Science.gov

Sample records for grn nuclear power

  1. Nuclear power and nuclear weapons

    SciTech Connect

    Vaughen, V.C.A.

    1983-01-01

    The proliferation of nuclear weapons and the expanded use of nuclear energy for the production of electricity and other peaceful uses are compared. The difference in technologies associated with nuclear weapons and nuclear power plants are described.

  2. Nuclear power browning out

    SciTech Connect

    Flavin, C.; Lenssen, N.

    1996-05-01

    When the sad history of nuclear power is written, April 26, 1986, will be recorded as the day the dream died. The explosion at the Chernobyl plant was a terrible human tragedy- and it delivered a stark verdict on the hope that nuclear power will one day replace fossil fuel-based energy systems. Nuclear advocates may soldier on, but a decade after Chernobyl it is clear that nuclear power is no longer a viable energy option for the twenty-first century.

  3. Nuclear Power in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yun

    2012-02-01

    In response to the Fukushima accident, China is strengthening its nuclear safety at reactors in operation, under construction and in preparation, including efforts to improve nuclear safety regulations and guidelines based on lessons learned from the accident. Although China is one of the major contributors in the global nuclear expansion, China's nuclear power industry is relatively young. Its nuclear safety regulators are less experienced compared to those in other major nuclear power countries. To realize China's resolute commitment to rapid growth of safe nuclear energy, detailed analyses of its nuclear safety regulatory system are required. This talk explains China's nuclear energy program and policy at first. It also explores China's governmental activities and future nuclear development after Fukushima accidents. At last, an overview of China's nuclear safety regulations and practices are provided. Issues and challenges are also identified for police makers, regulators, and industry professionals.

  4. Nuclear Power Plants. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyerly, Ray L.; Mitchell, Walter, III

    This publication is one of a series of information booklets for the general public published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission. Among the topics discussed are: Why Use Nuclear Power?; From Atoms to Electricity; Reactor Types; Typical Plant Design Features; The Cost of Nuclear Power; Plants in the United States; Developments in Foreign…

  5. Talk About Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremlett, Lewis

    1976-01-01

    Presents an overview of the relation of nuclear power to human health and the environment, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power as an energy source urging technical educators to inculcate an awareness of the problems associated with the production of energy. Describes the fission reaction process, the hazards of…

  6. Talk About Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremlett, Lewis

    1976-01-01

    Presents an overview of the relation of nuclear power to human health and the environment, and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of nuclear power as an energy source urging technical educators to inculcate an awareness of the problems associated with the production of energy. Describes the fission reaction process, the hazards of…

  7. Economics of nuclear power.

    PubMed

    Rossin, A D; Rieck, T A

    1978-08-18

    With 12 percent of U.S. electricity now being supplied by nuclear power, Commonwealth Edison has found nuclear plants to be good investments relative to other base load energy sources. The country's largest user of nuclear power, Commonwealth Edison, estimates that its commitment to nuclear saved its customers about 10 percent on their electric bills in 1977, compared to the cost with the next best alternative, coal. This advantage is seen as continuing, contrary to criticisms of the economics and reliability of nuclear power and claims that it has hidden subsidies. It is concluded that there is a need for both nuclear and coal and that government policy precluding or restricting either would be unwise.

  8. Commercial nuclear power 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-28

    This report presents the status at the end of 1989 and the outlook for commercial nuclear capacity and generation for all countries in the world with free market economies (FME). The report provides documentation of the US nuclear capacity and generation projections through 2030. The long-term projections of US nuclear capacity and generation are provided to the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) for use in estimating nuclear waste fund revenues and to aid in planning the disposal of nuclear waste. These projections also support the Energy Information Administration's annual report, Domestic Uranium Mining and Milling Industry: Viability Assessment, and are provided to the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The foreign nuclear capacity projections are used by the DOE uranium enrichment program in assessing potential markets for future enrichment contracts. The two major sections of this report discuss US and foreign commercial nuclear power. The US section (Chapters 2 and 3) deals with (1) the status of nuclear power as of the end of 1989; (2) projections of nuclear capacity and generation at 5-year intervals from 1990 through 2030; and (3) a discussion of institutional and technical issues that affect nuclear power. The nuclear capacity projections are discussed in terms of two projection periods: the intermediate term through 2010 and the long term through 2030. A No New Orders case is presented for each of the projection periods, as well as Lower Reference and Upper Reference cases. 5 figs., 30 tabs.

  9. Nuclear Power in Space

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    1994-01-01

    In the early years of the United States space program, lightweight batteries, fuel cells, and solar modules provided electric power for space missions. As missions became more ambitious and complex, power needs increased and scientists investigated various options to meet these challenging power requirements. One of the options was nuclear energy. By the mid-1950s, research had begun in earnest on ways to use nuclear power in space. These efforts resulted in the first radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which are nuclear power generators build specifically for space and special terrestrial uses. These RTGs convert the heat generated from the natural decay of their radioactive fuel into electricity. RTGs have powered many spacecraft used for exploring the outer planets of the solar system and orbiting the sun and Earth. They have also landed on Mars and the moon. They provide the power that enables us to see and learn about even the farthermost objects in our solar system.

  10. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  11. Nuclear-Powered Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Gary

    1992-01-01

    Describes an exercise to develop interest and understanding about nuclear energy in which students make presentations regarding a proposal to build a hypothetical nuclear power plant. Students spend two weeks researching the topic; give testimony before a "Senate Energy Committee"; and vote on the proposal. Background information is…

  12. Nuclear-Powered Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arce, Gary

    1992-01-01

    Describes an exercise to develop interest and understanding about nuclear energy in which students make presentations regarding a proposal to build a hypothetical nuclear power plant. Students spend two weeks researching the topic; give testimony before a "Senate Energy Committee"; and vote on the proposal. Background information is…

  13. Nuclear Power Plant Technician

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, George A.

    1975-01-01

    The author recognizes a body of basic knowledge in nuclear power plant technoogy that can be taught in school programs, and lists the various courses, aiming to fill the anticipated need for nuclear-trained manpower--persons holding an associate degree in engineering technology. (Author/BP)

  14. Physics and nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buttery, N. E.

    2008-03-01

    Nuclear power owes its origin to physicists. Fission was demonstrated by physicists and chemists and the first nuclear reactor project was led by physicists. However as nuclear power was harnessed to produce electricity the role of the engineer became stronger. Modern nuclear power reactors bring together the skills of physicists, chemists, chemical engineers, electrical engineers, mechanical engineers and civil engineers. The paper illustrates this by considering the Sizewell B project and the role played by physicists in this. This covers not only the roles in design and analysis but in problem solving during the commissioning of first of a kind plant. Looking forward to the challenges to provide sustainable and environmentally acceptable energy sources for the future illustrates the need for a continuing synergy between physics and engineering. This will be discussed in the context of the challenges posed by Generation IV reactors.

  15. NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    DOEpatents

    Carter, J.C.; Armstrong, R.H.; Janicke, M.J.

    1963-05-14

    A nuclear power plant for use in an airless environment or other environment in which cooling is difficult is described. The power plant includes a boiling mercury reactor, a mercury--vapor turbine in direct cycle therewith, and a radiator for condensing mercury vapor. (AEC)

  16. Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The Beloyarsk Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) is located in Zarechny, approximately 60 km east of Ekaterinberg along the Trans-Siberian Highway. Zarechny, a small city of approximately 30,000 residents, was built to support BNPP operations. It is a closed city to unescorted visitors. Residents must show identification for entry. BNPP is one of the first and oldest commercial nuclear power plants in Russia and began operations in 1964. As for most nuclear power plants in the Russian Federation, BNPP is operated by Rosenergoatom, which is subordinated to the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom). BNPP is the site of three nuclear reactors, Units 1, 2, and 3. Units 1 and 2, which have been shut-down and defueled, were graphite moderated reactors. The units were shut-down in 1981 and 1989. Unit 3, a BN-600 reactor, is a 600 MW(electric) sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor. Unit 3 went on-line in April 1980 and produces electric power which is fed into a distribution grid and thermal power which provides heat to Zarechny. The paper also discusses the SF NIKIET, the Sverdiovsk Branch of NIKIET, Moscow, which is the research and development branch of the parent NIKEIT and is primarily a design institute responsible for reactor design. Central to its operations is a 15 megawatt IVV research reactor. The paper discusses general security and fissile material control and accountability at these two facilities.

  17. Nuclear Power in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

  18. Nuclear Power in Space.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Research has shown that nuclear radioisotope power generators can supply compact, reliable, and efficient sources of energy for a broad range of space missions. These missions range from televising views of planetary surfaces to communicating scientific data to Earth. This publication presents many applications of the advancing technology and…

  19. Nuclear Power in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, John W.

    1983-01-01

    Energy consumption in Japan has grown at a faster rate than in any other major industrial country. To maintain continued prosperity, the government has embarked on a crash program for nuclear power. Current progress and issues/reactions to the plan are discussed. (JN)

  20. The Nuclear Power/Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Sam; Totten, Martha Wescoat

    1985-01-01

    Once they have nuclear power, most countries will divert nuclear materials from commercial to military programs. In excerpts from the book "Facing the Danger" (by Totten, S. and M. W., Crossing Press, 1984), five anti-nuclear activists explain how and why they have been addressing the nuclear connection. (RM)

  1. The Nuclear Power/Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Totten, Sam; Totten, Martha Wescoat

    1985-01-01

    Once they have nuclear power, most countries will divert nuclear materials from commercial to military programs. In excerpts from the book "Facing the Danger" (by Totten, S. and M. W., Crossing Press, 1984), five anti-nuclear activists explain how and why they have been addressing the nuclear connection. (RM)

  2. Nuclear Power - Post Fukushima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Jose, Jr.

    2011-10-01

    The extreme events that led to the prolonged power outage at the Fukushima Daiicchi nuclear plant have highlighted the importance of assuring a means for stable long term cooling of the nuclear fuel and containment following a complete station blackout. Legislative bodies, regulatory agencies and industry are drawing lessons from those events and considering what changes, if any, are needed to nuclear power, post Fukushima. The enhanced safety of a new class of reactor designed by NuScale Power is drawing significant attention in light of the Fukushima events. During normal operation, each NuScale containment is fully immersed in a water-filled stainless steel lined concrete pool that resides underground. The pool, housed in a Seismic Category I building, is large enough to provided 30 days of core and containment cooling without adding water. After 30 days, the decay heat generations coupled with thermal radiation heat transfer is completely adequate to remove core decay heat for an unlimited period of time. These passive power systems can perform their function without requiring an external supply of water of power. An assessment of the NuScale passive systems is being performed through a comprehensive test program that includes the NuScale integral system test facility at Oregon State University

  3. Space Nuclear Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houts, Michael G.

    2012-01-01

    Fission power and propulsion systems can enable exciting space exploration missions. These include bases on the moon and Mars; and the exploration, development, and utilization of the solar system. In the near-term, fission surface power systems could provide abundant, constant, cost-effective power anywhere on the surface of the Moon or Mars, independent of available sunlight. Affordable access to Mars, the asteroid belt, or other destinations could be provided by nuclear thermal rockets. In the further term, high performance fission power supplies could enable both extremely high power levels on planetary surfaces and fission electric propulsion vehicles for rapid, efficient cargo and crew transfer. Advanced fission propulsion systems could eventually allow routine access to the entire solar system. Fission systems could also enable the utilization of resources within the solar system.

  4. Nuclear power plant maintainability.

    PubMed

    Seminara, J L; Parsons, S O

    1982-09-01

    In the mid-1970s a general awareness of human factors engineering deficiencies associated with power plant control rooms took shape and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) awarded the Lockheed Corporation a contract to review the human factors aspects of five representative operational control rooms and their associated simulators. This investigation revealed a host of major and minor deficiencies that assumed unforeseen dimensions in the post- Three Mile Island accident period. In the course of examining operational problems (Seminara et al, 1976) and subsequently the methods for overcoming such problems (Seminara et al, 1979, 1980) indications surfaced that power plants were far from ideal in meeting the needs of maintenance personnel. Accordingly, EPRI sponsored an investigation of the human factors aspects of power plant maintainability (Seminara, 1981). This paper provides an overview of the maintainability problems and issues encountered in the course of reviewing five nuclear power plants.

  5. Nuclear eclectic power.

    PubMed

    Rose, D J

    1974-04-19

    The uranium and thorium resources, the technology, and the social impacts all seem to presage an even sharper increase in nuclear power for electric generation than had hitherto been predicted. There are more future consequences. The "hydrogen economy." Nuclear power plants operate best at constant power and full load. Thus, a largely nuclear electric economy has the problem of utilizing substantial off-peak capacity; the additional energy generation can typically be half the normal daily demand. Thus, the option of generating hydrogen as a nonpolluting fuel receives two boosts: excess nuclear capacity to produce it, plus much higher future costs for oil and natural gas. However, the so-called "hydrogen economy" must await the excess capacity, which will not occur until the end of the century. Nonelectric uses. By analyses similar to those performed here, raw nuclear heat can be shown to be cheaper than heat from many other fuel sources, especially nonpolluting ones. This will be particularly true as domestic natural gas supplies become more scarce. Nuclear heat becomes attractive for industrial purposes, and even for urban district heating, provided (i) the temperature is high enough (this is no problem for district heating, but could be for industry; the HTGR's and breeders, with 600 degrees C or more available, have the advantage); (ii) there is a market for large quantities (a heat rate of 3800 Mw thermal, the reactor size permitted today, will heat Boston, with some to spare); and (iii) the social costs become more definitely resolved in favor of nuclear power. Capital requirements. Nuclear-electric installations are very capital-intensive. One trillion dollars for the plants, backup industry, and so forth is only 2 percent of the total gross national product (GNP) between 1974 and 2000, at a growth rate of 4 percent per year. But capital accumulation tends to run at about 10 percent of the GNP, so the nuclear requirements make a sizable perturbation. Also

  6. Overview paper on nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Spiewak, I.; Cope, D.F.

    1980-09-01

    This paper was prepared as an input to ORNL's Strategic Planning Activity, ORNL National Energy Perspective (ONEP). It is intended to provide historical background on nuclear power, an analysis of the mission of nuclear power, a discussion of the issues, the technology choices, and the suggestion of a strategy for encouraging further growth of nuclear power.

  7. Report Card on Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novick, Sheldon

    1974-01-01

    Problems facing the nuclear power industry include skyrocketing construction costs, technical failures, fuel scarcity, power plant safety, and the disposal of nuclear wastes. Possible solutions include: reductions in nuclear power plant construction, a complete moratorium on new plant construction, the construction of fast breeder reactors and the…

  8. Report Card on Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novick, Sheldon

    1974-01-01

    Problems facing the nuclear power industry include skyrocketing construction costs, technical failures, fuel scarcity, power plant safety, and the disposal of nuclear wastes. Possible solutions include: reductions in nuclear power plant construction, a complete moratorium on new plant construction, the construction of fast breeder reactors and the…

  9. Nuclear Security for Floating Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Skiba, James M.; Scherer, Carolynn P.

    2015-10-13

    Recently there has been a lot of interest in small modular reactors. A specific type of these small modular reactors (SMR,) are marine based power plants called floating nuclear power plants (FNPP). These FNPPs are typically built by countries with extensive knowledge of nuclear energy, such as Russia, France, China and the US. These FNPPs are built in one country and then sent to countries in need of power and/or seawater desalination. Fifteen countries have expressed interest in acquiring such power stations. Some designs for such power stations are briefly summarized. Several different avenues for cooperation in FNPP technology are proposed, including IAEA nuclear security (i.e. safeguards), multilateral or bilateral agreements, and working with Russian design that incorporates nuclear safeguards for IAEA inspections in non-nuclear weapons states

  10. Nuclear electric power sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    Measurements on radioactive commercial p-n junction silicon cells show that these units are capable of delivering several hundred microwatts per curie of Am-241 alpha source, indicating their usefulness in such electronic devices as hearing aids, heart pacemakers, electronic watches, delay timers and nuclear dosimeter chargers. It is concluded that the Am-241 sources are superior to the beta sources used previously, because of higher alpha specific ionization and simultaneous production of low energy photons which are easily converted into photoelectrons for additional power.

  11. HOMOGENEOUS NUCLEAR POWER REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    King, L.D.P.

    1959-09-01

    A homogeneous nuclear power reactor utilizing forced circulation of the liquid fuel is described. The reactor does not require fuel handling outside of the reactor vessel during any normal operation including complete shutdown to room temperature, the reactor being selfregulating under extreme operating conditions and controlled by the thermal expansion of the liquid fuel. The liquid fuel utilized is a uranium, phosphoric acid, and water solution which requires no gus exhaust system or independent gas recombining system, thereby eliminating the handling of radioiytic gas.

  12. Nuclear Power Plant Module, NPP-1: Nuclear Power Cost Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitelaw, Robert L.

    The purpose of the Nuclear Power Plant Modules, NPP-1, is to determine the total cost of electricity from a nuclear power plant in terms of all the components contributing to cost. The plan of analysis is in five parts: (1) general formulation of the cost equation; (2) capital cost and fixed charges thereon; (3) operational cost for labor,…

  13. Competitive economics of nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Hellman, R.

    1981-03-02

    Some 12 components of a valid study of the competitive economics of a newly ordered nuclear power plant are identified and explicated. These are then used to adjust the original cost projections of four authoritative studies of nuclear and coal power economics.

  14. Why Teach about Nuclear Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Jennifer

    1982-01-01

    Discusses reasons why nuclear power/technology should be taught. Indicates that the subject is not strictly science-related, the issues offering material for lessons in geography, history, politics, and economics. Also suggests presenting both sides of the nuclear power argument. (Author/JN)

  15. Health Risks of Nuclear Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Bernard L.

    1978-01-01

    Deals with the wastes generated in nuclear power plants and the health risks involved as compared to those of wastes generated by coal-fired plants. Concludes that the risks of nuclear power plants are many times smaller than the risks from alternative energy resources. (GA)

  16. Health Risks of Nuclear Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Bernard L.

    1978-01-01

    Deals with the wastes generated in nuclear power plants and the health risks involved as compared to those of wastes generated by coal-fired plants. Concludes that the risks of nuclear power plants are many times smaller than the risks from alternative energy resources. (GA)

  17. Nuclear power: Unexpected health benefits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shellenberger, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Public fears of nuclear power are widespread, especially in the aftermath of accidents, yet their benefits are rarely fully considered. A new study shows how the closure of two nuclear power plants in the 1980s increased air pollution and led to a measurable reduction in birth weights, a key indicator of future health outcomes.

  18. Why Teach about Nuclear Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Jennifer

    1982-01-01

    Discusses reasons why nuclear power/technology should be taught. Indicates that the subject is not strictly science-related, the issues offering material for lessons in geography, history, politics, and economics. Also suggests presenting both sides of the nuclear power argument. (Author/JN)

  19. Solid-State Nuclear Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    2012-01-01

    A strategy for "Solid-State" Nuclear Power is proposed to guide development of technologies and systems into the second 50 years of nuclear spaceflight. The strategy emphasizes a simple and highly integrated system architecture with few moving parts or fluid loops; the leverage of modern advances in materials, manufacturing, semiconductors, microelectromechanical and nanotechnology devices; and the targeted advancement of high temperature nuclear fuels, materials and static power conversion to enable high performance from simple system topologies.

  20. Direct nuclear-powered lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jalufka, N. W.

    1983-01-01

    The development of direct nuclear pumped lasers is reviewed. Theoretical and experimental investigations of various methods of converting the energy of nuclear fission fragments to laser power are summarized. The development of direct nuclear pumped lasers was achieved. The basic processes involved in the production of a plasma by nuclear radiation were studied. Significant progress was accomplished in this area and a large amount of basic data on plasma formation and atomic and molecular processes leading to population inversions is available.

  1. The distrust of nuclear power.

    PubMed

    Hohenemser, C; Kasperson, R; Kates, R

    1977-04-01

    Society seems content to strike a more moderate or uncertain balance with other technologies than with nuclear power. This attitude is traced to the social history of nuclear power, the genuine uncertainty and complexity of safety issues, underestimation of the regulatory task, and the rancorous nature of the debate. Nuclear power is not just another problem of technology, of environment, or of health. It is unique in our time. To be more demanding of nuclear safety may be to apply a double standard, but not necessarily an irrational one. Our best course appears to be to keep the nuclear option open, work toward the rapid resolution of problems such as waste disposal, but postpone recycling and the breeder reactor. Time is needed to resolve immediate problems such as transport and disposal of nuclear wastes; to come to terms with trans-scientific issues such as plutonium toxicity, sabotage, and weapons proliferation; and to evaluate long-term energy alternatives.

  2. Nuclear power: Siting and safety

    SciTech Connect

    Openshaw, S.

    1986-01-01

    By 2030, half, or even two-thirds, of all electricity may be generated by nuclear power. Major reactor accidents are still expected to be rare occurrences, but nuclear safety is largely a matter of faith. Terrorist attacks, sabotage, and human error could cause a significant accident. Reactor siting can offer an additional, design-independent margin of safety. Remote geographical sites for new plants would minimize health risks, protect the industry from negative changes in public opinion concerning nuclear energy, and improve long-term public acceptance of nuclear power. U.K. siting practices usually do not consider the contribution to safety that could be obtained from remote sites. This book discusses the present trends of siting policies of nuclear power and their design-independent margin of safety.

  3. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  4. Nuclear Power Plant Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Fran

    1979-01-01

    Presents a nuclear power plant simulation game which is designed to involve a class of 30 junior or senior high school students. Scientific, ecological, and social issues covered in the game are also presented. (HM)

  5. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  6. Operate a Nuclear Power Plant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frimpter, Bonnie J.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Describes classroom use of a computer program originally published in Creative Computing magazine. "The Nuclear Power Plant" (runs on Apple II with 48K memory) simulates the operating of a nuclear generating station, requiring students to make decisions as they assume the task of managing the plant. (JN)

  7. Emerging Space Nuclear Power Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, F. J.; Fornoles, E. V.

    1984-01-01

    Growing interest in new classes of military and civil space systems which demand substantial increases in power over current satellites is generating a renewed interest in space qualified nuclear power systems. Indeed, one can say that power is a limiting technology to the achievement of many future goals in space. The speed of nuclear power system development is currently limited by the lack of a clear distinct definition of system requirements. Emerging system requirements are discussed for the following fields: robust surveillance systems, survivable communication systems with anti-jam capabilities, electric propulsion systems, and weapons applications.

  8. Emerging Space Nuclear Power Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Redd, F. J.; Fornoles, E. V.

    1984-01-01

    Growing interest in new classes of military and civil space systems which demand substantial increases in power over current satellites is generating a renewed interest in space qualified nuclear power systems. Indeed, one can say that power is a limiting technology to the achievement of many future goals in space. The speed of nuclear power system development is currently limited by the lack of a clear distinct definition of system requirements. Emerging system requirements are discussed for the following fields: robust surveillance systems, survivable communication systems with anti-jam capabilities, electric propulsion systems, and weapons applications.

  9. Owners of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, C.R.; White, V.S.

    1996-11-01

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of July 1996. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  10. Owners of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, R.L.

    2000-01-12

    Commercial nuclear power plants in this country can be owned by a number of separate entities, each with varying ownership proportions. Each of these owners may, in turn, have a parent/subsidiary relationship to other companies. In addition, the operator of the plant may be a different entity as well. This report provides a compilation on the owners/operators for all commercial power reactors in the United States. While the utility industry is currently experiencing changes in organizational structure which may affect nuclear plant ownership, the data in this report is current as of November 1999. The report is divided into sections representing different aspects of nuclear plant ownership.

  11. Topics in nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2015-03-01

    The 101 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of "significant events" since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and several companies are vigorously working on designs for smaller, modular reactors. Although the Fukushima reactor accident in March 2011 in Japan has been an almost unmitigated disaster for the local population due to their being displaced from their homes and workplaces and also due to the land contamination, its "lessons learned" have been important for the broader nuclear industry, and will surely result in safer nuclear plants worldwide - indeed, have already done so, with more safety improvements to come.

  12. Topics in nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2015-03-30

    The 101 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of 'significant events' since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and several companies are vigorously working on designs for smaller, modular reactors. Although the Fukushima reactor accident in March 2011 in Japan has been an almost unmitigated disaster for the local population due to their being displaced from their homes and workplaces and also due to the land contamination, its 'lessons learned' have been important for the broader nuclear industry, and will surely result in safer nuclear plants worldwide - indeed, have already done so, with more safety improvements to come.

  13. Nuclear electro-optic power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Tertiary-nuclear power cell utilizes alpha source from which radiated particles strike phosphore which in turn emits photons that are converted to electricity by solar cell. Experiments indicated that device is capable of providing sufficient power for numerous electronic applications where reliability and long life are important.

  14. Topics in Nuclear Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budnitz, Robert J.

    2011-11-01

    The 104 nuclear plants operating in the US today are far safer than they were 20-30 years ago. For example, there's been about a 100-fold reduction in the occurrence of "significant events" since the late 1970s. Although the youngest of currently operating US plants was designed in the 1970s, all have been significantly modified over the years. Key contributors to the safety gains are a vigilant culture, much improved equipment reliability, greatly improved training of operators and maintenance workers, worldwide sharing of experience, and the effective use of probabilistic risk assessment. Several manufacturers have submitted high quality new designs for large reactors to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for design approval, and some designers are taking a second look at the economies of smaller, modular reactors.

  15. Lunar nuclear power feasibility study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erdman, C. A.; Tran, T.

    1984-01-01

    Based on review of literature and on limited examination of nuclear power systems now proposed for space applications, a nuclear fission reactor powered system should be seriously considered as the first large (order of 50 kWe or greater) power system to be placed on a lunar base. With relatively minor modifications, the major one being addition of a cooled side shield, the proposed 100 kWe product of the SP-100 Program could be adapted for use on a lunar base.

  16. (Nuclear power engineering in space)

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, R.H. Jr.

    1990-06-18

    The principal purpose of this trip was to participate in the Anniversary Specialist Conference on Nuclear Power Engineering in Space hosted by the USSR Ministry of Atomic Power Engineering and Industry. The conference was held in Obninsk, USSR. A secondary purpose of the trip was to meet with the French Commissariat A L'Energie Atomique in Paris regarding the status of their space power program.

  17. Technology and applications of space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reck, Gregory M.; Rosen, Robert; Bennett, Gary L.; Schnyer, A. D.

    1991-01-01

    Requirements for a number of potential NASA civil space missions are addressed, and the nuclear power technology base to meet these requirements is described. Particular attention is given to applications of space nuclear power to lunar, Mars, and science missions and the technology status of space nuclear power with emphasis on dynamic isotope and space nuclear reactor power systems.

  18. Nuclear power plant life extension

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, D.D.; Bustard, L.D.; Harrison, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear plant life extension represents an opportunity to achieve additional productive years of operation from existing nuclear power facilities. This is particularly important since operating licenses for over 50 GW of nuclear capacity will expire by the year 2010. By the year 2015, 85% of the total planned nuclear electric capacity will face retirement due to license expirations. Achieving additional productive years of operation from the nation's existing light water reactors is the goal of ongoing utility, vendor, US Department of Energy, and Electric Power Research Institute programs. Identifying potential technical issues associated with extending plant life and scoping realistic solutions represent first steps toward the development of a coordinated national plant life extension strategy. This is a substantial effort that must consider the breadth of issues associated with nuclear power plant design, operation, and licensing, and the numerous potential plant life extension strategies that may be appropriate to different utilities. Such an effort must enlist the expertise of the full spectrum of organizations in the nuclear industry including utilities, vendors, consultants, national laboratories, and professional organizations. A primary focus of these efforts is to identify operational changes and improvements in record-keeping, which, if implemented now, could enhance and preserve the life extension option.

  19. Novel GRN Mutations in Patients with Corticobasal Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Taghdiri, Foad; Sato, Christine; Ghani, Mahdi; Moreno, Danielle; Rogaeva, Ekaterina; Tartaglia, Maria Carmela

    2016-01-01

    Loss-of-function GRN mutations lead to GRN haploinsufficiency and consequently neurodegeneration with significant heterogeneity in clinical presentation of various syndromes. The aim of this study was to investigate the genetics and clinical features of patients with GRN-related frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) syndromes. We performed mutation analysis of GRN in 45 unrelated Canadian patients with a broad spectrum of FTLD-like syndromes (mean age at onset of 64.0 ± 11.2 years). In our cohort, two patients were carriers of two novel heterozygous alterations in GRN: 2 bp insertion (c.769–770insCC:p.Q257fs) and 12 bp deletion (c.1009–1020del:p.337–340del). Both patients presented with corticobasal syndrome supported by clinical and radiological findings. The absence of the mutant allele in the RT–PCR product was only observed for the sample with 2 bp insertion in GRN. In contrast, the allele with 12 bp deletion in GRN was not down-regulated at the RNA level and did not segregate with FTLD in the family. Our report extends the evidence for genetic and phenotypic variability in FTLD disorders, and detects a novel pathogenic GRN mutation, carriers of which could eventually help to evaluate the efficacy of different treatments at early stages of dementia. PMID:26961809

  20. Nuclear power for Mars surface

    SciTech Connect

    Houts, M.G.; Buksa, J.J.; Howe, S.D.

    1993-01-01

    Safe, reliable, low-mass, low-volume, long-life nuclear fission power supplies are an attractive option for meeting lunar and Martian surface power requirements. Two factors will have a strong impact on the suitability of a surface nuclear power supply: the technology used by the reactor and the overall system mass. Because thermionic technology is well suited for surface applications, this paper briefly discusses the existing 6 kWe Russian TOPAZ II reactor and two near-term US thermionic space nuclear power supplies capable of providing 40 kWe. Man-rated shielding will be a significant fraction of the mass of any surface nuclear fission power supply. Because of the importance of optimizing the reactor shield, this paper presents detailed calculations related to the shielding properties of lunar and Martian soil, and the effectiveness of using existing craters to shield a reactor. Preliminary results indicate that it may be desirable to incorporate neutron shielding into the reactor design, but when possible in-situ materials should be used. Preliminary calculations also indicate that while existing craters could provide substantial shielding, radiation scatter off of the crater rim may limit the overall shielding effectiveness of the crater. 7 refs.

  1. Heavy-Metal Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Eric P. Loewen

    2004-11-01

    It's been decades since a nuclear power plant was commissioned in the United States, but nuclear engineers mindful of problems with reliance on fossil fuels for long-term power generation continue to look at novel reactor designs. Loewen and his colleagues have evaluated one of the technologies under consideration for the next generation of reactors. It would exploit the physical and safety characteristics of lead—chiefly, a high boiling point—as a coolant in place of water. Such a reactor could use fast neutrons and operate at high temperature, making it capable of burning many of the radioactive isotopes in the spent nuclear fuel produced by the nation's 103 light-water reactors.

  2. Nuclear Power and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria).

    This booklet is a summary of an international symposium, held in August 1970 in New York City, on the environmental aspects of nuclear power stations. The symposium was convened under the sponsorship of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (USAEC). The information is presented in a condensed and…

  3. Nuclear Power and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukert, Joseph M.

    Described are the major environmental effects resulting from the production of electricity by nuclear power plants. Discussed are effects of waste heat, radioactivity, radioactive waste elimination, costs, and future prospects. Included are diagrams illustrating cooling tower operation, effects of thermal discharge into water systems, radioactive…

  4. Helping nuclear power help us

    SciTech Connect

    Schecker, Jay A

    2009-01-01

    After a prolonged absence, the word 'nuclear' has returned to the lexicon of sustainable domestic energy resources. Due in no small part to its demonstrated reliability, nuclear power is poised to playa greater role in the nation's energy future, producing clean, carbon-neutral electricity and contributing even more to our energy security. To nuclear scientists, the resurgence presents an opportunity to inject new technologies into the industry to maximize the benefits that nuclear energy can provide. 'By developing new options for waste management and exploiting new materials to make key technological advances, we can significantly impact the use of nuclear energy in our future energy mix,' says Chris Stanek, a materials scientist at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Stanek approaches the big technology challenges by thinking way small, all the way down to the atoms. He and his colleagues are using cutting edge atomic-scale simulations to address a difficult aspect of nuclear waste -- predicting its behavior far into the future. Their research is part of a broader, coordinated effort on the part of the Laboratory to use its considerable experimental, theoretical, and computational capabilities to explore advanced materials central to not only waste issues, but to nuclear fuels as well.

  5. Global warming and nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, L., LLNL

    1998-07-10

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a potential solution to many aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high-grade heat for large-scale electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-energizing around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates; importantly, electricity production costs from the best nuclear plants presently are closely comparable with those of the best fossil-fired plants. However, a substantial number of issues currently stand between nuclear power and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems. These include perceptual ones regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps most seriously- readily quantifiable concerns regarding long-term fuel supply and total unit electrical energy cost. We sketch a road-map for proceeding from the present situation toward a nuclear power-intensive world, addressing along the way each of the concerns which presently impede widespread nuclear substitution for fossil fuels, particularly for coal in the most populous and rapidly developing portions of the world, e.g., China and India. This `design to societal specifications` approach to large-scale nuclear fission power systems may lead to energy sources meeting essentially all stationary demands for high-temperature heat. Such advanced options offer a human population of ten billion the electricity supply levels currently enjoyed by Americans for 10,000 years. Nuclear power systems tailored to local needs-and-interests and having a common advanced technology base could reduce present-day world-wide C0{sub 2} emissions by two-fold, if universally employed. By application to small mobile demands, a second two

  6. 77 FR 76541 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee), for operation of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim... Renewal of Nuclear Plants Regarding Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Final Report- Appendices,'' published...

  7. The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Explains problems enforcing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968. Provides factual charts and details concerning the production of nuclear energy and arms, the processing and disposal of waste products, and outlines the nuclear fuel cycle. Discusses safeguards, the risk of nuclear terrorism, and ways to deal with these problems. (NL)

  8. The Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Paul

    1990-01-01

    Explains problems enforcing the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) of 1968. Provides factual charts and details concerning the production of nuclear energy and arms, the processing and disposal of waste products, and outlines the nuclear fuel cycle. Discusses safeguards, the risk of nuclear terrorism, and ways to deal with these problems. (NL)

  9. Improved and safer nuclear power.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J J

    1989-04-21

    Recent progress in advanced nuclear power development in the United States is revealing high potential for nuclear reactor systems that are smaller and easier to operate than the present generation. Passive, or intrinsic, characteristics are applied not only to provide inherent stability of the chain reaction but also to ensure continued cooling of the fuel and its containment systems even if a major breakdown of the normal cooling and control functions were to occur. The chance of a severe accident is thereby substantially reduced. The plant designs that are emerging are simpler and more rugged, have a longer life span, and place less burden on equipment and operating personnel. Modular design concepts and design standardization are also used to reduce construction time and engineering costs, giving promise that the cost of generating power from these systems will be competitive with alternative methods.

  10. Sabotage at Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Purvis, James W.

    1999-07-21

    Recently there has been a noted worldwide increase in violent actions including attempted sabotage at nuclear power plants. Several organizations, such as the International Atomic Energy Agency and the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, have guidelines, recommendations, and formal threat- and risk-assessment processes for the protection of nuclear assets. Other examples are the former Defense Special Weapons Agency, which used a risk-assessment model to evaluate force-protection security requirements for terrorist incidents at DOD military bases. The US DOE uses a graded approach to protect its assets based on risk and vulnerability assessments. The Federal Aviation Administration and Federal Bureau of Investigation conduct joint threat and vulnerability assessments on high-risk US airports. Several private companies under contract to government agencies use formal risk-assessment models and methods to identify security requirements. The purpose of this paper is to survey these methods and present an overview of all potential types of sabotage at nuclear power plants. The paper discusses emerging threats and current methods of choice for sabotage--especially vehicle bombs and chemical attacks. Potential consequences of sabotage acts, including economic and political; not just those that may result in unacceptable radiological exposure to the public, are also discussed. Applicability of risk-assessment methods and mitigation techniques are also presented.

  11. Revitalization of Nuclear Powered Flight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    There needs to be a better way, and the USAF might look to the past to do it. Nuclear Powered Aircraft History On July 16, 1945, the first atomic ...weapon was detonated in New Mexico, subsequently starting the Atomic Age. In its beginning, the United States’ population was very positive about the...creation of the Atomic Energy Commission. President Eisenhower distrusted the military industrial complex, suspecting companies were pushing

  12. Other perspectives on nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, Augustin

    2012-09-01

    In his reply to Brian Drummond's letter on "Proper perspective and nuclear power" (August p19), I am surprised that Paul Grant allowed Drummond's reference to the Nestorenko et al. publication (2009 Annals New York Acad. Sciences 1181) to pass unchallenged. This document, with its claim that the Chernobyl accident has already killed several hundred thousand people (the figure of 985,000 is mentioned), was published without peer review and has since been disowned by the New York Academy of Sciences.

  13. Alternative institutional arrangements for nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Bussard, D.

    1980-08-01

    This paper investigates how alternative organizations of nuclear power generation would effect the regulatory environment for nuclear power production, how it would effect financial constraints on new construction, and what governmental barriers to such reorganization exist.

  14. Safe use of atomic (Nuclear) power (Nuclear Safety)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorenko, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    The established concept of ensuring safety for nuclear power sources is presented; the influence of severe accidents on nuclear power development is considered, including the accident at a Japan NPP in 2011, as well as the role of state regulation of nuclear safety.

  15. The economics of nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horst, Ronald L.

    We extend economic analysis of the nuclear power industry by developing and employing three tools. They are (1) compilation and unification of operating and accounting data sets for plants and sites, (2) an abstract industry model with major economic agents and features, and (3) a model of nuclear power plant operators. We build a matched data set to combine dissimilar but mutually dependant bodies of information. We match detailed information on the activities and conditions of individual plants to slightly more aggregated financial data. Others have exploited the data separately, but we extend the sets and pool available data sets. The data reveal dramatic changes in the industry over the past thirty years. The 1980s proved unprofitable for the industry. This is evident both in the cost data and in the operator activity data. Productivity then improved dramatically while cost growth stabilized to the point of industry profitability. Relative electricity prices may be rising after nearly two decades of decline. Such demand side trends, together with supply side improvements, suggest a healthy industry. Our microeconomic model of nuclear power plant operators employs a forward-looking component to capture the information set available to decision makers and to model the decision-making process. Our model includes features often overlooked elsewhere, including electricity price equations and liability. Failure to account for changes in electricity price trends perhaps misled earlier scholars, and they attributed to other causes the effects on profits of changing price structures. The model includes potential losses resulting from catastrophic nuclear accidents. Applications include historical simulations and forecasts. Nuclear power involves risk, and accident costs are borne both by plant owners and the public. Authorities regulate the industry and balance conflicting desires for economic gain and safety. We construct an extensible model with regulators, plant

  16. Locating nuclear power plants underground.

    PubMed

    Scott, F M

    1975-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the questions that have been asked by experts and others as to why nuclear power plants are not located or placed underground. While the safeguards and present designs make such installations unnecessary, there are some definite advantages that warrant the additional cost involved. First of all, such an arrangement does satisfy the psychological concern of a number of people and, in so doing, might gain the acceptance of the public so that such plants could be constructed in urban areas of load centers. The results of these studies are presented and some of the requirements necessary for underground installations described, including rock conditions, depth of facilities, and economics.

  17. ALARA at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    Implementation of the As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA) principle at nuclear power plants presents a continuing challenge for health physicists at utility corporate and plant levels, for plant designers, and for regulatory agencies. The relatively large collective doses at some plants are being addressed though a variety of dose reduction techniques. It is planned that this report will include material on historical aspects, management, valuation of dose reduction, quantitative and qualitative aspects of optimization, design, operational considerations, and training. The status of this work is summarized in this report. 30 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  18. The Fourth Generation of Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Lake, James Alan

    2000-11-01

    The outlook for nuclear power in the U.S. is currently very bright. The economics, operations and safety performance of U.S. nuclear power plants is excellent. In addition, both the safety and economic regulation of nuclear power are being changed to produce better economic parameters for future nuclear plant operations and the licenses for plant operations are being extended to 60 years. There is further a growing awareness of the value of clean, emissions-free nuclear power. These parameters combine to form a firm foundation for continued successful U.S. nuclear plant operations, and even the potential In order to realize a bright future for nuclear power, we must respond successfully to five challenges: • Nuclear power must remain economically competitive, • The public must remain confident in the safety of the plants and the fuel cycle. • Nuclear wastes and spent fuel must be managed and the ultimate disposition pathways for nuclear wastes must be politically settled. • The proliferation potential of the commercial nuclear fuel cycle must continue to be minimized, and • We must assure a sustained manpower supply for the future and preserve the critical nuclear technology infrastructure. The Generation IV program is conceived to focus the efforts of the international nuclear community on responding to these challenges.

  19. Space nuclear power and man's extraterrestrial civilization

    SciTech Connect

    Angelo, J.J.; Buden, D.

    1983-01-01

    This paper examines leading space nuclear power technology candidates. Particular emphasis is given the heat-pipe reactor technology currently under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. This program is aimed at developing a 10-100 kWe, 7-year lifetime space nuclear power plant. As the demand for space-based power reaches megawatt levels, other nuclear reactor designs including: solid core, fluidized bed, and gaseous core, are considered.

  20. Civil applications of space nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Isenberg, L.; Mondt, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents some potential areas of civil space application where the use of nuclear energy (either from radioisotope or nuclear reactor sources) could result in an increase in mission functionally that would be significant enough to warrant the serious consideration of a nuclear power source. Typical applications that might use space nuclear power are civil earth-oriented satellites (particularly those in geostationary orbits), planetary or deep space exploration, astrophysics research, and power sources for lunar or planetary bases. The potential applications have been grouped into families with common influencing factors, such as mission characteristics, power level, mission duration, location, balance-of-system characteristics, environmental impact, safety, etc.

