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Sample records for groenbog om energieffektivitet

  1. OMS Annual Report, 1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This report describes the following 1985 Office of Management Studies (OMS) programs and services: (1) the Academic Library Program (ALP), which includes the Organizational Screening Program, the Collection Analysis Project (CAP), the Preservation Planning Program (PPP), the Public Services Study (PSS), the Management Review and Analysis Program…

  2. OMS Annual Report, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This report describes the following 1986 Office of Management Studies (OMS) programs and services: (1) the Academic Library Program, which includes the Management Review and Analysis Program, the Public Services Study, the Planning Program for Small Academic Libraries, the Collection Analysis Project, the Leadership Development Program, the…

  3. OMS Annual Report, 1983.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    This report describes 1983 Office of Management Studies (OMS) programs and services, including: (1) the Academic Library Program (ALP), which covered the Public Services Project, the Collection Analysis Project (CAP), the Small College Collection Assessment Project, the Preservation Planning Program, the Organizational Screening Program, the…

  4. OMS FDIR: Initial prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Eric W.; Hanson, Matthew A.

    1990-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program (SSFP) Operations Management System (OMS) will automate major management functions which coordinate the operations of onboard systems, elements and payloads. The objectives of OMS are to improve safety, reliability and productivity while reducing maintenance and operations cost. This will be accomplished by using advanced automation techniques to automate much of the activity currently performed by the flight crew and ground personnel. OMS requirements have been organized into five task groups: (1) Planning, Execution and Replanning; (2) Data Gathering, Preprocessing and Storage; (3) Testing and Training; (4) Resource Management; and (5) Caution and Warning and Fault Management for onboard subsystems. The scope of this prototyping effort falls within the Fault Management requirements group. The prototyping will be performed in two phases. Phase 1 is the development of an onboard communications network fault detection, isolation, and reconfiguration (FDIR) system. Phase 2 will incorporate global FDIR for onboard systems. Research into the applicability of expert systems, object-oriented programming, fuzzy sets, neural networks and other advanced techniques will be conducted. The goals and technical approach for this new SSFP research project are discussed here.

  5. OMS engine firing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-06-25

    S83-35782 (18 June 1983) --- An Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) engine firing caused this bright glow at the aft end of the Earth-orbiting space shuttle Challenger on June 18, 1983. Also visible in the 70mm exposure are parts of the Shuttle Pallet Satellite (SPAS-01). The experiment package for NASA's Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA-2), the protective cradles for the Indonesian Palapa-B and Telesat Canada Anik C2 satellites, some getaway special (GAS) canisters and the Canadian-built Remote Manipulator System (RMS). The firing took place less than an hour after deployment of Anik. Photo credit: NASA

  6. OMS engine firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    An Orbital maneuvering system (OMS) engine firing caused this bright glow at the aft end of the shuttle Challenger during STS-7. Also visible in the open payload bay are parts of the Shuttle pallet satellite (SPAS-01), the experiment package for NASA's Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA-2), the protective cradles for the Indonesian Palapa-B and Telesat Canada Anik C2 satellites, some getaway special (GAS) canisters and the Canadian built remote manipulator system (RMS). The earth's horizon can be seen above the orbiter.

  7. OMS engine firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    An Orbital maneuvering system (OMS) engine firing caused this bright glow at the aft end of the shuttle Challenger during STS-7. Also visible in the open payload bay are parts of the Shuttle pallet satellite (SPAS-01), the experiment package for NASA's Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA-2), the protective cradles for the Indonesian Palapa-B and Telesat Canada Anik C2 satellites, some getaway special (GAS) canisters and the Canadian built remote manipulator system (RMS). Only a small portion of the earth's horizon can be seen above the orbiter's vertical stabilizer.

  8. Orbiter OMS and RCS technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boudreaux, R. A.

    1982-01-01

    Orbiter Orbital Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) and Reaction Control Subsystem (RCS) tankage has proved to be highly successful in shuttle flights on-orbit propellant transfer tests were done. Tank qualification tests along with flight demonstrations were carried out future uses of storable propellants are cited.

  9. OMS event evaluator and scheduler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckelkamp, Richard E.

    1990-01-01

    An Operations Management System (OMS) is being designed for Space Station Freedom to improve productivity, reliability, and safety while reducing operations and maintenance costs. Central to the concept is a short term plan containing mixes of man-readable and machine-executable procedures used in an environment of distributed processing and execution. An OMS event evaluator to check upcoming short-term plan events for validity of execution is under development. The first version checks time and resource constraints against operational conditions for current or expected stations. In work are the handling of environmental and other operational constraints, as well as detailed modeling of resources and station operational states. The Ada Program also has the ability to reschedule all or part of the events.

  10. OM300 Direction Drilling Module

    DOE Data Explorer

    MacGugan, Doug

    2013-08-22

    OM300 – Geothermal Direction Drilling Navigation Tool: Design and produce a prototype directional drilling navigation tool capable of high temperature operation in geothermal drilling Accuracies of 0.1° Inclination and Tool Face, 0.5° Azimuth Environmental Ruggedness typical of existing oil/gas drilling Multiple Selectable Sensor Ranges High accuracy for navigation, low bandwidth High G-range & bandwidth for Stick-Slip and Chirp detection Selectable serial data communications Reduce cost of drilling in high temperature Geothermal reservoirs Innovative aspects of project Honeywell MEMS* Vibrating Beam Accelerometers (VBA) APS Flux-gate Magnetometers Honeywell Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) High-temperature electronics Rugged High-temperature capable package and assembly process

  11. On-Orbit Propulsion OMS/RCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Space Shuttle's On-Orbit Propulsion systems: the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) and the Reaction Control System (RCS). The functions of each of the systems is described, and the diagrams of the systems are presented. The OMS/RCS thruster is detailed and a trade study comparison of non-toxic propellants is presented.

  12. ARL/OMS Consultant Training Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Euster, Joanne R.

    1982-01-01

    Describes Academic Library Consultant Training Program begun in 1979, sponsored by Office of Management Studies (OMS) and designed to provide 80 consultants to aid academic libraries in improving performance. Viewpoints are included from OMS Director and participants concerning program objectives, trainee selection, workshops, internships, and the…

  13. Overtone Mobility Spectrometry: Part 4. OMS-OMS Analyses of Complex Mixtures

    PubMed Central

    Kurulugama, Ruwan T.; Nachtigall, Fabiane M.; Valentine, Stephen J.; Clemmer, David E.

    2013-01-01

    A new, two-dimensional overtone mobility spectrometry (OMS-OMS) instrument is described for the analysis of complex peptide mixtures. OMS separations are based on the differences in mobilities of ions in the gas phase. The method utilizes multiple drift regions with modulated drift fields such that only ions with appropriate mobilities are transmitted to the detector. Here we describe a hybrid OMS-OMS combination that utilizes two independently operated OMS regions that are separated by an ion activation region. Mobility-selected ions from the first OMS region are exposed to energizing collisions and may undergo structural transitions before entering the second OMS region. This method generates additional peak capacity and allows for higher selectivity compared with the one-dimensional OMS method. We demonstrate the approach using a three-protein tryptic digest spiked with the peptide Substance P. The [M+3H]3+ ion from Substance P can be completely isolated from other components in this complex mixture prior to introduction into the mass spectrometer. PMID:21952760

  14. Overtone Mobility Spectrometry: Part 4. OMS-OMS Analyses of Complex Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurulugama, Ruwan T.; Nachtigall, Fabiane M.; Valentine, Stephen J.; Clemmer, David E.

    2011-11-01

    A new, two-dimensional overtone mobility spectrometry (OMS-OMS) instrument is described for the analysis of complex peptide mixtures. OMS separations are based on the differences in mobilities of ions in the gas phase. The method utilizes multiple drift regions with modulated drift fields such that only ions with appropriate mobilities are transmitted to the detector. Here we describe a hybrid OMS-OMS combination that utilizes two independently operated OMS regions that are separated by an ion activation region. Mobility-selected ions from the first OMS region are exposed to energizing collisions and may undergo structural transitions before entering the second OMS region. This method generates additional peak capacity and allows for higher selectivity compared with the one-dimensional OMS method. We demonstrate the approach using a three-protein tryptic digest spiked with the peptide Substance P. The [M + 3H]3+ ion from Substance P can be completely isolated from other components in this complex mixture prior to introduction into the mass spectrometer.

  15. [Assessment of the Polish occupational medicine service (oms) system made by OMS nurses].

    PubMed

    Sakowski, Piotr

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an assessment of the Polish occupational medicine service (OMS) system made by OMS nurses. The survey was carried out on a random group of OMS nurses. OMS nurses form a professional group comprised of rather experienced personnel. In the opinion of almost 70% of respondents the system guarantees good occupational heath care, whereas 20% took the opposite view. The great majority of respondents think that all employees have to undergo mandatory prophylactic examinations. The nurses have rather critical opinion about the legal regulations pertaining to occupational health care--their number and complexity, and also express negative opinion about the quality of cooperation with employers (who are contractors for OMS units). OMS nurses believe that prophylactic examinations are the strongest point of the system. They are often the only opportunity for establishing contact between an employee and a physician and learning about diseases he or she was previously unaware of. Although the general assessment of the OMS system is rather positive, it is not free of shortcomings. Improvements in such fields as legislation, financing of service, professional attitude towards responsibilities of the OMS staff, cooperation with employers (contractors) and primary health care units would undoubtedly result in even better assessment, and what is more important in better functioning of the Polish OMS system.

  16. Overtone mobility spectrometry: part 4. OMS-OMS analyses of complex mixtures.

    PubMed

    Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Nachtigall, Fabiane M; Valentine, Stephen J; Clemmer, David E

    2011-11-01

    A new, two-dimensional overtone mobility spectrometry (OMS-OMS) instrument is described for the analysis of complex peptide mixtures. OMS separations are based on the differences in mobilities of ions in the gas phase. The method utilizes multiple drift regions with modulated drift fields such that only ions with appropriate mobilities are transmitted to the detector. Here we describe a hybrid OMS-OMS combination that utilizes two independently operated OMS regions that are separated by an ion activation region. Mobility-selected ions from the first OMS region are exposed to energizing collisions and may undergo structural transitions before entering the second OMS region. This method generates additional peak capacity and allows for higher selectivity compared with the one-dimensional OMS method. We demonstrate the approach using a three-protein tryptic digest spiked with the peptide Substance P. The [M + 3H](3+) ion from Substance P can be completely isolated from other components in this complex mixture prior to introduction into the mass spectrometer.

  17. OMS, OM(η2-SO), and OM(η2-SO)(η2-SO2) molecules (M = Ti, Zr, Hf): infrared spectra and density functional calculations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Wang, Xuefeng; Wang, Qiang; Andrews, Lester

    2012-07-02

    Infrared spectra of the matrix isolated OMS, OM(η(2)-SO), and OM(η(2)-SO)(η(2)-SO(2)) (M = Ti, Zr, Hf) molecules were observed following laser-ablated metal atom reactions with SO(2) during condensation in solid argon and neon. The assignments for the major vibrational modes were confirmed by appropriate S(18)O(2) and (34)SO(2) isotopic shifts, and density functional vibrational frequency calculations (B3LYP and BPW91). Bonding in the initial OM(η(2)-SO) reaction products and in the OM(η(2)-SO)(η(2)-SO(2)) adduct molecules with unusual chiral structures is discussed.

  18. Effects of complexation between organic matter (OM) and clay mineral on OM pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Hongling; Yuan, Peng; Liu, Hongmei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Jinzhong; He, Hongping; Zhou, Junming; Song, Hongzhe; Li, Zhaohui

    2017-09-01

    The stability and persistence of organic matter (OM) in source rocks are of great significance for hydrocarbon generation and the global carbon cycle. Clay-OM associations commonly occur in sedimentation and diagenesis processes and can influence the pyrolytic behaviors of OM. In this study, clay-OM complexes, i.e., interlayer clay-OM complexes and clay-OM mixture, were prepared and exposed to high-pressure pyrolysis conditions in confined gold capsule reactors to assess variations in OM pyrolysis products in the presence of clay minerals. Three model organic compounds, octadecanoic acid (OA), octadecy trimethyl ammonium bromide (OTAB), and octadecylamine (ODA), were employed and montmorillonite (Mt) was selected as the representative clay mineral. The solid acidity of Mt plays a key role in affecting the amount and composition of the pyrolysis gases generated by the clay-OM complexes. The Brønsted acid sites significantly promote the cracking of hydrocarbons through a carbocation mechanism and the isomerization of normal hydrocarbons. The Lewis acid sites are primarily involved in the decarboxylation reaction during pyrolysis and are responsible for CO2 generation. Mt exhibits either a catalysis effect or pyrolysis-inhibiting during pyrolysis of a given OM depending on the nature of the model organic compound and the nature of the clay-OM complexation. The amounts of C1-5 hydrocarbons and CO2 that are released from the Mt-OA and Mt-ODA complexes were higher than those of the parent OA and ODA, respectively, indicating a catalysis effect of Mt. In contrast, the amount of C1-5 hydrocarbons produced from the pyrolysis of Mt-OTAB complexes was lower than that of OTAB, which we attribute to an inhibiting effect of Mt. This pyrolysis-inhibiting effect works through the Hoffmann elimination that is promoted by the catalysis of the Brønsted acid sites of Mt, therefore releasing smaller amounts of gas hydrocarbons than the nucleophilic reaction that is induced by the

  19. The O&M Personnel Shortage and University Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, William R.; Joffee, Elga

    1993-01-01

    Measures taken during the 1980s to increase the number of orientation and mobility (O&M) specialists to work with persons with visual impairments were evaluated, by means of a telephone survey of 15 university O&M programs. Survey findings indicated that efforts to address critical shortages in O&M personnel have been effective. (DB)

  20. Analysis of the Om(1D) locus in Drosophila ananassae.

    PubMed

    Tanda, S; Shrimpton, A E; Hinton, C W; Langley, C H

    1989-11-01

    From the ca;px stock, which is the progenitor of Om mutants caused by insertions of the tom retrotransposon, 50 kb of genomic DNA including the Om(1D) locus was cloned by tom tagging and chromosome walking. Southern blot analyses of six Om(1D) mutants exposed one or two tom elements inserted at five nonrandom sites within an 18-kb distal segment of the restriction map; the phenotypic uniformity between these mutants was not affected by variations in the position, number or orientation of their inserts. Spontaneous revertants or more extreme derivatives of Om(1D) alleles were nonlinearly associated with losses or gains of tom inserts. Seven of eight radiation induced derivatives of Om(1D) mutants had one breakpoint of a chromosome rearrangement in polytene section 13A which includes the Om(1D) locus. Two Om(1D) derivatives, a spontaneous revertant and an induced extreme allele, were associated with overlapping deficiencies which define a region that is likely to contain the Om(1D) coding seguences proximal to the tom insertion sites. Incidental results confirm the previously indicated homology of the Om(1D) locus with the Bar locus of Drosophila melanogaster.

  1. Meditation on OM: Relevance from ancient texts and contemporary science

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjay; Nagendra, HR; Manjunath, NK; Naveen, KV; Telles, Shirley

    2010-01-01

    Background: In Indian scriptures the sacred syllable Om is the primordial sound from which all other sounds and creation emerge which signifies the Supreme Power. Aims: To explore the significance of the syllable OM from ancient texts and effects of OM meditation in contemporary science. Descriptions from ancient texts: The descriptions of Om have been taken from four Upanisads (Mundaka, Mandukya, Svetasvatara, and Katha), the Bhagvad Gita, and Patanjali’s Yoga Sutras. Scientific studies on Om: Autonomic and respiratory studies suggest that there is a combination of mental alertness with physiological rest during the practice of Om meditation. Evoked potentials studies suggest a decrease in sensory transmission time at the level of the auditory association cortices, along with recruitment of more neurons at mesencephalic-diencephalic levels. Conclusions: It is considered that a person who realizes Om, merges with the Absolute. Scientific studies on Om suggest that the mental repetition of Om results in physiological alertness, and increased sensitivity to sensory transmission. PMID:20948894

  2. 20 CFR 229.52 - Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is effective before DIB O/M.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... effective before DIB O/M. 229.52 Section 229.52 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS... Minimum Rate § 229.52 Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is effective before DIB O/M. If an employee received a reduced age O/M before the effective date of a DIB O/M, the PIA amount for the DIB O/M is...

  3. 20 CFR 229.52 - Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is effective before DIB O/M.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... effective before DIB O/M. 229.52 Section 229.52 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS... Minimum Rate § 229.52 Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is effective before DIB O/M. If an employee received a reduced age O/M before the effective date of a DIB O/M, the PIA amount for the DIB O/M is...

  4. 20 CFR 229.52 - Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is effective before DIB O/M.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... effective before DIB O/M. 229.52 Section 229.52 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS... Minimum Rate § 229.52 Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is effective before DIB O/M. If an employee received a reduced age O/M before the effective date of a DIB O/M, the PIA amount for the DIB O/M is...

  5. 20 CFR 229.52 - Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is effective before DIB O/M.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... effective before DIB O/M. 229.52 Section 229.52 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS... Minimum Rate § 229.52 Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is effective before DIB O/M. If an employee received a reduced age O/M before the effective date of a DIB O/M, the PIA amount for the DIB O/M is...

  6. 20 CFR 229.52 - Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is effective before DIB O/M.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... effective before DIB O/M. 229.52 Section 229.52 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS... Minimum Rate § 229.52 Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is effective before DIB O/M. If an employee received a reduced age O/M before the effective date of a DIB O/M, the PIA amount for the DIB O/M is...

  7. PV O&M Cost Model and Cost Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Andy

    2017-03-15

    This is a presentation on PV O&M cost model and cost reduction for the annual Photovoltaic Reliability Workshop (2017), covering estimating PV O&M costs, polynomial expansion, and implementation of Net Present Value (NPV) and reserve account in cost models.

  8. STS-39: OMS Pod Thruster Removal/Replace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Shown is the removal and replacement of the Discovery's orbital maneuvering systems (OMS) pod thruster. The OMS engine will be used to propel Discovery north, off of its previous orbital groundtrack, without changing the spacecraft's altitude. A burn with this lateral effect is known as "out-of-plane."

  9. View of OMS burn from the payload bay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    View of Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) burn from the payload bay. The closed cradles which held the communication satellites Columbia deployed are visible in the center of the frame. Parts of the spacecraft's wings can be seen on both the port and starboard sides can be seen. The vertical stabilizer is flanked by the twin OMS pods.

  10. Shuttle performance enhancements using an OMS payload bay kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Templin, Kevin C.; Mallini, Charles J.

    1991-01-01

    The study focuses on the use of an orbital maneuvering system (OMS) payload bay kit (PBK) designed to utilize OMS tanks identical to those currently employed in the Orbiter OMS pods. Emphasis is placed on payload deployment capability and payload servicing/reboost capability augmentation from the point of view of payload mass, maximum deployment altitudes, and initial retrieval and final deployment altitudes. The deployment, servicing, and reboost requirements of the Hubble Space Telescope and Advanced X-ray and Astrophysics Facility are analyzed in order to show the benefits an OMS PBK can provide for these missions. It is shown that OMS PBKs can provide the required capability enhancement necessary to support deployment, reboost, and servicing of payloads requiring altitudes greater than 325 nautical miles.

  11. Selective hydrogenation of halogenated arenes using porous manganese oxide (OMS-2) and platinum supported OMS-2 catalysts.

    PubMed

    McManus, Iain J; Daly, Helen; Manyar, Haresh G; Taylor, S F Rebecca; Thompson, Jillian M; Hardacre, Christopher

    2016-07-04

    Porous manganese oxide (OMS-2) and platinum supported on OMS-2 catalysts have been shown to facilitate the hydrogenation of the nitro group in chloronitrobenzene to give chloroaniline with no dehalogenation. Complete conversion was obtained within 2 h at 25 °C and, although the rate of reaction increased with increasing temperature up to 100 °C, the selectivity to chloroaniline remained at 99.0%. Use of Pd/OMS-2 or Pt/Al2O3 resulted in significant dechlorination even at 25 °C and 2 bar hydrogen pressure giving a selectivity to chloroaniline of 34.5% and 77.8%, respectively, at complete conversion. This demonstrates the potential of using platinum group metal free catalysts for the selective hydrogenation of halogenated aromatics. Two pathways were observed for the analogous nitrobenzene hydrogenation depending on the catalyst used. The hydrogenation of nitrobenzene was found to follow a direct pathway to aniline and nitrosobenzene over Pd/OMS-2 in contrast to the OMS and Pt/OMS-2 catalysts which resulted in formation of nitrosobenzene, azoxybenzene and azobenzene/hydrazobenzene intermediates before complete conversion to aniline. These results indicate that for Pt/OMS-2 the hydrogenation proceeds predominantly over the support with the metal acting to dissociate hydrogen. In the case of Pd/OMS-2 both the hydrogenation and hydrogen adsorption occur on the metal sites.

  12. User documentation for the MSK and OMS intelligent tutoring systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Pamela K.; Herren, L. Tandy; Lincoln, David T.

    1991-01-01

    This user's guide describes how to use the Intelligent Tutoring Systems for the Manual Select Keyboard (MSK) and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) and how to use the C code that runs the mockup version of the MSK.

  13. OM-VPE grown materials for high efficiency solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, R.; Cooper, B., III; Ludowise, M.; Borden, P.; Gregory, P.

    1980-01-01

    Organometallic sources are available for all the III-V elements and a variety of dopants; thus it is possible to use the technique to grow a wide variety of semiconductor compounds. AlGaAsSb and AlGaInAs alloys for multijunction monolithic solar cells were grown by OM-VPE. While the effort concentrated on terrestrial applications, the success of OM-VPE grown GaAs/AlGaAs concentrator solar cells (23% at 400 suns) demonstrates that OM-VPE is suitable for growing high efficiency solar cells in large quantities for space applications. In addition, OM-VPE offers the potential for substantial cost reduction of photovoltaic devices with scale up and automation and due to high process yield from reproducible, uniform epitaxial growths with excellent surface morphology.

  14. Glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and OMS pods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This 35mm frame, photographed as the Space Shuttle Columbia was orbiting Earth during a 'night' pass, documents the glow phenomenon surrounding the vertical stabilizer and the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods of the spacecraft.

  15. 43 CFR 426.23 - Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M) costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... provide the district with supplemental and additional benefits. (e) Amount of O&M a district pays under a... for payment of O&M costs as specified in this section. (b) Amount of O&M costs a district must pay if... 12, 1982, then that district must pay all of the O&M costs that Reclamation allocates to irrigation...

  16. 43 CFR 426.23 - Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M) costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... provide the district with supplemental and additional benefits. (e) Amount of O&M a district pays under a... for payment of O&M costs as specified in this section. (b) Amount of O&M costs a district must pay if... 12, 1982, then that district must pay all of the O&M costs that Reclamation allocates to irrigation...

  17. 43 CFR 426.23 - Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M) costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... provide the district with supplemental and additional benefits. (e) Amount of O&M a district pays under a... for payment of O&M costs as specified in this section. (b) Amount of O&M costs a district must pay if... 12, 1982, then that district must pay all of the O&M costs that Reclamation allocates to irrigation...

  18. 43 CFR 426.23 - Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M) costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M... operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. (a) General. All new, amended, and renewed contracts shall provide for payment of O&M costs as specified in this section. (b) Amount of O&M costs a district must pay if...

  19. 43 CFR 426.23 - Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M) costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M... operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. (a) General. All new, amended, and renewed contracts shall provide for payment of O&M costs as specified in this section. (b) Amount of O&M costs a district must pay if...

  20. Space Shuttle OMS engine valve technology. [Orbital Maneuvering System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichmann, H.

    1974-01-01

    Valve technology program to determine shutoff valve concepts suitable for the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) engine of the Space Shuttle. The tradeoff studies selected the electric torque motor operated dual poppet and ball valves as the most desirable valve concepts for the OMS Engine Shutoff Valve. A prototype of one of these concepts was built and subjected to a design verification program. A number of unique features were designed to include the required contamination insensitivity, operating fluid compatibility, decontamination capability, minimum maintenance requirement and long service life capability.

  1. Operations and Maintenance Introductory O&M Newsletter | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    The Operations and Maintenance (O&M) department has been serving and supporting the NCI scientific mission since 1972. Our dedicated staff works 24/7 behind the scenes to ensure that the NCI campus and laboratory environments are safe, functional, and reliable, as well as comfortable and aesthetically pleasing.

  2. View of the firing of a single engine OMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    View of a single engine orbital maneuvering system (OMS) firing on the Discovery. The payload bay is open and the protective canisters for the AUSSAT communications satellite (open) and the ASC-1 are visible. A cloudy Earth's horizon can be seen above the orbiter.

  3. Reproductibilité des classifications OMS 1973 et OMS 2004 des tumeurs urothéliales papillaires de la vessie.

    PubMed

    Ben Abdelkrim, Soumaya; Rammeh, Soumaya; Trabelsi, Amel; Ben Yacoub-Abid, Lilia; Ben Sorba, Nabil; Jaïdane, Lilia; Mokni, Moncef

    2012-12-01

    RéSUMé: OBJECTIF : Déterminer les taux d'accord et la reproductibilité intra et inter-observateurs des classifications OMS 1973 et OMS 2004 des tumeurs urothéliales papillaires de la vessie. MATéRIEL ET MéTHODES : Cent deux cas de tumeurs urothéliales papillaires de stade pTa/pT1 ont été étudiés. Deux pathologistes ont revu les lames et ont établi le grade tumoral selon les deux classifications OMS 1973 et OMS 2004. En cas de désaccord, les deux évaluateurs ont procédé à une lecture commune au microscope en double tête afin d'aboutir à un grade consensuel selon les deux classifications. La variabilité intra-observateur a été étudiée chez l'un des deux évaluateurs qui a procédé à la relecture des lames un mois après sa première lecture. Les taux d'accord entre les deux pathologistes pour chaque catégorie de grade ont été déterminés et la reproductibilité des deux classifications a été évaluée à l'aide du coefficient kappa. Une valeur de 0 à 0,2 était interprétée comme un désaccord absolu, de 0,21 à 0,4, un accord faible, de 0,41 à 0,6, un accord modéré, de 0,61 à 0,8, un accord considérable, et de 0,8 à 1, un accord absolu. RéSULTATS : Selon la classification OMS 1973, les proportions des grades G1, G2 et G3 étaient respectivement de 40,2 %, 50 % et 9,8 %. Selon la classification OMS 2004, les proportions respectives des tumeurs de faible potentiel de malignité, des carcinomes de bas grade et des carcinomes de haut grade de malignité étaient de 23,5 %, 60,8 % et 15,7 %. La reproductibilité intra-observateur était excellente pour les deux classifications (accord absolu). Les taux d'accord entre les deux pathologistes étaient meilleurs pour la classification OMS 2004 (kappa = 0,7) que pour la classification OMS 1973 (kappa = 0,51). La reproductibilité entre observateurs de la classification OMS 2004 est supérieure à celle de 1973. La reproductibilité intra-observateur est excellente pour les deux

  4. ISAL experiment documentation of vertical tail and OMS pods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Investigation of Space Transportation System (STS) Atmospheric Luminosities (ISAL) experiment documentation includes vertical tail and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods with surface glow against the blackness of space. This glowing scene was provided by a long duration exposure with a 35mm camera aimed toward the tail of the Earth-orbiting Challenger, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 099. OV-099 was maneuvered to a 120-nautical-mile altitude and flown with open payload bay (PLB) in the velocity vector for the conducting of a test titled, 'Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM)'. Atomic oxygen within the low orbital environment is known to be extremely reactive when in contact with solid surfaces. In the darkened area between the camera and the glowing OMS pods and vertical stabilizer are two trays of test materials.

  5. O&M Cost Modeling for the Department of Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    Japan /Korea, etc.) • Deployed end strength • FYDP expenditures were calculated using the following • Future end strength by Service from PB 2015...The O&M model has: • Used Green Book Deflators • Estimated variable coefficients simultaneously • Evaluated multiple time periods & variable...in NATO countries + Japan + Korea D = Manpower Deployed = M – ( C + O); y = Year index = future year – 1976 Growth coefficient Cost per personnel

  6. Overall view of PLB and OMS / RCS engine thrusting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Overall payload bay (PLB) view shows Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) Airborne Support Equipment (ASE) forward frame and aft frame tilt actuator (AFTA) table after IUS Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) deploy. Vertical tail and Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods with rear reaction control system (RCS) thruster firing (upfiring) appears in background against blackness of space. Right up jet firing was photographed from more than 18 meters (60 feet) away by crewmembers on flight deck.

  7. Overall view of PLB and OMS / RCS engine thrusting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Overall payload bay (PLB) view shows Inertial Upper Stage (IUS) Airborne Support Equipment (ASE) forward frame and aft frame tilt actuator (AFTA) table after IUS Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) deploy. Vertical tail and Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) pods with rear reaction control system (RCS) thruster firing (sidefiring) appears in background against blackness of space. Right right jet firing was photographed from more than 18 meters (60 feet) away in the cabin of the Earth-orbiting Challenger, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 099.

  8. 12om Methodology: Process v1.1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-31

    design” ( Banach , 2009; Banach & Ryan, 2009) aims at helping planners to better understand the operational environment (i.e., sensemaking), analyze the...problem space , and consider potential solutions so they can exploit opportunities and identify vulnerabilities. The methodology developed as part of...may exist in time, space 12om Process 31 March 2014 19 Version 1.1 or in the information environment. Since decisive points need to be

  9. Ultra-Wideband Optical Modulation Spectrometer (OMS) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan (Technical Monitor); Tolls, Volker

    2004-01-01

    The optical modulation spectrometer (OMS) is a novel, highly efficient, low mass backend for heterodyne receiver systems. Current and future heterodyne receiver systems operating at frequencies up to a few THz require broadband spectrometer backends to achieve spectral resolutions of R approximately 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 6) to carry out many important astronomical investigations. Among these are observations of broad emission and absorption lines from extra-galactic objects at high redshifts, spectral line surveys, and observations of planetary atmospheres. Many of these lines are pressure or velocity broadened with either large half-widths or line wings extending over several GHz. Current backend systems can cover the needed bandwidth only by combining the output of several spectrometers, each with typically up to 1 GHz bandwidth, or by combining several frequency-shifted spectra taken with a single spectrometer. An ultra-wideband optical modulation spectrometer with 10 - 40 GHz bandwidth will enable broadband ob- servations without the limitations and disadvantages of hybrid spectrometers. Spectrometers like the OMS will be important for both ground-based observatories and future space missions like the Single Aperture Far-Infrared Telescope (SAFIR) which might carry IR/submm array heterodyne receiver systems requiring a spectrometer for each array pixel. Small size, low mass and small power consumption are extremely important for space missions. This report summarizes the specifications developed for the OMS and lists already identified commercial parts. The report starts with a review of the principle of operation, then describes the most important components and their specifications which were derived from theory, and finishes with a conclusion and outlook.

  10. Acides gras oméga-3 et dyslexie

    PubMed Central

    Zelcer, Michal; Goldman, Ran D.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question À la lumière de la hausse du nombre d’enfants d’âge scolaire ayant reçu un diagnostic de dyslexie, quel est le rôle des suppléments d’acides gras oméga-3 dans la prise en charge de cette affection? Réponse La dyslexie est le trouble d’apprentissage le plus répandu et elle est connue pour ses causes multifactorielles. De récentes données probantes pointent vers une corrélation entre le métabolisme défectueux des acides gras polyinsaturés et les troubles de neurodéveloppement, tels que la dyslexie. Bien que l’administration de suppléments d’acides gras oméga-3 aux enfants dyslexiques ait fait l’objet d’études, les données probantes sont limitées. Les critères diagnostiques homogènes de dyslexie, les mesures objectives de carence en acides gras et la surveillance étroite de l’apport alimentaire ne sont que quelques-uns des facteurs pouvant améliorer la qualité de la recherche dans ce domaine.

  11. New directions and challenges for the O&M committee

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, J.P.

    1996-12-01

    In the second half of the decade of the nineties, the imperative of finding new ways to improve efficiency while maintaining safety is taking on a new urgency. The looming deregulation of the electric industry and the expected competition in the power production business fuels this urgency. The recently completed ASME research in the area of Risk-Based Inservice Testing offers the Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Committee an opportunity to meet this challenge. This opportunity, however, offers its own challenges. New ways of thinking about inservice testing and new technical skills will be needed to successfully incorporate this technology into Codemore » documents. It will not be adequate to rely solely on incorporation of risk-based methods into the Code to meet this challenge. A thorough self assessment of what O&M does, how it is done, and the value added will help assure that the directions which are pursued do, indeed, meet the challenge ahead.« less

  12. 20 CFR 229.68 - Reduction of DIB O/M.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Reduction of DIB O/M. 229.68 Section 229.68..., State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.68 Reduction of DIB O/M. A reduction for entitlement to worker's compensation or a public disability benefit is applied after the DIB O/M is reduced for age and the family...

  13. 20 CFR 229.68 - Reduction of DIB O/M.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Reduction of DIB O/M. 229.68 Section 229.68..., State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.68 Reduction of DIB O/M. A reduction for entitlement to worker's compensation or a public disability benefit is applied after the DIB O/M is reduced for age and the family...

  14. 20 CFR 229.68 - Reduction of DIB O/M.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction of DIB O/M. 229.68 Section 229.68..., State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.68 Reduction of DIB O/M. A reduction for entitlement to worker's compensation or a public disability benefit is applied after the DIB O/M is reduced for age and the family...

  15. 20 CFR 229.68 - Reduction of DIB O/M.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Reduction of DIB O/M. 229.68 Section 229.68..., State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.68 Reduction of DIB O/M. A reduction for entitlement to worker's compensation or a public disability benefit is applied after the DIB O/M is reduced for age and the family...

  16. 20 CFR 229.68 - Reduction of DIB O/M.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Reduction of DIB O/M. 229.68 Section 229.68..., State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.68 Reduction of DIB O/M. A reduction for entitlement to worker's compensation or a public disability benefit is applied after the DIB O/M is reduced for age and the family...

  17. CSF neurofilament light chain is elevated in OMS (decreasing with immunotherapy) and other pediatric neuroinflammatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Pranzatelli, Michael R; Tate, Elizabeth D; McGee, Nathan R; Verhulst, Steven J

    2014-01-15

    Using a panel of seven brain cell-specific biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), pediatric opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) (n=234) was compared to pediatric non-inflammatory neurological controls (n=84) and other inflammatory neurological disorders (OIND) (n=44). Only CSF NFL was elevated in untreated OMS versus controls (+83%). It was 87% higher in OIND than in OMS. On combination treatment with front-loaded ACTH, IVIg, rituximab, median CSF NFL decreased by 60% to control levels. These biochemical data suggest neuronal/axonal injury in some children with OMS without indicators of astrogliosis, and reduction on sufficient immunotherapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Variations in the OM/OC ratio of urban organic aerosol next to a major roadway.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven G; Lee, Taehyoung; Roberts, Paul T; Collett, Jeffrey L

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the organic matter/organic carbon (OM/OC) ratio in ambient particulate matter (PM) is critical to achieve mass closure in routine PM measurements, to assess the sources of and the degree of chemical processing organic aerosol particles have undergone, and to relate ambient pollutant concentrations to health effects. Of particular interest is how the OM/OC ratio varies in the urban environment, where strong spatial and temporal gradients in source emissions are common. We provide results of near-roadway high-time-resolution PM1 OM concentration and OM/OC ratio observations during January 2008 at Fyfe Elementary School in Las Vegas, NV, 18 m from the U.S. 95 freeway soundwall, measured with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS). The average OM/OC ratio was 1.54 (+/- 0.20 standard deviation), typical of environments with a low amount of secondary aerosol formation. The 2-min average OM/OC ratios varied between 1.17 and 2.67, and daily average OM/OC ratios varied between 1.44 and 1.73. The ratios were highest during periods of low OM concentrations and generally low during periods of high OM concentrations. OM/OC ratios were low (1.52 +/- 0.14, on average) during the morning rush hour (average OM = 2.4 microg/m3), when vehicular emissions dominate this near-road measurement site. The ratios were slightly lower (1.46 +/- 0.10) in the evening (average OM = 6.3 microg/m3), when a combination of vehicular and fresh residential biomass burning emissions was typically present during times with temperature inversions. The hourly averaged OM/OC ratio peaked at 1.66 at midday. OM concentrations were similar regardless of whether the monitoring site was downwind or upwind of the adjacent freeway throughout the day, though they were higher during stagnant conditions (wind speed < 0.5 m/sec). The OM/OC ratio generally varied more with time of day than with wind direction and speed.

  19. Facilitating Successful Outdoor O&M Instruction of Multihandicapped Blind Travelers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehresman, Paul

    1994-01-01

    An orientation and mobility (O&M) instructor presents a case study of a blind 14 year old with mild cognitive deficits and emotional and behavioral problems. The case study demonstrates the importance of individualizing the O&M curriculum, including changing the usual sequence of instruction. (DB)

  20. Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pods and vertical stabilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Glow experiment documentation of orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and vertical stabilizer shows chemo-luminescent effect resulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. Image intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera was used to record glow on vertical tail and OMS pods.

  1. Providing O&M Services to Children and Youth with Severe Multiple Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Brent R.; Head, Daniel N.

    1993-01-01

    This article argues that orientation and mobility (O&M) training should be part of functional and meaningful activities for children and youth with severe multiple disabilities including a visual impairment. Evidence is provided that out-of-context instruction has not been effective, and the role of the O&M instructor is discussed. (DB)

  2. Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pods and vertical stabilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Glow experiment documentation of orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and vertical stabilizer shows chemoluminescent effect resulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. Image intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera used to record glow on vertical tail and OMS pods.

  3. Farming Systems Modeling Using the Object Modeling System (OMS): Overview, Applications, and Future Plans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of the Object Modeling System (OMS) modeling framework represents a comprehensive partnership between the USDA ARS/NRCS, USGS, and university collaborators. OMS helps streamline the development of integrated farming system models for current and future model delivery using a component-or...

  4. Potential of front-face fluorescence to monitor OM reduction in drinking water during potabilization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacotte, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Elimination of OM in drinking water represents a great challenge for municipalities and technical actors to ensure that it can be safely used for consumption purposes. Indeed, current indicators such as Total Organic Carbon (TOC), turbidity or UV-Absorbance at 254 nm (UVA254) enable only non-specific overview of the amount of organic residuals in water. Fluorescence EEMs are a potent tool for discrimination and deep analysis of OM detailed composition and behaviour. It has been shown that several forms of OM co-exist in raw water, and come from various origins (bacteria, humic compounds…). Potabilization operation is composed of different steps that aim at decreasing all forms of OM using chemical as well as physical methods (ozone oxidation, filtration on activated carbon or sand, flocculation etc.). Unfortunately, it has been observed that reduction of OM during this process was not identical for all the forms, and the process showed a particular lack of efficiency during raining periods. 130 samples of water at various stages of potabilization were analyzed using home-made compact fluorometer, an apparatus composed of UV excitation LEDs. Using chemometrical treatment of spectral data, we put into highlight 5 different forms of OM that were identified according to litterature data. We evidenced the critical steps of the purification on OM reduction, as well as the relative content of each form from raw to product water. In particular, we showed that two forms were less reduced than the other three, so that progressive enrichment of total OM in the former was observed throughout the process. Moreover, a study was carried out in order to establish calibration models over conventional analyses using the spectral information. Highly satisfying models were thus obtained over TOC, turbidity and UVA254, with average RMSEC values of 13%, 7% and 16% respectively. These results demonstrate the potential of the fluorescence analyzer to simultaneously predict three major

  5. Synthesis of Cation and Water Free Cryptomelane Type OMS-2 Cathode Materials: The Impact of Tunnel Water on Electrochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Poyraz, Altug S.; Huang, Jianping; Zhang, Bingjie

    2017-01-01

    Cryptomelane type manganese dioxides (α-MnO 2, OMS-2) are interesting potential cathode materials due to the ability of their one dimensional (1D) tunnels to reversibly host various cations including Li +and an accessible stable 3+/4+ redox couple. Here, we synthesized metal cation free OMS-2 materials where the tunnels were occupied by only water and hydronium ions. Water was subsequently removed from the tunnels. Cation free OMS-2 and Dry-OMS-2 were used as cathodes in Li based batteries to investigate the role of tunnel water on their electrochemistry. The initial discharge capacity was higher for Dry-OMS-2 (252 mAh/g) compared to OMS-2 (194 mAh/g),more » however, after 100 cycles Dry-OMS-2 and OMS-2 delivered 137 mAh/g and 134 mAh/g, respectively. Li +ion diffusion was more facile for Dry-OMS as evidenced by rate capability, at 400 mA/g. Dry-OMS-2 delivered 135mAh/g whereas OMS-2 delivered ~115 mAh/g. This first report of the impact of tunnel water on the electrochemistry of OMS-2 type materials demonstrates that the presence of tunnel water in OMS-2 type materials negatively impacts the electrochemistry.« less

  6. Increased prevalence of autoimmune disorders and autoantibodies in parents of children with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS).

    PubMed

    Krasenbrink, I; Fühlhuber, V; Juhasz-Boess, I; Stolz, E; Hahn, A; Kaps, M; Hero, B; Blaes, F

    2007-06-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare neurological disease in childhood which can be associated with neuroblastoma. Since autoantibodies have been detected in some patients with OMS, an autoimmune etiology is suspected. We compared the prevalence of autoimmune disorders and autoantibodies in parents of children with OMS and in a group of controls of same age and sex. Autoimmune diseases were found in 15.8% of the parents of OMS children, but only in 2.0% of the controls (p<0.001) There was also an increased prevalence of autoantibodies in the OMS parents (42.8% vs. 8.0%, p<0.001). Thyroid diseases were the most frequent autoimmune diseases found, followed by inflammatory rheumatic diseases. Interestingly, the OMS parents also had significantly more autoantibodies against CNS structures than the controls (p<0.01). These findings support the autoimmune hypothesis of childhood OMS and may also hint to a genetic susceptibility for OMS.

  7. Graphitic carbon nitride induced activity enhancement of OMS-2 catalyst for pollutants degradation with peroxymonosulfate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Fang, Jia; Gao, Long; Zhang, Jingwen; Ruan, Xinchao; Xu, Aihua; Li, Xiaoxia

    2017-04-01

    Low valent manganese species and surface oxygen vacancies in OMS-2 play an important role in catalytic reactions, and it is highly desirable and challenging to develop a feasible strategy of increasing the Mn(II) and Mn(III) species concentration in the oxide. Herein, the OMS-2/g-C3N4 hybrids (OMS-2/CN) were prepared by a facile refluxing approach. It was found that the MnOx precursor from the reaction of KMnO4 and MnSO4 was transformed into OMS-2 nanofibers with the formation of more Mn(II) and Mn(III) species in OMS-2 and the destruction and oxidation of g-C3N4. The hybrids exhibited higher efficiency for pollutants degradation in the presence of PMS than the pure OMS-2 or g-C3N4. There was a linear correlation between the specific initial rate and the ratio of Mn(II + III)/Mn(IV). Mechanism investigation indicated that high active manganese species or caged radicals were produced through the oxidation of Mn(II) and Mn(III) by PMS and contributed to the degradation reaction. During five consecutive cycles, the catalyst exhibited good reusability and stability. Therefore, the OMS-2/CN hybrids are promising catalysts for wastewater treatment with PMS as the oxidant.

  8. Cytokines, cytokine antagonists, and soluble adhesion molecules in pediatric OMS and other neuroinflammatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Pranzatelli, Michael R; Tate, Elizabeth D; McGee, Nathan R; Colliver, Jerry A

    2013-03-15

    To test for hypothesized disease- and treatment-induced changes in cytokines and adhesion molecules in children with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS). Multiplex bead assay technology was used for simultaneous measurement of 34 soluble cytokines in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum. Soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) were measured by ELISA. In total, there were 388 children (239 OMS, 114 controls, and 35 other inflammatory neurological disorders (OIND)). In untreated OMS, mean CSF IL-6 was elevated 2.3-fold, but 67-fold in OIND, without significant differences in other CSF cytokines. Mean serum concentrations of sIL-2Ra (+50%) and CXCL1 (+70%) (p<0.0001) were also raised. CSF CCL5 was more often detected in untreated OMS than controls (p=0.005), as was serum CCL11 and IL-13 in treated OMS. Mean CSF CCL4 and IL-1Ra were selectively higher in IVIg-treated OMS (p≤0.0001). CSF sICAM-1 was elevated only in OIND (3.3-fold); serum sICAM-1 was higher in untreated OMS (+21%); and sVCAM-1 was not affected. No correlations with OMS severity or duration were identified. Novel cytokine, cytokine antagonist, and soluble adhesion molecule abnormalities due to OMS or treatment were found. However, the normality of much of the data strengthens previous findings implicating B cell mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Spectroscopic Investigation of O-,M-, and P-Cyanostyrenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, Joseph A.; Knezz, Stephanie N.; McMahon, Robert J.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2014-06-01

    The atmosphere of Titan contains nitrogen, methane, and a rich mixture of more complex hydrocarbons and nitriles produced by photochemical processing. Data from the 2005 Cassini-Huygens mission suggests that among the more complex compounds are substituted benzenes that are themselves precursors to large polymeric tholins. Nitriles are particularly prevalent in Titan's atmosphere due to the dominance of N2 in the atmosphere. The cyanostyrenes are of particular interest, in part because they have the same molecular formula (C9H7N) as quinoline, a prototypical heteroaromatic, and therefore could engage in photochemical isomerization to form this molecule of significant pre-biotic relevance. As a first step in understanding the pathways leading to heteroaromatics, we have studied the isotope-selective spectroscopy of o-,m-, and p-cyanostyrene under jet-cooled conditions relevant to Titan's atmosphere. In this talk, the excitation and emission spectra for the three isomers will be presented. Using a combination of resonant two-photon ionization, LIF excitation, and dispersed fluorescence spectroscopies, the vibronic spectroscopy of the three isomers were recorded and compared. The meta isomer has two conformational isomers, which have been distinguished and studied using hole-burning methods. The talk will compare and contrast the UV spectral signatures of the set of structural and conformational isomers of the cyanostyrenes, using the ethynylstyrene counterparts as points of comparison. Sebree, J. A.; Kidwell, N. M.; Selby, T. M.; Amberger, B. K.; McMahon, R. J.; Zwier, T. S., Photochemistry of Benzylallene: Ring-Closing Reactions to Form Naphthalene. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2012, 134 (2), 1153-1163. Selby, T. M.; Clarkson, J. R.; Mitchell, D.; Fitzpatrick, J. A. J.; Lee, H. D.; Pratt, D. W.; Zwier, T. S., Isomer-Specific Spectroscopy and Conformational Isomerization Energetics of o-, m-, and p-Ethynylstyrenes. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 2005

  10. Hydrothermal Synthesis and Electrochemical Performance of Manganese Oxide (Na-OMS-2) Nanorods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; Xu, Shan; Zheng, Hao; Luo, Zhaohui; Liu, Kang; Wang, Wei; Li, Guohua; Wang, Shiquan; Liu, Jianwen; Feng, Chuanqi

    2017-02-01

    Sodium octahedral molecular sieve nanorods (Na-OMS-2) were prepared through a facile hydrothermal method. The effects of reaction temperature and duration on particle sizes of the products were investigated. The electrochemical performance of samples was studied by constant current charge–discharge tests as cathode material for Li-ion batteries (LIBs). The initial discharge capacity of Na-OMS-2 is 123.4 mAh g−1 and the capacity retention was 123.9 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles. The result demonstrates that Na-OMS-2 cathode material behaves a good cycling stability.

  11. A Best Practice for Developing Availability Guarantee Language in Photovoltaic (PV) O&M Agreements.

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Balfour, John

    2015-11-01

    This document outlines the foundation for developing language that can be utilized in an Equipment Availability Guarantee, typically included in an O&M services agreement between a PV system or plant owner and an O&M services provider, or operator. Many of the current PV O&M service agreement Availability Guarantees are based on contracts used for traditional power generation, which create challenges for owners and operators due to the variable nature of grid-tied photovoltaic generating technologies. This report documents language used in early PV availability guarantees and presents best practices and equations that can be used to more openly communicate how themore » reliability of the PV system and plant equipment can be expressed in an availability guarantee. This work will improve the bankability of PV systems by providing greater transparency into the equipment reliability state to all parties involved in an O&M services contract.« less

  12. Setting up an Asbestos Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Covers steps a buidling's O&M plan should including: appointing an asbestos program manager, inspecting the building, developing a plan, and if necessary selecting and implementing larger repair or abatement projects.

  13. Elements of an Asbestos Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Links to descriptions of Elements of an Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Program: Training, Occupant Notification, Monitoring ACM, Job-Site Controls for Work Involving ACM, Safe Work Practices, Recordkeeping, Worker Protection.

  14. The effect of Ce ion substituted OMS-2 nanostructure in catalytic activity for benzene oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Jingtao; Li, Yuanzhi; Mao, Mingyang; Zhao, Xiujian; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2014-11-01

    The nanostructure of Ce doped OMS-2 plays a very important role in its catalytic property. We demonstrate by density functional theory (DFT) calculations that the unique nanostructure of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 with Mn vacancy in the framework is beneficial for the improvement of catalytic activity, while the nanostructure of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 without defects are detrimental to the catalytic activity. We establish a novel and facile strategy of synthesizing these unique Ce ion substituted OMS-2 nanostructure with Mn vacancies in the framework by hydrothermal redox reaction between Ce(NO3)3 and KMnO4 with KMnO4/Ce(NO3)3 at a molar ratio of 3 : 1 at 120 °C. Compared to pure OMS-2, the produced catalyst of Ce ion substituted OMS-2 ultrathin nanorods exhibits an enormous enhancement in the catalytic activity for benzene oxidation, which is evidenced by a significant decrease (ΔT50 = 100 °C, ΔT90 = 129 °C) in the reaction temperature of T50 and T90 (corresponding to the benzene conversion = 50% and 90%), which is considerably more efficient than the expensive supported noble metal catalyst (Pt/Al2O3). We combine both theoretical and experimental evidence to provide a new physical insight into the significant effect due to the defects induced by the Ce ion substitution on the catalytic activity of OMS-2. The formation of unique Ce ion substituted OMS-2 nanostructure with Mn vacancies in the framework leads to a significant enhancement of the lattice oxygen activity, thus tremendously increasing the catalytic activity.The nanostructure of Ce doped OMS-2 plays a very important role in its catalytic property. We demonstrate by density functional theory (DFT) calculations that the unique nanostructure of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 with Mn vacancy in the framework is beneficial for the improvement of catalytic activity, while the nanostructure of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 without defects are detrimental to the catalytic activity. We establish a novel

  15. Relation of intrathecal oligoclonal band production to inflammatory mediator and immunotherapy response in 208 children with OMS.

    PubMed

    Pranzatelli, Michael R; McGee, Nathan R; Tate, Elizabeth D

    2018-04-12

    In 208 children with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS), CSF IgG oligoclonal bands (OCB) and 22 immunomarkers in CSF and 21 in serum/blood were measured. In 36 untreated OMS, 58% were OCB(+), whereas 55% of treated OMS were OCB(-). OCB positivity or negativity did not alter concentrations or frequencies of immunomarkers. The phenotypes of OCB(+) and OCB(-) patients were not distinctive. CSF B cells were expanded in untreated OMS regardless of OCB positivity. These data reveal a much higher frequency of OCB positivity in untreated OMS than previously realized and a disconnect between intrathecal OCB and inflammatory mediator production. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Quantification of amine functional groups and their influence on OM/OC in the IMPROVE network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamruzzaman, Mohammed; Takahama, Satoshi; Dillner, Ann M.

    2018-01-01

    Recently, we developed a method using FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares (PLS) regression to measure the four most abundant organic functional groups, aliphatic C-H, alcohol OH, carboxylic acid OH and carbonyl C=O, in atmospheric particulate matter. These functional groups are summed to estimate organic matter (OM) while the carbon from the functional groups is summed to estimate organic carbon (OC). With this method, OM and OM/OC can be estimated for each sample rather than relying on one assumed value to convert OC measurements to OM. This study continues the development of the FT-IR and PLS method for estimating OM and OM/OC by including the amine functional group. Amines are ubiquitous in the atmosphere and come from motor vehicle exhaust, animal husbandry, biomass burning, and vegetation among other sources. In this study, calibration standards for amines are produced by aerosolizing individual amine compounds and collecting them on PTFE filters using an IMPROVE sampler, thereby mimicking the filter media and collection geometry of ambient standards. The moles of amine functional group on each standard and a narrow range of amine-specific wavenumbers in the FT-IR spectra (wavenumber range 1 550-1 500 cm-1) are used to develop a PLS calibration model. The PLS model is validated using three methods: prediction of a set of laboratory standards not included in the model, a peak height analysis and a PLS model with a broader wavenumber range. The model is then applied to the ambient samples collected throughout 2013 from 16 IMPROVE sites in the USA. Urban sites have higher amine concentrations than most rural sites, but amine functional groups account for a lower fraction of OM at urban sites. Amine concentrations, contributions to OM and seasonality vary by site and sample. Amine has a small impact on the annual average OM/OC for urban sites, but for some rural sites including amine in the OM/OC calculations increased OM/OC by 0.1 or more.

  17. STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, OMS pod leak repair at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    At the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Rockwell manufacturing engineering specialist Claude Willis (left) and Rockwell manufacturing supervisor George Gallagher begin installation of a 'clamshell' device in the left orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod reaction control system (RCS) of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. Gallagher performed the OMS pod nitric acid oxidizer leak repair operation using the two newly cut access ports in the Orbiter's aft bulkhead.

  18. Synthesis of single crystal manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS) nanostructures with tunable tunnels and shapes.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei-Na; Yuan, Jikang; Gomez-Mower, Sinue; Sithambaram, Shantakumar; Suib, Steven L

    2006-02-23

    A new and facile route is reported to manipulate the self-assembly synthesis of hierarchically ordered Rb-OMS-2 and pyrolusite with an interesting flowerlike morphology by a direct and mild reaction between rubidium chromateand manganese sulfate without any organic templates. The crystal forms, morphologies, and tunnel sizes of the obtained OMS materials can be controlled. A mechanism for the growth of manganese dioxides with flowerlike architectures was proposed. The obtained products exhibit potential for use in catalysis and other applications.

  19. The effect of Ce ion substituted OMS-2 nanostructure in catalytic activity for benzene oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jingtao; Li, Yuanzhi; Mao, Mingyang; Zhao, Xiujian; Yue, Yuanzheng

    2014-12-21

    The nanostructure of Ce doped OMS-2 plays a very important role in its catalytic property. We demonstrate by density functional theory (DFT) calculations that the unique nanostructure of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 with Mn vacancy in the framework is beneficial for the improvement of catalytic activity, while the nanostructure of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 without defects are detrimental to the catalytic activity. We establish a novel and facile strategy of synthesizing these unique Ce ion substituted OMS-2 nanostructure with Mn vacancies in the framework by hydrothermal redox reaction between Ce(NO3)3 and KMnO4 with KMnO4/Ce(NO3)3 at a molar ratio of 3 : 1 at 120 °C. Compared to pure OMS-2, the produced catalyst of Ce ion substituted OMS-2 ultrathin nanorods exhibits an enormous enhancement in the catalytic activity for benzene oxidation, which is evidenced by a significant decrease (ΔT(50) = 100 °C, ΔT(90) = 129 °C) in the reaction temperature of T50 and T90 (corresponding to the benzene conversion = 50% and 90%), which is considerably more efficient than the expensive supported noble metal catalyst (Pt/Al2O3). We combine both theoretical and experimental evidence to provide a new physical insight into the significant effect due to the defects induced by the Ce ion substitution on the catalytic activity of OMS-2. The formation of unique Ce ion substituted OMS-2 nanostructure with Mn vacancies in the framework leads to a significant enhancement of the lattice oxygen activity, thus tremendously increasing the catalytic activity.

  20. OM-85 is an immunomodulator of interferon-β production and inflammasome activity

    PubMed Central

    Dang, A. T.; Pasquali, C.; Ludigs, K.; Guarda, G.

