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Sample records for grosso pantanal region

  1. Ethnopharmacology of Medicinal Plants of the Pantanal Region (Mato Grosso, Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    Bieski, Isanete Geraldini Costa; Rios Santos, Fabrício; de Oliveira, Rafael Melo; Espinosa, Mariano Martinez; Macedo, Miramy; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino; de Oliveira Martins, Domingos Tabajara

    2012-01-01

    Traditional knowledge is an important source of obtaining new phytotherapeutic agents. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants was conducted in Nossa Senhora Aparecida do Chumbo District (NSACD), located in Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil using semi-structured questionnaires and interviews. 376 species of medicinal plants belonging to 285 genera and 102 families were cited. Fabaceae (10.2%), Asteraceae (7.82%) and Lamaceae (4.89%) families are of greater importance. Species with the greater relative importance were Himatanthus obovatus (1.87), Hibiscus sabdariffa (1.87), Solidago microglossa (1.80), Strychnos pseudoquina (1.73) and Dorstenia brasiliensis, Scoparia dulcis L., and Luehea divaricata (1.50). The informant consensus factor (ICF) ranged from 0.13 to 0.78 encompassing 18 disease categories,of which 15 had ICF greater than 0.50, with a predominance of disease categories related to injuries, poisoning and certain other consequences of external causes (ICF  =  0.78) having 65 species cited while 20 species were cited for mental and behavioral disorders (ICF  =  0.77). The results show that knowledge about medicinal plants is evenly distributed among the population of NSACD. This population possesses medicinal plants for most disease categories, with the highest concordance for prenatal, mental/behavioral and respiratory problems. PMID:22474496

  2. Rickettsial infection in ticks from wild birds from Cerrado and the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso, midwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Dirceu G de S; Melo, Andréia L T; Martins, Thiago F; Alves, Alvair da S; Pacheco, Thábata dos A; Pinto, Letícia B; Pinho, João B; Labruna, Marcelo B; Dutra, Valéria; Aguiar, Daniel M; Pacheco, Richard C

    2015-09-01

    The involvement of different species of ticks and wild animals, such as birds, play an important role in the epidemiology of tick-borne diseases. Birds may serve as reservoirs for some tick-borne diseases, and may carry and spread hematophagous ectoparasites mechanically. This study aimed to show the diversity of ticks on birds and molecular detection of rickettsial infection in ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, two similar Brazilian biomes characterized by hydrological seasons. During two years, August 2012 to May 2014, ticks were collected from birds and from the environment in total of 14 visits for collecting samples, distributed in all hydrological seasons. A total of 674 birds were captured representing 113 species from 26 families. In total, 71 birds were parasitized (10.5%), and 155 ticks of the following 7 tick species (in decreasing order of prevalence) were identified: Amblyomma longirostre Koch, Amblyomma nodosum Neumann, Amblyomma cajennense Fabricius sensu lato (s.l.), Amblyomma calcaratum Neumann, Ornithodoros mimon Kohls, Clifford & Jones, Amblyomma ovale Koch, and Amblyomma triste Koch. Among free-living ticks collected in the environment, A. cajennense s.l. was the most common. This is the first occurrence of O. mimon on birds, and of A. triste on Passeriformes in Brazil. Molecular analyses revealed that 6 A. longirostre ticks were infected by 'Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii', whereas 1 A. nodosum was infected by a Rickettsia parkeri-like agent, previously reported as Rickettsia sp. strain NOD. Spotted fever group (SFG) agents were, for the first time, reported in ticks from birds captured in Pantanal biome, and the potential involvement of these agents as human pathogens should be considered in further studies.

  3. Seroprevalence and risk factors to Ehrlichia spp. and Rickettsia spp. in dogs from the Pantanal Region of Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, Andréia L T; Martins, Thiago F; Horta, Maurício C; Moraes-Filho, Jonas; Pacheco, Richard C; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2011-12-01

    Sera of 320 dogs from urban and rural areas of a Pantanal region of Brazil were evaluated for rickettsial (Rickettsia rickettsii, R. parkeri, R. amblyommii, R. rhipicephali, R. felis, and R. bellii) and ehrlichial (Ehrlichia canis) infection by the immunofluorescence assay (IFA). Risk factors for ehrlichiosis or rickettsiosis were also evaluated. Positive reaction against Ehrlichia spp. was detected in 227 (70.9%) dogs, 119 (74.3%) from an urban area and 108 (67.5%) from rural areas (P>0.05). For Rickettsia spp., 152 (47.5%) dogs were positive, 31 (19.3%) from urban and 121 (75.6%) from rural areas (P<0.05). Highest anti-Rickettsia spp. endpoint titers were observed for R. amblyommii, suggesting homologous reactions to this agent or a very closely related organism. While most of the urban dogs were found parasitized by the tick Rhipicephalus sanguineus, infestations on rural dogs were predominated by Amblyomma cajenennse. Rickettsial infection was significantly higher (P<0.05) in rural dogs, in dogs with hunting practice, or in A. cajennense-infested dogs.

  4. Host-Parasite Relationship of Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae and Argasidae) and Feral Pigs (Sus scrofa) in the Nhecolândia Region of the Pantanal Wetlands in Mato Grosso do Sul

    PubMed Central

    Cançado, P. H. D.; Faccini, J. L. H.; Herrera, H. M.; Tavares, L. E. R.; Mourão, G. M.; Piranda, E. M.; Paes, R. C. S.; Ribeiro, C. C. D. U.; Borghesan, T. C.; Piacenti, A. K.; Kinas, M. A.; Santos, C. C.; Ono, T. M.; Paiva, F.

    2013-01-01

    Feral pigs (S. scrofa) were introduced to the Pantanal region around 200 years ago and the population appears to be in expansion. Its eradication is considered to be impossible. The population of feral pigs in the Pantanal wetlands is currently estimated at one million. Two scientific excursions were organized. The first was conducted during the dry season, when 21 feral pigs were captured and the second was during the wet season, when 23 feral pigs were captured. Ticks were collected and the oviposition and hatching process were studied to confirm the biological success of each tick species. Three tick species were found to be feeding on feral pigs: Amblyomma cajennense, A. parvum, and Ornithodoros rostratus. During the dry season, 178 adult A. cajennense were collected, contrasting with 127 A. cajennense specimens in the wet season. This suggests that the seasonality of these ticks in the Brazilian Pantanal wetlands could be different from other regions. The results indicate that A. parvum and A. cajennense are biologically successful parasites in relation to feral pigs. A. cajennense appears to have adapted to this tick-host relationship, as well as the areas where feral pigs are abundant, and could play a role in the amplification of this tick population. PMID:27335855

  5. Soil Oxidation-Reduction Potential and Plant Photosynthetic Capacity in the Northern Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Johnson, M. S.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Pinto Junior, O. B.; Couto, E. G.

    2013-12-01

    Plant communities of the Pantanal wetland are able to survive long periods of climatic and physiological stress in the dry and wet seasons. During inundation, soil oxygen demand increases dramatically as reducing soil conditions create stress in the root system with possible impacts on photosynthetic capacity of plants. We look at inundation cycles of a tree island (locally known as a cordilheira) in the Northern Pantanal near Poconé, Mato Grosso, and relate soil oxidation-reduction potential and soil oxygen depletion to the photosynthetic capacity of two plant communities of flooded scrub forest (Vochysia divergens and Curatela americana). Results show a drop in soil oxidation-reduction potential of over 400 mV, to levels below the absolute value of -200 mV, following inundation around the tree island. Both plant species showed increased carbon assimilation at highest soil oxygen demand despite a change in stomatal conductance, suggesting adaptation to the inundated environment. Absolute values of soil oxidation-reduction potential also allow for the determination of specific soil chemical reactions characteristic of the tree island environment, namely the reduction of iron(III), or carbon dioxide which in turn produces methane. Our combined analysis of soil chemistry with plant ecophysiology allows for a better understanding of soil-plant interactions in the Pantanal, specifically the drivers of biogeochemical processes between inundation periods.

  6. Patterns of Woody Growth for Brazilian Savanna (Cerrado) Trees in the Cuiaba Basin and Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappia, A. J.; Vourlitis, G. L.; Pinto-Jr, O. B.

    2015-12-01

    The Brazilian savanna, locally known as cerrado, is a major ecosystem that covers a vast majority of central Brazil. Little is known about how woody growth within the cerrado is affected by soil properties such as texture and/or nutrient availability. Thus, in this study we assessed the relationship between woody growth and soil properties in the Cuiaba Basin and Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. We sampled 4-5 vegetation stands in each site that varied in hydrology, soil type, and vegetation composition and structure, and measured diameter at breast height, wood density, and soil nutrient concentration and physical properties every 5-10 m along a 100 m long transect. We hypothesized that as tree diameter at breast height increases, annual tree growth rate will decrease and that woody carbon (C) storage will increase as a function of soil nutrient availability. Our preliminary data support our hypotheses. Tree growth rates declined with tree size in both the Cuiaba Basin and the Pantanal. Rates of woody C storage, both on a per tree basis (kgC tree-1 year-1) and on a per unit ground area basis (kgC m-2 year-1) were significantly positively correlated with soil extractable phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), and clay content, while only woody C storage on a per tree basis was positively correlated with potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and cation exchange capacity (CEC). These data suggest that rates of woody C storage in cerrado are nutrient limited, while correspondence between C storage and soil physical properties could indicate both nutrient and water limitations to C storage.

  7. Geostatistics as a tool to improve sampling and statistical analysis in wetlands: a case study on dynamics of organic matter distribution in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, F; Couto, E G; Bernardi, C J

    2002-11-01

    The Pantanal of Mato Grosso presents distinct landscape units: permanently, occasionally and periodically flooded areas. In the last ones, sampling is especially difficult due to the high heterogeneity occurring inter and intrastratas. This paper presents a comparison of different methodological approaches showing that they can influence decisively the knowledge of distribution organic matter dynamics. In such an area in order to understand the role of the flood pulse in the distribution dynamics of organic matter in a wetland at the Pantanal, we considered that there is spatial dependence between points. This consideration contradicts the classical statistic principle that focuses on the aleatority, and allowed the obtainment of a larger volume of information from a minor sampling effort, which means better performance, with time and money economy.

  8. SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LEISHMANIASIS IN AQUIDAUANA MUNICIPALITY, PANTANAL OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL , BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Helen Rezende de; Santos, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; Casaril, Aline Etelvina; Infran, Jucelei Oliveira de Moura; Ribeiro, Leticia Moraes; Fernandes, Carlos Eurico Dos Santos; Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez de

    2016-12-08

    The Aquidauana municipality is considered an endemic area of leishmaniasis and an important tourist site in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The aim of this study was to investigate the sand fly fauna in the city of Aquidauana. Captures were carried out twice a month, from April 2012 to March 2014 with automatic light traps and active aspiration, in the peridomicile and domicile of six residences. A total of 9,338 specimens were collected, 3,179 and 6,159 using light traps and active aspiration, respectively. The fauna consisted of: Brumptomyia brumpti, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Ev. evandroi, Ev. lenti, Ev. orcyi, Ev. sallesi, Ev. termitophila, Ev. walkeri, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Psathyromyia bigeniculata. The most abundant species captured was Lutzomyia longipalpis, present in all the ecotopes, predominantly in peridomicile areas, and mainly males. Leishmania DNA was not detected in the insects. It was observed the abundance of the sand fly fauna in the region, as well as the high frequency of Lu. longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum. The results of this study show the need to increase the monitoring and more effective control measures. It is noteworthy that the studied region presents several activities related to tourism and recreation, increasing the risk of transmission of leishmaniasis to this particular human population.

  9. SAND FLIES (DIPTERA: PSYCHODIDAE) IN AN ENDEMIC AREA OF LEISHMANIASIS IN AQUIDAUANA MUNICIPALITY, PANTANAL OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL , BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    de FIGUEIREDO, Helen Rezende; SANTOS, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; CASARIL, Aline Etelvina; INFRAN, Jucelei Oliveira de Moura; RIBEIRO, Leticia Moraes; FERNANDES, Carlos Eurico dos Santos; de OLIVEIRA, Alessandra Gutierrez

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY The Aquidauana municipality is considered an endemic area of leishmaniasis and an important tourist site in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The aim of this study was to investigate the sand fly fauna in the city of Aquidauana. Captures were carried out twice a month, from April 2012 to March 2014 with automatic light traps and active aspiration, in the peridomicile and domicile of six residences. A total of 9,338 specimens were collected, 3,179 and 6,159 using light traps and active aspiration, respectively. The fauna consisted of: Brumptomyia brumpti, Evandromyia aldafalcaoae, Ev. evandroi, Ev. lenti, Ev. orcyi, Ev. sallesi, Ev. termitophila, Ev. walkeri, Lutzomyia longipalpis and Psathyromyia bigeniculata. The most abundant species captured was Lutzomyia longipalpis, present in all the ecotopes, predominantly in peridomicile areas, and mainly males. Leishmania DNA was not detected in the insects. It was observed the abundance of the sand fly fauna in the region, as well as the high frequency of Lu. longipalpis, the main vector of L. infantum. The results of this study show the need to increase the monitoring and more effective control measures. It is noteworthy that the studied region presents several activities related to tourism and recreation, increasing the risk of transmission of leishmaniasis to this particular human population. PMID:27982353

  10. Temporal Variation in Water Quality Parameters under Different Vegetative Communities in Two Flooded Forests of the Northern Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couto, E. G.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Pinto Junior, O. B.; Johnson, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    The Pantanal is one of the largest flood plains in the world, and is characterized by large variability in vegetative communities and flooding dynamics. Some woody plant species have been observed to colonize large areas forming monospecific stands. We measured chemical parameters of flood waters including dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrate (NO3), dissolved oxygen (DO), and carbon dioxide (CO2) as well as physical parameters such as photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), temperature (Tw), turbidity (Turb) and water levels (WL). These chemical and physical measurements were conducted with the intent to characterize spatial and temporal differences of monospecific stands in order to understand if these different formations alter the biogeochemistry of the Pantanal waters. Water sample campaigns were conducted during the inundation period of January to May 2013 in two areas located in the Private Reserve of the Brazilian Social Service of Commerce (RPPN-SESC) near Poconé, Mato Grosso. Research sites included: (1) a flooded tall-stature forest (known as Cambarazal) dominated by the Vochysia divergens species; and (2) in a flooded scrub forest (known as Baia das Pedras) dominated by the Combretum lanceolatum species. Results showed three principal factors which explained 80% of variance in aquatic physical and chemical parameters. The first factor (PCA-1) explained 38% of variance (DO, PAR and WL), PCA-2 explained 23% (NO3, Tw, DOC), while PCA-3 explained only 19% of variance (CO2 and Turb). During the entire study period, the major concentration of variables were observed in the flooded forest. Physical variables presented small alterations, with the exception of water levels, that were greater in the flooded forest. With respect to temporal variables, all chemical parameters were greater at the beginning of the inundation and gradually dropped with the water level. With this work, we observed that the different monospecific formations influenced water

  11. Chlamydophila psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Freitas Raso, Tânia; Seixas, Gláucia Helena Fernandes; Guedes, Neiva Maria Robaldo; Pinto, Aramis Augusto

    2006-10-31

    Chlamydophila psittaci (C. psittaci) infection was evaluated in 77 free-living nestlings of Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Tracheal and cloacal swab samples from 32 wild parrot and 45 macaw nestlings were submitted to semi-nested PCR, while serum samples were submitted to complement fixation test (CFT). Although all 32 Amazon parrot serum samples were negative by CFT, cloacal swabs from two birds were positive for Chlamydophila DNA by semi-nested PCR (6.3%); these positive birds were 32 and 45 days old. In macaws, tracheal and cloacal swabs were positive in 8.9% and 26.7% of the samples, respectively. Complement-fixing antibodies were detected in 4.8% of the macaw nestlings; macaw nestlings with positive findings were between 33 and 88 days old. These results indicate widespread dissemination of this pathogen in the two evaluated psittacine populations. No birds had clinical signs suggestive of chlamydiosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on C. psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots and Hyacinth macaws in Brazil.

  12. [Arthropod community associated with the canopy of Attalea phalerata Mart. (Arecaceae) during the flood period of the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Battirola, Leandro D; Adis, Joachim; Marques, Marinêz I; Silva, Fábio H O

    2007-01-01

    Six trees of the palm species Attalea phalerata Mart. were sampled during high water (aquatic phase) of the Pantanal of Mato Grosso (February 2001), by canopy fogging. The composition, structure, and biomass of the arthropod community associated with their canopies were analysed, as well as the influence the flood pulse renders on it. Each tree was fogged once, followed by three consecutive collections. A total of 63,657 arthropods (643.0 +/-; 259.87 ind./m(2)) were collected, representing 25 orders in the classes Insecta, Arachnida, Diplopoda and Crustacea. The dominant groups were Acari (40.0%; 257.2 +/- 116.50 ind./m(2)), Coleoptera (12.0%; 77.5 +/- 64.93 ind./m(2)), Psocoptera (9.2%; 59.0 +/- 38.00 ind./m(2)), Diptera (8.4%; 54.1 +/- 18.72 ind./m(2)), Collembola (8.3%; 53.4 +/- 26.24 ind./m(2)) and Hymenoptera (7.9%; 50.6 +/- 21.40 ind./m(2)), the latter mostly represented by Formicidae (49.2%). Arthropod biomass amounted to 8.86 g dry weight and 0.18 mg/m(2). Coleoptera, Blattodea, Orthoptera, Araneae and Hymenoptera were the most representative taxa. The hydrological regime (flood pulse), as well as seasonality, appear to strongly affect the composition and structure of this canopy community.