  1. Nuclear power plants for mobile applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Mobile nuclear powerplants for applications other than large ships and submarines will require compact, lightweight reactors with especially stringent impact-safety design. The technical and economic feasibility that the broadening role of civilian nuclear power, in general, (land-based nuclear electric generating plants and nuclear ships) can extend to lightweight, safe mobile nuclear powerplants are examined. The paper discusses technical experience, identifies potential sources of technology for advanced concepts, cites the results of economic studies of mobile nuclear powerplants, and surveys future technical capabilities needed by examining the current use and projected needs for vehicles, machines, and habitats that could effectively use mobile nuclear reactor powerplants.

  2. 77 FR 18271 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-27

    ... COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG) 4.11, ``Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations... environmental studies and analyses supporting licensing decisions for nuclear power reactors. ADDRESSES: Please...

  3. Nuclear power in the Soviet Union

    SciTech Connect

    Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    The pros and cons of nuclear power are similar in many countries, but the following pro factors are specific to the Soviet Union: the major sources of conventional fuel are in one area of the country, but energy consumption is concentrated in another; and a large portion of energy is generated using oil and gas. The arguments against nuclear power are as follows: safety requirements and expectations have been increased; and public opinion is negative. A program of nuclear power generation has been developed. New techniques are being implemented to increase safety and enhance operations of different types of nuclear power plants. Its should be obvious in the future that a nuclear power plant has better economic and environmental parameters than existing methods of power generation.

  4. Nuclear Power Plant Concrete Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, Prabir; Labbe, Pierre; Naus, Dan

    2013-01-01

    A nuclear power plant (NPP) involves complex engineering structures that are significant items of the structures, systems and components (SSC) important to the safe and reliable operation of the NPP. Concrete is the commonly used civil engineering construction material in the nuclear industry because of a number of advantageous properties. The NPP concrete structures underwent a great degree of evolution, since the commissioning of first NPP in early 1960. The increasing concern with time related to safety of the public and environment, and degradation of concrete structures due to ageing related phenomena are the driving forces for such evolution. The concrete technology underwent rapid development with the advent of chemical admixtures of plasticizer/super plasticizer category as well as viscosity modifiers and mineral admixtures like fly ash and silica fume. Application of high performance concrete (HPC) developed with chemical and mineral admixtures has been witnessed in the construction of NPP structures. Along with the beneficial effect, the use of admixtures in concrete has posed a number of challenges as well in design and construction. This along with the prospect of continuing operation beyond design life, especially after 60 years, the impact of extreme natural events ( as in the case of Fukushima NPP accident) and human induced events (e.g. commercial aircraft crash like the event of September 11th 2001) has led to further development in the area of NPP concrete structures. The present paper aims at providing an account of evolution of NPP concrete structures in last two decades by summarizing the development in the areas of concrete technology, design methodology and construction techniques, maintenance and ageing management of concrete structures.

  5. Evolving an acceptable nuclear power fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.

    1986-10-01

    The following issues are examined: long-term safe nuclear power plant operation; acceptable nuclear waste management and, mainly, high-level waste management; and provision for long-term fissile fuel supply in a long-term nuclear fission economy. (LM)

  6. A Basic Guide to Nuclear Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martocci, Barbara; Wilson, Greg

    More than 100 nuclear power plants supply over 17 percent of the electricity in the United States. The basic principles of how nuclear energy works and how it is used to make electricity are explained in this profusely illustrated booklet written for the average sixth grade reader. Discussions include: (1) atomic structure; (2) nuclear fission;…

  7. A Basic Guide to Nuclear Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martocci, Barbara; Wilson, Greg

    More than 100 nuclear power plants supply over 17 percent of the electricity in the United States. The basic principles of how nuclear energy works and how it is used to make electricity are explained in this profusely illustrated booklet written for the average sixth grade reader. Discussions include: (1) atomic structure; (2) nuclear fission;…

  8. Questions and Answers About Nuclear Power Plants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet is designed to answer many of the questions that have arisen about nuclear power plants and the environment. It is organized into a question and answer format, with the questions taken from those most often asked by the public. Topics include regulation of nuclear power sources, potential dangers to people's health, whether nuclear…

  9. Teaching About Nuclear Power: A Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxey, Phyllis F.

    1980-01-01

    Recommends that simulation games be used to teach high school students in social studies courses about contemporary and controversial issues such as nuclear power. A simulation is described which involves students in deciding whether to build a nuclear power plant in the California desert. Teaching and debriefing tips are also provided. (DB)

  10. A Nuclear Power Primer: Issues for Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beane, Marjorie

    The history, problems, arguments, and controversy concerning power created by nuclear fission are outlined. The purpose of the booklet is to present unbiased information for the layman in understandable language in order to improve the quality of national debate over nuclear power. Information for the booklet was gathered from journals, government…

  11. A Nuclear Power Primer: Issues for Citizens.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beane, Marjorie

    The history, problems, arguments, and controversy concerning power created by nuclear fission are outlined. The purpose of the booklet is to present unbiased information for the layman in understandable language in order to improve the quality of national debate over nuclear power. Information for the booklet was gathered from journals, government…

  12. Teaching About Nuclear Power: A Simulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxey, Phyllis F.

    1980-01-01

    Recommends that simulation games be used to teach high school students in social studies courses about contemporary and controversial issues such as nuclear power. A simulation is described which involves students in deciding whether to build a nuclear power plant in the California desert. Teaching and debriefing tips are also provided. (DB)

  13. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Buckman, R.W. Jr.

    2004-02-04

    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited.

  14. Nuclear Space Power Systems Materials Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckman, R. W.

    2004-02-01

    High specific energy is required for space nuclear power systems. This generally means high operating temperatures and the only alloy class of materials available for construction of such systems are the refractory metals niobium, tantalum, molybdenum and tungsten. The refractory metals in the past have been the construction materials selected for nuclear space power systems. The objective of this paper will be to review the past history and requirements for space nuclear power systems from the early 1960's through the SP-100 program. Also presented will be the past and present status of refractory metal alloy technology and what will be needed to support the next advanced nuclear space power system. The next generation of advanced nuclear space power systems can benefit from the review of this past experience. Because of a decline in the refractory metal industry in the United States, ready availability of specific refractory metal alloys is limited.

  15. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    PubMed

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Power plant of high safety for underground nuclear power station

    SciTech Connect

    Dolgov, V.N.

    1993-12-31

    An ecologically pure, reliable, and economic nuclear power station is based on the use of nuclear power plants with the liquid-metal coolant. This plant with the inherent safety is protected from external influences due to the underground accommodations in geologically stable formations such as granites, cambrian clays, and salt deposits. The design features of this underground plant are described.

  17. 78 FR 61400 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Issuance of Director's Decision

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Issuance of Director's Decision... and ML102210411, respectively), concerns the operation of Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim... (non- EQ) inaccessible cables at Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim) are capable of...

  18. U.S. Forward Operating Base Applications of Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Griffith, George W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides a high level overview of current nuclear power technology and the potential use of nuclear power at military bases. The size, power ranges, and applicability of nuclear power units for military base power are reviewed. Previous and current reactor projects are described to further define the potential for nuclear power for military power.

  19. Nuclear Power Sources for Space Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukharkin, N. E.; Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N. N.; Usov, V. A.

    This chapter contains the information about nuclear power sources for space systems. Reactor nuclear sources are considered that use the energy of heavy nuclei fission generated by controlled chain fission reaction, as well as the isotope ones producing heat due to the energy of nuclei radioactive decay. Power of reactor nuclear sources is determined by the rate of heavy nuclei fission that may be controlled within a wide range from the zero up to the nominal one. Thermal power of isotope sources cannot be controlled. It is determined by the type and quantity of isotopes and decreases in time due to their radioactive decay. Both, in the reactor sources and in the isotope ones, nuclear power is converted into the thermal one that may be consumed for the coolant heating to produce thrust (Nuclear Power Propulsion System, NPPS) or may be converted into electricity (Nuclear Power Source, NPS) dynamically (a turbine generator) or statically (thermoelectric or thermionic converters). Electric power is supplied to the airborne equipment or is used to produce thrust in electric (ionic, plasma) low-thrust engines. A brief description is presented of the different nuclear systems with reactor and isotopic power sources implemented in Russia and the USA. The information is also given about isotopic sources for the ground-based application, mainly for navigation systems.

  20. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, B.

    1991-12-31

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry`s practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  1. Public opinion factors regarding nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, B.

    1991-01-01

    This paper is an effort to identify, as comprehensively as possible, public concerns about nuclear power, and to assess, where possible, the relative importance of these concerns as they relate to government regulation of and policy towards nuclear power. It is based on some two dozen in-depth interviews with key communicators representing the nuclear power industry, the environmental community, and government, as well as on the parallel efforts in our research project: (1) review of federal court case law, (2) a selective examination of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) administrative process, and (3) the preceding George Mason University research project in this series. The paper synthesizes our findings about public attitudes towards nuclear power as expressed through federal court case law, NRC administrative law, public opinion surveys, and direct personal interviews. In so doing, we describe the public opinion environment in which the nuclear regulatory process must operate. Our premise is that public opinion ultimately underlies the approaches government agencies take towards regulating nuclear power, and that, to the degree that the nuclear power industry's practices are aligned with public opinion, a more favorable regulatory climate is possible.

  2. Electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cabayan, H.S.

    1983-01-01

    Lately, there has been a mounting concern about the electromagnetic compatibility of nuclear-power-plant systems mainly because of the effects due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse, and also because of the introduction of more-sophisticated and, therefore, more-susceptible solid-state devices into the plants. Questions have been raised about the adequacy of solid-state-device protection against plant electromagnetic-interference sources and transients due to the nuclear electromagnetic pulse. In this paper, the author briefly reviews the environment, and the coupling, susceptibility, and vulnerability assessment issues of commercial nuclear power plants.

  3. An evolutionary strategy for space nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G.L.

    1996-03-01

    A number of exciting mission opportunities are being considered for the 21st century, including (1) advanced robotic science missions to the outer planets and beyond; (2) advanced space transportation systems; and (3) human exploration of the Moon and Mars. Several of these missions will require some form of nuclear power; however, it is clear that current budgetary constraints preclude developing many different types of space nuclear power systems. This paper reviews the specific civil space missions which have been identified, the power levels and lifetimes required, and the technologies available. From this an evolutionary space nuclear power program is developed which builds upon the experience of radioisotope thermoelectric generators, improved static and dynamic isotope power systems, and space nuclear reactors. It is strongly suggested that not only does this approach make technical and budgetary sense but that it is consistent with the normal development of new technologies. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Space nuclear power: a strategy for tomorrow

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Energy: reliable, portable, abundant and low cost will be a most critical factor, perhaps the sine qua non, for the unfolding of man's permanent presence in space. Space-based nuclear power, in turn, is a key technology for developing such space platforms and the transportation systems necessary to service them. A strategy for meeting space power requirements is the development of a 100-kW(e) nuclear reactor system for high earth orbit missions, transportation from Shuttle orbits to geosynchronous orbit, and for outer planet exploration. The component technology for this nuclear power plant is now underway at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. As permanent settlements are established on the Moon and in space, multimegawatt power plants will be needed. This would involve different technology similar to terrestrial nuclear power plants.

  5. Nuclear power propulsion system for spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koroteev, A. S.; Oshev, Yu. A.; Popov, S. A.; Karevsky, A. V.; Solodukhin, A. Ye.; Zakharenkov, L. E.; Semenkin, A. V.

    2015-12-01

    The proposed designs of high-power space tugs that utilize solar or nuclear energy to power an electric jet engine are reviewed. The conceptual design of a nuclear power propulsion system (NPPS) is described; its structural diagram, gas circuit, and electric diagram are discussed. The NPPS incorporates a nuclear reactor, a thermal-to-electric energy conversion system, a system for the conversion and distribution of electric energy, and an electric propulsion system. Two criterion parameters were chosen in the considered NPPS design: the temperature of gaseous working medium at the nuclear reactor outlet and the rotor speed of turboalternators. The maintenance of these parameters at a given level guarantees that the needed electric voltage is generated and allows for power mode control. The processes of startup/shutdown and increasing/reducing the power, the principles of distribution of electric energy over loads, and the probable emergencies for the proposed NPPS design are discussed.

  6. Fresh nuclear fuel measurements at Ukrainian nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzminski, Jozef; Ewing, Tom; Dickman, Debbie; Gavrilyuk, Victor; Drapey, Sergey; Kirischuk, Vladimir; Strilchuk, Nikolay

    2009-01-01

    In 2005, the Provisions on Nuclear Material Measurement System was enacted in Ukraine as an important regulatory driver to support international obligations in nuclear safeguards and nonproliferation. It defines key provisions and requirements for material measurement and measurement control programs to ensure the quality and reliability of measurement data within the framework of the State MC&A System. Implementing the Provisions requires establishing a number of measurement techniques for both fresh and spent nuclear fuel for various types of Ukrainian reactors. Our first efforts focused on measurements of fresh nuclear fuel from a WWR-1000 power reactor.

  7. Workshop on nuclear power growth and nonproliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Pilat, Joseph F

    2010-01-01

    It is widely viewed that an expansion of nuclear power would have positive energy, economic and environmental benefits for the world. However, there are concerns about the economic competitiveness, safety and proliferation and terrorism risks of nuclear power. The prospects for a dramatic growth in nuclear power will depend on the ability of governments and industry to address these concerns, including the effectiveness of, and the resources devoted to, plans to develop and implement technologies and approaches that strengthen nonproliferation, nuclear materials accountability and nuclear security. In his Prague speech, President Obama stated: 'we should build a new framework for civil nuclear cooperation, including an international fuel bank, so that countries can access peaceful power without increasing the risks of proliferation. That must be the right of every nation that renounces nuclear weapons, especially developing countries embarking on peaceful programs. And no approach will succeed if it's based on the denial of rights to nations that play by the rules. We must harness the power of nuclear energy on behalf of our efforts to combat climate change, and to advance peace opportunity for all people.' How can the President's vision, which will rekindle a vigorous public debate over the future of nuclear power and its relation to proliferation, be realized? What critical issues will frame the reemerging debate? What policies must be put into place to address these issues? Will US policy be marked more by continuity or change? To address these and other questions, the Los Alamos National Laboratory in cooperation with the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars will host a workshop on the future of nuclear power and nonproliferation.

  8. Nuclear Engineering Technologists in the Nuclear Power Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, C. H.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Describes manpower needs in nuclear engineering in the areas of research and development, architectural engineering and construction supervision, power reactor operations, and regulatory tasks. Outlines a suitable curriculum to prepare students for the tasks related to construction and operation of power reactors. (GS)

  9. Nuclear Engineering Technologists in the Nuclear Power Era

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, C. H.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Describes manpower needs in nuclear engineering in the areas of research and development, architectural engineering and construction supervision, power reactor operations, and regulatory tasks. Outlines a suitable curriculum to prepare students for the tasks related to construction and operation of power reactors. (GS)

  10. Reliability of emergency ac power systems at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Battle, R E; Campbell, D J

    1983-07-01

    Reliability of emergency onsite ac power systems at nuclear power plants has been questioned within the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) because of the number of diesel generator failures reported by nuclear plant licensees and the reactor core damage that could result from diesel failure during an emergency. This report contains the results of a reliability analysis of the onsite ac power system, and it uses the results of a separate analysis of offsite power systems to calculate the expected frequency of station blackout. Included is a design and operating experience review. Eighteen plants representative of typical onsite ac power systems and ten generic designs were selected to be modeled by fault trees. Operating experience data were collected from the NRC files and from nuclear plant licensee responses to a questionnaire sent out for this project.

  11. Making space nuclear power a reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Beverly A.

    2005-01-01

    Our current space exploration missions are power limited. Space nuclear reactors could provide the power for both onboard electrical power and propulsion to enable a new generation of space science and exploration. Implementing a mission using a space nuclear reactor presents many technical challenges. However, nuclear technologies are safely and reliably used throughout U.S. industries and the Government. Well-defined processes and regulations currently exist for the use of nuclear technologies in space or any other application. These processes and regulations assure safe, reliable use of nuclear technology in a manner that protects the public and the environment. The question is not one of choosing between safety and space science, but of investing in a technology that includes rigorous processes and procedures to assure safe.

  12. Making space nuclear power a reality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Beverly A.

    2005-01-01

    Our current space exploration missions are power limited. Space nuclear reactors could provide the power for both onboard electrical power and propulsion to enable a new generation of space science and exploration. Implementing a mission using a space nuclear reactor presents many technical challenges. However, nuclear technologies are safely and reliably used throughout U.S. industries and the Government. Well-defined processes and regulations currently exist for the use of nuclear technologies in space or any other application. These processes and regulations assure safe, reliable use of nuclear technology in a manner that protects the public and the environment. The question is not one of choosing between safety and space science, but of investing in a technology that includes rigorous processes and procedures to assure safe.

  13. 78 FR 50458 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant, Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Request for Action AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... petitioners'') has requested that the NRC take action with regard to James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant...

  14. Nuclear power plant cable materials :

    SciTech Connect

    Celina, Mathias C.; Gillen, Kenneth T; Lindgren, Eric Richard

    2013-05-01

    A selective literature review was conducted to assess whether currently available accelerated aging and original qualification data could be used to establish operational margins for the continued use of cable insulation and jacketing materials in nuclear power plant environments. The materials are subject to chemical and physical degradation under extended radiationthermal- oxidative conditions. Of particular interest were the circumstances under which existing aging data could be used to predict whether aged materials should pass loss of coolant accident (LOCA) performance requirements. Original LOCA qualification testing usually involved accelerated aging simulations of the 40-year expected ambient aging conditions followed by a LOCA simulation. The accelerated aging simulations were conducted under rapid accelerated aging conditions that did not account for many of the known limitations in accelerated polymer aging and therefore did not correctly simulate actual aging conditions. These highly accelerated aging conditions resulted in insulation materials with mostly inert aging processes as well as jacket materials where oxidative damage dropped quickly away from the air-exposed outside jacket surface. Therefore, for most LOCA performance predictions, testing appears to have relied upon heterogeneous aging behavior with oxidation often limited to the exterior of the cable cross-section a situation which is not comparable with the nearly homogenous oxidative aging that will occur over decades under low dose rate and low temperature plant conditions. The historical aging conditions are therefore insufficient to determine with reasonable confidence the remaining operational margins for these materials. This does not necessarily imply that the existing 40-year-old materials would fail if LOCA conditions occurred, but rather that unambiguous statements about the current aging state and anticipated LOCA performance cannot be provided based on

  15. SEI needs for space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, H. W.; Cataldo, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    The use of nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and nuclear thermal propulsion (NTP) for transportation to the moon and Mars is examined, and the use on Mars and moon bases of thermal conversion subsystems based on either a Brayton or a Stirling cycle is examined. It is shown that both cycles are attractive alternatives for those applications where continuous field operation is desired. Nuclear power systems have a clear advantage with regard to the moon and a lesser one with regard to Mars.

  16. Turkey`s nuclear power effort

    SciTech Connect

    Aybers, N.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses the expected role of nuclear energy in the production of electric power to serve the growing needs of Turkey, examining past activities and recent developments. The paper also reviews Turkey`s plans with respect to nuclear energy and the challenges that the country faces along the way.

  17. Nuclear power - How safe in space

    SciTech Connect

    Chien, P.

    1987-09-01

    The use of nuclear-powered spacecraft is examined. The nuclear-powered radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs) serve only as power generators and are not involved in the propulsion of the spacecraft. The plutonium power core is contained in a graphite container in order to ensure safety in the event of a launch accident or the possible reentry of the lunar module into the earth's atmosphere. The operation of the RTG is described. Various experiments and applications for the RTGs, such as the Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package, the Viking Mars explorers, and Pioneer 10 and 11 spacecraft, are discussed.

  18. Trade studies for nuclear space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, John M.; Bents, David J.; Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1991-01-01

    As human visions of space applications expand and as we probe further out into the universe, our needs for power will also expand, and missions will evolve which are enabled by nuclear power. A broad spectrum of missions which are enhanced or enabled by nuclear power sources have been defined. These include Earth orbital platforms, deep space platforms, planetary exploration, and terrestrial resource exploration. The recently proposed Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) to the Moon and Mars has more clearly defined these missions and their power requirements. Presented here are results of recent studies of radioisotope and nuclear reactor energy sources, combined with various energy conversion devices for Earth orbital applications, SEI lunar/Mars rovers, surface power, and planetary exploration.

  19. Trade studies for nuclear space power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, John M.; Bents, David J.; Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1991-01-01

    As visions of space applications expand and as probes extend further and further out into the universe, the need for power also expands, and missions evolve which are enabled by nuclear power. A broad spectrum of missions which are enhanced or enabled by nuclear power sources are defined. These include earth orbital platforms, deep space platforms, planetary exploration and extraterrestrial resource exploration. The recently proposed Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) to the moon and Mars has more clearly defined these missions and their power requirements. This paper presents results of recent studies of radioisotope and nuclear-reactor energy sources combined with various energy-conversion devices for earth orbital applications, SEI lunar/Mars rover and surface power, and planetary exploration.

  20. Power to the people: Can public referenda kill nuclear power?

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This article is a review of the current public anxiety toward nuclear power. It focuses on activities in each member of the European nuclear community, with the common thread being concern over the disposal of radioactive wastes. It is noted that the consensus appears to be that disposal of high-level waste is a problem for tomorrow and not for today.

  1. 75 FR 2164 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Environmental Assessment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Environmental Assessment and...), for operation of Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim), located in Plymouth County, MA. Therefore...

  2. Power counting in nuclear effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valderrama, M. Pavon

    2015-10-01

    The effective field theory formulation of nuclear forces is able to provide a systematic and model independent description of nuclear physics, where all processes involving nucleons and pions can be described in terms of the same set of couplings, the theoretical errors are known in advance and the connection with QCD is present. These features are a consequence of renormalization group invariance, which in turn determines the power counting of the theory. Here we present a brief outline of how to determine the power counting of nuclear effective field theory, what does it looks like and what are the predictions for the two-nucleon sector at lowest orders.

  3. Human Costs of Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagan, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the human costs of producing and using nuclear fuel to generate electricity and...whether these costs are equitably compensated for and represented in the price of the electricity.'' Analysis considers estimates of the value of human life, lost productivity, and potential effects of radiation. (Author/AL)

  4. Human Costs of Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagan, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    Discusses the human costs of producing and using nuclear fuel to generate electricity and...whether these costs are equitably compensated for and represented in the price of the electricity.'' Analysis considers estimates of the value of human life, lost productivity, and potential effects of radiation. (Author/AL)

  5. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Goldston

    2010-03-03

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to 12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30% by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. The risks of nuclear power should be compared with the risks of the estimated 0.64oC long-term global surface-average temperature rise predicted if nuclear power were replaced with coal-fired power plants without carbon sequestration. Fusion energy, if developed, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  6. Nuclear power: sex differences in public opinion

    SciTech Connect

    Brody, C.J.

    1981-01-01

    This study attempts to determine the factors that account for the fact that women are both more opposed and uncertain than men concerning the further development of nuclear energy. To that end, data from four national opinion surveys covering the period 1975 to 1979 are employed. Log-linear techniques are used in the analyses. Two plausible explanations for women's greater aversion to nuclear power are presented. The marginality explanation attributes the differential support of men and women for nuclear power to the differential positions which they occupy in the economic, political, and technical spheres within society. Because men hold more central positions in these areas, it is postulated that they will perceive a greater need for additional energy and continued economic growth, believe that the advantages of nuclear power toward these goals are greater, and be more confident in applications of nuclear technology. The fact that men express more favorable attitudes toward nuclear power is thus to be explained by these factors. The safety explanation attributes the sex difference to a greater concern on the part of women about the safety of using nuclear fission to generate electricity. The general thrust of this arguments is that women's greater concern for safety revolves around their reproductive and nurturant roles, and the protection of future generations. Uncertainty is viewed as a special problem. An explanation for women's greater uncertainty, which attributes the difference to a sex-typed expectation concerning the formulation and expression of opinions on complex technical issues, is presented.

  7. The Fukushima Nuclear Event and its Implications for Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Golay, Michael

    2011-07-06

    The combined strong earthquake and super tsunami of 12 March 2011 at the Fukushima nuclear power plant imposed the most severe challenges ever experienced at such a facility. Information regarding the plant response and status remains uncertain, but it is clear that severe damage has been sustained, that the plant staff have responded creatively and that the offsite implications are unlikely to be seriously threatening to the health, if not the prosperity, of the surrounding population. Re-examination of the regulatory constraints of nuclear power will occur worldwide, and some changes are likely, particularly concerning reliance upon active systems for achieving critical safety functions and concerning treatments of used reactor fuel. Whether worldwide expansion of the nuclear power economy will be slowed in the long run is perhaps unlikely and worth discussion.

  8. Nuclear power in the Soviet Bloc

    SciTech Connect

    Davey, W.G.

    1982-03-01

    The growth of Soviet Bloc nuclear power generation to the end of the century is evaluated on the basis of policy statements of objectives, past and current nuclear power plant construction, and trends in the potential for future construction. Central to this study is a detailed examination of individual reactor construction and site development that provides specific performance data not given elsewhere. A major commitment to nuclear power is abundantly clear and an expansion of ten times in nuclear electric generation is estimated between 1980 and 2000. This rate of growth is likely to have significant impact upon the total energy economy of the Soviet Bloc including lessening demands for use of coal, oil, and gas for electricity generation.

  9. Nuclear power plant security assessment technical manual.

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connor, Sharon L.; Whitehead, Donnie Wayne; Potter, Claude S., III

    2007-09-01

    This report (Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Technical Manual) is a revision to NUREG/CR-1345 (Nuclear Power Plant Design Concepts for Sabotage Protection) that was published in January 1981. It provides conceptual and specific technical guidance for U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission nuclear power plant design certification and combined operating license applicants as they: (1) develop the layout of a facility (i.e., how buildings are arranged on the site property and how they are arranged internally) to enhance protection against sabotage and facilitate the use of physical security features; (2) design the physical protection system to be used at the facility; and (3) analyze the effectiveness of the PPS against the design basis threat. It should be used as a technical manual in conjunction with the 'Nuclear Power Plant Security Assessment Format and Content Guide'. The opportunity to optimize physical protection in the design of a nuclear power plant is obtained when an applicant utilizes both documents when performing a security assessment. This document provides a set of best practices that incorporates knowledge gained from more than 30 years of physical protection system design and evaluation activities at Sandia National Laboratories and insights derived from U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission technical staff into a manual that describes a development and analysis process of physical protection systems suitable for future nuclear power plants. In addition, selected security system technologies that may be used in a physical protection system are discussed. The scope of this document is limited to the identification of a set of best practices associated with the design and evaluation of physical security at future nuclear power plants in general. As such, it does not provide specific recommendations for the design and evaluation of physical security for any specific reactor design. These best practices should be applicable to the design and

  10. The homologous putative GTPases Grn1p from fission yeast and the human GNL3L are required for growth and play a role in processing of nucleolar pre-rRNA.

    PubMed

    Du, Xianming; Rao, Malireddi R K Subba; Chen, Xue Qin; Wu, Wei; Mahalingam, Sundarasamy; Balasundaram, David

    2006-01-01

    Grn1p from fission yeast and GNL3L from human cells, two putative GTPases from the novel HSR1_MMR1 GTP-binding protein subfamily with circularly permuted G-motifs play a critical role in maintaining normal cell growth. Deletion of Grn1 resulted in a severe growth defect, a marked reduction in mature rRNA species with a concomitant accumulation of the 35S pre-rRNA transcript, and failure to export the ribosomal protein Rpl25a from the nucleolus. Deleting any of the Grn1p G-domain motifs resulted in a null phenotype and nuclear/nucleolar localization consistent with the lack of nucleolar export of preribosomes accompanied by a distortion of nucleolar structure. Heterologous expression of GNL3L in a Deltagrn1 mutant restored processing of 35S pre-rRNA, nuclear export of Rpl25a and cell growth to wild-type levels. Genetic complementation in yeast and siRNA knockdown in HeLa cells confirmed the homologous proteins Grn1p and GNL3L are required for growth. Failure of two similar HSR1_MMR1 putative nucleolar GTPases, Nucleostemin (NS), or the dose-dependent response of breast tumor autoantigen NGP-1, to rescue deltagrn1 implied the highly specific roles of Grn1p or GNL3L in nucleolar events. Our analysis uncovers an important role for Grn1p/GNL3L within this unique group of nucleolar GTPases.

  11. Infrastructure Security and Nuclear Power

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    uranium deposits in Eglab, Ougarta, southern Tassili, Timgaounine, Tinef, Abankor, Tahaggart 700,000 t phosphate rock /year Fuel fabrication UDEC...Nuclear Characteristics of Syria Parameter Characterization U supply Significant deposits of phosphate rock at Charkia, Knifes, Sawwaneh, and Wadi...technology. • Algeria has access to significant uranium supplies either through deposits, or phosphate ore, and has access to over 50 kg of Pu through its

  12. 77 FR 28407 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-14

    ... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear...-5028, ``Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' In DG-5028... Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' DATES: Submit comments by July 16, 2012...

  13. Childhood leukaemia and nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, R.J.; Wakeford, R. )

    1992-01-01

    There has been considerable scientific and media interest in the question of whether the risk of childhood leukemia is raised near nuclear facilities, and, if so, the reasons why. Serious consideration of this issue was initiated by a media report of an unusually large number of cases around the Sellafield installation in England, and reports of excess cases in the vicinity of other facilities in Britain have followed. Detailed radiological assessments have demonstrated that radioactive discharges are most unlikely to have been the cause of these reported excess cases, seemingly contradicting the epidemiological evidence. However, epidemiology is an observational (non-experimental) science, and the results of such studies must be interpreted with considerable care. The influence of prior knowledge of data upon the structure of a study has been a particular inferential problem. Furthermore, there are indications that non-radiological factors may be important in communities near nuclear facilities. Recently, a study has shown an association between childhood leukaemia cases near Sellafield and the recorded occupational radiation doses received by fathers before the conception of these children; but this novel finding has received little independent scientific support. At present, the British childhood leukaemia findings have not been replicated in studies based in other countries, and the reasons for the reported case excesses around British nuclear facilities remain unclear.

  14. Nuclear power: key to man's extraterrestrial civilization

    SciTech Connect

    Angelo, J.A. Jr.; Buden, D.

    1982-01-01

    The start of the Third Millennium will be highlighted by the establishment of man's extraterrestrial civilization with three technical cornerstones leading to the off-planet expansion of the human resource base. These are (1) the availability of compact energy sources for power and propulsion, (2) the creation of permanent manned habitats in space, and (3) the ability to process materials anywhere in the Solar System. In the 1990s and beyond, nuclear reactors could represent the prime source of both space power and propulsion. The manned and unmanned space missions of tomorrow will demand first kilowatt and then megawatt levels of power. Various nuclear power plant technologies will be discussed, with emphasis on derivatives from the nuclear rocket technology.

  15. 78 FR 784 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy..., which authorizes operation of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (PNPS). The license provides, among... with the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant and Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, on February 9, 2011...

  16. Multimegawatt nuclear power systems for nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    George, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Results from systems analysis studies of multimegawatt nuclear power systems are presented for application to nuclear electric propulsion. Specific mass estimates are presented for nearer term SP-100 reactor-based potassium Rankine and Brayton power systems for piloted and cargo missions. Growth SP-100/Rankine systems were found to range from roughly 7 to 10 kg/kWe specific mass depending on full power life requirements. The SP-100/Rankine systems were also found to result in a 4-kg/kWe savings in specific mass over SP-100/Brayton systems. The potential of advanced, higher temperature reactor and power conversion technologies for achieving reduced mass Rankine and Brayton systems was also investigated. A target goal of 5 kg/kWe specific mass was deemed reasonable given either 1400 K potassium Rankine with 1500 K lithium-cooled reactors or 2000 K gas cooled reactors with Brayton conversion.

  17. Nuclear power as a feminist issue

    SciTech Connect

    Nelkin, D.

    1981-01-01

    Women consistently show more opposition to nuclear power than men in public opinion polls, and they participate more in antinuclear organizations. Their concerns range from the health effects of radiation on women and on future generations to ideological and political matters. The diversity of their concern is reflected in the wide spectrum of women's organizations opposing nuclear power and how their positions are translated into political action. Women's publications and organizations which represent a national constituency have increased women's participation as informed educators and intervenors in hearings to raise health and safety questions, while the feminists groups use a shock approach in their moral crusade to establish a separate women's culture. The feminists have had an impact on the nuclear industry, which responded by promoting pro-nuclear women to public relations positions. (DCK)

  18. Russian nuclear-powered submarine decommissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Bukharin, O.; Handler, J.

    1995-11-01

    Russia is facing technical, economic and organizational difficulties in dismantling its oversized and unsafe fleet of nuclear powered submarines. The inability of Russia to deal effectively with the submarine decommissioning crisis increases the risk of environmental disaster and may hamper the implementation of the START I and START II treaties. This paper discusses the nuclear fleet support infrastructure, the problems of submarine decommissioning, and recommends international cooperation in addressing these problems.

  19. Soviet Union`s Nuclear Power Program

    SciTech Connect

    1991-01-01

    Glasnost has dramatically increased the availability of information about the Soviet Union`s nuclear industry. In the future, even more information is likely to become known as Soviet participation in international forums increases. Not only is much more general information now available, but up-to-date details are regularly provided, including information such as the Soviet nuclear industry`s strategic direction and goals, recent reactor design changes, safety inspection results, and reports of public opposition and protest. This article summarizes the current status of the Soviet nuclear power program, reconciling the often conflicting reports from various public sources.

  20. Yankee nuclear power station license renewal assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Hinkle, W.D. )

    1992-01-01

    Nuclear power plants are initially licensed to operate for 40 years. Recent changes to US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations allow licenses to be renewed for up to 20 additional years. The new regulations require a comprehensive plant assessment to ensure continued effective aging management of equipment important to license renewal (ILR). Under the industry's lead plant program, Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC) has assisted with development and demonstration of a generic license renewal assessment process. The generic assessment process developed under the lead plant program is the Nuclear Management and Resources Council methodology.

  1. Managing nuclear waste from power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Keeney, R.L.; Winterfeldt, D. von

    1994-02-01

    National strategies to manage nuclear waste from commercial nuclear power plants are analyzed and compared. The current strategy is to try to operate a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to dispose storage at a centralized facility or next to nuclear power plants. If either of these is pursued now, the analysis assumes that a repository will be built in 2100 for waste not subsequently put to use. The analysis treats various uncertainties: whether a repository at Yucca Mountain would be licensed, possible theft and misuse of the waste, innovations in repository design and waste management, the potential availability of a cancer cure by 2100, and possible future uses of nuclear waste. The objectives used to compare alternatives include concerns for health and safety, environmental and socioeconomic impacts, and direct economic costs, as well as equity concerns (geographical, intergenerational, and procedural), indirect economic costs, as well as equity concerns (geographical, intergenerational, and procedural), indirect economic costs to electricity ratepayers, federal government responsibility to manage nuclear waste, and implications of theft and misuse of nuclear waste. The analysis shows that currently building an underground repository at Yucca Mountain is inferior to other available strategies by the equivalent of $10,000 million to $50,000 million. This strongly suggests that this policy should be reconsidered. A more detailed analysis using the framework presented would help to define a new national policy to manage nuclear waste. 36 refs., 3 figs., 17 tabs.

  2. US nuclear power remains on hold

    SciTech Connect

    Ahearne, J.F.

    1996-07-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority`s decision to end its nuclear program signaled the end of an era for the nuclear industry in the United States. Despite significant improvements in operational efficiency, nuclear power plants have not proven to be cost-efficient, says John F. Ahearne, executive director of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society, in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. A decade ago, Ahearne suspected that recovery of the nuclear power industry would depend on increasing demand for energy, a solution to the waste management problem, an unblemished safety record, and competent management. But for utility executives and public officials, the question whether to go nuclear comes down to the question of cost. Despite concerns about greenhouse gasses produced from traditional fossil-fuel plants, even the Environmental Protection Agency recommends sources of energy other than nuclear, says Ahearne. And even if the perennial problem of waste disposal were to be resolved tomorrow, Ahearne says, it is unlikely that utility executives would be scrambling to order new plants. {open_quotes}For now and into the forseeable future, electricity demand in the United States can be met by conservation, load management, and non-nuclear sources of energy, Ahearne predicts.

  3. Safe nuclear power for the Third World

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.R.; Lyon, C.F.; Redick, J.R. )

    1989-11-01

    It is clear that using nuclear power for the generation of electricity is one way of reducing the emissions of CO{sub 2} and other gases that contribute to the greenhouse effect. Equally clear is the fact that the reduction can be magnified by converting domestic, commercial, and industrial power-consuming activities from the direct use of fossil fuel sources to electrical energy. A major area for future progress in limiting CO{sub 2} emissions is in the Third World, where population growth and expectations for a higher social and economic standard of living portend vast increases in future energy use. A number of problems come to mind as one contemplates the widespread expansion of nuclear energy use into the Third World. The authors propose a method involving the marriage of two currently evolving concepts by which nuclear electrical generation can be expanded throughout the world in a manner that will address these problems. The idea is to form multinational independent electric generating companies, or nuclear electric companies (NECs), that would design, build, operate, and service a standardized fleet of nuclear power plants. The plants would be of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) design, now under development at Argonne National Laboratory, and, in particular, a commercial conceptualization of the IFR sponsored by General Electric Company, the Power Reactor Inherently Safe Module (PRISM).

  4. Virtual environments for nuclear power plant design

    SciTech Connect

    Brown-VanHoozer, S.A.; Singleterry, R.C. Jr.; King, R.W.

    1996-03-01

    In the design and operation of nuclear power plants, the visualization process inherent in virtual environments (VE) allows for abstract design concepts to be made concrete and simulated without using a physical mock-up. This helps reduce the time and effort required to design and understand the system, thus providing the design team with a less complicated arrangement. Also, the outcome of human interactions with the components and system can be minimized through various testing of scenarios in real-time without the threat of injury to the user or damage to the equipment. If implemented, this will lead to a minimal total design and construction effort for nuclear power plants (NPP).

  5. Nuclear systems for space power and propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, M.

    1971-01-01

    As exploration and utilization of space proceeds through the 1970s, 1980s, and beyond, spacecraft in earth orbit will become increasingly larger, spacecraft will travel deeper into space, and space activities will involve more complex operations. These trends require increasing amounts of energy for power and propulsion. The role to be played by nuclear energy is presented, including plans for deep space missions using radioisotope generators, the reactor power systems for earth orbiting stations and satellites, and the role of nuclear propulsion in space transportation.

  6. Satellite nuclear power station: An engineering analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Clement, J. D.; Rosa, R. J.; Kirby, K. D.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    A nuclear-MHD power plant system which uses a compact non-breeder reactor to produce power in the multimegawatt range is analyzed. It is shown that, operated in synchronous orbit, the plant would transmit power safely to the ground by a microwave beam. Fuel reprocessing would take place in space, and no radioactive material would be returned to earth. Even the effect of a disastrous accident would have negligible effect on earth. A hydrogen moderated gas core reactor, or a colloid-core, or NERVA type reactor could also be used. The system is shown to approach closely the ideal of economical power without pollution.

  7. Satellite nuclear power station: An engineering analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. R.; Clement, J. D.; Rosa, R. J.; Kirby, K. D.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    A nuclear-MHD power plant system which uses a compact non-breeder reactor to produce power in the multimegawatt range is analyzed. It is shown that, operated in synchronous orbit, the plant would transmit power safely to the ground by a microwave beam. Fuel reprocessing would take place in space, and no radioactive material would be returned to earth. Even the effect of a disastrous accident would have negligible effect on earth. A hydrogen moderated gas core reactor, or a colloid-core, or NERVA type reactor could also be used. The system is shown to approach closely the ideal of economical power without pollution.

  8. Space nuclear power systems for extraterrestrial basing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, J. R.; Chi, J. W. H.

    1989-01-01

    Comparative analyses reveal that the nuclear power option significantly reduces the logistic burden required to support a lunar base. The paper considers power levels from tens of kWe for early base operation up to 2000 kWe for a self-sustaining base with a CELSS. It is shown that SP-100 and NERVA derivative reactor (NDR) technology for space power can be used effectively for extraterrestrial base power systems. Recent developments in NDR design that result in major reductions in reactor mass are described.

  9. 75 FR 66802 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2... Regulatory Commission (the Commission) has granted the request of Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC... Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 for the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and...

  10. Carbon Cycling with Nuclear Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lackner, Klaus S.

    2011-11-01

    Liquid hydrocarbon fuels like gasoline, diesel or jet fuel are the most efficient ways of delivering energy to the transportation sector, in particular cars, ships and airplanes. Unfortunately, their use nearly unavoidably leads to the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. Unless an equivalent amount is removed from the air, the carbon dioxide will accumulate and significantly contribute to the man-made greenhouse effect. If fuels are made from biomass, the capture of carbon dioxide is a natural part of the cycle. Here, we discuss technical options for capturing carbon dioxide at much faster rates. We outline the basic concepts, discuss how such capture technologies could be made affordable and show how they could be integrated into a larger system approach. In the short term, the likely source of the hydrocarbon fuels is oil or gas; in the longer term, technologies that can provide energy to remove oxygen from carbon dioxide and water molecules and combine the remaining components into liquid fuels make it possible to recycle carbon between fuels and carbon dioxide in an entirely abiotic process. Here we focus on renewable and nuclear energy options for producing liquid fuels and show how air capture combined with fuel synthesis could be more economic than a transition to electric cars or hydrogen-fueled cars.