    2017-01-01

    The inflammasome–IL-1 axis and type I interferons (IFNs) have been shown to exert protective effects upon respiratory tract infections. Conversely, IL-1 has also been implicated in inflammatory airway pathologies such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). OM-85 is a bacterial extract with proved efficacy against COPD and recurrent respiratory tract infections, a cause of co-morbidity in asthmatic patients. We therefore asked whether OM-85 affects the above-mentioned innate immune pathways. Here we show that OM-85 induced interferon-β through the Toll-like receptor adaptors Trif and MyD88 in bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Moreover, it exerted a dual role on IL-1 production; on the one hand, it upregulated proIL-1β and proIL-1α levels in a MyD88-dependent manner without activating the inflammasome. On the other hand, it repressed IL-1β secretion induced by alum, a well-known NLRP3 activator. In vivo, OM-85 diminished the recruitment of inflammatory cells in response to peritoneal alum challenge. Our findings therefore suggest that OM-85 favors a protective primed state, while dampening inflammasome activation in specific conditions. Taken together, these data bring new insights into the mechanisms of OM-85 action on innate immune pathways and suggest potential explanations for its efficacy in the treatment of virus-induced airway diseases. PMID:28262817

  1. Anatomy of the human orbital muscle (OM): Features of its detailed topography, syntopy and morphology.

    PubMed

    Wilden, Andre; Feiser, Janna; Wöhler, Aliona; Isik, Zeynep; Bendella, Habib; Angelov, Doychin N

    2017-05-01

    The human orbital muscle (OM) is not readily accessible during ordinary anatomical teaching because of insufficient time and difficulties encountered in the preparation. Accordingly, its few anatomical descriptions are supported only by drawings, but not by photographs. The aim of this study was to present OM in dissected anatomic specimens in more detail. Following microscope-assisted dissection, its location, syntopy and morphology were analyzed in 88 orbits of 51 cadavers. Together with the periorbital connective tissue OM filled the infraorbital fissure (IOF) and extended back to the cavernous sinus. As a new finding, we here report that in 34% of the orbits we observed OM-fibers, which proceeded from IOF caudally to the facies infratemporalis of the maxilla. OM had a mean width of 4±1mm, a mean length of 22±5mm and its mean mass was 0.22±0.19g. The subsequent histological analysis of all specimens showed features of smooth muscle tissue: long, spindle-like cells with a centrally located cell nucleus (hematoxylin-eosin staining) which were innervated by tyrosine-hydroxylase immunopositive adrenergic fibers. We conclude that precise knowledge on OM might be very helpful not only to students in medicine and dentistry during anatomical dissection courses, but also to head and neck surgeons, ear-nose-throat specialists and neurosurgeons working in this field. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Remarkable promotion effect of trace sulfation on OMS-2 nanorod catalysts for the catalytic combustion of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Changbin; He, Hong

    2015-09-01

    OMS-2 nanorod catalysts were synthesized by a hydrothermal redox reaction method using MnSO4 (OMS-2-SO4) and Mn(CH3COO)2 (OMS-2-AC) as precursors. SO4(2-)-doped OMS-2-AC catalysts with different SO4(2-) concentrations were prepared next by adding (NH4)2SO4 solution into OMS-2-AC samples to investigate the effect of the anion SO4(2-) on the OMS-2-AC catalyst. All catalysts were then tested for the catalytic oxidation of ethanol. The OMS-2-SO4 catalyst synthesized demonstrated much better activity than OMS-2-AC. The SO4(2-) doping greatly influenced the activity of the OMS-2-AC catalyst, with a dramatic promotion of activity for suitable concentration of SO4(2-) (SO4/catalyst=0.5% W/W). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), NH3-TPD and H2-TPR techniques. The results showed that the presence of a suitable amount of SO4(2-) species in the OMS-2-AC catalyst could decrease the Mn-O bond strength and also enhance the lattice oxygen and acid site concentrations, which then effectively promoted the catalytic activity of OMS-2-AC toward ethanol oxidation. Thus it was confirmed that the better catalytic performance of OMS-2-SO4 compared to OMS-2-AC is due to the presence of some residual SO4(2-) species in OMS-2-SO4 samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. BAFF/APRIL system in pediatric OMS: relation to severity, neuroinflammation, and immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pranzatelli, Michael R; Tate, Elizabeth D; McGee, Nathan R; Travelstead, Anna L; Colliver, Jerry A; Ness, Jayne M; Ransohoff, Richard M

    2013-01-16

    B-cell dysregulation has been implicated but not fully characterized in pediatric opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS), a neuroblastoma-associated neuroinflammatory disorder. To assess the role of B-cell activating factor (BAFF) and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), two critical B cell-modulating cytokines, as potential biomarkers of disease activity and treatment biomarkers in OMS. Soluble BAFF and APRIL were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum by ELISA in 433 children (296 OMS, 109 controls, 28 other inflammatory neurological disorders (OIND)). BAFF-R receptors on circulating CD19+ B cells were measured by flow cytometry. A blinded scorer rated motor severity on the OMS Evaluation Scale. Immunotherapies were evaluated cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The mean CSF BAFF concentration, which was elevated in untreated OMS and OIND, correlated with OMS severity category (P = 0.006), and reduction by adrenocorticotropic hormone or corticotropin (ACTH) (-61%) or corticosteroids (-38%) was seen at each level of severity. In contrast, CSF APRIL was normal in OMS and OIND and unaffected by immunotherapy. When the entire OMS dataset was dichotomized into 'high' versus 'normal' CSF BAFF concentration, the phenotype of the high group included greater motor severity and number of CSF oligoclonal bands, and a higher concentration of inflammatory chemokines CXCL13 and CXCL10 in CSF and CXCL9 and CCL21 in serum. Serum APRIL was 6.7-fold higher in the intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) group, whereas serum BAFF was 2.6-fold higher in the rituximab group. The frequency of B cell BAFF-R expression was similar in untreated and treated OMS. Longitudinal studies of CSF BAFF revealed a significant decline in ACTH-treated patients (with or without rituximab) (P < 0.0001). Longitudinal studies of serum APRIL showed a 2.9-fold increase after 1 to 2 g/kg IVIg monotherapy (P = 0.0003). Striking distinctions in BAFF/APRIL signaling were found. OMS displayed

  4. BAFF/APRIL system in pediatric OMS: relation to severity, neuroinflammation, and immunotherapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background B-cell dysregulation has been implicated but not fully characterized in pediatric opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS), a neuroblastoma-associated neuroinflammatory disorder. Objective To assess the role of B-cell activating factor (BAFF) and a proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL), two critical B cell-modulating cytokines, as potential biomarkers of disease activity and treatment biomarkers in OMS. Methods Soluble BAFF and APRIL were measured in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum by ELISA in 433 children (296 OMS, 109 controls, 28 other inflammatory neurological disorders (OIND)). BAFF-R receptors on circulating CD19+ B cells were measured by flow cytometry. A blinded scorer rated motor severity on the OMS Evaluation Scale. Immunotherapies were evaluated cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Results The mean CSF BAFF concentration, which was elevated in untreated OMS and OIND, correlated with OMS severity category (P = 0.006), and reduction by adrenocorticotropic hormone or corticotropin (ACTH) (−61%) or corticosteroids (−38%) was seen at each level of severity. In contrast, CSF APRIL was normal in OMS and OIND and unaffected by immunotherapy. When the entire OMS dataset was dichotomized into ‘high’ versus ‘normal’ CSF BAFF concentration, the phenotype of the high group included greater motor severity and number of CSF oligoclonal bands, and a higher concentration of inflammatory chemokines CXCL13 and CXCL10 in CSF and CXCL9 and CCL21 in serum. Serum APRIL was 6.7-fold higher in the intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) group, whereas serum BAFF was 2.6-fold higher in the rituximab group. The frequency of B cell BAFF-R expression was similar in untreated and treated OMS. Longitudinal studies of CSF BAFF revealed a significant decline in ACTH-treated patients (with or without rituximab) (P < 0.0001). Longitudinal studies of serum APRIL showed a 2.9-fold increase after 1 to 2 g/kg IVIg monotherapy (P = 0.0003). Conclusions Striking distinctions

  5. Impact of EfOM size on competition in activated carbon adsorption of organic micro-pollutants from treated wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zietzschmann, Frederik; Worch, Eckhard; Altmann, Johannes; Ruhl, Aki Sebastian; Sperlich, Alexander; Meinel, Felix; Jekel, Martin

    2014-11-15

    The competitive impacts of different fractions of wastewater treatment plant effluent organic matter (EfOM) on organic micro-pollutant (OMP) adsorption were investigated. The fractionation was accomplished using separation by nanofiltration (NF). The waters resulting from NF were additionally treated to obtain the same dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations as the initial water. Using size exclusion chromatography (LC-OCD) it could be shown that the NF treatment resulted in an EfOM separation by size. Adsorption tests showed different competitive effects of the EfOM fractions with the OMP. While large EfOM compounds that were retained in NF demonstrated a reduced competition as compared to the raw water, the NF-permeating EfOM compounds showed an increased competition with the majority of the measured OMP. The effects of small size EfOM are particularly negative for OMP which are weak/moderate adsorbates. Adsorption analysis was carried out for the differently fractionized waters. The small sized EfOM contain better adsorbable compounds than the raw water while the large EfOM are less adsorbable. This explains the observed differences in the EfOM competitiveness. The equivalent background compound (EBC) model was applied to model competitive adsorption between OMP and EfOM and showed that the negative impacts of EfOM on OMP adsorption increase with decreasing size of the EfOM fractions. The results suggest that direct competition for adsorption sites on the internal surface of the activated carbon is more substantial than indirect competition due to pore access restriction by blockage. Another explication for reduced competition by large EfOM compounds could be the inability to enter and block the pores due to size exclusion. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Temperature & wood source control PyOM turnover in a Northern American forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatton, Pierre-Joseph; Le Moine, James; Auclerc, Apolline; Gormley, Mark; Filley, Tim R.; Nadelhoffer, Knute J.; Bird, Jeff. A.

    2016-04-01

    Surprisingly little is known about how pyrolysis temperature and wood source affect the stability of forest-fire derived pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM). Here, we show that wood source and temperature affect in situ mineralization rates of PyOM in soils for two co-occurring gymnosperm (jack pine; JP [Pinus banksiana]) and angiosperm (red maple; RM [Acer rubrum])¬ species from North American boreal-temperate ecotones. We assess the effect of pyrolysis temperature on PyOM fates by following the decay of 13C/15N-enriched JP wood (JPwood) and PyOM produced at 300 °C (JP300) and 450 °C (JP450); and assess the effect of PyOM wood source by comparing fates of JP450 and RM450. JPwood mineralized 18× faster than JP300 and 44× faster than JP450 after 2.8y. RM450 mineralized initially faster than JP450 during the first ~2y, but became equivalent afterwards (1.1±0.2% of CO¬2 losses after 2.8y). Modeled turnover times suggest that this can be attributed to ~1% of fast-cycling PyOM (<3y). Slower-cycling pools are 12× faster for JPwood (13±5y) than for JP300 (157±28y) and 55× faster than for JP450 (700±229y). Modeled turnover times of the slow-cycling pools were equivalent for JP450 and RM450. The priming effect was positive for JPwood (0.10±0.05), neutral for JP300 (-0.02±0.04), and negative for JP450 (-0.15±0.03) and RM50 (-0.59±0.03). DOC losses were minimal compared with CO2 losses (DOC:CO2 ratio ≤0.005), but followed the same patterns: JPwood 6× greater than that of JP300 and 39× greater compared with JP450. After 1y, C recoveries were lower for JPwood than for PyOM, with no influence of pyrolysis temperature or wood source (yet); N recoveries did not differ. PLFA-(13)C data reveal that (i) treatments have similar microbial communities after 1y, (ii) JPwood is preferentially utilized by fungi, and (iii) bacteria increasingly utilize PyOM as pyrolysis temperature increases. Estimated carbon use efficiency decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature

  7. Key role of CXCL13/CXCR5 axis for cerebrospinal fluid B cell recruitment in pediatric OMS.

    PubMed

    Pranzatelli, Michael R; Tate, Elizabeth D; McGee, Nathan R; Travelstead, Anna L; Ransohoff, Richard M; Ness, Jayne M; Colliver, Jerry A

    2012-02-29

    To study aberrant B cell trafficking into the CSF in opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS), chemoattractants CXCL13 and CXCL12, and B cell frequency and CXCR5 expression, were evaluated. CSF CXCL13 concentration and the CSF/serum ratio were higher in untreated OMS than controls, related directly to OMS severity and inversely to OMS duration, and correlated with CSF B cell frequency and oligoclonal bands. CXCL12 showed the opposite pattern. Selective accumulation of CXCR5+ memory B cells in CSF was found. In ACTH-treated OMS, CXCL13, but not CXCL12, was lower. These data implicate the chemokine/chemoreceptor pair CXCL13/CXR5 in B cell recruitment to the CNS in OMS. CXCL13 and CXCL12 may serve as reciprocal biomarkers of disease activity, but CXCL13 also had utility as a treatment biomarker. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gold nanoparticles on OMS-2 for heterogeneously catalyzed aerobic oxidative α,β-dehydrogenation of β-heteroatom-substituted ketones.

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Daichi; Jin, Xiongjie; Yatabe, Takafumi; Hasegawa, Jun-Ya; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Mizuno, Noritaka

    2016-12-06

    In the presence of Au nanoparticles supported on manganese oxide OMS-2 (Au/OMS-2), various kinds of β-heteroatom-substituted α,β-unsaturated ketones (heteroatom = N, O, S) can be synthesized through α,β-dehydrogenation of the corresponding saturated ketones using O 2 (in air) as the oxidant. The catalysis of Au/OMS-2 is truly heterogeneous, and the catalyst can be reused.

  9. Effects of the Bacterial Extract OM-85 on Phagocyte Functions and the Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Baladi, S.; Kantengwa, S.; Donati, Y. R. A.; Polla, B. S.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of the bacterial extract OM-85 on the respiratory burst, intracellular calcium and the stress response have been investigated in human peripheral blood monocytes from normal donors. Activation of the respiratory burst during bacterial phagocytosis has been previously associated with heat shock/stress proteins synthesis. Whereas OM-85 stimulated superoxide production and increased Ca2+ mobilization, it fared to induce synthesis of classical HSPs. The lack of stress protein induction was observed even in the presence of iron which potentiates both oxidative injury and stress protein induction during bacterial phagocytosis. However OM-85 induced a 75–78 kDa protein, which is likely to be a glucose regulated protein (GRP78), and enhanced intracellular expression of interleukin-lβ precursor. PMID:18472933

  10. Remineralization and preservation of the Organic Matter (OM) in the Peruvian Oxygen Minimum Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretagnon, M.; Paulmier, A.; Garcon, V.; Dewitte, B.; Maes, C.; Campos, F.; Carrasco, E.; Coppola, L.; Depretz de Gesincourt, O.; Gojak, C.; Grelet, J.; Illig, S.; Leblond, N.; Lefevre, D.; Martinez, P.; Oschlies, A.; Panagiotopoulos, C.; Scouarnec, L.; Velazco, F.

    2016-02-01

    The intense surface production in the Eastern Boundary Upwelling Systems (EBUS), linked to the low subsurface ventilation, leads to the formation of the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ). The degradation of Organic Matter (OM) by respiration or remineralization impacts climate (ocean carbon sequestration; greenhouse gases emission (e.g. N2O, CO2)) and ecosystems (nitrogen loss; toxic gas (e.g. H2S) production). Due to the O2 stress, OM fate is an OMZ key-issue. On one hand, the low O2 concentration would imply OM preservation, enhancing the export to the sediments. On the other hand, the intense bacteria activity would imply OM recycling. The Peruvian EBUS, one of the most productive systems with the shallowest oxycline, is the perfect case study to investigate both hypotheses. In order to study the particles fluxes and its variability, sediment traps in the oxycline (35 m) and OMZ core (150 m) were deployed on an instrumented moored line off Lima (12°S) in 2013-2014, as part of the AMOP project (Activities of research dedicated to the Minimum of Oxygen in the eastern Pacific).The particles proportion which reaches the deep trap allows to define mathematically a vertical transfer function, suggesting predominant remineralization and preservation configurations. Concerning OM quality, carbon and nitrogen fluxes are proportional to the matter fluxes, contrary to phosphorus and biogenic silica fluxes. The different configurations derived from the transfer function analysis in terms of both OM quantity and quality can mainly be linked to oxygenation conditions, with a potential remineralization predominance associated with O2 concentration at the oxycline higher than a threshold of 5 µmol/kg. Oxygenation events are alternately associated with a specific influence of SubTropical Water, more or less oxygenated (Surface (STSW) or Under (STUW), respectively).

  11. The cost-effectiveness of OM-85 in managing respiratory tract infections in China.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Jianwei; Wang, Lijie; Yin, Hongjun; Xuan, Dennis; Zhou, Yan; Hu, Shanlian

    2015-03-01

    To demonstrate the health economic impact of OM-85, a bacterial lysates based immunostimulant, for its approved indications in China. A cost-effectiveness decision tree model was constructed comparing OM-85 with the best supportive care/placebo therapy for managing the acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and rhinosinusitis in the Chinese population. Clinical efficacy and adverse events (AE) data were included in the model based on a thorough literature review. All localized direct treatment costs, including drug cost, AE costs, and medical treatment costs for underlining diseases were included from a Chinese third party payer perspective. A Key Opinion Leaders (KOL) survey was conducted with 20 senior physicians specialized in respiratory, ENT, allergy, and immunology fields from tertiary hospitals in Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Hangzhou, Shenyang, and Wuhan to validate the local treatment costs. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated based on the above efficacy and cost information. OM-85 is a cost-effective therapy when compared with placebo (standard care). OM-85 can treat/prevent one additional full episode exacerbation of chronic bronchitis and one additional full episode exacerbation of rhinosinusitis with only additional costs of RMB 653 and RMB 1182.84, respectively. In comparison, each acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis will cost RMB 4510.10, and each acute exacerbation of rhinosinuisitis will cost RMB 1807.21 in a Chinese clinical management setting. One-way sensitivity analyses were performed and the ICER result was demonstrated to be consistent. OM 85 reduces acute exacerbations among patients with chronic bronchitis and chronic rhinosinusitis when compared with Placebo (standard care). From a Chinese payer perspective, OM 85 is a cost-effective therapy in the clinical management of both chronic bronchitis and rhinosinusitis in the adult population.

  12. Enhanced oxidation of arsenite to arsenate using tunable K+ concentration in the OMS-2 tunnel.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jingtao; Sha, Zhenjie; Hartley, William; Tan, Wenfeng; Wang, Mingxia; Xiong, Juan; Li, Yuanzhi; Ke, Yujie; Long, Yi; Xue, Shengguo

    2018-03-29

    Cryptomelane-type octahedral molecular sieve manganese oxide (OMS-2) possesses high redox potential and has attracted much interest in its application for oxidation arsenite (As(III)) species of arsenic to arsenate (As(V)) to decrease arsenic toxicity and promote total arsenic removal. However, coexisting ions such as As(V) and phosphate are ubiquitous and readily bond to manganese oxide surface, consequently passivating surface active sites of manganese oxide and reducing As(III) oxidation. In this study, we present a novel strategy to significantly promote As(III) oxidation activity of OMS-2 by tuning K + concentration in the tunnel. Batch experimental results reveal that increasing K + concentration in the tunnel of OMS-2 not only considerably improved As(III) oxidation kinetics rate from 0.027 to 0.102 min -1 , but also reduced adverse effect of competitive ion on As(III) oxidation. The origin of K + concentration effect on As(III) oxidation was investigated through As(V) and phosphate adsorption kinetics, detection of Mn 2+ release in solution, surface charge characteristics, and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Experimental results and theoretical calculations confirm that by increasing K + concentration in the OMS-2 tunnel not only does it improve arsenic adsorption on K + doped OMS-2, but also accelerates two electrons transfers from As(III) to each bonded Mn atom on OMS-2 surface, thus considerably improving As(III) oxidation kinetics rate, which is responsible for counteracting the adverse adsorption effects by coexisting ions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A double blind multicentre study of OM-8980 and auranofin in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Vischer, T L

    1988-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of the immunomodulator OM-8980 in rheumatoid arthritis was compared with that of auranofin, an oral gold salt, in a double blind, randomised multicentre study lasting six months. Seventy patients were treated with auranofin and 75 with OM-8980. The patients of both groups improved significantly at three and six months for all the clinical parameters observed: Ritchie index, number of swollen joints, morning stiffness, pain, grip strength, intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. No serious side effects were observed in either group. The patients receiving auranofin had more adverse reactions, mainly affecting the gastrointestinal system. PMID:3041924

  14. Distinct effects of Broncho-Vaxom (OM-85 BV) on gp130 binding cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Roth, M; Block, L

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Broncho-Vaxom (OM-85 BV) is known to support respiratory tract resistance to bacterial infections. In vivo and in vitro studies in animals and humans have shown that the action of the drug is based on the modulation of the host immune response, and it has been found to upregulate interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, and IL-8. These immunomodulatory effects of the compound may explain its stimulation on T helper cells and natural killer cells. Following earlier findings that OM-85 BV induces the synthesis of IL-6, a study was undertaken to investigate its possible effect on other gp130 binding cytokines including IL-11, IL-12, leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), oncostatin M (OSM), and ciliary neutrophil factor (CNTF). Its modulation of the corresponding receptors of the above mentioned cytokines and of the signal transducer gp130 in human pulmonary fibroblasts and peripheral blood lymphocytes was also studied.
METHODS—Transcription of cytokines was assessed by Northern blot analysis. Secretion of cytokines was analysed using commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. Cytokine receptors and gp130 proteins were determined by Western blot analysis.
RESULTS—OM-85 BV increased the expression of IL-11 in human lung fibroblasts, but not in lymphocytes, in a dose and time dependent manner by maximal fivefold within 20 hours. The compound inhibited serum induced IL-12 expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes but did not induce OSM, LIF, or CNTF at any concentration. In lung fibroblasts the expression of the IL-6 receptor was enhanced fourfold at a concentration of 10 µg/ml OM-85 BV while that of the IL-11 receptor was not altered. In peripheral blood lymphocytes LIF receptor α expression was downregulated in the presence of 10 µg/ml OM-85 BV. At a concentration of 10 µg/ml OM-85 BV enhanced gp130 gene transcription fivefold and increased gp130 protein accumulation in cell membranes by 2.5times

  15. Non-Toxic Orbiter Maneuvering System (OMS) and Reaction Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA is pursuing the technology and advanced development of a non-toxic (NT) orbital maneuvering system (OMS) and reaction control system (RCS) for shuttle upgrades, RLV, and reusable first stages. The primary objectives of the shuttle upgrades program are improved safety, improved reliability, reduced operations time and cost, improved performance or capabilities, and commonality with future space exploration needs. Non-Toxic OMS/RCS offers advantages in each of these categories. A non-toxic OMS/RCS eliminates the ground hazards and the flight safety hazards of the toxic and corrosive propellants. The cost savings for ground operations are over $24M per year for 7 flights, and the savings increase with increasing flight rate up to $44M per year. The OMS/RCS serial processing time is reduced from 65 days to 13 days. The payload capability can be increased up to 5100 Ibms. The non-toxic OMS/RCS also provides improved space station reboost capability up to 20 nautical miles over the current toxic system of 14 nautical miles. A NT OMS/RCS represents a clear advancement in the SOA over MMH/NTO. Liquid oxygen and ethanol are clean burning, high-density propellants that provide a high degree of commonality with other spacecraft subsystems including life support, power, and thermal control, and with future human exploration and development of space missions. The simple and reliable pressure-fed design uses sub-cooled liquid oxygen at 250 to 350 psia, which allows a propellant to remain cryogenic for longer periods of time. The key technologies are thermal insulation and conditioning techniques are used to maintain the sub-cooling. Phase I successfully defined the system architecture, designed an integrated OMS/RCS propellant tank, analyzed the feed system, built and tested the 870 lbf RCS thrusters, and tested the 6000 lbf OMS engine. Phase 11 is currently being planned for the development and test of full-scale prototype of the system in 1999 and 2000

  16. Bacterial extract OM-85 BV protects mice against experimental chronic rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yanli; Yuan, Tiejun; Li, Xuechang; Yang, Shuqin; Zhang, Fanping; Shi, Li

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the therapeutic effects of OM-85 BV as an adjunctive treatment on experimental chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in mice. Methodology: Female BALB/c mice aged 8-12 weeks were sensitized and administrated by intranasal Aspergillus fumigatis (AF) three times per week for 1 week, 3 weeks, 2 months and 3 months (n = 10 each time point). The mice were randomly and equally assigned to four groups: normal control group, model group, OM-85-BV plus amoxicillin group, and isolated amoxicillin group. Inflammatory changes were determined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The expression levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 1, SOCS3, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ in samples were assessed by using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. Results: There were significantly inflammatory and structural changes between the model and other groups. Compared to the model group, the mRNA expression levels of SOCS1, SOCS3, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were significantly decreased in OM-85-BV plus amoxicillin group and isolated amoxicillin group, along with the protein levels. Conclusion: The bacterial extract OM-85 BV is a low-cost alternatively adjunctive drug to treat CRS with simple oral administration, good safety, and few side effects. PMID:26261565

  17. Ortho-isopropoxyphenyl methylcarbamate (OMS-33) as a residual spray for control of anopheline mosquitos

    PubMed Central

    Wright, James W.; Fritz, Roy F.; Hocking, Kay S.; Babione, Robert; Gratz, Norman G.; Pal, Rajindar; Stiles, Alan R.; Vandekar, Milutin

    1969-01-01

    More than 1300 compounds have so far been included in the WHO Programme for Evaluating and Testing New Insecticides, which is designed to disclose compounds that may satisfactorily replace those to which insect vectors of disease have become resistant. The authors describe the successful passage of o-isopropoxyphenyl methylcarbamate (OMS-33) through the first 6 stages of the 7-stage programme that has been established for compounds intended for use against anopheline mosquitos and conclude that this product is suitable for testing in the final stage—large-scale epidemiological evaluation. In operational field trials (at 2 g/m2) OMS-33 has been shown capable of controlling Anopheles stephensi (in Iran), An. gambiae and An. funestus (in Nigeria) for 3-4 months, An. albimanus (in El Salvador) for 2-4 months and An. dthali (in Iran) for 2½ months. It has an airborne effect by which anophelines are killed for a considerable time after OMS-33 has been sprayed, even though they do not make contact with a sprayed surface; this quality would appear advantageous in areas where anophelines enter houses and bite man but do not rest long enough on sprayed surfaces to acquire a lethal dose of insecticide or where significant outdoor biting occurs. The observance of simple safety precautions protects occupants of sprayed houses, spraymen and others from danger. Chemical studies have indicated that commercially produced water-dispersible powders of OMS-33 are stable under field conditions of storage and use. PMID:5306320

  18. Closeup of STS-26 Discovery, OV-103, orbital maneuvering system (OMS) leak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Closeup of STS-26 Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) nitrogen tetroxide gas leak was captured by a Cobra borescope and displayed on a video monitor. The borescope has a miniature videocamera at the end of a flexible rubber tube and is able to be maneuvered into other inaccessible locations.

  19. Glow experiment documentation of OMS/RCS pod and vertical stabilizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Glow experiment documentation of one of the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) reaction control system (RCS) pods and a portion of the vertical stabilizer shows chemoluminescent effectresulting from atomic oxygen impacting the spacecraft and building to the point that the atomic oxygen atoms combine to form molecules of oxygen. The Image Intensifier on NIKON 35mm camera was used to record the glow.

  20. Solid-phase photocatalytic degradation of polyethylene film with manganese oxide OMS-2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Guanglong; Liao, Shuijiao; Zhu, Duanwei; Cui, Jingzhen; Zhou, Wenbing

    2011-01-01

    Solid-phase photocatalytic degradation of polyethylene (PE) film with cryptomelane-type manganese oxide (OMS-2) as photocatalyst was investigated in the ambient air under ultraviolet and visible light irradiation. The properties of the composite films were compared with those of the pure PE film through performing weight loss monitoring, IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopic (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The photoinduced degradation of PE-OMS-2 composite films was higher than that of the pure films, while there has been little change under the visible light irradiation. The weight loss of PE-OMS-2 (1.0 wt%) composite films steadily decreased and reached 16.5% in 288 h under UV light irradiation. Through SEM observation there were some cavities on the surface of composite films, but few change except some surface chalking phenomenon occurred in pure PE film. The degradation rate with ultraviolet irradiation is controllable by adjusting the content of OMS-2 particles in PE plastic. Finally, the mechanism of photocatalytic degradation of the composite films was briefly discussed.

  1. Adjuvant treatment with the bacterial lysate (OM-85) improves management of atopic dermatitis: A randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Bodemer, Christine; Guillet, Gerard; Cambazard, Frederic; Boralevi, Franck; Ballarini, Stefania; Milliet, Christian; Bertuccio, Paola; La Vecchia, Carlo; Bach, Jean-François; de Prost, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Background Environmental factors play a major role on atopic dermatitis (AD) which shows a constant rise in prevalence in western countries over the last decades. The Hygiene Hypothesis suggesting an inverse relationship between incidence of infections and the increase in atopic diseases in these countries, is one of the working hypothesis proposed to explain this trend. Objective This study tested the efficacy and safety of oral administration of the bacterial lysate OM-85 (Broncho-Vaxom®, Broncho-Munal®, Ommunal®, Paxoral®, Vaxoral®), in the treatment of established AD in children. Methods Children aged 6 months to 7 years, with confirmed AD diagnosis, were randomized in a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to receive, in addition to conventional treatment with emollients and topical corticosteroids, 3.5mg of the bacterial extract OM-85 or placebo daily for 9 months. The primary end-point was the difference between groups in the occurrence of new flares (NF) during the study period, evaluated by Hazard Ratio (HR) derived from conditional Cox proportional hazard regression models accounting for repeated events. Results Among the 179 randomized children, 170 were analysed, 88 in the OM-85 and 82 in the placebo group. As expected most children in both treatment groups experienced at least 1 NF during the study period (75 (85%) patients in the OM-85 group and 72 (88%) in the placebo group). Patients treated with OM-85 as adjuvant therapy had significantly fewer and delayed NFs (HR of repeated flares = 0.80; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.67–0.96), also when potential confounding factors, as family history of atopy and corticosteroids use, were taken into account (HR = 0.82; 95% CI: 0.69–0.98). No major side effect was reported, with comparable and good tolerability for OM-85 and placebo. Conclusions Results show an adjuvant therapeutic effect of a well standardized bacterial lysate OM-85 on established AD. PMID:28333952

  2. The Relation between Speech Perception and Phonemic Awareness: Evidence from Low-SES Children and Children with Chronic OM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nittrouer, Susan

    1996-01-01

    This study of 41 children (ages 7 and 8) studied the effects of low socioeconomic status (SES) and chronic otitis media (OM) on speech perception and phonemic awareness. Findings indicated the children with low SES did poorly on both kinds of tasks whether or not they had chronic OM. (CR)

  3. Selective Activation of Human Dendritic Cells by OM-85 through a NF-kB and MAPK Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Scutera, Sara; Somma, Paolo; Salvi, Valentina; Musso, Tiziana; Tabbia, Giuseppe; Bardessono, Marco; Pasquali, Christian; Mantovani, Alberto; Sozzani, Silvano; Bosisio, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    OM-85 (Broncho-Vaxom®, Broncho-Munal®, Ommunal®, Paxoral®, Vaxoral®), a product made of the water soluble fractions of 21 inactivated bacterial strain patterns responsible for respiratory tract infections, is used for the prevention of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections and acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. OM-85 is able to potentiate both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for OM-85 activation are still largely unknown. Purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of OM-85 stimulation on human dendritic cell functions. We show that OM-85 selectively induced NF-kB and MAPK activation in human DC with no detectable action on the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) pathway. As a consequence, chemokines (i.e. CXCL8, CXCL6, CCL3, CCL20, CCL22) and B-cell activating cytokines (i.e. IL-6, BAFF and IL-10) were strongly upregulated. OM-85 also synergized with the action of classical pro-inflammatory stimuli used at suboptimal concentrations. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with COPD, a pathological condition often associated with altered PRR expression pattern, fully retained the capability to respond to OM-85. These results provide new insights on the molecular mechanisms of OM-85 activation of the immune response and strengthen the rational for its use in clinical settings. PMID:24386121

  4. Synthesis of OMS-2/graphite nanocomposites with enhanced activity for pollutants degradation in the presence of peroxymonosulfate.

    PubMed

    Fang, Jia; Li, Jun; Gao, Long; Jiang, Xiwang; Zhang, Jingwen; Xu, Aihua; Li, Xiaoxia

    2017-05-15

    The octahedral molecular sieve manganese oxide (OMS-2) and graphite (Gt) composites (OMS-2/Gt) were prepared by a facile refluxing approach. The structure and morphology of the obtained materials were systematically investigated. The results reveal that OMS-2 nanofibers are uniformly dispersed on the surface of Gt, and the ratio of Mn 3+ species in OMS-2 increases lineally with the increase of Gt dosage. The catalytic activity of OMS-2/Gt was evaluated by the degradation of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) in the presence of peroxymonosulfate (PMS). It is found that the OMS-2/Gt composites show enhanced catalytic performance with the degradation rate lineally correlated with the content of OMS-2 in the catalyst, and even with the ratio of Mn 3+ /Mn 4+ . XPS and radical scavenger experiments further indicated that the oxidation of Mn 3+ by PMS system occurs in the system with the formation of hydroxyl radicals contributed to the dye degradation. The catalysts also exhibit good stability and reusability during consecutive cycles. Thus, the environmental friendly OMS-2/Gt composites with low cost, facile synthesis process and high efficiency are very promising catalysts for PMS activation and pollutants degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Selective activation of human dendritic cells by OM-85 through a NF-kB and MAPK dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Parola, Carmen; Salogni, Laura; Vaira, Xenia; Scutera, Sara; Somma, Paolo; Salvi, Valentina; Musso, Tiziana; Tabbia, Giuseppe; Bardessono, Marco; Pasquali, Christian; Mantovani, Alberto; Sozzani, Silvano; Bosisio, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    OM-85 (Broncho-Vaxom®, Broncho-Munal®, Ommunal®, Paxoral®, Vaxoral®), a product made of the water soluble fractions of 21 inactivated bacterial strain patterns responsible for respiratory tract infections, is used for the prevention of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections and acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. OM-85 is able to potentiate both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for OM-85 activation are still largely unknown. Purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of OM-85 stimulation on human dendritic cell functions. We show that OM-85 selectively induced NF-kB and MAPK activation in human DC with no detectable action on the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) pathway. As a consequence, chemokines (i.e. CXCL8, CXCL6, CCL3, CCL20, CCL22) and B-cell activating cytokines (i.e. IL-6, BAFF and IL-10) were strongly upregulated. OM-85 also synergized with the action of classical pro-inflammatory stimuli used at suboptimal concentrations. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with COPD, a pathological condition often associated with altered PRR expression pattern, fully retained the capability to respond to OM-85. These results provide new insights on the molecular mechanisms of OM-85 activation of the immune response and strengthen the rational for its use in clinical settings.

  6. Ferrihydrite-associated organic matter (OM) stimulates reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and a complex microbial consortia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Rebecca Elizabeth; Eusterhues, Karin; Wegner, Carl-Eric; Totsche, Kai Uwe; Küsel, Kirsten

    2017-11-01

    The formation of Fe(III) oxides in natural environments occurs in the presence of natural organic matter (OM), resulting in the formation of OM-mineral complexes that form through adsorption or coprecipitation processes. Thus, microbial Fe(III) reduction in natural environments most often occurs in the presence of OM-mineral complexes rather than pure Fe(III) minerals. This study investigated to what extent does the content of adsorbed or coprecipitated OM on ferrihydrite influence the rate of Fe(III) reduction by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model Fe(III)-reducing microorganism, in comparison to a microbial consortium extracted from the acidic, Fe-rich Schlöppnerbrunnen fen. We found that increased OM content led to increased rates of microbial Fe(III) reduction by S. oneidensis MR-1 in contrast to earlier findings with the model organism Geobacter bremensis. Ferrihydrite-OM coprecipitates were reduced slightly faster than ferrihydrites with adsorbed OM. Surprisingly, the complex microbial consortia stimulated by a mixture of electrons donors (lactate, acetate, and glucose) mimics S. oneidensis under the same experimental Fe(III)-reducing conditions suggesting similar mechanisms of electron transfer whether or not the OM is adsorbed or coprecipitated to the mineral surfaces. We also followed potential shifts of the microbial community during the incubation via 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses to determine variations due to the presence of adsorbed or coprecipitated OM-ferrihydrite complexes in contrast to pure ferrihydrite. Community profile analyses showed no enrichment of typical model Fe(III)-reducing bacteria, such as Shewanella or Geobacter sp., but an enrichment of fermenters (e.g., Enterobacteria) during pure ferrihydrite incubations which are known to use Fe(III) as an electron sink. Instead, OM-mineral complexes favored the enrichment of microbes including Desulfobacteria and Pelosinus sp., both of which can utilize lactate and acetate as an electron

  7. Prevention of respiratory tract infections with bacterial lysate OM-85 bronchomunal in children and adults: a state of the art

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity and also represent a cause of death in some parts of the world. The treatment of RTIs implies a continuous search for stronger therapies and represents an economical burden for health services and society. In this context the prevention of infections is absolutely required. The use of bacterial lysates as immuno-modulators to boost immunological response is widely debated. Aim of this review is to summarize the main clinical studies on the effect of the bacterial lysate OM-85 in treating RTIs in susceptible subjects - namely children and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-affected adults. Results from clinical trials and recent systematic reviews are reported. The results show that mean number of RTIs decreases upon treatment with OM-85, as measured by frequency of exacerbations or number of antibiotic courses. Data from systematic reviews indicated that OM-85 is particularly beneficial in children at high risk of RTIs. In COPD-affected adults, clinical studies showed that treatment with OM-85 reduced exacerbations, although systematic reviews did not legitimate the protective effect of OM-85 toward COPD as significant. The use of OM-85 could be efficacious in reducing exacerbation frequency of RTIs in children and adults at risk. However further high-quality studies are needed to better explain the mechanism of action and confirm the beneficial results of OM85. PMID:23692890

  8. A software framework for microarray and gene expression object model (MAGE-OM) array design annotation.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Matloob; Ivens, Alasdair

    2008-03-20

    The MIAME and MAGE-OM standards defined by the MGED society provide a specification and implementation of a software infrastructure to facilitate the submission and sharing of data from microarray studies via public repositories. However, although the MAGE object model is flexible enough to support different annotation strategies, the annotation of array descriptions can be complex. We have developed a graphical Java-based application (Adamant) to assist with submission of Microarray designs to public repositories. Output of the application is fully compliant with the standards prescribed by the various public data repositories. Adamant will allow researchers to annotate and submit their own array designs to public repositories without requiring programming expertise, knowledge of the MAGE-OM or XML. The application has been used to submit a number of ArrayDesigns to the Array Express database.

  9. Four years of immunization with OM-85 BV to prevent respiratory infections in HIV+ patients

    PubMed Central

    Capetti, Amedeo; Cossu, Maria Vittoria; Carenzi, Laura; Rizzardini, Giuliano

    2013-01-01

    We report an interventional, non-randomized experience of OM-85 BV immunization in a group of 104 HIV-infected subjects presenting recurrent seasonal respiratory bacterial infections. We compared the number of respiratory events, the use of antibiotics and the cost related to antibiotics before (2005–2006) and after (2008–2011) the introduction of such intervention. The year 2007 was excluded from the analysis since half of the patients were immunized in that year in an exploratory approach. Respiratory infections dropped in all groups but in subjects with recurrent otitis, leading to a reduction in the use of antibiotics. This is the first report of the effect of OM-85 BV in vivo in HIV-infected subjects. PMID:23792443

  10. A software framework for microarray and gene expression object model (MAGE-OM) array design annotation

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Matloob; Ivens, Alasdair

    2008-01-01

    Background The MIAME and MAGE-OM standards defined by the MGED society provide a specification and implementation of a software infrastructure to facilitate the submission and sharing of data from microarray studies via public repositories. However, although the MAGE object model is flexible enough to support different annotation strategies, the annotation of array descriptions can be complex. Results We have developed a graphical Java-based application (Adamant) to assist with submission of Microarray designs to public repositories. Output of the application is fully compliant with the standards prescribed by the various public data repositories. Conclusion Adamant will allow researchers to annotate and submit their own array designs to public repositories without requiring programming expertise, knowledge of the MAGE-OM or XML. The application has been used to submit a number of ArrayDesigns to the Array Express database. PMID:18366695

  11. Ordered mesoporous silica (OMS) as an adsorbent and membrane for separation of carbon dioxide (CO2).

    PubMed

    Chew, Thiam-Leng; Ahmad, Abdul L; Bhatia, Subhash

    2010-01-15

    Separation of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from gaseous mixture is an important issue for the removal of CO(2) in natural gas processing and power plants. The ordered mesoporous silicas (OMS) with uniform pore structure and high density of silanol groups, have attracted the interest of researchers for separation of carbon dioxide (CO(2)) using adsorption process. These mesoporous silicas after functionalization with amino groups have been studied for the removal of CO(2). The potential of functionalized ordered mesoporous silica membrane for separation of CO(2) is also recognized. The present paper reviews the synthesis of mesoporous silicas and important issues related to the development of mesoporous silicas. Recent studies on the CO(2) separation using ordered mesoporous silicas (OMS) as adsorbent and membrane are highlighted. The future prospectives of mesoporous silica membrane for CO(2) adsorption and separation are also presented and discussed. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Columbia: The first five flights entry heating data series. Volume 2: The OMS Pod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Entry heating flight data and wind tunnel data on the OMS Pod are presented for the first five flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The heating rate data are presented in terms of normalized film heat transfer coefficients as a function of angle-of-attack, Mach number, and normal shock Reynolds number. The surface heating rates and temperatures were obtained via the JSC NONLIN/INVERSE computer program. Time history plots of the surface heating rates and temperatures are also presented.

  13. Survey view of damage to the STS-117 OMS Pod taken by an Expedition 15 Crewmember

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2007-06-13

    ISS015E11804 (13 June 2007) --- A digital still camera recorded this image of a gap caused by an uplifted area on the thermal blanket protecting Atlantis' portside orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod. The STS-117 Mission Management Team (MMT) has decided the best course of action to take in regard to the uplifted thermal blanket on the post side Orbital Maneuvering System Pod was to add the repair task on EVA 3 with astronauts Jim Reilly and John (Danny) Olivas.

  14. OMS Pods and Vertical Stabilizer on Space Shuttle Atlantis during STS-132

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2010-05-25

    S132-E-011670 (25 May 2010) --- Backdropped over parts of Michigan and the Canadian province of Ontario, space shuttle Atlantis? vertical stabilizer, orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods and aft payload bay are featured in this image photographed by an STS-132 on the shuttle during flight day 12 activities. Recognizable features in the photo include Lake St. Clair and parts of Lake Huron and Lake Erie.

  15. An advanced regulator for the helium pressurization systems of the Space Shuttle OMS and RCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichmann, H.

    1973-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbit Maneuvering System and Reaction Control System are pressure-fed rocket propulsion systems utilizing earth storable hypergolic propellants and featuring engines of 6000 lbs and 900 lbs thrust, respectively. The helium pressurization system requirements for these propulsion systems are defined and the current baseline pressurization systems are described. An advanced helium pressure regulator capable of meeting both OMS and RCS helium pressurization system requirements is presented and its operating characteristics and predicted performance characteristics are discussed.

  16. View of the starboard OMS pod of the STS-6 Challenger

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This view centers on the starboard orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod of the shuttle Challenger during its STS-6 mission. Two pieces of thermal protection system tile appear to have loosened. The view also shows one of the cargo bay television cameras, part of the extravehicular activity (EVA) slide wire system, three handrails and other features on the aft bulkhead. Part of the airborne support equipment (ASE) is in the lower right foreground.

  17. Top Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Efficiency Opportunities at DoD/Army Sites - A Guide for O&M/Energy Managers and Practitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Gregory P.; Dean, Jesse D.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2007-05-25

    This report, sponsored the Army's Energy Engineering Analysis Program, provides the Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Energy manager and practitioner with useful information about the top O&M opportunities consistently found across the DoD/Army sector. The target is to help the DoD/Army sector develop a well-structured and organized O&M program.

  18. Study on optics integrated manufacture technology based on Windows DNA-OM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Min; Yang, Li; Wang, Yong-jan

    2006-02-01

    As the shortcoming and insufficiency of CNC systems applied in optics manufacturing, a design and application based on Windows DNA-OM is presented. After introducing the prime principles and logic structures of Windows DNA-OM, a specific solution of optics integrated manufacture based on this framework is discussed in detail. In this solution, the OPC(OLE for Process Control) technology based on COM(Component Object Model) of Microsoft company is used for CNC equipment in the workshop, and this could provide a general interface for communication of hetero-structure CNC equipment of workshop and so all hetero-structure CNC can be accessed in a simple way. The experience and knowledge of optic manufacturing is stored and integrated in Windows DNA-OM Data part, this data part can guide optics manufacture. By completing this data part, an optics manufacture expert system can be realized. Then the prime characteristics of the integrated manufacture system are given. Finally this system is proved to has a good flexibility and opening, ease realizing, low cost and high feasibility.

  19. Improving interpretation of infrared spectra for OM characterization by subtraction of spectra from incinerated samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellerbrock, Ruth H.; Gerke, Horst H.; Leue, Martin

    2017-04-01

    Non-destructive methods such as diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFT) have been applied to characterize organic matter (OM) at intact structural surfaces among others. However, it is often difficult to distinguish effects of organic components on DRIFT signal intensities from those of mineral components. The objective of this study was to re-evaluate DRIFT spectra from intact earthworm burrow walls and coated cracks to improve the interpretation of C-H and C=O bands. We compared DRIFT and transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of entire samples that were from the same pedogenetic soil horizon, but different in mineral composition and texture (i.e., glacial till versus loess). Spectra of incinerated samples were subtracted from the original spectra. Transmission FTIR and DRIFT spectra were almost identical for entire soil samples. However, the DRIFT spectra were affected by the bulk mode bands (i.e., wavenumbers 2000 to 1700 cm-1) that affected spectral resolution and reproducibility. The ratios between C-H and C=O band intensities as indicator for OM quality obtained with DRIFT were smaller than those obtained from transmission FTIR. A spectral subtraction procedure was found to reduce effects of mineral absorption bands on DRIFT spectra allowing an improved interpretation. DRIFT spectroscopy as a non-destructive method for analyzing OM composition at intact surfaces in structured soils could be calibrated with information obtained with the more detailed transmission FTIR and complementary methods.

  20. Theory and Observations of Plasma Waves Excited Space Shuttle OMS Burns in the Ionosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernhardt, P. A.; Pfaff, R. F.; Schuck, P. W.; Hunton, D. E.; Hairston, M. R.

    2010-12-01

    Measurements of artificial plasma turbulence were obtained during two Shuttle Exhaust Ionospheric Turbulence Experiments (SEITE) conducted during the flights of the Space Shuttle (STS-127 and STS-129). Based on computer modeling at the NRL PPD and Laboratory for Computational Physics & Fluid Dynamics (LCP), two dedicated burns of the Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) engines were scheduled to produce 200 to 240 kg exhaust clouds that passed over the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) Communications, Navigation, and Outage Forecast System (C/NOFS) satellite. This operation required the coordination by the DoD Space Test Program (STP), the NASA Flight Dynamics Officer (FDO), the C/NOFS payload operations, and the C/NOFS instrument principal investigators. The first SEITE mission used exhaust from a 12 Second OMS burn to deposit 1 Giga-Joules of energy into the upper atmosphere at a range of 230 km from C/NOFS. The burn was timed so C/NOFS could fly though the center of the exhaust cloud at a range of 87 km above the orbit of the Space Shuttle. The first SEITE experiment is important because is provided plume detection by ionospheric plasma and electric field probes for direct sampling of irregularities that can scatter radar signals. Three types of waves were detected by C/NOFS during and after the first SEITE burn. With the ignition and termination of the pair of OMS engines, whistler mode signals were recorded at C/NOFS. Six seconds after ignition, a large amplitude electromagnetic pulse reached the satellite. This has been identified as a fast magnetosonic wave propagating across magnetic field lines to reach the electric field (VEFI) sensors on the satellite. Thirty seconds after the burn, the exhaust cloud reach C/NOFS and engulfed the satellite providing very strong electric field turbulence along with enhancements in electron and ion densities. Kinetic modeling has been used to track the electric field turbulence to an unstable velocity

  1. Performance Characteristics of Automotive Engines in the United States : Report No. 7. Mercedes Benz Model OM617 Diesel Engine.

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1977-01-01

    Experimental data were obtained in dynamometer tests of the Mercedes Benz Model OM617 diesel engine to determine fuel consumption and emissions (hydrocarbon, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitroge, and smoke) at steady-state engine-operating modes. The o...

  2. Effects of precursor and sulfation on OMS-2 catalyst for oxidation of ethanol and acetaldehyde at low temperatures.

    PubMed

    Wang, Renhu; Li, Junhua

    2010-06-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from many industrial processes and transportation activities are major organic pollutants in the atmosphere and toxic to human health. Octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) catalysts with different precursors and sulfate-acidified OMS-2 catalysts were synthesized using refluxing methods. The catalysts were investigated on complete oxidation of ethanol and acetaldehyde, and both demonstrated good reactivity. However, acidification resulted in a decrease in activity. OMS-2 catalyst using MnSO(4) as precursor exhibited the best catalytic performance and, thus, was selected for catalyst deactivation by sulfur dioxide. The results of this study suggested that the Mn-O bond of OMS-2 catalysts was the main determinant of the catalytic activity toward oxygenated VOC oxidation and weaker acid sites benefited higher acetaldehyde selectivity. Catalyst deactivation resulted from a strong but slow chemical interaction between the Mn-O bond and sulfur dioxide, probably forming manganese sulfate.

  3. Determining the Spatial and Seasonal Variability in OM/OC Ratios across the U.S. Using Multiple Regression

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network are used to estimate organic mass to organic carbon (OM/OC) ratios across the United States by extending previously published multiple regression techniques. Our new methodology addresses com...

  4. Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange Dye under the Daylight Irradiation over CN-TiO₂ Modified with OMS-2.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohamed Elfatih; Chen, Jing; Liu, Guanglong; Zhu, Duanwei; Cai, Jianbo

    2014-12-12

    In this study, CN-TiO₂ was modified with cryptomelane octahedral molecular sieves (OMS-2) by the sol-gel method based on the self-assembly technique to enhance its photocatalytic activity under the daylight irradiation. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and porosimeter analysis. The results showed that the addition of OMS-2 in the sol lead to higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, pore volume, porosity of particle after heat treatment and the specific surface area, porosity, crystallite size and pore size distribution could be controlled by adjusting the calcination temperature. Compared to the CN-TiO₂-400 sample, CN-TiO₂/OMS-2-400 exhibited greater red shift in absorption edge of samples in visible region due to the OMS-2 coated. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity of CN-TiO₂/OMS-2 composite photocatalyst was subsequently evaluated for the degradation of the methyl orange dye under the daylight irradiation in water. The results showed that the methyl orange dye degradation rate reach to 37.8% for the CN-TiO₂/OMS-2-400 sample under the daylight irradiation for 5 h, which was higher than that of reference sample. The enhancement in daylight photocatalytic activities of the CN-TiO₂/OMS samples could be attributed to the synergistic effects of OMS-2 coated, larger surface area and red shift in adsorption edge of the prepared sample.

  5. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of peptidoglycan recognition protein OmPGRP-L2 from the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ju Hye; Kim, Hyun; Cho, Ju Hyun

    2017-10-01

    Peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRPs), a group of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), are innate immune molecules that are structurally conserved through evolution in both invertebrate and vertebrate animals. In teleost fish, several PGRPs have been characterized recently. They have both amidase activity and bactericidal activity and are involved in indirectly killing bacteria and regulating multiple signaling pathways. However, the knowledge of functional similarity and divergence between PGRP paralogs for their role as an immune modulator in teleost fish is still limited. In this study, we identified a novel PGRP paralog, termed OmPGRP-L2 from the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). OmPGRP-L2 contains the conserved PGRP domain and the four Zn 2+ -binding amino acid residues required for amidase activity. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that OmPGRP-L2 is highly expressed in liver. Overexpression of OmPGRP-L2 in a rainbow trout hepatocyte cell line RTH-149 challenged with Edwardsiella tarda resulted in down-regulation of IL-1β and TNF-α expression. When overexpressed in RTH-149 cells, OmPGRP-L2 inhibited NF-κB activity with or without bacterial stimulation. Collectively, these findings suggest that OmPGRP-L2 has an immunomodulatory function, via NF-κB inhibition in liver. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Optimization of strong-base anion exchange O&M costs for hexavalent chromium treatment.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Sarah; Gorman, Craig; Henrie, Tarrah; Shimabuku, Kyle; Thompson, Robert; Seidel, Chad

    2018-04-10

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] in drinking water is pending regulation in California and is being considered for regulation in other locations. While strong-base anion exchange (SBA-IX) can efficiently remove Cr(VI) to low-levels that may be required to comply with future MCLs, operational and maintenance (O&M) costs can be considerable if the spent brine is disposed of as hazardous waste. Through bench- and pilot-scale experiments and full-scale demonstrations, this study examined the ability of emerging and established brine treatment and reuse techniques as well as recently developed resins to decrease O&M costs. When profiling anion elution during regeneration with nanofiltration treated and untreated spent brine, it appeared that at least 1 and 3 reuse cycles were feasible, respectively. Stannous- and ferrous-based reductants were more efficient than sulfur-based reductants when treating spent brine. Bed volumes to 8 μg/L chromium breakthrough with 7 resins varied by as much as a factor of 2 and correlated (R 2  = 0.84) with resin total exchange capacities. Spent brine reuse, segmented regeneration (an optimized brine reuse method), ferrous reduction, and nanofiltration of spent brine were estimated to decrease O&M costs by 30, 70, 63, and 61%, respectively. Selection of high performing resins was the most simple way to decrease O&M costs (up to 70% savings). The sum of nitrate and sulfate raw water equivalent concentrations was found to be the principal water quality parameter that influenced the performance of 4 resins in 7 different groundwaters because nitrate and sulfate concentrations were orders of magnitude greater than chromium concentrations. Resins with higher chromium capacities eluted more co-contaminants including arsenic, selenium, uranium, and vanadium because they likely had higher co-contaminant capacities. Co-contaminant elution was found to be complex because associations can form between regenerant and co-eluting anions. Sodium

  7. Cosmological reconstruction and Om diagnostic analysis of Einstein-Aether theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasqua, Antonio; Chattopadhyay, Surajit; Momeni, Davood; Raza, Muhammad; Myrzakulov, Ratbay; Faizal, Mir

    2017-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze the cosmological models in Einstein-Aether gravity, which is a modified theory of gravity in which a time-like vector field breaks the Lorentz symmetry. We use this formalism to analyse different cosmological models with different behavior of the scale factor. In this analysis, we use a certain functional dependence of the Dark Energy (DE) on the Hubble parameter H. It will be demonstrated that the Aether vector field has a non-trivial effect on these cosmological models. We also perform the Om diagnostic in Einstein-Aether gravity and we fit the parameters of the cosmological models using recent observational data.

  8. Summary of LO2/Ethanol OMS/RCS Technology and Advanced Development 99-2744

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Leslie A.; Hurlbert, Eric A.

    1999-01-01

    NASA is pursuing non-toxic propellant technologies applicable to RLV and Space Shuttle orbital maneuvering system (OMS) and reaction control system (RCS). The primary objectives of making advancements in an OMS/RCS system are improved safety, reliability, and reduced operations and maintenance cost, while meeting basic operational and performance requirements. An OMS/RCS has a high degree of direct interaction with the vehicle and crew and requires subsystem and components that are compatible with integration into the vehicle with regard to external mold-line, power, and thermal control. In July 1997, a Phase I effort for the technology and advanced development of an upgrade of the space shuttle was conducted to define the system architecture, propellant tank, feed system, RCS thrusters, and OMS engine. Phase I of the project ran from July 1997 to October 1998. Phase II is currently being planned for the development and test of full-scale prototype of the system in 1999 and 2000. The choice of pressure-fed liquid oxygen (LO2) and ethanol is the result of numerous trade studies conducted from 1980 to 1996. Liquid oxygen and ethanol are clean burning, high-density propellants that provide a high degree of commonality with other spacecraft subsystems including life support, power, and thermal control, and with future human exploration and development of space missions. The key to this pressure-fed system is the use of subcooled liquid oxygen at 350 psia. In this approach, there is 80 degrees R of subcooling, which means that boil-off will not occur until the temperature has risen 80 R. The sub-cooling results naturally from loading propellants at 163 R, which is the saturation temperature at 14.7 psia, and then pressurizing to 350 psia on the launch pad. Thermal insulation and conditioning techniques are then used to limit the LO2 temperature to 185 R maximum, and maintain the sub-cooling. The other key is the wide temperature range of ethanol, -173 F to +300 F, which

  9. PLB, vertical tail, OMS pods above Earth with moon in distant background

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Payload bay (PLB) equipment, payloads, and experiments include remote manipulator system (RMS) stowed on port side sill longeron, Development Flight Instrument (DFI) pallet with High Capacity Heat Pipe Experiment, Special Philatelic Covers in two large storage (mail) boxes, Evaluation of Oxygen Interaction with Materials (EOIM) experiment trays, and Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) blanket in foreground and Payload Flight Test Article (PFTA) behind DFI pallet. Vertical tail with orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods at base points to Earth's cloud-covered surface with gibbous moon in distance.

  10. Characterization of a novel β-barrel protein (AtOM47) from the mitochondrial outer membrane of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lu; Kubiszewski-Jakubiak, Szymon; Radomiljac, Jordan; Wang, Yan; Law, Simon R.; Keech, Olivier; Narsai, Reena; Berkowitz, Oliver; Duncan, Owen; Murcha, Monika W.; Whelan, James

    2016-01-01

    In plant cells, mitochondria are major providers of energy and building blocks for growth and development as well as abiotic and biotic stress responses. They are encircled by two lipid membranes containing proteins that control mitochondrial function through the import of macromolecules and metabolites. Characterization of a novel β-barrel protein, OUTER MEMBRANE PROTEIN 47 (OM47), unique to the green lineage and related to the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) protein family, showed that OM47 can complement a VDAC mutant in yeast. Mutation of OM47 in Arabidopsis thaliana by T-DNA insertion had no effect on the import of proteins, such as the β-barrel proteins translocase of the outer membrane 40 (TOM40) or sorting and assembly machinery 50 (SAM50), into mitochondria. Molecular and physiological analyses revealed a delay in chlorophyll breakdown, higher levels of starch, and a delay in the induction of senescence marker genes in the mutant lines. While there was a reduction of >90% in OM47 protein in mitochondria isolated from 3-week-old om47 mutants, in mitochondria isolated from 8-week-old plants OM47 levels were similar to that of the wild type. This recovery was achieved by an up-regulation of OM47 transcript abundance in the mutants. Combined, these results highlight a role in leaf senescence for this plant-specific β-barrel protein, probably mediating the recovery and recycling of chloroplast breakdown products by transporting metabolic intermediates into and out of mitochondria. PMID:27811077

  11. Complete genome and comparative analysis of the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Oligotropha carboxidovorans OM5

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Oligotropha carboxidovorans OM5 T. (DSM 1227, ATCC 49405) is a chemolithoautotrophic bacterium capable of utilizing CO (carbon monoxide) and fixing CO2 (carbon dioxide). We previously published the draft genome of this organism and recently submitted the complete genome sequence to GenBank. Results The genome sequence of the chemolithoautotrophic bacterium Oligotropha carboxidovorans OM5 consists of a 3.74-Mb chromosome and a 133-kb megaplasmid that contains the genes responsible for utilization of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen. To our knowledge, this strain is the first one to be sequenced in the genus Oligotropha, the closest fully sequenced relatives being Bradyrhizobium sp. BTAi and USDA110 and Nitrobacter hamburgiensis X14. Analysis of the O. carboxidovorans genome reveals potential links between plasmid-encoded chemolithoautotrophy and chromosomally-encoded lipid metabolism. Comparative analysis of O. carboxidovorans with closely related species revealed differences in metabolic pathways, particularly in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as transport pathways. Conclusion Oligotropha, Bradyrhizobium sp and Nitrobacter hamburgiensis X14 are phylogenetically proximal. Although there is significant conservation of genome organization between the species, there are major differences in many metabolic pathways that reflect the adaptive strategies unique to each species. PMID:20863402

  12. Four 45 Gbps PAM4 VCSEL based transmission through 300 m wideband OM4 fiber over SWDM4 wavelength grid.

    PubMed

    Motaghiannezam, Reza; Lyubomirsky, Ilya; Daghighian, Henry; Kocot, Chris; Gray, Timo; Tatum, Jim; Amezcua-Correa, Adrian; Bigot-Astruc, M; Molin, D; Achten, F; Sillard, P

    2016-07-25

    We demonstrate successful transmission of four 45 Gbps PAM4 single-channels through OM4 multimode fibers (MMFs) and wideband MMF using a PAM4 PHY chip and four vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) with wavelengths ranging over short wavelength division multiplexing (SWDM) grid. Real-time bit error ratios (BERs) < 2 × 10-4 were achieved for all four 45 Gbps PAM4 SWDM grid channels over 100 m, 200 m, and 300 m of wideband OM4 MMFs. All four channel received PAM4 optical eyes are shown after propagating through 100 m, 200 m, and 300 m of wideband OM4 as well as 100 m and 200 m conventional OM4 MMFs. The measured BERs as a function of the inner eye optical modulation amplitudes (OMAs) are shown for all four SWDM grid channels. Inner eye OMAs ranged from -16.2 dBm to -13.5 dBm for different channels over different OM4 MMF types at the KP4 BER threshold of 2 × 10-4.

  13. Application of magnetic OMS-2 in sequencing batch reactor for treating dye wastewater as a modulator of microbial community.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fei; Yu, Yang; Xu, Aihua; Xia, Dongsheng; Sun, Youmin; Cai, Zhengqing; Liu, Wen; Fu, Jie

    2017-10-15

    The potential and mechanism of synthesized magnetic octahedral molecular sieve (Fe 3 O 4 @OMS-2) nanoparticles in enhancing the aerobic microbial ability of sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for treating dye wastewater have been revealed in this study. The addition of Fe 3 O 4 @OMS-2 of 0.25g/L enhanced the decolorization of SBRs with an operation cycle of 24h by more than 20%. The 16S rRNA gene high-throughput sequencing indicated Fe 3 O 4 @OMS-2 increased the microbial richness and diversity of SBRs, and more importantly, promoted the potential dye-degrading bacteria. After a series of enriching and screening, four bacterial strains with the considerable decolorizing ability were isolated from SBRs, designating Alcaligenes faecalis FP-G1, Bacillus aryabhattai FP-F1, Escherichia fergusonii FP-D1 and Rhodococcus ruber FP-E1, respectively. The growth and decolorization of these pure strains were promoted in the presence of Fe 3 O 4 @OMS-2, which agrees with the result of high-throughput sequencing. Monitoring dissolved Fe/Mn ions and investigating the change of oxidation states of Fe/Mn species discovered OMS-2 composition played the critical role in modulating the microbial community. The significant enhancement of Mn-oxidizing/-reducing bacteria suggested microbial Mn redox may be the key action mechanism of Fe 3 O 4 @OMS-2, which can provide numerous benefits for the microbial community and decolorization of SBRs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Ocular Motor Score (OMS): a clinical tool to evaluating ocular motor functions in children. Intrarater and inter-rater agreement.

