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Sample records for grosso pantanal region

  1. Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants of the Pantanal Region (Mato Grosso, Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; Rios Santos, Fabrício; de Oliveira, Rafael Melo; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Macedo, Miramy; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Oliveira Martins, Domingos Tabajara

    2012-01-01

    Traditional knowledge is an important source of obtaining new phytotherapeutic agents. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants was conducted in Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo District (NSACD), located in Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil using semi-structured questionnaires and interviews. 376 species of medicinal plants belonging to 285 genera and 102 families were cited. Fabaceae (10.2%), Asteraceae (7.82%) and Lamaceae (4.89%) families are of greater importance. Species with the greater relative importance were Himatanthus obovatus (1.87), Hibiscus sabdariffa (1.87), Solidago microglossa (1.80), Strychnos pseudoquina (1.73) and Dorstenia brasiliensis, Scoparia dulcis L., and Luehea divaricata (1.50). The informant consensus factor (ICF) ranged from 0.13 to 0.78 encompassing 18 disease categories,of which 15 had ICF greater than 0.50, with a predominance of disease categories related to injuries, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes (ICF  =  0.78) having 65 species cited while 20 species were cited for mental and behavioral disorders (ICF  =  0.77). The results show that knowledge about medicinal plants is evenly distributed among the population of NSACD. This population possesses medicinal plants for most disease categories, with the highest concordance for prenatal, mental/behavioral and respiratory problems. PMID:22474496

  2. Ethnopharmacology of medicinal plants of the pantanal region (mato grosso, Brazil).

    PubMed

    Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; Rios Santos, Fabrício; de Oliveira, Rafael Melo; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Macedo, Miramy; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Oliveira Martins, Domingos Tabajara

    2012-01-01

    Traditional knowledge is an important source of obtaining new phytotherapeutic agents. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants was conducted in Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo District (NSACD), located in Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil using semi-structured questionnaires and interviews. 376 species of medicinal plants belonging to 285 genera and 102 families were cited. Fabaceae (10.2%), Asteraceae (7.82%) and Lamaceae (4.89%) families are of greater importance. Species with the greater relative importance were Himatanthus obovatus (1.87), Hibiscus sabdariffa (1.87), Solidago microglossa (1.80), Strychnos pseudoquina (1.73) and Dorstenia brasiliensis, Scoparia dulcis L., and Luehea divaricata (1.50). The informant consensus factor (ICF) ranged from 0.13 to 0.78 encompassing 18 disease categories,of which 15 had ICF greater than 0.50, with a predominance of disease categories related to injuries, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes (ICF  =  0.78) having 65 species cited while 20 species were cited for mental and behavioral disorders (ICF  =  0.77). The results show that knowledge about medicinal plants is evenly distributed among the population of NSACD. This population possesses medicinal plants for most disease categories, with the highest concordance for prenatal, mental/behavioral and respiratory problems. PMID:22474496

  3. Rickettsial infection in ticks from wild birds from Cerrado and the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso, midwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Dirceu G de S; Melo, Andréia L T; Martins, Thiago F; Alves, Alvair da S; Pacheco, Thábata dos A; Pinto, Letícia B; Pinho, João B; Labruna, Marcelo B; Dutra, Valéria; Aguiar, Daniel M; Pacheco, Richard C

    2015-09-01

    The involvement of different species of ticks and wild animals, such as birds, play an important role in the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. Birds may serve as reservoirs for some tick-borne diseases, and may carry and spread hematophagous ectoparasites mechanically. This study aimed to show the diversity of ticks on birds and molecular detection of rickettsial infection in ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, two similar Brazilian biomes characterized by hydrological seasons. During two years, August 2012 to May 2014, ticks were collected from birds and from the environment in total of 14 visits for collecting samples, distributed in all hydrological seasons. A total of 674 birds were captured representing 113 species from 26 families. In total, 71 birds were parasitized (10.5%), and 155 ticks of the following 7 tick species (in decreasing order of prevalence) were identified: Amblyomma longirostre Koch, Amblyomma nodosum Neumann, Amblyomma cajennense Fabricius sensu lato (s.l.), Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann, Ornithodoros mimon Kohls, Clifford & Jones, Amblyomma ovale Koch, and Amblyomma triste Koch. Among free-living ticks collected in the environment, A. cajennense s.l. was the most common. This is the first occurrence of O. mimon on birds, and of A. triste on Passeriformes in Brazil. Molecular analyses revealed that 6 A. longirostre ticks were infected by 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', whereas 1 A. nodosum was infected by a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent, previously reported as Rickettsia sp. strain NOD. Spotted fever group (SFG) agents were, for the first time, reported in ticks from birds captured in Pantanal biome, and the potential involvement of these agents as human pathogens should be considered in further studies.

  4. Seroprevalence of Rickettsia spp. in Equids and Molecular Detection of 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii' in Amblyomma cajennense Sensu Lato Ticks From the Pantanal Region of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, Alvair Da S; Melo, Andréia L T; Amorim, Marcus V; Borges, Alice M C M; Gaíva E Silva, Lucas; Martins, Thiago F; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M; Pacheco, Richard C

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate exposure of equids to rickettsial agents (Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', Rickettsia rhipicephali, and Rickettsia bellii) and rickettsial infection in ticks of a Pantanal region of Brazil. Sera of 547 equids (500 horses and 47 donkeys) were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence assay. In total, 665 adults and 106 nymphal pools of Amblyomma cajennense F. sensu lato, 10 Dermacentor nitens Neumann ticks, and 88 larval pools of Amblyomma sp. were tested by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Overall, 337 (61.6%) equids were reactive (titer ≥64) to at least one antigen of Rickettsia spp. The prevalence values for Rickettsia were 66%, and the highest endpoint titers were observed for 'Ca. R. amblyommii'. By PCR 3 (0.45%) A. cajennense s.l. females were positive for 'Ca. R. amblyommii'. Minimum infection rates of 0.75% for nymphs and 0.34% for larvae were calculated. Positive samples of ticks have had a fragment of the 16S mitochondrial rRNA gene sequenced and sequences showed 99% identity to Amblyomma sculptum Berlese. This study reports a wide exposure of equids to Rickettsia agents, and PCR evidence of infection with 'Ca. R. amblyommii', for the first time, in A. sculptum.

  5. Host-Parasite Relationship of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae and Argasidae) and Feral Pigs (Sus scrofa) in the Nhecolândia Region of the Pantanal Wetlands in Mato Grosso do Sul

    PubMed Central

    Cançado, P. H. D.; Faccini, J. L. H.; Herrera, H. M.; Tavares, L. E. R.; Mourão, G. M.; Piranda, E. M.; Paes, R. C. S.; Ribeiro, C. C. D. U.; Borghesan, T. C.; Piacenti, A. K.; Kinas, M. A.; Santos, C. C.; Ono, T. M.; Paiva, F.

    2013-01-01

    Feral pigs (S. scrofa) were introduced to the Pantanal region around 200 years ago and the population appears to be in expansion. Its eradication is considered to be impossible. The population of feral pigs in the Pantanal wetlands is currently estimated at one million. Two scientific excursions were organized. The first was conducted during the dry season, when 21 feral pigs were captured and the second was during the wet season, when 23 feral pigs were captured. Ticks were collected and the oviposition and hatching process were studied to confirm the biological success of each tick species. Three tick species were found to be feeding on feral pigs: Amblyomma cajennense, A. parvum, and Ornithodoros rostratus. During the dry season, 178 adult A. cajennense were collected, contrasting with 127 A. cajennense specimens in the wet season. This suggests that the seasonality of these ticks in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands could be different from other regions. The results indicate that A. parvum and A. cajennense are biologically successful parasites in relation to feral pigs. A. cajennense appears to have adapted to this tick-host relationship, as well as the areas where feral pigs are abundant, and could play a role in the amplification of this tick population. PMID:27335855

  6. Environmental influence on coprophagous Scarabaeidae (Insecta, Coleoptera) assemblages in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso.

    PubMed

    Tissiani, A S O; Sousa, W O; Santos, G B; Ide, S; Battirola, L; Marques, M I

    2015-11-01

    Here we examine assemblage structure of coprophagous Scarabaeidae (dung beetles) in the Pantanal of the state of Mato Grosso with respect to flooding regimes, soil texture, leaf litter volume and tree dominance in native and exotic pastures. Samples were collected along 30 transects of 250 m in length in a 5×5 km grid (25 km2). Five pitfalls baited with human feces were placed in each transect. A total of 1692 individuals in 19 species were captured, the majority in the subfamily Scarabaeinae and Aphodiinae. Assemblages were influenced by the duration of flooding and leaf litter volume. None of the other habitat variables was correlated with species richness. Cultivated pastures with exotic grasses were unimportant for composition of the assemblages of beetles. These results indicate that duration of flooding is the most important regulating force in this community.

  7. Characterization of the fishes and of subsistence fishing in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, R D; de B Nogueira, F M

    2000-08-01

    Fishing is one of the oldest human activities in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso in Central Brazil. In the of Bento Gomes River Basin (Pantanal of Poconé) the presence of fishermen is very common. The objective of this study is to describe the fishing activity in the basin in view of the elaboration of proposals for the sustainable use of this natural resource. Of the 256 fishermen that were registered most are fishing for their subsistence (92%) and the rest (8%) are occasional fishermen (locally called "de lufada" fishermen). "Traíra" (Hoplias malabaricus) and "piranhas" (Serrasalmus marginatus, Serrasalmus spilopleura and Pygocentrus nattereri) were the species most frequently captured for human consumption. The fishing is more intensive during the ebb season and at the beginning of the drought season, when the waters begin to recede for the river channel, as the catch is facilitated by the concentration of fishes at the river margin. The fishermen and their families consume fish three to four times a week, twice a day. Fish meat is one of the only means of obtaining animal protein for dozens of poor families in the area. The number of fishermen, as well as the actual number of catches do not appear to compromise the natural fish stocks, although no specific capture criteria is obeyed by the fishing activity. PMID:11188869

  8. Temporal Variation in Water Quality Parameters under Different Vegetative Communities in Two Flooded Forests of the Northern Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couto, E. G.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Pinto Junior, O. B.; Johnson, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Pantanal is one of the largest flood plains in the world, and is characterized by large variability in vegetative communities and flooding dynamics. Some woody plant species have been observed to colonize large areas forming monospecific stands. We measured chemical parameters of flood waters including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate (NO3), dissolved oxygen (DO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as physical parameters such as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), temperature (Tw), turbidity (Turb) and water levels (WL). These chemical and physical measurements were conducted with the intent to characterize spatial and temporal differences of monospecific stands in order to understand if these different formations alter the biogeochemistry of the Pantanal waters. Water sample campaigns were conducted during the inundation period of January to May 2013 in two areas located in the Private Reserve of the Brazilian Social Service of Commerce (RPPN-SESC) near Poconé, Mato Grosso. Research sites included: (1) a flooded tall-stature forest (known as Cambarazal) dominated by the Vochysia divergens species; and (2) in a flooded scrub forest (known as Baia das Pedras) dominated by the Combretum lanceolatum species. Results showed three principal factors which explained 80% of variance in aquatic physical and chemical parameters. The first factor (PCA-1) explained 38% of variance (DO, PAR and WL), PCA-2 explained 23% (NO3, Tw, DOC), while PCA-3 explained only 19% of variance (CO2 and Turb). During the entire study period, the major concentration of variables were observed in the flooded forest. Physical variables presented small alterations, with the exception of water levels, that were greater in the flooded forest. With respect to temporal variables, all chemical parameters were greater at the beginning of the inundation and gradually dropped with the water level. With this work, we observed that the different monospecific formations influenced water

  9. Modeling the reflection of Photosynthetically active radiation in a monodominant floodable forest in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso State using multivariate statistics and neural networks.

    PubMed

    Curado, Leone F A; Musis, Carlo R DE; Cunha, Cristiano R DA; Rodrigues, Thiago R; Pereira, Vinicius M R; Nogueira, José S; Sanches, Luciana

    2016-09-01

    The study of radiation entrance and exit dynamics and energy consumption in a system is important for understanding the environmental processes that rule the biosphere-atmosphere interactions of all ecosystems. This study provides an analysis of the interaction of energy in the form of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in the Pantanal, a Brazilian wetland forest, by studying the variation of PAR reflectance and its interaction with local rainfall. The study site is located in Private Reserve of Natural Heritage, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, where the vegetation is a monodominant forest of Vochysia divergens Phol. The results showed a high correlation between the reflection of visible radiation and rainfall; however, the behavior was not the same at the three heights studied. An analysis of the hourly variation of the reflected waves also showed the seasonality of these phenomena in relation to the dry and rainy seasons. A predictive model for PAR was developed with a neural network that has a hidden layer, and it showed a determination coefficient of 0.938. This model showed that the Julian day and time of measurements had an inverse association with the wind profile and a direct association with the relative humidity profile. PMID:27556220

  10. Chlamydophila psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Raso, Tânia; Seixas, Gláucia Helena Fernandes; Guedes, Neiva Maria Robaldo; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2006-10-31

    Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) infection was evaluated in 77 free-living nestlings of Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Tracheal and cloacal swab samples from 32 wild parrot and 45 macaw nestlings were submitted to semi-nested PCR, while serum samples were submitted to complement fixation test (CFT). Although all 32 Amazon parrot serum samples were negative by CFT, cloacal swabs from two birds were positive for Chlamydophila DNA by semi-nested PCR (6.3%); these positive birds were 32 and 45 days old. In macaws, tracheal and cloacal swabs were positive in 8.9% and 26.7% of the samples, respectively. Complement-fixing antibodies were detected in 4.8% of the macaw nestlings; macaw nestlings with positive findings were between 33 and 88 days old. These results indicate widespread dissemination of this pathogen in the two evaluated psittacine populations. No birds had clinical signs suggestive of chlamydiosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on C. psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots and Hyacinth macaws in Brazil.

  11. Climatic variability of river outflow in the Pantanal region and the influence of sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Carlos Batista; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates possible linear relationships between climate, hydrology, and oceanic surface variability in the Pantanal region (in South America's central area), over interannual and interdecadal time ranges. In order to verify the mentioned relations, lagged correlation analysis and linear adjustment between river discharge at the Pantanal region and sea surface temperature were used. Composite analysis for atmospheric fields, air humidity flux divergence, and atmospheric circulation at low and high levels, for the period between 1970 and 2003, was analyzed. Results suggest that the river discharge in the Pantanal region is linearly associated with interdecadal and interannual oscillations in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, making them good predictors to continental hydrological variables. Considering oceanic areas, 51 % of the annual discharge in the Pantanal region can be linearly explained by mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the Subtropical North Pacific, Tropical North Pacific, Extratropical South Pacific, and Extratropical North Atlantic over the period. Considering a forecast approach in seasonal scale, 66 % of the monthly discharge variance in Pantanal, 3 months ahead of SST, is explained by the oceanic variables, providing accuracy around 65 %. Annual discharge values in the Pantanal region are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) variability (with 52 % of linear correlation), making it possible to consider an interdecadal variability and a consequent subdivision of the whole period in three parts: 1st (1970-1977), 2nd (1978-1996), and 3rd (1997-2003) subperiods. The three subperiods coincide with distinct PDO phases: negative, positive, and negative, respectively. Convergence of humidity flux at low levels and the circulation pattern at high levels help to explain the drier and wetter subperiods. During the wetter 2nd subperiod, the air humidity convergence at low levels is much more evident than during the other two

  12. Population Genetics of Jaguars (Panthera onca) in the Brazilian Pantanal: Molecular Evidence for Demographic Connectivity on a Regional Scale.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Haag, Taiana; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Silveira, Leandro; Cavalcanti, Sandra M C; Salzano, Francisco M; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are important threats to carnivores worldwide, and can be especially intense for large predators. Jaguars have already been extirpated from over half of their original area of distribution, and few regions still maintain large populations. For these, detailed understanding is crucial for setting appropriate recovery targets in impacted areas. The Pantanal is among the best examples of a region with a large jaguar population in a healthy environment. Here, we analyzed 12 microsatellite loci to characterize genetic diversity and population structure of 52 jaguars sampled in 4 localities of the southern Pantanal, and compared them with prior studies of heavily fragmented populations of the Atlantic Forest. Although we observed some internal structure among the Pantanal localities, our results indicated that this area comprises a single population with high genetic variability. Moreover, our comparative analyses supported the hypothesis that the strong population structure observed in the Atlantic Forest derives from recent, anthropogenic fragmentation. We also observed significant but low levels of genetic differentiation between the Pantanal and Atlantic Forest populations, indicating recent connectivity between jaguars occurring in these biomes. Evidence for admixture between the Pantanal and a population on the western boundary of the Atlantic Forest corroborates the transitional nature of the latter area, where the jaguar population has already been extirpated. Our results can be used to understand jaguar population dynamics in a region that is less disturbed than the Atlantic forest, and to support the design of conservation strategies that maintain and restore natural connectivity among currently isolated areas.

  13. Population Genetics of Jaguars (Panthera onca) in the Brazilian Pantanal: Molecular Evidence for Demographic Connectivity on a Regional Scale.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Haag, Taiana; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Silveira, Leandro; Cavalcanti, Sandra M C; Salzano, Francisco M; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are important threats to carnivores worldwide, and can be especially intense for large predators. Jaguars have already been extirpated from over half of their original area of distribution, and few regions still maintain large populations. For these, detailed understanding is crucial for setting appropriate recovery targets in impacted areas. The Pantanal is among the best examples of a region with a large jaguar population in a healthy environment. Here, we analyzed 12 microsatellite loci to characterize genetic diversity and population structure of 52 jaguars sampled in 4 localities of the southern Pantanal, and compared them with prior studies of heavily fragmented populations of the Atlantic Forest. Although we observed some internal structure among the Pantanal localities, our results indicated that this area comprises a single population with high genetic variability. Moreover, our comparative analyses supported the hypothesis that the strong population structure observed in the Atlantic Forest derives from recent, anthropogenic fragmentation. We also observed significant but low levels of genetic differentiation between the Pantanal and Atlantic Forest populations, indicating recent connectivity between jaguars occurring in these biomes. Evidence for admixture between the Pantanal and a population on the western boundary of the Atlantic Forest corroborates the transitional nature of the latter area, where the jaguar population has already been extirpated. Our results can be used to understand jaguar population dynamics in a region that is less disturbed than the Atlantic forest, and to support the design of conservation strategies that maintain and restore natural connectivity among currently isolated areas. PMID:26245785

  14. Sedentary nestlings of Wood Stork as monitors of mercury contamination in the gold mining region of the Brazilian Pantanal

    SciTech Connect

    Nassif Del Lama, Silvia; Dosualdo Rocha, Cristiano; Figueiredo Jardim, Wilson; Tsai, Jo-Szu; Frederick, Peter Crawford

    2011-11-15

    Sedentary organisms that are at top trophic levels allow inference about the level of local mercury contamination. We evaluated mercury contamination in feather tissue of nestling Wood Storks (Mycteria americana), sampled in different parts of the Brazilian Pantanal that were variably polluted by mercury releases from gold mining activities. Levels of mercury in feathers sampled in seven breeding colonies were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and the mean value of mercury concentration was 0.557 {mu}g/g, dry weight (n=124), range 0.024-4.423 {mu}g/g. From this total sample, 21 feathers that represent 30% of nestlings collected in Porto da Fazenda and Tucum colonies, in the northern region, ranged from 1.0 to 4.43 {mu}g/g, dry weight (median value=1.87 {mu}g/g). We found significant differences among regions (H=57.342; p=0<0.05). Results suggest that permanently flooded areas, or along mainstream rivers are more contaminated by mercury than dry areas, regardless of the distance from the gold mining center, which is located in the northern Pantanal. Highest values found in nestlings feathers were similar to those found in feathers of adult birds and in tissues of adult mammals that are less sedentary and were captured in the same region of Pantanal. These findings indicate that mercury released has been biomagnified and it is present in high concentrations in tissues of top consumers. We suggest a program to monitor mercury availability in this ecosystem using sedentary life forms of top predators like Wood Storks or other piscivorous birds. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sedentary stork nestlings were used for the first time to show local mercury contamination of Pantanal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differences were found among regions but they are not explained only by distance from the gold mining. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Permanently flooded areas and areas along mainstream rivers are more contaminated than dry areas. Black

  15. Prey-capture efficiency between juveniles and adults, feeding habitat and abundance of Wattled Jacana foragers in northern Pantanal, Mato Grosso state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Forti, L R; Nóbrega, P F A

    2012-05-01

    The choice of foraging strategies implies an attempt at gaining energy by predators. Supposedly, the difference in employing the "sit and wait" or "active foraging" behavior lays in hunter skills, experience and the kind of prey consumed. With the hypothesis that "active foraging" demands no learning, in this study we compared the prey capture efficiency among Wattled Jacana juveniles and adults, and also present descriptive information about feeding habitat and the abundance variation of foragers throughout the day in the northern Pantanal. Prey capture efficiency did not differ significantly among juveniles and adults, corroborating our initial hypothesis that "active foraging" is an instinctive behavior and demands no experience to be effective. However, future work is necessary to compare the energetic quality of consumed items by juveniles and adults, searching for differences explained by adults' experience. Foraging individuals were found at an average distance of 14 m ranging from 2 to 42 m) from the margin of the sampled swamps, however 64% of the foragers were found closer to the margins. The average depth of foraging sites was 17 cm, ranging from 5 to 40 cm, although no preference for specific classes of depth was found (p > 0,05). Despite the accepted general pattern of birds being more active in the early morning, the largest number of individuals foraging was observed between 11:00 and 12:00 AM, but no significant difference was found in the abundance of foraging individuals among different periods of the day. Factors, which were not analyzed, such as food availability and presence of competitors and predators need to be studied to reveal the main factors of the spatial and temporal distribution of the Wattled Jacana.

  16. Distribution, composition and seasonality of aquatic birds in the Nhecolândia sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Donatelli, R J; Posso, S R; Toledo, M C B

    2014-11-01

    Despite remarkable significance of Pantanal for the conservation of aquatic birds, the status of their populations, the spatiotemporal patterns of distribution and habitat use and structure of communities are little known. Thus, we studied three aquatic environments (Negro river, bays and salines) from 2007 to 2009 in the Nhecolândia Pantanal to verify the distribution and composition of aquatic birds and also if there is significant seasonal influence on these aspects. We adopted the transect method (288 hours of sampling) and recorded 135 species (7.834 individuals). The Negro river showed the highest diversity, while the salines the lowest. The similarity of aquatic bird communities was higher between bays and salines, followed by Negro river and bays and lower between salines and Negro river. The equidistribution is more variable in the salines and more stable in the Negro river. The environments strongly differ from each other in aquatic bird composition in space (habitat use and distribution) and time (seasonal water fluctuations). The diversity of bird community in the dry season varies significantly in the salines, followed by the bays and more stable in the Negro river. The Negro river, regardless of large annual amplitude of flow, is more seasonally stable since its riparian vegetation is continuous (not isolated) and constant. These aspects provide better conditions to stay all year, contributing to decrease the seasonal nomadic tendencies of aquatic birds. Finally, all these data provide strong arguments to the preservation of all phytophysiognomies in the Nhecolândia sub- region of Pantanal, but with special attention to the salines widely used by many flocks of aquatic birds (mainly in the dry season) and migrant and/or rare species restricted to this habitat.

  17. Identification of structural breaks in hydrological maxima time series in Paraguay River, Pantanal Region, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Marcus; Lima, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological time series of the Paraguay River located in the Pantanal region of Brazil exhibits a complex and interesting behavior, which includes long memory characteristics, monotonic trends, multiple breaks and strong seasonality. Particularly, several abrupt changes from low to high flows and vice versa have been observed on annual maxima time series and have been responsible for the major flood damages in the region, even more significant than the largest floods that occurred in the period post 1974. The year of 1974 is historically known as the year of the most significant flood impact in region, especially on agriculture and cattle. Therefore, the identification and attribution of such step changes in the series is of particular interest to improve the flood management systems across the region. Here we apply the cumulative sum (CUSUM) procedure to identify the timing of the abrupt changes. Preliminary results for the Ladario streamflow gauge reveal multiple structural changes in 1936 (high flows to low flows), 1961 (high/low), 1974 (low/high) and 1999 (high/low). Rainfall records were also analyzed and the results obtained suggest that the Paraguay River basin in its upper reach, monitored by Caceres gauging station (32,400 km²) and Cuiabá river basin (23,500 km²) are the factors that most contribute to low frequencies oscillations in the Ladario maxima time series (253,000 km²). These sub-basins are both located in the northern part of the catchment along with the boundary of the Amazon River basin, where the average rainfall is more expressive. In both basins the rainfall records show a structural break in 1973. Simple linear regression using rainfall and flow records in those sub-basins show that the rainfall data accounts for around 70% of the flow variance, indicating that the internal dynamics of the catchment plays a minor role on the streamflow variability. Low frequency variability is also observed in both rainfall series and may be the

  18. Bat-species richness in the Pantanal floodplain and its surrounding uplands.

    PubMed

    Alho, C J R; Fischer, E; Oliveira-Pissini, L F; Santos, C F

    2011-04-01

    We studied the bat fauna of the Pantanal floodplain and its surrounding plateaus in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, based on the scientific collection at Universidade Anhanguera-Uniderp and on the Projeto Morcegos do Pantanal data bank at UFMS, comprising 9,037 captures of 56 species recorded from 1994 to 2007. The Pantanal surveys were carried out in the Nhecolândia, Aquidauana, Miranda, and Paraguai sub-regions; the uplands surveys took place in the Maracaju, Bodoquena, and Urucum formations. Bat specimens were mist-netted over 376 nights in 35 sites, predominantly near fruiting trees, bat shelters, and forest patches. In the floodplain 46 species were recorded (n = 6,292 individuals), and 44 species were found in the uplands (n = 2,745 individuals). Six families were recorded: Phyllostomidae (30 species), Molossidae (12 species), Verpertilionidae (nine species) Noctilionidae (two species), Emballorunidae (two species) and Mormoopidae (one species). The bat fauna was predominantly composed of insectivore (32) and frugivore (15) species. The frugivorous Artibeus planirostris (n = 3,101 individuals) was the commonest species in floodplain and uplands. Other common species were Myotis nigricans (n = 762), Molossus molossus (n = 692), Noctilio albiventris (n = 681), Platyrrhinus lineatus (n = 633), Sturnira lilium (n = 461), Carollia perspicillata (n = 451), Glossophaga soricina (n = 436), Artibeus lituratus (n = 320), and Desmodus rotundus (n = 281). In the floodplain there were three insectivores among the most common species, contrasting with the uplands dominated by the frugivores. The diversity for the 35 sites assembled (H' = 2.5) is comparable to that recorded for tropical forests. The bat fauna presented here represents 34% of the Brazilian bat species, and 62% of species reported for the Upper Paraguay River Basin. Additionally, five species are reported for the first time in Mato Grosso do Sul.

  19. Microscopic features of tick-bite lesions in anteaters and armadillos: Emas National Park and the Pantanal region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima e Silva, M F; Szabó, M P J; Bechara, G H

    2004-10-01

    The naturally occurring wildlife host associations between ticks and tick-borne pathogens found in the neotropics are poorly described. Understanding tick-bite lesions is important as these are the site of host reaction to and pathogen delivery by ticks. As part of a comprehensive study concerning established and emerging tick-host relationships. the present work describes some aspects of tick-bite lesions in anteaters and armadillos captured at the Emas National Park and the Pantanal region of Brazil. Biopsies were of skin were taken and examine. Tick feeding sites of all animals displayed an eosinophilic homogeneous mass, the cement cone, and, occasionally, a feeding cavity underneath the tick attachment site. At these locations the epidermis was usually thickened due to keratinocyte hyperplasia. The main dermal changes included tissue infiltration with a varying number of inflammatory cells, edema, hemorrhage. and vascular dilatation. Cellular infiltration of the dermis was predominantly composed of mononuclear cells, neutrophils. and eosinophils. Mast cells were also seen in both non-parasitized and parasitized skin but were found in higher numbers at perivascular sites and in parasitized skin. Basophils were not seen at tick attachment sites of anteaters or armadillos.

  20. Endoparasites infecting the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis (Squamata: Elapidae) in the southern Amazonian region, Mato Grosso state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ávila, R W; Morais, D H; Anjos, L A; Almeida, W O; Silva, R J

    2013-08-01

    A parasitological survey was conducted in specimens of the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis, a poorly known South American elapid. Four specimens collected at the southern Amazon region in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso were analyzed for endoparasites. Three parasite species were recovered from the snake hosts: the pentastomid Sebekia oxycephala, the nematode Physaloptera sp. and the trematode Opisthogonimus lecithonotus. This represents new locality and host record for S. oxycephala and O. lecithonotus.

  1. Endoparasites infecting the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis (Squamata: Elapidae) in the southern Amazonian region, Mato Grosso state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ávila, R W; Morais, D H; Anjos, L A; Almeida, W O; Silva, R J

    2013-08-01

    A parasitological survey was conducted in specimens of the semiaquatic coral snake Micrurus surinamensis, a poorly known South American elapid. Four specimens collected at the southern Amazon region in the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso were analyzed for endoparasites. Three parasite species were recovered from the snake hosts: the pentastomid Sebekia oxycephala, the nematode Physaloptera sp. and the trematode Opisthogonimus lecithonotus. This represents new locality and host record for S. oxycephala and O. lecithonotus. PMID:24212707

  2. Pesticide levels in ground and surface waters of Primavera do Leste Region, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dores, Eliana F G C; Carbo, Leandro; Ribeiro, Maria L; De-Lamonica-Freire, Ermelinda M

    2008-08-01

    Residues of the herbicides simazine, metribuzin, metolachlor, trifluralin, atrazine, and two metabolites of atrazine, deisopropylatrazine (DIA) and deethylatrazine (DEA), are surveyed in the surface and groundwater of the Primavera do Leste region, Mato Grosso, Brazil during September and December 1998 and April 1999. Different water source sampling stations of groundwater (irrigation water well, drinking water well, and water hole) and surface water (dam and river) are set up based on agricultural land use. A solid-phase extraction procedure followed by gas chromatography-nitrogen-phosphorus detection is used for the determination of these compounds. All compounds are detected at least once in water samples. A temporal trend of pesticide contamination is observed, with the highest contamination frequency occurring in December during the main application season. Metribuzin shows the highest individual detection frequencies throughout the monitoring period, followed by metolachlor, simazine, and DEA. The maximum mean concentrations of pesticides in this study are in the range from 0.14 to 1.7 microg/L. We deduct that the contamination of water resources is predominantly caused by non-point pollution of pesticides used in intensive cash-crop cultures of the Cerrado area. Therefore, a continuous monitoring of pesticide concentrations in water resources of this tropical region is necessary to detect the longer term contamination trends and developing health risks. PMID:18718132

  3. Pesticide levels in ground and surface waters of Primavera do Leste Region, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dores, Eliana F G C; Carbo, Leandro; Ribeiro, Maria L; De-Lamonica-Freire, Ermelinda M

    2008-08-01

    Residues of the herbicides simazine, metribuzin, metolachlor, trifluralin, atrazine, and two metabolites of atrazine, deisopropylatrazine (DIA) and deethylatrazine (DEA), are surveyed in the surface and groundwater of the Primavera do Leste region, Mato Grosso, Brazil during September and December 1998 and April 1999. Different water source sampling stations of groundwater (irrigation water well, drinking water well, and water hole) and surface water (dam and river) are set up based on agricultural land use. A solid-phase extraction procedure followed by gas chromatography-nitrogen-phosphorus detection is used for the determination of these compounds. All compounds are detected at least once in water samples. A temporal trend of pesticide contamination is observed, with the highest contamination frequency occurring in December during the main application season. Metribuzin shows the highest individual detection frequencies throughout the monitoring period, followed by metolachlor, simazine, and DEA. The maximum mean concentrations of pesticides in this study are in the range from 0.14 to 1.7 microg/L. We deduct that the contamination of water resources is predominantly caused by non-point pollution of pesticides used in intensive cash-crop cultures of the Cerrado area. Therefore, a continuous monitoring of pesticide concentrations in water resources of this tropical region is necessary to detect the longer term contamination trends and developing health risks.

  4. Spatial distribution and impact of cattle-raising on ticks in the Pantanal region of Brazil by using the CO(2) tick trap.

    PubMed

    Cançado, Paulo Henrique D; Piranda, Eliane M; Mourão, Guilherme M; Faccini, João Luiz H

    2008-07-01

    This study evaluates the impact of cattle-raising on ticks associated with wildlife in the Pantanal region of Brazil, by trapping free-living ticks using a CO(2) tick trap. The traps were equally distributed in two areas: a 600-ha protected area (PA) and the Nhumirim Ranch (NR). Both areas are contiguous and located at the sub-region of Nhecolândia (18 degrees 59'S; 56 degrees 39'W), Pantanal, Brazil. In each area, four habitat types were selected: cerrado (tropical savanna), forest patches, lakes and soda lakes. The last two are temporary lagoons of fresh and salted water, respectively. A total of 980 nymphs, 613 adults and 13 larvae of ticks Amblyomma were collected in 256 h of collection. In a pen of calves infested by Ornithodoros rostratus 114 specimens were collected, including larvae, nymphs and adults. Adults of A. cajennense and A. parvum were more abundant in the savanna at NR, but not differed among habitat types at PA. There was a tendency of having more nymphs in NR than in PA. The higher number of ticks found in the NR in comparison to the PA is not due to the presence of cattle itself but probably due to introduced dogs and horses, habitat alteration. PMID:18454288

  5. Growth parameters estimates for a small fish of the Pantanal, Brazil: Moenkhausia dichroura (Characiformes; Characidae).

    PubMed

    Cunha, N L; Catella, A C; Kinas, M A

    2007-05-01

    Growth parameters were estimated for Moenkhausia dichroura (Kner, 1858) (Characiformes, Characidae), a small-sized and very abundant fish of the Pantanal lentic habitats commonly known as "pequira ". A method based on the length frequencies distribution and the ELEFAN I routine from the FISAT program were used. The fish were collected in the Baia da Onça, an oxbowlake of the sub-region Pantanal of Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, from June to December 1988. The standard length of the captured fishes ranged from 29 to 76 mm with an average of 53 mm. The estimated growth parameters were L(infinity) = 81 mm (standard length), k = 0.85 year(-1), C = 0.89, WP = 0.6 (Rn = 0.285). The WP indicated that growth reduction occurred in July, when the lowest temperature of the year was registered. The growth curve showed that captured individuals belonged to three cohorts. The obtained results seem robust and quite compatible with the biology of the fish and its adjustment to the environment. M. dichroura, in spite of not being a direct fishing interest, is an important species in terms of its ecological aspects, due to its abundance and high growth rate, and as a great food source for aquatic organisms and specially for larger fish of economic value. Considering the information gap about small fish, the parameters estimated for pequira constitute a comparison base for other growth studies of small-sized fish species of tropical environments. PMID:17876439

  6. Birds' nesting parameters in four forest types in the Pantanal wetland.

    PubMed

    Pinho, J B; Marini, M A

    2014-11-01

    We tested the heterogeneity/productivity hypothesis with respect to the abundance and richness of birds and the vegetation density hypothesis with respect to birds' nest predation rates, and determined the relative importance of forested vegetation formations for the conservation of birds in the Pantanal. We estimated the apparent nesting success, and the abundance and richness of nesting birds' in four forest types, by monitoring nests during two reproductive seasons in four forested physiognomies (two high productivity/heterogeneity evergreen forests = Cambará and Landi; two low productivity/heterogeneity dry forests = Cordilheira and Carvoeiro) in the Pantanal wetland in Poconé, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. We found 381 nests of 46 species (35 Passeriformes and 11 non-Passeriformes) in the four forest types. Of these, we monitored 220 active nests belonging to 44 species, 101 during the reproductive season of 2001 and 119 in 2002. We supported the productivity/heterogeneity hypothesis since the two evergreen forests had higher nest abundance and one of them (Cambará) had higher nesting species richness than the dry forests. The number of nests found in each habitat differed with most nests monitored in the Cambará forest (82%), followed by Landi (9%), Cordilheira (6%) and Carvoeiro (3%) forests. The total number of nests monitored was significantly higher in evergreen forests than in dry forests. Also, more species nested in evergreen (37 species) than in dry (16 species) forests. A Correspondence Analysis revealed that only Carvoeiros had a different nesting bird community. The overall apparent nesting success of 220 nests was 26.8%. We did not support the vegetation density hypothesis since nest predation rates were similar between evergreen (73.5%) and dry (70%) forests, and were higher in the Landi (85%) than in the other three forests (69.2 to 72.2%). Our data indicate that Cambará forests seem to be a key nesting habitat for many bird species of the

  7. Exposure of free-living jaguars to Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; Crawshaw-Junior, Peter Gransden; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; May-Júnior, Joares Adenílson; Pacheco, Thábata dos Anjos; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona are related apicomplexan parasites that cause reproductive and neurological disorders in a wide range of domestic and wild animals. In the present study, the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) was used to investigate the presence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum and S. neurona in the sera of 11 free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in two protected areas in the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Ten jaguars (90.9%) showed seropositivity for T. gondii, eight (72.7%) for S. neurona, and seven (63.6%) for N. caninum antigens. Our findings reveal exposure of jaguars to these related coccidian parasites and circulation of these pathogens in this wild ecosystem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first serological detection of N. caninum and S. neurona in free-living jaguars.

  8. Exposure of free-living jaguars to Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; Crawshaw-Junior, Peter Gransden; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; May-Júnior, Joares Adenílson; Pacheco, Thábata dos Anjos; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona are related apicomplexan parasites that cause reproductive and neurological disorders in a wide range of domestic and wild animals. In the present study, the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) was used to investigate the presence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum and S. neurona in the sera of 11 free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in two protected areas in the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Ten jaguars (90.9%) showed seropositivity for T. gondii, eight (72.7%) for S. neurona, and seven (63.6%) for N. caninum antigens. Our findings reveal exposure of jaguars to these related coccidian parasites and circulation of these pathogens in this wild ecosystem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first serological detection of N. caninum and S. neurona in free-living jaguars. PMID:25517539

  9. Isolation and phylogenetic relationships of bat trypanosomes from different biomes in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marcili, Arlei; da Costa, Andrea P; Soares, Herbert S; Acosta, Igor da C L; de Lima, Julia T R; Minervino, Antonio H H; Melo, Andréia T L; Aguiar, Daniel M; Pacheco, Richard C; Gennari, Solange M

    2013-12-01

    In the order Chiroptera, more than 30 trypanosome species belonging to the subgenera Herpetosoma, Schizotrypanum, Megatrypanum, and Trypanozoon have been described. The species Trypanosoma cruzi , Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, and Trypanosoma dionisii are the most common in bats and belong to the Schizotrypanum subgenus. Bats from 2 different biomes, Pantanal and Amazonia/Cerrado in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were evaluated according to the presence of trypanosome parasites by means of hemoculture and PCR in primary samples (blood samples). A total of 211 bats from 20 different species were caught and the trypanosome prevalence, evaluated through hemoculture, was 9.0% (19), 15.5% (13), and 4.8% (6) in the municipalities of Confresa (Amazonia/Cerrado biome) and Poconé (Pantanal biome). Among the 123 primary samples obtained from the bats, only 3 (2.4%) were positive. Phylogenetic analysis using trypanosomatid barcoding (V7V8 region of SSU rDNA) identified all the isolates and primary samples as T. c. marinkellei. The sequences of the isolates were segregated according to the bat host genus or species and suggest that co-evolutionary patterns exist between hosts and parasites. Further studies in different Brazilian regions and biomes need to be conducted in order to gain real understanding of the diversity of trypanosomes in bats.

  10. [Groundwater and rainwater contamination by pesticides in an agricultural region of Mato Grosso state in central Brazil].

    PubMed

    Moreira, Josino Costa; Peres, Frederico; Simões, Ana Cristina; Pignati, Wanderlei Antonio; Dores, Eliane de Carvalho; Vieira, Sandro Nunes; Strüssmann, Christine; Mott, Tamí

    2012-06-01

    This study sought to analyze groundwater and rainwater contamination by pesticides in two municipalities (Lucas do Rio Verde and Campo Verde) of Mato Grosso state. The area is Brazil's mid-west situated among the major soybean, corn and cotton producers in the state and the country. The analytical methodology combined chromatographic techniques on groundwater and rainwater samples with eco-toxicological analyses of the impacts of contamination by pesticide on bio-indicator species. The results revealed the presence of different pesticide residues in the groundwater and rainwater samples collected in the two municipalities. In conjunction with this data, results of the eco-toxicological tests revealed the presence of anomalies in a bio-indicator species collected in one of the two study sites compatible with exposure to pesticides. The results presented and discussed here highlight the degradation of water resources in the region, caused by the intensive use of pesticides in agriculture, including the contamination of drinking water sources and rain, broadening the risk of contamination beyond the cultivated areas.

  11. Pesticides in surface water, sediment, and rainfall of the northeastern Pantanal basin, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Laabs, Volker; Amelung, Wulf; Pinto, Alicio A; Wantzen, Matthias; da Silva, Carolina J; Zech, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    Within the last 25 years an intensive agriculture has developed in the highland regions of Mato Grosso state (Brazil), which involves frequent pesticide use in highly mechanized cash-crop cultures. To provide information on pesticide distribution and dynamics in the northeastern Pantanal basin (located in southern Mato Grosso), we monitored 29 pesticides and 3 metabolites in surface water, sediment, and rainwater of the study area during the main application season. In environmental samples, 19 pesticides and 3 metabolites were detected in measurable quantities, resulting in at least one pesticide detection in 68% of surface water samples (n = 139), 62% of sediment samples (n = 26), and 87% of rainwater samples (n = 91). Surface water samples were most frequently contaminated by endosulfan compounds (alpha-, beta-, -sulfate), ametryn, metolachlor, and metribuzin, although in low (< 0.1 microgram L-1) concentrations. Sediment samples exhibited concentrations up to 4.5 micrograms kg-1 of p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDE, endosulfan-sulfate, beta-endosulfan, and ametryn. In contrast, rainwater was polluted with substantial amounts of endosulfan, alachlor, metolachlor, trifluralin, monocrotofos, and profenofos (maximum concentrations = 0.3 to 2.3 micrograms L-1) in the highlands. Lowland rainwater samples taken 75 km from the next application area contained 5- to 10-fold lower mean pesticide concentration than in the highlands. Cumulative deposition rates of the pesticide sum within the study period ranged from 423 micrograms m-2 in the highlands to 14 micrograms m-2 in the lowlands. The atmospheric input of pesticides to ecosystems seemed to be of higher relevance in the tropical study area than known from temperate regions. PMID:12371181

  12. Serological evidence of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis infection in chickens from Paraná and Mato Grosso do Sul States, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gabriela G; Silveira, Luciane H; Itano, Eiko N; Soares, Rodrigo M; Freire, Roberta L; Watanabe, Maria A E; Camargo, Zoilo P; Ono, Mario A

    2011-03-01

    The objective of this study was to detect antibodies against Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in free-range and caged chickens Gallus domesticus. Initially, the humoral immune response of two chickens immunized with P. brasiliensis was evaluated. Both animals showed the production of antibodies to gp43, the major P. brasiliensis antigen. The seroepidemiological survey was conducted in chickens from the Pantanal region in Mato Grosso do Sul State (free-range n = 40) and from northern region of Paraná State (free-range n = 100, caged n = 43). The serum samples were analyzed by indirect ELISA using gp43 as antigen. The positivity observed in free-range chickens from Mato Grosso do Sul (55%) was significantly higher (P = 0.0001) than in free-range chickens from Paraná State (16%). In contrast to the free-range chickens, no positivity was observed in the caged chickens (P = 0.003). This is the first report showing serological evidence of P. brasiliensis infection in chickens. The results suggest that free-range chickens are more frequently infected by P. brasiliensis, probably due to the constant contact with soil than caged chickens and could be useful as epidemiological markers of paracoccidioidomycosis.

  13. New records of mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) associated with bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) in two Brazilian biomes: Pantanal and Caatinga.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Martins, Mayara Almeida; Guedes, Patrícia Gonçalves; Peracchi, Adriano Lucio; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maues

    2016-01-01

    A first survey of mite species that ectoparasitize bats in the states of Ceará and Mato Grosso was conducted. The specimens of bats and their mites were collected in areas of the Caatinga and Pantanal biomes. A total of 450 spinturnicids representing two genera and ten species was collected from 15 bat species in the Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Serra das Almas, Ceará State, Northeast Brazil and 138 spinturnicids represented by two genera and four species were found in seven bats species collected in Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Sesc Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Central-Western Brazil. The occurrence of Cameronieta genus and the species Mesoperiglischrus natali as well as four new associations (Periglischrus iheringi - Chiroderma vizottoi; P. micronycteridis - Micronycteris sanborni; P. paracutisternus - Trachops cirrhosus; Spinturnix americanus - Myotis riparius) are registered for the first time in Brazil.

  14. Impact of land-cover change in the southern Amazonia climate: a case study for the region of Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, Vincent; Debortoli, Nathan; Funatsu, Beatriz; Nédélec, Vincent; Durieux, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of forest into pastures in the Brazilian Amazon leads to significant consequences to climate at local scale. In the region of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil), deforestation has been intense with over half the forests being cut since 1970. This article first examines the evolution of precipitation observed in this region and shows a significant trend in the decrease in total precipitation especially at the end of the dry season and at the beginning of the rainy season. The study then compares the temperatures measured in cleared and forested sectors within a reserve in the area of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil) between 2006 and 2007. The cleared sector was always hotter and drier (from 5% to 10%) than the forested area. This difference was not only especially marked during the day when it reached on average 2°C but also seemed to increase during the night with the onset of the dry season (+0.5°C). The Urban Heat Island effect is also evident especially during the night and in the dry season.

  15. Impact of land-cover change in the southern Amazonia climate: a case study for the region of Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, Vincent; Debortoli, Nathan; Funatsu, Beatriz; Nédélec, Vincent; Durieux, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of forest into pastures in the Brazilian Amazon leads to significant consequences to climate at local scale. In the region of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil), deforestation has been intense with over half the forests being cut since 1970. This article first examines the evolution of precipitation observed in this region and shows a significant trend in the decrease in total precipitation especially at the end of the dry season and at the beginning of the rainy season. The study then compares the temperatures measured in cleared and forested sectors within a reserve in the area of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil) between 2006 and 2007. The cleared sector was always hotter and drier (from 5% to 10%) than the forested area. This difference was not only especially marked during the day when it reached on average 2°C but also seemed to increase during the night with the onset of the dry season (+0.5°C). The Urban Heat Island effect is also evident especially during the night and in the dry season. PMID:21479561

  16. Ilheus Virus Isolation in the Pantanal, West-Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Kenney, Joan L.; Couto-Lima, Dinair; Campos, Zilca M. S.; Nogueira, Rita M. R.; Brault, Aaron C.; Komar, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The wetlands of the Brazilian Pantanal host large concentrations of diverse wildlife species and hematophagous arthropods, conditions that favor the circulation of zoonotic arboviruses. A recent study from the Nhecolândia sub-region of Pantanal reported serological evidence of various flaviviruses, including West Nile virus and Ilheus virus (ILHV). According to the age of seropositive horses, at least three flaviviruses, including ILHV, circulated in the Brazilian Pantanal between 2005 and 2009. To extend this study, we collected 3,234 adult mosquitoes of 16 species during 2009 and 2010 in the same sub-region. Mosquito pool homogenates were assayed for infectious virus on C6/36 and Vero cell monolayers and also tested for flaviviral RNA by a group-specific real-time RT-PCR. One pool containing 50 non-engorged female specimens of Aedes scapularis tested positive for ILHV by culture and for ILHV RNA by real-time RT-PCR, indicating a minimum infection rate of 2.5 per 1000. Full-length genomic sequence exhibited 95% identity to the only full genome sequence available for ILHV. The present data confirm the circulation of ILHV in the Brazilian Pantanal. PMID:23875051

  17. Landscape and Seasonal Variability in CO2 Efflux from Soil and Water Surfaces in the Northern Pantanal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couto, E. G.; Pinto-Jr, O. B.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Johnson, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Pantanal is one of the largest wetlands in the world, with an area of 150,000 km2. It extends over three countries (Brazil, Paraguay and Bolivia) with 80% located in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul. Ecosystems in the Northern Pantanal rely on a seasonal flood pulse in phase with the wet season, which inundates grasslands and forests between January and May. This pulse results in an important change in local biogeochemistry. Inundation saturates the Pantanal's soils with changes in the balance of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. This study summarize the main CO2 effluxes measured from a variety of landscape in the Northern Pantanal during dry and wet seasons, fully or partially inundated soils, as part of Project 2.01 of the Brazilian Institute for Science and Technology in Wetlands (Monitoring aquatic carbon fluxes and water quality). Using a network of dataloggers installed in 4 environments, we have been modeling soil CO2 efflux on a half hourly basis through a combination of infrared gas analyzers measurements and laboratory soil physical parameter estimates. The selected environments presented unique biogeochemical behavior as they relate to inundation and soil type. So far, we have estimated average CO2 efflux in 3 environments with mean values of 3.53 µmol m-2 s-1 (soil CO2 efflux for the "Carrapatal" tree island), 3.41 µmol m-2 s-1 (soil CO2 efflux for the "Baia das Pedras" tree island), and 1.79 µmol m-2 s-1 (aquatic CO2 evasion from the water surface of the "Cambarazal" flooded forest). More measurements are currently underway to complete the landscape variability in CO2 effluxes in the Northern Pantanal.

  18. Reproductive and morphometric traits of Macrobrachium amazonicum (Decapoda: Palaemonidae) from the Pantanal, Brazil, suggests initial speciation.

    PubMed

    Hayd, Liliam; Anger, Klaus

    2013-03-01

    The palaemonid shrimp Macrobrachium amazonicum shows an unusually large geographic range (ca. 4000km across) living in coastal, estuarine, and limnic inland habitats of the upper Amazon, Orinoco, and La Plata basins. This raises doubts whether allopatric, ecologically diverse populations belong to the same species. While shrimps from estuarine and Amazonian habitats have been studied in great detail, very little is known about hololimnetic inland populations. In the present study, biological traits related to growth (maximum body size, fresh weight, morphometric relationships) and reproduction (sex ratio; occurrence of male morphotypes; minimum sexable size; minimum size of ovigerous females; fecundity; egg size), were studied in M amazonicum collected from a pond culture and two natural freshwater habitats (Rio Miranda; Lagoa Baiazinha) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In total, 2270 shrimps were examined (603 males; 1667 females, 157 of these ovigerous). Sex ratio (males:females) was at all sampling sites strongly female-biased, ranging from 0.2-0.6. Maximum body size was larger in natural habitats compared to the pond culture, suggesting reduced growth or a shorter life span under artificial mass rearing conditions. Maximum fecundity observed in our material was 676 eggs, reached by the largest female (TL=65mm; Lagoa Baiazinha). A significant difference between slope parameters of linear regressions describing fecundity, either in terms of numbers of eggs laid or of larvae released, in relation to female fresh weight, indicates egg losses. This may be due in part to a 2.4-fold increase in egg volume occurring during the course of embryonic development, while the available space under the abdomen remains limited. Size-weight relationships differed significantly between males and females, indicating sexspecific morphometric differences. Males appear to have a more slender body shape than females, reaching thus lower weight at equal TL. When

  19. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  20. Modeling the hydrological patterns on Pantanal wetlands, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, A. A.; Cuartas, A.; Coe, M. T.; Koumrouyan, A.; Panday, P. K.; Lefebvre, P.; Padovani, C.; Costa, M. H.; de Oliveira, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Pantanal of Brazil is one of the world's largest wetland regions. It is located within the 370,000 km2 Alto Paraguai Basin (BAP). In wet years almost 15% of the total area of the basin can be flooded (approximately 53,000 km2). The hydrological cycle is particularly important in the Pantanal in the transport of materials, and the transfer of energy between atmospheric, aquatic, and terrestrial systems. The INLAND (Integrated Land Surface Model) terrestrial ecosystem model is coupled with the THMB hydrological model to examine the hydrological balance and water dynamics for this region. The INLAND model is based on the IBIS dynamic vegetation model, while THMB represents the river, wetland and lake dynamics of the land surface. The modeled hydrological components are validated with surface and satellite-based estimates of precipitation (gridded observations from CRU v. 3.21, reanalysis data from ERA-interim, and TRMM estimates), evapotranspiration (MODIS and Land Flux-Eval dataset), total runoff (discharge data from ANA-Agência Nacional das Águas - Brazil), and terrestrial water storage (GRACE). Results show that the coupled hydrological model adequately represents the water cycle components, the river discharge and flooded areas. Model simulations are further used to study the influences of climatic variations on the hydrological components, river network, and the inundated areas in the Pantanal.

  1. Stigma receptivity, mode of reproduction, and mating system in Mesosetum chaseae Luces (Poaceae), a native grass of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Silva, L A C; Pagliarini, M S; Santos, S A; Valle, C B

    2013-10-25

    Mesosetum chaseae Luces, known regionally as "grama-do-cerrado", is abundant in the Pantanal region in Brazil and contributes significantly to livestock and environmental conservation. This species is under basic studies at Embrapa Pantanal (Nhecolândia subregion, Pantanal, Corumbá, MS, Brazil). In this study, we present data about stigma receptivity, mode of reproduction, and mating system for 10 accessions collected in Nhecolândia subregion (Pantanal). Stigma receptivity was optimal, producing innumerous oxygen bubbles upon testing with hydrogen peroxidase. Clarified ovaries analyzed under interference microscopy showed an embryo sac of the Polygonum type, typical of sexual species. The mating system, tested in protected flowers, indicated allogamy. These data are important for subsidizing future breeding programs for this species.

  2. Human impacts on hydrology in the pantanal wetland of South America.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, S K

    2002-01-01

    Abstract Inundation patterns in the Pantanal remain in a relatively natural state, yet a number of significant human influences have occurred in the past, and there is potential for more severe human impacts as development of the region continues in the future. The objectives of this paper are 1) to briefly review the linkages between hydrology and ecological structure and function in the Pantanal; 2) to review some documented cases of historical influences of human activities on hydrology in the region; and 3) to consider potential future impacts, particularly in regard to the recently proposed navigation project known as the Paraguay-Parana Waterway (or Hidrovia).

  3. Hydrochemical variability at the Upper Paraguay Basin and Pantanal wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende Filho, A. T.; Furian, S.; Victoria, R. L.; Mascré, C.; Valles, V.; Barbiero, L.

    2012-08-01

    Compartmentalization is a prerequisite to understand large wetlands that receive water from several sources. However, it faces the heterogeneity in space and time, resulting from physical, chemical and biological processes that are specific to wetlands. The Pantanal is a vast seasonally flooded continental wetland located in the centre of South America. The chemical composition of the waters that supply the Pantanal (70 rivers) has been studied in order to establish a compartmentalization of the wetland based on soil-water interactions. A PCA-based EMMA (End-Members Mixing Analysis) procedure shows that the chemistry of the rivers can be viewed as a mixture of 3 end-members, influenced by lithology and land use, and delimiting large regions. Although the chemical composition of the end-members changed between dry and wet seasons, their spatial distribution was maintained. The results were extended to the floodplain by simple tributary mixing calculation according to the hydrographical network and to the areas of influence for each river when in overflow conditions. The resulting map highlights areas of high geochemical contrast on either side of the river Cuiaba in the north, and of the rivers Aquidauana and Abobral in the south. The PCA-based treatment on a sampling conducted in the Nhecolândia, a large sub region of the Pantanal, allowed the identification and ordering of the processes that control the geochemical variability of the surface waters. Despite an enormous variability in electrical conductivity and pH, all data collected were in agreement with an evaporation process of the Taquari River water, which supplies the region. Evaporation and associated saline precipitations (Mg-calcite, Mg-silicates K-silicates) explained more than 77% of the total variability in the chemistry of the regional surface water sampling.

  4. Hydrochemical variability at the Upper Paraguay Basin and Pantanal wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende Filho, A. T.; Furian, S.; Victoria, R. L.; Mascré, C.; Valles, V.; Barbiero, L.

    2012-03-01

    Compartmentalization is a prerequisite to understand large wetlands that receive water from several sources. However, it faces the heterogeneity in space and time, resulting from physical, chemical and biological processes that are specific to wetlands. The Pantanal is a vast seasonally flooded continental wetland located in the centre of South America. The chemical makeup of the waters that supply the Pantanal (70 rivers) has been studied in order to establish a compartmentalization of the wetland based on soil-water interactions. A PCA-based EMMA (End-Members Mixing Analysis) procedure shows that the chemistry of the rivers can be regarded as a mixture of 3 end-members, influenced by lithology and land use, and delimiting large regions. Although the chemical composition of the end-members changed between dry and wet seasons, their spatial distribution was maintained. The results were extended to the floodplain by simple tributary mixing calculation according to the hydrographical network and to the areas of influence for each river when in overflow conditions. The resulting document highlights areas of high geochemical contrast on either side of the river Cuiaba in the north, and of the rivers Aquidauana and Abobral located in the south. The PCA-based treatment on a sampling conducted in the Nhecolândia, a large sub region of the Pantanal floodplain, allowed for the identification and prioritization of the processes that control the geochemical variability of the surface waters. Despite an enormous variability in Electrical Conductivity and pH, all data collected were in agreement with an evaporation process of the Taquari River water, which supplies the region. Evaporation and associated saline precipitations (Mg-calcite, Mg-silicates K-silicates) explained more than 77% of the total variability in the chemistry of the regional surface water sampling.

  5. Rickettsia parkeri infecting free-living Amblyomma triste ticks in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Melo, Andréia L T; Alves, Alvair S; Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda A; Martins, Thiago F; Witter, Rute; Pacheco, Thábata A; Soares, Herbert S; Marcili, Arlei; Chitarra, Cristiane S; Dutra, Valéria; Nakazato, Luciano; Pacheco, Richard C; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2015-04-01

    The present study evaluated the infection of rickettsiae in 151 Rhipicephalus sanguineus, 59 Amblyomma ovale, 166 Amblyomma triste, one Amblyomma dissimile and four Amblyomma dubitatum ticks collected in the municipality of Poconé, State of Mato Grosso, within the Pantanal biome of Brazil. Ticks were individually processed by the hemolymph test with Gimenez staining, isolation of rickettsia in Vero cell culture by the shell vial technique, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the citrate synthase rickettsial gene. Through the shell vial technique, rickettsiae were successfully isolated and established in Vero cell culture from one free-living A. triste female tick, which previously showed to contain Rickettsia-like organisms by the hemolymph test. Molecular characterization of the rickettsial isolate was achieved through DNA partial sequences of three rickettsial genes (gltA, ompA, ompB), which showed to be all 100% identical to Rickettsia parkeri. After testing all ticks by PCR, the frequency of R. parkeri infection was 7.23% (12/166) in A. triste adult ticks. The remaining ticks were negative by PCR. This is the first report of in vitro isolation of R. parkeri in the Pantanal biome, confirming the occurrence of this emerging rickettsial pathogen in this natural area of South America.

  6. Geomorphology and habitat diversity in the Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Mercante, M A; Rodrigues, S C; Ross, J L S

    2011-04-01

    The present study deals with the inter-relations in the relief which forms the Bacia do Alto Rio Paraguay (BAP) in mid-west Brazil. The overall aim is to discuss the relationship between relief forms and the biodiversity of the Pantanal. The BAP is a natural environmental system with contrasts in two of the compartments on which it is formed: the plateau, the most elevated compartment, highly transformed by human activities, and the plain which forms the Pantanal, which is more preserved and less transformed in relation to productive activities. The analysis was performed based on publications with a geomorphologic focus, examining the different relief units of the BAP and the dynamics of the revealing processes of landscape change which the Pantanal has undergone since the end of the Pleistocene.

  7. Geomorphology and habitat diversity in the Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Mercante, M A; Rodrigues, S C; Ross, J L S

    2011-04-01

    The present study deals with the inter-relations in the relief which forms the Bacia do Alto Rio Paraguay (BAP) in mid-west Brazil. The overall aim is to discuss the relationship between relief forms and the biodiversity of the Pantanal. The BAP is a natural environmental system with contrasts in two of the compartments on which it is formed: the plateau, the most elevated compartment, highly transformed by human activities, and the plain which forms the Pantanal, which is more preserved and less transformed in relation to productive activities. The analysis was performed based on publications with a geomorphologic focus, examining the different relief units of the BAP and the dynamics of the revealing processes of landscape change which the Pantanal has undergone since the end of the Pleistocene. PMID:21537596

  8. The 2009 earthquake, magnitude mb 4.8, in the Pantanal Wetlands, west-central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Fábio L; Assumpção, Marcelo; Facincani, Edna M; França, George S; Assine, Mario L; Paranhos, Antônio C; Gamarra, Roberto M

    2016-09-01

    The main goal of this paper is to characterize the Coxim earthquake occurred in June 15th, 2009 in the Pantanal Basin and to discuss the relationship between its faulting mechanism with the Transbrasiliano Lineament. The earthquake had maximum intensity MM V causing damage in farm houses and was felt in several cities located around, including Campo Grande and Goiânia. The event had an mb 4.8 magnitude and depth was 6 km, i.e., it occurred in the upper crust, within the basement and 5 km below the Cenozoic sedimentary cover. The mechanism, a thrust fault mechanism with lateral motion, was obtained by P-wave first-motion polarities and confirmed by regional waveform modelling. The two nodal planes have orientations (strike/dip) of 300°/55° and 180°/55° and the orientation of the P-axis is approximately NE-SW. The results are similar to the Pantanal earthquake of 1964 with mb 5.4 and NE-SW compressional axis. Both events show that Pantanal Basin is a seismically active area, under compressional stress. The focal mechanism of the 1964 and 2009 events have no nodal plane that could be directly associated with the main SW-NE trending Transbrasiliano system indicating that a direct link of the Transbrasiliano with the seismicity in the Pantanal Basin is improbable.

  9. The 2009 earthquake, magnitude mb 4.8, in the Pantanal Wetlands, west-central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Fábio L; Assumpção, Marcelo; Facincani, Edna M; França, George S; Assine, Mario L; Paranhos, Antônio C; Gamarra, Roberto M

    2016-09-01

    The main goal of this paper is to characterize the Coxim earthquake occurred in June 15th, 2009 in the Pantanal Basin and to discuss the relationship between its faulting mechanism with the Transbrasiliano Lineament. The earthquake had maximum intensity MM V causing damage in farm houses and was felt in several cities located around, including Campo Grande and Goiânia. The event had an mb 4.8 magnitude and depth was 6 km, i.e., it occurred in the upper crust, within the basement and 5 km below the Cenozoic sedimentary cover. The mechanism, a thrust fault mechanism with lateral motion, was obtained by P-wave first-motion polarities and confirmed by regional waveform modelling. The two nodal planes have orientations (strike/dip) of 300°/55° and 180°/55° and the orientation of the P-axis is approximately NE-SW. The results are similar to the Pantanal earthquake of 1964 with mb 5.4 and NE-SW compressional axis. Both events show that Pantanal Basin is a seismically active area, under compressional stress. The focal mechanism of the 1964 and 2009 events have no nodal plane that could be directly associated with the main SW-NE trending Transbrasiliano system indicating that a direct link of the Transbrasiliano with the seismicity in the Pantanal Basin is improbable. PMID:27580359

  10. Ticks on humans in the Pantanal wetlands, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Osava, Carolina F; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabó, Matias P J

    2014-09-01

    Information on ticks biting humans in Brazil is very restricted. In fact, many times when human tick-borne diseases are diagnosed, the involved vector tick is not identified, although this may be clinically helpful. Pantanal is one of the world's largest floodplains, has an exuberant wildlife, and is place of extensive cattle ranching, ecotourism, and fishing. We herein report tick species found on humans in a 13-month survey in a region with both cattle and wildlife handling in the Brazilian Pantanal. From February 2012 to February 2013, a total of 280 ticks was collected from humans (n=22), 121 of which were attached. Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato nymphs were the main tick species and stage found attached to humans (n=93) especially during the dry months (winter). In the wet season (summer), Amblyomma parvum adults were the main ticks found attached to humans (n=19) followed by A. cajennense s.l. adults (n=9). Only one unattached nymph of A. parvum was collected in this study. These results reinforce that A. cajennense s.l. nymphs are an important parasite of humans (and vectors) in Brazil and draw also attention to A. parvum adults as frequent human parasites as well. PMID:24861806

  11. Ticks on humans in the Pantanal wetlands, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Osava, Carolina F; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabó, Matias P J

    2014-09-01

    Information on ticks biting humans in Brazil is very restricted. In fact, many times when human tick-borne diseases are diagnosed, the involved vector tick is not identified, although this may be clinically helpful. Pantanal is one of the world's largest floodplains, has an exuberant wildlife, and is place of extensive cattle ranching, ecotourism, and fishing. We herein report tick species found on humans in a 13-month survey in a region with both cattle and wildlife handling in the Brazilian Pantanal. From February 2012 to February 2013, a total of 280 ticks was collected from humans (n=22), 121 of which were attached. Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato nymphs were the main tick species and stage found attached to humans (n=93) especially during the dry months (winter). In the wet season (summer), Amblyomma parvum adults were the main ticks found attached to humans (n=19) followed by A. cajennense s.l. adults (n=9). Only one unattached nymph of A. parvum was collected in this study. These results reinforce that A. cajennense s.l. nymphs are an important parasite of humans (and vectors) in Brazil and draw also attention to A. parvum adults as frequent human parasites as well.