  13. Modeling the reflection of Photosynthetically active radiation in a monodominant floodable forest in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso State using multivariate statistics and neural networks.

    PubMed

    Curado, Leone F A; Musis, Carlo R DE; Cunha, Cristiano R DA; Rodrigues, Thiago R; Pereira, Vinicius M R; Nogueira, José S; Sanches, Luciana

    2016-09-01

    The study of radiation entrance and exit dynamics and energy consumption in a system is important for understanding the environmental processes that rule the biosphere-atmosphere interactions of all ecosystems. This study provides an analysis of the interaction of energy in the form of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in the Pantanal, a Brazilian wetland forest, by studying the variation of PAR reflectance and its interaction with local rainfall. The study site is located in Private Reserve of Natural Heritage, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, where the vegetation is a monodominant forest of Vochysia divergens Phol. The results showed a high correlation between the reflection of visible radiation and rainfall; however, the behavior was not the same at the three heights studied. An analysis of the hourly variation of the reflected waves also showed the seasonality of these phenomena in relation to the dry and rainy seasons. A predictive model for PAR was developed with a neural network that has a hidden layer, and it showed a determination coefficient of 0.938. This model showed that the Julian day and time of measurements had an inverse association with the wind profile and a direct association with the relative humidity profile.

  14. Climatic variability of river outflow in the Pantanal region and the influence of sea surface temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Carlos Batista; Silva, Maria Elisa Siqueira; Ambrizzi, Tércio

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates possible linear relationships between climate, hydrology, and oceanic surface variability in the Pantanal region (in South America's central area), over interannual and interdecadal time ranges. In order to verify the mentioned relations, lagged correlation analysis and linear adjustment between river discharge at the Pantanal region and sea surface temperature were used. Composite analysis for atmospheric fields, air humidity flux divergence, and atmospheric circulation at low and high levels, for the period between 1970 and 2003, was analyzed. Results suggest that the river discharge in the Pantanal region is linearly associated with interdecadal and interannual oscillations in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, making them good predictors to continental hydrological variables. Considering oceanic areas, 51 % of the annual discharge in the Pantanal region can be linearly explained by mean sea surface temperature (SST) in the Subtropical North Pacific, Tropical North Pacific, Extratropical South Pacific, and Extratropical North Atlantic over the period. Considering a forecast approach in seasonal scale, 66 % of the monthly discharge variance in Pantanal, 3 months ahead of SST, is explained by the oceanic variables, providing accuracy around 65 %. Annual discharge values in the Pantanal region are strongly related to the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) variability (with 52 % of linear correlation), making it possible to consider an interdecadal variability and a consequent subdivision of the whole period in three parts: 1st (1970-1977), 2nd (1978-1996), and 3rd (1997-2003) subperiods. The three subperiods coincide with distinct PDO phases: negative, positive, and negative, respectively. Convergence of humidity flux at low levels and the circulation pattern at high levels help to explain the drier and wetter subperiods. During the wetter 2nd subperiod, the air humidity convergence at low levels is much more evident than during the other two

  15. Population Genetics of Jaguars (Panthera onca) in the Brazilian Pantanal: Molecular Evidence for Demographic Connectivity on a Regional Scale.

    PubMed

    Valdez, Fernanda Pedone; Haag, Taiana; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Silveira, Leandro; Cavalcanti, Sandra M C; Salzano, Francisco M; Eizirik, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are important threats to carnivores worldwide, and can be especially intense for large predators. Jaguars have already been extirpated from over half of their original area of distribution, and few regions still maintain large populations. For these, detailed understanding is crucial for setting appropriate recovery targets in impacted areas. The Pantanal is among the best examples of a region with a large jaguar population in a healthy environment. Here, we analyzed 12 microsatellite loci to characterize genetic diversity and population structure of 52 jaguars sampled in 4 localities of the southern Pantanal, and compared them with prior studies of heavily fragmented populations of the Atlantic Forest. Although we observed some internal structure among the Pantanal localities, our results indicated that this area comprises a single population with high genetic variability. Moreover, our comparative analyses supported the hypothesis that the strong population structure observed in the Atlantic Forest derives from recent, anthropogenic fragmentation. We also observed significant but low levels of genetic differentiation between the Pantanal and Atlantic Forest populations, indicating recent connectivity between jaguars occurring in these biomes. Evidence for admixture between the Pantanal and a population on the western boundary of the Atlantic Forest corroborates the transitional nature of the latter area, where the jaguar population has already been extirpated. Our results can be used to understand jaguar population dynamics in a region that is less disturbed than the Atlantic forest, and to support the design of conservation strategies that maintain and restore natural connectivity among currently isolated areas.

  16. Sedentary nestlings of Wood Stork as monitors of mercury contamination in the gold mining region of the Brazilian Pantanal

    SciTech Connect

    Nassif Del Lama, Silvia; Dosualdo Rocha, Cristiano; Figueiredo Jardim, Wilson; Tsai, Jo-Szu; Frederick, Peter Crawford

    2011-11-15

    Sedentary organisms that are at top trophic levels allow inference about the level of local mercury contamination. We evaluated mercury contamination in feather tissue of nestling Wood Storks (Mycteria americana), sampled in different parts of the Brazilian Pantanal that were variably polluted by mercury releases from gold mining activities. Levels of mercury in feathers sampled in seven breeding colonies were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and the mean value of mercury concentration was 0.557 {mu}g/g, dry weight (n=124), range 0.024-4.423 {mu}g/g. From this total sample, 21 feathers that represent 30% of nestlings collected in Porto da Fazenda and Tucum colonies, in the northern region, ranged from 1.0 to 4.43 {mu}g/g, dry weight (median value=1.87 {mu}g/g). We found significant differences among regions (H=57.342; p=0<0.05). Results suggest that permanently flooded areas, or along mainstream rivers are more contaminated by mercury than dry areas, regardless of the distance from the gold mining center, which is located in the northern Pantanal. Highest values found in nestlings feathers were similar to those found in feathers of adult birds and in tissues of adult mammals that are less sedentary and were captured in the same region of Pantanal. These findings indicate that mercury released has been biomagnified and it is present in high concentrations in tissues of top consumers. We suggest a program to monitor mercury availability in this ecosystem using sedentary life forms of top predators like Wood Storks or other piscivorous birds. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sedentary stork nestlings were used for the first time to show local mercury contamination of Pantanal. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differences were found among regions but they are not explained only by distance from the gold mining. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Permanently flooded areas and areas along mainstream rivers are more contaminated than dry areas. Black

  17. Effects of land-cover change on soil loss in the Sao Gabriel do Oeste area (Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Disperati, Leonardo; Righini, Gaia; Salvini, Riccardo; Ciali, Alessandro; Coscini, Nicola; Fantozzi, Pier L.; Carmignani, Luigi; Fiori, Alberto P.; Paranhos Filho, Antonio C.; Bocci, Michele

    1999-12-01

    In the Sao Gabriel do Oeste area (Pantanal, Brazil), since the '60s, zootechnics and farming activities have developed and arable lands and pastures replaced shrubs and forests. The 1966 to 1996 land-cover change was investigated through Remote Sensing and GIS methodologies. The effect on soil loss was evaluated through the Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE). By integrating supervised classification and visual interpretation techniques, geo-coded land-cover data bases were built from aerial photographs and Landsat TM images (years 1966, 1985, 1996). Multi-temporal land-cover data bases were produced through 'post-classification comparison.' The application of the USLE in the ARC/INFO$CPY Grid environment enabled to perform the multi-temporal analysis of the potential soil loss. The R, K, C and P factors of such equation were assumed from the literature. The flowdirection and flowaccumulation Grid functions and the DEM allowed calculating the L and S factors. The results show that from 1966 to 1985 large extent of forest and shrubs were deforested. After 1985, deforestation rate decreased and part of burnt areas and pastures changed to secondary forest. The land-cover transformations induced a meaningful growth of the computed average soil loss per unit area (A) from 1966 to 1985 ((Delta) A approximately equals 3.7 t(DOT)ha-1(DOT)y-1). On the contrary, the reduction of A from 1985 to 1996 ((Delta) A approximately equals 0.8 t(DOT)ha-1(DOT)y-1) suggests that more recently the human impact became steady.

  18. Sedentary nestlings of Wood Stork as monitors of mercury contamination in the gold mining region of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Del Lama, Silvia Nassif; Dosualdo Rocha, Cristiano; Figueiredo Jardim, Wilson; Tsai, Jo-Szu; Frederick, Peter Crawford

    2011-11-01

    Sedentary organisms that are at top trophic levels allow inference about the level of local mercury contamination. We evaluated mercury contamination in feather tissue of nestling Wood Storks (Mycteria americana), sampled in different parts of the Brazilian Pantanal that were variably polluted by mercury releases from gold mining activities. Levels of mercury in feathers sampled in seven breeding colonies were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy, and the mean value of mercury concentration was 0.557 μg/g, dry weight (n=124), range 0.024-4.423 μg/g. From this total sample, 21 feathers that represent 30% of nestlings collected in Porto da Fazenda and Tucum colonies, in the northern region, ranged from 1.0 to 4.43 μg/g, dry weight (median value=1.87 μg/g). We found significant differences among regions (H=57.342; p=0<0.05). Results suggest that permanently flooded areas, or along mainstream rivers are more contaminated by mercury than dry areas, regardless of the distance from the gold mining center, which is located in the northern Pantanal. Highest values found in nestlings feathers were similar to those found in feathers of adult birds and in tissues of adult mammals that are less sedentary and were captured in the same region of Pantanal. These findings indicate that mercury released has been biomagnified and it is present in high concentrations in tissues of top consumers. We suggest a program to monitor mercury availability in this ecosystem using sedentary life forms of top predators like Wood Storks or other piscivorous birds.

  19. Distribution, composition and seasonality of aquatic birds in the Nhecolândia sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Donatelli, R J; Posso, S R; Toledo, M C B

    2014-11-01

    Despite remarkable significance of Pantanal for the conservation of aquatic birds, the status of their populations, the spatiotemporal patterns of distribution and habitat use and structure of communities are little known. Thus, we studied three aquatic environments (Negro river, bays and salines) from 2007 to 2009 in the Nhecolândia Pantanal to verify the distribution and composition of aquatic birds and also if there is significant seasonal influence on these aspects. We adopted the transect method (288 hours of sampling) and recorded 135 species (7.834 individuals). The Negro river showed the highest diversity, while the salines the lowest. The similarity of aquatic bird communities was higher between bays and salines, followed by Negro river and bays and lower between salines and Negro river. The equidistribution is more variable in the salines and more stable in the Negro river. The environments strongly differ from each other in aquatic bird composition in space (habitat use and distribution) and time (seasonal water fluctuations). The diversity of bird community in the dry season varies significantly in the salines, followed by the bays and more stable in the Negro river. The Negro river, regardless of large annual amplitude of flow, is more seasonally stable since its riparian vegetation is continuous (not isolated) and constant. These aspects provide better conditions to stay all year, contributing to decrease the seasonal nomadic tendencies of aquatic birds. Finally, all these data provide strong arguments to the preservation of all phytophysiognomies in the Nhecolândia sub- region of Pantanal, but with special attention to the salines widely used by many flocks of aquatic birds (mainly in the dry season) and migrant and/or rare species restricted to this habitat.

  20. Identification of structural breaks in hydrological maxima time series in Paraguay River, Pantanal Region, Brazil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Marcus; Lima, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    The hydrological time series of the Paraguay River located in the Pantanal region of Brazil exhibits a complex and interesting behavior, which includes long memory characteristics, monotonic trends, multiple breaks and strong seasonality. Particularly, several abrupt changes from low to high flows and vice versa have been observed on annual maxima time series and have been responsible for the major flood damages in the region, even more significant than the largest floods that occurred in the period post 1974. The year of 1974 is historically known as the year of the most significant flood impact in region, especially on agriculture and cattle. Therefore, the identification and attribution of such step changes in the series is of particular interest to improve the flood management systems across the region. Here we apply the cumulative sum (CUSUM) procedure to identify the timing of the abrupt changes. Preliminary results for the Ladario streamflow gauge reveal multiple structural changes in 1936 (high flows to low flows), 1961 (high/low), 1974 (low/high) and 1999 (high/low). Rainfall records were also analyzed and the results obtained suggest that the Paraguay River basin in its upper reach, monitored by Caceres gauging station (32,400 km²) and Cuiabá river basin (23,500 km²) are the factors that most contribute to low frequencies oscillations in the Ladario maxima time series (253,000 km²). These sub-basins are both located in the northern part of the catchment along with the boundary of the Amazon River basin, where the average rainfall is more expressive. In both basins the rainfall records show a structural break in 1973. Simple linear regression using rainfall and flow records in those sub-basins show that the rainfall data accounts for around 70% of the flow variance, indicating that the internal dynamics of the catchment plays a minor role on the streamflow variability. Low frequency variability is also observed in both rainfall series and may be the

  1. Pesticide levels in ground and surface waters of Primavera do Leste Region, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dores, Eliana F G C; Carbo, Leandro; Ribeiro, Maria L; De-Lamonica-Freire, Ermelinda M

    2008-08-01

    Residues of the herbicides simazine, metribuzin, metolachlor, trifluralin, atrazine, and two metabolites of atrazine, deisopropylatrazine (DIA) and deethylatrazine (DEA), are surveyed in the surface and groundwater of the Primavera do Leste region, Mato Grosso, Brazil during September and December 1998 and April 1999. Different water source sampling stations of groundwater (irrigation water well, drinking water well, and water hole) and surface water (dam and river) are set up based on agricultural land use. A solid-phase extraction procedure followed by gas chromatography-nitrogen-phosphorus detection is used for the determination of these compounds. All compounds are detected at least once in water samples. A temporal trend of pesticide contamination is observed, with the highest contamination frequency occurring in December during the main application season. Metribuzin shows the highest individual detection frequencies throughout the monitoring period, followed by metolachlor, simazine, and DEA. The maximum mean concentrations of pesticides in this study are in the range from 0.14 to 1.7 microg/L. We deduct that the contamination of water resources is predominantly caused by non-point pollution of pesticides used in intensive cash-crop cultures of the Cerrado area. Therefore, a continuous monitoring of pesticide concentrations in water resources of this tropical region is necessary to detect the longer term contamination trends and developing health risks.

  2. Microscopic features of tick-bite lesions in anteaters and armadillos: Emas National Park and the Pantanal region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima e Silva, M F; Szabó, M P J; Bechara, G H

    2004-10-01

    The naturally occurring wildlife host associations between ticks and tick-borne pathogens found in the neotropics are poorly described. Understanding tick-bite lesions is important as these are the site of host reaction to and pathogen delivery by ticks. As part of a comprehensive study concerning established and emerging tick-host relationships. the present work describes some aspects of tick-bite lesions in anteaters and armadillos captured at the Emas National Park and the Pantanal region of Brazil. Biopsies were of skin were taken and examine. Tick feeding sites of all animals displayed an eosinophilic homogeneous mass, the cement cone, and, occasionally, a feeding cavity underneath the tick attachment site. At these locations the epidermis was usually thickened due to keratinocyte hyperplasia. The main dermal changes included tissue infiltration with a varying number of inflammatory cells, edema, hemorrhage. and vascular dilatation. Cellular infiltration of the dermis was predominantly composed of mononuclear cells, neutrophils. and eosinophils. Mast cells were also seen in both non-parasitized and parasitized skin but were found in higher numbers at perivascular sites and in parasitized skin. Basophils were not seen at tick attachment sites of anteaters or armadillos.

  3. Isolation and phylogenetic relationships of bat trypanosomes from different biomes in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Marcili, Arlei; da Costa, Andrea P; Soares, Herbert S; Acosta, Igor da C L; de Lima, Julia T R; Minervino, Antonio H H; Melo, Andréia T L; Aguiar, Daniel M; Pacheco, Richard C; Gennari, Solange M

    2013-12-01

    In the order Chiroptera, more than 30 trypanosome species belonging to the subgenera Herpetosoma, Schizotrypanum, Megatrypanum, and Trypanozoon have been described. The species Trypanosoma cruzi , Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, and Trypanosoma dionisii are the most common in bats and belong to the Schizotrypanum subgenus. Bats from 2 different biomes, Pantanal and Amazonia/Cerrado in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, were evaluated according to the presence of trypanosome parasites by means of hemoculture and PCR in primary samples (blood samples). A total of 211 bats from 20 different species were caught and the trypanosome prevalence, evaluated through hemoculture, was 9.0% (19), 15.5% (13), and 4.8% (6) in the municipalities of Confresa (Amazonia/Cerrado biome) and Poconé (Pantanal biome). Among the 123 primary samples obtained from the bats, only 3 (2.4%) were positive. Phylogenetic analysis using trypanosomatid barcoding (V7V8 region of SSU rDNA) identified all the isolates and primary samples as T. c. marinkellei. The sequences of the isolates were segregated according to the bat host genus or species and suggest that co-evolutionary patterns exist between hosts and parasites. Further studies in different Brazilian regions and biomes need to be conducted in order to gain real understanding of the diversity of trypanosomes in bats.