    PubMed

    Olsson, Monica; Teär Fahnehjelm, Kristina; Rydberg, Agneta; Ygge, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Ocular motor score (OMS) is a new clinical test protocol for evaluating ocular motor functions in children and young adults. OMS is a set of 15 important and relevant non-invasive ocular motor function parameters derived from clinical practice. The aim of the study was to evaluate OMS according to intrarater and inter-rater agreement. Forty children aged 4-10 years, 23 girls median age 6.5 (range 4.3-9.3) and 17 boys median age 5.8 (range 4.1-9.8) were included. The ocular motor functions were assessed and scored according to the OMS protocol. The examinations were videotaped. To obtain the intrarater agreement, the first author examined and scored the children twice, first in the clinic and 2 weeks later by watching the videotape. To obtain the inter-rater agreement, three other raters independently scored the ocular motor function of the children by watching the videotapes. The overall observed intrarater agreement was 88%, and the observed inter-rater agreement between the three raters was 80%. For none of the subtests was there an observed intrarater agreement lower than 65%. Three of the subtests had an observed inter-rater agreement of 65% or below. Overall there was high observed intra- and inter-rater agreement for the OMS test protocol. Subtests such as saccades and smooth pursuit were more difficult for raters to score similarly according the clinical OMS test protocol. © 2015 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Full solar spectrum light driven thermocatalysis with extremely high efficiency on nanostructured Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst for VOCs purification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Jingtao; Li, Yuanzhi; Mao, Mingyang; Yue, Yuanzheng; Greaves, G. Neville; Zhao, Xiujian

    2015-01-01

    The nanostructured Ce ion substituted cryptomelane-type octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) catalyst exhibits strong absorption in the entire solar spectrum region. The Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst can efficiently transform the absorbed solar energy to thermal energy, resulting in a considerable increase of temperature. By combining the efficient photothermal conversion and thermocatalytic activity of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst, we carried out full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light driven catalysis with extremely high efficiency. Under the irradiation of full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light, the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits extremely high catalytic activity and excellent durability for the oxidation of volatile organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, and acetone. Based on the experimental evidence, we propose a novel mechanism of solar light driven thermocatalysis for the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst. The reason why the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits much higher catalytic activity than pure OMS-2 and CeO2/OMS-2 nano composite under the full solar spectrum irradiation is discussed.The nanostructured Ce ion substituted cryptomelane-type octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) catalyst exhibits strong absorption in the entire solar spectrum region. The Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst can efficiently transform the absorbed solar energy to thermal energy, resulting in a considerable increase of temperature. By combining the efficient photothermal conversion and thermocatalytic activity of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst, we carried out full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light driven catalysis with extremely high efficiency. Under the irradiation of full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light, the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits extremely high catalytic activity and excellent durability for the oxidation of volatile organic pollutants

  16. Effect of preparation method on the surface characteristics and activity of the Pd/OMS-2 catalysts for the oxidation of carbon monoxide, toluene, and ethyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lisha; Song, Yong; Fu, Zhidan; Ye, Qing; Cheng, Shuiyuan; Kang, Tianfang; Dai, Hongxing

    2017-02-01

    The cryptomelane-type manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2)-supported Pd (0.5 wt% Pd/OMS-2-DP, 0.5 wt% Pd/OMS-2-PI, and 0.5 wt% Pd/OMS-2-EX) catalysts were prepared by the deposition-precipitation, pre-incorporation, and ion-exchanging strategies, respectively. It is shown that the preparation method exerted an important effect on the physicochemical property of the sample. Among the OMS-2-supported Pd catalysts, 0.5 wt% Pd/OMS-2-DP possessed the highest surface (Mn2+ + Mn3+)/Mn4+ atomic ratio and the highest surface Pd loading and acid sites. The 0.5 wt% Pd/OMS-2 catalysts outperformed the Pd-free counterpart, among which 0.5 wt% Pd/OMS-2-DP presented the best catalytic activity (T50% and T90% were 25 and 55 °C for CO oxidation, 240 and 285 °C for toluene oxidation, and 160 and 200 °C for ethyl acetate oxidation, respectively). We believe that the high Pd surface loading, high surface atomic ratio of (Mn2+ + Mn3+)/Mn4+, and good low-temperature reducibility, good oxygen mobility, and high acidity were responsible for the excellent performance of the 0.5 wt% Pd/OMS-2-DP catalyst.

  17. Efficacy and Safety of OM-85 in Patients with Chronic Bronchitis and/or Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    PubMed

    Tang, Hao; Fang, Zheng; Saborío, Gabriela P; Xiu, Qingyu

    2015-08-01

    Recurrent acute exacerbations are generally associated with accelerated decline of lung function and characterized by reduced physical activity and worsening of clinical status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Effective practices and therapies aimed at preventing acute exacerbations are continuously under investigation by healthcare providers. This double-blind, placebo-control, randomized clinical trial sought to evaluate the preventive effect of a bacterial lysate (OM-85) on acute exacerbations in patients with COPD or chronic bronchitis in China. A total of 428 patients were randomly assigned either to OM-85 treatment or to placebo. Patients received study drug or placebo for 10 days per month over 3 consecutive months, with a 10-week follow-up. Three hundred and eighty-four (384) patients completed the study (192 in the OM-85 group and 192 in the placebo group) and were included in the full analysis set (FAS). Thirty (30) patients, 21 in the OM-85 and 9 in the placebo groups, were excluded due to protocol violations and drop-outs, and the remaining 354 patients (171 in the OM-85 and 183 in the placebo groups) were included in the per protocol set (PPS). The proportion of patients with recurrent acute exacerbations in the OM-85 group was significantly lower than in the placebo group at the end of the treatment period, both, in the FAS (23.4 % vs. 33.3 %, p = 0.0311) and in the PPS (17.0 % vs. 31.2 %, p < 0.05). Throughout the entire 22-week study period, the proportion of patients with recurrent acute exacerbations in the OM-85 group was lower than in the placebo group in the FAS (32.8 % vs. 38.0 %, p = 0.277), while the difference is statistically significant in the PPS (26.3 % vs. 36.1 %, p < 0.05). OM-85 significantly reduced the proportion of patients with acute exacerbation after 12 weeks of therapy and the benefit appeared to be maintained up to 22 weeks, and showed a favorable tolerability profile.

  18. An engineering evaluation of the Space Shuttle OMS engine after 5 orbital flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, D.

    1983-01-01

    Design features, performances on the first five flights, and condition of the Shuttle OMS engines are summarized. The engines were designed to provide a vacuum-fed 6000 lb of thrust and a 310 sec specific impulse, fueled by a combination of N2O4 and monomethylhydrazine (MMH) at a mixture ratio of 1.65. The design lifetime is 1000 starts and 15 hr of cumulative firing duration. The engine assembly is throat gimballed and features yaw actuators. No degradation of the hot components was observed during the first five flights, and the injector pattern maintained a uniform, enduring level of performance. An increase in the take-off loads have led to enhancing the wall thickness in the nozzle in affected areas. The engine is concluded to be performing to design specifications and is considered an operational system.

  19. Results of ionospheric parameters measurements during injections of exhaust streams of TSC "Progress" OMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khakhinov, Vitaly; Alsatkin, Sergey; Medvedev, Andrey; Kushnarev, Dmitriy; Lebedev, Valentin; Potekhin, Alexander; Ratovsky, Konstantin; Shpynev, Boris

    Since 2006 we have carried out active space experiments using the transport spacecraft (TSC) "Progress" and the ground-base Radio-Optic Complex of ISTP SB RAS including Irkutsk Incoherent Scatter Radar (IISR). Engine burns of TSC orbital maneuvering subsystem (OMS) were used as a source of ionospheric disturbances and changing radar signature characteristics of TSC. The flight altitudes were about 340 km. The amount of engine exhaust products was varied from 2 to 11 kg. The flow directions relative to IISR and amount of injected exhaust products were changed from flight to flight. The flows directed to IISR were almost parallel to the geomagnetic field line. For these cases the most pronounced effects were observed, the electron density depletion reached 20-40

  20. Clinical Benefits of Memantine Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease in the Okayama Memantine Study II (OMS II).

    PubMed

    Matsuzono, Kosuke; Yamashita, Toru; Ohta, Yasuyuki; Hishikawa, Nozomi; Koike, Makoto; Sato, Kota; Kono, Syoichiro; Deguchi, Kentaro; Nakano, Yumiko; Abe, Koji

    2015-01-01

    The clinical benefits of memantine, depending on the baseline cognitive and affective conditions in real world dementia clinics, have not been completely examined. We performed the "Okayama Memantine Study II (OMS II)" to retrospectively evaluate the clinical effects of memantine monotherapy (n = 38) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients using seven batteries to assess dementia at the baseline, at 3, 6, and 12 months. Additionally, we divided 163 AD patients treated with memantine into two subgroups depending on the baseline cognitive score of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE): the MMSE <15 group (n = 36) and the baseline MMSE ≥15 group (n = 127). We also analyzed 71 AD patients based on the baseline behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) severity using Abe's BPSD score (ABS). Memantine monotherapy maintained cognitive functions until 6 months of treatment, but showed a decrease at 12 months ( *p <  0.05 versus baseline). However, memantine monotherapy greatly improved BPSD symptoms until 12 months ( *p <  0.05,  **p <  0.01) and maintained other affective functions as well as the activity of daily living. Memantine treatment showed similar effects, regardless of the baseline cognitive functions, but showed better effects on ABS for higher baseline cognitive functions. Memantine treatment greatly improved ABS depending on baseline BPSD severity. Our present OMS II showed that memantine monotherapy improved BPSD until 12 months. The higher baseline cognitive subgroup (MMSE ≥15) and the worse baseline BPSD subgroup were expected to show better effects with memantine.

  1. A Preservation Program for the Colorado State University Libraries. The Final Report of the ARL/OMS Preservation Planning Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Stephen; And Others

    This final report is a product of a Preservation Planning Program (PPP) self-study conducted by the Colorado State University Library (CSUL) working with the Association of Research Libraries' (ARL) Office of Management Studies (OMS). Designed to put self-help tools into the hands of library staff responsible for developing plans and procedures…

  2. OM-VPE growth of Mg-doped GaAs. [OrganoMetallic-Vapor Phase Epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, C. R.; Dietze, W. T.; Ludowise, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    The epitaxial growth of Mg-doped GaAs by the organometallic vapor phase epitaxial process (OM-VPE) has been achieved for the first time. The doping is controllable over a wide range of input fluxes of bis (cyclopentadienyl) magnesium, (C5H5)2Mg, the organometallic precursor to Mg.

  3. STS-46 Atlantis', OV-104's, vertical tail and OMS pods lit up by RCS jet firing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-46 Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, vertical tail and orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods are highlighted by the glow of the reaction control system (RCS) jet firings. OV-104 was at an altitude of 128 nautical miles. The remote manipulator system (RMS) arm is partially visible stowed along the port side sill longeron.

  4. OMS-2-Supported Cu Hydroxide-Catalyzed Benzoxazoles Synthesis from Catechols and Amines via Domino Oxidation Process at Room Temperature.

    PubMed

    Meng, Xu; Wang, Yanmin; Wang, Yuanguang; Chen, Baohua; Jing, Zhenqiang; Chen, Gexin; Zhao, Peiqing

    2017-07-07

    In the presence of manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) supported copper hydroxide Cu(OH) x /OMS-2, aerobic synthesis of benzoxazoles from catechols and amines via domino oxidation/cyclization at room temperature is achieved. This heterogeneous benzoxazoles synthesis initiated by the efficient oxidation of catechols over Cu(OH) x /OMS-2 tolerates a variety of substrates, especially amines containing sensitive groups (hydroxyl, cyano, amino, vinyl, ethynyl, ester, and even acetyl groups) and heterocycles, which affords functionalized benzoxazoles in good to excellent yields by employing low catalyst loading (2 mol % Cu). The characterization and plausible catalytic mechanism of Cu(OH) x /OMS-2 are described. The notable features of our catalytic protocol such as the use of air as the benign oxidant and EtOH as the solvent, mild conditions, ease of product separation, being scalable up to the gram level, and superior reusability of catalyst (up to 10 cycles) make it more practical and environmentally friendly for organic synthesis.

  5. Structure and composition of Fe-OM co-precipitates that form in soil-derived solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, Andreas; Schröder, Christian; Wieczorek, Arkadiusz K.; Händel, Matthias; Ritschel, Thomas; Totsche, Kai U.

    2015-11-01

    Iron oxides represent a substantial fraction of secondary minerals and particularly affect the reactive properties of natural systems in which they formed, e.g. in soils and sediments. Yet, it is still obscure how transient conditions in the solution will affect the properties of in situ precipitated Fe oxides. Transient compositions, i.e. compositions that change with time, arise due to predominant non-equilibrium states in natural systems, e.g. between liquid and solid phases in soils. In this study, we characterize Fe-OM co-precipitates that formed in pH-neutral exfiltrates from anoxic topsoils under transient conditions. We applied soil column outflow experiments, in which Fe2+ was discharged with the effluent from anoxic soil and subsequently oxidized in the effluent due to contact with air. Our study features three novel aspects being unconsidered so far: (i) the transient composition of soil-derived solutions, (ii) that pedogenic Fe oxides instead of Fe salts serve as major source for Fe2+ in soil solution and (iii) the presence of exclusively soil-derived organic and inorganic compounds during precipitation. The experiments were carried out with two topsoil materials that differed in composition, texture and land use. Derived from Mössbauer spectroscopy, broad distributions in quadrupole splittings (0-2 mm s-1) and magnetic hyperfine fields (35-53 T) indicated the presence of low-crystalline ferrihydrite and even lower crystalline Fe phases in all Fe-OM co-precipitates. There was no unequivocal evidence for other Fe oxides, i.e. lepidocrocite and (nano)goethite. The Fe-OM co-precipitates contained inorganic (P, sulfate, silicate, Al, As) and organic compounds (proteins, polysaccharides), which were concurrently discharged from the soils. Their content in the Fe-OM co-precipitates was controlled by their respective concentration in the soil-derived solution. On a molar basis, OC and Fe were the main components in the Fe-OM co-precipitates (OC/Fe ratio = 0

  6. Full solar spectrum light driven thermocatalysis with extremely high efficiency on nanostructured Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst for VOCs purification.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jingtao; Li, Yuanzhi; Mao, Mingyang; Yue, Yuanzheng; Greaves, G Neville; Zhao, Xiujian

    2015-02-14

    The nanostructured Ce ion substituted cryptomelane-type octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) catalyst exhibits strong absorption in the entire solar spectrum region. The Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst can efficiently transform the absorbed solar energy to thermal energy, resulting in a considerable increase of temperature. By combining the efficient photothermal conversion and thermocatalytic activity of the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst, we carried out full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light driven catalysis with extremely high efficiency. Under the irradiation of full solar spectrum, visible-infrared, and infrared light, the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits extremely high catalytic activity and excellent durability for the oxidation of volatile organic pollutants such as benzene, toluene, and acetone. Based on the experimental evidence, we propose a novel mechanism of solar light driven thermocatalysis for the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst. The reason why the Ce ion substituted OMS-2 catalyst exhibits much higher catalytic activity than pure OMS-2 and CeO2/OMS-2 nano composite under the full solar spectrum irradiation is discussed.

  7. 77 FR 41399 - EC&R O&M, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission EC&R O&M, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of EC&R O&M, LLC's...

  8. Oral vaccine (OM-89) in the recurrent urinary tract infection prophylaxis: a realistic systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Taha Neto, K A; Nogueira Castilho, L; Reis, L O

    2016-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of Escherichia Coli extract (OM-89) in the prophylaxis of recurrent uncomplicated urinary tract infection (UTI) through a contemporary systematic review and meta-analysis. Inclusion criteria were double-blind randomized trials using orally administrated OM-89, 6mg daily, during three months with a minimum of three months of monitoring. Outcomes were the frequency of bacteriuria in 3 and 6 months, dysuria in 6 months and UTI in 6 months. PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Collaboration and their key references. After analysis by three independent reviewers, 15 double-blind randomized trials were identified, 10 papers excluded due to methods flaws and 5 used for data analysis due to double blinding and reporting drop-outs. Among 5 selected studies the date of publication ranged from 1985 to 2005, totalizing 396 patients in the OM-89 group and 392 in the control group. Overall, there were 61 dropouts in the control group and 76 in the OM-89 group. As a major limitation there was no appropriate description of their methodologies and none of the studies described conflict of interest or commitment to the pharmaceutical industry. All studies were multi-centric, except for two, which showed no clarity on allocation concealment. All studies show benefit in favor of vaccine. Current literature on prospective randomized controlled trials evaluating the use of oral OM-89 vaccine in the recurrent UTI prophylaxis is of low quality, limited to the first six months only and with variable definition of bacteriuria and UTI. Although all studies show benefit in favor of vaccine, no robust trial was identified, resulting in a high heterogeneity in the data analyzed. Also, publication bias could not be excluded and future higher quality studies are warranted adding intermediate (>12 months) and long-term follow-up. Copyright © 2014 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Solution conformation of a neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA that discriminates {alpha}3 vs. {alpha}6 nAChR subtypes

    SciTech Connect

    Chi, Seung-Wook; Kim, Do-Hyoung; Olivera, Baldomero M.

    2006-06-23

    {alpha}-Conotoxin OmIA from Conus omaria is the only {alpha}-conotoxin that shows a {approx}20-fold higher affinity to the {alpha}3{beta}2 over the {alpha}6{beta}2 subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. We have determined a three-dimensional structure of {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. {alpha}-Conotoxin OmIA has an '{omega}-shaped' overall topology with His{sup 5}-Asn{sup 12} forming an {alpha}-helix. Structural features of {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA responsible for its selectivity are suggested by comparing its surface characteristics with other functionally related {alpha}4/7 subfamily conotoxins. Reduced size of the hydrophilic area in {alpha}-conotoxin OmIA seems to be associated with the reduced affinity towards the {alpha}6{beta}2 nAChR subtype.

  10. EDITORIAL: Special section: Selected papers from OMS'05, the 1st Topical Meeting of the European Optical Society on Optical Microsystems (OMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendina, Ivo; Fazio, Eugenio; Ferraro, Pietro

    2006-07-01

    OMS'05 is the first international conference wholly dedicated to optical microsystems. It was organized by the European Optical Society (EOS) in the frame of its international topical meeting activity and was held in Italy, September 2005, amidst the wonderful scenery of the Island of Capri. A possible definition of an optical microsystem is a complex system, able to perform one or more sensing and actuation functions, where optical devices are integrated in a smart way with electronic, mechanical and sensing components by taking advantage of the progress in micro- and nano-technologies. The increasing interest in this field arises from the expected applications that would significantly improve the quality of life. The list of possibilities offered by the optical microsystem enabling technologies is very long and seems to increase day by day. We are not only thinking about the next generation of optical telecommunication networks and computers, but also about low-cost, compact microsystems for environmental monitoring, in order to improve safety in the avionic and automotive fields, medical diagnostics and proteomic/genomic studies, or just finding general applications in several industrial fields. The goal of the conference was to involve scientists and young researchers from the main public and private laboratories, giving them the opportunity to present new scientific results and compare their know-how in the exciting and emerging field of optical microsystems. We believe that we succeeded in this. More than 200 scientists from all over the world attended the conference. We had more than 100 oral presentations and approximately 20 from the keynote lectures and invited speeches. It was an opportunity to define the most recent progress carried out in the field and to outline the possible road-map leading to the expected results in the industrial and social fields. We strongly believe that research and technology are closely interconnected at present and cannot

  11. Relationship between soluble microbial products (SMP) and effluent organic matter (EfOM): characterized by fluorescence excitation emission matrix coupled with parallel factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Yu, Huarong; Qu, Fangshu; Sun, Lianpeng; Liang, Heng; Han, Zhengshuang; Chang, Haiqing; Shao, Senlin; Li, Guibai

    2015-02-01

    Effluent organic matter (EfOM) originating from wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) is of significant concern, as it not only influences the discharge quality of WWTP but also exerts a significant effect on the efficiency of the downstream advanced treatment facilities. Soluble microbial products (SMP) is a major part of EfOM. In order to further understand the relationship between soluble microbial products (SMP) and EfOM, and in turn, to propose measures for EfOM control, the formation of SMP and EfOM in identical activated sludge sequencing batch reactors (SBR) with different feed water was investigated using fluorescence excitation and emission spectroscopy matrix coupled with parallel factor analysis (EEM-PARAFAC) as well as other organic matter quantification tools. Results showed that EfOM contained not only SMP but also a considerable amount of allochthonous organic matter that derived not merely from natural organic matter (NOM). Four components in EfOM/SMP were identified by EEM-PARAFAC. Tyrosine-like substances in EfOM (Component 3, λex/em=270/316 nm) were mainly originated from utilization associated products (UAP) of SMP. Tryptophan-like substances (Component 2, λex/em=280/336 nm) as well as fulvic-like and humic-like substances in EfOM (Component 1, λex/em=240(290)/392 nm and Component 4, λex/em=260(365)/444 nm) were majorly derived from the refractory substances introduced along with the influent, among which Component 2 was stemmed from sources other than NOM. As solid retention time (SRT) increased, Component 2 and polysaccharides in SMP/EfOM decreased, while Component 4 in SMP increased. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Modeling and simulation of offshore wind farm O&M processes

    SciTech Connect

    Joschko, Philip, E-mail: joschko@informatik.uni-hamburg.de; Widok, Andi H., E-mail: a.widok@htw-berlin.de; Appel, Susanne, E-mail: susanne.appel@hs-bremen.de

    2015-04-15

    This paper describes a holistic approach to operation and maintenance (O&M) processes in the domain of offshore wind farm power generation. The acquisition and process visualization is followed by a risk analysis of all relevant processes. Hereafter, a tool was designed, which is able to model the defined processes in a BPMN 2.0 notation, as well as connect and simulate them. Furthermore, the notation was enriched with new elements, representing other relevant factors that were, to date, only displayable with much higher effort. In that regard a variety of more complex situations were integrated, such as for example new processmore » interactions depending on different weather influences, in which case a stochastic weather generator was combined with the business simulation or other wind farm aspects important to the smooth running of the offshore wind farms. In addition, the choices for different methodologies, such as the simulation framework or the business process notation will be presented and elaborated depending on the impact they had on the development of the approach and the software solution. - Highlights: • Analysis of operation and maintenance processes of offshore wind farms • Process modeling with BPMN 2.0 • Domain-specific simulation tool.« less

  13. Pirellula and OM43 are among the dominant lineages identified in an Oregon coast diatom bloom.

    PubMed

    Morris, R M; Longnecker, K; Giovannoni, S J

    2006-08-01

    Although bacterioplankton and phytoplankton are generally perceived as closely linked in marine systems, specific interactions between discrete bacterioplankton and phytoplankton populations are largely unknown. However, measurements of bacterioplankton distributions during phytoplankton blooms may indicate specific microbial lineages that are responding to phytoplankton populations, and potentially controlling them by producing allelopathic compounds. Here we use a comprehensive molecular approach to identify, characterize and quantify bacterioplankton community responses to an Oregon coast diatom bloom. Total DAPI counts increased by nearly sevenfold in bloom samples, reaching 5.7 x 10(9) cells l(-1), and lineage-specific cell counts using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) indicated that Bacteria accounted for approximately 89% of observed increases. Several dominant members of the bacterial community present outside the bloom (SAR11 and SAR86) did not contribute significantly to observed increases in bloom samples. Clone library and FISH data indicated that uncultured planctomycetes most closely related to Pirellula, and members of the OM43 clade of beta proteobacteria, reached 0.5 x 10(8) and 1.2 x 10(8) cells l(-1), respectively, and were among the dominant lineages in bloom samples.

  14. Exomic variants of an elderly cohort of Brazilians in the ABraOM database.

    PubMed

    Naslavsky, Michel Satya; Yamamoto, Guilherme Lopes; de Almeida, Tatiana Ferreira; Ezquina, Suzana A M; Sunaga, Daniele Yumi; Pho, Nam; Bozoklian, Daniel; Sandberg, Tatiana Orli Milkewitz; Brito, Luciano Abreu; Lazar, Monize; Bernardo, Danilo Vicensotto; Amaro, Edson; Duarte, Yeda A O; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Passos-Bueno, Maria Rita; Zatz, Mayana

    2017-07-01

    Brazilians are highly admixed with ancestry from Europe, Africa, America, and Asia and yet still underrepresented in genomic databanks. We hereby present a collection of exomic variants from 609 elderly Brazilians in a census-based cohort (SABE609) with comprehensive phenotyping. Variants were deposited in ABraOM (Online Archive of Brazilian Mutations), a Web-based public database. Population representative phenotype and genotype repositories are essential for variant interpretation through allele frequency filtering; since elderly individuals are less likely to harbor pathogenic mutations for early- and adult-onset diseases, such variant databases are of great interest. Among the over 2.3 million variants from the present cohort, 1,282,008 were high-confidence calls. Importantly, 207,621 variants were absent from major public databases. We found 9,791 potential loss-of-function variants with about 300 mutations per individual. Pathogenic variants on clinically relevant genes (ACMG) were observed in 1.15% of the individuals and were correlated with clinical phenotype. We conducted incidence estimation for prevalent recessive disorders based upon heterozygous frequency and concluded that it relies on appropriate pathogenicity assertion. These observations illustrate the relevance of collecting demographic data from diverse, poorly characterized populations. Census-based datasets of aged individuals with comprehensive phenotyping are an invaluable resource toward the improved understanding of variant pathogenicity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Synthesis of OMS Materials and Investigation of Their Acceptor-Donor Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Grajek, H; Paciura-Zadrożna, J; Choma, J; Michalski, E; Witkiewicz, Z

    2012-10-01

    Three ordered mesoporous siliceous (OMS) materials known as MCM41s-unmodified MCM-41C16 ("C16"), and two MCM41s with different surface functionalities: MCM-41C16-SH ("C16-SH") and MCM-41C16-NH 2 ("C16-NH 2 ")-were synthesized and studied by inverse gas chromatography in order to determine their acceptor-donor properties. The specific retention volumes of nonpolar and polar probes that were chromatographed on these ordered mesoporous silica adsorbents were evaluated under infinite dilution conditions. Two methods were employed to calculate the standard free energy of adsorption, Δ G ads , of each chromatographed probe on the basis its specific retention volume. These Δ G ads values were then employed to estimate the van der Waals contribution and the specific contribution of the free surface energy for each MCM41. DN values (donor numbers, based on the Gutmann scale) and AN* values (acceptor numbers, based on the Riddle-Fowkes scale) were employed to determine the values of parameters that characterize the ability of the MCM41s to act as electron acceptors (parameter: K A ) and donors (parameter: K D ). Considering the different compositions of the probes, each of which has different acceptor-donor properties, a new chromatographic test to supplement the Grob test is suggested.

  16. Effect of Increased Immunosuppression on Developmental Outcome of Opsoclonus Myoclonus Syndrome (OMS).

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Wendy G; Wooten, Amelia A; O'Neil, Sharon H; Rodriguez, Jenny G; Cruz, Rosa E; Wittern, Rachael

    2015-07-01

    Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (OMS) produces long-term cognitive, behavioral, and motor deficits. Objective was to see if more aggressive treatment improved outcome. Assessment included opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome rating, developmental/cognitive and motor assessment, and adaptive behavior. Fourteen subjects completed testing. Nine had neuroblastoma. Onset was at 10 to 35 months; onset to diagnosis: 2 days to 14 months, and onset to first treatment: 5 days to 15 months. Initial treatment was corticotropin (12), oral steroids (3), plus intravenous immunoglobulin in all. Ten received rituximab, 5 cyclophosphamide. Age at testing ranged from 2.5 to 10.3 years. Adaptive Behavior Score (11 subjects), mean 93.5; estimated Intelligence Quotient/Developmental Quotient mean 93.5; Motor: mean 92.8. Residual opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome symptoms at the time of the evaluation were generally minor; opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome scores ranged from 0 to 6. Comparison to previously reported opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome subjects showed improved outcomes: Adaptive behavior, cognitive and motor scores were significantly higher (P < .001) in new subjects. Outcomes have improved with more aggressive immunosuppression, with most opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome survivors now functioning at or near normal. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Chemical effects in biological systems (CEBS) object model for toxicology data, SysTox-OM: design and application.

    PubMed

    Xirasagar, Sandhya; Gustafson, Scott F; Huang, Cheng-Cheng; Pan, Qinyan; Fostel, Jennifer; Boyer, Paul; Merrick, B Alex; Tomer, Kenneth B; Chan, Denny D; Yost, Kenneth J; Choi, Danielle; Xiao, Nianqing; Stasiewicz, Stanley; Bushel, Pierre; Waters, Michael D

    2006-04-01

    The CEBS data repository is being developed to promote a systems biology approach to understand the biological effects of environmental stressors. CEBS will house data from multiple gene expression platforms (transcriptomics), protein expression and protein-protein interaction (proteomics), and changes in low molecular weight metabolite levels (metabolomics) aligned by their detailed toxicological context. The system will accommodate extensive complex querying in a user-friendly manner. CEBS will store toxicological contexts including the study design details, treatment protocols, animal characteristics and conventional toxicological endpoints such as histopathology findings and clinical chemistry measures. All of these data types can be integrated in a seamless fashion to enable data query and analysis in a biologically meaningful manner. An object model, the SysBio-OM (Xirasagar et al., 2004) has been designed to facilitate the integration of microarray gene expression, proteomics and metabolomics data in the CEBS database system. We now report SysTox-OM as an open source systems toxicology model designed to integrate toxicological context into gene expression experiments. The SysTox-OM model is comprehensive and leverages other open source efforts, namely, the Standard for Exchange of Nonclinical Data (http://www.cdisc.org/models/send/v2/index.html) which is a data standard for capturing toxicological information for animal studies and Clinical Data Interchange Standards Consortium (http://www.cdisc.org/models/sdtm/index.html) that serves as a standard for the exchange of clinical data. Such standardization increases the accuracy of data mining, interpretation and exchange. The open source SysTox-OM model, which can be implemented on various software platforms, is presented here. A universal modeling language (UML) depiction of the entire SysTox-OM is available at http://cebs.niehs.nih.gov and the Rational Rose object model package is distributed under an open

  18. Obesity-resistant S5B rats showed great cocaine conditioned place preference than the obesity-prone OM rats

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K..

    2010-12-01

    Dopamine (DA) and the DA D2 receptor (D2R) are involved in the rewarding and conditioned responses to food and drug rewards. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are genetically prone and S5B/P rats are genetically resistant to obesity when fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that the differential sensitivity of these two rat strains to natural rewards may also be reflected in sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Therefore, we tested whether OM and S5B/P rats showed a differential preference to cocaine using conditioned place preference (CPP). To also evaluate whether there is specific involvement of the D2R in this differential conditioning sensitivity, wemore » then tested whether the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differentially affect the effects of cocaine in the two strains. OM and S5B/P rats were conditioned with cocaine (5 or 10 mg/kg) in one chamber and saline in another for 8 days. Rats were then tested for cocaine preference. The effects of BC (0.5, 1, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg) on cocaine preference were then assessed in subsequent test sessions. OM rats did not show a significant preference for the cocaine-paired chamber on test day. Only the S5B/P rats showed cocaine CPP. Later treatment with only the highest dose of BC resulted in reduced cocaine CPP in S5B/P rats when treated with 5 mg/kg cocaine and in OM rats treated with 10 mg/kg cocaine. Our results indicated that obesity-resistant S5B rats showed greater cocaine CPP than the obesity-prone OM rats. These findings do not support a theory of common vulnerability for reinforcer preferences (food and cocaine). However, they show that BC reduced cocaine conditioning effects supporting at least a partial regulatory role of D2R in conditioned responses to drugs.« less

  19. RNA interference-based resistance in transgenic tomato plants against Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Oman (TYLCV-OM) and its associated betasatellite.

    PubMed

    Ammara, Um e; Mansoor, Shahid; Saeed, Muhammad; Amin, Imran; Briddon, Rob W; Al-Sadi, Abdullah Mohammed

    2015-03-04

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), a monopartite begomovirus (family Geminiviridae) is responsible for heavy yield losses for tomato production around the globe. In Oman at least five distinct begomoviruses cause disease in tomato, including TYLCV. Unusually, TYLCV infections in Oman are sometimes associated with a betasatellite (Tomato leaf curl betasatellite [ToLCB]; a symptom modulating satellite). RNA interference (RNAi) can be used to develop resistance against begomoviruses at either the transcriptional or post-transcriptional levels. A hairpin RNAi (hpRNAi) construct to express double-stranded RNA homologous to sequences of the intergenic region, coat protein gene, V2 gene and replication-associated gene of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Oman (TYLCV-OM) was produced. Initially, transient expression of the hpRNAi construct at the site of virus inoculation was shown to reduce the number of plants developing symptoms when inoculated with either TYLCV-OM or TYLCV-OM with ToLCB-OM to Nicotiana benthamiana or tomato. Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Pusa Ruby was transformed with the hpRNAi construct and nine confirmed transgenic lines were obtained and challenged with TYLCV-OM and ToLCB-OM by Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation. For all but one line, for which all plants remained symptomless, inoculation with TYLCV-OM led to a proportion (≤25%) of tomato plants developing symptoms of infection. For inoculation with TYLCV-OM and ToLCB-OM all lines showed a proportion of plants (≤45%) symptomatic. However, for all infected transgenic plants the symptoms were milder and virus titre in plants was lower than in infected non-transgenic tomato plants. These results show that RNAi can be used to develop resistance against geminiviruses in tomato. The resistance in this case is not immunity but does reduce the severity of infections and virus titer. Also, the betasatellite may compromise resistance, increasing the proportion of plants which ultimately show symptoms.

  20. [Self-assessment of tasks and roles of occupational medicine service (OMS) nurses in the Polish system of workers' health protection].

    PubMed

    Sakowski, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of survey performed to find out how occupational medicine service (OMS) nurses assess their tasks and roles in the Polish system of workers' health protection. The survey was carried out in a random group of 200 OMS nurses. The survey showed that OMS nurses form-an experienced professional group. According to self-assessment they have an opportunity to use their competence in its full scope. Almost half of respondents agreed that in Poland the skills of OMS nurses are properly used. There are two reasons why certain tasks are not performed by OMS nurses, first, certain tasks are assigned to other persons in the unit; second, employers are sometimes not interested in those tasks or find them not necessary. The majority of nurses assess their knowledge and preparation to perform tasks relatively well, however they want to broaden their knowledge and improve their skills. OMS nurses play an important role in the Polish system of workers' health protection. They perform many tasks, which fall within the scope of OMS activities being currently implemented. Their competences are usually properly used. There is a need to convince employers that the scope of services provided by OMS units should be extended and adequately financed. This should result in the better use of OMS nurses' competences. Nurses are well educated and skilled to perform their jobs. Nevertheless, they feel the need to broaden their knowledge. Although the programs of specialization and qualification courses are rather comprehensive, nurses declare that some areas should be enriched with additional information.

  1. Size-controlled synthesis and formation mechanism of manganese oxide OMS-2 nanowires under reflux conditions with KMnO4 and inorganic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qin; Cheng, Xiaodi; Qiu, Guohong; Liu, Fan; Feng, Xionghan

    2016-05-01

    This study presents a simplified approach for size-controlled synthesis of manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) nanowires using potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and different inorganic acids (HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4) under reflux conditions. The morphology and nanostructure of the synthesized products are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Ar adsorption, and electron microscopy analysis, in order to elucidate the controlling effects of acid concentration and type as well as the formation mechanism of OMS-2 nanowires. The concentration of inorganic acid is a crucial factor controlling the phase of the synthesized products. OMS-2 nanowires are obtained with HCl at the concentration ≥0.96 mol/L or with HNO3 and H2SO4 at the concentrations ≥0.72 mol/L. Differently, the type of inorganic acid effectively determines the particle size of OMS-2 nanowires. When the acid is changed from HCl to HNO3 and H2SO4 in the reflux system, the average length of OMS-2 declines significantly by 60-70% (1104-442 and 339 nm), with minor decreased in the average width (43-39 and 34 nm). The formation of OMS-2 nanowires under reflux conditions with KMnO4 and inorganic acids involves a two-step process, i.e., the initial formation of layered manganese oxides, and subsequent transformation to OMS-2 via a dissolution-recrystallization process under acidic conditions. The proposed reflux route provides an alternative approach for synthesizing OMS-2 nanowires as well as other porous nano-crystalline OMS materials.

  2. Estimation of atmospheric columnar organic matter (OM) mass concentration from remote sensing measurements of aerosol spectral refractive indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Zhengqiang; Sun, Yele; Lv, Yang; Xie, Yisong

    2018-04-01

    Aerosols have adverse effects on human health and air quality, changing Earth's energy balance and lead to climate change. The components of aerosol are important because of the different spectral characteristics. Based on the low hygroscopic and high scattering properties of organic matter (OM) in fine modal atmospheric aerosols, we develop an inversion algorithm using remote sensing to obtain aerosol components including black carbon (BC), organic matter (OM), ammonium nitrate-like (AN), dust-like (DU) components and aerosol water content (AW). In the algorithm, the microphysical characteristics (i.e. volume distribution and complex refractive index) of particulates are preliminarily separated to fine and coarse modes, and then aerosol components are retrieved using bimodal parameters. We execute the algorithm using remote sensing measurements of sun-sky radiometer at AERONET site (Beijing RADI) in a period from October of 2014 to January of 2015. The results show a reasonable distribution of aerosol components and a good fit for spectral feature calculations. The mean OM mass concentration in atmospheric column is account for 14.93% of the total and 56.34% of dry and fine-mode aerosol, being a fairly good correlation (R = 0.56) with the in situ observations near the surface layer.

  3. The challenges of translating the clinical outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) into British Sign Language.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Katherine D; Young, Alys; Lovell, Karina; Evans, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses translation issues arising during the production of a British Sign Language (BSL) version of the psychological outcome measure "Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure" (CORE-OM). The process included forward translation, meeting with a team of translators, producing a second draft of the BSL version and back translating into English. Further modifications were made to the BSL version before piloting it with d/Deaf populations. Details of the translation process are addressed, including (a) the implications of translating between modalities (written text to visual language); (b) clarity of frequency anchors: analog versus digital encoding; (c) pronouns and the direction of signing; and (iv) the influence of the on-screen format. The discussion of item-specific issues encountered when producing a BSL version of the CORE-OM includes the expression of precise emotional states in a language that uses visual modifiers, problems associated with iconic signs, and the influence of Deaf world knowledge when interpreting specific statements. Finally, it addresses the extent to which lessons learned through this translation process are generalizable to other signed languages and spoken language translations of standardized instruments. Despite the challenges, a BSL version of the CORE-OM has been produced and found to be reliable.

  4. Atomic Hydrogen Surrounded by Water Molecules, H(H2O)m, Modulates Basal and UV-Induced Gene Expressions in Human Skin In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Mi Hee; Park, Raeeun; Nojima, Hideo; Kim, Hyung-Chel; Kim, Yeon Kyung; Chung, Jin Ho

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there has been much effort to find effective ingredients which can prevent or retard cutaneous skin aging after topical or systemic use. Here, we investigated the effects of the atomic hydrogen surrounded by water molecules, H(H2O)m, on acute UV-induced responses and as well as skin aging. Interestingly, we observed that H(H2O)m application to human skin prevented UV-induced erythema and DNA damage. And H(H2O)m significantly prevented UV-induced MMP-1, COX-2, IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA expressions in human skin in vivo. We found that H(H2O)m prevented UV-induced ROS generation and inhibited UV-induced MMP-1, COX-2 and IL-6 expressions, and UV-induced JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation in HaCaT cells. Next, we investigated the effects of H(H2O)m on intrinsically aged or photoaged skin of elderly subjects. In intrinsically aged skin, H(H2O)m application significantly reduced constitutive expressions of MMP-1, IL-6, and IL-1β mRNA. Additionally, H(H2O)m significantly increased procollagen mRNA and also decreased MMP-1 and IL-6 mRNA expressions in photoaged facial skin. These results demonstrated that local application of H(H2O)m may prevent UV-induced skin inflammation and can modulate intrinsic skin aging and photoaging processes. Therefore, we suggest that modifying the atmospheric gas environment within a room may be a new way to regulate skin functions or skin aging. PMID:23637886

  5. Broncho Vaxom (OM-85) modulates rhinovirus docking proteins on human airway epithelial cells via Erk1/2 mitogen activated protein kinase and cAMP

    PubMed Central

    Pasquali, Christian; Stolz, Daiana; Tamm, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background Bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) are primary target for Rhinovirus infection through attaching to cell membrane proteins. OM-85, a bacterial extract, improves recovery of asthma and COPD patients after viral infections, but only part of the mechanism was addressed, by focusing on defined immune cells. Objective We therefore determined the effect of OM-85 on isolated primary human BEC of controls (n = 8), asthma patients (n = 10) and COPD patients (n = 9). Methods BEC were treated with OM-85 alone (24 hours) or infected with Rhinovirus. BEC survival was monitored by manual cell counting and Rhinovirus replication by lytic activity. Immuno-blotting and ELISA were used to determine the expression of Rhinovirus interacting proteins: intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-2), complement component C1q receptor (C1q-R), inducible T-Cell co-stimulator (ICOS), its ligand ICOSL, and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (Myd88); as well as for signal transducers Erk1/2, p38, JNK mitogen activated protein kinases MAPK), and cAMP. Results OM-85 significantly reduced Rhinovirus-induced BEC death and virus replication. OM-85 significantly increased the expression of virus interacting proteins C1q-R and β-defensin in all 3 probes and groups, which was prevented by either Erk1/2 MAPK or cAMP inhibition. In addition, OM-85 significantly reduced Rhinovirus induced expression of ICAM1 involving p38 MAPK. In BEC OM-85 had no significant effect on the expression of ICOS, ICOSL and MHC-2 membrane proteins nor on the adaptor protein MyD88. Conclusion The OM-85-induced increased of C1q-R and β-defensin, both important for antigen presentation and phagocytosis, supports its activity in host cell’s defence against Rhinovirus infection. PMID:29182620

  6. Broncho Vaxom (OM-85) modulates rhinovirus docking proteins on human airway epithelial cells via Erk1/2 mitogen activated protein kinase and cAMP.

    PubMed

    Roth, Michael; Pasquali, Christian; Stolz, Daiana; Tamm, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Bronchial epithelial cells (BEC) are primary target for Rhinovirus infection through attaching to cell membrane proteins. OM-85, a bacterial extract, improves recovery of asthma and COPD patients after viral infections, but only part of the mechanism was addressed, by focusing on defined immune cells. We therefore determined the effect of OM-85 on isolated primary human BEC of controls (n = 8), asthma patients (n = 10) and COPD patients (n = 9). BEC were treated with OM-85 alone (24 hours) or infected with Rhinovirus. BEC survival was monitored by manual cell counting and Rhinovirus replication by lytic activity. Immuno-blotting and ELISA were used to determine the expression of Rhinovirus interacting proteins: intracellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-2), complement component C1q receptor (C1q-R), inducible T-Cell co-stimulator (ICOS), its ligand ICOSL, and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (Myd88); as well as for signal transducers Erk1/2, p38, JNK mitogen activated protein kinases MAPK), and cAMP. OM-85 significantly reduced Rhinovirus-induced BEC death and virus replication. OM-85 significantly increased the expression of virus interacting proteins C1q-R and β-defensin in all 3 probes and groups, which was prevented by either Erk1/2 MAPK or cAMP inhibition. In addition, OM-85 significantly reduced Rhinovirus induced expression of ICAM1 involving p38 MAPK. In BEC OM-85 had no significant effect on the expression of ICOS, ICOSL and MHC-2 membrane proteins nor on the adaptor protein MyD88. The OM-85-induced increased of C1q-R and β-defensin, both important for antigen presentation and phagocytosis, supports its activity in host cell's defence against Rhinovirus infection.

  7. Enhanced Photocatalytic Degradation of Methyl Orange Dye under the Daylight Irradiation over CN-TiO2 Modified with OMS-2

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mohamed Elfatih; Chen, Jing; Liu, Guanglong; Zhu, Duanwei; Cai, Jianbo

    2014-01-01

    In this study, CN-TiO2 was modified with cryptomelane octahedral molecular sieves (OMS-2) by the sol-gel method based on the self-assembly technique to enhance its photocatalytic activity under the daylight irradiation. The synthesized samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-vis spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and porosimeter analysis. The results showed that the addition of OMS-2 in the sol lead to higher Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, pore volume, porosity of particle after heat treatment and the specific surface area, porosity, crystallite size and pore size distribution could be controlled by adjusting the calcination temperature. Compared to the CN-TiO2-400 sample, CN-TiO2/OMS-2-400 exhibited greater red shift in absorption edge of samples in visible region due to the OMS-2 coated. The enhancement of photocatalytic activity of CN-TiO2/OMS-2 composite photocatalyst was subsequently evaluated for the degradation of the methyl orange dye under the daylight irradiation in water. The results showed that the methyl orange dye degradation rate reach to 37.8% for the CN-TiO2/OMS-2-400 sample under the daylight irradiation for 5 h, which was higher than that of reference sample. The enhancement in daylight photocatalytic activities of the CN-TiO2/OMS samples could be attributed to the synergistic effects of OMS-2 coated, larger surface area and red shift in adsorption edge of the prepared sample. PMID:28788288

  8. Induction of interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 expression by Broncho-Vaxom (OM-85 BV) via C-Fos/serum responsive element.

    PubMed Central

    Keul, R.; Roth, M.; Papakonstantinou, E.; Nauck, M.; Perruchoud, A. P.; Block, L. H.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Broncho-Vaxom (OM-85 BV) increases the resistance of the respiratory tract to bacterial infections by modulating host immune responses. The compound increases serum IgG levels but decreases IgE levels in patients suffering from chronic bronchitis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It increases concentrations of gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma), IgA, and interleukin (IL)-2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with bronchitis. Treatment with OM-85 BV increases the number of T helper and natural killer cells. In this study the effects of OM-85 BV on transcription of cytokines is investigated in human lung fibroblasts. METHODS: Transcription and synthesis of IL-6 and IL-8 were assessed in cultured primary human lung fibroblasts using standard methods of Northern blot analysis for the level of mRNAs and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for proteins. RESULTS: Broncho-Vaxom (OM-85 BV) at different concentrations induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-8. The effect of the drug on transcription of IL-6 and IL-8 genes correlated with secretion of the proteins into cell supernatants. OM-85 BV-dependent expression of the interleukin genes involved C-Fos/serum responsive element (C-Fos/SRE). CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that the various immunopharmacological activities of OM-85 BV that have been described in clinical studies may be explained by its ability to induce expression of IL-6 and IL-8. Images PMID:8711646

  9. Acute effects of 3G mobile phone radiations on frontal haemodynamics during a cognitive task in teenagers and possible protective value of Om chanting.

    PubMed

    Bhargav, Hemant; N K, Manjunath; Varambally, Shivarama; Mooventhan, A; Bista, Suman; Singh, Deepeshwar; Chhabra, Harleen; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; T M, Srinivasan; H R, Nagendra

    2016-06-01

    Mobile phone induced electromagnetic field (MPEMF) as well as chanting of Vedic mantra 'OM' has been shown to affect cognition and brain haemodynamics, but findings are still inconclusive. Twenty right-handed healthy teenagers (eight males and 12 females) in the age range of 18.25 ± 0.44 years were randomly divided into four groups: (1) MPONOM (mobile phone 'ON' followed by 'OM' chanting); (2) MPOFOM (mobile phone 'OFF' followed by 'OM' chanting); (3) MPONSS (mobile phone 'ON' followed by 'SS' chanting); and (4) MPOFSS (mobile phone 'OFF' followed by 'SS' chanting). Brain haemodynamics during Stroop task were recorded using a 64-channel fNIRS device at three points of time: (1) baseline, (2) after 30 min of MPON/OF exposure, and (3) after 5 min of OM/SS chanting. RM-ANOVA was applied to perform within- and between-group comparisons, respectively. Between-group analysis revealed that total scores on incongruent Stroop task were significantly better after OM as compared to SS chanting (MPOFOM vs MPOFSS), pre-frontal activation was significantly lesser after OM as compared to SS chanting in channel 13. There was no significant difference between MPON and MPOF conditions for Stroop performance, as well as brain haemodynamics. These findings need confirmation through a larger trial in future.

  10. Estimating a Preference-Based Index from the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM)

    PubMed Central

    Brazier, John E.; Rowen, Donna; Barkham, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Background. The Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation–Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) is used to evaluate the effectiveness of psychological therapies in people with common mental disorders. The objective of this study was to estimate a preference-based index for this population using CORE-6D, a health state classification system derived from the CORE-OM consisting of a 5-item emotional component and a physical item, and to demonstrate a novel method for generating states that are not orthogonal. Methods. Rasch analysis was used to identify 11 emotional health states from CORE-6D that were frequently observed in the study population and are, thus, plausible (in contrast, conventional statistical design might generate implausible states). Combined with the 3 response levels of the physical item of CORE-6D, they generate 33 plausible health states, 18 of which were selected for valuation. A valuation survey of 220 members of the public in South Yorkshire, United Kingdom, was undertaken using the time tradeoff (TTO) method. Regression analysis was subsequently used to predict values for all possible states described by CORE-6D. Results. A number of multivariate regression models were built to predict values for the 33 health states of CORE-6D, using the Rasch logit value of the emotional state and the response level of the physical item as independent variables. A cubic model with high predictive value (adjusted R2 = 0.990) was selected to predict TTO values for all 729 CORE-6D health states. Conclusion. The CORE-6D preference-based index will enable the assessment of cost-effectiveness of interventions for people with common mental disorders using existing and prospective CORE-OM data sets. The new method for generating states may be useful for other instruments with highly correlated dimensions. PMID:23178639

  11. What a Shame: Increased Rates of OMS Resident Burnout May Be Related to the Frequency of Shamed Events During Training.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Michael C; Rao, Sowmya R; Dean, Jason; Salama, Andrew R

    2017-03-01

    Shame is an ineffective tool in residency education that often results in depression, isolation, and worse patient care. This study aimed to assess burnout, depersonalization, and personal achievement levels in current oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) residents, to assess the prevalence of the use of shame in OMS residency training, and to determine whether there is a relation between shame exposure and resident burnout, depersonalization, and personal achievement levels. An anonymous 20-question cross-sectional survey was developed incorporating the Maslach Burnout Index and a previously validated shame questionnaire and sent to all OMS program directors affiliated with the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons for distribution among their respective residents in 2016. Univariate analyses were used to determine the distribution of the predictor (shame) and outcome (burnout) by gender and by frequency of shaming events. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to assess the relation of shame to burnout. A 2-sided P value less than .05 was considered statistically significant. Two hundred seventeen responses were received; 82% of respondents were men (n = 178), 95% were 25 to 34 years old (n = 206), and 58% (n = 126) were enrolled in a 4-year program. Frequently shamed residents were more likely to have depression (58 vs 22%; P < .0001), isolation (55 vs 22%; P < .0001), and poor job performance (50 vs 30%; P < .0001). Residents who were frequently shamed were more likely to experience moderate to severe burnout (odds ratio = 4.6; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-10.0; P < .001) and severe depersonalization (odds ratio = 5.1; 95% confidence interval, 2.1-12.0; P < .0001) than residents who had never or infrequently been shamed. There is a clear relation between the number of shame events and burnout and depersonalization levels. It is important to understand the negative impact that the experience of shame has on residents

  12. Opening Minds Stigma Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC): Examination of psychometric properties and responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Diminishing stigmatization for those with mental illnesses by health care providers (HCPs) is becoming a priority for programming and policy, as well as research. In order to be successful, we must accurately measure stigmatizing attitudes and behaviours among HCPs. The Opening Minds Stigma Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC) was developed to measure stigma in HCP populations. In this study we revisit the factor structure and the responsiveness of the OMS-HC in a larger, more representative sample of HCPs that are more likely to be targets for anti-stigma interventions. Methods Baseline data were collected from HCPs (n = 1,523) during 12 different anti-stigma interventions across Canada. The majority of HCPs were women (77.4%) and were either physicians (MDs) (41.5%), nurses (17.0%), medical students (13.4%), or students in allied health programs (14.0%). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted using complete pre-test (n = 1,305) survey data and responsiveness to change analyses was examined with pre and post matched data (n = 803). The internal consistency of the OMS-HC scale and subscales was evaluated using the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The scale’s sensitivity to change was examined using paired t-tests, effect sizes (Cohen’s d), and standardized response means (SRM). Results The EFA favored a 3-factor structure which accounted for 45.3% of the variance using 15 of 20 items. The overall internal consistency for the 15-item scale (α = 0.79) and three subscales (α = 0.67 to 0.68) was acceptable. Subgroup analysis showed the internal consistency was satisfactory across HCP groups including physicians and nurses (α = 0.66 to 0.78). Evidence for the scale’s responsiveness to change occurred across multiple samples, including student-targeted interventions and workshops for practicing HCPs. The Social Distance subscale had the weakest level of responsiveness (SRM ≤ 0.50) whereas the more attitudinal

  13. Opening Minds Stigma Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC): examination of psychometric properties and responsiveness.

    PubMed

    Modgill, Geeta; Patten, Scott B; Knaak, Stephanie; Kassam, Aliya; Szeto, Andrew C H

    2014-04-23

    Diminishing stigmatization for those with mental illnesses by health care providers (HCPs) is becoming a priority for programming and policy, as well as research. In order to be successful, we must accurately measure stigmatizing attitudes and behaviours among HCPs. The Opening Minds Stigma Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC) was developed to measure stigma in HCP populations. In this study we revisit the factor structure and the responsiveness of the OMS-HC in a larger, more representative sample of HCPs that are more likely to be targets for anti-stigma interventions. Baseline data were collected from HCPs (n = 1,523) during 12 different anti-stigma interventions across Canada. The majority of HCPs were women (77.4%) and were either physicians (MDs) (41.5%), nurses (17.0%), medical students (13.4%), or students in allied health programs (14.0%). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was conducted using complete pre-test (n = 1,305) survey data and responsiveness to change analyses was examined with pre and post matched data (n = 803). The internal consistency of the OMS-HC scale and subscales was evaluated using the Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The scale's sensitivity to change was examined using paired t-tests, effect sizes (Cohen's d), and standardized response means (SRM). The EFA favored a 3-factor structure which accounted for 45.3% of the variance using 15 of 20 items. The overall internal consistency for the 15-item scale (α = 0.79) and three subscales (α = 0.67 to 0.68) was acceptable. Subgroup analysis showed the internal consistency was satisfactory across HCP groups including physicians and nurses (α = 0.66 to 0.78). Evidence for the scale's responsiveness to change occurred across multiple samples, including student-targeted interventions and workshops for practicing HCPs. The Social Distance subscale had the weakest level of responsiveness (SRM ≤ 0.50) whereas the more attitudinal-based items comprising the Attitude

  14. Clinical and Immunological Benefits of OM-85 Bacterial Lysate in Patients with Allergic Rhinitis, Asthma, and COPD and Recurrent Respiratory Infections.

    PubMed

    Koatz, Ana M; Coe, Noemí A; Cicerán, Alberto; Alter, Adriana J

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of OM-85 in reducing the incidence of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and its effect on immunological parameters, namely serum and secretory IgA levels. This was an open-label, prospective, sequential study which included 84 consecutive patients aged 16-65 years, who presented with recurrent (three or more) respiratory infections during the year prior to study entry. In the first year of the study, patients received standard optimized care (SOC), according to their underlying disease condition (asthma, allergic rhinitis, or COPD). In the following year, patients received treatment with OM-85 oral bacterial lysate (one 7 mg capsule daily for ten consecutive days per month, for 3 months), with a 6-month follow-up. Medical history, clinical symptoms, serum, and secretory IgA levels, and the number of infections and exacerbations were evaluated before and after treatment. There was a decrease in the total number of RTIs before the OM-85 treatment period (SOC only) compared to the year before the study start [69/266 (corresponding to a 74 % reduction)] and an additional decrease [38/69 (corresponding to a 45 % reduction)] after OM-85 treatment; p < 0.05. There was also a significant reduction in the total number of exacerbations related to the patients' underlying medical conditions, which decreased from 55 to 35 during OM-85 (+SOC) treatment, corresponding to a reduction of 36 %. In addition, an increase in serum and secretory IgA levels which coincided with the administration of OM-85 was observed. Our results showed the clinical benefits of OM-85 in reducing RTIs and exacerbations of the underlying medical condition, in patients with allergic rhinitis, asthma, or COPD.

  15. Ordered micro/macro porous K-OMS-2/SiO2 nanocatalysts: Facile synthesis, low cost and high catalytic activity for diesel soot combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xuehua; Zhao, Zhen; Wei, Yuechang; Liu, Jian

    2017-04-01

    A series of novel oxide catalysts, which contain three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) and microporous structure, were firstly designed and successfully synthesized by simple method. In the as-prepared catalysts, 3DOM SiO2 is used as support and microporous K-OMS-2 oxide nanoparticles are supported on the wall of SiO2. 3DOM K-OMS-2/SiO2 oxide catalysts were firstly used in soot particle oxidation reaction and they show very high catalytic activities. The high activities of K-OMS-2/SiO2 oxide catalysts can be assigned to three possible reasons: macroporous effect of 3DOM structure for improving contact between soot and catalyst, microporous effect of K-OMS-2 for adsorption of small gas molecules and interaction of K and Mn for activation of gas molecules. The catalytic activities of catalysts are comparable to or even higher than noble metal catalyst in the medium and high temperature range. For example, the T50 of K-OMS-2/SiO2-50, 328 °C, is much lower than those of Pt/Al2O3 and 3DOM Au/LaFeO3, 464 and 356 °C,respectively. Moreover, catalysts exhibited high catalytic stability. It is attributed to that the K+ ions are introduced into the microporous structure of OMS-2 and stabilized in the catalytic reaction. Meanwhile, the K+ ions play an important role in templating and stabilizing the tunneled framework of OMS-2.

  16. Ordered micro/macro porous K-OMS-2/SiO2 nanocatalysts: Facile synthesis, low cost and high catalytic activity for diesel soot combustion

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Xuehua; Zhao, Zhen; Wei, Yuechang; Liu, Jian

    2017-01-01

    A series of novel oxide catalysts, which contain three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) and microporous structure, were firstly designed and successfully synthesized by simple method. In the as-prepared catalysts, 3DOM SiO2 is used as support and microporous K-OMS-2 oxide nanoparticles are supported on the wall of SiO2. 3DOM K-OMS-2/SiO2 oxide catalysts were firstly used in soot particle oxidation reaction and they show very high catalytic activities. The high activities of K-OMS-2/SiO2 oxide catalysts can be assigned to three possible reasons: macroporous effect of 3DOM structure for improving contact between soot and catalyst, microporous effect of K-OMS-2 for adsorption of small gas molecules and interaction of K and Mn for activation of gas molecules. The catalytic activities of catalysts are comparable to or even higher than noble metal catalyst in the medium and high temperature range. For example, the T50 of K-OMS-2/SiO2-50, 328 °C, is much lower than those of Pt/Al2O3 and 3DOM Au/LaFeO3, 464 and 356 °C,respectively. Moreover, catalysts exhibited high catalytic stability. It is attributed to that the K+ ions are introduced into the microporous structure of OMS-2 and stabilized in the catalytic reaction. Meanwhile, the K+ ions play an important role in templating and stabilizing the tunneled framework of OMS-2. PMID:28443610

  17. Ordered micro/macro porous K-OMS-2/SiO2 nanocatalysts: Facile synthesis, low cost and high catalytic activity for diesel soot combustion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xuehua; Zhao, Zhen; Wei, Yuechang; Liu, Jian

    2017-04-26

    A series of novel oxide catalysts, which contain three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) and microporous structure, were firstly designed and successfully synthesized by simple method. In the as-prepared catalysts, 3DOM SiO 2 is used as support and microporous K-OMS-2 oxide nanoparticles are supported on the wall of SiO 2 . 3DOM K-OMS-2/SiO 2 oxide catalysts were firstly used in soot particle oxidation reaction and they show very high catalytic activities. The high activities of K-OMS-2/SiO 2 oxide catalysts can be assigned to three possible reasons: macroporous effect of 3DOM structure for improving contact between soot and catalyst, microporous effect of K-OMS-2 for adsorption of small gas molecules and interaction of K and Mn for activation of gas molecules. The catalytic activities of catalysts are comparable to or even higher than noble metal catalyst in the medium and high temperature range. For example, the T 50 of K-OMS-2/SiO 2 -50, 328 °C, is much lower than those of Pt/Al 2 O 3 and 3DOM Au/LaFeO 3 , 464 and 356 °C,respectively. Moreover, catalysts exhibited high catalytic stability. It is attributed to that the K + ions are introduced into the microporous structure of OMS-2 and stabilized in the catalytic reaction. Meanwhile, the K + ions play an important role in templating and stabilizing the tunneled framework of OMS-2.