  12. A new Magnetic Observatory in Pantanal - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siqueira, F.; Pinheiro, K.; Linthe, H.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of a Magnetic Observatory is to register the variations of the Earth's magnetic field in a long temporal scale. Using this data it is possible to study field variations of both external and internal origins. The external variations concern interactions between the magnetosphere and the solar wind, in general are measured in a short time scale. The internal field generated by convection of a high electrical conductivity fluid in the external core by a mechanism known as the geodynamo. Usually the internal field time variations are longer than in the external field and are called secular variations. Measurements carried out over the last century suggest that field intensity is decreasing rapidly. The decreasing of the field's intensity is not the same around the globe, especially at the SAMA (South Atlantic Magnetic Anomaly) regions, where this reduction is occurring faster. The global distribution of magnetic observatories is uneven, with few observatories in South America. In Brazil, there are three magnetic observatories, but only Vassouras Observatory (VSS- RJ) is part of the INTERMAGNET network. The National Observatory has plans to install seven new observatories in Brazil. Pantanal was the chosen location for installing the first observatory because of its privileged location, close to the SAMA region, and its data can contribute to more information about its origin. We followed the procedures suggested by the IAGA to build this observatory. The first step is to perform a magnetic survey in order to avoid strong magnetic gradients in the location where the absolute and variometers houses will be installed. The next step, the construction of the observatory, includes the selection of special non-magnetic material for the variometer and absolute houses. All materials used were previously tested using a proton magnetometer GSM-19. After construction of the whole infrastructure, the equipment was installed. This Project is a cooperation between Brazilian

  13. Cluster analysis applied to the spatial and temporal variability of monthly rainfall in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, Paulo Eduardo; de Oliveira-Júnior, José Francisco; da Cunha, Elias Rodrigues; Correa, Caio Cezar Guedes; Torres, Francisco Eduardo; Bacani, Vitor Matheus; Gois, Givanildo; Ribeiro, Larissa Pereira

    2016-04-01

    The State of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) located in Brazil Midwest is devoid of climatological studies, mainly in the characterization of rainfall regime and producers' meteorological systems and rain inhibitors. This state has different soil and climatic characteristics distributed among three biomes: Cerrado, Atlantic Forest and Pantanal. This study aimed to apply the cluster analysis using Ward's algorithm and identify those meteorological systems that affect the rainfall regime in the biomes. The rainfall data of 32 stations (sites) of the MS State were obtained from the Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA) database, collected from 1954 to 2013. In each of the 384 monthly rainfall temporal series was calculated the average and applied the Ward's algorithm to identify spatial and temporal variability of rainfall. Bartlett's test revealed only in January homogeneous variance at all sites. Run test showed that there was no increase or decrease in trend of monthly rainfall. Cluster analysis identified five rainfall homogeneous regions in the MS State, followed by three seasons (rainy, transitional and dry). The rainy season occurs during the months of November, December, January, February and March. The transitional season ranges between the months of April and May, September and October. The dry season occurs in June, July and August. The groups G1, G4 and G5 are influenced by South Atlantic Subtropical Anticyclone (SASA), Chaco's Low (CL), Bolivia's High (BH), Low Levels Jet (LLJ) and South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) and Maden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Group G2 is influenced by Upper Tropospheric Cyclonic Vortex (UTCV) and Front Systems (FS). The group G3 is affected by UTCV, FS and SACZ. The meteorological systems' interaction that operates in each biome and the altitude causes the rainfall spatial and temporal diversity in MS State.

  14. Preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in arbovirus transmission.

    PubMed

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Tavares, Fernando Neto; Alencar, Jeronimo; Silva, Julia dos Santos; Murta, Michele; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maués; Pellegrin, Aiesca Oliveira; Gil-Santana, Hélcio; Guimarães, Anthony Erico; Silva, Edson Elias da

    2010-01-01

    In view of the high circulation of migratory birds and the environmental and climatic conditions which favor the proliferation of arthropods, the Brazilian Pantanal is susceptible to circulation of arboviruses. However, the amount of data concerning arbovirus vectors in this area is scarce; therefore the aim of this study was to conduct a preliminary investigation of Culicidae species in the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil and their potential importance in the arbovirus transmission. A total of 3684 specimens of mosquitoes were captured, 1689 of which caught in the rainy season of 2007, were divided into 78 pools and submitted to viral isolation, Semi-Nested RT-PCR and Nested RT-PCR, with a view to identifying the most important arboviruses in Brazil. Simultaneously, 70 specimens of ticks found blood-feeding on horses were also submitted to the same virological assays. No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, a total of 22 Culicidae species were identified, ten of which had previously been reported as vectors of important arboviruses. The diversity of species found blood-feeding on human and horse hosts together with the arboviruses circulation previously reported suggest that the Nhecolândia Sub-region of South Pantanal is an important area for arbovirus surveillance in Brazil.

  15. Effects of Severe Floods and Droughts on Wildlife of the Pantanal Wetland (Brazil)-A Review.

    PubMed

    Alho, Cleber J R; Silva, João S V

    2012-10-18

    Flooding throughout the Pantanal is seasonal. The complex vegetative cover and high seasonal productivity support a diverse and abundant fauna. A gradient in flood level supports a range of major habitats in a complex mosaic with annual seasonality. The rivers and streams are lined with gallery forests, and other arboreal habitats exist in the more elevated areas. The remainder is either grasslands or seasonally flooded grasslands. The regional flora and fauna are adapted to annual water fluctuation. However, an inter-annual series of higher or lower rainfalls has caused either severe floods or drastic dry seasons. Large scale climate phenomena such as greenhouse gases, El Niño and La Niña influence the seasonality of floods and droughts in the Pantanal. Knowledge of severe floods and droughts, which characterize natural disasters, is fundamental for wildlife management and nature conservation of the Pantanal. Plants and wild animals, for example, are affected by tree mortality in riparian forest after extreme flooding, with consequent habitat modification for wild animals. In addition, human activities are also affected since cattle ranching and ecotourism are economically important in the region, and when seasons with unusual floods or droughts occur, areas with human settlements are impacted.

  16. Habitat mapping of the Brazilian Pantanal using synthetic aperture radar imagery and object based image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Teresa Lynne

    The Brazilian Pantanal, a continuous tropical wetland located in the center of South America, has been recognized as one of the largest and most important wetland ecosystems globally. The Pantanal exhibits a high biodiversity of flora and fauna species, and many threatened habitats. The spatial distribution of these habitats influence the distribution, abundance and interactions of animal species, and the change or destruction of habitat may cause alteration of key biological processes. The Pantanal may be divided into several distinct subregions based on geology and hydrology: flooding in these subregions is distinctly seasonal, but the timing, amplitude and duration of inundation vary considerably as a result of both the delayed release of floodwaters and regional rainfall patterns. Given the ecological importance of the Pantanal wetland ecosystem, the primary goal of this research was to utilize a dual season set of L-band (ALOS/PALSAR) and C-band (RADARSAT-2 and ENVISAT/ASAR) imagery, a comprehensive set of ground reference data, and a hierarchical object-oriented approach. This primary goal was achieved through two main research tasks. The first task was to define the diverse habitats of the Lower Nhecolândia subregion of the Pantanal at both a fine spatial resolution (12.5 m), and a relatively medium spatial resolution (50 m), thus evaluating the accuracy of the differing spatial resolutions for land cover classification of the highly spatially heterogeneous subregion. The second task was to define on a regional scale, using the 50 m spatial resolution imagery, the wetland habitats of each of the hydrological subregions of the Pantanal, thereby producing a final product covering the entire Pantanal ecosystem. The final classification maps of the Lower Nhecolândia subregion resulted in overall accuracies of 83% and 72% for the 12.5 m and 50 m spatial resolutions, respectively, and defined seven land cover classes. In general, the highest degree of confusion

  17. Prevalence of Leptospira interrogans antibodies in free-ranging Tayassu pecari of the Southern Pantanal, Brazil, an ecosystem where wildlife and cattle interact.

    PubMed

    de Freitas, Tatiana P Tavares; Keuroghlian, Alexine; Eaton, Donald P; de Freitas, Emanuel Barbosa; Figueiredo, Aline; Nakazato, Luciano; de Oliveira, Jacqueline M; Miranda, Flávia; Paes, Rita Cassia S; Monteiro, Leticia A R Carneiro; Lima, José Vergílio B; da C Neto, Aparecida A; Dutra, Valéria; de Freitas, Julio Cesar

    2010-12-01

    We surveyed a wild population of white-lipped peccaries (Tayassu pecari) in the Brazilian Pantanal for evidence of Leptospira interrogans. Serum samples from 71 free-ranging T. pecari were obtained between 2003 and 2005 in the southern Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul state. We used microscopic microagglutination to test for antibodies against 14 L. interrogans serovars (antibody titers ≥ 1:100 were considered seropositive). Seventy percent of captured animals tested positive for leptospirosis antibodies. Antibodies against icterohaemorrhagiae and autumnalis serovars were the most prevalent. We used log-linear analyses to test for associations among seropositivity, age class, and sex of captured animals. Seropositivity was strongly associated with animal age class, but independent of sex. Forty-six percent of animals less than 2 years old, 63% of adults during peak reproductive years, and 100% of the oldest age class were seropositive. A nonparametric multivariate procedure (MRPP) showed that the composition of serovar antibody types changed with age, and ANOVA models demonstrated that antibody titers increased with age, suggesting long-term exposure to a greater number and variety (i.e., serovar types) of L. interrogans infections. This study presents the first quantitative survey of antibodies against L. interrogans serovars in a T. pecari population of the Pantanal. The high prevalence of leptospirosis antibodies in free-ranging white-lipped peccaries and the potential impacts on reproduction and population dynamics emphasize the need for further studies investigating the roles of Pantanal wildlife and livestock in the transmission and maintenance of L. interrogans in the environment. PMID:20596776

  18. Six-year trend analysis of nosocomial candidemia and risk factors in two intensive care hospitals in Mato Grosso, midwest region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann-Santos, Hugo Dias; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Yamamoto, Ana Caroline Akeme; Tadano, Tomoko; Hahn, Rosane C

    2013-12-01

    We conducted this cross-sectional retrospective study using clinical and laboratory data from two tertiary hospitals in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil, in order to explore the risk factors and estimate mortality, prevalence and lethality of candidemia between 2006 and 2011. A total of 130 episodes of candidemia were identified. The prevalence of candidemia was 1.8 per 1,000 admissions, the mortality rate was 0.9 per 1,000 admissions, and the lethality was 49.2 %. The main agent in this population was Candida parapsilosis (n = 50), followed by C. albicans (n = 45). Comparison between the numbers of episodes in the two triennia revealed that the non-albicans group grew by 48.2 %. The distribution of yeast species of Candida per hospital unit revealed that C. albicans was more prevalent than C. parapsilosis in the adult ICU and C. parapsilosis was more prevalent than C. albicans in the neonatal ICU. Patients remained hospitalized for an average of 53.5 days. Central venous catheters, parenteral nutrition and age were the variables that proved to be independent in the multivariate analysis and that maintained a statistically significant association with the incidence of death in patients with candidemia. The annual prevalence of candidemia showed a significant increase in the second triennium (2009-2011) compared with the first (2006-2008) probably due to increased exposure to risk factors: central venous catheter, H2 blockers, nutrition parenteral corticosteroids and mean hospital duration.

  19. Biodiversity of the Pantanal: response to seasonal flooding regime and to environmental degradation.

    PubMed

    Alho, C J R

    2008-11-01

    Seasonal flooding is the most important ecological phenomenon in the Pantanal. Every year many parts of the biome change from terrestrial into aquatic habitats and vice-versa. The degree of inundation creates a range of major habitats. Flooding occupies about 80% of the whole Pantanal. In contrast, during the dry season, most of the flooded areas stay dry, when the water returns to the river beds or evaporates. The Pantanal is a large continental savanna wetland (147,574 km(2) in Brazil), touching Bolivia to the north and Paraguay to the south. The maze of fluctuating water levels, nutrients, and biota forms a dynamic ecosystem. The vegetation comprises 1,863 phanerogam plant species listed for the floodplain and 3,400 for the whole basin and 250 species of aquatic plants. The complex vegetation cover and seasonal productivity support a diverse and abundant fauna within the floodplain: 263 species of fish, 41 of amphibians, 113 of reptiles (177 for the basin), 463 of birds and 132 mammal species. Many endangered species occur, including jaguar (Panthera onca Linnaeus, 1758). Waterfowl are exceptionally abundant during the dry season. Analysis of the root causes of the threats to biodiversity indicated that deforestation (17% of the Pantanal and 63% of the surrounding uplands) with modification and loss of natural habitats due to cattle ranching, unsustainable agriculture, mining, environmental contamination (including mercury, pesticides, urban sewage), non organized tourism, fire, disturbances at the upstream region modifying hydrological flow, erosion, weak implementation and enforcement of legislation are the major issues to face conservation action and sustainable use. Under an evolutionary focus, local biodiversity seems to be well adapted to seasonal shrinking and expansion of natural habitats due to flooding. However, the conversion of natural vegetation due to human occupation is a real threat to biodiversity.

  20. Detection of wild animals as carriers of Leptospira by PCR in the Pantanal biome, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Anahi S; Narduche, Lorena; Martins, Gabriel; Schabib Péres, Igor A H F; Zimmermann, Namor P; Juliano, Raquel S; Pellegrin, Aiesca O; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2016-11-01

    Leptospiral infection is widespread in wildlife. In this context, wild ecosystems in tropical countries hold a vast biodiversity, including several species that may act as potential reservoirs of leptospires. The Pantanal biome presents highly favorable environmental conditions for the occurrence of leptospirosis, such as high temperatures, constant flooding, and high biodiversity. The purpose of this study was to detect wild animals as carriers of Leptospira sp. using direct methods (PCR and culture) in the Pantanal biome, Brazil. A total of 35 animals were studied, namely Cerdocyon thous, Nasua nasua, Ozotoceros bezoarticus, and Sus scrofa species. Blood for serology (MAT) and urine for bacteriological culturing and PCR was sampled. The most prevalent serogroups were Javanica and Djasiman. Additionally, 40.6% of these animals presented PCR positive reactions. Seroreactivity associated with the high frequency of leptospiral carriers among the different studied species suggests a high level of exposure of the studied animals to pathogenic Leptospira strains. Our results are still limited and the actual role of the studied animals in the epidemiology of leptospirosis in the Pantanal region remains to be elucidated. PMID:27496621

  1. Detection of wild animals as carriers of Leptospira by PCR in the Pantanal biome, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Anahi S; Narduche, Lorena; Martins, Gabriel; Schabib Péres, Igor A H F; Zimmermann, Namor P; Juliano, Raquel S; Pellegrin, Aiesca O; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2016-11-01

    Leptospiral infection is widespread in wildlife. In this context, wild ecosystems in tropical countries hold a vast biodiversity, including several species that may act as potential reservoirs of leptospires. The Pantanal biome presents highly favorable environmental conditions for the occurrence of leptospirosis, such as high temperatures, constant flooding, and high biodiversity. The purpose of this study was to detect wild animals as carriers of Leptospira sp. using direct methods (PCR and culture) in the Pantanal biome, Brazil. A total of 35 animals were studied, namely Cerdocyon thous, Nasua nasua, Ozotoceros bezoarticus, and Sus scrofa species. Blood for serology (MAT) and urine for bacteriological culturing and PCR was sampled. The most prevalent serogroups were Javanica and Djasiman. Additionally, 40.6% of these animals presented PCR positive reactions. Seroreactivity associated with the high frequency of leptospiral carriers among the different studied species suggests a high level of exposure of the studied animals to pathogenic Leptospira strains. Our results are still limited and the actual role of the studied animals in the epidemiology of leptospirosis in the Pantanal region remains to be elucidated.

  2. Assessment of the current state of biodiversity data for butterflies and skippers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea).

    PubMed

    Queiroz-Santos, Luziany; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Dell'Erba, Rafael; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Lepidoptera is one of the four megadiverse insect orders, comprising butterflies and moths. In Brazil, the bulk of knowledge about the butterfly fauna is restricted to some areas in the southeast of the country, with large gaps of knowledge in other areas. The state of Mato Grosso is one of the largest states in Brazil, and holds three of the main Brazilian biomes: Amazon rain forest, Cerrado and Pantanal. However, knowledge about Mato Grosso butterflies is fragmented and restricted to a few localities, and information is scattered in various sources. The aim of this study is to assemble the biodiversity information of the butterfly fauna of the state of Mato Grosso based on historical and recent literature data and collections carried out in the southwest of the state from 2007-2009. Records without precise locality data or taxonomic information were not included. Species identification was based on literature and comparison with specimens in collections; higher and species-level taxonomy were updated based on the Neotropical Checklist of Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea and recent phylogenetic and revisionary taxonomic works. In total, 901 species were recorded in 2,820 occurrence records. This represents 148 species of Hesperiidae, 29 Papilionidae, 28 Pieridae, 77 Lycaenidae, 238 Riodinidae, and 381 Nymphalidae. Of these, 207 species records are from the type specimens of species described in the state. Based on the results and literature records for other Brazilian states and biomes, probably the figures for Mato Grosso are underestimated, particularly in the families Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae, in that order. Future collecting efforts should be directed towards certain areas of the state, especially in less sampled areas and biomes, as the north of the state and Pantanal. PMID:27408571

  3. Assessment of the current state of biodiversity data for butterflies and skippers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea)

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz-Santos, Luziany; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Dell’Erba, Rafael; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lepidoptera is one of the four megadiverse insect orders, comprising butterflies and moths. In Brazil, the bulk of knowledge about the butterfly fauna is restricted to some areas in the southeast of the country, with large gaps of knowledge in other areas. The state of Mato Grosso is one of the largest states in Brazil, and holds three of the main Brazilian biomes: Amazon rain forest, Cerrado and Pantanal. However, knowledge about Mato Grosso butterflies is fragmented and restricted to a few localities, and information is scattered in various sources. The aim of this study is to assemble the biodiversity information of the butterfly fauna of the state of Mato Grosso based on historical and recent literature data and collections carried out in the southwest of the state from 2007–2009. Records without precise locality data or taxonomic information were not included. Species identification was based on literature and comparison with specimens in collections; higher and species-level taxonomy were updated based on the Neotropical Checklist of Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea and recent phylogenetic and revisionary taxonomic works. In total, 901 species were recorded in 2,820 occurrence records. This represents 148 species of Hesperiidae, 29 Papilionidae, 28 Pieridae, 77 Lycaenidae, 238 Riodinidae, and 381 Nymphalidae. Of these, 207 species records are from the type specimens of species described in the state. Based on the results and literature records for other Brazilian states and biomes, probably the figures for Mato Grosso are underestimated, particularly in the families Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae, in that order. Future collecting efforts should be directed towards certain areas of the state, especially in less sampled areas and biomes, as the north of the state and Pantanal. PMID:27408571

  4. Study of energy flows in Pantanal - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santanna, F. B.; Arruda, P. H. Z. D.; Pinto-Jr, O. B.

    2014-12-01

    The main goal of this work was to estimate fluxes using the eddy covariance method in a wetland area, basically with herb-shrub physiognomy, sparse woody vegetation and approximately 4m height. The geographical position of the Pantanal, altitude, latitude, longitude, climate and weather conditions are determined by the dynamics of the atmosphere that affects the whole South America and consequently influence the ecological framework of ecosystems. The results shown by the components considered in the energy balance were more significant during the day, which the atmospheric boundary layer extends from the ground to about 50 or 100 meters height, showing greater instability and turbulence (u* > 0.2 m / s), and this turbulence is what justifies the use of the eddy covariance method to estimate the sensible and latent heat flux. The Pantanal presents seasonal difference between the densities estimates of sensible (H) and latent (LE) heat flux. During the rainy season the sensible heat flux (H) was 30% and the latent heat flux (LE) 58%. During the dry season the sensible heat flux (H) was 46% and the latent heat flux (LE) 40% of the energy budget.

  5. Fungal microbiota in air-conditioning installed in both adult and neonatal intensive treatment units and their impact in two university hospitals of the central western region, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Simões, Sara de Almeida Alves; Leite Júnior, Diniz Pereira; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate fungal microbiota in air-conditioning units installed in intensive care units in two university hospitals in Cuiaba city, Mato Grosso, central western region of Brazil, 525 solid environmental samples were collected, 285 from Hospital A and 240 from Hospital B. Collections were performed using sterile swabs on air-conditioning unit components: cooling coils, ventilators, and filters. Mycelial fungi identification was achieved by observation of the macroscopic and micromorphological characteristics in different culture mediums (maize meal, oatmeal and potato dextrose agars and malt extract) using the Ridell technique. Eleven genera and 27 distinct species belonging to the hyphomycetes and ascomycetes classes were isolated and identified. The most frequently detected genera in both hospitals were Aspergillus spp, Penicillium spp, and Cladosporium spp. Values for colony-forming units per gram were 64 and 75%, well above the limits recommended by Health Ministry resolution 176/00 at the locations selected for analysis in Hospitals A and B, respectively. In conclusion, evaluation of fungal microbiota in the air-conditioning units indirectly determined that the air quality was compromised in both university hospitals analyzed, which constitutes a risk factor for the acquisition of infection in the intensive care units. PMID:21424438

  6. Aquatic macrophyte diversity of the Pantanal wetland and upper basin.

    PubMed

    Pott, V J; Pott, A; Lima, L C P; Moreira, S N; Oliveira, A K M

    2011-04-01

    This is a short review of the state of the art concerning diversity of aquatic macrophytes and the main aquatic vegetation types in the Brazilian Pantanal wetland and upper watershed. There are ca. 280 species of aquatic macrophytes on the Pantanal floodplain, with scarce endemism. On the upper watershed, Cerrado wetlands (veredas) and limestone springs have a distinct flora from the Pantanal, with twice the species richness. As a representative case of aquatic habitats influenced by river flood, some primary data are presented for the Pantanal Matogrossense National Park and associated Acurizal Preserve, analysing the floristic similarity among aquatic vegetation types. We comment on problems of conservation and observe that Panicum elephantipes Nees is one of the few natives to compete with the invasive Urochloa arrecta (Hack. ex T. Durand & Schinz) Morrone & Zuloaga.

  7. A successful case of biological invasion: the fish Cichla piquiti, an Amazonian species introduced into the Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Resende, E K; Marques, D K S; Ferreira, L K S G

    2008-11-01

    The 'tucunaré', Cichla piquiti, an exotic Amazonian fish has become established along the left bank of the Paraguay River in the Pantanal. It was introduced by escaping from culture ponds in the Upper Piquiri River and spread downstream, along the lateral flooded areas of that river, continuing through the clear waters of the left bank of the Paraguay River and reaching south as far as the Paraguai Mirim and Negrinho rivers. Adult spawners have been found in the region, meaning that it is a self-sustained population. Reproduction occurs in the period of low waters. They were found feeding on fishes of lentic environments belonging to the families Characidae, Cichlidae and Loricariidae. Until the end of 2004, its distribution was restricted to the left bank of the Paraguay River, but in March 2005, some specimens were found on the right bank, raising a question for the future: what will be the distribution area of the tucunaré in the Pantanal? Information about its dispersion is increasing: it is known to be in the Tuiuiú Lake, Pantanal National Park and in the Bolivian Pantanal, all of them on the right bank of the Paraguay River. The hypothesis that the 'tucunaré' could not cross turbid waters, such as in the Paraguay River, was refuted by these recent findings. Possibly, the tucunaré's capacity to lay more than one batch of eggs in a reproductive period, as well as its care of eggs and young, lead them to establish themselves successfully in new environments, as has been observed in the Pantanal and other localities. PMID:19197497

  8. Detection of Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus antibodies in free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in two protected areas of northern Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; Crawshaw Júnior, Peter Gransden; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; May-Júnior, Joares Adenilson; Morais, Zenaide Maria de; Ferreira Neto, José Soares; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the exposure of free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) to Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus in two conservation units in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of antibodies in blood samples of eleven jaguars was investigated using autochthonous antigens isolated in Brazil added to reference antigen collection applied to diagnosis of leptospirosis by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The Rose Bengal test was applied for B. abortus antibodies. Two (18.2%) jaguars were seroreactive for the Leptospira spp. antigen and the serovar considered as most infective in both animals was a Brazilian isolate of serovar Canicola (L01). All jaguars were seronegative for B. abortus. These data indicate that the inclusion of autochthonous antigens in serological studies can significantly increase the number of reactive animals, as well as modify the epidemiological profile of Leptospira spp. infection.

  9. Detection of Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus antibodies in free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in two protected areas of northern Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; Crawshaw Júnior, Peter Gransden; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; May-Júnior, Joares Adenilson; Morais, Zenaide Maria de; Ferreira Neto, José Soares; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the exposure of free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) to Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus in two conservation units in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of antibodies in blood samples of eleven jaguars was investigated using autochthonous antigens isolated in Brazil added to reference antigen collection applied to diagnosis of leptospirosis by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The Rose Bengal test was applied for B. abortus antibodies. Two (18.2%) jaguars were seroreactive for the Leptospira spp. antigen and the serovar considered as most infective in both animals was a Brazilian isolate of serovar Canicola (L01). All jaguars were seronegative for B. abortus. These data indicate that the inclusion of autochthonous antigens in serological studies can significantly increase the number of reactive animals, as well as modify the epidemiological profile of Leptospira spp. infection. PMID:25923900

  10. DETECTION OF Leptospira spp. AND Brucella abortus ANTIBODIES IN FREE-LIVING JAGUARS (Panthera onca) IN TWO PROTECTED AREAS OF NORTHERN PANTANAL, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    ONUMA, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; KANTEK, Daniel Luis Zanella; CRAWSHAW, Peter Gransden; MORATO, Ronaldo Gonçalves; MAY-JÚNIOR, Joares Adenilson; de MORAIS, Zenaide Maria; FERREIRA, José Soares; de AGUIAR, Daniel Moura

    2015-01-01

     This study aimed to assess the exposure of free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) to Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus in two conservation units in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of antibodies in blood samples of eleven jaguars was investigated using autochthonous antigens isolated in Brazil added to reference antigen collection applied to diagnosis of leptospirosis by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The Rose Bengal test was applied for B. abortus antibodies. Two (18.2%) jaguars were seroreactive for the Leptospira spp. antigen and the serovar considered as most infective in both animals was a Brazilian isolate of serovar Canicola (L01). All jaguars were seronegative for B. abortus. These data indicate that the inclusion of autochthonous antigens in serological studies can significantly increase the number of reactive animals, as well as modify the epidemiological profile of Leptospira spp. infection. PMID:25923900

  11. A new acanthocephalan species (Archiacanthocephala: Oligacanthorhynchidae) from the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous ) in the Brazilian pantanal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ana Paula N; Olifiers, Natalie; Souza, Joyce G R; Barbosa, Helene S; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2015-02-01

    A new species of Oligacanthorhynchidae (Acanthocephala) Prosthenorchis cerdocyonis n. sp. is described from 17 specimens collected from the small intestine of the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766 (Canidae: Carnivora) found in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands. Specimens were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. Characteristic features distinguishing the new species from others already described are presented, such as size of the body, the position of lemnisci, size of the eggs, host, and geographical distribution. Details of the body surface obtained by scanning electron microscopy, such as the presence of 2 lateral papillae in the proximal region of the proboscis, the presence of barbs in hooks, and a robust and festooned collar, helped to identify the species. Until now, specimens belonging to Prosthenorchis reported from Cerdocyon thous were not identified to species. Furthermore, the new species is the first to be recorded in C. thous found in the Pantanal wetlands.

  12. A new acanthocephalan species (Archiacanthocephala: Oligacanthorhynchidae) from the crab-eating fox (Cerdocyon thous ) in the Brazilian pantanal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Ana Paula N; Olifiers, Natalie; Souza, Joyce G R; Barbosa, Helene S; D'Andrea, Paulo S; Maldonado, Arnaldo

    2015-02-01

    A new species of Oligacanthorhynchidae (Acanthocephala) Prosthenorchis cerdocyonis n. sp. is described from 17 specimens collected from the small intestine of the crab-eating fox Cerdocyon thous Linnaeus, 1766 (Canidae: Carnivora) found in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands. Specimens were studied using light and scanning electron microscopy. Characteristic features distinguishing the new species from others already described are presented, such as size of the body, the position of lemnisci, size of the eggs, host, and geographical distribution. Details of the body surface obtained by scanning electron microscopy, such as the presence of 2 lateral papillae in the proximal region of the proboscis, the presence of barbs in hooks, and a robust and festooned collar, helped to identify the species. Until now, specimens belonging to Prosthenorchis reported from Cerdocyon thous were not identified to species. Furthermore, the new species is the first to be recorded in C. thous found in the Pantanal wetlands. PMID:25291295

  13. Exposure of free-ranging wild carnivores, horses and domestic dogs to Leptospira spp in the northern Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Rodrigo Silva Pinto; Ferreira, Fernando; Ferreira Neto, José Soares; Vasconcellos, Silvio de Arruda; Lima, Edson de Souza; Morais, Zenaide Maria de; Souza, Gisele Oliveira de

    2011-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease affecting most mammals and is distributed throughout the world. Several species of domestic and wild animals may act as reservoirs for this disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the exposure of free-ranging wild carnivores, horses and domestic dogs on a private reserve located in the northern Pantanal (Brazil) and the surrounding areas to Leptospira spp from 2002-2006, 75 free-ranging wild carnivores were captured in the Pantanal and serum samples were collected. In addition, samples from 103 domestic dogs and 23 horses in the region were collected. Serum samples were tested for the presence of Leptospira antibodies using the microscopic agglutination test. Thirty-two wild carnivores (42.7%) were considered positive with titres ≥ 100, and 18 domestic dogs (17.5%) and 20 horses (74.1%) were also found to be positive. Our study showed that horses, dogs and several species of free-ranging wild carnivores have been exposed to Leptospira spp in the Pantanal, suggesting that the peculiar characteristics of this biome, such as high temperatures and an extended period of flooding, may favour bacterial persistence and transmission. In this region, wild carnivores and horses seem to be important hosts for the epidemiology of Leptospira species.

  14. Effects of Severe Floods and Droughts on Wildlife of the Pantanal Wetland (Brazil)—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Alho, Cleber J. R.; Silva, João S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary The Pantanal is a wetland in the center of South America, (140,000 km² in Brazil), in the Upper Paraguay River Basin. Because of its diverse and abundant wildlife, it is recognized as one of the most important freshwater ecosystems in the world. Many endangered species occur there, including jaguar; waterfowl are exceptionally abundant. Relief varies between the low, and flat floodplain, and the surrounding non-flooded plateau areas. Rainfall shows inter-annual variability, influencing the flooding patterns. Historical climate instability of severe multi-annual flood and dry events has affected animals’ habitats as well as their community structure, population size and behavioral ecology. Abstract Flooding throughout the Pantanal is seasonal. The complex vegetative cover and high seasonal productivity support a diverse and abundant fauna. A gradient in flood level supports a range of major habitats in a complex mosaic with annual seasonality. The rivers and streams are lined with gallery forests, and other arboreal habitats exist in the more elevated areas. The remainder is either grasslands or seasonally flooded grasslands. The regional flora and fauna are adapted to annual water fluctuation. However, an inter-annual series of higher or lower rainfalls has caused either severe floods or drastic dry seasons. Large scale climate phenomena such as greenhouse gases, El Niño and La Niña influence the seasonality of floods and droughts in the Pantanal. Knowledge of severe floods and droughts, which characterize natural disasters, is fundamental for wildlife management and nature conservation of the Pantanal. Plants and wild animals, for example, are affected by tree mortality in riparian forest after extreme flooding, with consequent habitat modification for wild animals. In addition, human activities are also affected since cattle ranching and ecotourism are economically important in the region, and when seasons with unusual floods or droughts occur

  15. A new species of Macrobrachium Spence Bate, 1868 (Decapoda, Palaemonidae), M. pantanalense, from the Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Antonina; Hayd, Liliam; Anger, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The neotropical species Macrobrachium amazonicum (Heller, 1862) is considered a particularly successful species, showing an extremely wide range of distribution (ca 4.000 km across). Populations assigned to this species live in estuaries along the northern and northeastern coasts of South America as well as in fresh water habitats in the Amazon, Orinoco and Paraná-Paraguay river basins. Following recent comparative studies that showed differential ecological, reproductive, developmental and physiological traits in geographically separated populations from the Amazon delta and the Pantanal region, Brazil, we examined the morphology of adult shrimps from these two regions. Based on significant differences, we conclude that the Pantanal population constitutes a new species, which is described here as Macrobrachium pantanalense. The main differences between M. amazonicum and the new species have been found in the morphology of the second pereiopod, the telson, and in the color patterns of both males and females. A modification on the key of American species of Macrobrachium is provided to accommodate the new species.

  16. Health and epidemiological approaches of Trypanosoma evansi and equine infectious anemia virus in naturally infected horses at southern Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Parreira, Daniela R; Jansen, Ana M; Abreu, Urbano G P; Macedo, Gabriel C; Silva, Antônia R S; Mazur, Carlos; Andrade, Gisele B; Herrera, Heitor M

    2016-11-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) and Trypanossoma evansi are endemic in Brazilian Pantanal Biome, an important area for livestock production. In this sense, we evaluated the epidemiological single and co-infection effects of T. evansi and EIAV in naturally infected horses in the southern Pantanal wetland by serological tests and hematological assays. Both higher seroprevalence and heath poor condition of the sampled animals were associated with differences in horse management between farms. We found that the negative animals for both infectious agents (NN) represented the major group in F1 (37%), and the smallest group in F2 (19%). Furthermore, we recorded higher EIAV seroprevalence (56%) in F2, compared to F1 (38%). We observed that T. evansi infection was mostly related to young horses, as seen by their higher seroprevalence, ranging from 70.7% in the beginning of the rainy season to 81% in the end of flood period, in comparison with the values of 42% and 68%, respectively, in working animals. on the other hand, working animals showed a higher seroprevalence for EIAV (48%) in both seasons than young horses. We observed that the management of working horses could be a risk factor of EIAV infection. On the other hand, as T. evansi is maintained in the study region by many species of wild mammals, the mechanical transmission through blood-sucking vectors ensures the infection to horses since early. Our results showed that single or co-infection by EIAV and T. evansi caused different degree of anemia in the infected animals. Moreover, the health of horses in Brazilian Pantanal is also influenced by differences in horse management and environmental circumstances.

  17. Health and epidemiological approaches of Trypanosoma evansi and equine infectious anemia virus in naturally infected horses at southern Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Parreira, Daniela R; Jansen, Ana M; Abreu, Urbano G P; Macedo, Gabriel C; Silva, Antônia R S; Mazur, Carlos; Andrade, Gisele B; Herrera, Heitor M

    2016-11-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) and Trypanossoma evansi are endemic in Brazilian Pantanal Biome, an important area for livestock production. In this sense, we evaluated the epidemiological single and co-infection effects of T. evansi and EIAV in naturally infected horses in the southern Pantanal wetland by serological tests and hematological assays. Both higher seroprevalence and heath poor condition of the sampled animals were associated with differences in horse management between farms. We found that the negative animals for both infectious agents (NN) represented the major group in F1 (37%), and the smallest group in F2 (19%). Furthermore, we recorded higher EIAV seroprevalence (56%) in F2, compared to F1 (38%). We observed that T. evansi infection was mostly related to young horses, as seen by their higher seroprevalence, ranging from 70.7% in the beginning of the rainy season to 81% in the end of flood period, in comparison with the values of 42% and 68%, respectively, in working animals. on the other hand, working animals showed a higher seroprevalence for EIAV (48%) in both seasons than young horses. We observed that the management of working horses could be a risk factor of EIAV infection. On the other hand, as T. evansi is maintained in the study region by many species of wild mammals, the mechanical transmission through blood-sucking vectors ensures the infection to horses since early. Our results showed that single or co-infection by EIAV and T. evansi caused different degree of anemia in the infected animals. Moreover, the health of horses in Brazilian Pantanal is also influenced by differences in horse management and environmental circumstances. PMID:27497875

  18. Tick-borne bacteria in free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Cynthia E; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Almeida, Aliny P; Ferreira, Fernando; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2011-08-01

    Tick-borne bacteria were investigated in 10 free-living jaguars and their ticks in the Pantanal biome, Brazil. Jaguar sera were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody assays using Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, Rickettsia amblyommii, Rickettsia rhipicephali, Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia bellii, Ehrlichia canis, and Coxiella burnetii as crude antigens. All 10 jaguar sera reacted (titer ≥ 64) to at least one Rickettsia species; 4 and 3 sera reacted with E. canis and C. burnetii, respectively. One jaguar presented antibody titer to R. parkeri at least fourfold higher than those to any of the other five Rickettsia antigens, suggesting that this animal was infected by R. parkeri. Ticks collected from jaguars included the species Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma triste, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. No Rickettsia DNA was detected in jaguar blood samples, but an A. triste specimen collected on a jaguar was shown by PCR to be infected by R. parkeri. The blood of two jaguars and samples of A. triste, A. cajennense, and Amblyomma sp. yielded Ehrlichia DNA by PCR targeting the ehrlichial genes 16S rRNA and dsb. Partial DNA sequences obtained from PCR products resulted in a new ehrlichial strain, here designated as Ehrlichia sp. strain Jaguar. A partial DNA sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of this novel strain showed to be closest (99.0%) to uncultured strains of Ehrlichia sp. from Japan and Russia and 98.7% identical to different strains of Ehrlichia ruminantium. The ehrlichial dsb partial sequence of strain jaguar showed to be at most 80.7% identical to any Ehrlichia species or genotype available in GenBank. Through phylogenetic analysis, Ehrlichia sp. strain jaguar grouped in a cluster, albeit distantly, with different genotypes of E. ruminantium. Results highlight risks for human and animal health, considering that cattle ranching and ecotourism are major economic activities in the Pantanal region of Brazil.

  19. Tick-borne bacteria in free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Cynthia E; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Almeida, Aliny P; Ferreira, Fernando; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2011-08-01

    Tick-borne bacteria were investigated in 10 free-living jaguars and their ticks in the Pantanal biome, Brazil. Jaguar sera were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody assays using Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, Rickettsia amblyommii, Rickettsia rhipicephali, Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia bellii, Ehrlichia canis, and Coxiella burnetii as crude antigens. All 10 jaguar sera reacted (titer ≥ 64) to at least one Rickettsia species; 4 and 3 sera reacted with E. canis and C. burnetii, respectively. One jaguar presented antibody titer to R. parkeri at least fourfold higher than those to any of the other five Rickettsia antigens, suggesting that this animal was infected by R. parkeri. Ticks collected from jaguars included the species Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma triste, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. No Rickettsia DNA was detected in jaguar blood samples, but an A. triste specimen collected on a jaguar was shown by PCR to be infected by R. parkeri. The blood of two jaguars and samples of A. triste, A. cajennense, and Amblyomma sp. yielded Ehrlichia DNA by PCR targeting the ehrlichial genes 16S rRNA and dsb. Partial DNA sequences obtained from PCR products resulted in a new ehrlichial strain, here designated as Ehrlichia sp. strain Jaguar. A partial DNA sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of this novel strain showed to be closest (99.0%) to uncultured strains of Ehrlichia sp. from Japan and Russia and 98.7% identical to different strains of Ehrlichia ruminantium. The ehrlichial dsb partial sequence of strain jaguar showed to be at most 80.7% identical to any Ehrlichia species or genotype available in GenBank. Through phylogenetic analysis, Ehrlichia sp. strain jaguar grouped in a cluster, albeit distantly, with different genotypes of E. ruminantium. Results highlight risks for human and animal health, considering that cattle ranching and ecotourism are major economic activities in the Pantanal region of Brazil. PMID:21612532

  20. Serological evidence of widespread circulation of West Nile virus and other flaviviruses in equines of the Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Campos, Zilca; Juliano, Raquel; Velez, Jason; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-02-01

    A recent study reported neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) in horses from four ranches of southern Pantanal. To extend that study, a serosurvey for WNV and 11 Brazilian flaviviruses was conducted with 760 equines, 238 sheep and 61 caimans from 17 local cattle ranches. Among the tested equines, 32 were collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. The sera were initially screened by using a blocking ELISA and then titrated by 90% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) for 12 flaviviruses. Employing the criterion of 4-fold greater titer, 78 (10.3%) equines were seropositive for Ilheus virus, 59 (7.8%) for Saint Louis encephalitis virus, 24 (3.2%) for WNV, two (0.3%) for Cacipacore virus and one (0.1%) for Rocio virus. No serological evidence was found linking the neurological disease that affected local equines to WNV. All caimans and sheep were negative by blocking ELISA for flaviviruses. There were no seropositive equines for Bussuquara, Iguape, Yellow fever and all four Dengue virus serotypes. The detection of WNV-seropositive equines in ten ranches and ILHV and SLEV-seropositive equines in fourteen ranches of two different sub-regions of Pantanal is strong evidence of widespread circulation of these flaviviruses in the region.

  1. Population genetic study of mitochondrial DNA in Roseate spoonbill (Aves; Platalea ajaja) breeding colonies from the Pantanal wetlands, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mateus Henrique; Lopes, Iara Freitas; Del Lama, Silvia Nassif

    2008-08-01

    Five breeding colonies of the Roseate spoonbill (Aves: Platalea ajaja) from two Brazilian wetland areas (Pantanal and Taim marshes) were sampled, and domain I of the mitochondrial DNA control region (483 bp) was sequenced in 50 birds. The average haplotype diversity (h = 0.75, s = 0.071) and average nucleotide diversity (pi = 0.004, s = 0.003) were evaluated, and nonsignificant differences were found among the colonies studied. The lack of differentiation among breeding colonies revealed by AMOVA analysis was explained either as a consequence of high gene flow or recent expansion. The significantly negative results of the neutrality tests (Fu's F ( s ) = -23.271, P < 0.01; Tajima's D = -1.941, P < 0.01) associated with the star shape of the haplotype tree and mismatch distribution data are evidence supporting the idea that these populations underwent a recent demographic expansion in the Pantanal region. The average time since the expansion is estimated to be 25,773 years, and this agrees with a period of increased moisture that occurred during the last glacial period. PMID:18504651

  2. Population genetic study of mitochondrial DNA in Roseate spoonbill (Aves; Platalea ajaja) breeding colonies from the Pantanal wetlands, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mateus Henrique; Lopes, Iara Freitas; Del Lama, Silvia Nassif

    2008-08-01

    Five breeding colonies of the Roseate spoonbill (Aves: Platalea ajaja) from two Brazilian wetland areas (Pantanal and Taim marshes) were sampled, and domain I of the mitochondrial DNA control region (483 bp) was sequenced in 50 birds. The average haplotype diversity (h = 0.75, s = 0.071) and average nucleotide diversity (pi = 0.004, s = 0.003) were evaluated, and nonsignificant differences were found among the colonies studied. The lack of differentiation among breeding colonies revealed by AMOVA analysis was explained either as a consequence of high gene flow or recent expansion. The significantly negative results of the neutrality tests (Fu's F ( s ) = -23.271, P < 0.01; Tajima's D = -1.941, P < 0.01) associated with the star shape of the haplotype tree and mismatch distribution data are evidence supporting the idea that these populations underwent a recent demographic expansion in the Pantanal region. The average time since the expansion is estimated to be 25,773 years, and this agrees with a period of increased moisture that occurred during the last glacial period.

  3. Molecular Epidemiology of Laguna Negra Virus, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S.; Medeiros, Daniele B.A.; Nunes, Márcio R.T.; Simith, Darlene B.; Pereira, Armando de S.; Elkhoury, Mauro R.; Santos, Elizabeth Davi; Lavocat, Marília; Marques, Aparecido A.; Via, Alba V.G.; Kohl, Vânia A.; Terças, Ana C.P.; D`Andrea, Paulo; Bonvícino, Cibele R.; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba R.

    2012-01-01

    We associated Laguna Negra virus with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and a previously unidentified potential host, the Calomys callidus rodent. Genetic testing revealed homologous sequencing in specimens from 20 humans and 8 mice. Further epidemiologic studies may lead to control of HPS in Mato Grosso State. PMID:22607717

  4. Real time polymerase chain reaction to diagnose Anaplasma marginale in cattle and deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus leucogaster) of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Picoloto, Graziela; Lima, Renileide Ferreira de; Olegário, Lílian Andressa Oliveira; Carvalho, Cristiano Miranda Espínola; Lacerda, Ana Crystina Reis; Tomás, Walfrido Moraes; Borges, Paulo André Lima; Pellegrin, Aiesca Oliveira; Madruga, Cláudio Roberto

    2010-01-01

    Epizootiological study of Anaplasma marginale in regions that contain various reservoir hosts, co-existence of rickettsia pathogens, and common vectors is a complicated task. To achieve diagnosis of this rickettsia in cattle and campeiro deer of Brazilian Pantanal, a comparison was made between a real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with intercalating Sybr Green fluorochrome and primers based on msp5 gene of A. marginale; a conventional PCR (C-PCR); and parasitological examination using thin blood smear stained with Giemsa-MayGrunwald. Both PCRs showed good performance in the diagnosis of A. marginale in cattle, and were superior to the parasitological exam. The RT-PCR detected seven positive campeiro deer (16.3%). This rate was significantly higher compared to C-PCR, which identified one animal as positive (2.3%), and also compared to parasitological diagnosis, which did not find any positive animals. The dissociation temperature average of positive reactions in cattle (81.72 °C ± 0.20) was identical to dissociation temperature found in the cervids (81.72 °C ± 0.12), suggesting that both animal species were infected with A. marginale. We concluded that RT-PCR can be used for A. marginale diagnosis and in epizootiological studies of cattle and cervids; in spite of the small number of campeiro deer samples, the results indicated that this wildlife species has importance in the Anaplasma epizootiology in the Brazilian Pantanal.

  5. Neutralising antibodies for Mayaro virus in Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Juliano, Raquel Soares; Campos, Zilca; Velez, Jason; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Komar, Nicholas

    2015-02-01

    The Pantanal hosts diverse wildlife species and therefore is a hotspot for arbovirus studies in South America. A serosurvey for Mayaro virus (MAYV), eastern (EEEV), western (WEEV) and Venezuelan (VEEV) equine encephalitis viruses was conducted with 237 sheep, 87 free-ranging caimans and 748 equids, including 37 collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. Sera were tested for specific viral antibodies using plaque-reduction neutralisation test. From a total of 748 equids, of which 264 were immunised with vaccine composed of EEEV and WEEV and 484 had no history of immunisation, 10 (1.3%) were seropositive for MAYV and two (0.3%) for VEEV using criteria of a ≥ 4-fold antibody titre difference. Among the 484 equids without history of immunisation, 48 (9.9%) were seropositive for EEEV and four (0.8%) for WEEV using the same criteria. Among the sheep, five were sero- positive for equine encephalitis alphaviruses, with one (0.4%) for EEEV, one (0.4%) for WEEV and three (1.3%) for VEEV. Regarding free-ranging caimans, one (1.1%) and three (3.4%), respectively, had low titres for neutralising antibodies to VEEV and undetermined alphaviruses. The neurological disorder outbreak could not be linked to the alphaviruses tested. Our findings represent strong evidence that MAYV and all equine encephalitis alphaviruses circulated in the Pantanal. PMID:25742272

  6. A study of structural lineaments in Pantanal (Brazil) using remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    Paranhos Filho, Antonio C; Nummer, Alexis R; Albrez, Edilce A; Ribeiro, Alisson A; Machado, Rômulo

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a study of the structural lineaments of the Pantanal extracted visually from satellite images (CBERS-2B satellite, Wide Field Imager sensor, a free image available in INTERNET) and a comparison with the structural lineaments of Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks surrounding the Cenozoic Pantanal Basin. Using a free software for satellite image analysis, the photointerpretation showed that the NS, NE and NW directions observed on the Pantanal satellite images are the same recorded in the older rocks surrounding the basin, suggesting reactivation of these basement structural directions during the Quaternary. So the Pantanal Basin has an active tectonics and its evolution seems to be linked to changes that occurred during the Andean subduction. PMID:24068083

  7. A study of structural lineaments in Pantanal (Brazil) using remote sensing data.

    PubMed

    Paranhos Filho, Antonio C; Nummer, Alexis R; Albrez, Edilce A; Ribeiro, Alisson A; Machado, Rômulo

    2013-09-01

    This paper presents a study of the structural lineaments of the Pantanal extracted visually from satellite images (CBERS-2B satellite, Wide Field Imager sensor, a free image available in INTERNET) and a comparison with the structural lineaments of Precambrian and Paleozoic rocks surrounding the Cenozoic Pantanal Basin. Using a free software for satellite image analysis, the photointerpretation showed that the NS, NE and NW directions observed on the Pantanal satellite images are the same recorded in the older rocks surrounding the basin, suggesting reactivation of these basement structural directions during the Quaternary. So the Pantanal Basin has an active tectonics and its evolution seems to be linked to changes that occurred during the Andean subduction.

  8. Land use effects on green water fluxes from agricultural production in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Johnson, M. S.; Donner, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    The blue water/green water paradigm is increasingly used to differentiate between subsequent routing of precipitation once it reaches the soil. “Blue” water is that which infiltrates deep in the soil to become streams and aquifers, while “green” water is that which remains in the soil and is either evaporated (non-productive green water) or transpired by plants (productive green water). This differentiation in the fate of precipitation has provided a new way of thinking about water resources, especially in agriculture for which better use of productive green water may help to relieve stresses from irrigation (blue water). The state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, presents a unique case for the study of green water fluxes due to an expanding agricultural land base planted primarily to soybean, maize, sugar cane, and cotton. These products are highly dependent on green water resources in Mato Grosso where crops are almost entirely rain-fed. We estimate the change in green water fluxes from agricultural expansion for the 2000-2008 period in the state of Mato Grosso based on agricultural production data from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatísticas and a modified Penman-Monteith equation. Initial results for seven municipalities suggest an increase in agricultural green water fluxes, ranging from 1-10% per year, due primarily to increases in cropped areas. Further research is underway to elucidate the role of green water flux variations from land use practices on the regional water cycle.

  9. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa) of Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed Central

    Lessa, SS; Paes, RCS; Santoro, PN; Mauro, RA; Vieira-da-Motta, O

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36) and enterococci (186) strains. Among Gram-negative (GN) bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247) mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105), Escherichia coli (50), and Enterobacter spp. (40) and specimens not identified (7). Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%). Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%), ampicillin (94%) and tetracycline (90%), and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%), clindamycin (83%), and cotrimoxazole (54%). In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%), AMC (66%) and AMP (60%) and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%), AMP, TOB (98%), GEN, CLO (95%), CFO, CIP (93%). The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated. PMID:24031689

  10. Lacustrine records of Holocene flood pulse dynamics in the Upper Paraguay River watershed (Pantanal wetlands, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGlue, Michael M.; Silva, Aguinaldo; Zani, Hiran; Corradini, Fabrício A.; Parolin, Mauro; Abel, Erin J.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Assine, Mario L.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Trees, Mark A.; Kuerten, Sidney; Gradella, Frederico dos Santos; Rasbold, Giliane Gessica

    2012-09-01

    The Pantanal is the world's largest tropical wetland and a biodiversity hotspot, yet its response to Quaternary environmental change is unclear. To address this problem, sediment cores from shallow lakes connected to the Upper Paraguay River (PR) were analyzed and radiocarbon dated to track changes in sedimentary environments. Stratal relations, detrital particle size, multiple biogeochemical indicators, and sponge spicules suggest fluctuating lake-level lowstand conditions between ~ 11,000 and 5300 cal yr BP, punctuated by sporadic and in some cases erosive flood flows. A hiatus has been recorded from ~ 5300 to 2600 cal yr BP, spurred by confinement of the PR within its channel during an episode of profound regional drought. Sustained PR flooding caused a transgression after ~ 2600 cal yr BP, with lake-level highstand conditions appearing during the Little Ice Age. Holocene PR flood pulse dynamics are best explained by variability in effective precipitation, likely driven by insolation and tropical sea-surface temperature gradients. Our results provide novel support for hypotheses on: (1) stratigraphic discontinuity of floodplain sedimentary archives; (2) late Holocene methane flux from Southern Hemisphere wetlands; and (3) pre-colonial indigenous ceramics traditions in western Brazil.

  11. Lacustrine records of Holocene flood pulse dynamics in the Upper Paraguay River watershed (Pantanal wetlands, Brazil)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGlue, Michael M.; Silva, Aquinaldo; Zani, Hiran; Corradini, Fabricio A.; Parolin, Mauro; Abel, Erin J.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Assine, Mario L.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Trees, Mark A.; Kuerten, Sidney; Gradella, Frederico dos Santos; Rasbold, Giliane Gessica

    2012-01-01

    The Pantanal is the world's largest tropical wetland and a biodiversity hotspot, yet its response to Quaternary environmental change is unclear. To address this problem, sediment cores from shallow lakes connected to the UpperParaguayRiver (PR) were analyzed and radiocarbon dated to track changes in sedimentary environments. Stratal relations, detrital particle size, multiple biogeochemical indicators, and sponge spicules suggest fluctuating lake-level lowstand conditions between ~ 11,000 and 5300 cal yr BP, punctuated by sporadic and in some cases erosive flood flows. A hiatus has been recorded from ~ 5300 to 2600 cal yr BP, spurred by confinement of the PR within its channel during an episode of profound regional drought. Sustained PR flooding caused a transgression after ~ 2600 cal yr BP, with lake-level highstand conditions appearing during the Little Ice Age. Holocene PR floodpulsedynamics are best explained by variability in effective precipitation, likely driven by insolation and tropical sea-surface temperature gradients. Our results provide novel support for hypotheses on: (1) stratigraphic discontinuity of floodplain sedimentary archives; (2) late Holocene methane flux from Southern Hemisphere wetlands; and (3) pre-colonial indigenous ceramics traditions in western Brazil.

  12. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST INFLUENZA VIRUS IN NON-VACCINATED EQUINES FROM THE BRAZILIAN PANTANAL

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Lucas Gaíva E; Borges, Alice Mamede Costa Marques; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custodio Souza Hunold; Cunha, Elenice Maria Siquetin; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; Braga, Ísis Assis; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of antibodies against Equine Influenza Virus (EIV) was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal area of Brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype H3N8 as antigen. The distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. The prevalence of antibodies against EIV was estimated at 45.2% (95% CI 30.2 - 61.1%) with titers ranging from 20 to 1,280 HAU. Seropositive equines were found on 92.0% of the surveyed ranches. Equine from non-flooded ranches (66.5%) and negativity in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) (61.7%) were associated with antibodies against EIV. No spatial correlation was found among the ranches, but the ones located in non-flooded areas were associated with antibodies against EIV. A negative correlation was found between the prevalence of antibodies against EIV and the presence of EIAV positive animals on the ranches. The high prevalence of antibodies against EIV detected in this study suggests that the virus is circulating among the animals, and this statistical analysis indicates that the movement and aggregation of animals are factors associated to the transmission of the virus in the region. PMID:25351542

  13. Abundance and frugivory of the Toco toucan (Ramphastos toco) in a gallery forest in Brazil's southern Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Ragusa-Netto, J

    2006-02-01

    Unlike other toucan species, the Toco toucan (Ramphastos toco)--the largest Ramphastidae--usually inhabits dry semi-open areas. This conspicuous canopy frugivore uses a large home range that includes a variety of vegetation types, among which gallery forests are widely cited as important to this species. However, the factors relating to the occurrence of Toco toucans in such habitats are unclear. I studied the abundance of Toco toucans as well as the availability of fleshy fruit in a gallery forest in the southern Pantanal (sub-region of Miranda, Brazil), in order to assess the relationship between these parameters. Also, I examined toucan foraging activity to analyze its relationship with both toucan abundance and fruit availability. The presence of the Toco toucan was more common in the gallery forest from the middle to the end of the dry season and during the middle of the wet season. Toucans foraged for fleshy fruits, mainly Genipa americana, Ficus luschnatiana, and Cecropia pachystachya fruits, feeding mostly on G. americana (by far the favorite food resource) and F. luschnatiana fruits during the dry season, while C. pachystachya fruits were important in the wet season. Toco toucans foraged particularly heavily (> 80% of foraging activity) on G. americana fruits during the latter part of the dry season, when fleshy fruit availability declined sharply. Toco toucan abundance in the gallery forest was associated with the availability of the most commonly consumed fleshy fruits, and also with its foraging activity. This finding suggests that the Toco toucan moved to the gallery forest periodically in response to the availability of abundant food resources, especially the G. americana fruits widely available and exploited during the severely dry season. Therefore, these fruits potentially contribute to Toco toucan persistence in the South Pantanal during the harshest period of the year.

  14. Floral variation and environmental heterogeneity in a tristylous clonal aquatic of the Pantanal wetlands of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leme da Cunha, Nicolay; Fischer, Erich; Lorenz-Lemke, Aline P.; Barrett, Spencer C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The balance between stochastic forces and frequency-dependent mating largely governs style morph frequencies in heterostylous populations. In clonal species, deviations from equal morph ratios often result from founder events and unfavourable conditions for sexual reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether different flooding regimes, because of their influence on sexual vs. clonal reproduction, are associated with regional variation in morph frequencies and floral trait differentiation in populations of the clonal, tristylous, aquatic Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) in the Pantanal wetlands of Brazil. Methods Style morph frequencies were sampled from 73 populations distributed across four flooding regimes differing in depth and duration. Measurements of flower size, sex-organ dimension, pollen size and pollen production were made in selected populations, and pollinator assemblages and their functional traits were recorded. Key Results Most populations of E. azurea were tristylous (78 %), but the majority exhibited uneven morph ratios. The frequency of the mid-styled morph was significantly lower than that of the long- and short-styled morphs. Morph evenness was positively associated with population size but not with flooding regime. There were significant phenotypic differences among flooding regimes for all floral traits, including populations with reduced flower size, sex-organ length and smaller pollen. Pollinator assemblages varied with flood duration. Conclusions The similar morph structure and evenness of populations, regardless of flooding regime, suggest that sexual reproduction and clonal dispersal are sufficiently common to prevent the signature of founder events from dominating in a region. However, the pervasive occurrence of biased morph ratios in most populations suggests that many are in a non-equilibrium state. The reduced frequency of the mid-styled morph in trimorphic and dimorphic populations may be

  15. Genetic diversity and evidence of recent demographic expansion in waterbird populations from the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, I F; Miño, C I; Del Lama, S N

    2007-12-01

    The present study determined nuclear and mitochondrial (mtDNA) levels of genetic variability and phylogeographic patterns in breeding populations of Roseate Spoonbill (N=57), Wood Stork (N=89), and Jabiru Stork (N=30), sampled in the Brazilian Pantanal. These species were selected since they are bioindicators of wetlands health and are threatened in other parts of their distribution. As they are in close association with this ecosystem, they are appropriate for studying the effects of Pleistocene climatic changes on their demographic patterns. Levels of nuclear genetic diversity in Pantanal populations were not significantly different from those of other populations throughout the American continent, where they are considered threatened or of special concern. Reduced levels of mtDNA genetic diversity were observed in the Central American population of Jabiru Stork in comparison to the Pantanal population. Recent demographic expansion in the Pantanal was markedly evidenced by unimodal patterns of mismatch distribution and Fus Fs neutrality test in these three species. We hypothesize that the average time of population expansion (between 30,843 and 14,233 years before present) is associated to responses of these birds populations to paleoclimatic changes in these wetlands during the last glaciation period. We recommend special conservation efforts with the Jabiru Stork populations, a genetic monitoring program based on mtDNA, and an ecological characterization of these waterbirds species throughout their distribution range. PMID:18278351

  16. Genetic diversity and evidence of recent demographic expansion in waterbird populations from the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, I F; Miño, C I; Del Lama, S N

    2007-12-01

    The present study determined nuclear and mitochondrial (mtDNA) levels of genetic variability and phylogeographic patterns in breeding populations of Roseate Spoonbill (N=57), Wood Stork (N=89), and Jabiru Stork (N=30), sampled in the Brazilian Pantanal. These species were selected since they are bioindicators of wetlands health and are threatened in other parts of their distribution. As they are in close association with this ecosystem, they are appropriate for studying the effects of Pleistocene climatic changes on their demographic patterns. Levels of nuclear genetic diversity in Pantanal populations were not significantly different from those of other populations throughout the American continent, where they are considered threatened or of special concern. Reduced levels of mtDNA genetic diversity were observed in the Central American population of Jabiru Stork in comparison to the Pantanal population. Recent demographic expansion in the Pantanal was markedly evidenced by unimodal patterns of mismatch distribution and Fus Fs neutrality test in these three species. We hypothesize that the average time of population expansion (between 30,843 and 14,233 years before present) is associated to responses of these birds populations to paleoclimatic changes in these wetlands during the last glaciation period. We recommend special conservation efforts with the Jabiru Stork populations, a genetic monitoring program based on mtDNA, and an ecological characterization of these waterbirds species throughout their distribution range.

  17. Floristic analysis and dispersal syndromes of woody species of the Serra de Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, W M; Sartori, A L B

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a floristic survey of the wood component of cerrado s.s. (eastern face) and gallery forest (western face) areas carried out in the southern part of the Serra de Maracaju. The dispersal syndromes and floristic relations of this portion of the Serra were compared to those of other formations from different regions of Brazil. Between October 2007 and September 2008, monthly collections identified 144 species. As for dispersal syndromes, zoochory prevails, followed by autochory and anemochory. The gallery forest is a heterogeneous formation that shelters floristic elements shared with the Atlantic rain forest, the Amazonian forest, semi-deciduous seasonal forests and dry forests of the Pantanal. Low similarity between the two areas analyzed makes this region unique and suggests that the Serra de Maracaju is greatly influenced by the semi-deciduous seasonal forests of the southeastern region.

  18. Clinical and epidemiological features of 123 cases of cryptococcosis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lindenberg, Andrea de Siqueira Campos; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues; Paniago, Anamaria Melo Miranda; Lazéra, Márcia dos Santos; Moncada, Paula Maria Frank; Bonfim, Gisele Facholi; Nogueira, Susie Andries; Wanke, Bodo

    2008-01-01

    To identify the clinical and epidemiological profile of cryptococcosis diagnosed at the University Hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, medical records of 123 patients admitted from January 1995 to December 2005 were analyzed. One hundred and four cases (84.5%) had HIV infection, six (4.9%) had other predisposing conditions and 13 (10.6%) were immunocompetent. Male patients predominated (68.3%) and their age ranged from 19 to 69 years (mean: 35.9). Most patients (73.2%) were born and lived lifelong in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. Involvement of the central nervous system occurred in 103 patients (83.7%) and headache and vomiting were the most frequent symptoms. In 77 cases it was possible to identify the Cryptococcus species: 69 (89.6%) C. neoformans and eight (10.4%) C. gattii. Amphotericin B was the drug of choice for treatment (106/123), followed by fluconazole in 60% of cases. The overall lethality rate was 49.6%, being 51% among the HIV infected patients and 41.2% among the non-HIV infected (p > 0.05). Although cryptococcosis exhibited in our region a similar behavior to that described in the literature, the detection of an important rate of immunocompetent individuals and five C. gattii cryptococcosis in HIV-infected patients is noteworthy.