  11. Progranulin (GRN) in two siblings of a Latino family and in other patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Parastoo; DeTucci, Karen; Straub, Richard E; Weinberger, Daniel R; Davies, Peter; Grafman, Jordan; Hardy, John; Huey, Edward D

    2010-06-01

    Schizophrenia has been linked to a region on chromosome 17q21 in Latino populations (Escamilla et al., 2009). Mutations of a gene at this location (GRN) are associated with frontotemporal dementia. A recent study demonstrated that patients with frontotemporal dementia who presented with symptoms of schizophrenia show neuropathological findings consistent with GRN mutations, but were not tested for GRN mutations (Velakoulis, Walterfang, Mocellin, Pantelis, & McLean, 2009). The current study describes a Latino family in which two siblings have schizophrenia and one has frontotemporal dementia. We sequenced GRN in one of the siblings with frontotemporal dementia and one of the siblings with schizophrenia. The siblings both have a loss-of-function GRN mutation. This finding, in conjunction with other studies (Escamilla et al., 2009; Velakoulis et al., 2009), suggests that there may be an association between schizophrenia, frontotemporal dementia, and GRN mutations in Latino populations that should be investigated further.

  12. Progranulin (GRN) in two siblings of a Latino family and in other patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Parastoo; DeTucci, Karen; Straub, Richard E.; Weinberger, Daniel R.; Davies, Peter; Grafman, Jordan; Hardy, John; Huey, Edward D.

    2010-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been linked to a region on chromosome 17q21 in Latino populations (Escamilla et al., 2009). Mutations of a gene at this location (GRN) are associated with frontotemporal dementia. A recent study demonstrated that patients with frontotemporal dementia who presented with symptoms of schizophrenia show neuropathological findings consistent with GRN mutations, but were not tested for GRN mutations (Velakoulis, Walterfang, Mocellin, Pantelis, & McLean, 2009). The current study describes a Latino family in which two siblings have schizophrenia and one has frontotemporal dementia. We sequenced GRN in one of the siblings with frontotemporal dementia and one of the siblings with schizophrenia. The siblings both have a loss-of-function GRN mutation. This finding, in conjunction with other studies (Escamilla et al., 2009; Velakoulis et al., 2009), suggests that there may be an association between schizophrenia, frontotemporal dementia, and GRN mutations in Latino populations that should be investigated further. PMID:20087814

  13. What is nuclear power in Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshikazu

    2011-03-01

    The aggressive use of such non-fossil energy as the atomic energy with high power density and energy production efficiency is an indispensable choice aiming at the low-carbon society. There is a trial calculation that the carbon dioxide emission of 40000 ton can be suppressed by nuclear power generation by one ton of uranium. The basis of nuclear research after the Second World War in Japan was established by the researchers learnt in Argonne National Laboratory. In 2010, NPPs under operation are 54 units and the total electric generating power is 48.85GW. The amount of nuclear power generation per person of the people is 0.38kW in Japan, and it is near 0.34kW of the United States. However, the TMI accident and the Chernobyl disaster should have greatly stagnated the nuclear industry of Japan although it is not more serious than the United States. A lot of Japanese unconsciously associate a nuclear accident with the atomic bomb. According to the investigation which Science and Technology Agency carried out to the specialist in 1999, ``What will be the field where talent should be emphatically sent in the future?'' the rank of nuclear technology was the lowest in 32 fields. The influence of the nuclear industry stagnation was remarkable in the education. The subject related to the atomic energy of a university existed 19 in 1985 that was the previous year of the Chernobyl disaster decreased to 7 in 2003. In such a situation, we have to rely on the atomic energy because Japan depends for 96% of energy resources on import. The development of the fuel reprocessing and the fast breeder reactor has been continued in spite of a heavy failure. That is the only means left behind for Japan to be released from both fossil fuel and carbon dioxide.

  14. 75 FR 12311 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment and... Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Entergy or the licensee), for operation of Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station... Statement for Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Docket No. 50-271, dated July 1972, as supplemented...

  15. Molecular characterization of novel progranulin (GRN) mutations in frontotemporal dementia.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Odity; Wang, Jun; Gitcho, Michael; Chakraverty, Sumi; Taylor-Reinwald, Lisa; Shears, Shantia; Kauwe, John S K; Norton, Joanne; Levitch, Denise; Bigio, Eileen H; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; White, Charles L; Morris, John C; Cairns, Nigel J; Goate, Alison

    2008-04-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a clinical term encompassing dementia characterized by the presence of two major phenotypes: 1) behavioral and personality disorder, and 2) language disorder, which includes primary progressive aphasia and semantic dementia. Recently, the gene for familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) with ubiquitin-positive, tau-negative inclusions (FTLD-U) linked to chromosome 17 was cloned. In the present study, 62 unrelated patients from the Washington University Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and the Midwest Consortium for FTD with clinically diagnosed FTD and/or neuropathologically characterized cases of FTLD-U with or without motor neuron disease (MND) were screened for mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN; also PGRN). We discovered two pathogenic mutations in four families: 1) a single-base substitution within the 3' splice acceptor site of intron 6/exon 7 (g.5913A>G [IVS6-2A>G]) causing skipping of exon 7 and premature termination of the coding sequence (PTC); and 2) a missense mutation in exon 1 (g.4068C>A) introducing a charged amino acid in the hydrophobic core of the signal peptide at residue 9 (p.A9D). Functional analysis in mutation carriers for the splice acceptor site mutation revealed a 50% decrease in GRN mRNA and protein levels, supporting haploinsufficiency. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the total GRN mRNA between cases and controls carrying the p.A9D mutation. Further, subcellular fractionation and confocal microscopy indicate that although the mutant protein is expressed, it is not secreted, and appears to be trapped within an intracellular compartment, possibly resulting in a functional haploinsufficiency.

  16. Radiation hardening design of nuclear powered spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, R. E.

    1987-01-01

    The design and operation of space systems utilizing nuclear fueled power systems must consider the radiation environment from the earliest stages of their design. A range of nuclear systems are being considered for present and future satellite systems capable of supplying tens of kilowatts to multimegawatt and generating a corresponding range of radiation environments. The effects of these radiations on electronics and materials can be minimized by implementing early design considerations which maximize the design efficiency and minimize the impact on system mass. Space systems design considerations for the radiation environment must include all sources in addition to the self induced gamma ray and neutron radiation. These include the orbital dependent environment from the high energy electron and protons encountered in natural space. The system trades which the designer must consider in the development of space platforms which utilize nuclear reactor power supplies are discussed.

  17. Nuclear-electric power in space

    SciTech Connect

    Truscello, V.C.; Davis, H.S.

    1984-12-01

    Because direct-broadcast satellites, air-traffic-control radar satellites, industrial processing on subsequent versions of the space station, and long range excursions to other planets using nuclear-electric propulsion systems, all space missions for which current power-supply systems are not sufficient. NASA and the DOE therefore have formed a joint program to develop the technology required for nuclear-reactor space power plants. After investigating potential space missions in the given range, the project will develop the technology to build such systems. High temperatures pose problems, ''hot shoes'' and ''cold shoes'', a Stirling engine dynamic system, and critical heat-transfer problems are all discussed. The nuclear reactor system for space as now envisioned is schematicized.

  18. Nuclear power for earth orbit and beyond

    SciTech Connect

    Nolley, B.

    1986-05-01

    The development of space-based thermoelectric nuclear power generators for such future applications as the propulsion of an Orbital Transfer Vehicle or planetary exploration is discussed. Nuclear fission reactors have a higher power/mass ratio than radioisotope or chemical generators, less atmospheric drag, and will not be dependent on attitude control. The NASA in-core thermionics SP-100 nuclear fission reactor prototype is expected in the mid-1990s. A low mass 6.4 percent efficient multimegawatt capability reactor is described with a fast spectrum reactor in the cone's apex, separate from the two silicon-germanium element thermoelectric conversion system. Liquid lithium transports heat from the 1970-C reactor to heat exchanges that convey it to the heat pipe array, and heat rejection occurs at the deployable radiator panels.

  19. Nuclear Power: Problems in Information Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, William

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the problems encountered at the Duquesne Light Company of Pittsburgh's nuclear power plant as the result of an inability to process information effectively and keep pace with technological change. The creation of a separate division trained and directed to manage the plant's information flows is described and evaluated. (CLB)

  20. MODERATOR ELEMENTS FOR UNIFORM POWER NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Balent, R.

    1963-03-12

    This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

  1. Nuclear Power: Problems in Information Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaver, William

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the problems encountered at the Duquesne Light Company of Pittsburgh's nuclear power plant as the result of an inability to process information effectively and keep pace with technological change. The creation of a separate division trained and directed to manage the plant's information flows is described and evaluated. (CLB)

  2. TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Power System safety assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Nikitin, V.P.; Ogloblin, B.G.; Lutov, Y.I.; Luppov, A.N.; Shalaev, A.I. ); Ponomarev-Stepnoi, N.N.; Usov, V.A.; Nechaev, Y.A. )

    1993-01-15

    TOPAZ-2 Nuclear Power System (NPS) safety philosophy is based on the requirement that the reactor shall not be critical during all kinds of operations prior to its start-up on the safe orbit (except for physical start-up). Potentially dangerous operation were analyzed and both computational and experimental studies were carried out.

  3. Human Mars Surface Mission Nuclear Power Considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rucker, Michelle A.

    2018-01-01

    A key decision facing Mars mission designers is how to power a crewed surface field station. Unlike the solar-powered Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) that could retreat to a very low power state during a Martian dust storm, human Mars surface missions are estimated to need at least 15 kilowatts of electrical (kWe) power simply to maintain critical life support and spacecraft functions. 'Hotel' loads alone for a pressurized crew rover approach two kWe; driving requires another five kWe-well beyond what the Curiosity rover’s Radioisotope Power System (RPS) was designed to deliver. Full operation of a four-crew Mars field station is estimated at about 40 kWe. Clearly, a crewed Mars field station will require a substantial and reliable power source, beyond the scale of robotic mission experience. This paper explores the applications for both fission and RPS nuclear options for Mars.

  4. 78 FR 55118 - Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-09

    ... COMMISSION Seismic Instrumentation for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION..., ``Standard Review Plan for the Review of Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition... Safety Analysis Reports for Nuclear Power Plants: LWR Edition'' (SRP, from the current Revision 2 to...

  5. 75 FR 16520 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc... the James A. FitzPatrick Nuclear Power Plant (JAFNPP). The license provides, among other things, that... physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological...

  6. 78 FR 64028 - Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... COMMISSION Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... regulatory guide (RG) 1.184 ``Decommissioning of Nuclear Power Reactors.'' This guide describes a method NRC... decommissioning process for nuclear power reactors. The revision takes advantage of the 13 years...

  7. 76 FR 50274 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-12

    ... COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations.'' This guide provides technical guidance that the NRC staff... nuclear power reactors. DATES: Submit comments by October 11, 2011. Comments received after this date will...

  8. Control for nuclear thermionic power source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, C. D. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A control for a power source which includes nuclear fuel interspersed with thermionic converters, is described. A power regulator maintains a substantially constant output voltage to a variable load, and a control circuit drives a neutron flux regulator in accordance with the current supplied to the power regulator and the neutron flux density in the region of the converters. The control circuit generates a control signal which is the difference between the neutron flux density and a linear function of the current, and drives the neutron regulator in a direction to decrease or increase the neutron flux according to the polarity of the control signal.

  9. Climate Change, Nuclear Power and Nuclear Proliferation: Magnitude Matters

    SciTech Connect

    Robert J. Goldston

    2011-04-28

    Integrated energy, environment and economics modeling suggests that worldwide electrical energy use will increase from 2.4 TWe today to ~12 TWe in 2100. It will be challenging to provide 40% of this electrical power from combustion with carbon sequestration, as it will be challenging to provide 30% from renewable energy sources derived from natural energy flows. Thus nuclear power may be needed to provide ~30%, 3600 GWe, by 2100. Calculations of the associated stocks and flows of uranium, plutonium and minor actinides indicate that the proliferation risks at mid-century, using current light-water reactor technology, are daunting. There are institutional arrangements that may be able to provide an acceptable level of risk mitigation, but they will be difficult to implement. If a transition is begun to fast-spectrum reactors at mid-century, without a dramatic change in the proliferation risks of such systems, at the end of the century global nuclear proliferation risks are much greater, and more resistant to mitigation. Fusion energy, if successfully demonstrated to be economically competitive, would provide a source of nuclear power with much lower proliferation risks than fission.

  10. Transactions of the fifth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D.

    1988-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these paper include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  11. Transactions of the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, M.S.; Hoover, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    This paper contains the presented papers at the fourth symposium on space nuclear power systems. Topics of these papers include: space nuclear missions and applications, reactors and shielding, nuclear electric and nuclear propulsion, refractory alloys and high-temperature materials, instrumentation and control, energy conversion and storage, space nuclear fuels, thermal management, nuclear safety, simulation and modeling, and multimegawatt system concepts. (LSP)

  12. Intelligent Component Monitoring for Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Lefteri Tsoukalas

    2010-07-30

    Reliability and economy are two major concerns for a nuclear power generation system. Next generation nuclear power reactors are being developed to be more reliable and economic. An effective and efficient surveillance system can generously contribute toward this goal. Recent progress in computer systems and computational tools has made it necessary and possible to upgrade current surveillance/monitoring strategy for better performance. For example, intelligent computing techniques can be applied to develop algorithm that help people better understand the information collected from sensors and thus reduce human error to a new low level. Incidents incurred from human error in nuclear industry are not rare and have been proven costly. The goal of this project is to develop and test an intelligent prognostics methodology for predicting aging effects impacting long-term performance of nuclear components and systems. The approach is particularly suitable for predicting the performance of nuclear reactor systems which have low failure probabilities (e.g., less than 10-6 year-). Such components and systems are often perceived as peripheral to the reactor and are left somewhat unattended. That is, even when inspected, if they are not perceived to be causing some immediate problem, they may not be paid due attention. Attention to such systems normally involves long term monitoring and possibly reasoning with multiple features and evidence, requirements that are not best suited for humans.

  13. Photovoltaic cost reduction powered by nuclear spending

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Timothy; Deinert, Mark

    2013-04-01

    Between 1975 to 2010, Japan has spent an average of 2700 Million per year on nuclear R&D and 74 Million per year on solar energy R&D (2010 dollars). While the cost of photovoltaics dropped by a factor of 30 during that time, the overnight cost to build a nuclear power plant has doubled between 2003 and 2009. The price of commercially available photovoltaics has been shown to follow a power law reduction with the number of units produced. This begs the question as to what the current price of these systems would be had some of the available funds used for nuclear R&D been spent on the acquisition of photovoltaics. Here we show the reduction in price for single crystal photovoltaic panels if the Japanese government spent some of their nuclear R&D funds on the installation of these systems. We use historical cost and cumulative production for the world and Japan to build a learning curve model for PV. If the government had spent only 0.07% of its nuclear R&D budget toward PV technology since 1975, photovoltaics would now have reached 1/Watt, the point at which they are cost competitive with conventional resources.

  14. Nuclear power beyond Three Mile Island

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlette, J.

    1980-05-01

    At the Three Mile Island-2 Reactor accident in March, 1979, there was concern expressed over a chemical explosion that might rupture the containment vessel and release radioactive material. The absolute worst possible event that could take place at a nuclear power plant would be a melt-down that breached the containment vessel and allowed radioactive material to escape, but this absolute worst possible case would create less cost and loss of life than many natural disasters. When the anti-nukes talk about a nuclear power plant devastating an area the size of Pennsylvania or California, and leaving a vast wasteland for 10,000 years, they are being grossly dishonest, for even at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, where we exploded weapons with the intent of massive destruction, the area has been completely restored and repopulated. The only major threat from nuclear power plant accidents is radiation. The average radiation dose received by every American each year is 170 millirems-130 from natural radiation and 40 millirems from man-made sources. A summary of the risks encountered from the combustion of coal, watching TV, diagnostic x-rays, dams collapsing, etc. making the risk level from nuclear radiation much smaller than most secular activities, is given.

  15. 76 FR 4391 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC, the licensee, is the holder of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-53 and DPR-69 which authorizes operation of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear...

  16. Autonomous Control of Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Basher, H.

    2003-10-20

    A nuclear reactor is a complex system that requires highly sophisticated controllers to ensure that desired performance and safety can be achieved and maintained during its operations. Higher-demanding operational requirements such as reliability, lower environmental impacts, and improved performance under adverse conditions in nuclear power plants, coupled with the complexity and uncertainty of the models, necessitate the use of an increased level of autonomy in the control methods. In the opinion of many researchers, the tasks involved during nuclear reactor design and operation (e.g., design optimization, transient diagnosis, and core reload optimization) involve important human cognition and decisions that may be more easily achieved with intelligent methods such as expert systems, fuzzy logic, neural networks, and genetic algorithms. Many experts in the field of control systems share the idea that a higher degree of autonomy in control of complex systems such as nuclear plants is more easily achievable through the integration of conventional control systems and the intelligent components. Researchers have investigated the feasibility of the integration of fuzzy logic, neural networks, genetic algorithms, and expert systems with the conventional control methods to achieve higher degrees of autonomy in different aspects of reactor operations such as reactor startup, shutdown in emergency situations, fault detection and diagnosis, nuclear reactor alarm processing and diagnosis, and reactor load-following operations, to name a few. With the advancement of new technologies and computing power, it is feasible to automate most of the nuclear reactor control and operation, which will result in increased safety and economical benefits. This study surveys current status, practices, and recent advances made towards developing autonomous control systems for nuclear reactors.

  17. Management of National Nuclear Power Programs for assured safety

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, T.J.

    1985-01-01

    Topics discussed in this report include: nuclear utility organization; before the Florida Public Service Commission in re: St. Lucie Unit No. 2 cost recovery; nuclear reliability improvement and safety operations; nuclear utility management; training of nuclear facility personnel; US experience in key areas of nuclear safety; the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission - function and process; regulatory considerations of the risk of nuclear power plants; overview of the processes of reliability and risk management; management significance of risk analysis; international and domestic institutional issues for peaceful nuclear uses; the role of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO); and nuclear safety activities of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA).

  18. Nuclear power plant simulation facility evaluation methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, P.M.; Carter, R.J.; Laughery, K.R. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A methodology for evaluation of nuclear power plant simulation facilities with regard to their acceptability for use in the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) operator licensing exam is described. The evaluation is based primarily on simulator fidelity, but incorporates some aspects of direct operator/trainee performance measurement. The panel presentation and paper discuss data requirements, data collection, data analysis and criteria for conclusions regarding the fidelity evaluation, and summarize the proposed use of direct performance measurment. While field testing and refinement of the methodology are recommended, this initial effort provides a firm basis for NRC to fully develop the necessary methodology.

  19. Analysis of nuclear power plant component failures

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    Items are shown that have caused 90% of the nuclear unit outages and/or deratings between 1971 and 1980 and the magnitude of the problem indicated by an estimate of power replacement cost when the units are out of service or derated. The funding EPRI has provided on these specific items for R and D and technology transfer in the past and the funding planned in the future (1982 to 1986) are shown. EPRI's R and D may help the utilities on only a small part of their nuclear unit outage problems. For example, refueling is the major cause for nuclear unit outages or deratings and the steam turbine is the second major cause for nuclear unit outages; however, these two items have been ranked fairly low on the EPRI priority list for R and D funding. Other items such as nuclear safety (NRC requirements), reactor general, reactor and safety valves and piping, and reactor fuel appear to be receiving more priority than is necessary as determined by analysis of nuclear unit outage causes.

  20. Coal and nuclear power: Illinois' energy future

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    This conference was sponsored by the Energy Resources Center, University of Illinois at Chicago; the US Department of Energy; the Illinois Energy Resources Commission; and the Illinois Department of Energy and Natural Resources. The theme for the conference, Coal and Nuclear Power: Illinois' Energy Future, was based on two major observations: (1) Illinois has the largest reserves of bituminous coal of any state and is surpassed in total reserves only by North Dakota, and Montana; and (2) Illinois has made a heavy commitment to the use of nuclear power as a source of electrical power generation. Currently, nuclear power represents 30% of the electrical energy produced in the State. The primary objective of the 1982 conference was to review these two energy sources in view of the current energy policy of the Reagan Administration, and to examine the impact these policies have on the Midwest energy scene. The conference dealt with issues unique to Illinois as well as those facing the entire nation. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 30 individual presentations.

  1. Carbon pricing, nuclear power and electricity markets

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, R.; Keppler, J. H.

    2012-07-01

    In 2010, the NEA in conjunction with the International Energy Agency produced an analysis of the Projected Costs of Electricity for almost 200 power plants, covering nuclear, fossil fuel and renewable electricity generation. That analysis used lifetime costs to consider the merits of each technology. However, the lifetime cost analysis is less applicable in liberalised markets and does not look specifically at the viewpoint of the private investor. A follow-up NEA assessment of the competitiveness of nuclear energy against coal- and gas-fired generation under carbon pricing has considered just this question. The economic competition in electricity markets is today between nuclear energy and gas-fired power generation, with coal-fired power generation not being competitive as soon as even modest carbon pricing is introduced. Whether nuclear energy or natural gas comes out ahead in their competition depends on a number of assumptions, which, while all entirely reasonable, yield very different outcomes. The analysis in this study has been developed on the basis of daily data from European power markets over the last five-year period. Three different methodologies, a Profit Analysis looking at historic returns over the past five years, an Investment Analysis projecting the conditions of the past five years over the lifetime of plants and a Carbon Tax Analysis (differentiating the Investment Analysis for different carbon prices) look at the issue of competitiveness from different angles. They show that the competitiveness of nuclear energy depends on a number of variables which in different configurations determine whether electricity produced from nuclear power or from CCGTs generates higher profits for its investors. These are overnight costs, financing costs, gas prices, carbon prices, profit margins (or mark-ups), the amount of coal with carbon capture and electricity prices. This paper will present the outcomes of the analysis in the context of a liberalised

  2. 78 FR 38739 - Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... COMMISSION Special Nuclear Material Control and Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear... Accounting Systems for Nuclear Power Plants.'' This regulatory guide provides guidance on recordkeeping and reporting requirements with respect to material control and accounting. This guide applies to all nuclear...

  3. (Nuclear power plant control and instrumentation technology)

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.D.

    1990-10-10

    While on vacation, the traveler attended the European Nuclear Conference in Lyon, France. This trip was part of an outside activity approved by DOE. The traveler is a consultant to Loyola College, serving as chairman of a panel to assess the state of the art in the controls and instrumentation technology in the European nuclear community. This study is being conducted by Loyola College under subcontract to the National Science Foundation. The traveler was surprised by the level of automation claimed (by the company Siemens AG KWU) to be present in the German Konvoi nuclear power plants. The claim was that this was done to improve the safety of the plant by keeping the operator out of the loop'' for the first 30 minutes of some transients or accidents.

  4. Accommodation of Nuclear Power and Propulsion Concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Steven M.; Bolch, Wesley e.; Thomas, J. Kelley

    1990-01-01

    The use of nuclear systems for propulsion and power are being examined as system options for implementing the lunar and Mars human exploration missions currently being studied by NASA. Systems might include nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and nuclear thermal rocket (NTR) vehicles, operating reactors on coorbiting platforms, radioisotope thermoelectric generators, and others. The space station, as a transportation node, would have to store, assemble, launch and refurbish elements containing these systems. Care must be taken to safeguard humans from the radiation imposed by these systems, in addition to the naturally occuring background of the space environment. Key issues need to be identified early to enable their proper consideration in planning activities and the baseline space station design. A study was conducted over the past year with Texas A&M University to identify and explore key issues and quantify findings in a way useful to the Space Station Program.

  5. 75 FR 75706 - Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Notice of... Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3, respectively, located in Grundy County, Illinois, and to Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-29 and DPR-30 for Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

  6. 75 FR 76498 - Firstenergy Nuclear Operating Company, Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... COMMISSION Firstenergy Nuclear Operating Company, Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Environmental Assessment... Company (FENOC, the licensee), for operation of the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1 (DBNPS... nuclear power reactors provide adequate margins of safety during any condition of normal...

  7. 75 FR 14208 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy..., which authorizes operation of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim). The license provides, among..., ``Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological...

  8. 75 FR 14209 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-24

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background.... DPR-28, which authorizes operation of the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (VY). The license....55, ``Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against...

  9. Nuclear power source for electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mondt, J. F.; Stapfer, G.; Hsieh, T.

    1979-01-01

    A low specific weight (20 to 40 Kg/Kwe), long life (6 to 10 year), 100 to 400 KWe nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) system can deliver 2,000 to 10,000 Kg payloads for intensive study of our solar system. The nuclear power source is about 80% of the NEP system mass, thus the NASA program is focused on developing the power source technology. Because of the long life requirements, direct thermal to electric energy conversion technology (thermionic and thermoelectric) is being pursued. In order to meet the low specific weight it is necessary to develop a 10 to 15% conversion module with a 875 K minimum heat rejection temperature and a 1675 K maximum input temperature. The thermoionic converter is about 9% efficient at these temperatures. The thermoelectric converter is limited to a 1300 K input temperature. So, the thermionic program is focused on improving the efficiency while the thermoelectric program is focused on increasing the temperature.

  10. Radiological characterization of Yankee Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Bellini, F.X.; Cumming, E.R.; Hollenbeck, P. )

    1993-01-01

    The Yankee nuclear power station located in Rowe, Massachusetts, permanently ceased power operations on February 26, 1992, after 31 yr of operation. Yankee has since initiated decommissioning planning activities. A significant component of these activities is the determination of the extent of radiological contamination of the Yankee site. This paper describes the site radiological characterization program that has been implemented for decommissioning the Yankee plant. Radiological scoping surveys were completed to support submittal of a decommissioning plan to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) by October 1, 1993. These surveys were designed to provide sufficient detail to estimate the extent of contamination, volume of radiological waste, activity of radiological waste, and personnel dose estimates for removal activities. Surveys were conducted both inside and on the grounds outside of the Yankee plant buildings. Survey results were combined with analytical evaluations to characterize the Yankee site.

  11. Dose reduction at nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.; Dionne, B.J.

    1983-01-01

    The collective dose equivalent at nuclear power plants increased from 1250 rem in 1969 to nearly 54,000 rem in 1980. This rise is attributable primarily to an increase in nuclear generated power from 1289 MW-y to 29,155 MW-y; and secondly, to increased average plant age. However, considerable variation in exposure occurs from plant to plant depending on plant type, refueling, maintenance, etc. In order to understand the factors influencing these differences, an investigation was initiated to study dose-reduction techniques and effectiveness of as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) planning at light water plants. Objectives are to: identify high-dose maintenance tasks and related dose-reduction techniques; investigate utilization of high-reliability, low-maintenance equipment; recommend improved radioactive waste handling equipment and procedures; examine incentives for dose reduction; and compile an ALARA handbook.

  12. Infrared monitoring of nuclear power in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafemeister, David W.

    1988-12-01

    Using parameters for unclassified astronomical observatories based on Maui and on the Kuiper Airborne Observatory, we have determined the level of confidence of monitoring a ban on nuclear power in earth orbit. Existing military and astronomical observatories can detect and identify operating nuclear power sources on satellites, such as the Soviet RORSAT and American SP100, with a very high level of confidence to distances beyond geosynchronous orbit. A cold reactor can be detected with a medium level of confidence with visual observations by close-flying reconnaissance satellites with medium confidence, and in the future with very high confidence with the interrogation of neutrons. The smaller thermal sources, RTG and DIPS, could be detected with medium level of confidence under certain conditions. Large pulsed reactors can be detected with a medium confidence level with visual observations from close satellites, and with a very high level of confidence with neutron interrogation.

  13. Commentary: childhood cancer near nuclear power stations

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In 2008, the KiKK study in Germany reported a 1.6-fold increase in solid cancers and a 2.2-fold increase in leukemias among children living within 5 km of all German nuclear power stations. The study has triggered debates as to the cause(s) of these increased cancers. This article reports on the findings of the KiKK study; discusses past and more recent epidemiological studies of leukemias near nuclear installations around the world, and outlines a possible biological mechanism to explain the increased cancers. This suggests that the observed high rates of infant leukemias may be a teratogenic effect from incorporated radionuclides. Doses from environmental emissions from nuclear reactors to embryos and fetuses in pregnant women near nuclear power stations may be larger than suspected. Hematopoietic tissues appear to be considerably more radiosensitive in embryos/fetuses than in newborn babies. Recommendations for advice to local residents and for further research are made. PMID:19775438

  14. Managing nuclear power plant induced disasters.

    PubMed

    Kyne, Dean

    2015-01-01

    To understand the management process of nuclear power plant (NPP) induced disasters. The study shields light on phases and issues associated with the NPP induced disaster management. This study uses Palo Verde Nuclear Generation Station as study subject and Arizona State as study area. This study uses the Radiological Assessment System for Consequence Analysis (RASCAL) Source Term to Dose (STDose) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, a computer software to project and assess the source term dose and release pathway. This study also uses ArcGIS, a geographic information system to analyze geospatial data. A detailed case study of Palo Verde Nuclear Power Generation (PVNPG) Plant was conducted. The findings reveal that the NPP induced disaster management process is conducted by various stakeholders. To save lives and to minimize the impacts, it is vital to relate planning and process of the disaster management. Number of people who expose to the radioactive plume pathway and level of radioactivity could vary depending on the speed and direction of wind on the day the event takes place. This study findings show that there is a need to address the burning issue of different racial and ethnic groups' unequal exposure and unequal protection to potential risks associated with the NPPs.

  15. Key issues in space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandhorst, Henry W.

    1991-01-01

    The future appears rich in missions that will extend the frontiers of knowledge, human presence in space, and opportunities for profitable commerce. Key to the success of these ventures is the availability of plentiful, cost effective electric power and assured, low cost access to space. While forecasts of space power needs are problematic, an assessment of future needs based on terrestrial experience has been made. These needs fall into three broad categories: survival, self sufficiency, and industrialization. The cost of delivering payloads to orbital locations from LEO to Mars has been determined and future launch cost reductions projected. From these factors, then, projections of the performance necessary for future solar and nuclear space power options has been made. These goals are largely dependent upon orbital location and energy storage needs. Finally the cost of present space power systems has been determined and projections made for future systems.

  16. NASA mission planning for space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Schnyer, A. D.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is conducted of those aspects of the Space Exploration Initiative which stand to gain from the use of nuclear powerplants. Low-power, less than 10 kW(e) missions in question encompass the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini mission to Saturn, the Mars Network mission, a solar probe, the Mars Rover Sample Return mission, the Rosetta comet nucleus sample return mission, and an outer planets orbiter/probe. Reactor power yielding 10-100 kW(e) can be used by advanced rovers and initial lunar and Martian outposts, as well as Jovian and Saturnian grand tours and sample-return missions.

  17. NASA mission planning for space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Schnyer, A. D.

    1991-01-01

    An evaluation is conducted of those aspects of the Space Exploration Initiative which stand to gain from the use of nuclear powerplants. Low-power, less than 10 kW(e) missions in question encompass the Comet Rendezvous Asteroid Flyby, the Cassini mission to Saturn, the Mars Network mission, a solar probe, the Mars Rover Sample Return mission, the Rosetta comet nucleus sample return mission, and an outer planets orbiter/probe. Reactor power yielding 10-100 kW(e) can be used by advanced rovers and initial lunar and Martian outposts, as well as Jovian and Saturnian grand tours and sample-return missions.

  18. Problem free nuclear power and global change

    SciTech Connect

    Teller, E.; Wood, L.; Nuckolls, J.; Ishikawa, M.; Hyde, R.

    1997-08-15

    Nuclear fission power reactors represent a solution-in-principle to all aspects of global change possibly induced by inputting of either particulate or carbon or sulfur oxides into the Earth`s atmosphere. Of proven technological feasibility, they presently produce high- grade heat for electricity generation, space heating and industrial process-driving around the world, without emitting greenhouse gases or atmospheric particulates. However, a substantial number of major issues currently stand between nuclear power implemented with light- water reactors and widespread substitution for large stationary fossil fuel-fired systems, including long-term fuel supply, adverse public perceptions regarding both long-term and acute operational safety, plant decommissioning, fuel reprocessing, radwaste disposal, fissile materials diversion to military purposes and - perhaps more seriously - cost. We describe a GW-scale, high-temperature nuclear reactor heat source that can operate with no human intervention for a few decades and that may be widely acceptable, since its safety features are simple, inexpensive and easily understood. We provide first-level details of a reactor system designed to satisfy these requirements. Such a back-solving approach to realizing large-scale nuclear fission power systems potentially leads to an energy source capable of meeting all large-scale stationary demands for high- temperature heat. If widely employed to support such demands, it could, for example, directly reduce present-day world-wide CO{sub 2} emissions by two-fold; by using it to produce non-carbonaceous fuels for small mobile demands, a second two-fold reduction could be attained. Even the first such reduction would permit continued slow power-demand growth in the First World and rapid development of the Third World, both without any governmental suppression of fossil fuel usage.

  19. Power conditioning for space nuclear reactor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, Baruch

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses the power conditioning subsystem for both Stirling and Brayton conversion of space nuclear reactor systems. Included are the requirements summary, trade results related to subsystem implementation, subsystem description, voltage level versus weight, efficiency and operational integrity, components selection, and shielding considerations. The discussion is supported by pertinent circuit and block diagrams. Summary conclusions and recommendations derived from the above studies are included.

  20. Power conditioning for space nuclear reactor systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berman, Baruch

    1987-01-01

    This paper addresses the power conditioning subsystem for both Stirling and Brayton conversion of space nuclear reactor systems. Included are the requirements summary, trade results related to subsystem implementation, subsystem description, voltage level versus weight, efficiency and operational integrity, components selection, and shielding considerations. The discussion is supported by pertinent circuit and block diagrams. Summary conclusions and recommendations derived from the above studies are included.

  1. Active Faults and Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Neil; Berryman, Kelvin; Villamor, Pilar; Epstein, Woody; Cluff, Lloyd; Kawamura, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    The destruction of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) following the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami brought into sharp focus the susceptibility of NPPs to natural hazards. This is not a new issue—seismic hazard has affected the development of plants in the United States, and volcanic hazard was among the reasons for not commissioning the Bataan NPP in the Philippines [Connor et al., 2009].

  2. Linking Humans and Systems in Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Jacques Hugo

    2013-02-01

    Traditional engineering methods do not make provision for the integration of human considerations, while traditional human factors methods do not scale well to the complexity of large-scale nuclear power plant projects. Although the need for up-to-date human factors engineering processes and tools is recognised widely in industry, so far no formal guidance has been developed. This article proposes such a framework.

  3. Nuclear Power Plants | RadTown USA | US EPA

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-05-16

    Nuclear power plants produce electricity from the heat created by splitting uranium atoms. In the event of a nuclear power plant emergency, follow instructions from emergency responders and public officials.

  4. Electromagnetic Compatibility in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, P.D.; Kercel, S.W.; Korsah, K.; Wood, R.T.

    1999-08-29

    Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) has long been a key element of qualification for mission critical instrumentation and control (I&C) systems used by the U.S. military. The potential for disruption of safety-related I&C systems by electromagnetic interference (EMI), radio-frequency interference (RFI), or power surges is also an issue of concern for the nuclear industry. Experimental investigations of the potential vulnerability of advanced safety systems to EMI/RFI, coupled with studies of reported events at nuclear power plants (NPPs) that are attributed to EMI/RFI, confirm the safety significance of EMC for both analog and digital technology. As a result, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been engaged in the development of the technical basis for guidance that addresses EMC for safety-related I&C systems in NPPs. This research has involved the identification of engineering practices to minimize the potential impact of EMI/RFI and power surges and an evaluation of the ambient electromagnetic environment at NPPs to tailor those practices for use by the nuclear industry. Recommendations for EMC guidance have been derived from these research findings and are summarized in this paper.

  5. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Nuclear power is an important source of electric energy and the amount of nuclear-generated electricity continued to grow as the performance of nuclear power plants improved. In 1996, nuclear power plants supplied 23 percent of the electricity production for countries with nuclear units, and 17 percent of the total electricity generated worldwide. However, the likelihood of nuclear power assuming a much larger role or even retaining its current share of electricity generation production is uncertain. The industry faces a complex set of issues including economic competitiveness, social acceptance, and the handling of nuclear waste, all of which contribute to the uncertain future of nuclear power. Nevertheless, for some countries the installed nuclear generating capacity is projected to continue to grow. Insufficient indigenous energy resources and concerns over energy independence make nuclear electric generation a viable option, especially for the countries of the Far East.

  6. 75 FR 13323 - James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... (IEEE)-383, ``Standard for Qualifying Class 1E Electric Cable and Field Splices for Nuclear Power... the thermoset cables themselves (IEEE-383 qualified, or equivalent) and the absence of power cables in... COMMISSION James A. Fitzpatrick Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy Nuclear Operations,...

  7. Nuclear Power: The Market Test. Worldwatch Paper 57.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Christopher

    Nuclear power was considered vital to humanity's future until just a short time ago. Since the late seventies, economic viability has joined a list of such issues as waste disposal and radiation hazards which call into question the future of nuclear power. This document discusses (in separate sections): (1) the selling of nuclear power, including…

  8. Tracing nuclear elements released by Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimura, M.; Onda, Y.; Abe, Y.; Hada, M.; Pun, I.

    2011-12-01

    Radioactive contamination has been detected in Fukushima and the neighboring regions due to the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) following the earthquake and tsunami occurred on 11th March 2011. The small experimental catchments have been established in Yamakiya district, Kawamata Town, Fukushima Prefecture, located approximately 35 km west from the Fukushima NPP. The tritium (3H) concentration and stable isotopic compositions of deuterium and oxygen-18 have been determined on the water samples of precipitation, soil water at the depths of 10 to 30 cm, groundwater at the depths of 5 m to 50 m, spring water and stream water taken at the watersheds in the recharge and discharge zones from the view point of the groundwater flow system. The tritium concentration of the rain water fell just a few days after the earthquake showed a value of approximately 17 Tritium Unit (T.U.), whereas the average concentration of the tritium in the precipitation was less than 5 T.U. before the Fukushima accident. The spring water in the recharge zone showed a relatively high tritium concentration of approximately 12 T.U., whereas that of the discharge zone showed less than 5 T.U. Thus, the artificial tritium was apparently injected in the groundwater flow system due to the Fukushima NPP accident, whereas that has not reached at the discharge zone yet. The monitoring of the nuclear elements is now on going from the view points of the hydrological cycles and the drinking water security.

  9. Supercritical Brayton Cycle Nuclear Power System Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, Steven A.

    2007-01-30

    Both the NASA and DOE have programs that are investigating advanced power conversion cycles for planetary surface power on the moon or Mars, and for next generation nuclear power plants on earth. The gas Brayton cycle offers many practical solutions for space nuclear power systems and was selected as the nuclear power system of choice for the NASA Prometheus project. An alternative Brayton cycle that offers high efficiency at a lower reactor coolant outlet temperature is the supercritical Brayton cycle (SCBC). The supercritical cycle is a true Brayton cycle because it uses a single phase fluid with a compressor inlet temperature that is just above the critical point of the fluid. This paper describes the use of a supercritical Brayton cycle that achieves a cycle efficiency of 26.6% with a peak coolant temperature of 750 K and for a compressor inlet temperature of 390 K. The working fluid uses a clear odorless, nontoxic refrigerant C318 perflurocarbon (C4F8) that always operates in the gas phase. This coolant was selected because it has a critical temperature and pressure of 388.38 K and 2.777 MPa. The relatively high critical temperature allows for efficient thermal radiation that keeps the radiator mass small. The SCBC achieves high efficiency because the loop design takes advantage of the non-ideal nature of the coolant equation of state just above the critical point. The lower coolant temperature means that metal fuels, uranium oxide fuels, and uranium zirconium hydride fuels with stainless steel, ferretic steel, or superalloy cladding can be used with little mass penalty or reduction in cycle efficiency. The reactor can use liquid-metal coolants and no high temperature heat exchangers need to be developed. Indirect gas cooling or perhaps even direct gas cooling can be used if the C4F8 coolant is found to be sufficiently radiation tolerant. Other fluids can also be used in the supercritical Brayton cycle including Propane (C3H8, Tcritical = 369 K) and Hexane (C6

  10. Supercritical Brayton Cycle Nuclear Power System Concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Steven A.

    2007-01-01

    Both the NASA and DOE have programs that are investigating advanced power conversion cycles for planetary surface power on the moon or Mars, and for next generation nuclear power plants on earth. The gas Brayton cycle offers many practical solutions for space nuclear power systems and was selected as the nuclear power system of choice for the NASA Prometheus project. An alternative Brayton cycle that offers high efficiency at a lower reactor coolant outlet temperature is the supercritical Brayton cycle (SCBC). The supercritical cycle is a true Brayton cycle because it uses a single phase fluid with a compressor inlet temperature that is just above the critical point of the fluid. This paper describes the use of a supercritical Brayton cycle that achieves a cycle efficiency of 26.6% with a peak coolant temperature of 750 K and for a compressor inlet temperature of 390 K. The working fluid uses a clear odorless, nontoxic refrigerant C318 perflurocarbon (C4F8) that always operates in the gas phase. This coolant was selected because it has a critical temperature and pressure of 388.38 K and 2.777 MPa. The relatively high critical temperature allows for efficient thermal radiation that keeps the radiator mass small. The SCBC achieves high efficiency because the loop design takes advantage of the non-ideal nature of the coolant equation of state just above the critical point. The lower coolant temperature means that metal fuels, uranium oxide fuels, and uranium zirconium hydride fuels with stainless steel, ferretic steel, or superalloy cladding can be used with little mass penalty or reduction in cycle efficiency. The reactor can use liquid-metal coolants and no high temperature heat exchangers need to be developed. Indirect gas cooling or perhaps even direct gas cooling can be used if the C4F8 coolant is found to be sufficiently radiation tolerant. Other fluids can also be used in the supercritical Brayton cycle including Propane (C3H8, Tcritical = 369 K) and Hexane (C6

  11. The future of nuclear power: value orientations and risk perception.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Stephen C; Rosa, Eugene A; Dan, Amy; Dietz, Thomas

    2009-03-01

    Since the turn of the 21st century, there has been a revival of interest in nuclear power. Two decades ago, the expansion of nuclear power in the United States was halted by widespread public opposition as well as rising costs and less than projected increases in demand for electricity. Can the renewed enthusiasm for nuclear power overcome its history of public resistance that has persisted for decades? We propose that attitudes toward nuclear power are a function of perceived risk, and that both attitudes and risk perceptions are a function of values, beliefs, and trust in the institutions that influence nuclear policy. Applying structural equation models to data from a U.S. national survey, we find that increased trust in the nuclear governance institutions reduces perceived risk of nuclear power and together higher trust and lower risk perceptions predict positive attitudes toward nuclear power. Trust in environmental institutions and perceived risks from global environmental problems do not predict attitudes toward nuclear power. Values do predict attitudes: individuals with traditional values have greater support for, while those with altruistic values have greater opposition to, nuclear power. Nuclear attitudes do not vary by gender, age, education, income, or political orientation, though nonwhites are more supportive than whites. These findings are consistent with, and provide an explanation for, a long series of public opinion polls showing public ambivalence toward nuclear power that persists even in the face of renewed interest for nuclear power in policy circles.

  12. The nuclear lion: What every citizen should know about nuclear power and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Jagger, J.

    1991-01-01

    The stupendous energy in the atomic nucleus can be used to advance human welfare, and it has been so used ever since we learned how to release it. Nuclear medicine has revolutionized medical diagnosis and treatment, notably in dealing with cancer. Nuclear reactors have provided us with valuable radioactive atoms (radioisotopes) for use in research and industry, and they have given us cheap, clean power, which can drive a ship around the world on a tiny charge of fuel. On the other hand, we have unleashed the awesome power of nuclear weapons, and we must now face the almost incomprehensible devastation that awaits the world as it contemplates nuclear war. An all-out nuclear war would end modern civilization, and might well end humankind, to say nothing of countless other species of plants and animals. It would be, without question the greatest disaster of the last million years of the history of the Earth.

  13. French nuclear power charges in future

    SciTech Connect

    Catz, H.

    1996-07-01

    Electric rates in France are one of the best bargains in Europe, thanks largely to its state-run nuclear program. Since Charles DeGaulle created the French Atomic Energy Agency (CEA) in the late 1940`s, that agency and Elecricite de France (EdF) have put France well on the road to energy independence, says Henri Catz, director of Environment and Energy Policy at Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail in France. {open_quotes}Nuclear power generates more than 75 percent of the electricity that France consumes,{close_quotes} Catz says. However, the French nuclear establishment has been slow to respond to the public`s environmental and safety concerns. In addition, Catz finds that CEA and EdF have no particular incentive to promote energy conservation. {open_quotes}French electricity is cheap and abundant. EdF has responded to this energy glut by encouraging its consumers to use more electricity, while simultaneously exporting excess power to France`s neighbors.

  14. Tethered nuclear power for the Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear space power system the SP-100 is being developed for future missions where large amounts of electrical power will be required. Although it is primarily intended for unmanned spacecraft, it can be adapted to a manned space platform by tethering it above the station through an electrical transmission line which isolates the reactor far away from the inhabited platform and conveys its power back to where it is needed. The transmission line, used in conjunction with an instrument rate shield, attenuates reactor radiation in the vicinity of the space station to less than one-one hundredth of the natural background which is already there. This combination of shielding and distance attenuation is less than one-tenth the mass of boom-mounted or onboard man-rated shields that are required when the reactor is mounted nearby. This paper describes how connection is made to the platform (configuration, operational requirements) and introduces a new element the coaxial transmission tube which enables efficient transmission of electrical power through long tethers in space. Design methodology for transmission tubes and tube arrays is discussed. An example conceptual design is presented that shows SP-100 at three power levels 100 kWe, 300 kWe, and 1000 kWe connected to space station via a 2 km HVDC transmission line/tether. Power system performance, mass, and radiation hazard are estimated with impacts on space station architecture and operation.

  15. Tethered nuclear power for the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, D. J.

    1985-01-01

    A nuclear space power system the SP-100 is being developed for future missions where large amounts of electrical power will be required. Although it is primarily intended for unmanned spacecraft, it can be adapted to a manned space platform by tethering it above the station through an electrical transmission line which isolates the reactor far away from the inhabited platform and conveys its power back to where it is needed. The transmission line, used in conjunction with an instrument rate shield, attenuates reactor radiation in the vicinity of the space station to less than one-one hundredth of the natural background which is already there. This combination of shielding and distance attenuation is less than one-tenth the mass of boom-mounted or onboard man-rated shields that are required when the reactor is mounted nearby. This paper describes how connection is made to the platform (configuration, operational requirements) and introduces a new element the coaxial transmission tube which enables efficient transmission of electrical power through long tethers in space. Design methodology for transmission tubes and tube arrays is discussed. An example conceptual design is presented that shows SP-100 at three power levels 100 kWe, 300 kWe, and 1000 kWe connected to space station via a 2 km HVDC transmission line/tether. Power system performance, mass, and radiation hazard are estimated with impacts on space station architecture and operation.

  16. Nuclear power station main control room habitability

    SciTech Connect

    Paschal, W.B.; Knous, W.S. )

    1989-01-01

    The main control room at a nuclear power station must remain habitable during a variety of plant conditions and postulated events. The control room habitability requirement and the function of the heating, ventilating, air-conditioning, and air treatment system are to control environmental factors, such as temperature, pressure, humidity, radiation, and toxic gas. Habitability requirements provide for the safety of personnel and enable operation of equipment required to function in the main control room. Habitability as an issue has been gaining prominence with the Advisor Committee of Reactor Safeguards and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission since the incident at Three Mile Island. Their concern is the ability of the presently installed habitability systems to control the main control room environment after an accident. This paper discusses main control room HVAC systems; the concern, requirements, and results of NRC surveys and notices; and an approach to control room habitability reviews.

  17. Risk perception among nuclear power plant employees

    SciTech Connect

    Fields, C.D.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation protection training and general employee training within the nuclear industry are designed to reduce workers' concerns about radiation and to develop skills that will protect against unwarranted exposures. Inaccurate perceptions about radiation by workers can cause a lack of adequate concern or exaggerated fears, which in turn can result in unnecessary radiation exposure to the worker or co-workers. The purpose of the study is threefold: (a) to identify health and safety concerns among nuclear power plant employees, (b) to discover variables that influence the perception of risk among employees, and (c) to ascertain if attitudes of the family, community, and the media affect workers' perception of risk. Workers identified five areas of concern: shift work, radiation, industrial safety, stress, and sabotage.

  18. Solid wastes from nuclear power production.

    PubMed Central

    Soule, H F

    1978-01-01

    Radioactivity in nuclear power effluents is negligible compared to that in retained wastes to be disposed of as solids. Two basic waste categories are those for which shallow disposal is accepted and those for which more extreme isolation is desired. The latter includes "high level" wastes and others contaminated with radionuclides with the unusual combined properties of long radioactive half-life and high specific radiotoxicity. The favored method for extreme isolation is emplacement in a deep stable geologic formation. Necessary technologies for waste treatment and disposal are considered available. The present program to implement these technologies is discussed, including the waste management significance of current policy on spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Recent difficulties with shallow disposal of waste are summarized. PMID:738244

  19. 75 FR 3942 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment...), for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1 (HNP), located in New Hill, North... Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear......

  20. 78 FR 66785 - Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., and Korea Electric Power Corporation AGENCY: Nuclear... APR1400 Standard Plant Design submitted by Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd. (KHNP) and Korea...

  1. 77 FR 47680 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Receipt of Request for Action

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Receipt of Request for Action... (NRC or the Commission) take action with regard to the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim). The...

  2. Nuclear power generation and fuel cycle report 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    This report presents the current status and projections through 2015 of nuclear capacity, generation, and fuel cycle requirements for all countries using nuclear power to generate electricity for commercial use. It also contains information and forecasts of developments in the worldwide nuclear fuel market. Long term projections of U.S. nuclear capacity, generation, and spent fuel discharges for two different scenarios through 2040 are developed. A discussion on decommissioning of nuclear power plants is included.

  3. Economic prerequisites for the development of nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Chernilin, Y.F.

    1995-10-01

    The development of nuclear power, as no other field of human endeavor, has revealed the need for predicting the consequences of nuclear power not only in the production of energy itself, but also in the ecology, economics, and even politics. On the one hand, the future of nuclear power is determined by a society`s attitude toward nuclear power and depends on economic possibilities. On the other hand, the future society and the economic situation that will develop in the world will largely depend on the amount of energy accessible to mankind and the method used to obtain it, and therefore also the relative contribution of atomic energy to the total balance of energy production. In declaring its attitude toward nuclear power, society is now determining to a definite extent not only the future of nuclear power but also nuclear power itself. This article is an abstract of the entire report.

  4. Surface nuclear power for human Mars missions

    SciTech Connect

    Mason, Lee S.

    1999-01-22

    The Design Reference Mission for NASA's human mission to Mars indicates the desire for in-situ propellant production and bio-regenerative life systems to ease Earth launch requirements. These operations, combined with crew habitation and science, result in surface power requirements approaching 160 kilowatts. The power system, delivered on an early cargo mission, must be deployed and operational prior to crew departure from Earth. The most mass efficient means of satisfying these requirements is through the use of nuclear power. Studies have been performed to identify a potential system concept using a mobile cart to transport the power system away from the Mars lander and provide adequate separation between the reactor and crew. The studies included an assessment of reactor and power conversion technology options, selection of system and component redundancy, determination of optimum separation distance, and system performance sensitivity to some key operating parameters. The resulting system satisfies the key mission requirements including autonomous deployment, high reliability, and cost effectiveness at an overall system mass of 12 tonnes and a stowed volume of about 63 m{sup 3}.

  5. Surface Nuclear Power for Human Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    1999-01-01

    The Design Reference Mission for NASA's human mission to Mars indicates the desire for in-situ propellant production and bio-regenerative life systems to ease Earth launch requirements. These operations, combined with crew habitation and science, result in surface power requirements approaching 160 kilowatts. The power system, delivered on an early cargo mission, must be deployed and operational prior to crew departure from Earth. The most mass efficient means of satisfying these requirements is through the use of nuclear power. Studies have been performed to identify a potential system concept using a mobile cart to transport the power system away from the Mars lander and provide adequate separation between the reactor and crew. The studies included an assessment of reactor and power conversion technology options, selection of system and component redundancy, determination of optimum separation distance, and system performance sensitivity to some key operating parameters. The resulting system satisfies the key mission requirements including autonomous deployment, high reliability, and cost effectiveness at a overall system mass of 12 tonnes and a stowed volume of about 63 cu m.

  6. Assessment of lightweight mobile nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Rom, F. E.

    1973-01-01

    After nearly two decades of study, analysis, and experiments relating to lightweight mobile nuclear power systems (LMNPS), it seems fitting to report the status and to assess some options for the future of this technology. This report: (1) reviews the technical feasibility studies of LMNPS and airborne vehicles; (2) identifies what remains to be done to demonstrate technical feasibility of LMNPS; (3) reviews missions studies and identifies particular missions that could justify renewed support for such technology; and (4) identifies some of the nontechnical conditions that will be required for the development and eventual use of LMNPS.

  7. Nuclear Power Plant Security and Vulnerabilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-18

    OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 18 JAN 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Nuclear Power...three zones: an “owner- controlled ” buffer region, a “protected area,” and a “vital area.” Access to the protected area was restricted to a portion of...plant attempts to penetrate the plant’s vital area and damage or destroy key safety components. Participants in the tightly controlled exercises

  8. Assessment of lightweight mobile nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Rom, F. E.

    1973-01-01

    After nearly two decades of study, analysis, and experiments relating to lightweight mobile nuclear power systems (LMNPS), it seems fitting to report the status and to assess some options for the future of this technology. This report: (1) reviews the technical feasibility studies of LMNPS and airborne vehicles; (2) identifies what remains to be done to demonstrate technical feasibility of LMNPS; (3) reviews missions studies and identifies particular missions that could justify renewed support for such technology; and (4) identifies some of the nontechnical conditions that will be required for the development and eventual use of LMNPS.

  9. SP-100 space nuclear power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Given, R. W.; Morgan, R. E.; Chi, J. W. H.

    1984-01-01

    A baseline design concept for a 100 kWe nuclear reactor space power system is described. The concept was developed under contract from JPL as part of a joint program of the DOE, DOD, and NASA. The major technical and safety constraints influencing the selection of reactor operating parameters are discussed. A lithium-cooled compact fast reactor was selected as the best candidate system. The material selected for the thermoelectric conversion system was silicon germanium (SiGe) with gallium phosphide doping. Attention is given to the improved safety of the seven in-core control rod configuration.

  10. 76 FR 17162 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Notice of Issuance of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-28

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Notice of Issuance of... Renewed Facility Operating License No. DPR-28 to Entergy Nuclear Vermont Yankee, LLC (Entergy VY), and Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc. (ENO), (licensee), the operator of the Vermont Yankee Nuclear...

  11. Determining Yankee Nuclear Power Station neutron activation

    SciTech Connect

    Heider, K.J.; Morrissey, K.J. )

    1993-01-01

    The Yankee nuclear power station located in Rowe, Massachusetts, permanently ceased power operations on February 26, 1992, after 31 yr of operation. Yankee has since initiated decommissioning planning activities. A significant component of these activities is a determination of the extent of radiological contamination of the Yankee site. Included in this effort was determination of the extent of neutron activation of plant components. This paper describes the determination of the neutron activation of the Yankee reactor vessel, associated internals, and surrounding structures. The Yankee reactor vessel is a 600-MW(thermal) stainless steel-lined, carbon steel vessel with stainless steel internal components designed by Westinghouse. The reactor vessel is surrounded and supported by a carbon steel neutron shield tank that was filled with chromated water during plant operation. A 5-ft-thick concrete biological shield wall surrounds the neutron shield tank. A project is under way to remove the reactor vessel internals from the reactor vessel.

  12. 75 FR 77919 - Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-14

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Environmental... Progress Energy Carolinas, Inc., for operation of the Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant (HNP), Unit 1...: Regarding Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1--Final Report (NUREG-1437, Supplement 33).''...

  13. Heterogonous Nanofluids for Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alammar, Khalid

    2014-09-01

    Nuclear reactions can be associated with high heat energy release. Extracting such energy efficiently requires the use of high-rate heat exchangers. Conventional heat transfer fluids, such as water and oils are limited in their thermal conductivity, and hence nanofluids have been introduced lately to overcome such limitation. By suspending metal nanoparticles with high thermal conductivity in conventional heat transfer fluids, thermal conductivity of the resulting homogeneous nanofluid is increased. Heterogeneous nanofluids offer yet more potential for heat transfer enhancement. By stratifying nanoparticles within the boundary layer, thermal conductivity is increased where temperature gradients are highest, thereby increasing overall heat transfer of a flowing fluid. In order to test the merit of this novel technique, a numerical study of a laminar pipe flow of a heterogeneous nanofluid was conducted. Effect of Iron-Oxide distribution on flow and heat transfer characteristics was investigated. With Iron-Oxide volume concentration of 0.009 in water, up to 50% local heat transfer enhancement was predicted for the heterogeneous compared to homogeneous nanofluids. Increasing the Reynolds number is shown to increase enhancement while having negligible effect on pressure drop. Using permanent magnets attached externally to the pipe, an experimental investigation conducted at MIT nuclear reactor laboratory for similar flow characteristics of a heterogeneous nanofluid have shown upto 160% enhancement in heat transfer. Such results show that heterogeneous nanofluids are promising for augmenting heat transfer rates in nuclear power heat exchanger systems.

  14. A Nuclear Powered ISRU Mission to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finzi, Elvina; Davighi, Andrea; Finzi, Amalia

    2006-01-01

    Space exploration has always been drastically constrained by the masses that can be launched into orbit; Hence affordable planning and execution of prolonged manned space missions depend upon the utilization of local. Successful in-situ resources utilization (ISRU) is a key element to allow the human presence on Mars or the Moon. In fact a Mars ISRU mission is planned in the Aurora Program, the European program for the exploration of the solar system. Orpheus mission is a technological demonstrator whose purpose is to show the advantages of an In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP). Main task of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of a nuclear ISPP plant. The mission designed has been sized to launch back form Mars an eventual manned module. The ISPP mission requires two different: the ISPP power plant module and the nuclear reactor module. Both modules reach the escape orbit thanks to the launcher upper stage, after a 200 days cruising phase the Martian atmosphere is reached thanks to small DV propelled manoeuvres, aerobreaking and soft landing. During its operational life the ISPP plant produces. The propellant is produced in one synodic year. 35000 kg of Ethylene are produced at the Martian equator. The resulting systems appear feasible and of a size comparable to other ISRU mission designs. This mission seems challenging not only for the ISPP technology to be demonstrated, but also for the space nuclear reactor considered; Though this seems the only way to allow a permanent human presence on Mars surface.

  15. A Nuclear Powered ISRU Mission to Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Finzi, Elvina; Davighi, Andrea; Finzi, Amalia

    2006-01-20

    Space exploration has always been drastically constrained by the masses that can be launched into orbit; Hence affordable planning and execution of prolonged manned space missions depend upon the utilization of local. Successful in-situ resources utilization (ISRU) is a key element to allow the human presence on Mars or the Moon. In fact a Mars ISRU mission is planned in the Aurora Program, the European program for the exploration of the solar system. Orpheus mission is a technological demonstrator whose purpose is to show the advantages of an In Situ Propellant Production (ISPP). Main task of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of a nuclear ISPP plant. The mission designed has been sized to launch back form Mars an eventual manned module. The ISPP mission requires two different: the ISPP power plant module and the nuclear reactor module. Both modules reach the escape orbit thanks to the launcher upper stage, after a 200 days cruising phase the Martian atmosphere is reached thanks to small DV propelled manoeuvres, aerobreaking and soft landing. During its operational life the ISPP plant produces. The propellant is produced in one synodic year. 35000 kg of Ethylene are produced at the Martian equator. The resulting systems appear feasible and of a size comparable to other ISRU mission designs. This mission seems challenging not only for the ISPP technology to be demonstrated, but also for the space nuclear reactor considered; Though this seems the only way to allow a permanent human presence on Mars surface.

  16. Power generation from nuclear reactors in aerospace applications

    SciTech Connect

    English, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Power generation in nuclear powerplants in space is addressed. In particular, the states of technology of the principal competitive concepts for power generation are assessed. The possible impact of power conditioning on power generation is also discussed. For aircraft nuclear propulsion, the suitability of various technologies is cursorily assessed for flight in the Earth's atmosphere. A program path is suggested to ease the conditions of first use of aircraft nuclear propulsion.

  17. Power Generation from Nuclear Reactors in Aerospace Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    English, Robert E.

    1982-01-01

    Power generation in nuclear powerplants in space is addressed. In particular, the states of technology of the principal competitive concepts for power generation are assessed. The possible impact of power conditioning on power generation is also discussed. For aircraft nuclear propulsion, the suitability of various technologies is cursorily assessed for flight in the Earth's atmosphere; a program path is suggested to ease the conditions of first use of aircraft nuclear propulsion.

  18. [Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident and Tokaimura criticality accident].

    PubMed

    Takada, Jun

    2012-03-01

    It is clear from inspection of historical incidents that the scale of disasters in a nuclear power plant accident is quite low level overwhelmingly compared with a nuclear explosion in nuclear war. Two cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were destroyed by nuclear blast with about 20 kt TNT equivalent and then approximately 100,000 people have died respectively. On the other hand, the number of acute death is 30 in the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident. In this chapter, we review health hazards and doses in two historical nuclear incidents of Chernobyl and Tokaimura criticality accident and then understand the feature of the radiation accident in peaceful utilization of nuclear power.

  19. Safety in nuclear power plants in India.

    PubMed

    Deolalikar, R

    2008-12-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements.

  20. Analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    The objective of this report is to present the results of a statistical analysis of nuclear power plant construction costs and lead-times (where lead-time is defined as the duration of the construction period), using a sample of units that entered construction during the 1966-1977 period. For more than a decade, analysts have been attempting to understand the reasons for the divergence between predicted and actual construction costs and lead-times. More importantly, it is rapidly being recognized that the future of the nuclear power industry rests precariously on an improvement in the cost and lead-time situation. Thus, it is important to study the historical information on completed plants, not only to understand what has occurred to also to improve the ability to evaluate the economics of future plants. This requires an examination of the factors that have affected both the realized costs and lead-times and the expectations about these factors that have been formed during the construction process. 5 figs., 22 tabs.

  1. Safety in nuclear power plants in India

    PubMed Central

    Deolalikar, R.

    2008-01-01

    Safety in nuclear power plants (NPPs) in India is a very important topic and it is necessary to dissipate correct information to all the readers and the public at large. In this article, I have briefly described how the safety in our NPPs is maintained. Safety is accorded overriding priority in all the activities. NPPs in India are not only safe but are also well regulated, have proper radiological protection of workers and the public, regular surveillance, dosimetry, approved standard operating and maintenance procedures, a well-defined waste management methodology, proper well documented and periodically rehearsed emergency preparedness and disaster management plans. The NPPs have occupational health policies covering periodic medical examinations, dosimetry and bioassay and are backed-up by fully equipped Personnel Decontamination Centers manned by doctors qualified in Occupational and Industrial Health. All the operating plants are ISO 14001 and IS 18001 certified plants. The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited today has 17 operating plants and five plants under construction, and our scientists and engineers are fully geared to take up many more in order to meet the national requirements. PMID:20040970

  2. Manpower Requirements in the Nuclear Power Industry, 1982-1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Ruth C.

    A study projected employment needs created by growth and employee turnover for the nuclear power industry over the next decade. Only employment by electric utilities in the commercial generation of nuclear power was investigated. Employment data for 1981 were collected in a survey of 60 member utilities of the Institute of Nuclear Power…

  3. Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Roman Miguel

    Exergoeconomic analysis of a nuclear power plant is a focus of this dissertation. Specifically, the performance of the Palo Verde Nuclear Power Plant in Arizona is examined. The analysis combines thermodynamic second law exergy analysis with economics in order to assign costs to the loss and destruction of exergy. This work was done entirely with an interacting spreadsheets notebook. The procedures are to first determine conventional energy flow, where the thermodynamic stream state points are calculated automatically. Exergy flow is then evaluated along with destruction and losses. The capital cost and fixed investment rate used for the economics do not apply specifically to the Palo Verde Plant. Exergy costing is done next involving the solution of about 90 equations by matrix inversion. Finally, the analysis assigns cost to the exergy destruction and losses in each component. In this work, the cost of electricity (exergy), including capital cost, leaving the generator came to 38,400 /hr. The major exergy destruction occurs in the reactor where fission energy transfer is limited by the maxiμm permissible clad temperature. Exergy destruction costs were: reactor--18,207 hr, the low pressure turbine-2,000 /hr, the condenser--1,700 hr, the steam generator-1,200 $/hr. The inclusion of capital cost and O&M are important in new system design assessments. When investigating operational performance, however, these are sunk costs; only fuel cost needs to be considered. The application of a case study is included based on a real modification instituted at Palo Verde to reduce corrosion steam generator problems; the pressure in the steam generator was reduced from 1072 to 980 psi. Exergy destruction costs increased in the low pressure turbine and in the steam generator, but decreased in the reactor vessel and the condenser. The dissertation demonstrates the procedures and tools required for exergoeconomic analysis whether in the evaluation of a new nuclear reactor system

  4. Nuclear power and the public: an update of collected survey research on nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Rankin, W.L.; Melber, B.D.; Overcast, T.D.; Nealey, S.M.

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of this research was to collect, analyze, and summarize all of the nuclear power-related surveys conducted in the United States through June 1981, that we could obtain. The surveys collected were national, statewide, and areawide in scope. Slightly over 100 surveys were collected for an earlier, similar effort carried out in 1977. About 130 new surveys were added to the earlier survey data. Thus, about 230 surveys were screened for inclusion in this report. Because of space limitations, national surveys were used most frequently in this report, followed distantly by state surveys. In drawing our conclusions about public beliefs and attitudes toward nuclear power, we placed most of our confidence in survey questions that were used by national polling firms at several points in time. A summary of the research findings is presented, beginning with general attitudes toward nuclear power, followed by a summary of beliefs and attitudes about nuclear power issues, and ended by a summary of beliefs and attitudes regarding more general energy issues.

  5. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-10-16

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy.

  6. Affective imagery and acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants.

    PubMed

    Keller, Carmen; Visschers, Vivianne; Siegrist, Michael

    2012-03-01

    This study examined the relationship between the content of spontaneous associations with nuclear power plants and the acceptance of using new-generation nuclear power plants to replace old ones. The study also considered gender as a variable. A representative sample of the German- and French-speaking population of Switzerland (N= 1,221) was used. Log-linear models revealed significant two-way interactions between the association content and acceptance, association content and gender, and gender and acceptance. Correspondence analysis revealed that participants who were opposed to nuclear power plants mainly associated nuclear power plants with risk, negative feelings, accidents, radioactivity, waste disposal, military use, and negative consequences for health and environment; whereas participants favoring nuclear power plants mainly associated them with energy, appearance descriptions of nuclear power plants, and necessity. Thus, individuals opposing nuclear power plants had both more concrete and more diverse associations with them than people who were in favor of nuclear power plants. In addition, participants who were undecided often mentioned similar associations to those participants who were in favor. Males more often expressed associations with energy, waste disposal, and negative health effects. Females more often made associations with appearance descriptions, negative feelings, and negative environmental effects. The results further suggest that acceptance of replacing nuclear power plants was higher in the German-speaking part of the country, where all of the Swiss nuclear power plants are physically located. Practical implications for risk communication are discussed. © 2011 Society for Risk Analysis.

  7. Economics of nuclear power and climate change mitigation policies

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, Nico; Brecha, Robert J.; Luderer, Gunnar

    2012-01-01

    The events of March 2011 at the nuclear power complex in Fukushima, Japan, raised questions about the safe operation of nuclear power plants, with early retirement of existing nuclear power plants being debated in the policy arena and considered by regulators. Also, the future of building new nuclear power plants is highly uncertain. Should nuclear power policies become more restrictive, one potential option for climate change mitigation will be less available. However, a systematic analysis of nuclear power policies, including early retirement, has been missing in the climate change mitigation literature. We apply an energy economy model framework to derive scenarios and analyze the interactions and tradeoffs between these two policy fields. Our results indicate that early retirement of nuclear power plants leads to discounted cumulative global GDP losses of 0.07% by 2020. If, in addition, new nuclear investments are excluded, total losses will double. The effect of climate policies imposed by an intertemporal carbon budget on incremental costs of policies restricting nuclear power use is small. However, climate policies have much larger impacts than policies restricting the use of nuclear power. The carbon budget leads to cumulative discounted near term reductions of global GDP of 0.64% until 2020. Intertemporal flexibility of the carbon budget approach enables higher near-term emissions as a result of increased power generation from natural gas to fill the emerging gap in electricity supply, while still remaining within the overall carbon budget. Demand reductions and efficiency improvements are the second major response strategy. PMID:23027963

  8. A novel GRN mutation (GRN c.708+6_+9delTGAG) in frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43-positive inclusions: clinicopathologic report of 6 cases.

    PubMed

    Bit-Ivan, Esther N; Suh, Eunran; Shim, Hyung-Sub; Weintraub, Sandra; Hyman, Bradley T; Arnold, Steven E; McCarty-Wood, Elisabeth; Van Deerlin, Viviana M; Schneider, Julie A; Trojanowski, John Q; Frosch, Matthew P; Baker, Matt C; Rademakers, Rosa; Mesulam, Marsel; Bigio, Eileen H

    2014-05-01

    Understanding of frontotemporal lobar degeneration, the underlying pathology most often linked to the clinical diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia, is rapidly increasing. Mutations in 7 known genes (MAPT, GRN, C9orf72, VCP, CHMP2B, and, rarely, TARDBP and FUS) are associated with frontotemporal dementia, and the pathologic classification of frontotemporal lobar degeneration has recently been modified to reflect these discoveries. Mutations in one of these genes (GRN), which encodes progranulin, have been implicated in up to a quarter of cases of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 (TAR DNA-binding protein 43)-positive inclusions; currently, there are more than 60 known pathogenic mutations of the gene. We present the clinical, pathologic, and genetic findings on 6 cases from 4 families, 5 of which were shown to have a novel GRN c.708+6_+9delTGAG mutation.

  9. A look at the Soviet space nuclear power program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    For the most part Soviet nuclear power sources have been low-power nuclear reactors using a thermoelectric conversion principle. Recently the Soviet Union has flown two satellites using a higher power reactor that employs a thermionic conversion system. Despite reentry of two of the earlier reactors on board Cosmos 954 and Cosmos 1402 and the recent potential accident involving Cosmos 1900, the evidence points toward a continued Soviet use of nuclear power sources in space. Information in the open literature on the Soviet space nuclear power program, including the Romashka Topaz, the new reactor based on the Topaz program, and the RORSAT reactor experience, is summarized.

  10. Nuclear reactor power for an electrically powered orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Fujita, T.; Grossman, M.; Kia, T.; Nesmith, B.

    1987-01-01

    To help determine the systems requirements for a 300-kWe space nuclear reactor power system, a mission and spacecraft have been examined which utilize electric propulsion and this nuclear reactor power for multiple transfers of cargo between low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). A propulsion system employing ion thrusters and xenon propellant was selected. Propellant and thrusters are replaced after each sortie to GEO. The mass of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), empty and dry, is 11,000 kg; nominal propellant load is 5000 kg. The OTV operates between a circular orbit at 925 km altitude, 28.5 deg inclination, and GEO. Cargo is brought to the OTV by Shuttle and an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV); the OTV then takes it to GEO. The OTV can also bring cargo back from GEO, for transfer by OMV to the Shuttle. OTV propellant is resupplied and the ion thrusters are replaced by the OMV before each trip to GEO. At the end of mission life, the OTV's electric propulsion is used to place it in a heliocentric orbit so that the reactor will not return to earth. The nominal cargo capability to GEO is 6000 kg with a transit time of 120 days; 1350 kg can be transferred in 90 days, and 14,300 kg in 240 days. These capabilities can be considerably increased by using separate Shuttle launches to bring up propellant and cargo, or by changing to mercury propellant.

  11. Nuclear reactor power for an electrically powered orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Fujita, T.; Grossman, M.; Kia, T.; Nesmith, B.

    1987-01-01

    To help determine the systems requirements for a 300-kWe space nuclear reactor power system, a mission and spacecraft have been examined which utilize electric propulsion and this nuclear reactor power for multiple transfers of cargo between low earth orbit (LEO) and geosynchronous earth orbit (GEO). A propulsion system employing ion thrusters and xenon propellant was selected. Propellant and thrusters are replaced after each sortie to GEO. The mass of the Orbital Transfer Vehicle (OTV), empty and dry, is 11,000 kg; nominal propellant load is 5000 kg. The OTV operates between a circular orbit at 925 km altitude, 28.5 deg inclination, and GEO. Cargo is brought to the OTV by Shuttle and an Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV); the OTV then takes it to GEO. The OTV can also bring cargo back from GEO, for transfer by OMV to the Shuttle. OTV propellant is resupplied and the ion thrusters are replaced by the OMV before each trip to GEO. At the end of mission life, the OTV's electric propulsion is used to place it in a heliocentric orbit so that the reactor will not return to earth. The nominal cargo capability to GEO is 6000 kg with a transit time of 120 days; 1350 kg can be transferred in 90 days, and 14,300 kg in 240 days. These capabilities can be considerably increased by using separate Shuttle launches to bring up propellant and cargo, or by changing to mercury propellant.

  12. Novel Nuclear Powered Photocatalytic Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect

    White,John R.; Kinsmen,Douglas; Regan,Thomas M.; Bobek,Leo M.

    2005-08-29

    The University of Massachusetts Lowell Radiation Laboratory (UMLRL) is involved in a comprehensive project to investigate a unique radiation sensing and energy conversion technology with applications for in-situ monitoring of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) during cask transport and storage. The technology makes use of the gamma photons emitted from the SNF as an inherent power source for driving a GPS-class transceiver that has the ability to verify the position and contents of the SNF cask. The power conversion process, which converts the gamma photon energy into electrical power, is based on a variation of the successful dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) design developed by Konarka Technologies, Inc. (KTI). In particular, the focus of the current research is to make direct use of the high-energy gamma photons emitted from SNF, coupled with a scintillator material to convert some of the incident gamma photons into photons having wavelengths within the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum. The high-energy gammas from the SNF will generate some power directly via Compton scattering and the photoelectric effect, and the generated visible photons output from the scintillator material can also be converted to electrical power in a manner similar to that of a standard solar cell. Upon successful implementation of an energy conversion device based on this new gammavoltaic principle, this inherent power source could then be utilized within SNF storage casks to drive a tamper-proof, low-power, electronic detection/security monitoring system for the spent fuel. The current project has addressed several aspects associated with this new energy conversion concept, including the development of a base conceptual design for an inherent gamma-induced power conversion unit for SNF monitoring, the characterization of the radiation environment that can be expected within a typical SNF storage system, the initial evaluation of Konarka's base solar cell design, the design and

  13. Clinicopathologic variability of the GRN A9D mutation, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Cannon, Ashley; Fujioka, Shinsuke; Rutherford, Nicola J.; Ferman, Tanis J.; Broderick, Daniel F.; Boylan, Kevin B.; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Uitti, Ryan J.; Rademakers, Rosa; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: We examined the clinical and pathologic phenotypes of GRN mutation carriers with the pathogenic A9D (g.26C>A) missense mutation. Methods: Three patients with GRN A9D mutations were evaluated clinically and came to autopsy with subsequent neuropathologic examination. Results: The clinical diagnoses of patients with GRN A9D mutations were amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, atypical extrapyramidal disorder, and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia. Immunohistochemistry for TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) revealed variability in morphology and distribution of pathology. One patient had notable involvement of motor neurons in the spinal cord as well as type B TDP-43, whereas 2 other patients had type A TDP-43. Conclusions: The clinical presentation of the GRN A9D missense mutation is not restricted to behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia and may include aphasia, extrapyramidal features, and, notably, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PMID:23596077

  14. Nuclear Reactors for Space Power, Understanding the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corliss, William R.

    The historical development of rocketry and nuclear technology includes a specific description of Systems for Nuclear Auxiliary Power (SNAP) programs. Solar cells and fuel cells are considered as alternative power supplies for space use. Construction and operation of space power plants must include considerations of the transfer of heat energy to…

  15. Reframing nuclear power in the UK energy debate: nuclear power, climate change mitigation and radioactive waste.

    PubMed

    Bickerstaff, K; Lorenzoni, I; Pidgeon, N F; Poortinga, W; Simmons, P

    2008-04-01

    In the past decade, human influence on the climate through increased use of fossil fuels has become widely acknowledged as one of the most pressing issues for the global community. For the United Kingdom, we suggest that these concerns have increasingly become manifest in a new strand of political debate around energy policy, which reframes nuclear power as part of the solution to the need for low-carbon energy options. A mixed-methods analysis of citizen views of climate change and radioactive waste is presented, integrating focus group data and a nationally representative survey. The data allow us to explore how UK citizens might now and in the future interpret and make sense of this new framing of nuclear power--which ultimately centers on a risk-risk trade-off scenario. We use the term "reluctant acceptance" to describe how, in complex ways, many focus group participants discursively re-negotiated their position on nuclear energy when it was positioned alongside climate change. In the concluding section of the paper, we reflect on the societal implications of the emerging discourse of new nuclear build as a means of delivering climate change mitigation and set an agenda for future research regarding the (re)framing of the nuclear energy debate in the UK and beyond.

  16. TMEM106B regulates progranulin levels and the penetrance of FTLD in GRN mutation carriers

    PubMed Central

    Finch, N.; Carrasquillo, M.M.; Baker, M.; Rutherford, N.J.; Coppola, G.; DeJesus-Hernandez, M.; Crook, R.; Hunter, T.; Ghidoni, R.; Benussi, L.; Crook, J.; Finger, E.; Hantanpaa, K.J.; Karydas, A.M.; Sengdy, P.; Gonzalez, J.; Seeley, W.W.; Johnson, N.; Beach, T.G.; Mesulam, M.; Forloni, G.; Kertesz, A.; Knopman, D.S.; Uitti, R.; White, C.L.; Caselli, R.; Lippa, C.; Bigio, E.H.; Wszolek, Z.K.; Binetti, G.; Mackenzie, I.R.; Miller, B.L.; Boeve, B.F.; Younkin, S.G.; Dickson, D.W.; Petersen, R.C.; Graff-Radford, N.R.; Geschwind, D.H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To determine whether TMEM106B single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are associated with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) in patients with and without mutations in progranulin (GRN) and to determine whether TMEM106B modulates GRN expression. Methods: We performed a case-control study of 3 SNPs in TMEM106B in 482 patients with clinical and 80 patients with pathologic FTLD–TAR DNA-binding protein 43 without GRN mutations, 78 patients with FTLD with GRN mutations, and 822 controls. Association analysis of TMEM106B with GRN plasma levels was performed in 1,013 controls and TMEM106B and GRN mRNA expression levels were correlated in peripheral blood samples from 33 patients with FTLD and 150 controls. Results: In our complete FTLD patient cohort, nominal significance was identified for 2 TMEM106B SNPs (top SNP rs1990622, pallelic = 0.036). However, the most significant association with risk of FTLD was observed in the subgroup of GRN mutation carriers compared to controls (corrected pallelic = 0.0009), where there was a highly significant decrease in the frequency of homozygote carriers of the minor alleles of all TMEM106B SNPs (top SNP rs1990622, CC genotype frequency 2.6% vs 19.1%, corrected precessive = 0.009). We further identified a significant association of TMEM106B SNPs with plasma GRN levels in controls (top SNP rs1990622, corrected p = 0.002) and in peripheral blood samples a highly significant correlation was observed between TMEM106B and GRN mRNA expression in patients with FTLD (r = −0.63, p = 7.7 × 10−5) and controls (r = −0.49, p = 2.2 × 10−10). Conclusions: In our study, TMEM106B SNPs significantly reduced the disease penetrance in patients with GRN mutations, potentially by modulating GRN levels. These findings hold promise for the development of future protective therapies for FTLD. PMID:21178100

  17. Gender differences in attitudes toward nuclear power: a multivariate explanation

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine gender differences in attitudes toward nuclear power and to discover what factors account for these differences. The marginality explanation for these differences suggest that women have less-favorable attitudes toward nuclear power because they are less concerned about energy supplies and economic growth and are less convinced of the benefits of nuclear power for society than are men. The irrationality explanation holds that women are less favorable toward nuclear power because they are less knowledgeable about this technology than are men. The lay-rationality explanation argues that people form attitudes toward nuclear power which are consistent with their relevant beliefs, attitudes and values; thus, this explanation suggests that women's unfavorable attitudes toward nuclear power stem from greater concern about environmental protection, exposing society to risk, and lower faith in science and technology. Data for this study were collected via a mail questionnaire administered to a state wide sample of Washington residents (n= 696).

  18. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Go, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Primary structures for nuclear power plants are designed to resist expected earthquakes of the site. Two intensities are referred to as Operating Basis Earthquake and Design Basis Earthquake. These structures are required to accommodate these seismic loadings without loss of their functional integrity. Thus, no plastic yield is allowed. The application of NASTRAN in analyzing some of these seismic induced structural dynamic problems is described. NASTRAN, with some modifications, can be used to analyze most structures that are subjected to seismic loads. A brief review of the formulation of seismic-induced structural dynamics is also presented. Two typical structural problems were selected to illustrate the application of the various methods of seismic structural analysis by the NASTRAN system.

  19. Fatigue monitoring in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.G.; Shah, V.N.

    1995-04-01

    This paper summarizes fatigue monitoring methods and surveys their application in the nuclear power industry. The paper is based on a review of the technical literature. Two main reasons for fatigue monitoring are more frequent occurrence of some transients than that assumed in the fatigue design analysis and the discovery of stressors that were not included in the fatigue design analysis but may cause significant fatigue damage at some locations. One fatigue monitoring method involves use of plant operating data and procedures to update the fatigue usage. Another method involves monitoring of plant operating parameters using existing, or if needed, supplementary plant instrumentation for online computation of fatigue usage. Use of fatigue monitoring has better defined the operational transients. Most operational transients have been found less severe and fewer in numbers than anticipated in the design fatigue analysis. Use of fatigue monitoring has assisted in quantifying newly discovered stressors and has helped in detecting the presence of thermal stratification of unsuspected locations.

  20. Advanced radiator concepts. [for nuclear powered spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begg, L. L.; Engdahl, E. H.

    1989-01-01

    Two radiator systems to reject heat from future space nuclear power systems were conceptually designed. One design would dissipate 1.7 MWt of heat at 600 K, and the other would reject 2.4 MWt at 875 K. The low-temperature radiator utilized a pumped loop system constructed of titanium, and achieved a specific mass of 5.8 kg/sq m, including pumps and structure. The high-temperature radiator system utilized potassium heat pipes constructed of SiC-reinforced titanium, and achieved a specific mass of 5.5 kg/sq m. Both radiators took advantage of light, high-thermal-conductivity carbon/graphite composite fins to distribute and radiate the rejected heat.

  1. MARS, 600 MWth NUCLEAR POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect

    Cumo, M.; Naviglio, A.; Sorabella, L.

    2004-10-06

    MARS (Multipurpose Advanced Reactor, inherently Safe) is a 600 MWth, single loop, pressurized light water reactor (PWR), developed at the Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Energy Conversion of the University of Rome ''La Sapienza''. The design was focused to a multipurpose reactor to be used in high population density areas also for industrial heat production and, in particular, for water desalting. Using the well-proven technology and the operation experience of PWRs, the project introduces a lot of innovative features hugely improving the safety performance while keeping the cost of KWh competitive with traditional large power plants. Extensive use of passive safety, in depth plant simplification and decommissioning oriented design were the guidelines along the design development. The latest development in the plant design, in the decommissioning aspects and in the experimental activities supporting the project are shown in this paper.

  2. Detecting Cyber Attacks On Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rrushi, Julian; Campbell, Roy

    This paper proposes an unconventional anomaly detection approach that provides digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems in a nuclear power plant (NPP) with the capability to probabilistically discern between legitimate protocol frames and attack frames. The stochastic activity network (SAN) formalism is used to model the fusion of protocol activity in each digital I&C system and the operation of physical components of an NPP. SAN models are employed to analyze links between protocol frames as streams of bytes, their semantics in terms of NPP operations, control data as stored in the memory of I&C systems, the operations of I&C systems on NPP components, and NPP processes. Reward rates and impulse rewards are defined in the SAN models based on the activity-marking reward structure to estimate NPP operation profiles. These profiles are then used to probabilistically estimate the legitimacy of the semantics and payloads of protocol frames received by I&C systems.

  3. Some aspects of the decommissioning of nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Khvostova, M. S.

    2012-03-15

    The major factors influencing the choice of a national concept for the decommissioning of nuclear power plants are examined. The operating lifetimes of power generating units with nuclear reactors of various types (VVER-1000, VVER-440, RBMK-1000, EGP-6, and BN-600) are analyzed. The basic approaches to decommissioning Russian nuclear power plants and the treatment of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel are discussed. Major aspects of the ecological and radiation safety of personnel, surrounding populations, and the environment during decommissioning of nuclear installations are identified.

  4. JTEC panel on nuclear power in Japan. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, K.F.; Behnke, W.B.; Cousin, S.B.; Evans, E.A.; Olander, D.R.

    1990-10-01

    The report examines the status and direction of nuclear power-related research and development in Japan in six areas: the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear materials, instrumentation and control technology, CAD/CAM, nuclear safety research, and nuclear plant construction. Overall findings suggest that the nuclear power industry in Japan is at an advanced state of development; in particular, Japan is now technologically self-sufficient. Long-term goals of the Japanese program include closure of the complete fuel cycle and pursuit of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor as the future base system.

  5. Emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters.

    PubMed

    Bromet, Evelyn J

    2014-02-01

    The emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and cleanup workers are the highest risk groups. The emotional consequences occur independently of the actual exposure received. In contrast, studies of children raised in the shadows of the Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl accidents suggest that although their self-rated health is less satisfactory than that of their peers, their emotional, academic, and psychosocial development is comparable. The importance of the psychological impact is underscored by its chronicity and by several studies showing that poor mental health is associated with physical health conditions, early mortality, disability, and overuse of medical services. Given the established increase in mental health problems following TMI and Chernobyl, it is likely that the same pattern will occur in residents and evacuees affected by the Fukushima meltdowns. Preliminary data from Fukushima indeed suggest that workers and mothers of young children are at risk of depression, anxiety, psychosomatic, and post-traumatic symptoms both as a direct result of their fears about radiation exposure and an indirect result of societal stigma. Thus, it is important that non-mental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment within the walls of their clinics.Introduction of Emotional Consequences of Nuclear Power Plant Disasters (Video 2:15, http://links.lww.com/HP/A34).

  6. Historical overview of the US use of space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.

    1989-01-01

    Since 1961, the United States has successfully flown 35 space nuclear power sources on 20 space systems. These space systems have included the Apollo, Pioneer, Viking and Voyager spacecraft launched by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and navigation and communications satellites launched by the Department of Defense. These power sources performed as planned and i8n many cases exceeded their power requirements and/or lifetimes. All of the power sources met their safety requirements. This paper surveys past uses of space nuclear power in the US and thus serves as a historical framework for other papers in this Conference dealing with future US applications of space nuclear power.

  7. Communicating with stakeholders about nuclear power plant radiation.

    PubMed

    Bisconti, Ann Stouffer

    2011-01-01

    A national public opinion survey in 2008 measured public perceptions about radiation and specifically about radiation from nuclear power plants. The study also revealed effective messages for communicating with stakeholders about radiation from nuclear power plants. A comparison with a 1991 national survey on these topics shows that misperceptions about radiation persist, but fewer people now believe that those living near nuclear power plants are exposed to harmful levels of radiation.

  8. 77 FR 35080 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Record of Decision and Issuance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... fossil fuel generation, renewable energy sources, demand-side measures such as energy conservation, and... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Record of Decision and Issuance... Operations Inc. (the licensee), the operator of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (PNPS). Renewed...

  9. Future NASA mission applications of space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bennett, Gary L.; Mankins, John; Mcconnell, Dudley G.; Reck, Gregory M.

    1990-01-01

    Recent studies sponsored by NASA show a continuing need for space nuclear power. A recently completed study considered missions (such as a Jovian grand tour, a Uranus or Neptune orbiter and probe, and a Pluto flyby) that can only be done with nuclear power. There are also studies for missions beyond the outer boundaries of the solar system at distances of 100 to 1000 astronomical units. The NASA 90-day study on the Space Exploration Initiative identified a need for nuclear reactors to power lunar surface bases and radioisotope power sources for use in lunar or Martian rovers, as well as considering options for advanced, nuclear propulsion systems for human missions to Mars.

  10. 75 FR 16524 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Exemption 1.0 Background FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company (FENOC, the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License No... compliance date (Reference: June 4, 2009, letter from R. W. Borchardt, NRC, to M. S. Fertel, Nuclear...

  11. 75 FR 80549 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company (FENOC, the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating...

  12. 75 FR 16523 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company (FENOC, the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating License... M.S. Fertel, Nuclear Energy Institute). The licensee's request for an exemption is...

  13. 75 FR 38147 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company (FENOC, the licensee) is the holder of Facility Operating...

  14. Nuclear power systems for lunar and Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, R. J.; Bozek, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Initial studies of a variety of mission scenarios for the new Space Exploration Initiative, and the technologies necessary to enable or significantly enhance them, have identified the development of advanced space power systems whether solar, chemical or nuclear to be of prime importance. Lightweight, compact, reliable power systems for planetary rovers and a variety of surface vehicles, utility surface power, and power for advanced propulsion systems have been identified as critical needs for these missions. These mission scenarios, the concomitant power system requirements, and the power system options considered are discussed. The significant potential benefits of nuclear power are identified for meeting the power needs of the above applications.

  15. Nuclear power systems for lunar and Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, R. J.; Bozek, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Initial studies of a variety of mission scenarios for the new Space Exploration Initiative, and the technologies necessary to enable or significantly enhance them, have identified the development of advanced space power systems whether solar, chemical or nuclear to be of prime importance. Lightweight, compact, reliable power systems for planetary rovers and a variety of surface vehicles, utility surface power, and power for advanced propulsion systems have been identified as critical needs for these missions. These mission scenarios, the concomitant power system requirements, and power system options considered are discussed. The significant potential benefits of nuclear power are identified for meeting the power needs of the above applications.

  16. Nuclear power systems for lunar and Mars exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sovie, R. J.; Bozek, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Initial studies of a variety of mission scenarios for the new Space Exploration Initiative, and the technologies necessary to enable or significantly enhance them, have identified the development of advanced space power systems whether solar, chemical or nuclear to be of prime importance. Lightweight, compact, reliable power systems for planetary rovers and a variety of surface vehicles, utility surface power, and power for advanced propulsion systems have been identified as critical needs for these missions. These mission scenarios, the concomitant power system requirements, and the power system options considered are discussed. The significant potential benefits of nuclear power are identified for meeting the power needs of the above applications.

  17. Nuclear power systems for Lunar and Mars exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Sovie, R.J.; Bozek, J.M.

    1994-09-01

    Initial studies of a variety of mission scenarios for the new Space Exploration Initiative, and the technologies necessary to enable or significantly enhance them, have identified the development of advanced space power systems - whether solar, chemical or nuclear - to be of prime importance. Lightweight, compact, reliable power systems for planetary rovers and a variety of surface vehicles, utility surface power, and power for advanced propulsion systems were identified as critical needs for these missions. This paper discusses these mission scenarios, the concomitant power system requirements; the power system options considered and identifies the significant potential benefits of nuclear power for meeting the power needs of the above applications.

  18. Nuclear power in the Ukraine: Problems and prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Nigmatullin, N.R.

    1995-10-01

    Nuclear power production in the Ukraine started in 1977 with the startup of the first 1000-MW power-generating unit at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant. During the period from 1977 to 1989 sixteen power-generating units with a total electric capacity of 14,880 MW were put into operation at five nuclear power plants: ten VVER-1000, two VVER-440, and four RBMK-1000. As a result of the accident in 1986 in the fourth power-generating unit and the fire in 1991 in the second power-generating unit of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, these units are no longer operating. Therefore the total installed nuclear power plant capacity is 12,880 MW. Moreover, the construction of three more power-generating units with VVER-1000 reactors is almost completed at three nuclear power plants - Zaporozh`e, Roven, and Khmel`nitsk. These units are not in operation because of the moratorium announced by the Supreme Council of Ukraine. In connection with the Council`s decision, the Chernobyl nuclear power plant should have been shut down in 1993.

  19. Seismic stops for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cloud, R.L.; Leung, J.S.M.; Anderson, P.H. )

    1989-10-01

    In the regulated world of nuclear power, the need to have analytical proof of performance in hypothetical design-basis events such as earth quakes has placed a premium on design configurations that are mathematically tractable and easily analyzed. This is particularly true for the piping design. Depending on how the piping analyses are organized and on how old the plant is, there may be from 200 to 1000 separate piping runs to be designed, analyzed, and qualified. In this situation, the development of snubbers seemed like the answer to a piping engineer's prayer. At any place where seismic support was required but thermal motion had to be accommodated, a snubber could be specified. But, as experience has now shown, the program was solved only on paper. This article presents an alternative to conventional snubbers. These new devices, termed Seismic Stops are designed to replace snubbers directly and look like snubbers on the outside. But their design is based on a completely different principle. The original concept has adapted from early seismic-resistant pipe support designs used on fossil power plants in California. The fundamental idea is to provide a space envelope in which the pipe can expand freely between the hot and cold positions, but cannot move outside the envelope. Seismic Stops are designed to transmit any possible impact load, as would occur in an earthquake, away from the pipe itself to the Seismic Stop. The Seismic Stop pipe support is shown.

  20. China's Nuclear Power Program: Options for the US

    SciTech Connect

    Suttmeier, R.P.

    1985-01-01

    The issue of American nuclear cooperation with the People's Republic of China is examined with regards to political relations, commercial benefits to the United States, and nonproliferation. China's interest in nuclear power is examined, and its nuclear program is briefly reviewed from the 1950's to present. China's international nuclear relations with other countries are discussed, and implications for the United States examined, particularly with regards to China's intentions toward nuclear proliferation, danger of diversion of material for nuclear weapons, use of pressurized water reactor technology for Chinese naval reactors, and the terms of the nuclear cooperation agreement. (LEW)

  1. [Risk communication in construction of new nuclear power plant].

    PubMed

    He, Gui-Zhen; Lü, Yong-Long

    2013-03-01

    Accompanied by construction of new nuclear power plants in the coming decades in China, risk management has become increasingly politicized and contentious. Nuclear risk communication is a critical component in helping individuals prepare for, respond to, and recover from nuclear power emergencies. It was discussed that awareness of trust and public attitudes are important determinants in nuclear power risk communication and management. However, there is limited knowledge about how to best communicate with at-risk populations around nuclear power plant in China. To bridge this gap, this study presented the attitudinal data from a field survey in under-building Haiyang nuclear power plant, Shandong Province to measure public support for and opposition to the local construction of nuclear power plant. The paper discussed the structure of the communication process from a descriptive point of view, recognizing the importance of trust and understanding the information openness. The results showed that decision-making on nuclear power was dominated by a closed "iron nuclear triangle" of national governmental agencies, state-owned nuclear enterprises and scientific experts. Public participation and public access to information on nuclear constructions and assessments have been marginal and media was a key information source. As information on nuclear power and related risks is very restricted in China, Chinese citizens (51%) tend to choose the government as the most trustworthy source. More respondents took the negative attitudes toward nuclear power plant construction around home. It drew on studies about risk communication to develop some guidelines for successful risk communication. The conclusions have vast implications for how we approach risk management in the future. The findings should be of interest to state and local emergency managers, community-based organizations, public health researchers, and policy makers.

  2. Fukushima nuclear power plant accident was preventable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanoglu, Utku; Synolakis, Costas

    2015-04-01

    On 11 March 2011, the fourth largest earthquake in recorded history triggered a large tsunami, which will probably be remembered from the dramatic live pictures in a country, which is possibly the most tsunami-prepared in the world. The earthquake and tsunami caused a major nuclear power plant (NPP) accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi, owned by Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO). The accident was likely more severe than the 1979 Three Mile Island and less severe than the Chernobyl 1986 accidents. Yet, after the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami had hit the Madras Atomic Power Station there had been renewed interest in the resilience of NPPs to tsunamis. The 11 March 2011 tsunami hit the Onagawa, Fukushima Dai-ichi, Fukushima Dai-ni, and Tokai Dai-ni NPPs, all located approximately in a 230km stretch along the east coast of Honshu. The Onagawa NPP was the closest to the source and was hit by an approximately height of 13m tsunami, of the same height as the one that hit the Fukushima Dai-ichi. Even though the Onagawa site also subsided by 1m, the tsunami did not reach to the main critical facilities. As the International Atomic Energy Agency put it, the Onagawa NPP survived the event "remarkably undamaged." At Fukushima Dai-ichi, the three reactors in operation were shut down due to strong ground shaking. The earthquake damaged all offsite electric transmission facilities. Emergency diesel generators (EDGs) provided back up power and started cooling down the reactors. However, the tsunami flooded the facilities damaging 12 of its 13 EDGs and caused a blackout. Among the consequences were hydrogen explosions that released radioactive material in the environment. It is unfortunately clear that TEPCO and Japan's principal regulator Nuclear and Industrial Safety Agency (NISA) had failed in providing a professional hazard analysis for the plant, even though their last assessment had taken place only months before the accident. The main reasons are the following. One

  3. Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Containment Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, H.L.; Naus, D.J.; Norris, W.E.

    1998-12-01

    Safety-related nuclear power plant (NPP) structures are designed to withstand loadings from a number of low-probability external and interval events, such as earthquakes, tornadoes, and loss-of-coolant accidents. Loadings incurred during normal plant operation therefore generally are not significant enough to cause appreciable degradation. However, these structures are susceptible to aging by various processes depending on the operating environment and service conditions. The effects of these processes may accumulate within these structures over time to cause failure under design conditions, or lead to costly repair. In the late 1980s and early 1990s several occurrences of degradation of NPP structures were discovered at various facilities (e.g., corrosion of pressure boundary components, freeze- thaw damage of concrete, and larger than anticipated loss of prestressing force). Despite these degradation occurrences and a trend for an increasing rate of occurrence, in-service inspection of the safety-related structures continued to be performed in a somewhat cursory manner. Starting in 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) published the first of several new requirements to help ensure that adequate in-service inspection of these structures is performed. Current regulatory in-service inspection requirements are reviewed and a summary of degradation experience presented. Nondestructive examination techniques commonly used to inspect the NPP steel and concrete structures to identify and quantify the amount of damage present are reviewed. Finally, areas where nondestructive evaluation techniques require development (i.e., inaccessible portions of the containment pressure boundary, and thick heavily reinforced concrete sections are discussed.

  4. The Mighty Atom? The Development of Nuclear Power Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy for the generation of electricity started in the 1950s and was viewed, at the time, as a source of virtually free power. Development flourished and some countries adopted the nuclear option as their principal source for producing electrical energy. However, a series of nuclear incidents and concern about the treatment of…

  5. The nuclear power debate. A guide to the literature

    SciTech Connect

    Mansfield, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    This book provides information on one of the hot issues of the day: nuclear power. Arranged for ease of use into three sections--''Pro-Nuclear,'' ''Anti-Nuclear,'' and ''Neutral''--the book cites over 100 of the most important recent books on the subject, offering for each full bibliographic data and a lengthy annotation.

  6. The Hazards Posed by the Global Development of Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    Outlines the growth in the demand for energy on a world-wide basis. Reviews the development of nuclear power and points out the many hazards in the nuclear fuel cycle. Describes the nature of nuclear wastes and explains the quantities involved and the current techniques for waste disposal. (GS)

  7. The Mighty Atom? The Development of Nuclear Power Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy for the generation of electricity started in the 1950s and was viewed, at the time, as a source of virtually free power. Development flourished and some countries adopted the nuclear option as their principal source for producing electrical energy. However, a series of nuclear incidents and concern about the treatment of…

  8. The Hazards Posed by the Global Development of Nuclear Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Reilly, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    Outlines the growth in the demand for energy on a world-wide basis. Reviews the development of nuclear power and points out the many hazards in the nuclear fuel cycle. Describes the nature of nuclear wastes and explains the quantities involved and the current techniques for waste disposal. (GS)

  9. Utilization of Nuclear Power for Moon Missions: Nuclear Based Power and Propulsion Techniques for Spacecraft and Nuclear Power Generation Methods for Moon Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guven, U. G.

    2016-11-01

    With a nuclear reactor, all of the power requirements in a Moon-based station with reduced gravity conditions can be met for several years without any difficulty. Nuclear reactor can be useful for Moon-bound spacecraft for the Moon and habitats.

  10. Specific telomere dysfunction induced by GRN163L increases radiation sensitivity in breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez-Millan, Jaime; Goldblatt, Erin M.; Gryaznov, Sergei M.; Mendonca, Marc S.; Herbert, Brittney-Shea . E-mail: brherber@iupui.edu

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: Telomerase is expressed in 80-90% of tumor cells, but is absent in most somatic cells. The absence of telomerase activity results in progressive telomere shortening, leading to cellular senescence or death through deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage signals. In addition, a role for telomerase in DNA damage repair has also been suggested. A specific telomerase inhibitor, GRN163L that is complementary to the template region of the telomerase ribonucleic acid component (hTR). We hypothesized that exposure to GRN163L, either through immediate inhibition of telomerase activity or through eventual telomere shortening and dysfunction, may enhance radiation sensitivity. Our goal was to test whether the treatment with GRN163L enhances sensitivity to irradiation (IR) in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Methods and Materials: The MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were treated with or without GRN163L for 2-42 days. Inhibition of telomerase activity and shortening of telomeres were confirmed. Cells were then irradiated and clonogenic assays were performed to show cell survival differences. In vivo studies using MDA-MB-231 xenografts were performed to corroborate the in vitro results. Results: We show that cells with shortened telomeres due to GRN163L enhance the effect on IR reducing survival by an additional 30% (p < 0.01). These results are confirmed in vivo, with a significant decrease in tumor growth in mice exposed to GRN163L. Conclusions: We found that GRN163L is a promising adjuvant treatment in combination with radiation therapy that may improve the therapeutic index by enhancing the radiation sensitivity. These studies prompt further investigation as to whether this combination can be applied to other cancers and the clinic.

  11. Space Nuclear Power Public and Stakeholder Risk Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Sandra M.; Sklar, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The 1986 Challenger accident coupled with the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident increased public concern about the safety of spacecraft using nuclear technology. While three nuclear powered spacecraft had been launched before 1986 with little public interest, future nuclear powered missions would see significantly more public concern and require NASA to increase its efforts to communicate mission risks to the public. In 1987 a separate risk communication area within the Launch Approval Planning Group of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was created to address public concern about the health, environmental, and safety risks of NASA missions. The lessons learned from the risk communication strategies developed for the nuclear powered Galileo, Ulysses, and Cassini missions are reviewed in this paper and recommendations are given as to how these lessons can be applied to future NASA missions that may use nuclear power systems and other potentially controversial NASA missions.

  12. Space Nuclear Power Public and Stakeholder Risk Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Sandra M.; Sklar, Maria

    2005-01-01

    The 1986 Challenger accident coupled with the Chernobyl nuclear reactor accident increased public concern about the safety of spacecraft using nuclear technology. While three nuclear powered spacecraft had been launched before 1986 with little public interest, future nuclear powered missions would see significantly more public concern and require NASA to increase its efforts to communicate mission risks to the public. In 1987 a separate risk communication area within the Launch Approval Planning Group of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory was created to address public concern about the health, environmental, and safety risks of NASA missions. The lessons learned from the risk communication strategies developed for the nuclear powered Galileo, Ulysses, and Cassini missions are reviewed in this paper and recommendations are given as to how these lessons can be applied to future NASA missions that may use nuclear power systems and other potentially controversial NASA missions.

  13. Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

    This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

  14. Nuclear Power and the Environment--Questions and Answers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campana, Robert J.; Langer, Sidney

    This booklet has been developed to help the layman understand and evaluate the various efforts being undertaken to utilize nuclear power for the benefit of mankind. The question and answer format is utilized. Among the topics discussed are: Our Needs for Electricity; Sources of Radiation; Radiation from Nuclear Power Plants; Biological Effects of…

  15. Energy Education: Responding to the Nuclear Power Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry-Miller, Kathleen M.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses problems associated with the use of nuclear power as a source of energy. Sources of exposure to radiation, the effects of exposure to radiation on children's health, and safe alternatives to nuclear power that can be taught to children are among the topics addressed. (Author/RH)

  16. Nuclear space power safety and facility guidelines study

    SciTech Connect

    Mehlman, W.F.

    1995-09-11

    This report addresses safety guidelines for space nuclear reactor power missions and was prepared by The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) under a Department of Energy grant, DE-FG01-94NE32180 dated 27 September 1994. This grant was based on a proposal submitted by the JHU/APL in response to an {open_quotes}Invitation for Proposals Designed to Support Federal Agencies and Commercial Interests in Meeting Special Power and Propulsion Needs for Future Space Missions{close_quotes}. The United States has not launched a nuclear reactor since SNAP 10A in April 1965 although many Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) have been launched. An RTG powered system is planned for launch as part of the Cassini mission to Saturn in 1997. Recently the Ballistic Missile Defense Office (BMDO) sponsored the Nuclear Electric Propulsion Space Test Program (NEPSTP) which was to demonstrate and evaluate the Russian-built TOPAZ II nuclear reactor as a power source in space. As of late 1993 the flight portion of this program was canceled but work to investigate the attributes of the reactor were continued but at a reduced level. While the future of space nuclear power systems is uncertain there are potential space missions which would require space nuclear power systems. The differences between space nuclear power systems and RTG devices are sufficient that safety and facility requirements warrant a review in the context of the unique features of a space nuclear reactor power system.

  17. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF AVAILABILITY IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The method of generating functions is used to calculate the probability of successful operation of a nuclear power plant for given fractions of the...repair data obtained are used in the computing code for illustration. The outline of a proposed Nuclear Power Plant Availability Handbook is included to illustrate the topics which would be covered and their arrangement. (Author)

  18. Energy Education: Responding to the Nuclear Power Controversy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fry-Miller, Kathleen M.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses problems associated with the use of nuclear power as a source of energy. Sources of exposure to radiation, the effects of exposure to radiation on children's health, and safe alternatives to nuclear power that can be taught to children are among the topics addressed. (Author/RH)

  19. DC power transmission from the Leningradskaya Nuclear Power Plant to Vyborg

    SciTech Connect

    Koshcheev, L. A.; Shul'ginov, N. G.

    2011-05-15

    DC power transmission from the Leningradskaya Nuclear Power Plant (LAES) to city of Vyborg is proposed. This will provide a comprehensive solution to several important problems in the development and control of the unified power system (EES) of Russia.

  20. From the first nuclear power plant to fourth-generation nuclear power installations [on the 60th anniversary of the World's First nuclear power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachkov, V. I.; Kalyakin, S. G.; Kukharchuk, O. F.; Orlov, Yu. I.; Sorokin, A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Successful commissioning in the 1954 of the World's First nuclear power plant constructed at the Institute for Physics and Power Engineering (IPPE) in Obninsk signaled a turn from military programs to peaceful utilization of atomic energy. Up to the decommissioning of this plant, the AM reactor served as one of the main reactor bases on which neutron-physical investigations and investigations in solid state physics were carried out, fuel rods and electricity generating channels were tested, and isotope products were bred. The plant served as a center for training Soviet and foreign specialists on nuclear power plants, the personnel of the Lenin nuclear-powered icebreaker, and others. The IPPE development history is linked with the names of I.V. Kurchatov, A.I. Leipunskii, D.I. Blokhintsev, A.P. Aleksandrov, and E.P. Slavskii. More than 120 projects of various nuclear power installations were developed under the scientific leadership of the IPPE for submarine, terrestrial, and space applications, including two water-cooled power units at the Beloyarsk NPP in Ural, the Bilibino nuclear cogeneration station in Chukotka, crawler-mounted transportable TES-3 power station, the BN-350 reactor in Kazakhstan, and the BN-600 power unit at the Beloyarsk NPP. Owing to efforts taken on implementing the program for developing fast-neutron reactors, Russia occupied leading positions around the world in this field. All this time, IPPE specialists worked on elaborating the principles of energy supertechnologies of the 21st century. New large experimental installations have been put in operation, including the nuclear-laser setup B, the EGP-15 accelerator, the large physical setup BFS, the high-pressure setup SVD-2; scientific, engineering, and technological schools have been established in the field of high- and intermediate-energy nuclear physics, electrostatic accelerators of multicharge ions, plasma processes in thermionic converters and nuclear-pumped lasers, physics of compact

  1. Macrofouling control in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ekis, E.W. Jr.; Keoplin-Gall, S.M.; McCarthy, R.E.

    1991-11-01

    Macrofouling of cooling-water systems is one of the more significant and costly problems encountered in the nuclear power industry. Both marine and freshwater macroinvertebrates can be responsible for losses in plant availability because of plugged intakes and heat transfer equipment. There is a greater diversity of macrofouling organisms in marine waters than in fresh waters. Marine macrofouling organisms include barnacles, mollusks, bryozoans, and hydroids. Barnacles are crustaceans with feathery appendages, which allow them to attach to a variety of surfaces. They are a major cause of severe macrofouling because they can remain attached even after death. The major freshwater macrofouling organisms include the Asiatic Clam (Corbicula fluminea) and the newest freshwater macrofouler, the Zebra Mussel (Dreissena polymorpha). The introduction of the Zebra Mussel into the Great Lakes has created economic and ecological problems that will not easily be solved. The threat of intercontinental dispersal of the Zebra Mussel in America is serious. Research programs have been initiated around the country to develop control methods for this macrofouling problem. The various control methodologies can be classified in the following categories: biological, chemical, physical, and mechanical. Laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the efficacy of Actibrom against mature Zebra Mussels.

  2. Nuclear power plant Severe Accident Research Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Larkins, J T; Cunningham, M A

    1983-01-01

    The Severe Accident Research Plan (SARP) will provide technical information necessary to support regulatory decisions in the severe accident area for existing or planned nuclear power plants, and covers research for the time period of January 1982 through January 1986. SARP will develop generic bases to determine how safe the plants are and where and how their level of safety ought to be improved. The analysis to address these issues will be performed using improved probabilistic risk assessment methodology, as benchmarked to more exact data and analysis. There are thirteen program elements in the plan and the work is phased in two parts, with the first phase being completed in early 1984, at which time an assessment will be made whether or not any major changes will be recommended to the Commission for operating plants to handle severe accidents. Additionally at this time, all of the thirteen program elements in Chapter 5 will be reviewed and assessed in terms of how much additional work is necessary and where major impacts in probabilistic risk assessment might be achieved. Confirmatory research will be carried out in phase II to provide additional assurance on the appropriateness of phase I decisions. Most of this work will be concluded by early 1986.

  3. Regulatory Guidance for Lightning Protection in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, Roger A; Wilgen, John B; Ewing, Paul D; Korsah, Kofi; Antonescu, Christina E

    2006-01-01

    Abstract - Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was engaged by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) to develop the technical basis for regulatory guidance to address design and implementation practices for lightning protection systems in nuclear power plants (NPPs). Lightning protection is becoming increasingly important with the advent of digital and low-voltage analog systems in NPPs. These systems have the potential to be more vulnerable than older analog systems to the resulting power surges and electromagnetic interference (EMI) when lightning strikes facilities or power lines. This paper discusses the technical basis for guidance to licensees and applicants covered in Regulatory Guide (RG) 1.204, Guidelines for Lightning Protection of Nuclear Power Plants, issued August 2005. RG 1.204 describes guidance for practices that are acceptable to the NRC staff for protecting nuclear power structures and systems from direct lightning strikes and the resulting secondary effects.

  4. Perception of risk and the future of nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Slovic, P.

    1993-04-01

    Public support for nuclear power has declined greatly, driven by a number of powerful forces and events. Numerous studies have demonstrated the public`s extreme perceptions of risk and negative attitudes regarding nuclear power. This negativity is remarkable in light of the confidence most technical analysts have regarding the safety of this technology. Public fears and opposition to nuclear power can be seen as a crisis in confidence, a profound breakdown in trust in the scientific, governmental, and industrial managers of nuclear technologies. The problem is not due to public ignorance or irrationality, but is deeply rooted in individual psychology and the adversarial nature of our social, institutional, legal, and political systems of risk management. In the absence of revolutionary changes in the ways that risks are managed in our society, it is unlikely that public trust, confidence, and acceptance of nuclear power can be regained.

  5. Applications of Neutron Radiography for the Nuclear Power Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craft, Aaron E.; Barton, John P.

    The World Conference on Neutron Radiography (WCNR) and International Topical Meeting on Neutron Radiography (ITMNR) series have been running over 35 years. The most recent event, ITMNR-8, focused on industrial applications and was the first time this series was hosted in China. In China, more than twenty new nuclear power plants are under construction and plans have been announced to increase the nuclear capacity by a factor of three within fifteen years. There are additional prospects in many other nations. Neutron tests were vital during previous developments of materials and components for nuclear power applications, as reported in the WCNR and ITMNR conference series. For example a majority of the 140 papers in the Proceedings of the First WCNR are for the benefit of the nuclear power industry. Many of those techniques are being utilized and advanced to the present time. Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Applications include examination of nuclear waste, nuclear fuels, cladding, control elements, and other critical components. In this paper, applications of neutron radiography techniques developed and applied internationally for the nuclear power industry since the earliest years are reviewed, and the question is asked whether neutron test techniques, in general, can be of value in development of the present and future generations of nuclear power plants world-wide.

  6. Applications of neutron radiography for the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Craft, Aaron E.; Barton, John P.

    2016-11-01

    The World Conference on Neutron Radiography (WCNR) and International Topical Meeting on Neutron Radiography (ITMNR) series have been running over 35 years. The most recent event, ITMNR-8, focused on industrial applications and was the first time this series was hosted in China. In China, more than twenty new nuclear power plants are in construction and plans have been announced to increase the nuclear capacity further by a factor of three within fifteen years. There are additional prospects in many other nations. Neutron tests were vital during previous developments of materials and components for nuclear power applications, as reported in this conference series. For example a majority of the 140 papers in the Proceedings of the First WCNR are for the benefit of the nuclear power industry. Included are reviews of the diverse techniques being applied in Europe, Japan, the United States, and at many other centers. Many of those techniques are being utilized and advanced to the present time. Neutron radiography of irradiated nuclear fuel provides more comprehensive information about the internal condition of irradiated nuclear fuel than any other non-destructive technique to date. Applications include examination of nuclear waste, nuclear fuels, cladding, control elements, and other critical components. In this paper, the techniques developed and applied internationally for the nuclear power industry since the earliest years are reviewed, and the question is asked whether neutron test techniques can be of value in development of the present and future generations of nuclear power plants world-wide.

  7. Important technology considerations for space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Kuspa, J.P.; Wahlquist, E.J.; Bitz, D.A.

    1988-03-01

    This paper discusses the technology considerations that guide the development of space nuclear power sources (NPS) by the Department of Energy (DOE) to meet a wide variety of applications. The Department and its predecessor agencies have been developing NPS since the 1950s and producing NPS for spacecraft for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DOD) since the early 1960s. No one nuclear power type, isotope or reactor, will suffice over the entire range of mission power required. Nor is one type of power conversion system, be it static or dynamic, the optimum choice of all space nuclear power system applications. There is a need for DOE, in partnership with its users, NASA and DOD, to develop a variety of types of space nuclear power sources -- isotope-static, isotope-dynamic, reactor-static, and reactor-dynamic -- to meet mission requirements well into the next century. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Economic Conditions and Factors Affecting New Nuclear Power Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, Thomas J.

    2014-10-01

    This report documents work performed in support of the US Department of Energy Office of Nuclear Energy’s Advanced Small Modular Reactor (AdvSMR) program. The report presents information and results from economic analyses to describe current electricity market conditions and those key factors that may impact the deployment of AdvSMRs or any other new nuclear power plants. Thus, this report serves as a reference document for DOE as it moves forward with its plans to develop advanced reactors, including AdvSMRs. For the purpose of this analysis, information on electricity markets and nuclear power plant operating costs will be combined to examine the current state of the nuclear industry and the process required to successfully move forward with new nuclear power in general and AdvSMRs in particular. The current electricity market is generally unfavorable to new nuclear construction, especially in deregulated markets with heavy competition from natural gas and subsidized renewables. The successful and profitable operation of a nuclear power plant (or any power plant) requires the rate at which the electricity is sold to be sufficiently greater than the cost to operate. The wholesale rates in most US markets have settled into values that provide profits for most operating nuclear power plants but are too low to support the added cost of capital recovery for new nuclear construction. There is a strong geographic dependence on the wholesale rate, with some markets currently able to support new nuclear construction. However, there is also a strong geographic dependence on pronuclear public opinion; the areas where power prices are high tend to have unfavorable views on the construction of new nuclear power plants. The use of government-backed incentives, such as subsidies, can help provide a margin to help justify construction projects that otherwise may not seem viable. Similarly, low interest rates for the project will also add a positive margin to the economic

  9. Nuclear space power and propulsion requirements and issues

    SciTech Connect

    Swerdling, M.; Isenberg, L.

    1995-12-31

    The use of nuclear power in space is going through a low point. The kinds of missions that would use nuclear power are expensive and there are few new expensive missions. Both NASA and DoD are in a mode of cheaper, faster, better, which means using what is available as much as possible and only incorporating new technology to reduce mission cost. NASA is performing Mission to Planet Earth and detailed exploration missions of Mars. These NASA missions can be done with solar-battery power subsystems and there is no need for nuclear power. The NASA mission to Pluto does require nuclear radioisotope power. Ways to reduce the power subsystem cost and the power level are being investigated. NASA is studying ways to explore beyond Mars with solar-battery power because of the cost and uncertainty in the availability and launchability of nuclear space power systems. The DoD missions are all in earth orbit and can be done with solar-battery systems. The major DoD requirement at present is to reduce costs of all their space missions. One way to do this is to develop highly efficient upper stage boosters that can be integrated with lower cost Earth to low orbit stages and still place their payloads in to higher orbits. One attractive upper stage is a nuclear bimodal (propulsion and power) engine to accomplished lower booster cost to place space assets in GEO. However this is not being pursued because of DOE`s new policy not to fund nuclear space power research and development as well as the difficulty in obtaining launch approval for nuclear propulsion and power systems.

  10. Nuclear Power Technologies for Deep Space and Planetary Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephenson, K.; Blancquaert, T.

    2008-09-01

    Photovoltaic cells are well established as the appropriate primary power source for most space missions. For long duration missions that cannot rely on harnessing the external power of the sun, electrochemical processes are simply too low in energy density to provide useful sustained power. Nuclear processes, however, can have huge energy densities, and for this reason, nuclear power systems (NPS) are the only current alternative to solar arrays for long-term generation of power in space.Although nuclear power has been in use since the beginnings of spaceflight, it remains a niche technology that has not enjoyed the visibility and commercial-sector development effort of solar photovoltaics. However, as our space science and exploration programmes look to the outer planets or to long-duration lander missions, nuclear power becomes a key enabling technology.It is logical and useful to divide space nuclear power systems into three categories. In order of increasing complexity, these are:• Direct production of heat by radioactive decay.• Electrical power generation via radioactive decay heat.• Nuclear reactor systems.Past and future mission applications for these are briefly considered before examining, in greater detail, the technology challenges presented by the first two classes of NPS; the radioactive decay heat systems. Of particular current interest are the various methods for conversion of heat to electrical power. For space nuclear power systems, thermoelectricity has been the dominant technology, due to its long-term reliability and vibration-free operation. However, the cost, mass, and safety implications of radioisotopic fuel provide a strong driver to move towards higher-efficiency conversion techniques that could greatly reduce the fuel quantities required.This paper reviews the established technologies used in space nuclear power systems, and then looks to the future, summarising the main areas of worldwide development and considering the

  11. Examining Factors Affecting Attitudes toward Nuclear Power in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Tzu-Jen

    Nuclear power has become a major issue in Taiwan for several decades. The objective of the present study is to obtain evidence about the major determinants contributing to attitudes toward nuclear power, by investigating socioeconomic factors, environmental attitudes, knowledge of issues, trust, and risk perception, in shaping nuclear attitudes. A face-to-face survey was conducted using paper-based questionnaires from July 2014 to September 2014. Finally, 364 surveys were collected, of which 356 met validation requirements. The findings showed (1) knowledge of issues, trust in university scientists, trust in environmental groups, and risk perception directly influence attitudes toward nuclear power. (2) Risk perception is directly influenced by trust in nuclear authorities, trust in environmental groups, environmental attitudes, and party preference. (3) Gender, age, and party preference directly influence knowledge, trust in nuclear authorities, or trust in university scientists. The potential explanations and implications of findings are discussed.

  12. Expanding Science Knowledge: Enabled by Nuclear Power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Karla B.

    2011-01-01

    The availability of Radioisotope Power Sources (RPSs) power opens up new and exciting mission concepts (1) New trajectories available (2) Power for long term science and operations Astonishing science value associated with these previously non-viable missions

  13. The future of nuclear power in Latin America

    SciTech Connect

    Eibenschutz, J.

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the future prospects of nuclear power in Latin America. As part of the developing world, Latin America has a great potential for energy growth. Although there are substantial differences among the different countries of the area, one common denominator is the relatively low per-capita energy consumption. As in many other regions of the world, nuclear power makes sense to complement hydro and fossil-fueled power generation. One of the main restrictions to the growth of nuclear power has been the relatively small size of some electric system. As in most developing countries, the damage to the environment due to the energy-producing systems is very important. In countries like Cuba, nuclear power is clearly the most economical source, since the country lacks indigenous energy resources and the need to import primary energy sources favors nuclear power. The problem of the Latin American region is a severe shortage of financial resources. Standardization has been recognized as one of the better mechanisms to lower nuclear power costs. Argentina has been proposing the construction of CANDU-type reactors as the basis for their standard program, and some years ago Mexico took steps to launch a program for the installation of {approx}20 identical units. As in the whole world, the general public is reluctant to accept nuclear power. So far, nuclear power plants have been important to Latin America, with varying levels of local participation, but with imported technology. Unless a major scientific breakthrough takes place, nuclear power will constitute an important component of the energy system in Latin America.

  14. JTEC panel report on nuclear power in Japan. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, K.F.; Behnke, W.B.; Cousin, S.B.; Evans, E.A.; Olander, D.R.

    1990-10-01

    The report examines the status and direction of nuclear power-related research and development in Japan in six areas: the nuclear fuel cycle, nuclear materials, instrumentation and control technology, CAD/CAM, nuclear safety research, and nuclear plant construction. The report is based on a review of literature and one week trip to Japan in January 1990 during which the members of the Panel visited numerous Japanese laboratories and other nuclear facilities. The overall findings of the Panel suggest that the nuclear power industry in Japan is at an advanced state of development; in particular, Japan is now technologically self-sufficient. Long-term goals of the Japanese program include closure of the complete fuel cycle and pursuit of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor as the future base system.

  15. EMOTIONAL CONSEQUENCES OF NUCLEAR POWER PLANT DISASTERS

    PubMed Central

    Bromet, Evelyn J.

    2014-01-01

    The emotional consequences of nuclear power plant disasters include depression, anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and medically unexplained somatic symptoms. These effects are often long term and associated with fears about developing cancer. Research on disasters involving radiation, particularly evidence from Chernobyl, indicates that mothers of young children and cleanup workers are the highest risk groups. The emotional consequences occur independently of the actual exposure received. In contrast, studies of children raised in the shadows of the Three Mile Island (TMI) and Chernobyl accidents suggest that although their self-rated health is less satisfactory than that of their peers, their emotional, academic, and psychosocial development is comparable. The importance of the psychological impact is underscored by its chronicity and by several studies showing that poor mental health is associated with physical health conditions, early mortality, disability, and over-utilization of medical services. Given the established increase in mental health problems following TMI and Chernobyl, it is likely that the same pattern will occur in residents and evacuees affected by the Fukushima meltdowns. Preliminary data from Fukushima indeed suggest that workers and mothers of young children are at risk of depression, anxiety, psychosomatic, and post-traumatic symptoms both as a direct result of their fears about radiation exposure and an indirect result of societal stigma. Thus, it is important that nonmental health providers learn to recognize and manage psychological symptoms and that medical programs be designed to reduce stigma and alleviate psychological suffering by integrating psychiatric and medical treatment within the walls of their clinics. PMID:24378494

  16. Effect of nuclear power on CO₂ emission from power plant sector in Iran.

    PubMed

    Kargari, Nargess; Mastouri, Reza

    2011-01-01

    It is predicted that demand for electricity in Islamic Republic of Iran will continue to increase dramatically in the future due to the rapid pace of economic development leading to construction of new power plants. At the present time, most of electricity is generated by burning fossil fuels which result in emission of great deal of pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHG) such as SO₂, NOx, and CO₂. The power industry is the largest contributor to these emissions. Due to minimal emission of GHG by renewable and nuclear power plants, they are most suitable replacements for the fossil-fueled power plants. However, the nuclear power plants are more suitable than renewable power plants in providing baseload electricity. The Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant, the only nuclear power plant of Iran, is expected to start operation in 2010. This paper attempts to interpret the role of Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP) in CO₂ emission trend of power plant sector in Iran. In order to calculate CO₂ emissions from power plants, National CO₂ coefficients have been used. The National CO₂ emission coefficients are according to different fuels (natural gas, fuels gas, fuel oil). By operating Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant in 2010, nominal capacity of electricity generation in Iran will increase by about 1,000 MW, which increases the electricity generation by almost 7,000 MWh/year (it is calculated according to availability factor and nominal capacity of BNPP). Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant will decrease the CO₂ emission in Iran power sector, by about 3% in 2010.

  17. 75 FR 80547 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit No. 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company (CP&L, the licensee) is the holder of Renewed Facility...

  18. 75 FR 9958 - Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company, Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company (the licensee), now doing business as Progress Energy...

  19. 77 FR 13156 - Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ... COMMISSION Carolina Power & Light Company; Shearon Harris Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 1; Exemption 1.0 Background Carolina Power & Light Company, the licensee, doing business as Progress Energy Carolinas Inc., is...) 50.46, ``Acceptance criteria for emergency core cooling systems for light- water nuclear...

  20. Knowledge of and Attitude to Nuclear Power among Residents around Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant in Jiangsu of China

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ningle; Zhang, Yimei; Wang, Jin; Cao, Xingjiang; Fan, Xiangyong; Xu, Xiaosan; Wang, Furu

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The aims of this paper were to determine the level of knowledge of and attitude to nuclear power among residents around Tianwan Nuclear power plant in Jiangsu of China. Design: A descriptive, cross-sectional design was adopted. Participants: 1,616 eligible participants who lived around the Tianwan nuclear power plant within a radius of 30km and at least 18 years old were recruited into our study and accepted epidemiological survey. Methods: Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires consisting of a socio-demographic sheet. Inferential statistics, t-test, ANOVA test and multivariate regression analysis were used to compare the differences between each subgroup and correlation analysis was conducted to understand the relationship between different factors and dependent variables. Results: Our investigation found that the level of awareness and acceptance of nuclear power was generally not high. Respondents' gender, age, marital status, residence, educational level, family income and the distance away from the nuclear power plant are important effect factors to the knowledge of and attitude to nuclear power. Conclusions: The public concerns about nuclear energy's impact are widespread. The level of awareness and acceptance of nuclear power needs to be improved urgently. PMID:22811610

  1. Knowledge of and attitude to nuclear power among residents around Tianwan Nuclear Power Plant in Jiangsu of China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ningle; Zhang, Yimei; Wang, Jin; Cao, Xingjiang; Fan, Xiangyong; Xu, Xiaosan; Wang, Furu

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this paper were to determine the level of knowledge of and attitude to nuclear power among residents around Tianwan Nuclear power plant in Jiangsu of China. A descriptive, cross-sectional design was adopted. 1,616 eligible participants who lived around the Tianwan nuclear power plant within a radius of 30km and at least 18 years old were recruited into our study and accepted epidemiological survey. Data were collected through self-administered questionnaires consisting of a socio-demographic sheet. Inferential statistics, t-test, ANOVA test and multivariate regression analysis were used to compare the differences between each subgroup and correlation analysis was conducted to understand the relationship between different factors and dependent variables. Our investigation found that the level of awareness and acceptance of nuclear power was generally not high. Respondents' gender, age, marital status, residence, educational level, family income and the distance away from the nuclear power plant are important effect factors to the knowledge of and attitude to nuclear power. The public concerns about nuclear energy's impact are widespread. The level of awareness and acceptance of nuclear power needs to be improved urgently.

  2. The medium nuclear powers and nuclear stability: The Nth Country Problem revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, W.

    1992-01-01

    The theme of this thesis is about what is the impact of the three medium nuclear powers (Britain, France, and China) on nuclear stability. The purpose of studying this issue is to go beyond the thinking of the bipolar nuclear deterrence and to gain a better understanding of the meaning of a future multilateral nuclear world. Two different but complementary approaches -- structural realist and liberal institutionalist -- are used to interpret: (a) what are the structural reasons of the MNPs' nuclear behavior in the international system; and (b) what is the learning effect on their nuclear behavior. By examining the three countries' role in three aspects of nuclear stability (crisis stability, arms race stability, and nuclear nonproliferation), this thesis concludes that they are generally stabilizing to the international nuclear system, and rejects the relevance of the destabilizing propositions of the [open quotes]Nth Country Problem[close quotes] to the issue of the MNPs and nuclear stability.

  3. Nuclear Power from Fission Reactors. An Introduction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Technical Information Center.

    The purpose of this booklet is to provide a basic understanding of nuclear fission energy and different fission reaction concepts. Topics discussed are: energy use and production, current uses of fuels, oil and gas consumption, alternative energy sources, fossil fuel plants, nuclear plants, boiling water and pressurized water reactors, the light…

  4. 75 FR 61779 - R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... COMMISSION R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant Environmental Assessment and... Operating License No. DPR-18, issued to R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (the licensee), for operation of the R.E. Ginna Nuclear Power Plant (Ginna), located in Ontario, New York. In accordance with 10 CFR 51...

  5. Applicability of trends in nuclear safety analysis to space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bari, R.A.

    1992-10-01

    A survey is presented of some current trends in nuclear safety analysis that may be relevant to space nuclear power systems. This includes: lessons learned from operating power reactor safety and licensing; approaches to the safety design of advanced and novel reactors and facilities; the roles of risk assessment, extremely unlikely accidents, safety goals/targets; and risk-benefit analysis and communication.

  6. Nuclear power in the Nordic countries

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Of the Nordic countries-Sweden, Finland, Denmark, and Norway-the first two have chosen nuclear energy to supply a large portion of their electrical generation requirements. Finland has opted for two Western-style boiling water reactors and two modified Russian-designed pressurized water reactors. The country has led the nuclear nations of the world in the 1990s with its capacity factor. Domestic reports state that nuclear is the lowest-cost electrical generation source, and Finland will need additional capacity by 2000. The country's nuclear waste storage facilities are in operation, with more under construction. In this, the second part of a two-part feature (the first part viewed Sweden's nuclear program), the attention is focused on Finland: its government, where it has positioned itself in the world economy, and the internal conflicts of how, or if, to add the needed electrical capacity.

  7. Recent Advances in Nuclear Powered Electric Propulsion for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassady, R. Joseph; Frisbee, Robert H.; Gilland, James H.; Houts, Michael G.; LaPointe, Michael R.; Maresse-Reading, Colleen M.; Oleson, Steven R.; Polk, James E.; Russell, Derrek; Sengupta, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear and radioisotope powered electric thrusters are being developed as primary in-space propulsion systems for potential future robotic and piloted space missions. Possible applications for high power nuclear electric propulsion include orbit raising and maneuvering of large space platforms, lunar and Mars cargo transport, asteroid rendezvous and sample return, and robotic and piloted planetary missions, while lower power radioisotope electric propulsion could significantly enhance or enable some future robotic deep space science missions. This paper provides an overview of recent U.S. high power electric thruster research programs, describing the operating principles, challenges, and status of each technology. Mission analysis is presented that compares the benefits and performance of each thruster type for high priority NASA missions. The status of space nuclear power systems for high power electric propulsion is presented. The paper concludes with a discussion of power and thruster development strategies for future radioisotope electric propulsion systems,

  8. The results of application studies for space nuclear power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isenberg, L.; Mcgraw, K.; Mankins, J.; Mondt, J.; Olivieri, J.

    1987-01-01

    The results are summarized of the studies over the last several years to identify and characterize potential applications for the SP-100 space nuclear reactor power system in powering spacecraft. SP-100 is a space power system based on a fast spectrum nuclear reactor with thermoelectric power conversion and liquid metal and heat pipe thermal transport. SP-100 reactor systems are designed to provide electric power with user designated characteristics at levels in the range from 10 to 1000 kWe. The use of nuclear reactors such as SP-100 as a power source provides a potential means of providing uninterrupted electrical power as required for many of todays space missions within acceptable cost and safety constraints.

  9. Nuclear power plant status diagnostics using artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, E.B. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Uhrig, R.E. . Dept. of Nuclear Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    In this work, the nuclear power plant operating status recognition issue is investigated using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The objective is to train an ANN to classify nuclear power plant accident conditions and to assess the potential of future work in the area of plant diagnostics with ANNS. To this end, an ANN was trained to recognize normal operating conditions as well as potentially unsafe conditions based on nuclear power plant training simulator generated accident scenarios. These scenarios include; hot and cold leg loss of coolant, control rod ejection, loss of offsite power, main steam line break, main feedwater line break and steam generator tube leak accidents. Findings show that ANNs can be used to diagnose and classify nuclear power plant conditions with good results.

  10. Nuclear power plant status diagnostics using artificial neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, E.B.; Uhrig, R.E.

    1991-12-31

    In this work, the nuclear power plant operating status recognition issue is investigated using artificial neural networks (ANNs). The objective is to train an ANN to classify nuclear power plant accident conditions and to assess the potential of future work in the area of plant diagnostics with ANNS. To this end, an ANN was trained to recognize normal operating conditions as well as potentially unsafe conditions based on nuclear power plant training simulator generated accident scenarios. These scenarios include; hot and cold leg loss of coolant, control rod ejection, loss of offsite power, main steam line break, main feedwater line break and steam generator tube leak accidents. Findings show that ANNs can be used to diagnose and classify nuclear power plant conditions with good results.

  11. Nuclear power plant status diagnostics using an artificial neural network

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, E.B.; Uhrig, R.E. )

    1992-03-01

    In this paper, nuclear power plant operating status recognition is investigated using a self-optimizing stochastic learning algorithm artificial neutral network (ANN) with dynamic node architecture learning. The objective is to train the ANN to classify selected nuclear power plant accident conditions and assess the potential for future success in this area. The network is trained on normal operating conditions as well as on potentially unsafe conditions based on nuclear power plant training simulator-generated accident scenarios. These scenarios include hot-and cold-leg loss of coolant, control rod ejection, total loss of off-site power, main streamline break, main feedwater line break, and steam generator tube leak accidents as well as the normal operating condition. Findings show that ANNs can be used to diagnose and classify nuclear power plant conditions with good results. continued research work indicated.

  12. The importance of nuclear power in emissions avoidance

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.W.

    1999-11-01

    Most people knowledgeable about the nuclear power industry are aware that nuclear power plants do not emit air pollutants or greenhouse gases in the generation of electricity. What is commonly not known, however, is that these avoided emissions have become important for compliance with increasingly stringent limitations on air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions required by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments and the Kyoto Protocol. This article is intended to heighten the awareness of this important environmental service and how its valuation can have an impact on the future operation of existing nuclear power plants

  13. Ancestral state reconstruction by comparative analysis of a GRN kernel operating in echinoderms.

    PubMed

    Erkenbrack, Eric M; Ako-Asare, Kayla; Miller, Emily; Tekelenburg, Saira; Thompson, Jeffrey R; Romano, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Diverse sampling of organisms across the five major classes in the phylum Echinodermata is beginning to reveal much about the structure and function of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) in development and evolution. Sea urchins are the most studied clade within this phylum, and recent work suggests there has been dramatic rewiring at the top of the skeletogenic GRN along the lineage leading to extant members of the euechinoid sea urchins. Such rewiring likely accounts for some of the observed developmental differences between the two major subclasses of sea urchins-cidaroids and euechinoids. To address effects of topmost rewiring on downstream GRN events, we cloned four downstream regulatory genes within the skeletogenic GRN and surveyed their spatiotemporal expression patterns in the cidaroid Eucidaris tribuloides. We performed phylogenetic analyses with homologs from other non-vertebrate deuterostomes and characterized their spatiotemporal expression by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WMISH). Our data suggest the erg-hex-tgif subcircuit, a putative GRN kernel, exhibits a mesoderm-specific expression pattern early in Eucidaris development that is directly downstream of the initial mesodermal GRN circuitry. Comparative analysis of the expression of this subcircuit in four echinoderm taxa allowed robust ancestral state reconstruction, supporting hypotheses that its ancestral function was to stabilize the mesodermal regulatory state and that it has been co-opted and deployed as a unit in mesodermal subdomains in distantly diverged echinoderms. Importantly, our study supports the notion that GRN kernels exhibit structural and functional modularity, locking down and stabilizing clade-specific, embryonic regulatory states.

  14. Nuclear power program and technology development in Korea

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Byung-Oke

    1994-12-31

    KEPCO has successfully implemented the construction and operation of nuclear power plants since the early 1970s, and will continue to build safer and more efficient nuclear plants in the future in accordance with the nuclear power development plan previously established. KEPCO will also make every effort to enhance nuclear safety and obtain the public`s acceptance for nuclear power. We are, however, facing the same difficulties, as United States and other countries have, in strengthened regulatory requirements, public acceptance, radwaste disposal, and acquisition of new plant sites despite an active nuclear power program. Story of Ted Turner, CNN; {open_quotes}It ain`t as easy as it looks.{close_quotes} Yes! It is difficult. But we will cope with these issues so that we can promote the nuclear power development and continue to supply a highly economical and clean energy to the world. In this regard, it is my sincere wish that each organization participating in the nuclear industry, especially Korea and United States strengthen their ties and help each other so that we together can successfully accomplish our goals.

  15. Perspectives of The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) on future nuclear powered space missions

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, L.B. ); Pyatt, D.W. ); Sholtis, J.A. ); Winchester, R.O. , c/o Directorate of Nuclear Surety, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico 87117 )

    1993-01-10

    The Interagency Nuclear Safety Review Panel (INSRP) has provided reviews of all nuclear powered spacecraft launched by the United States. The two most recent launches were Ulysses in 1990 and Galileo in 1989. One reactor was launched in 1965 (SNAP-10A). All other U.S. space missions have utilized radioisotopic thermoelectric generators (RTGs). There are several missions in the next few years that are to be nuclear powered, including one that would utilize the Topaz II reactor purchased from Russia. INSRP must realign itself to perform parallel safety assessments of a reactor powered space mission, which has not been done in about thirty years, and RTG powered missions.

  16. Technology Efficiency Study on Nuclear Power and Coal Power in Guangdong Province Based on DEA

    SciTech Connect

    Yinong Li; Dong Wang

    2006-07-01

    Guangdong Province has taken the lead in embarking on nuclear power development to resolve its dire lack of primary resources. With the deepening of the on-going structural reform in the electric power sector in China, the market competition scheme is putting electricity generation enterprises under severe strain. Consequently, it is incumbent upon the nuclear power producers to steadily upgrade management, enhance technical capabilities, reduce cost and improve efficiency. At present, gradual application of such efficiency evaluation methodology has already commenced in some sectors in China including the electric power industry. The purpose of this paper is to use the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA), which is a cutting-edge approach in the efficiency evaluation field - to study the technological efficiency between nuclear power and coal power in Guangdong Province. The DEA results demonstrate that, as far as Guangdong Province is concerned, the technological efficiency of nuclear power is higher than that of coal power in terms of Technological Efficiency (TE), Pure Technology Efficiency (PTE) and Scale Efficiency (SE). The reason is that nuclear power technology is advanced with a much higher equipment availability factor. Under the same scale, the generation output of nuclear power is far higher than that of equivalent coal power generation. With the environmental protection and sustainable development requirements taken into full account, nuclear power constitutes a clean, safe and highly-efficient energy form which should be extensively harnessed in Guangdong Province to fuel its future continuing economic growth. (authors)

  17. Computer Security for Commercial Nuclear Power Plants - Literature Review for Korea Hydro Nuclear Power Central Research Institute

    SciTech Connect

    Duran, Felicia Angelica; Waymire, Russell L.

    2013-10-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is providing training and consultation activities on security planning and design for the Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Central Research Institute (KHNPCRI). As part of this effort, SNL performed a literature review on computer security requirements, guidance and best practices that are applicable to an advanced nuclear power plant. This report documents the review of reports generated by SNL and other organizations [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Nuclear Energy Institute, and International Atomic Energy Agency] related to protection of information technology resources, primarily digital controls and computer resources and their data networks. Copies of the key documents have also been provided to KHNP-CRI.

  18. Radioisotope-based Nuclear Power Strategy for Exploration Systems Development

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, George R.; Houts, Michael G.

    2006-01-20

    Nuclear power will play an important role in future exploration efforts. Its benefits pertain to practically all the different timeframes associated with the Exploration Vision, from robotic investigation of potential lunar landing sites to long-duration crewed missions on the lunar surface. However, the implementation of nuclear technology must follow a logical progression in capability that meets but does not overwhelm the power requirements for the missions in each exploration timeframe. It is likely that the surface power infrastructure, particularly for early missions, will be distributed in nature. Thus, nuclear sources will have to operate in concert with other types of power and energy storage systems, and must mesh well with the power architectures envisioned for each mission phase. Most importantly, they must demonstrate a clear advantage over other non-nuclear options (e.g., solar power, fuel cells) for their particular function. This paper describes a strategy that does this in the form of three sequential system developments. It begins with use of radioisotope generators currently under development, and applies the power conversion technology developed for these units to the design of a simple, robust reactor power system. The products from these development efforts would eventually serve as the foundation for application of nuclear power systems for exploration of Mars and beyond.

  19. Malaysian public perception towards nuclear power energy-related issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misnon, Fauzan Amin; Hu, Yeoh Siong; Rahman, Irman Abd.; Yasir, Muhamad Samudi

    2017-01-01

    Malaysia had considered nuclear energy as an option for future electricity generation during the 9th Malaysia Development Plan. Since 2009, Malaysia had implemented a number of important preparatory steps towards this goal, including the establishment of Nuclear Power Corporation of Malaysia (MNPC) as first Nuclear Energy Programme Implementing Organization (NEPIO) in Malaysia. In light of the establishment of MNPC, the National Nuclear Policy was formulated in 2010 and a new comprehensive nuclear law to replace the existing Atomic Energy Licensing Act (Act 304) is currently in the pipeline. Internationally, public acceptance is generally used to gauge the acceptance of nuclear energy by the public whenever a government decides to engage in nuclear energy. A public survey was conducted in between 14 March 2016 to 10 May 2016 focusing on the Malaysian public acceptance and perception towards the implementation of nuclear energy in Malaysia. The methodology of this research was aim on finding an overview of the general knowledge, public-relation recommendation, perception and acceptance of Malaysian towards the nuclear power development program. The combination of information gathered from this study can be interpreted as an indication of the complexity surrounding the development of nuclear energy and its relationship with the unique background of Malaysian demography. This paper will focus mainly on energy-related section in the survey in comparison with nuclear energy.

  20. Space nuclear power: Key to outer solar system exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, G.L.; Allen, D.M.

    1998-07-01

    In 1995, in response to threatened budget cuts, the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) approved a position paper supporting the maintenance of the technology base for space nuclear power. The position paper contained four recomemndations: (1) DOE, NASA, and DoD should develop and support an integrated program that maintains the nuclear option and develops the needed high-payoff technologies; (2) Congress should provide strong, continuing financial and political support for the agencies' program; (3) Government and industry leaders should voice their advocacy for a strong space nuclear power program to support future system requirements; and (4) The US should continue to maintain its cooperation and technical interchanges with other countries to advance nuclear power source technology and to promote nuclear safety.

  1. Moving Beyond Pretense: Nuclear Power and Nonproliferation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    claims, to keep them. Finally, Anne Harrington de Santana argues that nuclear experts “ fetishize ” nuclear weapons.47 Just as capitalists, according...weapons could advance his or her country’s national security and thereby re- fetishize them. In short, the optimists and anti-obsessionists have... Fetishism of Force,” The Nonproliferation Review, Vol. 16, No. 3, 2009, pp. 325-345. 48. Ibid., p. 327. 49. Ibid., p. 342. 50. Matthew Kroenig, Exporting

  2. Nuclear power risks: challenge to the credibility of science

    SciTech Connect

    Welch, B.L.

    1980-01-01

    For a quarter of a century the Federal Government and the nuclear industry have deliberately deceived the American public about the risks of nuclear power. Facts have been systematically withheld, distorted, and obscured, and calculations have been deliberately biased in order to present nuclear power in an unrealistically favorable light. Most persistent and flagrant have been: (a) attempts to normalize public perception of nuclear accident casualties with those of more familiar accidents; and (b) the cloaking of the objectively undocumentable faith of the atomic energy establishment that a nuclear accident is extremely unlikely in a smokescreen of invalid, pseudoquantitative statistical probabilities in order to convince the public that the chance of an accident is negligible. Prime examples of these abuses are found in the Rasmussen report on nuclear reactor safety and in its representation to the public.

  3. Biomedical Lessons from the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-10-01

    Lessons From the Lt Col Doris Browne, MC Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant Accident The Chernobyl nuclear accident afforded the treating physicians a...radiation accident posited on the skin and mucous mem- A Lt Col Dori Browne, MC, is Chief, Medicaloccurred at the Chernobyl nuclear branes from the molten...Conclusion ulcers of oral mucosa, which required irradiation. He also had persistent The consequences ot the Chernobyl sterile saline irrigation and

  4. Nuclear power for space based systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, J. M.; Ivanenok, Joseph F., III

    1991-09-01

    A 100 kWe closed Brayton cycle power conversion system utilizing a recuperator coupled to a NERVA derivative reactor for a lunar power plant is presented. Power plant mass versus recuperator effectiveness, compressor inlet temperature, and turbine pressure ratio are described.

  5. Business risks to utilities as new nuclear power costs escalate

    SciTech Connect

    Severance, Craig A.

    2009-05-15

    A nuclear power megaproject carries with it severe business risks. Despite attempts to shift these risks to taxpayers and ratepayers, ultimately there are no guarantees for utility shareholders. Utility management needs to keep some core principles in mind. (author)

  6. Occupational exposures and practices in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, J.W.

    1989-01-01

    As the first generation of commercial nuclear power comes to a close, it is timely to consider the status of occupational exposure in the power generation industry, that is, the collective occupational radiation doses received by workers in nuclear power plants. The picture is surprising. One might have thought that as newer, larger, and more modern plants came on line, there would be a significant decrease in exposure per unit of electricity generated. There is some indication that this is now happening. One might also have thought that the United States, being a leader in the development of nuclear power, and in the knowledge, experience and technology of nuclear radiation protection, would have the greatest success in controlling exposure. This expectation has not been fulfilled. 32 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Opening up the future in space with nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Buden, D.; Angelo, J. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Man's extraterrestrial development is dependent on abundant power. For example, space-based manufacturing facilities are projected to have a power demand of 300 kWe by the end of this Century, and several megawatts in the early part of next millennium. The development of the lunar resource base will result in power needs ranging from an initial 100 kW(e) to many megawatts. Human visits to Mars could be achieved using a multimegawatt nuclear electric propulsion system or high thrust nuclear rockets. Detailed exploration of the solar system will also be greatly enhanced by the availability of large nuclear electric propulsion systems. All of these activities will require substantial increases in space power - hundreds of kilowatts to many megawatts. The challenge is clear: how to effectively use nuclear energy to support humanity's expansion into space.

  8. Assessment of lightweight mobile nuclear power systems. [for airborne vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, J. L.; Rom, F. E.

    1973-01-01

    A review was made of lightweight mobile nuclear power systems (LMNPS). Data cover technical feasibility studies of LMNPS and airborne vehicles, mission studies, and non-technical conditions that are required to develop and use LMNPS.

  9. The Great Nuclear Power Debate (1)--A Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, John H.

    1976-01-01

    Five issues concerning nuclear power--economics, danger from accidents, environmental effects, terrorism, and alternatives are debated, with one paragraph statements from opponents and advocates on each of the topics. (CP)

  10. Nuclear power sources in outer space. [spacecraft propulsion legal aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosenball, S. N.

    1978-01-01

    Legal problems associated with nuclear power sources in space are discussed with particular reference to the Cosmos 954 incident. Deliberations of the Legal and Scientific and Technical Subcommittees on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space on this subject are discussed.

  11. The Great Nuclear Power Debate (1)--A Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Douglas, John H.

    1976-01-01

    Five issues concerning nuclear power--economics, danger from accidents, environmental effects, terrorism, and alternatives are debated, with one paragraph statements from opponents and advocates on each of the topics. (CP)

  12. Fuel element concept for long life high power nuclear reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcdonald, G. E.; Rom, F. E.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear reactor fuel elements have burnups that are an order of magnitude higher than can currently be achieved by conventional design practice. Elements have greater time integrated power producing capacity per unit volume. Element design concept capitalizes on known design principles and observed behavior of nuclear fuel.

  13. Power counting for nuclear forces in chiral effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Bingwei

    2016-02-01

    The present note summarizes the discourse on power counting issues of chiral nuclear forces, with an emphasis on renormalization-group invariance. Given its introductory nature, I will lean toward narrating a coherent point of view on the concepts, rather than covering comprehensively the development of chiral nuclear forces in different approaches.

  14. Reassessing Nuclear Power: The Fallout from Chernobyl. Worldwatch Paper 75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Christopher

    The Chernobyl nuclear plant explosion on April 26, 1986, was the world's most serious nuclear power accident to date. This document examines the accident's impact on the world from a variety of perspectives. The first major section of the book provides a step-by-step account of the accident itself, beginning with the special testing that…

  15. Nuclear Power: The Fifth Horseman. Worldwatch Paper 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Denis

    This publication is the sixth in a series of papers on global environmental issues. This paper evaluates the future of nuclear power, subjecting it to several tests: (1) economics; (2) safety; (3) adequacy of fuel supplies; (4) environmental impact; and (5) both national and international security. Section headings include: (1) The nuclear fuel…

  16. Reassessing Nuclear Power: The Fallout from Chernobyl. Worldwatch Paper 75.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flavin, Christopher

    The Chernobyl nuclear plant explosion on April 26, 1986, was the world's most serious nuclear power accident to date. This document examines the accident's impact on the world from a variety of perspectives. The first major section of the book provides a step-by-step account of the accident itself, beginning with the special testing that…

  17. Decommissioning: Nuclear Power's Missing Link. Worldwatch Paper 69.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pollock, Cynthia

    The processes and associated dilemmas of nuclear power plant decommissioning are reviewed in this publication. Decommissioning involves the clearing up and disposal of a retired nuclear plant and its equipment of such a way as to safeguard the public from the dangers of radioactivity. Related problem areas are identified and include: (1) closure…

  18. 78 FR 22347 - GPU Nuclear Inc., Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2, Exemption From Certain...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... COMMISSION GPU Nuclear Inc., Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2, Exemption From Certain Security... Facility Operating License No. DPR-73 issued for Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station (TMI), Unit 2... protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage,'' ] states,...

  19. 75 FR 69711 - STP Nuclear Operating Company, South Texas Project Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4; Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...] STP Nuclear Operating Company, South Texas Project Nuclear Power Plant, Units 3 and 4; Exemption 1.0...: 1. RG 1.132, ``Site Investigations for Foundations of Nuclear Power Plants.'' 2. RG 1.138 ``Laboratory Investigations of Soils and Rocks for Engineering Analysis and Design of Nuclear Power...

  20. Converting Maturing Nuclear Sites to Integrated Power Production Islands

    DOE PAGES

    Solbrig, Charles W.

    2011-01-01

    Nuclear islands, which are integrated power production sites, could effectively sequester and safeguard the US stockpile of plutonium. A nuclear island, an evolution of the integral fast reactor, utilizes all the Transuranics (Pu plus minor actinides) produced in power production, and it eliminates all spent fuel shipments to and from the site. This latter attribute requires that fuel reprocessing occur on each site and that fast reactors be built on-site to utilize the TRU. All commercial spent fuel shipments could be eliminated by converting all LWR nuclear power sites to nuclear islands. Existing LWR sites have the added advantage ofmore » already possessing a license to produce nuclear power. Each could contribute to an increase in the nuclear power production by adding one or more fast reactors. Both the TRU and the depleted uranium obtained in reprocessing would be used on-site for fast fuel manufacture. Only fission products would be shipped to a repository for storage. The nuclear island concept could be used to alleviate the strain of LWR plant sites currently approaching or exceeding their spent fuel pool storage capacity. Fast reactor breeding ratio could be designed to convert existing sites to all fast reactors, or keep the majority thermal.« less

  1. Flying Reactors: The Political Feasibility of Nuclear Power in Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    date , NASA has safely devel- oped, tested, and flown radioisotope power systems on 17 mis- sions and the United States successfully launched a nuclear...subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE ...APR 2005 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Flying Reactors. The Political Feasibility of Nuclear Power in Space 5a

  2. Prediction of Technological Failures in Nuclear Power Plant Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Salnykov, A. A.

    2015-01-15

    A method for predicting operating technological failures in nuclear power plants which makes it possible to reduce the unloading of the generator unit during the onset and development of an anomalous engineering state of the equipment by detecting a change in state earlier and taking suitable measures. With the circulating water supply loop of a nuclear power plant as an example, scenarios and algorithms for predicting technological failures in the operation of equipment long before their actual occurrence are discussed.

  3. Cyber Norms for Civilian Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Spirito, Christopher

    2016-11-01

    The international community agrees that the safe operation of civilian nuclear infrastructure is in every population’s best interest. One challenge each government must address is defining and agreeing to a set of acceptable norms of behavior in cyberspace as they relate to these facilities. The introduction of digital systems and networking technologies into these environments has led to the possibility that control and supporting computer systems are now accessible and exploitable, especially where interconnections to global information and communications technology (ICT) networks exist. The need for norms of behavior in cyberspace includes what is expected of system architects and cyber defenders as well as adversaries who should abide by rules of engagement even while conducting acts that violate national and international laws. The goal of this paper is to offer three behavioral cyber norms to improve the overall security of the ICT and Operational Technology (OT) networks and systems that underlie the operations of nuclear facilities. These norms of behavior will be specifically defined with the goals of reducing the threats associated to the theft of nuclear materials, accidental release of radiation and sabotage of nuclear processes. These norms would also include instances where an unwitting attacker or intelligence collection entity inadvertently makes their way into a nuclear facility network or system and can recognize they are in a protected zone and an approach to ensuring that these zones are not exploitable by bad actors to place their sensitive cyber effect delivery systems.

  4. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination.

    PubMed

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-07-12

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives.

  5. Emerging Environmental Justice Issues in Nuclear Power and Radioactive Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Kyne, Dean; Bolin, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear hazards, linked to both U.S. weapons programs and civilian nuclear power, pose substantial environment justice issues. Nuclear power plant (NPP) reactors produce low-level ionizing radiation, high level nuclear waste, and are subject to catastrophic contamination events. Justice concerns include plant locations and the large potentially exposed populations, as well as issues in siting, nuclear safety, and barriers to public participation. Other justice issues relate to extensive contamination in the U.S. nuclear weapons complex, and the mining and processing industries that have supported it. To approach the topic, first we discuss distributional justice issues of NPP sites in the U.S. and related procedural injustices in siting, operation, and emergency preparedness. Then we discuss justice concerns involving the U.S. nuclear weapons complex and the ways that uranium mining, processing, and weapons development have affected those living downwind, including a substantial American Indian population. Next we examine the problem of high-level nuclear waste and the risk implications of the lack of secure long-term storage. The handling and deposition of toxic nuclear wastes pose new transgenerational justice issues of unprecedented duration, in comparison to any other industry. Finally, we discuss the persistent risks of nuclear technologies and renewable energy alternatives. PMID:27420080

  6. Nuclear power failure signals end of an era

    SciTech Connect

    Mariotte, M.

    1996-07-01

    In the United States, {open_quotes}the nuclear industry is dead, kaput, finished{close_quotes} says Michael Mariotte, executive director of the Nuclear Information and Resource Service in Washington, D.C. Why? Investors are reluctant to gamble their money on a future generation of supposedly safe, economic nuclear power plants. {open_quotes}in 1979, the `safe` Three Mile Island-2 reactor turned a several-hundred-million-dollar investment into a billion-dollar loss in a matter of hours,{close_quotes} Mariotte says. {open_quotes}In fact, investing in nuclear power at this point would be like investing in the Titanic II.{close_quotes} However, diehard proponents of nuclear energy persist in their optimism for a new nuclear age, Mariotte says. These nuclear backers see the need to replace aging plants with a new generation of safer plants. But would a new generation of reactors really be safer? {open_quotes}To date, the industry may spur some new nuclear plants, it is more likely to lead to alternative renewable sources of energy that are more economical. {open_quotes}The nuclear age has ended as a result of inefficiency and unacceptable risks...After 50 years of sustained abuse, the Earth has finally and deservedly entered the end of the nuclear age,{close_quotes} Mariotte says.

  7. An evolution strategy for lunar nuclear surface power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.

    1992-01-01

    The production and transmission of electric power for a permanently inhabited lunar base poses a significant challenge which can best be met through an evolution strategy. Nuclear systems offer the best opportunity for evolution in terms of both life and performance. Applicable nuclear power technology options include isotope systems (either radioisotope thermoelectric generators or dynamic isotope power systems) and reactor systems with either static (thermoelectric or thermionic) or dynamic (Brayton, Stirling, Rankine) conversion. A power system integration approach that takes evolution into account would benefit by reduced development and operations cost, progressive flight experience, and simplified logistics, and would permit unrestrained base expansion. For the purposes of defining a nuclear power system evolution strategy, the lunar base development shall consist of four phases: precursor, emplacement, consolidation, and operations.

  8. Nuclear Power, Small Nuclear Technology, and the Role of Technical Innovation: An Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Schock, R N; Brown, N W; Smith, C F

    2001-05-18

    An overview of energy-system projections into the new century leads to the conclusion that nuclear power will play a significant role. How significant a role will be determined by the marketplace. Within the range of nuclear-power technologies available, small nuclear-power plants of innovative design appear to fit the needs of a number of developing nations and states. These plants have the potential advantage of modularity, are proliferation-resistant, incorporate passive safety features, minimize waste, and could be cost-competitive with fossil-fuel plants.

  9. 76 FR 39908 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    .... Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC is owned by Constellation Energy Nuclear Group, LLC (CENG). The... one of CENG's parent companies, Constellation Energy Group, Inc (CEG). According to the application... Generation; and Throughout the transaction, the direct ownership by CEG of 100 percent of...

  10. 77 FR 47121 - Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC; Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Units 1 and 2...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... control of work hours and management of worker fatigue does not impede the ability to use available staff... Regulations (10 CFR) Part 26, Subpart I requires licensees to establish a policy for the management of fatigue..., ``Fatigue Management for Nuclear Power Plant Personnel,'' endorses the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI)...

  11. SNAP (Space Nuclear Auxiliary Power) Reactor Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    Although the program did not proceed past the developmental stage, Pratt and Whitney were commended by the Chairman of the AEC, Dr. Glenn Seaborg , for a...34Shift is Urged from CANEL on Nuclear Project," HTFG Courant, May 1965. 17. Seaborg Says CANEL Halt No Reflection on Its Work, Middletown Press, 7-6-65

  12. Infrastructure development assistance modeling for nuclear power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Park, J. H.; Hwang, K.; Park, K. M.; Kim, S. W.; Lee, S. M.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop a model, a general frame to be utilized in assisting newcomer countries to start a nuclear power program. A nuclear power plant project involves technical complexity and high level of investment with long duration. Considering newcomers are mostly developing countries that lack the national infrastructure, key infrastructure issues may constitute the principal constraints to the development of a nuclear power program. In this regard, it is important to provide guidance and support to set up an appropriate infrastructure when we help them with the first launch of nuclear power plant project. To date, as a sole nuclear power generation company, KHNP has been invited many times to mentor or assist newcomer countries for their successful start of a nuclear power program since Republic of Korea is an exemplary case of a developing country which began nuclear power program from scratch and became a major world nuclear energy country in a short period of time. Through hosting events organized to aid newcomer countries' initiation of nuclear power projects, difficulties have been recognized. Each event had different contents according to circumstances because they were held as an unstructured and one-off thing. By developing a general model, we can give more adequate and effective aid in an efficient way. In this paper, we created a model to identify necessary infrastructures at the right stage, which was mainly based on a case of Korea. Taking into account the assistance we received from foreign companies and our own efforts for technological self-reliance, we have developed a general time table and specified activities required to do at each stage. From a donor's perspective, we explored various ways to help nuclear infrastructure development including technical support programs, training courses, and participating in IAEA technical cooperation programs on a regular basis. If we further develop the model, the next task would be to

  13. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 3. Nuclear discipline topics

    SciTech Connect

    Trauger, D B; White, J D; Bowers, H I; Braid, R B; Cantor, R A; Daniels, L; Davis, R M; Delene, J G; Gat, U; Hood, T C

    1986-09-01

    Innovative reactor concepts are described and evaluated in accordance with criteria established in the study. The reactors to be studied were chosen on the basis of three ground rules: (1) the potential for commercialization between 2000-2010, (2) economic competiveness with coal-fired plants, and (3) the degree of passive safety in the design. The concepts, classified by coolants, were light water reactors, liquid metal reactors, and high temperature reactors, and most were of modular design. All the concepts appear to be potentially viable in the time frame selected, but the information available is not adequate for a definitive evaluation of their economic competitiveness. This volume primarily reports in greater detail on several topics from the study. These are: Construction, Economics, Regulation, Safety and Economic Risk, Nuclear Waste Transportation and Disposal, and Market Acceptance. Although treated generically, the topics are presented in the context of the reactor concepts of the study.

  14. Institute of Nuclear Power Operations annual report, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    This annual report highlights the activities of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations. The topics of the report include the president and chairmen`s joint message, overview of programs serving as the foundation for most of its activities, performance indicators for the US nuclear utility industry, and INPO`s 1993 financial reports and rosters. INPO has four technical cornerstone programs that serve as the foundation for most of its activities. (1) Evaluations of nuclear power plants operated by member utilities are conducted on a regularly scheduled basis. (2) INPO supports its member utilities in their work to achieve and maintain accreditation of training programs. (3) Events analysis programs identify and communicate lessons learned from plant events so utilities can take action to prevent similar events at their plants. (4) INPO helps members improve in nuclear operations areas through assistance programs and other activities that continually evolve to meet the changing needs of the nuclear industry.

  15. Institute of Nuclear Power Operations 1994 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    This annual report highlights the activities of the Institute of Nuclear Power Operations. The topics of the report include the president and chairmen`s joint message, overview of programs serving as the foundation for most of its activities, performance indicators for the US nuclear utility industry, and INPO`s 1994 financial reports and rosters. INPO has four technical cornerstone programs that serve as the foundation for most of its activities. (1) Evaluations of nuclear power plants operated by member utilities are conducted on a regularly scheduled basis. (2) INPO supports its member utilities in their work to achieve and maintain accreditation of training programs. (3) Events analysis programs identify and communicate lessons learned from plant events so utilities can take action to prevent similar events at their plants. (4) INPO helps members improve in nuclear operations areas through assistance programs and other activities that continually evolve to meet the changing needs of the nuclear industry

  16. Nuclear power for the future: Implications of some crisis scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, K.H.

    1996-12-31

    As energy issues have dropped from public awareness, electricity demand growth has remained low, deregulation has destabilized the utility decision process, and least-cost regulation has pointed utilities to gas-fired plants for those additions that are coming on-line, the nuclear power industry has begun to ask the question: What will cause nuclear energy to again compete as an option in new, domestic generating capacity additions? Since virtually all of today`s corporate and societal decisions are driven by short-term factors, the preceding question can be translated into: What crisis might occur that would project nuclear as the solution to an immediately perceived problem? Thus, an examination of scenarios that would project nuclear power into the country`s immediate consciousness is in order, along with an analysis of the implications for and challenges to the nuclear industry resulting therefrom. This paper undertakes such an analysis.

  17. Aging management of containment structures in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Graves, H.L. III; Norris, W.E.

    1994-12-31

    Research is being conducted by ORNL under US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) sponsorship to address aging management of nuclear power plant containment and other safety-related structures. Documentation is being prepared to provide the USNRC with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service evaluations of nuclear power plants. Accomplishments include development of a Structural Materials Information Center containing data and information on the time variation of 144 material properties under the influence of pertinent environmental stressors or aging factors, evaluation of models for potential concrete containment degradation factors, development of a procedure to identify critical structures and degradation factors important to aging management, evaluations of nondestructive evaluation techniques. assessments of European and North American repair practices for concrete, review of parameters affecting corrosion of metals embedded in concrete, and development of methodologies for making current condition assessments and service life predictions of new or existing reinforced concrete structures in nuclear power plants.

  18. Global radioxenon emission inventory based on nuclear power reactor reports.

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, Martin B; Tuma, Matthias P

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric radioactivity is monitored for the verification of the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty, with xenon isotopes 131mXe, 133Xe, 133mXe and 135Xe serving as important indicators of nuclear explosions. The treaty-relevant interpretation of atmospheric concentrations of radioxenon is enhanced by quantifying radioxenon emissions released from civilian facilities. This paper presents the first global radioxenon emission inventory for nuclear power plants, based on North American and European emission reports for the years 1995-2005. Estimations were made for all power plant sites for which emission data were unavailable. According to this inventory, a total of 1.3PBq of radioxenon isotopes are released by nuclear power plants as continuous or pulsed emissions in a generic year.

  19. Nuclear power technology requirements for NASA exploration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1990-01-01

    It is pointed out that future exploration of the moon and Mars will mandate developments in many areas of technology. In particular, major advances will be required in planet surface power systems. Critical nuclear technology challenges that can enable strategic self-sufficiency, acceptable operational costs, and cost-effective space transportation goals for NASA exploration missions have been identified. Critical technologies for surface power systems include stationary and mobile nuclear reactor and radioisotope heat sources coupled to static and dynamic power conversion devices. These technologies can provide dramatic reductions in mass, leading to operational and transportation cost savings. Critical technologies for space transportation systems include nuclear thermal rocket and nuclear electric propulsion options, which present compelling concepts for significantly reducing mass, cost, or travel time required for Earth-Mars transport.

  20. A Physicist's Journey In The Nuclear Power World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starr, Chauncey

    2000-03-01

    As a participant in the development of civilian nuclear power plants for the past half century, the author presents some of his insights to its history that may be of interest to today's applied physicists. Nuclear power development has involved a mixture of creative vision, science, engineering, and unusual technical, economic, and social obstacles. Nuclear power programs were initiated during the euphoric era of public support for new science immediately following World War II -- a support that lasted almost two decades. Subsequently, nuclear power has had to face a complex mix of public concerns and criticism. The author's involvment in some of these circumstances will be anecdotally described. Although the physics of fission and its byproducts remains at the heart of all nuclear reactor designs, its embodiment in practical energy sources has been shaped by the limitations of engineering primarily and economics secondarily. Very influential has been the continuing interplay with the military's weapons and propulsion programs, and the government's political policies. In this respect, nuclear power's history provides a learning experience that may be applicable to some of the large scale demonstration projects that physicists pursue today.

  1. 77 FR 40914 - In the Matter of Indiana Michigan Power Company, D. C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant; Confirmatory...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY... of Indiana Michigan Power Company, D. C. Cook Nuclear Power Plant; Confirmatory Order Modifying License (Effective Immediately) I Indiana Michigan Power Company (Licensee) is the holder of...

  2. Assessment of ceramic composites for MMW space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.

    1987-01-01

    Proposed multimegawatt nuclear power systems which operate at high temperatures, high levels of stress, and in hostile environments, including corrosive working fluids, have created interest in the use of ceramic composites as structural materials. This report assesses the applicability of several ceramic composites in both Brayton and Rankine cycle power systems. This assessment considers an equilibrium thermodynamic analysis and also a nonequilibrium assessment. (FI)

  3. Common Variant in GRN Is a Genetic Risk Factor for Hippocampal Sclerosis in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Dennis W.; Baker, Matthew; Rademakers, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Background Hippocampal sclerosis (HpScl) is common in elderly subjects with dementia, either alone or accompanied by other pathologic processes. It is also found in >70% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions (FTLD-TDP). TDP-43 inclusions are detected in >20% of Alzheimer disease (AD) and >70% of HpScl cases. The most common cause of FTLD-TDP is mutation in the progranulin gene (GRN). Recently, a common genetic variant in the 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR) of GRN (rs5848; c.*78C>T) located in a microRNA binding site regulated progranulin expression, and the T-allele was increased in FTLD-TDP compared to controls. Objective The goal of this study was to determine if the 3′UTR variant in GRN was associated with TDP-43 immunoreactivity in AD with and without HpScl. Methods 644 cases of pathologically confirmed AD, including 57 with HpScl, were screened for TDP-43 immunoreactivity and were genotyped at the GRN 3′UTR single-nucleotide polymorphism rs5848 using previously published methods. Results There was a trend (p = 0.06) for TDP-43 immunoreactivity, but a very significant (p = 0.005) association of HpScl with the variant, with 72% of AD with HpScl carrying a T-allele, compared to 51% of AD without HpScl carrying a T-allele. Conclusion The results suggest that a genetic variant in GRN leading to decreased levels of progranulin may be a risk factor for HpScl in AD, while its role in TDP-43 immunoreactivity in AD remains less certain. PMID:20197700

  4. Common variant in GRN is a genetic risk factor for hippocampal sclerosis in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Dennis W; Baker, Matthew; Rademakers, Rosa

    2010-01-01

    Hippocampal sclerosis (HpScl) is common in elderly subjects with dementia, either alone or accompanied by other pathologic processes. It is also found in >70% of frontotemporal lobar degeneration with TDP-43 immunoreactive inclusions (FTLD-TDP). TDP-43 inclusions are detected in >20% of Alzheimer disease (AD) and >70% of HpScl cases. The most common cause of FTLD-TDP is mutation in the progranulin gene (GRN). Recently, a common genetic variant in the 3' untranslated region (3'UTR) of GRN (rs5848; c.*78C>T) located in a microRNA binding site regulated progranulin expression, and the T-allele was increased in FTLD-TDP compared to controls. The goal of this study was to determine if the 3'UTR variant in GRN was associated with TDP-43 immunoreactivity in AD with and without HpScl. 644 cases of pathologically confirmed AD, including 57 with HpScl, were screened for TDP-43 immunoreactivity and were genotyped at the GRN 3'UTR single-nucleotide polymorphism rs5848 using previously published methods. There was a trend (p = 0.06) for TDP-43 immunoreactivity, but a very significant (p = 0.005) association of HpScl with the variant, with 72% of AD with HpScl carrying a T-allele, compared to 51% of AD without HpScl carrying a T-allele. The results suggest that a genetic variant in GRN leading to decreased levels of progranulin may be a risk factor for HpScl in AD, while its role in TDP-43 immunoreactivity in AD remains less certain. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  6. Advanced materials for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titran, Robert H.; Grobstein, Toni L.; Ellis, David L.

    1991-01-01

    The overall philosophy of the research was to develop and characterize new high temperature power conversion and radiator materials and to provide spacecraft designers with material selection options and design information. Research on three candidate materials (carbide strengthened niobium alloy PWC-11 for fuel cladding, graphite fiber reinforced copper matrix composites for heat rejection fins, and tungsten fiber reinforced niobium matrix composites for fuel containment and structural supports) considered for space power system applications is discussed. Each of these types of materials offers unique advantages for space power applications.

  7. Public opinion and nuclear power decision-making

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, B.

    1991-08-06

    This document discusses public opinion regarding nuclear power which is particularly difficult to tie down because of five important paradoxes that characterize it: it can be based on sound reason, but also on intense emotion; it is both national and local in perspective; at varying times it has seen nuclear power as both clean'' and dirty''; it believes nuclear power is both economic, and uneconomic; and nuclear power is perceived as having a fairly safe record, but being potentially unsafe. Equally as complex as the process by which public opinion is formed is the process by which it is converted into public policy. The American political system has numerous checks and balances designed to moderate the power of public opinion. A complex series of legislative, judicial, and executive branch hurdles must be cleared before any idea, however popular, can become day-to-day operating reality in government. As a result, major changes in policy or programs are difficult, and we may expect that nuclear power will be no different; radical change in one direction or the other is unlikely. Nevertheless, carefully focused programs could achieve modest progress, and carefully designed public opinion surveys could support such programs.

  8. Public opinion and nuclear power decision-making

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, B.

    1991-08-06

    This document discusses public opinion regarding nuclear power which is particularly difficult to tie down because of five important paradoxes that characterize it: it can be based on sound reason, but also on intense emotion; it is both national and local in perspective; at varying times it has seen nuclear power as both ``clean`` and ``dirty``; it believes nuclear power is both economic, and uneconomic; and nuclear power is perceived as having a fairly safe record, but being potentially unsafe. Equally as complex as the process by which public opinion is formed is the process by which it is converted into public policy. The American political system has numerous checks and balances designed to moderate the power of public opinion. A complex series of legislative, judicial, and executive branch hurdles must be cleared before any idea, however popular, can become day-to-day operating reality in government. As a result, major changes in policy or programs are difficult, and we may expect that nuclear power will be no different; radical change in one direction or the other is unlikely. Nevertheless, carefully focused programs could achieve modest progress, and carefully designed public opinion surveys could support such programs.

  9. Determining the power performance effect from modernization of power equipment and process systems at a nuclear power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khomenok, L. A.; Kruglikov, P. A.; Smolkin, Yu. V.; Sokolov, K. V.

    2012-05-01

    The main stages of a calculation and experimental analysis of measures aimed at achieving better power performance of a nuclear power station and a procedure for carrying out such analysis are considered. The results of a calculated and experimental assessment of the power-performance effect from modernization of the moisture separators-steam superheaters used in turbine generators Nos. 7 and 8 of Unit 4 at the Leningrad nuclear power station are presented.

  10. Ya B Zeldovich and nuclear power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, L. I.

    2014-03-01

    The idea on a homogeneous nuclear reactor, first suggested by Ya B Zeldovich and Yu B Khariton in 1939, has since had its ups and downs and is now re-emerging, enriched with the knowledge and experience accumulated over the years having past. One of the current versions of the idea, the fast molten-salt reactor with a U-Pu fuel cycle, is presented in this paper.

  11. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1991-05-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1988 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1988 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  12. Radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tichler, J.; Norden, K.; Congemi, J. )

    1989-10-01

    Releases of radioactive materials in airborne and liquid effluents from commercial light water reactors during 1987 have been compiled and reported. Data on solid waste shipments as well as selected operating information have been included. This report supplements earlier annual reports issued by the former Atomic Energy Commission and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The 1987 release data are summarized in tabular form. Data covering specific radionuclides are summarized. 16 tabs.

  13. Assessment of nuclear reactor concepts for low power space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Andrew C.; Gedeon, Stephen R.; Morey, Dennis C.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a preliminary small reactor concepts feasibility and safety evaluation designed to provide a first order validation of the nuclear feasibility and safety of six small reactor concepts are given. These small reactor concepts have potential space applications for missions in the 1 to 20 kWe power output range. It was concluded that low power concepts are available from the U.S. nuclear industry that have the potential for meeting both the operational and launch safety space mission requirements. However, each design has its uncertainties, and further work is required. The reactor concepts must be mated to a power conversion technology that can offer safe and reliable operation.

  14. Assessment of nuclear reactor concepts for low power space applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Andrew C.; Gedeon, Stephen R.; Morey, Dennis C.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a preliminary small reactor concepts feasibility and safety evaluation designed to provide a first order validation of the nuclear feasibility and safety of six small reactor concepts are given. These small reactor concepts have potential space applications for missions in the 1 to 20 kWe power output range. It was concluded that low power concepts are available from the U.S. nuclear industry that have the potential for meeting both the operational and launch safety space mission requirements. However, each design has its uncertainties, and further work is required. The reactor concepts must be mated to a power conversion technology that can offer safe and reliable operation.

  15. Evaluation of Loss of Offsite Power Events at Nuclear Power Plants: 1980 - 1996

    SciTech Connect

    C. L. Atwood; D. A. Prawdzik; D. L. Kelly; F. M. Marshall; J. W. Stetkar

    1999-08-01

    It is recognized that the availability of AC power to commercial nuclear power plants is essential for safe operations and accident recovery. A loss of offsite power (LOSP) event, therefore, is considered an important contributor to total risk at nuclear power plants. In 1988, the U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission published NUREG-1032 to report on an evaluation of the risk from actual LOSP events that had occurred at nuclear power plants within the United States up through 1985. This paper summarizes a similar study, whose primary objective was to update the LOSP model parameters, frequency and recovery time, using power plant event data from 1980-1996, published as NUREG/CR-5496 in 1998. An additional objective of the study is to re-examine the engineering insights concerning LOSP events.

  16. [The role of the operator of nuclear power plants in disposal of nuclear waste].

    PubMed

    Chaussade, J P

    1995-03-15

    Public opinion polls show that the French have largely understood the importance of our nuclear programme in maintaining French independence with regard to power supply and its security and that they have confidence in the technicians for the proper construction and operation of these power plants, but that they retain many questions concerning the disposal of nuclear waste. They have the impression that solutions remain to be found, and especially that the Electricité de France (EDF) devised the nuclear power programme without concern for the disposal of waste. This lack of information is fortunately far from reality. EDF, under the supervision of the security authorities, manages the waste produced in the nuclear power plants. Final stocking of waste is handled by a body that is independent of the waste producer, the "Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioadctifs" (Andra) (National Agency for the Management of Radioactive Waste).

  17. Method for assigning sites to projected generic nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Holter, G.M.; Purcell, W.L.; Shutz, M.E.; Young, J.R.

    1986-07-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed a method for forecasting potential locations and startup sequences of nuclear power plants that will be required in the future but have not yet been specifically identified by electric utilities. Use of the method results in numerical ratings for potential nuclear power plant sites located in each of the 10 federal energy regions. The rating for each potential site is obtained from numerical factors assigned to each of 5 primary siting characteristics: (1) cooling water availability, (2) site land area, (3) power transmission land area, (4) proximity to metropolitan areas, and (5) utility plans for the site. The sequence of plant startups in each federal energy region is obtained by use of the numerical ratings and the forecasts of generic nuclear power plant startups obtained from the EIA Middle Case electricity forecast. Sites are assigned to generic plants in chronological order according to startup date.

  18. 75 FR 14638 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-26

    ...). There will be no change to radioactive effluents that effect radiation exposures to plant workers and... would not significantly affect plant safety and would not have a significant adverse effect on the... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Perry Nuclear Power Plant; Environmental Assessment and...

  19. Technology development issues in space nuclear power for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Atkins, K. L.; Mastal, E. F.; Mcconnell, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    Planning for future planetary exploration missions indicates that there are continuing, long range requirements for nuclear power, and in particular radioisotope-based power sources. In meeting these requirements, there is a need for higher efficiency, lower mass systems. Four technology areas currently under development that address these goals are described: modular RTG, modular RTG with advanced thermoelectric materials, dynamic isotope power system (DIPS), and the Alkali Metal Thermoelectric Converter (AMTEC).

  20. Design Concept for a Nuclear Reactor-Powered Mars Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elliott, John; Poston, Dave; Lipinski, Ron

    2007-01-01

    A report presents a design concept for an instrumented robotic vehicle (rover) to be used on a future mission of exploration of the planet Mars. The design incorporates a nuclear fission power system to provide long range, long life, and high power capabilities unachievable through the use of alternative solar or radioisotope power systems. The concept described in the report draws on previous rover designs developed for the 2009 Mars Science laboratory (MSL) mission to minimize the need for new technology developments.

  1. Technology development issues in space nuclear power for planetary exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bankston, C. P.; Atkins, K. L.; Mastal, E. F.; Mcconnell, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    Planning for future planetary exploration missions indicates that there are continuing, long range requirements for nuclear power, and in particular radioisotope-based power sources. In meeting these requirements, there is a need for higher efficiency, lower mass systems. Four technology areas currently under development that address these goals are described: modular RTG, modular RTG with advanced thermoelectric materials, dynamic isotope power system (DIPS), and the Alkali Metal Thermoelectric Converter (AMTEC).

  2. New reactor technology: safety improvements in nuclear power systems.

    PubMed

    Corradini, M L

    2007-11-01

    Almost 450 nuclear power plants are currently operating throughout the world and supplying about 17% of the world's electricity. These plants perform safely, reliably, and have no free-release of byproducts to the environment. Given the current rate of growth in electricity demand and the ever growing concerns for the environment, nuclear power can only satisfy the need for electricity and other energy-intensive products if it can demonstrate (1) enhanced safety and system reliability, (2) minimal environmental impact via sustainable system designs, and (3) competitive economics. The U.S. Department of Energy with the international community has begun research on the next generation of nuclear energy systems that can be made available to the market by 2030 or earlier, and that can offer significant advances toward these challenging goals; in particular, six candidate reactor system designs have been identified. These future nuclear power systems will require advances in materials, reactor physics, as well as thermal-hydraulics to realize their full potential. However, all of these designs must demonstrate enhanced safety above and beyond current light water reactor systems if the next generation of nuclear power plants is to grow in number far beyond the current population. This paper reviews the advanced Generation-IV reactor systems and the key safety phenomena that must be considered to guarantee that enhanced safety can be assured in future nuclear reactor systems.

  3. HIGH TEMPERATURE, HIGH POWER HETEROGENEOUS NUCLEAR REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Hammond, R.P.; Wykoff, W.R.; Busey, H.M.

    1960-06-14

    A heterogeneous nuclear reactor is designed comprising a stationary housing and a rotatable annular core being supported for rotation about a vertical axis in the housing, the core containing a plurality of radial fuel- element supporting channels, the cylindrical empty space along the axis of the core providing a central plenum for the disposal of spent fuel elements, the core cross section outer periphery being vertically gradated in radius one end from the other to provide a coolant duct between the core and the housing, and means for inserting fresh fuel elements in the supporting channels under pressure and while the reactor is in operation.

  4. What future for nuclear power? Workshop report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    A Workshop on this highly controversial subject, organized by the Energy and Environment Programme of the RIIA, was held on 10th November 1997 at Green College, Oxford. The meeting was attended by some forty people from eight countries, coming from the nuclear and electricity generating industry, governments, research organizations, academic institutions, environmental pressure groups and inter-governmental organizations. In addition, subsequent to this Workshop, there have been a number of smaller, more informal discussions on various aspects of the subject. This paper summarizes the main conclusions arising from the Workshop and from these later discussions.

  5. Insights into the Societal Risk of Nuclear Power Plant Accidents.

    PubMed

    Denning, Richard; Mubayi, Vinod

    2017-01-01

    The elements of societal risk from a nuclear power plant accident are clearly illustrated by the Fukushima accident: land contamination, long-term relocation of large numbers of people, loss of productive farm area, loss of industrial production, and significant loss of electric capacity. NUREG-1150 and other studies have provided compelling evidence that the individual health risk of nuclear power plant accidents is effectively negligible relative to other comparable risks, even for people living in close proximity to a plant. The objective of this study is to compare the societal risk of nuclear power plant accidents to that of other events to which the public is exposed. We have characterized the monetized societal risk in the United States from major societally disruptive events, such as hurricanes, in the form of a complementary cumulative distribution function. These risks are compared with nuclear power plant risks, based on NUREG-1150 analyses and new MACCS code calculations to account for differences in source terms determined in the more recent SOARCA study. A candidate quantitative societal objective is discussed for potential adoption by the NRC. The results are also interpreted with regard to the acceptability of nuclear power as a major source of future energy supply. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. Space nuclear power applied to electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vicente, F. A.; Karras, T.; Darooka, D.; Isenberg, L.

    1989-01-01

    Space reactor power systems with characteristics ideal for advanced spacecraft systems applications are discussed. These characteristics are: high power-to-weight ratio (15 to 33 W/kg); high volume density (high ballistic coefficient); no preferential orientation in orbit; long operational life; high reliability; and total launch and operational safety. These characteristics allow the use of electric propulsion to raise spacecraft from low earth parking orbits to operational orbits, greatly increasing the useful orbit payload for a given launch vehicle by eliminating the need for a separation injection stage. A proposed demonstration mission is described.

  7. 75 FR 10833 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Demand for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Demand for.... The license authorizes the operation of the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (Vermont Yankee) in...

  8. Power spectrum analyses of nuclear decay rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javorsek, D.; Sturrock, P. A.; Lasenby, R. N.; Lasenby, A. N.; Buncher, J. B.; Fischbach, E.; Gruenwald, J. T.; Hoft, A. W.; Horan, T. J.; Jenkins, J. H.; Kerford, J. L.; Lee, R. H.; Longman, A.; Mattes, J. J.; Morreale, B. L.; Morris, D. B.; Mudry, R. N.; Newport, J. R.; O'Keefe, D.; Petrelli, M. A.; Silver, M. A.; Stewart, C. A.; Terry, B.

    2010-10-01

    We provide the results from a spectral analysis of nuclear decay data displaying annually varying periodic fluctuations. The analyzed data were obtained from three distinct data sets: 32Si and 36Cl decays reported by an experiment performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), 56Mn decay reported by the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), but also performed at BNL, and 226Ra decay reported by an experiment performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. All three data sets exhibit the same primary frequency mode consisting of an annual period. Additional spectral comparisons of the data to local ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, Earth-Sun distance, and their reciprocals were performed. No common phases were found between the factors investigated and those exhibited by the nuclear decay data. This suggests that either a combination of factors was responsible, or that, if it was a single factor, its effects on the decay rate experiments are not a direct synchronous modulation. We conclude that the annual periodicity in these data sets is a real effect, but that further study involving additional carefully controlled experiments will be needed to establish its origin.

  9. Suppression of Ov-grn-1 encoding granulin of Opisthorchis viverrini inhibits proliferation of biliary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Papatpremsiri, Atiroch; Smout, Michael J; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J; Sripa, Banchob; Laha, Thewarach

    2015-01-01

    Multistep processes likely underlie cholangiocarcinogenesis induced by chronic infection with the fish-borne liver fluke, Opisthorchis viverrini. One process appears to be cellular proliferation of the host bile duct epithelia driven by excretory-secretory (ES) products of this pathogen. Specifically, the secreted growth factor Ov-GRN-1, a liver fluke granulin, is a prominent component of ES and a known driver of hyper-proliferation of cultured human and mouse cells in vitro. We show potent hyper-proliferation of human cholangiocytes induced by low nanomolar levels of recombinant Ov-GRN-1 and similar growth produced by low microgram concentrations of ES products and soluble lysates of the adult worm. To further explore the influence of Ov-GRN-1 on the flukes and the host cells, expression of Ov-grn-1 was repressed using RNA interference. Expression of Ov-grn-1 was suppressed by 95% by day 3 and by ~100% by day 7. Co-culture of Ov-grn-1 suppressed flukes with human cholangiocyte (H-69) or human cholangiocarcinoma (KKU-M214) cell lines retarded cell hyper-proliferation by 25% and 92%, respectively. Intriguingly, flukes in which expression of Ov-grn-1 was repressed were less viable in culture, suggesting that Ov-GRN-1 is an essential growth factor for survival of the adult stage of O. viverrini, at least in vitro. To summarize, specific knock down of Ov-grn-1 reduced in vitro survival and capacity of ES products to drive host cell proliferation. These findings may help to contribute to a deeper understanding of liver fluke induced cholangiocarcinogenesis.

  10. 78 FR 45573 - Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... COMMISSION Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire Protection (CARMEN-FIRE) AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice of availability; request for public comment.../CR-7135, ``Compensatory and Alternative Regulatory Measures for Nuclear Power Plant Fire...

  11. Development of Northeast Asia Nuclear Power Plant Accident Simulator.

    PubMed

    Kim, Juyub; Kim, Juyoul; Po, Li-Chi Cliff

    2016-11-24

    A conclusion from the lessons learned after the March 2011 Fukushima Daiichi accident was that Korea needs a tool to estimate consequences from a major accident that could occur at a nuclear power plant located in a neighboring country. This paper describes a suite of computer-based codes to be used by Korea's nuclear emergency response staff for training and potentially operational support in Korea's national emergency preparedness and response program. The systems of codes, Northeast Asia Nuclear Accident Simulator (NANAS), consist of three modules: source-term estimation, atmospheric dispersion prediction and dose assessment. To quickly assess potential doses to the public in Korea, NANAS includes specific reactor data from the nuclear power plants in China, Japan and Taiwan. The completed simulator is demonstrated using data for a hypothetical release.

  12. Nuclear power in crisis: Politics and planning for the nuclear state

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, D.; Blowers, A.

    1986-01-01

    This book is concerned with the nuclear power industry and the current concern over its decision-making process, its public accountability and its connection with the military. It focusses in particular on political aspects of policy making for the various stages in the nuclear cycle including the emerging areas of debate about waste management and decommissioning. It considers the problems in different countries worldwide. It includes original research and discusses the outcome of policy decisions and the impact of the nuclear industry on specific locations. It concludes by indicating future directions for the debate and by considering the prospects for the nuclear industry.

  13. Space nuclear power, propulsion, and related technologies.

    SciTech Connect

    Berman, Marshall

    1992-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (Sandia) is one of the nation's largest research and development (R&D) facilities, with headquarters at Albuquerque, New Mexico; a laboratory at Livermore, California; and a test range near Tonopah, Nevada. Smaller testing facilities are also operated at other locations. Established in 1945, Sandia was operated by the University of California until 1949, when, at the request of President Truman, Sandia Corporation was formed as a subsidiary of Bell Lab's Western Electric Company to operate Sandia as a service to the U.S. Government without profit or fee. Sandia is currently operated for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) by AT&T Technologies, Inc., a wholly-owned subsidiary of AT&T. Sandia's responsibility is national security programs in defense and energy with primary emphasis on nuclear weapon research and development (R&D). However, Sandia also supports a wide variety of projects ranging from basic materials research to the design of specialized parachutes. Assets, owned by DOE and valued at more than $1.2 billion, include about 600 major buildings containing about 372,000 square meters (m2) (4 million square feet [ft2]) of floor space, located on land totalling approximately 1460 square kilometers (km2) (562 square miles [mi]). Sandia employs about 8500 people, the majority in Albuquerque, with about 1000 in Livermore. Approximately 60% of Sandia's employees are in technical and scientific positions, and the remainder are in crafts, skilled labor, and administrative positions. As a multiprogram national laboratory, Sandia has much to offer both industrial and government customers in pursuing space nuclear technologies. The purpose of this brochure is to provide the reader with a brief summary of Sandia's technical capabilities, test facilities, and example programs that relate to military and civilian objectives in space. Sandia is interested in forming partnerships with industry and government organizations, and has already

  14. The United States Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program - Over 151 Million Miles Safely Steamed on Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2015-03-01

    NNSA’s third mission pillar is supporting the U.S. Navy’s ability to protect and defend American interests across the globe. The Naval Reactors Program remains at the forefront of technological developments in naval nuclear propulsion and ensures a commanding edge in warfighting capabilities by advancing new technologies and improvements in naval reactor performance and reliability. In 2015, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program pioneered advances in nuclear reactor and warship design – such as increasing reactor lifetimes, improving submarine operational effectiveness, and reducing propulsion plant crewing. The Naval Reactors Program continued its record of operational excellence by providing the technical expertise required to resolve emergent issues in the Nation’s nuclear-powered fleet, enabling the Fleet to safely steam more than two million miles. Naval Reactors safely maintains, operates, and oversees the reactors on the Navy’s 82 nuclear-powered warships, constituting more than 45 percent of the Navy’s major combatants.

  15. Solid state laser media driven by remote nuclear powered fluorescence

    DOEpatents

    Prelas, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for driving a solid state laser by a nuclear powered fluorescence source which is located remote from the fluorescence source. A nuclear reaction produced in a reaction chamber generates fluorescence or photons. The photons are collected from the chamber into a waveguide, such as a fiber optic waveguide. The waveguide transports the photons to the remote laser for exciting the laser.

  16. Scoping Calculations of Power Sources for Nuclear Electric Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Difilippo, F. C.

    1994-01-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to make scoping calculations for mission analysis.

  17. Scoping calculations of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion

    SciTech Connect

    Difilippo, F.C.

    1994-05-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to making scoping calculations for mission analysis.

  18. Scoping calculations of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Difilippo, F. C.

    1994-05-01

    This technical memorandum describes models and calculational procedures to fully characterize the nuclear island of power sources for nuclear electric propulsion. Two computer codes were written: one for the gas-cooled NERVA derivative reactor and the other for liquid metal-cooled fuel pin reactors. These codes are going to be interfaced by NASA with the balance of plant in order to make scoping calculations for mission analysis.

  19. Heat pipe nuclear reactor for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koening, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-pipe-cooled nuclear reactor has been designed to provide 3.2 MWth to an out-of-core thermionic conversion system. The reactor is a fast reactor designed to operate at a nominal heat-pipe temperature of 1675 K. Each reactor fuel element consists of a hexagonal molybdenum block which is bonded along its axis to one end of a molybdenum/lithium-vapor heat pipe. The block is perforated with an array of longitudinal holes which are loaded with UO2 pellets. The heat pipe transfers heat directly to a string of six thermionic converters which are bonded along the other end of the heat pipe. An assembly of 90 such fuel elements forms a hexagonal core. The core is surrounded by a thermal radiation shield, a thin thermal neutron absorber, and a BeO reflector containing boron-loaded control drums.

  20. Heat pipe nuclear reactor for space power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koening, D. R.

    1976-01-01

    A heat-pipe-cooled nuclear reactor has been designed to provide 3.2 MWth to an out-of-core thermionic conversion system. The reactor is a fast reactor designed to operate at a nominal heat-pipe temperature of 1675 K. Each reactor fuel element consists of a hexagonal molybdenum block which is bonded along its axis to one end of a molybdenum/lithium-vapor heat pipe. The block is perforated with an array of longitudinal holes which are loaded with UO2 pellets. The heat pipe transfers heat directly to a string of six thermionic converters which are bonded along the other end of the heat pipe. An assembly of 90 such fuel elements forms a hexagonal core. The core is surrounded by a thermal radiation shield, a thin thermal neutron absorber, and a BeO reflector containing boron-loaded control drums.

  1. POWER GENERATION FROM LIQUID METAL NUCLEAR FUEL

    DOEpatents

    Dwyer, O.E.

    1958-12-23

    A nuclear reactor system is described wherein the reactor is the type using a liquid metal fuel, such as a dispersion of fissile material in bismuth. The reactor is designed ln the form of a closed loop having a core sectlon and heat exchanger sections. The liquid fuel is clrculated through the loop undergoing flssion in the core section to produce heat energy and transferrlng this heat energy to secondary fluids in the heat exchanger sections. The fission in the core may be produced by a separate neutron source or by a selfsustained chain reaction of the liquid fuel present in the core section. Additional auxiliary heat exchangers are used in the system to convert water into steam which drives a turbine.

  2. 76 FR 81994 - UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION UniStar Nuclear Energy; Combined License Application for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, Unit 3; Exemption 1.0 Background: UniStar Nuclear Energy (UNE) submitted to the U.S. Nuclear...

  3. Propagation of nuclear data uncertainties for fusion power measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjöstrand, Henrik; Conroy, Sean; Helgesson, Petter; Hernandez, Solis Augusto; Koning, Arjan; Pomp, Stephan; Rochman, Dimitri

    2017-09-01

    Neutron measurements using neutron activation systems are an essential part of the diagnostic system at large fusion machines such as JET and ITER. Nuclear data is used to infer the neutron yield. Consequently, high-quality nuclear data is essential for the proper determination of the neutron yield and fusion power. However, uncertainties due to nuclear data are not fully taken into account in uncertainty analysis for neutron yield calibrations using activation foils. This paper investigates the neutron yield uncertainty due to nuclear data using the so-called Total Monte Carlo Method. The work is performed using a detailed MCNP model of the JET fusion machine; the uncertainties due to the cross-sections and angular distributions in JET structural materials, as well as the activation cross-sections in the activation foils, are analysed. It is found that a significant contribution to the neutron yield uncertainty can come from uncertainties in the nuclear data.

  4. Yankee Nuclear Power Station - analysis of decommissioning costs

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, L.P.

    1996-12-31

    The preparation of decommissioning cost estimates for nuclear power generating stations has received a great deal of interest in the last few years. Owners are required by regulation to ensure that adequate funds are collected for the timely decommissioning of their facilities. The unexpected premature shutdown of several facilities and uncertainties associated with radioactive waste disposal and long-term spent-fuel storage, when viewed in the light of a deregulated electric utility industry, has caused many companies to reevaluate their decommissioning cost estimates. The decommissioning of the Yankee Nuclear Power Station represents the first large-scale project involving the complete decontamination and dismantlement of a commercial light water nuclear power generation facility in the United States. Since this pressurized water reactor operated for 32 yr at a respectable 74% lifetime capacity factor, the actual costs and resources required to decommission the plant, when compared with decommissioning estimates, will yield valuable benchmarking data.

  5. Disposal of slightly contaminated radioactive wastes from nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Minns, J.L.

    1995-02-01

    With regard to the disposal of solid wastes, nuclear power plants basically have two options, disposal in a Part 61 licensed low-level waste site, or receive approval pursuant to 20.2002 for disposal in a manner not otherwise authorized by the NRC. Since 1981, the staff has reviewed and approved 30 requests for disposal of slightly contaminated radioactive materials pursuant to Section 20.2002 (formerly 20.302) for nuclear power plants located in non-Agreement States. NRC Agreement States have been delegated the authority for reviewing and approving such disposals (whether onsite or offsite) for nuclear power plants within their borders. This paper describes the characteristics of the waste disposed of, the review process, and the staff`s guidelines.

  6. Integrated approach to economical, reliable, safe nuclear power production

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    An Integrated Approach to Economical, Reliable, Safe Nuclear Power Production is the latest evolution of a concept which originated with the Defense-in-Depth philosophy of the nuclear industry. As Defense-in-Depth provided a framework for viewing physical barriers and equipment redundancy, the Integrated Approach gives a framework for viewing nuclear power production in terms of functions and institutions. In the Integrated Approach, four plant Goals are defined (Normal Operation, Core and Plant Protection, Containment Integrity and Emergency Preparedness) with the attendant Functional and Institutional Classifications that support them. The Integrated Approach provides a systematic perspective that combines the economic objective of reliable power production with the safety objective of consistent, controlled plant operation.

  7. Present status and prospects of nuclear power in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Eibenschutz, J.

    1988-01-01

    Mexico decided to build its first nuclear power plant at the end of 1972. Actual construction in Laguna Verde started in early 1977 and after several changes in the structure of the project, CFE has taken full responsibility for engineering and construction since 1981 of the first nuclear power project. The first unit is in the process of commissioning and operation planned for 1987. As far as the prospects of nuclear power in Mexico, although it is obvious that has to have a very important role in the energy future of the country, the international situation has had an influence on the Mexican scene, and has led to a relatively strong opposition on the part of ecologists and political opponents.

  8. Multimegawatt potassium Rankine power for nuclear electric power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rovang, Richard D.; Mills, Joseph C.; Baumeister, Ernie B.

    1991-01-01

    A cermet fueled potassium rankine power system concept has been developed for various power ranges and operating lifetimes. This concept utilizes a single primary lithium loop to transport thermal energy from the reactor to the boiler. Multiple, independent potassium loops are employed to achieve the required reliability of 99 percent. The potassium loops are two phase systems which expand heated potassium vapor through multistage turboalternators to produce a 10-kV dc electrical output. Condensation occurs by-way-of a shear-flow condenser, producing a 100 percent liquid potassium stream which is pumped back to the boiler. Waste heat is rejected by an advanced carbon-carbon radiator at approximately 1000 K. Overall system efficiencies of 19.3 percent to 20.5 percent were calculated depending on mission life and power level.

  9. Spallator: a new option for nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Steinberg, M.; Grand, P.; Takahashi, H.; Powell, J.R.; Kouts, H.J.

    1983-06-01

    The principles of the spallator reactor are reviewed. Advances in linear accelerator technology allow the design and construction of high current (hundreds of mA) continuous wave high energy (thousands of MeV) proton machines in the near term. Spallation neutronic calculations building on existing experimental results, indicate substantial neutron yields on uranium targets. Spallator target assembly designs based on water cooled reactor technology indicate operable efficient systems. Fuel cycles are presented which supply fissile material to thermal power reactors and reduce fission product waste. Preliminary comparative analysis indicates an economically competitive system in which a single purpose self-sufficient spallator supplies fuel to a number of LWRs. The spallator assures a long-term LWR power reactor economy. International interest in advancing the technology is indicated.

  10. Consequences and countermeasures in a nuclear power accident: Chernobyl experience.

    PubMed

    Kirichenko, Vladimir A; Kirichenko, Alexander V; Werts, Day E

    2012-09-01

    Despite the tragic accidents in Fukushima and Chernobyl, the nuclear power industry will continue to contribute to the production of electric energy worldwide until there are efficient and sustainable alternative sources of energy. The Chernobyl nuclear accident, which occurred 26 years ago in the former Soviet Union, released an immense amount of radioactivity over vast territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and the Russian Federation, extending into northern Europe, and became the most severe accident in the history of the nuclear industry. This disaster was a result of numerous factors including inadequate nuclear power plant design, human errors, and violation of safety measures. The lessons learned from nuclear accidents will continue to strengthen the safety design of new reactor installations, but with more than 400 active nuclear power stations worldwide and 104 reactors in the Unites States, it is essential to reassess fundamental issues related to the Chernobyl experience as it continues to evolve. This article summarizes early and late events of the incident, the impact on thyroid health, and attempts to reduce agricultural radioactive contamination.

  11. Seismic risk management solution for nuclear power plants

    DOE PAGES

    Coleman, Justin; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear power plants should safely operate during normal operations and maintain core-cooling capabilities during off-normal events, including external hazards (such as flooding and earthquakes). Management of external hazards to expectable levels of risk is critical to maintaining nuclear facility and nuclear power plant safety. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components). Seismic isolation (SI) is one protective measure showing promise to minimize seismic risk. Current SI designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefitmore » of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed in American Society of Civil Engineer Standard 4, ASCE-4, to be released in the winter of 2014, for light water reactors facilities using commercially available technology. The intent of ASCE-4 is to provide criteria for seismic analysis of safety related nuclear structures such that the responses to design basis seismic events, computed in accordance with this standard, will have a small likelihood of being exceeded. The U.S. nuclear industry has not implemented SI to date; a seismic isolation gap analysis meeting was convened on August 19, 2014, to determine progress on implementing SI in the U.S. nuclear industry. The meeting focused on the systems and components that could benefit from SI. As a result, this article highlights the gaps identified at this meeting.« less

  12. Seismic risk management solution for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Justin; Sabharwall, Piyush

    2014-12-01

    Nuclear power plants should safely operate during normal operations and maintain core-cooling capabilities during off-normal events, including external hazards (such as flooding and earthquakes). Management of external hazards to expectable levels of risk is critical to maintaining nuclear facility and nuclear power plant safety. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components). Seismic isolation (SI) is one protective measure showing promise to minimize seismic risk. Current SI designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefit of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed in American Society of Civil Engineer Standard 4, ASCE-4, to be released in the winter of 2014, for light water reactors facilities using commercially available technology. The intent of ASCE-4 is to provide criteria for seismic analysis of safety related nuclear structures such that the responses to design basis seismic events, computed in accordance with this standard, will have a small likelihood of being exceeded. The U.S. nuclear industry has not implemented SI to date; a seismic isolation gap analysis meeting was convened on August 19, 2014, to determine progress on implementing SI in the U.S. nuclear industry. The meeting focused on the systems and components that could benefit from SI. As a result, this article highlights the gaps identified at this meeting.

  13. Enhancement of NRC station blackout requirements for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, M. W.

    2012-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) established a Near-Term Task Force (NTTF) in response to Commission direction to conduct a systematic and methodical review of NRC processes and regulations to determine whether the agency should make additional improvements to its regulatory system and to make recommendations to the Commission for its policy direction, in light of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. The NTTF's review resulted in a set of recommendations that took a balanced approach to defense-in-depth as applied to low-likelihood, high-consequence events such as prolonged station blackout (SBO) resulting from severe natural phenomena. Part 50, Section 63, of Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), 'Loss of All Alternating Current Power,' currently requires that each nuclear power plant must be able to cool the reactor core and maintain containment integrity for a specified duration of an SBO. The SBO duration and mitigation strategy for each nuclear power plant is site specific and is based on the robustness of the local transmission system and the transmission system operator's capability to restore offsite power to the nuclear power plant. With regard to SBO, the NTTF recommended that the NRC strengthen SBO mitigation capability at all operating and new reactors for design-basis and beyond-design-basis external events. The NTTF also recommended strengthening emergency preparedness for prolonged SBO and multi-unit events. These recommendations, taken together, are intended to clarify and strengthen US nuclear reactor safety regarding protection against and mitigation of the consequences of natural disasters and emergency preparedness during SBO. The focus of this paper is on the existing SBO requirements and NRC initiatives to strengthen SBO capability at all operating and new reactors to address prolonged SBO stemming from design-basis and beyond-design-basis external events. The NRC initiatives are intended to

  14. The Acceptance Strategy for Nuclear Power Plant In Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhaemi, Tjipta; Syaukat, Achmad

    2010-06-01

    THE ACCEPTANCE STRATEGY FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANT IN INDONESIA. Indonesia has planned to build nuclear power plants. Some feasibility studies have been conducted intensively. However, the processes of NPP introduction are still uncertain. National Energy Plan in Indonesia, which has been made by some governmental agencies, does not yet give positive impact to the government decision to construct the nuclear power plant (NPP). This paper discusses the process of NPP introduction in Indonesia, which has been colored with debate of stakeholder and has delayed decision for go-nuclear. The technology paradigm is used to promote NPP as an alternative of reliable energy resources. This paradigm should be complemented with international politic-economic point of view. The international politic-economic point of view shows that structural powers, consisting of security, production, finance, and knowledge structures, within which the NPP is introduced, have dynamic characteristics. The process of NPP introduction in Indonesia contains some infrastructure development (R&D, legislation, regulation, energy planning, site study, public acceptance efforts, etc), but they need a better coherent NPP implementation program and NPP Acceptance Program. Strategic patterns for NPP acceptance described in this paper are made by considering nuclear regulation development and the interest of basic domestic participation. The first NPP program in Indonesia having proven technology and basic domestic participation is and important milestone toward and optimal national energy-mix.

  15. Report on aging of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, D.J.; Oland, C.B.; Ellingwood, B.R.

    1996-03-01

    The Structural Aging Program provides the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission with potential structural safety issues and acceptance criteria for use in continued service assessments of nuclear power plant safety-related concrete structures. The program was organized under four task areas: Program Management, Materials Property Data Base, Structural Component Assessment/Repair Technology, and Quantitative Methodology for Continued Service Determinations. Under these tasks, over 90 papers and reports were prepared addressing pertinent aspects associated with aging management of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures. Contained in this report is a summary of program results in the form of information related to longevity of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, a Structural Materials Information Center presenting data and information on the time variation of concrete materials under the influence of environmental stressors and aging factors, in-service inspection and condition assessments techniques, repair materials and methods, evaluation of nuclear power plant reinforced concrete structures, and a reliability-based methodology for current and future condition assessments. Recommendations for future activities are also provided. 308 refs., 61 figs., 50 tabs.

  16. Power counting and Wilsonian renormalization in nuclear effective field theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valderrama, Manuel Pavón

    2016-05-01

    Effective field theories are the most general tool for the description of low energy phenomena. They are universal and systematic: they can be formulated for any low energy systems we can think of and offer a clear guide on how to calculate predictions with reliable error estimates, a feature that is called power counting. These properties can be easily understood in Wilsonian renormalization, in which effective field theories are the low energy renormalization group evolution of a more fundamental — perhaps unknown or unsolvable — high energy theory. In nuclear physics they provide the possibility of a theoretically sound derivation of nuclear forces without having to solve quantum chromodynamics explicitly. However there is the problem of how to organize calculations within nuclear effective field theory: the traditional knowledge about power counting is perturbative but nuclear physics is not. Yet power counting can be derived in Wilsonian renormalization and there is already a fairly good understanding of how to apply these ideas to non-perturbative phenomena and in particular to nuclear physics. Here we review a few of these ideas, explain power counting in two-nucleon scattering and reactions with external probes and hint at how to extend the present analysis beyond the two-body problem.

  17. Man-machine interface issues for space nuclear power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, William R.; Haugset, Kjell

    1991-01-01

    The deployment of nuclear reactors in space necessitates an entirely new set of guidelines for the design of the man-machine interface (MMI) when compared to earth-based applications such as commerical nuclear power plants. Although the design objectives of earth- and space-based nuclear power systems are the same, that is, to produce electrical power, the differences in the application environments mean that the operator's role will be significantly different for space-based systems. This paper explores the issues associated with establishing the necessary MMI guidelines for space nuclear power systems. The generic human performance requirements for space-based systems are described, and the operator roles that are utilized for the operation of current and advanced earth-based reactors are briefly summarized. The development of a prototype advanced control room, the Integrated Surveillance and Control System (ISACS) at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Halden Reactor Project is introduced. Finally, preliminary ideas for the use of the ISACS system as a test bed for establishing MMI guidelines for space nuclear systems are presented.

  18. Man--machine interface issues for space nuclear power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.; Haugset, K. )

    1991-01-10

    The deployment of nuclear reactors in space necessitates an entirely new set of guidelines for the design of the man--machine interface (MMI) when compared to earth-based applications such as commerical nuclear power plants. Although the design objectives of earth- and space-based nuclear power systems are the same, that is, to produce electrical power, the differences in the application environments mean that the operator's role will be significantly different for space-based systems. This paper explores the issues associated with establishing the necessary MMI guidelines for space nuclear power systems. The generic human performance requirements for space-based systems are described, and the operator roles that are utilized for the operation of current and advanced earth-based reactors are briefly summarized. The development of a prototype advanced control room, the Integrated Surveillance and Control System (ISACS) at the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) Halden Reactor Project is introduced. Finally, preliminary ideas for the use of the ISACS system as a test bed for establishing MMI guidelines for space nuclear systems are presented.

  19. Radiation protection performance indicators at the Nuclear Power Plant Krsko.

    PubMed

    Janzekovic, Helena

    2006-06-01

    Nuclear power plant safety performance indicators are developed "by nuclear operating organisations to monitor their own performance and progress, to set their own challenging goals for improvement, and to gain additional perspective on performance relative to that of other plants". In addition, performance indicators are widely used by regulatory authorities although the use is not harmonised. Two basic performance indicators related to good radiation protection practice are collective radiation exposure and volume of low-level radioactive waste. In 2000, Nuclear Power Plant Krsko, a Westinghouse pressurised water reactor with electrical output 700 MW, finished an extensive modernisation including the replacement of both steam generators. While the annual volume of low-level radioactive waste does not show a specific trend related to modernisation, the annual collective dose reached maximum, i.e. 2.60 man Sv, and dropped to 1.13 man Sv in 2001. During the replacement of the steam generators in 2000, the dose associated with this activity was 1.48 man Sv. The annual doses in 2002 and 2003 were 0.53 and 0.80 man Sv, respectively, nearing thus the goal set by the US Institute of Nuclear Power Operators, which is 0.65 man Sv. Therefore, inasmuch as collective dose as the radiation protection performance indicator are concerned, the modernisation of the Krsko nuclear power plant was a success.

  20. Dangers associated with civil nuclear power programmes: weaponization and nuclear waste.

    PubMed

    Boulton, Frank

    2015-07-24

    The number of nuclear power plants in the world rose exponentially to 420 by 1990 and peaked at 438 in 2002; but by 2014, as closed plants were not replaced, there were just 388. In spite of using more renewable energy, the world still relies on fossil fuels, but some countries plan to develop new nuclear programmes. Spent nuclear fuel, one of the most dangerous and toxic materials known, can be reprocessed into fresh fuel or into weapons-grade materials, and generates large amounts of highly active waste. This article reviews available literature on government and industry websites and from independent analysts on world energy production, the aspirations of the 'new nuclear build' programmes in China and the UK, and the difficulties in keeping the environment safe over an immense timescale while minimizing adverse health impacts and production of greenhouse gases, and preventing weaponization by non-nuclear-weapons states acquiring civil nuclear technology.

  1. Fire models for assessment of nuclear power plant fires

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolette, V.F.; Nowlen, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in available fire models for the assessment of nuclear power plants fires. The advantages and disadvantages of three basic types of fire models (zone, field, and control volume) and Sandia's experience with these models will be discussed. It is shown that the type of fire model selected to solve a particular problem should be based on the information that is required. Areas of concern which relate to all nuclear power plant fire models are identified. 17 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Cost estimating relationships for nuclear power plant operationa and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, H.I.; Fuller, L.C.; Myers, M.L.

    1987-11-01

    Revised cost estimating relationships for 1987 are presented for estimating annual nonfuel operation and maintenance (O and M) costs for light-water reactor (LWR) nuclear power plants, which update guidelines published previously in 1982. The purpose of these cost estimating relationships is for use in long range planning and evaluations of the economics of nuclear energy for electric power generation. A listing of a computer program, LWROM, implementing the cost estimating relationships and written in advanced BASIC for IBM personal computers, is included.

  3. Nuclear power plant alarm systems: Problems and issues

    SciTech Connect

    O'Hara, J.M.; Brown, W.S.

    1991-01-01

    Despite the incorporation of advanced technology into nuclear power plant alarm systems, human factors problems remain. This paper identifies to be addressed in order to allow advanced technology to be used effectively in the design of nuclear power plant alarm systems. The operator's use and processing of alarm system information will be considered. Based upon a review of alarm system research, issues related to general system design, alarm processing, display and control are discussed. It is concluded that the design of effective alarm systems depends on an understanding of the information processing capabilities and limitations of the operator. 39 refs.

  4. Nuclear power plant fire protection: philosophy and analysis. [PWR; BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Berry, D. L.

    1980-05-01

    This report combines a fire severity analysis technique with a fault tree methodology for assessing the importance to nuclear power plant safety of certain combinations of components and systems. Characteristics unique to fire, such as propagation induced by the failure of barriers, have been incorporated into the methodology. By applying the resulting fire analysis technique to actual conditions found in a representative nuclear power plant, it is found that some safety and nonsafety areas are both highly vulnerable to fire spread and impotant to overall safety, while other areas prove to be of marginal importance. Suggestions are made for further experimental and analytical work to supplement the fire analysis method.

  5. Neural networks and their application to nuclear power plant diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Reifman, J.

    1997-10-01

    The authors present a survey of artificial neural network-based computer systems that have been proposed over the last decade for the detection and identification of component faults in thermal-hydraulic systems of nuclear power plants. The capabilities and advantages of applying neural networks as decision support systems for nuclear power plant operators and their inherent characteristics are discussed along with their limitations and drawbacks. The types of neural network structures used and their applications are described and the issues of process diagnosis and neural network-based diagnostic systems are identified. A total of thirty-four publications are reviewed.

  6. A methodology for evaluating ``new`` technologies in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Korsah, K.; Clark, R.L.; Holcomb, D.E.

    1994-06-01

    As obsolescence and spare parts issues drive nuclear power plants to upgrade with new technology (such as optical fiber communication systems), the ability of the new technology to withstand stressors present where it is installed needs to be determined. In particular, new standards may be required to address qualification criteria and their application to the nuclear power plants of tomorrow. This paper discusses the failure modes and age-related degradation mechanisms of fiber optic communication systems, and suggests a methodology for identifying when accelerated aging should be performed during qualification testing.

  7. Functions and operations of nuclear power plant crews

    SciTech Connect

    Kisner, R.A.; Frey, P.R.

    1982-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of work performed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and its subcontractors to define the functions, operations, and organization of nuclear power plant operating crews. The primary information sources used were ANS and IEEE standards, normal and emergency operating procedures from nuclear power plants, interviews, and literature reviews. The function and organization of operating crews for several plants are discussed genericly. The report covers a wide spectrum of topics including review of standards affecting human factors in the control room, influence of automation on operator functions, classification of operator functions, function of operator at onset of emergency, crew organization, work-induced stress, and operator acceptance of his role.

  8. Use of expert systems in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrig, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    The application of technologies, particularly expert systems, to the control room activities in a nuclear power plant has the potential to reduce operator error and increase plant safety, reliability, and efficiency. Furthermore, there are a large number of nonoperating activities (testing, routine maintenance, outage planning, equipment diagnostics, and fuel management) in which expert systems can increase the efficiency and effectiveness of overall plant and corporate operations. This document presents a number of potential applications of expert systems in the nuclear power field. 36 refs., 2 tabs.

  9. Tritium release during nuclear power operation in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, D J; Chen, X Q; Li, B

    2012-06-01

    Overviews were evaluated of tritium releases and related doses to the public from airborne and liquid effluents from nuclear power plants on the mainland of China before 2009. The differences between tritium releases from various nuclear power plants were also evaluated. The tritium releases are mainly from liquid pathways for pressurised water reactors, but tritium releases between airborne and liquid effluents are comparable for heavy water reactors. The airborne release from a heavy water reactor is obviously higher than that from a pressurised water reactor.

  10. Contracting and subcontracting by the French nuclear power industry.

    PubMed

    Thébaud-Mony, A

    1999-01-01

    The French nuclear power industry contracts out 80% of the maintenance work in its plants to independent companies. The workers in these companies are seldom protected by unions or by government regulations. The average dose of radiation received by such a worker is four times that received by a permanent employee of the contracting entity. As the contract worker approaches a specified dose limit, he is laid off, with no support other than welfare and no compensation for medical expenses that may arise as a result of the radiation exposure or occupational stress. There is a danger that this pattern of worker exploitation will spread as nuclear power plants proliferate around the world.

  11. Nuclear safety as applied to space power reactor systems

    SciTech Connect

    Cummings, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    Current space nuclear power reactor safety issues are discussed with respect to the unique characteristics of these reactors. An approach to achieving adequate safety and a perception of safety is outlined. This approach calls for a carefully conceived safety program which makes uses of lessons learned from previous terrestrial power reactor development programs. This approach includes use of risk analyses, passive safety design features, and analyses/experiments to understand and control off-design conditions. The point is made that some recent accidents concerning terrestrial power reactors do not imply that space power reactors cannot be operated safety.

  12. Identifying and bounding uncertainties in nuclear reactor thermal power calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Phillips, J.; Hauser, E.; Estrada, H.

    2012-07-01

    Determination of the thermal power generated in the reactor core of a nuclear power plant is a critical element in the safe and economic operation of the plant. Direct measurement of the reactor core thermal power is made using neutron flux instrumentation; however, this instrumentation requires frequent calibration due to changes in the measured flux caused by fuel burn-up, flux pattern changes, and instrumentation drift. To calibrate the nuclear instruments, steam plant calorimetry, a process of performing a heat balance around the nuclear steam supply system, is used. There are four basic elements involved in the calculation of thermal power based on steam plant calorimetry: The mass flow of the feedwater from the power conversion system, the specific enthalpy of that feedwater, the specific enthalpy of the steam delivered to the power conversion system, and other cycle gains and losses. Of these elements, the accuracy of the feedwater mass flow and the feedwater enthalpy, as determined from its temperature and pressure, are typically the largest contributors to the calorimetric calculation uncertainty. Historically, plants have been required to include a margin of 2% in the calculation of the reactor thermal power for the licensed maximum plant output to account for instrumentation uncertainty. The margin is intended to ensure a cushion between operating power and the power for which safety analyses are performed. Use of approved chordal ultrasonic transit-time technology to make the feedwater flow and temperature measurements (in place of traditional differential-pressure- based instruments and resistance temperature detectors [RTDs]) allows for nuclear plant thermal power calculations accurate to 0.3%-0.4% of plant rated power. This improvement in measurement accuracy has allowed many plant operators in the U.S. and around the world to increase plant power output through Measurement Uncertainty Recapture (MUR) up-rates of up to 1.7% of rated power, while also

  13. Fiber optic sensors for nuclear power plant applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kasinathan, Murugesan; Sosamma, Samuel; BabuRao, Chelamchala; Murali, Nagarajan; Jayakumar, Tammana

    2012-05-17

    Studies have been carried out for application of Raman Distributed Temperature Sensor (RDTS) in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The high temperature monitoring in sodium circuits of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) is important. It is demonstrated that RDTS can be usefully employed in monitoring sodium circuits and in tracking the percolating sodium in the surrounding insulation in case of any leak. Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) cable is commonly used as overhead power transmission cable in power grid. The suitability of RDTS for detecting defects in ACSR overhead power cable, is also demonstrated.

  14. Fiber optic sensors for nuclear power plant applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasinathan, Murugesan; Sosamma, Samuel; BabuRao, Chelamchala; Murali, Nagarajan; Jayakumar, Tammana

    2012-05-01

    Studies have been carried out for application of Raman Distributed Temperature Sensor (RDTS) in Nuclear Power Plants (NPP). The high temperature monitoring in sodium circuits of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) is important. It is demonstrated that RDTS can be usefully employed in monitoring sodium circuits and in tracking the percolating sodium in the surrounding insulation in case of any leak. Aluminum Conductor Steel Reinforced (ACSR) cable is commonly used as overhead power transmission cable in power grid. The suitability of RDTS for detecting defects in ACSR overhead power cable, is also demonstrated.

  15. Lifting device for nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Krieger, F.

    1984-07-17

    A lifting device for lifting and transporting nuclear fuel elements. This device comprises a mast-like support on the lower end of which automatically operated and locked gripping pawls are provided. The support has a considerable height and may be referred to as lifting mast. The gripping pawls and their operating mechanism are referred to as gripping-head. The gripping-head and the lifting mast are telescopically movable relative to each other. To this end guide rods and compression springs are interposed between the lower end of the lifting mast and the gripping-head. The gripping-head comprises two concentric annular members which are relatively movable or rotatable about their common geometrical axis. One of the annular members supports the gripping pawls are T-shaped. One of their transverse ends is adapted to engage the fuel rods, and the other of their transverse ends is adapted to engage curved grooves in the other annular member. The rotary motion of one annular member relative to the other gripping pawls. In their limit positions the two annular members are blocked by a safety lever engaging slits or slots.

  16. Underground collocation of nuclear power plant reactors and repository to facilitate the post-renaissance expansion of nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, Carl W; Elkins, Ned Z

    2008-01-01

    Underground collocation of nuclear power reactors and the nuclear waste management facilities supporting those reactors, termed an underground nuclear park (UNP), appears to have several advantages compared to the conventional approach to siting reactors and waste management facilities. These advantages include the potential to lower reactor capital and operating cost, lower nuclear waste management cost, and increase margins of physical security and safety. Envirorunental impacts related to worker health, facility accidents, waste transportation, and sabotage and terrorism appear to be lower for UNPs compared to the current approach. In-place decommissioning ofUNP reactors appears to have cost, safety, envirorunental and waste disposal advantages. The UNP approach has the potential to lead to greater public acceptance for the deployment of new power reactors. Use of the UNP during the post-nuclear renaissance time frame has the potential to enable a greater expansion of U.S. nuclear power generation than might otherwise result. Technical and economic aspects of the UNP concept need more study to determine the viability of the concept.

  17. Systems aspects of a space nuclear reactor power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L.; Fujita, T.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Grossman, M.; Bloomfield, H.; Heller, J.

    1988-01-01

    Various system aspects of a 300-kW nuclear reactor power system for spacecraft have been investigated. Special attention is given to the cases of a reusable OTV and a space-based radar. It is demonstrated that the stowed length of the power system is important to mission design, and that orbital storage for months to years may be needed for missions involving orbital assembly.

  18. Systems aspects of a space nuclear reactor power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, L.; Fujita, T.; Beatty, R.; Bhandari, P.; Chow, E.; Deininger, W.; Ewell, R.; Grossman, M.; Bloomfield, H.; Heller, J.

    1988-01-01

    Various system aspects of a 300-kW nuclear reactor power system for spacecraft have been investigated. Special attention is given to the cases of a reusable OTV and a space-based radar. It is demonstrated that the stowed length of the power system is important to mission design, and that orbital storage for months to years may be needed for missions involving orbital assembly.

  19. Static and dynamic high power, space nuclear electric generating systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetch, J. R.; Begg, L. L.; Koester, J. K.

    1985-01-01

    Space nuclear electric generating systems concepts have been assessed for their potential in satisfying future spacecraft high power (several megawatt) requirements. Conceptual designs have been prepared for reactor power systems using the most promising static (thermionic) and the most promising dynamic conversion processes. Component and system layouts, along with system mass and envelope requirements have been made. Key development problems have been identified and the impact of the conversion process selection upon thermal management and upon system and vehicle configuration is addressed.

  20. The future of nuclear energy: A perspective on nuclear power development

    SciTech Connect

    Sackett, J. I.

    2000-04-03

    The author begins by discussing the history of nuclear power development in the US. He discusses the challenges for nuclear power such as the proliferation of weapons material, waste management, economics, and safety. He then discusses the future for nuclear power, specifically advanced reactor development. People can all be thankful for nuclear power, for it may well be essential to the long term survival of civilization. Within the seeds of its potential for great good, are also the seeds for great harm. People must ensure that it is applied for great good. What is not in question is whether people can live without it, they cannot. United States leadership is crucial in determining how this technology is developed and applied. The size and capability of the United States technical community is decreasing, a trend that cannot be allowed to continue. It is the author's belief that in the future, the need, the vision and the confidence in nuclear power will be restored, but only if the US addresses the immediate challenges. It is a national challenge worthy of the best people this nation has to offer.

  1. US nuclear power plant operating cost and experience summaries

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, W.E.; Reid, R.L.; White, V.S.

    1998-02-01

    NUREG/CR-6577, U.S. Nuclear Power Plant Operating Cost and Experience Summaries, has been prepared to provide historical operating cost and experience information on U.S. commercial nuclear power plants. Cost incurred after initial construction are characterized as annual production costs, representing fuel and plant operating and maintenance expenses, and capital expenditures related to facility additions/modifications which are included in the plant capital asset base. As discussed in the report, annual data for these two cost categories were obtained from publicly available reports and must be accepted as having different degrees of accuracy and completeness. Treatment of inconclusive and incomplete data is discussed. As an aid to understanding the fluctuations in the cost histories, operating summaries for each nuclear unit are provided. The intent of these summaries is to identify important operating events; refueling, major maintenance, and other significant outages; operating milestones; and significant licensing or enforcement actions. Information used in the summaries is condensed from annual operating reports submitted by the licensees, plant histories contained in Nuclear Power Experience, trade press articles, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) web site (www.nrc.gov).

  2. Safety system augmentation at Russian Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scerbo, J. A.; Satpute, S. N.; Donkin, J. Y.; Reister, R. A.

    1997-06-01

    This paper describes the design and procurement of a Class 1E DC power supply system to upgrade plant safety at the Kola Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Kola NPP is located above the Arctic circle at Polyanie Zprie, Murmansk, Russia. Kola NPP consists of four units. Units 1 and 2 have VVER-440/230 type reactors: Units 3 and 4 have VVER-440/213 type reactors. The VVER 440 reactor design is similar to the pressurized water reactor design used in the US. This project provided redundant Class 1E DC station batteries and DC switchboards for Kola NPP, Units 1 and 2. The new DC power supply system was designed and procured in compliance with current nuclear design practices and requirements. Technical issues that needed to be addressed included reconciling the requirements in both US and Russian codes and satisfying the requirements of the Russian nuclear regulatory authority. Close interface with ATOMENERGOPROEKT (AEP), the Russian design organization, KOLA NPP plant personnel, and GOSATOMNASZOR (GAN), the Russian Version of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission was necessary to develop a design that would assure compliance with current Russian design requirements. Hence, this project was expected to serve as an example for plant upgrades at other similar VVER-440 nuclear plants. In addition to technical issues, the project needed to address language barriers and the logistics of shipping equipment to a remote section of the Former Soviet Union.

  3. Adaptive Neural Network Algorithm for Power Control in Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masri Husam Fayiz, Al

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to design, test and evaluate a prototype of an adaptive neural network algorithm for the power controlling system of a nuclear power plant. The task of power control in nuclear reactors is one of the fundamental tasks in this field. Therefore, researches are constantly conducted to ameliorate the power reactor control process. Currently, in the Department of Automation in the National Research Nuclear University (NRNU) MEPhI, numerous studies are utilizing various methodologies of artificial intelligence (expert systems, neural networks, fuzzy systems and genetic algorithms) to enhance the performance, safety, efficiency and reliability of nuclear power plants. In particular, a study of an adaptive artificial intelligent power regulator in the control systems of nuclear power reactors is being undertaken to enhance performance and to minimize the output error of the Automatic Power Controller (APC) on the grounds of a multifunctional computer analyzer (simulator) of the Water-Water Energetic Reactor known as Vodo-Vodyanoi Energetichesky Reaktor (VVER) in Russian. In this paper, a block diagram of an adaptive reactor power controller was built on the basis of an intelligent control algorithm. When implementing intelligent neural network principles, it is possible to improve the quality and dynamic of any control system in accordance with the principles of adaptive control. It is common knowledge that an adaptive control system permits adjusting the controller’s parameters according to the transitions in the characteristics of the control object or external disturbances. In this project, it is demonstrated that the propitious options for an automatic power controller in nuclear power plants is a control system constructed on intelligent neural network algorithms.

  4. Nuclear power in the 21st century: Challenges and possibilities.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Akos; Rachlew, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    The current situation and possible future developments for nuclear power--including fission and fusion processes--is presented. The fission nuclear power continues to be an essential part of the low-carbon electricity generation in the world for decades to come. There are breakthrough possibilities in the development of new generation nuclear reactors where the life-time of the nuclear waste can be reduced to some hundreds of years instead of the present time-scales of hundred thousand of years. Research on the fourth generation reactors is needed for the realisation of this development. For the fast nuclear reactors, a substantial research and development effort is required in many fields--from material sciences to safety demonstration--to attain the envisaged goals. Fusion provides a long-term vision for an efficient energy production. The fusion option for a nuclear reactor for efficient production of electricity has been set out in a focussed European programme including the international project of ITER after which a fusion electricity DEMO reactor is envisaged.

  5. Quantity and quality in nuclear engineering professional skills needed by the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Slember, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the challenge of work force requirements in the context of the full range of issues facing the nuclear power industry. The supply of skilled managers and workers may be a more serious problem if nuclear power fades away than if it is reborn in a new generation. An even greater concern, however, is the quality of education that the industry needs in all its future professionals. Both government and industry should be helping universities adapt their curricula to the needs of the future. This means building a closer relationship with schools that educate nuclear professionals, that is, providing adequate scholarships and funding for research and development programs, offering in-kind services, and encouraging internships and other opportunities for hands-on experience. The goal should not be just state-of-the-art engineering practices, but the broad range of knowledge, issues, and skills that will be required of the nuclear leadership of the twenty-first century.

  6. Nuclear Power Options Viability Study. Volume 4. Bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Trauger, D B; White, J D; Sims, J W

    1986-09-01

    Documents in the Nuclear Power Options Viability Study (NPOVS) bibliography are classified under one of four headings or categories as follows: nuclear options; light water reactors; liquid metal reactors; and high temperature reactors. The collection and selection of these documents, beginning early in 1984 and continuing through March of 1986, was carried out in support of the study's objective: to explore the viabilities of several nuclear electric power generation options for commercial deployment in the United States between 2000 and 2010. There are approximately 550 articles, papers, reports, and books in the bibliography that have been selected from some 2000 surveyed. The citations have been made computer accessible to facilitate rapid on-line retrieval by keyword, author, corporate author, title, journal name, or document number.

  7. European standards and approaches to EMC in nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bardsley, D.J.; Dillingham, S.R.; McMinn, K.

    1995-04-01

    Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) arising from a wide range of sources can threaten nuclear power plant operation. The need for measures to mitigate its effects have long been recognised although there are difference in approaches worldwide. The US industry approaches the problem by comprehensive site surveys defining an envelope of emissions for the environmental whilst the UK nuclear industry defined many years ago generic levels which cover power station environments. Moves to standardisation within the European community have led to slight changes in UK approach, in particular how large systems can be tested. The tests undertaken on UK nuclear plant include tests for immunity to conducted as well as radiated interference. Similar tests are also performed elsewhere in Europe but are not, to the authors` knowledge, commonly undertaken in the USA. Currently work is proceeding on draft international standards under the auspices of the IEC.

  8. 77 FR 30030 - Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-21

    ... COMMISSION Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Maintenance at Nuclear Power Plants.'' This guide endorses Revision 4A to Nuclear Management and Resources Council (NUMARC) 93-01, ``Industry Guideline for Monitoring the Effectiveness of Maintenance at Nuclear...

  9. Nuclear Power and the Environment, Understanding the Atom Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atomic Energy Commission, Oak Ridge, TN. Div. of Technical Information.

    This booklet is one of the booklets in the "Understanding the Atom Series" published by the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission for high school science teachers and their students. Discussion concentrates on the radiological and thermal aspects of the environmental effects of nuclear power plants; on the procedures followed by the Atomic Energy…

  10. Technical Basis for Flood Protection at Nuclear Power Plants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    and analyses do not exist for USACE recommendation of incorporated or temporary barriers if other proven, exterior structural approaches are possible...The use of incorporated barriers for flood protection at nuclear power facilities is inherently unreliable and inappropriate; however...incorporated barriers may supplement a complete flood protection strategy. Temporary barriers may also supplement a complete flood protection strategy but are

  11. A Course Case Study: Nuclear Power Generation and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, Allen B.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a course that uses the Ft. Calhoun nuclear power plant as a case study. The course involves three component parts: physics of fission events, engineering requirements, and economic considerations; environmental impact from radiation and thermal effluents; and the impact of social, political and legal factors. (GS)

  12. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2008. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  13. Radioactive Effluents from Nuclear Power Plants Annual Report 2007

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Office of Nuclear Reactor Regulation

    2010-12-10

    This report describes radioactive effluents from commercial nuclear power plants (NPPs) in the United States. This information was reported by the licensees for radioactive discharges that occurred in 2007. The report provides information relevant to the potential impact of NPPs on the environment and on public health.

  14. Impacts of nuclear power sources on space debris

    SciTech Connect

    Grinberg, Eduard I.; Doschatov, Vitali V.; Nikolaev, Vadim S.; Sokolov, Nikolai A.; Nazarenko, Andrei I.; Usov, Veniamin A.

    1997-01-10

    The paper presents some results of efforts dealing with computational analyses of probability of impact of nuclear power sources (NPS) on space debris (SD), destruction of the NPS structure on the impacts, change in orbital parameters as a result of the NPS impact and reentry.

  15. The Role of Nuclear Power in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    For Frank Princiotta’s book, Global Climate Change—The Technology Challenge As this chapter will point out, nuclear energy is a low greenhouse gas emitter and is capable of providing large amounts of power using proven technology. In the immediate future, it can contribute to gr...

  16. Edison Electric, Exxon Push Nuclear Power in Nation's Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Dede

    1978-01-01

    Pro-nuclear power "educational materials" designed or promoted by energy and utility companies lack objectivity about alternative energy resources. A free comic book distributed to public schools in New Mexico and a simulation game supplied to Maryland public schools at the expense of utility customers are described. (SW)

  17. Nuclear Power: Outlook for New U.S. Reactors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-09

    MD) 4Q 2007 Areva EPR 1 Nine Mile Point (NY) 1st half 2008 Areva EPR 1 Not specified 4Q 2008 Areva EPR 3 Dominion North Anna (VA) Nov. 2007 GE ESBWR...Secretary Samuel Bodman. 51 Lovell, David L., Wisconsin Legislative Council Staff , State Statutes Limiting the Construction of Nuclear Power Plants

  18. Near-term thermoelectric nuclear power options for SEI missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Jerry R.

    1992-01-01

    Three different types of thermoelectric nuclear space power systems are discussed. First, the general purpose heat source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG), which was qualified and flown on Galileo/Ulysses and is in development for Cassini, is discussed. Second, the modular RTG, which is undergoing life verification, is discussed. Finally, the SP-100 is discussed. The information is presented in viewgraph form.

  19. Know Nukes: A Nuclear Power Issues Curriculum Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Charlie; McCandless, Marjorie

    Classroom activities are presented to help teachers introduce general controversial issues and specific issues on nuclear power in their high school science, social studies, and English classes. Objectives are to help students understand the various techniques of persuasion; the relationship between bias, persuasion, and fact; how these techniques…

  20. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Delene, J.G.; Hudson, C.R. II.

    1990-03-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies. 10 refs., 8 figs., 32 tabs.

  1. Impacts of nuclear power sources on space debris

    SciTech Connect

    Grinberg, E.I.; Doschatov, V.V.; Nikolaev, V.S.; Sokolov, N.A.; Nazarenko, A.I.; Usov, V.A.

    1997-01-01

    The paper presents some results of efforts dealing with computational analyses of probability of impact of nuclear power sources (NPS) on space debris (SD), destruction of the NPS structure on the impacts, change in orbital parameters as a result of the NPS impact and reentry. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  2. A Course Case Study: Nuclear Power Generation and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlesinger, Allen B.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a course that uses the Ft. Calhoun nuclear power plant as a case study. The course involves three component parts: physics of fission events, engineering requirements, and economic considerations; environmental impact from radiation and thermal effluents; and the impact of social, political and legal factors. (GS)

  3. Commercial Nuclear Steam-Electric Power Plants, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Ferdinand J.

    1974-01-01

    Presents the pros and cons of nuclear power systems. Includes a discussion of the institutional status of the AEC, AEC regulatory record, routine low-level radiation hazards, transport of radioactive materials, storage of wastes, and uranium resources and economics of supply. (GS)

  4. The Role of Nuclear Power in Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    For Frank Princiotta’s book, Global Climate Change—The Technology Challenge As this chapter will point out, nuclear energy is a low greenhouse gas emitter and is capable of providing large amounts of power using proven technology. In the immediate future, it can contribute to gr...

  5. Near-Term Demonstration of Benign, Sustainable, Nuclear Power

    SciTech Connect

    Walter, C.E.

    2000-09-21

    Nuclear power reactors have been studied, researched, developed, constructed, demonstrated, deployed, operated, reviewed, discussed, praised and maligned in the United States for over half a century. These activities now transcend our national borders and nuclear power reactors are in commercial use by many nations. Throughout the world, many have been built, some have been shut down, and new ones are coming on line. Almost one-fifth of the world's electricity in 1997 was produced from these reactors. Nuclear power is no longer an unknown new technology. A large increase in world electricity demand is projected for the coming century. In lieu of endless research programs on ''new'' concepts, it is now time to proceed vigorously with widespread deployment of the best nuclear power option for which most parameters are already established. Here, we develop an aggressive approach for initiating the deployment of such a system--with the potential to produce over half of the world's electricity by mid-century, and to continue at that level for several centuries.

  6. Nuclear Power Plant NDE Challenges - Past, Present, and Future

    SciTech Connect

    Doctor, S. R.

    2007-03-21

    The operating fleet of U.S. nuclear power plants was built to fossil plant standards (of workmanship, not fitness for service) and with good engineering judgment. Fortuitously, those nuclear power plants were designed using defense-in-depth concepts, with nondestructive examination (NDE) an important layer, so they can tolerate almost any component failure and still continue to operate safely. In the 30+ years of reactor operation, many material failures have occurred. Unfortunately, NDE has not provided the reliability to detect degradation prior to initial failure (breaching the pressure boundary). However, NDE programs have been improved by moving from prescriptive procedures to performance demonstrations that quantify inspection effectiveness for flaw detection probability and sizing accuracy. Other improvements include the use of risk-informed strategies to ensure that reactor components contributing the most risk receive the best and most frequent inspections. Another challenge is the recent surge of interest in building new nuclear power plants in the United States to meet increasing domestic energy demand. New construction will increase the demand for NDE but also offers the opportunity for more proactive inspections. This paper reviews the inception and evolution of NDE for nuclear power plants over the past 40 years, recounts lessons learned, and describes the needs remaining as existing plants continue operation and new construction is contemplated.

  7. Edison Electric, Exxon Push Nuclear Power in Nation's Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, Dede

    1978-01-01

    Pro-nuclear power "educational materials" designed or promoted by energy and utility companies lack objectivity about alternative energy resources. A free comic book distributed to public schools in New Mexico and a simulation game supplied to Maryland public schools at the expense of utility customers are described. (SW)

  8. Commercial Nuclear Steam-Electric Power Plants, Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Ferdinand J.

    1974-01-01

    Presents the pros and cons of nuclear power systems. Includes a discussion of the institutional status of the AEC, AEC regulatory record, routine low-level radiation hazards, transport of radioactive materials, storage of wastes, and uranium resources and economics of supply. (GS)

  9. Teaching About the Nuclear Power Controversy by Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Thomas

    1976-01-01

    Describes a simple simulation for teaching secondary students about nuclear power as a source of energy by having them role play various interest groups. Game rules, including division of class members into four interest groups, are described. The author suggests eight references that would be useful for the simulation. (Author/DB)

  10. Near-term thermoelectric nuclear power options for SEI missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Jerry R.

    1992-01-01

    Three different types of thermoelectric nuclear space power systems are discussed. First, the general purpose heat source Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG), which was qualified and flown on Galileo/Ulysses and is in development for Cassini, is discussed. Second, the modular RTG, which is undergoing life verification, is discussed. Finally, the SP-100 is discussed. The information is presented in viewgraph form.

  11. 76 FR 75771 - Emergency Planning Guidance for Nuclear Power Plants

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-05

    ... Regulatory Commission (NRC) is issuing Supplement 3, ``Guidance for Protective Action Strategies,'' to NUREG... Evacuation Time Estimate Studies;'' all dated November, 2011. These documents update implementation guidance...) studies. This document provides guidance for addressing new EP requirements for nuclear power plants based...

  12. Cost estimate guidelines for advanced nuclear power technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, C.R. II

    1986-07-01

    To make comparative assessments of competing technologies, consistent ground rules must be applied when developing cost estimates. This document provides a uniform set of assumptions, ground rules, and requirements that can be used in developing cost estimates for advanced nuclear power technologies.

  13. Assessment of control rooms of nuclear power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norros, L.; Ranta, J.; Wahlstroem, B.

    1983-05-01

    The NUREG 0700 recommendations were assessed for implementation in the control rooms of Finnish nuclear power plants. Direct conclusions drawn from the American situation are misleading, because of differences in, for example, procurement of instruments or personnel training. If the review is limited to control room details, the NRC program (checklist) is successful. It can also be used during planning to observe small discrepancies.

  14. Is natural background or radiation from nuclear power plants leukemogenic

    SciTech Connect

    Cronkite, E.P.

    1989-01-01

    The objective in this review is to provide some facts about normal hemopoietic cell proliferation relevant to leukemogenesis, physical, chemical, and biological facts about radiation effects with the hope that each person will be able to decide for themselves whether background radiation or emissions from nuclear power plants and facilities significantly add to the spontaneous leukemia incidence. 23 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Natural Disasters and Safety Risks at Nuclear Power Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tutnova, T.

    2012-04-01

    In the aftermath of Fukushima natural-technological disaster the global opinion on nuclear energy divided even deeper. While Germany, Italy and the USA are currently reevaluating their previous plans on nuclear growth, many states are committed to expand nuclear energy output. In China and France, where the industry is widely supported by policymakers, there is little talk about abandoning further development of nuclear energy. Moreover, China displays the most remarkable pace of nuclear development in the world: it is responsible for 40% of worldwide reactors under construction, and aims at least to quadruple its nuclear capacity by 2020. In these states the consequences of Fukushima natural-technological accident will probably result in safety checks and advancement of new reactor technologies. Thus, China is buying newer reactor design from the USA which relies on "passive safety systems". It means that emergency power generators, crucial for reactor cooling in case of an accident, won't depend on electricity, so that tsunami won't disable them like it happened in the case of Fukushima. Nuclear energy managed to draw lessons from previous nuclear accidents where technological and human factors played crucial role. But the Fukushima lesson shows that the natural hazards, nevertheless, were undervalued. Though the ongoing technological advancements make it possible to increase the safety of nuclear power plants with consideration of natural risks, it is not just a question of technology improvement. A necessary action that must be taken is the reevaluation of the character and sources of the potential hazards which natural disasters can bring to nuclear industry. One of the examples is a devastating impact of more than one natural disaster happening at the same time. This subject, in fact, was not taken into account before, while it must be a significant point in planning sites for new nuclear power plants. Another important lesson unveiled is that world nuclear

  16. Safety system augmentation at Russian nuclear power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Scerbo, J.A.; Satpute, S.N.; Donkin, J.Y.; Reister, R.A. |

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes the design and procurement of a Class IE DC power supply system to upgrade plant safety at the Kola Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Kola NPP is located above the Arctic circle at Polyarnie Zorie, Murmansk, Russia. Kola NPP consists of four units. Units 1 and 2 have VVER-440/230 type reactors: Units 3 and 4 have VVER-440/213 type reactors. The VVER-440 reactor design is similar to the pressurized water reactor design used in the US. This project provided redundant, Class 1E DC station batteries and DC switchboards for Kola NPP, Units 1 and 2. The new DC power supply system was designed and procured in compliance with current nuclear design practices and requirements. Technical issues that needed to be addressed included reconciling the requirements in both US and Russian codes and satisfying the requirements of the Russian nuclear regulatory authority. Close interface with ATOMENERGOPROEKT (AEP), the Russian design organization, KOLA NPP plant personnel, and GOSATOMNADZOR (GAN), the Russian version of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission, was necessary to develop a design that would assure compliance with current Russian design requirements. Hence, this project was expected to serve as an example for plant upgrades at other similar VVER-440 nuclear plants. In addition to technical issues, the project needed to address language barriers and the logistics of shipping equipment to a remote section of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). This project was executed by Burns and Roe under the sponsorship of the US DOE as part of the International Safety Program (INSP). The INSP is a comprehensive effort, in cooperation with partners in other countries, to improve nuclear safety worldwide. A major element within the INSP is the improvement of the safety of Soviet-designed nuclear reactors.

  17. Defense nuclear energy systems selection methodology for civil nuclear power applications

    SciTech Connect

    Scarborough, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    A methodology developed to select a preferred nuclear power system for a US Department of Defense (DOD) application has been used to evaluate preferred nuclear power systems for a remote island community in Southeast Asia. The plant would provide approx.10 MW of electric power, possibly low-temperature process heat for the local community, and would supplement existing island diesel electric capacity. The nuclear power system evaluation procedure was evolved from a disciplined methodology for ranking ten nuclear power designs under joint development by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and DOD. These included six designs proposed by industry for the Secure Military Power Plant Program (now termed Multimegawatt Terrestrial Reactor Program), the SP-100 Program, the North Warning System Program, and the Modular Advanced High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) and Liquid-Metal Reactor (LMR) programs. The 15 evaluation criteria established for the civil application were generally similar to those developed and used for the defense energy systems evaluation, except that the weighting factor applied to each individual criterion differed. The criteria and their weighting (importance) functions for the civil application are described.

  18. The Active Field of Nuclear and Radiochemistry: Not Just Nuclear Power.

    PubMed

    Walther, Clemens

    2016-08-01

    " … The number of universities teaching nuclear and radiochemistry has decreased, not least as radiochemistry is erroneously linked to the use of nuclear power … Radiochemistry is essential for a variety of fields, including radiopharmaceuticals, as well as the management of radioactive waste … we are facing a lack of specialists in the area of radiation protection …" Read more in the Editorial by Clemens Walther.

  19. Personality Factors and Nuclear Power Plant Operators: Initial License Success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVita-Cochrane, Cynthia

    Commercial nuclear power utilities are under pressure to effectively recruit and retain licensed reactor operators in light of poor candidate training completion rates and recent candidate failures on the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license exam. One candidate failure can cost a utility over $400,000, making the successful licensing of new operators a critical path to operational excellence. This study was designed to discover if the NEO-PI-3, a 5-factor measure of personality, could improve selection in nuclear utilities by identifying personality factors that predict license candidate success. Two large U.S. commercial nuclear power corporations provided potential participant contact information and candidate results on the 2014 NRC exam from their nuclear power units nation-wide. License candidates who participated (n = 75) completed the NEO-PI-3 personality test and results were compared to 3 outcomes on the NRC exam: written exam, simulated operating exam, and overall exam result. Significant correlations were found between several personality factors and both written and operating exam outcomes on the NRC exam. Further, a regression analysis indicated that personality factors, particularly Conscientiousness, predicted simulated operating exam scores. The results of this study may be used to support the use of the NEO-PI-3 to improve operator selection as an addition to the current selection protocol. Positive social change implications from this study include support for the use of a personality measure by utilities to improve their return-on-investment in candidates and by individual candidates to avoid career failures. The results of this study may also positively impact the public by supporting the safe and reliable operation of commercial nuclear power utilities in the United States.

  20. 77 FR 34093 - License Renewal for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC's

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-08

    ... COMMISSION License Renewal for Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC's AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant site near Lusby, Maryland. The NRC has prepared an Environmental Assessment... dated September 17, 2010, Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant, LLC (CCNPP) submitted an application...