  18. Effects of management and pore characteristics on organic matter composition of macroaggregates: evidence from characterization of organic matter and imaging: Pore characteristics and OM composition of macroaggregates

    SciTech Connect

    Toosi, E. R.; Kravchenko, A. N.; Mao, J.

    2017-02-07

    Macroaggregates are of interest because of their fast response to land management and their role in the loss or restoration of soil organic carbon (SOC). The study included two experiments. In Experiment I, we investigated the effect of long-term (27 years) land management on the chemical composition of organic matter (OM) of macroaggregates. Macroaggregates were sampled from topsoil under conventional cropping, cover cropping and natural succession systems. The OM of macroaggregates from conventional cropping was more decomposed than that of cover cropping and especially natural succession, based on larger δ 15N values and decomposition indices determined by multiple magic-angle spinningmore » nuclear magnetic resonance ( 13C CP/MAS NMR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Previous research at the sites studied suggested that this was mainly because of reduced diversity and activity of the decomposer community, change in nutrient stoichiometry from fertilization and contrasting formation pathways of macroaggregates in conventional cropping compared with cover cropping and, specifically, natural succession. In Experiment II, we investigated the relation between OM composition and pore characteristics of macroaggregates. Macroaggregates from the natural succession system only were studied. We determined 3-D pore-size distribution of macroaggregates with X-ray microtomography, for which we cut the macroaggregates into sections that had contrasting dominant pore sizes. Then, we characterized the OM of macroaggregate sections with FTIR and δ15N methods. The results showed that within a macroaggregate, the OM was less decomposed in areas where the small (13–32 µm) or large (136–260 µm) pores were abundant. This was attributed to the role of large pores in supplying fresh OM and small pores in the effective protection of OM in macroaggregates. Previous research at the site studied had shown increased abundance of large and small intra

  19. Heritability of the maternal meiotic drive system linked to Om and high-resolution mapping of the Responder locus in mouse.

    PubMed Central

    Pardo-Manuel De Villena, F; de La Casa-Esperón, E; Williams, J W; Malette, J M; Rosa, M; Sapienza, C

    2000-01-01

    Matings between (C57BL/6 x DDK)F(1) females and C57BL/6 males result in a significant excess of offspring inheriting maternal DDK alleles in the central region of mouse chromosome 11 due to meiotic drive at the second meiotic division. We have shown previously that the locus subject to selection is in the vicinity of D11Mit66, a marker closely linked to the Om locus that controls the preimplantation embryo-lethal phenotype known as the "DDK syndrome." We have also shown that observation of meiotic drive in this system depends upon the genotype of the sire. Here we show that females that are heterozygous at Om retain the meiotic drive phenotype and define a 0.32-cM candidate interval for the Responder locus in this drive system. In addition, analysis of the inheritance of alleles at Om among the offspring of F(1) intercrosses indicates that the effect of the sire is determined by the sperm genotype at Om or a locus linked to Om. PMID:10790402

  20. Soil aquifer treatment (SAT) as a natural and sustainable wastewater reclamation/reuse technology: fate of wastewater effluent organic matter (EfOM) and trace organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Amy, Gary; Drewes, Jörg

    2007-06-01

    Through the use of innovative analytical tools, the removal/transformation of wastewater effluent organic matter (EfOM) have been tracked through soil aquifer treatment (SAT). While the total amount of EfOM is significantly reduced by SAT, there are trends of shorter term versus longer term removals of specific EfOM fractions. The preferential removal of non-humic components (e.g., proteins, polysaccharides) of EfOM occurs over shorter travel times/distances while humic components (i.e., humic substances) are removed over longer travel times/distances, with the removal of both by sustainable biodegradation. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), a surrogate for protein-like EfOM, is also effectively removed over shorter term SAT. There is some background humic-like natural organic matter (NOM), associated with the drinking water source within the watershed, that persists through SAT. While most effluent-derived trace organic compounds are removed to varying degrees as a function of travel time and redox conditions, a few persist even through longer term SAT.

  1. Tuning the K+ concentration in the tunnel of OMS-2 nanorods leads to a significant enhancement of the catalytic activity for benzene oxidation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jingtao; Liu, Liangliang; Li, Yuanzhi; Mao, Mingyang; Lv, Haiqin; Zhao, Xiujian

    2013-12-03

    OMS-2 nanorods with tunable K(+) concentration were prepared by a facile hydrothermal redox reaction of MnSO4, (NH4)2S2O8, and (NH4)2SO4 at 120 °C by adding KNO3 at different KNO3/MnSO4 molar ratios. The OMS-2 nanorod catalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, N2 adsorption and desorption, inductively coupled plasma, and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry. The effect of K(+) concentration on the lattice oxygen activity of OMS-2 is theoretically and experimentally studied by density functional theory calculations and CO temperature-programmed reduction. The results show that increasing the K(+) concentration leads to a considerable enhancement of the lattice oxygen activity in OMS-2 nanorods. An enormous decrease (ΔT50 = 89 °C; ΔT90 > 160 °C) in reaction temperatures T50 and T90 (corresponding to 50 and 90% benzene conversion, respectively) for benzene oxidation has been achieved by increasing the K(+) concentration in the K(+)-doped OMS-2 nanorods due to the considerable enhancement of the lattice oxygen activity.

  2. Understanding the fouling of UF/MF hollow fibres of biologically treated wastewaters using advanced EfOM characterization and statistical tools.

    PubMed

    Filloux, E; Labanowski, J; Croue, J P

    2012-08-01

    Five secondary effluents and a river water source were characterized using size exclusion chromatography (LC-OCD-UVD-OND) and emission-excitation matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy in order to identify the major effluent organic matter (EfOM) fractions responsible for membrane fouling. This study showed the feasibility of coupling fluorescence EEM and LC-OCD-UVD-OND to investigate the fouling potential as well as a means to differentiate natural organic matter (NOM) from EfOM. The secondary effluents and river water showed a significant difference in organic matter characteristics and fouling potential, highlighting the importance of biological processes and the feed water source on EfOM characteristics and fouling potential. On the basis of statistical analysis, protein-like substances were found to be highly correlated to the fouling potential of secondary effluents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. OmGOGAT-disruption in the ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Oidiodendron maius induces reorganization of the N pathway and reduces tolerance to heavy-metals.

    PubMed

    Khouja, H R; Daghino, S; Abbà, S; Boutaraa, F; Chalot, M; Blaudez, D; Martino, E; Perotto, S

    2014-10-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi are key mediators of soil-to-plant movement of mineral nutrients, including essential and non-essential metals. In soil conditions that facilitate mobilization of metal ions, potentially toxic metals can interfere with nitrogen metabolism in both plants and microorganisms. Less is known about possible relationships between nitrogen metabolism and responses to heavy metals. Aim of this study was to investigate this aspect in the ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Oidiodendron maius strain Zn, a metal tolerant ascomycete. Growth of O. maius Zn on zinc and cadmium containing media was significantly affected by the nitrogen source. Screening of a library of O. maius Zn random genetic transformants for sensitivity to heavy metals (zinc and cadmium) and oxidative stress (menadione) yielded a mutant strain that carried a partial deletion of the glutamate synthase (NADH-GOGAT EC 1.4.1.14) gene and its adjacent gene, the APC15 subunit of the anaphase promoting complex. Comparison of WT and OmGOGAT-OmAPC15 mutant strains indicated an impaired N-metabolism and altered stress tolerance, and assays on the OmAPC15-recomplemented strains ascribed the observed phenotypes to the deletion in the OmGOGAT gene. OmGOGAT disruption modified the nitrogen pathway, with a strong reduction of the associated glutamine synthetase (GS, EC 6.3.1.2) activity and an up-regulation of the alternative NADP-glutamate dehydrogenase (NADP-GDH, EC 1.4.1.4) pathway for glutamate biosynthesis. Unless they were supplemented with glutamine, O. maius Zn transformants lacking OmGOGAT were very sensitive to zinc. These results highlight the importance of nitrogen metabolism not only for nitrogen assimilation and transformation, but also for stress tolerance. For mycorrhizal fungi, such as O. maius, this may bear consequences not only to the fungus, but also to the host plant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Evolution of molecular weight and fluorescence of effluent organic matter (EfOM) during oxidation processes revealed by advanced spectrographic and chromatographic tools.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Li, Mo; Wen, Qinxue; Ren, Nanqi

    2017-11-01

    Effluent organic matter (EfOM) is an emerging concern to receiving aquatic environment due to its refractory property. The degradation of EfOM in ozonation and other two advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), UV/H 2 O 2 and UV/persulfate (PS), was investigated in this study. Fluorescence spectra coupled with parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC) and two-dimensional correlation gel permeation chromatography (2D-GPC) were used to track the evolution of EfOM during each oxidation process. Results showed that the degradation of EfOM indicated by dissolved organic carbon (DOC), UV 254 and fluorescence components, fitted well with pseudo-first-order kinetic model during the oxidation processes. Ozonation showed higher degradation efficiency than AOPs, while UV/PS was more effective than UV/H 2 O 2 with equimolar oxidants dosage. Ozone and SO· 4 - were more reactive with terrestrial humic-like substances, while hydroxyl radical preferentially reacted with protein-like substances. Organic molecules with higher molecular weight (MW) were susceptible to ozone or radicals. Ozonation could transform higher MW (MW of 3510 and 575) organic matters into lower MW organic matters (MW of 294), while reductions of all the organics were observed in both AOPs. Due to the higher reaction rates between ozone and EfOM, ozonation maybe serve as a pre-treatment for AOPs to reduce the radical and energy consumption and improve mineralization of EfOM by AOPs. The decline in DOC, UV 254 , fluorescence and reduction in oxidants increased with the increase of oxidants dosage, and linear correlations among them were found during the ozonation and AOPs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Effect of low-dose cyclophosphamide, ACTH, and IVIG combination immunotherapy on neuroinflammation in pediatric-onset OMS: A retrospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pranzatelli, Michael R; Allison, Tyler J; Tate, Elizabeth D

    2018-03-05

    Flow cytometric cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lymphocyte subset analysis has improved the diagnosis of neuroinflammation and identified multiple markers of inflammation in opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS). The aim of this exploratory, retrospective study was to analyze the effect of immunotherapy on these markers to determine which agents are disease modifying. Cross-sectional immunological observations were made in an IRB-approved case-control study, and patients were treated empirically. Ten different CSF lymphocyte subpopulations from 18 children with persistent OMS had been measured by flow cytometry before and after clinical treatment with cyclophosphamide/ACTH/IVIG combination (n = 7) or ACTH/IVIG alone (n = 11). Clinical severity of OMS was scored from videotapes by a blinded observer using the OMS Evaluation Scale. Only cyclophosphamide combination therapy (mean dose 26 ± 3 mg/kg or 922 ± 176 mg/m 2 x 6 cycles) significantly decreased the percentage of CSF B cells. The mean reduction was 65%, with CSF B cell frequency normalized at 7-8 months in 70%. Other abnormalities of the CSF immunophenotype, such as the low CD4/CD8 T cell ratio, persisted, and there were no therapeutic changes in T cell activation/maturation markers. Effects on relative and absolute size of PBMC subsets were similar. Clinical improvement was 70% and 55% in respective treatment groups. The relapse rates of the two groups did not significantly differ. The main effect of cyclophosphamide combination therapy on neuroinflammation in OMS was moderate reduction in CSF B cell expansion. Though exploratory, it may provide a steroid sparer option in partially-responsive OMS. Copyright © 2018 European Paediatric Neurology Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Role of Streptococcus pneumoniae OM001 operon in capsular polysaccharide production, virulence and survival in human saliva.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Zuleeza; Harvey, Richard M; Paton, James C; Standish, Alistair J; Morona, Renato

    2018-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia in all ages worldwide, and with ever-increasing antibiotic resistance, the understanding of its pathogenesis and spread is as important as ever. Recently, we reported the presence of a Low Molecular Weight Tyrosine Phosphatase (LMWPTP) Spd1837 in the pneumococcus. This protein is encoded in an operon, OM001 with two other genes, with previous work implicating this operon as important for pneumococcal virulence. Thus, we set out to investigate the role of the individual genes in the operon during pneumococcal pathogenesis. As LMWPTPs play a major role in capsular polysaccharide (CPS) biosynthesis in many bacteria, we tested the effect of mutating spd1837 and its adjacent genes, spd1836 and spd1838 on CPS levels. Our results suggest that individual deletion of the genes, including the LMWPTP, did not modulate CPS levels, in multiple conditions, and in different strain backgrounds. Following in vivo studies, Spd1836 was identified as a novel virulence factor during pneumococcal invasive disease, in both the lungs and blood, with this protein alone responsible for the effects of operon's role in virulence. We also showed that a deletion in spd1836, spd1838 or the overall OM001 operon reduced survival in human saliva during the conditions that mimic transmission compared to the wildtype strain. With studies suggesting that survival in human saliva may be important for transmission, this study identifies Spd1836 and Spd1838 as transmission factors, potentially facilitating the spread of the pneumococcus from person to person. Overall, this study hopes to further our understanding of the bacterial transmission that precedes disease and outbreaks.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of novel mesocomposites Co3O4 and CuO@OMS (ordered mesoporous silica) as active catalysts for hydrocarbon oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comănescu, Cezar

    2014-03-01

    Novel metal nanoporous transition metal oxides M x O y (Co3O4, CuO) have been synthesized by thermal decomposition of inorganic salts precursors (acetates, nitrates) impregnated into hexagonal mesoporous silica (OMS, ordered mesoporous silica) of SBA-15 type (prepared in-house) at different precursor loadings, the mesocomposites thus obtained being monitored after each impregnation-calcination step by small and wide angle powder XRD. The pore size for the ordered silica host range from 5.08 to 7.06 nm. Retention of the hexagonal silica framework has been observed in spite of the temperatures up to 500 °C. Mesoporous Co3O4 has been obtained by leaching the silica through overnight HF dissolution, which partially preserved the small-range ordering found in the parent Co3O4@OMS composite prior to leaching. Both Co3O4 ( meso) and Co3O4@SBA-15 have been tested in methane oxidation and were found to be superior to the bulk Co3O4 performance, with mesoporous Co3O4 being able to fully oxidize methane to CO2 and H2O at 350 °C, while Co3O4@OMS exhibits a lower activity with 20 % conversion at 350 °C. CuO@OMS shows the lowest activity, with only 13 % conversion at 500 °C.

  8. Ultra-Wideband Optical Modulation Spectrometer (OMS) Development: Study of the Optical Setup of a Wide-Band Optical Modulation Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolls, Volker; Stringfellow, Guy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to advance the design of the optical setup for a wide-band Optical Modulation Spectrometer (OMS) for use with astronomical heterodyne receiver systems. This report describes the progress of this investigation achieved from March until December 2001.

  9. CORE-OM Mental Health Norms of Students Attending University Counselling Services Benchmarked against an Age-Matched Primary Care Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Janice; Barkham, Michael; Mellor-Clark, John

    2007-01-01

    Whilst concern has been expressed at the increasing severity of the mental health of students, there has been very little research on this growing population outside of small, single institution studies. The aims of this paper are to provide CORE Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) norms for the psychological health of students across multiple sites…

  10. N/om, Change, and Social Work: A Recursive Frame Analysis of the Transformative Rituals of the Ju/'hoan Bushmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeney, Hillary; Keeney, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    The Ju/'hoan Bushman origin myth is depicted as a contextual frame for their healing and transformative ways. Using Recursive Frame Analysis, these performances are shown to be an enactment of the border crossing between First and Second Creation, that is, pre-linguistic and linguistic domains of experience. Here n/om, or the presumed creative…

  11. The CORE-OM Intake Norms of Students Attending a South African University Counseling Service: A Comparison with UK Counseling Service Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides CORE-OM intake norms for a South African university counseling service, and compares these to the United Kingdom counseling service data reported by Connell, Barkham and Mellor-Clark (2007). The South African norms are very similar to the United Kingdom norms, with no statistical differences in the total or domain scores. There…

  12. Coating magnetic CuFe2O4 nanoparticles with OMS-2 for enhanced degradation of organic pollutants via peroxymonosulfate activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Peng; Wu, Deming; Wang, Manye; Wei, Yi; Xu, Aihua; Li, Xiaoxia

    2018-01-01

    A heterogeneous magnetic CuFe2O4@OMS-2 catalyst was fabricated through a facile solvent-free process using Mn(CH3COO)2 and KMnO4 in the presence of CuFe2O4. It was found that the BET surface area of OMS-2 as well as the ratio of low-valent manganese species significantly increased in the hybrid catalyst, due to interactions between CuFe2O4 and the precursor of amorphous manganese oxide. Acid Orange 7 (AO7) and other organic pollutants could be completely degraded by the CuFe2O4@OMS-2 catalyst within 30 min in the presence of peroxymonosulfate (PMS), while CuFe2O4 and OMS-2 showed no significant activity for the reaction. The hybrid catalyst also exhibited excellent long-term stability and could be easily recovered with the assistance of an external magnetic field. A possible degradation mechanism for the synergistic effects of different valent metal species and reactive radicals was proposed, which involved the electron transfer from Mn(III) or Mn(II) species to PMS with the generation of sulfate and hydroxyl radicals, and from AO7 and Cu(I) in CuFe2O4 to Mn(IV) and Mn(III) to reduce these Mn species.

  13. To investigate the prevention of OM-85 on bronchiectasis exacerbations (iPROBE) in Chinese patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jinming; Gao, Xiang; Kong, Lingfei

    2014-04-29

    Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis is characterized by the irreversible dilatation of the medium-sized bronchi as a result of airway injury from recurrent or chronic inflammation and lower respiratory tract infections. Bronchiectasis airways are commonly colonized with bacterial species. Infections of the airways play important role in bronchiectasis exacerbations. The non-specific prevention of recurrent airway infections by immunostimulating agents has gained growing interest. OM-85, consisting of extracts of eight kinds of bacteria important in respiratory infections, could support the respiratory tract resistance to the pathogens. OM-85 has been shown to be a benefit by decreasing the risk of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in several perspective clinical trials. Exacerbation of bronchiectasis substantially contributes to a more rapid decline in lung function, reduced quality of life, and healthcare costs. In this context, we plan to conduct a clinical trial to investigate the PReventive effect of OM-85 on Bronchiectasis Exacerbation in Chinese patients (iPROBE). This study is designed as a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. A total of 244 patients with bronchiectasis, who have had at least one exacerbation of bronchiectasis in the previous year, will be included. The subjects will randomly receive two courses of 7 mg of OM-85 or a matching placebo. The treatment dose of OM-85 will be one daily capsule taken orally for 10 days each month for 3 consecutive months at the beginning of the study, followed by 3 months of no drug. This schedule will repeat until the patient has been seen for one year. We will investigate whether long-term treatment with an oral immunostimulant (OM-85) could decrease exacerbations of bronchiectasis over a one-year period. We will also assess other relevant outcomes, including the rate of event-based exacerbation, lung function parameters, and total scores

  14. To investigate the prevention of OM-85 on bronchiectasis exacerbations (iPROBE) in Chinese patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis is characterized by the irreversible dilatation of the medium-sized bronchi as a result of airway injury from recurrent or chronic inflammation and lower respiratory tract infections. Bronchiectasis airways are commonly colonized with bacterial species. Infections of the airways play important role in bronchiectasis exacerbations. The non-specific prevention of recurrent airway infections by immunostimulating agents has gained growing interest. OM-85, consisting of extracts of eight kinds of bacteria important in respiratory infections, could support the respiratory tract resistance to the pathogens. OM-85 has been shown to be a benefit by decreasing the risk of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in several perspective clinical trials. Exacerbation of bronchiectasis substantially contributes to a more rapid decline in lung function, reduced quality of life, and healthcare costs. In this context, we plan to conduct a clinical trial to investigate the PReventive effect of OM-85 on Bronchiectasis Exacerbation in Chinese patients (iPROBE). Methods/Design This study is designed as a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. A total of 244 patients with bronchiectasis, who have had at least one exacerbation of bronchiectasis in the previous year, will be included. The subjects will randomly receive two courses of 7 mg of OM-85 or a matching placebo. The treatment dose of OM-85 will be one daily capsule taken orally for 10 days each month for 3 consecutive months at the beginning of the study, followed by 3 months of no drug. This schedule will repeat until the patient has been seen for one year. Discussion We will investigate whether long-term treatment with an oral immunostimulant (OM-85) could decrease exacerbations of bronchiectasis over a one-year period. We will also assess other relevant outcomes, including the rate of event-based exacerbation, lung

  15. Effective removal of effluent organic matter (EfOM) from bio-treated coking wastewater by a recyclable aminated hyper-cross-linked polymer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenlan; Li, Xuchun; Pan, Bingcai; Lv, Lu; Zhang, Weiming

    2013-09-01

    Effluent organic matter (EfOM) is a complex matrix of organic substance mainly from bio-treated sewage effluent and is considered as the main constraint to further advanced treatment. Here a recyclable aminated hyper-cross-linked polymeric adsorbent (NDA-802) featured with aminated functional groups, large specific surface area, and sufficient micropore region was synthesized for effective removal of EfOM from the bio-treated coking wastewater (BTCW), and its removal characteristics was investigated. It was found that hydrophobic fraction was the main constituent (64.8% of DOC) in EfOM of BTCW, and the hydrophobic-neutral fraction had the highest SUVA level (7.06 L mg(-1) m(-1)), which were significantly different from that in the domestic wastewater. Column adsorption experiments showed that NDA-802 exhibited much higher removal efficiency of EfOM than other polymeric adsorbents D-301, XAD-4, and XAD-7, and the efficiency could be readily sustained according to continuous 28-cycle batch adsorption-regeneration experiments. Moreover, dissolved organic matter (DOM) fractionation and excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy study indicated that NDA-802 showed attractive adsorption preference as well as high removal efficiency of hydrophobic and aromatic compounds. Possibly ascribed to the presence of functional aminated groups, relatively large specific surface area and micropore region of the unique polymer, NDA-802 possesses high and sustained efficiency for the removal of EfOM, and provides a potential alternative for the advanced treatment. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. CCR4 agonists CCL22 and CCL17 are elevated in pediatric OMS sera: rapid and selective down-regulation of CCL22 by ACTH or corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Pranzatelli, Michael R; Tate, Elizabeth D; McGee, Nathan R; Colliver, Jerry A; Ransohoff, Richard M

    2013-05-01

    To study the role of Th2-attracting chemokines in opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS), a serious neurological paraneoplastic disorder in need of better immunological understanding and therapy. The CCR4 agonists CCL22 and CCL17 were measured in serum by ELISA in children with OMS (238 and 260, respectively), pediatric controls (115 and 143), and other inflammatory neurological disorders (33 and 24). Both CCL22 (+55 %) and CCL17 (+121 %) were significantly elevated in untreated OMS compared to controls and inter-correlated (p < 0.0001). Their concentrations in untreated OMS also were higher than in OIND (21 %, 41 %). The concentration of CCL22 in ACTH and steroids groups (not IVIg) was 51 % lower than in controls, but only a smaller effect of ACTH on CCL17 was found. Prospective longitudinal studies revealed a precipitous 81 % drop in CCL22 even by the first week of high-dose ACTH therapy, staying below control mean for at least 12 weeks, and a 34 % reduction after 8 months of combined treatment. Response to ACTH was dose-related (r = -0.50, p < 0.0001). Luminex detection confirmed the ELISA results for CCL22, which were about 200 % higher. These data reveal an elevated serum concentration of Th2-attracting chemokines CCL22 and CCL17 in OMS. Marked and rapid reduction in CCL22, not CCL17, with either ACTH or steroid therapy suggests differential regulation and cellular sources of CCR4 ligands, and CCL22 as a potential candidate biomarker for ACTH or corticosteroid effect.

  17. Impact of Fe(III)-OM complexes and Fe(III) polymerization on SOM pools reactivity under different land uses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannetta, B.; Plaza, C.; Zaccone, C.; Siebecker, M. G.; Rovira, P.; Vischetti, C.; Sparks, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) protection and long-term accumulation are controlled by adsorption to mineral surfaces in different ways, depending on its molecular structure and pedo-climatic conditions. Iron (Fe) oxides are known to be key regulators of the soil carbon (C) cycle, and Fe speciation in soils is highly dependent on environmental conditions and chemical interactions with SOM. However, the molecular structure and hydrolysis of Fe species formed in association with SOM is still poorly described. We hypothesize the existence of two pools of Fe which interact with SOM: mononuclear Fe(III)-SOM complexes and precipitated Fe(III) hydroxides. To verify our hypothesis, we investigated the interactions between Fe(III) and physically isolated soil fractions by means of batch experiments at pH 7. Specifically, we examined the fine silt plus clay (FSi+C) fraction, obtained by ultrasonic dispersion and wet sieving. The soil samples spanned several land uses, including coniferous forest (CFS), grassland (GS), technosols (TS) and agricultural (AS) soils. Solid phase products and supernatants were analyzed for C and Fe content. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis were also performed. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) was used to assess the main C functional groups involved in C complexation and desorption experiments. Preliminary linear combination fitting (LCF) of Fe K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectra suggested the formation of ferrihydrite-like polymeric Fe(III) oxides in reacted CFS and GS samples, with higher C and Fe concentration. Conversely, mononuclear Fe(III) OM complexes dominated the speciation for TS and AS samples, characterized by lower C and Fe concentration, inhibiting the hydrolysis and polymerization of Fe (III). This approach will help revealing the mechanisms by which SOM pools can control Fe(III) speciation, and will elucidate how both Fe(III)-OM

  18. Chemokine/cytokine profiling after rituximab: reciprocal expression of BCA-1/CXCL13 and BAFF in childhood OMS.

    PubMed

    Pranzatelli, Michael R; Tate, Elizabeth D; Travelstead, Anna L; Verhulst, Steven J

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that B-cell repopulation following rituximab (anti-CD20) therapy is orchestrated by chemokines and non-chemokine cytokines. Twenty-five children with opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) received rituximab with or without conventional agents. A comprehensive panel of 40 chemokines and other cytokines were measured in serum by ELISA and multiplexed fluorescent bead-based immunoassay. Serum BAFF concentration changed dramatically (even after first infusion) and inversely with B-cell depletion/repopulation and CXCL13 concentration at 1, 3, and 6 months. Negative correlations were found for BAFF concentration vs blood B cell percentage and serum CXCL13 concentration; positive correlations with serum rituximab concentrations. Six months after initiation of therapy, no significant difference in the levels of APRIL, CXCL10, IL-6, or 17 other cytokines/chemokines were detected. These data reveal a major role for BAFF in peripheral B cell repopulation following rituximab-induced B-cell depletion, and novel changes in CXCL13. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT0024436. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Metroplex Optimization Model Expansion and Analysis: The Airline Fleet, Route, and Schedule Optimization Model (AFRS-OM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Hoffman, Karla; Donohue, George; Beradino, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the Airline Fleet, Route, and Schedule Optimization Model (AFRS-OM) that is designed to provide insights into airline decision-making with regards to markets served, schedule of flights on these markets, the type of aircraft assigned to each scheduled flight, load factors, airfares, and airline profits. The main inputs to the model are hedged fuel prices, airport capacity limits, and candidate markets. Embedded in the model are aircraft performance and associated cost factors, and willingness-to-pay (i.e. demand vs. airfare curves). Case studies demonstrate the application of the model for analysis of the effects of increased capacity and changes in operating costs (e.g. fuel prices). Although there are differences between airports (due to differences in the magnitude of travel demand and sensitivity to airfare), the system is more sensitive to changes in fuel prices than capacity. Further, the benefits of modernization in the form of increased capacity could be undermined by increases in hedged fuel prices

  20. Confirmatory factor analysis of Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE-OM) used as a measure of emotional distress in people with tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Handscomb, L; Hall, D A; Hoare, D J; Shorter, G W

    2016-09-06

    People with troublesome tinnitus often experience emotional distress. Therefore a psychometrically sound instrument which can evaluate levels of distress and change over time is necessary to understand this experience. Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation (CORE-OM) is a measure of emotional distress which has been widely used in mental health research. Although originally designed as a 4-factor questionnaire, factor analyses have not supported this structure and a number of alternative factor structures have been proposed in different samples. The aims of this study were to test the factor structure of the CORE-OM using a large representative tinnitus sample and to use it to investigate levels of emotional distress amongst people with a range of tinnitus experience. The CORE-OM was completed by 342 people experiencing tinnitus who self-rated their tinnitus on a 5-point scale from 'not a problem' to 'a very big problem'. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to test all ten factor models which have been previously derived across a range of population samples. Model fit was assessed using fit criterion and theoretical considerations. Mean scores on the full questionnaire and its subscales were compared between tinnitus problem categories using one-way ANOVA. The best fitting model included 33 of the 34 original items and was divided into three factors: negatively worded items, positively worded items and risk. The full questionnaire and each factor were found to have good internal consistency and factor loadings were high. There was a statistically significant difference in total CORE-OM scores across the five tinnitus problem categories. However there was no significant difference between those who rated their tinnitus 'not a problem', and 'a small problem' or 'a moderate problem.' This study found a 3-factor structure for the CORE-OM to be a good fit for a tinnitus population. It also found evidence of a relationship between emotional distress as measured by

  1. Robust and tunable 16.375Gb/s dual-band optical OFDM transmissions over directly modulated VCSEL-based 200m OM2 MMFs.

    PubMed

    Deng, M L; Jiang, N; Duan, X; Giddings, R P; Yi, X W; Cao, B Y; Mansoor, S; Qiu, K; Tang, J M

    2015-01-12

    Utilizing low-cost, 2.2GHz modulation bandwidth, uncooled and standalone directly modulated VCSEL (DM-VCSEL)-based real-time dual-band optical OFDM (OOFDM) transmitters, aggregated 16.375Gb/s transmissions of OOFDM signals having bandwidths approximately 3.8 times higher than the VCSEL manufacturer-specified modulation bandwidths, are experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, over 200m OM2 MMF links based on intensity modulation and direct detection. The aggregated signal transmission capacities of the aforementioned links vary by just 8% for various OM2 MMFs ranging from 100m to 500m, and by just 10% over a 1GHz passband carrier frequency detuning range. Such dual-band OOFDM adaptability-induced excellent performance robustness and large passband frequency tunability can significantly relax the requirements on VCSEL modulation bandwidth for achieving specific transmission performances for cost-sensitive application scenarios such as data centers.

  2. Cardiovascular effects of B-vitamins and/or N-3 fatty acids: the SU.FOL.OM3 trial.

    PubMed

    Blacher, Jacques; Czernichow, Sébastien; Paillard, François; Ducimetiere, Pierre; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar

    2013-07-31

    Mechanisms involved in coronary stenosis evolution are different than those involved in clinical events. Because of differential vascular effects, N-3 polyunsatured fatty acids (PUFA) and B vitamins could have differential effects on different types of cardiovascular clinical events in high-risk patients. We analyzed the effects of n-3 PUFA and of B vitamins on both coronary revascularization and on hard coronary events risks in a subgroup of the SU.FOL.OM3 trial, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled secondary prevention trial. Data were analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle, with the use of Cox proportional-hazards models. After a mean follow-up of 4.2 ± 1.0 years among the 1,863 participants with coronary heart disease, 163 coronary revascularizations were performed, and 95 patients experienced a hard coronary event. Neither treatment with n-3 PUFA, nor treatment with B vitamins was associated with any significant effect on the occurrence of hard coronary events. Allocation to n-3 PUFA was not associated with any significant effect on coronary revascularization. However, treatment with B vitamins was associated with a statistically significant 52% increase in the risk of coronary revascularization (multivariate HR: 1.52; 95% CI: [1.11-2.10]; p=0.01). Neither n-3 PUFA, nor B vitamins reduced the rates of hard coronary events and of coronary revascularization. Furthermore, B vitamins significantly increased the rate of coronary revascularization. Consistent with the findings of previous trials, our results do not support the routine use of dietary supplements containing n-3 PUFA and argue against using dietary supplements containing B-vitamins in coronary patients in secondary cardiovascular prevention. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Evaluation of Oceanic Surface Observation for Reproducing the Upper Ocean Structure in ECHAM5/MPI-OM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Hao; Zheng, Fei; Zhu, Jiang

    2017-12-01

    Better constraints of initial conditions from data assimilation are necessary for climate simulations and predictions, and they are particularly important for the ocean due to its long climate memory; as such, ocean data assimilation (ODA) is regarded as an effective tool for seasonal to decadal predictions. In this work, an ODA system is established for a coupled climate model (ECHAM5/MPI-OM), which can assimilate all available oceanic observations using an ensemble optimal interpolation approach. To validate and isolate the performance of different surface observations in reproducing air-sea climate variations in the model, a set of observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) was performed over 150 model years. Generally, assimilating sea surface temperature, sea surface salinity, and sea surface height (SSH) can reasonably reproduce the climate variability and vertical structure of the upper ocean, and assimilating SSH achieves the best results compared to the true states. For the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), assimilating different surface observations captures true aspects of ENSO well, but assimilating SSH can further enhance the accuracy of ENSO-related feedback processes in the coupled model, leading to a more reasonable ENSO evolution and air-sea interaction over the tropical Pacific. For ocean heat content, there are still limitations in reproducing the long time-scale variability in the North Atlantic, even if SSH has been taken into consideration. These results demonstrate the effectiveness of assimilating surface observations in capturing the interannual signal and, to some extent, the decadal signal but still highlight the necessity of assimilating profile data to reproduce specific decadal variability.

  4. A magnetic route to measure the average oxidation state of mixed-valent manganese in manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS).

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiong-Fei; Ding, Yun-Shuang; Liu, Jia; Han, Zhao-Hui; Budnick, Joseph I; Hines, William A; Suib, Steven L

    2005-05-04

    A magnetic route has been applied for measurement of the average oxidation state (AOS) of mixed-valent manganese in manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS). The method gives AOS measurement results in good agreement with titration methods. A maximum analysis deviation error of +/-7% is obtained from 10 sample measurements. The magnetic method is able to (1) confirm the presence of mixed-valent manganese and (2) evaluate AOS and the spin states of d electrons of both single oxidation state and mixed-valent state Mn in manganese oxides. In addition, the magnetic method may be extended to (1) determine AOS of Mn in manganese oxide OMS with dopant "diamagnetic" ions, such as reducible V5+ (3d0) ions, which is inappropriate for the titration method due to interference of redox reactions between these dopant ions and titration reagents, such as KMnO4, (2) evaluate the dopant "paramagnetic" ions that are present as clusters or in the OMS framework, and (3) determine AOS of other mixed-valent/single oxidation state ion systems, such as Mo3+(3d3)-Mo4+(3d2) systems and Fe3+ in FeCl3.

  5. Seasonal and spatial variability of the OM/OC mass ratios and high regional correlation between oxalic acid and zinc in Chinese urban organic aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, L.; Fu, T.-M.; Cao, J. J.; Lee, S. C.; Wang, G. H.; Ho, K. F.; Cheng, M.-C.; You, C.-F.; Wang, T. J.

    2013-04-01

    We calculated the organic matter to organic carbon mass ratios (OM/OC mass ratios) in PM2.5 collected from 14 Chinese cities during summer and winter of 2003 and analyzed the causes for their seasonal and spatial variability. The OM/OC mass ratios were calculated two ways. Using a mass balance method, the calculated OM/OC mass ratios averaged 1.92 ± 0.39 year-round, with no significant seasonal or spatial variation. The second calculation was based on chemical species analyses of the organic compounds extracted from the PM2.5 samples using dichloromethane/methanol and water. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in summer was relatively high (1.75 ± 0.13) and spatially-invariant due to vigorous photochemistry and secondary organic aerosol (OA) production throughout the country. The calculated OM/OC mass ratio in winter (1.59 ± 0.18) was significantly lower than that in summer, with lower values in northern cities (1.51 ± 0.07) than in southern cities (1.65 ± 0.15). This likely reflects the wider usage of coal for heating purposes in northern China in winter, in contrast to the larger contributions from biofuel and biomass burning in southern China in winter. On average, organic matter constituted 36% and 34% of Chinese urban PM2.5 mass in summer and winter, respectively. We report, for the first time, a high regional correlation between Zn and oxalic acid in Chinese urban aerosols in summer. This is consistent with the formation of stable Zn oxalate complex in the aerosol phase previously proposed by Furukawa and Takahashi (2011). We found that many other dicarboxylic acids were also highly correlated with Zn in the summer Chinese urban aerosol samples, suggesting that they may also form stable organic complexes with Zn. Such formation may have profound implications for the atmospheric abundance and hygroscopic properties of aerosol dicarboxylic acids.

  6. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, one of two orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods removed from Endeavour is lowered toward a transporter. The OMS pods are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts. OMS pods are removed during Orbiter Major Modifications. Once removed, the OMS pods undergo in-depth structural inspections, system checks and the thrusters are changed out.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-05

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, one of two orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods removed from Endeavour is lowered toward a transporter. The OMS pods are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts. OMS pods are removed during Orbiter Major Modifications. Once removed, the OMS pods undergo in-depth structural inspections, system checks and the thrusters are changed out.

  7. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in the Orbiter Processing Facility prepare to remove one of two orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods from Endeavour. The OMS pods are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts. OMS pods are removed during Orbiter Major Modifications. Once removed, the OMS pods undergo in-depth structural inspections, system checks and the thrusters are changed out.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-05

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Workers in the Orbiter Processing Facility prepare to remove one of two orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods from Endeavour. The OMS pods are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts. OMS pods are removed during Orbiter Major Modifications. Once removed, the OMS pods undergo in-depth structural inspections, system checks and the thrusters are changed out.

  8. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, one of two orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods removed from Endeavour is suspended overhead. The OMS pods are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts. OMS pods are removed during Orbiter Major Modifications. Once removed, the OMS pods undergo in-depth structural inspections, system checks and the thrusters are changed out.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-05

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, one of two orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods removed from Endeavour is suspended overhead. The OMS pods are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts. OMS pods are removed during Orbiter Major Modifications. Once removed, the OMS pods undergo in-depth structural inspections, system checks and the thrusters are changed out.

  9. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Technicians in the Orbiter Processing Facility oversee removal of one of two orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods from Endeavour. The OMS pods are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts. OMS pods are removed during Orbiter Major Modifications. Once removed, the OMS pods undergo in-depth structural inspections, system checks and the thrusters are changed out.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-05

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - Technicians in the Orbiter Processing Facility oversee removal of one of two orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods from Endeavour. The OMS pods are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts. OMS pods are removed during Orbiter Major Modifications. Once removed, the OMS pods undergo in-depth structural inspections, system checks and the thrusters are changed out.

  10. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, one of two orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods removed from Endeavour is lowered onto a transporter. The OMS pods are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts. OMS pods are removed during Orbiter Major Modifications. Once removed, the OMS pods undergo in-depth structural inspections, system checks and the thrusters are changed out.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-09-05

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, one of two orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods removed from Endeavour is lowered onto a transporter. The OMS pods are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts. OMS pods are removed during Orbiter Major Modifications. Once removed, the OMS pods undergo in-depth structural inspections, system checks and the thrusters are changed out.

  11. Novel synthesis of manganese and vanadium mixed oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/OMS-2) as an efficient and selective catalyst for the oxidation of alcohols in liquid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Mahdavi, Vahid, E-mail: v-mahdavi@araku.ac.ir; Soleimani, Shima

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Oxidation of various alcohols is studied in the liquid phase over new composite mixed oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/OMS-2) catalyst using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP). The activity of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/OMS-2 samples was considerably increased with respect to OMS-2 catalyst and these samples are found to be suitable for the selective oxidation of alcohols. - Highlights: • V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/K-OMS-2 with different V/Mn molar ratios prepared by the impregnation method. • Oxidation of alcohols was studied in the liquid phase over V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/K-OMS-2 catalyst. • V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/K-OMS-2 catalyst had excellent activity for alcohol oxidation. • Benzyl alcohol oxidationmore » using excess TBHP followed a pseudo-first order kinetic. • The selected catalyst was reused without significant loss of activity. - Abstract: This work reports the synthesis and characterization of mixed oxide vanadium–manganese V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/K-OMS-2 at various V/Mn molar ratios and prepared by the impregnation method. Characterization of these new composite materials was made by elemental analysis, BET, XRD, FT-IR, SEM and TEM techniques. Results of these analyses showed that vanadium impregnated samples contained mixed phases of cryptomelane and crystalline V{sub 2}O{sub 5} species. Oxidation of various alcohols was studied in the liquid phase over the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/K-OMS-2 catalyst using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as the oxidant. Activity of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/K-OMS-2 samples was increased considerably with respect to K-OMS-2 catalyst due to the interaction of manganese oxide and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The kinetic of benzyl alcohol oxidation using excess TBHP over V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/K-OMS-2 catalyst was investigated at different temperatures and a pseudo-first order reaction was determined with respect to benzyl alcohol. The effects of reaction time, oxidant/alcohol molar ratio, reaction temperature, solvents, catalyst recycling potential

  12. Comprehensive Genomic Analyses of the OM43 Clade, Including a Novel Species from the Red Sea, Indicate Ecotype Differentiation among Marine Methylotrophs

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Infante, Francy; Ngugi, David Kamanda; Vinu, Manikandan; Alam, Intikhab; Kamau, Allan Anthony; Blom, Jochen; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    The OM43 clade within the family Methylophilaceae of Betaproteobacteria represents a group of methylotrophs that play important roles in the metabolism of C1 compounds in marine environments and other aquatic environments around the globe. Using dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, we successfully isolated a novel species of this clade (here designated MBRS-H7) from the ultraoligotrophic open ocean waters of the central Red Sea. Phylogenomic analyses indicate that MBRS-H7 is a novel species that forms a distinct cluster together with isolate KB13 from Hawaii (Hawaii-Red Sea [H-RS] cluster) that is separate from the cluster represented by strain HTCC2181 (from the Oregon coast). Phylogenetic analyses using the robust 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer revealed a potential ecotype separation of the marine OM43 clade members, which was further confirmed by metagenomic fragment recruitment analyses that showed trends of higher abundance in low-chlorophyll and/or high-temperature provinces for the H-RS cluster but a preference for colder, highly productive waters for the HTCC2181 cluster. This potential environmentally driven niche differentiation is also reflected in the metabolic gene inventories, which in the case of the H-RS cluster include those conferring resistance to high levels of UV irradiation, temperature, and salinity. Interestingly, we also found different energy conservation modules between these OM43 subclades, namely, the existence of the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase complex I (NUO) system in the H-RS cluster and the nonhomologous NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQR) system in the HTCC2181 cluster, which might have implications for their overall energetic yields. PMID:26655752

  13. Comprehensive Genomic Analyses of the OM43 Clade, Including a Novel Species from the Red Sea, Indicate Ecotype Differentiation among Marine Methylotrophs.

    PubMed

    Jimenez-Infante, Francy; Ngugi, David Kamanda; Vinu, Manikandan; Alam, Intikhab; Kamau, Allan Anthony; Blom, Jochen; Bajic, Vladimir B; Stingl, Ulrich

    2016-02-15

    The OM43 clade within the family Methylophilaceae of Betaproteobacteria represents a group of methylotrophs that play important roles in the metabolism of C1 compounds in marine environments and other aquatic environments around the globe. Using dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, we successfully isolated a novel species of this clade (here designated MBRS-H7) from the ultraoligotrophic open ocean waters of the central Red Sea. Phylogenomic analyses indicate that MBRS-H7 is a novel species that forms a distinct cluster together with isolate KB13 from Hawaii (Hawaii-Red Sea [H-RS] cluster) that is separate from the cluster represented by strain HTCC2181 (from the Oregon coast). Phylogenetic analyses using the robust 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer revealed a potential ecotype separation of the marine OM43 clade members, which was further confirmed by metagenomic fragment recruitment analyses that showed trends of higher abundance in low-chlorophyll and/or high-temperature provinces for the H-RS cluster but a preference for colder, highly productive waters for the HTCC2181 cluster. This potential environmentally driven niche differentiation is also reflected in the metabolic gene inventories, which in the case of the H-RS cluster include those conferring resistance to high levels of UV irradiation, temperature, and salinity. Interestingly, we also found different energy conservation modules between these OM43 subclades, namely, the existence of the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase complex I (NUO) system in the H-RS cluster and the nonhomologous NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQR) system in the HTCC2181 cluster, which might have implications for their overall energetic yields. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. High-Energy-Density Aqueous Magnesium-Ion Battery Based on a Carbon-Coated FeVO4 Anode and a Mg-OMS-1 Cathode.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongyu; Ye, Ke; Zhu, Kai; Cang, Ruibai; Yan, Jun; Cheng, Kui; Wang, Guiling; Cao, Dianxue

    2017-12-01

    Porous FeVO 4 is prepared by hydrothermal method and further modified by coating with carbon to obtain FeVO 4 /C with a hierarchical pore structure. FeVO 4 /C is used as an anodic electrode in aqueous rechargeable magnesium-ion batteries. The FeVO 4 /C material not only has improved electrical conductivity as a result of the carbon coating layer, but also has an increased specific surface area as a result of the hierarchical pore structure, which is beneficial for magnesium-ion insertion/deinsertion. Therefore, an aqueous rechargeable magnesium-ion full battery is successfully constructed with FeVO 4 /C as the anode, Mg-OMS-1 (OMS=octahedral molecular sieves) as the cathode, and 1.0 mol L -1 MgSO 4 as the electrolyte. The discharge capacity of the Mg-OMS-1//FeVO 4 /C aqueous battery is 58.9 mAh g -1 at a current density of 100 mA g -1 ; this value is obtained by calculating the total mass of two electrodes and the capacity retention rate of this device is 97.7 % after 100 cycles, with almost 100 % coulombic efficiency, which indicates that the system has a good electrochemical reversibility. Additionally, this system can achieve a high energy density of 70.4 Wh kg -1 , which provides powerful evidence that an aqueous magnesium-ion battery is possible. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Evaluation of different conditions to enhance the performances of Lactobacillus pentosus OM13 during industrial production of Spanish-style table olives.

    PubMed

    Martorana, Alessandra; Alfonzo, Antonio; Gaglio, Raimondo; Settanni, Luca; Corona, Onofrio; La Croce, Francesco; Vagnoli, Paola; Caruso, Tiziano; Moschetti, Giancarlo; Francesca, Nicola

    2017-02-01

    The main objective was to set up a methodology to improve the high volume production of green table olives, cv. Nocellara del Belice. Lactobacillus pentosus OM13 was applied during three different industrial processes of table olives as follows: trial one (IOP1) was subjected to an addition of lactic acid until a brine level of pH 7.0 was reached; trial two (IOP2) subjected to same addition of lactic acid as in trial one plus nutrient adjuvant and trial three (IOP3) subjected to same addition as trial two, but with the strain L. pentosus OM13 acclimatized in brine for 12 h before inoculation. These trials were compared against two untreated controls (spontaneously fermented and addition of L. pentosus OM13 only). Within the third day of fermentation, the pH of the brines decreased significantly, reaching pH 4.85 for trial three, pH 5.15 for trial two, and pH 5.92 for trial one. The pH of both controls decreased more slowly, and had values below pH 5.0 only after the fifteenth day of fermentation (control one) and the sixty-fifth day of fermentation (control two). Trial three reached the highest lactic acid bacteria (LAB) concentration on the third day of fermentation. After six days of fermentation, all trials showed similar values of LAB counts that were significantly higher compared to control number one. The result from genotypic identification showed that L. pentosus OM13 was the most frequently isolated in the inoculated trials. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus coryniformis and Pediococcus pentosaceous were also detected at very low concentrations. Homoguaiacol, 2-butanol, 4-ethylphenol, phenylethyl alcohol and 4-ethylphenol were the volatile organic compounds detected at the highest levels in all experimental trials. Trial three showed a higher concentration of squalene that was not detected in other trials. The highest sensory scores of green olive aroma and overall satisfaction were found for all experimental olives, especially for those of trial

  16. Using Rasch analysis to form plausible health states amenable to valuation: the development of CORE-6D from a measure of common mental health problems (CORE-OM).

    PubMed

    Mavranezouli, Ifigeneia; Brazier, John E; Young, Tracey A; Barkham, Michael

    2011-04-01

    To describe a new approach for deriving a preference-based index from a condition specific measure that uses Rasch analysis to develop health states. The CORE-OM is a 34-item instrument monitoring clinical outcomes of people with common mental health problems. The CORE-OM is characterised by high correlation across its domains. Rasch analysis was used to reduce the number of items and response levels in order to produce a unidimensional measure and to generate a credible set of health states corresponding to different levels of symptom severity using the Rasch item threshold map. The proposed methodology resulted in the development of CORE-6D, a 2-dimensional health state descriptive system consisting of a unidimensional 5-item emotional component (derived from Rasch analysis) and a physical symptom item. Inspection of the Rasch item threshold map of the emotional component helped identify a set of 11 plausible health states, which, combined with 3 physical symptom item levels, form 33 plausible health states that can be used for the valuation of the instrument, resulting in the development of a preference-based index. This is a useful new approach to develop preference-based measures from existing instruments with high correlations across domains. The CORE-6D preference-based index will enable calculation of Quality-Adjusted Life Years in people with common mental health problems.

  17. Alum sludge-based constructed wetland system for enhanced removal of P and OM from wastewater: concept, design and performance analysis.

    PubMed

    Babatunde, A O; Zhao, Y Q; Zhao, X H

    2010-08-01

    The concept, design and performance analysis of a four-stage novel constructed wetland system (CWs) capable of enhanced and simultaneous removal of phosphorus (P) and organic matter (OM) from wastewaters is described. Alum sludge, a largely available by-product of drinking water facilities using aluminium salts as coagulant was used as the media. Under a hydraulic loading rate of 1.27 m(3)/m(2) d and a range of organic loading rate of 279.4-774.7 g-BOD(5)/m(2)d and 361.1-1028.7 g-COD/m(2)d, average removal efficiencies (mean+/-SD) of 90.6+/-7.5% for BOD(5) and 71.8+/-10.2% for COD were achieved, respectively. P removal was exceptional with average removal efficiency of 97.6+/-1.9% achieved for soluble reactive P at a mean influent concentration of 21.0+/-2.9 mg/l. Overall, the system holds great promise as a novel CWs for simultaneous removal of P and OM, and at the same time, it transforms alum sludge from a waste into a useful material. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. OM85-BV Induced the Productions of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α via TLR4- and TLR2-Mediated ERK1/2/NF-κB Pathway in RAW264.7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Hong; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Le; Wang, Chuanxiao; Zhang, Miao; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Huan; Li, Xing'ai; Xu, Qing; He, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Broncho-Vaxom (OM85-BV) is an extract mixture from 8 strains of Gram+ and Gram− bacteria and plays an important role in anti-infection immune response by regulating macrophage activity and cytokine productions. However, the mechanism by which OM85-BV enhances the cytokine expression is still obscure. In this study, we evaluated the effects of OM85-BV on the productions of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Exposure of RAW264.7 cells to 100 μg/mL OM85-BV upregulated the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α at the mRNA and protein levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, OM85-BV induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) phosphorylation. Pretreatment with U0126 or Bay11-7082, respectively, could decrease IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α productions induced by OM85-BV. Application of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 or TLR2 small-interfering RNA (siRNA) into RAW264.7 cells could inhibit the productions of cytokines and ERK1/2 and NF-κB phosphorylation induced by OM85-BV. Consistent with this, downregulating either myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) or TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM) gene with MyD88-siRNA or TRAM-siRNA separately could reduce the productions of cytokines and ERK1/2 and NF-κB phosphorylation induced by OM85-BV. Our study demonstrated that the productions of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α induced by OM85-BV in RAW264.7 cells were through TLR4 and TLR2 signaling pathway-mediated activation of ERK1/2 and NF-κB. PMID:24605772

  19. Operations, Maintenance, and Replacement 10-year plan, 1990-1999 : 1989 Utility OM&R Comparison : A Comparison of BPA (Bonneville Power Administration) and Selected Utility Transmission, Operations and Maintenance Costs.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1990-09-01

    For the past several years, competing resource demands within BPA have forced the Agency to stretch Operations, Maintenance and Replacement (OM R) resources. There is a large accumulation of tasks that were not accomplished when scheduled. Maintenance and replacements and outages, due to material and equipment failure, appear to be increasing. BPA has made a strategic choice to increase its emphasis on OM R programs by implementing a multi-year, levelized OM R plan which is keyed to high system reliability. This strategy will require a long-term commitment of a moderate increase in staff and dollars allocated to these programs. Inmore » an attempt to assess the direction BPA has taken in its OM R programs, a utility comparison team was assembled in early January 1989. The team included representatives from BPA's Management Analysis, Internal Audit and Financial Management organizations, and operation and maintenance program areas. BPA selected four utilities from a field of more than 250 electric utilities in the US and Canada. The selection criteria generally pertained to size, with key factors including transformation capacity, load, gross revenue, and interstate transmission and/or marketing agreements, and their OM R programs. Information was gathered during meetings with managers and technical experts representing the four utilities. Subsequent exchanges of information also took place to verify findings. The comparison focused on: Transmission operations and maintenance program direction and emphasis; Organization, management and implementation techniques; Reliability; and Program costs. 2 figs., 21 tabs.« less

  20. Prospective, randomized comparison of OM-85 BV and a prophylactic antibiotic in children with recurrent infections and immunoglobulin A and/or G subclass deficiency☆

    PubMed Central

    Genel, Ferah; Kutukculer, Necil

    2003-01-01

    Background Patients with immunoglobulin (Ig)A and/or IgG subclass deficiency may be asymptomatic or may have recurrent, mainly respiratory infections. Objective This study compared the clinical efficacy and tolerability of prophylactic therapy with either the oral immunomodulator bacterial extract OM-85 BV or benzathine penicillin G (BPG) in the prevention of recurrent infections in symptomatic patients. Methods In this 26-month, prospective, randomized study conducted at the Department of Pediatric Immunology, Ege University (Izmir, Turkey), children aged 1 to 12 years with recurrent infections and IgA and/or IgG subclass deficiency were enrolled. After an initial 12-month control period, patients were randomized to receive OM-85 BV or BPG. OM-85 BV (3.5-mg capsule) was given once daily for the first 10 days of each month for the first 3 months of the study. IM injections of BPG were given at a dose of 1.2 million units (for patients with body weight > 27 kg) or at a half-dose (for patients with body weight ≤27 kg) every 3 weeks for 12 months. In nonresponders (ie, those who continued to have recurrent infections at 12-month follow-up), IV immunoglobulin (IVIG) replacement therapy at 400 mg/kg body weight was given every 4 weeks for an additional 12 months. The results of IVIG therapy were assessed by the authors using clinical observation. Adverse effects and adverse drug reactions were documented by the authors for each vaccine, prophylactic therapy, and IVIG. Results A total of 91 children (56 boys, 35 girls; mean [SD] age at the start of the control period, 46.4 [31.0] months) were enrolled. Of these, 44 were randomized to the OM-85 BV group and 47 to the BPG group. The year before prophylactic therapy, the mean (SD) number of reported infections was 10.7 (3.6) and the mean (SD) number of antibiotic courses was 9.7 (3.6) (OM-85 BV group: mean [SD] number of reported infections, 10.5 [3.3]; mean (SD) number of antibiotic courses, 9.3 [3.3]; BPG group: mean

  1. The development and psychometric properties of a new scale to measure mental illness related stigma by health care providers: the Opening Minds Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC).

    PubMed

    Kassam, Aliya; Papish, Andriyka; Modgill, Geeta; Patten, Scott

    2012-06-13

    Research on the attitudes of health care providers towards people with mental illness has repeatedly shown that they may be stigmatizing. Many scales used to measure attitudes towards people with mental illness that exist today are not adequate because they do not have items that relate specifically to the role of the health care provider. We developed and tested a new scale called the Opening Minds Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC). After item-pool generation, stakeholder consultations and content validation, focus groups were held with 64 health care providers/trainees and six people with lived experience of mental illness to develop the scale. The OMS-HC was then tested with 787 health care providers/trainees across Canada to determine its psychometric properties. The initial testing OMS-HC scale showed good internal consistency, Cronbach's alpha = 0.82 and satisfactory test-retest reliability, intraclass correlation = 0.66 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.75). The OMC-HC was only weakly correlated with social desirability, indicating that the social desirability bias was not likely to be a major determinant of OMS-HC scores. A factor analysis favoured a two-factor structure which accounted for 45% of the variance using 12 of the 20 items tested. The OMS-HC provides a good starting point for further validation as well as a tool that could be used in the evaluation of programs aimed at reducing mental illness related stigma by health care providers. The OMS-HC incorporates various dimensions of stigma with a modest number of items that can be used with busy health care providers.

  2. Experimental immunization with anti-rheumatic bacterial extract OM-89 induces T cell responses to heat shock protein (hsp)60 and hsp70; modulation of peripheral immunological tolerance as its possible mode of action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

    PubMed Central

    BLOEMENDAL, A; VAN DER ZEE, R; RUTTEN, V P M G; VAN KOOTEN, P J S; FARINE, J C; VAN EDEN, W

    1997-01-01

    OM-89 is a bacterial (Escherichia coli) extract used for oral administration in the treatment of RA. Given the evidence that immunity to bacterial heat shock antigens plays a critical role in the immunomodulation of arthritis and possibly inflammation in general, the purpose of the present studies was to evaluate the presence and immunogenicity of hsp in OM-89. Furthermore, we studied the effects of OM-89 in an experimental arthritis, where hsp are known to have a critical significance in disease development. In rats immunization with OM-89 was found to lead to proliferative T cell responses to hsp60 and hsp70 of both E. coli and mycobacterial origin. Conversely, immunization with hsp antigens was also found to induce T cell reactivity specific for OM-89. Based on this and the antigen specificity analysis of specific T cell lines, hsp70 (DnaK) turned out to be one of the major immunogenic constituents of OM-89. Parenteral immunization with OM-89 was found to reduce resistance to adjuvant arthritis (AA), whereas oral administration was found to protect against AA. Given the arthritis-inhibitory effect of oral OM-89 in AA, it is possible that peripheral tolerance is induced at the level of regulatory T cells with specificity for hsp. This may also constitute a mode of action for OM-89 as an arthritis-suppressive oral drug. PMID:9353151

  3. Engineering description of the OMS/RCS/DAP modes used in the HP-9825A High Fidelity Relative Motion Program (HFRMP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    Simplified mathematical models are reported for the space shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), Reaction Control System (RCS), and on-orbit Digital Autopilot (DAP) that have been incorporated in the High-Fidelity Relative Motion Program (HFRMP) for the HP-9825A desk-top calculator. Comparisons were made between data generated by the HFRMP and by the Space Shuttle Functional Simulator (SSFS), which models the cited shuttle systems in much greater detail. These data include propellant requirements for representative translational maneuvers, rotational maneuvers, and attitude maintenance options. Also included are data relating to on-orbit trajectory deviations induced by RCS translational cross coupling. Potential close-range stationkeeping problems that are suggested by HFRMP simulations of 80 millisecond (as opposed to 40 millisecond) DAP cycle effects are described. The principal function of the HFRMP is to serve as a flight design tool in the area of proximity operations.

  4. Beetle and plant arrow poisons of the Ju|’hoan and Hai||om San peoples of Namibia (Insecta, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae; Plantae, Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Burseraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Chaboo, Caroline S.; Biesele, Megan; Hitchcock, Robert K.; Weeks, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of archery to hunt appears relatively late in human history. It is poorly understood but the application of poisons to arrows to increase lethality must have occurred shortly after developing bow hunting methods; these early multi-stage transitions represent cognitive shifts in human evolution. This paper is a synthesis of widely-scattered literature in anthropology, entomology, and chemistry, dealing with San (“Bushmen”) arrow poisons. The term San (or Khoisan) covers many indigenous groups using so-called ‘click languages’ in southern Africa. Beetles are used for arrow poison by at least eight San groups and one non-San group. Fieldwork and interviews with Ju|’hoan and Hai||om hunters in Namibia revealed major differences in the nature and preparation of arrow poisons, bow and arrow construction, and poison antidote. Ju|’hoan hunters use leaf-beetle larvae of Diamphidia Gerstaecker and Polyclada Chevrolat (Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) collected from soil around the host plants Commiphora africana (A. Rich.) Engl. and Commiphora angolensis Engl. (Burseracaeae). In the Nyae Nyae area of Namibia, Ju|’hoan hunters use larvae of Diamphidia nigroornata Ståhl. Larvae and adults live above-ground on the plants and eat leaves, but the San collect the underground cocoons to extract the mature larvae. Larval hemolymph is mixed with saliva and applied to arrows. Hai||om hunters boil the milky plant sap of Adenium bohemianum Schinz (Apocynaceae) to reduce it to a thick paste that is applied to their arrows. The socio-cultural, historical, and ecological contexts of the various San groups may determine differences in the sources and preparation of poisons, bow and arrow technology, hunting behaviors, poison potency, and perhaps antidotes. PMID:27006594

  5. Beetle and plant arrow poisons of the Ju|'hoan and Hai||om San peoples of Namibia (Insecta, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae; Plantae, Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Burseraceae).

    PubMed

    Chaboo, Caroline S; Biesele, Megan; Hitchcock, Robert K; Weeks, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The use of archery to hunt appears relatively late in human history. It is poorly understood but the application of poisons to arrows to increase lethality must have occurred shortly after developing bow hunting methods; these early multi-stage transitions represent cognitive shifts in human evolution. This paper is a synthesis of widely-scattered literature in anthropology, entomology, and chemistry, dealing with San ("Bushmen") arrow poisons. The term San (or Khoisan) covers many indigenous groups using so-called 'click languages' in southern Africa. Beetles are used for arrow poison by at least eight San groups and one non-San group. Fieldwork and interviews with Ju|'hoan and Hai||om hunters in Namibia revealed major differences in the nature and preparation of arrow poisons, bow and arrow construction, and poison antidote. Ju|'hoan hunters use leaf-beetle larvae of Diamphidia Gerstaecker and Polyclada Chevrolat (Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) collected from soil around the host plants Commiphora africana (A. Rich.) Engl. and Commiphora angolensis Engl. (Burseracaeae). In the Nyae Nyae area of Namibia, Ju|'hoan hunters use larvae of Diamphidia nigroornata Ståhl. Larvae and adults live above-ground on the plants and eat leaves, but the San collect the underground cocoons to extract the mature larvae. Larval hemolymph is mixed with saliva and applied to arrows. Hai||om hunters boil the milky plant sap of Adenium bohemianum Schinz (Apocynaceae) to reduce it to a thick paste that is applied to their arrows. The socio-cultural, historical, and ecological contexts of the various San groups may determine differences in the sources and preparation of poisons, bow and arrow technology, hunting behaviors, poison potency, and perhaps antidotes.

  6. Actinide Oxidation State and O/M Ratio in Hypostoichiometric Uranium-Plutonium-Americium U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x Mixed Oxides.

    PubMed

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Lebreton, Florent; Aufore, Laurence; Scheinost, Andreas C; Martin, Philippe M

    2016-03-07

    Innovative americium-bearing uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x are envisioned as nuclear fuel for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (SFRs). The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio, directly related to the oxidation state of cations, affects many of the fuel properties. Thus, a thorough knowledge of its variation with the sintering conditions is essential. The aim of this work is to follow the oxidation state of uranium, plutonium, and americium, and so the O/M ratio, in U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x samples sintered for 4 h at 2023 K in various Ar + 5% H2 + z vpm H2O (z = ∼ 15, ∼ 90, and ∼ 200) gas mixtures. The O/M ratios were determined by gravimetry, XAS, and XRD and evidenced a partial oxidation of the samples at room temperature. Finally, by comparing XANES and EXAFS results to that of a previous study, we demonstrate that the presence of uranium does not influence the interactions between americium and plutonium and that the differences in the O/M ratio between the investigated conditions is controlled by the reduction of plutonium. We also discuss the role of the homogeneity of cation distribution, as determined by EPMA, on the mechanisms involved in the reduction process.

  7. Ortho-isopropoxphenyl methylcarbamate (OMS-33) as a residual spray for control of anopheline mosquitos. With special reference to its evaluation in the WHO programme for evaluating and testing new insecticides.

    PubMed

    Wright, J W; Fritz, R F; Hocking, K S; Babione, R; Gratz, N G; Pal, R; Stiles, A R; Vandekar, M

    1969-01-01

    More than 1300 compounds have so far been included in the WHO Programme for Evaluating and Testing New Insecticides, which is designed to disclose compounds that may satisfactorily replace those to which insect vectors of disease have become resistant. The authors describe the successful passage of o-isopropoxyphenyl methylcarbamate (OMS-33) through the first 6 stages of the 7-stage programme that has been established for compounds intended for use against anopheline mosquitos and conclude that this product is suitable for testing in the final stage-large-scale epidemiological evaluation.In operational field trials (at 2 g/m(2)) OMS-33 has been shown capable of controlling Anopheles stephensi (in Iran), An. gambiae and An. funestus (in Nigeria) for 3-4 months, An. albimanus (in El Salvador) for 2-4 months and An. dthali (in Iran) for 2(1/2) months. It has an airborne effect by which anophelines are killed for a considerable time after OMS-33 has been sprayed, even though they do not make contact with a sprayed surface; this quality would appear advantageous in areas where anophelines enter houses and bite man but do not rest long enough on sprayed surfaces to acquire a lethal dose of insecticide or where significant outdoor biting occurs. The observance of simple safety precautions protects occupants of sprayed houses, spraymen and others from danger. Chemical studies have indicated that commercially produced water-dispersible powders of OMS-33 are stable under field conditions of storage and use.

  8. The development and psychometric properties of a new scale to measure mental illness related stigma by health care providers: The opening minds scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research on the attitudes of health care providers towards people with mental illness has repeatedly shown that they may be stigmatizing. Many scales used to measure attitudes towards people with mental illness that exist today are not adequate because they do not have items that relate specifically to the role of the health care provider. Methods We developed and tested a new scale called the Opening Minds Scale for Health Care Providers (OMS-HC). After item-pool generation, stakeholder consultations and content validation, focus groups were held with 64 health care providers/trainees and six people with lived experience of mental illness to develop the scale. The OMS-HC was then tested with 787 health care providers/trainees across Canada to determine its psychometric properties. Results The initial testing OMS-HC scale showed good internal consistency, Cronbach’s alpha = 0.82 and satisfactory test-retest reliability, intraclass correlation = 0.66 (95% CI 0.54 to 0.75). The OMC-HC was only weakly correlated with social desirability, indicating that the social desirability bias was not likely to be a major determinant of OMS-HC scores. A factor analysis favoured a two-factor structure which accounted for 45% of the variance using 12 of the 20 items tested. Conclusions The OMS–HC provides a good starting point for further validation as well as a tool that could be used in the evaluation of programs aimed at reducing mental illness related stigma by health care providers. The OMS-HC incorporates various dimensions of stigma with a modest number of items that can be used with busy health care providers. PMID:22694771

  9. Identification of a different-type homeobox gene, BarH1, possibly causing Bar (B) and Om(1D) mutations in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Kojima, T; Ishimaru, S; Higashijima, S; Takayama, E; Akimaru, H; Sone, M; Emori, Y; Saigo, K

    1991-05-15

    The Bar mutation B of Drosophila melanogaster and optic morphology mutation Om(1D) of Drosophila ananassae result in suppression of ommatidium differentiation at the anterior portion of the eye. Examinations was made to determine the genes responsible for these mutations. Both loci were found to share in common a different type of homeobox gene, which we call "BarH1." Polyptides encoded by D. melanogaster and D. ananassae BarH1 genes consist of 543 and 604 amino acids, respectively, with homeodomains identical in sequence except for one amino acid substitution. A unique feature of these homeodomains is that the phenylalanine residue in helix 3, conserved in all metazoan homeodomains so far examined, is replaced by a tyrosine residue. By Northern blotting, considerably more BarH1 RNA was detected in the Bar mutant than in wild type. P element-mediated transformation showed Bar-like eye malformation to be induced by transient overexpression of the BarH1 gene in the late third-instar larvae. Somatic recombination analysis indicated normal gene functions of the Bar region, including the BarH1 gene, to be required for normal eye morphogenesis.

  10. Combined use of GDOES, SEM+EDS, XRD and OM for the microchemical study of the corrosion products on archaeological bronzes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingo, G. M.; Angelini, E.; de Caro, T.; Bultrini, G.; Calliari, I.

    By means of the combined use of glow discharge optical emission spectrometry (GDOES), scanning electron microscopy+energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM+EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and optical microscopy (OM), corrosion products, i.e., the patina, grown on archaeological leaded bronze artefacts used by Punics and Romans, have been studied. This innovative approach has been utilised in order to gain further insight into the microchemical structure of the corrosion products as well as for selecting the cleaning and restoration methods. For all of the archaeological artefacts, the results show that via the innovative use of GDOES, it is possible to obtain reliable and reproducible quantitative elemental composition depth profiles for the outermost corroded layers, which are briefly discussed in combination with the microchemical features obtained via SEM+EDS, XRD and optical microscopy. Finally, the results show that GDOES, with its ability to provide routine and rapid analysis of layers of thickness up to 120 μm, seems to be a powerful technique in studies of the corrosion products on archaeological bronzes, with the aim of restoring and conserving ancient high tin or low tin leaded bronzes.

  11. Hierarchically multifunctional K-OMS-2/TiO2/Fe3O4 heterojunctions for the photocatalytic oxidation of humic acid under solar light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tong; Yan, Xiaoli; Sun, Darren Delai

    2012-12-01

    A multifunctional heterojunctioned K-OMS-2/TiO(2)/Fe(3)O(4) (KTF) nanocomposite was successfully synthesized using a combination of hydrothermal and co-precipitation techniques. The resultant sample was characterized by XRD, FESEM, TEM, N(2) adsorption, XPS and VSM. Its photocatalytic activity was demonstrated in the photocatalytic degradation of humic acid (HA). Morphology characterization showed the hierarchical structure of the synthesized material, and XRD results revealed that both the rutile and anatase TiO(2) structures are present in the sample. The average pore diameters and BET surface area of the synthesized KTF heterojunctions were 40 nm and 134.42 m(2)/g, respectively. XPS spectra confirmed the presence of Fe(3)O(4) and TiO(2) in the synthesized material, and the valences of Mn were kept at +3 and +4 after the grafting of Fe(3)O(4) and TiO(2). The synthesized material showed good magnetic response and photocatalytic activity under simulated solar light irradiation, and 85.7% of HA was decomposed after 120 min in the presence of KTF nanocomposites. The reusability study suggested that the magnetic recovered material was stable enough for multiple recycling usages, verifying its potential application in water purification. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, workers discuss the next step in moving the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod behind them. The OMS pod will be installed on Atlantis. Two OMS pods are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, workers discuss the next step in moving the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod behind them. The OMS pod will be installed on Atlantis. Two OMS pods are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts.

  13. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, one of two orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods is being moved for installation on Atlantis. The OMS pods are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, one of two orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods is being moved for installation on Atlantis. The OMS pods are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts.

  14. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, an orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod is moved closer to Atlantis for installation. Two OMS pods are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, an orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod is moved closer to Atlantis for installation. Two OMS pods are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts.

  15. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, technicians move an orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod into the correct position on Atlantis. The OMS pod is one of two that are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, technicians move an orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod into the correct position on Atlantis. The OMS pod is one of two that are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts.

  16. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, an orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod is moved into place on Atlantis. It is one of two OMS pods attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, an orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod is moved into place on Atlantis. It is one of two OMS pods attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts.

  17. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, technicians make adjustments to the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod being installed on Atlantis. The OMS pod is one of two that are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, technicians make adjustments to the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod being installed on Atlantis. The OMS pod is one of two that are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts.

  18. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, technicians make final adjustments to the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod being installed on Atlantis. The OMS pod is one of two that are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, technicians make final adjustments to the orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod being installed on Atlantis. The OMS pod is one of two that are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts.

  19. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, one of two orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods is lifted off its stand to move it toward Atlantis for installation. The OMS pods are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, one of two orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pods is lifted off its stand to move it toward Atlantis for installation. The OMS pods are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts.

  20. KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, an orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod is suspended in air as it is moved toward Atlantis for installation. Two OMS pods are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts.

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-30

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - In the Orbiter Processing Facility, an orbital maneuvering system (OMS) pod is suspended in air as it is moved toward Atlantis for installation. Two OMS pods are attached to the upper aft fuselage left and right sides. Fabricated primarily of graphite epoxy composite and aluminum, each pod is 21.8 feet long and 11.37 feet wide at its aft end and 8.41 feet wide at its forward end, with a surface area of approximately 435 square feet. Each pod houses the Reaction Control System propulsion components used for inflight maneuvering and is attached to the aft fuselage with 11 bolts.

  1. Space Shuttle AFRSI OMS pod environment test using model 81-0 test fixture in the Ames Research Center 9x7-foot supersonic wind tunnel (OS-314A/B/C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collette, J. G. R.

    1984-01-01

    A test was conducted in the NASA/Ames Research Center 9x7-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel to help resolve an anomaly that developed during the STS-6 orbiter flight wherein sections of the Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) covering the OMS pods suffered some damage. A one-third scale two-dimensional shell structure model of an OMS pod cross-section was employed to support the test articles. These consisted of 15 AFRSI blanket panels form-fitted over the shell structures for exposure to simulated flight conditions. Of six baseline blankets, two were treated with special surface coatings. Two other panels were configured with AFRSI sections removed from the OV099 orbiter vehicle after the STS-6 flight. Seven additional specimens incorporated alternative designs and repairs. Following a series of surface pressure calibration runs, the specimens were exposed to simulated ascent and entry dynamic pressure profiles. Entry conditions included the use of a vortex generator to evaluate the effect of shed vortices on the AFRSI located in the area of concern.

  2. La contribución de los Centros Colaboradores de la OMS/OPS en los avances de la promoción de la salud en América Latina.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Hiram V; Mantilla Uribe, Blanca P; Contreras Rengifo, Adolfo; Westphal, Marcia F; Mendes, Rosilda

    2016-09-01

    Los "Centros Colaboradores" de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) son instituciones designadas para prestar apoyo estratégico en el desarrollo de los objetivos y la ejecución de las actividades de la OMS, y para generar capacidad institucional en países y regiones. En las Américas existen ocho Centros Colaboradores directamente relacionados a la promoción de la salud. Cuatro centros se ubican en Norteamérica y los otros cuatro en América Latina. El propósito de este artículo es describir los Centros Colaboradores de la Región de América Latina. Los centros han sido importantes en el desarrollo de la agenda de promoción de la salud de la región, la consolidación de la estrategia de entornos saludables y el fortalecimiento de las redes académicas y profesionales de promoción de la salud. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. A comparison of observed extreme water levels at the German Bight elaborated through an extreme value analysis (EVA) with extremes derived from a regionally coupled ocean-atmospheric climate model (MPI-OM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möller, Jens; Heinrich, Hartmut

    2017-04-01

    As a consequence of climate change atmospheric and oceanographic extremes and their potential impacts on coastal regions are of growing concern for governmental authorities responsible for the transportation infrastructure. Highest risks for shipping as well as for rail and road traffic originate from combined effects of extremes of storm surges and heavy rainfall which sometimes lead to insufficient dewatering of inland waterways. The German Ministry of Transport and digital Infrastructure therefore has tasked its Network of Experts to investigate the possible evolutions of extreme threats for low lands and especially for Kiel Canal, which is an important shortcut for shipping between the North and Baltic Seas. In this study we present results of a comparison of an Extreme Value Analysis (EVA) carried out on gauge observations and values derived from a coupled Regional Ocean-Atmosphere Climate Model (MPI-OM). High water levels at the coasts of the North and Baltic Seas are one of the most important hazards which increase the risk of flooding of the low-lying land and prevents such areas from an adequate dewatering. In this study changes in the intensity (magnitude of the extremes) and duration of extreme water levels (above a selected threshold) are investigated for several gauge stations with data partly reaching back to 1843. Different methods are used for the extreme value statistics, (1) a stationary general Pareto distribution (GPD) model as well as (2) an instationary statistical model for better reproduction of the impact of climate change. Most gauge stations show an increase of the mean water level of about 1-2 mm/year, with a stronger increase of the highest water levels and a decrease (or lower increase) of the lowest water levels. Also, the duration of possible dewatering time intervals for the Kiel-Canal was analysed. The results for the historical gauge station observations are compared to the statistics of modelled water levels from the coupled

  4. Transition-Metal-Free C-Vinylation of Ketones with Acetylenes: A Quantum-Chemical Rationalization of Similarities and Differences in Catalysis by Superbases MOH/DMSO and tBuOM/DMSO (M = Na, K).

    PubMed

    Orel, Vladimir B; Vitkovskaya, Nadezhda M; Kobychev, Vladimir B; Trofimov, Boris A

    2018-04-06

    Transition-metal-free C-vinylation of acetone with phenylacetylene catalyzed by superbases MOH/DMSO and tBuOM/DMSO (M = Na, K) has been theoretically evaluated in the B3LYP/6-311++G**//B3LYP/6-31+G* approach to rationalize similarities and differences in activity of the above catalytic systems. The close solvate surroundings of sodium and potassium tert-butoxides have been studied. Formation of tBuOM· nDMSO complexes and their structure and thermodynamic stability are discussed in comparison with similar complexes of alkali-metal hydroxides MOH· nDMSO. Activation barriers of the title reaction in the presence of tBuOM· nDMSO complexes are found to be less than those with MOH· nDMSO complexes participating.

  5. A survey of Anopheles gambiae (species A) and An. arabiensis (species B) of the An. gambiae Giles complex in the Kisumu area of Kenya following insecticidal spraying with OMS-43 (Fenitrothion).

    PubMed

    Service, M W; Joshi, G P; Pradhan, G D

    1978-08-01

    After village huts in the Kisumu area of Kenya had been sprayed with a nominal 2 g/m2 of OMS-43 (fenitrothion) as part of an insecticidal evaluation programme 964 adults of the Anopheles gambiae complex collected from huts were identified cytogenetically as either An. gambiae (species A) or An. arabiensis (species B). Similarly, cytogenetic methods were used to identify 349 adults collected from granaries and artificial pit-shelters. In addition, 2203 larvae of the gambiae complex collected from different types of habitats were specifically identified cytogenetically. As in a previous survey made prior to insecticidal spraying, adults of An. arabiensis predominated in outdoor collections while An. gambiae was highly endophilic. However, it appeared that spraying with fenitrothion had resulted in an increase in both the degree of exophily in An. arabiensis and also its relative numbers in respect to An. gambiae, although the overall pooulation of both species was greatly reduced by spraying. Insecticidal spraying may have diverted both species from feeding on man to cattle. Except for one village, where larvae of An. arabiensis were commoner than expected in cattle hoof-prints, there was little difference between the selection of different types of larval habitats by the two sibling species. Chromosomal inversions were more common in adults of An. arabiensis than in An. gambiae.

  6. WHAT ARE THE Omh {sup 2} ( z {sub 1}, z {sub 2}) AND Om ( z {sub 1}, z {sub 2}) DIAGNOSTICS TELLING US IN LIGHT OF H ( z ) DATA?

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Xiaogang; Ding, Xuheng; Biesiada, Marek

    2016-07-01

    The two-point diagnostics Om ( z {sub i} , z {sub j} ) and Omh {sup 2}( z {sub i} , z {sub j} ) have been introduced as an interesting tool for testing the validity of the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model. Recently, Sahni et al. combined two independent measurements of H ( z ) from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) data with the value of the Hubble constant H {sub 0}, and used the second of these diagnostics to test the ΛCDM (a constant equation-of-state parameter for dark energy) model. Their result indicated a considerable tension between observationsmore » and predictions of the ΛCDM model. Since reliable data concerning the expansion rates of the universe at different redshifts H ( z ) are crucial for the successful application of this method, we investigate both two-point diagnostics on the most comprehensive set of N = 36 measurements of H ( z ) from BAOs and the differential ages (DAs) of passively evolving galaxies. We discuss the uncertainties of the two-point diagnostics and find that they are strongly non-Gaussian and follow the patterns deeply rooted in their very construction. Therefore we propose that non-parametric median statistics is the most appropriate way of treating this problem. Our results support the claims that ΛCDM is in tension with H ( z ) data according to the two-point diagnostics developed by Shafieloo, Sahni, and Starobinsky. However, other alternatives to the ΛCDM model, such as the wCDM or Chevalier–Polarski–Linder models, perform even worse. We also note that there are serious systematic differences between the BAO and DA methods that ought to be better understood before H ( z ) measurements can compete with other probes methods.« less

  7. B vitamin and/or ω-3 fatty acid supplementation and cancer: ancillary findings from the supplementation with folate, vitamins B6 and B12, and/or omega-3 fatty acids (SU.FOL.OM3) randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, Valentina A; Touvier, Mathilde; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Julia, Chantal; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge

    2012-04-09

    To advance knowledge about the cancer-chemopreventive potential of individual nutrients, we investigated the effects of B vitamin and/or ω-3 fatty acid supplements on cancer outcomes among survivors of cardiovascular disease. This was an ancillary study of the Supplementation With Folate, Vitamins B(6) and B(12) and/or Omega-3 Fatty Acids (SU.FOL.OM3) secondary prevention trial (2003-2009). In all, 2501 individuals aged 45 to 80 years were randomized in a 2 × 2 factorial design to one of the following 4 daily supplementation groups: (1) 5-methyltetrahydrofolate (0.56 mg), pyridoxine hydrochloride (vitamin B(6); 3 mg) and cyanocobalamin (vitamin B(12); 0.02 mg); (2) eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid (600 mg) in a 2:1 ratio; (3) B vitamins and ω-3 fatty acids; or (4) placebo. Overall and sex-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs regarding the cancer outcomes were estimated with Cox proportional hazards models. After 5 years of supplementation, incident cancer was validated in 7.0% of the sample (145 events in men and 29 in women), and death from cancer occurred in 2.3% of the sample. There was no association between cancer outcomes and supplementation with B vitamins (HR, 1.15 [95% CI, 0.85-1.55]) and/or ω-3 fatty acids (HR, 1.17 [95% CI, 0.87-1.58]). There was a statistically significant interaction of treatment by sex, with no effect of treatment on cancer risk among men and increased cancer risk among women for ω-3 fatty acid supplementation (HR, 3.02 [95% CI, 1.33-6.89]). We found no beneficial effects of supplementation with relatively low doses of B vitamins and/or ω-3 fatty acids on cancer outcomes in individuals with prior cardiovascular disease. Trial Registration  isrctn.org Identifier: ISRCTN41926726.

  8. Solving the O&M Equation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flach, Robert; Dorgan, Chad B.

    2003-01-01

    Concerning the issue of molds and indoor air quality in school buildings, addresses the importance of planning and design for building operations and maintenance, the effects of indoor air quality, and ongoing documentation and training. (EV)

  9. Atlantis OMS Pods and Vertical Stabilizer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2011-07-09

    S135-E-006361 (9 July 2011) --- One of the four STS-135 crewmembers took this photo from space shuttle Atlantis' aft flight deck during the mission's second day of activities in Earth orbit. Earth's horizon and aft sections of the shuttle frame the orbiter boom sensor system (OBSS) on the starboard side of the spacecraft shortly before it was remotely maneuvered into position to start survey of the spacecraft's thermal protection system (TPS). The various sensor packages on the OBSS, which include a high-resolution still camera, a laser range imager and a video camera, later swept over the critical surfaces of the TPS, looking for signs of any damage that might have been caused by ascent debris or anything that might endanger the shuttle's ability to return to Earth safely. Photo credit: NASA

  10. Uprated OMS engine status and future applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, W. C.; Brasher, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    The baseline Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) of the Space Shuttle has the potential for significant performance uprating, leading to increased Shuttle performance capability. The approach to uprating that is being pursued at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center is the use of a gas generator-driven turbopump to increase OME operating pressure. A higher pressure engine can have a greater nozzle expansion ratio in the same envelope and at the same thrust level, giving increased engine Isp. The results of trade studies and analyses that have led to the preferred uprated OME configuration are described. The significant accomplishments of a pre-development component demonstration program are also presented, including descriptions of test hardware and discussion of test results. It is shown that testing to date confirms the capability of the preferred uprated OME configuration to meet or exceed performance and life requirements. Potential future activities leading up to a full-scale development program are described, and the capability for the uprated OME to be used in future storable propellant upper stages is discussed.

  11. Uprated OMS engine for upper stage propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, William C.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a pre-development component demonstration program on the use of a gas generator-driven turbopump that increases the Space Shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) operating pressure are given. Tests and analysis confirm the the capability of the concept to meet or exceed performance and life requirements. Storable propellant upper stage concepts are also discussed.

  12. Taxonomy and evolution of bacteriochlorophyll a-containing members of the OM60/NOR5 clade of marine gammaproteobacteria: description of Luminiphilus syltensis gen. nov., sp. nov., reclassification of Haliea rubra as Pseudohaliea rubra gen. nov., comb. nov., and emendation of Chromatocurvus halotolerans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aerobic gammaproteobacteria affiliated to the OM60/NOR5 clade are widespread in saline environments and of ecological importance in several marine ecosystems, especially the euphotic zone of coastal areas. Within this group a close relationship between aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotrophs and non-phototrophic members has been found. Results Several strains of aerobic red-pigmented bacteria affiliated to the OM60/NOR5 clade were obtained from tidal flat sediment samples at the island of Sylt (North Sea, Germany). Two of the novel isolates, Rap1red and Ivo14T, were chosen for an analysis in detail. Strain Rap1red shared a 16S rRNA sequence identity of 99% with the type strain of Congregibacter litoralis and was genome-sequenced to reveal the extent of genetic microheterogeneity among closely related strains within this clade. In addition, a draft genome sequence was obtained from the isolate Ivo14T, which belongs to the environmental important NOR5-1 lineage that contains so far no cultured representative with a comprehensive description. Strain Ivo14T was characterized using a polyphasic approach and compared with other red-pigmented members of the OM60/NOR5 clade, including Congregibacter litoralis DSM 17192T, Haliea rubra DSM 19751T and Chromatocurvus halotolerans DSM 23344T. All analyzed strains contained bacteriochlorophyll a and spirilloxanthin as photosynthetic pigments. Besides a detailed phenotypic characterization including physiological and chemotaxonomic traits, sequence information based on protein-coding genes and a comparison of draft genome data sets were used to identify possible features characteristic for distinct taxa within this clade. Conclusions Comparative sequence analyses of the pufLM genes of genome-sequenced representatives of the OM60/NOR5 clade indicated that the photosynthetic apparatus of these species was derived from a common ancestor and not acquired by multiple horizontal gene transfer from phylogenetically distant

  13. Final technical report; Mercury Release from Organic matter (OM) and OM-Coated Mineral Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Aiken, George

    2014-10-02

    This document is the final technical report for a project designed to address fundamental processes controlling the release of mercury from flood plain soils associated with East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee near the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge facility. The report summarizes the activities, findings, presentations, and publications resulting from an award to the U.S. Geological that were part of a larger overall effort including Kathy Nagy (University of Illinois, Chicago, Ill) and Joseph Ryan (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO). The specific charge for the U.S.G.S. portion of the study was to provide analytical support for the larger groupmore » effort (Nagy and Ryan), especially with regard to analyses of Hg and dissolved organic matter, and to provide information about the release of mercury from the floodplain soils.« less

  14. Final Technical Report: Mercury Release from Organic Matter (OM) and OM-Coated Mineral Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Kathryn L.

    2015-08-18

    Chemical reactions between mercury, a neurotoxin, and sulfur, an essential nutrient, in the environment control to a large extent the distribution and amount of mercury available for uptake by living organisms. The largest reservoir of sulfur in soils is in living, decaying, and dissolved natural organic matter. The decaying and dissolved organic matter can also coat the surfaces of minerals in the soil. Mercury (as a divalent cation) can bind to the sulfur species in the organic matter as well as to the bare mineral surfaces, but the extent of binding and release of this mercury is not well understood.more » The goals of the research were to investigate fundamental relationships among mercury, natural organic matter, and selected minerals to better understand specifically the fate and transport of mercury in contaminated soils downstream from the Y-12 plant along East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee, and more generally in any contaminated soil. The research focused on (1) experiments to quantify the uptake and release of mercury from two clay minerals in the soil, kaolinite and vermiculite, in the presence and absence of dissolved organic matter; (2) release of mercury from cinnabar under oxic and anoxic conditions; (3) characterization of the forms of mercury in the soil using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopic techniques; and, (4) determination of molecular forms of mercury in the presence of natural organic matter. We also leveraged funding from the National Science Foundation to (5) evaluate published approaches for determining sulfur speciation in natural organic matter by fitting X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra obtained at the sulfur K-edge and apply optimized fitting schemes to new measurements of sulfur speciation in a suite of dissolved organic matter samples from the International Humic Substances Society. Lastly, in collaboration with researchers at the University of Colorado and the U.S. Geological Survey in Boulder, Colorado, (6) we investigated the biogeochemical controls on the release of mercury in simulated flooding experiments using loose soils and intact soil cores from East Fork Poplar Creek.« less

  15. Supplementation with B vitamins or n-3 fatty acids and depressive symptoms in cardiovascular disease survivors: ancillary findings from the SUpplementation with FOLate, vitamins B-6 and B-12 and/or OMega-3 fatty acids (SU.FOL.OM3) randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Andreeva, Valentina A; Galan, Pilar; Torrès, Marion; Julia, Chantal; Hercberg, Serge; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle

    2012-07-01

    Dietary factors might affect depressive symptoms. In secondary data analyses, we examined effects of supplementation with B vitamins or n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids on depressive symptoms in cardiovascular disease survivors. The SUpplementation with FOLate, vitamins B-6 and B-12 and/or OMega-3 fatty acids (SU.FOL.OM3) trial was a secondary prevention trial (2003-2009; n = 2501) in which individuals aged 45-80 y were randomly assigned, by using a 2 × 2 factorial design, to receive 0.56 mg 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate and vitamins B-6 (3 mg) and B-12 (0.02 mg); EPA and DHA (600 mg) in a 2:1 ratio; B vitamins and n-3 fatty acids; or a placebo. Depressive symptoms were evaluated at years 3 and 5 with the 30-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS). Overall and sex-specific ORs and 95% CIs were estimated in 2000 participants by using factorial logistic regression. After a median of 4.7 y of supplementation, there was no association between allocation to receive B vitamins and depressive symptoms. However, the allocation to receive n-3 fatty acids was positively associated with depressive symptoms (GDS >10) in men (adjusted OR: 1.28; 95% CI: 1.03, 1.61) but not in women. We showed no beneficial effects of a long-term, low-dose supplementation with B vitamins or n-3 fatty acids on depressive symptoms in cardiovascular disease survivors. The adverse effects of n-3 fatty acids in men merit confirmation.

  16. OM85. Basic Properties of Optical Materials Summaries of Papers.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-05-01

    Kajzar, J. Messier, J. Zyss, and I. Ledoux , Opt. Commun. 45, 133 (1983). 7. G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, and S. K. Tripathy, Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 891...1967). 136 . . ... . . . . . . . . . . . ELASTIC PROPERTIES OF CHEMICALLY VAPOR-DEPOSITED ZnS AND ZnSe Claude A. Klein and Charles B. Willingham Raytheon...and C. L. Tang, IEEE J. Quantum Electron., QE-15, 1176 (1979). 9. I. Ledoux and J. Zyss, Chem. Phys., 73, 203 (1982). 10. C. Flytzanis, in Treatise

  17. Robert Seymour Bridges om: Poet, physician and philosopher

    PubMed Central

    James, Theodore

    1994-01-01

    There has not been an English poet more interested in prosody nor physician more taken to medicine for its human contact, nor philosopher who lived closer to the tenets of his belief, than Robert Bridges (1844–1930). ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:8207726

  18. CIFOG: Cosmological Ionization Fields frOm Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutter, Anne

    2018-03-01

    CIFOG is a versatile MPI-parallelised semi-numerical tool to perform simulations of the Epoch of Reionization. From a set of evolving cosmological gas density and ionizing emissivity fields, it computes the time and spatially dependent ionization of neutral hydrogen (HI), neutral (HeI) and singly ionized helium (HeII) in the intergalactic medium (IGM). The code accounts for HII, HeII, HeIII recombinations, and provides different descriptions for the photoionization rate that are used to calculate the residual HI fraction in ionized regions. This tool has been designed to be coupled to semi-analytic galaxy formation models or hydrodynamical simulations. The modular fashion of the code allows the user to easily introduce new descriptions for recombinations and the photoionization rate.

  19. Shuttle performance enhancement using an uprated OMS engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallini, Charles J.; Boyd, William C.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Space Shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) has been investigated as the basis for an enhancement of Shuttle operational flexibility. The Johnson Space Center has given attention to an upgrading of the OME through the use of a gas generator-driven turbopump to raise engine specific impulse. Hardware tests have demonstrated the projected performance gains, which will yield an enhanced, intact ascent-abort capability, as well an an improved on-orbit payload and altitude capability. Attention is given to the application of these capabilities to the Hubble Space Telescope's deployment.

  20. [The efficacy of tympanopunction in children with OMS].

    PubMed

    Jezewska, Elzbieta; Kukwa, Andrzej; Jabłońska, Joanna; Wozniak, Monika

    2008-01-01

    Otitis media with effusion is the most frequent cause of conductive hearing impairement (HL) at pediatric age. This entity can be asymptomatic for an important period of time (silent OME). There is a surgical and a nonsurgical approach for OME. In case of failure of conservative treatment of OME the ventilation tube insertion (VT) with adenoidectomy alone or combined with tonsillectomy should be choosed. If the hearing loss is less than 20 dB children are candidates for conservative treatment and myringotomy. From 1999 to 2003, 50 children with bilateral and 9 with unilateral OME underwent the surgical treatment in our ENT Department. Mean age of patient population was 6,8 years. Clinical evaluation of the OME treatment outcome was done in 2004. Surgical procedure involved myringotomy, aspiration of the middle ear effusion, middle ear irrigation with soline solution 0.9 % Sodium Chloride (NaCl) followed by suction of diluted glue. Depo-Medrol (methylprednisolone acetate) was administrated into the middle ear. Our procedure included the management of the upper airways obstruction. Good long-term outcomes after surgical treatment of OME were obtained in 30 patients (79%). In this group of children the upper airways management included adenoidectomy and partial tonsillectomy. 8 children presented poor response to the treatment. In this group the surgical procedure consisted of adenoidectomy and inferior turbinate reduction. Two children presented acute otitis media and improved after conservative treatment. Other children with poor outcome were: a boy who underwent multiple surgical procedures due to laryngotracheal stenosis, a girl who suffered from chondrodysplasia. Remaining two patients presented few months ago aggravation of conductive hearing loss. According to positive familial history they underwent allergical examinations. One boy was planned for readenoidectomy and laser myringotomy, a girl already operated at the age of tree years, was planned for ventilation tubes insertion and readenoidectomy in another ENT Department.

  1. Uprated OMS Engine Status-Sea Level Testing Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertolino, J. D.; Boyd, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    The current Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) is pressure fed, utilizing storable propellants. Performance uprating of this engine, through the use of a gas generator driven turbopump to increase operating pressure, is being pursued by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Component level design, fabrication, and test activities for this engine system have been on-going since 1984. More recently, a complete engine designated the Integrated Component Test Bed (ICTB), was tested at sea level conditions by Aerojet. A description of the test hardware and results of the sea level test program are presented. These results, which include the test condition operating envelope and projected performance at altitude conditions, confirm the capability of the selected Uprated OME (UOME) configuration to meet or exceed performance and operational requirements. Engine flexibility, demonstrated through testing at two different operational mixture ratios, along with a summary of projected Space Shuttle performance enhancements using the UOME, are discussed. Planned future activities, including ICTB tests at simulated altitude conditions, and recommendations for further engine development, are also discussed.

  2. GRS vs. OMS Calibration in LISA Pathfinder Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meshksar, Neda; Ferraioli, Luigi; Mance, Davor; ten Pierick, Jan; Zweifel, Peter; Giardini, Domenico; ">LISA Pathfinder colaboration, Expenditures on O&M at America's Most Beautiful Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellertson, Shari L.

    2001-01-01

    Presents survey results on operations and maintenance expenditures and management comparisons among the 50 universities and colleges considered to have "works-of-art" campuses. Among the study's conclusions is the idea that what makes a campus a "work of art" or award winner does not appear to be reflected in what they spend on plant operations…

  3. Space shuttle OMS helium regulator design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichmann, H.; Kelly, T. L.; Lynch, R.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis, design, fabrication and design verification testing was conducted on the technological feasiblity of the helium pressurization regulator for the space shuttle orbital maneuvering system application. A prototype regulator was fabricated which was a single-stage design featuring the most reliable and lowest cost concept. A tradeoff study on regulator concepts indicated that a single-stage regulator with a lever arm between the valve and the actuator section would offer significant weight savings. Damping concepts were tested to determine the amount of damping required to restrict actuator travel during vibration. Component design parameters such as spring rates, effective area, contamination cutting, and damping were determined by test prior to regulator final assembly. The unit was subjected to performance testing at widely ranging flow rates, temperatures, inlet pressures, and random vibration levels. A test plan for propellant compatibility and extended life tests is included.

  4. Energy conservation study. Energy survey of organizational maintenance shops Hayward OMS 465-07-0012 and Madison OMS 465-02-0003

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1978-01-01

    The Energy Conservation study of the Organizational Maintenance Shops located in Hayward and Madison, Wisconsin, was undertaken to determine measures that could be implemented to reduce the consumption of energy at these facilities and the other twelve shops. An analysis was made of the building shell and the various mechanical systems contained within these facilities. During the fiscal year 1975-1976, the utility costs for Hayward were fuel oil $2,059 and electricity $718. Utility costs for Madison were fuel oil $2,248 and electricity $1,540. Savings at the twelve other shops would be comparable to the Hayward and Madison shops due tomore » similar construction with the exception of Kenosha and Richard Street at Milwaukee, which have concrete exterior walls.« less

  5. Methodology for Risk-informed O&M decision making in power plants

    SciTech Connect

    2016-10-06

    Incorporation of real-time component information using equipment condition assessment (ECA) through the developmentof enhanced risk monitors (ERM) for active components in advanced reactor (AR) and advanced small modular reactor (SMR) designs. We incorporate time-dependent failure probabilities from prognostic health management (PHM) systems to dynamically update the risk metric of interest. This information is used to augment data used for supervisory control and plant-wide coordination of multiple modules by providing the incremental risk incurred due to aging and demands placed on components that support mission requirements.

  6. PLB, vertical tail, OMS pods above Earth with moon in distant background

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1983-09-05

    STS008-02-0041 (30 Aug-5 Sept 1983) --- An astronaut's eye view of two thirds of the cargo bay, the white and blue horizon scene of the Earth, and a gibbous moon was recorded on 35mm film from the aft flight deck of the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Challenger. The payload flight test article (PFTA) appears to be awaiting its heavy workout schedule in the middle of the bay.

  7. Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and O&M, Annual Progress Report 2007-2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Sellman, Jake; Perugini, Carol

    2009-02-20

    The Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and Operations and Maintenance Project (DV Fisheries) is an ongoing resident fish program that serves to partially mitigate the loss of anadromous fish that resulted from downstream construction of the federal hydropower system. The project's goals are to enhance subsistence fishing and educational opportunities for Tribal members of the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes and provide fishing opportunities for non-Tribal members. In addition to stocking rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Mountain View (MVR), Lake Billy Shaw (LBS), and Sheep Creek Reservoirs (SCR), the program is also designed to: maintain healthy aquatic conditions for fish growth and survival,more » provide superior facilities with wilderness qualities to attract non-Tribal angler use, and offer clear, consistent communication with the Tribal community about this project as well as outreach and education within the region and the local community. Tasks for this performance period fall into three categories: operations and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, and public outreach. Operation and maintenance of the three reservoirs include maintaining fences, roads, dams and all reservoir structures, feeder canals, water troughs, stock ponds, educational signs, vehicles, equipment, and restroom facilities. Monitoring and evaluation activities include creel, gillnet, wildlife, and bird surveys, water quality and reservoir structures monitoring, native vegetation planting, photo point documentation, and control of encroaching exotic vegetation. Public outreach activities include providing environmental education to school children, providing fishing reports to local newspapers and vendors, updating the website, hosting community environmental events, and fielding numerous phone calls from anglers. The reservoir monitoring program focuses on water quality and fishery success. Sheep Creek Reservoir and Lake Billy Shaw had less than productive trout growth due to water quality issues including dissolved oxygen and/or turbidity. Regardless, angler fishing experience was the highest at Lake Billy Shaw. Trout in Mountain View Reservoir were in the best condition of the three reservoirs and anglers reported very good fishing there. Water quality (specifically dissolved oxygen and temperature) remain the main limiting factors in the fisheries, particularly in late August to early September.« less

  8. The Persistent Contributions of RNA to Eukaryotic Gen(om)e Architecture and Cellular Function

    PubMed Central

    Brosius, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the best scenario for earliest forms of life is based on RNA molecules as they have the proven ability to catalyze enzymatic reactions and harbor genetic information. Evolutionary principles valid today become apparent in such models already. Furthermore, many features of eukaryotic genome architecture might have their origins in an RNA or RNA/protein (RNP) world, including the onset of a further transition, when DNA replaced RNA as the genetic bookkeeper of the cell. Chromosome maintenance, splicing, and regulatory function via RNA may be deeply rooted in the RNA/RNP worlds. Mostly in eukaryotes, conversion from RNA to DNA is still ongoing, which greatly impacts the plasticity of extant genomes. Raw material for novel genes encoding protein or RNA, or parts of genes including regulatory elements that selection can act on, continues to enter the evolutionary lottery. PMID:25081515

  9. Undergraduate Research Experience In Ocean/Marine Science (URE-OMS) with African Student Component

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    mentoring of students by faculty and advisement of students on applying for future ocean and marine science internships . WORK COMPLETED The URE...programs representing 27 institutions and 12 majors. Among the majors included were Physics, Computer Science, Biology, Geology , Chemistry, Math...Education, Marine Biology, Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Geography, Geology , and Mathematics. Minority serving institutions comprised 78

  10. Undergraduate Research Experience in Ocean/Marine Science (URE-OMS) with African Student Component

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    students by faculty and advisement of students on applying for future ocean and marine science internships . WORK COMPLETED The URE program... Geology , Chemistry, Math Education, Marine Biology, Computer Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Geography, Geology , and Mathematics. Minority serving

  11. Undergraduate Research Experience in Ocean/Marine Science (URE-OMS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    summer Ocean and Marine Science internships . WORK COMPLETED A total of nine research teams were formed during the 2001, 2002, and 2003 programs...Engineering, Geography, Geology , Mathematics, and Agricultural Sciences. There has been a total of 26 males and 14 females including one Hispanic and

  12. Undergraduate Research Experience in Ocean/Marine Science (URE-OMS) with African Student Component

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    internships . WORK COMPLETED The URE program featured high quality interactions with faculty and/or other research mentors, structured research projects...Geography, Geology , Mathematics, and Agricultural Sciences. There have been a total of 48 males and 38 females including three Hispanic, two Native

  13. JPRS Report, Science & Technology, Europe, FRG: Official Report om Multiyear Research Funding, Trends

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-08-23

    Fertigungstechnik K Biotechnologie 1979 1st (2) ins- gesamt -w- darunter FuE -ttr 19811sl (2) 1 776,4 1 060,2 318,7 318,7 400,4... Biotechnologie LI Materialforschung L2 Chemische Verfahrenstechnik ... L3 Physikalische Technologien M Luftfahrtforschung und -entwick- lung N...DM600 Million in BMFT Funds (as of 12-31-1987) Cover the Following Research Areas: (1) Meerestechnik (2) Biotechnologie , Gesundheitsforschung

  14. Music Education through Popular Music Festivals: A Study of the "OM Music Festival" in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Most people think of the teaching and learning of music as taking place in formal, institutional contexts like schools and universities. This study looks at the transmission of music teaching and learning that takes place in a more informal, musical environment, namely at a "popular music festival." In particular, it discusses the OM…

  15. OMS engine shutoff valve and actuation system design and evaluation. [for space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichmann, H.

    1974-01-01

    Shutoff valve and actuation system concepts that are most suitable for the Orbital Maneuvering Systems engine application were determined. Emphasis was placed on the ten year and 100 mission life requirement, propellant and propellant residue compatibility and weight. It was found that poppet or ball valves utilizing electric or electropneumatic actuation were most applicable. Preliminary design layouts of a number of valve and actuation concepts were prepared and analyzed to make the optimum concept selection. Pneumatic actuation systems were required to feature their own pneumatic supply so that for the quad redundant valve, it was necessary to include two pneumatic supply systems, one for each of the series legs of the quad redundant package. The requirement for the pneumatic package placed heavy reliability, weight, and maintenance penalties upon electropneumatic actuation systems. The two valve and actuation systems concepts selected featured electric torque motor operation and a poppet as well as a ball valve concept with a retractable seal.

  16. Actuation and system design and evaluation OMS engine shutoff valve, Volume 1. [space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, V. B.

    1975-01-01

    A technology program was conducted to identify and verify the optimum valve and actuation system concept for the Space Shuttle Orbit Maneuvering System engine. Of major importance to the valve and actuation system selection was the ten-year, 100-mission, 10,000-cycle life requirement, while maintaining high reliability, low leakage, and low weight. Valve and actuation system concepts were comparatively evaluated against past valve failure reports and potential failure modes due to the shuttle mission profile to aid in the selection of the most optimum concept for design, manufacture and verification testing. Two valve concepts were considered during the preliminary design stage; i.e., the moving seat and lifting ball. Two actuation systems were manufactured and tested. Test results demonstrate the viability of a lifting ball concept as well as the applicability of an ac motor actuation system to best meet the requirements of the shuttle mission.

  17. Tre Indlaeg om "Interlanguage Pragmatics" (Three Critiques of "Interlanguage Pragmatics"). ROLIG Papir No. 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preisler, Bent, Ed.

    The three papers presented here are critiques to a Doctoral Dissertation defense titled "Interlanguage Pragmatics: Requests, Complaints, and Apologies." The responses are written by the "disputants" or members of the candidate's dissertation review committee. The first paper, "Den empiriske undersogelse i 'Interlanguage Pragmatics'" (The Empirical…

  18. Domain specific languages for modeling and simulation: use case OMS3

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A domain-specific language (DSL) is usually a concise, declarative language that strongly emphasizes a particular problem domain. DSL methods and implementations in general are widely prototyped and applied in academia for creating elegant ways to express properties, relationships, and behavior of r...

  19. Peridotite carbonation at the leading edge of the mantle wedge: OmDP Site BT1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelemen, P. B.; Godard, M.; Johnson, K. T. M.; Okazaki, K.; Manning, C. E.; Urai, J. L.; Michibayashi, K.; Harris, M.; Coggon, J. A.; Teagle, D. A. H.; Phase I Science Party, T. O. D. P.

    2017-12-01

    Hole BT1B sampled 3 layers of carbonated peridotite (listvenite, 0-80, 100-180, 185-197 m) separated by 2 layers of carbonate-bearing serpentinite (80-100, 180-185 m), underlain by 100 m metasediment and metabasalt. Listvenites (magnesite and/or dolomite + quartz + Fe-oxyhydroxides + chromian spinel ± fuchsite rocks) replacing mantle peridotite at and near the base of the Samail ophiolite (Stanger 85, Wilde ea 02, Nasir ea 07, Falk & Kelemen 15: FK15) reveal processes of carbon transfer into the mantle wedge (Kelemen & Manning 15) and suggest methods for CO2 capture and storage (Kelemen ea 11). Near BT1, 10 to 200 m thick tabular listvenites interlayered with partly serpentinized harzburgite have contacts parallel to the basal thrust. Imprecise Rb/Sr and 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate listvenite formed during obduction (FK15). Listvenite-peridotite contacts are gradational over 1-2 m. The listvenite matrix is microcrystalline quartz + magnesite. Quartz recrystallized from opal as in listvenites worldwide (Akbulut ea 06, Boschi ea 09, Jurkovic ea 12, Aftabi & Zarrinkoub 13, Posukhova ea 13, Ulrich ea 14) consistent with 80-120°C from clumped isotopes and phase equilibria (FK15). Thus listvenite formed - and deformed ductilely - at low T. Ubiquitous carbonate-rich veins locally comprise >10% of core sections; many have antitaxial textures consistent with expansion due to crystallization pressure. Carbonate-rich veins cut serpentinite and listvenite; veins formed a mesh, followed by replacement of mesh cores. Despite variability in and around veins, average Mg/Si, Fe/Si, Al/Si, Fe/Mg, and Cr/Al in listvenite (75 whole rocks, 7712 XRF scanner points) are indistinguishable from average Samail peridotite. CaO (average 5 wt%, range 0-40) and strongly correlated Sr were added to peridotite, most likely from subducting sediment. Rare core with >10 vol% dolomite has higher Fe/Mg than peridotite, but the same Mg/Si. Thus Mg, Si, Al and Cr, plus Fe in most rocks, were largely immobile on a 1-10 m scale during introduction of C, O, lesser Ca, minor Fe, and fluid mobile trace elements (Godard ea AGU 17) during transformation of Mg-silicates to carbonate + quartz. With prior and coeval serpentinization, this implies 80% solid volume expansion compared to unaltered peridotite, in a zone >200 m thick at the leading edge of the mantle wedge.

  1. 40-in. OMS Kevlar(Registered Trademark) COPV S/N 007 Stress Rupture Test NDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saulsberry, Regor; Greene, Nate; Forth, Scott; Leifeste, Mark; Gallus, Tim; Yoder, Tommy; Keddy, Chris; Mandaras, Eric; Wincheski, Buzz; Williams, Philip; hide

    2010-01-01

    The presentation examines pretest nondestructive evaluation (NDE), including external/internal visual inspection, raman spectroscopy, laser shearography, and laser profilometry; real-time NDE including eddy current, acoustic emission (AE), and real-time portable raman spectroscopy; and AE application to carbon/epoxy composite overwrapped pressure vessels.

  2. ASASSN-16om and ASASSN-16on: Discovery of Two Probable Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, B.; Brimacombe, J.; Brown, J. S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Kochanek, C. S.; Shields, J.; Shappee, B. J.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Kiyota, S.; Post, R. S.; Stone, G.

    2016-12-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin"), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Cassius" telescope in Cerro Tololo, Chile, we discovered two new transient sources, most likely supernovae, in the galaxies AM 2329-410 and MRSS 251-044924.

  3. Relationship of environmental tobacco smoke to otitis media (OM) in children

    PubMed Central

    Csákányi, Zsuzsanna; Czinner, Antal; Spangler, John; Rogers, Todd; Katona, Gábor

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many, but not all, studies have found a correlation between environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and acute otitis media (AOM) and other adverse otologic outcomes. Given its high personal and societal costs and the divergent findings of the effect of ETS on middle ear disease, the aim of the current study was to assess the impact and possible determinant factors of ETS on recurrent (two or more) episodes of AOM. Methods The study was performed at Heim Pal Children's Hospital, Ear, Nose and Throat (ENT) Department, Budapest, Hungary. Caregivers of a convenience sample of 412 children attending the ENT outpatient clinic were surveyed via a 22-item questionnaire regarding demographics, socioeconomics, and smoking behaviours of the child's family; as well as caregivers' self report of the number of AOM episodes of the child. Results Of the 412 participants, 155 (38%) children's parents smoked. In bivariate analysis, two or more episodes of AOM correlated with reported hearing problems, day care enrolment, parental employment and increased age of the child. In multivariate logistic regression, parental smoking more than doubled a child's risk for recurrent AOM while increased maternal employment (e.g. part-time or full-time vs. unemployed) boosted risk up to fourfold. Among children whose parents smoked, half-packs of cigarettes smoked per day and day care attendance doubled or nearly tripled, respectively, the risk of recurrent AOM episodes. Conclusions Childhood exposure to ETS is high among an ENT clinic population of Hungarian children. Such exposure correlates with AOM episodes, ENT operations and conductive hearing loss. Data such as these argue for strict laws smoke-free laws not only in Hungary, but also in Europe and around the world. PMID:22510576

  4. Progress toward cascade cells made by OM-VPE. [organometallic vapor phase epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, P. G.; Larue, R. A.; Ludowise, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    Organometallic Vapor Phase Epitaxy (COM-VPE) was used to make a sophisticated monolithic cascade cell, with a peak AMO efficiency of 16.6%, not corrected for 14% grid coverage. The cell has 9 epitaxial layers. The top cell is 1.35 microns thick with a 0.1 micron thich emitter. Both cells are heteroface n-p structures. The cascade cell uses metal interconnects. Details of growth and processing are described.

  5. Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering Subsystem (OMS) Engine Propellant Leakage Ball-Valve Shaft Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueders, Kathy; Buntain, Nick; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Evidence of propellant leakage across ball-valve shaft seals has been noted during the disassembly of five flight engines and one test engine at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, White Sands Test Facility. Based on data collected during the disassembly of these five engines, the consequences of propellant leakage across the ball-valve shaft seals can be divided into four primary areas of concern: Damage to the ball-valve pinion shafts, damage to sleeved bearings inside the ball-valve and actuator assemblies, degradation of the synthetic rubber o-rings used in the actuator assemblies, and corrosion and degradation to the interior of the actuator assemblies. The exact time at which leakage across the ball-valve shaft seals occurs has not been determined, however, the leakage most likely occurs during engine firings when, depending on the specification used, ball-valve cavity pressures range as high as 453 to 550 psia. This potential pressure range for the ball-valve cavities greatly exceeds the acceptance leakage test pressure of 332 psia. Since redesign and replacement of the ball-valve shaft seals is unlikely, the near term solution to prevent damage that occurs from shaft-seal leakage is to implement a routine overhaul and maintenance program for engines in the fleet. Recommended repair, verification, and possible preventative maintenance measures are discussed in the paper.

  6. Low Vision Mobility Problems: Perceptions of O&M Specialists and Persons with Low Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, A. J.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This open-ended survey of 156 subjects (78 pairs of visually handicapped orientation and mobility specialists and adult clients) identified common low vision mobility problems (lighting conditions, drop-offs, street crossings, changes in terrain) and found a high degree of agreement between the reported perceptions of mobility practitioners and…

  7. Landscape Unbounded: Space, Place, and Orientation in [palatal click]Akhoe Hai//om and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widlok, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Even before it became a common place to assume that "the Eskimo have a hundred words for snow" the languages of hunting and gathering people have played an important role in debates about linguistic relativity concerning geographical ontologies. Evidence from languages of hunter-gatherers has been used in radical relativist challenges to…

  8. Standardization of Management Control/Financial Management Systems Utilized for the O&M, NR Appropriation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-01

    NR Appropriation 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(*) 11. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMMER (.) Terry Merle Grieninger and Rhonda Jean Shaffer S...required to record the obligation of funds in the accounting system. The efficiency and accuracy of accounting systems depends upon correctly prepared...INFORMATION While the correct preparation of financial management/purchase documents is fundamental to the efficiency and accuracy of official

  9. Space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system design study. Phase C and E report: Storable propellants, RCS/OMS/APU integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anglim, D. D.; Bruns, A. E.; Perryman, D. C.; Wieland, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Auxiliary propulsion concepts for application to the space shuttle are compared. Both monopropellant and bipropellant earth storable reaction control systems were evaluated. The fundamental concepts evaluated were: (1) monopropellant and bipropellant systems installed integrally within the vehicle, (2) fuel systems installed modularly in nose and wing tip pods, and (3) fuel systems installed modularly in nose and fuselage pods. Numerous design variations within these three concepts were evaluated. The system design analysis and methods for implementing each of the concepts are reported.

  10. U.S. Steel Consent Decree Submittal “Wastewater Treatment O&M Manual and Preventative Maintenance Program Plan”

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The United States of America, by the authority of the Attorney General of the United States and through its undersigned attorneys, acting at the request of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”), file this Complaint.

  11. Ada Compiler Validation Summary Report: Western Digital STC-Ada Compiler, Version C1. Om V-004.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-28

    B26002A.ADA P SC:S 11 EC: 2 C26002B. ADA P SC 2 19 *A26004A.TST P SC 2 11 826005A.ADA P SC x 37 EC z 31 C26006A.ADA P SC x 12 C26008A.ADA P SC a 9...z 22 545206SBLA.DA P SC 2 9 EC x 3 :3115207A-AS.ADA P SC.2 14 EC x B452078-B.ADA P SC x 37 EC x 6 B45207C-B.ADA P SC a 41 EC x 6 B45207D-B.ADA P SC:a...BC3205 11H-S. ADA W B C32O512-B.ADA PC SC a 13 EC a 1 BC32OSJ-B.ADA w CC3208A-AB.ADA P SC x 35 CC3208B-AB.ADA P SC x 37 DC3301h-AB.ADA P SC x 37 EC a 7

  12. 78 FR 9961 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMS BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... posting Protected Quotations within the meaning of Regulation NMS (i.e. ``dark venues'' or ``dark pools... seek to execute on BX or on dark pools without executing on another exchange. Members may seek to....00- $10.01, and BX, DarkVenueA and ARCA each offer 100 shares at $10.01, a BDRK order to buy 1000...

  13. Space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system design study. Phase C report: Oxygen-hydrogen RCS/OMS integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruns, A. E.; Regnier, W. W.

    1972-01-01

    A comparison of the concepts of auxiliary propulsion systems proposed for the space shuttle vehicle is discussed. An evaluation of the potential of integration between the reaction control system and the orbit maneuvering system was conducted. Numerous methods of implementing the various levels of integration were evaluated. Preferred methods were selected and design points were developed for two fully integrated systems, one partially integrated system, and one separate system.

  14. Baseline plasma fatty acids profile and incident cardiovascular events in the SU.FOL.OM3 trial: the evidence revisited.

    PubMed

    Fezeu, Léopold K; Laporte, François; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Andreeva, Valentina A; Blacher, Jacques; Hercberg, Serge; Galan, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the association between baseline plasma fatty acids profile and the risk of future major cardiovascular events in patients with a history of ischaemic heart disease or ischemic stroke. Baseline plasma fatty acids as well as established cardiovascular risk factors were measured in 2,263 patients enrolled in the SUpplementation with FOLate, vitamins B-6 and B-12 and/or OMega-3 fatty acids randomized controlled trial. Incident major cardiovascular, cardiac and cerebrovascular events were ascertained during the 4.7 years of follow up. Hazard ratios were obtained from Cox proportional hazards models after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. During the follow-up, 154, 379 and 84 patients had major cardiovascular, cardiac and cerebrovascular events respectively. Upon adjustment for gender, initial event, baseline age and BMI, the risk of developing a major cardiovascular event decreased significantly in successive quartiles of arachidonic acid (P trend<0.002), total omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (P trend<0.03), docosapentaenoic acid (P trend<0.019), docosahexaenoic acid (P trend<0.004), eicosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid (P trend<0.03) and eicosapentaenoic acid + docosapentaenoic acid + docosahexaenoic acid (P trend<0.02). This inverse association was borderline significant with increased quartiles of stearidonic acid (P trend<0.06). In the full model, only stearidonic acid remained inversely associated with the risk of developing a major cardiovascular event (P trend<0.035), a cardiac event (P trend<0.016) or a cerebrovascular event (P trend<0.014), while arachidonic acid was inversely associated with the risk a cerebrovascular event (P trend<0.033). The inverse association of long chain omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids with recurrence of Cardiovascular diseases was mainly driven by well-known cardiovascular risk factors. Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN41926726.

  15. U.S. Steel Consent Decree Submittal “Wastewater Treatment O&M Manual and Preventive Maintenance Program Plan”

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The United States of America, by the authority of the Attorney General of the United States and through its undersigned attorneys, acting at the request of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”), file this Complaint.

  16. Caractérisation de complexes de Vanadium (III) présentant une géométrie de bipyramide-trigonale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrila-Handrea, M.; Rosu, T.; Negoiu, M.

    1999-02-01

    The present study describes the synthesis of the solid complex compounds VCl3L2 with differents ligands and their characterisation by IR and electronic spectroscopie, elementary chemical analysis and differential thermic annalysis. An advanced study about the chemical nature bonds on the complex compounds has been realised by usig of the field ligands cellular model (CLF). The presence of free three-orbital d for Vanadium ion V3+ (d^2) lead to the tansition of an electron pair sp2 hibrid atoms. In this case, a covalent-coordinating bond: V3+≤ftarrowbulletbullet E (E = N, P, As) can be resulting. The experimenal results show that all the complex compounds obtained present a D3h, geometry. Ce travail décrit l'obtention à l'état solide de VCl3L2 avec différents ligands et leur caractérisation par spectroscopies IR et électronique, analyse chimique élémentaire et analyse thermique différentielle. Une étude plus approfondie sur la nature des liaisons chimiques dans les complexes a été réalisée en utilisant le modèle cellulaire du champ des ligands (CLF). La présence de trois orbitales libres de type d, pour l'ion de V3+ (d^2) permet le déplacement d'une paire d'électrons des atomes hybridés sp2 qui peuvent ainsi réaliser une liaison du type rétrodonneur: V3+≤ftarrowbulletbullet E (E = N, P, As). Les résultats expérimentaux montrent que tous les complexes obtenus présentent une symétrie D3h.

  17. Determination of the O/M ratios of polynary uranium oxides by Ce(IV)-Fe(II) back titration after dissolution in mixed sulphuric and phosphoric acids.

    PubMed

    Fujino, T; Sato, N; Yamada, K

    1996-01-01

    Uranium (IV) in polynary uranium oxides is determined after the solid has been dissolved in a warm mixed solution of sulphuric and phosphoric acids containing excess Ce(IV). The latter is titrated with a Fe(II) standard solution using ferroin as indicator. This method is especially effective for (mixed) uranium oxides which are difficult to dissolve in hot Ce(IV) sulphuric acid. The standard deviation of the determined x value in polynary oxides is estimated to be below +/- 0.004 for samples of 10-30 mg.

  18. GeochronML - O&M, GeoSciML and the Age of the Earth: Developing a geochronology data model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sircombe, K. N.; Ardlie, N.; Sullivan, L.; Wyborn, L. A.

    2007-12-01

    Geochronology is the vital fourth dimension for geological knowledge. It provides the temporal framework for understanding and modelling geological processes and rates of change. Incorporating geochronological 'observations and measurements' into interoperable geological data systems is thus a critical pursuit. Although there are several resources for storing and accessing geochronological data, there is no standard format for exchanging such data among users. Current systems are a mixture of comma-delimited text files, Excel spreadsheets and PDFs that assume prior specialist knowledge and frequently force the user to laboriously, and potentially erroneously, extract the required data manually. Geoscience Australia and partners are developing a standard data exchange format for geochronological data (`geochronML') within the broader framework of Observations and Measurements and GeoSciML that are an important facet of emerging international geoscience data transfer standards. Geochronology analytical processes and resulting data present some challenging issues as a rock `age' is typically not a direct measurement, but rather the interpretation of a statistical amalgam of several measurements chosen with the aid of prior geological knowledge and analytical metadata. The level at which these data need to be exposed to a user varies greatly, even to the same user over the course of a project. GeochronML is also attempting to provide a generic pattern that will support as wide as range of radioisotopic systems as possible. This presentation will discuss developments at Geoscience Australia and the opportunities for collaboration.

  19. Les corps perméables plio-quaternaires de la Mamora (Maroc). Géométrie et influence structurale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zouhri, Lahcen; Lamouroux, Christian; Vachard, Daniel; Piqué, Alain

    2001-01-01

    The Plio-Quaternary permeable bodies of the Mamora (Morocco). Geometry and structural influences. The geometrical configuration of the western Mamora basin highlighted a partition in horsts and grabens in the southern part and a system of three geological units (U1, U2, and U3) in the northern part. Two great structures have been deduced from this study: (1) the Rabat-Kénitra fault belonging to the 'sheared West-Mesetian zone' family, (2) the K2S fault depending of the important Hercynian Rabat-Tiflete fault. The depressions identified in the Mamora contain the Pliocene aquifer formations which overlay the impermeable Mio-Pliocene blue marls.

  20. I think therefore I om: cognitive distortions and coping style as mediators for the effects of mindfulness meditation on anxiety, positive and negative affect, and hope.

    PubMed

    Sears, Sharon; Kraus, Sue

    2009-06-01

    This study examined cognitive distortions and coping styles as potential mediators for the effects of mindfulness meditation on anxiety, negative affect, positive affect, and hope in college students. Our pre- and postintervention design had four conditions: control, brief meditation focused on attention, brief meditation focused on loving kindness, and longer meditation combining both attentional and loving kindness aspects of mindfulness. Each group met weekly over the course of a semester. Longer combined meditation significantly reduced anxiety and negative affect and increased hope. Changes in cognitive distortions mediated intervention effects for anxiety, negative affect, and hope. Further research is needed to determine differential effects of types of meditation. Copyright 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. ométrie et dynamique sur les surfaces algébriques réelles [Geometry and dynamics on real algebraic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLin, Kristie S.

    The study of fluid-rock interactions provides insight into subsurface geologic processes, such as diagenesis, hydrothermal alteration and metamorphism. Understanding and predicting these interactions also helps us assess the geologic impact of hydrocarbon recovery and geothermal production and injection. Therefore, the study of fluid-rock interactions has both geologic and economic impact. At the Dixie Valley geothermal field, NV, precipitated calcite and aragonite within a production well trapped boiling fluids in fluid inclusions. The trapped gases were analyzed and shown to be compositionally different than those sampled at the well head. The inclusions trapped a greater ratio of light gases CH 4 and H2 to CO2 than those sampled at the well head. This result indicates that the fluid inclusions trapped the initial steam fraction during boiling. Declining performance of injection wells at the Coso and Salton Sea geothermal fields, CA, were found to result from mineral deposition in the near-wellbore environment during fluid injection. At Coso, opal-A and minor calcite scale mineral precipitates were found in cuttings from wells drilled near previously operating injection wells. At the Salton Sea, cuttings from a deepened injection well contained banded barite, fluorite, amorphous silica, and minor anhydrite scales. Mineral precipitation was modeled and predicted with the non-isothermal reactive transport modeling code TOUGHREACT. Geochemical simulations were also performed to predict the consequences of injecting H2SO 4 modified fluid for mitigating silica precipitation at Coso using TOUGHREACT. The models predict that silica precipitation will be reduced significantly by maintaining pH of 5 or less. This can be accommodated in the models by reducing the kinetic rate constant for silica precipitation. TOUGHREACT simulations also predict that corundum proppants will be chemically stable under geothermal conditions. The formation of talc in the outer aureole of the Alta Stock does not define a regular isogradic surface, unlike isograds in the inner aureole. Examination of mineral and fluid stabilities in the H2O-CO 2-NaCl system shows that several fluid evolution scenarios, including fluid immiscibility, may produce the observed talc heterogeneity.

  2. Diffusion of oxygen interstitials in UO2+x using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations: Role of O/M ratio and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Rakesh K.; Watanabe, Taku; Andersson, David A.; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Deo, Chaitanya S.

    2016-04-01

    Oxygen interstitials in UO2+x significantly affect the thermophysical properties and microstructural evolution of the oxide nuclear fuel. In hyperstoichiometric Urania (UO2+x), these oxygen interstitials form different types of defect clusters, which have different migration behavior. In this study we have used kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) to evaluate diffusivities of oxygen interstitials accounting for mono- and di-interstitial clusters. Our results indicate that the predicted diffusivities increase significantly at higher non-stoichiometry (x > 0.01) for di-interstitial clusters compared to a mono-interstitial only model. The diffusivities calculated at higher temperatures compare better with experimental values than at lower temperatures (< 973 K). We have discussed the resulting activation energies achieved for diffusion with all the mono- and di-interstitial models. We have carefully performed sensitivity analysis to estimate the effect of input di-interstitial binding energies on the predicted diffusivities and activation energies. While this article only discusses mono- and di-interstitials in evaluating oxygen diffusion response in UO2+x, future improvements to the model will primarily focus on including energetic definitions of larger stable interstitial clusters reported in the literature. The addition of larger clusters to the kMC model is expected to improve the comparison of oxygen transport in UO2+x with experiment.

  3. Transmittal Letter Re: United States Steel Corporation (U. S. Steel), Midwest Plant, Portage, Indiana: Wastewater Treatment O&M Manual and Preventative Maintenance Program Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The United States of America, by the authority of the Attorney General of the United States and through its undersigned attorneys, acting at the request of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (“EPA”), file this Complaint.

  4. Assessment of fluorescence EEM vs. Liquid-state 1H-NMR spectroscopy for the characterization of natural OM in agricultural soils from the UK and Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Maria Luisa; Collins, Chris; Clark, Joanna; Parras-Alcantara, Luis; Lozano-Garcia, Beatriz

    2014-05-01

    Humification is the group of biological and chemical reactions that leads to the formation of humus, which contributes to nutrient and water retention, as well as to the accumulation of carbon. Here, we assess the potential to measure the degree of humification of organic matter by fluorescence spectroscopy, by comparing indices calculated from the fluorescence emission-excitation matrix (EEM) with measurements of aromaticity determined by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR). In this study, two contrasting European soils were compared: cambisols with from agricultural land in eastern Andalusia (South Spain, Mediterranean climate) and Reading, (South-East England, Temperate climate). Both the Mediterranean and British soils were managed with conventional tillage. Samples were collected at depths ranging from 13.3cm to 60cm down the soil profiles. All samples were then dried and sieved to 2mm. Fluorescence measurements were taken for the whole soil profile. Prior to fluorescence, the supernatant of the samples was extracted with the Ghani et al. (2003) method. This was followed by a hot water extraction (80oC) which is considered more exhaustive. Fluorescence was measured at an emission wavelength from 300 to 600nm at 5-nm increments and an excitation of 240-450nm at 5-nm increments. Fluorescence indexes were calculated as the ratio of intensities at 450 over 500nm with an excitation of 370nm, as described by Cory et al. (2010), NMR was applied to the first horizon (A depth between 5.7cm and 12cm in this case), due to time constraints. The method for extracting the supernatant was the same as per the hot extraction for the fluorescence samples. The aromaticity of isolated fulvic acid samples was calculated as the ratio of the area of aromatic hydrogen region to the total area of the H-NMR spectrum (% aromaticity). Other soil parameters measured were dissolved organic carbon (DOC), absorbance, texture, carbonates, pH, total carbon, and total nitrogen. Assessment of whether a regression model can be applied to the fluorescence indices to effectively predict the aromatic fraction of organic matter from NMR in both soils will be presented. If robust relationships can be found, there may be potential for fluorescence spectroscopy as a fast and more cost effective method of organic matter characterisation.

  5. Manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve K-OMS-2 as catalyst in post plasma-catalysis for trichloroethylene degradation in humid air.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Dinh, M T; Giraudon, J-M; Vandenbroucke, A M; Morent, R; De Geyter, N; Lamonier, J-F

    2016-08-15

    The total oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in air at low relative humidity (RH=10%) in the presence of CO2 (520ppmv) was investigated in function of energy density using an atmospheric pressure negative DC luminescent glow discharge combined with a cryptomelane catalyst positioned downstream of the plasma reactor at a temperature of 150°C. When using Non-Thermal Plasma (NTP) alone, it is found a low COx (x=1-2) yield in agreement with the detection of gaseous polychlorinated by-products in the outlet stream as well as ozone which is an harmful pollutant. Introduction of cryptomelane enhanced trichloroethylene removal, totally inhibited plasma ozone formation and increased significantly the COx yield. The improved performances of the hybrid system were mainly ascribed to the total destruction of plasma generated ozone on cryptomelane surface to produce active oxygen species. Consequently these active oxygen species greatly enhanced the abatement of the plasma non-reacted TCE and completely destroyed the hazardous plasma generated polychlorinated intermediates. The facile redox of Mn species associated with oxygen vacancies and mobility as well as the textural properties of the catalyst might also contribute as a whole to the efficiency of the process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Facile one-step template-free synthesis of uniform hollow microstructures of cryptomelane-type manganese oxide K-OMS-2.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Hugo M; Carvajal, Yadira; Njagi, Eric; Ristau, Roger A; Suib, Steven L

    2010-08-17

    Hollow microstructures of cryptomelane-type manganese oxide were produced in a template-free one-step process based on the fine-tuning of the oxidation rate of manganese species during the synthesis. The tuning of the reaction rate brought about by a mixture of the oxidants oxone and potassium nitrate becomes apparent from the gradual physical changes taking place in the reaction medium at early times of the synthesis. The successful synthesis of the hollow uniform structures could be performed in the ranges 120-160 degrees C and 8.2-10.7 for temperature and mass ratio oxone/potassium nitrate, respectively. Independent of the conditions of the synthesis, all of the complex microstructures showed the same pattern for the array of very long nanofibers in which some of these elongated around the surface confining the cavity and the other fibers grew normal to the surface created by the previous arrangement. A mechanism based on the heterogeneous nucleation of the cryptomelane phase on the surface of an amorphous precursor and the growth of the nanoscale fibers by processes such as dissolution-crystallization and lateral attachment of primary nanocrystalline fibers is proposed to explain the formation of the hollow structures.

  7. Urchin-like cobalt incorporated manganese oxide OMS-2 hollow spheres: Synthesis, characterization and catalytic degradation of RhB dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Khalid Abdelazez Mohamed; Li, Buyi; Tan, Bien; Huang, Kaixun

    2013-01-01

    Urchin-like KxCoyMn8-yO16 hollow spheres assembled from nanoplate building blocks were successfully fabricated via a one-pot hydrothermal route using cobalt acetate and potassium permanganate as raw material. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) measurement. The thermal stability and surface areas of cobalt ion in the manganese sites of KMn8O16 structures were clearly evidenced by TGA and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms curves. Based on time depended experiment results, a possible formation mechanism for this structures was proposed. The catalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) on KxCoyMn8-yO16 materials has, therefore been dependent for the molar precursor ratio and specific surface area of the as-fabricated products. UV-vis, LC-MS and barium hydroxide methods were utilized to monitor the temporal course of the catalytic reaction.

  8. Relevans og intention. To analyser af en massemedietekst om okonomisk politik. ROLIG-papir 33 (Relevance and Intention. Two Analyses of a Mass Media Text on Economic Politics. ROLIG-paper 33).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heltoft, Lars; Geist, Uwe

    The three papers in this publication analyze a newspaper article on "economic politics," or more specifically, the devaluing of the Danish kroner. The papers all examine some linguistic or structural feature of the language used in writing the article. Specific focus is on relevance theory and relevance in the article, the use of text…

  9. Results of investigations with an 0.015-scale model (49-0) of the Rockwell International space shuttle vehicle 140A/B configuration with modified OMS pods and elevons in the AEDC VKF tunnel B (0A79)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esparza, V.; Lindsay, A. I.

    1975-01-01

    Aerodynamic data obtained from wind tunnel tests of an 0.015-scale space shuttle vehicle Orbiter model of a 140A/B configuration with modified orbital manuevering system pods and elevons are documented. Force data was obtained at various control surface settings and Reynolds numbers in the angle of attack range of 15 deg to 45 deg and at angles of sideslip of -5 deg to +5 deg. Control surface variables included elevon, rudder, speed brake, and body flap configurations.

  10. MIZEX (Marginal Ice Zone Program): A Program for Mesoscale Air-Ice-Ocean Interaction Experimemts om Arctic Marginal Ice Zones. V. MIZEX 84. Summer Experiment PI (Principal Investigator) Preliminary Reports,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-01

    effects such as upwelling attributable to the physical presence of sea ice. Definite conclusions, however, will have to await a more thorough...organized by trans- system to be determined and, hence, ponder unit number. In the table, RL * the strain rate invariants to be de - refers to a "range loop...accurate position data). It was soon found that buoys completely assembled except for antenna could be slung by helicopter for quick de loyment and

  11. 20 CFR 229.22 - Beginning date of increase under overall minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... social security earnings; or (4) The month the employee attains retirement age, if a DIB O/M was paid in the previous month. A DIB O/M is changed to an age O/M in the month the employee attains retirement age. (b) Employee DIB O/M. An increase under the overall minimum in an employee annuity based on...

  12. 20 CFR 229.22 - Beginning date of increase under overall minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... social security earnings; or (4) The month the employee attains retirement age, if a DIB O/M was paid in the previous month. A DIB O/M is changed to an age O/M in the month the employee attains retirement age. (b) Employee DIB O/M. An increase under the overall minimum in an employee annuity based on...

  13. 20 CFR 229.22 - Beginning date of increase under overall minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... social security earnings; or (4) The month the employee attains retirement age, if a DIB O/M was paid in the previous month. A DIB O/M is changed to an age O/M in the month the employee attains retirement age. (b) Employee DIB O/M. An increase under the overall minimum in an employee annuity based on...

  14. 20 CFR 229.22 - Beginning date of increase under overall minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... social security earnings; or (4) The month the employee attains retirement age, if a DIB O/M was paid in the previous month. A DIB O/M is changed to an age O/M in the month the employee attains retirement age. (b) Employee DIB O/M. An increase under the overall minimum in an employee annuity based on...

  15. 20 CFR 229.22 - Beginning date of increase under overall minimum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... social security earnings; or (4) The month the employee attains retirement age, if a DIB O/M was paid in the previous month. A DIB O/M is changed to an age O/M in the month the employee attains retirement age. (b) Employee DIB O/M. An increase under the overall minimum in an employee annuity based on...

  16. Mixed pneumococcal-nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae otitis media is a distinct clinical entity with unique epidemiologic characteristics and pneumococcal serotype distribution.

    PubMed

    Dagan, Ron; Leibovitz, Eugene; Greenberg, David; Bakaletz, Lauren; Givon-Lavi, Noga

    2013-10-01

    Complex (ie, recurrent, nonresponsive, or chronic) otitis media (OM) is frequent and is often caused by a mixed-pathogen infection with biofilm formation. We conducted this study to characterize children with OM due to mixed Streptococcus pneumoniae and nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) infections (M-OM) and those with OM due to single, S. pneumoniae-only infections (S-OM) and to examine whether pneumococcal serotypes associated with M-OM differed from those associated with S-OM. In a 10-year prospective study in southern Israel, the clinical and demographic variables and pneumococcal serotypes associated with M-OM were compared to those associated with S-OM in children <3 years old. M-OM episodes were significantly more likely to be found in Bedouin children (for whom living conditions are crowded and colonization occurs during early life) and in older children with bilateral OM, recurrent OM, previous tympanocentesis, and lower body temperature, as well as during the winter, suggesting an association with recurrence/chronicity. M-OM was associated with pneumococcal serotypes most commonly carried by healthy children, whereas S-OM was associated with serotypes previously shown to have a higher disease potential. S-OM and M-OM differ clinically and epidemiologically, with overlapping characteristics. Our findings are in agreement with clinical and experimental reports associating respiratory tract biofilms and mixed infections with pneumococcal serotypes of lower virulence and higher capacity to colonize the nasopharynx in healthy individuals.

  17. A Whole Community Approach to Otitis Media--Reducing Its Incidence and Effects. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSwan, David

    Otitis media (OM) is an inflammation of the middle ear that is prevalent in childhood. OM can result in hearing loss, which interferes with learning. In Australia, indigenous children experience OM more often than other populations. Because teachers lack knowledge of OM and its effects on learning, affected children are often mislabeled as problem…

  18. Localized application of soil organic matter shifts distribution of cluster roots of white lupin in the soil profile due to localized release of phosphorus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai-Gang; Shen, Jian-Bo; Zhang, Fu-Suo; Lambers, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Phosphorus (P) is a major factor controlling cluster-root formation. Cluster-root proliferation tends to concentrate in organic matter (OM)-rich surface-soil layers, but the nature of this response of cluster-root formation to OM is not clear. Cluster-root proliferation in response to localized application of OM was characterized in Lupinus albus (white lupin) grown in stratified soil columns to test if the stimulating effect of OM on cluster-root formation was due to (a) P release from breakdown of OM; (b) a decrease in soil density; or (c) effects of micro-organisms other than releasing P from OM. Methods Lupin plants were grown in three-layer stratified soil columns where P was applied at 0 or 330 mg P kg−1 to create a P-deficient or P-sufficient background, and OM, phytate mixed with OM, or perlite was applied to the top or middle layers with or without sterilization. Key Results Non-sterile OM stimulated cluster-root proliferation and root length, and this effect became greater when phytate was supplied in the presence of OM. Both sterile OM and perlite significantly decreased cluster-root formation in the localized layers. The OM position did not change the proportion of total cluster roots to total roots in dry biomass among no-P treatments, but more cluster roots were concentrated in the OM layers with a decreased proportion in other places. Conclusions Localized application of non-sterile OM or phytate plus OM stimulated cluster-root proliferation of L. albus in the localized layers. This effect is predominantly accounted for by P release from breakdown of OM or phytate, but not due to a change in soil density associated with OM. No evidence was found for effects of micro-organisms in OM other than those responsible for P release. PMID:20150198

  19. Terrestrial bitumen analogue of orgueil organic material demonstrates high sensitivity to usual HF-HCl treatment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korochantsev, A. V.; Nikolaeva, O. V.

    1993-01-01

    The relationship between the chemical composition and the interlayer spacing (d002) of organic materials (OM's) is known for various terrestrial OM's. We improved this general trend by correlation with corresponding trend of natural solid bitumens (asphaltite-kerite-anthraxolite) up to graphite. Using the improved trend we identified bitumen analogs of carbonaceous chondrite OM's residued after HF-HCl treatment. Our laboratory experiment revealed that these analogs and, hence, structure and chemical composition of carbonaceous chondrite OM's are very sensitive to the HF-HCl treatment. So, usual extraction of OM from carbonaceous chondrites may change significantly structural and chemical composition of extracted OM.

  20. Molecular characterization of macrophyte-derived dissolved organic matters and their implications for lakes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chemical properties of whole organic matter (OM) and its dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction from six dominant macrophytes in Lake Dianchi were comparatively characterized, and their environmental implications were discussed. Significant differences in chemical composition of the OM samples were...

  1. Orientation and Mobility for Infants Who Are Visually Impaired.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Everett W.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Relevant orientation and mobility (OM) skills for visually impaired infants foster sensory, motor, and conceptual development. OM personnel need to consider alternative teaching models, personnel preparation needs, sensory aids issues, and research issues. (DB)

  2. Osteomacs interact with megakaryocytes and osteoblasts to regulate murine hematopoietic stem cell function.

    PubMed

    Mohamad, Safa F; Xu, Linlin; Ghosh, Joydeep; Childress, Paul J; Abeysekera, Irushi; Himes, Evan R; Wu, Hao; Alvarez, Marta B; Davis, Korbin M; Aguilar-Perez, Alexandra; Hong, Jung Min; Bruzzaniti, Angela; Kacena, Melissa A; Srour, Edward F

    2017-12-12

    Networking between hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and cells of the hematopoietic niche is critical for stem cell function and maintenance of the stem cell pool. We characterized calvariae-resident osteomacs (OMs) and their interaction with megakaryocytes to sustain HSC function and identified distinguishing properties between OMs and bone marrow (BM)-derived macrophages. OMs, identified as CD45 + F4/80 + cells, were easily detectable (3%-5%) in neonatal calvarial cells. Coculture of neonatal calvarial cells with megakaryocytes for 7 days increased OM three- to sixfold, demonstrating that megakaryocytes regulate OM proliferation. OMs were required for the hematopoiesis-enhancing activity of osteoblasts, and this activity was augmented by megakaryocytes. Serial transplantation demonstrated that HSC repopulating potential was best maintained by in vitro cultures containing osteoblasts, OMs, and megakaryocytes. With or without megakaryocytes, BM-derived macrophages were unable to functionally substitute for neonatal calvarial cell-associated OMs. In addition, OMs differentiated into multinucleated, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts capable of bone resorption. Nine-color flow cytometric analysis revealed that although BM-derived macrophages and OMs share many cell surface phenotypic similarities (CD45, F4/80, CD68, CD11b, Mac2, and Gr-1), only a subgroup of OMs coexpressed M-CSFR and CD166, thus providing a unique profile for OMs. CD169 was expressed by both OMs and BM-derived macrophages and therefore was not a distinguishing marker between these 2 cell types. These results demonstrate that OMs support HSC function and illustrate that megakaryocytes significantly augment the synergistic activity of osteoblasts and OMs. Furthermore, this report establishes for the first time that the crosstalk between OMs, osteoblasts, and megakaryocytes is a novel network supporting HSC function.

  3. Osteomacs interact with megakaryocytes and osteoblasts to regulate murine hematopoietic stem cell function

    PubMed Central

    Mohamad, Safa F.; Xu, Linlin; Ghosh, Joydeep; Childress, Paul J.; Abeysekera, Irushi; Himes, Evan R.; Wu, Hao; Alvarez, Marta B.; Davis, Korbin M.; Aguilar-Perez, Alexandra; Hong, Jung Min; Bruzzaniti, Angela; Kacena, Melissa A.

    2017-01-01

    Networking between hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and cells of the hematopoietic niche is critical for stem cell function and maintenance of the stem cell pool. We characterized calvariae-resident osteomacs (OMs) and their interaction with megakaryocytes to sustain HSC function and identified distinguishing properties between OMs and bone marrow (BM)–derived macrophages. OMs, identified as CD45+F4/80+ cells, were easily detectable (3%-5%) in neonatal calvarial cells. Coculture of neonatal calvarial cells with megakaryocytes for 7 days increased OM three- to sixfold, demonstrating that megakaryocytes regulate OM proliferation. OMs were required for the hematopoiesis-enhancing activity of osteoblasts, and this activity was augmented by megakaryocytes. Serial transplantation demonstrated that HSC repopulating potential was best maintained by in vitro cultures containing osteoblasts, OMs, and megakaryocytes. With or without megakaryocytes, BM-derived macrophages were unable to functionally substitute for neonatal calvarial cell–associated OMs. In addition, OMs differentiated into multinucleated, tartrate resistant acid phosphatase–positive osteoclasts capable of bone resorption. Nine-color flow cytometric analysis revealed that although BM-derived macrophages and OMs share many cell surface phenotypic similarities (CD45, F4/80, CD68, CD11b, Mac2, and Gr-1), only a subgroup of OMs coexpressed M-CSFR and CD166, thus providing a unique profile for OMs. CD169 was expressed by both OMs and BM-derived macrophages and therefore was not a distinguishing marker between these 2 cell types. These results demonstrate that OMs support HSC function and illustrate that megakaryocytes significantly augment the synergistic activity of osteoblasts and OMs. Furthermore, this report establishes for the first time that the crosstalk between OMs, osteoblasts, and megakaryocytes is a novel network supporting HSC function. PMID:29296903

  4. Overtone Mobility Spectrometry: Part 3. On the Origin of Peaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentine, Stephen J.; Kurulugama, Ruwan T.; Clemmer, David E.

    2011-05-01

    The origin of non-integer overtone peaks in overtone mobility spectrometry (OMS) spectra is investigated by ion trajectory simulations. Simulations indicate that these OMS features arise from higher-order overtone series. An empirically-derived formula is presented as a means of describing the positions of peaks. The new equation makes it possible to determine collision cross sections from any OMS peak. Additionally, it is extended as a means of predicting the resolving power for any peak in an OMS distribution.

  5. Bacterial Community Composition Associated with Pyrogenic Organic Matter (Biochar) Varies with Pyrolysis Temperature and Colonization Environment

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhongmin; Barberán, Albert; Li, Yong; Brookes, Philip C.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microbes that colonize pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) (also called biochar) play an important role in PyOM mineralization and crucially affect soil biogeochemical cycling, while the microbial community composition associated with PyOM particles is poorly understood. We generated two manure-based PyOMs with different characteristics (PyOM pyrolyzed at the low temperature of 300°C [i.e., PyOM300] and at the high temperature of 700°C [i.e., PyOM700]) and added them to high-carbon (4.15%) and low-C (0.37%) soil for microbial colonization. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that Actinobacteria, particularly Actinomycetales, was the dominant taxon in PyOM, regardless of the PyOM pyrolysis temperature and soil type. Bacterial communities associated with PyOM particles from high-C soils were similar to those in non-PyOM-amended soils. PyOM300 had higher total microbial activity and more differential bacterial communities than PyOM700. More bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) preferentially thrived on the low-pyrolysis-temperature PyOM, while some specific OTUs thrived on high-pyrolysis-temperature PyOM. In particular, Chloroflexi species tended to be more prevalent in high-pyrolysis-temperature PyOM in low-C soils. In conclusion, the differences in colonized bacterial community composition between the different PyOMs were strongly influenced by the pyrolysis temperatures of PyOM, i.e., under conditions of easily mineralizable C or fused aromatic C, and by other properties, e.g., pH, surface area, and nutrient content. IMPORTANCE Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) is widely distributed in soil and fluvial ecosystems and plays an important role in biogeochemical cycling. Many studies have reported changes in soil microbial communities stimulated by PyOM, but very little is known about the microbial communities associated with PyOM. The microbes that colonize PyOMs can participate in the mineralization of PyOM, so changing its structure affects the fate of PyOMs

  6. Bacterial Community Composition Associated with Pyrogenic Organic Matter (Biochar) Varies with Pyrolysis Temperature and Colonization Environment.

    PubMed

    Dai, Zhongmin; Barberán, Albert; Li, Yong; Brookes, Philip C; Xu, Jianming

    2017-01-01

    Microbes that colonize pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) (also called biochar) play an important role in PyOM mineralization and crucially affect soil biogeochemical cycling, while the microbial community composition associated with PyOM particles is poorly understood. We generated two manure-based PyOMs with different characteristics (PyOM pyrolyzed at the low temperature of 300°C [i.e., PyOM300] and at the high temperature of 700°C [i.e., PyOM700]) and added them to high-carbon (4.15%) and low-C (0.37%) soil for microbial colonization. 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that Actinobacteria , particularly Actinomycetales , was the dominant taxon in PyOM, regardless of the PyOM pyrolysis temperature and soil type. Bacterial communities associated with PyOM particles from high-C soils were similar to those in non-PyOM-amended soils. PyOM300 had higher total microbial activity and more differential bacterial communities than PyOM700. More bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) preferentially thrived on the low-pyrolysis-temperature PyOM, while some specific OTUs thrived on high-pyrolysis-temperature PyOM. In particular, Chloroflexi species tended to be more prevalent in high-pyrolysis-temperature PyOM in low-C soils. In conclusion, the differences in colonized bacterial community composition between the different PyOMs were strongly influenced by the pyrolysis temperatures of PyOM, i.e., under conditions of easily mineralizable C or fused aromatic C, and by other properties, e.g., pH, surface area, and nutrient content. IMPORTANCE Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) is widely distributed in soil and fluvial ecosystems and plays an important role in biogeochemical cycling. Many studies have reported changes in soil microbial communities stimulated by PyOM, but very little is known about the microbial communities associated with PyOM. The microbes that colonize PyOMs can participate in the mineralization of PyOM, so changing its structure affects the fate of PyOMs and

  7. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... entitled to a DIB O/M, the age reduction may be adjusted to drop the months for which no payment was made... amount, effective the month in which the employee attains retirement age or becomes entitled to a DIB O/M... because of the employee's excess earnings; and (2) Months in which the employee is entitled to a DIB O/M...

  8. 20 CFR 229.65 - Initial reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... computed under the overall minimum based on disability (DIB O/M) is reduced (not below zero) for any month... 18, 1981. (c) Amount of reduction. The reduction in the DIB O/M for worker's compensation or public disability benefit equals the difference between: (1) The sum of the monthly DIB O/M rate, including benefits...

  9. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... employee's first month of entitlement to the DIB O/M is July 1980 or later, the family maximum is 85... reduction for the family maximum. (2) It is determined that a disabled employee is entitled to a DIB O/M....00 However, the employee's family maximum is $900 (150 percent of $600). Consequently, the DIB O/M...

  10. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... entitled to a DIB O/M, the age reduction may be adjusted to drop the months for which no payment was made... amount, effective the month in which the employee attains retirement age or becomes entitled to a DIB O/M... because of the employee's excess earnings; and (2) Months in which the employee is entitled to a DIB O/M...

  11. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... entitled to a DIB O/M, the age reduction may be adjusted to drop the months for which no payment was made... amount, effective the month in which the employee attains retirement age or becomes entitled to a DIB O/M... because of the employee's excess earnings; and (2) Months in which the employee is entitled to a DIB O/M...

  12. 20 CFR 229.65 - Initial reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... computed under the overall minimum based on disability (DIB O/M) is reduced (not below zero) for any month... 18, 1981. (c) Amount of reduction. The reduction in the DIB O/M for worker's compensation or public disability benefit equals the difference between: (1) The sum of the monthly DIB O/M rate, including benefits...

  13. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... entitled to a DIB O/M, the age reduction may be adjusted to drop the months for which no payment was made... amount, effective the month in which the employee attains retirement age or becomes entitled to a DIB O/M... because of the employee's excess earnings; and (2) Months in which the employee is entitled to a DIB O/M...

  14. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... employee's first month of entitlement to the DIB O/M is July 1980 or later, the family maximum is 85... reduction for the family maximum. (2) It is determined that a disabled employee is entitled to a DIB O/M....00 However, the employee's family maximum is $900 (150 percent of $600). Consequently, the DIB O/M...

  15. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... entitled to a DIB O/M, the age reduction may be adjusted to drop the months for which no payment was made... amount, effective the month in which the employee attains retirement age or becomes entitled to a DIB O/M... because of the employee's excess earnings; and (2) Months in which the employee is entitled to a DIB O/M...

  16. 20 CFR 229.65 - Initial reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... computed under the overall minimum based on disability (DIB O/M) is reduced (not below zero) for any month... 18, 1981. (c) Amount of reduction. The reduction in the DIB O/M for worker's compensation or public disability benefit equals the difference between: (1) The sum of the monthly DIB O/M rate, including benefits...

  17. 20 CFR 229.65 - Initial reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... computed under the overall minimum based on disability (DIB O/M) is reduced (not below zero) for any month... 18, 1981. (c) Amount of reduction. The reduction in the DIB O/M for worker's compensation or public disability benefit equals the difference between: (1) The sum of the monthly DIB O/M rate, including benefits...

  18. 20 CFR 229.65 - Initial reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... computed under the overall minimum based on disability (DIB O/M) is reduced (not below zero) for any month... 18, 1981. (c) Amount of reduction. The reduction in the DIB O/M for worker's compensation or public disability benefit equals the difference between: (1) The sum of the monthly DIB O/M rate, including benefits...

  19. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... employee's first month of entitlement to the DIB O/M is July 1980 or later, the family maximum is 85... reduction for the family maximum. (2) It is determined that a disabled employee is entitled to a DIB O/M....00 However, the employee's family maximum is $900 (150 percent of $600). Consequently, the DIB O/M...

  20. 20 CFR 229.48 - Family maximum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... employee's first month of entitlement to the DIB O/M is July 1980 or later, the family maximum is 85... reduction for the family maximum. (2) It is determined that a disabled employee is entitled to a DIB O/M....00 However, the employee's family maximum is $900 (150 percent of $600). Consequently, the DIB O/M...

  1. Vestibular Dysfunction in Preschool Children with a History of Otitis Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Jennifer; Mayberry, Wanda

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-five preschoolers, assigned to otitis media (OM) or no OM groups, were administered the Southern California Postrotary Nystagmus Test and the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers (MAP). Children with a history of OM had significantly decreased scores on the Stepping and Vertical Writing MAP tests, indicating vestibulospinal dysfunction. (SK)

  2. Operations and maintenance philosophy

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, G.P.

    1999-10-28

    This Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Philosophy document is intended to establish a future O&M vision, with an increased focus on minimizing worker exposure, ensuring uninterrupted retrieval operations, and minimizing operation life-cycle cost. It is intended that this document would incorporate O&M lessons learned into on-going and future project upgrades.

  3. Operations Management Teaching: Establishing Content and Relevance to Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Desmond; Hill, Alex; Brown, Steve; Aktas, Emel; Kuula, Markku

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the relevance to industry's needs of operations management (OM) teaching in higher education, by researching the content of OM modules delivered by UK academics and comparing the results of this research with the views of business practitioners having had first-hand experience of OM teaching on MBA programmes. To determine…

  4. Generating a Spanish Affective Dictionary with Supervised Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermudez-Gonzalez, Daniel; Miranda-Jiménez, Sabino; García-Moreno, Raúl-Ulises; Calderón-Nepamuceno, Dora

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, machine learning techniques are being used in several Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks such as Opinion Mining (OM). OM is used to analyse and determine the affective orientation of texts. Usually, OM approaches use affective dictionaries in order to conduct sentiment analysis. These lexicons are labeled manually with affective…

  5. Use of Outcome Measurement by Paediatric AHPs in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harron, Anita; Titterington, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Background: Professional standards advocate routine use of outcome measurement (OM) in the practice of allied health professionals (AHPs). Historically, OM has focused on impairment and its immediate constraints on activity, while current policy encourages the development and addition of impact-based OM. There appears to be an assumption at this…

  6. Silicon Photonics: Challenges and Future

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    available. Fiber Wavelength Core Diameter Over Filled Launch Bandwidth OM-1 850nm 62.5um 200 1310nm 500 OM-2 850nm 50um 500 1310nm 500 OM-3...waveguide grating (AWG) to provide wavelength routing (Figure 24). Silicon Photonics: Challenges and Future – 45 Optoelectronics Industry Development...33 6.2 III-V long wavelength material issues .......................................................................... 38

  7. Chemical, physical and biological factors affecting wood decomposition in forest soils

    Treesearch

    Martin Jurgensen; Peter Laks; David Reed; Anne Collins; Deborah Page-Dumroese; Douglas Crawford

    2004-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) decomposition is an important variable in forest productivity and determining the potential of forest soils to sequester atmospheric CO2 (Grigal and Vance 2000; Kimble et al. 2003). Studies using OM from a particular location gives site-specific decomposition information, but differences in OM type and quality make it difficult to compare results...

  8. Survival or Growth: Issues Affecting the Future Direction of the Orientation and Mobility Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Everett W.

    1990-01-01

    Describes issues in the field of orientation and mobility (O&M) for individuals with visual impairments, noting their impact on O&M's future directions. The article examines historical perspectives and trends in O&M demographics and personnel preparation. It discusses issues regarding needs of practitioners serving diverse populations and concerns…

  9. Model Programmes and Practice Issues in Orientation and Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Mary-Maureen; Hill, Everett W.

    1990-01-01

    Discusses diversity in the population of individuals with visual impairments, the changing role of orientation and mobility (O&M) specialists, and the broadened definition of O&M. An overview of best practices and model demonstration programs for providing O&M services to a diverse population of persons with visual impairments is presented. (SM)

  10. Orientation and Mobility Content for Children and Youths: A Delphi Approach Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emerson, Robert S. Wall; Corn, Anne L.

    2006-01-01

    A panel of 20 experts in orientation and mobility (O&M) reached consensus on concepts and skills that O&M specialists should teach to students who are blind or have low vision. Panelists also agreed on visual, environmental, and behavioral conditions that would require a formal O&M assessment.

  11. Use of Digital Video to Assess Orientation and Mobility Observational Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebehazy, Kim T.; Zimmerman, George J.; Fox, Lynn A.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared the observational skills in orientation and mobility (O&M) of nine university students and nine certified O&M specialists using a digital video assessment. The students differed from the O&M specialists in their stylistic observations and the details of their responses. Implications for the improvement of video assessments are…

  12. 12 CFR 602.8 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in writing and addressed to the Director, Office of Management Services (OMS), Farm Credit... business days of receiving your appeal, the OMS Director will tell you, in writing, whether we have granted... until the OMS Director receives your appeal. (c) Unusual circumstances. In unusual circumstances, the...

  13. Mobility Assistants: A Perspective on New Service Providers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, William R.; Uslan, Mark

    1990-01-01

    The article reviews the history of orientation and mobility (OM) training for the visually impaired with emphasis on the increasing need for paraprofessional mobility assistants. Results of interviews with OM specialists (N=64) provided information on types of personnel trained, methods of training, and skills taught to OM assistants. (DB)

  14. The Orientation and Mobility Assistant.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, William R.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Implementation of recommendations of a position paper on training Orientation Mobility (OM) assistants is considered with suggestions concerning the roles of the OM specialist and OM assistant, specific skill areas for training, the role of the agency or school, and a preparation program for the mobility assistant leading to certification. (DB)

  15. The Effects of Otitis Media on the Attention Skills of Day-Care-Attending Toddlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feagans, Lynne V.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated whether otitis media (OM), middle ear disease, affected toddlers' attention to language. Children were studied during a picture book-reading task at high- or low-quality day-care centers. Children with chronic OM in low-quality care showed the most negative effects on attention during episodes of OM; mothers rated children with…

  16. Development of an Objective Measure to Assess Ego Identity in Adolescence: Validation and Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotevant, Harold D., Adams, Gerald R.

    1984-01-01

    Three studies evaluating the reliability and validity of the Objective Measure of Ego Identity Status (OM-EIS) are reported. Two studies analyzed college students' results from the OM-EIS, the Extended Range Vocabulary Test, the Crowne-Marlowe Social Disability Scale and achievement records. Study 3 correlated high school seniors' OM-EIS scores…

  17. Controversial Issues in Orientation and Mobility: Then and Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Everett W.; Jacobson, William H.

    1985-01-01

    A review of issues in orientation and mobility (0M) considers controversies in: (1) OM systems (use of short cane vs. long cane, dog guide vs. cane, electronic travel aids); (2) OM personnel preparation (such as bachelor's vs. master's level training); and (3) direct services (such as one-to-one vs. group OM lessons). (CL)

  18. Manganese dioxide as a new cathode catalyst in microbial fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang; Hu, Boxun; Suib, Steven; Lei, Yu; Li, Baikun

    This study focused on manganese oxides with a cryptomelane-type octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) structure to replace platinum as a cathode catalyst in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Undoped (ud-OSM-2) and three catalysts doped with cobalt (Co-OMS-2), copper (Cu-OMS-2), and cerium (Ce-OMS-2) to enhance their catalytic performances were investigated. The novel OMS-2 cathodes were examined in granular activated carbon MFC (GACMFC) with sodium acetate as the anode reagent and oxygen in air as the cathode reagent. The results showed that after 400 h of operation, the Co-OMS-2 and Cu-OMS-2 exhibited good catalytic performance in an oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The voltage of the Co-OMS-2 GACMFC was 217 mV, and the power density was 180 mW m -2. The voltage of the Cu-OMS-2 GACMFC was 214 mV and the power density was 165 mW m -2. The internal resistance (R in) of the OMS-2 GACMFCs (18 ± 1 Ω) was similar to that of the platinum GACMFCs (17 Ω). Furthermore, the degradation rates of organic substrates in the OMS-2 GACMFCs were twice those in the platinum GACMFCs, which enhance their wastewater treatment efficiencies. This study indicated that using OMS-2 manganese oxides to replace platinum as a cathodic catalyst enhances power generation, increases contaminant removal, and substantially reduces the cost of MFCs.

  19. Gruppeorganiseret og selvstyret fremmedsprogstilegnelse. Et undervisningseksperiment pa RUC [and] Skolesprogene. Om fremmedsprogenes status og funktion i gymnasiet. ROLIG Papir 22 (Group Organized and Self Managed Foreign Language Acquisition. A Research Project at RUC [and] School Languages. On the Status and Function of Foreign Languages in Secondary Schools. ROLIG Paper 22).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakobsen, Karen Sonne

    Two articles highlight different issues on foreign language learning and instruction in Denmark. The first article describes a research project at Roskilde University Center that focuses on group organized and self managed foreign language acquisition. The idea for the project came about as a result of concern over problems related to foreign…

  20. Caractérisation géométrique et texturale de perturbations synsédimentaires attribuées à des séismes, dans une formation quaternaire glaciolacustre des Alpes (≪ les Argiles du Trièves ≫)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lignier, Vincent; Beck, Christian; Chapron, Emmanuel

    1998-11-01

    Synsedimentary soft deformations have disturbed Quaternary lacustrine layered sediments, the 'Argiles du Trièves' formation. These structures have been investigated in order to characterise their possible seismic origin. Grain size and composition of respectively disturbed and undisturbed layers do not exhibit any major differences, they indicate a relatively quiet depositional environment. Morphological investigations on these disturbed levels reveal shaking processes. These investigations show structures similar to analogical modelling results, consisting of granular and natural material submitted to different vibrations. These disturbances could be considered as seismites, a hypothesis in agreement with the geodynamically active setting of Trièves area,

  1. Analyse de la variabilité de taille et de forme de l'extrémité distale de l'humérus chez les grands singes africains par la morphométrie géométrique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, Anne-Marie

    1999-11-01

    The variability of the humeral distal extremity, in inferior view, of three African hominoids, Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla, was analysed using Procrustes methods in order to determine the effect of size on the morphology of the joint. The humeral contour was defined by 28 variables (14 landmarks in a two-dimensional space). A PCA analysis was made on superimposed coordinates. The results show that the intraspecific variation emphasized in Pan and Gorilla is highly size-dependent (axes 1 and 2). Pan paniscus is distinguished from Pan troglodytes by minor differences in the projection of both epicondyles (axis 3).

  2. Comparative analysis of the efficacy of omega-3 fatty acids for hypertriglyceridaemia management in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, H-S; Kim, H; Jeong, Y J; Yang, S J; Baik, S J; Lee, H; Lee, S-H; Cho, J H; Choi, I-Y; Yim, H W; Yoon, K-H

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to compare the ability of statin monotherapy (ST group), omega-3 fatty acid monotherapy (OM_A group) and combination therapy with omega-3 fatty acids and a statin (OM_S group), to reduce triglyceride (TG) levels in patients with hypertriglyceridaemia. In this retrospective cohort study, we extracted data from the electronic medical records of patients initially prescribed either a statin or omega-3 fatty acids between January, 2009 and December, 2013. We performed a comparative analysis of the change in cholesterol levels between baseline and an average of 3 months later. Data were extracted for 2071 patients. The average daily eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) ethyl ester and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) ethyl ester intake was 1689 mg, and 79-86% of the OM_A and OM_S groups were prescribed two omega-3 fatty acid capsules. At a baseline TG level of between 200 and 500 mg/dL, TG levels were reduced by 16 ± 2·8% in the ST group, 28 ± 2·8% in the OM_A group and 29 ± 2·3% in the OM_S group (P = 0·001 for ST group vs. OM_A and OM_S groups), with no difference between the OM_A and OM_S groups. At a baseline TG level ≥500 mg/dL, there was no difference in TG level reduction between the three groups (54 ± 7·3%, 55·8 ± 3·5% and 51·8 ± 6·8%, respectively, P = 0·851). Although omega-3 fatty acids are not considered the primary medication for hypertriglyceridaemia, the prescription of omega-3 fatty acids is justifiable if reduction in TG levels is judged to be necessary. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The glycan keratan sulfate in inner ear crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.; Martin, D. S.; Li, Y. T.; Li, S. C.

    1995-01-01

    The otoconial matrix (OM) of chicks (Gallus domesticus) inner ear was analyzed. Histochemically the OM was reacted with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) and immunohistochemically with the monoclonal antibody antikeratan sulfate (antiKS). The OM was digested with the enzyme endo-beta-galactosidase (E beta Galase) or separated by 1D and 2D gel electrophoresis. PTA which reacts with glycoproteins precipitated the OM, suggesting that the OM contains glycoproteins. A central core in each crystal had no PTA staining, suggesting that the core lacked glycoproteins. Anti KS antibody stained the OM with increased density in older embryos as determined by color thresholding. E beta Galase, which cleaves the lactosamine repeating units in KS, decreased the immunostain by 30% in the OM and by 20% in the cartilage. The OM from the utricle, saccule and macula lagena contained similar molecular weight bands. Five dense bands in the OM were less dense in tissue and blood controls, suggesting that such bands are enriched in the OM. Isoelectric focusing of the OM showed a negatively charged high molecular weight smear not present in blood and faint in tissue controls. The high affinity of the OM for the cationic PTA stain, the strong immunohistochemical reaction of the OM with anti KS antibody and high molecular weight negative smear in 2D gels taken together suggest that: a) the OM contains large amounts of glycoproteins and glycans, one of which is keratan sulfate, because its immuno stain with antiKS antibody was decreased by the enzyme E beta Galase, b) the utricle, saccule and macula lagena may have similar composition, and c) the concentration of KS may increase gradually until complete mineralization of the OM is reached.

  4. Randomized, controlled trial efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against otitis media among Navajo and White Mountain Apache infants.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Katherine L; David, Angeline B; Chandran, Aruna; Moulton, Lawrence H; Reid, Raymond; Weatherholtz, Robert; Santosham, Mathuram

    2008-01-01

    We report the phase III trial efficacy of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against clinical and culture proven otitis media (OM) among Navajo and White Mountain Apache infants. Efficacy was -0.4% (95% CI: -19.4 to 15.6) for clinically-diagnosed OM, 5.1% (95% CI: -51.5 to 40.6) for severe OM, and 64% (95% CI: -34% to 90%) for vaccine serotype pneumococcal OM suggesting that this vaccine is efficacious for pneumococcal OM in this high risk population.

  5. The multi-PMT optical module for KM3NeT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löhner, H.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Heine, E.; Gajanana, D.; Kavatsyuk, O.; Kooijman, P.; Kopper, C.; Peek, H.; Steijger, J.; Timmer, P.; de Wolf, E.; KM3NeT Consortium

    2013-08-01

    In the future neutrino telescope KM3NeT a novel type of optical module (OM) will be employed to optimize the sensitivity to Cherenkov photons and maximize the environmental background suppression. The multi-PMT OM, a pressure-resistant glass sphere containing 31 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) of 3-in. diameter, has been developed and prototyped including electronics for high-voltage generation, signal digitization and optical signal transmission. Monte-Carlo simulations show that a multi-PMT OM configuration requires three times less OMs to achieve the same performance as conventional OMs hosting 10-in. PMTs.

  6. Genetic contributors to otitis media: agnostic discovery approaches.

    PubMed

    Allen, E Kaitlynn; Manichaikul, Ani; Sale, Michèle M

    2014-02-01

    Otitis media (OM) is the most common disease in children in the United States, with about $5 billion spent each year in direct and indirect costs. OM is the number one reason for pediatric antibiotic usage and surgery, although treatment options are limited. Numerous studies have established the high heritability of OM and a genetic contribution to OM pathogenesis. Candidate gene studies have highlighted the roles of inflammation, mucin secretion, and pathogen recognition, but this approach is unable to identify novel pathways to target for treatment or screening purposes. Here, we review the current literature on agnostic approaches to discover novel genes and pathways involved in OM pathogenesis.

  7. Stable isotope ratios of nonexchangeable hydrogen in organic matter of soils and plants along a 2100-km climosequence in Argentina: New insights into soil organic matter sources and transformations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruppenthal, Marc; Oelmann, Yvonne; del Valle, Héctor Francisco; Wilcke, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    The quantitative contribution of shoot and root organic matter (OM) to the soil carbon (C) stock is still unknown, mainly because of methodological restrictions. The novel measurement of the nonexchangeable hydrogen (H) stable isotope ratio (δ2Hn) in bulk OM provides new opportunities to investigate the sources of soil C and its climate-dependent transformations. Our objectives were to test whether (I) there are systematic differences between δ2Hn values of aboveground and belowground plant OM and (II) δ2Hn values of litter and soil OM relate to climate and plant OM source δ2Hn signals. We determined δ2Hn values of bulk shoot, root, litter and demineralized soil OM from 20 sampling sites along a 2100-km climosequence from the Argentinean Pampas to the Patagonian steppe. The δ2Hn values of shoot and litter OM correlated closely with the aridity index (r = -0.83, p < 0.001 and r = -0.78, p < 0.001, respectively) because of H isotope fractionation during aridity-controlled transpiration in shoots. In contrast, δ2Hn values of root and soil OM showed a close correlation with modeled mean annual δ2H values of local precipitation (r = 0.91, p < 0.001 and r = 0.97, p < 0.001, respectively, root mean square error of 8.2‰ and 7.2‰, respectively) and thus mean annual temperature (r = 0.80, p < 0.001 and r = 0.88, p < 0.001, respectively). δ2Hn values of shoot and root OM differed markedly (no linear correlation) most likely because of biosynthetic exchange of C-bound H with ambient water in the roots. δ2Hn values of root and demineralized soil OM, however, were closely correlated (r = 0.91, p < 0.001) with a constant offset irrespective of climatic conditions, suggesting that root OM was a more important source of soil OM than shoot OM. A possible contribution of shoot OM to soil OM could only be explained if shoot OM underwent biosynthetic exchange of C-bound H with ambient water in soil during microbial and fungal decomposition. This mechanism is known for

  8. Dynamics of microbial community composition and soil organic carbon mineralization in soil following addition of pyrogenic and fresh organic matter

    PubMed Central

    Whitman, Thea; Pepe-Ranney, Charles; Enders, Akio; Koechli, Chantal; Campbell, Ashley; Buckley, Daniel H; Lehmann, Johannes

    2016-01-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) additions to soils can have large impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC) cycling. As the soil microbial community drives SOC fluxes, understanding how PyOM additions affect soil microbes is essential to understanding how PyOM affects SOC. We studied SOC dynamics and surveyed soil bacterial communities after OM additions in a field experiment. We produced and mixed in either 350 °C corn stover PyOM or an equivalent initial amount of dried corn stover to a Typic Fragiudept soil. Stover increased SOC-derived and total CO2 fluxes (up to 6x), and caused rapid and persistent changes in bacterial community composition over 82 days. In contrast, PyOM only temporarily increased total soil CO2 fluxes (up to 2x) and caused fewer changes in bacterial community composition. Of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that increased in response to PyOM additions, 70% also responded to stover additions. These OTUs likely thrive on easily mineralizable carbon (C) that is found both in stover and, to a lesser extent, in PyOM. In contrast, we also identified unique PyOM responders, which may respond to substrates such as polyaromatic C. In particular, members of Gemmatimonadetes tended to increase in relative abundance in response to PyOM but not to fresh organic matter. We identify taxa to target for future investigations of the mechanistic underpinnings of ecological phenomena associated with PyOM additions to soil. PMID:27128990

  9. Freshwater processing of terrestrial dissolved organic matter: What governs lability?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Andrilli, J.; Smith, H. J.; Junker, J. R.; Scholl, E. A.; Foreman, C. M.

    2016-12-01

    Aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems are linked through the transfer of energy and materials. Allochthonous organic matter (OM) is central to freshwater ecosystem function, influencing local food webs, trophic state, and nutrient availability. In order to understand the nature and fate of OM from inland headwaters to the open ocean, it is imperative to understand the links between OM lability and ecosystem function. Thus, biological, chemical, and physical factors need to be evaluated together to inform our understanding of environmental lability. We performed a laboratory processing experiment on naturally occurring OM leachates from riparian leaves, grasses, and pine needles. Measures of water chemistry, OM optical and molecular characterization, bacterial abundances, microbial assemblage composition, respiration, and C:N:P were integrated to discern the nature and fate of labile and recalcitrant OM in a freshwater stream. Peak processing of all OM sources in the stream water occurred after two days, with spikes in bacterial cell abundances, respiration rates, microbial assemblage shifts, and maximum C utilization. Respiration rates and microbial assemblages were dependent on the degree of lability of the OM molecular composition. Within the first few days, no differences in respiration rates were observed between leachate sources, however, beyond day five, the rates diverged with C processing efficiency correlated with OM lability. Originally comprised of amino acid-like, labile fluorescent species, the inoculated stream water OM became more recalcitrant after 16 days, indicating humification processing over time. Our study highlights the importance of interdisciplinary approaches for understanding the processing and fate of OM in aquatic ecosystems.

  10. Dynamics of microbial community composition and soil organic carbon mineralization in soil following addition of pyrogenic and fresh organic matter.

    PubMed

    Whitman, Thea; Pepe-Ranney, Charles; Enders, Akio; Koechli, Chantal; Campbell, Ashley; Buckley, Daniel H; Lehmann, Johannes

    2016-12-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) additions to soils can have large impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC) cycling. As the soil microbial community drives SOC fluxes, understanding how PyOM additions affect soil microbes is essential to understanding how PyOM affects SOC. We studied SOC dynamics and surveyed soil bacterial communities after OM additions in a field experiment. We produced and mixed in either 350 °C corn stover PyOM or an equivalent initial amount of dried corn stover to a Typic Fragiudept soil. Stover increased SOC-derived and total CO 2 fluxes (up to 6x), and caused rapid and persistent changes in bacterial community composition over 82 days. In contrast, PyOM only temporarily increased total soil CO 2 fluxes (up to 2x) and caused fewer changes in bacterial community composition. Of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that increased in response to PyOM additions, 70% also responded to stover additions. These OTUs likely thrive on easily mineralizable carbon (C) that is found both in stover and, to a lesser extent, in PyOM. In contrast, we also identified unique PyOM responders, which may respond to substrates such as polyaromatic C. In particular, members of Gemmatimonadetes tended to increase in relative abundance in response to PyOM but not to fresh organic matter. We identify taxa to target for future investigations of the mechanistic underpinnings of ecological phenomena associated with PyOM additions to soil.

  11. Implementation of the Orbital Maneuvering Systems Engine and Thrust Vector Control for the European Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has entered into a partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop and provide the Service Module (SM) for the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program. The European Service Module (ESM) will provide main engine thrust by utilizing the Space Shuttle Program Orbital Maneuvering System Engine (OMS-E). Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the OMS-E will be provided by the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) TVC, also used during the Space Shuttle Program. NASA will be providing the OMS-E and OMS TVC to ESA as Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) to integrate into the ESM. This presentation will describe the OMS-E and OMS TVC and discuss the implementation of the hardware for the ESM.

  12. Carbon dioxide sorption in a nanoporous octahedral molecular sieve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Izaak; Nelson, Eric B.; Li, Lan

    2015-08-01

    We have performed first-principles density functional theory calculations, incorporated with van der Waals interactions, to study CO2 adsorption and diffusion in nanoporous solid—OMS-2 (Octahedral Molecular Sieve). We found the charge, type, and mobility of a cation, accommodated in a porous OMS-2 material for structural stability, can affect not only the OMS-2 structural features but also CO2 sorption performance. This paper targets K+, Na+, and Ba2+ cations. First-principles energetics and electronic structure calculations indicate that Ba2+ has the strongest interaction with the OMS-2 porous surface due to valence electrons donation to the OMS-2 and molecular orbital hybridization. However, the Ba-doped OMS-2 has the worst CO2 uptake capacity. We also found evidence of sorption hysteresis in the K- and Na-doped OMS-2 materials.

  13. Influence of the Carbohydrate Moieties on the Immunoreactivity and Digestibility of the Egg Allergen Ovomucoid

    PubMed Central

    Benedé, Sara; López-Fandiño, Rosina; Reche, Marta; Molina, Elena; López-Expósito, Iván

    2013-01-01

    Background Ovomucoid (OM) has two carbohydrate chains on each of the first and second domains and one in the third. The contribution of the covalently bound carbohydrate chains to the overall OM allergenicity is controversial. Another aspect directly related with the immunological properties of OM that has not been studied in depth is the importance of the carbohydrate chains on its digestibility. Objective The aim of the study was to assess the involvement of the carbohydrate moieties of OM in its digestibility and allergenic properties. Methods IgE-binding and basophil activation by glycosylated and enzymatically deglycosylated OM (dOM) were compared using blood from egg-allergic patients. The peptides obtained after digestion using a physiologically relevant model were identified by RP-HPLC-MS/MS and the IgE-binding of the resulting fragments was evaluated by DOT-Blot. Results No structural changes were observed after deglycosylation of OM. 80% of the patients showed lower IgE binding to dOM as compared with OM and, in some patients, IgE reactivity could not be inhibited by pre-incubation with dOM. A subtle reduction in the percentage of activated basophils was observed when incubated with dOM as compared to OM. Following simulated digestion, dOM was more extensively degraded than OM, particularly during the gastric phase and both, OM and dOM, yielded, after the duodenal phase, immunoreactive fragments that were totally or partially coincident with previously described epitopes. Conclusion & Clinical Relevance: this work demonstrated an enhanced IgE reactivity towards carbohydrate containing OM in some egg-allergic patients that could be attributed to cross-sensitization or sensitization to the glycosylated components. The carbohydrate chains contributed to an increased resistance to proteolysis, and thus, to its allergenic potency. Evaluation of the products of digestion of OM and dOM revealed the presence of high-frequency IgE-binding epitopes that could

  14. White-rot fungal response to fresh and photolytically-weathered pyrogenic organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, C. D.; Berry, T. D.; Wang, R.; Bird, J. A.; Filley, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM or biochar) is the product of the incomplete combustion of biomass. A better understanding of the microbial-mediated degradation of PyOM is critical to assess its role in soil C sequestration and to serve as an agricultural amendment. Recent studies have shown that PyOM additions can prime native soil C but results have been inconsistent, with studies reporting no effect, an increase, or decrease in C mineralization. This study investigated the ability of saprotrophic white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, to decompose an unaltered 'fresh' PyOM and a photo-oxidized PyOM. In addition, we measured PyOM-induced priming effects on the mineralization of malt extract agar media (MEA). Enriched (13C) Pinus banksiana-derived PyOM, produced at 450oC under N2, was added fresh and after 4 weeks exposure to 254 nm light to MEA. Vials containing the various types of media were then monitored for CO2 evolution and oxidative enzyme activity. We found that MEA C respired was stimulated (positive priming) by photolyzed PyOM and was inhibited with fresh PyOM addition (negative priming) relative to controls. Vetryl alcohol addition, a laccase production stimulant, resulted in less activity in the presence of PyOM compared with a control, indicating PyOM may disrupt enzyme induction processes. Loss of PyOM-13CO2 was 0.2% (× 0.001) for fresh PyOM and 1.2% (×0.001) for photolyzed PyOM C during 10 weeks averaged across media treatments. While MEA C mineralization decreased after fresh PyOM addition, both oxidative (laccase and manganese peroxidase) and hydrolytic (β glucosidase) enzyme production increased with fresh PyOM in the absence of veratryl alcohol. However, there was a decrease in its presence. These results suggest that the physiological response of this common wood decay fungus to PyOM is complex and responsive to enzymatic triggers but that PyOM itself can act to promote or suppress overall litter or soil decay by fungi.

  15. Can primary production contribute non-labile organic matter in the sea: Amino acid enantiomers along the coast south of the Changjiang Estuary in May

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhuo-Yi; Wu, Ying; Zhang, Jing; Dittmar, Thorsten; Li, Ying; Shao, Liang; Ji, Qian

    2014-01-01

    Amino acid enantiomers (AAEs) in suspended particulate organic matter (OM) were measured along the coast south of the Changjiang Estuary in May to determine the origin and nature of estuarine particulate OM. The degradation index (DI) for amino acid yields revealed that fresh OM corresponded to depletion of dissolved inorganic nitrogen, whereas degraded OM corresponded to excess nutrients. This indicates coupling between OM degradation and nutrient regeneration in surface waters. Two clearly different trends were found for the amino acid content of total particulate nitrogen. Offshore samples were characterized by amino acid enrichment (91%), whereas inshore samples were depleted in amino acids (14%), probably because of terrestrial impacts during the previous winter. Compared to samples previously taken from the lower Changjiang reaches (Shao et al., 2011), samples of surface coastal waters can be clearly identified by the D/L ratio of selected AAE, indicating the potential of AAEs for identifying OM sources. Peptidoglycan estimated on the basis of D-AAEs, ranged from 3 to 275 nM. For fresh particulate OM (DI > 0.5), the peptidoglycan concentration was positively correlated with OM freshness and particulate-nitrogen-normalized peptidoglycan was comparable to or even higher than that in terrestrial OM. This suggests that estuarine and coastal zones make a significant contribution to non-labile OM production. Further analysis suggests that heterotrophic bacteria and Synechococcus are notable contributors.

  16. Sensitive responders among bacterial and fungal microbiome to pyrogenic organic matter (biochar) addition differed greatly between rhizosphere and bulk soils

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhongmin; Hu, Jiajie; Xu, Xingkun; Zhang, Lujun; Brookes, Philip C.; He, Yan; Xu, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Sensitive responses among bacterial and fungal communities to pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) (biochar) addition in rhizosphere and bulk soils are poorly understood. We conducted a pot experiment with manure and straw PyOMs added to an acidic paddy soil, and identified the sensitive “responders” whose relative abundance was significantly increased/decreased among the whole microbial community following PyOM addition. Results showed that PyOMs significantly (p < 0.05) increased root growth, and simultaneously changed soil chemical parameters by decreasing soil acidity and increasing biogenic resource. PyOM-induced acidity and biogenic resource co-determined bacterial responder community structure whereas biogenic resource was the dominant parameter structuring fungal responder community. Both number and proportion of responders in rhizosphere soil was larger than in bulk soil, regardless of PyOM types and microbial domains, indicating the microbial community in rhizosphere soil was sensitive to PyOM addition than bulk soil. The significant increased root biomass and length caused by PyOM addition, associated with physiological processes, e.g. C exudates secretion, likely favored more sensitive responders in rhizosphere soil than in bulk soil. Our study identified the responders at fine taxonomic resolution in PyOM amended soils, improved the understanding of their ecological phenomena associated with PyOM addition, and examined their interactions with plant roots. PMID:27824111

  17. Panel 4: Recent advances in otitis media in molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal models.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Dong; Hermansson, Ann; Ryan, Allen F; Bakaletz, Lauren O; Brown, Steve D; Cheeseman, Michael T; Juhn, Steven K; Jung, Timothy T K; Lim, David J; Lim, Jae Hyang; Lin, Jizhen; Moon, Sung-Kyun; Post, J Christopher

    2013-04-01

    Otitis media (OM) is the most common childhood bacterial infection and also the leading cause of conductive hearing loss in children. Currently, there is an urgent need for developing novel therapeutic agents for treating OM based on full understanding of molecular pathogenesis in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. To provide a state-of-the-art review concerning recent advances in OM in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies and to discuss the future directions of OM studies in these areas. A structured search of the current literature (since June 2007). The authors searched PubMed for published literature in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. Over the past 4 years, significant progress has been made in the areas of molecular biology, biochemistry, genetics, and animal model studies in OM. These studies brought new insights into our understanding of the molecular and biochemical mechanisms underlying the molecular pathogenesis of OM and helped identify novel therapeutic targets for OM. Our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of OM has been significantly advanced, particularly in the areas of inflammation, innate immunity, mucus overproduction, mucosal hyperplasia, middle ear and inner ear interaction, genetics, genome sequencing, and animal model studies. Although these studies are still in their experimental stages, they help identify new potential therapeutic targets. Future preclinical and clinical studies will help to translate these exciting experimental research findings into clinical applications.

  18. Rituximab treatment for relapsed opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Toyoshima, Daisaku; Morisada, Naoya; Takami, Yuichi; Kidokoro, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Masahiro; Nakagawa, Taku; Ninchoji, Takeshi; Nozu, Kandai; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Takada, Satoshi; Nishio, Hisahide; Iijima, Kazumoto

    2016-03-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare neurological disorder that is associated with paraneoplastic diseases. Because OMS can frequently relapse, patients may be inflicted with neurological problems for a long time. Recently, rituximab (RTX) was introduced as a drug to treat OMS. To assess RTX treatment, we studied a patient who experienced recurrence of OMS. A 2-year-old Japanese boy, who had left adrenal neuroblastoma, suddenly showed OMS symptoms, including ataxia and opsoclonus. Surgical resection of the tumor and subsequent steroid therapy ameliorated his symptoms. When OMS relapsed during the time when prednisolone was reduced, he was treated with full-dose RTX therapy (375 mg/m2/week) for 4 consecutive weeks. However, 1year later, he presented again with OMS symptoms. This time, we only administered an additional single dose of RTX treatment (375 mg/m2), allowing remission of OMS symptoms. During 2 years after the additional RTX treatment, OMS symptoms did not appear, even when prednisolone was reduced. He had no adverse events associated with RTX during the whole treatment period. An additional single-dose RTX therapy might be effective for relapsed OMS patients who were previously treated with full-dose RTX therapy. Copyright © 2015 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. UV radiation and organic matter composition shape bacterial functional diversity in sediments

    PubMed Central

    Hunting, Ellard R.; White, Christopher M.; van Gemert, Maarten; Mes, Daan; Stam, Eva; van, Harm G.; der Geest; Kraak, Michiel H. S.; Admiraal, Wim

    2013-01-01

    UV radiation and organic matter (OM) composition are known to influence the species composition of bacterioplankton communities. Potential effects of UV radiation on bacterial communities residing in sediments remain completely unexplored to date. However, it has been demonstrated that UV radiation can reach the bottom of shallow waters and wetlands and alter the OM composition of the sediment, suggesting that UV radiation may be more important for sediment bacteria than previously anticipated. It is hypothesized here that exposure of shallow OM-containing sediments to UV radiation induces OM source-dependant shifts in the functional composition of sediment bacterial communities. This study therefore investigated the combined influence of both UV radiation and OM composition on bacterial functional diversity in laboratory sediments. Two different OM sources, labile and recalcitrant OM, were used and metabolic diversity was measured with Biolog GN. Radiation exerted strong negative effects on the metabolic diversity in the treatments containing recalcitrant OM, more than in treatments containing labile OM. The functional composition of the bacterial community also differed significantly between the treatments. Our findings demonstrate that a combined effect of UV radiation and OM composition shapes the functional composition of microbial communities developing in sediments, hinting that UV radiation may act as an important sorting mechanism for bacterial communities and driver for bacterial functioning in shallow waters and wetlands. PMID:24194736

  20. Dissolved organic carbon loss from Yedoma permafrost amplified by ice wedge thaw

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vonk, J. E.; Mann, P. J.; Dowdy, K. L.; Davydova, A.; Davydov, S. P.; Zimov, N.; Spencer, R. G. M.; Bulygina, E. B.; Eglinton, T. I.; Holmes, R. M.

    2013-09-01

    Pleistocene Yedoma permafrost contains nearly a third of all organic matter (OM) stored in circum-arctic permafrost and is characterized by the presence of massive ice wedges. Due to its rapid formation by sediment accumulation and subsequent frozen storage, Yedoma OM is relatively well preserved and highly biologically available (biolabile) upon thaw. A better understanding of the processes regulating Yedoma degradation is important to improve estimates of the response and magnitude of permafrost carbon feedbacks to climate warming. In this study, we examine the composition of ice wedges and the influence of ice wedge thaw on the biolability of Yedoma OM. Incubation assays were used to assess OM biolability, fluorescence spectroscopy to characterize the OM composition, and potential enzyme activity rates to examine the controls and regulation of OM degradation. We show that increasing amounts of ice wedge melt water in Yedoma-leached incubations enhanced the loss of dissolved OM over time. This may be attributed to the presence of low-molecular weight compounds and low initial phenolic content in the OM of ice wedges, providing a readily available substrate that promotes the degradation of Yedoma OC. The physical vulnerability of ice wedges upon thaw (causing irreversible collapse), combined with the composition of ice wedge-engrained OM (co-metabolizing old OM), underlines the particularly strong potential of Yedoma to generate a positive feedback to climate warming relative to other forms of non-ice wedge permafrost.

  1. Germline BAP1 inactivation is preferentially associated with metastatic ocular melanoma and cutaneous-ocular melanoma families.

    PubMed

    Njauw, Ching-Ni Jenny; Kim, Ivana; Piris, Adriano; Gabree, Michele; Taylor, Michael; Lane, Anne Marie; DeAngelis, Margaret M; Gragoudas, Evangelos; Duncan, Lyn M; Tsao, Hensin

    2012-01-01

    BAP1 has been shown to be a target of both somatic alteration in high-risk ocular melanomas (OM) and germline inactivation in a few individuals from cancer-prone families. These findings suggest that constitutional BAP1 changes may predispose individuals to metastatic OM and that familial permeation of deleterious alleles could delineate a new cancer syndrome. To characterize BAP1's contribution to melanoma risk, we sequenced BAP1 in a set of 100 patients with OM, including 50 metastatic OM cases and 50 matched non-metastatic OM controls, and 200 individuals with cutaneous melanoma (CM) including 7 CM patients from CM-OM families and 193 CM patients from CM-non-OM kindreds. Germline BAP1 mutations were detected in 4/50 patients with metastatic OM and 0/50 cases of non-metastatic OM (8% vs. 0%, p = 0.059). Since 2/4 of the BAP1 carriers reported a family history of CM, we analyzed 200 additional hereditary CM patients and found mutations in 2/7 CM probands from CM-OM families and 1/193 probands from CM-non-OM kindreds (29% vs. 0.52%, p = .003). Germline mutations co-segregated with both CM and OM phenotypes and were associated with the presence of unique nevoid melanomas and highly atypical nevoid melanoma-like melanocytic proliferations (NEMMPs). Interestingly, 7/14 germline variants identified to date reside in C-terminus suggesting that the BRCA1 binding domain is important in cancer predisposition. Germline BAP1 mutations are associated with a more aggressive OM phenotype and a recurrent phenotypic complex of cutaneous/ocular melanoma, atypical melanocytic proliferations and other internal neoplasms (ie. COMMON syndrome), which could be a useful clinical marker for constitutive BAP1 inactivation.

  2. Oral mask ventilation is more effective than face mask ventilation after nasal surgery.

    PubMed

    Yazicioğlu, Dilek; Baran, Ilkay; Uzumcugil, Filiz; Ozturk, Ibrahim; Utebey, Gulten; Sayın, M Murat

    2016-06-01

    To evaluate and compare the face mask (FM) and oral mask (OM) ventilation techniques during anesthesia emergence regarding tidal volume, leak volume, and difficult mask ventilation (DMV) incidence. Prospective, randomized, crossover study. Operating room, training and research hospital. American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I and II adult patients scheduled for nasal surgery. Patients in group FM-OM received FM ventilation first, followed by OM ventilation, and patients in group OM-FM received OM ventilation first, followed by FM ventilation, with spontaneous ventilation after deep extubation. The FM ventilation was applied with the 1-handed EC-clamp technique. The OM was placed only over the mouth, and the 1-handed EC-clamp technique was used again. A child's size FM was used for the OM ventilation technique, the mask was rotated, and the inferior part of the mask was placed toward the nose. The leak volume (MVleak), mean airway pressure (Pmean), and expired tidal volume (TVe) were assessed with each mask technique for 3 consecutive breaths. A mask ventilation grade ≥3 was considered DMV. DMV occurred more frequently during FM ventilation (75% with FM vs 8% with OM). In the FM-first sequence, the mean TVe was 249±61mL with the FM and 455±35mL with the OM (P=.0001), whereas in the OM-first sequence, it was 276±81mL with the FM and 409±37mL with the OM (P=.0001). Regardless of the order used, the OM technique significantly decreased the MVleak and increased the TVe when compared to the FM technique. During anesthesia emergence after nasal surgery the OM may offer an effective ventilation method as it decreases the incidence of DMV and the gas leak around the mask and provides higher tidal volume delivery compared with FM ventilation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Linking charring temperature and wood source to the structure and degradation rates of pyrogenic organic matter in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatton, P.; Dastmalchi, K.; Chatterjee, S.; Auclerc, A.; Le Moine, J.; Filley, T. R.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.; Stark, R.; Bird, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Fire is a major controller of forest C cycling by releasing CO2 to the atmosphere and by contributing pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM or biochar) to soils. Recent studies have shown that much of fire-derived PyOM may turn over in soils at century time scales. Two likely controllers of the chemical structure of PyOM and its resulting decay rate are pyrolysis temperature and the source biomass. However, we know little of how these two factors determine the chemical structure and bioreactivity of the resulting PyOM. To gain further insight into controls on the structure and fate of PyOM, we examined two species of dual-labeled (13C/15N), wood-based PyOM (Pinus banksiana and Acer rubrum) made with 5 pyrolysis temperatures (0, 200, 300, 450, 600 °C) using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, isotopic and elemental composition (C, H, O, and N), and differential scanning calorimetry. In addition, we are investigating the fate of a subset of these PyOM materials applied to forest soils in a long-term field study located at the University of Michigan Biological Station in Pellston, MI, USA. We will present data of the loss of PyOM C as CO2 and DOC during the first year in situ. We found complementary lines of evidence for a facile removal of cellulose and hemicellulose and a progressive alteration of nitrogenous moieties across the charring gradient for wood-derived PyOM of both tree species as temperature was increased from 0 to 600 °C. Our NMR results show a significant species by pyrolysis temperature interaction on PyOM chemical structure with considerably less condensation for Acer- than Pinus-derived PyOM at 300 °C. In the first year after addition to soil, Acer-derived PyOM pyrolyzed at 450 °C mineralized faster than Pinus-derived PyOM pyrolyzed at 450 °C. Increasing pyrolysis temperatures for Pinus-derived PyOM also resulted in slower CO2 mineralization rates during the first year of field decay. These results relate pyrolysis temperature to the resulting PyOM

  4. Applications of optical DNA mapping in microbiology.

    PubMed

    Bogas, Diana; Nyberg, Lena; Pacheco, Rui; Azevedo, Nuno F; Beech, Jason P; Gomila, Margarita; Lalucat, Jorge; Manaia, Célia M; Nunes, Olga C; Tegenfeldt, Jonas O; Westerlund, Fredrik

    2017-06-01

    Optical mapping (OM) has been used in microbiology for the past 20 years, initially as a technique to facilitate DNA sequence-based studies; however, with decreases in DNA sequencing costs and increases in sequence output from automated sequencing platforms, OM has grown into an important auxiliary tool for genome assembly and comparison. Currently, there are a number of new and exciting applications for OM in the field of microbiology, including investigation of disease outbreaks, identification of specific genes of clinical and/or epidemiological relevance, and the possibility of single-cell analysis when combined with cell-sorting approaches. In addition, designing lab-on-a-chip systems based on OM is now feasible and will allow the integrated and automated microbiological analysis of biological fluids. Here, we review the basic technology of OM, detail the current state of the art of the field, and look ahead to possible future developments in OM technology for microbiological applications.

  5. Impact of pyrogenic organic matter decomposition and induced priming effect on soil C budget.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestrini, Bernardo; Abiven, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) results from the incomplete combustion of biomass and may contribute to constitute an important fraction of soil C in forest and agricultural soils, in the form of charcoal (produced by wildfires) or biochar (anthropogenic). Although many evidences exist on the long mean residence time of PyOM there is still a large uncertainty on PyOM loss processes and rate and on possible induced priming effect on non-PyOM. Therefore determining PyOM mineralization rate, loss processes and possible induced priming effect on soil organic matter decomposition are key issues to understand the impact of PyOM on the carbon (C) cycle. We investigated the impact of PyOM on soil C budget by combining results from three independent studies: (i) a field study to investigate PyOM mineralization rate and the relative importance of PyOM loss processes, (ii) a PyOM and soil incubation experiment to correlate C and N mineralization rates, (iii) a review of the priming effect induced by PyOM on soil organic C. We employed 13C labelled pinewood-derived PyOM for the field experiment and 13C labelled ryegrass-derived PyOM in the incubation experiment to trace PyOM losses. In the field experiment it was observed that: (i) Pyrolysis process reduced pinewood decomposition by a factor of 60, (ii) leaching and translocation of fresh PyOM along the soil profile were negligible compared to losses as CO2. In the incubation experiment we found that ryegrass induced a two phase priming effect on native soil organic matter, with a positive priming effect followed by a negative priming effect phase, we also found that ryegrass-derived PyOM decomposition was much slower than pinewood one. The different decomposition rate results probably from the different aromaticity of the two PyOM together with the different set-up of the two experiments. Both the incubation experiment and the meta-analysis revealed that PyOM may induce a two-phase priming effect on native soil organic matter

  6. Nanoscale geochemical and geomechanical characterization of organic matter in shale.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing; Hatcherian, Javin; Hackley, Paul C; Pomerantz, Andrew E

    2017-12-19

    Solid organic matter (OM) plays an essential role in the generation, migration, storage, and production of hydrocarbons from economically important shale rock formations. Electron microscopy images have documented spatial heterogeneity in the porosity of OM at nanoscale, and bulk spectroscopy measurements have documented large variation in the chemical composition of OM during petroleum generation. However, information regarding the heterogeneity of OM chemical composition at the nanoscale has been lacking. Here we demonstrate the first application of atomic force microscopy-based infrared spectroscopy (AFM-IR) to measure the chemical and mechanical heterogeneity of OM in shale at the nanoscale, orders of magnitude finer than achievable by traditional chemical imaging tools such as infrared microscopy. We present a combination of optical microscopy and AFM-IR imaging to characterize OM heterogeneity in an artificially matured series of New Albany Shales. The results document the evolution of individual organic macerals with maturation, providing a microscopic picture of the heterogeneous process of petroleum generation.

  7. Submicron structures provide preferential spots for carbon and nitrogen sequestration in soils

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Cordula; Mueller, Carsten W.; Höschen, Carmen; Buegger, Franz; Heister, Katja; Schulz, Stefanie; Schloter, Michael; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The sequestration of carbon and nitrogen by clay-sized particles in soils is well established, and clay content or mineral surface area has been used to estimate the sequestration potential of soils. Here, via incubation of a sieved (<2 mm) topsoil with labelled litter, we find that only some of the clay-sized surfaces bind organic matter (OM). Surprisingly, <19% of the visible mineral areas show an OM attachment. OM is preferentially associated with organo-mineral clusters with rough surfaces. By combining nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry and isotopic tracing, we distinguish between new labelled and pre-existing OM and show that new OM is preferentially attached to already present organo-mineral clusters. These results, which provide evidence that only a limited proportion of the clay-sized surfaces contribute to OM sequestration, revolutionize our view of carbon sequestration in soils and the widely used carbon saturation estimates. PMID:24399306

  8. Lipoprotein Transport: Greasing the Machines of Outer Membrane Biogenesis: Re-Examining Lipoprotein Transport Mechanisms Among Diverse Gram-Negative Bacteria While Exploring New Discoveries and Questions.

    PubMed

    Grabowicz, Marcin

    2018-04-01

    The Gram-negative outer membrane (OM) is a potent permeability barrier against antibiotics, limiting clinical options amid mounting rates of resistance. The Lol transport pathway delivers lipoproteins to the OM. All the OM assembly machines require one or more OM lipoprotein to function, making the Lol pathway central for all aspects of OM biogenesis. The Lol pathways of many medically important species clearly deviate from the Escherichia coli paradigm, perhaps with implications for efforts to develop novel antibiotics. Moreover, recent work reveals the existence of an undiscovered alternate route for bringing lipoproteins to the OM. Here, lipoprotein transport mechanisms, and the quality control systems that underpin them, is re-examined in context of their diversity. © 2018 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  9. A Technosol as archives of organic matter related to past industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Huot, Hermine; Faure, Pierre; Biache, Coralie; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Simonnot, Marie-Odile; Morel, Jean Louis

    2014-07-15

    To better understand formation, functioning and evolution of a Technosol developing on a former settling pond of iron industry under forest cover, organic matter (OM) of layers along the soil profile was investigated. Spectroscopic and molecular analyses of extractable OM gave information on OM origin and state of preservation. In the surface layer, OM fingerprints indicated fresh input from vegetation while they revealed well preserved anthropogenic compounds related to industrial processes in deeper layers. OM variability and distribution according to the layers recorded deposition cycles of industrial effluents into the pond. Thus, the Technosol can be considered as archives of past industrial activities. The preservation of anthropogenic OM could be connected with mineralogy, high metal contents and particular physical properties of the Technosol. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB O/M... there is an increase in the DIB O/M rate because of an amendment or cost of living increase. However, the reduction amount does change if there is a change in the family members included in the DIB O/M...

  11. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB O/M... there is an increase in the DIB O/M rate because of an amendment or cost of living increase. However, the reduction amount does change if there is a change in the family members included in the DIB O/M...

  12. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB O/M... there is an increase in the DIB O/M rate because of an amendment or cost of living increase. However, the reduction amount does change if there is a change in the family members included in the DIB O/M...

  13. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB O/M... there is an increase in the DIB O/M rate because of an amendment or cost of living increase. However, the reduction amount does change if there is a change in the family members included in the DIB O/M...

  14. 20 CFR 229.66 - Changes in reduction amount.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Under a Federal, State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.66 Changes in reduction amount. (a) Change in DIB O/M... there is an increase in the DIB O/M rate because of an amendment or cost of living increase. However, the reduction amount does change if there is a change in the family members included in the DIB O/M...

  15. [Resistance recovery of prepared teeth obturated with different materials].

    PubMed

    Pérez Gutiérrez, I; Navajas Rodríguez de Mondelo, J M

    1989-12-01

    We have compared the endurance recuperation to the fracture of class II cavities, OM and MOD, filled with amalgam or composite resin. The composite resin recuperates the tooth endurance in the MOD cavities and in the OM cavities. The teeth with small OM cavities filled with amalgam recuperate their endurance to the original compression but the teeth with MOD cavities filled with this material don't recuperate it.

  16. Investigating molecular changes in organic matter composition in two Holocene lake-sediment records from central Sweden using pyrolysis-GC/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninnes, Sofia; Tolu, Julie; Meyer-Jacob, Carsten; Mighall, Tim M.; Bindler, Richard

    2017-06-01

    Organic matter (OM) is a key component of lake sediments, affecting carbon, nutrient, and trace metal cycling at local and global scales. Yet little is known about long-term (millennial) changes in OM composition due to the inherent chemical complexity arising from multiple OM sources and from secondary transformations. In this study we explore how the molecular composition of OM changes throughout the Holocene in two adjacent boreal lakes in central Sweden and compare molecular-level information with conventional OM variables, including total carbon, total nitrogen, C:N ratios, δ13C, and δ15N. To characterize the molecular OM composition, we employed a new method based on pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS), which yields semiquantitative data on >100 organic compounds of different origin and degradation status. We identify large changes in OM composition after deglaciation (circa 8500 ± 500 B.C.), associated with early landscape development, and during the most recent 40-50 years, driven by degradation processes. With molecular-level information we can also distinguish between natural landscape development and human catchment disturbance during the last 1700 years. Our study demonstrates that characterization of the molecular OM composition by the high-throughput Py-GC/MS method is an efficient complement to conventional OM variables for identification and understanding of past OM dynamics in lake-sediment records. Holocene changes observed for pyrolytic compounds and compound classes known for having different reactivity indicate the need for further paleo-reconstruction of the molecular OM composition to better understand both past and future OM dynamics and associated environmental changes.

  17. Definitive Stereotactic Body Radiotherapy (SBRT) for Extracranial Oligometastases: An International Survey of >1000 Radiation Oncologists.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Stephen L; Porceddu, Sandro; Nakamura, Naoki; Palma, David A; Lo, Simon S; Hoskin, Peter; Moghanaki, Drew; Chmura, Steven J; Salama, Joseph K

    2017-08-01

    Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is often used to treat patients with oligometastases (OM). Yet, patterns of SBRT practice for OM are unknown. Therefore, we surveyed radiation oncologists internationally, to understand how and when SBRT is used for OM. A 25-question survey was distributed to radiation oncologists. Respondents using SBRT for OM were asked how long they have been treating OM, number of patients treated, organs treated, primary reason for use, doses used, and future intentions. Respondents not using SBRT for OM were asked reasons why SBRT was not used and intentions for future adoption. Data were analyzed anonymously. We received 1007 surveys from 43 countries. Eighty-three percent began using SBRT after 2005 and greater than one third after 2010. Eighty-four percent cited perceived treatment response/durability as the primary reason for using SBRT in OM patients. Commonly treated organs were lung (90%), liver (75%), and spine (70%). SBRT dose/fractionation schemes varied widely. Most would offer a second course to new OM. Nearly all (99%) planned to continue and 66% planned to increase SBRT for OM. Of those not using SBRT, 59% plan to start soon. The most common reason for not using SBRT was lack of clinical efficacy (48%) or lack of necessary image guidance equipment (34%). Radiation oncologists are increasingly using SBRT for OM. The main reason for not using SBRT for OM is a perceived lack of evidence demonstrating clinical advantages. These data strengthen the need for robust prospective clinical trials (ongoing and in development) to demonstrate clinical efficacy given the widespread adoption of SBRT for OM.

  18. Examining the presence and determinants of operational momentum in childhood.

    PubMed

    Knops, André; Zitzmann, Steffen; McCrink, Koleen

    2013-01-01

    The operational momentum (OM) effect describes a systematic bias in estimating the outcomes of simple addition and subtraction problems. Outcomes of addition problems are overestimated while outcomes of subtraction problems are underestimated. The origin of OM remains debated. First, a flawed uncompression of numerical information during the course of mental arithmetic is supposed to cause OM due to linear arithmetic operations on a compressed magnitude code. Second, attentional shifts along the mental number line are thought to cause OM. A third hypothesis explains OM in 9-month olds by a cognitive heuristic of accepting more (less) than the original operand in addition (subtraction) problems. The current study attempts to disentangle these alternatives and systematically examines potential determinants of OM, such as reading fluency which has been found to modulate numerical-spatial associations. A group of 32 6- and 7-year-old children was tested in non-symbolic addition and subtraction problems, in which they had to choose the correct outcome from an array of several possible outcomes. Reading capacity was assessed for half of the children while attentional measures were assessed in the other half. Thirty-two adults were tested with the identical paradigm to validate its potential of revealing OM. Children (and adults) were readily able to solve the problems. We replicated previous findings of OM in the adults group. Using a Bayesian framework we observed an inverse OM effect in children, i.e., larger overestimations for subtraction compared to addition. A significant correlation between children's level of attentional control and their propensity to exhibit OM was observed. The observed pattern of results, in particular the inverse OM in children is hard to reconcile with the previously proposed theoretical frameworks. The observed link between OM and the attentional system might be interpreted as evidence partially supporting the attentional shift hypothesis.

  19. Examining the Presence and Determinants of Operational Momentum in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Knops, André; Zitzmann, Steffen; McCrink, Koleen

    2013-01-01

    The operational momentum (OM) effect describes a systematic bias in estimating the outcomes of simple addition and subtraction problems. Outcomes of addition problems are overestimated while outcomes of subtraction problems are underestimated. The origin of OM remains debated. First, a flawed uncompression of numerical information during the course of mental arithmetic is supposed to cause OM due to linear arithmetic operations on a compressed magnitude code. Second, attentional shifts along the mental number line are thought to cause OM. A third hypothesis explains OM in 9-month olds by a cognitive heuristic of accepting more (less) than the original operand in addition (subtraction) problems. The current study attempts to disentangle these alternatives and systematically examines potential determinants of OM, such as reading fluency which has been found to modulate numerical–spatial associations. A group of 32 6- and 7-year-old children was tested in non-symbolic addition and subtraction problems, in which they had to choose the correct outcome from an array of several possible outcomes. Reading capacity was assessed for half of the children while attentional measures were assessed in the other half. Thirty-two adults were tested with the identical paradigm to validate its potential of revealing OM. Children (and adults) were readily able to solve the problems. We replicated previous findings of OM in the adults group. Using a Bayesian framework we observed an inverse OM effect in children, i.e., larger overestimations for subtraction compared to addition. A significant correlation between children’s level of attentional control and their propensity to exhibit OM was observed. The observed pattern of results, in particular the inverse OM in children is hard to reconcile with the previously proposed theoretical frameworks. The observed link between OM and the attentional system might be interpreted as evidence partially supporting the attentional shift

  20. Spectrometric characterization of effluent organic matter of a sequencing batch reactor operated at three sludge retention times.

    PubMed

    Esparza-Soto, M; Núñez-Hernández, S; Fall, C

    2011-12-01

    Effluent organic matter (EfOM) from activated sludge systems is composed primarily of influent refractory compounds, residual degradable substrate, intermediate products and soluble microbial products (SMPs). Depending on operational conditions (hydraulic and sludge retention time (SRT)), the quantity and quality of EfOM significantly changes. The main objective of this research was to quantify and characterize the EfOM of a lab-scale activated sludge sequencing batch reactor (SBR), which was operated at three SRTs and fed glucose, an easily biodegradable substrate. EfOM was followed with two direct-quantification methods (chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)), three spectrometric methods (ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UVA(254)), excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC)) and three organic matter (OM) indices (specific UVA(254) (SUVA), SUVA-COD, COD/DOC ratio). The significant increment of UVA(254) and OM indices after treatment indicated an accumulation of refractory high-molecular-weight humic-like compounds in the EfOM, which demonstrated that EfOM was composed mainly by SMPs and not glucose. On the other hand, as the SRT increased, the amount of EfOM decreased, but SUVA, SUVA-COD and fluorescence intensity increased; these trends indicated the accumulation of SMPs of increased molecular weight and aromaticity. Increasing SRT in the SBRs reduced the amount of EfOM, but increased its aromaticity and reactivity. Visual analysis of EfOM EEMs showed two protein- and one humic-like peak, which were attributed to SMPs generated within the SBRs. PARAFAC determined that a two-component model best represented EfOM EEMs. The two-components from PARAFAC were mathematically correlated to the visually identified protein- and humic-like SMPs peaks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Omeprazole induces heme oxygenase-1 in fetal human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells via hydrogen peroxide-independent Nrf2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ananddeep; Zhang, Shaojie; Shrestha, Amrit Kumar; Maturu, Paramahamsa; Moorthy, Bhagavatula; Shivanna, Binoy

    2016-11-15

    Omeprazole (OM) is an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist and a proton pump inhibitor that is used to treat humans with gastric acid related disorders. Recently, we showed that OM induces NAD (P) H quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent mechanism. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is another cytoprotective and antioxidant enzyme that is regulated by Nrf2. Whether OM induces HO-1 in fetal human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) is unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that OM will induce HO-1 expression via Nrf2 in HPMEC. OM induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. siRNA-mediated knockdown of AhR failed to abrogate, whereas knockdown of Nrf2 abrogated HO-1 induction by OM. To identify the underlying molecular mechanisms, we determined the effects of OM on cellular hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) levels since oxidative stress mediated by the latter is known to activate Nrf2. Interestingly, the concentration at which OM induced HO-1 also increased H 2 O 2 levels. Furthermore, H 2 O 2 independently augmented HO-1 expression. Although N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) significantly decreased H 2 O 2 levels in OM-treated cells, we observed that OM further increased HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in NAC-pretreated compared to vehicle-pretreated cells, suggesting that OM induces HO-1 via H 2 O 2 -independent mechanisms. In conclusion, we provide evidence that OM transcriptionally induces HO-1 via AhR - and H 2 O 2 - independent, but Nrf2 - dependent mechanisms. These results have important implications for human disorders where Nrf2 and HO-1 play a beneficial role. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Associations between otitis media and child behavioural and learning difficulties: Results from a Danish cohort.

    PubMed

    Niclasen, J; Obel, C; Homøe, P; Kørvel-Hanquist, A; Dammeyer, J

    2016-05-01

    Findings from studies investigating early childhood episodes of otitis media (OM) and developmental outcomes are inconclusive. This may in part be because large-scale prospective studies controlling for relevant confounding factors are sparse. The present study investigates associations between OM in early childhood and later behavioural and learning difficulties controlling for relevant confounding factors. The study applied data from the Aarhus Birth Cohort's 10-12-year-old follow-up (N=7578). Associations between retrospective parent-reported OM (no OM; 1-3 episodes of OM with/without tympanostomy tubes; 4+ OM episodes without tympanostomy tubes and; 4+ OM episodes with tympanostomy tubes) one the one hand, and parent- and teacher-reported scores on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) and parent-reported academic difficulties on the other hand, were investigated. The following variables were controlled for: parental educational level, maternal and paternal school problems, parental post-natal smoking, breastfeeding, and age at which the child started walking. All analyses were stratified by gender. Large differences in background characteristics were observed for the group of children with 4+ OM episodes with tympanostomy tubes compared to the no OM group. After controlling for relevant confounders, negative associations were consistently observed for the group of children with 4+ episodes of OM with tympanostomy tubes compared to the group of children without OM. This was particularly so for girls. The findings suggest an association between 4+ episodes of early OM with tympanostomy tubes and behavioural and learning difficulties later in childhood. The large inter-group differences, i.e. impact of residual and unmeasured confounding factors, may in part explain the observed associations and underline the need to include these in future studies. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Linking lithology and land use to sources of dissolved and particulate organic matter in headwaters of a temperate, passive-margin river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longworth, B. E.; Petsch, S. T.; Raymond, P. A.; Bauer, J. E.

    2007-09-01

    A number of rivers have been found to transport highly aged organic matter [OM]; however, the sources of this aged material remain a matter of debate. One potential source may be erosion and weathering of headwater lithologies rich in ancient sedimentary OM. In this study, waters, suspended particulates, streambed sediments, rocks and soils from fourteen small headwater watersheds of a mid-size, temperate, passive margin river were sampled and characterized by Δ 14C, δ 13C, and POC/TPN ratios to identify sources of particulate and dissolved OM delivered to the river mainstem. These headwater sites encompass a range in lithology (OM-rich shales, OM-lean carbonate/mudstone facies, and OM-free crystalline rocks) and land use types (forested and agricultural), and allow investigation of the influence of agriculture and bedrock types on stream OM characteristics. Streams draining large areas of both agricultural land use and OM-rich lithology contain particulate OM [POM] that is more 14C-depleted than streams draining forested, shale-free watersheds. However, this is not sufficient to account for the significantly lower Δ 14C-POC measured in the river mainstem. Dissolved OM [DOM] Δ 14C are in all cases enriched compared to POM from the same stream, but are otherwise highly variable and unrelated to either land use or lithology. POC/TPN ratios were likewise highly variable. POC and DOC δ 13C signatures were similar across all watersheds. Based on isotope mass balance, 14C-free fossil OM sources contribute 0-12% of total stream POM. Although these results do not unequivocally separate the influences of land use and lithology, watershed coverage by shale and agriculture are both important controls on stream Δ 14C-POC. Thus export of aged, particle-associated OM may be a feature of river systems along both passive and active continental margins.

  4. A Novel Phase Sensitive Quantum Well Nanostructure Scheme for Controlling Optical Bistability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raheli, Ali

    2018-04-01

    A novel four-level lambda-type quantum well (QW) nanostructure is proposed based on phase sensitive optical bistability (OB) and multistability (OM) with a closed-loop configuration. The influence of controlling parameters of the system on OB and OM is investigated. In particular, it is found that the OB behavior is strongly sensitive to the relative phase of applied fields. It is also shown that under certain parametric conditions, the OB can be switched to OM or vice versa. The controllability of OB/OM in such a QW nanostructure may bring some new possibilities for technological applications in solid-state quantum information science and optoelectronics.

  5. Triplet photochemistry of effluent and natural organic matter in whole water and isolates from effluent-receiving rivers.

    PubMed

    Bodhipaksha, Laleen C; Sharpless, Charles M; Chin, Yu-Ping; Sander, Michael; Langston, William K; MacKay, Allison A

    2015-03-17

    Effluent organic matter (EfOM), contained in treated municipal wastewater, differs in composition from naturally occurring dissolved organic matter (DOM). The presence of EfOM may thus alter the photochemical production of reactive intermediates in rivers that receive measurable contributions of treated municipal wastewater. Quantum yield coefficients for excited triplet-state OM (3OM*) and apparent quantum yields for singlet oxygen (1O2) were measured for both whole water samples and OM isolated by solid phase extraction from whole water samples collected upstream and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plant discharges in three rivers receiving differing effluent contributions: Hockanum R., CT (22% (v/v) effluent flow), E. Fork Little Miami R., OH (11%), and Pomperaug R., CT (6%). While only small differences in production of these reactive intermediates were observed between upstream and downstream whole water samples collected from the same river, yields of 3OM* and 1O2 varied by 30-50% between the rivers. Apparent quantum yields of 1O2 followed similar trends to those of 3OM*, consistent with 3OM* as a precursor to 1O2 formation. Higher 3OM* reactivity was observed for whole water samples than for OM isolates of the same water, suggesting differential recoveries of photoreactive moieties by solid phase extraction. 3OM* and 1O2 yields increased with increasing E2/E3 ratio (A254 nm divided by A365 nm) and decreased with increasing electron donating capacities of the samples, thus exhibiting trends also observed for reference humic and fulvic acid isolates. Mixing experiments with EfOM and DOM isolates showed evidence of quenching of triplet DOM by EfOM when measured yields were compared to theoretical yields. Together, the results suggest that effluent contributions of up to 25% (v/v) to river systems have a negligible influence on photochemical production of 3OM* and 1O2 apparently because of quenching of triplet DOM by EfOM. Furthermore, the results

  6. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of ononitol monohydrate isolated fromCassia toraL. in animal models.

    PubMed

    Antonisamy, Paulrayer; Dhanasekaran, Muniyappan; Kim, Ha-Rim; Jo, Sung-Gang; Agastian, Paul; Kwon, Kang-Beom

    2017-12-01

    Ononitol monohydrate (OM) was isolated from Cassia tora L. leaves. The anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of OM have been examined in male Wistar rats and mice. The efficacy of OM against inflammation was studied by using carrageenan-induced paw oedema, croton oil-induced ear oedema, acetic acid-induced vascular permeability, cotton pellet-induced granuloma and adjuvant-induced arthritis. The analgesic activity of OM was assessed using the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction response, formalin-induced paw licking response and the hot-plate test. In acute type inflammation models, maximum inhibitions of 50.69 and 61.06% ( P  < .05) were noted with 20 mg/kg of OM in carrageenan-induced hind paw oedema and croton oil-induced ear oedema, respectively. Treatment of OM (20 mg/kg) meaningfully ( P  < .05) reduced the granuloma tissue formation by cotton pellet study at a rate of 36.25%. OM (20 mg/kg) inhibited 53.64% of paw thickness in adjuvant-induced arthritis model. OM has also been produced significant ( P  < .05) analgesic activity in acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction response, formalin-induced paw licking response and in hot-plate test suggesting its peripheral and central analgesic potential. The outcomes of the present study proposed that OM influenced on the anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.

  7. Characterization of uranium redox state in organic-rich Eocene sediments.

    PubMed

    Cumberland, Susan A; Etschmann, Barbara; Brugger, Joël; Douglas, Grant; Evans, Katy; Fisher, Louise; Kappen, Peter; Moreau, John W

    2018-03-01

    The presence of organic matter (OM) has a profound impact on uranium (U) redox cycling, either limiting or promoting the mobility of U via binding, reduction, or complexation. To understand the interactions between OM and U, we characterised U oxidation state and speciation in nine OM-rich sediment cores (18 samples), plus a lignite sample from the Mulga Rock polymetallic deposit in Western Australia. Uranium was unevenly dispersed within the analysed samples with 84% of the total U occurring in samples containing >21 wt % OM. Analyses of U speciation, including x-ray absorption spectroscopy and bicarbonate extractions, revealed that U existed predominately (∼71%) as U(VI), despite the low pH (4.5) and nominally reducing conditions within the sediments. Furthermore, low extractability by water, but high extractability by a bi-carbonate solution, indicated a strong association of U with particulate OM. The unexpectedly high proportion of U(VI) relative to U(IV) within the OM-rich sediments implies that OM itself does not readily reduce U, and the reduction of U is not a requirement for immobilizing uranium in OM-rich deposits. The fact that OM can play a significant role in limiting the mobility and reduction of U(VI) in sediments is important for both U-mining and remediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Discrimination in Degradability of Soil Pyrogenic Organic Matter Follows a Return-On-Energy-Investment Principle.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Omar R; Myers-Pigg, Allison N; Kuo, Li-Jung; Singh, Bhupinder Pal; Kuehn, Kevin A; Louchouarn, Patrick

    2016-08-16

    A fundamental understanding of biodegradability is central to elucidating the role(s) of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) in biogeochemical cycles. Since microbial community and ecosystem dynamics are driven by net energy flows, then a quantitative assessment of energy value versus energy requirement for oxidation of PyOM should yield important insights into their biodegradability. We used bomb calorimetry, stepwise isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (isoTGA), and 5-year in situ bidegradation data to develop energy-biodegradability relationships for a suite of plant- and manure-derived PyOM (n = 10). The net energy value (ΔE) for PyOM was between 4.0 and 175 kJ mol(-1); with manure-derived PyOM having the highest ΔE. Thermal-oxidation activation energy (Ea) requirements ranged from 51 to 125 kJ mol(-1), with wood-derived PyOM having the highest Ea requirements. We propose a return-on-investment (ROI) parameter (ΔE/Ea) for differentiating short-to-medium term biodegradability of PyOM and deciphering if biodegradation will most likely proceed via cometabolism (ROI < 1) or direct metabolism (ROI ≥ 1). The ROI-biodegradability relationship was sigmoidal with higher biodegradability associated with PyOM of higher ROI; indicating that microbes exhibit a higher preference for "high investment value" PyOM.

  9. Changes in cytokine and nitric oxide secretion by rat alveolar macrophages after oral administration of bacterial extracts.

    PubMed Central

    Broug-Holub, E; Persoons, J H; Schornagel, K; Kraal, G

    1995-01-01

    Oral administration of the bacterial immunomodulator Broncho-Vaxom (OM-85), a lysate of eight bacteria strains commonly causing respiratory disease, has been shown to enhance the host defence of the respiratory tract. In this study we examined the effect of orally administered (in vivo) OM-85 on stimulus-induced cytokine and nitric oxide secretion by rat alveolar macrophages in vitro. The results show that alveolar macrophages isolated from OM-85-treated rats secreted significantly more nitric oxide, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-1 beta upon in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), whereas, in contrast, LPS-induced IL-6 secretion was significantly lower. The observed effects of in vivo OM-85 treatment on stimulus-induced cytokine secretion in vitro are not due to a direct effect of OM-85 on the cells, because in vitro incubation of alveolar macrophages with OM-85 did not result in altered activity, nor did direct intratracheal instillation of OM-85 in the lungs of rats result in altered alveolar macrophage activity in vitro. It is hypothesized that oral administration of OM-85 leads to priming of alveolar macrophages in such a way that immune responses are non-specifically enhanced upon stimulation. The therapeutic action of OM-85 may therefore result from an enhanced clearance of infectious bacteria from the respiratory tract due to increased alveolar macrophage activity. PMID:7648713

  10. Efficacy of cryotherapy associated with laser therapy for decreasing severity of melphalan-induced oral mucositis during hematological stem-cell transplantation: a prospective clinical study.

    PubMed

    de Paula Eduardo, Fernanda; Bezinelli, Leticia Mello; da Graça Lopes, Roberta Marques; Nascimento Sobrinho, Jairo Jose; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Correa, Luciana

    2015-09-01

    Melphalan followed by hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is the standard treatment for multiple myeloma and other hematopoietic neoplasms. However, high doses of melphalan cause severe oral mucositis (OM). The objective was to verify the efficacy of cryotherapy plus laser therapy on reduction of OM severity. HSCT patients undergoing melphalan chemotherapy (n = 71) were randomly divided into two groups according to OM treatment: oral cryotherapy performed with ice chips for 1 h 35 min followed by low-level laser therapy (InGaAIP, 660 nm, 40 mW, 6 J/cm(2) ) (n = 54) and laser therapy alone with the same protocol (n = 17). A control group (n = 33) was composed of HSCT patients treated with melphalan who received no specific treatment for OM. OM scores and clinical information were collected from D0 to D + 11. The cryotherapy/laser therapy group showed the lowest OM scores (maximum Grade I) and the lowest mean number of days (8 days) with OM in comparison with the other groups (p < 0.001). OM Grades III and IV were present with high frequency only in the control group. The association of cryotherapy with laser therapy was effective in reducing OM severity in HSCT patients who underwent melphalan conditioning. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Protozoa enhance foraging efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for mineral nitrogen from organic matter in soil to the benefit of host plants.

    PubMed

    Koller, Robert; Rodriguez, Alia; Robin, Christophe; Scheu, Stefan; Bonkowski, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Dead organic matter (OM) is a major source of nitrogen (N) for plants. The majority of plants support N uptake by symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Mineralization of N is regulated by microfauna, in particular, protozoa grazing on bacteria. We hypothesized that AM fungi and protozoa interactively facilitate plant N nutrition from OM. In soil systems consisting of an OM patch and a root compartment, plant N uptake and consequences for plant carbon (C) allocation were investigated using stable isotopes. Protozoa mobilized N by consuming bacteria, and the mobilized N was translocated via AM fungi to the host plant. The presence of protozoa in both the OM and root compartment stimulated photosynthesis and the translocation of C from the host plant via AM fungi into the OM patch. This stimulated microbial activity in the OM patch, plant N uptake from OM and doubled plant growth. The results indicate that protozoa increase plant growth by both mobilization of N from OM and by protozoa-root interactions, resulting in increased C allocation to roots and into the rhizosphere, thereby increasing plant nutrient exploitation. Hence, mycorrhizal plants need to interact with protozoa to fully exploit N resources from OM. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  12. The Organic Matter Molecular Characteristics of Pyrogenic Solids and Their Aqueous Leachable Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wozniak, A. S.; Hatcher, P.; Mitra, S.; Bostick, K. W.; Zimmerman, A. R.

    2016-02-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter (Py-OM), or black carbon (BC), derives from the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass and is recognized for its impacts on soil chemistry, pollutant transport, climate, and regional and global carbon cycling. In fact, Py-OM is commonly applied to agricultural plots, in the form of "biochars," with the intention of enhancing agricultural production and the expectation of a carbon sequestration side benefit due to Py-OM's refractory and immobile nature. However, several studies of riverine, estuarine, and oceanic waters have detected tracers of dissolved Py-OM in appreciable quantities suggesting that it is more mobile in the environment than previously expected. The quantities and impacts of Py-OM released to aqueous systems are likely dependent on Py-OM molecular characteristics which in turn likely depend on initial combustion conditions and environmental processing. Yet, very little is known about the detailed molecular composition of these materials, let alone their relationships with combustion and environmental processing. Here, pyrophosphate extractable and water leachable components of a range of Py-OM materials (natural charcoals aged in the environment for variable lengths of time, oak and grass combusted over a range of temperatures) are examined by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The molecular characteristics of the dissolved and pyrophosphate extractable Py-OM is then compared in the context of production conditions. Results of this study will greatly improve our understanding of Py-OM cycling between watersheds and the oceans.

  13. Omalizumab efficacy in cases of chronic spontaneous urticaria is not explained by the inhibition of sera activity in effector cells.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Candelas, Eva; Martínez-Aranguren, Rubén; Vega, Olga; Gastaminza, Gabriel; Bartra, Joan; Audicana, Maria Teresa; Núñez-Córdoba, Jorge M; Algorta, Jaime; Valero, Antonio; Martin, Margarita; Ferrer, Marta

    2017-08-21

    Omalizumab (OmAb) is a humanized anti-IgE antibody approved for the treatment of chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). OmAb's mechanism of action is known to include actions on free IgE and on pre-bound IgE. However, OmAb is equally and rapidly effective against autoimmune and non-autoimmune urticaria where IgE involvement is not clear, suggesting the involvement of additional mechanisms of action. In this study, we sought to investigate the ability of OmAb to inhibit mast cell and basophil degranulation induced by sera from CSU patients. For this purpose, we performed a comparison between the in vitro incubation of sera from CSU patients treated with OmAb and the in vivo administration of OmAb in a clinical trial. We found that OmAb added in vitro to sera from CSU patients did not modify the ability of the sera to induce cell degranulation. Similarly, the sera from patients treated with OmAb in the context of the clinical trial who had a good clinical outcome maintained the capacity to activate mast cells and basophils. Thus, we conclude that the beneficial activity of OmAb does not correlate with the ability of patient sera to induce cell degranulation.

  14. The role of autochthonous organic matter in radioactive cesium accumulation to riverine fine sediments.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Manabu; Ono, Keisuke; Yoshimura, Chihiro; Miyamoto, Manami

    2018-03-02

    Anthropogenically released radioactive cesium (RCs) poses serious ecological and environmental concerns given its persistency in the environment. Although accumulation of RCs in aqueous and sedimentary environments is often reported to associate with organic matter (OM), the mechanisms responsible remain unclear. Here, we investigated RCs in fine sediments along the Abukuma River, the largest river near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, 1.5-4 years after the accident. Measuring the density-separated sediment fractions with a broad range of OM content (%) indicated that the RCs concentration (Bq·kg -1 ) is positively correlated with OM content for intermediate-density fractions in which OM is primarily characterized by autochthonous origin. This relationship, however, did not hold for light-density fractions containing a high proportion of large-size allochthonous OM. Furthermore, H 2 O 2 -assisted OM digestion and amorphous material dissolution treatments resulted in only a minor reduction in sedimentary RCs. These results along with the fact that sediments with high autochthonous OM content showed high specific surface area indicated that RCs is tightly associated with finer-grained and chemically non-labile inorganic fractions concurrently resident with autochthonous OM. Overall, our findings highlight that autochthonous OM exerts a significant control on the accumulation, transport, and fate of RCs in aqueous and sedimentary environments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Omethoate treatment mitigates high salt stress inhibited maize seed germination.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kejun; Zhang, Yifei; Zhu, Lianhua; Li, Zuotong; Deng, Benliang

    2018-01-01

    Omethoate (OM) is a highly toxic organophophate insecticide, which is resistant to biodegradation in the environment and is widely used for pest control in agriculture. The effect of OM on maize seed germination was evaluated under salt stress. Salt (800mM) greatly reduced germination of maize seed and this could be reversed by OM. Additionally, H 2 O 2 treatment further improved the effect of OM on seed germination. Higher H 2 O 2 content was measured in OM treated seed compared to those with salt stress alone. Dimethylthiourea (DTMU), a specific scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS), inhibited the effect of OM on seed germination, as did IMZ (imidazole), an inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. Abscisic acid (ABA) inhibited the effect of OM on seed germination, whereas fluridone, a specific inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, enhanced the effect of OM. Taken together, these findings suggest a role of ROS and ABA in the promotion of maize seed germination by OM under salt stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Discrimination in Degradability of Soil Pyrogenic Organic Matter Follows a Return-On-Energy-Investment Principle

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey, Omar R.; Myers-Pigg, Allison N.; Kuo, Li-Jung

    2016-08-16

    A fundamental understanding of biodegradability is central to elucidating the role(s) of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) in biogeochemical cycles. Since microbial community and ecosystem dynamics are driven by net energy flows, then a quantitative assessment of energy value versus energy requirement for oxidation of PyOM should yield important insights into their biodegradability. We used bomb calorimetry, step-wise isothermal thermogravimetric analysis (isoTGA) and 5-year in-situ bidegradation data, to develop energy-biodegradability relationships for a suite of plant- and manure-derived PyOM (n = 10). The net energy value (ΔE) for PyOM was between 4.0 and 175 kJ mol-1; with manure-derived PyOM having themore » highest ΔE. Thermal-oxidation activation energy (Ea) requirements ranged from 51 to 125 kJ mol-1, with wood-derived PyOM having the highest Ea requirements. We propose a return-on-investment (ROI) parameter (ΔE/Ea) for differentiating short-to-medium term biodegradability of PyOM and deciphering if biodegradation will most likely proceed via co-metabolism (ROI < 1) or direct metabolism (ROI ≥ 1). The ROI-biodegradability relationship was sigmoidal with higher biodegradability associated with PyOM of higher ROI; indicating that microbes exhibit a higher preference for “high investment value” PyOM.« less

  17. Carbon and nitrogen additions induce distinct priming effects along an organic-matter decay continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Na; Xu, Xingliang; Hu, Yuehua; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Liu, Yongwen; Schaefer, Douglas; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-01-01

    Decomposition of organic matter (OM) in soil, affecting carbon (C) cycling and climate feedbacks, depends on microbial activities driven by C and nitrogen (N) availability. However, it remains unknown how decomposition of various OMs vary across global supplies and ratios of C and N inputs. We examined OM decomposition by incubating four types of OM (leaf litter, wood, organic matter from organic and mineral horizons) from a decay continuum in a subtropical forest at Ailao Mountain, China with labile C and N additions. Decomposition of wood with high C:N decreased for 3.9 to 29% with these additions, while leaf decomposition was accelerated only within a narrow C:N range of added C and N. Decomposition of OM from organic horizon was accelerated by high C:N and suppressed by low C:N, but mineral soil was almost entirely controlled by high C:N. These divergent responses to C and N inputs show that mechanisms for priming (i.e. acceleration or retardation of OM decomposition by labile inputs) vary along this decay continuum. We conclude that besides C:N ratios of OM, those of labile inputs control the OM decay in the litter horizons, while energy (labile C) regulates decomposition in mineral soil. This suggests that OM decomposition can be predicted from its intrinsic C:N ratios and those of labile inputs.

  18. Overtone Mobility Spectrometry: Part 3. On the Origin of Peaks

    PubMed Central

    Valentine, Stephen J.; Kurulugama, Ruwan T.; Clemmer, David E.

    2011-01-01

    The origin of non-integer overtone peaks in overtone mobility spectrometry (OMS) spectra is investigated by ion trajectory simulations. Simulations indicate that these OMS features arise from higher-order overtone series. An empirically-derived formula is presented as a means of describing the positions of peaks. The new equation makes it possible to determine collision cross sections from any OMS peak. Additionally, it is extended as a means of predicting the resolving power for any peak in an OMS distribution. PMID:21472515

  19. Catalytic degradation of Acid Orange 7 by manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves with peroxymonosulfate under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Duan, Lian; Sun, Binzhe; Wei, Mingyu; Luo, Shilu; Pan, Fei; Xu, Aihua; Li, Xiaoxia

    2015-03-21

    In this paper, the photodegradation of Acid Orange 7 (AO7) in aqueous solutions with peroxymonosulfate (PMS) was studied with manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS-2) as the catalyst. The activities of different systems including OMS-2 under visible light irradiation (OMS-2/Vis), OMS-2/PMS and OMS-2/PMS/Vis were evaluated. It was found that the efficiency of OMS-2/PMS was much higher than that of OMS-2/Vis and could be further enhanced by visible light irradiation. The catalyst also exhibited stable performance for multiple runs. Results from ESR and XPS analyses suggested that the highly catalytic activity of the OMS-2/PMS/Vis system possible involved the activation of PMS to sulfate radicals meditated by the redox pair of Mn(IV)/Mn(III) and Mn(III)/Mn(II), while in the OMS-2/PMS system, only the redox reaction between Mn(IV)/Mn(III) occurred. Several operational parameters, such as dye concentration, catalyst load, PMS concentration and solution pH, affected the degradation of AO7. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. A novel sputum transport solution eliminates cold chain and supports routine tuberculosis testing in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Maharjan, Bhagwan; Shrestha, Bhabana; Weirich, Alexandra; Stewart, Andrew; Kelly-Cirino, Cassandra D

    2016-12-01

    This preliminary study evaluated the transport reagent OMNIgene SPUTUM (OMS) in a real-world, resource-limited setting: a zonal hospital and national tuberculosis (TB) reference laboratory, Nepal. The objectives were to: (1) assess the performance of OMS for transporting sputum from peripheral sites without cold chain stabilization; and (2) compare with Nepal's standard of care (SOC) for Mycobacterium tuberculosis smear and culture diagnostics. Sixty sputa were manually split into a SOC sample (airline-couriered to the laboratory, conventional processing) and an OMS sample (OMS added at collection, no cold chain transport or processing). Smear microscopy and solid culture were performed. Transport was 0-8days. Forty-one samples (68%) were smear-positive using both methods. Of the OMS cultures, 37 (62%) were positive, 22 (36%) were negative, and one (2%) was contaminated. Corresponding SOC results were 32 (53%), 21 (35%), and seven (12%). OMS "rescued" six (i.e., missed using SOC) compared with one rescue using SOC. Of smear-positives, six SOC samples produced contaminated cultures whereas only one OMS sample was contaminated. OMS reduced culture contamination from 12% to 2%, and improved TB detection by 9%. The results suggest that OMS could perform well as a no cold chain, long-term transport solution for smear and culture testing. The findings provide a basis for larger feasibility studies. Copyright © 2016 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of agricultural practices on organic matter degradation in ditches

    PubMed Central

    Hunting, Ellard R.; Vonk, J. Arie; Musters, C.J.M.; Kraak, Michiel H.S.; Vijver, Martina G.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural practices can result in differences in organic matter (OM) and agricultural chemical inputs in adjacent ditches, but its indirect effects on OM composition and its inherent consequences for ecosystem functioning remain uncertain. This study determined the effect of agricultural practices (dairy farm grasslands and hyacinth bulb fields) on OM degradation by microorganisms and invertebrates with a consumption and food preference experiment in the field and in the laboratory using natural OM collected from the field. Freshly cut grass and hyacinths were also offered to control for OM composition and large- and small mesh-sizes were used to distinguish microbial decomposition and invertebrate consumption. Results show that OM decomposition by microorganisms and consumption by invertebrates was similar throughout the study area, but that OM collected from ditches adjacent grasslands and freshly cut grass and hyacinths were preferred over OM collected from ditches adjacent to a hyacinth bulb field. In the case of OM collected from ditches adjacent hyacinth bulb fields, both microbial decomposition and invertebrate consumption were strongly retarded, likely resulting from sorption and accumulation of pesticides. This outcome illustrates that differences in agricultural practices can, in addition to direct detrimental effects on aquatic organisms, indirectly alter the functioning of adjacent aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26892243

  2. A Novel Phase Sensitive Quantum Well Nanostructure Scheme for Controlling Optical Bistability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raheli, Ali

    2018-02-01

    A novel four-level lambda-type quantum well (QW) nanostructure is proposed based on phase sensitive optical bistability (OB) and multistability (OM) with a closed-loop configuration. The influence of controlling parameters of the system on OB and OM is investigated. In particular, it is found that the OB behavior is strongly sensitive to the relative phase of applied fields. It is also shown that under certain parametric conditions, the OB can be switched to OM or vice versa. The controllability of OB/OM in such a QW nanostructure may bring some new possibilities for technological applications in solid-state quantum information science and optoelectronics.

  3. Storage and turnover of organic matter fractions along a Siberian Arctic soil transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentsch, Norman; Mikutta, Robert; Shibistova, Olga; Guggenberger, Georg

    2013-04-01

    Recent observation and climate models demonstrate that arctic ecosystems are already affected by climate warming, as revealed by continuous permafrost degradation and increase of active layer depths. Variations of organic matter (OM) storage in different soil horizons and the OM quality are likely the major drivers of trace gas emissions to the atmosphere. A better understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of OM in permafrost environments is the key to predict future climate changes and the role of terrestrial arctic regions. This study investigates the storage and turnover patterns of OM in functionally different pools, i.e., in particulate plant debris, extractable-water-soluble OM, and mineral-associated OM in permafrost soils along a West-East Siberian transect in the Russian Arctic. We quantified the stocks of total soil organic C (OC) and the respective OM fractions for the first soil meter. Furthermore, we estimated their apparent 14C ages by accelerator mass spectrometry, and determined the mineralization rates and bioavailability of particulate, mineral-bound, and bulk OM in a 90-day incubation experiment. Particulate OM was separated from the mineral-associated OM fraction by density fractionation with sodium polytungstate (density cut-off 1.6 g cm-3) and the OM liberated by this treatment was quantified. Considerable differences in OM storage existed from the West- to the East Siberian Arctic. Cryosols of the Central- and East Siberian sampling sites stored on average 56% more OC than those in West Siberia (25 ± 7 kg m-2versus 11 ± 4 kg m-2 to 1 m soil depth). However, the proportion of the three OM fractions to total OM was similar among the sites. In mineral soil horizons, on average, 17 ± 5% of the total OM was particulate OM, 61 ± 10% was associated with minerals, and 21 ± 3% could be mobilized in dissolved forms during density fractionation. Except for West Siberian soils, ~30% of the OM of the first soil meter was stored in permafrost while

  4. Outcome measurements in studies on the association between osteoporosis and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Passos, Johelle de Santana; Gomes-Filho, Isaac Suzart; Vianna, Maria Isabel Pereira; da Cruz, Simone Seixas; Barreto, Maurício Lima; Oliveira, Tiago José Silva; Borges, Leandro Dias; Monteiro, Fernanda Marques

    2010-12-01

    The present study aims to compare different diagnostic criteria for periodontal disease that were used to study the association between periodontal disease and osteoporosis. A database from a case-control study was used. The present study included sociodemographic, lifestyle, and health-condition data; panoramic radiographs; and clinical measurements on periodontal conditions from 139 postmenopausal women. Each participant was classified with regard to the diagnosis of periodontal disease using five different criteria for the outcome measurement (OM) found in the literature in studies on the association between osteoporosis and periodontal disease (OM1 through OM5). The frequency of periodontal disease and diagnostic values were calculated taking OM5 as the gold standard and the main association measurement for all criteria using odds ratios. The frequency of periodontal disease varied from 24.5% to 98.6% depending on the OM used. OM4 and OM3 presented the highest specificity (98.9% and 94.5%, respectively), whereas OM2 and OM1 presented the highest sensitivity (100% and 77.1%, respectively). The association measurements with adjustments for age and smoking varied significantly according to the OM over a range from 1.87 to 3.75, and there were also variations in the statistical significance of the associations found. The results of this study emphasize that the frequency of periodontal disease may be influenced by different OMs and indicated variations outside of the association between osteoporosis and periodontal disease. Therefore, there is a need for prior selection of a precise measurement of periodontal disease in investigations on this topic.

  5. Evaluation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis viability in OMNIgene-SPUTUM reagent upon multi-day transport at ambient temperature.

    PubMed

    Tagliani, Elisa; Alagna, Riccardo; Tafaj, Silva; Hafizi, Hasan; Cirillo, Daniela Maria

    2017-10-02

    Maintaining the quality of clinical specimens for tuberculosis (TB) testing is a major challenge in many high TB burden-limited resources countries. Sample referral systems in low and middle income countries are often weak and the maintenance of the cold-chain challenging and very costly for TB programs. The development of transport media allowing the preservation of samples without refrigeration is critical for increasing access to TB diagnostic services and for reducing the costs related to testing. We evaluated the performance of OMNIgene-SPUTUM (OM-S) reagent for the maintenance of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) viability in sputum samples in the absence of refrigeration and its capacity to stabilize nucleic acid for molecular testing. A total of 329 sputum specimens from presumptive TB cases collected at the National Reference Laboratory in Tirana, Albania, were either decontaminated by a conventional method or processed with OM-S reagent and stored at room temperature. Samples in OM-S were shipped to the Supranational Reference Laboratory in Milan, Italy, at various times and processed for liquid culture. Our data show that OM-S maintains MTB viability for at least three weeks in the absence of refrigeration and improves the quality of culture resulting in a contamination rate lower than 0.5%. However, a significant delay in the time to culture positivity was observed for samples stored for more than two weeks in OM-S. Overall, OM-S offers multiple benefits both at laboratory and TB national program level by increasing the availability to quality diagnostics, promoting access to health care services and strengthening TB patient care especially in hard to reach populations.

  6. Contrasting fates of organic matter in locations having different organic matter inputs and bottom water O2 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mai-Thi, Ngoc-Nu; St-Onge, Guillaume; Tremblay, Luc

    2017-11-01

    The goals of this work were to study sedimentary organic matter (OM) composition and transformation since the end of the last deglaciation and to evaluate the influence of contrasting depositional conditions on these parameters. One station was located in the Lower St. Lawrence Estuary (LSLE) where the current bottom waters are hypoxic and receive terrigenous and marine OM. The other station, located in the Gulf of St. Lawrence (GSL), has more oxygenated bottom waters and almost only marine OM inputs. Analyses included enantiomers of amino acids (L and D-AA) and muramic acid that provide different markers of OM alteration state and reactivity and of bacterial contribution to OM composition and diagenesis. The markers clearly indicated the increase in OM alteration state with depth in the sediments of the LSLE and the GSL. The steady decrease in AA yields with depth confirmed the preferential degradation of AA compared to the rest of the OM. The OM in the surface sediment of the LSLE was less altered than that of the GSL and was enriched in bacterial biomass as indicated by much higher muramic acid yields. Results indicated that an important degradation of particulate organic matter occurs in the water column in the GSL, while it takes place mostly in the sediments in the LSLE. The presence of heterogeneous OM and hypoxic conditions in the LSLE likely reduce OM degradation rate in its deep water layer. However, the zone near the water-sediment interface is responsible for large variations in AA composition at both locations. A relatively new redox index, based on AA composition, was tested and appeared robust. This study highlights the importance of ambient conditions in determining the fate of OM and in the biogeochemical cycles of vital elements.

  7. Development of olmesartan medoxomil optimized nanosuspension using the Box-Behnken design to improve oral bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Nagaraj, K; Narendar, D; Kishan, V

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to enhance the oral bioavailability of olmesartan medoxomil by improving its solubility and dissolution rate by preparing nanosuspension (OM-NS), using the Box-Behnken design. In this, four factors were evaluated at three levels. Independent variables include: concentration of drug (X 1 ), concentration of surfactant (X 2 ), concentration of polymer (X 3 ) and number of homogenization cycles (X 4 ). Based on preliminary studies, the size (Y 1 ), zeta potential (ZP) (Y 2 ) and % drug release at 5 min (Y 3 ) were chosen as dependent responses. OM-NS was prepared by high pressure homogenization method. The size, PDI, ZP, assay, in vitro release and morphology of OM-NS were characterized. Further, the pharmacokinetic (PK) behavior of OM-NS was evaluated in male wistar rats. Statistically optimized OM-NS formulation exhibited mean particle size of 492 nm, ZP of -27.9 mV and 99.29% release in 5 min. OM-NS showed more than four times increase in its solubility than pure OM. DSC and XRD analyses indicated that the drug incorporated into OM-NS was in amorphous form. The morphology of OM-NS was found to be nearly spherical with high dispersity by scanning electron microscopic studies. The PK results showed that OM lyophilized nanosuspension (NS) exhibited improved PK properties compared to coarse powder suspension and marketed tablet powder suspension (TS). Oral bioavailability of lyophilized NS was increased by 2.45 and 2.25 folds when compared to marketed TS and coarse powder suspension, respectively. Results of this study lead to conclusion that NS approach was effective in preparing OM formulations with enhanced dissolution and improved oral bioavailability.

  8. No Effect of Omega-3 Carboxylic Acids on Pharmacokinetics/Pharmacodynamics of Warfarin or on Platelet Function When Co-administered with Acetylsalicylic Acid: Results of Two Phase I Studies in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Offman, Elliot; Davidson, Michael; Nilsson, Catarina

    2017-06-01

    Omega-3 carboxylic acids (OM3-CA) can lower triglyceride levels. Our objective was to assess the effects of OM3-CA on warfarin pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics and on acetylsalicylic acid (ASA)-dependent and independent platelet activation when co-administered with ASA in two phase I studies. In ECLIPSE II (NCT01431690), 26 participants received warfarin 25 mg on days 1 and 22 and OM3-CA 4 g once daily from day 8 to day 28. In OM-EPA-007 (NCT01486433), 52 participants received simvastatin 40 mg plus ASA 81 mg once daily for 14 days, with or without OM3-CA 4 g. Lack of a drug-drug interaction was indicated when 90% confidence intervals (CIs) fell entirely within the range 80-125% for least-squares mean (LSM) ratios of area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), maximum observed plasma concentration (C max ), international normalized ratio (INR) AUC to 168 h and maximum INR. In ECLIPSE II, 90% CIs for LSM ratios of with:without OM3-CA fell within 80-125% for AUC and C max of S- and R-warfarin enantiomers. The 90% CIs for LSM ratios of with:without OM3-CA fell within 80-125% for INR AUC to 168 h after dosing and for maximum INR of warfarin. In OM-EPA-007, no significant effect of OM3-CA was observed on ASA-dependent or ASA-independent platelet activation. No deaths or serious adverse events occurred in either study. OM3-CA did not affect the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of warfarin or the pharmacodynamic effects of ASA. OM3-CA did not affect platelet function when co-administered with ASA.

  9. Dynamics of microbial community composition and soil organic carbon mineralization in soil following addition of pyrogenic and fresh organic matter

    DOE PAGES

    Whitman, Thea; Pepe-Ranney, Charles; Enders, Akio; ...

    2016-04-29

    Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) additions to soils can have large impacts on soil organic carbon (SOC) cycling. As the soil microbial community drives SOC fluxes, understanding how PyOM additions affect soil microbes is essential to understanding how PyOM affects SOC. We studied SOC dynamics and surveyed soil bacterial communities after OM additions in a field experiment. We produced and mixed in either 350 °C corn stover PyOM or an equivalent initial amount of dried corn stover to a Typic Fragiudept soil. Stover increased SOC-derived and total CO 2 fluxes (up to 6x), and caused rapid and persistent changes in bacterialmore » community composition over 82 days. In contrast, PyOM only temporarily increased total soil CO 2 fluxes (up to 2x) and caused fewer changes in bacterial community composition. Of the operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that increased in response to PyOM additions, 70% also responded to stover additions. These OTUs likely thrive on easily mineralizable carbon (C) that is found both in stover and, to a lesser extent, in PyOM. In contrast, we also identified unique PyOM responders, which may respond to substrates such as polyaromatic C. In particular, members of Gemmatimonadetes tended to increase in relative abundance in response to PyOM but not to fresh organic matter. As a result, we identify taxa to target for future investigations of the mechanistic underpinnings of ecological phenomena associated with PyOM additions to soil.« less

  10. Race, otitis media, and antibiotic selection.

    PubMed

    Fleming-Dutra, Katherine E; Shapiro, Daniel J; Hicks, Lauri A; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Hersh, Adam L

    2014-12-01

    Previous research suggests that physicians may be less likely to diagnose otitis media (OM) and to prescribe broad-spectrum antibiotics for black versus nonblack children. Our objective was to determine whether race is associated with differences in OM diagnosis and antibiotic prescribing nationally. We examined OM visit rates during 2008 to 2010 for children ≤14 years old using the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey. We compared OM visits between black and nonblack children, as percentages of all outpatient visits and visit rates per 1000. We compared antibiotic prescribing by race as the percentage of OM visits receiving narrow-spectrum (eg, amoxicillin) versus broader-spectrum antibiotics. We used multivariable logistic regression to examine whether race was independently associated with antibiotic selection for OM. The percentage of all visits resulting in OM diagnosis was 30% lower in black children compared with others (7% vs 10%, P = .004). However, OM visits per 1000 population were not different between black and nonblack children (253 vs 321, P = .12). When diagnosed with OM during visits in which antibiotics were prescribed, black children were less likely to receive broad-spectrum antibiotics than nonblack children (42% vs 52%, P = .01). In multivariable analysis, black race was negatively associated with broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing (adjusted odds ratio 0.59; 95% confidence interval, 0.40-0.86). Differences in treatment choice for black children with OM may indicate race-based differences in physician practice patterns and parental preferences for children with OM. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  11. Trends in Otitis Media and Myringotomy With Tube Placement Among American Indian and Alaska Native Children and the US General Population of Children After Introduction of the 13-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Rosalyn; Seeman, Sara; Grinnell, Margaret; Bulkow, Lisa; Kokesh, John; Emmett, Susan; Holve, Stephen; McCollum, Jeffrey; Hennessy, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) children have experienced higher otitis media (OM) outpatient visit rates than other US children. To understand recent trends, we evaluated AI/AN OM rates before and after 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine introduction. We analyzed outpatient visits listing OM as a diagnosis among AI/AN children <5 years of age from the Indian Health Service National Patient Information Reporting System for 2010-2013. OM outpatient visits for the general US child population <5 years of age were analyzed using the National Ambulatory Medical Care and National Hospital Ambulatory Care Surveys for 2010-2011. The 2010-2011 OM-associated outpatient visit rate for AI/AN children (63.5 per 100/year) was similar to 2010-2011 rate for same-age children in the general US population (62.8) and decreased from the 2003 to 2005 AI/AN rate (91.4). Further decline in AI/AN OM visit rates was seen for 2010-2011 to 2012-2013 (P < 0.0001). The AI/AN infant OM visit rate (130.5) was 1.6-fold higher than the US infant population. For 2010-2011, the highest AI/AN OM visit rate for <5 year olds was from Alaska (135.0). AI/AN <5-year-old OM visits declined by one third from 2003-2005 to 2010-2011 to a rate similar to the US general population <5 years. However, the AI/AN infant OM rate remained higher than the US infant population. The highest AI/AN <5-year-old OM rate occurred in Alaska.

  12. The Impact of Organo-Mineral Complexation on Mineral Weathering in the Soil Zone under Unsaturated Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, H. A.; Tan, F.; Yoo, K.; Imhoff, P. T.

    2017-12-01

    While organo-mineral complexes can protect organic matter (OM) from biodegradation, their impact on soil mineral weathering is not clear. Previous bench-scale experiments that focused on specific OM and minerals showed that the adsorption of OM to mineral surfaces accelerates the dissolution of some minerals. However, the impact of natural organo-mineral complexes on mineral dissolution under unsaturated conditions is not well known. In this study, soil samples prepared from an undisturbed forest site were used to determine mineral weathering rates under differing conditions of OM sorption to minerals. Two types of soil samples were generated: 1) soil with OM (C horizon soil from 84-100cm depth), and 2) soil without OM (the same soil as in 1) but with OM removed by heating to 350°for 24 h). Soil samples were column-packed and subjected to intermittent infiltration and drainage to mimic natural rainfall events. Each soil sample type was run in duplicate. The unsaturated condition was created by applying gas pressure to the column, and the unsaturated chemical weathering rates during each cycle were calculated from the effluent concentrations. During a single cycle, when applying the same gas pressure, soils with OM retained more moisture than OM-removed media, indicating increased water retention capacity under the impact of OM. This is consistent with the water retention data measured by evaporation experiments (HYPROP) and the dew point method (WP4C Potential Meter). Correspondingly, silicon (Si) denudation rates indicated that dissolution of silicate minerals was 2-4 times higher in OM soils, suggesting that organo-mineral complexes accelerate mineral dissolution under unsaturated conditions. When combining data from all cycles, the results showed that Si denudation rates were positively related to soil water content: denundation rate increased with increasing water content. Therefore, natural mineral chemical weathering under unsaturated conditions, while

  13. Clinical and Immunological Features of Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome in the Era of Neuronal Cell Surface Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    Armangué, Thaís; Sabater, Lidia; Torres-Vega, Estefanía; Martínez-Hernández, Eugenia; Ariño, Helena; Petit-Pedrol, Mar; Planagumà, Jesús; Bataller, Luis; Dalmau, Josep; Graus, Francesc

    2018-01-01

    Importance Most studies on opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) in adults are based on small case series before the era of neuronal cell surface antibody discovery. Objective To report the clinical and immunological features of idiopathic OMS (l-OMS) and paraneoplastic OMS (P-OMS), the occurrence of antibodies to cell surface antigens, and the discovery of a novel cell surface epitope. Design Setting and Participants Retrospective cohort study and laboratory investigations of 114 adult patients with OMS at a center for autoimmune neurological disorders done between January 2013 and September 2015. Main Outcomes and Measures Review of clinical records. Immunohistochemistry on rat brain and cultured neurons as well as cell-based assays were used to identify known autoantibodies. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were used to characterize novel antigens. Results Of the 114 patients (62 [54%] female; median age, 45 years; interquartile range, 32-60 years), 45 (39%) had P-OMS and 69 (61%) had l-OMS. In patients with P-OMS, the associated tumors included lung cancer (n = 19), breast cancer (n = 10), other cancers (n = 5), and ovarian teratoma (n = 8); 3 additional patients without detectable cancer were considered to have P-OMS because they had positive results for onconeuronal antibodies. Patients with l-OMS, compared with those who had P-OMS, were younger (median age, 38 [interquartile range, 31-50] vs 54 [interquartile range, 45-65] years; P < .001), presented more often with prodromal symptoms or active infection (33% vs 13%; P = .02), less frequently had encephalopathy (10% vs 29%; P = .01), and had better outcome (defined by a modified Rankin Scale score ≤2 at last visit; 84% vs 39%; P < .001) with fewer relapses (7% vs 24%; P = .04). Onconeuronal antibodies occurred in 13 patients (11%), mostly Ri/ANNA2 antibodies, which were detected in 7 of 10 patients (70%) with breast cancer. Neuronal surface antibodies were identified in 12 patients (11%), mainly

  14. Clinical and Immunological Features of Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome in the Era of Neuronal Cell Surface Antibodies.

    PubMed

    Armangué, Thaís; Sabater, Lidia; Torres-Vega, Estefanía; Martínez-Hernández, Eugenia; Ariño, Helena; Petit-Pedrol, Mar; Planagumà, Jesús; Bataller, Luis; Dalmau, Josep; Graus, Francesc

    2016-04-01

    Most studies on opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) in adults are based on small case series before the era of neuronal cell surface antibody discovery. To report the clinical and immunological features of idiopathic OMS (I-OMS) and paraneoplastic OMS (P-OMS), the occurrence of antibodies to cell surface antigens, and the discovery of a novel cell surface epitope. Retrospective cohort study and laboratory investigations of 114 adult patients with OMS at a center for autoimmune neurological disorders done between January 2013 and September 2015. Review of clinical records. Immunohistochemistry on rat brain and cultured neurons as well as cell-based assays were used to identify known autoantibodies. Immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry were used to characterize novel antigens. Of the 114 patients (62 [54%] female; median age, 45 years; interquartile range, 32-60 years), 45 (39%) had P-OMS and 69 (61%) had I-OMS. In patients with P-OMS, the associated tumors included lung cancer (n = 19), breast cancer (n = 10), other cancers (n = 5), and ovarian teratoma (n = 8); 3 additional patients without detectable cancer were considered to have P-OMS because they had positive results for onconeuronal antibodies. Patients with I-OMS, compared with those who had P-OMS, were younger (median age, 38 [interquartile range, 31-50] vs 54 [interquartile range, 45-65] years; P < .001), presented more often with prodromal symptoms or active infection (33% vs 13%; P = .02), less frequently had encephalopathy (10% vs 29%; P = .01), and had better outcome (defined by a modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 2 at last visit; 84% vs 39%; P < .001) with fewer relapses (7% vs 24%; P= .04). Onconeuronal antibodies occurred in 13 patients (11%), mostly Ri/ANNA2 antibodies, which were detected in 7 of 10 patients (70%) with breast cancer. Neuronal surface antibodies were identified in 12 patients (11%), mainly glycine receptor antibodies (9 cases), which predominated in P-OMS with lung

  15. A Seamless Approach to Transitioning Cane Skills from the Diagonal to the Two-Point Touch Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penrod, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The profession of orientation and mobility (O&M) is replete with literature describing specific cane techniques, strategies for teaching O&M to specific populations and age groups, rationales, and appropriate settings. These strategies and techniques are also addressed in many university preparation programs. In this article, the author discusses…

  16. Vertical Integration: Results from a Cross-Course Student Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Thomas; Lewis, David

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the results of a cross-class project involving sophomore-level students in an Operations Analysis (OA) class with junior-level students in an Operations Management (OM) class. The students formed virtual teams and developed a simulation model of a call center. The OM students provided the management expertise, while the OA…

  17. The effect of fire on soil properties

    Treesearch

    Leonard F. DeBano

    1991-01-01

    Fire affects nutrient cycling and the physical, chemical, and biological properties of soils occupied by western montane forests. Combustion of litter and soil organic matter (OM) increases the availability of some nutrients, although others are volatilized (for example, N, P, S). Soil OM loss also affects cation exchange capacity, organic chelation, aggregate...

  18. A Molecularly Complete Planar Bacterial Outer Membrane Platform

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Chih-Yun; Chen, Linxiao; Singh, Rohit R.; DeLisa, Matthew P.; Daniel, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial outer membrane (OM) is a barrier containing membrane proteins and liposaccharides that fulfill crucial functions for Gram-negative bacteria. With the advent of drug-resistant bacteria, it is necessary to understand the functional role of this membrane and its constituents to enable novel drug designs. Here we report a simple method to form an OM-like supported bilayer (OM-SB), which incorporates native lipids and membrane proteins of gram-negative bacteria from outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). We characterize the formation of OM-SBs using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and fluorescence microscopy. We show that the orientation of proteins in the OM-SB matches the native bacterial membrane, preserving the characteristic asymmetry of these membranes. As a demonstration of the utility of the OM-SB platform, we quantitatively measure antibiotic interactions between OM-SBs and polymyxin B, a cationic peptide used to treat Gram-negative infections. This data enriches understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of polymyxin B, including disruption kinetics and changes in membrane mechanical properties. Combining OM-SBs with microfluidics will enable higher throughput screening of antibiotics. With a broader view, we envision that a molecularly complete membrane-scaffold could be useful for cell-free applications employing engineered membrane proteins in bacterial membranes for myriad technological purposes. PMID:27600663

  19. 20 CFR 229.40 - When an annuity increase under the overall minimum ends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... second month after the month the disability ends as shown in part 220 of this chapter. (b) Employee DIB O... the employee attains retirement age (the DIB O/M is changed to an age O/M); or (3) The second month...

  20. 20 CFR 229.40 - When an annuity increase under the overall minimum ends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... second month after the month the disability ends as shown in part 220 of this chapter. (b) Employee DIB O... the employee attains retirement age (the DIB O/M is changed to an age O/M); or (3) The second month...

  1. 20 CFR 229.40 - When an annuity increase under the overall minimum ends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... second month after the month the disability ends as shown in part 220 of this chapter. (b) Employee DIB O... the employee attains retirement age (the DIB O/M is changed to an age O/M); or (3) The second month...

  2. 20 CFR 229.40 - When an annuity increase under the overall minimum ends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... second month after the month the disability ends as shown in part 220 of this chapter. (b) Employee DIB O... the employee attains retirement age (the DIB O/M is changed to an age O/M); or (3) The second month...

  3. 20 CFR 229.40 - When an annuity increase under the overall minimum ends.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... second month after the month the disability ends as shown in part 220 of this chapter. (b) Employee DIB O... the employee attains retirement age (the DIB O/M is changed to an age O/M); or (3) The second month...

  4. 7 CFR 636.9 - Cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... a minimum duration of one year after the completion of conservation activities identified in the... O&M agreement that describes the O&M for each conservation activity and the agency expectation that...

  5. 7 CFR 636.9 - Cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... a minimum duration of one year after the completion of conservation activities identified in the... O&M agreement that describes the O&M for each conservation activity and the agency expectation that...

  6. 7 CFR 636.9 - Cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... a minimum duration of one year after the completion of conservation activities identified in the... O&M agreement that describes the O&M for each conservation activity and the agency expectation that...

  7. 7 CFR 636.9 - Cost-share agreements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES CONSERVATION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... a minimum duration of one year after the completion of conservation activities identified in the... O&M agreement that describes the O&M for each conservation activity and the agency expectation that...

  8. EVALUATION OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE PROGRAMS IN NEW JERSEY SCHOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) required all schools to develop and implement an asbestos management plan (AMP). The key component of the AMP is the operations and maintenance (O&M) program. A study was conducted to evaluate the implementation of O&M programs a...

  9. The Development of a Motor Curriculum for Preschool Children with Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Bruce; Hill, Everett W.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the development of the motor section of Peabody College's preschool orientation and mobility (O&M) project curriculum for children with visual impairments. Theoretical foundations and curriculum design, as well as specific applications of motor skills to the development of formal O&M skills are presented. (SM)

  10. Integrating Sustainable Development into Operations Management Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredriksson, Peter; Persson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: It is widely acknowledged that aspects of sustainable development (SD) should be integrated into higher level operations management (OM) education. The aim of the paper is to outline the experiences gained at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden from integrating aspects of SD into OM courses. Design/methodology/approach: The paper…

  11. Orientation and Mobility Services for Persons with Visual Impairments: South African Orientation and Mobility Practitioners' Eye View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguvhe, Mbulaheni O.; Dzapasi, Alphonce; Sabeya, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Orientation and mobility (O&M) practice is important because the population of persons with visual impairments is large enough to warrant planned action on measures to help them acquire independence and sustain their livelihoods. Most O&M practitioners in South Africa are full-time employees in non-governmental organizations. The few who…

  12. A Peptidomimetic Antibiotic Targets Outer Membrane Proteins and Disrupts Selectively the Outer Membrane in Escherichia coli*

    PubMed Central

    Urfer, Matthias; Bogdanovic, Jasmina; Lo Monte, Fabio; Moehle, Kerstin; Zerbe, Katja; Omasits, Ulrich; Ahrens, Christian H.; Pessi, Gabriella; Eberl, Leo; Robinson, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing antibacterial resistance presents a major challenge in antibiotic discovery. One attractive target in Gram-negative bacteria is the unique asymmetric outer membrane (OM), which acts as a permeability barrier that protects the cell from external stresses, such as the presence of antibiotics. We describe a novel β-hairpin macrocyclic peptide JB-95 with potent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. This peptide exhibits no cellular lytic activity, but electron microscopy and fluorescence studies reveal an ability to selectively disrupt the OM but not the inner membrane of E. coli. The selective targeting of the OM probably occurs through interactions of JB-95 with selected β-barrel OM proteins, including BamA and LptD as shown by photolabeling experiments. Membrane proteomic studies reveal rapid depletion of many β-barrel OM proteins from JB-95-treated E. coli, consistent with induction of a membrane stress response and/or direct inhibition of the Bam folding machine. The results suggest that lethal disruption of the OM by JB-95 occurs through a novel mechanism of action at key interaction sites within clusters of β-barrel proteins in the OM. These findings open new avenues for developing antibiotics that specifically target β-barrel proteins and the integrity of the Gram-negative OM. PMID:26627837

  13. Biomass removal and its effect on productivity of an artificially regenerated forest stand in the Missouri ozarks

    Treesearch

    Flex Jr. Ponder

    2007-01-01

    Intensive harvesting, which removes a greater proportion of the forest biomass than conventional harvesting and the associated nutrients, may cause a decline in forest productivity. Planted seedling response to three biomass removal levels (1. removal of boles only=OM1, 2. all surface organic matter removed, forest floor not removed=OM2, and 3. removal of all surface...

  14. Orientation and Mobility in Australia and New Zealand: Situational Analysis and Census

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deverell, Lil; Scott, Bronwen

    2014-01-01

    The orientation and mobility (O&M) profession is well established in Australia and New Zealand. This paper gives a situational analysis of O&M in these countries, including a brief history, an overview of professional training and current activity, and data gained from two censuses of the profession undertaken in 2002 and 2011. Social…

  15. Resource Notebook on Staff Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sitts, Maxine K., Ed.

    Based on the comprehensive library self-study method developed by the Association of Research Libraries' (ARL) Office of Management Studies (OMS) and first used as the Management Review and Analysis Project (MRAP), this resource notebook presents surveys and diagnostic aids, OMS self-study reports, and ARL member library documents related to…

  16. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL FOR ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual focuses on the operation and maintenance (O/M) of typical electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). It summarizes available information on theory and design in sufficient detail to provide a basic background O/M portions of the manual. Although O/M-related air pollution prob...

  17. Soil carbon and nitrogen erosion in forested catchments: implications for erosion-induced terrestrial carbon sequestration

    Treesearch

    E. M. Stacy; S. C. Hart; C. T. Hunsaker; D. W. Johnson; A. A. Berhe

    2015-01-01

    Lateral movement of organic matter (OM) due to erosion is now considered an important flux term in terrestrial carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) budgets, yet most published studies on the role of erosion focus on agricultural or grassland ecosystems. To date, little information is available on the rate and nature of OM eroded from forest ecosystems. We present annual...

  18. Toekomstvisie op Verstrekking en Ontwikkeling van Kleding op Basis van Scangegenereerde Gegevens (Scan Based Distribution and Development of Clothing)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    n zijn verwerkt in 66n kledingmnaat). Het is de kunst om voor kledingverstrekking een maatkeuzestrategie te ontwikkelen die 95% goed mnaatadvies...variatie in lichaamskenmerken van de doelgroep. Het is de kunst om voor kledingontwikkeling een clustering van maten te ontwikkelen die tenminste 95% goed

  19. Ornamental Marine Species Culture in the Coral Triangle: Seahorse Demonstration Project in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Susan L.; Janetski, Noel; Abbott, Jessica; Blankenhorn, Sven; Cheng, Brian; Crafton, R. Eliot; Hameed, Sarah O.; Rapi, Saipul; Trockel, Dale

    2014-12-01

    Ornamental marine species (`OMS') provide valuable income for developing nations in the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle, from which most of the specimens are exported. OMS culture can help diversify livelihoods in the region, in support of management and conservation efforts to reduce destructive fishing and collection practices that threaten coral reef and seagrass ecosystems. Adoption of OMS culture depends on demonstrating its success as a livelihood, yet few studies of OMS culture exist in the region. We present a case study of a land-based culture project for an endangered seahorse ( Hippocampus barbouri) in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. The business model demonstrated that culturing can increase family income by seven times. A Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats (SWOT) analysis indicated good collaboration among diverse stakeholders and opportunities for culturing non-endangered species and for offshoot projects, but complicated permitting was an issue as were threats of market flooding and production declines. The OMS international market is strong, Indonesian exporters expressed great interest in cultured product, and Indonesia is the largest exporting country for H. barbouri. Yet, a comparison of Indonesia ornamental marine fish exports to fish abundance in a single local market indicated that OMS culture cannot replace fishing livelihoods. Nevertheless, seahorse and other OMS culture can play a role in management and conservation by supplementing and diversifying the fishing and collecting livelihoods in the developing nations that provide the majority of the global OMS.

  20. Otitis media with effusion after radiotherapy of the head and neck: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Christensen, J G; Wessel, I; Gothelf, A B; Homøe, P

    2018-04-26

    Otitis media (OM) and associated hearing problems may be side effects to radiotherapy of the head and neck region and affect patient quality of life. The condition is associated with the tumor location. To perform a systematic review concerning the present knowledge of the risk of OM after radiotherapy of the head and neck. A comprehensive search of PubMed and Embase was carried out between 1 October 2015 and 6 February 2017. The search strategy followed the PRISMA guideline for systematic reviews. Of 597 articles 11 fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Seven were retrospective and four prospective. There were no randomized controlled trials. Eight studies concerned nasopharyngeal cancer. One study concerned cancer of the parotid gland and two studies concerned other locations of head and neck cancer. Meta-analysis could not be done due to heterogeneity between the studies. The incidence of OM varied considerably (range 8-29%). The incidence of OM is high after radiotherapy of cancer of the upper head and neck area and the Eustachian tube (ET) irradiation dosage seems associated with development of OM, but the literature is poor. Research is needed to designate patients at risk of developing OM after radiotherapy. Preferably through analysis of dosage relationships between the ET and middle ear, and development of OM. Reporting of OM should be per ear and follow standardized protocols of middle ear assessment before and after radiotherapy. Furthermore, there is a need to find new ways to prevent and treat radiation-induced OME, preferably through randomized controlled trials.

  1. Outer-membrane translocation of bulky small molecules by passive diffusion

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Bert; Prathyusha Bhamidimarri, Satya; Dahyabhai Prajapati, Jigneshkumar; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Winterhalter, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane (OM) of gram-negative bacteria forms a protective layer around the cell that serves as a permeability barrier to prevent unrestricted access of noxious substances. The permeability barrier of the OM results partly from the limited pore diameters of OM diffusion channels. As a consequence, there is an “OM size-exclusion limit,” and the uptake of bulky molecules with molecular masses of more than ∼600 Da is thought to be mediated by TonB-dependent, active transporters. Intriguingly, the OM protein CymA from Klebsiella oxytoca does not depend on TonB but nevertheless mediates efficient OM passage of cyclodextrins with diameters of up to ∼15 Å. Here we show, by using X-ray crystallography, molecular dynamics simulations, and single-channel electrophysiology, that CymA forms a monomeric 14-stranded β-barrel with a large pore that is occluded on the periplasmic side by the N-terminal 15 residues of the protein. Representing a previously unidentified paradigm in OM transport, CymA mediates the passive diffusion of bulky molecules via an elegant transport mechanism in which a mobile element formed by the N terminus acts as a ligand-expelled gate to preserve the permeability barrier of the OM. PMID:26015567

  2. Supplement II : Summary of Capital and Operations & Maintenance Cost Experience of Automated Guideway Transit Systems : Costs and Trends for the period 1976-1979

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1980-03-01

    This report summarizes O&M cost experience and trends for the following AGT systems for the period 1976-1979: AIRTRANS, Sea-Tac, Tampa, Disneyworld (WEDway), and Morgantown (O&M data on the Morgantown system is reported through 1978). Capital cost da...

  3. The Importance of Orientation and Mobility Skills for Students Who Are Deaf-Blind. DB-LINK Fact Sheet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gense, D. Jay; Gense, Marilyn

    This fact sheet about students who are deaf-blind provides information on orientation and mobility (O&M) training. It begins by describing orientation and mobility skills, and emphasizes the need for a team approach in the development and implementation of O&M instruction. Instructional strategies are described, including initial assessment of O&M…

  4. Notification: Audit of EPA's Implementation of the Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Regulation (CROMERR)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Project #OMS-FY11-0006 and #OMS-FY12-0004, January 26, 2012. On February 7, 2011 the EPA's OIG began preliminary research on the audit of EPA’s Implementation of the Cross-Media Electronic Reporting Regulation (CROMERR).

  5. Ornamental marine species culture in the coral triangle: seahorse demonstration project in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan L; Janetski, Noel; Abbott, Jessica; Blankenhorn, Sven; Cheng, Brian; Crafton, R Eliot; Hameed, Sarah O; Rapi, Saipul; Trockel, Dale

    2014-12-01

    Ornamental marine species ('OMS') provide valuable income for developing nations in the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle, from which most of the specimens are exported. OMS culture can help diversify livelihoods in the region, in support of management and conservation efforts to reduce destructive fishing and collection practices that threaten coral reef and seagrass ecosystems. Adoption of OMS culture depends on demonstrating its success as a livelihood, yet few studies of OMS culture exist in the region. We present a case study of a land-based culture project for an endangered seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri) in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. The business model demonstrated that culturing can increase family income by seven times. A Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats (SWOT) analysis indicated good collaboration among diverse stakeholders and opportunities for culturing non-endangered species and for offshoot projects, but complicated permitting was an issue as were threats of market flooding and production declines. The OMS international market is strong, Indonesian exporters expressed great interest in cultured product, and Indonesia is the largest exporting country for H. barbouri. Yet, a comparison of Indonesia ornamental marine fish exports to fish abundance in a single local market indicated that OMS culture cannot replace fishing livelihoods. Nevertheless, seahorse and other OMS culture can play a role in management and conservation by supplementing and diversifying the fishing and collecting livelihoods in the developing nations that provide the majority of the global OMS.

  6. Orientation and Mobility Training Using Small Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgerty, Moira Jane; Williams, Allison Catherine

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a group training program for sighted trainee orientation and mobility (O&M) instructors in South Africa, where the need for O&M instructors is great and the availability of services is limited. The outcome was positive and encouraging and provides the initiative for the findings to be more broadly applied and for…

  7. A Peptidomimetic Antibiotic Targets Outer Membrane Proteins and Disrupts Selectively the Outer Membrane in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Urfer, Matthias; Bogdanovic, Jasmina; Lo Monte, Fabio; Moehle, Kerstin; Zerbe, Katja; Omasits, Ulrich; Ahrens, Christian H; Pessi, Gabriella; Eberl, Leo; Robinson, John A

    2016-01-22

    Increasing antibacterial resistance presents a major challenge in antibiotic discovery. One attractive target in Gram-negative bacteria is the unique asymmetric outer membrane (OM), which acts as a permeability barrier that protects the cell from external stresses, such as the presence of antibiotics. We describe a novel β-hairpin macrocyclic peptide JB-95 with potent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. This peptide exhibits no cellular lytic activity, but electron microscopy and fluorescence studies reveal an ability to selectively disrupt the OM but not the inner membrane of E. coli. The selective targeting of the OM probably occurs through interactions of JB-95 with selected β-barrel OM proteins, including BamA and LptD as shown by photolabeling experiments. Membrane proteomic studies reveal rapid depletion of many β-barrel OM proteins from JB-95-treated E. coli, consistent with induction of a membrane stress response and/or direct inhibition of the Bam folding machine. The results suggest that lethal disruption of the OM by JB-95 occurs through a novel mechanism of action at key interaction sites within clusters of β-barrel proteins in the OM. These findings open new avenues for developing antibiotics that specifically target β-barrel proteins and the integrity of the Gram-negative OM. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Quantification of Organic Porosity and Water Accessibility in Marcellus Shale Using Neutron Scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Gu, Xin; Mildner, David F. R.; Cole, David R.; ...

    2016-04-28

    Pores within organic matter (OM) are a significant contributor to the total pore system in gas shales. These pores contribute most of the storage capacity in gas shales. Here we present a novel approach to characterize the OM pore structure (including the porosity, specific surface area, pore size distribution, and water accessibility) in Marcellus shale. By using ultrasmall and small-angle neutron scattering, and by exploiting the contrast matching of the shale matrix with suitable mixtures of deuterated and protonated water, both total and water-accessible porosity were measured on centimeter-sized samples from two boreholes from the nanometer to micrometer scale withmore » good statistical coverage. Samples were also measured after combustion at 450 °C. Analysis of scattering data from these procedures allowed quantification of OM porosity and water accessibility. OM hosts 24–47% of the total porosity for both organic-rich and -poor samples. This porosity occupies as much as 29% of the OM volume. In contrast to the current paradigm in the literature that OM porosity is organophilic and therefore not likely to contain water, our results demonstrate that OM pores with widths >20 nm exhibit the characteristics of water accessibility. In conclusion, our approach reveals the complex structure and wetting behavior of the OM porosity at scales that are hard to interrogate using other techniques.« less

  9. 76 FR 64285 - Airworthiness Directives; Thielert Aircraft Engines GmbH (TAE) Models TAE 125-02-99 and TAE 125...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-18

    ... amended the Airworthiness Limitation Section (ALS) of the Operation & Maintenance Manual OM-02-02 to... shutdowns of the engine(s). TAE has also amended the ALS of the Operation & Maintenance Manual OM- 02-01 to...-E000702 and has amended the Airworthiness Limitation Section (ALS) of the Operation & Maintenance Manual...

  10. 20 CFR 229.85 - Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., the DIB O/M or child's O/M benefit is not payable for any month in which the employee or child works... employee or child. 229.85 Section 229.85 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER... Reductions § 229.85 Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child. A blind employee or child who is...

  11. Terahertz otoscope and potential for diagnosing otitis media.

    PubMed

    Ji, Young Bin; Moon, In-Seok; Bark, Hyeon Sang; Kim, Sang Hoon; Park, Dong Woo; Noh, Sam Kyu; Huh, Yong-Min; Suh, Jin-Seok; Oh, Seung Jae; Jeon, Tae-In

    2016-04-01

    We designed and fabricated a novel terahertz (THz) otoscope to help physicians to diagnose otitis media (OM) with both THz diagnostics and conventional optical diagnostics. We verified the potential of this tool for diagnosing OM using mouse skin tissue and a human tympanic membrane samples prior to clinical application.

  12. Terahertz otoscope and potential for diagnosing otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Young Bin; Moon, In-Seok; Bark, Hyeon Sang; Kim, Sang Hoon; Park, Dong Woo; Noh, Sam Kyu; Huh, Yong-Min; Suh, Jin-Seok; Oh, Seung Jae; Jeon, Tae-In

    2016-01-01

    We designed and fabricated a novel terahertz (THz) otoscope to help physicians to diagnose otitis media (OM) with both THz diagnostics and conventional optical diagnostics. We verified the potential of this tool for diagnosing OM using mouse skin tissue and a human tympanic membrane samples prior to clinical application. PMID:27446647

  13. The Protective Effect of Omeprazole Against Traumatic Brain Injury: An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    Özay, Rafet; Türkoğlu, Mehmet Erhan; Gürer, Bora; Dolgun, Habibullah; Evirgen, Oya; Ergüder, Berrin İmge; Hayırlı, Nazlı; Gürses, Levent; Şekerci, Zeki

    2017-08-01

    The development of secondary brain injury via oxidative stress after traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a well-known entity. Consequently, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of omeprazole (OM) on rat model of TBI. A total of 24 male rats were used and divided into 4 groups as follows; control, trauma, OM, and methylprednisolone (MP). The trauma, OM, and MP groups were subjected to closed-head contusive weight-drop injuries. Rats received treatment with saline, OM, or MP, respectively. All the animals were sacrificed at 24 hours after trauma and brain tissues were extracted. The oxidant/antioxidant parameters (malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, nitric oxide) and caspase-3 in the cerebral tissue were analyzed, and histomorphologic evaluation of the cerebral tissue was performed. Levels of MDA and activity of caspase-3 were significantly reduced in the OM and MP groups compared with the trauma group. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase levels were increased both in the OM and MP groups compared with the trauma group. The pathology scores were statistically lower in the OM and MP groups than the trauma group. The results of the present study showed that OM was as effective as MP in protecting brain from oxidative stress, and apoptosis in the early phase of TBI. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Contribution of Allochthonous Carbon Subsidies to the Minho Estuary Lower Food Web

    EPA Science Inventory

    To study the contribution of autochthonous and allochthonous organic matter (OM) sources fuelling the lower food web in Minho River estuary (N-Portugal, Europe), we characterized the carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) stable isotope ratios of zooplankton and their potential OM sou...

  15. Operations and Maintenance February Newsletter | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    Resource management in the form of “outsourcing” continues to be a valuable tool for the Operations and Maintenance (O&M) department. The O&M department uses this resource as an integral part of its approach to customer service.

  16. Use of tincture of opium compared to oral morphine for the treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kokotajlo, Suzannah; Robinson, Christine A; Presti, Amy

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the difference in time until medical clearance when comparing tincture of opium (TO) to oral morphine (OM) in the treatment of neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). Retrospective chart review conducted from May 2007 to July 2011. Level III Neonatal Intensive Care unit at Morristown Medical Center in Morristown, New Jersey. Clinical Drug Utilization reports identified 26 neonates who were treated with TO and 25 neonates who were treated with OM for NAS. No patients were excluded. Patients were treated with either TO or OM for the indication of NAS. The primary outcome is to compare the time it takes for a baby being treated with TO versus OM for NAS to be medically cleared for discharge. The median time until medical clearance for those treated with TO was 29.5 days compared to 37 days for those treated with OM (p = 0.14). There was no statistically significant difference in the time it takes for a baby being treated with TO versus OM for NAS to be medically cleared for discharge. There are a number of safety benefits in using OM compared to TO. Until further data are collected, it is appropriate to continue treatment of neonates with NAS with OM.

  17. Technical Risk Identification at Program Inception

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-20

    boeing.com Byron Knight NRO knightby@nro.mil Hans Koenigsmann SpaceX hans.koenigsmann@spacex.c om James Koory Rocket james.koory@rocket.com Brian Kosinski...Deborah Valley MIT deborah.valley@ll.mit.edu Fred Van Milligen JDSU fvanmilligen@jdsu.com Marvin VanderWeg SpaceX marvin.vanderwag@spacex.c om Gerrit

  18. Reaching, Crawling, Walking...Let's Get Moving: Orientation and Mobility for Preschool Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Susan S.; Maida, Sharon O'Mara

    This booklet examines what Orientation and Mobility (O&M) is and how it can influence the independence of a child with visual impairment or blindness. The booklet is divided into four sections--Reaching, Crawling, Walking, and Cane Use. In each section, terminology used by O&M specialists is explained, including "senses,""environment,""travel,"…

  19. Using Mediated Learning Experiences in Orientation and Mobility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Christine A.; Zimmerman, George J.

    1994-01-01

    This article discusses the metacognitive approach of mediated learning theory and its application to orientation and mobility (O&M) instruction for individuals with visual impairments. The theory is explained, and the structure of a typical O&M lesson is outlined, followed by an example of using the approach in a trip to the drug store. (DB)

  20. An Innovative Model for Training Orientation and Mobility Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, W. R.

    1993-01-01

    A model was developed to prepare specialists in orientation and mobility (O&M) who work with people with visual impairments, with the specialists in turn training and supervising O&M assistants. The project developed curriculum guidelines, training methods, a national workshop, and regional seminars. (DB)

  1. Legal Issues for Orientation and Mobility Specialists: Minimizing the Risks of Liability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Ruth Ann; Hartmeister, Fred; Griffin-Shirley, Nora

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses the potential negligence-based liability risks that orientation and mobility (O&M) specialists often face when assisting students with visual impairments with independent travel in uncontrolled environments. It also presents strategies that may minimize the risks of O&M training for both students and specialists. (Contains…

  2. Provision of High-Quality Orientation and Mobility Services to Older Persons with Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, M.-M.

    1991-01-01

    The provision of high quality orientation and mobility (O&M) services to older persons with visual impairments requires consideration of problems in attitudes, client characteristics, financial resources, inservice training, and the availability of age-appropriate assessment instruments. This paper discusses research on O&M interventions and…

  3. Teaching Orientation and Mobility in the Schools: An Instructor's Companion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knott, Natalie Isaak

    This book is a guide to teaching orientation and mobility (O&M) skills to students with visual impairments in the public schools. The first chapter offers an overview of the nature and responsibilities of the orientation and mobility specialist and explains the fields legal underpinnings. Next comes a look at O&M in relation to the school year…

  4. Orientation and Mobility for Students with Multiple Severe Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGregor, Duncan

    This paper addresses orientation and mobility (O&M) training for people with multiple severe disabilities including visual impairments. The historical origins of O&M training are reviewed, noting difficulties with applying the traditional curriculum with such groups as very young children, the elderly, and those with multiple disabilities. A…

  5. Outsourcing: It's Not Just about Money Anymore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keown, Cheryl

    1999-01-01

    Presents survey data from college and university business officers on the growing popularity of outsourcing traditional in-house services. Overviews are presented on outsourcing operations and maintenance (O/M) and planning and construction (P/C). Regional analyses by region, type, size, and role of O/M and P/C services outsourcing are provided.…

  6. A Survey of Physiotherapists' Experience Using Outcome Measures in Total Hip and Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Westby, M.D.; Hoens, A.; Troughton, D.; Field, R.; Duggan, M.; Reid, W.D.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To identify physiotherapists' familiarity with and experience using outcome measures (OMs) along the care continuum for patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA) of the hip and knee. Views on future use and barriers were also captured. Methods: A stratified random sample of physiotherapists in one Canadian province completed a questionnaire about 19 standardized and clinically feasible OMs. Analyses included descriptive statistics and chi-square and McNemar tests to compare use of OMs for clinical decision making and program evaluation. Results: Of 694 physiotherapists surveyed, 298 (43%) responded. Of these, 172 (58%) treated TJA clients and completed the full questionnaire. A majority worked in public practice settings and >1 care phase (e.g., pre-op, acute, rehab). All physiotherapists reported using ≥1 OM and having greater experience using performance-based measures than patient-reported OMs. OMs were used more often for clinical decision making than for program evaluation. Dissatisfaction with available tools was evident from respondents' comments. Several barriers to using OMs were identified in varied clinical settings and care phases. Conclusions: While physiotherapists use a variety of OMs along the TJA continuum, there remain challenges to routine use across clinical settings, care phases, and patient sub-groups. PMID:25125781

  7. EnergySmart Schools Tips: Retrofitting, Operating, and Maintaining Existing Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Energy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Combining preventative operations and maintenance (O&M) with strategic retrofitting of building systems improves a school's energy performance. For schools with limited resources and experience, "quick wins" in O&M and retrofitting provide a valuable starting point to energy management. As a next step, strategically prioritizing long- and…

  8. Preschool Orientation and Mobility: A Review of the Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leong, S.

    1996-01-01

    A review of literature on orientation and mobility (O&M) training for preschool children with visual impairments finds that these services have expanded rapidly despite lack of a well-documented and thorough research base beyond the demonstrated value of basic O&M instruction in early intervention. The review addresses the need for services,…

  9. Development of the Orientation and Mobility Certification Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, William R.; Siffermann, Eileen

    2000-01-01

    This article addresses the development of an orientation and mobility (O&M) certification examination by Division Nine of the Association for Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually Impaired. It describes the collection of data that establishes the relative importance of the competencies necessary for O&M. (Contains eight…

  10. A Study of Online Misrepresentation, Self-Disclosure, Cyber-Relationship Motives, and Loneliness among Teenagers in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiao Ling; Yang, Shu Ching

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between online misrepresentation (OM), self-disclosure (SD), cyber-relationship motives (CRM), and loneliness in teenagers. A survey was conducted using a sample of 608 Taiwanese teenagers (13 to 18 years of age). The instruments used include scales of loneliness, OM, and SD in real…

  11. Rationale and Development of a General Population Well-Being Measure: Psychometric Status of the GP-CORE in a Student Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Alice; Barkham, Michael; Evans, Chris; Connell, Janice; Audin, Kerry

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale, development, and psychometric status of a non-clinical self-report measure for the general population (GP) ? including students ? derived from the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) and hence termed the GP-CORE. In contrast to the CORE-OM, the GP-CORE does not comprise items…

  12. Office of Management Services 1989 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    Designed to serve both as an activity report on Office of Management Services (OMS) progress during 1989 and a catalog of OMS services and products, this annual report focuses on the management of human and technical resources in a scholarly environment. Programs and services are reported in four sections: (1) Applied Research and Development (the…

  13. Diagnostic Drawing Series: Research with Older People Diagnosed with Organic Mental Syndromes and Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couch, Janet Beaujon

    1994-01-01

    Used standardized three-picture art interview, Diagnostic Drawing Series (DDS), with older people. Collected artwork from 24 patients diagnosed with Organic Mental Syndromes and Disorders (OMS/D). Structural qualities found in art were identified using DDS. Observations of these qualities may aid in early diagnosis of OMS/D and help educate…

  14. Spell Sequences, State Proximities, and Distance Metrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elzinga, Cees H.; Studer, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Because optimal matching (OM) distance is not very sensitive to differences in the order of states, we introduce a subsequence-based distance measure that can be adapted to subsequence length, to subsequence duration, and to soft-matching of states. Using a simulation technique developed by Studer, we investigate the sensitivity, relative to OM,…

  15. [Spatial variability and management zone of soil major nutrients in tobacco fields in Qiannan mountainous region].

    PubMed

    Wu, De-Chuan; Luo, Hong-Xiang; Song, Ze-Min; Guo, Guang-Dong; Chen, Yong-An; Li, Yu-Xiang; Jiang, Yu-Ping; Li, Zhang-Hai

    2014-06-01

    Spatial variability and management zone of soil major nutrients in tobacco fields in Qian-nan mountainous region were analyzed using geostatistics and fuzzy c-mean algorithm. Results indicated that the level of soil organic matter (OM) was moderate, and alkalytic nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) were rich according to tobacco soil nutrient classification standards. Coefficients of variation (CV) of OM, AN, AP and AK were moderate. Contents of OM, AN, AP and AK fitted log-normal distributions. Correlation analysis showed moderate correlations between OM and AN, AP and AK. OM and AN were best described by Gaussian semivariogram models, while AP and AK were described by exponential models. The four nutrients displayed moderate spatial autocorrelation. There were significant differences among lag distances of four soil nutrients. OM, AN, AP and AK in the majority of studied regions varied at moderate to very rich levels, and deficiencies of OM, AN, AP and AK only accounted for 0.93%, 0.53%, 0.24% and 7.91% of the total studied region, respectively. Based on the results, the studied region was divided into two management zones (MZ), namely MZ1 and MZ2, accounting for 69. 8% and 30. 2% of the studied region respectively. The soil levels of OM, AN, AP and AK in MZ1 were significantly lower than those in MZ2 (P < 0.01).

  16. Fossil organic matter characteristics in permafrost deposits of the northeast Siberian Arctic

    Treesearch

    Lutz Schirrmeister; Guido Grosse; Sebastian Wetterich; Pier Paul Overduin; Jens Straub; Edward A.G. Schuur; Hans-Wolfgang. Hubberton

    2011-01-01

    Permafrost deposits constitute a large organic carbon pool highly vulnerable to degradation and potential carbon release due to global warming. Permafrost sections along coastal and river bank exposures in NE Siberia were studied for organic matter (OM) characteristics and ice content. OM stored in Quaternary permafrost grew, accumulated, froze, partly decomposed, and...

  17. Cost Experience of Automated Transit. Supplement III

    DOT National Transportation Integrated Search

    1981-07-01

    This report summarizes operations and maintenance (O&M) cost experience for the following AGT systems for the period 1976-1980: Airtrans, Sea-Tac, Tampa, Disneyworld (WEDway), Pearl Ridge, Minnesota Zoo, and Morgantown. O&M data on the Morgantown sys...

  18. Role of polarity fractions of effluent organic matter in binding and toxicity of silver and copper.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jisu; Shim, Taeyong; Hur, Jin; Jung, Jinho

    2016-11-05

    This study evaluates the effect of the physicochemical properties of effluent organic matter (EfOM) from industrial and sewage wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on the binding and toxicity of Ag and Cu. EfOM was isolated into hydrophobic, transphilic, and hydrophilic fractions depending on its polarity, and was characterized by elemental, specific ultraviolet absorbance, and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix analyses. Our results suggest that the EfOM consists of microbially derived non-humic substances that have lower aromaticity than the Suwannee River natural organic matter (SR-NOM). The Freundlich model was better at explaining the binding of Ag and Cu onto both SR-NOM and EfOM than the Langmuir model. In particular, the hydrophilic fractions of sewage EfOM showed higher binding capacities and affinities for Ag and Cu than the corresponding hydrophobic fractions, resulting in better reduction of the acute toxicity of Ag and Cu towards Daphnia magna. However, in the case of both SR-NOM and industrial EfOM, the hydrophobic fractions were more efficient at reducing metal toxicity. These findings suggest that the EfOM has different physicochemical properties compared with NOM and that the binding and toxicity of heavy metals are largely dependent on the polarity fractions of EfOM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Negligible effects of severe organic matter removal and soil compaction on loblolly pine growth over 10 years

    Treesearch

    Felipe G. Sanchez; D. Andrew Scott; Kim H. Ludovici

    2006-01-01

    The long-term soil productivity (LTSP) study was initiated to examine the effect of soil porosity and organic matter (OM) levels on net primary productivity (NPP). The study design calls for three levels of OM removal (bole, whole tree and whole tree plus forest floor) and three levels of compaction (none, moderate and severe) being imposed on harvested sites prior to...

  20. Impact of exotic earthworms on organic carbon sorption on mineral surfaces and soil carbon inventories in a northern hardwood forest

    Treesearch

    Amy Lyttle; Kyungsoo Yoo; Cindy Hale; Anthony Aufdenkampe; Stephen D. Sebestyen; Kathryn Resner; Alex. Blum

    2015-01-01

    Exotic earthworms are invading forests in North America where native earthworms have been absent since the last glaciation. These earthworms bioturbate soils and may enhance physical interactions between minerals and organic matter (OM), thus affecting mineral sorption of carbon (C) which may affect C cycling. We quantitatively show how OM-mineral sorption and soil C...