  19. Genotyping of Toxoplasma gondii isolates from free range chickens in the Pantanal area of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares, Rodrigo Martins; Silveira, Luciane Holsback; da Silva, Aristeu Vieira; Ragozo, Alessandra; Galli, Susiana; Lopes, Estela Gallucci; Gennari, Solange M; de Jesus Pena, Hilda Fátima

    2011-05-31

    The aim of this paper was to genetically characterize Toxoplasma gondii isolates from free range chickens in regions of Brazilian territory in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) where T. gondii strains have never been studied. In total, T. gondii isolates from 22 free range chickens were included in this study. Fifty chickens from Eldorado, thirty from Rio Verde and ten from Aquidauana were sampled between January and April 2007. In relation to the genetic diversity of T. gondii isolates from chickens in MS, the magnitude of the diversity in the isolates sampled in this study was comparable to the overall diversity in a composite data set. These 22 isolates in MS revealed 11 genotypes, whereas the 321 isolates ever genotyped in Brazil have revealed 95 genotypes. The values of Simpson's Diversity Index for the whole population of T. gondii isolates in Brazil, the whole population of T. gondii isolates from chickens in Brazil and the population surveyed in this study were 0.97, 0.95 and 0.90, respectively. Seven of the 11 genotypes revealed from chicken isolates from MS are newly described genotypes and six of them each have a single isolate. In conclusion, the results obtained from isolates in MS corroborate previous studies on T. gondii isolates in Brazil, thus confirming their diversity and atypicality. Nonetheless, the applicability of PCR-RFLP markers for epidemiological inferences remains controversial.

  20. Socioeconomic development and agricultural intensification in Mato Grosso

    PubMed Central

    VanWey, Leah K.; Spera, Stephanie; de Sa, Rebecca; Mahr, Dan; Mustard, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian agro-industrial frontier in Mato Grosso rapidly expanded in total area of mechanized production and in total value of production in the last decade. This article shows the spatial pattern of that expansion from 2000 to 2010, based on novel analyses of satellite imagery. It then explores quantitatively and qualitatively the antecedents and correlates of intensification, the expansion of the area under two crops per year. Double cropping is most likely in areas with access to transportation networks, previous profitable agricultural production, and strong existing ties to national and international commodity markets. The article concludes with an exploration of the relationship between double cropping and socioeconomic development, showing that double cropping is strongly correlated with incomes of all residents of a community and with investments in education. We conclude that double cropping in Mato Grosso is very closely tied to multiple indicators of socioeconomic development. PMID:23610174

  1. Use of LANDSAT images to study cerrado vegetation. [Mato Grosso Sul, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.

    1982-01-01

    Channel 5 and 7 LANDSAT imagery at the scale of 1:250,000 made during passes in the dry and rainy seasons were used to select the optimal season for cerrado characterization in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The study area is located around the cities of Campo Grande and Tres Lagoas, a region being used for reforestation and rangeland activities. Imagery acquired during the dry season permitted a good discrimination between "cerrado" (woodsy pasture) vegetation and reforestation. In relation to the altered areas, only the recently modified area presented good discrimination of cerrado vegetation. Imagery of the rainy season did not provide a reasonable separation between cerrado and reforestation areas but the altered area could be easily discriminated.

  2. Detection of Mayaro virus infections during a dengue outbreak in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Carla Julia da Silva Pessoa; Silva, David José Ferreira da; Barreto, Eriana Serpa; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo Hassegawa; Colombo, Tatiana Elias; Ozanic, Katia; Schmidt, Diane Johnson; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; Mondini, Adriano; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda; Bronzoni, Roberta Vieira de Morais

    2015-07-01

    Arboviruses are common agents of human febrile illness worldwide. In dengue-endemic areas illness due to other arboviruses have been misdiagnosed as dengue based only on clinical-epidemiological data. In this study we investigated the presence of Brazilian arboviruses in sera of 200 patients presenting acute febrile illness, during a dengue outbreak in Sinop, MT, Brazil. The results showed that 38 samples were positive to Dengue virus (DENV) type 1, two samples to DENV type 4, and six to Mayaro virus. These results indicate that arboviruses others than DENV are circulating in Sinop and the surrounding region, which are going undiagnosed. In addition, molecular and evolutionary analyses indicate that two MAYV genotypes are co-circulating in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Thus, a strong surveillance program must be implemented to evaluate and monitor the distribution and the true importance of non-dengue arboviruses in the etiology of acute febrile illnesses.

  3. An Original Processing Method of Satellite Altimetry for Estimating Water Levels and Volume Fluctuations in a Series of Small Lakes of the Pantanal Wetland Complex in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrique Costa, Paulo; Oliveira Pereira, Eric; Maillard, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Satellite altimetry is becoming a major tool for measuring water levels in rivers and lakes offering accuracies compatible with many hydrological applications, especially in uninhabited regions of difficult access. The Pantanal is considered the largest tropical wetland in the world and the sparsity of in situ gauging station make remote methods of water level measurements an attractive alternative. This article describes how satellites altimetry data from Envisat and Saral was used to determine water level in two small lakes in the Pantanal. By combining the water level with the water surface area extracted from satellite imagery, water volume fluctuations were also estimated for a few periods. The available algorithms (retrackers) that compute a range solution from the raw waveforms do not always produce reliable measurements in small lakes. This is because the return signal gets often "contaminated" by the surrounding land. To try to solve this, we created a "lake" retracker that rejects waveforms that cannot be attributed to "calm water" and convert them to altitude. Elevation data are stored in a database along with the water surface area to compute the volume fluctuations. Satellite water level time series were also produced and compared with the only nearby in situ gauging station. Although the "lake" retracker worked well with calm water, the presence of waves and other factors was such that the standard "ice1" retracker performed better on the overall. We estimate our water level accuracy to be around 75 cm. Although the return time of both satellites is only 35 days, the next few years promise to bring new altimetry satellite missions that will significantly increase this frequency.

  4. Historic emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in Mato Grosso, Brazil: 1) source data uncertainties

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Historic carbon emissions are an important foundation for proposed efforts to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhance forest carbon stocks through conservation and sustainable forest management (REDD+). The level of uncertainty in historic carbon emissions estimates is also critical for REDD+, since high uncertainties could limit climate benefits from credited mitigation actions. Here, we analyzed source data uncertainties based on the range of available deforestation, forest degradation, and forest carbon stock estimates for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso during 1990-2008. Results Deforestation estimates showed good agreement for multi-year periods of increasing and decreasing deforestation during the study period. However, annual deforestation rates differed by > 20% in more than half of the years between 1997-2008, even for products based on similar input data. Tier 2 estimates of average forest carbon stocks varied between 99-192 Mg C ha-1, with greatest differences in northwest Mato Grosso. Carbon stocks in deforested areas increased over the study period, yet this increasing trend in deforested biomass was smaller than the difference among carbon stock datasets for these areas. Conclusions Estimates of source data uncertainties are essential for REDD+. Patterns of spatial and temporal disagreement among available data products provide a roadmap for future efforts to reduce source data uncertainties for estimates of historic forest carbon emissions. Specifically, regions with large discrepancies in available estimates of both deforestation and forest carbon stocks are priority areas for evaluating and improving existing estimates. Full carbon accounting for REDD+ will also require filling data gaps, including forest degradation and secondary forest, with annual data on all forest transitions. PMID:22208947

  5. Historic Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Mato Grosso, Brazil: 1. Source Data Uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Sales, Marcio H.; Souza, Carlos M., Jr.; Griscom, Bronson

    2011-01-01

    Historic carbon emissions are an important foundation for proposed efforts to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhance forest carbon stocks through conservation and sustainable forest management (REDD+). The level of uncertainty in historic carbon emissions estimates is also critical for REDD+, since high uncertainties could limit climate benefits from mitigation actions. Here, we analyzed source data uncertainties based on the range of available deforestation, forest degradation, and forest carbon stock estimates for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso during 1990-2008. Results: Deforestation estimates showed good agreement for multi-year trends of increasing and decreasing deforestation during the study period. However, annual deforestation rates differed by >20% in more than half of the years between 1997-2008, even for products based on similar input data. Tier 2 estimates of average forest carbon stocks varied between 99-192 Mg C/ha, with greatest differences in northwest Mato Grosso. Carbon stocks in deforested areas increased over the study period, yet this increasing trend in deforested biomass was smaller than the difference among carbon stock datasets for these areas. Conclusions: Patterns of spatial and temporal disagreement among available data products provide a roadmap for future efforts to reduce source data uncertainties for estimates of historic forest carbon emissions. Specifically, regions with large discrepancies in available estimates of both deforestation and forest carbon stocks are priority areas for evaluating and improving existing estimates. Full carbon accounting for REDD+ will also require filling data gaps, including forest degradation and secondary forest, with annual data on all forest transitions.

  6. Verification and completion of a soil data base for process based erosion model applications in Mato Grosso/Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schindewolf, Marcus; Schultze, Nico; Schönke, Daniela; Amorim, Ricardo S. S.; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2014-05-01

    The study area of central Mato Grosso is subjected to severe soil erosion. Continuous erosion leads to massive losses of top soil and related organic carbon. Consequently agricultural soil soils suffer a drop in soil fertility which only can be balanced by mineral fertilization. In order to control soil degradation and organic carbon losses of Mato Grosso cropland soils a process based soil loss and deposition model is used. Applying the model it will be possible to: - identify the main areas affected by soil erosion or deposition in different scales under present and future climate and socio-economic conditions - estimate the related nutrient and organic carbon losses/yields - figure out site-related causes of soil mobilization/deposition - locate sediment and sediment related nutrient and organic matter pass over points into surface water bodies - estimate the impacts of climate and land use changes on the losses of top soil, sediment bound nutrients and organic carbon. Model input parameters include digital elevation data, precipitation characteristics and standard soil properties as particle size distribution, total organic carbon (TOC) and bulk density. The effects of different types of land use and agricultural management practices are accounted for by varying site-specific parameters predominantly related to soil surface properties such as erosional resistance, hydraulic roughness and percentage ground cover. In this context the existing EROSION 3D soil parameter data base deducted from large scale rainfall simulations in Germany is verified for application in the study area, using small scale disc type rainfall simulator with an additional runoff reflux approach. Thus it's possible to enlarge virtual plot length up to at least 10 m. Experimental plots are located in Cuiabá region of central Mato Grosso in order to cover the most relevant land use variants and tillage practices in the region. Results show that derived model parameters are highly influenced

  7. Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) in a residential area and in a fragment of savanna vegetation in the municipality of Pontal do Araguaia, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Adriane Fagundes da Silva; Varjão, Jane Ramos; Silva, Gerônimo Berto da; Arrais-Silva, Wagner Welber

    2011-01-01

    Identification of phlebotomine species in endemic areas is fundamental for analyzing the eco-epidemiological determinants of leishmaniasis. This study had the aim of investigating the phlebotomine fauna in an urban area and in a fragment of native savanna in the municipality of Pontal do Araguaia, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, using CDC light traps. One hundred and twenty-three phlebotomine specimens belonging to seventeen different species were caught. Our results indicate synanthropic potential among vector species for leishmaniasis, such as the species Lutzomyia cruzi, L. sallesi and L. whitmani. The species L. cerradincola had never been recorded in this region, such that this is the first report of this species in the State of Mato Grosso.

  8. Camera-trap study of ocelot and other secretive mammals in the northern Pantanal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trolle, M.; Kery, M.

    2005-01-01

    Reliable information on abundance of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is scarce. We conducted the first camera-trap study in the northern part of the Pantanal wetlands of Brazil, one of the wildlife hotspots of South America. Using capture-recapture analysis, we estimated a density of 0.112 independent individuals per km2 (SE 0.069). We list other mammals recorded with camera traps and show that camera-trap placement on roads or on trails has striking effects on camera-trapping rates.

  9. Soil CO₂ dynamics in a tree island soil of the Pantanal: the role of soil water potential.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark S; Couto, Eduardo Guimarães; Pinto, Osvaldo B; Milesi, Juliana; Santos Amorim, Ricardo S; Messias, Indira A M; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi

    2013-01-01

    The Pantanal is a biodiversity hotspot comprised of a mosaic of landforms that differ in vegetative assemblages and flooding dynamics. Tree islands provide refuge for terrestrial fauna during the flooding period and are particularly important to the regional ecosystem structure. Little soil CO₂ research has been conducted in this region. We evaluated soil CO₂ dynamics in relation to primary controlling environmental parameters (soil temperature and soil water). Soil respiration was computed using the gradient method using in situ infrared gas analyzers to directly measure CO₂ concentration within the soil profile. Due to the cost of the sensors and associated equipment, this study was unreplicated. Rather, we focus on the temporal relationships between soil CO₂ efflux and related environmental parameters. Soil CO₂ efflux during the study averaged 3.53 µmol CO₂ m⁻² s⁻¹, and was equivalent to an annual soil respiration of 1220 g C m⁻² y⁻¹. This efflux value, integrated over a year, is comparable to soil C stocks for 0-20 cm. Soil water potential was the measured parameter most strongly associated with soil CO₂ concentrations, with high CO₂ values observed only once soil water potential at the 10 cm depth approached zero. This relationship was exhibited across a spectrum of timescales and was found to be significant at a daily timescale across all seasons using conditional nonparametric spectral Granger causality analysis. Hydrology plays a significant role in controlling CO₂ efflux from the tree island soil, with soil CO₂ dynamics differing by wetting mechanism. During the wet-up period, direct precipitation infiltrates soil from above and results in pulses of CO₂ efflux from soil. The annual flood arrives later, and saturates soil from below. While CO₂ concentrations in soil grew very high under both wetting mechanisms, the change in soil CO₂ efflux was only significant when soils were wet from above. PMID:23762259

  10. Soil CO₂ dynamics in a tree island soil of the Pantanal: the role of soil water potential.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark S; Couto, Eduardo Guimarães; Pinto, Osvaldo B; Milesi, Juliana; Santos Amorim, Ricardo S; Messias, Indira A M; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi

    2013-01-01

    The Pantanal is a biodiversity hotspot comprised of a mosaic of landforms that differ in vegetative assemblages and flooding dynamics. Tree islands provide refuge for terrestrial fauna during the flooding period and are particularly important to the regional ecosystem structure. Little soil CO₂ research has been conducted in this region. We evaluated soil CO₂ dynamics in relation to primary controlling environmental parameters (soil temperature and soil water). Soil respiration was computed using the gradient method using in situ infrared gas analyzers to directly measure CO₂ concentration within the soil profile. Due to the cost of the sensors and associated equipment, this study was unreplicated. Rather, we focus on the temporal relationships between soil CO₂ efflux and related environmental parameters. Soil CO₂ efflux during the study averaged 3.53 µmol CO₂ m⁻² s⁻¹, and was equivalent to an annual soil respiration of 1220 g C m⁻² y⁻¹. This efflux value, integrated over a year, is comparable to soil C stocks for 0-20 cm. Soil water potential was the measured parameter most strongly associated with soil CO₂ concentrations, with high CO₂ values observed only once soil water potential at the 10 cm depth approached zero. This relationship was exhibited across a spectrum of timescales and was found to be significant at a daily timescale across all seasons using conditional nonparametric spectral Granger causality analysis. Hydrology plays a significant role in controlling CO₂ efflux from the tree island soil, with soil CO₂ dynamics differing by wetting mechanism. During the wet-up period, direct precipitation infiltrates soil from above and results in pulses of CO₂ efflux from soil. The annual flood arrives later, and saturates soil from below. While CO₂ concentrations in soil grew very high under both wetting mechanisms, the change in soil CO₂ efflux was only significant when soils were wet from above.

  11. Soil CO2 Dynamics in a Tree Island Soil of the Pantanal: The Role of Soil Water Potential

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark S.; Couto, Eduardo Guimarães; Pinto Jr, Osvaldo B.; Milesi, Juliana; Santos Amorim, Ricardo S.; Messias, Indira A. M.; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi

    2013-01-01

    The Pantanal is a biodiversity hotspot comprised of a mosaic of landforms that differ in vegetative assemblages and flooding dynamics. Tree islands provide refuge for terrestrial fauna during the flooding period and are particularly important to the regional ecosystem structure. Little soil CO2 research has been conducted in this region. We evaluated soil CO2 dynamics in relation to primary controlling environmental parameters (soil temperature and soil water). Soil respiration was computed using the gradient method using in situ infrared gas analyzers to directly measure CO2 concentration within the soil profile. Due to the cost of the sensors and associated equipment, this study was unreplicated. Rather, we focus on the temporal relationships between soil CO2 efflux and related environmental parameters. Soil CO2 efflux during the study averaged 3.53 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1, and was equivalent to an annual soil respiration of 1220 g C m−2 y−1. This efflux value, integrated over a year, is comparable to soil C stocks for 0–20 cm. Soil water potential was the measured parameter most strongly associated with soil CO2 concentrations, with high CO2 values observed only once soil water potential at the 10 cm depth approached zero. This relationship was exhibited across a spectrum of timescales and was found to be significant at a daily timescale across all seasons using conditional nonparametric spectral Granger causality analysis. Hydrology plays a significant role in controlling CO2 efflux from the tree island soil, with soil CO2 dynamics differing by wetting mechanism. During the wet-up period, direct precipitation infiltrates soil from above and results in pulses of CO2 efflux from soil. The annual flood arrives later, and saturates soil from below. While CO2 concentrations in soil grew very high under both wetting mechanisms, the change in soil CO2 efflux was only significant when soils were wet from above. PMID:23762259

  12. Soybean development: the impact of a decade of agricultural change on urban and economic growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state's economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso's economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings. PMID:25919305

  13. Soybean development: the impact of a decade of agricultural change on urban and economic growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state's economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso's economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings.

  14. Environmental footprints show China and Europe’s evolving resource appropriation for soybean production in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuillière, Michael J.; Johnson, Mark S.; Galford, Gillian L.; Couto, Eduardo G.

    2014-07-01

    Mato Grosso has become the center of Brazil’s soybean industry, with production located across an agricultural frontier expanding into savanna and rainforest biomes. We present environmental footprints of soybean production in Mato Grosso and resource flows accompanying exports to China and Europe for the 2000s using five indicators: deforestation, land footprint (LF), carbon footprint (CF), water footprint (WF), and nutrient footprints. Soybean production was associated with 65% of the state’s deforestation, and 14-17% of total Brazilian land use change carbon emissions. The decade showed two distinct production systems illustrated by resources used in the first and second half of the decade. Deforestation and carbon footprint declined 70% while land, water, and nutrient footprints increased almost 30% between the two periods. These differences coincided with a shift in Mato Grosso’s export destination. Between 2006 and 2010, China surpassed Europe in soybean imports when production was associated with 97 m2 deforestation yr-1 ton-1 of soybean, a LF of 0.34 ha yr-1 ton-1, a carbon footprint of 4.6 ton CO2-eq yr-1 ton-1, a WF of 1908 m3 yr-1 ton-1, and virtual phosphorous and potassium of 5.0 kg P yr-1 ton-1 and 0.0042 g K yr-1 ton-1. Mato Grosso constructs soil fertility via phosphorous and potassium fertilizer sourced from third party countries and imported into the region. Through the soybean produced, Mato Grosso then exports both water derived from its abundant, seasonal precipitation and nutrients obtained from fertilizer. In 2010, virtual water flows were 10.3 km3 yr-1 to China and 4.1 km3 yr-1 to Europe. The total embedded nutrient flows to China were 2.12 Mtons yr-1 and 2.85 Mtons yr-1 to Europe. As soybean production grows with global demand, the role of Mato Grosso’s resource use and production vulnerabilities highlight the challenges with meeting future international food security needs.

  15. The floristic heterogeneity of the Pantanal and the occurrence of species with different adaptive strategies to water stress.

    PubMed

    Scremin-Dias, E; Lorenz-Lemke, A P; Oliveira, A K M

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal is characterised by a diversity of environments with areas ranging from periodic or permanent heavy flooding to areas with low flood levels, and even environments that never flood. Plant species which inhabit the floodplain are distributed in specific niches, with influence of various phytogeographic domains, including the Seasonal Semi-deciduous Forest, Amazon Rainforest, Cerrado and Chaco, as well rocky remnants, with a wide ecological span in their components. In intensely flooded areas, aquatic macrophytes are widely distributed, with their dynamics closely linked to time, depth and extent of flooding. Although the term "Pantanal" suggests a huge swamp-type wetland, water level variation during a seasonal cycle does not directly reach the root system of many plants. The landscape diversity of the Pantanal wetland is molded by the flood pulse, which interferes with the dynamics of plant communities. Therefore, the retraction and expansion of populations or communities is reflected in important ecological characteristics, considering the variety of morphological, anatomical and ecophysiological features of the species, whose phenotype is the result of a particular genotype. The present study discusses peculiar issues in the adaptation of species distributed in the Pantanal biome and underscores the importance of multidisciplinary approaches to obtain conclusive data on adaptive studies.

  16. Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) and ticks within the Brazilian Pantanal: ecological relationships.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Franco, Ana Helena A; Rodrigues, Vinicius S; Nava, Santiago; Szabó, Matias P J

    2016-02-01

    Pantanal is a huge floodplain mostly in Brazil, and its main economic activity is extensive cattle raising, in farms characterized by an extremely wildlife-rich environment. We herein describe tick infestations of cattle and of the natural environment in Pantanal of Nhecolândia in Brazil, at areas with and without cattle during both dry and wet seasons. Environmental sampling resulted in three tick species: Amblyomma sculptum (423 nymphs and 518 adults), Amblyomma parvum (7 nymphs and 129 adults), Amblyomma ovale (3 adults) as well as three clusters and two individuals of Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significantly higher number of adult A. sculptum ticks was found in areas with cattle in the wet season. From 106 examinations of bovines 1710 ticks from three species were collected: Rhipicephalus microplus (55.7% of the total), A. sculptum (38%) and A. parvum (4.1%), as well as 32 Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significant similarity was found between Amblyomma tick fauna from environment and on cattle during both seasons. All A. sculptum females on bovines were flat whereas many of A. parvum females and A. sculptum nymphs were engorging. Although R. microplus was the most abundant tick species on cattle, overall highest tick prevalence on bovines in the dry season was of A. sculptum nymphs. Lack of R. microplus in environmental sampling, relationship between cattle and increase in adult A. sculptum numbers in the environment as well as suitability of bovine for the various tick species are discussed.

  17. Morphometric Analysis of Longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) Complex Populations in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos, Mirella F C; Andrade Filho, José D; Fernandes, Carlos E S; Mateus, Nathália L F; Eguchi, Gabriel U; Fernandes, Wedson D; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Oliveira, Everton F; Oliveira, Alessandra G

    2015-05-01

    Owing to the existence of cryptic species that are difficult to distinguish morphologically, the search for new taxonomic characters and methods for identifying and classifying sand flies continues. Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz & Neiva, 1912) and Lutzomyia cruzi (Mangabeira, 1938) (Diptera: Psychodidae) are two such species that occur in sympatry in some regions of Mato Grosso do Sul State (MS). Twenty females and twenty males from each of the five populations of Lu. longipalpis and one population of Lu. cruzi from MS were examined. An outlying population of Lu. longipalpis from Estrela de Alagoas, State of Alagoas, was used to compare the degree of divergence among the groups in MS. Specimens were cleared, mounted on slides, identified, and measured using LAS-Leica. The principal component analysis of morphometric characters showed a high degree of variation among females, while males varied to a lower degree. The populations of Alagoas and Miranda demonstrated the greatest variation. The first region, Alagoas, is geographically distant from the others and occurs under distinctly different ecological conditions, which likely accounts for the variation. Further studies should be made to elucidate the factors that contribute to the differences found between the populations of MS.

  18. Evidence for herbaceous seed dispersal by small-bodied fishes in a Pantanal seasonal wetland.

    PubMed

    Silveira, R M L; Weiss, B

    2014-08-01

    We analysed the germination of seeds after their passage through the digestive tract of small floodplain fishes. Samples were collected in five open flooded fields of the northern Pantanal in March 2011. All fishes were sacrificed and their intestinal contents were removed. The fecal material was weighed and stored at 4°C in a GF/C filter wrapped in aluminum foil. The material was then transferred to a receptacle containing sterilised soil from the sampling area. The fecal samples were kept in a germination chamber for 68 days and then transferred to a greenhouse for another 67 days. We collected a total of 45 fish species and 1014 individuals which produced a total amount of 32 g of fresh fecal mass and 11 seedlings. We were able to identify six seedlings: two Banara arguta, two Steinchisma laxa, one Hymenachne amplexicaulis and one Luziola sp.. The fish species that produced samples with seedlings were Astyanax assuncionensis, Metynnis mola, Plesiolebias glaucopterus, Acestrorhyncus pantaneiro and Anadoras wendelli. With the exception of B. arguta the remaining plant species and all fish species were not known to be associated with the seed dispersal process of these plants. We found a ratio of 0.435 seedlings.g-1 of fresh fecal material, which is 100 times higher than the amount of seedlings encountered in fresh soil mass (92,974 grams) in seed bank studies conducted in the same study area. In particular, Astyanax assuncionensis and Metynnis mola were among the most frequent and most abundant fish taxa in the area. Together with the high seed concentration in the fish fecal material, this evidence allows us to conclude that such fish species may play an important role in seed dispersal in the herbaceous plants of the Pantanal.

  19. Zoonotic Bartonella species in wild rodents in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Favacho, Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça; Andrade, Marcelle Novaes; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    Several rodent-associated Bartonella species cause disease in humans but little is known about their epidemiology in Brazil. The presence of Bartonella spp. in wild rodents captured in two municipalities of the Mato Grosso do Sul state was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fragments of heart tissue from 42 wild rodents were tested using primers targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and citrate synthase gltA gene. The wild rodents were identified based on external and cranial morphology and confirmed at species level by mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome B) sequencing and karyotype. Overall, 42.9% (18/42) of the wild rodents were PCR positive for Bartonella spp.: Callomys callosus (04), Cerradomys maracajuensis (04), Hylaeamus megacephalus (01), Necromys lasiurus (06), Nectomys squamipes (01), Oecomys catherinae (01) and Oxymycterus delator (01). Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis was detected in N. lasiurus (46%) and C. callosus (21%) captured in the two study sites. We reported the first molecular detection of B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis in different species of wild rodents collected in the Brazilian territory. Further studies are needed to examine the role of these mammals in the eco-epidemiology of bartonellosis in Brazil.

  20. Prevalence and geospatial distribution of bovine cysticercosis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gabriel Augusto Marques; de Simoni, Heloisa Adélia Stefanoni; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Almeida, Henrique Meiroz de Souza; Soares, Vando Edésio; Vidal, Ana Maria Centola; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Mathias, Luis Antonio

    2016-08-01

    This study focused on estimating the prevalence and evaluating the geospatial distribution of bovine cysticercosis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. To this, we used data of 6,200,497 animals slaughtered during the years of 2013 and 2014, and from 141 municipalities of the state. The prevalence observed for this period was 0.0873% (95% CI 0.0851-0.0897). Regarding the cysticerci detected, the calcified ones were the most frequent (74.43%). The high odds ratios were observed in animals reared in the Administrative Regions of Sinop, Barra do Garças, Água Boa, Cáceres, Barra do Bugres, Cuiabá, Pontes Lacerda, Rondonópolis, Matupa, São Félix do Araguaia and Lucas do Rio Verde, respectively. Furthermore, the results indicate the existence of a relation between the areas with high cysticercosis prevalence and human population density. We highlight the need of the development of a risk model based on the origin to improve cysticercosis detection in endemic areas. PMID:27435651

  1. Morphoagronomic and molecular profiling of Capsicum spp from southwest Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, A L; Marostega, T N; Cabral, N S S; Araújo, K L; Serafim, M E; Seabra-Júnior, S; Sudré, C P; Rodrigues, R; Neves, L G

    2016-01-01

    The genus Capsicum ranks as the second most exported vegetable in Brazil, which is also considered to be a center of diversity for this genus. The aim of this study was to rescue genetic variability in the genus Capsicum in the southwest region of Mato Grosso, and to characterize and estimate the genetic diversity of accessions based on morphoagronomic descriptors and inter-simple sequence repeat molecular markers. Data were obtained following the criteria of the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, renamed Bioversity International for Capsicum. Data were analyzed using different multivariate statistical techniques. An array of binary data was used to analyze molecular data, and the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard index was used to estimate the genetic dissimilarity among accessions. Six well-defined groups were formed based on the morphological characterization. The most divergent accessions were 142 and 126, with 125 and 126 being the most similar. The groups formed following agronomic characterization differed from those formed by morphological characterization, and there was a need to subdivide the groups for better distinction of accessions. Based on molecular analysis, accessions were divided into two groups, and there was also a need to subdivide the groups. Based on joint analysis (morphological + agronomic + molecular), six groups were formed with no duplicates. For all groups, the cophenetic correlation coefficient was higher than 0.8. These results provide useful information for the better management of the work collection. All correlations between the combined distance matrix were significant by the Mantel test. PMID:27525842

  2. Prevalence and geospatial distribution of bovine cysticercosis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Gabriel Augusto Marques; de Simoni, Heloisa Adélia Stefanoni; Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Almeida, Henrique Meiroz de Souza; Soares, Vando Edésio; Vidal, Ana Maria Centola; Ferraudo, Antonio Sergio; Mathias, Luis Antonio

    2016-08-01

    This study focused on estimating the prevalence and evaluating the geospatial distribution of bovine cysticercosis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. To this, we used data of 6,200,497 animals slaughtered during the years of 2013 and 2014, and from 141 municipalities of the state. The prevalence observed for this period was 0.0873% (95% CI 0.0851-0.0897). Regarding the cysticerci detected, the calcified ones were the most frequent (74.43%). The high odds ratios were observed in animals reared in the Administrative Regions of Sinop, Barra do Garças, Água Boa, Cáceres, Barra do Bugres, Cuiabá, Pontes Lacerda, Rondonópolis, Matupa, São Félix do Araguaia and Lucas do Rio Verde, respectively. Furthermore, the results indicate the existence of a relation between the areas with high cysticercosis prevalence and human population density. We highlight the need of the development of a risk model based on the origin to improve cysticercosis detection in endemic areas.

  3. Flood regime and water table determines tree distribution in a forest-savanna gradient in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Júnior, Walnir G; Schaefer, Carlos E G R; Cunha, Cátia N; Duarte, Temilze G; Chieregatto, Luiz C; Carmo, Flávia M S

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to recognized the preferential location of species of the tree sinusiae in response to a moisture gradient in Pantanal Matogrossense, Brazil. We established sampling plots of arboreal sinusiae along a soil moisture and flood gradient. Piezometers were installed, allowing monthly measurements of water table depth and flood height during one year. Detrended Correspondence Analysis, Gradient Direct Analysis, Multi-response Permutation Procedures and Indicator Species Analysis were performed to evaluate the effect of moisture gradient on tree distribution. The annual variation of water table is shallower and similar in Seasonally Flooded Forest and Termite Savanna, with increasing depths in Open Savanna, Savanna Forest and Dry Forest. Circa 64% of the species were characterized as having a preferential location in "terrestrial habitats normally not subjected to inundation", while 8% preferentially occur in "wet habitats". Lowest tree richness in flood-affected vegetation types is related to both present-day high climatic seasonality and Late Pleistocene dry paleoclimates in the Pantanal wetland. The tree distribution across different formations in the Pantanal shows a direct relationship with soil moisture gradient. PMID:27142551

  4. Export-oriented deforestation in Mato Grosso: harbinger or exception for other tropical forests?

    PubMed

    DeFries, Ruth; Herold, Martin; Verchot, Louis; Macedo, Marcia N; Shimabukuro, Yosio

    2013-06-01

    The Brazilian state of Mato Grosso was a global deforestation hotspot in the early 2000s. Deforested land is used predominantly to produce meat for distal consumption either through cattle ranching or soya bean for livestock feed. Deforestation declined dramatically in the latter part of the decade through a combination of market forces, policies, enforcement and improved monitoring. This study assesses how representative the national-level drivers underlying Mato Grosso's export-oriented deforestation are in other tropical forest countries based on agricultural exports, commercial agriculture and urbanization. We also assess how pervasive the governance and technical monitoring capacity that enabled Mato Grosso's decline in deforestation is in other countries. We find that between 41 and 54 per cent of 2000-2005 deforestation in tropical forest countries (other than Brazil) occurred in countries with drivers similar to Brazil. Very few countries had national-level governance and capacity similar to Brazil. Results suggest that the ecological, hydrological and social consequences of land-use change for export-oriented agriculture as discussed in this Theme Issue were applicable in about one-third of all tropical forest countries in 2000-2005. However, the feasibility of replicating Mato Grosso's success with controlling deforestation is more limited. Production landscapes to support distal consumption similar to Mato Grosso are likely to become more prevalent and are unlikely to follow a land-use transition model with increasing forest cover. PMID:23610176

  5. Export-oriented deforestation in Mato Grosso: harbinger or exception for other tropical forests?

    PubMed Central

    DeFries, Ruth; Herold, Martin; Verchot, Louis; Macedo, Marcia N.; Shimabukuro, Yosio

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian state of Mato Grosso was a global deforestation hotspot in the early 2000s. Deforested land is used predominantly to produce meat for distal consumption either through cattle ranching or soya bean for livestock feed. Deforestation declined dramatically in the latter part of the decade through a combination of market forces, policies, enforcement and improved monitoring. This study assesses how representative the national-level drivers underlying Mato Grosso's export-oriented deforestation are in other tropical forest countries based on agricultural exports, commercial agriculture and urbanization. We also assess how pervasive the governance and technical monitoring capacity that enabled Mato Grosso's decline in deforestation is in other countries. We find that between 41 and 54 per cent of 2000–2005 deforestation in tropical forest countries (other than Brazil) occurred in countries with drivers similar to Brazil. Very few countries had national-level governance and capacity similar to Brazil. Results suggest that the ecological, hydrological and social consequences of land-use change for export-oriented agriculture as discussed in this Theme Issue were applicable in about one-third of all tropical forest countries in 2000–2005. However, the feasibility of replicating Mato Grosso's success with controlling deforestation is more limited. Production landscapes to support distal consumption similar to Mato Grosso are likely to become more prevalent and are unlikely to follow a land-use transition model with increasing forest cover. PMID:23610176

  6. Export-oriented deforestation in Mato Grosso: harbinger or exception for other tropical forests?

    PubMed

    DeFries, Ruth; Herold, Martin; Verchot, Louis; Macedo, Marcia N; Shimabukuro, Yosio

    2013-06-01

    The Brazilian state of Mato Grosso was a global deforestation hotspot in the early 2000s. Deforested land is used predominantly to produce meat for distal consumption either through cattle ranching or soya bean for livestock feed. Deforestation declined dramatically in the latter part of the decade through a combination of market forces, policies, enforcement and improved monitoring. This study assesses how representative the national-level drivers underlying Mato Grosso's export-oriented deforestation are in other tropical forest countries based on agricultural exports, commercial agriculture and urbanization. We also assess how pervasive the governance and technical monitoring capacity that enabled Mato Grosso's decline in deforestation is in other countries. We find that between 41 and 54 per cent of 2000-2005 deforestation in tropical forest countries (other than Brazil) occurred in countries with drivers similar to Brazil. Very few countries had national-level governance and capacity similar to Brazil. Results suggest that the ecological, hydrological and social consequences of land-use change for export-oriented agriculture as discussed in this Theme Issue were applicable in about one-third of all tropical forest countries in 2000-2005. However, the feasibility of replicating Mato Grosso's success with controlling deforestation is more limited. Production landscapes to support distal consumption similar to Mato Grosso are likely to become more prevalent and are unlikely to follow a land-use transition model with increasing forest cover.

  7. Recent cropping frequency, expansion, and abandonment in Mato Grosso, Brazil had selective land characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, Stephanie A.; Cohn, Avery S.; VanWey, Leah K.; Mustard, Jack F.; Rudorff, Bernardo F.; Risso, Joel; Adami, Marcos

    2014-05-01

    This letter uses satellite remote sensing to examine patterns of cropland expansion, cropland abandonment, and changing cropping frequency in Mato Grosso, Brazil from 2001 to 2011. During this period, Mato Grosso emerged as a globally important center of agricultural production. In 2001, 3.3 million hectares of mechanized agriculture were cultivated in Mato Grosso, of which 500 000 hectares had two commercial crops per growing season (double cropping). By 2011, Mato Grosso had 5.8 million hectares of mechanized agriculture, of which 2.9 million hectares were double cropped. We found these agricultural changes to be selective with respect to land attributes—significant differences (p < 0.001) existed between the land attributes of agriculture versus non-agriculture, single cropping versus double cropping, and expansion versus abandonment. Many of the land attributes (elevation, slope, maximum temperature, minimum temperature, initial soy transport costs, and soil) that were associated with an increased likelihood of expansion were associated with a decreased likelihood of abandonment (p < 0.001). While land similar to agriculture and double cropping in 2001 was much more likely to be developed for agriculture than all other land, new cropland shifted to hotter, drier, lower locations that were more isolated from agricultural infrastructure (p < 0.001). The scarcity of high quality remaining agricultural land available for agricultural expansion in Mato Grosso could be contributing to the slowdown in agricultural expansion observed there over 2006 to 2011. Land use policy analyses should control for land scarcity constraints on agricultural expansion.

  8. Dissolved organic matter fluorescence as a water-flow tracer in the tropical wetland of Pantanal of Nhecolândia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mariot, Mélody; Dudal, Yves; Furian, Sônia; Sakamoto, Arnaldo; Vallès, Vincent; Fort, Monique; Barbiero, Laurent

    2007-12-15

    The Nhecolândia is a sub-region of the Brazilian Pantanal wetland, where saline and freshwater lakes coexist in close proximity. Measurements of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and analysis of fluorescence excitation-emission matrices (EEM) were conducted in an effort to characterize spatial variability in concentration and source of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and to further understand the hydrochemical functioning of this complex environment. Increasing pH under the influence of evaporation resulted in an increasing DOC solubility ranging from 50 to over 300 mgC L(-1) in surface water. Spectrofluorescence characterisation indicates the presence of several families of dissolved organic matter (fulvic and humic-type and proteinaceous materials), which are related to the type of lake and its hydro-bio-geochemical functioning. Moreover, the fluorescence signatures from lake water DOM and from surrounding soil-water-extracted organic matter (WEOM) show strong similarities although some labile proteinaceous compounds disappeared during humification. Results from the characterisation of DOM and WEOM not only suggest that spectrofluorescence is a reliable technique for the tracing of water flows, but also for the marking of the origin of organic horizons in this environment. PMID:17868781

  9. Soil water and carbon management for agricultural resilience in a key node in the global virtual water trade network: Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Speratti, A. B.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Couto, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Amazon region is globally connected through agricultural exports, with the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso in particular emerging as a key node in the global virtual water trade network in recent years, based largely on rainfed agriculture. The anticipated growth in the world's population suggests that virtual water trade will only become more important to global food security. In this presentation we will evaluate strategies for improving the resilience of rainfed agriculture in the region, particularly for the nearly 12 million hectares of sandy soil with low water holding capacity within Mato Grosso that has largely been converted to agricultural use. We will review land use change trajectories and present results from soil water balance modeling and carbon fluxes for a range of future scenarios, including continued agricultural extensification, potential strategies for agricultural intensification, and novel water and carbon management strategies including biochar use in sandy soils to improve soil water holding capacities and soil carbon sequestration. We will also consider the role that irrigation might play in the future in the Amazon for improving agricultural resilience to climate change and feedbacks between irrigation and land use change pressures, noting that groundwater resources in the region are presently among the least exploited on the planet.

  10. SAINT LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS IN MATO GROSSO, CENTRAL-WESTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    HEINEN, Letícia Borges da Silva; ZUCHI, Nayara; SERRA, Otacília Pereira; CARDOSO, Belgath Fernandes; GONDIM, Breno Herman Ferreira; dos SANTOS, Marcelo Adriano Mendes; SOUTO, Francisco José Dutra; de PAULA, Daphine Ariadne Jesus; DUTRA, Valéria; DEZENGRINI-SLHESSARENKO, Renata

    2015-01-01

    The dengue virus (DENV), which is frequently involved in large epidemics, and the yellow fever virus (YFV), which is responsible for sporadic sylvatic outbreaks, are considered the most important flaviviruses circulating in Brazil. Because of that, laboratorial diagnosis of acute undifferentiated febrile illness during epidemic periods is frequently directed towards these viruses, which may eventually hinder the detection of other circulating flaviviruses, including the Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), which is widely dispersed across the Americas. The aim of this study was to conduct a molecular investigation of 11 flaviviruses using 604 serum samples obtained from patients during a large dengue fever outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso (MT) between 2011 and 2012. Simultaneously, 3,433 female Culex spp. collected with Nasci aspirators in the city of Cuiabá, MT, in 2013, and allocated to 409 pools containing 1-10 mosquitoes, were also tested by multiplex semi-nested reverse transcription PCR for the same flaviviruses. SLEV was detected in three patients co-infected with DENV-4 from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. One of them was a triple co-infection with DENV-1. None of them mentioned recent travel or access to sylvatic/rural regions, indicating that transmission might have occurred within the metropolitan area. Regarding mosquito samples, one pool containing one Culex quinquefasciatus female was positive for SLEV, with a minimum infection rate (MIR) of 0.29 per 1000 specimens of this species. Phylogenetic analysis indicates both human and mosquito SLEV cluster, with isolates from genotype V-A obtained from animals in the Amazon region, in the state of Pará. This is the first report of SLEV molecular identification in MT. PMID:26200961

  11. SAINT LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS IN MATO GROSSO, CENTRAL-WESTERN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; Zuchi, Nayara; Serra, Otacília Pereira; Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Gondim, Breno Herman Ferreira; Dos Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes; Souto, Francisco José Dutra; Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus de; Dutra, Valéria; Dezengrini-Slhessarenko, Renata

    2015-01-01

    The dengue virus (DENV), which is frequently involved in large epidemics, and the yellow fever virus (YFV), which is responsible for sporadic sylvatic outbreaks, are considered the most important flaviviruses circulating in Brazil. Because of that, laboratorial diagnosis of acute undifferentiated febrile illness during epidemic periods is frequently directed towards these viruses, which may eventually hinder the detection of other circulating flaviviruses, including the Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), which is widely dispersed across the Americas. The aim of this study was to conduct a molecular investigation of 11 flaviviruses using 604 serum samples obtained from patients during a large dengue fever outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso (MT) between 2011 and 2012. Simultaneously, 3,433 female Culex spp. collected with Nasci aspirators in the city of Cuiabá, MT, in 2013, and allocated to 409 pools containing 1-10 mosquitoes, were also tested by multiplex semi-nested reverse transcription PCR for the same flaviviruses. SLEV was detected in three patients co-infected with DENV-4 from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. One of them was a triple co-infection with DENV-1. None of them mentioned recent travel or access to sylvatic/rural regions, indicating that transmission might have occurred within the metropolitan area. Regarding mosquito samples, one pool containing one Culex quinquefasciatus female was positive for SLEV, with a minimum infection rate (MIR) of 0.29 per 1000 specimens of this species. Phylogenetic analysis indicates both human and mosquito SLEV cluster, with isolates from genotype V-A obtained from animals in the Amazon region, in the state of Pará. This is the first report of SLEV molecular identification in MT.

  12. Limnogeology in Brazil's "forgotten wilderness": a synthesis from the large floodplain lakes of the Pantanal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGlue, Michael M.; Silva, Aguinaldo; Corradini, Fabricio A.; Zani, Hiran; Trees, Mark A.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Parolin, Mauro; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Assine, Mario L.

    2011-01-01

    Sediment records from floodplain lakes have a large and commonly untapped potential for inferring wetland response to global change. The Brazilian Pantanal is a vast, seasonally inundated savanna floodplain system controlled by the flood pulse of the Upper Paraguay River. Little is known, however, about how floodplain lakes within the Pantanal act as sedimentary basins, or what influence hydroclimatic variables exert on limnogeological processes. This knowledge gap was addressed through an actualistic analysis of three large, shallow (2- > Si4+ > Ca2+), mildly alkaline, freshwater systems, the chemistries and morphometrics of which evolve with seasonal flooding. Lake sills are bathymetric shoals marked by siliciclastic fans and marsh vegetation. Flows at the sills likely undergo seasonal reversals with the changing stage of the Upper Paraguay River. Deposition in deeper waters, typically encountered in proximity to margin-coincident topography, is dominated by reduced silty-clays with abundant siliceous microfossils and organic matter. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, plus hydrogen index measured on bulk organic matter, suggest that contributions from algae (including cyanobacteria) and other C3-vegetation dominate in these environments. The presence of lotic sponge spicules, together with patterns of terrigenous sand deposition and geochemical indicators of productivity, points to the importance of the flood pulse for sediment and nutrient delivery to the lakes. Flood-pulse plumes, waves and bioturbation likewise affect the continuity of sedimentation. Short-lived radioisotopes indicate rates of 0.11-0.24 cm year-1 at sites of uninterrupted deposition. A conceptual facies model, developed from insights gained from modern seasonal processes, can be used to predict limnogeological change when the lakes become isolated on the floodplain or during intervals associated with a strengthened flood pulse. Amplification of the seasonal cycle over longer time scales

  13. Extreme Emission of N2O from Tropical Wetland Soil (Pantanal, South America)

    PubMed Central

    Liengaard, Lars; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Priemé, Anders; Elberling, Bo; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Kühl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and ozone depleter, but the global budget of N2O remains unbalanced. Currently, ∼25% of the global N2O emission is ascribed to uncultivated tropical soils, but the exact locations and controlling mechanisms are not clear. Here we present the first study of soil N2O emission from the Pantanal indicating that this South American wetland may be a significant natural source of N2O. At three sites, we repeatedly measured in situ fluxes of N2O and sampled porewater nitrate (NO3-) during the low water season in 2008 and 2009. In 2010, 10 sites were screened for in situ fluxes of N2O and soil NO3- content. The in situ fluxes of N2O were comparable to fluxes from heavily fertilized forests or agricultural soils. An important parameter affecting N2O emission rate was precipitation, inducing peak emissions of >3 mmol N2O m−2 day−1, while the mean daily flux was 0.43 ± 0.03 mmol N2O m−2 day−1. Over 170 days of the drained period, we estimated non-wetted drained soil to contribute 70.0 mmol N2O m−2, while rain-induced peak events contributed 9.2 mmol N2O m−2, resulting in a total N2O emission of 79.2 mmol N2O m−2. At the sites of repeated sampling, the pool of porewater nitrate varied (0.002-7.1μmolNO3-gdW-1) with higher concentrations of NO3- (p < 0.05) found in drained soil than in water-logged soil, indicating dynamic shifts between nitrification and denitrification. In the field, O2 penetrated the upper 60 cm of drained soil, but was depleted in response to precipitation. Upon experimental wetting the soil showed rapid O2 depletion followed by N2O accumulation and a peak emission of N2O (2.5 - 3.0mmolN2Om-2day-1). Assuming that the observed emission of N2O from these wetland soils is generally representative to the Pantanal, we suggest that this undisturbed tropical wetland potentially contributes ∼1.7% to the global N2O emission budget, a significant

  14. DENGUE OUTBREAK IN MATO GROSSO STATE, MIDWESTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    HEINEN, Letícia Borges da Silva; ZUCHI, Nayara; CARDOSO, Belgath Fernandes; dos SANTOS, Marcelo Adriano Mendes; NOGUEIRA, Mauricio Lacerda; DEZENGRINI-SLHESSARENKO, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most frequent arbovirus worldwide. In this study, we report a large outbreak in Mato Grosso State (MT). Serum samples from 604 patients with acute febrile illness for less than five days were inoculated in C6/36 cells, then infected cells were subjected to an indirect immunofluorescence test for DENV serotypes and yellow fever virus. Serum samples were submitted to a multiplex-semi-nested-RT-PCR for 11 flaviviruses. DENV-4 was isolated in 150/604 (24.8%) and DENV-1 in 19/604 (3.1%) specimens. By RT-PCR, 331 (54.8%) samples tested positive for DENV; 321 had single infections (DENV-4 n = 305; DENV-1 n = 15; DENV-3 n = 1), nine had co-infections of DENV-1/DENV-4, and one of DENV-2/DENV-4. DENV-4 was detected in 315/331 (95.2%) positive patients from 17 municipalities, and DENV-1 in 24/331 (7.2%) patients from five cities in north-central MT and the city of Cuiaba. The incidence of infection was higher in patients aged 20-39 (142/331; 42.9%). The NS5 partial nucleotide sequence of DENV-1 was most similar to that of genotype V, DENV-2 to Southeast Asian/American, DENV-3 to genotype III, and DENV-4 to genotype II strains, considered the most frequent strains in Brazil. This outbreak coincided with the introduction of DENV-4 in the state. Cuiaba was hyperendemic for the four DENV serotypes, highlighting the necessity for arbovirus surveillance in MT. PMID:27049702

  15. DENGUE OUTBREAK IN MATO GROSSO STATE, MIDWESTERN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; Zuchi, Nayara; Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes dos; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Dezengrini-Slhessarenko, Renata

    2015-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most frequent arbovirus worldwide. In this study, we report a large outbreak in Mato Grosso State (MT). Serum samples from 604 patients with acute febrile illness for less than five days were inoculated in C6/36 cells, then infected cells were subjected to an indirect immunofluorescence test for DENV serotypes and yellow fever virus. Serum samples were submitted to a multiplex-semi-nested-RT-PCR for 11 flaviviruses. DENV-4 was isolated in 150/604 (24.8%) and DENV-1 in 19/604 (3.1%) specimens. By RT-PCR, 331 (54.8%) samples tested positive for DENV; 321 had single infections (DENV-4 n = 305; DENV-1 n = 15; DENV-3 n = 1), nine had co-infections of DENV-1/DENV-4, and one of DENV-2/DENV-4. DENV-4 was detected in 315/331 (95.2%) positive patients from 17 municipalities, and DENV-1 in 24/331 (7.2%) patients from five cities in north-central MT and the city of Cuiaba. The incidence of infection was higher in patients aged 20-39 (142/331; 42.9%). The NS5 partial nucleotide sequence of DENV-1 was most similar to that of genotype V, DENV-2 to Southeast Asian/American, DENV-3 to genotype III, and DENV-4 to genotype II strains, considered the most frequent strains in Brazil. This outbreak coincided with the introduction of DENV-4 in the state. Cuiaba was hyperendemic for the four DENV serotypes, highlighting the necessity for arbovirus surveillance in MT.

  16. [Pulmonary tuberculosis among residents of municipalities in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, bordering on Paraguay and Bolivia].

    PubMed

    Marques, Marli; Ruffino-Netto, Antonio; Marques, Ana Maria Campos; Andrade, Sonia Maria Oliveira de; Silva, Baldomero Antonio Kato da; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury

    2014-12-01

    This study analyzed the epidemiological profile of pulmonary tuberculosis from 2007 to 2010 in municipalities (counties) in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, that border on Paraguay and Bolivia. In the border region, the incidence rate (49.1/100,000 inhabitants), mortality rate (4.0/100,000 inhabitants), and treatment dropout rate (11.3%) were 1.6, 1.8, and 1.5 times higher than in the non-border region. Among indigenous individuals in the border region, the rates for incidence (253.4/100,000 inhabitants), mortality (11.6/100,000 inhabitants), and HIV/TB co-infection (1.9/100,000 inhabitants) were 6.4, 3.2, and 1.9 times higher than in non-indigenous individuals in this region. Living in the border regions was inversely associated with HIV/TB co-infection. Indigenous ethnicity was associated statistically with not abandoning TB treatment. The study concludes that the population residing in these municipalities along the border is exposed to high risk of pulmonary TB and TB mortality and treatment dropout, thus requiring special health surveillance interventions.

  17. Diet Overlap and Foraging Activity between Feral Pigs and Native Peccaries in the Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Galetti, Mauro; Camargo, Hiléia; Siqueira, Tadeu; Keuroghlian, Alexine; Donatti, Camila I; Jorge, Maria Luisa S P; Pedrosa, Felipe; Kanda, Claudia Z; Ribeiro, Milton C

    2015-01-01

    Inter-specific competition is considered one of the main selective pressures affecting species distribution and coexistence. Different species vary in the way they forage in order to minimize encounters with their competitors and with their predators. However, it is still poorly known whether and how native species change their foraging behavior in the presence of exotic species, particularly in South America. Here we compare diet overlap of fruits and foraging activity period of two sympatric native ungulates (the white-lipped peccary, Tayassu pecari, and the collared peccary, Pecari tajacu) with the invasive feral pig (Sus scrofa) in the Brazilian Pantanal. We found high diet overlap between white-lipped peccaries and feral pigs, but low overlap between collared peccaries and feral pigs. Furthermore, we found that feral pigs may influence the foraging period of both native peccaries, but in different ways. In the absence of feral pigs, collared peccary activity peaks in the early evening, possibly allowing them to avoid white-lipped peccary activity peaks, which occur in the morning. In the presence of feral pigs, collared peccaries forage mostly in early morning, while white-lipped peccaries forage throughout the day. Our results indicate that collared peccaries may avoid foraging at the same time as white-lipped peccaries. However, they forage during the same periods as feral pigs, with whom they have lower diet overlap. Our study highlights how an exotic species may alter interactions between native species by interfering in their foraging periods.

  18. Diet Overlap and Foraging Activity between Feral Pigs and Native Peccaries in the Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Galetti, Mauro; Camargo, Hiléia; Siqueira, Tadeu; Keuroghlian, Alexine; Donatti, Camila I; Jorge, Maria Luisa S P; Pedrosa, Felipe; Kanda, Claudia Z; Ribeiro, Milton C

    2015-01-01

    Inter-specific competition is considered one of the main selective pressures affecting species distribution and coexistence. Different species vary in the way they forage in order to minimize encounters with their competitors and with their predators. However, it is still poorly known whether and how native species change their foraging behavior in the presence of exotic species, particularly in South America. Here we compare diet overlap of fruits and foraging activity period of two sympatric native ungulates (the white-lipped peccary, Tayassu pecari, and the collared peccary, Pecari tajacu) with the invasive feral pig (Sus scrofa) in the Brazilian Pantanal. We found high diet overlap between white-lipped peccaries and feral pigs, but low overlap between collared peccaries and feral pigs. Furthermore, we found that feral pigs may influence the foraging period of both native peccaries, but in different ways. In the absence of feral pigs, collared peccary activity peaks in the early evening, possibly allowing them to avoid white-lipped peccary activity peaks, which occur in the morning. In the presence of feral pigs, collared peccaries forage mostly in early morning, while white-lipped peccaries forage throughout the day. Our results indicate that collared peccaries may avoid foraging at the same time as white-lipped peccaries. However, they forage during the same periods as feral pigs, with whom they have lower diet overlap. Our study highlights how an exotic species may alter interactions between native species by interfering in their foraging periods. PMID:26536608

  19. Implications of climatic seasonality on activity patterns and resource use by sympatric peccaries in northern Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Gabriel Selbach; Coelho, Igor Pfeifer; Bastazini, Vinicius Augusto Galvão; Cordeiro, José Luís Passos; de Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion Barbosa

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the effects of climate seasonality from a thermal and water availability perspective on the activity patterns and resource use of Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari during wet and dry seasons in the northeastern Brazilian Pantanal. We used camera traps and temperature sensors to record species activity patterns in relation to temperature, established five habitat categories based on flooding intensity and local vegetation characteristics, assessed the activity patterns of each species in dry and wet periods and in artificial water bodies using circular statistical metrics, and calculated niche amplitude and overlap on three axes (temperature, time, and habitat) in both periods. Peccaries shared a strong resemblance in resource use and in their responses to seasonal variations in the tested gradients. The activity patterns of both species exhibited a significant correlation with air temperature on all the evaluated measures, and both species strongly reduced their activity when the air temperature exceeded 35 °C. High temperatures associated with low water availability were most likely responsible for the changes in species activity patterns, which resulted in an increased temporal overlap in habitat use throughout the dry season. However, the peccaries avoided intensively flooded habitats; therefore, the habitat gradient overlap was greater during the wet period. Our results show that an increase in niche overlap on the environmental gradient as a result of climatic seasonality may be partially compensated by a reduction in other niche dimensions. In this case, temporal partitioning appears to be an important, viable mechanism to reduce competition by potentially competing species.

  20. Diet Overlap and Foraging Activity between Feral Pigs and Native Peccaries in the Pantanal

    PubMed Central

    Galetti, Mauro; Camargo, Hiléia; Siqueira, Tadeu; Keuroghlian, Alexine; Donatti, Camila I.; Jorge, Maria Luisa S. P.; Pedrosa, Felipe; Kanda, Claudia Z.; Ribeiro, Milton C.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-specific competition is considered one of the main selective pressures affecting species distribution and coexistence. Different species vary in the way they forage in order to minimize encounters with their competitors and with their predators. However, it is still poorly known whether and how native species change their foraging behavior in the presence of exotic species, particularly in South America. Here we compare diet overlap of fruits and foraging activity period of two sympatric native ungulates (the white-lipped peccary, Tayassu pecari, and the collared peccary, Pecari tajacu) with the invasive feral pig (Sus scrofa) in the Brazilian Pantanal. We found high diet overlap between white-lipped peccaries and feral pigs, but low overlap between collared peccaries and feral pigs. Furthermore, we found that feral pigs may influence the foraging period of both native peccaries, but in different ways. In the absence of feral pigs, collared peccary activity peaks in the early evening, possibly allowing them to avoid white-lipped peccary activity peaks, which occur in the morning. In the presence of feral pigs, collared peccaries forage mostly in early morning, while white-lipped peccaries forage throughout the day. Our results indicate that collared peccaries may avoid foraging at the same time as white-lipped peccaries. However, they forage during the same periods as feral pigs, with whom they have lower diet overlap. Our study highlights how an exotic species may alter interactions between native species by interfering in their foraging periods. PMID:26536608

  1. Implications of climatic seasonality on activity patterns and resource use by sympatric peccaries in northern Pantanal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmann, Gabriel Selbach; Coelho, Igor Pfeifer; Bastazini, Vinicius Augusto Galvão; Cordeiro, José Luís Passos; de Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion Barbosa

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the effects of climate seasonality from a thermal and water availability perspective on the activity patterns and resource use of Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari during wet and dry seasons in the northeastern Brazilian Pantanal. We used camera traps and temperature sensors to record species activity patterns in relation to temperature, established five habitat categories based on flooding intensity and local vegetation characteristics, assessed the activity patterns of each species in dry and wet periods and in artificial water bodies using circular statistical metrics, and calculated niche amplitude and overlap on three axes (temperature, time, and habitat) in both periods. Peccaries shared a strong resemblance in resource use and in their responses to seasonal variations in the tested gradients. The activity patterns of both species exhibited a significant correlation with air temperature on all the evaluated measures, and both species strongly reduced their activity when the air temperature exceeded 35 °C. High temperatures associated with low water availability were most likely responsible for the changes in species activity patterns, which resulted in an increased temporal overlap in habitat use throughout the dry season. However, the peccaries avoided intensively flooded habitats; therefore, the habitat gradient overlap was greater during the wet period. Our results show that an increase in niche overlap on the environmental gradient as a result of climatic seasonality may be partially compensated by a reduction in other niche dimensions. In this case, temporal partitioning appears to be an important, viable mechanism to reduce competition by potentially competing species.

  2. Carbon dynamics in aboveground coarse wood biomass of wetland forests in the northern Pantanal, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöngart, J.; Arieira, J.; Felfili Fortes, C.; Cezarine de Arruda, E.; Nunes da Cunha, C.

    2008-05-01

    This is the first estimation on carbon dynamics in the aboveground coarse wood biomass (AGWB) of wetland forests in the Pantanal, located in Central Southern America. In four 1-ha plots in stands characterized by the pioneer species Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae) forest inventories (trees ≥10 cm diameter at breast height, DBH) have been performed and converted to predictions of AGWB by five different allometric models using two or three predicting parameters (DBH, tree height, wood density). Best prediction has been achieved using allometric equations with three independent variables. Carbon stocks (50% of AGWB) vary from 7.4 to 100.9 Mg C ha-1 between the four stands. Carbon sequestration differs 0.50-4.24 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 estimated by two growth models derived from tree-ring analysis describing the relationships between age and DBH for V. divergens and other tree species. We find a close correlation between estimated tree age and C-stock, C-sequestration and C-turnover (mean residence of C in AGWB).

  3. Genetic Structure of Lutzomyia longipalpis Populations in Mato Grosso Do Sul, Brazil, Based on Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Mirella F. C.; Ribolla, Paulo E. M.; Alonso, Diego P.; Andrade-Filho, José D.; Casaril, Aline E.; Ferreira, Alda M. T.; Fernandes, Carlos E. S.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Oliveira, Alessandra G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lutzomyialongipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the major vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and thus plays a crucial role in the epidemiology of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). This vector is the best studied species of sand fly in the Neotropical region. Many studies claim that this vector is in fact a species complex; however there is still no consensus regarding the number of species that belong into this complex or the geographical distribution of sibling species. The aim of the present study was to analyze the genetic relationships within Lu. longipalpis populations in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected 30 Lu. longipalpis (15 females and 15 males) from five localities (Campo Grande, Três Lagoas, Aquidauana, Miranda and Bonito) and 30 Lu. Cruzi from Corumbá, totaling 180 sandflies from MS, and 30 Lu. longipalpis from Estrela de Alagoas, state of Alagoas (AL), Northeast Brazil. We show that eight previously described microsatellite loci were sufficient in distinguishing Lu. longipalpis from Lu. Cruzi, which is a closely related species, and in differentiating between Lu. longipalpis collected in MS versus Estrela de Alagoas. Analyses of the genotypes revealed introgression between sympatric Lu. longipalpis and Lu. Cruzi. Conclusions/Significance Our findings support the hypothesis of cryptic species within the Lu. longipalpis complex. Furthermore, our data revealed introgression between Lu. longipalpis and Lu. cruzi. This phenomenon should be further investigated to determine the level and incidence of hybridization between these two species. We also demonstrated that microsatellite markers are a powerful tool for differentiating sand fly populations and species. The present study has elucidated the population structure of Lu. longipalpis in MS and, by extension, the Neotropical Lu. longipalpis complex itself. PMID:24066129

  4. Channel arrangements and depositional styles in the São Lourenço fluvial megafan, Brazilian Pantanal wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assine, Mario Luis; Corradini, Fabrício Anibal; Pupim, Fabiano do Nascimento; McGlue, Michael Matthew

    2014-03-01

    The Brazilian Pantanal is an extensive lowland tropical basin characterized by the presence of fluvial megafans and seasonally-inundated savanna floodplain wetlands. With an area of about 16,000 km2, the São Lourenço is the second largest megafan in the Pantanal. Three distinct fluvial channel styles that formed at different times during the late Quaternary are found here. A geomorphological and sedimentary assessment of these depositional patterns provides valuable insight on the environmental context of their evolution. New optically stimulated luminescence data indicate that the upper five meters of sediment in the São Lourenço megafan has been accumulating since the late Pleistocene. Ancient fan lobes, located in upper and intermediate fan settings, consist of medium- and coarse-grained fluvial sands and exhibit well-preserved distributary braided paleochannels on their surfaces. As the megafan evolved through time, Pleistocene lobes were incised by a prominent valley filled with Holocene-aged meander belt deposits, which consist of silts interbedded with very fine sands and clays. Currently, the incised valley is a zone of sediment bypass. Modern deposition occurs along the distal toe of the megafan system, where lobes characterized by distributary channel-levee ridges are widespread. These features formed by progradation of avulsion belts into a broad swampy floodbasin, which caused the lower portion of the meander belt to be abandoned. The significant differences observed in intra-fan morphology appear to be linked to the variability in effective precipitation. Fan lobes deposited with braided distributary channels occurred under relatively dry conditions in the late Pleistocene. By contrast, aggradational meander belt deposits and lobes with distributary channel-levee ridges formed during fluctuating precipitation conditions of the Holocene, when the Pantanal emerged from deglacial aridity. Modern lobes form under heavy seasonal flooding and deposition

  5. School Children's Knowledge and Perceptions of Jaguars, Pumas, and Smaller Cats around a Mosaic of Protected Areas in the Western Brazilian Pantanal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porfirio, Grasiela; Sarmento, Pedro; Fonseca, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Surveys to assess environmental knowledge are elementary tools to ensure successful environmental education. Felines are considered key components of the environment, acting as flagships for conservation. Nevertheless, they are threatened by loss of habitat, prey reductions, and poaching. In the mosaic of protected areas in the Brazilian Pantanal,…

  6. Spatial distribution and environmental factors associated to phlebotomine fauna in a border area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mato Grosso do Sul has been undergoing a process of urbanization which results in loss of native vegetation. This withdrawal makes vectors of man and domestic animals closer, causing changes in the epidemiology of diseases such as American Visceral Leishmaniasis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the phlebotomine fauna and environmental issues related to the transmission of AVL in Ponta Porã, Mato Grosso do Sul, between 2009 and 2010. Methods Vegetation of the urban area was evaluated by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). Results The results showed that the phlebotomine fauna of the city consists of five species, especially Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912), the vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. Predominance of males was observed. The insects were captured in greater quantity in the intradomicile. Lu. longipalpis was the most frequent and abundant species, present throughout the year, with a peak population after the rainy season. Vectors can be found in high amounts in forest and disturbed environments. Conclusions The finding of Lu. longipalpis in regions with little vegetation and humidity suggests that the species is adapted to different sorts of environmental conditions, demonstrating its close association with man and the environment it inhabits. The tourist feature of Ponta Porã reinforces its epidemiological importance as a vulnerable city. The geographical location, bordering Paraguay through dry border, makes possible the existence of a corridor of vectors and infected dogs between the two countries. PMID:24898032

  7. Abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) and urban transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; de Oliveira, Orcy; de Oliveira, Gilliard Rezende; Espindola, Italo Alexander Cabello; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2006-12-01

    The outspread and urbanization of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, lead us to undertake the present study over diversity and abundance of sand flies in the urban area to compare with previous search carried out during 1999/2000, before the identification of the disease in the human population. The captures were carried out with automatic light traps, weekly, from February 2004 to February 2005 on three sites including a forested area (Zé Pereira), two peridomicilies (shelters of domestic animals and cultivation areas), and intradomicilie. In the present study 110 collections were obtained during 13 months for 1320 h of collections, resulting in 5004 specimens, 3649 males and 1355 females belonging to the 20 following species: Brumptomyia avellari, Brumptomyia sp., Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Evandromyia lenti, E. termitophila, E. cortelezzii, E. borrouli, Lutzomyia sp., L. longipalpis, Micropygomyia quinquefer, N. antunesi, N. whitmani, Pintomyia christenseni, Pi. damascenoi, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Ps. campograndensis, Ps. hermanlenti, Ps. shannoni, Pychodopygus claustrei, and Sciopemyia sordellii. L. longipalpis was the most abundant species in the anthropic environment with 92.22% of the captures. This shows an increase of sixty times in the density of L. longipalpis compared to the last sand fly evaluation in 1999/2000. The high density of L. longipalpis in Campo Grande is the main factor of risk in transmission of the disease to human in the urban area. The capture of N. antunesi, typical specie from Amazonian region, in Mato Grosso do Sul is reported for the first time.