  4. Birds' nesting parameters in four forest types in the Pantanal wetland.

    PubMed

    Pinho, J B; Marini, M A

    2014-11-01

    We tested the heterogeneity/productivity hypothesis with respect to the abundance and richness of birds and the vegetation density hypothesis with respect to birds' nest predation rates, and determined the relative importance of forested vegetation formations for the conservation of birds in the Pantanal. We estimated the apparent nesting success, and the abundance and richness of nesting birds' in four forest types, by monitoring nests during two reproductive seasons in four forested physiognomies (two high productivity/heterogeneity evergreen forests = Cambará and Landi; two low productivity/heterogeneity dry forests = Cordilheira and Carvoeiro) in the Pantanal wetland in Poconé, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. We found 381 nests of 46 species (35 Passeriformes and 11 non-Passeriformes) in the four forest types. Of these, we monitored 220 active nests belonging to 44 species, 101 during the reproductive season of 2001 and 119 in 2002. We supported the productivity/heterogeneity hypothesis since the two evergreen forests had higher nest abundance and one of them (Cambará) had higher nesting species richness than the dry forests. The number of nests found in each habitat differed with most nests monitored in the Cambará forest (82%), followed by Landi (9%), Cordilheira (6%) and Carvoeiro (3%) forests. The total number of nests monitored was significantly higher in evergreen forests than in dry forests. Also, more species nested in evergreen (37 species) than in dry (16 species) forests. A Correspondence Analysis revealed that only Carvoeiros had a different nesting bird community. The overall apparent nesting success of 220 nests was 26.8%. We did not support the vegetation density hypothesis since nest predation rates were similar between evergreen (73.5%) and dry (70%) forests, and were higher in the Landi (85%) than in the other three forests (69.2 to 72.2%). Our data indicate that Cambará forests seem to be a key nesting habitat for many bird species of the

  5. Lerneca inalata beripocone subsp. nov. (Orthoptera: Phalangopsidae; Luzarinae): a new taxon for the northern Pantanal of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lima, Raysa Martins; Martins, Luciano De Pinho; Pereira, Marcelo Ribeiro; Ganchev, Todor D; Jahn, Olaf; Lhano, Marcos Gonçalves; Marques, Marinêz Isaac; Schuchmann, Karl-L

    2016-10-17

    The first record of the Orthoptera species Lerneca inalata for Brazil is presented here. The taxon is represented by a new subspecies Lerneca inalata beripocone subsp. nov. (Phalangopsidae, Luzarinae), collected in the Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso, Brazil. This work includes morphological and morphometric data as well as descriptions of female genitalia and calling song. The new subspecies has as diagnostic features the male genitalia with six ventral spines on the B sclerite, the first spine having a subtle bifurcation; the mid-region of the strongly sclerotized pseudepiphallus; inclination of C sclerite with slightly concave curvature; tegmina-length ratio and the speculum (syn. mirror) width approximately three times the length of the apical area. The description of the female genitalia and the calling song is presented for the first time for the species Lerneca inalata. A distribution map covers the local occurrence of its subspecies.

  6. Exposure of free-living jaguars to Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; Crawshaw-Junior, Peter Gransden; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; May-Júnior, Joares Adenílson; Pacheco, Thábata dos Anjos; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii, Neospora caninum and Sarcocystis neurona are related apicomplexan parasites that cause reproductive and neurological disorders in a wide range of domestic and wild animals. In the present study, the immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT) was used to investigate the presence of antibodies against T. gondii, N. caninum and S. neurona in the sera of 11 free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in two protected areas in the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Ten jaguars (90.9%) showed seropositivity for T. gondii, eight (72.7%) for S. neurona, and seven (63.6%) for N. caninum antigens. Our findings reveal exposure of jaguars to these related coccidian parasites and circulation of these pathogens in this wild ecosystem. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first serological detection of N. caninum and S. neurona in free-living jaguars.

  7. Impact of land-cover change in the southern Amazonia climate: a case study for the region of Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, Vincent; Debortoli, Nathan; Funatsu, Beatriz; Nédélec, Vincent; Durieux, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of forest into pastures in the Brazilian Amazon leads to significant consequences to climate at local scale. In the region of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil), deforestation has been intense with over half the forests being cut since 1970. This article first examines the evolution of precipitation observed in this region and shows a significant trend in the decrease in total precipitation especially at the end of the dry season and at the beginning of the rainy season. The study then compares the temperatures measured in cleared and forested sectors within a reserve in the area of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil) between 2006 and 2007. The cleared sector was always hotter and drier (from 5% to 10%) than the forested area. This difference was not only especially marked during the day when it reached on average 2°C but also seemed to increase during the night with the onset of the dry season (+0.5°C). The Urban Heat Island effect is also evident especially during the night and in the dry season.

  8. New records of mites (Acari: Spinturnicidae) associated with bats (Mammalia, Chiroptera) in two Brazilian biomes: Pantanal and Caatinga.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Martins, Mayara Almeida; Guedes, Patrícia Gonçalves; Peracchi, Adriano Lucio; Serra-Freire, Nicolau Maues

    2016-01-01

    A first survey of mite species that ectoparasitize bats in the states of Ceará and Mato Grosso was conducted. The specimens of bats and their mites were collected in areas of the Caatinga and Pantanal biomes. A total of 450 spinturnicids representing two genera and ten species was collected from 15 bat species in the Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Serra das Almas, Ceará State, Northeast Brazil and 138 spinturnicids represented by two genera and four species were found in seven bats species collected in Private Reserve of the Natural Patrimony Sesc Pantanal, Mato Grosso State, Central-Western Brazil. The occurrence of Cameronieta genus and the species Mesoperiglischrus natali as well as four new associations (Periglischrus iheringi - Chiroderma vizottoi; P. micronycteridis - Micronycteris sanborni; P. paracutisternus - Trachops cirrhosus; Spinturnix americanus - Myotis riparius) are registered for the first time in Brazil.

  9. Serologic evidence of the recent circulation of Saint Louis encephalitis virus and high prevalence of equine encephalitis viruses in horses in the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal, Central-West Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Tavares, Fernando Neto; Costa, Eliane Veiga da; Burlandy, Fernanda Marcicano; Murta, Michele; Pellegrin, Aiesca Oliveira; Nogueira, Márcia Furlan; Silva, Edson Elias da

    2010-09-01

    As in humans, sub-clinical infection by arboviruses in domestic animals is common; however, its detection only occurs during epizootics and the silent circulation of some arboviruses may remain undetected. The objective of the present paper was to assess the current circulation of arboviruses in the Nhecolândia sub-region of South Pantanal, Brazil. Sera from a total of 135 horses, of which 75 were immunized with bivalent vaccine composed of inactive Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) and Western equine encephalitis virus(WEEV) and 60 were unvaccinated, were submitted to thorough viral isolation, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and neutralization tests for Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), EEEV, WEEV and Mayaro virus (MAYV). No virus was isolated and viral nucleic-acid detection by RT-PCR was also negative. Nevertheless, the prevalence of neutralizing antibodies in horses older than seven months was 43.7% for SLEV in equines regardless of vaccine status, and 36.4% for WEEV and 47.7% for EEEV in unvaccinated horses. There was no evidence of MAYV infections. The serologic evidence of circulation of arboviruses responsible for equine and human encephalitis, without recent official reports of clinical infections in the area, suggests that the Nhecolândia sub-region in South Pantanal is an important area for detection of silent activity of arboviruses in Brazil.

  10. Ilheus Virus Isolation in the Pantanal, West-Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Kenney, Joan L.; Couto-Lima, Dinair; Campos, Zilca M. S.; Nogueira, Rita M. R.; Brault, Aaron C.; Komar, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    The wetlands of the Brazilian Pantanal host large concentrations of diverse wildlife species and hematophagous arthropods, conditions that favor the circulation of zoonotic arboviruses. A recent study from the Nhecolândia sub-region of Pantanal reported serological evidence of various flaviviruses, including West Nile virus and Ilheus virus (ILHV). According to the age of seropositive horses, at least three flaviviruses, including ILHV, circulated in the Brazilian Pantanal between 2005 and 2009. To extend this study, we collected 3,234 adult mosquitoes of 16 species during 2009 and 2010 in the same sub-region. Mosquito pool homogenates were assayed for infectious virus on C6/36 and Vero cell monolayers and also tested for flaviviral RNA by a group-specific real-time RT-PCR. One pool containing 50 non-engorged female specimens of Aedes scapularis tested positive for ILHV by culture and for ILHV RNA by real-time RT-PCR, indicating a minimum infection rate of 2.5 per 1000. Full-length genomic sequence exhibited 95% identity to the only full genome sequence available for ILHV. The present data confirm the circulation of ILHV in the Brazilian Pantanal. PMID:23875051

  11. The Low Prevalence of Y Chromosomal Microdeletions is Observed in the Oligozoospermic Men in the Area of Mato Grosso State and Amazonian Region of Brazilian Patients

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Godoy, Gleice Cristina; Galera, Bianca Borsatto; Araujo, Claudinéia; Barbosa, Jacklyne Silva; de Pinho, Max Fernando; Galera, Marcial Francis; de Medeiros, Sebastião Freitas

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and microdeletions on Y chromosome in infertile patients with oligozoospermia or azoospermia in Mato Grosso state, Brazil. METHODS This cross-sectional study enrolled 94 men from infertile couples. Karyotype analysis was performed by lymphocyte culture technique. DNA from each sample was extracted using non-enzymatic method. Microdeletions were investigated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS With the use of cytogenetic analysis, five patients (5.3%) had abnormal karyotype, one azoospermic patient (1.1%) had karyotype 46,XY,t(7;1) (qter-p35), one (1.1%) with mild oligozoospermia had karyotype 46,XY,delY(q), and two other azoospermic patients had karyotype 47,XXY, consistent with Klinefelter syndrome (KS). One of them (1.1%) with severe oligozoospermia had karyotype 46,XY,8p+. Microdeletion on Y chromosome was found in the azoospermia factor c (AZFc) region in only one azoospermic patient (1.1%). CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of genetic abnormalities in oligo/azoospermic Brazilian men from infertile couple was 5.3%, and microdeletion on Y chromosome was not a common finding in this population (1.1%). PMID:25210487

  12. Stigma receptivity, mode of reproduction, and mating system in Mesosetum chaseae Luces (Poaceae), a native grass of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Silva, L A C; Pagliarini, M S; Santos, S A; Valle, C B

    2013-10-25

    Mesosetum chaseae Luces, known regionally as "grama-do-cerrado", is abundant in the Pantanal region in Brazil and contributes significantly to livestock and environmental conservation. This species is under basic studies at Embrapa Pantanal (Nhecolândia subregion, Pantanal, Corumbá, MS, Brazil). In this study, we present data about stigma receptivity, mode of reproduction, and mating system for 10 accessions collected in Nhecolândia subregion (Pantanal). Stigma receptivity was optimal, producing innumerous oxygen bubbles upon testing with hydrogen peroxidase. Clarified ovaries analyzed under interference microscopy showed an embryo sac of the Polygonum type, typical of sexual species. The mating system, tested in protected flowers, indicated allogamy. These data are important for subsidizing future breeding programs for this species.

  13. Modeling the hydrological patterns on Pantanal wetlands, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castro, A. A.; Cuartas, A.; Coe, M. T.; Koumrouyan, A.; Panday, P. K.; Lefebvre, P.; Padovani, C.; Costa, M. H.; de Oliveira, G. S.

    2014-12-01

    The Pantanal of Brazil is one of the world's largest wetland regions. It is located within the 370,000 km2 Alto Paraguai Basin (BAP). In wet years almost 15% of the total area of the basin can be flooded (approximately 53,000 km2). The hydrological cycle is particularly important in the Pantanal in the transport of materials, and the transfer of energy between atmospheric, aquatic, and terrestrial systems. The INLAND (Integrated Land Surface Model) terrestrial ecosystem model is coupled with the THMB hydrological model to examine the hydrological balance and water dynamics for this region. The INLAND model is based on the IBIS dynamic vegetation model, while THMB represents the river, wetland and lake dynamics of the land surface. The modeled hydrological components are validated with surface and satellite-based estimates of precipitation (gridded observations from CRU v. 3.21, reanalysis data from ERA-interim, and TRMM estimates), evapotranspiration (MODIS and Land Flux-Eval dataset), total runoff (discharge data from ANA-Agência Nacional das Águas - Brazil), and terrestrial water storage (GRACE). Results show that the coupled hydrological model adequately represents the water cycle components, the river discharge and flooded areas. Model simulations are further used to study the influences of climatic variations on the hydrological components, river network, and the inundated areas in the Pantanal.

  14. Ticks infesting bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Eriksson, Alan; Santos, Carolina Ferreira; Fischer, Erich; de Almeida, Juliana Cardoso; Luz, Hermes R; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2016-05-01

    Ticks associated with bats have been poorly documented in the Neotropical Zoogeographical Region. In this study, a total of 1028 bats were sampled for tick infestations in the southern portion of the Brazilian Pantanal. A total of 368 ticks, morphologically identified as Ornithodoros hasei (n = 364) and O. mimon (n = 4), were collected from the following bat species: Artibeus planirostris, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Phyllostomus hastatus, Mimon crenulatum and Noctilio albiventris. Morphological identification of O. hasei was confirmed by molecular analysis. Regarding the most abundant bat species, only 40 (6.2%) out of 650 A. planirostris were infested by O. hasei, with a mean intensity of 7.2 ticks per infested bat, or a mean abundance of 0.44 ticks per sampled bat. Noteworthy, one single P. hastatus was infested by 55 O. hasei larvae, in contrast to the 2.5-7.2 range of mean intensity values for the whole study. As a complement to the present study, a total of 8 museum bat specimens (6 Noctilio albiventris and 2 N. leporinus), collected in the northern region of Pantanal, were examined for tick infestations. These bats contained 176 ticks, which were all morphologically identified as O. hasei larvae. Mean intensity of infestation was 22, with a range of 1-46 ticks per infested bat. Our results suggest that A. planirostris might play an important role in the natural life cycle of O. hasei in the Pantanal.

  15. Variations in ecosystem structure, carbon, and nutrient storage along a fertility gradient in tropical savanna of southern Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlitis, G. L.; Lobo, F. D.; Lawrence, S.; Holt, K.; Pinto Junior, O. B.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Nogueira, J. D.

    2013-12-01

    Brazilian savanna (cerrado) is composed of vegetation and soil types that are spatially variable, and links between cerrado physiognomy and soil properties are poorly understood. To reduce this uncertainty, we measured the plant community structure and carbon (C) and nutrient (N, P, K, and Ca) stocks in aboveground wood, foliage, and litter, and soil (0-50 cm) pools in a variety of cerrado vegetation types located in the Cuiaba Basin and the Pantanal, Mato Grosso, Brazil. We hypothesized that aboveground and surface soil C and nutrient stocks would be correlated with soil fertility and vegetation structure (including tree species composition, density and tree species diversity). Our results indicate that aboveground woody (AGW), foliage, and soil C stocks were significantly (p < 0.05) correlated with indices of soil fertility but not texture. Since AGWC was the largest C pool, total ecosystem C stocks increase significantly as a function of soil fertility. Similarly, AGWC and foliage C stocks were significantly correlated with tree species diversity (H'), but not soil texture. These data suggest that small-scale (m2-ha) variations in soil fertility are important controls on ecosystem C storage in Brazilian cerrado, and that ecosystem C and nutrient storage is positively related to tree species diversity. These results are qualitatively similar to those reported for tropical forests across regional fertility gradients in the Amazon Basin. These results have implications for the maintenance of soil C storage and fertility and tree species diversity in cerrado.

  16. Concluding remarks: overall impacts on biodiversity and future perspectives for conservation in the Pantanal biome.

    PubMed

    Alho, C J R

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal biome is characterised by seasonal flooding which determines specific ecosystem processes, with the occurrence of adapted plants and animals to the annual shrinking and expansion of habitats due to the seasonal hydrological regime. Biodiversity abundance varies during the dry and wet seasons. The Pantanal's biodiversity is a fundamental component of ecosystem services for human society, including nutrient cycling, fish production, ecotourism, carbon storage, flood control, among others, which are relevant to regional and global environmental consequences. The biome has been impacted by the conversion of natural vegetation into agricultural fields and pasture for cattle raising, with alteration and loss of natural habitats and biodiversity. Major negative impacts occur in uplands, with drastic deforestation of savanna vegetation, where main rivers feeding the Pantanal have their springs. This article discusses future needs and priorities for ecological research, in order to better understand the biome's natural system, to achieve conservation and sustainable use.

  17. Mercury and methyl mercury ratios in caimans (Caiman crocodilus yacare) from the Pantanal area, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, L M; Nunes, V da S; Amaral, M C do A; Oliveira, A C; Hauser-Davis, R A; Campos, R C

    2011-02-01

    The Pantanal region is the largest floodplain area in the world and of great biological importance due to its unique flora and fauna. This area is continuously undergoing increasing anthropogenic threats, and has also experienced mercury contamination associated with gold mining and other anthropogenic activities. Pantanal caimans are top-level predators, and, as such, show great potential to accumulate mercury (Hg) by biomagnification. In this study 79 specimens from four locations in the Pantanal were analyzed for total Hg and methyl mercury (MeHg) by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry. Total Hg contents ranged from 0.02 to 0.36 µg g(-1) (ww), and most specimens presented MeHg ratios above 70%. One of the sites, impacted by anthropogenic activities, presented significantly higher total Hg in comparison to three less impacted sites, supporting the hypothesis that caimans can, in fact, be considered effective bioindicators of ecosystem health.

  18. Molecular detection of feline arthropod-borne pathogens in cats in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, central-western region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Natasha Gandolfi; Gavioli, Fernando Antonio; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; André, Marcos Rogério; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco; Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques de; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2013-01-01

    Hemotrophic mycoplasmas (hemoplasmas), Bartonella sp., Hepatozoon sp. and Cytauxzoon felis are prominent pathogens that circulate between cats and invertebrate hosts. The present study aimed to detect the presence of DNA from hemoplasmas, Bartonella sp., Hepatozoon sp. and Cytauxzoon felis, and then confirm it by means of sequencing, in blood samples from cats in Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. From February 2009 to February 2011, blood samples with added EDTA were collected from 163 cats that were being housed in four different animal shelters in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil and from 15 cats that were admitted to the veterinary hospital of the Federal University of Mato Grosso (UFMT). Out of the 178 cats sampled, 15 (8.4%) were positive for hemoplasmas: four (2.2%) for Mycoplasma haemofelis, 12 (6.7%) for 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and one (0.5%) for 'Candidatus M. turicensis'. One cat (0.5%), a patient that was attended at the veterinary hospital, was coinfected with M. haemofelis, 'Candidatus M. haemominutum' and 'Candidatus M. turicensis', based on sequencing confirmation. Four cats were positive for Bartonella spp.: three (1.7%) for B. henselae and one (0.5%) for B. clarridgeiae. None of the animals showed Cytauxzoon sp. or Hepatozoon sp. DNA in their blood samples. This study showed that cats housed in animal shelters in the city of Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, are exposed to hemoplasmas and Bartonella species.

  19. Introduced species in the Pantanal: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Alho, C J R; Mamede, S; Bitencourt, K; Benites, M

    2011-04-01

    Land use and human occupation within the natural habitats of the Pantanal have facilitated introduction of invasive species of plants and animals, including domestic species. Exotic species threaten regional biodiversity because they modify ecological community structure, alter natural habitats and affect local biodiversity. An international organisation, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and the Brazilian government, identify invasive species as the third most important threat to biodiversity, following habitat loss and direct effect on species. In addition, exotic species carry pathogens or may function as vectors or reservoirs for diseases that affect regional biota.

  20. Hydrochemical variability at the Upper Paraguay Basin and Pantanal wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende Filho, A. T.; Furian, S.; Victoria, R. L.; Mascré, C.; Valles, V.; Barbiero, L.

    2012-08-01

    Compartmentalization is a prerequisite to understand large wetlands that receive water from several sources. However, it faces the heterogeneity in space and time, resulting from physical, chemical and biological processes that are specific to wetlands. The Pantanal is a vast seasonally flooded continental wetland located in the centre of South America. The chemical composition of the waters that supply the Pantanal (70 rivers) has been studied in order to establish a compartmentalization of the wetland based on soil-water interactions. A PCA-based EMMA (End-Members Mixing Analysis) procedure shows that the chemistry of the rivers can be viewed as a mixture of 3 end-members, influenced by lithology and land use, and delimiting large regions. Although the chemical composition of the end-members changed between dry and wet seasons, their spatial distribution was maintained. The results were extended to the floodplain by simple tributary mixing calculation according to the hydrographical network and to the areas of influence for each river when in overflow conditions. The resulting map highlights areas of high geochemical contrast on either side of the river Cuiaba in the north, and of the rivers Aquidauana and Abobral in the south. The PCA-based treatment on a sampling conducted in the Nhecolândia, a large sub region of the Pantanal, allowed the identification and ordering of the processes that control the geochemical variability of the surface waters. Despite an enormous variability in electrical conductivity and pH, all data collected were in agreement with an evaporation process of the Taquari River water, which supplies the region. Evaporation and associated saline precipitations (Mg-calcite, Mg-silicates K-silicates) explained more than 77% of the total variability in the chemistry of the regional surface water sampling.

  1. Hydrochemical variability at the Upper Paraguay Basin and Pantanal wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezende Filho, A. T.; Furian, S.; Victoria, R. L.; Mascré, C.; Valles, V.; Barbiero, L.

    2012-03-01

    Compartmentalization is a prerequisite to understand large wetlands that receive water from several sources. However, it faces the heterogeneity in space and time, resulting from physical, chemical and biological processes that are specific to wetlands. The Pantanal is a vast seasonally flooded continental wetland located in the centre of South America. The chemical makeup of the waters that supply the Pantanal (70 rivers) has been studied in order to establish a compartmentalization of the wetland based on soil-water interactions. A PCA-based EMMA (End-Members Mixing Analysis) procedure shows that the chemistry of the rivers can be regarded as a mixture of 3 end-members, influenced by lithology and land use, and delimiting large regions. Although the chemical composition of the end-members changed between dry and wet seasons, their spatial distribution was maintained. The results were extended to the floodplain by simple tributary mixing calculation according to the hydrographical network and to the areas of influence for each river when in overflow conditions. The resulting document highlights areas of high geochemical contrast on either side of the river Cuiaba in the north, and of the rivers Aquidauana and Abobral located in the south. The PCA-based treatment on a sampling conducted in the Nhecolândia, a large sub region of the Pantanal floodplain, allowed for the identification and prioritization of the processes that control the geochemical variability of the surface waters. Despite an enormous variability in Electrical Conductivity and pH, all data collected were in agreement with an evaporation process of the Taquari River water, which supplies the region. Evaporation and associated saline precipitations (Mg-calcite, Mg-silicates K-silicates) explained more than 77% of the total variability in the chemistry of the regional surface water sampling.

  2. Geomorphology and habitat diversity in the Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Mercante, M A; Rodrigues, S C; Ross, J L S

    2011-04-01

    The present study deals with the inter-relations in the relief which forms the Bacia do Alto Rio Paraguay (BAP) in mid-west Brazil. The overall aim is to discuss the relationship between relief forms and the biodiversity of the Pantanal. The BAP is a natural environmental system with contrasts in two of the compartments on which it is formed: the plateau, the most elevated compartment, highly transformed by human activities, and the plain which forms the Pantanal, which is more preserved and less transformed in relation to productive activities. The analysis was performed based on publications with a geomorphologic focus, examining the different relief units of the BAP and the dynamics of the revealing processes of landscape change which the Pantanal has undergone since the end of the Pleistocene.

  3. The 2009 earthquake, magnitude mb 4.8, in the Pantanal Wetlands, west-central Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dias, Fábio L; Assumpção, Marcelo; Facincani, Edna M; França, George S; Assine, Mario L; Paranhos, Antônio C; Gamarra, Roberto M

    2016-09-01

    The main goal of this paper is to characterize the Coxim earthquake occurred in June 15th, 2009 in the Pantanal Basin and to discuss the relationship between its faulting mechanism with the Transbrasiliano Lineament. The earthquake had maximum intensity MM V causing damage in farm houses and was felt in several cities located around, including Campo Grande and Goiânia. The event had an mb 4.8 magnitude and depth was 6 km, i.e., it occurred in the upper crust, within the basement and 5 km below the Cenozoic sedimentary cover. The mechanism, a thrust fault mechanism with lateral motion, was obtained by P-wave first-motion polarities and confirmed by regional waveform modelling. The two nodal planes have orientations (strike/dip) of 300°/55° and 180°/55° and the orientation of the P-axis is approximately NE-SW. The results are similar to the Pantanal earthquake of 1964 with mb 5.4 and NE-SW compressional axis. Both events show that Pantanal Basin is a seismically active area, under compressional stress. The focal mechanism of the 1964 and 2009 events have no nodal plane that could be directly associated with the main SW-NE trending Transbrasiliano system indicating that a direct link of the Transbrasiliano with the seismicity in the Pantanal Basin is improbable.

  4. Ticks on humans in the Pantanal wetlands, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Osava, Carolina F; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabó, Matias P J

    2014-09-01

    Information on ticks biting humans in Brazil is very restricted. In fact, many times when human tick-borne diseases are diagnosed, the involved vector tick is not identified, although this may be clinically helpful. Pantanal is one of the world's largest floodplains, has an exuberant wildlife, and is place of extensive cattle ranching, ecotourism, and fishing. We herein report tick species found on humans in a 13-month survey in a region with both cattle and wildlife handling in the Brazilian Pantanal. From February 2012 to February 2013, a total of 280 ticks was collected from humans (n=22), 121 of which were attached. Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato nymphs were the main tick species and stage found attached to humans (n=93) especially during the dry months (winter). In the wet season (summer), Amblyomma parvum adults were the main ticks found attached to humans (n=19) followed by A. cajennense s.l. adults (n=9). Only one unattached nymph of A. parvum was collected in this study. These results reinforce that A. cajennense s.l. nymphs are an important parasite of humans (and vectors) in Brazil and draw also attention to A. parvum adults as frequent human parasites as well.

  5. Cluster analysis applied to the spatial and temporal variability of monthly rainfall in Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teodoro, Paulo Eduardo; de Oliveira-Júnior, José Francisco; da Cunha, Elias Rodrigues; Correa, Caio Cezar Guedes; Torres, Francisco Eduardo; Bacani, Vitor Matheus; Gois, Givanildo; Ribeiro, Larissa Pereira

    2016-04-01

    The State of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) located in Brazil Midwest is devoid of climatological studies, mainly in the characterization of rainfall regime and producers' meteorological systems and rain inhibitors. This state has different soil and climatic characteristics distributed among three biomes: Cerrado, Atlantic Forest and Pantanal. This study aimed to apply the cluster analysis using Ward's algorithm and identify those meteorological systems that affect the rainfall regime in the biomes. The rainfall data of 32 stations (sites) of the MS State were obtained from the Agência Nacional de Águas (ANA) database, collected from 1954 to 2013. In each of the 384 monthly rainfall temporal series was calculated the average and applied the Ward's algorithm to identify spatial and temporal variability of rainfall. Bartlett's test revealed only in January homogeneous variance at all sites. Run test showed that there was no increase or decrease in trend of monthly rainfall. Cluster analysis identified five rainfall homogeneous regions in the MS State, followed by three seasons (rainy, transitional and dry). The rainy season occurs during the months of November, December, January, February and March. The transitional season ranges between the months of April and May, September and October. The dry season occurs in June, July and August. The groups G1, G4 and G5 are influenced by South Atlantic Subtropical Anticyclone (SASA), Chaco's Low (CL), Bolivia's High (BH), Low Levels Jet (LLJ) and South Atlantic Convergence Zone (SACZ) and Maden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). Group G2 is influenced by Upper Tropospheric Cyclonic Vortex (UTCV) and Front Systems (FS). The group G3 is affected by UTCV, FS and SACZ. The meteorological systems' interaction that operates in each biome and the altitude causes the rainfall spatial and temporal diversity in MS State.

  6. Assessment of the current state of biodiversity data for butterflies and skippers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea)

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz-Santos, Luziany; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Dell’Erba, Rafael; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Lepidoptera is one of the four megadiverse insect orders, comprising butterflies and moths. In Brazil, the bulk of knowledge about the butterfly fauna is restricted to some areas in the southeast of the country, with large gaps of knowledge in other areas. The state of Mato Grosso is one of the largest states in Brazil, and holds three of the main Brazilian biomes: Amazon rain forest, Cerrado and Pantanal. However, knowledge about Mato Grosso butterflies is fragmented and restricted to a few localities, and information is scattered in various sources. The aim of this study is to assemble the biodiversity information of the butterfly fauna of the state of Mato Grosso based on historical and recent literature data and collections carried out in the southwest of the state from 2007–2009. Records without precise locality data or taxonomic information were not included. Species identification was based on literature and comparison with specimens in collections; higher and species-level taxonomy were updated based on the Neotropical Checklist of Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea and recent phylogenetic and revisionary taxonomic works. In total, 901 species were recorded in 2,820 occurrence records. This represents 148 species of Hesperiidae, 29 Papilionidae, 28 Pieridae, 77 Lycaenidae, 238 Riodinidae, and 381 Nymphalidae. Of these, 207 species records are from the type specimens of species described in the state. Based on the results and literature records for other Brazilian states and biomes, probably the figures for Mato Grosso are underestimated, particularly in the families Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae, in that order. Future collecting efforts should be directed towards certain areas of the state, especially in less sampled areas and biomes, as the north of the state and Pantanal. PMID:27408571

  7. Assessment of the current state of biodiversity data for butterflies and skippers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil (Lepidoptera, Papilionoidea and Hesperioidea).

    PubMed

    Queiroz-Santos, Luziany; Dias, Fernando Maia Silva; Dell'Erba, Rafael; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Lepidoptera is one of the four megadiverse insect orders, comprising butterflies and moths. In Brazil, the bulk of knowledge about the butterfly fauna is restricted to some areas in the southeast of the country, with large gaps of knowledge in other areas. The state of Mato Grosso is one of the largest states in Brazil, and holds three of the main Brazilian biomes: Amazon rain forest, Cerrado and Pantanal. However, knowledge about Mato Grosso butterflies is fragmented and restricted to a few localities, and information is scattered in various sources. The aim of this study is to assemble the biodiversity information of the butterfly fauna of the state of Mato Grosso based on historical and recent literature data and collections carried out in the southwest of the state from 2007-2009. Records without precise locality data or taxonomic information were not included. Species identification was based on literature and comparison with specimens in collections; higher and species-level taxonomy were updated based on the Neotropical Checklist of Hesperioidea and Papilionoidea and recent phylogenetic and revisionary taxonomic works. In total, 901 species were recorded in 2,820 occurrence records. This represents 148 species of Hesperiidae, 29 Papilionidae, 28 Pieridae, 77 Lycaenidae, 238 Riodinidae, and 381 Nymphalidae. Of these, 207 species records are from the type specimens of species described in the state. Based on the results and literature records for other Brazilian states and biomes, probably the figures for Mato Grosso are underestimated, particularly in the families Hesperiidae, Lycaenidae and Riodinidae, in that order. Future collecting efforts should be directed towards certain areas of the state, especially in less sampled areas and biomes, as the north of the state and Pantanal.

  8. Biodiversity of the Pantanal: response to seasonal flooding regime and to environmental degradation.

    PubMed

    Alho, C J R

    2008-11-01

    Seasonal flooding is the most important ecological phenomenon in the Pantanal. Every year many parts of the biome change from terrestrial into aquatic habitats and vice-versa. The degree of inundation creates a range of major habitats. Flooding occupies about 80% of the whole Pantanal. In contrast, during the dry season, most of the flooded areas stay dry, when the water returns to the river beds or evaporates. The Pantanal is a large continental savanna wetland (147,574 km(2) in Brazil), touching Bolivia to the north and Paraguay to the south. The maze of fluctuating water levels, nutrients, and biota forms a dynamic ecosystem. The vegetation comprises 1,863 phanerogam plant species listed for the floodplain and 3,400 for the whole basin and 250 species of aquatic plants. The complex vegetation cover and seasonal productivity support a diverse and abundant fauna within the floodplain: 263 species of fish, 41 of amphibians, 113 of reptiles (177 for the basin), 463 of birds and 132 mammal species. Many endangered species occur, including jaguar (Panthera onca Linnaeus, 1758). Waterfowl are exceptionally abundant during the dry season. Analysis of the root causes of the threats to biodiversity indicated that deforestation (17% of the Pantanal and 63% of the surrounding uplands) with modification and loss of natural habitats due to cattle ranching, unsustainable agriculture, mining, environmental contamination (including mercury, pesticides, urban sewage), non organized tourism, fire, disturbances at the upstream region modifying hydrological flow, erosion, weak implementation and enforcement of legislation are the major issues to face conservation action and sustainable use. Under an evolutionary focus, local biodiversity seems to be well adapted to seasonal shrinking and expansion of natural habitats due to flooding. However, the conversion of natural vegetation due to human occupation is a real threat to biodiversity.

  9. Detection of wild animals as carriers of Leptospira by PCR in the Pantanal biome, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Anahi S; Narduche, Lorena; Martins, Gabriel; Schabib Péres, Igor A H F; Zimmermann, Namor P; Juliano, Raquel S; Pellegrin, Aiesca O; Lilenbaum, Walter

    2016-11-01

    Leptospiral infection is widespread in wildlife. In this context, wild ecosystems in tropical countries hold a vast biodiversity, including several species that may act as potential reservoirs of leptospires. The Pantanal biome presents highly favorable environmental conditions for the occurrence of leptospirosis, such as high temperatures, constant flooding, and high biodiversity. The purpose of this study was to detect wild animals as carriers of Leptospira sp. using direct methods (PCR and culture) in the Pantanal biome, Brazil. A total of 35 animals were studied, namely Cerdocyon thous, Nasua nasua, Ozotoceros bezoarticus, and Sus scrofa species. Blood for serology (MAT) and urine for bacteriological culturing and PCR was sampled. The most prevalent serogroups were Javanica and Djasiman. Additionally, 40.6% of these animals presented PCR positive reactions. Seroreactivity associated with the high frequency of leptospiral carriers among the different studied species suggests a high level of exposure of the studied animals to pathogenic Leptospira strains. Our results are still limited and the actual role of the studied animals in the epidemiology of leptospirosis in the Pantanal region remains to be elucidated.

  10. DETECTION OF Leptospira spp. AND Brucella abortus ANTIBODIES IN FREE-LIVING JAGUARS (Panthera onca) IN TWO PROTECTED AREAS OF NORTHERN PANTANAL, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    ONUMA, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; KANTEK, Daniel Luis Zanella; CRAWSHAW, Peter Gransden; MORATO, Ronaldo Gonçalves; MAY-JÚNIOR, Joares Adenilson; de MORAIS, Zenaide Maria; FERREIRA, José Soares; de AGUIAR, Daniel Moura

    2015-01-01

     This study aimed to assess the exposure of free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) to Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus in two conservation units in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of antibodies in blood samples of eleven jaguars was investigated using autochthonous antigens isolated in Brazil added to reference antigen collection applied to diagnosis of leptospirosis by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The Rose Bengal test was applied for B. abortus antibodies. Two (18.2%) jaguars were seroreactive for the Leptospira spp. antigen and the serovar considered as most infective in both animals was a Brazilian isolate of serovar Canicola (L01). All jaguars were seronegative for B. abortus. These data indicate that the inclusion of autochthonous antigens in serological studies can significantly increase the number of reactive animals, as well as modify the epidemiological profile of Leptospira spp. infection. PMID:25923900

  11. Detection of Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus antibodies in free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in two protected areas of northern Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Onuma, Selma Samiko Miyazaki; Kantek, Daniel Luis Zanella; Crawshaw Júnior, Peter Gransden; Morato, Ronaldo Gonçalves; May-Júnior, Joares Adenilson; Morais, Zenaide Maria de; Ferreira Neto, José Soares; Aguiar, Daniel Moura de

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the exposure of free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) to Leptospira spp. and Brucella abortus in two conservation units in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The presence of antibodies in blood samples of eleven jaguars was investigated using autochthonous antigens isolated in Brazil added to reference antigen collection applied to diagnosis of leptospirosis by Microscopic Agglutination Test (MAT). The Rose Bengal test was applied for B. abortus antibodies. Two (18.2%) jaguars were seroreactive for the Leptospira spp. antigen and the serovar considered as most infective in both animals was a Brazilian isolate of serovar Canicola (L01). All jaguars were seronegative for B. abortus. These data indicate that the inclusion of autochthonous antigens in serological studies can significantly increase the number of reactive animals, as well as modify the epidemiological profile of Leptospira spp. infection.

  12. Exposure of free-ranging wild carnivores, horses and domestic dogs to Leptospira spp in the northern Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jorge, Rodrigo Silva Pinto; Ferreira, Fernando; Ferreira Neto, José Soares; Vasconcellos, Silvio de Arruda; Lima, Edson de Souza; Morais, Zenaide Maria de; Souza, Gisele Oliveira de

    2011-06-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease affecting most mammals and is distributed throughout the world. Several species of domestic and wild animals may act as reservoirs for this disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the exposure of free-ranging wild carnivores, horses and domestic dogs on a private reserve located in the northern Pantanal (Brazil) and the surrounding areas to Leptospira spp from 2002-2006, 75 free-ranging wild carnivores were captured in the Pantanal and serum samples were collected. In addition, samples from 103 domestic dogs and 23 horses in the region were collected. Serum samples were tested for the presence of Leptospira antibodies using the microscopic agglutination test. Thirty-two wild carnivores (42.7%) were considered positive with titres ≥ 100, and 18 domestic dogs (17.5%) and 20 horses (74.1%) were also found to be positive. Our study showed that horses, dogs and several species of free-ranging wild carnivores have been exposed to Leptospira spp in the Pantanal, suggesting that the peculiar characteristics of this biome, such as high temperatures and an extended period of flooding, may favour bacterial persistence and transmission. In this region, wild carnivores and horses seem to be important hosts for the epidemiology of Leptospira species.

  13. Effects of Severe Floods and Droughts on Wildlife of the Pantanal Wetland (Brazil)—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Alho, Cleber J. R.; Silva, João S. V.

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary The Pantanal is a wetland in the center of South America, (140,000 km² in Brazil), in the Upper Paraguay River Basin. Because of its diverse and abundant wildlife, it is recognized as one of the most important freshwater ecosystems in the world. Many endangered species occur there, including jaguar; waterfowl are exceptionally abundant. Relief varies between the low, and flat floodplain, and the surrounding non-flooded plateau areas. Rainfall shows inter-annual variability, influencing the flooding patterns. Historical climate instability of severe multi-annual flood and dry events has affected animals’ habitats as well as their community structure, population size and behavioral ecology. Abstract Flooding throughout the Pantanal is seasonal. The complex vegetative cover and high seasonal productivity support a diverse and abundant fauna. A gradient in flood level supports a range of major habitats in a complex mosaic with annual seasonality. The rivers and streams are lined with gallery forests, and other arboreal habitats exist in the more elevated areas. The remainder is either grasslands or seasonally flooded grasslands. The regional flora and fauna are adapted to annual water fluctuation. However, an inter-annual series of higher or lower rainfalls has caused either severe floods or drastic dry seasons. Large scale climate phenomena such as greenhouse gases, El Niño and La Niña influence the seasonality of floods and droughts in the Pantanal. Knowledge of severe floods and droughts, which characterize natural disasters, is fundamental for wildlife management and nature conservation of the Pantanal. Plants and wild animals, for example, are affected by tree mortality in riparian forest after extreme flooding, with consequent habitat modification for wild animals. In addition, human activities are also affected since cattle ranching and ecotourism are economically important in the region, and when seasons with unusual floods or droughts occur

  14. Bucrates lanista Rehn 1918 (Tettigoniidae: Conocephalinae): The First Record from the Brazilian Pantanal, the First Description of the Male, the First Karyotypic Report for the Genus, and the First Telomeric Hybridization of the Subfamily.

    PubMed

    Chamorro-Rengifo, Juliana; Olivier, Renan da Silva; Araujo, Douglas

    2016-10-01

    Bucrates lanista, the most southerly distributed species in the genus Bucrates Burmeister, was originally described from Brazil based on a female collected in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, but the species has not been recorded since 1918. In this work, we report that B. lanista inhabits the Pantanal Wetland in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and, for the first time, describe the male. Individuals of B. lanista are gregarious and present a brown/green color dimorphism; this behavior and color variation are also observed in species of closely related genera. Individuals from the Pantanal vary slightly from those of Rio Grande do Sul. The karyotype was determined to be 2n♂ = 21 = 20 + X0 and 2n♀ = 22 = 20 + XX. The X chromosome is metacentric and the largest of the complement, and all of the autosomes are submetacentrics. All chromosomes solely present telomeric (TTAGG)n repeats at their ends, and some chromosomes present positive and negative DAPI bands.

  15. [Association between reported annual gold mining extraction and incidence of malaria in Mato Grosso-Brazil, 1985-1996].

    PubMed

    Duarte, Elisabeth Carmen; Fontes, Cor Jesus Fernandes

    2002-01-01

    A secondary data analysis was performed using an ecological design to study the association between malaria incidence rates, the reported annual production of gold mining extraction and monetary investments for the control of malaria from 1985 to 1996 in Mato Grosso, Brazil. A positive and statistically significant (p<0.001) association between the amount of gold extracted and MIR was obtained in multivariate regression analysis, even after allowing for financial investments in malaria control activities. This finding contributes to an understanding of the decrease observed in malaria incidence in Mato Grosso during the last decade, in view of the significant decrease in gold mining within the region during this period.

  16. Deforestation control in Mato Grosso: a new model for slowing the loss of Brazil's Amazon forest.

    PubMed

    Fearnside, Philip M

    2003-08-01

    Controlling deforestation in Brazil's Amazon region has long been illusive despite repeated efforts of government authorities to slow the process. From 1997 to 2000, deforestation rates in Brazil's 9-state "Legal Amazon" region continually crept upward. Now, a licensing and enforcement program for clearing by large farmers and ranchers in the state of Mato Grosso appears to be having an effect. The deforestation rate in Mato Grosso was already beginning to slacken before initiation of the program in 1999, but examination of county-level data suggests that deforestation in already heavily cleared areas was falling due to lack of suitable uncleared land, while little-cleared areas were experiencing rapid deforestation. Following initiation of the program, the clearing rates declined in the recent frontiers. Areas with greater enforcement effort also appear to have experienced greater declines. Demonstration of government ability to enforce regulations and influence trends is important to domestic and international debates regarding use of avoided deforestation to mitigate global warming.

  17. Molecular Epidemiology of Laguna Negra Virus, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Travassos da Rosa, Elizabeth S.; Medeiros, Daniele B.A.; Nunes, Márcio R.T.; Simith, Darlene B.; Pereira, Armando de S.; Elkhoury, Mauro R.; Santos, Elizabeth Davi; Lavocat, Marília; Marques, Aparecido A.; Via, Alba V.G.; Kohl, Vânia A.; Terças, Ana C.P.; D`Andrea, Paulo; Bonvícino, Cibele R.; Sampaio de Lemos, Elba R.

    2012-01-01

    We associated Laguna Negra virus with hantavirus pulmonary syndrome in Mato Grosso State, Brazil, and a previously unidentified potential host, the Calomys callidus rodent. Genetic testing revealed homologous sequencing in specimens from 20 humans and 8 mice. Further epidemiologic studies may lead to control of HPS in Mato Grosso State. PMID:22607717

  18. Endemic shrimp Macrobrachium pantanalense as a test species to assess potential contamination by pesticides in Pantanal (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Soares, Mayara Pereira; Jesus, Fátima; Almeida, Ana Rita; Zlabek, Vladimir; Grabic, Roman; Domingues, Inês; Hayd, Liliam

    2017-02-01

    Pantanal is a biome characterized by an extraordinary diversity and abundance of wildlife and houses several endemic species such as the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium pantanalense. However, the increase in agriculture and husbandry activities in the region has contributed with residues of pesticides reaching aquatic systems. The main objective of this study is to assess the sensitivity of the endemic shrimp M. pantanalense compared with other freshwater species: the shrimp M. amazonicum, the crustacean Daphnia similis and the fish Danio rerio. The sensitivity of these organisms was assessed through acute exposure to copper and cypermethrin (through the formulation Barrage(®), widely used in Pantanal). For copper the species sensitivity decreased in the following order: D. similis (48 h-EC50 0.051 mg/L) > M. pantanalense > D. rerio > M. amazonicum (48 h-LC50 26.34 mg/L). Copper caused reduced length of shrimps and zebrafish and reduced heartbeat of zebrafish embryos. For cypermethrin the species sensitivity decreased in the following order: M. pantanalense (96 h-LC50 0.05 μg/L) > M. amazonicum > D. similis > D. rerio (144 h-LC50 1680 μg/L). Major effects of cypermethrin included reduced length of shrimps and zebrafish, as well as early hatching and increased incidence of developmental deformities in zebrafish embryos. This study highlights the importance of using endemic species for risk evaluations in sensitive biomes such as Pantanal. Moreover, it emphasizes the importance of testing pesticides toxicity as commercial formulations. Furthermore, we suggest that the endemic shrimp species M. pantanalense can be successfully used as a test species in ecotoxicology.

  19. Health and epidemiological approaches of Trypanosoma evansi and equine infectious anemia virus in naturally infected horses at southern Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Parreira, Daniela R; Jansen, Ana M; Abreu, Urbano G P; Macedo, Gabriel C; Silva, Antônia R S; Mazur, Carlos; Andrade, Gisele B; Herrera, Heitor M

    2016-11-01

    Equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) and Trypanossoma evansi are endemic in Brazilian Pantanal Biome, an important area for livestock production. In this sense, we evaluated the epidemiological single and co-infection effects of T. evansi and EIAV in naturally infected horses in the southern Pantanal wetland by serological tests and hematological assays. Both higher seroprevalence and heath poor condition of the sampled animals were associated with differences in horse management between farms. We found that the negative animals for both infectious agents (NN) represented the major group in F1 (37%), and the smallest group in F2 (19%). Furthermore, we recorded higher EIAV seroprevalence (56%) in F2, compared to F1 (38%). We observed that T. evansi infection was mostly related to young horses, as seen by their higher seroprevalence, ranging from 70.7% in the beginning of the rainy season to 81% in the end of flood period, in comparison with the values of 42% and 68%, respectively, in working animals. on the other hand, working animals showed a higher seroprevalence for EIAV (48%) in both seasons than young horses. We observed that the management of working horses could be a risk factor of EIAV infection. On the other hand, as T. evansi is maintained in the study region by many species of wild mammals, the mechanical transmission through blood-sucking vectors ensures the infection to horses since early. Our results showed that single or co-infection by EIAV and T. evansi caused different degree of anemia in the infected animals. Moreover, the health of horses in Brazilian Pantanal is also influenced by differences in horse management and environmental circumstances.

  20. Tick-borne bacteria in free-living jaguars (Panthera onca) in Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Cynthia E; Azevedo, Fernando C C; Almeida, Aliny P; Ferreira, Fernando; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2011-08-01

    Tick-borne bacteria were investigated in 10 free-living jaguars and their ticks in the Pantanal biome, Brazil. Jaguar sera were tested by indirect fluorescent antibody assays using Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri, Rickettsia amblyommii, Rickettsia rhipicephali, Rickettsia felis, Rickettsia bellii, Ehrlichia canis, and Coxiella burnetii as crude antigens. All 10 jaguar sera reacted (titer ≥ 64) to at least one Rickettsia species; 4 and 3 sera reacted with E. canis and C. burnetii, respectively. One jaguar presented antibody titer to R. parkeri at least fourfold higher than those to any of the other five Rickettsia antigens, suggesting that this animal was infected by R. parkeri. Ticks collected from jaguars included the species Amblyomma cajennense, Amblyomma triste, and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. No Rickettsia DNA was detected in jaguar blood samples, but an A. triste specimen collected on a jaguar was shown by PCR to be infected by R. parkeri. The blood of two jaguars and samples of A. triste, A. cajennense, and Amblyomma sp. yielded Ehrlichia DNA by PCR targeting the ehrlichial genes 16S rRNA and dsb. Partial DNA sequences obtained from PCR products resulted in a new ehrlichial strain, here designated as Ehrlichia sp. strain Jaguar. A partial DNA sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of this novel strain showed to be closest (99.0%) to uncultured strains of Ehrlichia sp. from Japan and Russia and 98.7% identical to different strains of Ehrlichia ruminantium. The ehrlichial dsb partial sequence of strain jaguar showed to be at most 80.7% identical to any Ehrlichia species or genotype available in GenBank. Through phylogenetic analysis, Ehrlichia sp. strain jaguar grouped in a cluster, albeit distantly, with different genotypes of E. ruminantium. Results highlight risks for human and animal health, considering that cattle ranching and ecotourism are major economic activities in the Pantanal region of Brazil.

  1. Serological Evidence of Widespread Circulation of West Nile Virus and Other Flaviviruses in Equines of the Pantanal, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Campos, Zilca; Juliano, Raquel; Velez, Jason; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Komar, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    A recent study reported neutralizing antibodies to West Nile virus (WNV) in horses from four ranches of southern Pantanal. To extend that study, a serosurvey for WNV and 11 Brazilian flaviviruses was conducted with 760 equines, 238 sheep and 61 caimans from 17 local cattle ranches. Among the tested equines, 32 were collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. The sera were initially screened by using a blocking ELISA and then titrated by 90% plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) for 12 flaviviruses. Employing the criterion of 4-fold greater titer, 78 (10.3%) equines were seropositive for Ilheus virus, 59 (7.8%) for Saint Louis encephalitis virus, 24 (3.2%) for WNV, two (0.3%) for Cacipacore virus and one (0.1%) for Rocio virus. No serological evidence was found linking the neurological disease that affected local equines to WNV. All caimans and sheep were negative by blocking ELISA for flaviviruses. There were no seropositive equines for Bussuquara, Iguape, Yellow fever and all four Dengue virus serotypes. The detection of WNV-seropositive equines in ten ranches and ILHV and SLEV-seropositive equines in fourteen ranches of two different sub-regions of Pantanal is strong evidence of widespread circulation of these flaviviruses in the region. PMID:24551266

  2. Land use effects on green water fluxes from agricultural production in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Johnson, M. S.; Donner, S. D.

    2010-12-01

    The blue water/green water paradigm is increasingly used to differentiate between subsequent routing of precipitation once it reaches the soil. “Blue” water is that which infiltrates deep in the soil to become streams and aquifers, while “green” water is that which remains in the soil and is either evaporated (non-productive green water) or transpired by plants (productive green water). This differentiation in the fate of precipitation has provided a new way of thinking about water resources, especially in agriculture for which better use of productive green water may help to relieve stresses from irrigation (blue water). The state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, presents a unique case for the study of green water fluxes due to an expanding agricultural land base planted primarily to soybean, maize, sugar cane, and cotton. These products are highly dependent on green water resources in Mato Grosso where crops are almost entirely rain-fed. We estimate the change in green water fluxes from agricultural expansion for the 2000-2008 period in the state of Mato Grosso based on agricultural production data from the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatísticas and a modified Penman-Monteith equation. Initial results for seven municipalities suggest an increase in agricultural green water fluxes, ranging from 1-10% per year, due primarily to increases in cropped areas. Further research is underway to elucidate the role of green water flux variations from land use practices on the regional water cycle.

  3. Ranching modernization in tropical Brazil: foreign investment and environment in Mato Grosso, 1900-1950.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Robert W

    2008-01-01

    Accompanying the expansion of modern beef production in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries were technologies and methods that proponents assumed were applicable to all ecosystems. successes in Europe, the United States, and Argentina convinced ranchers, investors, and animal scientists that these could be applied in the tropical Americas with ease. This assumption contributed to a wave of foreign ranching investment in semi-tropical Mato Grosso, Brazil, beginning in the early twentieth century. However, such a view failed to consider the specific characteristics of such environments and led to difficulties for several ventures and a re-evaluation of the relationship between ecosystems and the type of ranching appropriate to them. Ultimately, local Brazilian practice and experimentation proved more successful in tropical and semi-tropical Brazil, forcing foreign ranching concerns to adapt their techniques. Following the logic of earlier decades, more recently cattle-raising practices developed in Mato Grosso and similar regions have been applied in the tropical Amazon, resulting in widespread ecological devastation. The uneven experiences of foreign entrepreneurs in Mato Grosso offer valuable lessons for understanding the application of modernization technologies to diverse ecosystems; such knowledge can lead to a more sustainable approach to meat production.

  4. Neutralising antibodies for Mayaro virus in Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Juliano, Raquel Soares; Campos, Zilca; Velez, Jason; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Komar, Nicholas

    2015-02-03

    The Pantanal hosts diverse wildlife species and therefore is a hotspot for arbovirus studies in South America. A serosurvey for Mayaro virus (MAYV), eastern (EEEV), western (WEEV) and Venezuelan (VEEV) equine encephalitis viruses was conducted with 237 sheep, 87 free-ranging caimans and 748 equids, including 37 collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. Sera were tested for specific viral antibodies using plaque-reduction neutralisation test. From a total of 748 equids, of which 264 were immunised with vaccine composed of EEEV and WEEV and 484 had no history of immunisation, 10 (1.3%) were seropositive for MAYV and two (0.3%) for VEEV using criteria of a ≥ 4-fold antibody titre difference. Among the 484 equids without history of immunisation, 48 (9.9%) were seropositive for EEEV and four (0.8%) for WEEV using the same criteria. Among the sheep, five were sero- positive for equine encephalitis alphaviruses, with one (0.4%) for EEEV, one (0.4%) for WEEV and three (1.3%) for VEEV. Regarding free-ranging caimans, one (1.1%) and three (3.4%), respectively, had low titres for neutralising antibodies to VEEV and undetermined alphaviruses. The neurological disorder outbreak could not be linked to the alphaviruses tested. Our findings represent strong evidence that MAYV and all equine encephalitis alphaviruses circulated in the Pantanal.

  5. Neutralising antibodies for Mayaro virus in Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Juliano, Raquel Soares; Campos, Zilca; Velez, Jason; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Komar, Nicholas

    2015-02-01

    The Pantanal hosts diverse wildlife species and therefore is a hotspot for arbovirus studies in South America. A serosurvey for Mayaro virus (MAYV), eastern (EEEV), western (WEEV) and Venezuelan (VEEV) equine encephalitis viruses was conducted with 237 sheep, 87 free-ranging caimans and 748 equids, including 37 collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. Sera were tested for specific viral antibodies using plaque-reduction neutralisation test. From a total of 748 equids, of which 264 were immunised with vaccine composed of EEEV and WEEV and 484 had no history of immunisation, 10 (1.3%) were seropositive for MAYV and two (0.3%) for VEEV using criteria of a ≥ 4-fold antibody titre difference. Among the 484 equids without history of immunisation, 48 (9.9%) were seropositive for EEEV and four (0.8%) for WEEV using the same criteria. Among the sheep, five were sero- positive for equine encephalitis alphaviruses, with one (0.4%) for EEEV, one (0.4%) for WEEV and three (1.3%) for VEEV. Regarding free-ranging caimans, one (1.1%) and three (3.4%), respectively, had low titres for neutralising antibodies to VEEV and undetermined alphaviruses. The neurological disorder outbreak could not be linked to the alphaviruses tested. Our findings represent strong evidence that MAYV and all equine encephalitis alphaviruses circulated in the Pantanal.

  6. Neutralising antibodies for Mayaro virus in Pantanal, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Juliano, Raquel Soares; Campos, Zilca; Velez, Jason; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Komar, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    The Pantanal hosts diverse wildlife species and therefore is a hotspot for arbovirus studies in South America. A serosurvey for Mayaro virus (MAYV), eastern (EEEV), western (WEEV) and Venezuelan (VEEV) equine encephalitis viruses was conducted with 237 sheep, 87 free-ranging caimans and 748 equids, including 37 collected from a ranch where a neurologic disorder outbreak had been recently reported. Sera were tested for specific viral antibodies using plaque-reduction neutralisation test. From a total of 748 equids, of which 264 were immunised with vaccine composed of EEEV and WEEV and 484 had no history of immunisation, 10 (1.3%) were seropositive for MAYV and two (0.3%) for VEEV using criteria of a ≥ 4-fold antibody titre difference. Among the 484 equids without history of immunisation, 48 (9.9%) were seropositive for EEEV and four (0.8%) for WEEV using the same criteria. Among the sheep, five were sero- positive for equine encephalitis alphaviruses, with one (0.4%) for EEEV, one (0.4%) for WEEV and three (1.3%) for VEEV. Regarding free-ranging caimans, one (1.1%) and three (3.4%), respectively, had low titres for neutralising antibodies to VEEV and undetermined alphaviruses. The neurological disorder outbreak could not be linked to the alphaviruses tested. Our findings represent strong evidence that MAYV and all equine encephalitis alphaviruses circulated in the Pantanal. PMID:25742272

  7. Identification and antimicrobial resistance of microflora colonizing feral pig (Sus scrofa) of Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed Central

    Lessa, SS; Paes, RCS; Santoro, PN; Mauro, RA; Vieira-da-Motta, O

    2011-01-01

    Antimicrobial resistance of bacteria is a worldwide problem affecting wild life by living with resistant bacteria in the environment. This study presents a discussion of outside factors environment on microflora of feral pigs (Sus scrofa) from Brazilian Pantanal. Animals had samples collected from six different body sites coming from two separated geographic areas, Nhecolandia and Rio Negro regions. With routine biochemical tests and commercial kits 516 bacteria were identified, with 240 Gram-positive, predominantly staphylococci (36) and enterococci (186) strains. Among Gram-negative (GN) bacteria the predominant specimens of Enterobacteriaceae (247) mainly represented by Serratia spp. (105), Escherichia coli (50), and Enterobacter spp. (40) and specimens not identified (7). Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested against 17 drugs by agar diffusion method. Staphylococci were negative to production of enterotoxins and TSST-1, with all strains sensitive towards four drugs and highest resistance toward ampicillin (17%). Enterococci presented the highest sensitivity against vancomycin (98%), ampicillin (94%) and tetracycline (90%), and highest resistance pattern toward oxacillin (99%), clindamycin (83%), and cotrimoxazole (54%). In GN the highest resistance was observed with Serratia marcescens against CFL (98%), AMC (66%) and AMP (60%) and all drugs was most effective against E. coli SUT, TET (100%), AMP, TOB (98%), GEN, CLO (95%), CFO, CIP (93%). The results show a new profile of oxacillin-resistant enterococci from Brazilian feral pigs and suggest a limited residue and spreading of antimicrobials in the environment, possibly because of low anthropogenic impact reflected by the drug susceptibility profile of bacteria isolated. PMID:24031689

  8. Lacustrine records of Holocene flood pulse dynamics in the Upper Paraguay River watershed (Pantanal wetlands, Brazil)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGlue, Michael M.; Silva, Aquinaldo; Zani, Hiran; Corradini, Fabricio A.; Parolin, Mauro; Abel, Erin J.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Assine, Mario L.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Trees, Mark A.; Kuerten, Sidney; Gradella, Frederico dos Santos; Rasbold, Giliane Gessica

    2012-01-01

    The Pantanal is the world's largest tropical wetland and a biodiversity hotspot, yet its response to Quaternary environmental change is unclear. To address this problem, sediment cores from shallow lakes connected to the UpperParaguayRiver (PR) were analyzed and radiocarbon dated to track changes in sedimentary environments. Stratal relations, detrital particle size, multiple biogeochemical indicators, and sponge spicules suggest fluctuating lake-level lowstand conditions between ~ 11,000 and 5300 cal yr BP, punctuated by sporadic and in some cases erosive flood flows. A hiatus has been recorded from ~ 5300 to 2600 cal yr BP, spurred by confinement of the PR within its channel during an episode of profound regional drought. Sustained PR flooding caused a transgression after ~ 2600 cal yr BP, with lake-level highstand conditions appearing during the Little Ice Age. Holocene PR floodpulsedynamics are best explained by variability in effective precipitation, likely driven by insolation and tropical sea-surface temperature gradients. Our results provide novel support for hypotheses on: (1) stratigraphic discontinuity of floodplain sedimentary archives; (2) late Holocene methane flux from Southern Hemisphere wetlands; and (3) pre-colonial indigenous ceramics traditions in western Brazil.

  9. PREVALENCE OF ANTIBODIES AGAINST INFLUENZA VIRUS IN NON-VACCINATED EQUINES FROM THE BRAZILIAN PANTANAL

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Lucas Gaíva E; Borges, Alice Mamede Costa Marques; Villalobos, Eliana Monteforte Cassaro; Lara, Maria do Carmo Custodio Souza Hunold; Cunha, Elenice Maria Siquetin; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; Braga, Ísis Assis; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of antibodies against Equine Influenza Virus (EIV) was determined in 529 equines living on ranches in the municipality of Poconé, Pantanal area of Brazil, by means of the hemagglutination inhibition test, using subtype H3N8 as antigen. The distribution and possible association among positive animal and ranches were evaluated by the chi-square test, spatial autoregressive and multiple linear regression models. The prevalence of antibodies against EIV was estimated at 45.2% (95% CI 30.2 - 61.1%) with titers ranging from 20 to 1,280 HAU. Seropositive equines were found on 92.0% of the surveyed ranches. Equine from non-flooded ranches (66.5%) and negativity in equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) (61.7%) were associated with antibodies against EIV. No spatial correlation was found among the ranches, but the ones located in non-flooded areas were associated with antibodies against EIV. A negative correlation was found between the prevalence of antibodies against EIV and the presence of EIAV positive animals on the ranches. The high prevalence of antibodies against EIV detected in this study suggests that the virus is circulating among the animals, and this statistical analysis indicates that the movement and aggregation of animals are factors associated to the transmission of the virus in the region. PMID:25351542

  10. Floristic analysis and dispersal syndromes of woody species of the Serra de Maracaju, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramos, W M; Sartori, A L B

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents a floristic survey of the wood component of cerrado s.s. (eastern face) and gallery forest (western face) areas carried out in the southern part of the Serra de Maracaju. The dispersal syndromes and floristic relations of this portion of the Serra were compared to those of other formations from different regions of Brazil. Between October 2007 and September 2008, monthly collections identified 144 species. As for dispersal syndromes, zoochory prevails, followed by autochory and anemochory. The gallery forest is a heterogeneous formation that shelters floristic elements shared with the Atlantic rain forest, the Amazonian forest, semi-deciduous seasonal forests and dry forests of the Pantanal. Low similarity between the two areas analyzed makes this region unique and suggests that the Serra de Maracaju is greatly influenced by the semi-deciduous seasonal forests of the southeastern region.

  11. Floral variation and environmental heterogeneity in a tristylous clonal aquatic of the Pantanal wetlands of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Leme da Cunha, Nicolay; Fischer, Erich; Lorenz-Lemke, Aline P.; Barrett, Spencer C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims The balance between stochastic forces and frequency-dependent mating largely governs style morph frequencies in heterostylous populations. In clonal species, deviations from equal morph ratios often result from founder events and unfavourable conditions for sexual reproduction. The aim of this study was to investigate whether different flooding regimes, because of their influence on sexual vs. clonal reproduction, are associated with regional variation in morph frequencies and floral trait differentiation in populations of the clonal, tristylous, aquatic Eichhornia azurea (Pontederiaceae) in the Pantanal wetlands of Brazil. Methods Style morph frequencies were sampled from 73 populations distributed across four flooding regimes differing in depth and duration. Measurements of flower size, sex-organ dimension, pollen size and pollen production were made in selected populations, and pollinator assemblages and their functional traits were recorded. Key Results Most populations of E. azurea were tristylous (78 %), but the majority exhibited uneven morph ratios. The frequency of the mid-styled morph was significantly lower than that of the long- and short-styled morphs. Morph evenness was positively associated with population size but not with flooding regime. There were significant phenotypic differences among flooding regimes for all floral traits, including populations with reduced flower size, sex-organ length and smaller pollen. Pollinator assemblages varied with flood duration. Conclusions The similar morph structure and evenness of populations, regardless of flooding regime, suggest that sexual reproduction and clonal dispersal are sufficiently common to prevent the signature of founder events from dominating in a region. However, the pervasive occurrence of biased morph ratios in most populations suggests that many are in a non-equilibrium state. The reduced frequency of the mid-styled morph in trimorphic and dimorphic populations may be

  12. Distribution of phlebotomine sandflies (Diptera: Psychodidae) of medical importance in Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ana Lúcia Maria; Missawa, Nanci Akemi; Zeilhofer, Peter

    2007-01-01

    Intense environmental impacts, causing alterations of the natural habitats of fauna, including those of sandfly disease vectors are observed in Mato Grosso State, Central Brazil. Entomologic survey of phlebotomines was based on light trap and was carried out by entomological nucleus of the FUNASA and SES in the period between 1996 and 2001. Eighty eight species were identified, including the following sandflies with medical importance to leishmaniasis: Lutzomyia amazonensis, L. anduzei, L. antunesi, L. ayrozai, L. carrerai carrerai, L. complexa, L. cruzi, L. flaviscutellata, L. intermedia, L. longipalpis, L. migonei, L. paraensis, L. ubiquitalis, L. whitmani and L. yuilli yuilli. Most sandflies of medical importance occurred in the Amazon forest and savannah. L. longipalpis and L. cruzi had high densities in the savannah region. L. flaviscutellata is predominating in both the Amazon forest and the savannah region. L. whitmani and L. antunesi were sampled in the Amazon forest, savannah and marsh land.

  13. Socioeconomic development and agricultural intensification in Mato Grosso

    PubMed Central

    VanWey, Leah K.; Spera, Stephanie; de Sa, Rebecca; Mahr, Dan; Mustard, John F.

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian agro-industrial frontier in Mato Grosso rapidly expanded in total area of mechanized production and in total value of production in the last decade. This article shows the spatial pattern of that expansion from 2000 to 2010, based on novel analyses of satellite imagery. It then explores quantitatively and qualitatively the antecedents and correlates of intensification, the expansion of the area under two crops per year. Double cropping is most likely in areas with access to transportation networks, previous profitable agricultural production, and strong existing ties to national and international commodity markets. The article concludes with an exploration of the relationship between double cropping and socioeconomic development, showing that double cropping is strongly correlated with incomes of all residents of a community and with investments in education. We conclude that double cropping in Mato Grosso is very closely tied to multiple indicators of socioeconomic development. PMID:23610174

  14. Detection of Mayaro virus infections during a dengue outbreak in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Carla Julia da Silva Pessoa; Silva, David José Ferreira da; Barreto, Eriana Serpa; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo Hassegawa; Colombo, Tatiana Elias; Ozanic, Katia; Schmidt, Diane Johnson; Drumond, Betânia Paiva; Mondini, Adriano; Nogueira, Maurício Lacerda; Bronzoni, Roberta Vieira de Morais

    2015-07-01

    Arboviruses are common agents of human febrile illness worldwide. In dengue-endemic areas illness due to other arboviruses have been misdiagnosed as dengue based only on clinical-epidemiological data. In this study we investigated the presence of Brazilian arboviruses in sera of 200 patients presenting acute febrile illness, during a dengue outbreak in Sinop, MT, Brazil. The results showed that 38 samples were positive to Dengue virus (DENV) type 1, two samples to DENV type 4, and six to Mayaro virus. These results indicate that arboviruses others than DENV are circulating in Sinop and the surrounding region, which are going undiagnosed. In addition, molecular and evolutionary analyses indicate that two MAYV genotypes are co-circulating in Mato Grosso, Brazil. Thus, a strong surveillance program must be implemented to evaluate and monitor the distribution and the true importance of non-dengue arboviruses in the etiology of acute febrile illnesses.

  15. Microsatellite polymorphisms in cassava landraces from the Cerrado biome, Mato Grosso do sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Siqueira, M V B M; Pinheiro, T T; Borges, A; Valle, T L; Zatarim, M; Veasey, E A

    2010-10-01

    Using nine microsatellite loci, we investigated genetic structure and diversity in 83 Brazilian cassava accessions, including several landraces, in the Cerrado biome in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. All nine loci were polymorphic, averaging 6.00 alleles per locus. Treating each of seven municipalities as a cassava group or population, they averaged 3.5 alleles per locus, with 97% polymorphic loci, high values for observed heterozygosity (0.32) and gene diversity (0.56). Total genetic variability was high (0.668), and most of this genetic variability was concentrated within municipalities (0.577). Cluster and structure analyses divided accessions into two major clusters or populations (K = 2). Also, a significant genetic versus geographic correlation was found (r = 0.4567; P < 0.0260). Migratory routes in the Cerrado are considered main contributors to the region's high cassava diversity and spatial genetic structure, amplifying interactions between traditional farmers and the evolutionary dynamics of this crop.

  16. Use of LANDSAT images to study cerrado vegetation. [Mato Grosso Sul, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.

    1982-01-01

    Channel 5 and 7 LANDSAT imagery at the scale of 1:250,000 made during passes in the dry and rainy seasons were used to select the optimal season for cerrado characterization in Mato Grosso do Sul State. The study area is located around the cities of Campo Grande and Tres Lagoas, a region being used for reforestation and rangeland activities. Imagery acquired during the dry season permitted a good discrimination between "cerrado" (woodsy pasture) vegetation and reforestation. In relation to the altered areas, only the recently modified area presented good discrimination of cerrado vegetation. Imagery of the rainy season did not provide a reasonable separation between cerrado and reforestation areas but the altered area could be easily discriminated.

  17. Historic Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation in Mato Grosso, Brazil: 1. Source Data Uncertainties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morton, Douglas C.; Sales, Marcio H.; Souza, Carlos M., Jr.; Griscom, Bronson

    2011-01-01

    Historic carbon emissions are an important foundation for proposed efforts to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhance forest carbon stocks through conservation and sustainable forest management (REDD+). The level of uncertainty in historic carbon emissions estimates is also critical for REDD+, since high uncertainties could limit climate benefits from mitigation actions. Here, we analyzed source data uncertainties based on the range of available deforestation, forest degradation, and forest carbon stock estimates for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso during 1990-2008. Results: Deforestation estimates showed good agreement for multi-year trends of increasing and decreasing deforestation during the study period. However, annual deforestation rates differed by >20% in more than half of the years between 1997-2008, even for products based on similar input data. Tier 2 estimates of average forest carbon stocks varied between 99-192 Mg C/ha, with greatest differences in northwest Mato Grosso. Carbon stocks in deforested areas increased over the study period, yet this increasing trend in deforested biomass was smaller than the difference among carbon stock datasets for these areas. Conclusions: Patterns of spatial and temporal disagreement among available data products provide a roadmap for future efforts to reduce source data uncertainties for estimates of historic forest carbon emissions. Specifically, regions with large discrepancies in available estimates of both deforestation and forest carbon stocks are priority areas for evaluating and improving existing estimates. Full carbon accounting for REDD+ will also require filling data gaps, including forest degradation and secondary forest, with annual data on all forest transitions.

  18. Historic emissions from deforestation and forest degradation in Mato Grosso, Brazil: 1) source data uncertainties

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Historic carbon emissions are an important foundation for proposed efforts to Reduce Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation and enhance forest carbon stocks through conservation and sustainable forest management (REDD+). The level of uncertainty in historic carbon emissions estimates is also critical for REDD+, since high uncertainties could limit climate benefits from credited mitigation actions. Here, we analyzed source data uncertainties based on the range of available deforestation, forest degradation, and forest carbon stock estimates for the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso during 1990-2008. Results Deforestation estimates showed good agreement for multi-year periods of increasing and decreasing deforestation during the study period. However, annual deforestation rates differed by > 20% in more than half of the years between 1997-2008, even for products based on similar input data. Tier 2 estimates of average forest carbon stocks varied between 99-192 Mg C ha-1, with greatest differences in northwest Mato Grosso. Carbon stocks in deforested areas increased over the study period, yet this increasing trend in deforested biomass was smaller than the difference among carbon stock datasets for these areas. Conclusions Estimates of source data uncertainties are essential for REDD+. Patterns of spatial and temporal disagreement among available data products provide a roadmap for future efforts to reduce source data uncertainties for estimates of historic forest carbon emissions. Specifically, regions with large discrepancies in available estimates of both deforestation and forest carbon stocks are priority areas for evaluating and improving existing estimates. Full carbon accounting for REDD+ will also require filling data gaps, including forest degradation and secondary forest, with annual data on all forest transitions. PMID:22208947

  19. Soybean development: the impact of a decade of agricultural change on urban and economic growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state's economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso's economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings.

  20. Environmental footprints show China and Europe’s evolving resource appropriation for soybean production in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuillière, Michael J.; Johnson, Mark S.; Galford, Gillian L.; Couto, Eduardo G.

    2014-07-01

    Mato Grosso has become the center of Brazil’s soybean industry, with production located across an agricultural frontier expanding into savanna and rainforest biomes. We present environmental footprints of soybean production in Mato Grosso and resource flows accompanying exports to China and Europe for the 2000s using five indicators: deforestation, land footprint (LF), carbon footprint (CF), water footprint (WF), and nutrient footprints. Soybean production was associated with 65% of the state’s deforestation, and 14-17% of total Brazilian land use change carbon emissions. The decade showed two distinct production systems illustrated by resources used in the first and second half of the decade. Deforestation and carbon footprint declined 70% while land, water, and nutrient footprints increased almost 30% between the two periods. These differences coincided with a shift in Mato Grosso’s export destination. Between 2006 and 2010, China surpassed Europe in soybean imports when production was associated with 97 m2 deforestation yr-1 ton-1 of soybean, a LF of 0.34 ha yr-1 ton-1, a carbon footprint of 4.6 ton CO2-eq yr-1 ton-1, a WF of 1908 m3 yr-1 ton-1, and virtual phosphorous and potassium of 5.0 kg P yr-1 ton-1 and 0.0042 g K yr-1 ton-1. Mato Grosso constructs soil fertility via phosphorous and potassium fertilizer sourced from third party countries and imported into the region. Through the soybean produced, Mato Grosso then exports both water derived from its abundant, seasonal precipitation and nutrients obtained from fertilizer. In 2010, virtual water flows were 10.3 km3 yr-1 to China and 4.1 km3 yr-1 to Europe. The total embedded nutrient flows to China were 2.12 Mtons yr-1 and 2.85 Mtons yr-1 to Europe. As soybean production grows with global demand, the role of Mato Grosso’s resource use and production vulnerabilities highlight the challenges with meeting future international food security needs.

  1. Molecular detection of Hepatozoon spp. in domestic dogs and wild mammals in southern Pantanal, Brazil with implications in the transmission route.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Keyla Carstens Marques; Fernandes, Marina Pugnaghi; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Benevenute, Jyan Lucas; Santos, Filipe Martins; Rocha, Fabiana Lopes; Barreto, Wanessa Teixeira Gomes; Macedo, Gabriel Carvalho; Campos, João Bosco; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; de Andrade Pinto, Pedro Cordeiro Estrela; Battesti, Darci Barros; Piranda, Eliane Mattos; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; André, Marcos Rogério

    2017-04-15

    Hepatozoon parasites comprise intracellular apicomplexan parasites transmitted to vertebrate animals by ingestion of arthropods definitive hosts. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Hepatozoon spp. in wild animals, domestic dogs and their respective ectoparasites, in southern Pantanal region, central-western Brazil, by molecular techniques. Between August 2013 and March 2015, 31 coatis (Nasua nasua), 78 crab-eating foxes (Cerdocyon thous), seven ocelots (Leopardus pardalis), 42 dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), 110 wild rodents (77 Thichomys fosteri, 25 Oecomys mamorae, and 8 Clyomys laticeps), 30 marsupials (14 Thylamys macrurus, 11 Gracilinanus agilis, 4 Monodelphis domestica and 1 Didelphis albiventris), and 1582 ticks and 80 fleas collected from the sampled animals were investigated. DNA samples were submitted to PCR assays for Hepatozoon spp. targeting 18S rRNA gene. Purified amplicons were directly sequenced and submitted to phylogenetic analysis. A high prevalence of Hepatozoon among carnivores (C. thous [91.02%], dogs [45.23%], N. nasua [41.9%] and L. pardalis [71.4%]) was found. However, ticks and fleas were negative to Hepatozoon PCR assays. By phylogenetic analysis based on 18S rRNA sequences, Hepatozoon sequences amplified from crab-eating foxes, dogs, coatis and ocelots clustered with sequences of H. canis, H. americanum and H. felis. The closely related positioning of Hepatozoon sequences amplified from wild rodents and T. macrurus marsupial to Hepatozoon from reptiles and amphibians suggest a possible transmission of those Hepatozoon species between hosts by ectoparasites or by predation. Hepatozoon haplotypes found circulating in wild rodents seem to present a higher degree of polymorphism when compared to those found in other groups of animals. Although rodents seem not to participate as source of Hepatozoon infection to wild carnivores and domestic dogs, they may play an important role in the transmission of Hepatozoon to reptiles

  2. An Original Processing Method of Satellite Altimetry for Estimating Water Levels and Volume Fluctuations in a Series of Small Lakes of the Pantanal Wetland Complex in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henrique Costa, Paulo; Oliveira Pereira, Eric; Maillard, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    Satellite altimetry is becoming a major tool for measuring water levels in rivers and lakes offering accuracies compatible with many hydrological applications, especially in uninhabited regions of difficult access. The Pantanal is considered the largest tropical wetland in the world and the sparsity of in situ gauging station make remote methods of water level measurements an attractive alternative. This article describes how satellites altimetry data from Envisat and Saral was used to determine water level in two small lakes in the Pantanal. By combining the water level with the water surface area extracted from satellite imagery, water volume fluctuations were also estimated for a few periods. The available algorithms (retrackers) that compute a range solution from the raw waveforms do not always produce reliable measurements in small lakes. This is because the return signal gets often "contaminated" by the surrounding land. To try to solve this, we created a "lake" retracker that rejects waveforms that cannot be attributed to "calm water" and convert them to altitude. Elevation data are stored in a database along with the water surface area to compute the volume fluctuations. Satellite water level time series were also produced and compared with the only nearby in situ gauging station. Although the "lake" retracker worked well with calm water, the presence of waves and other factors was such that the standard "ice1" retracker performed better on the overall. We estimate our water level accuracy to be around 75 cm. Although the return time of both satellites is only 35 days, the next few years promise to bring new altimetry satellite missions that will significantly increase this frequency.

  3. Soil CO2 Dynamics in a Tree Island Soil of the Pantanal: The Role of Soil Water Potential

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Mark S.; Couto, Eduardo Guimarães; Pinto Jr, Osvaldo B.; Milesi, Juliana; Santos Amorim, Ricardo S.; Messias, Indira A. M.; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi

    2013-01-01

    The Pantanal is a biodiversity hotspot comprised of a mosaic of landforms that differ in vegetative assemblages and flooding dynamics. Tree islands provide refuge for terrestrial fauna during the flooding period and are particularly important to the regional ecosystem structure. Little soil CO2 research has been conducted in this region. We evaluated soil CO2 dynamics in relation to primary controlling environmental parameters (soil temperature and soil water). Soil respiration was computed using the gradient method using in situ infrared gas analyzers to directly measure CO2 concentration within the soil profile. Due to the cost of the sensors and associated equipment, this study was unreplicated. Rather, we focus on the temporal relationships between soil CO2 efflux and related environmental parameters. Soil CO2 efflux during the study averaged 3.53 µmol CO2 m−2 s−1, and was equivalent to an annual soil respiration of 1220 g C m−2 y−1. This efflux value, integrated over a year, is comparable to soil C stocks for 0–20 cm. Soil water potential was the measured parameter most strongly associated with soil CO2 concentrations, with high CO2 values observed only once soil water potential at the 10 cm depth approached zero. This relationship was exhibited across a spectrum of timescales and was found to be significant at a daily timescale across all seasons using conditional nonparametric spectral Granger causality analysis. Hydrology plays a significant role in controlling CO2 efflux from the tree island soil, with soil CO2 dynamics differing by wetting mechanism. During the wet-up period, direct precipitation infiltrates soil from above and results in pulses of CO2 efflux from soil. The annual flood arrives later, and saturates soil from below. While CO2 concentrations in soil grew very high under both wetting mechanisms, the change in soil CO2 efflux was only significant when soils were wet from above. PMID:23762259

  4. Soil CO₂ dynamics in a tree island soil of the Pantanal: the role of soil water potential.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark S; Couto, Eduardo Guimarães; Pinto, Osvaldo B; Milesi, Juliana; Santos Amorim, Ricardo S; Messias, Indira A M; Biudes, Marcelo Sacardi

    2013-01-01

    The Pantanal is a biodiversity hotspot comprised of a mosaic of landforms that differ in vegetative assemblages and flooding dynamics. Tree islands provide refuge for terrestrial fauna during the flooding period and are particularly important to the regional ecosystem structure. Little soil CO₂ research has been conducted in this region. We evaluated soil CO₂ dynamics in relation to primary controlling environmental parameters (soil temperature and soil water). Soil respiration was computed using the gradient method using in situ infrared gas analyzers to directly measure CO₂ concentration within the soil profile. Due to the cost of the sensors and associated equipment, this study was unreplicated. Rather, we focus on the temporal relationships between soil CO₂ efflux and related environmental parameters. Soil CO₂ efflux during the study averaged 3.53 µmol CO₂ m⁻² s⁻¹, and was equivalent to an annual soil respiration of 1220 g C m⁻² y⁻¹. This efflux value, integrated over a year, is comparable to soil C stocks for 0-20 cm. Soil water potential was the measured parameter most strongly associated with soil CO₂ concentrations, with high CO₂ values observed only once soil water potential at the 10 cm depth approached zero. This relationship was exhibited across a spectrum of timescales and was found to be significant at a daily timescale across all seasons using conditional nonparametric spectral Granger causality analysis. Hydrology plays a significant role in controlling CO₂ efflux from the tree island soil, with soil CO₂ dynamics differing by wetting mechanism. During the wet-up period, direct precipitation infiltrates soil from above and results in pulses of CO₂ efflux from soil. The annual flood arrives later, and saturates soil from below. While CO₂ concentrations in soil grew very high under both wetting mechanisms, the change in soil CO₂ efflux was only significant when soils were wet from above.

  5. Concentration of gold in in situ laterites from Mato Grosso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Dominique

    1987-07-01

    The gold concentration studied is located in lateritic soils overlying Precambrian schists of the Cuiaba Group in Mato Grosso, Brazil. The following five horizons may be recognized from bottom to top: (1) a gray-blue altered schist horizon, (2) a red argillaceous alterite, (3) a horizon characterized by iron oxihydroxide-rich pebbles and quartz fragments in an iron oxihydroxide-rich matrix and clays, (4) an iron crust, and (5) the present soil. The most significant gold content is found in the third horizon just below the iron crust. According to geological study and morphological observations of the gold particles, the gold ore mined today is the result of two combined processes, i.e., the ferrallitic alteration of quartz lodes enclosed in schists and the effect of the red argillaceous alterite which acts as an impervious structure preventing the largest gold grains from migrating downward during their mechanical concentration.

  6. Camera-trap study of ocelot and other secretive mammals in the northern Pantanal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trolle, M.; Kery, M.

    2005-01-01

    Reliable information on abundance of the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis) is scarce. We conducted the first camera-trap study in the northern part of the Pantanal wetlands of Brazil, one of the wildlife hotspots of South America. Using capture-recapture analysis, we estimated a density of 0.112 independent individuals per km2 (SE 0.069). We list other mammals recorded with camera traps and show that camera-trap placement on roads or on trails has striking effects on camera-trapping rates.

  7. The floristic heterogeneity of the Pantanal and the occurrence of species with different adaptive strategies to water stress.

    PubMed

    Scremin-Dias, E; Lorenz-Lemke, A P; Oliveira, A K M

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal is characterised by a diversity of environments with areas ranging from periodic or permanent heavy flooding to areas with low flood levels, and even environments that never flood. Plant species which inhabit the floodplain are distributed in specific niches, with influence of various phytogeographic domains, including the Seasonal Semi-deciduous Forest, Amazon Rainforest, Cerrado and Chaco, as well rocky remnants, with a wide ecological span in their components. In intensely flooded areas, aquatic macrophytes are widely distributed, with their dynamics closely linked to time, depth and extent of flooding. Although the term "Pantanal" suggests a huge swamp-type wetland, water level variation during a seasonal cycle does not directly reach the root system of many plants. The landscape diversity of the Pantanal wetland is molded by the flood pulse, which interferes with the dynamics of plant communities. Therefore, the retraction and expansion of populations or communities is reflected in important ecological characteristics, considering the variety of morphological, anatomical and ecophysiological features of the species, whose phenotype is the result of a particular genotype. The present study discusses peculiar issues in the adaptation of species distributed in the Pantanal biome and underscores the importance of multidisciplinary approaches to obtain conclusive data on adaptive studies.

  8. Nellore cattle (Bos indicus) and ticks within the Brazilian Pantanal: ecological relationships.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vanessa N; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Franco, Ana Helena A; Rodrigues, Vinicius S; Nava, Santiago; Szabó, Matias P J

    2016-02-01

    Pantanal is a huge floodplain mostly in Brazil, and its main economic activity is extensive cattle raising, in farms characterized by an extremely wildlife-rich environment. We herein describe tick infestations of cattle and of the natural environment in Pantanal of Nhecolândia in Brazil, at areas with and without cattle during both dry and wet seasons. Environmental sampling resulted in three tick species: Amblyomma sculptum (423 nymphs and 518 adults), Amblyomma parvum (7 nymphs and 129 adults), Amblyomma ovale (3 adults) as well as three clusters and two individuals of Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significantly higher number of adult A. sculptum ticks was found in areas with cattle in the wet season. From 106 examinations of bovines 1710 ticks from three species were collected: Rhipicephalus microplus (55.7% of the total), A. sculptum (38%) and A. parvum (4.1%), as well as 32 Amblyomma sp. larvae. A significant similarity was found between Amblyomma tick fauna from environment and on cattle during both seasons. All A. sculptum females on bovines were flat whereas many of A. parvum females and A. sculptum nymphs were engorging. Although R. microplus was the most abundant tick species on cattle, overall highest tick prevalence on bovines in the dry season was of A. sculptum nymphs. Lack of R. microplus in environmental sampling, relationship between cattle and increase in adult A. sculptum numbers in the environment as well as suitability of bovine for the various tick species are discussed.

  9. Ambush behavior of the tick Amblyomma sculptum (Amblyomma cajennense complex) (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vanessa do Nascimento; Osava, Carolina Fonseca; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2017-02-27

    We herein describe the ambush behavior of Amblyomma sculptum (Berlese 1888), a widespread and epidemiologically important tick in Brazil. Along two years of sampling by visual search in the Brazilian Pantanal, A. sculptum ticks were observed on the vegetation and in the leaf litter. Most of the ticks were observed between 10 and 50cm above ground level and less than five percent of the total were positioned below 10cm, indicating that they are seeking for middle or large-sized hosts. In both seasons, vapor saturation deficit was low during the morning. No significant relationship was found between questing ticks and daytime interval of observation or saturation deficit. However, questing tick numbers seem be higher in the end of the morning, when saturation deficit reaches its peak. Behavioral patterns of A. sculptum ticks observed in Pantanal underscore the occurrence of this tick and human contact at green anthropogenic sites. Considering A. sculptum questing behavior, inferences on human behavioral patterns that enhance or avoid contact with ticks are discussed.

  10. Nitrogen nanoinclusions in milky diamonds from Juina area, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudloff-Grund, J.; Brenker, F. E.; Marquardt, K.; Howell, D.; Schreiber, A.; O'Reilly, S. Y.; Griffin, W. L.; Kaminsky, F. V.

    2016-11-01

    A unique set of diamonds with a 'milky' optical appearance from the Rio Soriso placer deposit in the Juina area, Mato Grosso, Brazil was studied by combined transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The main characteristics of the studied samples are large numbers of randomly distributed {111}-faceted octahedral defect nanostructures. The dislocation densities of the focused ion beam (FIB) foils are generally low. Dislocation loops are observed only around larger inclusions. The inclusion size shows a bimodal distribution and spreads around values of 20 and 200 nm. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy mapping of both subsets yield high nitrogen contents for all sealed inclusions. In cases where the nanoinclusions touch the surface of the FIB section no nitrogen signal could be detected, indicating the loss of a fluid or gas phase as the carrier of nitrogen. FTIR mapping of the same regions showed a strong correlation between structurally bound nitrogen, hydrogen and the abundance of nanoinclusions. We propose that the most likely phase included in these nanoinclusions is NH3. These nanoinclusions could be the result of a high-temperature episode or of long residence times at shallower depths and lower temperatures. Thus they might represent the last stage of the nitrogen aggregation, or they may be syngenetic trapped NH-bearing source fluids.

  11. Zoonotic Bartonella species in wild rodents in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Favacho, Alexsandra Rodrigues de Mendonça; Andrade, Marcelle Novaes; de Oliveira, Renata Carvalho; Bonvicino, Cibele Rodrigues; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; de Lemos, Elba Regina Sampaio

    2015-01-01

    Several rodent-associated Bartonella species cause disease in humans but little is known about their epidemiology in Brazil. The presence of Bartonella spp. in wild rodents captured in two municipalities of the Mato Grosso do Sul state was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Fragments of heart tissue from 42 wild rodents were tested using primers targeting the Bartonella 16S-23S intergenic transcribed spacer (ITS) region and citrate synthase gltA gene. The wild rodents were identified based on external and cranial morphology and confirmed at species level by mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome B) sequencing and karyotype. Overall, 42.9% (18/42) of the wild rodents were PCR positive for Bartonella spp.: Callomys callosus (04), Cerradomys maracajuensis (04), Hylaeamus megacephalus (01), Necromys lasiurus (06), Nectomys squamipes (01), Oecomys catherinae (01) and Oxymycterus delator (01). Bartonella vinsonii subsp. arupensis was detected in N. lasiurus (46%) and C. callosus (21%) captured in the two study sites. We reported the first molecular detection of B. vinsonii subsp. arupensis in different species of wild rodents collected in the Brazilian territory. Further studies are needed to examine the role of these mammals in the eco-epidemiology of bartonellosis in Brazil.

  12. Morphoagronomic and molecular profiling of Capsicum spp from southwest Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Campos, A L; Marostega, T N; Cabral, N S S; Araújo, K L; Serafim, M E; Seabra-Júnior, S; Sudré, C P; Rodrigues, R; Neves, L G

    2016-07-15

    The genus Capsicum ranks as the second most exported vegetable in Brazil, which is also considered to be a center of diversity for this genus. The aim of this study was to rescue genetic variability in the genus Capsicum in the southwest region of Mato Grosso, and to characterize and estimate the genetic diversity of accessions based on morphoagronomic descriptors and inter-simple sequence repeat molecular markers. Data were obtained following the criteria of the International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, renamed Bioversity International for Capsicum. Data were analyzed using different multivariate statistical techniques. An array of binary data was used to analyze molecular data, and the arithmetic complement of the Jaccard index was used to estimate the genetic dissimilarity among accessions. Six well-defined groups were formed based on the morphological characterization. The most divergent accessions were 142 and 126, with 125 and 126 being the most similar. The groups formed following agronomic characterization differed from those formed by morphological characterization, and there was a need to subdivide the groups for better distinction of accessions. Based on molecular analysis, accessions were divided into two groups, and there was also a need to subdivide the groups. Based on joint analysis (morphological + agronomic + molecular), six groups were formed with no duplicates. For all groups, the cophenetic correlation coefficient was higher than 0.8. These results provide useful information for the better management of the work collection. All correlations between the combined distance matrix were significant by the Mantel test.

  13. Export-oriented deforestation in Mato Grosso: harbinger or exception for other tropical forests?

    PubMed

    DeFries, Ruth; Herold, Martin; Verchot, Louis; Macedo, Marcia N; Shimabukuro, Yosio

    2013-06-05

    The Brazilian state of Mato Grosso was a global deforestation hotspot in the early 2000s. Deforested land is used predominantly to produce meat for distal consumption either through cattle ranching or soya bean for livestock feed. Deforestation declined dramatically in the latter part of the decade through a combination of market forces, policies, enforcement and improved monitoring. This study assesses how representative the national-level drivers underlying Mato Grosso's export-oriented deforestation are in other tropical forest countries based on agricultural exports, commercial agriculture and urbanization. We also assess how pervasive the governance and technical monitoring capacity that enabled Mato Grosso's decline in deforestation is in other countries. We find that between 41 and 54 per cent of 2000-2005 deforestation in tropical forest countries (other than Brazil) occurred in countries with drivers similar to Brazil. Very few countries had national-level governance and capacity similar to Brazil. Results suggest that the ecological, hydrological and social consequences of land-use change for export-oriented agriculture as discussed in this Theme Issue were applicable in about one-third of all tropical forest countries in 2000-2005. However, the feasibility of replicating Mato Grosso's success with controlling deforestation is more limited. Production landscapes to support distal consumption similar to Mato Grosso are likely to become more prevalent and are unlikely to follow a land-use transition model with increasing forest cover.

  14. Export-oriented deforestation in Mato Grosso: harbinger or exception for other tropical forests?

    PubMed Central

    DeFries, Ruth; Herold, Martin; Verchot, Louis; Macedo, Marcia N.; Shimabukuro, Yosio

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian state of Mato Grosso was a global deforestation hotspot in the early 2000s. Deforested land is used predominantly to produce meat for distal consumption either through cattle ranching or soya bean for livestock feed. Deforestation declined dramatically in the latter part of the decade through a combination of market forces, policies, enforcement and improved monitoring. This study assesses how representative the national-level drivers underlying Mato Grosso's export-oriented deforestation are in other tropical forest countries based on agricultural exports, commercial agriculture and urbanization. We also assess how pervasive the governance and technical monitoring capacity that enabled Mato Grosso's decline in deforestation is in other countries. We find that between 41 and 54 per cent of 2000–2005 deforestation in tropical forest countries (other than Brazil) occurred in countries with drivers similar to Brazil. Very few countries had national-level governance and capacity similar to Brazil. Results suggest that the ecological, hydrological and social consequences of land-use change for export-oriented agriculture as discussed in this Theme Issue were applicable in about one-third of all tropical forest countries in 2000–2005. However, the feasibility of replicating Mato Grosso's success with controlling deforestation is more limited. Production landscapes to support distal consumption similar to Mato Grosso are likely to become more prevalent and are unlikely to follow a land-use transition model with increasing forest cover. PMID:23610176

  15. Soil water and carbon management for agricultural resilience in a key node in the global virtual water trade network: Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, M. S.; Speratti, A. B.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Couto, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    The Amazon region is globally connected through agricultural exports, with the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso in particular emerging as a key node in the global virtual water trade network in recent years, based largely on rainfed agriculture. The anticipated growth in the world's population suggests that virtual water trade will only become more important to global food security. In this presentation we will evaluate strategies for improving the resilience of rainfed agriculture in the region, particularly for the nearly 12 million hectares of sandy soil with low water holding capacity within Mato Grosso that has largely been converted to agricultural use. We will review land use change trajectories and present results from soil water balance modeling and carbon fluxes for a range of future scenarios, including continued agricultural extensification, potential strategies for agricultural intensification, and novel water and carbon management strategies including biochar use in sandy soils to improve soil water holding capacities and soil carbon sequestration. We will also consider the role that irrigation might play in the future in the Amazon for improving agricultural resilience to climate change and feedbacks between irrigation and land use change pressures, noting that groundwater resources in the region are presently among the least exploited on the planet.

  16. SAINT LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS VIRUS IN MATO GROSSO, CENTRAL-WESTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    HEINEN, Letícia Borges da Silva; ZUCHI, Nayara; SERRA, Otacília Pereira; CARDOSO, Belgath Fernandes; GONDIM, Breno Herman Ferreira; dos SANTOS, Marcelo Adriano Mendes; SOUTO, Francisco José Dutra; de PAULA, Daphine Ariadne Jesus; DUTRA, Valéria; DEZENGRINI-SLHESSARENKO, Renata

    2015-01-01

    The dengue virus (DENV), which is frequently involved in large epidemics, and the yellow fever virus (YFV), which is responsible for sporadic sylvatic outbreaks, are considered the most important flaviviruses circulating in Brazil. Because of that, laboratorial diagnosis of acute undifferentiated febrile illness during epidemic periods is frequently directed towards these viruses, which may eventually hinder the detection of other circulating flaviviruses, including the Saint Louis encephalitis virus (SLEV), which is widely dispersed across the Americas. The aim of this study was to conduct a molecular investigation of 11 flaviviruses using 604 serum samples obtained from patients during a large dengue fever outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso (MT) between 2011 and 2012. Simultaneously, 3,433 female Culex spp. collected with Nasci aspirators in the city of Cuiabá, MT, in 2013, and allocated to 409 pools containing 1-10 mosquitoes, were also tested by multiplex semi-nested reverse transcription PCR for the same flaviviruses. SLEV was detected in three patients co-infected with DENV-4 from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. One of them was a triple co-infection with DENV-1. None of them mentioned recent travel or access to sylvatic/rural regions, indicating that transmission might have occurred within the metropolitan area. Regarding mosquito samples, one pool containing one Culex quinquefasciatus female was positive for SLEV, with a minimum infection rate (MIR) of 0.29 per 1000 specimens of this species. Phylogenetic analysis indicates both human and mosquito SLEV cluster, with isolates from genotype V-A obtained from animals in the Amazon region, in the state of Pará. This is the first report of SLEV molecular identification in MT. PMID:26200961

  17. Evidence for herbaceous seed dispersal by small-bodied fishes in a Pantanal seasonal wetland.

    PubMed

    Silveira, R M L; Weiss, B

    2014-08-01

    We analysed the germination of seeds after their passage through the digestive tract of small floodplain fishes. Samples were collected in five open flooded fields of the northern Pantanal in March 2011. All fishes were sacrificed and their intestinal contents were removed. The fecal material was weighed and stored at 4°C in a GF/C filter wrapped in aluminum foil. The material was then transferred to a receptacle containing sterilised soil from the sampling area. The fecal samples were kept in a germination chamber for 68 days and then transferred to a greenhouse for another 67 days. We collected a total of 45 fish species and 1014 individuals which produced a total amount of 32 g of fresh fecal mass and 11 seedlings. We were able to identify six seedlings: two Banara arguta, two Steinchisma laxa, one Hymenachne amplexicaulis and one Luziola sp.. The fish species that produced samples with seedlings were Astyanax assuncionensis, Metynnis mola, Plesiolebias glaucopterus, Acestrorhyncus pantaneiro and Anadoras wendelli. With the exception of B. arguta the remaining plant species and all fish species were not known to be associated with the seed dispersal process of these plants. We found a ratio of 0.435 seedlings.g-1 of fresh fecal material, which is 100 times higher than the amount of seedlings encountered in fresh soil mass (92,974 grams) in seed bank studies conducted in the same study area. In particular, Astyanax assuncionensis and Metynnis mola were among the most frequent and most abundant fish taxa in the area. Together with the high seed concentration in the fish fecal material, this evidence allows us to conclude that such fish species may play an important role in seed dispersal in the herbaceous plants of the Pantanal.

  18. DENGUE OUTBREAK IN MATO GROSSO STATE, MIDWESTERN BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; Zuchi, Nayara; Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes dos; Nogueira, Mauricio Lacerda; Dezengrini-Slhessarenko, Renata

    2015-12-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most frequent arbovirus worldwide. In this study, we report a large outbreak in Mato Grosso State (MT). Serum samples from 604 patients with acute febrile illness for less than five days were inoculated in C6/36 cells, then infected cells were subjected to an indirect immunofluorescence test for DENV serotypes and yellow fever virus. Serum samples were submitted to a multiplex-semi-nested-RT-PCR for 11 flaviviruses. DENV-4 was isolated in 150/604 (24.8%) and DENV-1 in 19/604 (3.1%) specimens. By RT-PCR, 331 (54.8%) samples tested positive for DENV; 321 had single infections (DENV-4 n = 305; DENV-1 n = 15; DENV-3 n = 1), nine had co-infections of DENV-1/DENV-4, and one of DENV-2/DENV-4. DENV-4 was detected in 315/331 (95.2%) positive patients from 17 municipalities, and DENV-1 in 24/331 (7.2%) patients from five cities in north-central MT and the city of Cuiaba. The incidence of infection was higher in patients aged 20-39 (142/331; 42.9%). The NS5 partial nucleotide sequence of DENV-1 was most similar to that of genotype V, DENV-2 to Southeast Asian/American, DENV-3 to genotype III, and DENV-4 to genotype II strains, considered the most frequent strains in Brazil. This outbreak coincided with the introduction of DENV-4 in the state. Cuiaba was hyperendemic for the four DENV serotypes, highlighting the necessity for arbovirus surveillance in MT.

  19. DENGUE OUTBREAK IN MATO GROSSO STATE, MIDWESTERN BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    HEINEN, Letícia Borges da Silva; ZUCHI, Nayara; CARDOSO, Belgath Fernandes; dos SANTOS, Marcelo Adriano Mendes; NOGUEIRA, Mauricio Lacerda; DEZENGRINI-SLHESSARENKO, