution of prepositions in idiomatic usage, and focus constructions. (53…

  19. West Indian Immigrants: Those Arrogant Bastards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walter, John C.

    1981-01-01

    The influx of Caribbean West Indian immigrants into the United States has evoked mixed responses from the Afro American black community. The West Indians' high degree of literacy, sense of community, and high self esteem have developed black leaders who have earned the respect of enlightened Afro Americans through their achievements in education,…

  20. 21 CFR 808.98 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EXEMPTIONS FROM FEDERAL PREEMPTION OF STATE AND LOCAL MEDICAL DEVICE REQUIREMENTS Listing of Specific State and Local Exemptions § 808.98 West Virginia. (a) The following West Virginia medical...

  1. West African Folktales [and] Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Steven H.

    Traditionally, an important function of folktales in West Africa has been to educate, as the older generation imparts knowledge to younger members of the family, tribe, societal unit, or ethnic group both informally in everyday life and more formally within the context of the bush schools. This anthology of West African folk literature offers more…

  2. Properties of the West Valley waste form

    SciTech Connect

    Cadoff, L.H.; Pope, J.M.; Barnes, S.M.

    1990-10-01

    This paper reviews the physical and chemical properties of an envelope of West Valley waste form compositions that encompass the centroid composition and which fulfill criteria mandating high chemical durability and good processibility. Data are presented to demonstrate that full-scale process controls at West Valley are sufficiently good to produce acceptably durable non-radioactive glass waste forms.

  3. West Virginia: A History for Beginners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John Alexander; Sherwood, Topper, Ed.

    This book on the history of West Virginia emphasizes the differences and similarities among the people inhabiting what is now the state of West Virginia, from prehistoric times to the present. The history focuses on how these people have acted as individuals and in groups such as families, communities, societies, corporations, and government.…

  4. The sequence of sequencers: The history of sequencing DNA

    PubMed Central

    Heather, James M.; Chain, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Determining the order of nucleic acid residues in biological samples is an integral component of a wide variety of research applications. Over the last fifty years large numbers of researchers have applied themselves to the production of techniques and technologies to facilitate this feat, sequencing DNA and RNA molecules. This time-scale has witnessed tremendous changes, moving from sequencing short oligonucleotides to millions of bases, from struggling towards the deduction of the coding sequence of a single gene to rapid and widely available whole genome sequencing. This article traverses those years, iterating through the different generations of sequencing technology, highlighting some of the key discoveries, researchers, and sequences along the way. PMID:26554401

  5. West Maui Groundwater Flow Model

    SciTech Connect

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for West Maui. Data is from the following sources: Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2014. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems For the Hawaiian Islands of Kauai, Molokai, Maui, and Hawaii – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. September 2014; and Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume V – Island of Maui Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.

  6. Remote sensing in West Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lessing, P.

    1981-01-01

    Low altitude black and white aerial photography is the prinicipal remote sensing tool for geologic investigations in West Virginia, although side looking radar and color infrared photography are also used. The first land use/cover map for the state was produced in color infrared and is being digitized. Linear features in Cabell and Wayne Counties, as revealed by LANDSAT, were evaluated to test the possible correlations with rock fractures and gas production from shales. A LANDSAT linear features map (1:250,000) was prepared for the entire state, also. Presently investigations are being made to understand karst and to predict areas that should not be used for development. Aerial photography and field mapping is being conducted to detect the location and causes of landslides.

  7. 10. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM UNDERSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM UNDERSIDE OF GARDEN STATE PARKWAY ABUTMENT - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  8. 9. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW WEST TOWARD DOWNSTREAM SIDE OF SPILLWAY FROM NORTH SIDE OF DOWNSTREAM BANK OF DAM - Upper Doughty Dam, 200 feet west of Garden State Parkway, 1.7 miles west of Absecon, Egg Harbor City, Atlantic County, NJ

  9. 10. Relationship of residence, claim house, chicken house, west tool ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Relationship of residence, claim house, chicken house, west tool shed, and east tool shed to each other and immediate surroundings, looking west - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  10. 9. Relationship of residence, claim house, west tool shed, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Relationship of residence, claim house, west tool shed, and east tool shed to each other and immediate surroundings, looking west - George Spangerberger Farmstead, 2012 West Illinois Avenue, South Hutchinson, Reno County, KS

  11. 7. Building 7 interior, west end of building showing tier ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Building 7 interior, west end of building showing tier of skylight windows and modern equipment. View looking west. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 7, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  12. 4. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING FROM WEST ALONG NORTHWEST WALKWAY, SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW, LOOKING FROM WEST ALONG NORTHWEST WALKWAY, SHOWING VERTICAL COMPRESSION MEMBERS 5. 'BARREL SHOT' VIEW LOOKING ACROSS BRIDGE FROM THE WEST - West Main Street Bridge, Spanning South branch of Raritan River, Clinton, Hunterdon County, NJ

  13. 1. ELEVATION VIEW OF EASTERN PORTAL, LOOKING WEST. Philadelphia ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. ELEVATION VIEW OF EASTERN PORTAL, LOOKING WEST. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Flat Rock Tunnel, Beneath Flat Rock Hill, west of Schuylkill Expressway (I-76), West Manayunk, Montgomery County, PA

  14. Corridor in west wing Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Corridor in west wing - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Women's Army Corps Recreation & Administration Building, North Hickey Street, west side, 75 feet north of intersection of West Pennington Avenue & North Hickey Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  15. View of intersection with west wall of north wing and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of intersection with west wall of north wing and north wall of west wing; camera facing southeast. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Marine Prison, Suisun Avenue, west side between Mesa Road & San Pablo, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  16. 2. View along West Boundary Street showing W elevation. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View along West Boundary Street showing W elevation. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Paint & Coach Barn, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  17. 6. OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING WEST PORTAL, THROUGH TRUSSES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. OBLIQUE VIEW, FROM SOUTHWEST, SHOWING WEST PORTAL, THROUGH TRUSSES OF WEST SPAN, AND PORTION OF WEST APPROACH - Glendale Road Bridge, Spanning Deep Creek Lake on Glendale Road, McHenry, Garrett County, MD

  18. Interior detail of bathroom on first floor north end, west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior detail of bathroom on first floor north end, west side, camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, WAVES Officers Quarters, Cedar Avenue, west side between Tisdale Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  19. 41. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1973. MR. WEST'S HOUSE, MR. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. William E. Barrett, Photographer, 1973. MR. WEST'S HOUSE, MR. WEST ON PORCH AND THE ARBOR THAT IS OVER 100 YEARS OLD. - West Oil Company Endless Wire Pumping Station, U.S. Route 50 (Volcano vicinity), Petroleum, Ritchie County, WV

  20. 4. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES OF BREAKER, WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES OF BREAKER, WITH CHANCE CONE AT WEST, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  1. Liver Transplantation: East versus West

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Akash; Vadeyar, Hemant; Rela, Mohamed; Shah, Samir

    2013-01-01

    Liver transplantation (LT) has evolved rapidly since the first successful liver transplant performed in1967. Despite a humble beginning, this procedure gained widespread acceptance in the western world as a suitable option for patients with end stage liver disease (ESLD) by the beginning of the 1980s. At present, approximately 25,000 liver transplants are being performed worldwide every year with approximately 90% one year survival. The techniques of living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) developed in East Asia in the 1990s to overcome the shortage of suitable grafts for children and scarcity of deceased donors. While deceased donor liver transplantation (DDLT) constitutes more than 90% of LT in the western world, in India and other Asian countries, most transplants are LDLT. Despite the initial disparity, outcomes following LDLT in eastern countries have been quite satisfactory when compared to the western programs. The etiologies of liver failure requiring LT vary in different parts of the world. The commonest etiology for acute liver failure (ALF) leading to LT is drugs in the west and acute viral hepatitis in Asia. The most common indication for LT due to ESLD in west is alcoholic cirrhosis and hepatitis C virus (HCV), while hepatitis B virus (HBV) predominates in the east. There is a variation in prognostic models for assessing candidature and prioritizing organ allocation across the world. Model for end–stage liver disease (MELD) is followed in United States and some European centers. Other European countries rely on the Child–Turcotte–Pugh (CTP) score. Some parts of Asia still follow chronological order of listing. The debate regarding the best model for organ allocation is far from over. PMID:25755506

  2. Geological mapping in West Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Dean, S.L. . Dept. of Geology); Kulander, B.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences); Lessing, P. )

    1992-01-01

    Geological mapping at 1:24,000 scale in the Valley and Ridge province of West Virginia is an ongoing program to up-date 75-year old 1:62,500 scale county geological maps. Large-scale topographic maps, remote-sensing imagery, geophysical data, well-log data, and advances in structural concepts provide information leading to thin-skinned tectonic interpretations. The five maps displayed (22 7.5-minute quadrangles) illustrate the complex deformational styles in the Paleozoic section of the Massanutten/Blue Ridge, Waynesboro, and Martinsburg sheets. Detailed field mapping reveals that many previously mapped anticlines, such as Great North Mountain and Adams run, are complex anticlinoria and that large expanses of Lower Mississippian clastics were overlooked in the Sector and Lost River State Park quadrangles. Furthermore, prevalent thrust and strike-slip faulting in the Cambrian-Ordovician carbonates of the Great Valley and extensive folding, faulting, and pre-fold layer-parallel shortening have occurred in the upper sheet to an extent not previously reported. Finally, imbrication of the underlying Waynesboro sheet forms a duplex that defines major anticlinoria and synclinoria in the Valley and Ridge. Complete maps have proven beneficial to government and the public. Examples are the siting of high-yield water wells, delineation of wellheat protection areas, and providing maps suitable for GIS systems. The maps have also been used to organize regional and local field trips and have served as the basis for the further structural and stratigraphic investigations. The West Virginia Geological Survey places high priority on detailed geological mapping. However, continuation of the program is dependent upon adequate funding.

  3. Multimodal sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Kemény, Ferenc; Meier, Beat

    2016-02-01

    While sequence learning research models complex phenomena, previous studies have mostly focused on unimodal sequences. The goal of the current experiment is to put implicit sequence learning into a multimodal context: to test whether it can operate across different modalities. We used the Task Sequence Learning paradigm to test whether sequence learning varies across modalities, and whether participants are able to learn multimodal sequences. Our results show that implicit sequence learning is very similar regardless of the source modality. However, the presence of correlated task and response sequences was required for learning to take place. The experiment provides new evidence for implicit sequence learning of abstract conceptual representations. In general, the results suggest that correlated sequences are necessary for implicit sequence learning to occur. Moreover, they show that elements from different modalities can be automatically integrated into one unitary multimodal sequence.

  4. Whole Genome Sequencing

    MedlinePlus

    ... you want to learn. Search form Search Whole Genome Sequencing You are here Home Testing & Services Testing ... the full story, click here . What is whole genome sequencing? Whole genome sequencing is the mapping out ...

  5. Coordinate cytokine regulatory sequences

    DOEpatents

    Frazer, Kelly A.; Rubin, Edward M.; Loots, Gabriela G.

    2005-05-10

    The present invention provides CNS sequences that regulate the cytokine gene expression, expression cassettes and vectors comprising or lacking the CNS sequences, host cells and non-human transgenic animals comprising the CNS sequences or lacking the CNS sequences. The present invention also provides methods for identifying compounds that modulate the functions of CNS sequences as well as methods for diagnosing defects in the CNS sequences of patients.

  6. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Cervin Robinson, Photographer 1957 WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Cervin Robinson, Photographer 1957 WEST HALL FROM BALCONY - Massachusetts Charitable Mechanics Association, Exhibition Hall, Huntington Avenue & West Newton Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. General view of west perimeter wall, service driveway gate, and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of west perimeter wall, service driveway gate, and service buildings, looking northeast from Bosstraat. - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  8. Overview from west bank of Schuykill River. Philadelphia & ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview from west bank of Schuykill River. - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Bridge at West Falls, Spanning Schuylkill River, southeast of Roosevelt Boulevard Bridge, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  9. East is east and West is west: perspectives on the menopause in Asia and The West.

    PubMed

    Baber, R J

    2014-02-01

    There is a school of thought that believes that menopausal symptoms are a peculiarly 'Western' phenomenon, not experienced by women from other regions and particularly not from Asia where, it has been claimed, dietary, social and cultural factors afforded protection for women living in that region. More recently, studies conducted in multi-ethnic communities living in Western countries as well as in Asian communities have found that the menopause and its consequences are similar world-wide. Ethnic differences within Asia account for small differences in endogenous hormone levels and age at menopause between Asian and Western women, and the type of menopause symptoms and their prevalence also differ between those two communities. However, like in the West and perhaps because of a Western influence, the long-term health problems of postmenopausal women including cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis and breast cancer are of major importance to Asian women and health services in the 21st century.

  10. How many rifts are there in West Africa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freeth, S. J.

    1984-02-01

    The West African Rift System has, for the last ten years, been thought to consist of five interconnected rifts extending from the Gulf of Guinea deep into the heart of Africa. Careful re-examination of the geophysical evidence makes it quite clear that there are only three interconnected rifts in West Africa; the Lower Benue Rift which extends to the northeast from the Gulf of Guinea to a triple junction near Chum, and the Gongola and Yola Rifts which extend to the north and east, respectively, from the Chum triple junction. These three rifts opened during the earlier part of the Mesozoic and were subsequently filled with Cretaceous sediments. The evidence for two further rifts, the Ati Rift and the Fort Archambault Rift which were thought to extend to the northeast and southeast, respectively, from a triple junction at the eastern end of the Yola Rift, does not stand up to re-examination. The "Ati Rift" was thought to follow a major linear positive gravity anomaly which had been mapped beneath the Quaternary sediments of the Chad Basin. The main gravity anomaly is separated from the Yola Rift by over 300 km and is probably due to a linear body of basic volcanic or volcano-clastic rocks associated with a suture of Pan-African age. Within the gap, between the main anomaly and the Yola Rift, there are three localised positive anomalies which relate to a gabbro of Precambrian age, a band of dense meta-sediments within the Basement Complex and an acid igneous complex of Palaeogene age. The anomaly as a whole is therefore a sequence of unrelated anomalies, none of which are due to features of Mesozoic age. The "Fort Archambault Rift" was thought to follow a major linear negative gravity anomaly which has been mapped beneath the Quaternary sediments of the Chad Basin. To a large extent the negative anomaly overlies the fosse de Baké-Birao (Baké-Birao Basin) which is itself part of a far larger structure that extends, parallel to the southern margin of the West African

  11. West Nile virus and the climate.

    PubMed

    Epstein, P R

    2001-06-01

    West Nile virus is transmitted by urban-dwelling mosquitoes to birds and other animals, with occasional "spillover" to humans. While the means by which West Nile virus was introduced into the Americas in 1999 remain unknown, the climatic conditions that amplify diseases that cycle among urban mosquitoes, birds, and humans are warm winters and spring droughts. This information can be useful in generating early warning systems and mobilizing timely and the most environmentally friendly public health interventions. The extreme weather conditions accompanying long-term climate change may also be contributing to the spread of West Nile virus in the United States and Europe.

  12. Spent fuel treatment at ANL-West

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, K.M.; Benedict, R.W.; Levinskas, D.

    1994-12-31

    At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Cycle Facility at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. The treatment operations will employ a pyrochemical process that also has applications for treating most of the fuel types within the Department of Energy complex. The treatment equipment is in its last stage of readiness, and operations will begin in the Fall of 1994.

  13. Tectonic implications of gravity and magnetic models along east-west seismic profiles across the Great Valley near Coalinga

    SciTech Connect

    Griscom, A.; Jachens, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The authors have used gravity and magnetic data to compute east-west crustal models along a profile extending eastward from the San Andreas fault in the eastern Coast Ranges, through the town of Coalinga, and across the Great Valley of California. These models agree well with seismic refraction and reflection models, support the idea that the Franciscan assemblage near its contact with the Great Valley sequence was emplaced by tectonic wedging, and do not indicate the presence of a fossil subduction zone. The west half of the Great Valley is underlain by a thick, west-dipping slab of magnetic high-density rock that may be an ophiolite obducted from the west onto the continental margin during Jurassic time. Warping and faulting of this slab during deposition of the overlying Great Valley sequence created structures parallel to the basin's east side that later may have acted as barriers limiting the eastward intrusion of Franciscan wedges. Multiple wedging is implied by a mostly concealed magnetic slab, presumed to be Coast Range ophiolite, that is consistently present for a strike distance of 600 km along the contact of the Franciscan assemblage and the Great Valley sequence, and that has its west edge emplaced within the Franciscan assemblage.

  14. MRO Sequence Checking Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Forest; Gladden, Roy; Khanampornpan, Teerapat

    2008-01-01

    The MRO Sequence Checking Tool program, mro_check, automates significant portions of the MRO (Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter) sequence checking procedure. Though MRO has similar checks to the ODY s (Mars Odyssey) Mega Check tool, the checks needed for MRO are unique to the MRO spacecraft. The MRO sequence checking tool automates the majority of the sequence validation procedure and check lists that are used to validate the sequences generated by MRO MPST (mission planning and sequencing team). The tool performs more than 50 different checks on the sequence. The automation varies from summarizing data about the sequence needed for visual verification of the sequence, to performing automated checks on the sequence and providing a report for each step. To allow for the addition of new checks as needed, this tool is built in a modular fashion.

  15. DOLLY SODS WILDERNESS, WEST VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Englund, Kenneth J.; Hill, James J.

    1984-01-01

    Coal, the principal mineral resource of the Dolly Sods Wilderness, West Virginia is in at least seven beds of low- to medium-volatile bituminous rank. Of these beds, four are of sufficient thickness, quality, and extent to contain demonstrated coal resources which are estimated to total about 15. 5 million short tons in areas of substantiated coal resource potential. A Small-scale development of the coal resources of the Dolly Sods Wilderness has been by several shallow adits which provided fuel for locomotives during early logging operations and by a one truck mine. All mine entries are now abandoned. Peat, shale, clay, and sandstone, occur in the area but because of remoteness of markets and inaccessability they are not classified as resources in this report. Natural gas may occur in rocks underlying the area, but because of a lack of subsurface information an estimate of resource potential has not been made. No evidence of metallic-mineral resources was found during this investigation.

  16. West Chestnut Ridge hydrologic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, J.L.; Huff, D.D.; Jones, J.R.

    1985-08-01

    Preliminary site characterization work for the proposed West Chestnut Ridge Central Waste Disposal Facility included collection and analysis of data on stream flows, watershed areas, precipitation, water levels at piezometer sites, and physiochemical properties of surface water. Seven temporary water-flow-gaging installations were established and used to characterize runoff patterns in the study area. Chip-floating and regression techniques were used to estimate stream flows after some of the temporary structures were destroyed during high flows. Stream flow fluctuations were quantified using coefficients of variation and percent change in total flow between adjacent sampling dates. The difference between precipitation and observed flows (net loss) was calculated for all stations. Two headwater stations (4 and 6) exhibited lower flows per watershed area and channel length, and higher levels of fluctuation in flow than the other stations. These two stations were also similar in watershed area and flow magnitude. Two other headwater stations (5 and 7) with comparable flows had total drainage areas that were similar in size and smaller than those of the other stations. Stations 5 and 7 exhibited high flows per drainage area and section length, especially in the dry period of the year when flows were higher than at all other stations. Fluctuations in flows were lowest at these two stations. Data indicate that these two sections are fed by sources of dependable groundwater. 7 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. [Electroencephalographic characteristics of West syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kholin, A A; Mukhin, K Iu; Petrukhin, A S; Il'ina, E S

    2002-01-01

    The study aimed at interictal electroencephalographic characteristics investigation in the patients with West syndrome. It has been carried out in 48 children, aged 3 months--2 years, the inpatients of Psychoneurology and Epilepsy Department, Russian Clinical Children Hospital No. 2, from March 1999 to march 2001. The following EEG awakeness types were detected: typical hypsarrithmia--8 (16.7%) patients; different variants of modified hypsarrithmia--35 (72.9%); a presence of focal epileptiform discharges, but not in the form of modified hypsarrithmia with focal component--3 (6.2%); an absence of epileptiform discharges--2 (4.2%). Typical and modified hypsarrithmia cases ratio was estimated as 18.6%:81.4%. Among the patients with modified hypsarrithmia, the following variants have been detected: synchronized variant of modified hypsarrithmia--35.3% of the cases with modified hypsarrithmia; asymmetric regional or unilateral hypsarrithmia--42.9%; hypsarrithmia with partial component--45.7%; hypsarrithmia with persisting "suppressive-burst" pattern--20% of the cases. Correct evaluation of clinical, electrophysiological and neurovisual data (clinico-electro-anatomical approach) facilitated the rational differential choice of antiepileptic therapy. The approach allows the early prognosis of disease course and its transformation to other epilepsy types.

  18. Does the geoid drift west?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backus, G. E.; Parker, R. L.; Zumberge, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    In 1970 Hide and Malin noted a correlation of about 0.8 between the geoid and the geomagnetic potential at the Earth's surface when the latter is rotated eastward in longitude by about 160 degrees and the spherical harmonic expansions of both functions are truncated at degree 4. From a century of magnetic observatory data, Hide and Malin inferred an average magnetic westward drift rate of about 0.27 degrees/year. They attributed the magnetic-gravitational correlation to a core event at about 1350 A.D. which impressed the mantle's gravity pattern at long wavelengths onto the core motion and the resulting magnetic field. The impressed pattern was then carried westward 160 degrees by the nsuing magnetic westward drift. An alternative possibility is some sort of steady physical coupling between the magnetic and gravitational fields (perhaps migration of Hide's bumps on the core-mantle interface). This model predicts that the geoid will drift west at the magnetic rate. On a rigid earth, the resulting changes in sea level would be easily observed, but they could be masked by adjustment of the mantle if it has a shell with viscosity considerably less than 10 to the 21 poise. However, steady westward drift of the geoid also predicts secular changes in g, the local acceleration of gravity, at land stations. These changes are now ruled out by recent independent high-accuracy absolute measurements of g made by several workers at various locations in the Northern Hemisphere.

  19. GeoPowering the west.

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, Roger Ray

    2004-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) GeoPowering the West (GPW) program works with the U.S. geothermal industry, power companies, industrial and residential consumers, and federal, state, and local officials to provide technical and institutional support and limited, cost-shared funding to state-level activities. By demonstrating the benefits of geothermal energy, GPW increases state and regional awareness of opportunities to enhance local economies and strengthen our nation's energy security while minimizing environmental impact. By identifying barriers to development and working with others to eliminate them, GPW helps a state or region create a regulatory and economic environment that is more favorable for geothermal and other renewable energy development. Electricity is produced using expanding steam or very hot water from the underground reservoir to spin a conventional turbine-generator. Geothermal power plants operate at high capacity factors (70-100%), with availability factors typically greater than 95%. Geothermal plants are among the cleanest sources of electric power available. Direct use applications directly pipe hot water from geothermal resources to provide heat for industrial processes, crop drying, greenhouses, aquaculture, recreation, sidewalk snow-melting, and buildings. Geothermal district heating systems supply heat to multiple buildings through a network of pipes carrying the hot geothermal water.

  20. IAU South West Asian ROAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, Areg; Azatyan, Naira; Farmanyan, Sona; Mikayelyan, Gor

    2016-10-01

    Armenia is hosting the IAU South West Asian (SWA) Regional Office of Astronomy for Development (ROAD). It is a county of ancient astronomy and is also rich in modern astronomical facilities and infrastructures, hence may successfully serve as a regional center for various activities. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO) has 2.6m and 1m Schmidt, as well as a number of smaller telescopes that are an observational basis for joint projects and collaborations. Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO) is hosting astronomical databases, such as the Digitized First Byurakan Survey (DFBS) and may also serve as a basis for development of VO structures in this region. Recently we have conducted a number of new activities; a meeting on ``Relation of Astronomy to other Sciences, Culture and Society" (RASCS) was organized by BAO and Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS) in Oct 2014 in Byurakan. Activities related to Archaeoastronomy and Astronomy in Culture (AAC) were initiated as well. Discussions on future Armenian-Iranian collaboration in astronomy were carried out, including an Armenian-Iranian Astronomical Workshop held in Oct 2015 in Byurakan. Similar workshops have been carried out between BAO and Abastumani Astronomical Observatory (AbAO, Georgia) since 1974.

  1. A cryptic mitochondrial DNA link between North European and West African dogs.

    PubMed

    Adeola, Adeniyi C; Ommeh, Sheila C; Song, Jiao-Jiao; Olaogun, S Charles; Sanke, Oscar J; Yin, Ting-Ting; Wang, Guo-Dong; Wu, Shi-Fang; Zhou, Zhong-Yin; Lichoti, Jacqueline K; Agwanda, Bernard R; Dawuda, Philip M; Murphy, Robert W; Peng, Min-Sheng; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2016-11-24

    Domestic dogs have an ancient origin and a long history in Africa. Nevertheless, the timing and sources of their introduction into Africa remain enigmatic. Herein, we analyse variation in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequences from 345 Nigerian and 37 Kenyan village dogs plus 1530 published sequences of dogs from other parts of Africa, Europe and West Asia. All Kenyan dogs can be assigned to one of three haplogroups (matrilines; clades): A, B, and C, while Nigerian dogs can be assigned to one of four haplogroups A, B, C, and D. None of the African dogs exhibits a matrilineal contribution from the African wolf (Canis lupus lupaster). The genetic signal of a recent demographic expansion is detected in Nigerian dogs from West Africa. The analyses of mitochondrial genomes reveal a maternal genetic link between modern West African and North European dogs indicated by sub-haplogroup D1 (but not the entire haplogroup D) coalescing around 12,000 years ago. Incorporating molecular anthropological evidence, we propose that sub-haplogroup D1 in West African dogs could be traced back to the late-glacial dispersals, potentially associated with human hunter-gatherer migration from southwestern Europe.

  2. A re-evaluation of the origin of hepatitis C virus genotype 2 in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Purdy, Michael A; Forbi, Joseph C; Sue, Amanda; Layden, Jennifer E; Switzer, William M; Opare-Sem, Ohene K; Phillips, Richard O; Khudyakov, Yury E

    2015-08-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is classified into seven genotypes based on genetic diversity, and most genotypes have been found in Africa. Infections with HCV genotype 2 (HCV2) are most prevalent in West Africa and it was suggested that HCV2 originated in West Africa. To better understand the evolutionary epidemiology of HCV2 in Africa, we examined new NS5B sequences of HCV2 strains obtained from Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana and Nigeria sequenced at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention with those available from West, North and Central Africa. Bayesian phylogeographic analysis using a discrete trait model showed that Ghana was the most likely geographical region for the origin of HCV2. Spread of HCV2 from Ghana did not appear to be through diffusion to adjacent countries along the coast. Rather, it was transmitted from Ghana to many distant countries in Africa, suggesting that certain routes of geographical dissemination were historically more efficient than mere proximity and that the HCV2 epidemic history in West Africa is extremely complex.

  3. Geologic Map of the Denver West 30' x 60' Quadrangle, North-Central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kellogg, Karl S.; Shroba, Ralph R.; Bryant, Bruce; Premo, Wayne R.

    2008-01-01

    The Denver West quadrangle extends east-west across the entire axis of the Front Range, one of numerous uplifts in the Rocky Mountain region in which Precambrian rocks are exposed. The history of the basement rocks in the Denver West quadrangle is as old as 1,790 Ma. Along the east side of the range, a sequence of sedimentary rocks as old as Pennsylvanian, but dominated by Cretaceous-age rocks, overlies these ancient basement rocks and was upturned and locally faulted during Laramide (Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary) uplift of the range. The increasingly coarser grained sediments up section in rocks of latest Cretaceous to early Tertiary age record in remarkable detail this Laramide period of mountain building. On the west side of the range, a major Laramide fault (Williams Range thrust) places Precambrian rocks over Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The geologic history of the quadrangle, therefore, can be divided into four major periods: (1) Proterozoic history, (2) Pennsylvanian to pre-Laramide, Late Cretaceous history, (3) Late Cretaceous to early Tertiary Laramide mountain building, and (4) post-Laramide history. In particular, the Quaternary history of the Denver West quadrangle is described in detail, based largely on extensive new mapping.

  4. Spatiotemporal evolutionary epidemiology of H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza in West Africa and Nigeria, 2006-2015.

    PubMed

    Ekong, P S; Fountain-Jones, N M; Alkhamis, M A

    2017-07-14

    H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) was first observed in Nigeria in early 2006 and has now spread to more than 17 African countries having severe economic and public health implications. Here, we explore the spatiotemporal patterns of viral dispersal both among West African countries and within Nigeria using sequence data from hemagglutinin (HA) gene region of the virus. Analyses were performed within a statistical Bayesian framework using phylodynamic models on data sets comprising of all publically available HA sequence data collected from seven West African countries and Egypt between 2006 and 2015. Our regional-level analyses indicated that H5N1 in West Africa originated in Nigeria in three geopolitical regions, specifically north central and north-east, where backyard poultry and wild birds are in frequent contact, as well as south-west, a major commercial poultry area, then dispersed to West African countries. We inferred significant virus dispersal routes between Niger and Nigeria on one side and Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Ghana and Egypt on the other. Furthermore, south-west Nigeria identified as a primary source for virus dispersal within Nigeria as well as to Niger in 2006 and 2008. Niger was an important epicentre for the virus spread into other West African countries in 2015. Egyptian introductions from West Africa were sporadic and resulted most likely from poultry trade with Nigeria rather than contact with infected wild birds. Our inferred viral dispersal routes reflected the large-scale unrestricted movements of infected poultry in the region. Our study illustrates the ability of phylodynamic models to trace important HPAIV dispersal routes at a regional and national level. Our results have clear implications for the control and prevention of this pathogen across scales and will help improve molecular surveillance of transboundary HPAIVs. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. 24. DETAIL OF AIR HEATER AND BLOWER, WEST 56TH ST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. DETAIL OF AIR HEATER AND BLOWER, WEST 56TH ST. PIER, LOOKING NORTH - West 55th Street & West 56th Street Piers, Hudson River at West Fifty-fifth & West Fifty-sixth Streets, Manhattan, New York County, NY

  6. GOES-West Movie of Hurricane Newton

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation of infrared and visible images from NOAA's GOES-West satellite shows the development and movement of Hurricane Newton from Sept. 4 through Sept. 6 at 10 a.m. EDT (1400 UTC) toward Ba...

  7. GOES-West Satellite Sees 'Pineapple Express'

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Visible and infrared images taken from NOAA's Geostationary Operational Environmental, or GOES-West, satellite from Feb. 7 through 9, 2014, were animated by the NASA GOES Project at NASA's Goddard ...

  8. West Rim of Endeavour Crater on Mars

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-08-10

    A portion of the west rim of Endeavour crater sweeps southward in this color view from NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The rover first destination on the rim, called Spirit Point in tribute to Opportunity now-inactive twin, Spirit.

  9. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  10. Drought May Beckon Bigger West Nile Outbreaks

    MedlinePlus

    ... affect transmission of the virus between mosquitoes and birds by stressing birds or changing where they gather. Mosquitoes become infected ... West Nile virus when they feed on infected birds, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control ...

  11. GOES-West Video of Sandra

    NASA Image and Video Library

    An animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite showed Tropical Storm Sandra has become decoupled by strong wind shear as it was approaching landfall in western Mexico ...

  12. Libraries in West Virginia: MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: https://medlineplus.gov/libraries/westvirginia.html Libraries in West Virginia To use the sharing features ... enable JavaScript. Bridgeport United Hospital Center Health Sciences Library 327 Medical Park Dr Bridgeport, WV 26330 681- ...

  13. Petrology of the Plutonic Rocks of west-central Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Thomas P.

    1970-01-01

    A series of plutons in west-central Alaska defines the Hogatza plutonic belt which extends for about 200 miles in an east-west direction from the northeastern Seward Peninsula to the Koyukuk River. The plutonic rocks have an aggregate area of about 1,200 square miles and their composition, distribution, and possible petrogenesis are discussed for the first time in this report. Field, petrographic and chemical data supported by K/Ar age dating indicate the plutonic rocks are divisible into two suites differing in age, location, and composition. The western plutons are mid-Cretaceous (~100 m.y.) in age and consist of a heterogeneous assemblage of monzonite, syenite, quartz monzonite. Associated with these granitic rocks is a group of alkaline sub-silicic rocks that forma belt of intrusive complexes extending for a distance of at least 180 miles from west-central Alaska to the Bering Sea. The complex at Granite Mountain shows a rare example of zoning from an alkaline rim to a quartz-bearing core. The occurrence of a similar complex at Cape Dezhnev on the easternmost tip of Siberia suggests the alkaline province may extend into Siberia. The easternmost plutons are Late Cretaceous (180 m.y.) in age and composed primarily of granodiorite and quartz monzonite similar to calc-alkaline plutons found throughout the North America Cordillera. The plutons are epizonal and intrude deformed but unmetamorphosed Lower Cretaceous andesitic volcanics and volcanic graywacke which constitute the highly mobile Yukon-Koyukuk volcanogenic province of west-central Alaska. No older rocks have been found within the confines of this vast tract; the occurrence of a bounding ophiolite sequence has lead to the suggestion that the province was formed by large-scale rifting and is underlain by oceanic crust. The possibility of no juvenile sialic crust over much of the area suggests that the potassium-rich magma now represented by the alkaline rocks originated in the mantle. The distribution of the

  14. West Virginia timber product output, 2000

    Treesearch

    Bruce Hansen; Ed Murriner; Iris Baker; Melody Akers; Melody Akers

    2006-01-01

    Assesses primary wood-processing activities in West Virginia for 2000. West Virginia?s total wood harvest for industrial uses was 202 million cubic feet, up nearly 22 percent from 1994. Sawlog production totaled 803.5 million board feet, a decrease of 8.1 million board feet from 1994. There were 172 sawmills operating in the State in 2000, with only 10 percent...

  15. West europe Report, Science and Technology.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-15

    168031 JPRS-WST-86-017 15 APRIL 1986 West Europe Report SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY A A(v/- 19980616 157 FBIS FOREIGN BROADCAST INFORMATION...1000 North Glebe Road, Arlington, Virginia 22201. NOTICE Effective 1 May 1986, JPRS will issue a new serial entitled EUROPE: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ...This serial, with the trigraph EST, will contain all material previously published in the WEST EUROPE REPORT: SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY as well as

  16. DPA1*02012: A DPA1*0201-related Mhc class II allele in West Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, C.G.; May, J.; Spauke, D.; Schnittger, L.

    1994-12-31

    DNA techniques such as sequence-specific oligonucleotide probe (SSOP) hybridizations, restriction-fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analyses, and DNA sequencing have greatly supported the characterization of Mhc class II allelic polymorphism. Here the authors describe a DPA 1 allele which has been identified in two male individuals from Liberia and Benin, West Africa, during a survey study on Mhc class II associations with the different manifestations after infection with Onchocerca volvulus. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  17. 1. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF THE WEST ELEVATION OF BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW, LOOKING EAST, OF THE WEST ELEVATION OF BUILDING 120. BUILDING 120 HOUSES THE PROTECTIVE FORCE PERSONNEL RESPONSIBLE FOR CONTROLLING ENTRANCE TO AND EGRESS FROM THE ROCKY FLATS PLANT WEST ENTRANCE. - Rocky Flats Plant, Guard Facility, South side of west access road, approximately 2,323 feet east of Colorado Highway 93 & West Road, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  18. Travellers and Cowboys: Myths of the Irish West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisplinghoff, Gretchen

    The recent Irish film "Into the West" (1992) explores the myth of the West on two continents. Images from television and movies appear as a visual reference point within "Into the West"; the main characters, two young Irish boys, are fascinated with the American West of cowboys and Indians as depicted in countless Hollywood…

  19. West Nile virus: North American experience

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2011-01-01

    West Nile virus, a mosquito-vectored flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis serogroup, was first detected in North America following an epizootic in the New York City area in 1999. In the intervening 11 years since the arrival of the virus in North America, it has crossed the contiguous USA, entered the Canadian provinces bordering the USA, and has been reported in the Caribbean islands, Mexico, Central America and, more recently, South America. West Nile virus has been reported in over 300 species of birds in the USA and has caused the deaths of thousands of birds, local population declines of some avian species, the clinical illness and deaths of thousands of domestic horses, and the clinical disease in over 30 000 Americans and the deaths of over 1000. Prior to the emergence of West Nile virus in North America, St. Louis encephalitis virus and Dengue virus were the only other known mosquito-transmitted flaviviruses in North America capable of causing human disease. This review will discuss the North American experience with mosquito-borne flavivirus prior to the arrival of West Nile virus, the entry and spread of West Nile virus in North America, effects on wild bird populations, genetic changes in the virus, and the current state of West Nile virus transmission.

  20. West Nile Virus lineage-2 in Culex specimens from Iran.

    PubMed

    Shahhosseini, Nariman; Chinikar, Sadegh; Moosa-Kazemi, Seyed Hassan; Sedaghat, Mohammad Mehdi; Kayedi, Mohammad Hassan; Lühken, Renke; Schmidt-Chanasit, Jonas

    2017-10-01

    Screening of mosquitoes for viruses is an important forecasting tool for emerging and re-emerging arboviruses. Iran has been known to harbour medically important arboviruses such as West Nile virus (WNV) and dengue virus (DENV) based on seroepidemiological data. However, there are no data about the potential mosquito vectors for arboviruses in Iran. This study was performed to provide mosquito and arbovirus data from Iran. A total of 32 317 mosquitos were collected at 16 sites in five provinces of Iran in 2015 and 2016. RT-PCR for detection of flaviviruses was performed. The PCR amplicons were sequenced, and 109 WNV sequences, including one obtained in this study, were used for phylogenetic analyses. The 32 317 mosquito specimens belonging to 25 species were morphologically distinguished and distributed into 1222 pools. Culex pipiens s.l. comprised 56.429%. One mosquito pool (0.08%), containing 46 unfed Cx. pipiens pipiens form pipiens (Cpp) captured in August 2015, was positive for flavivirus RNA. Subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analyses revealed that the detected Iranian WNV strain belongs to lineage 2 and clusters with a strain recently detected in humans. No flaviviruses other than WNV were detected in the mosquito pools. Cpp could be a vector for WNV in Iran. Our findings indicate recent circulation of WNV lineage-2 strain in Iran and provide a solid base for more targeted arbovirus surveillance programs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. West Nile virus isolated from Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) in Northwest Missouri 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Bosco-Lauth, Angela; Harmon, Jessica; Lash, R. Ryan; Weiss, Sonja; Langevin, Stanley; Savage, Harry; Marvin S. Godsey, Jr.; Burkhalter, Kristen; Root, J. Jeffrey; Gidlewski, Thomas; Nicholson, William; Brault, Aaron C.; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-12-01

    We describe the isolation of West Nile virus (WNV; Flaviviridae, flavivirus) from blood of a Virginia opossum (Didelphis virginiana) collected in northwestern Missouri, USA in August 2012. Furthermore, sequencing determined that the virus was related to lineage 1a WNV02 strains. We discuss the role of wildlife in WNV disease epidemiology.

  2. Isolation and characterization of West Nile virus from the blood of viremic patients during the 2000 outbreak in Israel.

    PubMed Central

    Hindiyeh, M.; Shulman, L. M.; Mendelson, E.; Weiss, L.; Grossman, Z.; Bin, H.

    2001-01-01

    We report the isolation of West Nile (WN) virus from four patient serum samples submitted for diagnosis during an outbreak of WN fever in Israel in 2000. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed two lineages, one closely related to a 1999 New York isolate and the other to a 1999 Russian isolate. PMID:11585544

  3. Geochemical constraints on magma processes in a peralkaline system - The Paisano volcano, west Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonough, W. F.; Nelson, D. O.

    1984-01-01

    Petrographic and trace element data from a continuous stratigraphic sequence of flows from the peralkaline Paisano Volcano in west Texas are used to delineate magnetic processes responsible for the chemical evolution of this volcano. It is shown that crystal fractionation of the phenocrystic assemblage explains the main compositional variation, but magma mixing of a less evolved melt composition also affected the chemical evolution of the volcano.

  4. The habitat of petroleum in the Brazilian marginal and west African basins: A biological marker investigation

    SciTech Connect

    Mello, M.R.; Soldan, A.L. ); Maxwell, J.R. ); Figueira, J. )

    1990-05-01

    A geochemical and biological marker investigation of a variety of oils from offshore Brazil and west Africa, ranging in age from Lower Cretaceous to Tertiary, has been done, with the following aims: (1) assessing the depositional environment of source rocks, (2) correlating the reservoired oils, (3) comparing the Brazilian oils with their west African counterparts. The approach was based in stable isotope data; bulk, elemental, and hydrous pyrolysis results; and molecular studies involving quantitative geological marker investigations of alkanes using GC-MS and GC-MS-MS. The results reveal similarities between groups of oils from each side of the Atlantic and suggest an origin from source rocks deposited in five types of depositional environment: lacustrine fresh water, lacustrine saline water, marine evaporitic/carbonate, restricted marine anoxic, and marine deltaic. In west Africa, the Upper Cretaceous marine anoxic succession (Cenomanian-Santonian) appears to be a major oil producer, but in Brazil it is generally immature. The Brazilian offshore oils have arisen mainly from the pre-salt sequence, whereas the African oils show a balance between origins from the pre-salt and marine sequences. The integration of the geochemical and geological data indicate that new frontiers of hydrocarbon exploration in the west African basins must consider the Tertiary reservoirs in the offshore area of Niger Delta, the reservoirs of the rift sequences in the shallow-water areas of south Gabon, Congo, and Cuanza basins, and the reservoirs from the drift sequences (post-salt) in the deep-water areas of Gabon, Congo Cabinda, and Cuanza basins.

  5. Potential seaways across West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaughan, David G.; Barnes, David K. A.; Fretwell, Peter T.; Bingham, Robert G.

    2011-10-01

    The West Antarctic ice sheet (WAIS) has long been considered vulnerable to rapid retreat and today parts are rapidly losing ice. Projection of future change in WAIS is, however, hampered by our poor understanding of past changes, especially during interglacial periods that could be analogs for the future, but which undoubtedly provide an opportunity for testing predictive models. We consider how ice-loss would open seaways across WAIS; these would likely alter Southern Ocean circulation and climate, and would broadly define the de-glacial state, but they may also have left evidence of their existence in the coastal seas they once connected. We show the most likely routes for such seaways, and that a direct seaway between Weddell and Ross seas, which did not pass through the Amundsen Sea sector, is unlikely. Continued ice-loss at present rates would open seaways between Amundsen and Weddell seas (A-W), and Amundsen and Bellingshausen seas (A-B), in around one thousand years. This timescale indicates potential future vulnerability, but also suggests seaways may have opened in recent interglacial periods. We attempt to test this hypothesis using contemporary bryozoan species assemblages around Antarctica, concluding that anomalously high similarity in assemblages in the Weddell and Amundsen seas supports recent migration through A-W. Other authors have suggested opening of seaways last occurred during Marine Isotope Stage 7a (209 ka BP), but we conclude that opening could have occurred in MIS 5e (100 ka BP) when Antarctica was warmer than present and likely contributed to global sea levels higher than today.

  6. Beijing strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in smear-positive tuberculosis patients in North-West and West of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sahebi, Leyla; Ansarin, Khalil; Hoffner, Sven; Mohajeri, Parviz; Mohammadi, Abolghasem

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among chronic infectious diseases. The goal of this cross-sectional study (2012–2014) was to examine the prevalence of Mycobacterium TB (MTB) Beijing strains in regions near the Iranian border and to identify any epidemiological links. Materials and Methods: To this end, MTB isolates were harvested, from 64 HIV-negative, pulmonary smear-positive TB patients from the Iranian border provinces of East Azerbaijan (North-West), Kurdistan (West), and Kermanshah (West) (2012–2014). Isolates were subjected to restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, using the insertion sequence IS6110 as a probe (IS6110 RFLP), and drug susceptibility testing by the proportion method. We gathered demographic and clinical data using a questionnaire and reviewing patient records. Results were analyzed with Gel Compare II 6.6 and SPSS-18. Results: The mean age of the patients was 54.4 years and 46.9% were male. The prevalence of Beijing strains among the isolates was 9.4% (17.6% in the Western provinces and 0% in East Azerbaijan). There was a statistically significant relationship between the Beijing strains and drug resistance and also between these strains, and the recurrence of TB in patients that had previously received treatment (P = 0.02 and P = 0.04, respectively). Conclusions: Finally, the prevalence of Beijing strains in Western Iran was greater than expected. Our results therefore indicate that regional and cross-border tracing may be necessary to control spread of this organism. PMID:28028521

  7. The Connell Sum Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bullington, Grady D.

    2007-01-01

    The Connell sum sequence refers to the partial sums of the Connell sequence. In this paper, the Connell sequence, Connell sum sequence and generalizations from Iannucci and Mills-Taylor are interpreted as sums of elements of triangles, relating them to polygonal number-stuttered arithmetic progressions. The n-th element of the Connell sum sequence is established as a sharp upper bound for the value of a gamma-labeling of a graph of size n. The limiting behavior and a explicit formula for the Connell (m,r)-sum sequence are also given.

  8. Use of Testing for West Nile Virus and Other Arboviruses

    PubMed Central

    Vanichanan, Jakapat; Salazar, Lucrecia; Wootton, Susan H.; Aguilera, Elizabeth; Garcia, Melissa N.; Murray, Kristy O.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, the most commonly diagnosed arboviral disease is West Nile virus (WNV) infection. Diagnosis is made by detecting WNV IgG or viral genomic sequences in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. To determine frequency of this testing in WNV-endemic areas, we examined the proportion of tests ordered for patients with meningitis and encephalitis at 9 hospitals in Houston, Texas, USA. We identified 751 patients (567 adults, 184 children), among whom 390 (52%) experienced illness onset during WNV season (June–October). WNV testing was ordered for 281 (37%) of the 751; results indicated acute infection for 32 (11%). Characteristics associated with WNV testing were acute focal neurologic deficits; older age; magnetic resonance imaging; empirically prescribed antiviral therapy; worse clinical outcomes: and concomitant testing for mycobacterial, fungal, or other viral infections. Testing for WNV is underutilized, and testing of patients with more severe disease raises the possibility of diagnostic bias in epidemiologic studies. PMID:27537988

  9. A case of Plasmodium ovale malaria imported from West Africa.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunjung; Yang, Jinyoung

    2013-04-01

    Malaria is a parasitic infection caused by Plasmodium species. Most of the imported malaria in Korea are due to Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum, and Plasmodium ovale infections are very rare. Here, we report a case of a 24-year-old American woman who acquired P. ovale while staying in Ghana, West Africa for 5 months in 2010. The patient was diagnosed with P. ovale malaria based on a Wright-Giemsa stained peripheral blood smear, Plasmodium genus-specific real-time PCR, Plasmodium species-specific nested PCR, and sequencing targeting 18S rRNA gene. The strain identified had a very long incubation period of 19-24 months. Blood donors who have malaria with a very long incubation period could be a potential danger for propagating malaria. Therefore, we should identify imported P. ovale infections not only by morphological findings but also by molecular methods for preventing propagation and appropriate treatment.

  10. Characterization of Virulent West Nile Virus Kunjin Strain, Australia, 2011

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Melinda J.; Zhang, Jing; Edmonds, Judith H.; Prow, Natalie A.; Gu, Xingnian; Davis, Rodney; Hornitzky, Christine; Arzey, Kathleen E.; Finlaison, Deborah; Hick, Paul; Read, Andrew; Hobson-Peters, Jody; May, Fiona J.; Doggett, Stephen L.; Haniotis, John; Russell, Richard C.; Hall, Roy A.; Khromykh, Alexander A.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the cause of an unprecedented outbreak of encephalitis among horses in New South Wales, Australia, in 2011, we performed genomic sequencing of viruses isolated from affected horses and mosquitoes. Results showed that most of the cases were caused by a variant West Nile virus (WNV) strain, WNVNSW2011, that is most closely related to WNV Kunjin (WNVKUN), the indigenous WNV strain in Australia. Studies in mouse models for WNV pathogenesis showed that WNVNSW2011 is substantially more neuroinvasive than the prototype WNVKUN strain. In WNVNSW2011, this apparent increase in virulence over that of the prototype strain correlated with at least 2 known markers of WNV virulence that are not found in WNVKUN. Additional studies are needed to determine the relationship of the WNVNSW2011 strain to currently and previously circulating WNVKUN strains and to confirm the cause of the increased virulence of this emerging WNV strain. PMID:22516173

  11. West Nile virus infections in Greece: an update.

    PubMed

    Papa, Anna

    2012-07-01

    Approximately 2 years have passed since the detection of the first human case of West Nile virus (WNV) infection in Greece, which was the starting signal of a large outbreak in 2010, followed by a second one in 2011. More than 250 neuroinvasive disease cases with 15% fatality were observed during the two WNV seasons. WNV lineage 2 sequences were obtained from blood donors, Culex mosquitoes, wild birds and sentinel chickens. The Greek WNV strain shows high genetic relatedness to the goshawk-Hungary/04 WNV strain; an amino acid substitution in nonstructural protein 3 (H249P) is observed, which has been previously associated with increased virus transmission. This article provides an overview of the WNV outbreaks in Greece and discusses the knowledge gained from these events.

  12. Simulations of Karenia Brevis on the West Florida Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenes, J. M.; Darrow, B. P.; Chen, F. R.; Walsh, J. J.; Dieterle, D. A.; Weisberg, R. H.

    2010-12-01

    The ecological model, HABSIM, was developed and tested to examine the initiation and maintenance of red tides of the toxic dinoflagellate Karenia brevis on the West Florida shelf (WFS). Phytoplankton competition among K. brevis, nitrogen fixing cyanophytes (Trichodesmium spp.), large siliceous phytoplankton (diatoms), and small non-siliceous phytoplankton (microflagellates) thus explores the sequence of events required to support the observed bloom from August to December 2001. The ecological model contains twenty two state variables within four submodels: atmospheric (iron deposition), biological (phytoplankton, bacteria, zooplankton, and fish), chemical (multiple species of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, silica, and iron), and benthic (nutrient regeneration). Here, we present results for the 2001 1-d hindcast simulations, with and without data assimilation of the Karenia state variable, as well as preliminary 3-d results.

  13. Petroleum geology and resources of the West Siberian Basin, Russia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ulmishek, Gregory F.

    2003-01-01

    The West Siberian basin is the largest petroleum basin in the world covering an area of about 2.2 million km2. The basin occupies a swampy plain between the Ural Mountains and the Yenisey River. On the north, the basin extends offshore into the southern Kara Sea. On the west, north, and east, the basin is surrounded by the Ural, Yenisey Ridge, and Turukhan-Igarka foldbelts that experienced major deformations during the Hercynian tectonic event and the Novaya Zemlya foldbelt that was deformed in early Cimmerian (Triassic) time. On the south, the folded Caledonian structures of the Central Kazakhstan and Altay-Sayan regions dip northward beneath the basin?s sedimentary cover. The basin is a relatively undeformed Mesozoic sag that overlies the Hercynian accreted terrane and the Early Triassic rift system. The basement is composed of foldbelts that were deformed in Late Carboniferous?Permian time during collision of the Siberian and Kazakhstan continents with the Russian craton. The basement also includes several microcontinental blocks with a relatively undeformed Paleozoic sedimentary sequence. The sedimentary succession of the basin is composed of Middle Triassic through Tertiary clastic rocks. The lower part of this succession is present only in the northern part of the basin; southward, progressively younger strata onlap the basement, so that in the southern areas the basement is overlain by Toarcian and younger rocks. The important stage in tectono-stratigraphic development of the basin was formation of a deep-water sea in Volgian?early Berriasian time. The sea covered more than one million km2 in the central basin area. Highly organic-rich siliceous shales of the Bazhenov Formation were deposited during this time in anoxic conditions on the sea bottom. Rocks of this formation have generated more than 80 percent of West Siberian oil reserves and probably a substantial part of its gas reserves. The deep-water basin was filled by prograding clastic clinoforms

  14. Functional description of the West Valley Demonstration Project Vitrification Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Borisch, R.R.; McMahon, C.L.

    1990-07-01

    The primary objective of the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) is the solidification of approximately 2.1 million liters (560,000 gallons) of high-level radioactive waste (HLW) which resulted from the operation of a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. Since the original plant was not built to accommodate the processing of waste beyond storage in underground tanks, HLW solidification by vitrification presented numerous engineering challenges. Existing facilities required redesign and conversion to meet their new purpose. Vitrification technology and systems needed to be created and then tested. Equipment modifications, identified from cold test results, were incorporated into the final equipment configuration to be used for radioactive (hot) operations. Cold operations have defined the correct sequence and optimal functioning of the equipment to be used for vitrification and have verified the process by which waste will be solidified into borosilicate glass.

  15. Genome Sequence Databases (Overview): Sequencing and Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Lapidus, Alla L.

    2009-01-01

    From the date its role in heredity was discovered, DNA has been generating interest among scientists from different fields of knowledge: physicists have studied the three dimensional structure of the DNA molecule, biologists tried to decode the secrets of life hidden within these long molecules, and technologists invent and improve methods of DNA analysis. The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of DNA occupies a special place among the methods developed. Thanks to the variety of sequencing technologies available, the process of decoding the sequence of genomic DNA (or whole genome sequencing) has become robust and inexpensive. Meanwhile the assembly of whole genome sequences remains a challenging task. In addition to the need to assemble millions of DNA fragments of different length (from 35 bp (Solexa) to 800 bp (Sanger)), great interest in analysis of microbial communities (metagenomes) of different complexities raises new problems and pushes some new requirements for sequence assembly tools to the forefront. The genome assembly process can be divided into two steps: draft assembly and assembly improvement (finishing). Despite the fact that automatically performed assembly (or draft assembly) is capable of covering up to 98% of the genome, in most cases, it still contains incorrectly assembled reads. The error rate of the consensus sequence produced at this stage is about 1/2000 bp. A finished genome represents the genome assembly of much higher accuracy (with no gaps or incorrectly assembled areas) and quality ({approx}1 error/10,000 bp), validated through a number of computer and laboratory experiments.

  16. Correlation of the major late Jurassic —early Tertiary low- and highstand cycles of south-west Egypt and north-west Sudan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wycisk, Peter

    1994-12-01

    The mainly continental deposits of northwest Sudan and south-west Egypt have been correlated with coeval shallow marine and marine deposits in northern Egypt along a north-south running cross-section, based on surface and subsurface data. The palaeodepth curve of northern Egypt illustrates the gradual seal-level rise, reaching its maximum during the Late Cretaceous with conspicuous advances during the Aptian and late Cenomanian. A general highstand is also recorded during the Campanian-Maastrichtian in north-west Sudan. A detailed facies correlation is given for the Aptian and late Cenomanian highstand in western Egypt. The correlation of the Cenomanian Bahariya and Maghrabi formations displays short-term relative sealevel fluctuations. The interpretation illustrates the extensiveness of related erosional processes in the hinterland, partly intensified by temporarily uplift of the Uweinat-Aswan High in the south. Regional uplift and constant erosion took place in south-west Egypt during Coniacian and Santonian times. The regional stratigraphic gaps and uncertain interpretation of the Bahariya Uplift are induced by the influence of the Trans-African Lineament, especially during the Late Cretaceous. Low-stand fluvial sheet sandstones characterized by non-cyclic sequence development and high facies stability occur, especially in the Neocomian and early Turonian. During the Barremian and Albian, fluvial architecture changes to more cyclic fluvial sequences and increasing soil formation, due to increasing subsidence, more humid climatic conditions and the generally rising sea level, culminating in the extensive shallow marine Abu Ballas and Maghrabi formations.

  17. Automated DNA Sequencing System

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, G.A.; Ekkebus, C.P.; Hauser, L.J.; Kress, R.L.; Mural, R.J.

    1999-04-25

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is developing a core DNA sequencing facility to support biological research endeavors at ORNL and to conduct basic sequencing automation research. This facility is novel because its development is based on existing standard biology laboratory equipment; thus, the development process is of interest to the many small laboratories trying to use automation to control costs and increase throughput. Before automation, biology Laboratory personnel purified DNA, completed cycle sequencing, and prepared 96-well sample plates with commercially available hardware designed specifically for each step in the process. Following purification and thermal cycling, an automated sequencing machine was used for the sequencing. A technician handled all movement of the 96-well sample plates between machines. To automate the process, ORNL is adding a CRS Robotics A- 465 arm, ABI 377 sequencing machine, automated centrifuge, automated refrigerator, and possibly an automated SpeedVac. The entire system will be integrated with one central controller that will direct each machine and the robot. The goal of this system is to completely automate the sequencing procedure from bacterial cell samples through ready-to-be-sequenced DNA and ultimately to completed sequence. The system will be flexible and will accommodate different chemistries than existing automated sequencing lines. The system will be expanded in the future to include colony picking and/or actual sequencing. This discrete event, DNA sequencing system will demonstrate that smaller sequencing labs can achieve cost-effective the laboratory grow.

  18. Origin of conglomerate stratigraphy in the Franciscan assemblage and Great Valley sequence, northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seiders, V.M.

    1988-01-01

    In the northern California Coast Ranges, the forearc-basin Great Valley sequence of Late Jurassic and Cretaceous age contains three distinctive types of conglomerate; 1) chert-rich conglomerate of Tithonian to Valanginian age, 2) volcanic-rich conglomerate of mainly Valanginian age, and 3) mixed-clast conglomerate of Valenginian and younger age. All three types are found in stratigraphic sequence along the west side of the Sacramento Valley, but in three belts of outliers that overlie the Franciscan assemblage to the west, the oldest conglomerate present in each belt is progressively younger southwestward. The same three conglomerate types occur in coeval rocks of the accretionary-wedge Franciscan assemblage and show a similar southwestward progression in composition, possibly due to trench deposition of conglomerate with the same sources as the Great Valley sequence, each conglomerate type being accreted successively to the west side of the accretionary wedge. -from Author

  19. Sequence information signal processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, John C. (Inventor); Chow, Edward T. (Inventor); Waterman, Michael S. (Inventor); Hunkapillar, Timothy J. (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    An electronic circuit is used to compare two sequences, such as genetic sequences, to determine which alignment of the sequences produces the greatest similarity. The circuit includes a linear array of series-connected processors, each of which stores a single element from one of the sequences and compares that element with each successive element in the other sequence. For each comparison, the processor generates a scoring parameter that indicates which segment ending at those two elements produces the greatest degree of similarity between the sequences. The processor uses the scoring parameter to generate a similar scoring parameter for a comparison between the stored element and the next successive element from the other sequence. The processor also delivers the scoring parameter to the next processor in the array for use in generating a similar scoring parameter for another pair of elements. The electronic circuit determines which processor and alignment of the sequences produce the scoring parameter with the highest value.

  20. Sequence information signal processor

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, John C.; Chow, Edward T.; Waterman, Michael S.; Hunkapillar, Timothy J.

    1999-01-01

    An electronic circuit is used to compare two sequences, such as genetic sequences, to determine which alignment of the sequences produces the greatest similarity. The circuit includes a linear array of series-connected processors, each of which stores a single element from one of the sequences and compares that element with each successive element in the other sequence. For each comparison, the processor generates a scoring parameter that indicates which segment ending at those two elements produces the greatest degree of similarity between the sequences. The processor uses the scoring parameter to generate a similar scoring parameter for a comparison between the stored element and the next successive element from the other sequence. The processor also delivers the scoring parameter to the next processor in the array for use in generating a similar scoring parameter for another pair of elements. The electronic circuit determines which processor and alignment of the sequences produce the scoring parameter with the highest value.

  1. Roles of repetitive sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, G.I.

    1991-12-31

    The DNA of higher eukaryotes contains many repetitive sequences. The study of repetitive sequences is important, not only because many have important biological function, but also because they provide information on genome organization, evolution and dynamics. In this paper, I will first discuss some generic effects that repetitive sequences will have upon genome dynamics and evolution. In particular, it will be shown that repetitive sequences foster recombination among, and turnover of, the elements of a genome. I will then consider some examples of repetitive sequences, notably minisatellite sequences and telomere sequences as examples of tandem repeats, without and with respectively known function, and Alu sequences as an example of interspersed repeats. Some other examples will also be considered in less detail.

  2. Nonparametric Combinatorial Sequence Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wauthier, Fabian L.; Jordan, Michael I.; Jojic, Nebojsa

    This work considers biological sequences that exhibit combinatorial structures in their composition: groups of positions of the aligned sequences are "linked" and covary as one unit across sequences. If multiple such groups exist, complex interactions can emerge between them. Sequences of this kind arise frequently in biology but methodologies for analyzing them are still being developed. This paper presents a nonparametric prior on sequences which allows combinatorial structures to emerge and which induces a posterior distribution over factorized sequence representations. We carry out experiments on three sequence datasets which indicate that combinatorial structures are indeed present and that combinatorial sequence models can more succinctly describe them than simpler mixture models. We conclude with an application to MHC binding prediction which highlights the utility of the posterior distribution induced by the prior. By integrating out the posterior our method compares favorably to leading binding predictors.

  3. Cellulases and coding sequences

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  4. Cellulases and coding sequences

    DOEpatents

    Li, Xin-Liang; Ljungdahl, Lars G.; Chen, Huizhong

    2001-02-20

    The present invention provides three fungal cellulases, their coding sequences, recombinant DNA molecules comprising the cellulase coding sequences, recombinant host cells and methods for producing same. The present cellulases are from Orpinomyces PC-2.

  5. DNA sequencing conference, 2

    SciTech Connect

    Cook-Deegan, R.M.; Venter, J.C.; Gilbert, W.; Mulligan, J.; Mansfield, B.K.

    1991-06-19

    This conference focused on DNA sequencing, genetic linkage mapping, physical mapping, informatics and bioethics. Several were used to study this sequencing and mapping. This article also discusses computer hardware and software aiding in the mapping of genes.

  6. SOUTH WING, TRA661. WEST SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. MTR WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH WING, TRA-661. WEST SIDE. CAMERA FACING NORTHEAST. MTR WEST WALL BEYOND ROOF LINE. INL NEGATIVE NO. HD46-45-1. Mike Crane, Photographer, 4/2005 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Reactor Area, Materials & Engineering Test Reactors, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  7. 77 FR 58930 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... West Coast States; West Coast Salmon Fisheries; Announcing OMB Approval of Information Collection..., Northwest Region Salmon Management Division, NMFS, 206-526-4323. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: NMFS published a... regulatory areas in the commercial ocean salmon fishery off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and...

  8. 7. West elevation, facing east (Note: B/W scale on west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. West elevation, facing east (Note: B/W scale on west elevation in 1/2 ft increments) - Nevada Test Site, Reactor Maintenance & Disassembly Complex, Junior Hot Cell, Jackass Flats, Area 25, South of intersection of Roads F & G, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  9. 75 FR 17463 - Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Key West Bank, Key West, Florida; Notice of Appointment of Receiver Notice is hereby given that, pursuant to the authority contained in section 5(d)(2) of the Home Owners' Loan Act, the Office of Thrift Supervision...

  10. 77 FR 10423 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-22

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West Virginia's Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Virginia's Legislative Rule regarding ambient air quality standards (45CSR8- Ambient Air Quality...

  11. 77 FR 65520 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-29

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 52 Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; West Virginia; Amendments to West Virginia's Ambient Air Quality Standards AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... CSR 8--Ambient Air Quality Standards. In the Final Rules section of this Federal Register, EPA...

  12. 75 FR 75638 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY31 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 12...-6667 and 800-662- 9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to Mariners broadcasts on Channel 16 VHF-FM and...

  13. 77 FR 61728 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-11

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC223 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 15... the action was effective, by telephone hotline number 206-526-6667 and 800-662-9825, and by U.S. Coast...

  14. 78 FR 35153 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC705 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 4 and 5 AGENCY... effective, by telephone hotline number 206-526-6667 and 800-662- 9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to...

  15. 75 FR 75639 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY83 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 14..., by telephone hotline number 206-526-6667 and 800-662- 9825, and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to...

  16. 75 FR 54791 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY08 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Modifications of the West Coast Commercial and Recreational Salmon Fisheries; Inseason Actions 9..., and by U.S. Coast Guard Notice to Mariners broadcasts on Channel 16 VHF-FM and 2182 kHz...

  17. Namibia [South-West Africa].

    PubMed

    1983-01-01

    Namibia, a country of 1,051,700 inhabitants of whom 85.6% are blacks of diverse ethnic and linguistic origins, 7.5% are white, and the rest are of mixed ancestry, has been illegally administered by South Africa since 1966, when a League of Nations mandate was revoked by the UN. The Namibian Desert was a barrier to European expansion until the late 18th century, when the area came under German and British influence. Efforts to bring about an orderly and peaceful transition to independent status are hampered at present by the lack of parallel progress toward withdrawal of Cuban combat forces from Angola. Beginning in 1980, considerable executive power was transferred from the administrator general appointed by the South African Government to an interim 3-tier system of elected representatives dividing responsibility between central, ethnic, and local authorities. The judicial structure has separate overlapping systems for whites, westernized blacks and coloreds and for indigenous blacks. Namibian society is highly politicized, with 4 white and about 40 nonwhite political groups. The South West Africa People's Organization (SWAPO) remains an active party inside Namibia despite simultaneous detention of its entire leadership in 1979 by the South African Government. Namibia's economy is dual, with a modern market sector of mining, ranching and fishing producing most of the wealth and a traditional subsistence sector supporting most of the labor force. About 60% of the work force of 500,000 in 1981 worked in agriculture, 19% in industry and commerce, 6% in mining, 8% in services, and 7% in government. Namibia's gross domestic product in 1980 was $1.712 billion, representing an average growth rate of 2.5% from 1970-80. However, real growth since 1978 has been negative because of persistent drought, political uncertainty, low demand for mineral products, and previous overfishing. Namibia has no separate representation in any international body. The country may have the

  18. Landscape West of Bosporos Rupes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2006-04-07

    This image was taken in the mid-latitudes of Mars' southern hemisphere near the giant Argyre impact basin. It is located just to the west of a prominent scarp known as Bosporos Rupes. The left side of the image shows cratered plains. Some of the craters are heavily mantled and indistinct, whereas others exhibit sharp rims and dramatic topography. The largest crater in this half of the image is about 2.5 kilometers (1.5 miles) wide. Mounds and ridges, which may be remnants of an ice-rich deposit, are visible on its floor. Three sinuous valleys occupy the center of the image. Valleys such as these were first observed in data returned by the NASA Mariner 9 spacecraft, which reached Mars in 1971. The right side of the image shows part of an impact crater that is approximately 20 kilometers (12 miles) in diameter. The furrowed appearance of the crater's inner wall suggests that it has been extensively modified, perhaps by landslides and flowing water. Like other craters in the area, the floor of this crater has a rough and dissected texture that is often attributed to the loss of ice-rich material. This image was taken by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera onboard NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter spacecraft on March 24, 2006. The image is centered at 40.64 degrees south latitude, 303.49 degrees east longitude. The image is oriented such that north is 7 degrees to the left of up. The range to the target was 2,044 kilometers (1,270 miles). At this distance the image scale is 2.04 meters (6.69 feet) per pixel, so objects as small as 6.1 meters (20 feet) are resolved. In total this image is 40.90 kilometers (25.41 miles) or 20,081 pixels wide and 11.22 kilometers (6.97 miles) or 5,523 pixels high. The image was taken at a local Mars time of 07:30 and the scene is illuminated from the upper right with a solar incidence angle of 81.4 degrees, thus the sun was about 8.6 degrees above the horizon. At an Ls of 29 degrees (with Ls an indicator of

  19. Emigration dynamics in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Makinwa-adebusoye, P K

    1995-01-01

    This report on the emigration dynamics at work in Western Africa opens by noting that this region comprises an important migration system with large legal and illegal movements of people within the region and to industrialized countries. Migration has been fueled by high growth rates coupled with lower growth rates of per capital income. Migration takes the form of continuing inflow into receiving countries, such as the Ivory Coast, sudden changes in migration status (in Ghana and Nigeria) reflecting sudden economic changes, a brain drain to developed countries, and an influx of refugees. The second section of the report presents a brief look at historical migratory patterns, including those of nomads which continue today. Data limitations are addressed in section 3, and the drawbacks of census data for migration information are noted. The next section describes the economic and demographic factors in the region which contribute to migration. These include the long lasting effects of colonization in general, the exploitation of minerals, patterns of agricultural development, poverty, and population growth. A closer examination of these forces at work is provided in case studies of Ghana, Nigeria, and the migration stream from Burkina Faso to the Ivory Coast. Section 5 looks at the economic causes and effects of the brain drain. Social and cultural factors are covered in section 6, with an emphasis placed on family and migration networks. Section 7 covers political factors influencing migration, such as the efforts of people to retain contact with other members of their ethnic group who may live on the opposite side of an arbitrarily drawn (by colonizers) international border, the designation of administrative capital cities, and the ease in crossing borders without documentation. The next section describes the 1975 formation of the Economic Community for West Africa (ECOWAS) and its protocols regarding free movement of citizens within the states which comprise the

  20. Blooming Seas West of Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    For several weeks in May and early June, daily satellite images of the North Atlantic Ocean west of Ireland have captured partial glimpses of luxuriant blooms of microscopic marine plants between patches of clouds. On June 4, 2007, the skies over the ocean cleared, displaying the sea's spring bloom in brilliant color. A bright blue bloom stretches north from the Mouth of the River Shannon and tapers off like a plume of blue smoke north of Clare Island. (In the large image, a second bloom is visible to the north, wrapping around County Donegal, on the island's northwestern tip.) The image was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite. Cold, nutrient-stocked water often wells up to the surface from the deeper ocean along coastal shelves and at the edges of ocean currents. When it does, it delivers a boost of nutrients that fuel large blooms of single-celled plants collectively known as phytoplankton. The plants are the foundation of the marine food web, and their proliferation in this area of the North Atlantic explains why the waters of western Ireland support myriad fisheries and populations of large mammals like seals, whales, and dolphins. Like plants on land, phytoplankton make their food through photosynthesis, harnessing sunlight for energy using chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments. The pigments change the way light reflects off the surface water, appearing as colorful swirls of turquoise and green against the darker blue of the ocean. Though individually tiny, collectively these plants play a big role in Earth's carbon and climate cycles; worldwide, they remove about as much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis as land plants do. Satellites are the only way to map the occurrence of phytoplankton blooms across the global oceans on a regular basis. That kind of information is important not only to scientists who model carbon and climate, but also to biologists and fisheries

  1. West Coast Tsunami: Cascadia's Fault?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Bernard, E. N.; Titov, V.

    2013-12-01

    The tragedies of 2004 Sumatra and 2011 Japan tsunamis exposed the limits of our knowledge in preparing for devastating tsunamis. The 1,100-km coastline of the Pacific coast of North America has tectonic and geological settings similar to Sumatra and Japan. The geological records unambiguously show that the Cascadia fault had caused devastating tsunamis in the past and this geological process will cause tsunamis in the future. Hypotheses of the rupture process of Cascadia fault include a long rupture (M9.1) along the entire fault line, short ruptures (M8.8 - M9.1) nucleating only a segment of the coastline, or a series of lesser events of M8+. Recent studies also indicate an increasing probability of small rupture occurring at the south end of the Cascadia fault. Some of these hypotheses were implemented in the development of tsunami evacuation maps in Washington and Oregon. However, the developed maps do not reflect the tsunami impact caused by the most recent updates regarding the Cascadia fault rupture process. The most recent study by Wang et al. (2013) suggests a rupture pattern of high- slip patches separated by low-slip areas constrained by estimates of coseismic subsidence based on microfossil analyses. Since this study infers that a Tokohu-type of earthquake could strike in the Cascadia subduction zone, how would such an tsunami affect the tsunami hazard assessment and planning along the Pacific Coast of North America? The rapid development of computing technology allowed us to look into the tsunami impact caused by above hypotheses using high-resolution models with large coverage of Pacific Northwest. With the slab model of MaCrory et al. (2012) (as part of the USGS slab 1.0 model) for the Cascadia earthquake, we tested the above hypotheses to assess the tsunami hazards along the entire U.S. West Coast. The modeled results indicate these hypothetical scenarios may cause runup heights very similar to those observed along Japan's coastline during the 2011

  2. Blooming Seas West of Ireland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    For several weeks in May and early June, daily satellite images of the North Atlantic Ocean west of Ireland have captured partial glimpses of luxuriant blooms of microscopic marine plants between patches of clouds. On June 4, 2007, the skies over the ocean cleared, displaying the sea's spring bloom in brilliant color. A bright blue bloom stretches north from the Mouth of the River Shannon and tapers off like a plume of blue smoke north of Clare Island. (In the large image, a second bloom is visible to the north, wrapping around County Donegal, on the island's northwestern tip.) The image was captured by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite. Cold, nutrient-stocked water often wells up to the surface from the deeper ocean along coastal shelves and at the edges of ocean currents. When it does, it delivers a boost of nutrients that fuel large blooms of single-celled plants collectively known as phytoplankton. The plants are the foundation of the marine food web, and their proliferation in this area of the North Atlantic explains why the waters of western Ireland support myriad fisheries and populations of large mammals like seals, whales, and dolphins. Like plants on land, phytoplankton make their food through photosynthesis, harnessing sunlight for energy using chlorophyll and other light-capturing pigments. The pigments change the way light reflects off the surface water, appearing as colorful swirls of turquoise and green against the darker blue of the ocean. Though individually tiny, collectively these plants play a big role in Earth's carbon and climate cycles; worldwide, they remove about as much carbon dioxide from the atmosphere during photosynthesis as land plants do. Satellites are the only way to map the occurrence of phytoplankton blooms across the global oceans on a regular basis. That kind of information is important not only to scientists who model carbon and climate, but also to biologists and fisheries

  3. Schur monotone decreasing sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganikhodjaev, Rasul; Saburov, Mansoor; Saburov, Khikmat

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce Schur monotone decreasing sequences in an n-dimensional space by considering a majorization pre-order. By means of down arrow mappings, we study omega limiting points of bounded Schur monotone decreasing sequences. We provide convergence criteria for such kinds of sequences. We prove that a Cesaro mean (or an arithmetic mean) of any bounded Schur monotone decreasing sequences converges to a unique limiting point.

  4. Enhanced virome sequencing using targeted sequence capture.

    PubMed

    Wylie, Todd N; Wylie, Kristine M; Herter, Brandi N; Storch, Gregory A

    2015-12-01

    Metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS) is an important tool for characterizing viral populations. It is culture independent, requires no a priori knowledge of the viruses in the sample, and may provide useful genomic information. However, MSS can lack sensitivity and may yield insufficient data for detailed analysis. We have created a targeted sequence capture panel, ViroCap, designed to enrich nucleic acid from DNA and RNA viruses from 34 families that infect vertebrate hosts. A computational approach condensed ∼1 billion bp of viral reference sequence into <200 million bp of unique, representative sequence suitable for targeted sequence capture. We compared the effectiveness of detecting viruses in standard MSS versus MSS following targeted sequence capture. First, we analyzed two sets of samples, one derived from samples submitted to a diagnostic virology laboratory and one derived from samples collected in a study of fever in children. We detected 14 and 18 viruses in the two sets, comprising 19 genera from 10 families, with dramatic enhancement of genome representation following capture enrichment. The median fold-increases in percentage viral reads post-capture were 674 and 296. Median breadth of coverage increased from 2.1% to 83.2% post-capture in the first set and from 2.0% to 75.6% in the second set. Next, we analyzed samples containing a set of diverse anellovirus sequences and demonstrated that ViroCap could be used to detect viral sequences with up to 58% variation from the references used to select capture probes. ViroCap substantially enhances MSS for a comprehensive set of viruses and has utility for research and clinical applications. © 2015 Wylie et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  5. Enhanced virome sequencing using targeted sequence capture

    PubMed Central

    Wylie, Todd N.; Wylie, Kristine M.; Herter, Brandi N.; Storch, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Metagenomic shotgun sequencing (MSS) is an important tool for characterizing viral populations. It is culture independent, requires no a priori knowledge of the viruses in the sample, and may provide useful genomic information. However, MSS can lack sensitivity and may yield insufficient data for detailed analysis. We have created a targeted sequence capture panel, ViroCap, designed to enrich nucleic acid from DNA and RNA viruses from 34 families that infect vertebrate hosts. A computational approach condensed ∼1 billion bp of viral reference sequence into <200 million bp of unique, representative sequence suitable for targeted sequence capture. We compared the effectiveness of detecting viruses in standard MSS versus MSS following targeted sequence capture. First, we analyzed two sets of samples, one derived from samples submitted to a diagnostic virology laboratory and one derived from samples collected in a study of fever in children. We detected 14 and 18 viruses in the two sets, comprising 19 genera from 10 families, with dramatic enhancement of genome representation following capture enrichment. The median fold-increases in percentage viral reads post-capture were 674 and 296. Median breadth of coverage increased from 2.1% to 83.2% post-capture in the first set and from 2.0% to 75.6% in the second set. Next, we analyzed samples containing a set of diverse anellovirus sequences and demonstrated that ViroCap could be used to detect viral sequences with up to 58% variation from the references used to select capture probes. ViroCap substantially enhances MSS for a comprehensive set of viruses and has utility for research and clinical applications. PMID:26395152

  6. Career Academy Course Sequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markham, Thom; Lenz, Robert

    This career academy course sequence guide is designed to give teachers a quick overview of the course sequences of well-known career academy and career pathway programs from across the country. The guide presents a variety of sample course sequences for the following academy themes: (1) arts and communication; (2) business and finance; (3)…

  7. Cenozoic motion between East and West Antarctica

    PubMed

    Cande; Stock; Muller; Ishihara

    2000-03-09

    The West Antarctic rift system is the result of late Mesozoic and Cenozoic extension between East and West Antarctica, and represents one of the largest active continental rift systems on Earth. But the timing and magnitude of the plate motions leading to the development of this rift system remain poorly known, because of a lack of magnetic anomaly and fracture zone constraints on seafloor spreading. Here we report on magnetic data, gravity data and swath bathymetry collected in several areas of the south Tasman Sea and northern Ross Sea. These results enable us to calculate mid-Cenozoic rotation parameters for East and West Antarctica. These rotations show that there was roughly 180 km of separation in the western Ross Sea embayment in Eocene and Oligocene time. This episode of extension provides a tectonic setting for several significant Cenozoic tectonic events in the Ross Sea embayment including the uplift of the Transantarctic Mountains and the deposition of large thicknesses of Oligocene sediments. Inclusion of this East-West Antarctic motion in the plate circuit linking the Australia, Antarctic and Pacific plates removes a puzzling gap between the Lord Howe rise and Campbell plateau found in previous early Tertiary reconstructions of the New Zealand region. Determination of this East-West Antarctic motion also resolves a long standing controversy regarding the contribution of deformation in this region to the global plate circuit linking the Pacific to the rest of the world.

  8. Uncorrectable sequences and telecommand

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ekroot, Laura; Mceliece, R.; Dolinar, S.; Swanson, L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of a tail sequence for command link transmission units is to fail to decode, so that the command decoder will begin searching for the start of the next unit. A tail sequence used by several missions and recommended for this purpose by the Consultative Committee on Space Data Standards is analyzed. A single channel error can cause the sequence to decode. An alternative sequence requiring at least two channel errors before it can possibly decode is presented. (No sequence requiring more than two channel errors before it can possibly decode exists for this code.)

  9. [Sequencing - classical method].

    PubMed

    Sedivcová, Monika; Martínek, Petr; Stehlík, Jan; Grossmann, Petr; Kašpírková, Jana; Vaneček, Tomáš

    2013-06-01

    In this article the basic methods of reading nucleotide sequences in DNA molecules are summarized. Sanger sequencing is described most thoroughly as it is the most frequent routine method currently being utilized. The article describes in detail the principle of sequence determination through the production of fragments with a known end base using chain termination synthesis of DNA and ways of separation and detection of the fragments. Some alternative methods of sequencing are mentioned in short. Basic approaches of analyzing sequence data are explained as well as different outcomes, obstacles and challenges.

  10. Low autocorrelation binary sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Packebusch, Tom; Mertens, Stephan

    2016-04-01

    Binary sequences with minimal autocorrelations have applications in communication engineering, mathematics and computer science. In statistical physics they appear as groundstates of the Bernasconi model. Finding these sequences is a notoriously hard problem, that so far can be solved only by exhaustive search. We review recent algorithms and present a new algorithm that finds optimal sequences of length N in time O(N {1.73}N). We computed all optimal sequences for N≤slant 66 and all optimal skewsymmetric sequences for N≤slant 119.

  11. HIV Sequence Databases

    PubMed Central

    Kuiken, Carla; Korber, Bette; Shafer, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Two important databases are often used in HIV genetic research, the HIV Sequence Database in Los Alamos, which collects all sequences and focuses on annotation and data analysis, and the HIV RT/Protease Sequence Database in Stanford, which collects sequences associated with the development of viral resistance against anti-retroviral drugs and focuses on analysis of those sequences. The types of data and services these two databases offer, the tools they provide, and the way they are set up and operated are described in detail. PMID:12875108

  12. Impacts of West Nile Virus on wildlife

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saito, E.K.; Wild, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    The recent epidemic of West Nile virus in the United States proved to be unexpectedly active and was the largest epidemic of the virus ever recorded. Much remains to be discovered about the ecology and epidemiology of West Nile virus in the United States, including which species are important in maintaining the virus in nature, why some species are more susceptible to lethal infection, and what environmental factors are important in predicting future epidemics. These factors will likely vary regionally, depending on local ecological characteristics. Until scientists better understand the virus and factors influencing its activity, predicting its effects for future seasons is impossible. However, experts are certain about one thing: West Nile virus is here to stay.

  13. West Nile Virus: Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Lyle R.; Brault, Aaron C.; Nasci, Roger S.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Since its introduction in North America in 1999,West Nile virus has produced the 3 largest arboviral neuroinvasive disease outbreaks ever recorded in the United States. OBJECTIVE To review the ecology, virology, epidemiology, clinical characteristics, diagnosis, prevention, and control of West Nile virus, with an emphasis on North America. EVIDENCE REVIEW PubMed electronic database was searched through February 5, 2013. United States national surveillance data were gathered from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. FINDINGS West Nile virus is now endemic throughout the contiguous United States, with 16 196 human neuroinvasive disease cases and 1549 deaths reported since 1999. More than 780 000 illnesses have likely occurred. To date, incidence is highest in the Midwest from mid-July to early September. West Nile fever develops in approximately 25% of those infected, varies greatly in clinical severity, and symptoms may be prolonged. Neuroinvasive disease (meningitis, encephalitis, acute flaccid paralysis) develops in less than 1% but carries a fatality rate of approximately 10%. Encephalitis has a highly variable clinical course but often is associated with considerable long-term morbidity. Approximately two-thirds of those with paralysis remain with significant weakness in affected limbs. Diagnosis usually rests on detection of IgM antibody in serum or cerebrospinal fluid. Treatment is supportive; no licensed human vaccine exists. Prevention uses an integrated pest management approach, which focuses on surveillance, elimination of mosquito breeding sites, and larval and adult mosquito management using pesticides to keep mosquito populations low. During outbreaks or impending outbreaks, emphasis shifts to aggressive adult mosquito control to reduce the abundance of infected, biting mosquitoes. Pesticide exposure and adverse human health events following adult mosquito control operations for West Nile virus appear negligible. CONCLUSIONS AND

  14. Narco-Pipeline to West Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    Democracy and Promoting Social Development, provides an avenue of analysis on how these elements and lessons learned can be exported to West Africa...Colombia……………………………………………………………..25 Strategy for Strengthening Democracy and Promoting Social Development…………...31 Nationalism... social and economic development. “In West Africa, the average Human Development Index (HDI) ranking is 2.3 times poorer than South America.”22 The

  15. 200 West Area Dust Mitigation Strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Becker, James M.

    2001-04-12

    Various strategies were developed for the purpose of mitigating respirable dust experienced at facilities in the southwest corner of the 200 West Area. These strategies focused on treatment of that portion of the dust source located within the 200 West Expansion Area. Strategies included direct shielding of the facilities via establishment of a poplar windbreak and installation of an artificial windscreen; soil stabilization via seeding of herbaceous plants, soil fixatives, straw crimping, straw blankets, gravel mulches, drift fences, baled straw, and living fences; and various irrigation systems that would function both to water seeded herbs and to suppress dust.

  16. Ilheus Virus Isolation in the Pantanal, West-Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Kenney, Joan L.; Couto-Lima, Dinair; Campos, Zilca M. S.; Nogueira, Rita M. R.; Brault, Aaron C.; Komar, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The wetlands of the Brazilian Pantanal host large concentrations of diverse wildlife species and hematophagous arthropods, conditions that favor the circulation of zoonotic arboviruses. A recent study from the Nhecolândia sub-region of Pantanal reported serological evidence of various flaviviruses, including West Nile virus and Ilheus virus (ILHV). According to the age of seropositive horses, at least three flaviviruses, including ILHV, circulated in the Brazilian Pantanal between 2005 and 2009. To extend this study, we collected 3,234 adult mosquitoes of 16 species during 2009 and 2010 in the same sub-region. Mosquito pool homogenates were assayed for infectious virus on C6/36 and Vero cell monolayers and also tested for flaviviral RNA by a group-specific real-time RT-PCR. One pool containing 50 non-engorged female specimens of Aedes scapularis tested positive for ILHV by culture and for ILHV RNA by real-time RT-PCR, indicating a minimum infection rate of 2.5 per 1000. Full-length genomic sequence exhibited 95% identity to the only full genome sequence available for ILHV. The present data confirm the circulation of ILHV in the Brazilian Pantanal. PMID:23875051

  17. Sequencing of Ebola Virus Genomes Using Nanopore Technology

    PubMed Central

    Hoenen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Sequencing of virus genomes during disease outbreaks can provide valuable information for diagnostics, epidemiology, and evaluation of potential countermeasures. However, particularly in remote areas logistical and technical challenges can be significant. Nanopore sequencing provides an alternative to classical Sanger and next-generation sequencing methods, and was successfully used under outbreak conditions (Hoenen et al., 2016; Quick et al., 2016). Here we describe a protocol used for sequencing of Ebola virus under outbreak conditions using Nanopore technology, which we successfully implemented at the CDC/NIH diagnostic laboratory (de Wit et al., 2016) located at the ELWA-3 Ebola virus Treatment Unit in Monrovia, Liberia, during the recent Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa. PMID:28180136

  18. GeoPowering the West: Geothermal Energy--The Bountiful, Clean Energy Source for the West

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-04-01

    General fact sheet describing U.S. Department of Energy's GeoPowering the West program. Geothermal energy represents a major economic opportunity for the American West, an area characterized by a steadily increasing population that requires reliable sources of heat and power. GeoPowering the West is pursuing this opportunity by: (1) Bringing together national, state and local stakeholders for state-sponsored geothermal development workshops; (2) Working with public power companies and rural electric cooperatives to promote use of geothermal power; (3) Promoting increased federal use of geothermal energy; (4) Helping American Indians identify and develop geothermal resources on tribal lands; and (5) Sponsoring non-technical educational workshops.

  19. Multiple Sequence Alignment.

    PubMed

    Bawono, Punto; Dijkstra, Maurits; Pirovano, Walter; Feenstra, Anton; Abeln, Sanne; Heringa, Jaap

    2017-01-01

    The increasing importance of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques has highlighted the key role of multiple sequence alignment (MSA) in comparative structure and function analysis of biological sequences. MSA often leads to fundamental biological insight into sequence-structure-function relationships of nucleotide or protein sequence families. Significant advances have been achieved in this field, and many useful tools have been developed for constructing alignments, although many biological and methodological issues are still open. This chapter first provides some background information and considerations associated with MSA techniques, concentrating on the alignment of protein sequences. Then, a practical overview of currently available methods and a description of their specific advantages and limitations are given, to serve as a helpful guide or starting point for researchers who aim to construct a reliable MSA.

  20. Computer assisted multiplex sequencing

    SciTech Connect

    Church, G.M.

    1992-08-01

    The objectives of this project are automation and optimization of multiplex sequencing. This year we have integrated direct transfer electrophoresis, automated multiplex hybridizations and automated film reading and applied this toward sequencing of three contiguous E. coli cosmids. Primers for the directed dideoxy sequence walking and sequence confirmation steps were synthesized with a 15 base tag complimentary to an alkaline phosphatase conjugate. A higher throughput synthesis device is well along in testing as are new automated hybridization devices. We have developed software for automatically annotating ORFs and databases of precise termini of proteis and RNA.

  1. The timber resources of West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Roland H. Ferguson

    1964-01-01

    To provide up-to-date information about the forest resources of the Nation, the Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture, conducts a series of continuing forest surveys of the various states. This is a report on the latest forest resurvey of West Virginia, made by the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station. It supersedes a report published in 1952, which...

  2. East-West Perspectives on Elder Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tam, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes and conceptualizes the meaning of lifelong learning from two cultural perspectives--East and West. It examines the different principles underpinning lifelong learning that explain why and how elders in the two cultures engage differently in continued learning. Finally, it discusses the cultural impact on elder learning by…

  3. Problem of hepatocellular carcinoma in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Ladep, Nimzing G; Lesi, Olufunmilayo A; Mark, Pantong; Lemoine, Maud; Onyekwere, Charles; Afihene, Mary; Crossey, Mary ME; Taylor-Robinson, Simon D

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known to be high in West Africa with an approximate yearly mortality rate of 200000. Several factors are responsible for this. Early acquisition of risk factors; with vertical or horizontal transmission of hepatitis B (HBV), environmental food contaminants (aflatoxins), poor management of predisposing risk factors and poorly-managed strategies for health delivery. There has been a low uptake of childhood immunisation for hepatitis B in many West African countries. Owing to late presentations, most sufferers of HCC die within weeks of their diagnosis. Highlighted reasons for the specific disease pattern of HCC in West Africa include: (1) high rate of risk factors; (2) failure to identify at risk populations; (3) lack of effective treatment; and (4) scarce resources for timely diagnosis. This is contrasted to the developed world, which generally has sufficient resources to detect cases early for curative treatment. Provision of palliative care for HCC patients is limited by availability and affordability of potent analgesics. Regional efforts, as well as collaborative networking activities hold promise that could change the epidemiology of HCC in West Africa. PMID:25429316

  4. WEST-3 wind turbine simulator development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, J. A.; Sridhar, S.

    1985-01-01

    The software developed for WEST-3, a new, all digital, and fully programmable wind turbine simulator is given. The process of wind turbine simulation on WEST-3 is described in detail. The major steps are, the processing of the mathematical models, the preparation of the constant data, and the use of system software generated executable code for running on WEST-3. The mechanics of reformulation, normalization, and scaling of the mathematical models is discussed in detail, in particulr, the significance of reformulation which leads to accurate simulations. Descriptions for the preprocessor computer programs which are used to prepare the constant data needed in the simulation are given. These programs, in addition to scaling and normalizing all the constants, relieve the user from having to generate a large number of constants used in the simulation. Also given are brief descriptions of the components of the WEST-3 system software: Translator, Assembler, Linker, and Loader. Also included are: details of the aeroelastic rotor analysis, which is the center of a wind turbine simulation model, analysis of the gimbal subsystem; and listings of the variables, constants, and equations used in the simulation.

  5. 40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Clay magisterial districts X New Manchester-Grant magisterial district in Hancock County X Piedmont magisterial district in Mineral County X Remainder of State X West Virginia—2010 Sulfur Dioxide NAAQS (Primary... consisting of Clay Tax district, Franklin Tax District, and Washington Tax District 1 Excludes Indian...

  6. 40 CFR 81.349 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... County (part): The city of Weirton, including Butler and Clay magisterial districts X New Manchester-Grant magisterial district in Hancock County X Piedmont magisterial district in Mineral County X Remainder of State X West Virginia—Carbon Monoxide Designated Area Designation Date 1 Type...

  7. West Virginia timber products output: 1994

    Treesearch

    Richard H. Widmann; Eric H. Wharton; Edward C. Murriner; Edward C. Murriner

    1998-01-01

    The total industrial harvest in West Virginia in 1994 was more than 165 million cubic feet, a 38-percent increase since 1987. Sawlogs accounted for 75 percent of the total and pulpwood accounted for 28 percent. During this 7-year period sawlog production increased by 44 percent to 812 million board feet. Pulpwood production reached 348,000 cords of roundwood and 334,...

  8. Forest statistics for West Tennessee counties

    Treesearch

    No Author Named

    1982-01-01

    These tables were derived from data obtained during a 1980 inventory of 18 counties comprising the West Unit of Tennessee (fig. 1). The data on forest acreage and timber volume were secured by a systematic sampling method involving a forest-nonforest classification on aerial photographs and on-the-ground measurements of trees at sample locations. The sample locations...

  9. The West, the Environment, and American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Mark W. T.

    1988-01-01

    Emphasizes that to understand the American West, one must realize the central importance of the environment to its inhabitants. Provides an overview of western environmental history. Discusses state and federal reclamation efforts, the role of public lands, and the growth of conservation and preservation movements. (KO)

  10. The West, the Environment, and American History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Mark W. T.

    1988-01-01

    Emphasizes that to understand the American West, one must realize the central importance of the environment to its inhabitants. Provides an overview of western environmental history. Discusses state and federal reclamation efforts, the role of public lands, and the growth of conservation and preservation movements. (KO)

  11. West Florida shelf upwelling: Origins and pathways

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisberg, Robert H.; Zheng, Lianyuan; Liu, Yonggang

    2016-08-01

    Often described as oligotrophic, the west Florida continental shelf supports abundant fisheries, experiences blooms of the harmful alga, Karenia brevis, and exhibits subsurface chlorophyll maxima evident in shipboard and glider surveys. Renewal of inorganic nutrients by the upwelling of deeper ocean water onto the shelf may account for this, but what are the origins and pathways by which such new water may broach the shelf break and advance toward the shoreline? We address these questions via numerical model simulations of pseudo-Lagrangian, isopycnic water parcel trajectories. Focus is on 2010, when the west Florida shelf was subjected to an anomalously protracted period of upwelling caused by Gulf of Mexico Loop Current interactions with the shelf slope. Origins and pathways are determined by integrating trajectories over successive 45 day intervals, beginning from different locations along the shelf break and at various locations and depths along the shelf slope. Waters upwelling across the shelf break are found to originate from relatively shallow depths along the shelf slope. Even for the anomalous 2010 year, much of this upwelling occurs from about 150 m and above, although waters may broach the shelf break from 300 m depth, particularly in the Florida Panhandle. Such interannual renewal of west Florida shelf waters appears to have profound effects on west Florida shelf ecology.

  12. The Intermountain West Region Waterbird Plan

    Treesearch

    Gary Ivey

    2005-01-01

    The planning process for the Intermountain West Region component of the North American Waterbird Conservation Plan began in November 2001. This is one of several region-specific plans being developed as part of the Waterbird Conservation for the Americas initiative (Kushlan et al. 2002), as called for in the North American Waterbird Conservation Plan. The plan...

  13. The West Indian Americans. The New Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henke, Holger

    This book, which is part of a series on new immigrant groups in the United States, captures the experiences of West Indian Americans who have arrived in the country since 1965. The seven chapters include: (1) "History of Jamaica and the English-Speaking Caribbean" (e.g., from plantation society to the third world and the Creolization of…

  14. Mapping aspen in the Interior West

    Treesearch

    Charles E. Werstak

    2012-01-01

    Quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) is a critical species that supports wildlife and livestock, watershed function, the forest products industry, landscape diversity, and recreation opportunities in the Interior West (Bartos and Campbell 1998). Studies have indicated that changes in fire regimes, an increase in herbivore presence in young aspen stands, and...

  15. Water supply and needs for West Texas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This presentation focused on the water supplies and needs of West Texas, Texas High Plains. Groundwater is the most commonly used water resources on the Texas High Plains, with withdrawals from the Ogallala Aquifer dominating. The saturation thickness of the Ogallala Aquifer in Texas is such that t...

  16. Mastomys natalensis and Lassa fever, West Africa.

    PubMed

    Lecompte, Emilie; Fichet-Calvet, Elisabeth; Daffis, Stéphane; Koulémou, Kékoura; Sylla, Oumar; Kourouma, Fodé; Doré, Amadou; Soropogui, Barré; Aniskin, Vladimir; Allali, Bernard; Kouassi Kan, Stéphane; Lalis, Aude; Koivogui, Lamine; Günther, Stephan; Denys, Christiane; ter Meulen, Jan

    2006-12-01

    PCR screening of 1,482 murid rodents from 13 genera caught in 18 different localities of Guinea, West Africa, showed Lassa virus infection only in molecularly typed Mastomys natalensis. Distribution of this rodent and relative abundance compared with M. erythroleucus correlates geographically with Lassa virus seroprevalence in humans.

  17. West Virginia harvest and utilization study, 2008

    Treesearch

    Jan Wiedenbeck; Shawn. Grushecky

    2014-01-01

    Thirty active harvesting operations were part of a harvest and utilization study conducted in West Virginia in 2008. Data were collected on roundwood product and residue yields obtained from trees of different sizes, species, and qualities. This study was modeled after studies conducted on a regular and frequent basis by the Forest Inventory and Analysis unit in the...

  18. Forest statistics for West Tennessee counties - 1989

    Treesearch

    Dennis M. May; John S. Vissage

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 survey of the west unit of Tennessee revealed the following:Timberland now covers 1,970.0 thousand acres, an 8.5 percent decline since 1980.Bottomland hardwood types fell 14.4 percent since 1980.Timberland acres in other federal ownership doubled to 71.2 thousand acres.

  19. Transcending Communication Barriers with West Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ampadu, Lena

    Americans doing business with West Africans are limited in their ability to communicate successfully in that part of the world because of language, stereotyping, and ethnocentrism. Americans must become accustomed to British patterns of speech and writing. Stereotypes of Africa, its people, and its cultures perpetuated by the media keep Americans…

  20. Natural Hazards within the West Indies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Outlines the vulnerability of the West Indies to various natural hazards, especially hurricanes, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. Reviews the geologic and meteorologic causes and consequences of the hazards. Suggests methods of incorporating hazards information in geography classes. Includes maps and a hurricane tracking chart. (DK)

  1. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Dolly Sods Wild 10,215 93-622 USDA-FS Otter Creek Wild 20,000 93-622 USDA-FS...

  2. 40 CFR 81.435 - West Virginia.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Visibility Is an Important Value § 81.435 West Virginia. Area name Acreage Public Law establishing Federal land manager Dolly Sods Wild 10,215 93-622 USDA-FS Otter Creek Wild 20,000 93-622 USDA-FS...

  3. 27 CFR 9.172 - West Elks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1955 (photorevised 1978)); (2) Hotchkiss Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979)); (3) Paonia Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1979); and (4) Bowie Quadrangle (Colorado-Delta Co. 1965 (photorevised 1978). (c) Boundaries. The West Elks viticultural area...

  4. The West Indian Americans. The New Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henke, Holger

    This book, which is part of a series on new immigrant groups in the United States, captures the experiences of West Indian Americans who have arrived in the country since 1965. The seven chapters include: (1) "History of Jamaica and the English-Speaking Caribbean" (e.g., from plantation society to the third world and the Creolization of…

  5. Missing Chapters: West Virginia Women in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia Women's Commission, Charleston.

    Nine women whose lives have contributed to West Virginia history are profiled in these collected essays. These women have made significant contributions to history as: midwife, physician, journalist, photographer, educator, musician, civic activist, and social reformer. The stereotypical image of a powerless, barefooted, uneducated girl is proven…

  6. West Tennessee ACEI 2006 Fall Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Anna; Hailey, Beth

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the West Tennessee ACEI 2006 Fall Conference held at Union University in Jackson, Tennessee on October 14, 2006. The conference theme, Turning the Pages: A Focus on Children's Literature, was emphasized throughout the day. During the conference, the early childhood classroom teachers, preservice teachers, and administrators…

  7. The West Virginia Health Education Assessment Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Nancy O'Hara; Kamal, Khalid M.; Chapman, Don

    2005-01-01

    Well-designed school health education should provide students with the knowledge and skills to prevent the health risk behaviors most responsible for the major causes of morbidity and mortality. This paper reports the methodology and findings of a West Virginia statewide health education assessment initiative and describes how the findings are…

  8. Evaluation of West Nile Virus Education Campaign

    PubMed Central

    Neuberger, John S.; Hansen, Gail; Fox, Michael H.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the 2003 Kansas West Nile virus public education campaign. Awareness was widespread but compliance was low. Spanish-speaking persons were poorly informed. Relevant factors included population segment variability, campaign content, media choice, and materials delivery methods. PMID:16318730

  9. Forest ecosystem health in the inland west

    Treesearch

    R. Neil Sampson; Lance R. Clark; Lynnette Z. Morelan

    1995-01-01

    For the past four years, American Forests has focused much of its policy attention on forest health, highlighted by a forest health partnership in southern Idaho. The partnership has been hard at work trying to better understand the forests of the Inland West. Our goal has been to identify what is affecting these forests, why they are responding differently to climate...

  10. The West Virginia Health Education Assessment Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Nancy O'Hara; Kamal, Khalid M.; Chapman, Don

    2005-01-01

    Well-designed school health education should provide students with the knowledge and skills to prevent the health risk behaviors most responsible for the major causes of morbidity and mortality. This paper reports the methodology and findings of a West Virginia statewide health education assessment initiative and describes how the findings are…

  11. Retooling Teacher Preparation in West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchin, Gayle

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses West Virginia's public schools, and their long struggle with student achievement levels in reading and math. Levels are significantly below the national average and there are poverty-based achievement gaps within the state. In 2013, a cross section of educators and education policy leaders from a range of experiences,…

  12. A preview of West Virginia's forest resource

    Treesearch

    Joseph E. Barnard; Teresa M. Bowers

    1977-01-01

    Forest land occupies 75 percent of the total land area of West Virginia. Sixty percent of the forest land is classified in the oak-hickory forest type and only 6 percent in all the softwood forest types. Since 1961, growing-stock volume increased 24 percent. Yellow-poplar increased 39 percent in volume and is now the prevalent species in the State.

  13. Timber products production in West Virginia 1965

    Treesearch

    Neal P. Kingsley; David R. Dickson

    1968-01-01

    This study was funded through the Appalachian Regional Development Act of 1965 and was conducted by the Forest Survey Project of the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station with the assistance of the State Forester and the Extension Forester of West Virginia, and the Monongahela Power Company. The State Forester's office and the Extension Forester provided lists of...

  14. Wood fuel plentiful in West Virginia

    Treesearch

    Raymond L. Sarles

    1979-01-01

    Biomass estimators applied to West Virginia timber resource data indicate that 34 million tons of wood is potentially available for fuel each year. This tonnage is the annual forest growth in excess of that now harvested for roundwood products. One-half of this excess can supply more than all of the State's energy needs in the residential and commercial sectors,...

  15. Solar radiation at Parsons, West Virginia

    Treesearch

    James H. Patric; Stanley Caruso

    1978-01-01

    Twelve years of solar radiation data, measured with a Kipp-Zonen pyranometer, were recorded near Parsons, West Virginia. The data agree well with calculated values of potential and average radiation for the vicinity and are applicable to the central Appalachian region.

  16. Compensatory Education Policy and the Intermountain West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Michael J.; And Others

    Concerned with the impact of Title I, as national education policy on four mountain west states (Utah, Idaho, Wyoming, and Montana), this study concludes that Title I has not been internalized, integrated, or institutionalized in this region of the country or in any of the four individual states. The rejection of Title I policy rests on two basic…

  17. Missing Chapters: West Virginia Women in History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia Women's Commission, Charleston.

    Nine women whose lives have contributed to West Virginia history are profiled in these collected essays. These women have made significant contributions to history as: midwife, physician, journalist, photographer, educator, musician, civic activist, and social reformer. The stereotypical image of a powerless, barefooted, uneducated girl is proven…

  18. Go West, Young Man (and Woman)!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byerly, Greg; Brodie, Carolyn S.

    1998-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of Web sites on the American West, the Oregon Trail, Santa Fe Trail, Gold Rush, Donner Party, mountain men and the fur trade, Native Americans, cowboys, and western folklore. Lists related books, activity books, and CD-ROMs on cowboys, migration, and settling. (PEN)

  19. Cancer incidence in elderly West Virginians.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Alana G; Mertz, Kristen J; Jubelirer, Steven J; Wilson, John W

    2013-01-01

    West Virginia has one of the oldest populations in the nation. Cancer is a common disease among the elderly. With the projected growth of the elderly population (defined as 65 years and older), cancer will become a major public health burden. This article provides a summary of cancer incidence in elderly West Virginians. Incidence data were obtained from the West Virginia Cancer Registry. Approximately 6,262 elderly persons are diagnosed with some form of reportable cancer in West Virginia each year. Among those aged 65 and older, the four leading primary cancer sites in the order of their relative frequency were lung and bronchus cancer (21.8%), prostate cancer (14.6%), colorectal cancer (12.7%), and female breast cancer (9.6%). In general, the burden of cancer was greater in elderly men than in elderly women. Knowledge of the epidemiology of cancer in the elderly can potentially help guide statewide cancer prevention and control efforts and be used for anticipating future health care needs in the state.

  20. North West Shelf Unmanned Aerial System Trial

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    North West Shelf Unmanned Aerial System Trial Duncan Craig Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance Division Defence... Unmanned Aerial System Trial Executive Summary In response to a government policy announcement issued during the lead-up to the 2004...federal election, Defence invited General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Incorporated (GA-ASI) and Northrop Grumman (NG) to participate in an Unmanned Aerial System (UAS

  1. American Indian Studies in West Germany.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartelt, H. Guillermo

    1986-01-01

    Interest in the American Indian in West Germany is high. Romantic notions, derived from the novels of 19th century German writer Karl May and American westerns shown on German television, combined with a subtle anti-Americanism might be responsible for the American Indian Movement (AIM) support groups that have been forming among students and…

  2. Natural Hazards within the West Indies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cross, John A.

    1992-01-01

    Outlines the vulnerability of the West Indies to various natural hazards, especially hurricanes, earthquakes, and volcanic eruptions. Reviews the geologic and meteorologic causes and consequences of the hazards. Suggests methods of incorporating hazards information in geography classes. Includes maps and a hurricane tracking chart. (DK)

  3. The West Virginia Health Education Assessment Project.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Nancy O'Hara; Kamal, Khalid M; Chapman, Don

    2005-08-01

    Well-designed school health education should provide students with the knowledge and skills to prevent the health risk behaviors most responsible for the major causes of morbidity and mortality. This paper reports the methodology and findings of a West Virginia statewide health education assessment initiative and describes how the findings are used to design professional development training for school health educators. Selected response items from the State Collaborative on Assessment and Student Standards, Health Education Assessment Project were used to develop a 40-item assessment instrument for 6 health education content areas. In West Virginia, 51 counties and 242 schools were recruited (county response rate = 93%; school response rate = 53%); 17,549 students were tested in grades 6, 8, and high school health education classes. Mean total scores by grade were 30.61 (grade 6), 26.55 (grade 8), and 26.53 (high school), indicating a slight decline in scores as grade level increased. Females in each grade level scored higher on total Health Education Assessment Project (HEAP) scores and subtest scores than males. The results suggest notable differences across grade levels. High school students failed to meet the standard on any health education content areas, indicating the need for enhanced knowledge and skill development. During professional development training, HEAP scores were examined in the context of results from the West Virginia Youth Risk Behavior Survey to underscore the importance of providing quality skills-based health education in West Virginia schools.

  4. Faculty Handbook. West Virginia Wesleyan College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West Virginia Wesleyan Coll. Buckhannon, WV.

    West Virginia Wesleyan College is a private college affiliated with the United Methodist Church. The 1974-75 faculty handbook details (1) the administration including the college officers, the division and department chairpersons, the college governance, and administrative charts; (2) the faculty, its constitution and various committees; (3) the…

  5. The West Dallas Teacher Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Texas State Univ., Denton.

    The West Dallas Teacher Education Program is a competency-based program to better prepare teachers for service in inner-city schools. The program utilizes a field-based, professional semester format to directly relate didactic instruction and clinical practice. The project is staffed by three North Texas State University faculty members.…

  6. Melioidosis Imported from West Africa to Europe

    PubMed Central

    Cuadros, Juan; Gil, Horacio; Miguel, Julio De; Marabé, Graciela; Gómez-Herruz, Teresa Arroyo Peña; Lobo, Bruno; Marcos, Ruth; Anda, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    We report the first case of imported melioidosis in Spain from a diabetic immigrant who visited West Africa during the rainy season. Because of the unusual presentation of this disease in Africa, clinical and microbiological diagnosis of imported melioidosis from this continent can be very elusive. PMID:21813848

  7. Model Program: West Springfield High School, Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alukonis, J. T.; Settar, Scott

    2008-01-01

    West Springfield High School sits on the outskirts of Washington, D.C., in Fairfax County, Virginia. WSHS is home to a thriving and growing technology education program. In recent years, the program has exploded from less than 175 students to well over 425. These numbers are expected to continue to grow in the foreseeable future. In 2002, the…

  8. Retooling Teacher Preparation in West Virginia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchin, Gayle

    2015-01-01

    This article addresses West Virginia's public schools, and their long struggle with student achievement levels in reading and math. Levels are significantly below the national average and there are poverty-based achievement gaps within the state. In 2013, a cross section of educators and education policy leaders from a range of experiences,…

  9. Changing Health Professions Education in West Virginia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton, Bill; Weston, W. Donald

    1997-01-01

    Medical, nursing, pharmacy, and dental education in West Virginia's state universities has undergone substantial changes since 1991, becoming more responsive to community needs. A primary-care, community-based academic system now involves students, faculty, health professionals, and lay community members in identifying and serving needs in…

  10. The forest resources of West Virginia

    Treesearch

    James T. Bones

    1978-01-01

    A statistical and analytical report of the third forest survey of West Virginia by the Forest Service, U. S. Department of Agriculture. Findings are based on the remeasurement of 1/5-acre plots and new 10-point cluster plots. This report analyzes trends in forest land area, timber volume, annual growth, and timber removals. Timber- products output by forest industries...

  11. Environmental audit: West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Audit of West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) located in West Valley, New York. The WVDP Environmental Audit was conducted from July 29 through August 16, 1991, by the Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). This Audit evaluated environmental programs and activities at WVDP as well as the overall environmental management system. The scope of the Environmental Audit was comprehensive, addressing environmental media and Federal, state, and local regulations, with the exception of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Also addressed were DOE Orders, WVDP 1989 ES&H Assessment Action Plan, formalized facility or program operating procedures, and BMPS. The technical disciplines addressed by the Audit were: Air; Surface Water; Soils, Sediment and Biota; Groundwater; Waste Management; Toxic and Chemical Materials; Radiation; Quality Assurance; and Inactive Waste Sites. In addition, the Audit included a review of environmental management programs within the West Valley Project Office (WVPO). West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS), and Subcontractor organizations. The effectiveness of environmental monitoring programs was a major component of the review conducted within each technical discipline.

  12. Learning Under Siege on the West Bank

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Judith

    1975-01-01

    Birzeit College, the only secular institution of higher education in the Israeli-occupied territories, continues to operate with 500 Palestinians attending classes on the West Bank of the Jordan River Valley even though its president, expelled for alleged subversive activities, continues to run the college from Beirut. (JT)

  13. Environmental audit: West Valley Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Environmental Audit of West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) located in West Valley, New York. The WVDP Environmental Audit was conducted from July 29 through August 16, 1991, by the Office of Environmental Audit (EH-24). This Audit evaluated environmental programs and activities at WVDP as well as the overall environmental management system. The scope of the Environmental Audit was comprehensive, addressing environmental media and Federal, state, and local regulations, with the exception of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Also addressed were DOE Orders, WVDP 1989 ES H Assessment Action Plan, formalized facility or program operating procedures, and BMPS. The technical disciplines addressed by the Audit were: Air; Surface Water; Soils, Sediment and Biota; Groundwater; Waste Management; Toxic and Chemical Materials; Radiation; Quality Assurance; and Inactive Waste Sites. In addition, the Audit included a review of environmental management programs within the West Valley Project Office (WVPO). West Valley Nuclear Services (WVNS), and Subcontractor organizations. The effectiveness of environmental monitoring programs was a major component of the review conducted within each technical discipline.

  14. Epidemiology: Malaria in a warmer West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caminade, C.; Jones, A. E.

    2016-11-01

    Malaria risk in West Africa is expected to fall (western region) or remain the same (eastern region) in response to climate change over the twenty-first century. This is primarily due to extreme temperature conditions projected under a high greenhouse gas emissions scenario.

  15. West Tennessee ACEI 2006 Fall Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Anna; Hailey, Beth

    2007-01-01

    This article presents the West Tennessee ACEI 2006 Fall Conference held at Union University in Jackson, Tennessee on October 14, 2006. The conference theme, Turning the Pages: A Focus on Children's Literature, was emphasized throughout the day. During the conference, the early childhood classroom teachers, preservice teachers, and administrators…

  16. An Interdisciplinary Project and the American West.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beardsley, Donna A.

    This project began with a list of the kinds of topics that would be of most interest in a study of the old west. Some of the topics that were mentioned for the project included Lewis and Clark, Native American tribes and nations, early pioneers, the fur trade, Texas independence, the Pony Express, homesteaders, gunfighters, the Indian wars, and…

  17. West Virginia U. Violated Procedures, Panel Says

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fain, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Administrators at West Virginia University violated procedures and displayed poor judgment in their "seriously flawed" response to an inquiry about a high-profile academic transcript, according to a report issued last week by an independent panel. The harshly worded report found that when the "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette" raised…

  18. 76 FR 6589 - West Virginia Regulatory Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... of comment period. SUMMARY: We are reopening the public comment period on the proposed West Virginia... afford the public the opportunity to comment on the proposed amendment to change a type of cropland... also request to speak at a public hearing by any of the methods listed above or by contacting...

  19. Biological and Phylogenetic Characteristics of Yellow Fever Virus Lineages from West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Laraway, Hewád; Faye, Ousmane; Diallo, Mawlouth; Niedrig, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    The yellow fever virus (YFV), the first proven human-pathogenic virus, although isolated in 1927, is still a major public health problem, especially in West Africa where it causes outbreaks every year. Nevertheless, little is known about its genetic diversity and evolutionary dynamics, mainly due to a limited number of genomic sequences from wild virus isolates. In this study, we analyzed the phylogenetic relationships of 24 full-length genomes from YFV strains isolated between 1973 and 2005 in a sylvatic context of West Africa, including 14 isolates that had previously not been sequenced. By this, we confirmed genetic variability within one genotype by the identification of various YF lineages circulating in West Africa. Further analyses of the biological properties of these lineages revealed differential growth behavior in human liver and insect cells, correlating with the source of isolation and suggesting host adaptation. For one lineage, repeatedly isolated in a context of vertical transmission, specific characteristics in the growth behavior and unique mutations of the viral genome were observed and deserve further investigation to gain insight into mechanisms involved in YFV emergence and maintenance in nature. PMID:23269797

  20. West Nile virus circulation in South-Eastern Romania, 2011 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Dinu, S; Cotar, A I; Pănculescu-Gătej, I R; Fălcuţă, E; Prioteasa, F L; Sîrbu, A; Oprişan, G; Bădescu, D; Reiter, P; Ceianu, C S

    2015-05-21

    Lineage 2 West Nile virus (WNV), previously found only in sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar, was identified in Hungary in 2004 and has rapidly expanded in Europe in the past decade. Following a significant outbreak of West Nile fever with neurological cases caused by lineage 1 WNV in Romania in 1996, scattered cases have been recorded in the south-east of the country in each transmission season. Another outbreak, affecting a larger area and caused by lineage 2 WNV, was recorded in 2010. We analysed human sera from neuroinvasive West Nile fever cases and mosquitoes, sampled in south-eastern Romania between 2011 and 2013, for the presence of WNV genome, and obtained partial NS5 and envelope glycoprotein sequences. Human- and mosquito-derived WNV sequences were highly similar (99%) to Volgograd 2007 lineage 2 WNV and differed from isolates previously detected in central and southern Europe. WNV was detected in one pool of Culex pipiens s.l. males, documenting vertical transmission. Lineage 4 WNV, of unknown pathogenicity to mammals, was found in the amphibian-feeding mosquito Uranotaenia unguiculata from the Danube Delta. Our results present molecular evidence for the maintenance of the same isolates of Volgograd 2007-like lineage 2 WNV in south-eastern Romania between 2011 and 2013.

  1. Pathotypic characterization of Newcastle disease virus isolated from vaccinated chicken in West Java, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Putri, Dwi Desmiyeni; Handharyani, Ekowati; Soejoedono, Retno Damajanti; Setiyono, Agus; Mayasari, Ni Luh Putu Ika; Poetri, Okti Nadia

    2017-04-01

    This research was conducted to differentiate and characterize eight Newcastle disease virus (NDV) isolates collected from vaccinated chicken at commercial flocks in West Java, Indonesia, in 2011, 2014 and 2015 by pathotype specific primers. A total of eight NDV isolates collected from clinical outbreaks among commercial vaccinated flocks in West Java, Indonesia, in 2011, 2014, and 2015 were used in this study. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to detect and differentiate virulence of NDV strains, using three sets of primers targeting their M and F gene. First primers were universal primers to detect NDV targeting matrix (M) gene. Other two sets of primers were specific for the fusion (F) gene cleavage site sequence of virulent and avirulent NDV strains. Our results showed that three isolates belong to NDV virulent strains, and other five isolates belong to NDV avirulent strains. The nucleotide sequence of the F protein cleavage site showed (112)K/R-R-Q/R-K-R/G-F(117) on NDV virulent strains and (112)G-K/R-Q-G-R-L(117) on NDV avirulent strain. Result from the current study suggested that NDV virulent strain were circulating among vaccinated chickens in West Java, Indonesia; this might possess a risk of causing ND outbreaks and causing economic losses within the poultry industry.

  2. Depositional environments and paleogeography of the Upper Miocene Wassuk Group, west-central Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golia, R.T.; Stewart, John H.

    1984-01-01

    Fluvial and lacustrine deposits of the Miocene Wassuk Group, exposed in Coal Valley, west-central Nevada, are divided into five lithofacies: (1) diatomite, claystone, siltstone, and carbonaceous siltstone deposited in a lake with paludal conditions at the margin; (2) upward-coarsening sequences of sandstone deposited on a delta and fan-delta; (3) channel-form sandstone deposited on a distal braided alluvial plain; (4) clast-supported conglomerate deposited on a proxial braided alluvial plain or distal alluvial fan; and (5) matrix-supported conglomerate deposited on a distal to middle alluvial fan. Petrographic analysis records an upsection change from a predominantly andesitic to a predominantly plutonic provenance. This change, combined with the overall upward-coarsening of the Wassuk Group and the great thickness (2400 m) of the sequence, suggests active uplift and rapid subsidence during deposition of the group. Facies relationships and paleocurrent directions indicate source areas to the south, southeast and west of Coal Valley. The Miocene Wassuk Group was deposited in an intra-arc basin with penecontemporaneous volcanism and tectonic activity. Syndepositional faulting at the southern margin of Coal Valley between 13 and 11 m.y. ago suggests an early episode of northeast-southwest extension prior to the onset of east-west basin and range extension. ?? 1984.

  3. 1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, FROM APPROXIMATELY 75 FEET SOUTHWEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES, FROM APPROXIMATELY 75 FEET SOUTHWEST OF BUILDING, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Heating Plant, North of B Street & West of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  4. 4. WEST SIDE ELEVATION SHOWING WEATHERBOARD LOG COVERING, DOOR CUT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. WEST SIDE ELEVATION SHOWING WEATHERBOARD LOG COVERING, DOOR CUT INTO WEST WALL TO ENTER DOG TROT, AND UPROOTED TREE WHERE LATER SECOND PEN WAS LOCATED (4 x 5 negative) - Thomas Jefferson Walling Log Cabin, Henderson, Rusk County, TX

  5. 2. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES WITH SCALE STICK, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES WITH SCALE STICK, SHOWING BOILER HOUSE IN BACKGROUND, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Heavy Rail Scales Office, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  6. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGPORT ROAD AND DON DRENNEN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGPORT ROAD AND DON DRENNEN OVERPASS IN FOREGROUND, TCI-US STEEL ENSLEY WORKS OPEN HEARTH (RUINS) IN THE BACKGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  7. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGHAM PORT ROAD DON DRENNAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING SOUTH WEST, BIRMINGHAM PORT ROAD DON DRENNAN OVERPASS IN FOREGROUND, TCI-US STEEL ENSLEY WORKS IN THE BACKGROUND. - Tennessee Coal & Iron Company, Ensley Works, West of residential & commercial districts, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  8. Perspective view of Chapel from west at grave area A. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Perspective view of Chapel from west at grave area A. Note squared English yew hedge that provides a backdrop for each of the four grave areas. - Flanders Field American Cemetery & Memorial, Wortegemseweg 117, Waregem, West Flanders (Belgium)

  9. North and west facades of crucible steel building; looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North and west facades of crucible steel building; looking southeast - Bethlehem Steel Corporation, South Bethlehem Works, Crucible Steel Plant, Along Lehigh River, North of Fourth Street, West of Minsi Trail Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  10. 1. WEST FRONT OF HYDROELECTRIC POWERHOUSE WITH INTAKE STRUCTURE, CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST FRONT OF HYDROELECTRIC POWERHOUSE WITH INTAKE STRUCTURE, CANAL SPILLWAY AT LEFT CENTER, VIEW EAST - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Powerhouse, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  11. 3. VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST END OF DAM AT LEFT CENTER, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW SOUTHEAST, WEST END OF DAM AT LEFT CENTER, HEADGATE STRUCTURE AT CENTER - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Dam, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  12. 3. VIEW EAST, DETAIL WEST FRONT OF HYDROELECTRIC POWERHOUSE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW EAST, DETAIL WEST FRONT OF HYDROELECTRIC POWERHOUSE - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Powerhouse, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  13. 2. VIEW EAST, WEST END OF DAM AT CENTER, HEADGATE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW EAST, WEST END OF DAM AT CENTER, HEADGATE OPERATING MECHANISMS AT LEFT - Dayville Mills Hydroelectric Facility, Dam, North side of Route 101, .5 mile west of Route 395, Killingly Center, Windham County, CT

  14. 8. Interior view, basement, west addition, looking northeast towards (exterior) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Interior view, basement, west addition, looking northeast towards (exterior) west wall of original section, bottom corbel of chimney base visible along wall - Latham House, 1200 North Quaker Lane, Alexandria, Independent City, VA

  15. 1. TIP TOP MINE. WEST SIDE OF STRUCTURE. CAMERA POINTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. TIP TOP MINE. WEST SIDE OF STRUCTURE. CAMERA POINTED EAST. - Florida Mountain Mining Sites, Tip Top Mine, West face Florida Mountain, approximately 150 feet below summit, Silver City, Owyhee County, ID

  16. 54. West emergency brake in the south machinery room (interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. West emergency brake in the south machinery room (interior of both machinery rooms is identical). Facing west. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 1. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 254. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 254. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Caustic Fusion Building, 450 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 900 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  18. 1. West side of bridge. Overall contextual view (looking) eastsoutheast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. West side of bridge. Overall contextual view (looking) east-southeast or upstream. (Deer Creek flows east to west). 90mm lens. - Gault Bridge, Spanning Deer Creek at South Pine Street, Nevada City, Nevada County, CA

  19. 5. GENERAL VIEW OF GARAGE AREA FROM WEST; STEPS TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. GENERAL VIEW OF GARAGE AREA FROM WEST; STEPS TO WEST FRONT ENTRANCE VISABLE TO THE RIGHT - Isaac N. Hagan House, Kentuck Knob, U.S. Route 40 vicinity (Stewart Township), Chalkhill, Fayette County, PA

  20. View of West end of central lift span truss web ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of West end of central lift span truss web of Tensaw River Bridge, showing web brace of lift girder superstructure, looking west - Tensaw River Lift Bridge, Spanning Tensaw River at U.S. Highway 90, Mobile, Mobile County, AL

  1. 3. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES, SHOWING CHUTES AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. VIEW OF WEST AND SOUTH FACADES, SHOWING CHUTES AND PORTION OF SUPPORT STRUCTURE FOR OVERHEAD CONVEYOR, LOOKING NORTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, Dorr Thickener Plant No. 1, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  2. 2. Northeast end and southeast side. View to west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Northeast end and southeast side. View to west. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Shop, In west corner of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  3. 3. Perspective view of west entrance to Gas House. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. Perspective view of west entrance to Gas House. - Delaware, Lackawanna & Western Railroad, Scranton Yards, Gas House, 100 block of South Washington Avenue, west side, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  4. House, east side, looking west (bunkhouse in background left) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    House, east side, looking west (bunkhouse in background left) - John Moulton Homestead, House, Approximately 70 feet west of Mormon Row Road, and 300 feet north of Antelope Flats Road, Kelly, Teton County, WY

  5. 1. LOOKING WEST ON LEHIGH CANAL, GRAPHITE MILL IN FOREGROUND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. LOOKING WEST ON LEHIGH CANAL, GRAPHITE MILL IN FOREGROUND - Pettinos Brothers Graphite Manufacturing Mill, On Sand Island, south side of Lehigh Canal, west of Hill-to-Hill Bridge, Bethlehem, Northampton County, PA

  6. 9. SOUTH END OF GENE PUMPING STATION LOOKING WEST WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. SOUTH END OF GENE PUMPING STATION LOOKING WEST WITH DELIVERY LINES IN BACKGROUND. - Gene Pump Plant, South of Gene Wash Reservoir, 2 miles west of Whitsett Pump Plant, Parker Dam, San Bernardino County, CA

  7. 3. General oblique view of west facade showing brick piers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General oblique view of west facade showing brick piers and industrial windows; view to southeast. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  8. 4. Detail of west facade showing brick piers and industrial ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Detail of west facade showing brick piers and industrial windows with metal sash and reinforced concrete lintels and sills. - Champion-International Paper Company, Paper Machine Building, West bank of Spicket River at Canal Street, Lawrence, Essex County, MA

  9. 3. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 251. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 251. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Evaporator & Storage Building, 800 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 600 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  10. 4. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 242. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 242. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  11. 3. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 242 (RIGHT) AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 242 (RIGHT) AND 243 (LEFT). VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  12. 6. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 243. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. WEST AND SOUTH SIDES OF BUILDING 243. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  13. 5. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 243. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 243. VIEW TO SOUTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Chlorine Production Cell Building, 405 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 330 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  14. WEST BACK EXTERIOR OF SMOKESTACK, ALONG WITH POWER PLANT (BUILDING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST BACK EXTERIOR OF SMOKESTACK, ALONG WITH POWER PLANT (BUILDING 45) - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Northwestern Branch, Smoke Stack, 5000 West National Avenue, Milwaukee, Milwaukee County, WI

  15. 20. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE SOUTH OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE SOUTH OFFICE SPACE AT THE WEST END OF ROOM 101. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Disassembly Building, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  16. 21. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF EQUIPMENT ABOVE THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF EQUIPMENT ABOVE THE OFFICE SPACE AT THE WEST END OF ROOM 101. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Disassembly Building, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  17. 19. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE NORTH OFFICE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTERIOR VIEW TO THE WEST OF THE NORTH OFFICE SPACE AT THE WEST END OF ROOM 101. - Nevada Test Site, Pluto Facility, Disassembly Building, Area 26, Wahmonie Flats, Cane Spring Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  18. 2. View facing north of west and south elevations of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View facing north of west and south elevations of Dixie Cotton Mill. The brick structure that forms the west elevation was added in 1913. - Dixie Cotton Mill, 710 Greenville Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  19. 1. Building 15 west elevation oblique showing coal conveyor, chute ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Building 15 west elevation oblique showing coal conveyor, chute and hopper. Coal feeds boiler in Building 3. View looking SE. - John & James Dobson Carpet Mill (West Parcel), Building No. 15, 4041-4055 Ridge Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Glove boxes to the left. Metal catwalk in the middle. Incinerator control panel to the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  1. 17. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Incinerator control panel on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Rear (west) side of incinerator. Incinerator control panel on the right. Looking south towards scrubber cell. - Plutonium Finishing Plant, Waste Incinerator Facility, 200 West Area, Richland, Benton County, WA

  2. WEST PIER OF NORTH GATE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST PIER OF NORTH GATE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT THE WEST PIER OF THE CEMETERY'S NORTH GATE. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  3. VIEW OF BOTTOMLAND FOREST, WEST OF RAILROAD CORRIDOR, NORTH OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BOTTOMLAND FOREST, WEST OF RAILROAD CORRIDOR, NORTH OF OVERHILLS LAKE, FACING WEST - Overhills, Fort Bragg Military Reservation, Approximately 15 miles NW of Fayetteville, Overhills, Harnett County, NC

  4. 7. INTERIOR VIEW, PATTERN MAKING WORK BENCH AREA WEST WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. INTERIOR VIEW, PATTERN MAKING WORK BENCH AREA WEST WALL LOOKING WEST LATHE ON LEFT DELTA BAND SAW LEFT, DELTA 6' JOINTS AND DELTA TABLE SAW ON RIGHT. - Knight Foundry, 13 Eureka Street, Sutter Creek, Amador County, CA

  5. Battery Weymouth Combined Observation Station ruin, collapsed; view to west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Battery Weymouth Combined Observation Station ruin, collapsed; view to west - Fort McKinley, Battery Weymouth Combined Observation Station, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 125 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  6. South Fork Latrine showing north and west sides, general view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South Fork Latrine showing north and west sides, general view to southeast - Fort McKinley, South Fork Latrine, West side of East Side Drive, approximately 225 feet south of Weymouth Way, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  7. 345. Caltrans, Photographer September 20, 1935 "WEST ANCHOR ARM"; DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    345. Caltrans, Photographer September 20, 1935 "WEST ANCHOR ARM"; DETAIL VIEW OF CANTILEVER TRUSS WEST ANCHOR ARM UNDER CONSTRUCTION. 7-1023 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. Detail on west elevation of anchor above door; camera facing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail on west elevation of anchor above door; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Smithery, California Avenue, west side at California Avenue & Eighth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  9. View of east elevation along California Avenue; camera facing west. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of east elevation along California Avenue; camera facing west. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Rubber Shop, California Avenue, west side across from Dry Dock 1 near Ninth Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  10. Front (west side) and south side of building Fitzsimons ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Front (west side) and south side of building - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Golf Course Waiting Shelter, Southwest area of Golf Course, 700 feet Northeast of intersection of West Harlow Avenue & Peoria Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  11. VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2 AND CARPENTRY SHOP, LOOKING WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF FURNACE NO. 2 AND CARPENTRY SHOP, LOOKING WEST - Chambers Window Glass Company, Furnace No. 2, North of Drey (Nineteenth) Street, West of Constitution Boulevard, Arnold, Westmoreland County, PA

  12. General view of central and west wings with loading dock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General view of central and west wings with loading dock from north - National Home for Disabled Volunteer Soldiers, Pacific Branch, Mess Hall, 11301 Wilshire Boulevard, West Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  13. Contextual view looking down clubhouse drive. Showing west elevation of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Contextual view looking down clubhouse drive. Showing west elevation of H1 on right; camera facing east. - Mare Island Naval Shipyard, Hospital Headquarters, Johnson Lane, west side at intersection of Johnson Lane & Cossey Street, Vallejo, Solano County, CA

  14. VIEW OF BUILDING 234 (ARCADE), NORTH WING FROM THE WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF BUILDING 234 (ARCADE), NORTH WING FROM THE WEST END, FACING SOUTHEAST, LOOKING DOWN ARCADE AND ACROSS COURTYARD - Roosevelt Base, Arcade, West Virginia Street, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 8. Perspective view of west elevation, looking from the southwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Perspective view of west elevation, looking from the southwest (Note: position of archaeological features immediately west of the cabin) - The Hermitage, East Cabin, 4580 Rachel's Lane, Hermitage, Davidson County, TN

  16. Exterior view to the southeast of the west camera bunker ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Exterior view to the southeast of the west camera bunker outside the fenced facility area - Nevada Test Site, Test Cell C Facility, West Camera Bunker, Area 25, Jackass Flats, Road J, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  17. 4. VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BUILDING NO. 1 FACING WEST. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW OF ENTRANCE TO BUILDING NO. 1 FACING WEST. - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Ordinance Operations Building, West Loch, First Street near Whiskey Wharves W1 & W2, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  18. 1. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 331. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTH AND WEST SIDES OF BUILDING 331. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Phosgene Filling & Storage Building, 1170 feet South of December Seventh Avenue; 230 feet West of D Street, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  19. 4. CENTER COURTYARD, FROM WEST SIDE OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. CENTER COURTYARD, FROM WEST SIDE OF SOUTHEAST PORTION OF BUILDING, LOOKING WEST. - Oakland Naval Supply Center, Administration Building-Dental Annex-Dispensary, Between E & F Streets, East of Third Street, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  20. 3. GENERAL VIEW FROM THE WEST, SHOWING REFLECTING POOL IN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW FROM THE WEST, SHOWING REFLECTING POOL IN FOREGROUND - Washington Monument, High ground West of Fifteenth Street, Northwest, between Independence & Constitution Avenues, Washington, District of Columbia, DC