  8. 78 FR 6173 - Diana Del Grosso, Ray Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen Kelley, Andrew Wilklund, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Diana Del Grosso, Ray Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen... Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen Kelley, Andrew Wilklund, and Richard Kosiba...

  9. Plant food resources and the diet of a parrot community in a gallery forest of the southern Pantanal (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Ragusa-Netto, J; Fecchio, A

    2006-11-01

    Neotropical parrots usually forage in forest canopies for nectar, flowers, leaves, fruit pulp, and seeds. As they have no all-purpose territories, these birds usually exploit vegetation mosaics in order to use plentiful resources as they become available. In this study we examine the use of a gallery forest in the southern Pantanal (Brazil) by a diverse parrot community that ranged from Brotogeris chiriri (a small species) to Ara chloroptera (a large one). Plant food resources principally used by parrots were abundantly available during the rainy season (fleshy fruits), the annual floods (fleshy fruits), and the dry season (flowers). While both smaller and larger species foraged on fruits, parakeets largely consumed the pulp, while larger parrot species used pulp and seeds. In the dry season parakeets foraged extensively on nectar, especially Inga vera nectar that was abundantly available during the last two months of the dry season, the harshest period of the year. Among larger parrots, only Propyrrhura auricollis frequently harvested nectar. Fruits maturing during floods, despite being fish- or water- dispersed were extensively used by the parrots. Hence, unlike what happens in most other Neotropical dry forests, occurrence of a fruiting peak during the annual flooding, which occurs in the transition from the wet to the dry season, constitutes an extra and significant episode of food availability, since in this period, fruit production normally declines. Therefore, the unique and abundant availability of flowers and fruits in this gallery forest may account for the presence of large parrot populations in the southern Pantanal.

  10. A survey of tick-borne pathogens in dogs and their ticks in the Pantanal biome, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, A L T; Witter, R; Martins, T F; Pacheco, T A; Alves, A S; Chitarra, C S; Dutra, V; Nakazato, L; Pacheco, R C; Labruna, M B; Aguiar, D M

    2016-03-01

    Tick and blood samples collected from domestic dogs in the Brazilian Pantanal were tested by molecular methods for the presence of tick-borne protozoa and bacteria. Among 320 sampled dogs, 3.13% were infected by Babesia vogeli (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae), 8.75% by Hepatozoon canis (Eucoccidiorida: Hepatozoidae), 7.19% by Anaplasma platys (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and 0.94% by an unclassified Anaplasma sp. In three tick species collected from dogs, the following tick-borne agents were detected: (a) B. vogeli, An. platys and Ehrlichia canis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), infecting Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks; (b) H. canis, an unclassified Anaplasma sp. and Rickettsia amblyommii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), infecting Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks, and (c) Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, an emerging human pathogen, infecting Amblyomma ovale ticks. Molecular analysis, based on a mitochondrial gene, revealed that the Am. cajennense s.l. ticks of the present study corresponded to Amblyomma sculptum, a member of the Am. cajennense species complex, and that Rh. sanguineus s.l. belonged to the tropical lineage. Whereas dogs are exposed to a number of tick-borne bacterial and protozoan agents in the Pantanal biome, humans are potentially exposed to infection by spotted fever group rickettsiae (e.g. R. amblyommii and Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest) because both Am. sculptum and Am. ovale are among the most important human-biting ticks in Brazil. PMID:26467462

  11. Effects of ambient air temperature, humidity, and wind speed on seminal traits in Braford and Nellore bulls at the Brazilian Pantanal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menegassi, Silvio Renato Oliveira; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Bremm, Carolina; Koetz, Celso; Lopes, Flávio Guiselli; Fiorentini, Eduardo Custódio; McManus, Concepta; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; da Rocha, Marcela Kuczynski; Lopes, Rubia Branco; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioclimatic thermal stress assessed by Equivalent Temperature Index (ETI) and Temperature Humidity Index (THI) on Braford and Nellore bulls sperm quality during the reproductive seasons at the tropical region in the Brazilian Pantanal. We used 20 bulls aged approximately 24 months at the beginning of the study. Five ejaculates per animal were collected using an electroejaculator. Temperature, air humidity, and wind speed data were collected every hour from the automatic weather station at the National Institute of Meteorology. Infrared thermography images data were collected to assess the testicular temperature gradient in each animal. Data were analyzed with ANOVA using MIXED procedure of SAS and means were compared using Tukey's HSD test. The THI and ETI at 12 days (epididymal transit) were higher in January (89.7 and 28.5, respectively) and February (90.0 and 29.0, respectively) compared to other months (P < 0.01). Total seminal defects differ only in Bradford bulls between the months of November and February. Nellore bulls had lower major defects (MaD) and total defects (TD) compared to Braford. Nellore bulls showed correlation between minor defects (MiD) and THI for 30 days (0.90) and 18 days (0.88; P < 0.05). Braford bulls showed correlation for MaD (0.89) in ETI for 12 days (P < 0.05). Infrared thermography showed no difference between animals. Reproductive response to environmental changes is a consequence of Nellore and Braford adaptation to climate stress conditions. Both THI and ETI environmental indexes can be used to evaluate the morphological changes in the seminal parameters in Nellore or Braford bulls; however, more experiments should be performed focusing on larger sample numbers and also in reproductive assessment during the consecutive years to assess fertility potential.

  12. Coupling MODIS images and agrometeorological data for agricultural water productivity analyses in the Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de C. Teixeira, Antônio H.; Victoria, Daniel C.; Andrade, Ricardo G.; Leivas, Janice F.; Bolfe, Edson L.; Cruz, Caroline R.

    2014-10-01

    Mato Grosso state, Central West Brazil, has been highlighted by the grain production, mainly soybean and corn, as first (November-March) and second (April-August) harvest crops, respectively. For water productivity (WP) analyses, MODIS products together with a net of weather stations were used. Evapotranspiration (ET) and biomass production (BIO) were acquired during the year 2012 and WP was considered as the ratio of BIO to ET. The SAFER (Simple Algorithm For Evapotranspiration Retrieving) for ET and the Monteith's radiation model for BIO were applied together, considering a mask which separated the crops from other surface types. In relation to the first harvest crop ET, BIO and WP values above of those for other surface types, happened only from November to January with incremental values reaching to 1.2 mm day-1; 67 kg ha-1 day-1; and 0.7 kg m-3, respectively; and between March and May for the second harvest crops, with incremental values attaining 0.5 mm day-1; 27 kg ha-1 day-1; and 0.3 kg m-3, respectively. In both cases, during the growing seasons, the highest WP parameters in cropped areas corresponded, in general, to the blooming to grain filling transition. Considering corn crop, which nowadays is increasing in terms of cultivated areas in the Brazilian Central West region, and crop water productivity (CWP) the ratio of yield to the amount of water consumed, the main growing regions North, Southeast and Northeast were analyzed. Southeast presented the highest annual pixel averages for ET, BIO and CWP (1.7 mm day-1, 78 kg ha-1 day-1 and 2.2 kg m-3, respectively); while for Northeast they were the lowest ones (1.2 mm day-1, 52 kg ha-1 dia-1 and 1.9 kg m-3). Throughout a soil moisture indicator, the ratio of precipitation (P) to ET, it was indeed noted that rainfall was enough for a good grain yield, with P/ET lower than 1.00 only outside the crop growing seasons. The combination of MODIS images and weather stations proved to be useful for monitoring

  13. Phlebotomine fauna, natural infection rate and feeding habits of Lutzomyia cruzi in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, Veruska Nogueira de; Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de; Nakazato, Luciano; Duarte, Rosemere; Souza, Cladson de Oliveira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco

    2014-11-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is transmitted by the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis and in some midwestern regions by Lutzomyia cruzi. Studies of the phlebotomine fauna, feeding habits and natural infection rate by Leishmania contribute to increased understanding of the epidemiological chain of leishmaniases and their vectorial capacity. Collections were performed in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso from 2010-2013, during which time 2,011 phlebotomines (23 species) were captured (68.70% Lu. cruzi and 20.52% Lutzomyia whitmani). Lu. cruzi females were identified by observing the shapes of the cibarium (a portion of the mouthpart) and spermatheca, from which samples were obtained for polymerase chain reaction to determine the rates of natural infection. Engorged phlebotomines were assessed to identify the blood-meal host by ELISA. A moderate correlation was discovered between the number of Lu. cruzi and the temperature and the minimum rate of infection was 6.10%. Twenty-two females were reactive to the antisera of bird (28%), dog (3.30%) and skunk (1.60%). We conclude that Lu. cruzi and Lu. whitmani have adapted to the urban environment in this region and that Lu. cruzi is the most likely vector of VL in Jaciara. Moreover, maintenance of Leishmania in the environment is likely aided by the presence of birds and domestic and synanthropic animals.

  14. Occurrence of Mycoplasma haemocanis in dogs infested by ticks in Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Soares, Rodrigo Leite; Echeverria, Jessica Teles; Pazzuti, Giovana; Cleveland, Herbert Patric Kellerman; Babo-Terra, Verônica Jorge; Friozi, Elisabete; Ramos, Carlos Alberto do Nascimento

    2016-01-01

    Hemotropic mycoplasmas in dogs, such as Mycoplasma haemocanis, have been described worldwide. Recently, these pathogens have been reported to be causative agent of zoonosis. It is known that its transmission may occur through the action of blood-sucking arthropods (e.g. ticks or fleas), through blood transfusion, contaminated fomites and/or transplacentally. In Brazil, M. haemocanis is present in practically all regions and the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato is suspected the main vector. In the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, there is little information about infection of dogs by M. haemocanis, or on the main epidemiological features associated with it. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the occurrence of M. haemocanis among dogs infested by ticks and to assess possible associations with some epidemiological factors. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing were used to analyze dog blood samples (n = 94). DNA from M. haemocanis was detected in four samples. No significant associations were observed with any epidemiological parameter analyzed here. However, the results from this study confirm that this pathogen is circulating in this region and should be considered in the differential diagnosis of diseases among anemic dogs.

  15. Phlebotomine fauna, natural infection rate and feeding habits of Lutzomyia cruzi in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, Veruska Nogueira de; Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de; Nakazato, Luciano; Duarte, Rosemere; Souza, Cladson de Oliveira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco

    2014-10-14

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is transmitted by the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis and in some midwestern regions by Lutzomyia cruzi. Studies of the phlebotomine fauna, feeding habits and natural infection rate by Leishmania contribute to increased understanding of the epidemiological chain of leishmaniases and their vectorial capacity. Collections were performed in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso from 2010-2013, during which time 2,011 phlebotomines (23 species) were captured (68.70% Lu. cruzi and 20.52% Lutzomyia whitmani). Lu. cruzi females were identified by observing the shapes of the cibarium (a portion of the mouthpart) and spermatheca, from which samples were obtained for polymerase chain reaction to determine the rates of natural infection. Engorged phlebotomines were assessed to identify the blood-meal host by ELISA. A moderate correlation was discovered between the number of Lu. cruzi and the temperature and the minimum rate of infection was 6.10%. Twenty-two females were reactive to the antisera of bird (28%), dog (3.30%) and skunk (1.60%). We conclude that Lu. cruzi and Lu. whitmani have adapted to the urban environment in this region and that Lu. cruzi is the most likely vector of VL in Jaciara. Moreover, maintenance of Leishmania in the environment is likely aided by the presence of birds and domestic and synanthropic animals. PMID:25338156

  16. Phlebotomine fauna, natural infection rate and feeding habits of Lutzomyia cruzi in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, Veruska Nogueira de; Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de; Nakazato, Luciano; Duarte, Rosemere; Souza, Cladson de Oliveira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco

    2014-10-14

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is transmitted by the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis and in some midwestern regions by Lutzomyia cruzi. Studies of the phlebotomine fauna, feeding habits and natural infection rate by Leishmania contribute to increased understanding of the epidemiological chain of leishmaniases and their vectorial capacity. Collections were performed in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso from 2010-2013, during which time 2,011 phlebotomines (23 species) were captured (68.70% Lu. cruzi and 20.52% Lutzomyia whitmani). Lu. cruzi females were identified by observing the shapes of the cibarium (a portion of the mouthpart) and spermatheca, from which samples were obtained for polymerase chain reaction to determine the rates of natural infection. Engorged phlebotomines were assessed to identify the blood-meal host by ELISA. A moderate correlation was discovered between the number of Lu. cruzi and the temperature and the minimum rate of infection was 6.10%. Twenty-two females were reactive to the antisera of bird (28%), dog (3.30%) and skunk (1.60%). We conclude that Lu. cruzi and Lu. whitmani have adapted to the urban environment in this region and that Lu. cruzi is the most likely vector of VL in Jaciara. Moreover, maintenance of Leishmania in the environment is likely aided by the presence of birds and domestic and synanthropic animals.

  17. Soybean Development: The Impact of a Decade of Agricultural Change on Urban and Economic Growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state’s economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso’s economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings. PMID:25919305

  18. Phlebotomine fauna, natural infection rate and feeding habits of Lutzomyia cruzi in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, Veruska Nogueira de; Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de; Nakazato, Luciano; Duarte, Rosemere; Souza, Cladson de Oliveira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco

    2014-11-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is transmitted by the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis and in some midwestern regions by Lutzomyia cruzi. Studies of the phlebotomine fauna, feeding habits and natural infection rate by Leishmania contribute to increased understanding of the epidemiological chain of leishmaniases and their vectorial capacity. Collections were performed in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso from 2010-2013, during which time 2,011 phlebotomines (23 species) were captured (68.70% Lu. cruzi and 20.52% Lutzomyia whitmani). Lu. cruzi females were identified by observing the shapes of the cibarium (a portion of the mouthpart) and spermatheca, from which samples were obtained for polymerase chain reaction to determine the rates of natural infection. Engorged phlebotomines were assessed to identify the blood-meal host by ELISA. A moderate correlation was discovered between the number of Lu. cruzi and the temperature and the minimum rate of infection was 6.10%. Twenty-two females were reactive to the antisera of bird (28%), dog (3.30%) and skunk (1.60%). We conclude that Lu. cruzi and Lu. whitmani have adapted to the urban environment in this region and that Lu. cruzi is the most likely vector of VL in Jaciara. Moreover, maintenance of Leishmania in the environment is likely aided by the presence of birds and domestic and synanthropic animals. PMID:25410993

  19. Estimation of mercury content in tailings of the gold mine area of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    von Tümpling, W; Zeilhofer, P; Ammer, U; Einax, J; Wilken, R D

    1995-07-01

    As in many other parts of the world, gold is produced in the surface mining region of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil, using mercury. The goal of this investigation was to estimate the amount of mercury in certain tailings and to determine the area of the land that has been contaminated by the gold mining operations. Mercury concentrations from 2 to 495 ng/g (dw) were determined in the tailing materials. It was observed that only isolated sites were acting as central points of contamination. Using digital Landsat satellite data (The-matic Mapper) and aerial photos, the sites degraded by the mining were classified, and their total area was estimated to be 12.3 km(2) in the region of Poconé. It was estimated, that 4.9 km(2) were occupied by the contaminated tailings. The mean height of the pile slags was determined to be 4.5 m. From the experimentally calculated average density of the material in the tailings, 2.01 g/cm(3), the total mercury content in the piles of tailings was estimated to be 1600 ± 350 kg.

  20. Phlebotomine fauna, natural infection rate and feeding habits of Lutzomyia cruzi in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Brito, Veruska Nogueira; de Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira; Nakazato, Luciano; Duarte, Rosemere; Souza, Cladson de Oliveira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is transmitted by the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis and in some midwestern regions by Lutzomyia cruzi. Studies of the phlebotomine fauna, feeding habits and natural infection rate by Leishmania contribute to increased understanding of the epidemiological chain of leishmaniases and their vectorial capacity. Collections were performed in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso from 2010-2013, during which time 2,011 phlebotomines (23 species) were captured (68.70% Lu. cruzi and 20.52% Lutzomyia whitmani). Lu. cruzi females were identified by observing the shapes of the cibarium (a portion of the mouthpart) and spermatheca, from which samples were obtained for polymerase chain reaction to determine the rates of natural infection. Engorged phlebotomines were assessed to identify the blood-meal host by ELISA. A moderate correlation was discovered between the number of Lu. cruzi and the temperature and the minimum rate of infection was 6.10%. Twenty-two females were reactive to the antisera of bird (28%), dog (3.30%) and skunk (1.60%). We conclude that Lu. cruzi and Lu. whitmani have adapted to the urban environment in this region and that Lu. cruzi is the most likely vector of VL in Jaciara. Moreover, maintenance of Leishmania in the environment is likely aided by the presence of birds and domestic and synanthropic animals. PMID:25410993

  1. First Record of Edessa meditabunda (F.) on Lettuce in Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Krinski, D; Favetti, B M; Butnariu, A R

    2012-02-01

    We report the first record of the stink bug Edessa meditabunda (F.) on lettuce Lactuca sativa in the organic vegetable garden "Cheiro Verde" in Tangará da Serra, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil (14°37'13″ S, 57°28'46″ W). During September, October, and November 2009, we collected 1,099 adults, 43 nymphs, and 29 egg masses. Feeding by this stink bug possibly caused early bolting. PMID:23950014

  2. Virtual and Embedded Nutrient Flows from Soybean Production in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Couto, E. G.; Johnson, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    The increase in international trade of agricultural products has enabled consumers to take advantage of distant resources to secure their provision of food. However, such a relationship has also distanced consumers from producers, resulting in environmental footprints often externalized to distant countries. For example, half of all soybeans grown in the state of Mato Grosso, the largest Brazilian soybean producer this past decade, were exported to China and Europe in 2009. This study looks at nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) use related to Mato Grosso soybean production and exports to China and Europe in the 2000-2009 period. More specifically we look at 'virtual' and 'embedded' NPK flows to China and Europe, where 'virtual' represents NPK inputs associated with soybean production but not actually embedded in the exported soybeans, and 'embedded' represents the NPK contained within the soybeans. Both virtual and embedded NPK export flows more than doubled between 2000 and 2009, with embedded NPK flows up to 18 times larger than virtual flows on an annual basis. We also quantify nutrient balances resulting from the soybean trade including imported and domestically produced fertilizer. Initial results suggest that the majority of embedded N may cause an issue for importing countries, while virtual P is mostly externalized to Mato Grosso which must rely on limited national production and fertilizer imports to meet P needs. This study contributes towards a more comprehensive understanding of the use of nutrients in soybean production as a component of a more complete environmental impact assessment of this agricultural product.

  3. Ecosystem-scale CH4 and CO2 fluxes in a seasonally flooded scrub forest of the Brazilian Pantanal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlitis, G. L.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Arruda, P. H. Z. D.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Pinto-Jr, O. B.; Lobo, F. D. A.; Couto, E. G.; Nogueira, J. D. S.; Johnson, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Pantanal is the largest floodplain in South America, comprised of a mixture of savannah vegetation with patches of semi-deciduous and seasonally flooded forests. In this study we investigated ecosystem-scale methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and the possible factors that control these fluxes, such as the water level soil temperature and the soil redox potential. Trace gas fluxes were measured using an eddy covariance system installed on a 28 m tall tower. The study area was chosen because it is densely vegetated and experiences a seasonal flood pulse of about 6 months, which is typical for the Northern Pantanal. The measurements were performed over two flood cycles, from December to June 2013/2014 and 2014/2015. Methane fluxes showed a seasonal progression, with higher emission rates during the flooding period and near zero fluxes prior to inundation and again after recession. Major peaks of CH4 (0.30 μmol m-2 s-1) were observed after the soil became completely flooded and soil redox values were < -200 mV. The average (± sd) values of CH4 flux for the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 seasons were 0.10 ± 0.06 μmol m-2 s-1 and 0.14 ± 0.04 μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. In contrast, CO2 fluxes are strongly negative during the flooded period, indicating net CO2 uptake by the forest, with average (± sd) values of -4.12 ± 3.34 μmol m-2 s-1 for 2013/2014 and -4.14 ± 2.62 μmol m-2 s-1 for 2014/2015. These data indicate that seasonally flooded forests of the Pantanal are potentially large sinks for CO2 but strong sources for CH4, especially during the flood pulse when anaerobic soil conditions concomitantly enhance CH4 production and limit CO2 production

  4. Moderate prevalence of transmitted drug resistance and high HIV-1 genetic diversity in patients from Mato Grosso State, Central Western Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Adriana Santarém; Cardoso, Ludimila Paula Vaz; Stefani, Mariane Martins de Araújo

    2011-08-01

    Few reports have described the molecular characteristics of the AIDS epidemic within the interior regions of Brazil, a country of continental dimensions. To help fill this gap, the prevalence of transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) diversity in Mato Grosso State, central western Brazil are reported. Drug-naïve patients (n = 105) were recruited at a reference center in Cuiabá/Mato Grosso State located across the border with Bolivia and considered a southern gate to the Amazon forest. For 92 HIV-1 isolates, the protease and partial reverse transcriptase fragments were amplified by nested-PCR and sequenced. Drug resistance was analyzed by the Calibrated Population Resistance tool and the International AIDS Society-USA database. HIV-1 subtypes were determined by REGA and phylogenetic analyses. Recombinant viruses were analyzed by SIMPLOT. Drug resistance mutations were observed in 5.4%: nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutations M41L (n = 1), D67N (n = 1), and K219E (n = 1), the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor mutation K103N (n = 1) and the protease inhibitor mutation L90M (n = 1). Around 20% of the isolates were recombinants: different patterns of B/F1 mosaics (n = 11), four B/C, one F1/C/B, one F1/C, and one D/F1. Subtype B(PR) B(RT) represented 71.7%, 5.4% were of subtype C(PR) C(RT) and 3.3% were of subtype F1(PR) F1(RT) . A moderate prevalence of transmitted resistance and the co-circulation of subtypes B, F1, C, different recombinants, including the first report of subtype D, were found in Mato Grosso State, far from the epicenter of the epidemic. These results highlight the importance of monitoring transmitted drug resistance and HIV-1 genetic diversity in the interior regions of Brazil.

  5. [Epidemiologic study on tegumentary leishmaniasis in the municipality of Corguinho, Mato Grosso do Sul -- Studies in the human population].

    PubMed

    Nunes, V L; Dorval, M E; Oshiro, E T; Noguchi, R C; Arão, L B; Hans Filho, G; Espíndola, M A; Cristaldo, G; da Rocha, H C; Serafini, L N

    1995-01-01

    A study on the resident population of 150 inhabitants of Boa Sorte in the Municipality of Corguinho, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil was made, from March 1991 to March 1994, to establish the prevalence of South American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (SACL), and to characterize the affected population, in an area of recent transmission. Twelve of the inhabitants showed lesions suspected to be SACL, and in 8 cases it was possible to confirm this by biopsy and parasitology. The mucosal form was found in one patient only, the rest showed the following cutaneous forms: ulcerated (3), ulcero-verrucose (1), hyperkeratotic ulcer (1), infiltrated maccule (1), nodule with florid regional adenopathy (1). All patients reacted favorably to treatment with glucantime, with lesion scarring. Side-effects were rare. The parasite isolated from all patients was identified as Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. The Montenegro skin test, applied to the 150 inhabitants, showed 32 reactive ones. Of these, six were carriers of the disease, 21 showed sequelae suggestive of the disease and five showed no signs of infection. The age grouping of the cohort ranged from 22 to 78 years, 75% being male. To date, transmission is suspected to be in the peridomicile.

  6. Economic analysis of vaccination to control bovine brucellosis in the States of Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, A J S; Rocha, F; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Telles, E O; Grisi Filho, J H H; Ferreira Neto, J S; Zylbersztajn, D; Dias, R A

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that causes important economic losses in Brazil, and the country has therefore established a national program for its control and eradication. Using data generated in the last national brucellosis survey, we conducted an economic analysis in two Brazilian States with different brucellosis status, Mato Grosso (with high prevalence) and Sao Paulo (with low prevalence). The economic analysis was based on the calculation of the additional benefits and costs of controlling bovine brucellosis through the vaccination of heifers aged between 3 and 8 months with S19 vaccine, considering maximal and minimal impacts of the disease. The analysis showed that vaccinating 90% of the replacement heifers aged 3-8 months of age offers the best economic performance in a vaccination program against bovine brucellosis if compared to vaccination rates of 70% and 80%. Moreover, regions with higher prevalences of bovine brucellosis would experience significant economic advantages when implementing a vaccination strategy to control the disease. This economic analysis will allow decision makers to plan more economically effective vaccination programs.

  7. Detection of Oropouche virus segment S in patients and inCulex quinquefasciatus in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Serra, Otacília Pereira; Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; Zuchi, Nayara; de Souza, Victor Costa; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; dos Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the circulation of Orthobunyavirus species in the state of Mato Grosso (MT) Brazil. During a dengue outbreak in 2011/2012, 529 serum samples were collected from patients with acute febrile illness with symptoms for up to five days and 387 pools of female Culex quinquefasciatus captured in 2013 were subjected to nested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for segment S of the Simbu serogroup followed by nucleotide sequencing and virus isolation in Vero cells. Patients (5/529; 0.9%) from Cuiabá (n = 3), Várzea Grande (n = 1) and Nova Mutum (n = 1) municipalities were positive for the S segment of Oropouche virus (OROV). Additionally, eight/387 Cx. quinquefasciatus pools were positive for the segment, with a minimum infection rate of 2.3. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the samples belong to the subgenotype Ia, presenting high homology with OROV strains obtained from humans and animals in the Brazilian Amazon. The present paper reports the first detection of an Orthobunyavirus, possibly OROV, in patients and in Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in MT. This finding reinforces the notion that arboviruses frequently reported in the Amazon Region circulate sporadically in MT during dengue outbreaks. PMID:26517653

  8. Detection of Oropouche virus segment S in patients and inCulex quinquefasciatus in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Serra, Otacília Pereira; Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; Zuchi, Nayara; Souza, Victor Costa de; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes dos; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate the circulation of Orthobunyavirus species in the state of Mato Grosso (MT) Brazil. During a dengue outbreak in 2011/2012, 529 serum samples were collected from patients with acute febrile illness with symptoms for up to five days and 387 pools of female Culex quinquefasciatus captured in 2013 were subjected to nested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for segment S of the Simbu serogroup followed by nucleotide sequencing and virus isolation in Vero cells. Patients (5/529; 0.9%) from Cuiabá (n = 3), Várzea Grande (n = 1) and Nova Mutum (n = 1) municipalities were positive for the S segment of Oropouche virus (OROV). Additionally, eight/387 Cx. quinquefasciatus pools were positive for the segment, with a minimum infection rate of 2.3. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the samples belong to the subgenotype Ia, presenting high homology with OROV strains obtained from humans and animals in the Brazilian Amazon. The present paper reports the first detection of an Orthobunyavirus, possibly OROV, in patients and in Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in MT. This finding reinforces the notion that arboviruses frequently reported in the Amazon Region circulate sporadically in MT during dengue outbreaks.

  9. Characterizing a Dynamic Land Cover Change Frontier Using MODIS Phenology Metrics: Cropland Expansion in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Morisette, J.

    2005-12-01

    The state of Mato Grosso, Brazil experienced the most rapid agricultural expansion of any region in the Amazon Basin during the existing MODIS data record. Rapid conversion of Amazon forest, transitional tropical forest, and cerrado woodland-savanna for cattle ranching and grain production continues to fragment large tracts of these biomes. Tropical forest loss is estimated annually, yet the fate of cleared lands and losses of transitional forest or cerrado have not been well characterized in this region. Using phenological information from time series of MODIS 16-day composite data, it is possible to capture the temporal dynamism of land cover change and accurately separate primary and secondary land use transitions. We use time series of cloud-cleaned MODIS NDVI and EVI at 250 m resolution to characterize land cover based on metrics of wet-season, dry-season, and annual phenology from 2000-2004. Distinct phenological signatures for forest, pasture and natural grasslands, cerrado, and cropland enable accurate classification of land cover types when compared to field validation data (overall accuracy = 85%). We estimate that more than 1.6 million hectares were converted to cropland between 2000 and 2004. The majority of new cropland resulted from the direct conversion of cerrado (35%) or forest (29%); conversion of natural grassland areas or planted pasture accounted for 36% of new cropland areas. While secondary transitions from existing cattle pasture to cropland are an important source of new agricultural production, our findings contradict recent statements that cropland agriculture is not directly associated with new deforestation activities. Separation of more seasonal cerrado vegetation from transitional tropical forest based on vegetation phenology highlights land cover dynamics in regions with no previous deforestation monitoring. Phenological information from MODIS is extremely important to monitor land cover dynamics, separate forest types, and estimate

  10. Karyotypic description of the stingless bee Oxytrigona cf. flaveola (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponina) of a colony from Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to broaden knowledge on the cytogenetics of the subtribe Meliponina, by furnishing cytogenetic data as a contribution to the characterization of bees from the genus Oxytrigona. Individuals of the species Oxytrigona cf. flaveola, members of a colony from Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, were studied. The chromosome number was 2n = 34, distributed among four chromosomal morphologies, with the karyotype formula 8m+8sm+16st+2t. Size heteromorphism in the first metacentric pair, subsequently confirmed by sequential staining with fluorochrome (DA/DAPI/CMA3 ), was apparent in all the examined individuals The nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) are possibly located in this metacentric chromosome pair. These data will contribute towards a better understanding of the genus Oxytrigona. Given that species in this group are threatened, the importance of their preservation and conservation can be shown in a sensible, concise fashion through studies such as this. PMID:21637423

  11. Physical mapping of 5S rDNA in two species of Knifefishes: Gymnotus pantanal and Gymnotus paraguensis (Gymnotiformes).

    PubMed

    da Silva, M; Matoso, D A; Vicari, M R; de Almeida, M C; Margarido, V P; Artoni, R F

    2011-01-01

    Physical mapping of 5S rDNA in 2 species of knifefishes, Gymnotuspantanal and G. paraguensis (Gymnotiformes), was performed using fluorescence in situ hybridization with a 5S rDNA probe. The 5S rDNA PCR product from the genomes of both species was also sequenced and aligned to determine non-transcribed spacer sequences (NTS). Both species under study had different patterns of 5S rDNA gene cluster distribution. While in the karyotype of G. pantanal two 5S rDNA-bearing pairs were observed, the karyotype of G. paraguensis possessed as many as 19 such pairs. Such multiplication of 5S rDNA gene clusters might be caused by the involvement of transposable elements because the NTS of G. paraguensis was 400 bp long with high identity (90%) with a mobile transposable element called Tc1-like transposon, described from the cyprinid fish Labeo rohita.

  12. Estimation of ocelot density in the pantanal using capture-recapture analysis of camera-trapping data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trolle, M.; Kery, M.

    2003-01-01

    Neotropical felids such as the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) are secretive, and it is difficult to estimate their populations using conventional methods such as radiotelemetry or sign surveys. We show that recognition of individual ocelots from camera-trapping photographs is possible, and we use camera-trapping results combined with closed population capture-recapture models to estimate density of ocelots in the Brazilian Pantanal. We estimated the area from which animals were camera trapped at 17.71 km2. A model with constant capture probability yielded an estimate of 10 independent ocelots in our study area, which translates to a density of 2.82 independent individuals for every 5 km2 (SE 1.00).

  13. Mercury distribution in organs of fish species and the associated risk in traditional subsistence villagers of the Pantanal wetland.

    PubMed

    Ceccatto, Ana P S; Testoni, Magalei C; Ignácio, Aurea R A; Santos-Filho, Manoel; Malm, Olaf; Díez, Sergi

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the risk to human health from mercury (Hg) exposure through fish consumption in the Pantanal, Brazil. In order to address these risks, Hg concentrations and accumulation patterns were determined in target organs of predatory fish (Crenicichla lepidota and Pygocentrus nattereri). Levels of Hg were analysed during the two phases of the flood pulse (flood and drought) in fish from different local ecosystems, such as the Bento Gomes and Paraguay rivers. Although the former study area is directly affected by gold mining, a higher, but not significantly different, Hg concentration in fish was found compared with fish at the Paraguay River, which is regarded as pristine area. Moreover, no seasonal variability was found in either river. Although total mercury levels in fish did not exceed the maximum FAO/WHO threshold (0.5 μg g(-1)), according to dietary habits in riverine communities of the Pantanal (up to 6 oz of fish per day), there is reason for concern over the potential for deleterious health effects that could be caused by high Hg intake. In fact, the estimated daily intake in the present study ranged from 0.49 to 1.08 μg Hg kg(-1) day(-1), for adults (including women of childbearing age) and children, respectively. Because of high Hg intakes in riverine groups, which exceed the recommended reference dose value, these communities could be considered at risk. Therefore, it is necessary to consider regulatory measures and public education regarding fish consumption, particularly in vulnerable groups (i.e. children, pregnant women and women of childbearing age). PMID:26337755

  14. Mercury distribution in organs of fish species and the associated risk in traditional subsistence villagers of the Pantanal wetland.

    PubMed

    Ceccatto, Ana P S; Testoni, Magalei C; Ignácio, Aurea R A; Santos-Filho, Manoel; Malm, Olaf; Díez, Sergi

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the risk to human health from mercury (Hg) exposure through fish consumption in the Pantanal, Brazil. In order to address these risks, Hg concentrations and accumulation patterns were determined in target organs of predatory fish (Crenicichla lepidota and Pygocentrus nattereri). Levels of Hg were analysed during the two phases of the flood pulse (flood and drought) in fish from different local ecosystems, such as the Bento Gomes and Paraguay rivers. Although the former study area is directly affected by gold mining, a higher, but not significantly different, Hg concentration in fish was found compared with fish at the Paraguay River, which is regarded as pristine area. Moreover, no seasonal variability was found in either river. Although total mercury levels in fish did not exceed the maximum FAO/WHO threshold (0.5 μg g(-1)), according to dietary habits in riverine communities of the Pantanal (up to 6 oz of fish per day), there is reason for concern over the potential for deleterious health effects that could be caused by high Hg intake. In fact, the estimated daily intake in the present study ranged from 0.49 to 1.08 μg Hg kg(-1) day(-1), for adults (including women of childbearing age) and children, respectively. Because of high Hg intakes in riverine groups, which exceed the recommended reference dose value, these communities could be considered at risk. Therefore, it is necessary to consider regulatory measures and public education regarding fish consumption, particularly in vulnerable groups (i.e. children, pregnant women and women of childbearing age).

  15. Chaco Chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis, Wagler, 1830) feeding ecology in a gallery forest in the South Pantanal (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Ragusa-Netto, J

    2015-01-01

    Cracids are generalist frugivores, which often exploit plant food resources such as flowers and leaves, mainly when fruit production declines. The Chaco chachalaca (Ortalis canicollis) is the most abundant cracid in the Pantanal (Brazil), and particularly common in the gallery forests. However, the factors related to their occurrence in this habitat type are unclear. In this study I describe the feeding habits and feeding niche breadth fluctuations of the Chaco chachalaca in relation to food resources abundance and diversity at the Miranda river gallery forest (Southern Pantanal). I also analyzed the relationships between Chaco chachalacas feeding activity and food resources abundance. This parameter (flowers and fruits) exhibited significant seasonal differences of abundance in which flowers were plentiful at the end of the dry, while fruits were abundant during the early wet season. However, food resources diversity to Chaco chachalacas exhibited no seasonal difference. Their feeding activity paralleled the availability of food resources, so that when some items were massively available an enhanced number of Chaco chachalacas foraged in the gallery forest, particularly during the prolonged dry season when they extensively used flowers and Genipa americana fruits. In fact, the Chaco chachalaca feeding niche breadth value presented low values in this period, while high values were common in the rest of the year. The flexible diet of this cracid, potentially favors their year round presence in the gallery forest, mainly during the prolonged dry season when the propensity for famine might be high. Since the Chaco chachalaca is among the largest and most abundant canopy frugivores in the gallery forest, it may contribute to forest regeneration, an underscored role due to the impact of annual floods and meandering dynamics on tree loss.

  16. Organic Control of Dioctahedral and Trioctahedral Clay Formation in an Alkaline Soil System in the Pantanal Wetland of Nhecolândia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbiero, Laurent; Berger, Gilles; Rezende Filho, Ary T; Meunier, Jean-François; Martins-Silva, Elisângela R; Furian, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the formation of authigenic clays in an alkaline soil system surrounding lakes of the Nhecolândia region, Pantanal wetland. The presence of trioctahedral Mg-smectites (stevensite and saponite types), which requires low Al and Fe contents in the soil solution for its formation, contrasts with the neoformation of dioctahedral Fe-mica (glauconite, and Fe-illite), which instead requires solutions relatively enriched in Al and Fe. This study aims to understand the conditions of co-existence of both, Mg-smectite and Fe-mica a common clay association in former or modern alkaline soil systems and sediments. The study was carried out along an alkaline soil catena representative of the region. The soil organization revealed that Mg-smectite occur in top soil close to the lake, whereas Fe-mica dominate in the clay fraction of deeper greenish horizons a few meters apart. We propose here that this spatial distribution is controlled by the lateral transfer of Fe and Al with organic ligands. Alkaline organic rich solutions (DOC up to 738 mg L-1) collected in the watertable were centrifuged and filtered through membranes of decreasing pore size (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm, 30 KDa, 10 KDa, 3 KDa) to separate colloidal and dissolved fractions. Fe, Al, Si, Mg and K were analysed for each fraction. Although the filtration had no influence on Si and K contents, almost 90% of Fe (up to 2.3 mg L-1) and Al (up to 7 mg L-1) are retained at the first cutoff threshold of 0.45μm. The treatment of the same solutions by oxygen peroxide before filtration shows that a large proportion of Fe and Al were bonded to organic colloids in alkaline soil solution at the immediate lake border, allowing Mg-smectite precipitation. The fast mineralization of the organic matter a few meters apart from the lake favors the release of Fe and Al necessary for Fe-mica neoformation. In comparison with chemical and mineralogical characteristics of alkaline environments described in the

  17. Organic Control of Dioctahedral and Trioctahedral Clay Formation in an Alkaline Soil System in the Pantanal Wetland of Nhecolândia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Jean-François; Martins-Silva, Elisângela R.; Furian, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the formation of authigenic clays in an alkaline soil system surrounding lakes of the Nhecolândia region, Pantanal wetland. The presence of trioctahedral Mg-smectites (stevensite and saponite types), which requires low Al and Fe contents in the soil solution for its formation, contrasts with the neoformation of dioctahedral Fe-mica (glauconite, and Fe-illite), which instead requires solutions relatively enriched in Al and Fe. This study aims to understand the conditions of co-existence of both, Mg-smectite and Fe-mica a common clay association in former or modern alkaline soil systems and sediments. The study was carried out along an alkaline soil catena representative of the region. The soil organization revealed that Mg-smectite occur in top soil close to the lake, whereas Fe-mica dominate in the clay fraction of deeper greenish horizons a few meters apart. We propose here that this spatial distribution is controlled by the lateral transfer of Fe and Al with organic ligands. Alkaline organic rich solutions (DOC up to 738 mg L-1) collected in the watertable were centrifuged and filtered through membranes of decreasing pore size (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm, 30 KDa, 10 KDa, 3 KDa) to separate colloidal and dissolved fractions. Fe, Al, Si, Mg and K were analysed for each fraction. Although the filtration had no influence on Si and K contents, almost 90% of Fe (up to 2.3 mg L-1) and Al (up to 7 mg L-1) are retained at the first cutoff threshold of 0.45μm. The treatment of the same solutions by oxygen peroxide before filtration shows that a large proportion of Fe and Al were bonded to organic colloids in alkaline soil solution at the immediate lake border, allowing Mg-smectite precipitation. The fast mineralization of the organic matter a few meters apart from the lake favors the release of Fe and Al necessary for Fe-mica neoformation. In comparison with chemical and mineralogical characteristics of alkaline environments described in the

  18. Organic Control of Dioctahedral and Trioctahedral Clay Formation in an Alkaline Soil System in the Pantanal Wetland of Nhecolândia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbiero, Laurent; Berger, Gilles; Rezende Filho, Ary T; Meunier, Jean-François; Martins-Silva, Elisângela R; Furian, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the formation of authigenic clays in an alkaline soil system surrounding lakes of the Nhecolândia region, Pantanal wetland. The presence of trioctahedral Mg-smectites (stevensite and saponite types), which requires low Al and Fe contents in the soil solution for its formation, contrasts with the neoformation of dioctahedral Fe-mica (glauconite, and Fe-illite), which instead requires solutions relatively enriched in Al and Fe. This study aims to understand the conditions of co-existence of both, Mg-smectite and Fe-mica a common clay association in former or modern alkaline soil systems and sediments. The study was carried out along an alkaline soil catena representative of the region. The soil organization revealed that Mg-smectite occur in top soil close to the lake, whereas Fe-mica dominate in the clay fraction of deeper greenish horizons a few meters apart. We propose here that this spatial distribution is controlled by the lateral transfer of Fe and Al with organic ligands. Alkaline organic rich solutions (DOC up to 738 mg L-1) collected in the watertable were centrifuged and filtered through membranes of decreasing pore size (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm, 30 KDa, 10 KDa, 3 KDa) to separate colloidal and dissolved fractions. Fe, Al, Si, Mg and K were analysed for each fraction. Although the filtration had no influence on Si and K contents, almost 90% of Fe (up to 2.3 mg L-1) and Al (up to 7 mg L-1) are retained at the first cutoff threshold of 0.45μm. The treatment of the same solutions by oxygen peroxide before filtration shows that a large proportion of Fe and Al were bonded to organic colloids in alkaline soil solution at the immediate lake border, allowing Mg-smectite precipitation. The fast mineralization of the organic matter a few meters apart from the lake favors the release of Fe and Al necessary for Fe-mica neoformation. In comparison with chemical and mineralogical characteristics of alkaline environments described in the

  19. Phenotypic and molecular fingerprinting of fast growing rhizobia of field-grown pigeonpea from the eastern edge of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Costa, F M; Schiavo, J A; Brasil, M S; Leite, J; Xavier, G R; Fernandes, P I

    2014-01-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of rhizobial isolates obtained from root nodules of pigeonpea plants grown at the eastern edge of the Brazilian Pantanal. The bacterial isolates were isolated from root nodules from field-growing pigeonpea grown in two rural settlements of the Aquidauana municipality. The bacterial isolates were characterized phenotypically by means of cultural characterization, intrinsic antibiotic resistance (IAR), salt and high incubation temperature tolerance, and amylolytic and cellulolytic activities. The molecular characterization of the bacterial isolates was carried out using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and Box-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. In addition, the symbiotic performance of selected rhizobial isolates was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment using sterile substrate. The phenotypic characterization revealed that the bacterial strains obtained from pigeonpea root nodules presented characteristics that are uncommon among rhizobial isolates, indicating the presence of new species nodulating the pigeonpea plants in the Brazilian Pantanal. The molecular fingerprinting of these bacterial isolates also showed a highly diverse collection, with both techniques revealing less than 25% similarity among bacterial isolates. The evaluation of symbiotic performance also indicated the presence of microorganisms with high potential to increase the growth and nitrogen content at the shoots of pigeonpea plants. The results obtained in this study indicate the presence of a highly diversified rhizobial community nodulating the pigeonpea at the eastern edge of the Brazilian Pantanal.

  20. Age-related and stand-wise estimates of carbon stocks and sequestration in the aboveground coarse wood biomass of wetland forests in the northern Pantanal, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöngart, J.; Arieira, J.; Felfili Fortes, C.; Cezarine de Arruda, E.; Nunes da Cunha, C.

    2011-11-01

    In this study we use allometric models combined with tree ring analysis to estimate carbon stocks and sequestration in the aboveground coarse wood biomass (AGWB) of wetland forests in the Pantanal, located in central South America. In four 1-ha plots in stands characterized by the pioneer tree species Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae) forest inventories (trees ≥10 cm diameter at breast height, D) have been performed and converted to estimates of AGWB by two allometric models using three independent parameters (D, tree height H and wood density ρ). We perform a propagation of measurement errors to estimate uncertainties in the estimates of AGWB. Carbon stocks of AGWB vary from 7.8 ± 1.5 to 97.2 ± 14.4 Mg C ha-1 between the four stands. From models relating tree ages determined by dendrochronological techniques to C-stocks in AGWB we derived estimates for C-sequestration which differs from 0.50 ± 0.03 to 3.34 ± 0.31 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Maps based on geostatistic techniques indicate the heterogeneous spatial distribution of tree ages and C-stocks of the four studied stands. This distribution is the result of forest dynamics due to the colonizing and retreating of V. divergens and other species associated with pluriannual wet and dry episodes in the Pantanal, respectively. Such information is essential for the management of the cultural landscape of the Pantanal wetlands.

  1. Observations on the thermal selection of the pantanal caiman (Caiman crocodilus yacare) hatchlings (Crocodylia: Alligatoridae).

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, M S; Andreotti E Silva, R A; Santos, S A

    2001-05-01

    Three options of water temperatures in a thermal gradient that changed from 22 to 35 degrees C were offered to Pantanal caiman (Caiman croocodilus yacare) hatchlings. Animals from two nests were submitted to temperatures during 19 days (Nest 1 -- 20 caimans caught in the nature hours after hatching), corresponding to 1 to 7 observations periods, and 13 days (Nest 2 -- 20 animals obtained by artificial incubation) relative to observation period 8. Caimans remain fasting during experimental period. Hatchlings were allocated in a enclosure containing three styrofoam boxes (120 L) disposed side by side enclosed by wire netting and filled with water to the top. Thus, the animals were free to access the boxes, which temperatures were changed at the end of each observation period to avoid position effects. Air temperature was keep close to 22 degrees C by air conditioning and water temperature was controlled by thermostats. The trial was divided in three phases determined by elimination of the less frequented temperature and its substitution by another temperature. In a first phase of the experiment that contained 1, 2 and 3 observation periods, the thermostats were regulated to 22 degrees C (BoxD), 26 degrees C (BxC) and 32 degrees C (BxA). In phase 2 to 26 degrees C, 29.5 degrees C (BxB) and 32 degrees C, including 4, 5 and 6 periods. In the third phase that included 7 and 8 periods, the thermostats were adjusted to 29.5 degrees C, 32 degrees C and 35 degrees C (BxE). The number of caimans in each box was recorded two to three times a day (8:00, 14:00 and 17:00h) before pointed water temperature. Mean water temperatures (+ standard deviation) and respective caiman frequency means by box/temperature were: Phase 1 (BxD/22.3 +/- 1.2 degrees C - 10.3%; BxC/27.0 +/- 2.4 degrees C - 32.0% and BxA/31.2 +/- 1.1 degrees C - 57.6%); Phase 2 (BxC/26.6 +/- 2.8 degrees C - 13.3%; BxB/29.3 +/- 2.2 degrees C - 27.7% and BxA/31.3 +/- 1.2 degrees C - 59.0%) and Phase 3 (BxB/29.5 +/- 3

  2. Gerromorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of eastern Mato Grosso State, Brazil: checklist, new records, and species distribution modeling.

    PubMed

    Dias-Silva, Karina; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo; Giehl, Nubia França Da Silva; Nóbrega, Caroline Correa; Cabette, Helena Soares Ramos

    2013-01-01

    The infraorder Gerromorpha comprises semiaquatic bugs, most of which spend much of their lifetime on the water surface, between floating plants, or on the margins of water bodies. Based on literature and collections made on streams and lakes on municipalities of eastern Mato Grosso, Brazil, a list has been elaborated with 52 species, including several new records. Out of the recorded species, 26 belong to the family Veliidae, 20 to Gerridae, three to Hydrometridae, two to Mesoveliidae, and one to Hebridae. The modeling of the potential geographical distribution is also presented for the 20 species that have been recorded for the first time from the state.

  3. Gerromorpha (Hemiptera: Heteroptera) of eastern Mato Grosso State, Brazil: checklist, new records, and species distribution modeling.

    PubMed

    Dias-Silva, Karina; Moreira, Felipe Ferraz Figueiredo; Giehl, Nubia França Da Silva; Nóbrega, Caroline Correa; Cabette, Helena Soares Ramos

    2013-01-01

    The infraorder Gerromorpha comprises semiaquatic bugs, most of which spend much of their lifetime on the water surface, between floating plants, or on the margins of water bodies. Based on literature and collections made on streams and lakes on municipalities of eastern Mato Grosso, Brazil, a list has been elaborated with 52 species, including several new records. Out of the recorded species, 26 belong to the family Veliidae, 20 to Gerridae, three to Hydrometridae, two to Mesoveliidae, and one to Hebridae. The modeling of the potential geographical distribution is also presented for the 20 species that have been recorded for the first time from the state. PMID:25112624

  4. Geologic survey in the south-central region of Mato Grosso

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Balieiro, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    The field observations made in the Cuiaba Project area are described. Many geologic cross-sections were done in which the stratigraphic units and the geologic structures defined in the literature and observed in the LANDSAT MSS imagery were recognized.

  5. What Shapes the Phylogenetic Structure of Anuran Communities in a Seasonal Environment? The Influence of Determinism at Regional Scale to Stochasticity or Antagonistic Forces at Local Scale

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Vanda Lúcia; Strüssmann, Christine; Tomas, Walfrido Moraes

    2015-01-01

    Ecological communities are structured by both deterministic and stochastic processes. We investigated phylogenetic patterns at regional and local scales to understand the influences of seasonal processes in shaping the structure of anuran communities in the southern Pantanal wetland, Brazil. We assessed the phylogenetic structure at different scales, using the Net Relatedness Index (NRI), the Nearest Taxon Index (NTI), and phylobetadiversity indexes, as well as a permutation test, to evaluate the effect of seasonality. The anuran community was represented by a non-random set of species with a high degree of phylogenetic relatedness at the regional scale. However, at the local scale the phylogenetic structure of the community was weakly related with the seasonality of the system, indicating that oriented stochastic processes (e.g. colonization, extinction and ecological drift) and/or antagonist forces drive the structure of such communities in the southern Pantanal. PMID:26102202

  6. Ixodid fauna and zoonotic agents in ticks from dogs: first report of Rickettsia rickettsii in Rhipicephalus sanguineus in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, mid-western Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Robson Ferreira Cavalcante; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Matias, Jaqueline; e Silva, Elaine Araújo; de Fatima Cepa Matos, Maria; Andreotti, Renato

    2013-05-01

    Ticks from 148 dogs from the urban area of the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were collected, classified and analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the identification of Rickettsia spp., Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. A total of 2015 ticks were collected. The species Rhipicephalus sanguineus (98.9 %) and Amblyomma cajennense (1.1 %) were identified. Molecular analysis revealed that no tick samples were infected by T. cruzi. Regarding Leishmania spp., tick samples from 36 dogs spread across all regions of the municipality were positive for L. chagasi. One tick sample was positive for Rickettsia spp. (gltA gene) in the PCR reaction. This sample was submitted to further PCR based on the ompA gene and the amplicon was sequenced. Identity of 100 % was found with homologous sequences of R. rickettsii available in GenBank. This paper is the first to report the natural infection of R. sanguineus by R. rickettsii in the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, mid-western Brazil.

  7. Parasitism rates of Lipoptena guimaraesi and a new record of Lipoptena mazamae on Ozotoceros bezoarticus from the Central Pantanal wetlands in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Graciolli, Gustavo; Zucco, Carlos André; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Mourão, Guilherme

    2011-01-01

    From May to October of 2006 we collected 143 louse flies of the genus Lipoptena on the body surface of 16 pampas deer Ozotocerus bezoarticus captured in four farms from the central area of the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands. We also examined 172 cattle individuals and none of them had louse flies. Most of the parasites identified were Lipoptena guimaraesi but one specimen of L. mazamae was also found, representing a new host record for this ked fly. The prevalence of L. guimaraesi was 93.8%, the mean intensity of infestation was 9.5, and the index of discrepancy was 0.444. PMID:21722497

  8. Introduction of the dengue virus type 4 in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bertolacci-Rocha, Lívia Garcia; Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio da; Lichs, Gislene Garcia de Castro; Dal Fabbro, Márcia Maria Ferrairo Janini; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra

    2014-08-01

    We report on the first isolation of dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in February, 2012. The cases were isolated in the city of Campo Grande, the state capital, and presented the classic signs and symptoms of dengue fever. DENV-4 was primarily identified through viral isolation in C6/36 clone lineage of Aedes albopictus cells; followed by indirect immunofluorescence, using type-specific monoclonal antibodies. The results were subsequently confirmed by Nested RT-PCR tests. The first description of the introduction of DENV-4 in a state whose population is susceptible to this serotype and the circulation of three other serotypes in the area is cause for concern due to the increased possibility of severe and lethal cases of the disease, and of huge epidemics. PMID:25210917

  9. Farm-scale distribution of deforestation and remaining forest cover in Mato Grosso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Peter D.; Vanwey, Leah

    2016-04-01

    An analysis of data on property size and type as well as land use reveals the distribution of deforestation, remaining forest cover and carbon stocks in Mato Grosso, Brazil's third largest state. Nearly two-thirds of remaining forests and carbon reserves, equating to between 2 and 3 Pg of carbon, are located on private properties. Around 80% of forests and carbon reserves are on properties larger than 1,000 ha, with smallholder farms and public land reform settlements controlling only a tiny fraction of the state's remaining forest and carbon reserves. Efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation must target owners controlling most of the remaining forest and land types with the highest deforestation rates. We thus suggest that policymakers seeking to protect the remaining forest should focus both incentives and enforcement of anti-deforestation laws in the larger properties where most of these forests are located.

  10. Introduction of the dengue virus type 4 in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bertolacci-Rocha, Lívia Garcia; Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio da; Lichs, Gislene Garcia de Castro; Dal Fabbro, Márcia Maria Ferrairo Janini; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra

    2014-08-01

    We report on the first isolation of dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in February, 2012. The cases were isolated in the city of Campo Grande, the state capital, and presented the classic signs and symptoms of dengue fever. DENV-4 was primarily identified through viral isolation in C6/36 clone lineage of Aedes albopictus cells; followed by indirect immunofluorescence, using type-specific monoclonal antibodies. The results were subsequently confirmed by Nested RT-PCR tests. The first description of the introduction of DENV-4 in a state whose population is susceptible to this serotype and the circulation of three other serotypes in the area is cause for concern due to the increased possibility of severe and lethal cases of the disease, and of huge epidemics.

  11. Observational descriptive study of cutaneous manifestations in patients from Mato Grosso with viral chronic hepatitis*

    PubMed Central

    Rostey, Renato Roberto Liberato; Souto, Francisco José Dutra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Extrahepatic manifestations are seen in association with chronic infection by hepatitis B or C virus including cutaneous disorders. The frequency of these findings seems to vary among different places and reports. There is a lack of information about this issue in Brazil. OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of cutaneous findings affecting HBV or HCV carriers from a reference outpatient unit in Mato Grosso. METHODS A cross-sectional observational study. RESULTS 108 patients were studied. 88.9% presented some cutaneous findings but must of them were nonrelated to chronic viral infection. Four patients had cutaneous or autoimmune syndromes that may be HBV or HCV related. CONCLUSION In our study we found no statistical association between viral hepatitis and skin diseases. PMID:26734863

  12. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M M; Uchôa, M A; Ide, S

    2013-02-01

    Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Dung Beetles are important for biological control of intestinal worms and dipterans of economic importance to cattle, because they feed and breed in dung, killing parasites inside it. They are also very useful as bioindicators of species diversity in agricultural or natural environments. The aims of this paper were to study the species richness, and abundance of dung beetles, helping to answer the question: are there differences in the patterns of dung beetle diversity in three environments (pasture, agriculture and forest) in the municipality of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 105 samplings were carried out weekly, from November 2005 to November 2007, using three pitfall traps in each environment. The traps were baited with fresh bovine dung, and 44,355 adult dung beetles from 54 species were captured: two from Hyborosidae and 52 from Scarabaeidae. Five species were constant, very abundant and dominant on the pasture, two in the agricultural environment, and two in the environment of Semideciduous forest. Most of the species were characterised as accessories, common and not-dominant. The species with higher abundance was Ataenius platensis Blanchard, 1844. The indexes of Shannon-Wiener diversity were: 2.90 in the pasture, 2.84 in the agricultural environment and 2.66 in the area of native forest. The medium positive presence of dung beetles in the traps in each environment were: 36.88, 42.73 and 20.18 individuals per trap, in the pasture, agricultural environment and in the native forest, respectively. The pasture environment presented a higher diversity index. The species diversity of dung beetles was superior where there was higher abundance and regularity of resource (bovine dung).

  13. [Epidemiological trends for malaria in the cities of the upper Paraguay River basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil 1990-1996].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, W K; Vicente, M G; Silva, M A; de Castro, L L

    1998-01-01

    Through the Regional Office of the Brazilian National Health Foundation in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, we obtained numerical data on malaria for the upper Paraguay basin (UPB): 159 cases in 1990, 126 in 1991, 135 in 1992, 61 in 1993, 143 in 1994, 41 in 1995, and 20 in 1996, the majority of which were imported cases. There were no autochthonous cases in 1990, and since 1991 the rates of over 15% dropped to around 1.60%. Imported cases, corresponding to 0. 63% in 1990, increased in 1991 and 1992 to some 1.50%, and to 3.28% in 1993. Induced cases were recorded only in 1991 and 1992 (less than 1%). Most cases were between 16 and 45 years of age. There was a predominance of Plasmodium vivax in the thick blood smears. Although autochthonous cases of malaria are not the majority, the disease is still an important public health problem in the UPB in the presence of the Anopheles (N.) darlingi vector and human migration into the region.

  14. [Epidemiological trends for malaria in the cities of the upper Paraguay River basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil 1990-1996].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, W K; Vicente, M G; Silva, M A; de Castro, L L

    1998-01-01

    Through the Regional Office of the Brazilian National Health Foundation in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, we obtained numerical data on malaria for the upper Paraguay basin (UPB): 159 cases in 1990, 126 in 1991, 135 in 1992, 61 in 1993, 143 in 1994, 41 in 1995, and 20 in 1996, the majority of which were imported cases. There were no autochthonous cases in 1990, and since 1991 the rates of over 15% dropped to around 1.60%. Imported cases, corresponding to 0. 63% in 1990, increased in 1991 and 1992 to some 1.50%, and to 3.28% in 1993. Induced cases were recorded only in 1991 and 1992 (less than 1%). Most cases were between 16 and 45 years of age. There was a predominance of Plasmodium vivax in the thick blood smears. Although autochthonous cases of malaria are not the majority, the disease is still an important public health problem in the UPB in the presence of the Anopheles (N.) darlingi vector and human migration into the region. PMID:9878912

  15. Epidemiological study on leishmaniasis in an area of environmental tourism and ecotourism, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Ana Rachel Oliveira de; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; de Arruda, Carla Cardozo Pinto; Santos, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; Rocca, Maria Elizabeth Gizi; Aquino, Ricardo Braga

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to carry out a serological survey of canine leishmaniasis and identify the phlebotomine fauna in the urban area of Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul. The serological survey was conducted on a sample of 303 dogs, by means of the indirect immunofluorescence test. Phlebotomines were captured using automated light traps. The serological survey found that 30% of the dogs were seropositive, both from the center and from all districts of the town. A total of 2,772 specimens of phlebotomines were caught and the species most found was Lutzomyia longipalpis (90.4%), which corroborated its role as the vector of for canine visceral leishmaniasis in the region. Phlebotomines of the species Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (the main vector for Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis) and Nyssomyia whitmani (the vector for Leishmania (Viannia) brasiliensis) were also caught. The findings indicate the need for continuous epidemiological surveillance, with attention towards diminishing the vector breeding sites and the transmission of these diseases in that region.

  16. Health assessment of wild lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) populations in the Atlantic Forest and Pantanal biomes, Brazil (1996-2012).

    PubMed

    Medici, Emília Patrícia; Mangini, Paulo Rogerio; Fernandes-Santos, Renata Carolina

    2014-10-01

    Abstract The lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is found in South America and is listed as Vulnerable to Extinction by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species. Health issues, particularly infectious diseases, are potential threats for the species. Health information from 65 wild tapirs from two Brazilian biomes, Atlantic Forest (AF) and Pantanal (PA), were collected during a long-term study (1996-2012). The study included physic, hematologic and biochemical evaluations, microbiologic cultures, urinalysis, and serologic analyses for antibodies against 13 infectious agents (viral and bacterial). The AF and PA tapirs were significantly different for several hematologic and biochemical parameters. Ten bacteria taxa were identified in the AF and 26 in the PA. Antibodies against five viruses were detected: Bluetongue virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, western equine encephalitis virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and porcine parvovirus. A high prevalence of exposure to Leptospira interrogans (10 serovars: Autumnalis, Bratislava, Canicola, Copenhageni, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Hebdomadis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, and Pyrogenes) was detected in both the AF and PA sites. A greater diversity of serovars and higher antibody titers were found in the PA. Statistically significant differences between sites were found for L. interrogans, equine encephalitis virus, and porcine parvovirus. Based on physical evaluations, both AF and PA populations were healthy. The differences in the overall health profile of the AF and PA tapir populations appear to be associated with environmental factors and infectious diseases ecology. The extensive datasets on hematology, biochemistry, urinalysis, and microbiology results from this paper can be used as reference values for wild tapirs. PMID:25105810

  17. Health assessment of wild lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) populations in the Atlantic Forest and Pantanal biomes, Brazil (1996-2012).

    PubMed

    Medici, Emília Patrícia; Mangini, Paulo Rogerio; Fernandes-Santos, Renata Carolina

    2014-10-01

    Abstract The lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is found in South America and is listed as Vulnerable to Extinction by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species. Health issues, particularly infectious diseases, are potential threats for the species. Health information from 65 wild tapirs from two Brazilian biomes, Atlantic Forest (AF) and Pantanal (PA), were collected during a long-term study (1996-2012). The study included physic, hematologic and biochemical evaluations, microbiologic cultures, urinalysis, and serologic analyses for antibodies against 13 infectious agents (viral and bacterial). The AF and PA tapirs were significantly different for several hematologic and biochemical parameters. Ten bacteria taxa were identified in the AF and 26 in the PA. Antibodies against five viruses were detected: Bluetongue virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, western equine encephalitis virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and porcine parvovirus. A high prevalence of exposure to Leptospira interrogans (10 serovars: Autumnalis, Bratislava, Canicola, Copenhageni, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Hebdomadis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, and Pyrogenes) was detected in both the AF and PA sites. A greater diversity of serovars and higher antibody titers were found in the PA. Statistically significant differences between sites were found for L. interrogans, equine encephalitis virus, and porcine parvovirus. Based on physical evaluations, both AF and PA populations were healthy. The differences in the overall health profile of the AF and PA tapir populations appear to be associated with environmental factors and infectious diseases ecology. The extensive datasets on hematology, biochemistry, urinalysis, and microbiology results from this paper can be used as reference values for wild tapirs.

  18. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal

    PubMed Central

    Olifiers, Natalie; Jansen, Ana Maria; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; D’Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Gompper, Matthew Edzart

    2015-01-01

    Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This study shows the

  19. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Olifiers, Natalie; Jansen, Ana Maria; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Gompper, Matthew Edzart

    2015-01-01

    Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This study shows the

  20. Cyanobacteria enhance methylmercury production: a hypothesis tested in the periphyton of two lakes in the Pantanal floodplain, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lázaro, Wilkinson L; Guimarães, Jean Remy D; Ignácio, Aurea R A; Da Silva, Carolina J; Díez, Sergi

    2013-07-01

    The toxic potential of mercury (Hg) in aquatic systems is due to the presence and production of methylmercury (MeHg). Recent studies in tropical floodplain environments showed that periphyton associated with the roots of aquatic macrophytes produce MeHg. Periphyton communities are the first link in the food chain and one of the main MeHg sources in aquatic environments. The aim of this work was to test the hypotheses that the algal community structure affects potential methylation, and ecologically distinct communities with different algal and bacterial densities directly affect the formation of MeHg in the roots of macrophytes. To evaluate these, net MeHg production in the roots of Eichhornia crassipes in relation to the taxonomic structure of associated periphytic algae was evaluated. Macrophyte root samples were collected in the dry and flood season from two floodplain lakes in the Pantanal (Brazil). These lakes have different ecological conditions as a function of their lateral hydrological connectivity with the Paraguay River that is different during times of drought. Results indicated that MeHg production was higher in the flood season than in the dry season. MeHg production rates were higher in the disconnected lake in comparison to the connected lake during the dry season. MeHg production exhibited a strong positive co-variation with cyanobacteria abundance (R(2)=0.78; p<0.0001 in dry; R(2)=0.40; p=0.029 in flood) and with total algal biomass (R(2)=0.86; p<0.0001), and a negative co-variation with Zygnemaphyceae (R(2)=0.50; p=0.0018) in the lake community in dry season. This indicates that ecological conditions that favour the establishment and development of cyanobacteria are associated with higher rates of methylation in aquatic systems. This suggests that cyanobacteria could be a proxy for sites of MeHg production in some natural aquatic environments.

  1. Serosurvey for selected viral infections in free-ranging jaguars (Panthera onca) and domestic carnivores in Brazilian Cerrado, Pantanal, and Amazon.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; de Ramos Filho, José Domingues; Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Coelho, Claudio José; Cruz, Paula Sônia; Ikuta, Cassia Yumi; Jácomo, Anah Tereza de Almeida; Porfírio, Grasiela Edith de Oliveira; Silveira, Leandro; Sollmann, Rahel; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Ferreira Neto, José Soares

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the exposure of jaguar (Panthera onca) populations and domestic carnivores to selected viral infections in the Cerrado, Amazon, and Pantanal biomes of Brazil. Between February 2000 and January 2010, we collected serum samples from 31 jaguars, 174 dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), and 35 domestic cats (Felis catus). Serologic analyses for antibodies to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen were conducted. The jaguars from Cerrado and Pantantal were exposed to rabies virus, while the jaguars from the Pantanal and the dogs from all three areas were exposed to CDV. Two cats from the Amazonian site were antigen-positive for FeLV, but no jaguars had FeLV antigen or FIV antibody. Canine distemper and rabies viruses should be carefully monitored and considered potential threats to these jaguar populations. Currently FIV and FeLV do not appear to represent a health threat for jaguar populations in this area. Domestic dogs and cats in these areas should be vaccinated, and the movement of domestic animals around protected areas should be restricted.

  2. Variation in the parasite community of the sardine fish Triportheus nematurus (Actinopterygii: Characidae) from the Medalha lagoon in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa-Pereira, R; Paiva, F; Tavares, L E R

    2014-09-01

    In July 2009 and July 2010 (two dry periods separated by an atypically large flood in the Pantanal wetland of Brazil), 34 and 33 specimens of the sardine fish Triportheus nematurus were collected, respectively, for the study of the metazoan parasite community of this species. Parasite ecological and community descriptors were calculated for both host samples, and possible similarities were tested statistically. Five species of metazoan parasites were identified, four of which were common to both host samples. A total of 61 metazoan parasites were collected from all fish hosts (17 specimens in July 2009 (mean: 0.5 ± 0.66 parasites/fish) and 44 specimens in July 2010 (mean: 1.33 ± 1.41 parasites/fish)). The nematode Procamallanus hilarii and the monogenean Anacanthorus sp. were the most prevalent and abundant species in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The mean total abundance and species richness were significantly higher in 2010. Parasite communities in both samples of T. nematurus were characterized by species with low prevalence, abundance, mean total abundance and species richness, thus indicating low parasite diversity. Significant differences in the prevalence and abundance of P. hilarii and Anacanthorus sp. between the two samples allowed the discrimination of infracommunities, which were united in two distinct groups. This appears to be the first evidence that the peculiar hydrological dynamics of the southern Pantanal wetland (Brazil) exert an important influence over the structure of the parasite community.

  3. Serosurvey for selected viral infections in free-ranging jaguars (Panthera onca) and domestic carnivores in Brazilian Cerrado, Pantanal, and Amazon.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; de Ramos Filho, José Domingues; Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Coelho, Claudio José; Cruz, Paula Sônia; Ikuta, Cassia Yumi; Jácomo, Anah Tereza de Almeida; Porfírio, Grasiela Edith de Oliveira; Silveira, Leandro; Sollmann, Rahel; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Ferreira Neto, José Soares

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the exposure of jaguar (Panthera onca) populations and domestic carnivores to selected viral infections in the Cerrado, Amazon, and Pantanal biomes of Brazil. Between February 2000 and January 2010, we collected serum samples from 31 jaguars, 174 dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), and 35 domestic cats (Felis catus). Serologic analyses for antibodies to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen were conducted. The jaguars from Cerrado and Pantantal were exposed to rabies virus, while the jaguars from the Pantanal and the dogs from all three areas were exposed to CDV. Two cats from the Amazonian site were antigen-positive for FeLV, but no jaguars had FeLV antigen or FIV antibody. Canine distemper and rabies viruses should be carefully monitored and considered potential threats to these jaguar populations. Currently FIV and FeLV do not appear to represent a health threat for jaguar populations in this area. Domestic dogs and cats in these areas should be vaccinated, and the movement of domestic animals around protected areas should be restricted. PMID:23778599

  4. Leishmania infantum AS A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    CASTRO, Ludiele Souza; FRANÇA, Adriana de Oliveira; FERREIRA, Eduardo de Castro; HANS, Günther; HIGA, Minoru German; GONTIJO, Célia Maria Ferreira; PEREIRA, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; DORVAL, Maria Elizabeth Moraes C.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of theLeishmania genus. Leishmania(Leishmania) infantum, causing cutaneous leishmaniasis, has been described in patients living in areas where visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In this study, it was possible to characterize this species in seven slides from cutaneous tissue imprints from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. PMID:27007566

  5. [Study of the phlebotomines (Diptera, Psychodidae), in area of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Galati, E A; Nunes, V L; Dorval, M E; Oshiro, E T; Cristaldo, G; Espíndola, M A; da Rocha, H C; Garcia, W B

    1996-04-01

    Studies of the phlebotomine sandflies on the Boa Sorte farm, Corguinho country, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Central-West region of Brazil, were carried out, with the object of identifying local fauna and a cutaneous leishmaniasis vector. At the beginning of the studies, several types of primitive vegetation covering: gallery forest, forest slopes and the cerrados: s. str. and tropical xeromorphic semideciduous broadleaf forest, locally denominated "croa", existed. Four months after the beginning of the studies, a fire destroyed a significant part of the cerrados. Captures were made during the interval from July/91 to June/93, with a CDC trap, weekly, at 10 ecotopes: in the soil of forest slopes; in the soil and canopy of cerrado s. str., "croa" and gallery forest; in the peridomicile, in hen house and pigpen and in a storage shed. A Shannon's trap was used, monthly, from 18:00-24:00 hours, in the gallery forest and "croa". Human bait was used, monthly, for 24 hours, from June/91 to September/92. An investigation into natural infection in female phlebotomines was made through the dissection of specimens captured in the Shannon's trap and on human bait. The captures with CDC totalled in 2,281 specimens of 26 species: 2 of Brumptomyia and 24 of Lutzomyia. The "croa" was the environment that contributed with the greatest number of specimens and presented the largest diversity, together with the forest slope. L, withmani was the most abundant species captured with CDC, in all the ecotopes (Standardized abundance index = 0.991). However, in the storage shed its frequency was the lowest. This species presented a prevalence of 96.0% in the Shannon's trap and on human bait (3,265 and 516 specimens, respectively). It was the most frequent in the cold and dry periods. It presented almost exclusively nocturnal activity, with its peak at 18:00-19:00 hours and an infection rate by flagellates of 0.16% (613 females dissected). On the basis of its behavior, this species was

  6. Characterization of the pyrethroid resistance profile of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus populations from the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Márcia Cristina; Duarte, Fernanda Calvo; Martins, João Ricardo; Klafke, Guilherme Marcondes; Fiorini, Leonardo Costa; de Barros, Antônio Thadeu Medeiros

    2013-01-01

    Cattle ticks Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus are mainly controlled in Brazil by means of acaricide products, without any official policies in this regard. Acaricides continue to be sold indiscriminately, and this has contributed towards making the problem of resistance widespread, thus making diagnosis and monitoring of tick resistance essential. Here, bioassays (larval packet test) were performed on tick populations from the states of Rio Grande do Sul and Mato Grosso do Sul regarding their susceptibility to cypermethrin, deltamethrin and flumethrin. All the tick samples tested showed resistance to cypermethrin (10) (resistance factor (RF) ranging from 5.6 to 80.3) and deltamethrin (10) (RF ranging from 2.4 to 83.1). Six out of eight populations were resistant to flumethrin (RF ranging from 3.8 to 8.2). PCR molecular analyses did not show any T2134A mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, in any of the sampled populations. The results from this study highlight the critical status of resistance of the cattle tick to synthetic pyrethroids in the regions studied. Further studies are needed to identify the mechanisms responsible for the resistant phenotypes observed in the bioassays. This was the first detection of flumethrin resistance in Brazil. PMID:24142169

  7. Predicting the geographic distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) and visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Paulo Silva de; Sciamarelli, Alan; Batista, Paulo Mira; Ferreira, Ademar Dimas; Nascimento, João; Raizer, Josué; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-12-01

    To understand the geographic distribution of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil, both the climatic niches of Lutzomyia longipalpis and VL cases were analysed. Distributional data were obtained from 55 of the 79 counties of MS between 2003-2012. Ecological niche models (ENM) of Lu. longipalpis and VL cases were produced using the maximum entropy algorithm based on eight climatic variables. Lu. longipalpis showed a wide distribution in MS. The highest climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis was observed in southern MS. Temperature seasonality and annual mean precipitation were the variables that most influenced these models. Two areas of high climatic suitability for the occurrence of VL cases were predicted: one near Aquidauana and another encompassing several municipalities in the southeast region of MS. As expected, a large overlap between the models for Lu. longipalpis and VL cases was detected. Northern and northwestern areas of MS were suitable for the occurrence of cases, but did not show high climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis. ENM of vectors and human cases provided a greater understanding of the geographic distribution of VL in MS, which can be applied to the development of future surveillance strategies.

  8. Genetic structure of natural populations of Theobroma in the Juruena National Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, B M; Rossi, A A B; Dardengo, J F E; Silva, C R; Silva, I V; Silva, M L; Silva, C J

    2015-01-01

    Several species within the genus Theobroma have particularly high economic value, including T. cacao and T. grandiflorum. Other species in this genus, such as T. speciosum and T. subincanum, have potential value for use in the conservation of genetic diversity in breeding programs. These latter species could also be domesticated or improved to produce commercial products. Using 13 simple sequence repeat loci, the population structure and genetic diversity of T. speciosum and T. subincanum natural populations in the Juruena National Park, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, was studied. We sampled all individuals of each species (N = 25) present inside a designated research area established by the Program for Research on Biodiversity. The average number of alleles per locus was 5 for T. speciosum and 6.69 for T. subincanum, with average PIC values above 0.5 in both species. All evaluated individuals varied genetically. Seeds from the individuals analyzed will be useful for the development of germplasm banks and for establishment of breeding programs.

  9. Population dynamics of caterpillars on three cover crops before sowing cotton in Mato Grosso (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Silvie, P J; Menzel, C A; Mello, A; Coelho, A G

    2010-01-01

    Direct seeding mulch-based cropping systems under a preliminary cover crop such as millet are common in some areas of Brazil. Lepidopteran pests that damage cotton, soybean and maize crops can proliferate on cover crops, so preventive chemical treatments are necessary. Very little data is available on these pests on cover crops. This paper presents the dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda, S. eridania, Mocis latipes and Diatraea saccharalis caterpillars monitored at Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso state (Brazil) during the of 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 cropping seasons on four cover crops, i.e. finger millet (Eleusine coracana), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and ruzigrass (Brachiaria ruziziensis). The pests were visually counted on plants within a 1 m2 transect (wooden frame). Caterpillars were reared to facilitate identification of collected species and parasitoids. Many S. frugiperda caterpillars were observed on millet in 2005, with a maximum of 37 caterpillars/m2. On sorghum, we found 30 caterpillars/m2, or 0.83 caterpillars/plant. The Diatraea borer attacked sorghum later than the other pests. M. latipes was also observed on millet. The millet cover crop had to be dried for at least 1 month before direct drilling the main cotton crop in order to impede S. frugiperda infestations on cotton plantlets, thus avoiding the need for substantial resowing. The comparative methodological aspects are discussed.

  10. Population dynamics of caterpillars on three cover crops before sowing cotton in Mato Grosso (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Silvie, P J; Menzel, C A; Mello, A; Coelho, A G

    2010-01-01

    Direct seeding mulch-based cropping systems under a preliminary cover crop such as millet are common in some areas of Brazil. Lepidopteran pests that damage cotton, soybean and maize crops can proliferate on cover crops, so preventive chemical treatments are necessary. Very little data is available on these pests on cover crops. This paper presents the dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda, S. eridania, Mocis latipes and Diatraea saccharalis caterpillars monitored at Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso state (Brazil) during the of 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 cropping seasons on four cover crops, i.e. finger millet (Eleusine coracana), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and ruzigrass (Brachiaria ruziziensis). The pests were visually counted on plants within a 1 m2 transect (wooden frame). Caterpillars were reared to facilitate identification of collected species and parasitoids. Many S. frugiperda caterpillars were observed on millet in 2005, with a maximum of 37 caterpillars/m2. On sorghum, we found 30 caterpillars/m2, or 0.83 caterpillars/plant. The Diatraea borer attacked sorghum later than the other pests. M. latipes was also observed on millet. The millet cover crop had to be dried for at least 1 month before direct drilling the main cotton crop in order to impede S. frugiperda infestations on cotton plantlets, thus avoiding the need for substantial resowing. The comparative methodological aspects are discussed. PMID:21539250

  11. Determining the rate of forest conversion in Mato Grosso, Brazil, using Landsat MSS and AVHRR data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Ross; Horning, Ned; Stone, Thomas A.

    1987-01-01

    AVHRR-LAC thermal data and Landsat MSS and TM spectral data were used to estimate the rate of forest clearing in Mato Grosso, Brazil, between 1981 and 1984. The Brazilian state was stratified into forest and nonforest. A list sampling procedure was used in the forest stratum to select Landsat MSS scenes for processing based on estimates of fire activity in the scenes. Fire activity in 1984 was estimated using AVHRR-LAC thermal data. State-wide estimates of forest conversion indicate that between 1981 and 1984, 353,966 ha + or - 77,000 ha (0.4 percent of the state area) were converted per year. No evidence of reforestation was found in this digital sample. The relationship between forest clearing rate (based on MSS-TM analysis) and fire activity (estimated using AVHRR data) was noisy (R-squared = 0.41). The results suggest that AVHRR data may be put to better use as a stratification tool than as a subsidiary variable in list sampling.

  12. The Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program in Mato Grosso State, Brazil: implementation analysis.

    PubMed

    Mota, Reinaldo Gaspar da; Barros, Nelson Filice

    2016-09-01

    Although the 224 health professionals engaged by the More Doctors for Brazil Project (Projeto Mais Médicos para o Brazil, PMMB) to strengthen the National Primary Health Care Policy (Política Nacional de Atenção Básica, PNab) in 104 municipalities of Mato Grosso (MT) State have encountered significant problems in the work process, important advances have resulted in the health of populations served by the More Doctors Programme (Programa Mais Médicos, PMM). This article analyses the implementation and development of the PMM in MT, from 2013 to 2015, on the basis of primary data from focus groups and interviews of social stakeholders at the institutions involved and secondary data from reports by supervisors, tutors, managers and institutions on the MT State Coordinating Committee (CCE) of the PMM. Despite political difficulties in managing implementation, the results show that the endeavour was beneficial in that it surmounted previous obstacles, afforded users greater access, prompted discussion of the problem and proposed and experimented with ways to strengthen primary health care. We conclude that there is a need for broader academic discussion of the provision and training of doctors, of the model of care and of human resource capacity-building by continuing professional development with integration among teaching, service and community. PMID:27653072

  13. A new species of Scinax Wagler (Anura: Hylidae) from Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Araujo-Vieira, Katyuscia; Valdujo, Paula Hanna; Faivovich, Julián

    2016-01-01

    A new species of the Scinax ruber Clade is described from Municipality of Barra do Garças, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. It is diagnosed by its size (SVL 29.4-35.4 mm in males); dorsum with a background that varies from light and dark gray to dark brown, with round and irregular dark blotches; hidden surfaces of thigh and shank light or dark brown, with lighter, large and irregular blotches (yellow in life); and nuptial pad that covers the medial margin of Metacarpal I, and obscures the posterior portion and the outer margin of the inner metacarpal tubercle. It is most similar with Scinax rupestris, from which it differs by having larger adult males; less developed nuptial pad; and hidden surfaces of thigh and light or dark brown, with lighter, large and irregular blotches (yellow in life). The new species occurs near the headwaters of permanent or temporary streams, where males call from vegetation or rocks at the margins of small streams. PMID:27395498

  14. Novel Babesia and Hepatozoon agents infecting non-volant small mammals in the Brazilian Pantanal, with the first record of the tick Ornithodoros guaporensis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Rafael William; Aragona, Mônica; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Pinto, Leticia Borges; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Braga, Isis Assis; Costa, Jackeliny dos Santos; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Marcili, Arlei; Pacheco, Richard de Campos; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2016-04-01

    Taking into account the diversity of small terrestrial mammals of the Pantanal, the present study aimed to verify the occurrence of infection by Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Babesia spp. and parasitism by ticks in non-volant small mammals collected in the Brazilian Pantanal. Samples of blood, liver and spleen were collected from 64 captured animals, 22 marsupials and 42 rodents. Pathogen detection was performed by the use of genus-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. Ticks collected from the animals consisted of Amblyomma sculptum and Amblyomma triste nymphs, and Ornithodoros guaporensis larvae. None of the vertebrate samples (blood, liver, or spleen) yielded detectable DNA of Rickettsia spp. or Ehrlichia spp. The blood of the rodent Hylaeamys megacephalus yielded an Anaplasma sp. genotype (partial 16S rRNA gene) 99% similar to multiple Anaplasma spp. genotypes around the world. The blood of three rodents of the species Calomys callosus were positive for a novel Hepatozoon sp. agent, phylogenetically related (18S rDNA gene) to distinct Hepatozoon genotypes that have been detected in rodents from different parts of the world. One marsupial (Monodelphis domestica) and three rodents (Thrichomys pachyurus) were positive to novel piroplasmid genotypes, phylogenetically (18S rDNA gene) related to Theileria bicornis, Cytauxzoon manul, and Cytauxzoon felis. The present study provides the first molecular detection of Hepatozoon sp. and piroplasmids in small mammals in Brazil. Additionally, we expanded the distribution of O. guaporensis to Brazil, since this tick species was previously known to occur only in Bolivia. PMID:26782931

  15. Chromosome number, microsporogenesis, microgametogenesis, and pollen viability in the Brazilian native grass Mesosetum chaseae (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, L A C; Pagliarini, M S; Santos, S A; Silva, N; Souza, V F

    2012-11-28

    The genus Mesosetum is a primarily South American genus with 42 species. Mesosetum chaseae, regionally known as 'grama-do-cerrado', is abundant in the Pantanal Matogrossense (Brazil); it is a valuable resource for livestock and for environmental conservation. We collected specimens from the Nhecolandia sub-region of the Brazilian Pantanal, located in Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. We examined chromosome number, ploidy level, meiotic behavior, microgametogenesis, and pollen viability of 10 accessions. All the accessions were diploid, derived from x = 8, presenting 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes. Chromosomes paired as bivalents showing, predominantly, two terminal chiasmata. Interstitial chiasmata were rare. Meiosis was quite normal producing only a few abnormal tetrads in some accessions. Microgametogenesis, after two mitotic divisions, produced three-celled pollen grains. Pollen viability was variable among plant and accessions and was not correlated with meiotic abnormalities.

  16. Assessing the MODIS Crop Detection Algorithm for Soybean Crop Area Mapping and Expansion in the Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ricardo Ducati, Jorge; da Silveira, Luiz Gonzaga

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of crop area were made based on the temporal profiles of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) obtained from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. Evaluation of the ability of the MODIS crop detection algorithm (MCDA) to estimate soybean crop areas was performed for fields in the Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Using the MCDA approach, soybean crop area estimations can be provided for December (first forecast) using images from the sowing period and for February (second forecast) using images from the sowing period and the maximum crop development period. The area estimates were compared to official agricultural statistics from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and from the National Company of Food Supply (CONAB) at different crop levels from 2000/2001 to 2010/2011. At the municipality level, the estimates were highly correlated, with R2 = 0.97 and RMSD = 13,142 ha. The MCDA was validated using field campaign data from the 2006/2007 crop year. The overall map accuracy was 88.25%, and the Kappa Index of Agreement was 0.765. By using pre-defined parameters, MCDA is able to provide the evolution of annual soybean maps, forecast of soybean cropping areas, and the crop area expansion in the Mato Grosso state. PMID:24983007

  17. Assessing the MODIS crop detection algorithm for soybean crop area mapping and expansion in the Mato Grosso state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gusso, Anibal; Arvor, Damien; Ducati, Jorge Ricardo; Veronez, Mauricio Roberto; da Silveira, Luiz Gonzaga

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of crop area were made based on the temporal profiles of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) obtained from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. Evaluation of the ability of the MODIS crop detection algorithm (MCDA) to estimate soybean crop areas was performed for fields in the Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Using the MCDA approach, soybean crop area estimations can be provided for December (first forecast) using images from the sowing period and for February (second forecast) using images from the sowing period and the maximum crop development period. The area estimates were compared to official agricultural statistics from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and from the National Company of Food Supply (CONAB) at different crop levels from 2000/2001 to 2010/2011. At the municipality level, the estimates were highly correlated, with R (2) = 0.97 and RMSD = 13,142 ha. The MCDA was validated using field campaign data from the 2006/2007 crop year. The overall map accuracy was 88.25%, and the Kappa Index of Agreement was 0.765. By using pre-defined parameters, MCDA is able to provide the evolution of annual soybean maps, forecast of soybean cropping areas, and the crop area expansion in the Mato Grosso state.

  18. Slash and burn versus "agronegócio". Tales of forest degradation in the maroon area of Vila Bela da SantíssimaTrindade, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, José C.; Ferreira, António A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Over the last four decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arcof deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. The deforestation process replaces the forest and the slash and burn agriculture systems by modern intensive agriculture systems targeted at the production of cash crops like cotton, maize or soybeans, and to graze cattle.The so called "agronegócio" system. The reduction of pristine forest areas where traditional (indigenous, maroons and riverside) population conduct slash and burn agriculture, reduces the recovery time of the abandoned fields after exhaustion by agriculture crops, reason why the return to the same spots for another cycle of slash and burn occurs before the forest recovers completely from the previous cycle. In fact, the frequency of the cycles is increasing with the expansion of farm land and the reduction of available forest. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of the deforestation trends in the Vila Bela da SantíssimaTrindade, near the Bolivian border of Mato Grosso in Brazil, over a time span of four decades. The arc of deforestation has passed the region in the 1980's, leaving yet a large area of pristine forest where the traditional communities kept practicing a slash and burn agriculture system. Nevertheless, due to the reduction of available area, and specially due to the exposure of traditional communities to the "western civilization culture", there is an increasing abandonment of the traditional systems and associated culture and knowledge. In this context, the traditional communities may become a deforestation/degradation factor. To prevent this situation, the GUYAGROFOR project was implemented, to value traditional knowledge, identify bottlenecks in the increase of added value to the local traditional products, and to test methodologies to maintain and if possible improve soil fertility near the

  19. Epidemiological aspects of field intoxication by Amorimia pubiflora (Malpighiaceae) in cattle in Mato Grosso and experimental reproduction of intoxication in cattle and sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the county of Colniza, Mato Grosso, the main limitation for livestock production is the occurrence of "sudden death" in cattle, which affects in some farms up to 50% of the herd. In visits to some of the farms where the problem occurred, in 2004, 2011 and 2012, the presence of Amorimia pubiflora ...

  20. Chewing lice of the genus Myrsidea waterston (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from the emberizidae and thraupidae (Passeriformes) in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sychra, Oldrich; Literak, Ivan; Capek, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the first record of three chewing lice species of the genus Myrsidea collected from one emberizid and two thraupid hosts in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Morphological characters of M. seminuda are added for the last redescription of this species and a new key to males of 'bonariensis species group' is presented.

  1. Land-use and environmental changes in the Cerrados of South-Eastern Mato Grosso -- Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecchi, Rosana Cristina

    The human-induced changes of the Earth's land surfaces have been unprecedented, with outcomes often indicating degradation and loss of environmental quality. Mato Grosso State in Brazil, location of the study area, underwent extensive land-use and land-cover changes in recent decades with the rates, patterns and consequences poorly documented until now. In this context, the aim of the present research is to propose a multidisciplinary approach for quantifying historical land-use and environmental changes in the southeast part of this State, where the Cerrado biome (Brazilian savannas) has been intensively converted into agricultural lands. The methodology includes three parts: remote sensing change detection, land vulnerability mapping, and identification of key environmental indicators. Land-use/cover information was extracted from a temporal remote sensing dataset using an object-oriented classification approach, and the changes quantified employing a post-classification method. In addition, the study area was assessed for its vulnerabilities, focusing mainly on erosion risks, wetlands, and areas with limited or no suitability for crops. Finally, key environmental indicators were identified from the preceding steps and analyzed within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Pressure-State-Response (PSR) framework. The results provided an improved mapping of the Cerrados natural vegetation conversion into crops and pastures, and indicate that the Cerrado vegetation was intensively converted and also became more fragmented in the time frame studied. Between 1985 and 2005 the area lost approximately 6491 km 2 of Cerrados (42 %). Modeling based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation indicated significant increase in erosion risk from 1985 to 2005 mainly related to the increase in crop areas and the crops' encroachment into more fragile lands. The identification of environmental indicators rendered complex environmental information more

  2. Effects of a diversion hydropower facility on the hydrological regime of the Correntes River, a tributary to the Pantanal floodplain, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantin-Cruz, Ibraim; Pedrollo, Olavo; Girard, Pierre; Zeilhofer, Peter; Hamilton, Stephen K.

    2015-12-01

    Facilities that produce hydroelectricity by diversion of part of the river's flow, which are often considered to have lower environmental impact than conventional hydropower dams, are being built in large numbers on river systems throughout the world, yet their cumulative impacts are not well understood. This study evaluated the hydrological effects of operation of a diversion hydropower facility on the Correntes River in Brazil (mean discharge 73 m3 s-1), which is potentially important because of the ecological implications for the floodplains of the Pantanal into which it flows. Many similar dams are built or proposed on rivers feeding the Pantanal. The 210-MW facility known as Ponte de Pedra diverts part of the river flow into a diversion channel in a nearly "run-of-river" design. The natural (reconstructed) and regulated (observed) flow regimes were characterized using Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) and Flow Duration Curves (FDC). Seven parameters of IHA were significantly altered by the reservoir formation (magnitude of lowest monthly flow, minimum flows of 1, 3 and 7 days, maximum flow of 90 days and counts of high and low pulses). Among these, Principal Components Analysis identified the maximum flow of 90 days and the count of high flow pulses as integrators of hydrological alterations. The FDC showed that the reservoir also changed the seasonal regime of the flows, with greater changes in the lowest flow season. The reduction of river-floodplain connectivity and loss of associated ecosystem services are the major downstream ecological implications of this altered flow regime. To maintain the seasonal flooding regime while meeting the requirements for hydroelectric production, proposed limits for flow regime alterations are up to ±18% in low flow, ±24% in the rising limb and ±22% in high flow and the falling limb, relative to the natural flow. Operational changes to maintain flows with these limits could easily be implemented because the

  3. First Report of Trypanosoma sp. in Spectacled Caiman (Caiman crocodilus): Morphological and Phylogenetic Relationships

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Andrea P.; Acosta, Igor C. L.; de Lima, Julia T. R.; Minervino, Antonio H. H.; Gennari, Solange M.

    2013-01-01

    In Crocodylidae family three trypanosomes species were described, T. grayi in African crocodilian and T. cecili and Trypanosoma sp. in Caimans species from Brazil. T. grayi was transmitted by tsetse flies and the vector of Brazilian caimans trypanosomes is unknown. We characterized first Brazilian trypanosome isolated in spectacled caiman (Caiman crocodilus) from Mato Grosso State in Brazil. Morphological findings in epimastigotes forms from axenic culture showed high similarity with Trypanosoma sp. described in Caiman yacare from Brazilian Pantanal. Phylogenetic studies performed with SSU rDNA and gGAPDH (glyceraldehydes-3-phosphato dehydrogenase glycosomal) clustering in T. grayi Clade and together to genotype Cay 01 from Trypanosoma unnamed species isolated in C. yacare. This is the first isolate of Trypanosoma sp. from C. crocodilus and the phylogenetic position with isolates in C. yacare from Pantanal region and demonstrates the low host specificity of cayman trypanosomes in Brazil. PMID:27335853

  4. Factors associated with the incidence of malaria in settlement areas in the district of Juruena, Mato Grosso state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Irani Machado; Yokoo, Edna Massae; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Galvão, Noemi Dreyer; Atanaka-Santos, Marina

    2012-09-01

    Factors associated with the incidence of malaria in the Vale do Amanhecer settlement, Juruena, Mato Grosso in 2005 were analyzed. Two hundred settlers of both genders and aged 18 years and above were interviewed. The prevalence of malaria reported in 2005 was 33%. The prevalence ratio showed that the highest prevalence of malaria was found in individuals involved in gold mining activities (67%); who came from non-endemic areas (43%); had inadequate knowledge about the time of greatest activity of the vector (71%); and who reported being outside after 5 p.m. (59%). It was concluded that in the Vale do Amanhecer settlement, factors such as occupation, origin, inadequate knowledge about where malaria is transmitted, inadequate knowledge about the time the mosquito usually bites and individual practices in relation to the peak period of mosquito activity were associated with malaria in 2005.

  5. [Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and associated factors in indigenous women in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Glênio Alves de; Souza, Maria Cristina Corrêa de; Lima, Rosangela da Costa

    2016-01-01

    This study's objective was to estimate the prevalence of abnormal casual capillary blood glucose, suggestive of diabetes mellitus, and the associations with socioeconomic, demographic, anthropometric, and clinical factors in indigenous women in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample of women 18 to 59 years of age in the Bororó and Jaguapiru villages. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data, and statistical analysis used the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and generalized linear model tests. Of the 385 women, 7% showed abnormal casual capillary blood glucose, suggestive of diabetes mellitus. In the final generalized linear model, the following remained associated with the outcome: age (p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.002), and ethnicity (p = 0.022). The study shows the need for behavior changes, using educational interventions as a strategy for the prevention and control of diabetes mellitus.

  6. Comparison of sampling designs for estimating deforestation from landsat TM and MODIS imagery: a case study in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shanyou; Zhang, Hailong; Liu, Ronggao; Cao, Yun; Zhang, Guixin

    2014-01-01

    Sampling designs are commonly used to estimate deforestation over large areas, but comparisons between different sampling strategies are required. Using PRODES deforestation data as a reference, deforestation in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil from 2005 to 2006 is evaluated using Landsat imagery and a nearly synchronous MODIS dataset. The MODIS-derived deforestation is used to assist in sampling and extrapolation. Three sampling designs are compared according to the estimated deforestation of the entire study area based on simple extrapolation and linear regression models. The results show that stratified sampling for strata construction and sample allocation using the MODIS-derived deforestation hotspots provided more precise estimations than simple random and systematic sampling. Moreover, the relationship between the MODIS-derived and TM-derived deforestation provides a precise estimate of the total deforestation area as well as the distribution of deforestation in each block.

  7. Comparison of Sampling Designs for Estimating Deforestation from Landsat TM and MODIS Imagery: A Case Study in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shanyou; Zhang, Hailong; Liu, Ronggao; Cao, Yun; Zhang, Guixin

    2014-01-01

    Sampling designs are commonly used to estimate deforestation over large areas, but comparisons between different sampling strategies are required. Using PRODES deforestation data as a reference, deforestation in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil from 2005 to 2006 is evaluated using Landsat imagery and a nearly synchronous MODIS dataset. The MODIS-derived deforestation is used to assist in sampling and extrapolation. Three sampling designs are compared according to the estimated deforestation of the entire study area based on simple extrapolation and linear regression models. The results show that stratified sampling for strata construction and sample allocation using the MODIS-derived deforestation hotspots provided more precise estimations than simple random and systematic sampling. Moreover, the relationship between the MODIS-derived and TM-derived deforestation provides a precise estimate of the total deforestation area as well as the distribution of deforestation in each block. PMID:25258742

  8. Factors associated with the incidence of malaria in settlement areas in the district of Juruena, Mato Grosso state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Irani Machado; Yokoo, Edna Massae; Souza-Santos, Reinaldo; Galvão, Noemi Dreyer; Atanaka-Santos, Marina

    2012-09-01

    Factors associated with the incidence of malaria in the Vale do Amanhecer settlement, Juruena, Mato Grosso in 2005 were analyzed. Two hundred settlers of both genders and aged 18 years and above were interviewed. The prevalence of malaria reported in 2005 was 33%. The prevalence ratio showed that the highest prevalence of malaria was found in individuals involved in gold mining activities (67%); who came from non-endemic areas (43%); had inadequate knowledge about the time of greatest activity of the vector (71%); and who reported being outside after 5 p.m. (59%). It was concluded that in the Vale do Amanhecer settlement, factors such as occupation, origin, inadequate knowledge about where malaria is transmitted, inadequate knowledge about the time the mosquito usually bites and individual practices in relation to the peak period of mosquito activity were associated with malaria in 2005. PMID:22996892

  9. Spotted fever group Rickettsia in Amblyomma dubitatum tick from the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matias, Jaqueline; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Aguirre, André de Abreu Rangel; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalvante; Csordas, Bárbara Guimarães; Andreotti, Renato

    2015-03-01

    Rickettsia infection of each tick was evaluated by the hemolymph test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting gltA and ompA genes. All hemolymph tests were negative and PCR of one A. dubitatum detected both Rickettsia genes. Sequence of ompA exhibited a 99% identity with Rickettsia parkeri and R. africae and a 98% identity with R. sibirica. Rickettsia of the spotted fever group in A. dubitatum is described for the first time in an urban area within the municipality of Campo Grande in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. This finding reinforces the importance of more detailed studies to determine the role of A. dubitatum in the transmission of spotted fever agents.

  10. Phlebotomine fauna (Diptera: Psychodidae) of an American cutaneous leishmaniasis endemic area in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dorval, Maria Elizabeth C; Cristaldo, Geucira; Rocha, Hilda Carlos da; Alves, Tulia Peixoto; Alves, Murilo Andrade; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio da

    2009-08-01

    The occurrence of an outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis associated with Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis in the municipality of Bela Vista, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, and the absence of information on its vectors in this area led the authors to undertake captures of phlebotomine sand flies, using Shannon traps and automatic CDC light traps, in domiciles, forested areas and animal shelters from February 2004-January 2006. A total of 808 specimens belonging to 18 sandfly species have been identified: Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, Brumptomyia avellari, Brumptomyia brumpti, Brumptomyia sp, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Evandromyia cortelezzii, Evandromyia evandroi, Evandromyia lenti, Evandromyia teratodes, Evandromyia termitophila, Lutzomyia longipalpis, Nyssomyia whitmani, Pintomyia christenseni, Psathyromyia aragaoi, Psathyromyia campograndensis, Psathyromyia punctigeniculata, Psathyromyia shannoni and Sciopemyia sordellii. The presence of Lu. longipalpis, Ny. whitmani and Bi. flaviscutellata, vectors of Leishmania chagasi, Leishmania braziliensis and L. amazonensis, respectively, has increased.

  11. [Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and associated factors in indigenous women in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Freitas, Glênio Alves de; Souza, Maria Cristina Corrêa de; Lima, Rosangela da Costa

    2016-01-01

    This study's objective was to estimate the prevalence of abnormal casual capillary blood glucose, suggestive of diabetes mellitus, and the associations with socioeconomic, demographic, anthropometric, and clinical factors in indigenous women in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. This was a cross-sectional study with a probabilistic sample of women 18 to 59 years of age in the Bororó and Jaguapiru villages. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data, and statistical analysis used the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and generalized linear model tests. Of the 385 women, 7% showed abnormal casual capillary blood glucose, suggestive of diabetes mellitus. In the final generalized linear model, the following remained associated with the outcome: age (p < 0.001), systolic blood pressure (p = 0.002), and ethnicity (p = 0.022). The study shows the need for behavior changes, using educational interventions as a strategy for the prevention and control of diabetes mellitus. PMID:27626648

  12. Spotted fever group Rickettsia in Amblyomma dubitatum tick from the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matias, Jaqueline; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Aguirre, André de Abreu Rangel; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalvante; Csordas, Bárbara Guimarães; Andreotti, Renato

    2015-03-01

    Rickettsia infection of each tick was evaluated by the hemolymph test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting gltA and ompA genes. All hemolymph tests were negative and PCR of one A. dubitatum detected both Rickettsia genes. Sequence of ompA exhibited a 99% identity with Rickettsia parkeri and R. africae and a 98% identity with R. sibirica. Rickettsia of the spotted fever group in A. dubitatum is described for the first time in an urban area within the municipality of Campo Grande in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. This finding reinforces the importance of more detailed studies to determine the role of A. dubitatum in the transmission of spotted fever agents. PMID:25454606

  13. Can Scat Analysis Describe the Feeding Habits of Big Cats? A Case Study with Jaguars (Panthera onca) in Southern Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Perilli, Miriam L L; Lima, Fernando; Rodrigues, Flávio H G; Cavalcanti, Sandra M C

    2016-01-01

    Large cats feeding habits have been studied through two main methods: scat analysis and the carcasses of prey killed by monitored animals. From November 2001 to April 2004, we studied jaguar predation patterns using GPS telemetry location clusters on a cattle ranch in southern Pantanal. During this period, we recorded 431 carcasses of animals preyed upon by monitored jaguars. Concurrently, we collected 125 jaguar scats opportunistically. We compared the frequencies of prey found through each method. We also compared the prey communities using Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient. These comparisons allowed us to evaluate the use of scat analysis as a means to describe jaguar feeding habits. Both approaches identified prey communities with high similarity (Bray-Curtis coefficient > 70). According to either method, jaguars consume three main prey: cattle (Bos taurus), caiman (Caiman yacare) and peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu). The two methods did not differ in the frequency of the three main prey over dry and wet seasons or years sampled. Our results show that scat analysis is effective and capable of describing jaguar feeding habits.

  14. Cross-Sectional Study of Hepatitis A Virus Infection in the Pantanal Population before Vaccine Implementation in Brazil: Usage of Non-Invasive Specimen Collection

    PubMed Central

    Tourinho, Renata Santos; de Almeida, Adilson José; Villar, Livia Melo; Murat, Paula Guerra; Capelin, Gina Jonasson Mousquer; Motta Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra; de Paula, Vanessa Salete

    2015-01-01

    Population-based prevalence studies are essential tools for screening of hepatitis A and provide important data on susceptible groups. However, surveillance in isolated communities is difficult because of the limited access to these areas and the need for blood sample collection. This study aimed to determine the anti-HAV prevalence using oral fluid samples to provide an alternative tool for epidemiological studies that might be useful for vaccination-related decisions. The study population was composed of 224 volunteers from South Pantanal, aged 3 to 86 years old. This study was performed using oral fluids, previously standardized for anti-HAV antibody detection, which were collected using a ChemBio device. Eluates were tested using modified commercial EIA to detect anti-HAV antibodies. The overall prevalence was 79.1%, corresponding to 178 reactive EIA tests out of 224 samples. The age stratified data revealed a prevalence of 47.8% between 0–10 years, 84% in 11–20 years and 91.9% in subjects older than 21 years. Results indicate that hepatitis A prevalence was higher in adolescents and adults, corroborating the literature reports. Thus, oral fluid samples could replace serum in HAV epidemiological studies in isolated communities as they are efficient at detecting anti-HAV antibodies. PMID:26133128

  15. Cross-Sectional Study of Hepatitis A Virus Infection in the Pantanal Population before Vaccine Implementation in Brazil: Usage of Non-Invasive Specimen Collection.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Renata Santos; de Almeida, Adilson José; Villar, Livia Melo; Murat, Paula Guerra; Capelin, Gina Jonasson Mousquer; Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta; de Paula, Vanessa Salete

    2015-06-30

    Population-based prevalence studies are essential tools for screening of hepatitis A and provide important data on susceptible groups. However, surveillance in isolated communities is difficult because of the limited access to these areas and the need for blood sample collection. This study aimed to determine the anti-HAV prevalence using oral fluid samples to provide an alternative tool for epidemiological studies that might be useful for vaccination-related decisions. The study population was composed of 224 volunteers from South Pantanal, aged 3 to 86 years old. This study was performed using oral fluids, previously standardized for anti-HAV antibody detection, which were collected using a ChemBio device. Eluates were tested using modified commercial EIA to detect anti-HAV antibodies. The overall prevalence was 79.1%, corresponding to 178 reactive EIA tests out of 224 samples. The age stratified data revealed a prevalence of 47.8% between 0-10 years, 84% in 11-20 years and 91.9% in subjects older than 21 years. Results indicate that hepatitis A prevalence was higher in adolescents and adults, corroborating the literature reports. Thus, oral fluid samples could replace serum in HAV epidemiological studies in isolated communities as they are efficient at detecting anti-HAV antibodies.

  16. Can Scat Analysis Describe the Feeding Habits of Big Cats? A Case Study with Jaguars (Panthera onca) in Southern Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Perilli, Miriam L L; Lima, Fernando; Rodrigues, Flávio H G; Cavalcanti, Sandra M C

    2016-01-01

    Large cats feeding habits have been studied through two main methods: scat analysis and the carcasses of prey killed by monitored animals. From November 2001 to April 2004, we studied jaguar predation patterns using GPS telemetry location clusters on a cattle ranch in southern Pantanal. During this period, we recorded 431 carcasses of animals preyed upon by monitored jaguars. Concurrently, we collected 125 jaguar scats opportunistically. We compared the frequencies of prey found through each method. We also compared the prey communities using Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient. These comparisons allowed us to evaluate the use of scat analysis as a means to describe jaguar feeding habits. Both approaches identified prey communities with high similarity (Bray-Curtis coefficient > 70). According to either method, jaguars consume three main prey: cattle (Bos taurus), caiman (Caiman yacare) and peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu). The two methods did not differ in the frequency of the three main prey over dry and wet seasons or years sampled. Our results show that scat analysis is effective and capable of describing jaguar feeding habits. PMID:27002524

  17. Can Scat Analysis Describe the Feeding Habits of Big Cats? A Case Study with Jaguars (Panthera onca) in Southern Pantanal, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Perilli, Miriam L. L.; Lima, Fernando; Rodrigues, Flávio H. G.; Cavalcanti, Sandra M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Large cats feeding habits have been studied through two main methods: scat analysis and the carcasses of prey killed by monitored animals. From November 2001 to April 2004, we studied jaguar predation patterns using GPS telemetry location clusters on a cattle ranch in southern Pantanal. During this period, we recorded 431 carcasses of animals preyed upon by monitored jaguars. Concurrently, we collected 125 jaguar scats opportunistically. We compared the frequencies of prey found through each method. We also compared the prey communities using Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient. These comparisons allowed us to evaluate the use of scat analysis as a means to describe jaguar feeding habits. Both approaches identified prey communities with high similarity (Bray-Curtis coefficient > 70). According to either method, jaguars consume three main prey: cattle (Bos taurus), caiman (Caiman yacare) and peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu). The two methods did not differ in the frequency of the three main prey over dry and wet seasons or years sampled. Our results show that scat analysis is effective and capable of describing jaguar feeding habits. PMID:27002524

  18. Prevalence, mean intensity of infestation and host specificity of Spinturnicidae mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Camila de Lima; Graciolli, Gustavo

    2013-06-01

    Acari ectoparasites were collected from bats during 12 months in the Rio Negro farm (19°34'22″S and 56°14'36″W), Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 654 bats belonging to the families Phyllostomidae, Noctilionidae, Molossidae, Vespertilionidae and Emballonuridae were captured. Only 136 bats of nine genera and 11 species were parasitised. Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans was the most abundant mite species, and this prevalence may be related to the low degree of host specificity of this species and due to the broad geographical distribution of its hosts. The greatest mean intensity was found to Periglischrus torrealbai Machado-Allison on Phyllostomus discolor Wagner (Phyllostomidae) and Periglischrus tonatii Herrin and Tipton associated with Lophostoma silviculum d'Orbigny (Phyllostomidae), which also had the highest prevalence of infestation.

  19. Defending public interests in private lands: compliance, costs and potential environmental consequences of the Brazilian Forest Code in Mato Grosso

    PubMed Central

    Stickler, Claudia M.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Azevedo, Andrea A.; McGrath, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Land-use regulations are a critical component of forest governance and conservation strategies, but their effectiveness in shaping landholder behaviour is poorly understood. We conducted a spatial and temporal analysis of the Brazilian Forest Code (BFC) to understand the patterns of regulatory compliance over time and across changes in the policy, and the implications of these compliance patterns for the perceived costs to landholders and environmental performance of agricultural landscapes in the southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso. Landholdings tended to remain in compliance or not according to their status at the beginning of the study period. The perceived economic burden of BFC compliance on soya bean and beef producers (US$3–5.6 billion in net present value of the land) may in part explain the massive, successful campaign launched by the farm lobby to change the BFC. The ecological benefits of compliance (e.g. greater connectivity and carbon) with the BFC are diffuse and do not compete effectively with the economic benefits of non-compliance that are perceived by landholders. Volatile regulation of land-use decisions that affect billions in economic rent that could be captured is an inadequate forest governance instrument; effectiveness of such regulations may increase when implemented in tandem with positive incentives for forest conservation. PMID:23610168

  20. Defending public interests in private lands: compliance, costs and potential environmental consequences of the Brazilian Forest Code in Mato Grosso.

    PubMed

    Stickler, Claudia M; Nepstad, Daniel C; Azevedo, Andrea A; McGrath, David G

    2013-06-01

    Land-use regulations are a critical component of forest governance and conservation strategies, but their effectiveness in shaping landholder behaviour is poorly understood. We conducted a spatial and temporal analysis of the Brazilian Forest Code (BFC) to understand the patterns of regulatory compliance over time and across changes in the policy, and the implications of these compliance patterns for the perceived costs to landholders and environmental performance of agricultural landscapes in the southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso. Landholdings tended to remain in compliance or not according to their status at the beginning of the study period. The perceived economic burden of BFC compliance on soya bean and beef producers (US$3-5.6 billion in net present value of the land) may in part explain the massive, successful campaign launched by the farm lobby to change the BFC. The ecological benefits of compliance (e.g. greater connectivity and carbon) with the BFC are diffuse and do not compete effectively with the economic benefits of non-compliance that are perceived by landholders. Volatile regulation of land-use decisions that affect billions in economic rent that could be captured is an inadequate forest governance instrument; effectiveness of such regulations may increase when implemented in tandem with positive incentives for forest conservation.

  1. Leishmania amazonensis DNA in wild females of Lutzomyia cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Everton Falcão de; Casaril, Aline Etelvina; Mateus, Nathália Lopes Fontoura; Murat, Paula Guerra; Fernandes, Wagner Souza; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2015-12-01

    Studies on natural infection by Leishmania spp of sandflies collected in endemic and nonendemic areas can provide important information on the distribution and intensity of the transmission of these parasites. This study sought to investigate the natural infection by Leishmaniain wild female sandflies. The specimens were caught in the city of Corumbá, state of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil) between October 2012-March 2014, and dissected to investigate flagellates and/or submitted to molecular analysis to detect Leishmania DNA. A total of 1,164 females (77.56% of which were Lutzomyia cruzi) representing 11 species were investigated using molecular analysis; 126 specimens of Lu. cruziwere dissected and also submitted to molecular analysis. The infection rate based on the presence of Leishmania DNA considering all the sandfly species analysed was 0.69%; only Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis was identified in Lu. cruzi by the molecular analysis. The dissections were negative for flagellates. This is the first record of the presence of L. (L.) amazonensis DNA in Lu. cruzi, and the first record of this parasite in this area. These findings point to the need for further investigation into the possible role of this sandfly as vector of this parasite.

  2. Leishmania amazonensis DNA in wild females of Lutzomyia cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Everton Falcão; Casaril, Aline Etelvina; Mateus, Nathália Lopes Fontoura; Murat, Paula Guerra; Fernandes, Wagner Souza; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2015-01-01

    Studies on natural infection by Leishmania spp of sandflies collected in endemic and nonendemic areas can provide important information on the distribution and intensity of the transmission of these parasites. This study sought to investigate the natural infection by Leishmaniain wild female sandflies. The specimens were caught in the city of Corumbá, state of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil) between October 2012-March 2014, and dissected to investigate flagellates and/or submitted to molecular analysis to detect Leishmania DNA. A total of 1,164 females (77.56% of which were Lutzomyia cruzi) representing 11 species were investigated using molecular analysis; 126 specimens of Lu. cruziwere dissected and also submitted to molecular analysis. The infection rate based on the presence of Leishmania DNA considering all the sandfly species analysed was 0.69%; only Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis was identified in Lu. cruzi by the molecular analysis. The dissections were negative for flagellates. This is the first record of the presence of L. (L.) amazonensis DNA in Lu. cruzi, and the first record of this parasite in this area. These findings point to the need for further investigation into the possible role of this sandfly as vector of this parasite. PMID:26602870

  3. Natural infection of phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a visceral-leishmaniasis focus in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    do Nascimento, João Cezar; de Paiva, Byanca Regina; dos Santos Malafronte, Rosely; Fernandes, Wedson Desidério; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate natural infection by Leishmania in phlebotomine females in a visceral-leishmaniasis focus in Antonio João county in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Between June and October 2003, the digestive tracts of 81 females captured in Aldeia Campestre, Aldeia Marangatu and Povoado Campestre were dissected. The females were separated by species, location, area and date of capture into 13 groups and kept in ethanol 70%. To identify the Leishmania species using the PCR technique, amplifications of the ribosomal-DNA (rDNA) and mini-exon genes were analyzed. Of the 81 specimens, 77 (95%) were Lutzomyia longipalpis, making this the most common species; only one specimen of each of the species Brumptomyia avellari, Evandromyia cortelezzii, Evandromyia lenti and Nyssomyia whitmani was found. Trypanosomatids were identified in eight of the nine groups of Lutzomyia longipalpis (10.39%) one group from Aldeia Campestre, one from Aldeia Marangatu and six from Povoado Campestre; of the eight groups, one from Aldeia Marangatu and another, with promastigotes forms also confirmed by dissection (1.23%) from Povoado Campestre, were identified by PCR as Leishmania chagasi (2.6%). The other groups gave negative results. These findings indicate that there is a high risk of leishmaniasis transmission in this area. PMID:17505673

  4. Biotic factors and occurrence of Lutzomyia longipalpis in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Everton Falcão de; Silva, Elaine Araújo e; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico dos Santos; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição; Gamarra, Roberto Macedo; Ribeiro, Alisson André; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de

    2012-05-01

    The relationships between environmental exposure to risk agents and health conditions have been studied with the aid of remote sensing imagery, a tool particularly useful in the study of vegetation cover. This study aims to evaluate the influence of environmental variables on the spatial distribution of the abundance of Lutzomyia longipalpis and the reported canine and human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases at an urban area of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul. The sandfly captures were performed in 13 residences that were selected by raffle considering four residences or collection station for buffer. These buffers were generated from the central house with about 50, 100 and 200 m from it in an endemic area of VL. The abundance of sandflies and human and canine cases were georreferenced using the GIS software PCI Geomatica. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and percentage of land covered by vegetation were the environmental variables extracted from a remote sensing IKONOS-2 image. The average NDVI was considered as the complexity of habitat and the standard deviation as the heterogeneity of habitat. One thousand three hundred sixty-seven specimens were collected during the catch. We found a significant positive linear correlation between the abundance of sandflies and the percentage of vegetation cover and average NDVI. However, there was no significant association between habitat heterogeneity and the abundance of these flies.

  5. Tick-borne agents in domesticated and stray cats from the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    André, Marcos Rogério; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Fernandes, Simone de Jesus; de Sousa, Keyla Cartens Marques; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Domingos, Iara Helena; de Macedo, Gabriel Carvalho; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2015-09-01

    Anaplasmataceae agents, piroplasmids and Hepatozoon spp. have emerged as important pathogens among domestic and wild felines. The present work aimed to detect the presence of species belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family, piroplasmas and Hepatozoon spp. DNA in blood samples of domesticated and stray cats in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil. Between January and April 2013, whole blood samples were collected from 151 cats (54 males, 95 females and two without gender registration) in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. DNA extracted from cat blood samples was submitted to conventional PCR assays for Theileria/Babesia/Cytauxzoon spp. (18S rRNA, ITS-1), Ehrlichia spp. (16S rRNA, dsb, groESL), Anaplasma spp. (16S rRNA, groESL) and Hepatozoon spp. (18S rRNA) followed by phylogenetic reconstructions. Out of 151 sampled cats, 13 (8.5%) were positive for Ehrlichia spp. closely related to Ehrlichia canis, 1 (0.66%) for Hepatozoon spp. closely related to Hepatozoon americanum and Hepatozoon spp. isolate from a wild felid, 1 (0.66%) for Cytauxzoon sp. closely related do Cytauxzoon felis, and 18 (11.9%) for Babesia/Theileria (one sequence was closely related to Babesia bigemina, eight for Babesia vogeli, five to Theileria spp. from ruminants [Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi] and four to Theileria sp. recently detected in a cat). The present study showed that Ehrlichia spp., piroplasmids (B. vogeli, Theileria spp. and Cytauxzoon spp.) and, more rarely, Hepatozoon spp. circulate among stray and domesticated cats in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil. PMID:26187416

  6. Tick-borne agents in domesticated and stray cats from the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    André, Marcos Rogério; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Fernandes, Simone de Jesus; de Sousa, Keyla Cartens Marques; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Domingos, Iara Helena; de Macedo, Gabriel Carvalho; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2015-09-01

    Anaplasmataceae agents, piroplasmids and Hepatozoon spp. have emerged as important pathogens among domestic and wild felines. The present work aimed to detect the presence of species belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family, piroplasmas and Hepatozoon spp. DNA in blood samples of domesticated and stray cats in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil. Between January and April 2013, whole blood samples were collected from 151 cats (54 males, 95 females and two without gender registration) in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. DNA extracted from cat blood samples was submitted to conventional PCR assays for Theileria/Babesia/Cytauxzoon spp. (18S rRNA, ITS-1), Ehrlichia spp. (16S rRNA, dsb, groESL), Anaplasma spp. (16S rRNA, groESL) and Hepatozoon spp. (18S rRNA) followed by phylogenetic reconstructions. Out of 151 sampled cats, 13 (8.5%) were positive for Ehrlichia spp. closely related to Ehrlichia canis, 1 (0.66%) for Hepatozoon spp. closely related to Hepatozoon americanum and Hepatozoon spp. isolate from a wild felid, 1 (0.66%) for Cytauxzoon sp. closely related do Cytauxzoon felis, and 18 (11.9%) for Babesia/Theileria (one sequence was closely related to Babesia bigemina, eight for Babesia vogeli, five to Theileria spp. from ruminants [Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi] and four to Theileria sp. recently detected in a cat). The present study showed that Ehrlichia spp., piroplasmids (B. vogeli, Theileria spp. and Cytauxzoon spp.) and, more rarely, Hepatozoon spp. circulate among stray and domesticated cats in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil.

  7. Tungiasis in a free-ranging jaguar (Panthera onca) population in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Cynthia E; Azevedo, Fernando C C

    2012-03-01

    Tungiasis is an ectoparasitic disease caused by fleas of the genus Tunga. The disease is reported to occur mostly in human populations. In wildlife, however, the occurrence and impact of this disease remains uncertain. We captured and examined 12 free-ranging jaguars for the presence of Tunga penetrans in the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. Tungiasis prevalence was 100% in the population; lesions were confined to the jaguar's paws. T. penetrans was identified based on the characteristics of the embedded fleas and the morphological identification of a collected free-living flea. The intensity and stage of infestation varied between individual animals. However, in general, all captured jaguars were in good health. The 100% prevalence of tungiasis may be related to the fact that all captures were performed during the dry season. Their high ecological requirements for space make jaguars potential disseminators of T. penetrans in the Pantanal region. Because cattle ranching and ecotourism are the main economic activities in the Pantanal, further studies should evaluate the risks of tungiasis to human and animal health. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of tungiasis in jaguars.

  8. Tungiasis in a free-ranging jaguar (Panthera onca) population in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Cynthia E; Azevedo, Fernando C C

    2012-03-01

    Tungiasis is an ectoparasitic disease caused by fleas of the genus Tunga. The disease is reported to occur mostly in human populations. In wildlife, however, the occurrence and impact of this disease remains uncertain. We captured and examined 12 free-ranging jaguars for the presence of Tunga penetrans in the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. Tungiasis prevalence was 100% in the population; lesions were confined to the jaguar's paws. T. penetrans was identified based on the characteristics of the embedded fleas and the morphological identification of a collected free-living flea. The intensity and stage of infestation varied between individual animals. However, in general, all captured jaguars were in good health. The 100% prevalence of tungiasis may be related to the fact that all captures were performed during the dry season. Their high ecological requirements for space make jaguars potential disseminators of T. penetrans in the Pantanal region. Because cattle ranching and ecotourism are the main economic activities in the Pantanal, further studies should evaluate the risks of tungiasis to human and animal health. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of tungiasis in jaguars. PMID:21863398

  9. [The magic universe of cures: the role of magic practices and witchcraft in the universe of 17th century Mato Grosso].

    PubMed

    Sá, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the role of healing agents played by practitioners of magic and witchcraft in Mato Grosso society during the 17th century. It observes that magic and witchcraft were developed as competitors, alternatives or associated with other forms of healing (official and lay). It points out how such roles contributed to the process of subjugating its practitioners, especially Africans, Indians and their descendents, and were appropriated as an opportunity for survival in the colonial slave society. The pastoral visit made by Bruno Pinna in 1785 to Cuiabá and nearby areas served as the principal source of knowledge regarding the practices and practitioners of magic and witchcraft.

  10. [Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mário Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ednaldo Cândido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Barreto, Francisco Cândido Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mário Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture). PMID:18491629

  11. Habitat suitability mapping of Anopheles darlingi in the surroundings of the Manso hydropower plant reservoir, Mato Grosso, Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zeilhofer, Peter; Santos, Emerson Soares dos; Ribeiro, Ana LM; Miyazaki, Rosina D; Santos, Marina Atanaka dos

    2007-01-01

    Background Hydropower plants provide more than 78 % of Brazil's electricity generation, but the country's reservoirs are potential new habitats for main vectors of malaria. In a case study in the surroundings of the Manso hydropower plant in Mato Grosso state, Central Brazil, habitat suitability of Anopheles darlingi was studied. Habitat profile was characterized by collecting environmental data. Remote sensing and GIS techniques were applied to extract additional spatial layers of land use, distance maps, and relief characteristics for spatial model building. Results Logistic regression analysis and ROC curves indicate significant relationships between the environment and presence of An. darlingi. Probabilities of presence strongly vary as a function of land cover and distance from the lake shoreline. Vector presence was associated with spatial proximity to reservoir and semi-deciduous forests followed by Cerrado woodland. Vector absence was associated with open vegetation formations such as grasslands and agricultural areas. We suppose that non-significant differences of vector incidences between rainy and dry seasons are associated with the availability of anthropogenic breeding habitat of the reservoir throughout the year. Conclusion Satellite image classification and multitemporal shoreline simulations through DEM-based GIS-analyses consist in a valuable tool for spatial modeling of A. darlingi habitats in the studied hydropower reservoir area. Vector presence is significantly increased in forested areas near reservoirs in bays protected from wind and wave action. Construction of new reservoirs under the tropical, sub-humid climatic conditions should therefore be accompanied by entomologic studies to predict the risk of malaria epidemics. PMID:17343728

  12. [Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mário Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ednaldo Cândido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Barreto, Francisco Cândido Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mário Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture).

  13. Canine visceral leishmaniosis in Anastácio, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cortada, V M C L; Doval, M E C; Souza Lima, M A A; Oshiro, E T; Meneses, C R V; Abreu-Silva, A L; Cupolilo, E; Souza, C S F; Cardoso, F O; Zaverucha do Valle, T; Brazil, R P; Calabrese, K S; Gonçalves da Costa, S C

    2004-07-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) may be an important factor preceding human outbreaks of the disease. We report that the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniosis infection has been increasing in recent years in Anastácio town, located in the central western region of Brazil. Serological investigations showed that 75.3% of dogs presented antibody titres ranging from 1/40 to 1/160 in the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Bone marrow and lymph node aspirates provided positive cultures and furnished parasites for enzymological and serological typing in 42.5% and 41.1% of the cases, respectively. All the strains were typed as Leishmania (L.) chagasi. This is primarily a canine disease that spills over into the human population as a zoonosis. The study showed the epidemiological features of the infection in a region in which the problem of visceral leishmaniosis has been underestimated.

  14. In vitro activities of plant extracts from the Brazilian Cerrado and Pantanal against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Carolina da Silva; Borges, Ligia Miranda Ferreira; Nicácio, José; Alves, Reginaldo Dias; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2013-07-01

    A total of 73 ethanol extracts from different anatomical parts of 44 plant species belonging to 24 families, native to the Mid-Western region of Brazil, were assessed in vitro for their effect on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, using the adult immersion test. All extracts were evaluated at the concentration of 0.2 % and, among the extracts tested, the one obtained from the fruits of Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae) proved to be highly efficacious, showing 99.1 % of product effectiveness. Extracts from other three species were shown to be moderately active, namely Nymphaea amazonum trunk (Nymphaeaceae) [51.7 %], Strychnos pseudoquina trunk (Loganiaceae) [48 %] [corrected] and Ocotea lancifolia leaves (Lauraceae) [34.5 %], while the remaining extracts were shown to be weakly active or inactive. This is the first report on the bioactivity of these species on egg production by engorged females of R. microplus.

  15. In vitro activities of plant extracts from the Brazilian Cerrado and Pantanal against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Carolina da Silva; Borges, Ligia Miranda Ferreira; Nicácio, José; Alves, Reginaldo Dias; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2013-07-01

    A total of 73 ethanol extracts from different anatomical parts of 44 plant species belonging to 24 families, native to the Mid-Western region of Brazil, were assessed in vitro for their effect on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, using the adult immersion test. All extracts were evaluated at the concentration of 0.2 % and, among the extracts tested, the one obtained from the fruits of Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae) proved to be highly efficacious, showing 99.1 % of product effectiveness. Extracts from other three species were shown to be moderately active, namely Nymphaea amazonum trunk (Nymphaeaceae) [51.7 %], Strychnos pseudoquina trunk (Loganiaceae) [48 %] [corrected] and Ocotea lancifolia leaves (Lauraceae) [34.5 %], while the remaining extracts were shown to be weakly active or inactive. This is the first report on the bioactivity of these species on egg production by engorged females of R. microplus. PMID:23344640

  16. Climate Variability is Influencing Agricultural Expansion and Output in a Key Agricultural Region of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, S. A.; Cohn, A.; VanWey, L.; Mustard, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso has both expanded and intensified its agricultural production to become the country's leading producer of soy, corn, and cotton. Yet this increase in agricultural production may be threatened due to changes in the region's climate stemming from deforestation caused by the agricultural expansion itself. The sensitivity of Mato Grosso's agriculture to climate variability has important implications for both climate change mitigation and climate adaptation. The vast bulk of research on the drivers of land use change in the region has examined economic and institutional drivers. Leveraging a novel remote sensing-derived dataset classifying shifts between single (cultivating one commercial crop per growing season) and double cropping (cultivating two commercial crops per growing season), we investigated the influence of climate variability on land use change during the period 2000 to 2011. Over the past decade, over half of Mato Grosso's farm area transitioned from single cropping to double cropping. We used regression analysis (controlling for space and time fixed effects) to show monthly rainfall, monthly temperature, agricultural commodity prices, and agricultural revenue to be the main drivers of adoption of double cropping and reversion to single cropping in the region. The influence of climate varies as much as five orders of magnitude across these outcomes, with both temperature and precipitation exhibiting the largest climatic influence on the transition from single to double cropping. Temperature consistently proves to be more important, explaining three times more of the variance than precipitation for each outcome. Months at the beginning of a given first crop season, the end of that first crop season, and middle of the subsequent second crop season are particularly important for planting decisions in the subsequent growing year. Fitting our land transition models using remote-sensing derived

  17. Lutzomyia longipalpis naturally infected by Leishmania (L.) chagasi in Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, an area of intense transmission of visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Missawa, Nanci A; Michalsky, Erika Monteiro; Fortes-Dias, Consuelo Latorre; Santos Dias, Edelberto

    2010-12-01

    The American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL) is caused by parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania (Trypanosomatidae) and is transmitted to humans through the bite of certain species of infected phlebotomine sand flies. In this study, we investigated the natural infection ratio of Lutzomyia longipalpis, the main vector species of AVL in Brazil, in Várzea Grande, Mato Grosso State. Between July 2004 and June 2006, phlebotomine sand flies were captured in peridomestic areas using CDC light-traps. Four hundred and twenty (420) specimens of Lu. longipalpis were captured. 42 pools, containing 10 specimens of Lu. longipalpis each, were used for genomic DNA extraction and PCR (polymerase chain reaction) amplification. Leishmania spp. DNA was detected in three out of the 42 pools tested, resulting in a minimal infection ratio of 0.71%. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis indicated that Leishmania (L.) chagasi was the infective agent in the positive pools.

  18. Land Transformation and Occupation Impacts of Farming Practices for the Production of Soybean in Mato Grosso, Brazil, Using Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Miranda, E. J.; Couto, E. G.; Johnson, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The state of Mato Grosso is the largest producer of soybean in Brazil with production continuously increasing since 2000 through a near tripling of cropland area under soybean cultivation. This increase in production has occurred by land cover transformation (extensification into natural ecosystems, e.g. forest to crop) and land use intensification (increase in area by conversion of already cleared land, e.g. pasture to crop), largely to satisfy international demand. In this study, we assess cradle-to-farm gate impacts of soybean production in Mato Grosso using life cycle impact assessment applied to data collected from 110 farms. We combine 21 impact indicators of land transformation and occupation (i.e. land use and land cover change) to show impacts of life cycle stages of production to land, air, water, resource use, biodiversity and ecosystem services. The greatest damage to human health and ecosystem quality came from land transformation which primarily takes place in the tropical forest (Amazon) and savanna (Cerrado/Cerradão) biomes. Soybean production in tropical forest landscapes has greater impacts on climate regulation, biotic production and groundwater recharge compared to production in native savanna areas, while impacts on biodiversity, erosion and soil water purification are roughly equivalent for tropical forest vs. savanna transformation and occupation. Soybean production practices showed hot spots of damage to environmental quality and resources from phosphorous fertilizer application and diesel consumption in machinery through impact pathways such as terrestrial and aquatic acidification and the use of non-renewable energy. Life cycle impact assessment modeling can provide further information into the production process to enlighten decision making with respect to impacts occurring along the soybean product supply chain.

  19. The influence of industrial and agricultural waste on water quality in the Água Boa stream (Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil).

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Monyque Palagano; Dourado, Priscila Leocadia Rosa; de Souza Rodrigues, Mayara; Raposo, Jorge Luiz; Grisolia, Alexeia Barufatti; de Oliveira, Kelly Mari Pires

    2015-07-01

    Water quality monitoring is used to determine the impact of human activities on the environment. We evaluated water quality in the Água Boa stream, located within the municipality of Dourados, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, by analyzing physico-chemical, chemical, and microbiological parameters, as well as chlorophyll concentrations. Five sets of water samples were collected between December 2012 and November 2013 from three locations within the stream. The results showed the presence of Escherichia coli and antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas spp. strains and high concentrations of organic matter (total dissolved solids), inorganic species (Mg, Ca, and Fe), and agrochemical residues (thiamethoxam). The main stream water contaminants are derived from urban, industrial, and agricultural activities within the watershed. Given the presence of contaminants, it is important that such findings are disseminated in order to highlight the risks that contact with this water may pose to human health. To preserve the environment and improve site conditions, people would need to participate by demanding that normative national and international standards be respected and that the situation be supervised by the competent governmental agencies; this would make it possible to reverse or minimize contamination problems within the Água Boa stream.

  20. Hemoparasites of the genus Trypanosoma (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) and hemogregarines in Anurans of the São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul States - Brazil.

    PubMed

    Leal, Denise D M; O'dwyer, Lucia H; Ribeiro, Vitor C; Silva, Reinaldo J; Ferreira, Vanda L; Rodrigues, Rozangela B

    2009-06-01

    Wild animals are exposed to numerous pathogens, including hemoparasites. The Trypanosoma and hemogregarinegroup are frequently reported as parasites in anurans (frogs, tree frogs and toads). The identification of these hemoparasites is usually made through stage observation of their morphology in the peripheral blood of the host. There areno studies, however, based on the biological cycle of these hemoparasites. The objective of the present study was toevaluate the presence of hemogregarines and Trypanosoma spp. in anurans captured in the States of São Paulo andMato Grosso do Sul- Brazil and to perform the morphological and morphometric characterization of these hemoparasites. The species of anurans examined were: Dendropsophus nanus, D. minutus, Leptodactylus chaquensis L. podicipinus, L. labyrinthicus, L. fuscus, Bufo granulosus, B. schneideri, Phyllomedusa hypocondrialis, Trachicephalus venulosus, Scinax fuscovarius and Hypsiboas albopunctatus. Of the total of 40 animals studied, four (10%)were positive for hemogregarines and eight (20%) were positive for Trypanosoma spp. Hemogregarine gamontsshowed variable morphology and, in addition to intraerythrocytic forms, extraerythrocytic forms were also observed.Extremely different forms of Trypanosoma were observed, as described in the literature, with the broad and oval forms being the most common. PMID:19488624

  1. [Antibodies to the rabies virus in humans working in a veterinary hospital environment at the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso. Cuiabá, MT, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Nociti, Darci Lara Perecin; Caramori Júnior, João Garcia; de Jesus, Lisiane Pereira; Samara, Samir Issa; de Araújo Junior, Aldocírio

    2003-01-01

    A characterization of the serological profile of 102 workers in constant activities in a veterinary hospital environment at the Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso was made through epidemiological data and serological tests to the rabies virus from November 1999 to November 2000. Of these, 27 had been vaccinated in a pre-exposure scheme and 75 had not received any kind of antirabies immunization. The results of the study classified the people into four groups (G1, G2, G3 and G4). In G1, 19 (18.6%) people that had been previously vaccinated showed a titration level lower than 0.5UI/mL; in G2, 8 (7.8%) people who had been previously vaccinated showed a titration level higher than 0.5UI/mL; in G3, 67 (65.6%) people who had not been vaccinated against rabies virus showed a titration level lower than 0.5UI/mL; and finally in G4, 8 (7.8%) people who had never received any kind of vaccine scheme showed a titration level higher than 0.5UI/mL. The results showed that epidemiological evaluation and serological profile are necessary people working in a veterinary hospital environment while being pre-exposure vaccinated.

  2. HIV Type 1 Molecular Epidemiology in pol and gp41 Genes Among Naive Patients from Mato Grosso do Sul State, Central Western Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Alexsander Augusto; Cardoso, Ludimila Paula Vaz; Francisco, Roberta Barbosa Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Antiretroviral naive patients (n=49) were recruited in central western Brazil (Campo Grande City/Mato Grosso do Sul State, located across the Bolivia and Paraguay borders). HIV-1 protease (PR), reverse transcriptase (RT), and env gp41 HR1 fragments were sequenced. Genetic diversity was analyzed by REGA/phylogenetic analyses. Intersubtype recombinants were identified by SimPlot/phylogenetic trees. PR/RT resistance was analyzed by Calibrated Population Resistance/Stanford databases. T-20 resistance in gp41 was assessed by Stanford, Los Alamos, and other sources. Of HIV-1 subtypes 65.3% were BPRBRT, 10.2% were CPRCRT, and 8.2% were F1PRF1RT. Intersubtype recombinants were 16.3%: four B/F1 and four B/C (two were “CRF31_BC-like”). The Pol-RT V75M mutation was detected in two homosexual partners; one patient had the T215S revertant mutation. T-20/gp41 resistance mutations were L44M (n=2) and V38A (n=1). The high percentage of non-B isolates (∼35%) highlights the importance of molecular surveillance studies in settings distant from the origin of the epidemic. Our data help elaborate the molecular epidemiological map of HIV-1 in Brazil. PMID:21790471

  3. Relation of the activities of the IPDF/INPE project (reforestation subproject) during the year 1979. [Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Demedeiros, J. S.; Desantana, C. C.; Alves, E. C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The state of Mato Grosso do Sul was selected as the study area to define the recognizable classes of Eucalyptus spp. and Pinus spp. by visual and automatic analyses. For visual analysis, a preliminary interpretation key and a legend of 6 groups were derived. Based on these six groups, three final classes were defined for analysis: (1) area prepared for reforestation; (2) area reforested with Eucalyptus spp.; and (3) area reforested with Pinus spp. For automatic interpretation the area along the highway from Ribas do Rio Pardo to Agua Clara was classified into the following classes: eucalytus, bare soil, plowed soil, pine and "cerrado". The results of visual analysis show that 67% of the reforested farms have relative differences in area estimate below 5%, 22%, between 5% and 10%; and 11% between 10% and 20%. The reforested eucalyptus area is 17 times greater than the area of reforested pine. Automatic classification of eucalyptus ranged from 73.03% to 92.30% in the training areas.

  4. HIV type 1 molecular epidemiology in pol and gp41 genes among naive patients from Mato Grosso do Sul State, central western Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silveira, Alexsander Augusto; Cardoso, Ludimila Paula Vaz; Francisco, Roberta Barbosa Lopes; de Araújo Stefani, Mariane Martins

    2012-03-01

    Antiretroviral naive patients (n=49) were recruited in central western Brazil (Campo Grande City/Mato Grosso do Sul State, located across the Bolivia and Paraguay borders). HIV-1 protease (PR), reverse transcriptase (RT), and env gp41 HR1 fragments were sequenced. Genetic diversity was analyzed by REGA/phylogenetic analyses. Intersubtype recombinants were identified by SimPlot/phylogenetic trees. PR/RT resistance was analyzed by Calibrated Population Resistance/Stanford databases. T-20 resistance in gp41 was assessed by Stanford, Los Alamos, and other sources. Of HIV-1 subtypes 65.3% were B(PR)B(RT), 10.2% were C(PR)C(RT), and 8.2% were F1(PR)F1(RT). Intersubtype recombinants were 16.3%: four B/F1 and four B/C (two were "CRF31_BC-like"). The Pol-RT V75M mutation was detected in two homosexual partners; one patient had the T215S revertant mutation. T-20/gp41 resistance mutations were L44M (n=2) and V38A (n=1). The high percentage of non-B isolates (∼35%) highlights the importance of molecular surveillance studies in settings distant from the origin of the epidemic. Our data help elaborate the molecular epidemiological map of HIV-1 in Brazil.

  5. Ecological aspects of phlebotomines (Diptera: Psychodidae) in endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis, Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Cavalheiros; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2012-01-01

    Aspects of phlebotomine behavior were investigated in the city of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul state. The insects were captured weekly during December 2003 to November 2005, with Centers for Disease Control light traps at seven different sites including forests and residential areas. In total, 11,024 specimens (7,805 males and 3,219 females) were collected, from which 9,963 (90.38%) were identified as Lutzomyia longipalpis, the proven vector of American visceral leishmaniasis agent. The remaining 9.62% comprised 21 species. L. longipalpis was the most frequent species in all sampled sites, and the first in the ranking of standardized species abundance index. In residential areas this species clearly predominated in the peridomicile (90.96%), in contrast to the intradomicile (9.04%); in animal shelters, it was more numerous in hen houses and prevailed at ground level, inside, and at forest edge around the residences; this aspect is worrying because this insect may remain sheltered in forested environments during the use of insecticides in homes. In the forest environment, other probable or proven vector of cutaneous leishmaniasis agents were also captured such as Lutzomyia whitmani (=Nyssomyia whitmani, sensu Galati), Lutzomyia antunesi (=Nyssomyia antunesi, sensu Galati), and Lutzomyia flaviscutellata (=Bichromomyia flaviscutellata, sensu Galati).

  6. The influence of industrial and agricultural waste on water quality in the Água Boa stream (Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil).

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Monyque Palagano; Dourado, Priscila Leocadia Rosa; de Souza Rodrigues, Mayara; Raposo, Jorge Luiz; Grisolia, Alexeia Barufatti; de Oliveira, Kelly Mari Pires

    2015-07-01

    Water quality monitoring is used to determine the impact of human activities on the environment. We evaluated water quality in the Água Boa stream, located within the municipality of Dourados, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, by analyzing physico-chemical, chemical, and microbiological parameters, as well as chlorophyll concentrations. Five sets of water samples were collected between December 2012 and November 2013 from three locations within the stream. The results showed the presence of Escherichia coli and antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas spp. strains and high concentrations of organic matter (total dissolved solids), inorganic species (Mg, Ca, and Fe), and agrochemical residues (thiamethoxam). The main stream water contaminants are derived from urban, industrial, and agricultural activities within the watershed. Given the presence of contaminants, it is important that such findings are disseminated in order to highlight the risks that contact with this water may pose to human health. To preserve the environment and improve site conditions, people would need to participate by demanding that normative national and international standards be respected and that the situation be supervised by the competent governmental agencies; this would make it possible to reverse or minimize contamination problems within the Água Boa stream. PMID:26088756

  7. Surveying the area of deforestation of the Amazon by LANDSAT satellite imagery. [Mato grosso, Goias and Para, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Tardin, A. T.; Dossantos, A. P.; Lee, D. C. L.; Soaresmaia, F. C.; Mendonca, F. J.; Assuncao, G. V.; Rodrigues, J. E.; Demouraabdon, M.; Novaes, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery was used to determine the amount of deforestation in a study area comprising 55 million hectares of the Amazon region. Results show that more than 4 million hectares were deforested. Maps and pictures of the deforested area in relation to the total area of the Amazon are included.

  8. Mini-winkler extractor and pitfall trap as complementary methods to sample formicidae.

    PubMed

    Silva, F H O; Delabie, J H C; dos Santos, G B; Meurer, E; Marques, M I

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of mini-Winkler extractor and pitfall traps as appropriate and complementary methods to sample ant communities in the phytophysiognomy mosaic in the Poconé Pantanal region, state of Mato Grosso, Brasil. Seven units were studied for landscape, located within a 25 km(2) collection area, formed by thirty 250-m transects, at 1-km intervals in a 5 × 5 km area. Five collection points were marked in each transect at 50-m intervals, totaling 150 points. A collection was made at each sampling point with mini-Winkler extractor and pitfall traps. Using the mini-Winkler extractor, 1,088 individuals were collected distributed in 20 genera and 55 species, with Solenopsis invicta Buren and Pheidole (gr. biconstricta) sp.1 as the most frequent ants. Using pitfall traps, 2,726 individuals distributed in 24 genera and 48 species were sampled and Dorymyrmex (gr. pyramicus) sp.1 and Pheidole (gr. biconstricta) sp.1 were the most frequent species. A significant difference between the methods was observed in measured species number. The Principal coordinates analysis discriminated two species groups exclusively sampled by the mini-Winkler extractor and another by the pitfall methods. Therefore, it was concluded that these methods were complementary for ant diversity inventories in the Poconé Pantanal region.

  9. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of wheezing in children in the first year of life, living in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil☆

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Lillian Sanchez Lacerda; Takano, Olga Akiko; Mallol, Javier; Solé, Dirceu

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and the clinical characteristics of wheezing in infants aged 12 to 15 months in the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Midwest Brazil. METHODS: Parents and/or guardians of infants were interviewed and completed a written standardized questionnaire of the Estudio Internacional de Sibilancia en Lactantes (EISL) - phase 3 at primary healthcare clinics at the same day of children vaccination or at home, from August of 2009 to November of 2010. RESULTS: 1,060 parents and/or guardians completed the questionnaire, and 514 (48.5%) infants were male. Among the studied infants, 294 (27.7%) had at least one episode of wheezing during the first year of life, beggining at 5.8±3.0 months of age, with a predominance of male patients. The prevalence of occasional wheezing (<3 episodes of wheezing) was 15.0% and recurrent wheezing (≥3 episodes) was 12.7%. Among the infants with recurrent wheezing, the use of inhaled β2-agonist, oral corticosteroid, leukotriene receptor antagonist, as well as night symptoms, respiratory distress, and hospitalization due to severe episodes were significantly more frequent. Physician-diagnosed asthma was observed in 28 (9.5%) of the wheezing infants. Among the wheezing infants, 80 (27.7%) were diagnosed with pneumonia, of whom 33 (11.2%) required hospitalization; neverthless, no differences between occasional and recurrent wheezing infants were found. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of recurrent wheezing and physician-diagnosed asthma in infants were lower compared with those observed in other Brazilian studies. Recurrent wheezing had early onset and high morbity. PMID:25510994

  10. Mayaro virus and dengue virus 1 and 4 natural infection in culicids from Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Otacília Pereira; Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Ribeiro, Ana Lúcia Maria; dos Santos, Fábio Alexandre Leal; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the diversity of Culicidae species and their frequency of infection with flaviviruses and alphaviruses in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Mosquitoes were captured with Nasci aspirators and hand net in 200 census tracts, identified alive at species level and pooled in one-20 (11,090 mosquitoes, 14 species). Female pools (n = 610) were subjected to multiplex seminested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for 11 flavivirus and five alphavirus. Positive pools were tested by single RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing, by RT-PCR for E1 gene [Mayaro virus (MAYV)] and by inoculation in Vero cells (MAYV) or C6/36 cells (flaviviruses). One/171 Aedes aegypti was positive for dengue virus (DENV)-1, 12/403 Culex quinquefasciatus, and four/171Ae. aegypti for MAYV, which was isolated from two pools containing two nonengorged females of Ae. aegypti and two ofCx. quinquefasciatus. DENV-4 was detected in 58/171 pools of Ae. aegytpi, 105/403 Cx. quinquefasciatus, two/five Psorophora sp., two/11 Psorophora varipes/Psorophora albigenu, one/one Sabethes chloropterus, two/five Culex bidens/Culex interfor, and one/one Aedes sp. DENV-4 was isolated from two pools containing three and 16 nonengorged Cx. quinquefasciatus females. Phylogenetic analysis revealed MAYV belongs to genotype L, clustering with human samples of the virus previously identified in the city. Cuiabá has biodiversity and ecosystem favourable for vector proliferation, representing a risk for arbovirus outbreaks. PMID:26784852

  11. Microbispora sp. LGMB259 Endophytic Actinomycete Isolated from Vochysia divergens (Pantanal, Brazil) Producing β-Carbolines and Indoles with Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Savi, Daiani C.; Shaaban, Khaled A.; Vargas, Nathalia; Ponomareva, Larissa V.; Possiede, Yvelise M.; Thorson, Jon S.; Glienke, Chirlei; Rohr, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes encompass bacterial groups that are well known for the production of a diverse range of secondary metabolites. Vochysia divergens is a medicinal plant, common in the “Pantanal” region (Brazil) and was focus of many investigations, but never regarding its community of endophytic symbionts. During a screening program, an endophytic strain isolated from the V. divergens, was investigated for its potential to show biological activity. The strain was characterized as Microbispora sp. LGMB259 by spore morphology and molecular analyze using nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Strain LGMB259 was cultivated in R5A medium producing metabolites with significant antibacterial activity. The strain produced 4 chemically related β-carbolines, and 3 Indoles. Compound 1-Vinyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid displayed potent activity against the Gram-positive bacterial strains Micrococcus luteus NRRL B-2618 and Kocuria rosea B-1106, and was highly active against two human cancer cell lines, namely the prostate cancer cell line PC3 and the non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line A549, with IC50 values of 9.45 and 24.67 µM, respectively. 1-Vinyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid also showed moderate activity against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC204508, as well as the phytopathogenic fungiPhyllosticta citricarpa LGMB06 and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides FDC83. PMID:25385358

  12. Tendencies of mortality by prostate cancer in the states of the Central-West Region of Brazil, 1980-2011.

    PubMed

    da Silva, João Francisco Santos; Mattos, Inês Echenique; Aydos, Ricardo Dutra

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the pattern of prostate cancer mortality in the Central-West Region, in the period 1980 - 2011. The quadrennial and annual mortality rates, age-standardized by the world population, were calculated. Polynomial regression models were estimated to analyze trends of mortality in Brazilian regions and in the states of the Central-West Region. Throughout Brazil there was an increase in the magnitude of mortality rates during the study's period. In the Central-West Region, mortality rates from prostate cancer increased from 7.65/100,000 in the period 1980 - 1983, to 14.36/100,000 in the last four years, exceeding the national average. For Mato Grosso do Sul, an increased trend, although not constant, was observed for prostate mortality rates, while those rates showed stability for Mato Grosso and presented a constant trend of increment for Goiás along the studied period. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between mortality rates from prostate cancer and the proportional mortality from ill-defined causes of death in the three states, but no correlations were observed between these rates and the ratios of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) tests realized. Difficulties in the access to the health services network, better quality of death records with reduction of ill-defined causes and increased use of PSA may have contributed to the mortality pattern observed in the Central-West Region. Further studies are needed to investigate these relationships in order, to better understand the patterns of mortality from this cancer in the Central-West population.

  13. Shifting Patterns of Pasturelands and Stocking Rates of Cattle in Brazil: 1940 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, L. C. P.; Santos, A.; Pimenta, F. M.; Costa, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the shifting in historical patterns of pastureland (natural and planted) in Brazil using a new high-resolution (approximately 1 km x 1 km) spatially explicit reconstruction of land use from 1940 to 2012 and stocking rate of cattle maps from 1990 to 2012. We also identified the top 5% (highest yields) pixels in the 2010 stocking rate map and we assessed the historical trends in intensification and extensification practices in Brazil. We focus our analyzes in Amazonia and Cerrado biomes, in Mato Grosso and Pará states, and in the new agricultural frontier called MATOPIBA - which is formed by Maranhão, Tocantins, Piauí, and Bahia states. Natural pastureland expanded until the 1970s and, after that, most areas with natural pasture were replaced by planted pasture, which is more profitable. In 2012, natural pastures were still predominant in the Pampas (located in southern Rio Grande do Sul) and the Pantanal (located in western Mato Grosso do Sul). On the other hand, planted pastureland expanded in area between 1975 and 2012, especially in the Cerrado biome. Brazilian stocking rate of cattle increased, but remains close to 1.0 head/ha between 1990 and 2010 and the top 5% were about twice as high as the average in all regions analyzed. The yield gap (difference between average and the top 5% pixels) was largest in Pará state, where the stocking rate of cattle was below 50% of the potential given 2010 practices. The increase in cattle production in Amazonia biome and in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará came from both intensification and expansion of pasturelands. In contrast, pasturelands in Cerrado and MATOPIBA decreased in area while stocking rates of cattle increased gradually. Our results provide new insights about land use change and productivity in Brazilian territory that could guide future agricultural and conservation discussions, decisions, and policies.

  14. Regional odontodysplasia.

    PubMed

    Mehta, D N; Bailoor, D; Patel, B

    2011-01-01

    Regional odontodysplasia is an unusual developmental anomaly in which ectodermal and mesodermal tooth components are affected. We present a rare case of a developmental anomaly called regional odontodysplasia or 'ghost teeth' in a 12-year-old Indian girl. The anomaly affected right maxillary permanent teeth. The mandibular teeth were unaffected. The clinical, radiographic and histological features are reviewed. The management of affected patients is discussed.

  15. Evaluation of the efficiency of nested q-PCR in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex directly from tuberculosis-suspected lesions in post-mortem macroscopic inspections of bovine carcasses slaughtered in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ricardo César Tavares; Furlanetto, Leone Vinícius; Maruyama, Fernanda Harumy; Araújo, Cristina Pires de; Barros, Sílvia Letícia Bomfim; Ramos, Carlos Alberto do Nascimento; Dutra, Valéria; Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro de; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi; Nakazato, Luciano; Figueiredo, Eduardo Eustáquio de Souza

    2015-08-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). The quick and specific detection of this species is of extreme importance, since BTB may cause economic impacts, in addition to presenting imminent risks to human health. In the present study a nested real-time PCR test (nested q-PCR) was used in post-mortem evaluations to assess cattle carcasses with BTB-suspected lesions. A total of 41,193 cattle slaughtered in slaughterhouses located in the state of Mato Grosso, were examined. Of the examined animals, 198 (0.48%) showed BTB-suspected lesions. M. bovis was isolated in 1.5% (3/198) of the samples. Multiplex-PCR detected MTC in 7% (14/198) of the samples. The nested q-PCR test detected MTC in 28% (56/198) of the BTB-suspected lesions, demonstrating higher efficiency when compared to the multiplex-PCR and conventional microbiology. Nested q-PCR can therefore be used as a complementary test in the national program for control and eradication of bovine tuberculosis.

  16. Hydrological cycle.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, H C; Mercante, M A; Santos, E T

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal hydrological cycle holds an important meaning in the Alto Paraguay Basin, comprising two areas with considerably diverse conditions regarding natural and water resources: the Plateau and the Plains. From the perspective of the ecosystem function, the hydrological flow in the relationship between plateau and plains is important for the creation of reproductive and feeding niches for the regional biodiversity. In general, river declivity in the plateau is 0.6 m/km while declivity on the plains varies from 0.1 to 0.3 m/km. The environment in the plains is characteristically seasonal and is home to an exuberant and abundant diversity of species, including some animals threatened with extinction. When the flat surface meets the plains there is a diminished water flow on the riverbeds and, during the rainy season the rivers overflow their banks, flooding the lowlands. Average annual precipitation in the Basin is 1,396 mm, ranging from 800 mm to 1,600 mm, and the heaviest rainfall occurs in the plateau region. The low drainage capacity of the rivers and lakes that shape the Pantanal, coupled with the climate in the region, produce very high evaporation: approximately 60% of all the waters coming from the plateau are lost through evaporation. The Alto Paraguay Basin, including the Pantanal, while boasting an abundant availability of water resources, also has some spots with water scarcity in some sub-basins, at different times of the year. Climate conditions alone are not enough to explain the differences observed in the Paraguay River regime and some of its tributaries. The complexity of the hydrologic regime of the Paraguay River is due to the low declivity of the lands that comprise the Mato Grosso plains and plateau (50 to 30 cm/km from east to west and 3 to 1.5 cm/km from north to south) as well as the area's dimension, which remains periodically flooded with a large volume of water. PMID:21537597

  17. [Malaria in the region of Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil, 1980 to 1994].

    PubMed

    Alves, M J; Rangel, O; de Souza, S S

    2000-01-01

    According to epidemiological data, from 1980 to 1994, 2,781 cases of malaria were registered as follows: DIR XII-Campinas (49.3%), DIR XV-Piracicaba (41.3%) and DIR XX-São João da Boa Vista (9.4%). The Plasmodium vivax was found in 70.6% of the patients; Plasmodium falciparum in 25.4% and 4% of the patients presented a mixed infection. The epidemiological classification showed that 95% of the cases came from the States of Rondônia, Mato Grosso and Par. The masculine sex, between the age of 20 to 39 years old, was responsible for 84.3% of the confirmed cases. During the study period, 9 cases of induced malaria were registered: 5 of which through blood transfusion, 3 through the sharing of syringes and infected needles among drug users and one occurrence of congenital malaria. 5 deaths were registered in patients prime-infected by Plasmodium falciparum with late diagnosis. The set of variables studied enabled a greater understanding of the epidemiology of malaria in the region and to subsidize and indicate the process of decentralization of attendance, diagnosis and treatment of the patient, as well as the control and epidemiological surveillance of the endemic disease in Campinas region and in the State of São Paulo.

  18. Xingu Project - Integrating Land Use Planning and Water Governance in Amazonia: Towards Improved Freshwater Security in the Agricultural Frontier of Mato Grosso.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krusche, A. V.; Ballester, M. V.; Neill, C.; Elsenbeer, H.; Johnson, M. S.; Coe, M. T.; Garavello, M.; Molina, S. G.; Empinotti, V.; Reichardt, F.; Deegan, L.; Harris, L.

    2014-12-01

    The main goal of this project is to identify how impacts from land conversion, cropland expansion and intensification of both crop and animal production interact to affect regional evapotranspiration, rainfall generation, river flooding, and water quality and stream habitats, allowing us to identify thresholds of change that will endanger agricultural production, livelihoods of non-agricultural settlers and the region's new urban population and infrastructure. We will survey the effects of this on (1) soybean farmers, (2) cattle ranchers, (3) small-scale farm families, (4) rural non-agriculturists, including fishers, and (5) urban residents and map their roles as stakeholders. We will also conduct current water use surveys among the different stakeholder groups, accompanied by questions on desired aspects for future freshwater security to identify targets for desirable outcomes of water governance strategies. These targets, together with the information on land use drivers, water quantity and quality and predicted scenarios for global changes will be incorporated into a fully integrated and interactive geospatially oriented socio-ecological model that can serve as framework for future water governance that enhances Freshwater Security in such systems. This is an international cooperation initiative lead by Brazil and with the participation of Canada, Germany and United States of America.

  19. Wild Trypanosoma cruzi I genetic diversity in Brazil suggests admixture and disturbance in parasite populations from the Atlantic Forest region

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida, Trypanosomatidae) infection is an ancient and widespread zoonosis distributed throughout the Americas. Ecologically, Brazil comprises several distinct biomes: Amazonia, Cerrado, Caatinga, Pantanal and the Atlantic Forest. Sylvatic T. cruzi transmission is known to occur throughout these biomes, with multiple hosts and vectors involved. Parasite species-level genetic diversity can be a useful marker for ecosystem health. Our aims were to: investigate sylvatic T. cruzi genetic diversity across different biomes, detect instances of genetic exchange, and explore the possible impact of ecological disturbance on parasite diversity at an intra-species level. Methods We characterised 107 isolates of T. cruzi I (TcI; discrete typing unit, DTU I) from different major Brazilian biomes with twenty-seven nuclear microsatellite loci. A representative subset of biologically cloned isolates was further characterised using ten mitochondrial gene loci. We compared these data generated from Brazilian TcI isolates from around America. Results Genetic diversity was remarkably high, including one divergent cluster that branched outside the known genetic diversity of TcI in the Americas. We detected evidence for mitochondrial introgression and genetic exchange between the eastern Amazon and Caatinga. Finally, we found strong signatures of admixture among isolates from the Atlantic Forest region by comparison to parasites from other study sites. Conclusions Atlantic Forest sylvatic TcI populations are highly fragmented and admixed by comparison to others around Brazil. We speculate on: the possible causes of Atlantic Forest admixture; the role of T. cruzi as a sentinel for ecosystem health, and the impact disrupted sylvatic transmission cycles might have on accurate source attribution in oral outbreaks. PMID:24903849

  20. On Brazilian Helobata Bergroth, 1888 (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae): description of two new species, new records, and key to species.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Bruno; Santos, André Dias Dos; Ferreira-Jr, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Helobata Bergroth, 1888 (Hydrophilidae: Acidocerinae) from Brazil are described and illustrated. Helobata amazonensis sp. nov. is described based on an adult male specimen from the Amazon River floodplains, Amazonas State. Helobata pantaneira sp. nov. is described based on an adult male specimen collected from swamps in the Pantanal biome, in Mato Grosso State. Helobata corumbaensis Fernández & Bachmann, 1987, H. larvalis (Horn, 1873) and H. quatipuru Fernández & Bachmann, 1987 are recorded for the first time from Mato Grosso; Amazonas, Ceará and Mato Grosso; and Rio de Janeiro States respectively. Diagnosis, illustrations, a checklist and a key to Brazilian species of Helobata are provided.

  1. On Brazilian Helobata Bergroth, 1888 (Coleoptera: Hydrophilidae): description of two new species, new records, and key to species.

    PubMed

    Clarkson, Bruno; Santos, André Dias Dos; Ferreira-Jr, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Two new species of Helobata Bergroth, 1888 (Hydrophilidae: Acidocerinae) from Brazil are described and illustrated. Helobata amazonensis sp. nov. is described based on an adult male specimen from the Amazon River floodplains, Amazonas State. Helobata pantaneira sp. nov. is described based on an adult male specimen collected from swamps in the Pantanal biome, in Mato Grosso State. Helobata corumbaensis Fernández & Bachmann, 1987, H. larvalis (Horn, 1873) and H. quatipuru Fernández & Bachmann, 1987 are recorded for the first time from Mato Grosso; Amazonas, Ceará and Mato Grosso; and Rio de Janeiro States respectively. Diagnosis, illustrations, a checklist and a key to Brazilian species of Helobata are provided. PMID:27395605

  2. KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a hospital in the Midwest region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Biberg, Camila Arguelo; Rodrigues, Ana Claudia Souza; do Carmo, Sidiane Ferreira; Chaves, Claudia Elizabeth Volpe; Gales, Ana Cristina; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the last few decades has become major challenge faced by hospitals. In this study, isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2)-producing K. pneumoniae from a tertiary hospital in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were characterized. Bacterial identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF; Bruker Daltonics, Germany) mass spectrometry. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems were determined using the agar dilution method as recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Carbapenemase production was detected using the modified Hodge test (MHT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by DNA sequencing. Of 360 (12.2%) K. pneumoniae isolates obtained between May 2009 and May 2010, 44 (12.2%) were carbapenem nonsusceptible. Of these 44 isolates, thirty-six K. pneumoniae isolates that were positive by MHT and PCR carried the bla KPC-2 gene. Thus, KPC-2producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has been present in a Brazilian hospital located in the Midwest region since at least 2009. PMID:26273265

  3. KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a hospital in the Midwest region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Biberg, Camila Arguelo; Rodrigues, Ana Claudia Souza; do Carmo, Sidiane Ferreira; Chaves, Claudia Elizabeth Volpe; Gales, Ana Cristina; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the last few decades has become major challenge faced by hospitals. In this study, isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2)-producing K. pneumoniae from a tertiary hospital in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were characterized. Bacterial identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF; Bruker Daltonics, Germany) mass spectrometry. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems were determined using the agar dilution method as recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Carbapenemase production was detected using the modified Hodge test (MHT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by DNA sequencing. Of 360 (12.2%) K. pneumoniae isolates obtained between May 2009 and May 2010, 44 (12.2%) were carbapenem nonsusceptible. Of these 44 isolates, thirty-six K. pneumoniae isolates that were positive by MHT and PCR carried the bla KPC-2 gene. Thus, KPC-2producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has been present in a Brazilian hospital located in the Midwest region since at least 2009.

  4. A morphological and molecular study of two species of Raphidascaroides Yamaguti, 1941 (Nematoda: Anisakidae), parasites of doradid catfish (Siluriformes) in South America, with a description of R. moraveci n. sp.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Felipe B; Tavares, Luiz E R; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L

    2015-05-01

    Nematodes of the genus Raphidascaroides Yamaguti, 1941 parasitising doradid catfishes (Siluriformes: Doradidae) in Brazil were studied based on morphological and molecular evaluation of newly collected material. A new species, Raphidascaroides moraveci n. sp., is described from the intestine of Platydoras armatulus (Valenciennes) from River Miranda, River Paraguay basin, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul. The new species differs from all of the congeners in having short spicules (163-217 μm in length) representing less than 1% of the total body length and in the posterior region of cloacal opening covered by small rudimentary spines. In addition, it differs from the other congeneric species in the number and arrangement of the caudal papillae and the structure of lips and tail. Raphidascaroides moraveci n. sp. is the third species described from freshwater fishes and the second one in the Neotropical Region. New morphological data on R. brasiliensis Moravec & Thatcher, 1997 from Megalodoras uranoscopus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann) and Platydoras costatus (Linnaeus) (both new host records) from River Xingu, River Amazon basin, Pará, are provided including scanning electron micrographs of taxonomically important structures. The differentiation of the new species is supported by molecular data (partial sequences of the small and large subunits of the rRNA gene).

  5. A morphological and molecular study of two species of Raphidascaroides Yamaguti, 1941 (Nematoda: Anisakidae), parasites of doradid catfish (Siluriformes) in South America, with a description of R. moraveci n. sp.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Felipe B; Tavares, Luiz E R; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L

    2015-05-01

    Nematodes of the genus Raphidascaroides Yamaguti, 1941 parasitising doradid catfishes (Siluriformes: Doradidae) in Brazil were studied based on morphological and molecular evaluation of newly collected material. A new species, Raphidascaroides moraveci n. sp., is described from the intestine of Platydoras armatulus (Valenciennes) from River Miranda, River Paraguay basin, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul. The new species differs from all of the congeners in having short spicules (163-217 μm in length) representing less than 1% of the total body length and in the posterior region of cloacal opening covered by small rudimentary spines. In addition, it differs from the other congeneric species in the number and arrangement of the caudal papillae and the structure of lips and tail. Raphidascaroides moraveci n. sp. is the third species described from freshwater fishes and the second one in the Neotropical Region. New morphological data on R. brasiliensis Moravec & Thatcher, 1997 from Megalodoras uranoscopus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann) and Platydoras costatus (Linnaeus) (both new host records) from River Xingu, River Amazon basin, Pará, are provided including scanning electron micrographs of taxonomically important structures. The differentiation of the new species is supported by molecular data (partial sequences of the small and large subunits of the rRNA gene). PMID:25862032

  6. Returning "Region" to World Regional Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Peter W.; Legates, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    World regional geography textbooks rarely focus on the process of region formation, despite frequent calls to reincorporate a regional approach to teaching global geography. An instructional strategy using problem-based learning in a small honors section of a large world regional geography course is described. Using a hypothetical scenario…

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Brazilian Semiarid Region: Environmental, Climate and Social Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa Neto, E. R.; Ometto, J. P.; Aguiar, A. P. D.; Mata, M. V.

    2014-12-01

    Removing a forest to open new agricultural lands, which has been very intensive in countries like Brazil during the last decades, contributes to about 12% of the global anthropogenic emissions. Forest cover removal releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GEE) like methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as a result of burning trees, followed by gradual decomposition of the forest biomass left on the ground while pasture or crop plantations are being established. In Brazil, the 2nd Brazilian National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) presents the mean annual net CO2 emissions caused by changes in land use (LUC) in each Brazilian biome and the first place in the ranking is occupied by the Amazon Rainforest Biome (860,874 Gg), followed by Savannah (302,715 Gg), Atlantic Forest (79,109 Gg), Caatinga (37,628 Gg), Pantanal (16,172 Gg) and Pampa (-102 Gg) (MCT 2010). Despite these results, the estimates of CO2 emissions caused by LUC in the Brazilian semiarid region (Caatinga) are very limited and scarce, and associated to uncertainties directly related to the estimated biomass in different types of vegetation which are spatially distributed within the biome, as well as the correct representation of the dynamics of the deforestation process itself, and the more accurate mapping use and land cover. Based on such facts, this project is estimating the emissions of the main greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) caused by land use changes in an area of Caatinga biome in Pernambuco State through the model INPE-EM. So far, it is known that from decades of 1940 up to 1995, Caatinga biome has contributed with about 3.2 % to total land use change emissions in the country, and recently (1990-2005), the contributions of Caatinga are even higher (over 30%), according to the 2nd Brazilian National Communication (2010). By means means of the model INPE-EM (data still being acquired), we are trying to diminish the

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions in the Brazilian semiarid region: environmental, climate and social constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa-Neto, Eráclito; Ometto, Jean

    2014-05-01

    The process of removing a forest to open new agricultural lands, which has been very intensive in developing countries like Brazil during the last decades (Lapola et al, 2014), contributes to about 12% of the global anthropogenic emissions (Le Quéré et al., 2009). Forest cover removal releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GEE) like methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as a result of burning trees, followed by gradual decomposition of the forest biomass left on the ground while pasture or crop plantations are being established (Ramankutty et al., 2007). In Brazil, the 2nd Brazilian National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), presents the mean annual net CO2 emissions caused by changes in land use in each Brazilian biome and the first place in the ranking is occupied by the Amazon Rainforest Biome (860,874 Gg), followed by Savannah (302,715 Gg), Atlantic Forest (79,109 Gg), Caatinga (37,628 Gg), Pantanal (16,172 Gg) and Pampa (-102 Gg) (MCT 2010). Despite these results, the estimates of CO2 emissions caused by land use changes in the Brazilian semiarid region (Caatinga) are very limited and scarce, and associated to uncertainties which are directly related to the estimated biomass in different types of vegetation which are spatially distributed within the biome, as well as the correct representation of the dynamics of the deforestation process itself, and the more accurate mapping use and land cover. Based on such facts, this project is estimating the emissions of the main greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) caused by land use changes in an area of Caatinga biome in Pernambuco State through the model INPE-EM. So far, it is known that from decades of 1940 up to 1995, Caatinga biome has contributed with about 3.2 % to total land use change emissions in the country (Leite et al, 2012), and recently (1990-2005), the contributions of Caatinga are even higher (over 30%), according to the 2nd

  9. Ionospheric research. [E region, F region, D region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: D-region theory; E and F-region; wave propagation; mass spectrometer measurements; and atmospheric reactions. Various supporting operations are included: design and construction of instrumentation; and programming.

  10. Future change of climate in South America in the late twenty-first century: intercomparison of scenarios from three regional climate models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marengo, Jose A.; Ambrizzi, Tercio; Da Rocha, Rosmeri P.; Alves, Lincoln M.; Cuadra, Santiago V.; Valverde, Maria C.; Torres, Roger R.; Santos, Daniel C.; Ferraz, Simone E. T.

    2010-11-01

    model runs for some regions, as the Northwest coast of Peru-Ecuador, northern Argentina, Eastern Amazonia and Northeast Brazil, whereas for other regions they are less robust as in Pantanal region of West Central and southeastern Brazil.

  11. Trypanosoma evansi in inbred and Swiss-Webster mice: distinct aspects of pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    de Menezes, Valquíria Trajano; Queiroz, Adriana Oliveira; Gomes, Maria Angélica Muniz; Marques, Marcos Antônio Pereira; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2004-10-01

    Trypanosoma evansi (Trypanosomatidae, Kinetoplastida) is a salivarian trypanosomatid that infects eight mammal orders spread over America, Europe and Asia. In Brazil, T. evansi is the etiological agent of "Mal de Cadeiras", a horse disease very often described in the region known as Pantanal do Mato Grosso. Few data concerning the genetic diversity and biology of subpopulations of T. evansi that circulate in Brazil are available. The factors that modulate the interaction of this parasite with its hosts also remain to be elucidated. Here we evaluated the course of experimental infection of six T. evansi isolates derived from domestic and wild animals in Swiss-Webster mice and three Mus musculus lineages. The follow-up included biological, immunological as well as biochemical and hematological parameters. The same isolates as well as three others were characterized by pulsed-field electrophoresis. Our results showed that T. evansi isolates displayed significant differences regarding behavior and morbidity patterns in the distinct mouse lineages. Nevertheless, these differences could not be correlated with pulsed-field electrophoresis profiles. Indeed, concerning this molecular marker, only microheterogeneity was observed. Moreover, we observed that the outcome of the infection is defined by both host genetic background and peculiarities (virulence factors) of the distinct T. evansi isolates. Anemia and hypoglycemia were the only features that could be observed in all mouse lineages, independently of the inoculated T. evansi subpopulation. In addition, our data also show that Mus musculus is a suitable model host for the study of the different pathogenetic features of T. evansi infection.

  12. Pitfall Traps and Mini-Winkler Extractor as Complementary Methods to Sample Soil Coleoptera.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, A C; Batistella, D A; Battirola, L D; Marques, M I

    2016-02-01

    We compared abundance, species richness, and capture efficiency with pitfall traps and mini-Winkler extractors to examine their use as complementary methods for sampling soil Coleoptera during dry (2010) and high water seasons (2011) in three areas, including inundated and non-inundated regions, in the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We paired treatments with two 10 × 10 m plots in inundated and non-inundated locations that were repeated three times in each location for a total of 18 plots. In each plot, we used nine pitfall traps and collected 2 m(2) of leaf litter and surface soil samples with mini-Winkler extractors. We collected a total of 4260 adult beetles comprising 36 families, 113 genera, and 505 species. Most were caught in pitfalls (69%) and the remainder in the mini-Winkler extractors (31%). Each method provided distinct information about the beetle community: 252 species were captured only in pitfall traps, 147 using only the mini-Winkler extractors, and these methods shared another 106 species. Pitfall and mini-Winkler contribute in different ways for the sampling of the soil beetle community, and so they should be considered complementary for a more thorough assessment of community diversity. PMID:26493175

  13. Estimates of fire emissions from an active deforestation region in the southern Amazon based on satellite data and biogeochemical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Werf, G. R.; Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.; Giglio, L.; Randerson, J. T.; Collatz, G. J.; Kasibhatla, P. S.

    2009-02-01

    Tropical deforestation contributes to the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Within the deforestation process, fire is frequently used to eliminate biomass in preparation for agricultural use. Quantifying these deforestation-induced fire emissions represents a challenge, and current estimates are only available at coarse spatial resolution with large uncertainty. Here we developed a biogeochemical model using remote sensing observations of plant productivity, fire activity, and deforestation rates to estimate emissions for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso during 2001-2005. Our model of DEforestation CArbon Fluxes (DECAF) runs at 250-m spatial resolution with a monthly time step to capture spatial and temporal heterogeneity in fire dynamics in our study area within the ''arc of deforestation'', the southern and eastern fringe of the Amazon tropical forest where agricultural expansion is most concentrated. Fire emissions estimates from our modelling framework were on average 90 Tg C year-1, mostly stemming from fires associated with deforestation (74%) with smaller contributions from fires from conversions of Cerrado or pastures to cropland (19%) and pasture fires (7%). In terms of carbon dynamics, about 80% of the aboveground living biomass and litter was combusted when forests were converted to pasture, and 89% when converted to cropland because of the highly mechanized nature of the deforestation process in Mato Grosso. The trajectory of land use change from forest to other land uses often takes more than one year, and part of the biomass that was not burned in the dry season following deforestation burned in consecutive years. This led to a partial decoupling of annual deforestation rates and fire emissions, and lowered interannual variability in fire emissions. Interannual variability in the region was somewhat dampened as well because annual emissions from fires following deforestation and from maintenance fires did not covary, although

  14. Estimates of fire emissions from an active deforestation region in the southern Amazon based on satellite data and biogeochemical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Werf, G. R.; Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.; Giglio, L.; Randerson, J. T.; Collatz, G. J.; Kasibhatla, P. S.

    2008-09-01

    Tropical deforestation contributes to the build-up of atmospheric carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Within the deforestation process, fire is frequently used to eliminate biomass in preparation for agricultural use. Quantifying these deforestation-induced fire emissions represents a challenge, and current estimates are only available at coarse spatial resolution with large uncertainty. Here we developed a biogeochemical model using remote sensing observations of plant productivity, fire activity, and deforestation rates to estimate emissions for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso during 2001 2005. Our model of DEforestation CArbon Fluxes (DECAF) runs at 250-m spatial resolution with a monthly time step to capture spatial and temporal heterogeneity in fire dynamics in our study area within the "arc of deforestation", the southern and eastern fringe of the Amazon tropical forest where agricultural expansion is most concentrated. Fire emissions estimates from our modelling framework were on average 90 Tg C year-1, mostly stemming from fires associated with deforestation (74%) with smaller contributions from fires from conversions of Cerrado or pastures to cropland (19%) and pasture fires (7%). In terms of carbon dynamics, about 80% of the aboveground living biomass and litter was combusted when forests were converted to pasture, and 89% when converted to cropland because of the highly mechanized nature of the deforestation process in Mato Grosso. The trajectory of land use change from forest to other land uses often takes more than one year, and part of the biomass that was not burned in the dry season following deforestation burned in consecutive years. This led to a partial decoupling of annual deforestation rates and fire emissions, and lowered interannual variability in fire emissions. Interannual variability in the region was somewhat dampened as well because annual emissions from fires following deforestation and from maintenance fires did not covary, although

  15. Ephemeral regions versus pseudo ephemeral regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, S. F.; Livi, S. H. B.; Wang, J.; Shi, Z.

    1985-01-01

    New studies of the quiet Sun reveal that ephemeral active regions constitute minority rather than a majority of all the short lived, small scale bipolar features on the Sun. In contrast to the recognized patterns of growth and decay of ephemeral regions, various examples of the creation of other temporary bipoles nicknamed pseudo ephemeral regions are illustrated. The pseudo ephemeral regions are the consequence of combinations of small scale dynamic processes of the quiet Sun including: (1) fragmentation of network magnetic fields, (2) the separation of opposite polarity halves of ephemeral regions as they grow and evolve, and (3) the coalescence of weak network or intranetwork magnetic fields. New observations offer the possibility of resolving the discrepancies that have arisen in the association of ephemeral regions with X-ray bright points. Many X-ray bright points may be related to those pseudo ephemeral regions which have begun to exhibit magnetic flux loss.

  16. Regional Sustainable Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional sustainable environmental management is an interdisciplinary effort to develop a sufficient understanding of the interactions between ecosystems, the economy, law, and technology to formulate effective long-term management strategies on a regional scale. Regional sustai...

  17. Observations about chemical composition of aerosols in the Brazilian Amazon region - Case study: Biomass burning in the subequatorial Amazon region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gioda, A.; Monteiro, I. L.; Almeida, A. C.; Hacon, S. S.; Dallacort, R.; Ignotti, E.; Godoy, J. M.; Loureiro, A. L.; Morais, F.; Artaxo, P.

    2012-04-01

    The study was carried out in two cities in the Brazilian Amazon region, Tangará da Serra (14 ° 37'10 "S, 57 ° 29'09" W, 427 m asl), located in a transition area between the Amazon biome and the Cerrado and has the characteristics of urban area in Amazon region; and Alta Floresta (9 ° 52 '32 "S, 56 ° 5' 10" W, 283 m asl) situated in the extreme north of the state of Mato Grosso (MT), both in the subequatorial Amazon region. Tangara da Serra has the largest production of sugar cane in the subequatorial Amazon region. They are located 800 km from each other. These two regions are inserted in a region with typical cycles of drought and rain that alter air pollution levels, and lies in the dispersion path of the pollution plume resulting from burnings in the Brazilian Amazon and pollution emanating from neighboring countries. Both cities have wet tropical climate with two well defined seasons: rainy summer (November to May) and dry winter (June to October). During the dry winter, biomass burnings are frequent in these regions. In 2008, the Department of the Environment has banned fires in the period from July 15 to September 15 throughout the State. In this study chemical characterization was performed for approximately 100 aerosol samples collected in each site during 2008. Fine and coarse aerosol samples collected in SFUs were analyzed by ion chromatography for determination of cations (Na+, K+, NH3+, Ca2+ and Mg2+), anions (SO42-, Cl- and NO3-) and organic acids (acetate and formiate) and also measures of black carbon (BC) (Aethalometer). The results showed that for both sites the average concentrations were quite similar for PM2.5 (16 µg/m3), PM10 (11 and 13 µg/m3) and black carbon (1.4 µg/m3 for PM2.5 and 1.6 µg/m3 for PM10). Sulfate was the predominant species in fine (45%) and coarse (26%) particles in both sites. The sulfate concentrations ranged from 0.01-1.92 µg/m3 in PM2.5 and 0.01-1.66 µg/m3 in PM10 in Tangará da Serra and 0.01-2.93 µg/m3 in PM2

  18. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes

    PubMed Central

    Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Rossa, Giselle Ayres Razera; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Gennari, Solange Maria; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2014-01-01

    Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí) in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63) and 66.7% (2/3) of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil. PMID:24714968

  19. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes.

    PubMed

    Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Rossa, Giselle Ayres Razera; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Gennari, Solange Maria; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2014-04-01

    Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí) in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63) and 66.7% (2/3) of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil.

  20. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

  1. 78 FR 77370 - Importation of Beef From a Region in Brazil

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-23

    ... published in the Federal Register (75 FR 69851-69857, Docket No. APHIS-2009-0034) a final rule that, among... published in the Federal Register (78 FR 68327-68331) on November 14, 2013, and effective on November 29..., Mato Grosso ] do Sul, Minas Gerais, Parana, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Rondonia, Sao...

  2. [Regional aging in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bucher, H

    1996-01-01

    Elderly people in Germany have a specific regional distribution. Recent regional population projections show that these patterns will change. The most dynamic process of aging will take place in the suburban parts of the large western Germany agglomerations, whereas in eastern Germany aging concentrates in regions with a lower density. There will be a regional deconcentration of elderly people with consequences for the planning of infrastructure.

  3. Learning Regions in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thinesse-Demel, Jutta

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) launched the programme "Learning Regions--Providing Support for Networks'" in cooperation with the Lander. It was co-financed by the European Social Fund (ESF). Some 90 regions were selected and financially supported. After one year, 71 regions continued to build-up their…

  4. Regional flood frequency analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    This book, the fourth of a four volume set, contains five sections encompassing major aspects of regional flood frequency analysis. Each section starts usually with an invited state-of-the-art paper followed by contributed papers. The first section provides an assessment of regional flood frequency analysis. Methods for performing regional frequency analysis for ungaged watersheds are presented in Section 2. More discussion on regional frequency analysis is provided in Section 3. Selection and comparison of regional frequency methods are dealt with in Section 4; these are of great interest to the user. Increasing attention is being focused these days on paleohydrologic flood analysis. This topic is covered in Section 5.

  5. Reversed-polarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.

    1982-01-01

    It is found by a statistical study of 58 reversed-polarity regions (RPRs) covering the 11-year period 1969-1979 that RPRs (1) have a lifespan comparable to normal active regions, (2) do not show a tendency to rotate toward a more normal alignment, and (3) have stable configurations that do not suggest stress due to their anomalous magnetic alignment. As in normal regions, RPR magnetic complexity is found to be the primary factor in flare productivity. Weak-field RPRs produce no flares, and regions with complex spots produce more flares than regions with non-complex spots by a factor of five. The main difference between RPRs and normal regions lies in complex spot frequency, with less that 17% of normal active regions having such spots and fewer than 1.8% having long-lived complex ones, while 41% of RPRs have complex spots and 24% have long-lived complex spots.

  6. The crisis of regionalization.

    PubMed

    Marchildon, Gregory P

    2015-11-01

    Currently in Canada, there is no consensus concerning the efficacy of regionalization, a reversal of the strong commitment in favour only a decade earlier. Instead, provincial governments are either dismantling regional health authorities in favour of highly centralized structures under the control of ministries of health or actively considering more centralized approaches. There is a general feeling among political leaders that regionalization has failed to achieve its original objectives. However, by not including physicians and primary care within regionalized governance, provincial governments have never given regionalization a real chance. Moreover, given the fact that the status quo prior to regionalization was far from an ideal state and would be almost impossible to return to in any event, some provincial governments should consider implementing a more full-blooded version of regionalization before abandoning the approach.

  7. REGIONAL EMAP PROPOSALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's Environmental Assessment and Monitoring Program (EMAP) annually funds regional EMAP (REMAP) projects through each of the regions to support the improvement of monitoring activities by the states. The last call for proposals emphasized the need to support biological m...

  8. New Lessons in Regionalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peirce, Neal R.

    1998-01-01

    From the hierarchical, governmental, industrial, military model of the 20th century, society is moving rapidly toward a globalized, interactive market. This new order is tailor-made for regional development but also challenges regions to think and act strategically in a world of weakened central governments and growing international currency…

  9. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  10. Regional anesthesia for laparoscopy.

    PubMed

    Collins, L M; Vaghadia, H

    2001-03-01

    A variety of laparoscopic procedures can be performed on patients under regional anesthesia. Diagnostic laparoscopy in elective and emergency patients, pain mapping, laparoscopy for infertility, and tubal sterilization are some examples. The key benefits of regional anesthesia include less emesis, less postoperative pain, shorter postoperative stay, improved patient satisfaction, and overall safety. Regional techniques, such as rectus sheath blocks, inguinal blocks, and caudal blocks, are useful adjuncts to general anesthesia and facilitate postoperative analgesia. Other techniques, such as spinal and epidural anesthesia, and combination of the two, are suitable as a sole anesthetic technique for laparoscopy. The physiologic changes during laparoscopy in the awake patient appear to be tolerated well under regional anesthesia. It is reasonable to assume that with advances in instrumentation and surgical techniques, the role of laparoscopy will increase in the future. The benefits conferred by regional anesthesia make it an attractive option to general anesthesia for many patients and procedures. Successful implementation of regional anesthesia is an important determinant of how anesthesiologists, surgeons, and surgical facilities cope with new challenges. In the future, it could be possible to provide "walk-in/walk-out" regional anesthesia with a real possibility of fast tracking patients through the recovery process after ambulatory surgery. For maximal patient safety, however, facilities offering regional anesthesia must have appropriately trained anesthesia personnel and the equipment necessary for monitoring and providing full resuscitation in the event of complications or a need to convert to general anesthesia. PMID:11244919

  11. South Persian Gulf Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This oblique view of the south Persian Gulf region (26.0N, 54.0E) was taken over Iran looking west across the south Persian Gulf into the Trucial Coast of the United Arab Emirates and the prominent Qatar peninsula. Rich in petroleum resources, this region supplies much of the world's oil needs from its many ports and off shore loading facilities.

  12. Reversed-polarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.

    1980-01-01

    The 58 RPRS studied have a lifespan comparable to normal active regions and have no tendency to rotate toward a more normal alignment. They seem to have stable configurations with no apparent evidence suggesting stress due to their anomalous magnetic alignment. Magnetic complexity in RPRs is the key to flare productivity just as it is in normal regions - weak field RPRs produced no flares and regions with complex spots produced more flares than regions with noncomplex spots by a factor of 5. The RPRs however, differ from normal regions in the frequency of having complex spots, particularly the long lived complex spots, in them. Less than 17 percent of normal ARs have complex spots; less than 1.8 percent have long lived complex spots. In contrast, 41 percent of RPRs have complex spots and 24 percent have long lived complex spots.

  13. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163), i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP), urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers) were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid economic and demographic

  14. Modeling the transition region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singer, Bart A.

    1993-01-01

    The current status of transition-region models is reviewed in this report. To understand modeling problems, various flow features that influence the transition process are discussed first. Then an overview of the different approaches to transition-region modeling is given. This is followed by a detailed discussion of turbulence models and the specific modifications that are needed to predict flows undergoing laminar-turbulent transition. Methods for determining the usefulness of the models are presented, and an outlook for the future of transition-region modeling is suggested.

  15. Regional ocean data assimilation.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christopher A; Moore, Andrew M; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Cornuelle, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  16. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...

  17. Mercury's South Polar Region

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows 89 wide-angle camera (WAC) images of Mercury’s south polar region acquired by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) over one complete Mercury solar day (176 Earth days). Thi...

  18. Regional Instrumentation Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromie, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the activities of regional instrumentation centers that utilize the state-of-the-art instruments and methodology in basic scientific research. The emphasis is on the centers involved in mass spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, lasers, and accelerators. (SA)

  19. On regional geomagnetic charts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    When regional geomagnetic charts for areas roughly the size of the US were compiled by hand, some large local anomalies were displayed in the isomagnetic lines. Since the late 1960s, when the compilation of charts using computers and mathematical models was started, most of the details available in the hand drawn regional charts have been lost. One exception to this is the Canadian magnetic declination chart for 1980. This chart was constructed using a 180 degrees spherical harmonic model. -from Author

  20. Hepatitis B virus markers among teenagers in the Araguaia region, Central Brazil: assessment of prevalence and vaccination coverage.

    PubMed

    Melo, Laura Valdiane Luz; da Silva, Marcondes Alves Barbosa; Calçada, Cristiane de Oliveira Rodrigues; Cavalcante, Silvia Raquel Brandão; Souto, Francisco José Dutra

    2011-07-18

    The Brazilian hepatitis B (HBV) vaccination program for neonates was implemented in 1998 and broadened to include young people up to 20 years of age in 2001. However, HBV coverage of teenagers has not been systematically assessed in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was performed to estimate the magnitude of HBV infection and vaccine coverage among adolescent students regularly enrolled in the public schools of Barra do Garças, a city located in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. A representative sample was randomly obtained and participants were interviewed and had blood samples collected to test for HBV markers. The sample was composed of 576 subjects, 51% of which were females. The average age was 15, with the group ranging from 12 to 20 years of age. There were 29 anti-HBc reactive participants (5.0%). Four out of 29 were HBsAg positive (0.7%). Anti-HBs alone (vaccinated profile) showed in 323 (56.1%) students and 224 (38.9%) were negative for all HBV markers. Increasing age was associated with HBV exposure in a χ(2) for trend analysis (p=0.004). The prevalence of anti-HBs alone decreased as the subjects' age increased. Multivariate analysis showed independent association between HBV infection and the start of sexual activity. Another associated variable was the fact that the some students were enrolled in two low-income neighborhood schools. Our findings classify this area as low endemic for HBV and suggest that there is a progressive decrease in the spread of HBV in the region due to the introduction of universal vaccination of neonates. Approximately half of the adolescents 15 years or older were not immunized, which raises a concern in terms of the need to increase the vaccination rate for this segment of the population.

  1. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  2. LAMPF transition region

    SciTech Connect

    Sander, O.R.

    1982-06-01

    After describing the transition region between the LAMPF drift-tube linac and side-coupled linac, we discuss the function of the region, its present shortcomings, and the need for a redesign. Then we present the new design, its advantages, and its expected performance. Included are detailed results of beam-dynamics studies giving the ranges of input- and output-beam shapes that can be successfully matched in the new transition region. To improve the present operation of the two linacs, we suggest small changes that will allow us to easily match the beam between the two linacs. Finally we describe the methods used in our beam-dynamic studies so that effects of future improvements to the new design can be examined.

  3. Turbulence in HII regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'dell, C. R.

    1986-10-01

    It has been known for many decades that the Reynolds number in HII regions must be very high and that the corresponding fine scale flow must be turbulent. Even though the theoretical relation between turbulent element separation and random velocity was derived by Kolmogoroff over forty years ago, there have been only a few attempts to test this theory and its corresponding assumptions. An attempt by Munch for M42 with marginal velocity resolution lead to ambiguous results, although more recent studies by Jean Rene Roy and his colleagues have been more credible. The internal velocities of a number of HII regions were systematically studied and the theory was tested with considerable certainty. The results should be important for the determination of the energy balance of HII regions and the relation of small scale motion to the process of star formation.

  4. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1991-11-01

    The management structure and program objectives for the Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) remain unchanged from previous years. Additional funding was provided by the Bonneville Power Administration Regional Biomass Program to continue the publication of articles in the Biologue. The Western Area Power Administration and the Council of Great Lakes Governors funded the project Characterization of Emissions from Burning Woodwaste''. A grant for the ninth year was received from DOE. The Northeast Regional Biomass Steering Committee selected the following four projects for funding for the next fiscal year. (1) Wood Waste Utilization Conference, (2) Performance Evaluation of Wood Systems in Commercial Facilities, (3) Wood Energy Market Utilization Training, (4) Update of the Facility Directory.

  5. NV PFA Regional Data

    SciTech Connect

    James Faulds

    2015-10-28

    This project focused on defining geothermal play fairways and development of a detailed geothermal potential map of a large transect across the Great Basin region (96,000 km2), with the primary objective of facilitating discovery of commercial-grade, blind geothermal fields (i.e. systems with no surface hot springs or fumaroles) and thereby accelerating geothermal development in this promising region. Data included in this submission consists of: structural settings (target areas, recency of faulting, slip and dilation potential, slip rates, quality), regional-scale strain rates, earthquake density and magnitude, gravity data, temperature at 3 km depth, permeability models, favorability models, degree of exploration and exploration opportunities, data from springs and wells, transmission lines and wilderness areas, and published maps and theses for the Nevada Play Fairway area.

  6. ORIC central region calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Bailey, J.D.; Dowling, D.T.; Lane, S.N.; Mosko, S.W.; Olsen, D.K.; Tatum, B.A.

    1995-12-31

    The central region for the K = 100 Oak Ridge Isochronous Cyclotron, ORIC, will be modified to provide better orbit centering, focusing of orbits in the axial direction, and phase selection, in order to improve extraction efficiency, and reduce radioactive activation of cyclotron components. The central region is specifically designed for the acceleration of intense light ion beams such as 60 MeV protons and 15--100 MeV alphas. These beams will be used in the production of radioactive atoms in the Radioactive Ion Beam Project at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  7. REGIONAL CONFERENCE SUMMARIES, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    AN AVERAGE OF 200 TEACHER EDUCATORS, STATE DIRECTORS, LAYMEN, AND REPRESENTATIVES OF VARIOUS AGENCIES ATTENDED EACH OF NINE REGIONAL CONFERENCES CONDUCTED THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES TO DISCUSS THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGES AND PROBLEMS IN PLANNING AND CONDUCTING VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS. MAJOR SPEECHES PRESENTED…

  8. Recipe for Regional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1994-01-01

    The Ceramics Corridor has created new jobs in New York's Appalachian region by fostering ceramics research and product development by small private companies. Corridor business incubators offer tenants low overhead costs, fiber-optic connections to Alfred University's mainframe computer, rental of lab space, and use of equipment small companies…

  9. Multiethnic Societies and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, John H., II

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that sociology must reconceptualize the meaning of multiethnic societies and regions and also advance theories about how such social organizations came into being and transform themselves through conflicting and peaceful processes. Briefly reviews traditional approaches and outlines new areas of study. (MJP)

  10. Regionalism. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the art movement, called Regionalism, discussing the painters involved and describing the characteristics of the art movement. Provides a set of learning activities and background information on John Steuart Curry. Includes a discussion of Curry's painting, "Tornado Over Kansas," and a reproduction of the painting. (CMK)

  11. MISR Regional SAMUM Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... Regional products:  Radiance ,  Aerosol , and  Land Surface . Each product summarizes selected parameters from one Level 1 or ... the  MISR SAMUM data table . Images available on this web site include the following parameters: Image Description ...

  12. MISR Regional VBBE Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... Regional products:  Radiance ,  Aerosol , and  Land Surface . Each product summarizes selected parameters from one Level 1 or ... the  MISR VBBE data table . Images available on this web site include the following parameters: Image Description ...

  13. Climatic Concepts and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    Designed for students in grades 7 through 12, this teaching unit presents illustrative resource materials depicting concepts related to climate and geographic regions. Emphasis is on giving students an understanding of climatic elements and factors, not as isolated, disjointed entities, but as a dynamic interplay of forces having a very definite…

  14. Australia's Regional Youth Exodus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines media coverage of youth outmigration from Tasmania in the context of Australia's regional crisis. Focuses on how young people are constructed by others and positioned in others' visions of their rural home towns. Discusses two recurring narratives: strategies to keep youth at home, and preoccupation with the "best and brightest" young…

  15. Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2012 presents information on the West's progress in improving access to, success in, and financing of higher education. The information is updated annually to monitor change over time and encourage its use as a tool for informed discussion in policy and education communities. To establish a general context for the…

  16. Genetic parameters and investigation of genotype × environment interactions in Nellore × Hereford crossbred for resistance to cattle ticks in different regions of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ayres, D R; Pereira, R J; Boligon, A A; Baldi, F; Roso, V M; Albuquerque, L G

    2015-02-01

    Data from 6,156 Nellore × Hereford crossbred cattle, distributed in 18 herds located in the Brazilian states of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), São Paulo (SP), Paraná (PR) and Rio Grande do Sul (RS), were analysed in order to investigate genetic variation for resistance to the cattle tick through the estimation of variance components and genetic parameters for counting ticks (Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus) in natural infestation, and also a possible genotype × environment interaction. The tick count data (CC) were transformed to log10(CC + 1) and grouped into two regions, defined by cluster analysis and analysed using the method of restricted maximum likelihood. The statistical model included the additive genetic effect as random and fixed effects of the contemporary group (CG) and genetic group (GG) as classificatory and the age of the animal at the time of counting (linear effect) and individual heterozygosity (linear effect, ranging from 0 to 1) as covariates. In the studied regions, the effect of heterosis found was inversely proportional; in other words, the count of ticks decreased with the increase of heterozygosity. The observed heritability estimation for resistance to tick infestation were 0.12 ± 0.04 and 0.11 ± 0.04 for groups A (RS and south PR) and B (MS, SP and north PR), respectively. The results of this study suggest that selection for animals resistant to ticks would be possible using the tick count to estimate the genetic value of animals, but with a slow genetic progress. The genetic correlation for tick count between the two groups (A and B) was 0.84 ± 0.27 and genotype × environment interaction for this trait was not observed in the studied population. PMID:25108748

  17. Statistical region merging.

    PubMed

    Nock, Richard; Nielsen, Frank

    2004-11-01

    This paper explores a statistical basis for a process often described in computer vision: image segmentation by region merging following a particular order in the choice of regions. We exhibit a particular blend of algorithmics and statistics whose segmentation error is, as we show, limited from both the qualitative and quantitative standpoints. This approach can be efficiently approximated in linear time/space, leading to a fast segmentation algorithm tailored to processing images described using most common numerical pixel attribute spaces. The conceptual simplicity of the approach makes it simple to modify and cope with hard noise corruption, handle occlusion, authorize the control of the segmentation scale, and process unconventional data such as spherical images. Experiments on gray-level and color images, obtained with a short readily available C-code, display the quality of the segmentations obtained.

  18. Active region seismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdan, Tom; Braun, D. C.

    1995-01-01

    Active region seismology is concerned with the determination and interpretation of the interaction of the solar acoustic oscillations with near-surface target structures, such as magnetic flux concentration, sunspots, and plage. Recent observations made with a high spatial resolution and a long temporal duration enabled measurements of the scattering matrix for sunspots and solar active regions to be carried out as a function of the mode properties. Based on this information, the amount of p-mode absorption, partial-wave phase shift, and mode mixing introduced by the sunspot, could be determined. In addition, the possibility of detecting the presence of completely submerged magnetic fields was raised, and new procedures for performing acoustic holography of the solar interior are being developed. The accumulating evidence points to the mode conversion of p-modes to various magneto-atmospheric waves within the magnetic flux concentration as being the unifying physical mechanism responsible for these diverse phenomena.

  19. Arctic region mapping tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2012-08-01

    An interactive online mapping tool is now available to assist with scientific, environmental, and emergency response needs in the Arctic region, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) announced on 31 July. The Environmental Response Management Application (ERMA®) already has been used in other regions, including in the Gulf of Mexico, as part of the response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in 2010. The tool—which is a product of the combined work of NOAA, the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement (BSEE), the University of New Hampshire, and others—offers near-real time oceanographic observations, weather data, environmental and commercial information, and other data.

  20. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  1. Northwest Regional Climate Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschultz, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Objectives are to establish a continuing, inclusive National process that: 1) synthesizes relevant science and information 2) increases understanding of what is known & not known 3) identifies information needs related to preparing for climate variability and change, and reducing climate impacts and vulnerability 4) evaluates progress of adaptation & mitigation activities 5) informs science priorities 6) builds assessment capacity in regions and sectors 7) builds understanding & skilled use of findings

  2. Complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bruehl, Stephen

    2015-07-29

    Complex regional pain syndrome is a chronic pain condition characterized by autonomic and inflammatory features. It occurs acutely in about 7% of patients who have limb fractures, limb surgery, or other injuries. Many cases resolve within the first year, with a smaller subset progressing to the chronic form. This transition is often paralleled by a change from "warm complex regional pain syndrome," with inflammatory characteristics dominant, to "cold complex regional pain syndrome" in which autonomic features dominate. Multiple peripheral and central mechanisms seem to be involved, the relative contributions of which may differ between individuals and over time. Possible contributors include peripheral and central sensitization, autonomic changes and sympatho-afferent coupling, inflammatory and immune alterations, brain changes, and genetic and psychological factors. The syndrome is diagnosed purely on the basis of clinical signs and symptoms. Effective management of the chronic form of the syndrome is often challenging. Few high quality randomized controlled trials are available to support the efficacy of the most commonly used interventions. Reviews of available randomized trials suggest that physical and occupational therapy (including graded motor imagery and mirror therapy), bisphosphonates, calcitonin, subanesthetic intravenous ketamine, free radical scavengers, oral corticosteroids, and spinal cord stimulation may be effective treatments. Multidisciplinary clinical care, which centers around functionally focused therapies is recommended. Other interventions are used to facilitate engagement in functional therapies and to improve quality of life.

  3. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, Michael B.; Dennison, Deborah; Kane, Jave; Walker, Hoyt; Miller, Paul

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  4. The Pacific Region.

    PubMed

    Tagica, K

    1993-03-01

    Population education in the Pacific region is summarized in terms of awareness and commitment, curriculum and instructional materials development, integration into the school curricula, training programs, and evaluation research. Several population education issues of current concern relate to the increase in chronic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension that are associated with life styles and diet, and the rising incidence of AIDS and teenage pregnancy. In the Pacific region, many countries have advanced population programs and policies, while some still do not even have a population policy. The issue of balancing population and resources is a topic that has not been sufficiently addressed in resource-poor countries. There is wide variance in awareness and commitment to population education in the Pacific region. Commitment and continuous support are crucial to population education projects. Lack of support is sometimes due to changing government personnel and lack of awareness of policy makers. Population education is not the same as family planning or sex education, and traditionally is spread through seminars and workshops by part time project personnel unconnected to the entire educational apparatus. Presently, only 8 population projects are functioning in the region, with 2-3 in the planning stages. Materials development in the Pacific region has been devoted to the secondary school level, yet awareness is increasing that sexuality, family health, and the environment should be introduced at the primary level. A popular strategy is to integrate population issues into the existing curriculum, such as in Fiji, the Marshall Islands, and Kiribati, which also have teacher training curriculum. In most countries sex education is still a controversial topic, and materials are developed by teacher committees working after school rather in a curriculum development unit. AIDS has pushed this topic into the public sector. A chart is provided for each country and

  5. Venus - Eistla Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This Magellan image is of an area located in the Eistla Region of Venus in the southern hemisphere and is centered at 5.5 degrees east longitude, 18 degrees south latitude. It is 122 kilometers (76 miles) across east to west and 107 kilometers (66 miles) north to south. North is at the top of the image. Shown is an unusual volcanic edifice unlike all others previously observed. It is approximately 66 kilometers (41 miles) across at the base and has a relatively flat, slightly concave summit 35 kilometers (22 miles) in diameter. The sides of the edifice are characterized by radiating ridges and valleys that impart a fluted appearance. To the west, the rim of the structure appears to have been breached by dark lava flows that emanated from a shallow summit pit approximately 5 kilometers (3 miles) in diameter and traveled west along a channel approximately 5 kilometers wide and 27 kilometers (17 miles) long. A series of coalescing, collapsed pits 2 to 10 kilometers (1.2 to 6.2 miles) in diameter are located 10 kilometers (6 miles) west of the summit. The edifice and western pits are circumscribed by faint, concentric lineaments up to 70 kilometers (43 miles) in diameter. A series of north northwest trending graben are deflected eastward around the edifice; the interplay of these graben and the fluted rim of the edifice produce a distinctive scalloped pattern in the image. Several north northwest trending lineaments cut directly across the summit region. This peculiar volcanic construct is located 25 to 30 kilometers (15 to 19 miles) north of Alpha Regio, a highly deformed region of tessera terrain. A collection of at least six similar volcanoes has been observed near Thetis Regio, a region of tessera within Aphrodite Terra. Thus, these unusual constructs tentatively appear to be spatially associated with regions of tessera. A tessera is a complex, deformed terrain on Venus consisting of at least two sets of intersecting ridges and troughs. The implications of this

  6. Regional river sulfur runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husar, Rudolf B.; Husar, Janja Djukic

    1985-01-01

    The water and sulfur runoff data for 54 large river basins were assembled, covering 65% of the nondesert land area of the world. The sulfur concentration ranges from 0.5 mg S/L for the West African rivers Niger and Volta to 100 mg S/L in the Colorado River; the world average is 3.2 mg S/L. The concentrations in central and eastern Europe as well as central and eastern North America exceed 8 mg S/L. The sulfur runoff density is also highest in the river basins over these industrialized regions, exceeding 2 g S/m2/yr. However, high sulfur runoff density in excess of 3 g S/m2/yr is also measured over the Pacific islands New Zealand and New Guinea and the archipelagos of Indonesia and the Philippines. The natural background sulfur runoff was estimated by assuming that South America, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands are unperturbed by man and that the average river sulfur concentration is in the range 1-3 mg S/L. Taking these background concentration values, the man-induced sulfur runoff for Europe ranges between 2 and 8 times the natural flow, and over North America, man's contribution ranges between 1 and 5 times the natural runoff. The global sulfur flow from nondesert land to the oceans and the Caspian Sea is estimated as 131 Tg S/yr, of which 46-85 Tg S/yr is attributed to natural causes. The regional river sulfur runoff pattern discussed in this paper does not have enough spatial resolution to be directly applicable to studies of the environmental effects of man-induced sulfur flows. However, it points to the continental-size regions where those perturbations are most evident and to the magnitude of the perturbations as expressed in units of the natural flows.

  7. Regional river sulfur runoff

    SciTech Connect

    Husar, R.B.; Husar, J.D.

    1985-01-20

    The water and sulfur runoff data for 54 large river basins were assembled, covering 65% of the nondesert land area of the world. The sulfur concentration ranges from 0.5 mg S/L for the West African rivers Niger and Volta to 100 mg S/L in the Colorado River; the world average is 3.2 mg S/L. The concentrations in central and eastern Europe as well as central and eastern North America exceed 8 mg S/L. The sulfur runoff density is also highest in the river basins over these industrialized regions, exceeding 2 g S/m/sup 2//yr. However, high sulfur runoff density in excess of 3 g S/m/sup 2//yr is also measured over the Pacific islands New Zealand and New Guinea and the archipelagos of Indonesia and the Philippines. The natural background sulfur runoff was estimated by assuming that South America, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands are unperturbed by man and that the average river sulfur concentration is in the range 1--3 mg S/L. Taking these background concentration values, the man-induced sulfur runoff for Europe ranges between 2 and 8 times the natural flow, and over North America, man's contribution ranges between 1 and 5 times the natural runoff. The global sulfur flow from nondesert land to the oceans and the Caspian Sea is estimated as 131 Tg S/yr, of which 46--85 Tg S/yr is attributed to natural causes. The regional river sulfur runoff pattern discussed in this paper does not have enough spatial resolution to be directly applicable to studies of the environmental effects of man-induced sulfur flows. However, it points to the continental-size regions where those perturbations are most evident and to the magnitude of the perturbations as expressed in units of the natural flows.

  8. Higher Education and Regional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neave, Guy

    1979-01-01

    The effect that the university has upon its region and the issue of regional control of higher education are examined. A definition of regional development is offered and regional planning, relevant research, cultural mobilization, and the Jacobin university are described. (Author/MLW)

  9. Complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sebastin, Sandeep J

    2011-05-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature. PMID:22022040

  10. Complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sebastin, Sandeep J

    2011-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature. PMID:22022040

  11. Complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Greta

    2015-06-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome is an uncommon chronic pain condition. It develops spontaneously or following an injury. The features are limb pain, allodynia, hypersensitivity, hyperalgesia, abnormalities of the vasomotor, sudomotor and motor systems, and trophic changes, with reduced use of the affected limb. The diagnosis is clinical and one of exclusion. The emphasis of therapy is graded rehabilitation and movement of the limb with physiotherapy and occupational therapy. Psychological therapies should be offered if a patient is making no or slow progress in the acute phase, and to all patients in the chronic phase as depression can occur. The goal of pharmacotherapy is to assist functional improvement. The early phase may be managed with simple analgesia. Antineuropathic drugs including tricyclic antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs may be added. Other treatments with some evidence of effectiveness include corticosteroids, calcitonin and bisphosphonates. Vitamin C has been used for primary prevention after wrist fracture and upper and lower limb surgery. There is no evidence that it is effective for treating established complex regional pain syndrome.

  12. Colorado Regional Faults

    SciTech Connect

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Regional Faults Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the regional faults of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4543192.100000 m Left: 144385.020000 m Right: 754585.020000 m Bottom: 4094592.100000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  13. Regional flood probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    The T-year annual maximum flood at a site is defined to be that streamflow, that has probability 1/T of being exceeded in any given year, and for a group of sites the corresponding regional flood probability (RFP) is the probability that at least one site will experience a T-year flood in any given year. The RFP depends on the number of sites of interest and on the spatial correlation of flows among the sites. We present a Monte Carlo method for obtaining the RFP and demonstrate that spatial correlation estimates used in this method may be obtained with rank transformed data and therefore that knowledge of the at-site peak flow distribution is not necessary. We examine the extent to which the estimates depend on specification of a parametric form for the spatial correlation function, which is known to be nonstationary for peak flows. It is shown in a simulation study that use of a stationary correlation function to compute RFPs yields satisfactory estimates for certain nonstationary processes. Application of asymptotic extreme value theory is examined, and a methodology for separating channel network and rainfall effects on RFPs is suggested. A case study is presented using peak flow data from the state of Washington. For 193 sites in the Puget Sound region it is estimated that a 100-year flood will occur on the average every 4,5 years.

  14. The Eutherian Pseudoautosomal Region.

    PubMed

    Raudsepp, Terje; Chowdhary, Bhanu P

    2015-01-01

    The pseudoautosomal region (PAR) is a unique segment of sequence homology between differentiated sex chromosomes where recombination occurs during meiosis. Molecular and functional properties of the PAR are distinctive from the autosomes and the remaining regions of the sex chromosomes. These include a higher rate of recombination than genome average, bias towards GC-substitutions and increased interindividual nucleotide divergence and mutations. As yet, the PAR has been physically demarcated in only 28 eutherian species representing 6 mammalian orders. Murid rodents have the smallest, gene-poorest and most diverged PARs. Other eutherian PARs are largely homologous but differ in size and gene content, being the smallest in equids and human/simian primates and much larger in other eutherians. Because pseudoautosomal genes escape X inactivation, their dosage changes with sex chromosome aneuploidies, whereas phenotypic effects of the latter depend on the size and gene content of the PAR. Thus, X monosomy is more viable in mice, humans and horses than in species with larger PARs. Presently, little is known about the functions of PAR genes in individual species, though human studies suggest their involvement in early embryonic development. The PAR is, thus, of evolutionary, genetic and biomedical significance and a 'research hotspot' in eutherian genomes. PMID:26730606

  15. Complex regional pain syndrome.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Greta

    2015-06-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome is an uncommon chronic pain condition. It develops spontaneously or following an injury. The features are limb pain, allodynia, hypersensitivity, hyperalgesia, abnormalities of the vasomotor, sudomotor and motor systems, and trophic changes, with reduced use of the affected limb. The diagnosis is clinical and one of exclusion. The emphasis of therapy is graded rehabilitation and movement of the limb with physiotherapy and occupational therapy. Psychological therapies should be offered if a patient is making no or slow progress in the acute phase, and to all patients in the chronic phase as depression can occur. The goal of pharmacotherapy is to assist functional improvement. The early phase may be managed with simple analgesia. Antineuropathic drugs including tricyclic antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs may be added. Other treatments with some evidence of effectiveness include corticosteroids, calcitonin and bisphosphonates. Vitamin C has been used for primary prevention after wrist fracture and upper and lower limb surgery. There is no evidence that it is effective for treating established complex regional pain syndrome. PMID:26648626

  16. Neptune's south polar region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This image of Neptune's south polar region was obtained by the NASA Voyager narrow-angle camera on Aug. 23, 1989, when it was at a distance of 25 million kilometers (1.6 million miles). The smallest cloud features are 45 kilometers (28 miles) in diameter. The image shows the discovery of shadows in Neptune's atmosphere, shadows cast onto a deep cloud bank by small elevated clouds. Located at about 68 degrees south latitude, they are the first cloud shadows ever seen by the Voyager on any planet. The dark regions adjacent to the small bright clouds are believed to be shadows, because they are on the side of the cloud that is opposite to the incoming sunlight and because they lengthen in places where the sun lies closer to the horizon. Estimates of the height of these discrete clouds above the underlying cloud bank can be obtained by careful analysis of this data. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  17. [COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME].

    PubMed

    Blažeković, Ivan; Bilić, Ervina; Žagar, Marija; Anić, Branimir

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) represents a state of constant and often disabling pain, affecting one region (usually hand) and often occurs after a trauma whose severity does not correlate with the level of pain. The older term for this condition of chronic pain associated with motor and autonomic symptoms is reflex sympathetic dystrophy or causalgia. The aim of this review, based on contemporary literature, is to show the epidemiology and etiology, proposed pathophysiological mechanisms, method of diagnosis and treatment options, prevention and mitigation of this under-recognized disease. CRPS I occurs without known neurological damage, unlike CRPS II, where the history of trauma is present and in some cases damage to the peripheral nervous system can be objectively assessed using electromyoneurography. New diagnostic methods, such as quantitative sensory testing (CST), challenge this division because the CST findings in patients with CRPS I can suggest damage to Adelta peripheral nerve fibers. Except for distinguishing type I and type II disease, it is important to bear in mind the diversity of clinical presentation of CRPS in acute and chronic phase of the disease. This regional pain syndrome typically includes the autonomic and motor signs and thus differs from other peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes. The complexity of the clinical presentation indicates the likely presence of different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disease. Previous studies have demonstrated the autonomic dysfunction, neurogenic inflammation and neuroplastic changes. The diagnosis of CRPS is based on anamnesis and clinical examination on the basis of which the disease can be graded according to the Budapest Criteria. A valuable aid in differentiating subtypes of the disease is electromyoneurography. The treatment of CRPS is as complex as the clinical picture and the pathophysiology of the disease and requires interdisciplinary cooperation and individual approach

  18. [COMPLEX REGIONAL PAIN SYNDROME].

    PubMed

    Blažeković, Ivan; Bilić, Ervina; Žagar, Marija; Anić, Branimir

    2015-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) represents a state of constant and often disabling pain, affecting one region (usually hand) and often occurs after a trauma whose severity does not correlate with the level of pain. The older term for this condition of chronic pain associated with motor and autonomic symptoms is reflex sympathetic dystrophy or causalgia. The aim of this review, based on contemporary literature, is to show the epidemiology and etiology, proposed pathophysiological mechanisms, method of diagnosis and treatment options, prevention and mitigation of this under-recognized disease. CRPS I occurs without known neurological damage, unlike CRPS II, where the history of trauma is present and in some cases damage to the peripheral nervous system can be objectively assessed using electromyoneurography. New diagnostic methods, such as quantitative sensory testing (CST), challenge this division because the CST findings in patients with CRPS I can suggest damage to Adelta peripheral nerve fibers. Except for distinguishing type I and type II disease, it is important to bear in mind the diversity of clinical presentation of CRPS in acute and chronic phase of the disease. This regional pain syndrome typically includes the autonomic and motor signs and thus differs from other peripheral neuropathic pain syndromes. The complexity of the clinical presentation indicates the likely presence of different pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disease. Previous studies have demonstrated the autonomic dysfunction, neurogenic inflammation and neuroplastic changes. The diagnosis of CRPS is based on anamnesis and clinical examination on the basis of which the disease can be graded according to the Budapest Criteria. A valuable aid in differentiating subtypes of the disease is electromyoneurography. The treatment of CRPS is as complex as the clinical picture and the pathophysiology of the disease and requires interdisciplinary cooperation and individual approach

  19. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ersoy, Hale; Pomeranz, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neurological disorder producing peripheral neurogenic inflammatory process in hands and feet distal to injury, which may lead to severe disability. Symptoms are often out of proportion to the initiating event and not limited to a single peripheral nerve. There is no gold standard in diagnosis of this entity, and a multidisciplinary approach is necessary for proper diagnosis. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is one of the most useful diagnostic modalities in early stages of CRPS (when clinical diagnosis is most difficult), the most desirable time to diagnose this disorder to expedite treatment and improve function. This article discusses MRI findings of CRPS, particularly in the early phase, and differential considerations. PMID:27518298

  20. Venus - Lakshmi Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This Magellan image is centered at 55 degrees north latitude, 348.5 degrees longitude, in the eastern Lakshmi region of Venus. This image, which is of an area 300 kilometers (180 miles) in width and 230 kilometers (138 miles) in length, is a mosaic of orbits 458 through 484. The image shows a relatively flat plains region composed of many lava flows. The dark flows mostly likely represent smooth lava flows similar to 'pahoehoe' flows on Earth while the brighter lava flows are rougher flows similar to 'aa' flows on Earth. (The terms 'pahoehoe' and 'aa' refer to textures of lava with pahoehoe a smooth or ropey surface, and aa a rough, clinkery texture). The rougher flows are brighter because the rough surface returns more energy to the radar than the smooth flows. Situated on top of the lava flows are three dark splotches. Because of the thick Venusian atmosphere, the small impactors break up before they reached the surface. Only the fragments from the broken up impactor are deposited on the surface and these fragments produce the dark splotches in this image. The splotch at the far right (east) has a crater centered in it, indicating that the impactor was not completely destroyed during its journey through the atmosphere. The dark splotches in the center and to the far left in this image each represent an impactor that was broken up into small fragments that did not penetrate the surface to produce a crater. The dark splotch at the left has been modified by the wind. A southwest northeast wind flow has moved some of the debris making up the splotch to the northeast where it has piled up against some small ridges.

  1. Moldova. Historic regional conference.

    PubMed

    Moshin, V

    1995-05-01

    The Directorate of Maternal and Child Health and the Family Planning Association of Moldova organized a regional conference, which was held October 18-19, 1994, in Kishinev, Moldova, with the support of the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). The conference,"Problems of Family Planning in Eastern Europe," was attended by approximately 400 Moldovan delegates of governmental and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and by 25 delegates from Romania, Russia, Belarus, the Ukraine, and Georgia. The President of Moldova and the Ministry of Public Health of Moldova gave their approval. The main objectives of the conference were to inform the public about the recommendations of the ICPD, to analyze the status of women's reproductive health and family planning in Eastern Europe, and to find ways of implementing the ICPD Plan of Action. Major problems identified during the conference were: 1) the social and economic problems facing most families; 2) the high rate of morbidity and mortality; 3) the decrease in birth rate; 4) the increase in abortions; 5) the rising incidence of venereal disease; and 6) the absence of an effective family planning system. It was agreed that cooperation between governments and NGOs is essential in designing population programs for each country. The following goals were set: 1) to provide populations with sufficient contraceptives; 2) to actively promote family planning concepts through the mass media; 3) to train specialists and to open family planning offices and centers; 4) to introduce sex education in the curricula of Pedagogical Institutes; and 5) to create national and regional statistical and sociological databases on population issues.

  2. Regional brain hypometabolism is unrelated to regional amyloid plaque burden.

    PubMed

    Altmann, Andre; Ng, Bernard; Landau, Susan M; Jagust, William J; Greicius, Michael D

    2015-12-01

    In its original form, the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease holds that fibrillar deposits of amyloid are an early, driving force in pathological events leading ultimately to neuronal death. Early clinicopathological investigations highlighted a number of inconsistencies leading to an updated hypothesis in which amyloid plaques give way to amyloid oligomers as the driving force in pathogenesis. Rather than focusing on the inconsistencies, amyloid imaging studies have tended to highlight the overlap between regions that show early amyloid plaque signal on positron emission tomography and that also happen to be affected early in Alzheimer's disease. Recent imaging studies investigating the regional dependency between metabolism and amyloid plaque deposition have arrived at conflicting results, with some showing regional associations and other not. We extracted multimodal neuroimaging data from the Alzheimer's disease neuroimaging database for 227 healthy controls and 434 subjects with mild cognitive impairment. We analysed regional patterns of amyloid deposition, regional glucose metabolism and regional atrophy using florbetapir ((18)F) positron emission tomography, (18)F-fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Specifically, we derived grey matter density and standardized uptake value ratios for both positron emission tomography tracers in 404 functionally defined regions of interest. We examined the relation between regional glucose metabolism and amyloid plaques using linear models. For each region of interest, correcting for regional grey matter density, age, education and disease status, we tested the association of regional glucose metabolism with (i) cortex-wide florbetapir uptake; (ii) regional (i.e. in the same region of interest) florbetapir uptake; and (iii) regional florbetapir uptake while correcting in addition for cortex-wide florbetapir uptake. P-values for each setting

  3. Landslides of Palestinian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwahsh, H.

    2013-12-01

    Natural disasters are extreme sudden events caused by environmental and natural actors that take away the lives of many thousands of people each year and damage large amount of properties. They strike anywhere on earth, often without any warning. A risk maps of natural disaster are very useful to identify the places that might be adversely affected in the event of natural disaster. The earthquakes are one of natural disaster that have the greatest hazards and will cause loss of life and properties due to damaging the structures of building, dams, bridges. In addition, it will affect local geology and soil conditions. The site effects play an important role in earthquake risk because of its amplification or damping simulation. Another parameter in developing risk map is landslide, which is also one of the most important topics in site effect hazards. Palestine region has been suffering landslide hazards because of the topographical and geological conditions of this region. Most Palestine consists of mountainous area, which has great steep slopes and the type of soil is mainly grayish to yellowish silty clay (Marl Soil). Due to the above mentioned factors many landslides have been occurred from Negev south to the northern borders of Palestine. An example of huge and destruction landslide in a Palestine authority is the landslide in the White Mountain area in the city of Nablus, which occurred in 1997. The geotechnical and geophysical investigation as well as slope stability analysis should be considered in making landslide maps that are necessary to develop risk levels of the natural disaster. Landslides occurred in slopes that are created naturally or by human beings. Failure of soil mass occurs, and hence landslide of soil mass happen due to sliding of soil mass along a plane or curved surface. In general, the slopes become unstable when the shear stresses (driving force) generated in the soil mass exceed the available shearing resistance on the rupture surface

  4. Sudurnes Regional Heating Corp.

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.

    1996-11-01

    The Svartsengi geothermal area is close to the town of Grindavik on the Rekjanes peninsula and is part of an active fissure swarm, lined with crater-rows and open fissures and faults. The high-temperature area has an area of 2 sq. km and shows only limited signs of geothermal activity at the surface. The reservoir, however, contains lots of energy and at least 8 wells supply the Svartsengi Power Plant with steam. The steam is not useable for domestic heating purposes so that heat exchangers are used to heat cold groundwater with the steam. Some steam is also used for producing 16.4 MW{sub e} of electrical power. The article shows the distribution system piping hot water to nine towns and the Keflavik International Airport. The effluent brine from the Svartsengi Plant is disposed of into a surface pond, called the Blue Lagoon, popular to tourists and people suffering from psoriasis and other forms of eczema seeking therapeutic effects from the silica rich brine. This combined power plant and regional district heating system (cogeneration) is an interesting and unique design for the application of geothermal energy.

  5. Active region flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foukal, Peter

    1987-01-01

    A wide range of observations has shown that active region phenomena in the photospheric, chromospheric and coronal temperature regimes are dynamical in nature. At the photosphere, recent observations of full line profiles place an upper limit of about + or - 20/msec on any downflows at supergranule cell edges. Observations of the full Stokes 5 profiles in the network show no evidence for downflows in magnetic flux tubes. In the area of chromospheric dynamics, several models were put forward recently to reproduce the observed behavior of spicules. However, it is pointed out that these adiabatic models do not include the powerful radiative dissipation which tend to damp out the large amplitude disturbances that produce the spicular acceleration in the models. In the corona, loop flows along field lines clearly transport mass and energy at rates important for the dynamics of these structures. However, advances in understanding the heating and mass balance of the loop structures seem to require new kinds of observations. Some results are presented using a remote sensing diagnostic of the intensity and orientation of macroscopic plasma electric fields predicted by models of reconnective heating and also wave heating.

  6. Regional Kendall test for trend

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Helsel, D.R.; Frans, L.M.

    2006-01-01

    Trends in environmental variables are often investigated within a study region at more than one site. At each site, a trend analysis determines whether a trend has occurred. Yet often also of interest is whether a consistent trend is evident throughout the entire region. This paper adapts the Seasonal Kendall trend test to determine whether a consistent regional trend occurs in environmental variables.

  7. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  8. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  9. Europa Wedge Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This image shows an area of crustal separation on Jupiter's moon, Europa. Lower resolution pictures taken earlier in the tour of NASA's Galileo spacecraft revealed that dark wedge-shaped bands in this region are areas where the icy crust has completely pulled apart. Dark material has filled up from below and filled the void created by this separation.

    In the lower left corner of this image, taken by Galileo's onboard camera on December 16, 1997, a portion of one dark wedge area is visible, revealing a linear texture along the trend of the wedge. The lines of the texture change orientation slightly and reflect the fact that we are looking at a bend in the wedge. The older, bright background, visible on the right half of the image, is criss-crossed with ridges. A large, bright ridge runs east-west through the upper part of the image, cutting across both the older background plains and the wedge. This ridge is rough in texture, with numerous small terraces and troughs containing dark material.

    North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the northwest. This image, centered at approximately 16.5 degrees south latitude and 196.5 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 10 kilometers square (about 6.5 miles square). The resolution of this image is about 26 meters per picture element. This image was taken by the solid state imaging system from a distance of 1250 kilometers (750 miles).

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  10. Emission measure distribution for diffuse regions in solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Srividya; Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2014-11-01

    Our knowledge of the diffuse emission that encompasses active regions is very limited. In this paper we investigate two off-limb active regions, namely, AR 10939 and AR 10961, to probe the underlying heating mechanisms. For this purpose, we have used spectral observations from Hinode/EIS and employed the emission measure (EM) technique to obtain the thermal structure of these diffuse regions. Our results show that the characteristic EM distributions of the diffuse emission regions peak at log T = 6.25 and the coolward slopes are in the range 1.4-3.3. This suggests that both low- as well as high-frequency nanoflare heating events are at work. Our results provide additional constraints on the properties of these diffuse emission regions and their contribution to the background/foreground when active region cores are observed on-disk.

  11. Callisto's Equatorial Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This mosaic covers part of the equatorial region of Jupiter's moon, Callisto. The mosaic combines six separate image frames obtained by the solid state imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its ninth orbit around Jupiter. North is to the top of the picture. The mosaic shows several new features and characteristics of the surface revealed by Galileo. These include deposits that may represent landslides in the southern and southwestern floors of many craters. Two such deposits are seen in a 12 kilometer (7.3 mile) crater in the west-central part of the image, and in a 23 kilometer (14 mile) crater just north of the center of the image. Also notable are several sinuous valleys emanating from the southern rims of 10 to 15 kilometer (6.2 to 9.3 mile) irregular craters in the west-central part of the image. The pervasive local smoothing of Callisto's surface is well represented in the plains between the craters in the southeastern part of the image. Possible oblique impacts are suggested by the elongated craters in the northeastern and southeastern parts of the image.

    The mosaic, centered at 7.4 degrees south latitude and 6.6 degrees west longitude, covers an area of approximately 315 by 215 kilometers (192 by 131 miles). The sun illuminates the scene from the west (left). The smallest features that can be seen are about 300 meters (993 feet) across. The images were obtained on June 25, 1997, when the spacecraft was at a range of 15,200 kilometers (8,207 miles) from Callisto.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  12. Regional governance: strategies and disputes in health region management

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Adriano Maia; Giovanella, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the regional governance of the health systemin relation to management strategies and disputes. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES A qualitative study with health managers from 19 municipalities in the health region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Data were drawn from 17 semi-structured interviews of state, regional, and municipal health policymakers and managers; a focus group; observations of the regional interagency committee; and documents in 2012. The political-institutional and the organizational components were analyzed in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. RESULTS The regional interagency committee is the chief regional governance strategy/component and functions as a strategic tool for strengthening governance. It brings together a diversity of members responsible for decision making in the healthcare territories, who need to negotiate the allocation of funding and the distribution of facilities for common use in the region. The high turnover of health secretaries, their lack of autonomy from the local executive decisions, inadequate technical training to exercise their function, and the influence of party politics on decision making stand as obstacles to the regional interagency committee’s permeability to social demands. Funding is insufficient to enable the fulfillment of the officially integrated agreed-upon program or to boost public supply by the system, requiring that public managers procure services from the private market at values higher than the national health service price schedule (Brazilian Unified Health System Table). The study determined that “facilitators” under contract to health departments accelerated access to specialized (diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical) services in other municipalities by direct payment to physicians for procedure costs already covered by the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS The characteristics identified a regionalized system with a conflictive pattern of governance and

  13. Document Delivery Policy. Region 2 [Regional Medical Library Network].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southeastern/Atlantic Regional Medical Library Services, Baltimore, MD.

    Standardized policies and procedures for interlibrary loan and resource sharing in the Southeastern/Atlantic Region of the Regional Medical Library (RML) Network are presented in this policy statement. RML network institutions, which are divided into categories based on their ability and willingness to assume responsibility for interlibrary…

  14. 17 CFR 140.2 - Regional office-regional coordinators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... direction of a Regional Coordinator who, as a collateral duty, oversees the administration of the office and... parties. Each regional office has delegated authority for the enforcement of the Act and administration of... administration of programs of the Commission in the States of Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida,...

  15. About the REL Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific, 2014

    2014-01-01

    REL Pacific is one of ten Regional Educational Laboratories established and funded by the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences. Their region encompasses approximately 4.9 million square miles and serves seven Pacific island entities, including American Samoa; the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; the Federated…

  16. Training Teachers for Regional Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hla Myint; And Others

    This report presents alternative plans for training teachers for the newly-established Regional Colleges in Burma. The Regional Colleges are three-year postsecondary institutions designed to train middle level technicians to help increase the production of goods and services needed in the Burmese economy. Concentrating on the Hawaii Community…

  17. CLIMATE IMPACTS ON REGIONAL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England region (including the 6 New England
    states plus upstate New York) offers a very diverse geography,
    matched by an equally diverse economy and human
    population. Livelihoods throughout the region are based
    on service industries that depend heavily on comm...

  18. What's Happening to Regional Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Back in November, voters in the North East of England overwhelmingly rejected the move towards an elected regional assembly. The scale of the defeat (three to one) of a Government-backed scheme was a rude awakening for the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister and the range of regional agencies created since 1997. After all, it was felt that the…

  19. Adoption Resource Directory: Region X.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1983

    State, regional, and national adoption resources are described in this directory for residents of Region X states (Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington). Emphasizing the adoption of children with special needs, the directory gives organizational contacts for parents in various stages of the adoption process and mentions resources for social…

  20. REGIONAL VULNERABILITY: A CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional vulnerability assessment, or ReVA, is an approach to place-based ecological risk assessment that is currently under development by the Office of Research and Development of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The assessment is done at the scale of EPA region...

  1. MISR Regional VBBE Imagery Overview

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... View Data  |  Download Data About this Web Site: Visualizations of select MISR Level 3 data for special regional ... Regional products are derived from averaging select Level 1 and Level 2 parameters over daily, monthly, seasonal and annual time periods. ...

  2. Regional Early Childhood Policy Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The UNESCO-UNICEF joint regional policy review project was launched in September 2006 with the aim to support the countries of Asia-Pacific region in meeting the first goal of Education For All (EFA) on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) by identifying, documenting and sharing good practices as well as constraints and challenges in early…

  3. Global forcing and regional interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1992-01-01

    The Climate System Modeling Program (CSMP) sponsored a “Global Forcing and Regional Interaction Workshop” from October 21 to 23, 1991, at Colorado State University's Pingree Park campus, to evaluate the relationship between global climate forcing and the response of the land surface on a regional scale. The general aim of the workshop was to develop specific action plans and preliminary science research strategies for regional-global interactions. Each participant was invited to identify tractable, high pay-off science issues related to global forcing and regional interactions. The workshop, with twenty-six participants about evenly split between atmospheric scientists, hydrologists, and ecologists, was also designed to facilitate a network of collaborators to prepare multidisciplinary research proposals. Discussion also focused on regional climate over the last 200 years and included the influence of atmosphere-land surface processes on natural climate variability. Several major recommendations were made on topics discussed.

  4. Disordered regions in transmembrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Tusnády, Gábor E; Dobson, László; Tompa, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The functions of transmembrane proteins in living cells are widespread; they range from various transport processes to energy production, from cell-cell adhesion to communication. Structurally, they are highly ordered in their membrane-spanning regions, but may contain disordered regions in the cytosolic and extra-cytosolic parts. In this study, we have investigated the disordered regions in transmembrane proteins by a stringent definition of disordered residues on the currently available largest experimental dataset, and show a significant correlation between the spatial distributions of positively charged residues and disordered regions. This finding suggests a new role of disordered regions in transmembrane proteins by providing structural flexibility for stabilizing interactions with negatively charged head groups of the lipid molecules. We also find a preference of structural disorder in the terminal--as opposed to loop--regions in transmembrane proteins, and survey the respective functions involved in recruiting other proteins or mediating allosteric signaling effects. Finally, we critically compare disorder prediction methods on our transmembrane protein set. While there are no major differences between these methods using the usual statistics, such as per residue accuracies, Matthew's correlation coefficients, etc.; substantial differences can be found regarding the spatial distribution of the predicted disordered regions. We conclude that a predictor optimized for transmembrane proteins would be of high value to the field of structural disorder. PMID:26275590

  5. Regional strategies for global leadership.

    PubMed

    Ghemawat, Pankaj

    2005-12-01

    The leaders of such global powerhouses as GE, Wal-Mart, and Toyota seem to have grasped two crucial truths: First, far from becoming submerged by the rising tide of globalization, geographic and other regional distinctions may in fact be increasing in importance. Second, regionally focused strategies, used in conjunction with local and global initiatives, can significantly boost a company's performance. The business and economic data reveal a highly regionalized world. For example, trade within regions, rather than across them, drove the surge of international commerce in the second half of the twentieth century. Regionalization is also apparent in foreign direct investment, companies' international sales, and competition among the world's largest multinationals. Harvard Business School Professor Pankaj Ghemawat says that the most successful companies employ five types of regional strategies in addition to--or even instead of--global ones: home base, portfolio, hub, platform, and mandate. Some companies adopt the strategies in sequence, but the most nimble switch from one to another and combine approaches as their markets and businesses evolve. At Toyota, for example, exports from the home base continue to be substantial even as the company builds up an international manufacturing presence. And as Toyota achieves economies of scale and scope with a strong network of hubs, the company also pursues economies of specialization through interregional mandates. Embracing regional strategies requires flexibility and creativity. A company must decide what constitutes a region, choose the most appropriate strategies, and mesh those strategies with the organization's existing structures. In a world that is neither truly global nor truly local, finding ways of coordinating within and across regions can deliver a powerful competitive advantage. PMID:16334585

  6. Regional strategies for global leadership.

    PubMed

    Ghemawat, Pankaj

    2005-12-01

    The leaders of such global powerhouses as GE, Wal-Mart, and Toyota seem to have grasped two crucial truths: First, far from becoming submerged by the rising tide of globalization, geographic and other regional distinctions may in fact be increasing in importance. Second, regionally focused strategies, used in conjunction with local and global initiatives, can significantly boost a company's performance. The business and economic data reveal a highly regionalized world. For example, trade within regions, rather than across them, drove the surge of international commerce in the second half of the twentieth century. Regionalization is also apparent in foreign direct investment, companies' international sales, and competition among the world's largest multinationals. Harvard Business School Professor Pankaj Ghemawat says that the most successful companies employ five types of regional strategies in addition to--or even instead of--global ones: home base, portfolio, hub, platform, and mandate. Some companies adopt the strategies in sequence, but the most nimble switch from one to another and combine approaches as their markets and businesses evolve. At Toyota, for example, exports from the home base continue to be substantial even as the company builds up an international manufacturing presence. And as Toyota achieves economies of scale and scope with a strong network of hubs, the company also pursues economies of specialization through interregional mandates. Embracing regional strategies requires flexibility and creativity. A company must decide what constitutes a region, choose the most appropriate strategies, and mesh those strategies with the organization's existing structures. In a world that is neither truly global nor truly local, finding ways of coordinating within and across regions can deliver a powerful competitive advantage.

  7. LLNL's Regional Seismic Discrimination Research

    SciTech Connect

    Hanley, W; Mayeda, K; Myers, S; Pasyanos, M; Rodgers, A; Sicherman, A; Walter, W

    1999-07-23

    As part of the Department of Energy's research and development effort to improve the monitoring capability of the planned Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty international monitoring system, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLNL) is testing and calibrating regional seismic discrimination algorithms in the Middle East, North Africa and Western Former Soviet Union. The calibration process consists of a number of steps: (1) populating the database with independently identified regional events; (2) developing regional boundaries and pre-identifying severe regional phase blockage zones; (3) measuring and calibrating coda based magnitude scales; (4a) measuring regional amplitudes and making magnitude and distance amplitude corrections (MDAC); (4b) applying the DOE modified kriging methodology to MDAC results using the regionalized background model; (5) determining the thresholds of detectability of regional phases as a function of phase type and frequency; (6) evaluating regional phase discriminant performance both singly and in combination; (7) combining steps 1-6 to create a calibrated discrimination surface for each stations; (8) assessing progress and iterating. We have now developed this calibration procedure to the point where it is fairly straightforward to apply earthquake-explosion discrimination in regions with ample empirical data. Several of the steps outlined above are discussed in greater detail in other DOE papers in this volume or in recent publications. Here we emphasize the results of the above process: station correction surfaces and their improvement to discrimination results compared with simpler calibration methods. Some of the outstanding discrimination research issues involve cases in which there is little or no empirical data. For example in many cases there is no regional nuclear explosion data at IMS stations or nearby surrogates. We have taken two approaches to this problem, first finding and using mining explosion data when available, and

  8. Future of multistate regional commissions

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, M.

    1980-04-01

    Multistate regional commissions in the United States have been used since 1965. The largest program has been that of the Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC). Institutional and financial barriers have been the most difficult problems encountered by the ARC and other programs (such as Title V commissions). Despite the imperfect performance of the existing regional commissions, they offer a demonstration that some improvement in governmental performance can be achieved. There is virtual unanimity among the nation's governors that this is the route for Federal state relations to follow. Also, the commission route is viewed privately as the most socially acceptable means to have a beneficial impact on government performance. (SAC)

  9. Aircraft Observations into the Characteristics of Biomass Burning Instigated 'Regional Haze' Over the Amazon during the SAMBBA Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, Eoghan

    2013-04-01

    Rhondonia and Cerrado agricultural fires in Mato Grosso. Thus, the ten (of twenty) SAMMBA flights that encountered haze, sampled from a diversity of haze types. The haze was sampled using the standard instrumentation suite available onboard FAAM, a C-ToF-AMS (Compact Time-of-flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer) and a SP2 (Single Particle Soot Photometer), thereby allowing a detailed physiochemical analysis: results from the AMS yielded size resolved chemical composition of organic and inorganic (e.g. nitrate, sulphate) components, whilst the SP2 yielded size resolved black carbon mass on a single particle basis. SAMBBA also represented the first utilization of the C-ToF-AMS in sampling BB in Amazonia. This data allows the preliminary presentation of the chemical and physical characteristics of regional haze during SAMBBA including the structure, in terms of vertical profiles and spatial distribution, and composition, in terms of mass loadings, size distributions, number concentrations and chemical processing. For instance, vertical profiles displayed significant structures, with layering from differing sources; typically a local shallow boundary layer would be covered by the extensive regional haze and above this, in the free troposphere, multiple detached layers were observed. This work complements the other, exhaustive, work of SAMBBA participants, helping to provide the most detailed characterization of Amazonian BB to date, aiding understanding of weather, climate and, more tangibly in an expanding Brazil, air quality issues.

  10. A regional technology transfer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenery, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    The activities of the NC/STRC are reported. The background and organization of the regional dissemination center, and marketing methods are discussed along with the services provided, and available information resources.

  11. MISR Regional UAE2 Products

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-29

    ... those familiar with the MISR Level 1 and 2 products, this maps directly to those products; each Regional product summarizes selected ... Theoretical Basis Documents . Images available on this web site include the following parameters: Image Description ...

  12. Active Region Release Two CMEs

    NASA Video Gallery

    Solar material can be seen blowing off the sun in this video captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) on the night of Feb. 5, 2013. This active region on the sun sent out two coronal ...

  13. Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moulin-Acevedo, Madeleine; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Includes "From School to Jobs: Africa's Dilemma" (Moulin-Acevedo); "Helping Change in Eastern Europe"; "Recognizing the Dignity of Indigenous Peoples"; "An Employment Plan for Pakistan"; and "Around the Continents." (JOW)

  14. Slot Region Radiation Environment Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandberg, Ingmar; Daglis, Ioannis; Heynderickx, Daniel; Evans, Hugh; Nieminen, Petteri

    2013-04-01

    Herein we present the main characteristics and first results of the Slot Region Radiation Environment Models (SRREMs) project. The statistical models developed in SRREMs aim to address the variability of trapped electron and proton fluxes in the region between the inner and the outer electron radiation belt. The energetic charged particle fluxes in the slot region are highly dynamic and are known to vary by several orders of magnitude on both short and long timescales. During quiet times, the particle fluxes are much lower than those found at the peak of the inner and outer belts and the region is considered benign. During geospace magnetic storms, though, this region can fill with energetic particles as the peak of the outer belt is pushed Earthwards and the fluxes can increase drastically. There has been a renewed interest in the potential operation of commercial satellites in orbits that are at least partially contained within the Slot Region. Hence, there is a need to improve the current radiation belt models, most of which do not model the extreme variability of the slot region and instead provide long-term averages between the better-known low and medium Earth orbits (LEO and MEO). The statistical models developed in the SRREMs project are based on the analysis of a large volume of available data and on the construction of a virtual database of slot region particle fluxes. The analysis that we have followed retains the long-term temporal, spatial and spectral variations in electron and proton fluxes as well as the short-term enhancement events at altitudes and inclinations relevant for satellites in the slot region. A large number of datasets have been used for the construction, evaluation and inter-calibration of the SRREMs virtual dataset. Special emphasis has been given on the use and analysis of ESA Standard Radiation Environment Monitor (SREM) data from the units on-board PROBA-1, INTEGRAL, and GIOVE-B due to the sufficient spatial and long temporal

  15. Ig Constant Region Effects on Variable Region Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Janda, Alena; Bowen, Anthony; Greenspan, Neil S.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive humoral immune response is responsible for the generation of antimicrobial proteins known as immunoglobulin molecules or antibodies. Immunoglobulins provide a defense system against pathogenic microbes and toxins by targeting them for removal and/or destruction. Historically, antibodies have been thought to be composed of distinct structural domains known as the variable and constant regions that are responsible for antigen binding and mediating effector functions such as opsonization and complement activation, respectively. These domains were thought to be structurally and functionally independent. Recent work has revealed however, that in some families of antibodies, the two regions can influence each other. We will discuss the body of work that led to these observations, as well as the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain how these two different antibody regions may interact in the function of antigen binding. PMID:26870003

  16. Regional waveform calibration in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lupei; Helmberger, Donald V.; Saikia, Chandan K.; Woods, Bradley B.

    1997-10-01

    Twelve moderate-magnitude earthquakes (mb 4-5.5) in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region are investigated to determine their focal mechanisms and to relocate them using their regional waveform records at two broadband arrays, the Kyrgyzstan Regional Network (KNET), and the 1992 Pakistan Himalayas seismic experiment array (PAKH) in northern Pakistan. We use the "cut-and-paste" source estimation technique to invert the whole broadband waveforms for mechanisms and depths, assuming a one-dimensional velocity model developed for the adjacent Tibetan plateau. For several large events the source mechanisms obtained agree with those available from the Harvard centroid moment tensor (CMT) solutions. An advantage of using regional broadband waveforms is that focal depths can be better constrained either from amplitude ratios of Pnl to surface waves for crustal events or from time separation between the direct P and the shear-coupled P wave (sPn + sPmP) for mantle events. All the crustal events are relocated at shallower depths compared with their International Seismological Centre bulletin or Harvard CMT depths. After the focal depths are established, the events are then relocated horizontally using their first-arrival times. Only minor offsets in epicentral location are found for all mantle events and the bigger crustal events, while rather large offsets (up to 30 km) occur for the smaller crustal events. We also tested the performance of waveform inversion using only two broadband stations, one from the KNET array in the north of the region and one from the PAKH array in the south. We found that this geometry is adequate for determining focal depths and mechanisms of moderate size earthquakes in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region.

  17. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  18. Hierarchical probabilistic regionalization of volcanism for Sengan region, Japan.

    SciTech Connect

    Balasingam, Pirahas; Park, Jinyong; McKenna, Sean Andrew; Kulatilake, Pinnaduwa H. S. W.

    2005-03-01

    A 1 km square regular grid system created on the Universal Transverse Mercator zone 54 projected coordinate system is used to work with volcanism related data for Sengan region. The following geologic variables were determined as the most important for identifying volcanism: geothermal gradient, groundwater temperature, heat discharge, groundwater pH value, presence of volcanic rocks and presence of hydrothermal alteration. Data available for each of these important geologic variables were used to perform directional variogram modeling and kriging to estimate geologic variable vectors at each of the 23949 centers of the chosen 1 km cell grid system. Cluster analysis was performed on the 23949 complete variable vectors to classify each center of 1 km cell into one of five different statistically homogeneous groups with respect to potential volcanism spanning from lowest possible volcanism to highest possible volcanism with increasing group number. A discriminant analysis incorporating Bayes theorem was performed to construct maps showing the probability of group membership for each of the volcanism groups. The said maps showed good comparisons with the recorded locations of volcanism within the Sengan region. No volcanic data were found to exist in the group 1 region. The high probability areas within group 1 have the chance of being the no volcanism region. Entropy of classification is calculated to assess the uncertainty of the allocation process of each 1 km cell center location based on the calculated probabilities. The recorded volcanism data are also plotted on the entropy map to examine the uncertainty level of the estimations at the locations where volcanism exists. The volcanic data cell locations that are in the high volcanism regions (groups 4 and 5) showed relatively low mapping estimation uncertainty. On the other hand, the volcanic data cell locations that are in the low volcanism region (group 2) showed relatively high mapping estimation uncertainty

  19. Does regional anaesthesia improve outcome?

    PubMed

    Hopkins, P M

    2015-12-01

    This review examines the recent evidence of an impact of regional anaesthesia on important clinical outcomes. Evidence was obtained from a variety of studies, with increasing numbers of analyses of large databases being prominent. The benefits and limitations of these approaches are considered in order to provide a context for interpretation of the data they generate. There should be little argument that correctly performed and appropriately used regional anaesthetic techniques can provide the most effective postoperative analgesia for the duration of the block, but the majority of studies suggest that this does not translate into improved longer-term surgical outcomes. The evidence for reduced incidence of major complications when regional anaesthesia is compared with, or added to, general anaesthesia is mixed. There appears to be a small effect in reducing blood loss during major joint arthroplasty. Some, but not all, studies demonstrate a reduced incidence of respiratory and infective complications with regional anaesthesia, but the effect on cardiovascular complications is variable. There are even some data consistent with a hypothesis that general anaesthesia may be protective against postoperative cognitive dysfunction. In conclusion, there is probably no generally applicable benefit in long-term outcomes with regional anaesthesia. More likely is an interaction between patient factors, the surgical procedure, and the relative capability of the anaesthetist to manage different types of anaesthesia.

  20. Correlation of regional breath sound with regional ventilation in emphysema

    SciTech Connect

    Ploysongsang, Y.; Pare, J.A.; Macklem, P.T.

    1982-09-01

    We measured regional breath sound intensities (Ib) by a microphone amplifier system in 8 subjects with emphysema. We also measured regional white noise transmissions (Tn) from the same areas in all subjects. The recorded areas were 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm from the apex of the lung just lateral to the right anterior midclavicular line. Xenon ventilation indexes (xenon tidal raw counts, an index of total regional ventilation; xenon equilibration raw counts, an index of ventilating lung volume; xenon ventilation per unit volume (Vr), an index of ventilation per unit volume) were also recorded from the same areas. The Ib, Tn, Ib/Tn (an index of sound generation), and xenon ventilation indexes were all expressed as a fraction of the mean value of all four recorded areas. The Ib and Ib/Tn correlated best with the xenon tidal raw counts, correlated well with the xenon equilibration raw counts, and correlated poorly with Vr. We conclude that Ib and Ib/Tn can be used to quantify regional ventilation in subjects with emphysema.

  1. Satellites monitor Atlanta regional development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, William J.; Blackmon, C.C.; Rudasill, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Since the adoption of a Regional Development Plan in 1975, the Atlanta Regional Commission has investigated methods for monitoring regional development patterns in a periodic, efficient manner. A promising approach appears to be the use of Landsat satellite data. In cooperation with the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, the commission used machine processing of digital temporal overlays of Landsat data collected in 1972, 1974 and 1976 to detect land use and land cover changes in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Results of the analysis revealed the conversion of forested and open space areas to residential, commercial and industrial land use in the urban-rural fringe zone from 1972 to 1974 and from 1974 to 1976. The study indicated that a land use and land cover change-detection program may be used to revise small-area forecasts of land use, population and employment made by planning models.

  2. Northeast Regional Biomass Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1992-04-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is entering its ninth year of operation. The management and the objectives have virtually remained unchanged and are stated as follows. The program conducted by NRBP has three basic features: (1) a state grant component that provides funds (with a 50 percent matching requirement) to each of the states in the region to strengthen and integrate the work of state agencies involved in biomass energy; (2) a series of technical reports and studies in areas that have been identified as being of critical importance to the development of biomass energy in the region; and (3) a continuous long range planning component with heavy private sector involvement that helps to identify activities necessary to spur greater development and use of biomass energy in the Northeast.

  3. Desmoid Fibromatosis of Submandibular Region

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Rohana; Parthiban, Nirmalatiban; O’Dwyer, Tadgh

    2014-01-01

    Desmoid fibromatosis is a benign yet locally aggressive tumor with a tendency to recur. It causes considerable morbidity particularly when it arises in a small area in the head and neck region. This tumor is extremely rare in the submandibular region. We report a case of desmoid tumor in the submandibular region in a 32-year-old male who presented with right submandibular swelling postextraction of right lower wisdom tooth. Excision biopsy was carried out initially following inconclusive fine needle aspiration and discussion at multidisciplinary meeting. The tumor recurred 4 months following initial excisional biopsy necessitating a more radical secondary approach involving segmental mandibulectomy. Intraoperatively we also noted that the tumor was originating from the site of previous wisdom tooth extraction, raising the question of surgical trauma as precursor of desmoid tumor. We achieved a negative resection margin and a complete remission for 24 months. PMID:25013548

  4. Parsing surrounding space into regions.

    PubMed

    Franklin, N; Henkel, L A; Zangas, T

    1995-07-01

    Surrounding space is not inherently organized, but we tend to treat it as though it consisted of regions (e.g., front, back, right, and left). The current studies show that these conceptual regions have characteristics that reflect our typical interactions with space. Three experiments examined the relative sizes and resolutions of front, back, left, and right around oneself. Front, argued to be the most important horizontal region, was found to be (a) largest, (b) recalled with the greatest precision, and (c) described with the greatest degree pf detao. Our findings suggest that some of the characteristics of the category model proposed by Huttenlocher, Hedges, and Duncan (1991) regarding memory for pictured circular displays may be generalized to space around oneself. More broadly, our results support and extend the spatial framework analysis of representation of surrounding space (Franklin & Tversky, 1990).

  5. Regional sea level change in the Thailand-Indonesia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenoglio-Marc, L.; Becker, M. H.; Buchhaupt, C.

    2013-12-01

    It is expected that the regional sea level rise will strongly affect particular regions with direct impacts including submergence of coastal zones, rising water tables and salt intrusion into groundwaters. It can possibly also exacerbate other factors as floodings, associated to storms and hurricanes, as well as ground subsidence of anthropogenic nature. The Thailand-Vietnam-Indonesian region is one of those zones. On land, the Chao-Praya and Mekong Delta are fertile alluvial zones. The potential for sea level increases and extreme floodings due to global warming makes the Deltas a place where local, regional, and global environmental changes are converging. We investigate the relative roles of regional and global mechanisms resulting in multidecadal variations and inflections in the rate of sea level change. Altimetry and GRACE data are used to investigate the variation of land floodings. The land surface water extent is evaluated at 25 km sampling intervals over fifteen years (1993-2007) using a multisatellite methodology which captures the extent of episodic and seasonal inundations, wetlands, rivers, lakes, and irrigated agriculture, using passive and active (microwaves and visible observations. The regional sea level change is analysed during the period 1993-2012 using satellite altimetry, wind and ocean model data, tide gauge data and GPS. The rates of absolute eustatic sea level rise derived from satellite altimetry through 19-year long precise altimeter observations are in average higher than the global mean rate. Several tide gauge records indicate an even higher sea level rise relative to land. We show that the sea level change is closely linked to the ENSO mode of variability and strongly affected by changes in wind forcing and ocean circulation. We have determined the vertical crustal motion at a given tide gauge location by differencing the tide gauge sea level time-series with an equivalent time-series derived from satellite altimetry and by computing

  6. Alpine cloud climatology: regional effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaestner, Martina; Kriebel, Karl T.

    1996-12-01

    The present understanding of moist atmospheric processes and the role of clouds in the hydrologic cycle shows severe gaps of knowledge. Water vapor plays an essential part in atmospheric dynamics. For example, the release of large amounts of latent heat, due to the condensation in convective clouds, plays an important role in the general circulation. Knowledge of the distribution of clouds and its transport is essential to understand atmospheric dynamics. Clouds can have a positive as well as a negative contribution to the greenhouse effect. A cloud cover climatology in a 15 km grid resolution has been retrieved by means of the APOLLO algorithm using the 5 calibrated AVHRR channels. The monthly means of total cloud cover are about 15 percent too high compared to conventional data, the standard deviation is +/- 12 percent. The high resolution cloud cover maps show topometeorological features like 'Fohn' on single days but not in monthly means, because these events are too rare. But increased cloud cover in the luff regions are detected in monthly means as well as some cloud sparse regions like Lake Garda, Ticino or the Swiss Rhone valley. The different annual cycles of cloud cover show the different climatic regions, which are temperate, Alpine, and Mediterranean climate. This is indicated, for example, by the remarkably smaller cloud cover in the Alpine region in winter as compared to the northern and southern forelands.

  7. Soviet attitudes toward regional security

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, K.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book examines Soviet views on the contemporary problems of regional security in the Third World. While there has been significant attention devoted to Western perceptions of regional security, there have been few corresponding efforts to understand the Soviet approach to issues of conflict and stability in the Third World. This volume provides a systematic examination of the strategic, political and ideological criteria which together shape Soviet policies in the developing world. The collection has been organized around particular themes and issues, with appropriate attention to both theoretical fundamentals in Soviet doctrine and Soviet actions in specific regions. CONTENTS: Forward; Introduction: Soviet Approach to Conflict and Stability in the Third World; Soviet Conception of Regional Security; Soviet Perceptions of US Involvement in Third World Disputes; Counterinsurgency in the Practice of Soviet Policy Towards the Third World; Soviet Views on the Relationship Between Local Disputes and International Tensions; Soviet Attitudes About Crisis Prevention Regimes for Third World Conflicts; The Third World in Soviet Military Thinking; Soviet Policy Towards the Middle East; The Formulation and Practice of Soviet Foreign Policy in South Asia; Soviet Policy in Latin America; Soviet Foreign Policy Towards Southern Africa; Soviet Views on the Proliferation of Nuclear Weaponry to the Third World; Conclusion.

  8. Regional nonpoint source program summary

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, R.; Partee, G.; Fleming, F.

    1992-11-01

    The Regional Nonpoint Source Program Summary outlines the major components of the strategies for controlling nonpoint source (NPS) water pollution in EPA Region 10. The document was developed from the Clean Water Act Section 319 Nonpoint Source Assessments, NPS Management Programs and related documents for Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, Washington and for the Colville Confederated Tribes. The water resources and associated land uses vary widely both within and between the four states in EPA Region 10. The primary purpose of the NPS Assessments and Management Programs is to provide the states and tribes with a new blueprint for implementing integrated programs to address priority NPS water quality problems. The focus is needed in order to identify innovative funding opportunities and to effectively direct limited resources toward the highest priority issues and waterbodies. A secondary purpose of the Assessments and Management Programs involves the fulfillment of Clean Water Act requirements in order for states and tribes to compete for Section 319 grants for implementing NPS controls. The Regional NPS Program Summary provides a synthesis of these documents in order to improve understanding of the programs and to assist in their implementation.

  9. Education and Italian Regional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Liberto, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the connection between growth and human capital in a convergence regression for the panel of Italian regions. We include measures of average primary, secondary and tertiary education. We find that increased education seems to contribute to growth only in the South. Decomposing total schooling into its three constituent…

  10. PREL Pacific Region Language Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Region Educational Lab., Honolulu, HI.

    This collection of 10 cue cards presents English translations of common English words and expressions into 10 Pacific Region languages: Palauan, Samoan, Chamorro, Hawaiian, Carolinian, Chuukese, Pohnpeian, Marshallese, Yapese, and Kosraean. The cards translate the following: hello, good morning, good afternoon, good night, thank you, you're…

  11. MISR Regional SAMUM Imagery Overview

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... show data for a fixed geographical region, with a fixed color table. This allows images from different days to be directly compared. ... outside of the geographic range, and doesn't select the color table to best display the dynamic range of a particular day. The images ...

  12. Regional Background Fine Particulate Matter

    EPA Science Inventory

    A modeling system composed of the global model GEOS-Chem providing hourly lateral boundary conditions to the regional model CMAQ was used to calculate the policy relevant background level of fine particulate: matter. Simulations were performed for the full year of 2004 over the d...

  13. SDO Sees Active Region Outbursts

    NASA Video Gallery

    This close up video by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory shows an active region near the right-hand edge of the sun’s disk, which erupted with at least a dozen minor events over a 30-hour period fr...

  14. Regional Needs Analysis Report. 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) is required to develop a comprehensive and ongoing needs assessment process to analyze demand for additional degrees and programs [RCW 28B.76.230 (1)]. This report fulfills a portion of that mandate by focusing on employer demand on the regional level, but also includes additional information on…

  15. Numerical Simulation of Regional Circulation in the Monterey Bay Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Y. H.; Dietrich, D. E.; Ferziger, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to produce a high-resolution numerical model of Mon- terey Bay area in which the dynamics are determined by the complex geometry of the coastline, steep bathymetry, and the in uence of the water masses that constitute the CCS. Our goal is to simulate the regional-scale ocean response with realistic dynamics (annual cycle), forcing, and domain. In particular, we focus on non-hydrostatic e ects (by comparing the results of hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic models) and the role of complex geometry, i.e. the bay and submarine canyon, on the nearshore circulation. To the best of our knowledge, the current study is the rst to simulate the regional circulation in the vicinity of Monterey Bay using a non-hydrostatic model. Section 2 introduces the high resolution Monterey Bay area regional model (MBARM). Section 3 provides the results and veri cation with mooring and satellite data. Section 4 compares the results of hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic models.

  16. Computed tomography of the rectosigmoid region.

    PubMed

    Dixon, A K

    1996-05-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy and embryology of the rectosigmoid region is useful for the correct interpretation of computed tomography in this region. The appearances and differential diagnoses of some of the common conditions affecting this region are presented and discussed.

  17. Marine cloud brightening: regional applications

    PubMed Central

    Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack

    2014-01-01

    The general principle behind the marine cloud brightening (MCB) climate engineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with substantial concentrations of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre-sized seawater particles might significantly enhance cloud albedo and longevity, thereby producing a cooling effect. This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1. We focus discussion herein on advantages associated with engaging in limited-area seeding, regional effects rather than global; and the levels of seeding that may be required to address changing current and near-term conditions in the Arctic. We also mention the possibility that MCB might be capable of producing a localized cooling to help stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. PMID:25404682

  18. Venus - Lavinia Region Impact Craters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Three large meteorite impact craters, with diameters that range from 37 to 50 kilometers (23 to 31 miles), are seen in this image of the Lavinia region of Venus. The image is centered at 27 degrees south latitude and 339 degrees east longitude (longitude on Venus is measured from 0 degrees to 360 degrees east), and covers an area 550 kilometers (342 miles) wide by about 500 kilometers (311 miles) long. Situated in a region of fractured plains, the craters show many features typical of meteorite impact craters, including rough (bright) material around the rim, terraced inner walls and central peaks. Numerous domes, probably caused by volcanic activity, are seen in the southeastern corner of the mosaic. The domes range in diameter from 1 to 12 kilometers (0.6 to 7 miles). Some of the domes have central pits that are typical of some types of volcanoes. North is at the top of the image.

  19. Schwannoma Located in Nasopharyngeal Region.

    PubMed

    Aksoy, Fadlullah; Yenigun, Alper; Senturk, Erol; Ozturan, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Schwannoma is a tumor which has neuroectoderm origins, is hard, well-circumscribed, encapsulated, and slow growing benign cranial tumor, and may autonomously grow out of the nerve sheath of peripheral nerves. It is mostly seen in the head and neck region. In the paranasal sinus and nose areas, it is seen at a rate of 4%. The diagnosis is mostly made after histopathological examination. In this paper, a Schwannoma case observed in the nasopharyngeal region was presented in a 20-year-old female who had complaints of sleeping with open mouth, snoring, foreign body feeling in throat, and swallowing difficulties. The tumor was extracted via transoral approach. No recurrence was observed during follow-up over the next year. This case presentation is presented for the first time in the literature in English. PMID:27293938

  20. Sustainable development: a regional perspective.

    PubMed

    Icamina, P

    1988-12-01

    This article discusses sustainable development in Asia and current environmental problems in this region. Droughts and rainy seasons pose a major concern indicating environmental limitations: India's 1987 drought halted world grain production and China suffered US $435 million in flooding damage. Deforestation and land degradation are consequences of a rising population's demand for agriculture, fuelwood, irrigation, and hydroelectric projects; 1815 million hectares of forest are cleared/year and 40% of the land could possible be subjected to soil erosion. Although population growth is declining in some Asian countries, the continent inhabits the greatest proportion of world population; 300 million are underfed. Food production remains a problem for this region because of bad weather, highly populated areas, less cropland, soil erosion, and limited water supply. Efforts currently employed to conserve natural resources include community reforestation, providing available drinking water, substituting firewood for fuelwood, and delivering primary health care.

  1. Marine cloud brightening: regional applications.

    PubMed

    Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack

    2014-12-28

    The general principle behind the marine cloud brightening (MCB) climate engineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with substantial concentrations of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre-sized seawater particles might significantly enhance cloud albedo and longevity, thereby producing a cooling effect. This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1. We focus discussion herein on advantages associated with engaging in limited-area seeding, regional effects rather than global; and the levels of seeding that may be required to address changing current and near-term conditions in the Arctic. We also mention the possibility that MCB might be capable of producing a localized cooling to help stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  2. 50 CFR 2.2 - Regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    .... Field installations include ecological services stations, endangered species stations, fishery...), Albuquerque, New Mexico 87102. (c) Midwest Regional Office (Region 3—comprising the States of...

  3. A Regional Medical Library Network *

    PubMed Central

    Pizer, Irwin H.

    1969-01-01

    The raison d'être for cooperative networks is discussed, and the development of the SUNY Biomedical Communication Network is traced briefly; a description of the system and its products is given. The cooperative cataloging program engaged in with the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine and the National Library of Medicine is described, as are the efforts of the Network in the production of regional and state-wide union lists of serials. PMID:5778720

  4. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  5. [Population and environment: regional perspective].

    PubMed

    Gonzales Reategui, J T

    1995-06-01

    The ultimate objective of Peru's national environmental policy is to guarantee an adequate quality of life for Peruvians. Giving priority to preservation of resources without utilizing them is unjust; the capacity to protect natural resources requires a parallel social and economic development. The government's environmental policy must be in harmony with development policy at all levels. The concept of sustainable development, or conservation of natural resources with economic growth and equity, must be incorporated into policy. The regional governments must harmonize their development plans with the guidelines set down by the National Council on the Environment (CONAM). A meeting of regional officials and CONAM personnel is planned to ensure participation and coordination. Past styles of development in the department of Loreto have led to a vicious circle of poverty and environmental deterioration. The disappearance of the tropical forest, loss of habitat and biodiversity, poor water quality, and deficit of sanitary infrastructure, in the context of rapid population growth, have led to declines in living standards. The Amazon is the object of worldwide attention because of the possible consequences of deforestation. The riches of the forest should be used rationally and left for future generations. It is expected that decentralized environmental offices will be opened to coordinate multisectorial actions at the regional level.

  6. Region processing algorithm for HSTAMIDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngan, Peter; Burke, Sean; Cresci, Roger; Wilson, Joseph N.; Gader, Paul; Ho, Dominic K. C.

    2006-05-01

    The AN/PSS-14 (a.k.a. HSTAMIDS) has been tested for its performance in South East Asia, Thailand), South Africa (Namibia) and in November of 2005 in South West Asia (Afghanistan). The system has been proven effective in manual demining particularly in discriminating indigenous, metallic artifacts in the minefields. The Humanitarian Demining Research and Development (HD R&D) Program has sought to further improve the system to address specific needs in several areas. One particular area of these improvement efforts is the development of a mine detection/discrimination improvement software algorithm called Region Processing (RP). RP is an innovative technique in processing and is designed to work on a set of data acquired in a unique sweep pattern over a region-of-interest (ROI). The RP team is a joint effort consisting of three universities (University of Florida, University of Missouri, and Duke University), but is currently being led by the University of Florida. This paper describes the state-of-the-art Region Processing algorithm, its implementation into the current HSTAMIDS system, and its most recent test results.

  7. Developing a Regional Recovery Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Clark, Rebecca; Kelly, Heather; Sheline, Jim; Tietje, Grant; Williamson, Mark; Woodcock, Jody

    2011-09-01

    Abstract A biological attack would present an unprecedented challenge for local, state, and federal agencies; the military; the private sector; and individuals on many fronts ranging from vaccination and treatment to prioritization of cleanup actions to waste disposal. To prepare the Seattle region to recover from a biological attack, the Seattle Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) partners collaborated with military and federal agencies to develop a Regional Recovery Framework for a Biological Attack in the Seattle Urban Area. The goal was to reduce the time and resources required to recover and restore wide urban areas, military installations, and other critical infrastructure following a biological incident by providing a coordinated systems approach. Based on discussions in small workshops, tabletop exercises, and interviews with emergency response agency staff, the partners identified concepts of operation for various areas to address critical issues the region will face as recovery progresses. Key to this recovery is the recovery of the economy. Although the Framework is specific to a catastrophic, wide-area biological attack using anthrax, it was designed to be flexible and scalable so it could also serve as the recovery framework for an all-hazards approach. The Framework also served to coalesce policy questions that must be addressed for long-term recovery. These questions cover such areas as safety and health, security, financial management, waste management, legal issues, and economic development.

  8. Ab Initio Active Region Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Robert F.; Nordlund, A.

    2013-01-01

    The tachocline is not necessary to produce active regions with their global properties. Dynamo action within the convection zone can produce large scale reversing polarity magnetic fields as shown by ASH code and Charboneau et al simulations. Magneto-convection acting on this large scale field produces Omega-loops which emerge through the surface to produce active regions. The field first emerges as small bipoles with horizontal field over granules anchored in vertical fields in the intergranular lanes. The fields are quickly swept into the intergranular lanes and produce a mixed polarity "pepper and salt" pattern. The opposite polarities then migrate toward separate unipolar regions due to the underlying large scale loop structure. When sufficient flux concentrates, pores and sunspots form. We will show movies of magneto-convection simulations of the emerging flux, its migration, and concentration to form pores and spots, as well as the underlying magnetic field evolution. In addition, the same atmospheric data has been used as input to the LILIA Stokes Inversion code to calculate Stokes spectra for the Fe I 630 nm lines and then invert them to determine the magnetic field. Comparisons of the inverted field with the simulation field shows that small-scale, weak fields, less than 100 G, can not be accurately determined because of vertical gradients that are difficult to match in fitting the line profiles. Horizontal smoothing by telescope diffraction further degrades the inversion accuracy.

  9. Quiet-Region Filament Eruptions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhary, Debi Prasad; Moore, Ronald L.

    2004-01-01

    We report characteristics of quiescent filament eruptions that did not produce coronal mass ejections (CMEs). It is known that there is a dichotomy of quiescent filament eruptions: those that produce CMEs and those that do not. We examined the quiescent filament eruptions, each of which was located far from disk center (greater than or equal to 0.7 R(sub Sun)) in diffuse remnant magnetic fields of decayed active regions, was well observed in Ha observations and Fe XII, and had good coronagraph coverage. We present the similarity and differences of two classes of filament eruptions. From their lack of CME production and the appearance of their eruptive motion in Fe XII movies, we conclude that the non-CME-producing filament eruptions are confined eruptions like the confined filament eruptions in active regions. We take the similarity of the confined and eruptive quiescent filament eruptions with their active-region counterparts to favor runaway tether-cutting connection for unleashing the magnetic explosion in all these eruptions.

  10. Great Lakes' regional climate regimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsov, Sergey; Sugiyama, Noriyuki; Roebber, Paul

    2016-04-01

    We simulate the seasonal cycle of the Great Lakes' water temperature and lake ice using an idealized coupled lake-atmosphere-ice model. Under identical seasonally varying boundary conditions, this model exhibits more than one seasonally varying equilibrium solutions, which we associate with distinct regional climate regimes. Colder/warmer regimes are characterized by abundant/scarce amounts of wintertime ice and cooler/warmer summer temperatures, respectively. These regimes are also evident in the observations of the Great Lakes' climate variability over recent few decades, and are found to be most pronounced for Lake Superior, the deepest of the Great Lakes, consistent with model predictions. Multiple climate regimes of the Great Lakes also play a crucial role in the accelerated warming of the lakes relative to the surrounding land regions in response to larger-scale global warming. We discuss the physical origin and characteristics of multiple climate regimes over the lakes, as well as their implications for a longer-term regional climate variability.

  11. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO

  12. Active region evolution in the chromosphere and transtition region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shine, R. A.; Schrijver, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    Images in the C IV 1548 A and the Si II 1526 S lines taken with the ultraviolet spectrometer polarimeter (UVSP) instrument on board the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite were combined into movies showing the evolution of active regions and the neighboring supergranulation over several days. The data sets generally consist of 240 by 240 arc second rasters with 3 arc second pixels taken one per orbit (about every 90 minutes). The images are projected on a latitude/longitude grid to remove the forshortening as the region rotates across the solar disk and further processed to remove jitter and gain variations. Movies were made with and without differential rotation. Although there are occasional missing orbits, these series do not suffer from the long nighttime gaps that occur in observations taken at a single groundbased observatory and are excellent for studying changes on time scales of several hours. The longest sequence processed to date runs from 20 Oct. 1980 to 25 Oct. 1980. This was taken during an SMM flare buildup study on AR 2744. Several shorter sequences taken in 1980 and 1984 will also be shown. The results will be presented on a video disk which can be interactively controlled to view the movies.

  13. Assessment of homogeneity of regions for regional flood frequency analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong Eun; Kim, Nam Won

    2016-04-01

    This paper analyzed the effect of rainfall on hydrological similarity, which is an important step for regional flood frequency analysis (RFFA). For the RFFA, storage function method (SFM) using spatial extension technique was applied for the 22 sub-catchments that are partitioned from Chungju dam watershed in Republic of Korea. We used the SFM to generate the annual maximum floods for 22 sub-catchments using annual maximum storm events (1986~2010) as input data. Then the quantiles of rainfall and flood were estimated using the annual maximum series for the 22 sub-catchments. Finally, spatial variations in terms of two quantiles were analyzed. As a result, there were significant correlation between spatial variations of the two quantiles. This result demonstrates that spatial variation of rainfall is an important factor to explain the homogeneity of regions when applying RFFA. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by a grant (11-TI-C06) from Advanced Water Management Research Program funded by Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport of Korean government.

  14. Regional Slip Tendency Analysis of the Great Basin Region

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-09-30

    Slip and dilation tendency on the Great Basin fault surfaces (from the USGS Quaternary Fault Database) were calculated using 3DStress (software produced by Southwest Research Institute). Slip and dilation tendency are both unitless ratios of the resolved stresses applied to the fault plane by the measured ambient stress field. - Values range from a maximum of 1 (a fault plane ideally oriented to slip or dilate under ambient stress conditions) to zero (a fault plane with no potential to slip or dilate). - Slip and dilation tendency values were calculated for each fault in the Great Basin. As dip is unknown for many faults in the USGS Quaternary Fault Database, we made these calculations using the dip for each fault that would yield the maximum slip or dilation tendency. As such, these results should be viewed as maximum slip and dilation tendency. - The resulting along‐fault and fault‐to‐fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault‐to‐fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions were calculated across the entire Great Basin. Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson‐Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2010; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012; Moeck et al., 2010; Moos and Ronne, 2010 and Reinecker et al., 2005). The minimum horizontal stress direction (Shmin) was contoured, and spatial bins with common Shmin directions were calculated. Based on this technique, we subdivided the Great Basin into nine regions (Shmin <070, 070140). Slip and dilation tendency were calculated using 3DStress for the faults within each region using the mean Shmin for the region. Shmin variation throughout Great Basin

  15. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  16. 32 CFR 1605.7 - Region Manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Director of Selective Service, the Region Manager of Selective Service for each region shall be in... of the Selective Service System in the various States assigned to the region. (b) The Region...

  17. 32 CFR 1605.7 - Region Manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Director of Selective Service, the Region Manager of Selective Service for each region shall be in... of the Selective Service System in the various States assigned to the region. (b) The Region...

  18. 32 CFR 1605.7 - Region Manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Director of Selective Service, the Region Manager of Selective Service for each region shall be in... of the Selective Service System in the various States assigned to the region. (b) The Region...

  19. 32 CFR 1605.7 - Region Manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Director of Selective Service, the Region Manager of Selective Service for each region shall be in... of the Selective Service System in the various States assigned to the region. (b) The Region...

  20. 32 CFR 1605.7 - Region Manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM SELECTIVE SERVICE SYSTEM... Director of Selective Service, the Region Manager of Selective Service for each region shall be in... of the Selective Service System in the various States assigned to the region. (b) The Region...

  1. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  2. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  3. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  4. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  5. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  6. Appalachian Regional Commission: 1987 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jack, Ed.; And Others

    The Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) used its $105 million appropriation for fiscal year 1987 to support three major program areas in the 13 state region: (1) creating and retaining regional jobs; (2) assisting in construction of basic facilities, particularly water and sewer systems, in the region's 90 poorest counties; and (3) working…

  7. 5 CFR 2421.6 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Regional Director. 2421.6 Section 2421.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.6 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of the Authority with geographical boundaries as fixed...

  8. 5 CFR 2421.6 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Regional Director. 2421.6 Section 2421.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.6 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of the Authority with geographical boundaries as fixed...

  9. 22 CFR 1421.5 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Regional Director. 1421.5 Section 1421.5 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.5 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of...

  10. 22 CFR 1421.5 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Regional Director. 1421.5 Section 1421.5 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.5 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of...

  11. 50 CFR 1.7 - Regional director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regional director. 1.7 Section 1.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.7 Regional director. Regional director means the official in charge of a region...

  12. 5 CFR 2421.6 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Regional Director. 2421.6 Section 2421.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.6 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of the Authority with geographical boundaries as fixed...

  13. 50 CFR 1.7 - Regional director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regional director. 1.7 Section 1.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.7 Regional director. Regional director means the official in charge of a region...

  14. 5 CFR 2421.6 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regional Director. 2421.6 Section 2421.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.6 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of the Authority with geographical boundaries as fixed...

  15. 22 CFR 1421.5 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Regional Director. 1421.5 Section 1421.5 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.5 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of...

  16. 50 CFR 1.7 - Regional director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regional director. 1.7 Section 1.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.7 Regional director. Regional director means the official in charge of a region...

  17. 50 CFR 1.7 - Regional director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regional director. 1.7 Section 1.7 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.7 Regional director. Regional director means the official in charge of a region...

  18. 22 CFR 1421.5 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Regional Director. 1421.5 Section 1421.5 Foreign Relations FOREIGN SERVICE LABOR RELATIONS BOARD; FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY; GENERAL COUNSEL OF THE... THIS SUBCHAPTER § 1421.5 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of...

  19. 5 CFR 2421.6 - Regional Director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Regional Director. 2421.6 Section 2421.6... FEDERAL LABOR RELATIONS AUTHORITY MEANING OF TERMS AS USED IN THIS SUBCHAPTER § 2421.6 Regional Director. Regional Director means the Director of a region of the Authority with geographical boundaries as fixed...

  20. Solar active region display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  1. Diversity in Mawrth Region, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    This view shows diverse materials and morphologies in the region south of Mawrth Vallis on Mars. The color is composed of infrared, red, and blue-green color images, and has been enhanced to accentuate the color differences. The bright material may be rich in clays and date back to a time when Mars had a wetter environment. This is a sub-image of a larger view imaged by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter on Oct. 1, 2006. The resolution is 25 centimeters (10 inches) per pixel, and the scene is 352 meters (385 yards) wide.

  2. The effects of HII regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, J. E.

    2016-05-01

    Recent work on the effects of HII regions on giant molecular clouds (GMCs) and their embedded clusters is discussed. Although the dispersive effects of ionising radiation on clouds, particularly massive ones with high escape velocities, is rather modest, it is argued that it is still a vitally important process in the evolution of GMCs and clusters. It is able to drive turbulence on GMC scales, to set the optical emergence timescales of at last ˜ 103 M⊙ clusters, and has a strong influence on the large-scale energy and momentum input of supernovae by determining their detonation environments.

  3. Emergency Medicine in Remote Regions

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Rural and remote places like Sable Island (Nova Scotia) or François (Newfoundland) pose a challenge in delivering both health care and appropriate education that today’s learners need to practice in a rural setting. This education can be difficult to deliver to students far from academic centers. This is especially true for learners and practitioners at offshore locations like ships, oil installations, or in the air when patients are transported via fixed wing aircraft or helicopter. The following editorial provides a snapshot of the setting and the challenges faced while working as a physician on a ship, in remote regions. PMID:27738573

  4. What makes active regions grow.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weart, S.

    1972-01-01

    A study of magnetic flux growth or growth failure in over 100 active regions is shown to indicate that most growth is connected with the emergence of a large batch of flux in the shape of a new arch filament system (AFS). During the recent sunspot maximum, new AFSs appeared at a rate of nearly one per day over the entire sun. Evidence is presented for two proposed hypotheses, namely: (1) a twist in the flux tubes of new AFSs is a key factor in determining which new AFSs will grow; and (2) this twist is related to the well-known asymmetry of sunspot groups.

  5. Magnetospheric plasma regions and boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heikkila, W. J.

    1975-01-01

    The boundaries of the various regions of the magnetospheric plasma are considered, taking into account the bow shock, the magnetopause, the outer boundary of the plasma sheet, the inner boundary of the plasma sheet, and the trapping boundary for energetic particles. Attention is given to the steady state, or quasi-steady state, to substorm effects in which temporal changes are important, and to primary auroral processes. A description is presented of the high latitude lobes of the magnetotail. The characteristics of magnetic field topology associated with interconnected interplanetary and geomagnetic field lines are illustrated with the aid of a graph.

  6. [Pseudotumor in the parotid region].

    PubMed

    Olin, H B; Pedersen, K; Hansen, H; Poulsen, F W

    2000-06-19

    Tophaceous pseudogout is a rare form of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystal deposition disease. Half of the 31 reported cases of tophaceous pseudogout are in the head and neck region. This patient presented with a parotid tumour, that was initially suspected to be malignant based on radiology and cytology. Operation disclosed a tumour progressing to the base of the skull, histological examination showed inflammatory cells, macrophages, metaplastic chondroid cells and giant cells of foreign-body-type. X-ray diffraction revealed two crystal forms of CPPD.

  7. Integrating field sampling, spatial statistics and remote sensing to map wetland vegetation in the Pantanal, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arieira, J.; Karssenberg, D.; de Jong, S. M.; Addink, E. A.; Couto, E. G.; Nunes da Cunha, C.; Skøien, J. O.

    2010-09-01

    To improve the protection of wetlands, it is imperative to have a thorough understanding of their structuring elements and of the identification of efficient methods to describe and monitor them. This article uses sophisticated statistical classification, interpolation and error propagation techniques, in order to describe vegetation spatial patterns, map plant community distribution and evaluate the capability of statistical approaches to produce high-quality vegetation maps. The approach results in seven vegetation communities with a known floral composition that can be mapped over large areas using remotely sensed data. The relations between remotely sensing data and vegetation patterns, captured in four factorial axes, were formalized mathematically in multiple linear regression models and used in a universal kriging procedure to reduce the uncertainty in mapped communities. Universal kriging has shown to be a valuable interpolation technique because parts of vegetation variability not explained by the images could be modeled as spatially correlated residuals, increasing prediction accuracy. Differences in spatial dependence of the vegetation gradients evidenced the multi-scale nature of vegetation communities. Cross validation procedures and Monte Carlo simulations were used to quantify the uncertainty in the resulting map. Cross-validation showed that accuracy in classification varies according with the community type, as a result of sampling density and configuration. A map of uncertainty resulted from Monte Carlo simulations displayed the spatial variation in classification accuracy, showing that the quality of classification varies spatially, even though the proportion and arrangement of communities observed in the original map is preserved to a great extent. These results suggested that mapping improvement could be achieved by increasing the number of field observations of those communities with a scattered and small patch size distribution; or by including new digital images as explanatory variables in the model. By comparing the resulting plant community map with a flood duration map, we verified that flooding duration is an important driver of vegetation zonation. We discuss our study in the context of developing a mapping approach that is able to integrate field point data and high-resolution remote sensing images, providing new basis to map wetland vegetation and allowing its future application in habitat management, conservation assessment and long-term ecological monitoring in wetland landscapes.

  8. Low temperatures reduce skin healing in the Jacaré do Pantanal (Caiman yacare, Daudin 1802)

    PubMed Central

    Pressinotti, Leandro Nogueira; Borges, Ricardo Moraes; Alves De Lima, Angela Paula; Aleixo, Victor Manuel; Iunes, Renata Stecca; Borges, João Carlos Shimada; Cogliati, Bruno; Cunha Da Silva, José Roberto Machado

    2013-01-01

    Summary Studies of skin wound healing in crocodilians are necessary given the frequent occurrence of cannibalism in intensive farming systems. Air temperature affects tissue recovery because crocodilians are ectothermic. Therefore, the kinetics of skin wound healing in Caiman yacare were examined at temperatures of 33°C and 23°C. Sixteen caiman were selected and divided into two groups of eight maintained at 23°C or 33°C. The studied individuals' scars were photographed after 1, 2, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days of the experimental conditions, and samples were collected for histological processing after 3, 7, 15 and 30 days. Macroscopically, the blood clot (heterophilic granuloma) noticeably remained in place covering the wound longer for the caiman kept at 23°C. Microscopically, the temperature of 23°C slowed epidermal migration and skin repair. Comparatively, new blood vessels, labeled using von Willebrand factor (vWF) antibody staining, were more frequently found in the scars of the 33°C group. The collagen fibers in the dermis were denser in the 33°C treatment. Considering the delayed healing at 23°C, producers are recommended to keep wounded animals at 33°C, especially when tanks are cold, to enable rapid wound closure and better repair of collagen fibers because such lesions tend to compromise the use of their skin as leather. PMID:24244853

  9. Inundation and Fire Shape the Structure of Riparian Forests in the Pantanal, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Arruda, Wellinton de Sá; Oldeland, Jens; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição; Pott, Arnildo; Cunha, Nicolay L.; Ishii, Iria Hiromi; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo Alves

    2016-01-01

    Inundation and fire can affect the structure of riparian vegetation in wetlands. Our aim was to verify if there are differences in richness, abundance, basal area, composition and topographic preference of woody species in riparian forests related to the fire history, flooding duration, or the interaction between both. The study was conducted in the riparian forests of the Paraguay River some of which were burned three times between 2001 and 2011. We sampled trees with a girth of at least 5 cm at breast height in 150 5 × 10 m plots (79 burned and 71 unburned). We also measured height of the flood mark and estimated the flooding duration of each plot. We performed Generalized Linear Mixed Models to verify differences in richness, basal area, and abundance of individuals associated to interaction of fire and inundation. We used an analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) and indicator species analysis to identify differences in composition of species and the association with burned and unburned area according to different levels of inundation. Finally, we used a hierarchical set of Generalized Linear Models (GLM), the so-called HOF models, to analyse each species’ specific response to inundation based on topography and to determine their preferred optimal topographic position for both burned as well as unburned areas. Richness was positively associated with elevation only in burned areas while abundance was negatively influenced by inundation only in burned areas. Basal area was negatively associated with time of inundation independent of fire history. There were 15 species which were significant indicators for at least one combination of the studied factors. We found nine species in burned areas and 15 in unburned areas, with response curves in HOF models along the inundation gradient. From these, five species shifted their optimal position along the inundation gradient in burned areas. The interaction of fire and inundation did not appear to affect the basal area, but it did affect the richness, number of individuals, success of some species, and seemed to shape the boundary of these forests as shown by the difference in the positioning of these species along the inundation gradient. PMID:27280879

  10. Inundation and Fire Shape the Structure of Riparian Forests in the Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Wellinton de Sá; Oldeland, Jens; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição; Pott, Arnildo; Cunha, Nicolay L; Ishii, Iria Hiromi; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo Alves

    2016-01-01

    Inundation and fire can affect the structure of riparian vegetation in wetlands. Our aim was to verify if there are differences in richness, abundance, basal area, composition and topographic preference of woody species in riparian forests related to the fire history, flooding duration, or the interaction between both. The study was conducted in the riparian forests of the Paraguay River some of which were burned three times between 2001 and 2011. We sampled trees with a girth of at least 5 cm at breast height in 150 5 × 10 m plots (79 burned and 71 unburned). We also measured height of the flood mark and estimated the flooding duration of each plot. We performed Generalized Linear Mixed Models to verify differences in richness, basal area, and abundance of individuals associated to interaction of fire and inundation. We used an analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) and indicator species analysis to identify differences in composition of species and the association with burned and unburned area according to different levels of inundation. Finally, we used a hierarchical set of Generalized Linear Models (GLM), the so-called HOF models, to analyse each species' specific response to inundation based on topography and to determine their preferred optimal topographic position for both burned as well as unburned areas. Richness was positively associated with elevation only in burned areas while abundance was negatively influenced by inundation only in burned areas. Basal area was negatively associated with time of inundation independent of fire history. There were 15 species which were significant indicators for at least one combination of the studied factors. We found nine species in burned areas and 15 in unburned areas, with response curves in HOF models along the inundation gradient. From these, five species shifted their optimal position along the inundation gradient in burned areas. The interaction of fire and inundation did not appear to affect the basal area, but it did affect the richness, number of individuals, success of some species, and seemed to shape the boundary of these forests as shown by the difference in the positioning of these species along the inundation gradient. PMID:27280879

  11. Inundation and Fire Shape the Structure of Riparian Forests in the Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Arruda, Wellinton de Sá; Oldeland, Jens; Paranhos Filho, Antonio Conceição; Pott, Arnildo; Cunha, Nicolay L; Ishii, Iria Hiromi; Damasceno-Junior, Geraldo Alves

    2016-01-01

    Inundation and fire can affect the structure of riparian vegetation in wetlands. Our aim was to verify if there are differences in richness, abundance, basal area, composition and topographic preference of woody species in riparian forests related to the fire history, flooding duration, or the interaction between both. The study was conducted in the riparian forests of the Paraguay River some of which were burned three times between 2001 and 2011. We sampled trees with a girth of at least 5 cm at breast height in 150 5 × 10 m plots (79 burned and 71 unburned). We also measured height of the flood mark and estimated the flooding duration of each plot. We performed Generalized Linear Mixed Models to verify differences in richness, basal area, and abundance of individuals associated to interaction of fire and inundation. We used an analysis of similarity (ANOSIM) and indicator species analysis to identify differences in composition of species and the association with burned and unburned area according to different levels of inundation. Finally, we used a hierarchical set of Generalized Linear Models (GLM), the so-called HOF models, to analyse each species' specific response to inundation based on topography and to determine their preferred optimal topographic position for both burned as well as unburned areas. Richness was positively associated with elevation only in burned areas while abundance was negatively influenced by inundation only in burned areas. Basal area was negatively associated with time of inundation independent of fire history. There were 15 species which were significant indicators for at least one combination of the studied factors. We found nine species in burned areas and 15 in unburned areas, with response curves in HOF models along the inundation gradient. From these, five species shifted their optimal position along the inundation gradient in burned areas. The interaction of fire and inundation did not appear to affect the basal area, but it did affect the richness, number of individuals, success of some species, and seemed to shape the boundary of these forests as shown by the difference in the positioning of these species along the inundation gradient.

  12. Surface compositions in the Aristarchus Region: Implications for regional stratigraphy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, H. R.; Lucey, P. G.; Mccord, T. B.; Pieters, C. M.; Head, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Near infrared reflectance spectra for the Aristachus region, obtained using the 2.2m UH telescope at the Mauna Kea Observatory, were reduced and analyzed. The spectra obtained for the central peak, southern floor, southwestern wall, eastern wall, and northwestern wall of Aristachus crater exhibit shallow continuum slopes, relatively strong feldspar bands, pyroxene bands stronger than those typically seen in the spectra of fresh higland features, and pyroxene band centers near l micrometer suggesting the dominance of Ca rich clinopyroxene. The spectrum of the south rim of Aristachus is quite distinct from those of other crater units. The position of Aristrchus on the plateau/mare boundary raises questions concerning compositional variations in crater ejects deposits.

  13. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development. PMID:12032502

  14. Intravenous regional analgesia using bupivacaine.

    PubMed

    Ware, R J

    1975-11-01

    Intravenous regional analgesia using bupivacaine (Marcain) was employed as the anaesthetic technique in a series of 50 cases undergoing a variety of surgical procedures on the upper limb. A short pilot study was undertaken to determine the optimal dosage and concentration of bupivacaine. This was found to be 1-5 mg/kg in 0-2% concentration and proved suitable for all patients regardless of age or physical condition. The use of bupivacaine produced highly successful results in 98% of cases. Onset of analgesia was very rapid (3-5 minutes) and profound muscular relaxation occurred in approximately half of the cases. The degree of muscle relaxation was, however, always adequate for the successful reduction of fractures. Only one patient exhibited an adverse reaction to the dose of bupivacaine used and this was limited to a brief period of slight drowsiness. The results of this series suggest that bupivacaine may provide advantages over previously used local analgesic agents for intravenous regional analgesia and that it may be the agent of choice for this useful technique.

  15. Regional case studies--Africa.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.

  16. INTERACTION REGION MAGNETS FOR VLHC.

    SciTech Connect

    GUPTA,R.; HARRISON,M.

    2001-09-24

    The interaction region (IR) magnets for the proposed very large hadron collider (VLHC) require high gradient quadrupoles and high field dipoles for high luminosity performance. Moreover, the IR magnets for high energy colliders and storage rings must operate in an environment where the amount of energy deposited on superconducting coils is rather large. In the case of doublet IR optics with flat beams, the design of the first 2-in-1 quadrupole defines the geometry and pole tip field in this and other IR magnets. This paper will present a novel design of this magnet that allows a very small separation between the two apertures. A brief discussion of the conceptual magnetic design of this and other magnets for interaction regions is given. The influence of critical current density in superconductor (a higher value of which is most beneficial to high performance IR magnet design) is also discussed. Since High Temperature Superconductors (HTS) retain most of their critical current density at high fields and at elevated temperatures, they offer an attractive possibility for the IR magnet designs of future colliders or upgrades of present colliders.

  17. Regional solid waste management study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    In 1990, the Lower Savannah Council of Governments (LSCOG) began dialogue with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) regarding possibilities for cooperation and coordination of solid waste management practices among the local governments and the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy eventually awarded a grant to the Lower Savannah Council of Governments for the development of a study, which was initiated on March 5, 1992. After careful analysis of the region`s solid waste needs, this study indicates a network approach to solid waste management to be the most viable. The network involves the following major components: (1) Rural Collection Centers, designed to provide convenience to rural citizens, while allowing some degree of participation in recycling; (2) Rural Drop-Off Centers, designed to give a greater level of education and recycling activity; (3) Inert landfills and composting centers, designed to reduce volumes going into municipal (Subtitle D) landfills and produce useable products from yard waste; (4) Transfer Stations, ultimate landfill disposal; (5) Materials Recovery Facilities, designed to separate recyclables into useable and sellable units, and (6) Subtitle D landfill for burial of all solid waste not treated through previous means.

  18. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  19. Cold dust in hot regions

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenilayam, Gopika; Fich, Michel; Ade, Peter; Bintley, Dan; Chapin, Ed; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Jenness, Tim; Dunlop, James S.; Holland, Wayne S.; Ivison, Rob; Gibb, Andy; Halpern, Mark; Scott, Douglas; Greaves, Jane S.; Robson, Ian

    2014-03-01

    We mapped five massive star-forming regions with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Temperature and column density maps are obtained from the SCUBA-2 450 and 850 μm images. Most of the dense clumps we find have central temperatures below 20 K, with some as cold as 8 K, suggesting that they have no internal heating due to the presence of embedded protostars. This is surprising, because at the high densities inferred from these images and at these low temperatures such clumps should be unstable, collapsing to form stars and generating internal heating. The column densities at the clump centers exceed 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}, and the derived peak visual extinction values are from 25 to 500 mag for β = 1.5-2.5, indicating highly opaque centers. The observed cloud gas masses range from ∼10 to 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉}. The outer regions of the clumps follow an r {sup –2.36±0.35} density distribution, and this power-law structure is observed outside of typically 10{sup 4} AU. All these findings suggest that these clumps are high-mass starless clumps and most likely contain high-mass starless cores.

  20. Cold Dust in Hot Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreenilayam, Gopika; Fich, Michel; Ade, Peter; Bintley, Dan; Chapin, Ed; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Dunlop, James S.; Gibb, Andy; Greaves, Jane S.; Halpern, Mark; Holland, Wayne S.; Ivison, Rob; Jenness, Tim; Robson, Ian; Scott, Douglas

    2014-03-01

    We mapped five massive star-forming regions with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Temperature and column density maps are obtained from the SCUBA-2 450 and 850 μm images. Most of the dense clumps we find have central temperatures below 20 K, with some as cold as 8 K, suggesting that they have no internal heating due to the presence of embedded protostars. This is surprising, because at the high densities inferred from these images and at these low temperatures such clumps should be unstable, collapsing to form stars and generating internal heating. The column densities at the clump centers exceed 1023 cm-2, and the derived peak visual extinction values are from 25 to 500 mag for β = 1.5-2.5, indicating highly opaque centers. The observed cloud gas masses range from ~10 to 103 M ⊙. The outer regions of the clumps follow an r -2.36 ± 0.35 density distribution, and this power-law structure is observed outside of typically 104 AU. All these findings suggest that these clumps are high-mass starless clumps and most likely contain high-mass starless cores.

  1. Jalisco Regional Seismic Network (RESAJ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Suarez Plascencia, C.; Escudero, C. R.; Gomez, A.

    2011-12-01

    Many societies and their economies endure the disastrous consequences of destructive earthquakes. The Jalisco region is exposing to this natural hazard. Scientific knowledge constitutes the only way to avoid or at least to mitigate the negative effects of such events. Accordingly the study of geological and geophysical causes; structural, kinematics and dynamic characteristics; and destructive effects of such events is indispensable. The main objective of this project is to developed capability to monitor and to analyze the potential destructive earthquakes along the Jalisco region. This network will allows us to study the Rivera plate and the Jalisco block seismicity. Ten earthquakes greater than 7.4 occurred in the last 160 years, including the largest Mexican earthquake (8.2) producing considerable damage in the area. During this project we installed 20 telemetric seismic stations and we plan to deploy up to 30. The stations are component by 24 bit A/D, 6 channels Quanterra Q330-6 DAS, Lennartz Triaxial 1Hz wide band seismometer, a triaxial accelerometer episensor Model FBA ES-T from Kinemetrics and solar power supply. The data is transmitted using freewave Ethernet radios or wireless internet links. All stations will transmit the data in to the central at Puerto Vallarta where all data is processed using Antelope system to localize and make preliminary evaluations of the events in almost real time and stored for future research. This network will produce high quality data enough to evaluate the eight previously identified seismic zones along Jalisco.

  2. Evolution of active region outflows throughout an active region lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangrilli, L.; Poletto, G.

    2016-10-01

    Context. We have shown previously that SOHO/UVCS data allow us to detect active region (AR) outflows at coronal altitudes higher than those reached by other instrumentation. These outflows are thought to be a component of the slow solar wind. Aims: Our purpose is to study the evolution of the outflows in the intermediate corona from AR 8100, from the time the AR first forms until it dissolves, after several transits at the solar limb. Methods: Data acquired by SOHO/UVCS at the time of the AR limb transits, at medium latitudes and at altitudes ranging from 1.5 to 2.3 R⊙, were used to infer the physical properties of the outflows through the AR evolution. To this end, we applied the Doppler dimming technique to UVCS spectra. These spectra include the H i Lyα line and the O vi doublet lines at 1031.9 and 1037.6 Å. Results: Plasma speeds and electron densities of the outflows were inferred over several rotations of the Sun. AR outflows are present in the newly born AR and persist throughout the entire AR life. Moreover, we found two types of outflows at different latitudes, both possibly originating in the same negative polarity area of the AR. We also analyzed the behavior of the Si xii 520 Å line along the UVCS slit in an attempt to reveal changes in the Si abundance when different regions are traversed. Although we found some evidence for a Si enrichment in the AR outflows, alternative interpretations are also plausible. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that outflows from ARs are detectable in the intermediate corona throughout the whole AR lifetime. This confirms that outflows contribute to the slow wind.

  3. [Epidemiological imaginary in Campania Region].

    PubMed

    Greco, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    The interviews on the epidemiological imaginary, collected within the framework of the project Sebiorec,(1) clearly demonstrate that also in Campania, on the border between the provinces of Naples and Caserta - where the issue of waste and land devastation take forms that are unprecedented compared to any other part of Europe - there is a widespread, strong, sacrosanct demand of participation in environment and health management. The request of deliberative ecological democracy is pressing.(2) There is an urgent need to meet that plethora of rights emerging in the "knowledge society" and in the "risk society" that someone has called "rights for scientific citizenship."(3) This request of the population of Campania, net of local cultural specificity, it is quite similar to that of the people of any other region of Europe. The context in which this request of participation is expressed, however, is quite different. Not only and not just for that real or perceived social pre-modern and familist web that would replace a modern civil society in Campania and all across the Southern Italian regions, but also and especially for some structural causes that we here try to list. Campania is a unique region in Europe - in many ways different even from other regions of southern Italy - due to the conjunction of at least five factors, not independent from each other. 1) The presence of a widespread organized crime which, in many areas, metropolitan and non-metropolitan alike, and especially in the provinces of Naples and Caserta, is a sort of state against the State and has one of its main levers of power and a major source of its wealth in the illegal control of the territory, in its different dimensions (military, but also economic, social and even cultural). 2) A huge social and economic disintegration, exacerbated in the last twenty years by a process of deindustrialization (until the early nineties Naples was the fifth industrial city of Italy, today it is a desert where

  4. [Epidemiological imaginary in Campania Region].

    PubMed

    Greco, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    The interviews on the epidemiological imaginary, collected within the framework of the project Sebiorec,(1) clearly demonstrate that also in Campania, on the border between the provinces of Naples and Caserta - where the issue of waste and land devastation take forms that are unprecedented compared to any other part of Europe - there is a widespread, strong, sacrosanct demand of participation in environment and health management. The request of deliberative ecological democracy is pressing.(2) There is an urgent need to meet that plethora of rights emerging in the "knowledge society" and in the "risk society" that someone has called "rights for scientific citizenship."(3) This request of the population of Campania, net of local cultural specificity, it is quite similar to that of the people of any other region of Europe. The context in which this request of participation is expressed, however, is quite different. Not only and not just for that real or perceived social pre-modern and familist web that would replace a modern civil society in Campania and all across the Southern Italian regions, but also and especially for some structural causes that we here try to list. Campania is a unique region in Europe - in many ways different even from other regions of southern Italy - due to the conjunction of at least five factors, not independent from each other. 1) The presence of a widespread organized crime which, in many areas, metropolitan and non-metropolitan alike, and especially in the provinces of Naples and Caserta, is a sort of state against the State and has one of its main levers of power and a major source of its wealth in the illegal control of the territory, in its different dimensions (military, but also economic, social and even cultural). 2) A huge social and economic disintegration, exacerbated in the last twenty years by a process of deindustrialization (until the early nineties Naples was the fifth industrial city of Italy, today it is a desert where

  5. Regional strategy tested in Caribbean.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia have joined forces in the world's 1st regional Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) effort -- the Caribbean CSM. The Barbados Family Planning Association (BFPS) is overseeing the operation, which begins selling 2 contraceptive pills and a condom in early February. Costs and start-up times were shaved by adopting brand names and advertising materials from Jamaica's highly successful CSM project. Jamaica's popular "Panther" condom and "Perle" oral contraceptive (OC) are being used by the Caribbean CSM project. Perle's 9-year-old package has been redesigned and the Caribbean CSM project also is selling a 2nd, low-dose version called "Perle-LD." The products are manufactured in the US by Syntex as Noriday and Norminest, respectively. But the regional approach's financial gains also had a debit side, most notably a tripling of bureaucratic procedures. Part of project difficulties stem from differences among the 3 Caribbean countries. While sharing a common cultural heritage, St. Lucians speak a patois dialect in addition to the English prevalent on the other islands. The biggest hurdle was overcoming an economic disparity between Barbados and its less affluent neighbors, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. The CSM project decided to try a 2-tier product pricing strategy. In US currency, prices run $1.75 per cycle for both OCs on Barbados, but $1.26 on St. Vincent and St. Lucia. A Panther 3-pack costs 75 cents on Barbados and 42 cents on the othe 2 islands. The project is being promoted with generic family planning media advertisements. The project also has held physician orientation seminars on each island. The pilot program will be accompanied by retailer training seminars. In addition the project may introduce a spermicidal foaming tablet, once the US Food and Drug Administration approvs a new American-made product. The unique Caribbean CSM project may spread an idea as potent as the family planning message. Its success could transmit the

  6. Regional strategy tested in Caribbean.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia have joined forces in the world's 1st regional Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) effort -- the Caribbean CSM. The Barbados Family Planning Association (BFPS) is overseeing the operation, which begins selling 2 contraceptive pills and a condom in early February. Costs and start-up times were shaved by adopting brand names and advertising materials from Jamaica's highly successful CSM project. Jamaica's popular "Panther" condom and "Perle" oral contraceptive (OC) are being used by the Caribbean CSM project. Perle's 9-year-old package has been redesigned and the Caribbean CSM project also is selling a 2nd, low-dose version called "Perle-LD." The products are manufactured in the US by Syntex as Noriday and Norminest, respectively. But the regional approach's financial gains also had a debit side, most notably a tripling of bureaucratic procedures. Part of project difficulties stem from differences among the 3 Caribbean countries. While sharing a common cultural heritage, St. Lucians speak a patois dialect in addition to the English prevalent on the other islands. The biggest hurdle was overcoming an economic disparity between Barbados and its less affluent neighbors, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. The CSM project decided to try a 2-tier product pricing strategy. In US currency, prices run $1.75 per cycle for both OCs on Barbados, but $1.26 on St. Vincent and St. Lucia. A Panther 3-pack costs 75 cents on Barbados and 42 cents on the othe 2 islands. The project is being promoted with generic family planning media advertisements. The project also has held physician orientation seminars on each island. The pilot program will be accompanied by retailer training seminars. In addition the project may introduce a spermicidal foaming tablet, once the US Food and Drug Administration approvs a new American-made product. The unique Caribbean CSM project may spread an idea as potent as the family planning message. Its success could transmit the

  7. Selection of USSR foreign similarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disler, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The similarity regions in the United States and Canada were selected to parallel the conditions that affect labeling and classification accuracies in the U.S.S.R. indicator regions. In addition to climate, a significant condition that affects labeling and classification accuracies in the U.S.S.R. is the proportion of barley and wheat grown in a given region (based on sown areas). The following regions in the United States and Canada were determined to be similar to the U.S.S.R. indicator regions: (1) Montana agrophysical unit (APU) 104 corresponds to the Belorussia high barley region; (2) North Dakota and Minnesota APU 20 and secondary region southern Manitoba and Saskatchewan correspond to the Ural RSFSR barley and spring wheat region; (3) Montana APU 23 corresponds to he North Caucasus barley and winter wheat region. Selection criteria included climates, crop type, crop distribution, growth cycles, field sizes, and field shapes.

  8. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L.

    1996-11-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations. Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  9. Tumors of the pineal region.

    PubMed

    Piovan, E; Beltramello, A

    1996-01-01

    The role played by neuroradiologic examinations in the diagnosis of neoformations of the pineal region is considered. Results of reports of literature are compared with the personal experience (40 patients) to draw possible significant conclusions for the diagnosis of the oncological type. First, intrinsic pineal lesions should be separated from those of adjacent structures. Reliable discriminating parameters useful in the differential diagnosis are represented by sex and age. Diagnosis based on biochemistry with markers was shown not to be univocal. A further separation can be based on CT and MRI findings. In particular, teratomas appear as solid tumors with calcification and fat. The latter is depicted on MRI even if minimal. To the contrary, germinomas do not contain fat and are markedly enhancing. Microcysts seem to be more common in tumors originating from parenchymal pineal cells. A reliable differential diagnosis is however possible only for small-sized lesions where identification of the anatomical structure of origin is easier. PMID:8677341

  10. Venus - Landslide in Navka Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Magellan spacecraft has observed remnant landslide deposits apparently resulting from the collapse of volcanic structures. This Magellan radar image is centered about 25.4 degrees south latitude and 308 degrees east longitude in the southwestern Navka Region of Venus. The image shows a 17.4 kilometer (10.8 mile) diameter volcanic dome on the plains. The dome is approximately 1.86 kilometers (1.2 mile) in height and it has a slope of about 23 degrees. The northwest and northeast flanks of the dome have collapsed to form landslides that have deposited debris on the plains. The image shows an area 110 kilometers (68 miles) across and 100 kilometers (62 miles) in length.

  11. Complex regional pain syndrome underdiagnosed.

    PubMed

    Quisel, Anna; Gill, James M; Witherell, Peter

    2005-06-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) type 1 may be diagnosed by history and physical exam with no further testing. Several different diagnostic criteria have undergone validity testing: the 1993 IASP criteria, Bruehl's criteria, and Veldman's criteria; there is no compelling reason to recommend 1 set of criteria over the others. Some cases of CRPS type 1 may be preventable. Some cases of CRPS type 1 in post-stroke upper extremity hemiplegia (also known as shoulder-hand syndrome) may be prevented by early inpatient rehabilitation and avoidance of shoulder trauma to the affected arm. Some cases of post-fracture CRPS type 1 may be prevented with 500 mg vitamin C daily started upon diagnosis of fracture and continued through healing.

  12. Phytophotodermatitis in Rijeka region, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Lenković, Maja; Cabrijan, Leo; Gruber, Franjo; Saftić, Marina; Stanić Zgombić, Zrinka; Stasić, Adalbert; Peharda, Vesna

    2008-10-01

    Contact with plants can cause phototoxic or rarely photoallergic reactions. Phototoxic dermatitis (photophytodermatitis) occurs after contact or ingestion of plants containing furocumarins i.e. psoralens and followed by sun exposure. Skin lesions develop usually after 24-48 hours with erythema, bulla formation, itch or pain, followed by a long lasting hyperpigmentation. Furocumarins can be linear i.e. psoralens (5-MOP, 8-MOP), or angular like angelicin and pimpinellin. Their binding to DNA causes cellular damage. This can happen in florists, gardeners, farmers, horticulturists, food handlers, and botanists. The plants causing phototoxic reaction can vary with the local flora but are commonly a member of the family apiaceae (formerly umbelliferae), family rutaceae, leguminosae and moraceae. The authors give special consideration to the phytophotodermatitis that appeared in their region in spring and summer during a three year period.

  13. Zoonoses in the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Seimenis, Aristarco; Morelli, Daniela; Mantovani, Adriano

    2006-01-01

    The Mediterranean and Middle East Region (MME) is considered the most important area for the historical development and concentration of zoonoses. Besides the classical Mediterranean pattern, an urbanised pattern has emerged which is strongly influenced by globalisation. Both patterns co-exist and have many peculiarities affecting the life cycles of zoonoses and their social impact. The features of those zoonoses which are now most relevant in the MME (brucellosis, rabies, cystic echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, food-borne zoonoses) are discussed. Besides other relevant activities, the World Health Organization has established, since 1979, a specialised programme with a unit coordinating and managing activities: i.e. the Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre, operating from Athens, Greece. PMID:17361068

  14. Zoonoses in the Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Seimenis, Aristarco; Morelli, Daniela; Mantovani, Adriano

    2006-01-01

    The Mediterranean and Middle East Region (MME) is considered the most important area for the historical development and concentration of zoonoses. Besides the classical Mediterranean pattern, an urbanised pattern has emerged which is strongly influenced by globalisation. Both patterns co-exist and have many peculiarities affecting the life cycles of zoonoses and their social impact. The features of those zoonoses which are now most relevant in the MME (brucellosis, rabies, cystic echinococcosis, leishmaniasis, food-borne zoonoses) are discussed. Besides other relevant activities, the World Health Organization has established, since 1979, a specialised programme with a unit coordinating and managing activities: i.e. the Mediterranean Zoonoses Control Centre, operating from Athens, Greece.

  15. Cometary nucleus and active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, F. L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of the icy conglomerate model of cometary nuclei, various observations demonstrate the spotted nature of many or most nuclei, i.e., regions of unusual activity, either high or low. Rotation periods, spin axes and even precession of the axes are determined. The observational evidence for variations in activity over the surfaces of cometary nuclei are listed and discussed. On June 11 the comet IRAS-ARAKI-ALCOCK approached the Earth to a distance of 0.031 AU, the nearest since C/Lexell, 1770 I, providing a unique opportunity for near-nucleus observations. Preliminary analysis of these images establishes the spin axis of the nucleus, with an oblioquity to the orbit plane of approximately 50 deg, and a lag angle of sublimation approximately 35 deg from the solar meridian on the nucleus. Asymmetries of the inner coma suggests a crazy-quilt distribution of ices with differing volatility over the surface of the nucleus. The observations of Comet P/Homes 1892 III, exhibiting two 8-10 magnitude bursts, are carefully analyzed. The grazing encounter produced, besides the first great burst, an active area on the nucleus, which was rotating retrograde with a period of 16.3hr and inclination nearly 180 deg. After the first burst the total magnitude fell less than two magnitudes from November 7 to November 30 (barely naked eye) while the nuclear region remained diffuse or complex, rarely if ever showing a stellar appearance. The fading was much more rapid after the second burst. The grazing encounter distributed a volume of large chunks in the neighborhood of the nucleus, maintaining activity for weeks.

  16. Surface chemistry in photodissociation regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esplugues, G. B.; Cazaux, S.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.; Caselli, P.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The presence of dust can strongly affect the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. We model the chemistry in photodissociation regions (PDRs) using both gas-phase and dust-phase chemical reactions. Aims: Our aim is to determine the chemical compositions of the interstellar medium (gas/dust/ice) in regions with distinct (molecular) gas densities that are exposed to radiation fields with different intensities. Methods: We have significantly improved the Meijerink PDR code by including 3050 new gas-phase chemical reactions and also by implementing surface chemistry. In particular, we have included 117 chemical reactions occurring on grain surfaces covering different processes, such as adsorption, thermal desorption, chemical desorption, two-body reactions, photo processes, and cosmic-ray processes on dust grains. Results: We obtain abundances for different gas and solid species as a function of visual extinction, depending on the density and radiation field. We also analyse the rates of the formation of CO2 and H2O ices in different environments. In addition, we study how chemistry is affected by the presence/absence of ice mantles (bare dust or icy dust) and the impact of considering different desorption probabilities. Conclusions: The type of substrate (bare dust or icy dust) and the probability of desorption can significantly alter the chemistry occurring on grain surfaces, leading to differences of several orders of magnitude in the abundances of gas-phase species, such as CO, H2CO, and CH3OH. The type of substrate, together with the density and intensity of the radiation field, also determine the threshold extinction to form ices of CO2 and H2O. We also conclude that H2CO and CH3OH are mainly released into the gas phase of low, far-ultraviolet illuminated PDRs through chemical desorption upon two-body surface reactions, rather than through photodesorption.

  17. Scandinavia and the Baltic Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of Scandinavia and the Baltic region. The image extends from 64oN, 0oE in the northwest to 56oN, 32oE in the southeast, and has been draped over a shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey. It is displayed in an equidistant conic projection.

    The image area includes southern Norway, Sweden and Finland, northern Denmark, Estonia, Latvia and part of western Russia. Norway's rugged western coastline is deeply indented by fjords. Elongated lakes, formed by glacial erosion and deposition, are characteristic of the entire region, and are particularly dense throughout Finland and Sweden. Numerous islands are present, and a virtually continuous chain of small, scattered islands occur between Sweden and Finland. The northern and eastern waters of the Baltic Sea are almost fresh, since the Baltic receives saltwater only from the narrow and shallow sounds between Denmark and Sweden that connect it to the North Sea. Most of the major cities within the image area are coastal, including St. Petersburg, Stockholm, Helsinki, Riga, and Oslo.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  18. [Chromosomal variation in Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from populations of Bryansk region, Saratov region (Russia), and Gomel region (Belarus)].

    PubMed

    Belyanina, S I

    2015-02-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed on samples of Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) taken from waterbodies of various types in Bryansk region (Russia) and Gomel region (Belarus). Karyotypes of specimens taken from stream pools of the Volga were used as reference samples. The populations of Bryansk and Gomel regions (except for a population of Lake Strativa in Starodubskii district, Bryansk region) exhibit broad structural variation, including somatic mosaicism for morphotypes of the salivary gland chromosome set, decondensation of telomeric sites, and the presence of small structural changes, as opposed to populations of Saratov region. As compared with Saratov and Bryansk regions, the Balbiani ring in the B-arm of chromosome I is repressed in populations of Gomel region. It is concluded that the chromosome set of Ch. plumosus in a range of waterbodies of Bryansk and Gomel regions is unstable.

  19. Regional Heterogenity In Ceres' Subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, Carol A.; Marchi, Simone; Bland, Michael T.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie C.; Park, Ryan S.; Russell, Christopher T.; Hughson, Kynan G.; Scully, Jennifer E. C.

    2016-04-01

    The Dawn mission arrived at Ceres in March 2015 to find a body different than expected. Dawn found that Ceres was slightly smaller (avg radius of 470 versus 476.2 km), flatter and denser than the previous estimates, raising the question of how completely Ceres had differentiated. Dawn's gravity measurements indicate that Ceres is close to hydrostatic equilibrium and there is some degree of central condensation, suggesting a gradient in the content of volatiles within the interior. The surface is heavily cratered indicating that the outer shell is not dominated by ice, as would be expected for a differentiated body. Crater preservation at all scales, absent those larger than ~300 km, and complex morphology of the surface indicate a strong outer shell comprising no more than 40% ice by volume. The global, near-hydrostatic shape is consistent with a warmer, weaker interior beneath the strong outer shell. While the lack of evidence for an ice-dominated layer near the surface could indicate that it never formed, and thus Ceres only partially differentiated, an alternate explanation is that the volatile-rich outermost shell was lost as a result of im-pacts and to mixing of the ice with the silicate-rich briny layer that formed at the base of the former frozen ocean. Understanding the composition and rheology of the outer shell is a key part of solving the interior evolution puzzle. Thus far, we see evidence in the crater record for a viscosity several orders of magnitude higher than pure water ice; however, the crater preservation state varies considerably over the surface. There is no striking latitude dependence to the variation in crater preservation state, rather there are regional and local variations that juxtapose smooth, ap-parently relaxed or resurfaced areas next to areas of well-defined impacts and tectonic features. The largest craters Kerwan and Yalode are associated with surronding smoother, more sparsely cratered terrains, and show smooth inte-riors with

  20. Regional food culture and development.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2007-01-01

    Food culture is most influenced by the locality of its origin, which will have been one of food acquisition and processing by various means. It is generally agreed, and is the basis of much United Nations, especially Food and Agriculture Organisation strategic development policy, that successful agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture along with fishing, underpin economically viable and healthy communities with their various food cultures. We also know that this must be in tandem with maternal literacy and operational health care systems. These elements are best represented on a regional basis. There is a growing consumer interest in knowing where one's food comes from as a measure of "food integrity". However, food production alone can be a precarious business and relate to a lesser or greater extent to local food culture and to trade, which may be complementary or at-odds with each other. Likewise, the local food culture may have its strengths and weaknesses as far as its ability to meet nutritional and health needs is concerned. Local food production may be restricted because of geographical or socio-economic conditions which preclude food diversity, although this may be compensated for by trade. Where food adequacy and diversity is compromised, and soils poor, various macronutrient, micronutrient (from animals and plants) and phytonutrient (nutritionally-advantageous food component from plants) deficiencies may be in evidence. These food system problems may be intertwined with food culture--for example, "rice-based and water-soluble vitamin poor"; "few animal-derived foods like meat, fish, eggs and milk with associated low calcium, vitamin D, Vitamin B12 and long chain n-3 fatty acid intakes"; "low fruit and vegetable intake with limited carotenoids and other phytonutrients". Geo-satellite surveillance and mapping as identifying such "hot spots": for regional food problems, as well as hot spots where most of the world's biodiversity is found (1.4 % of land on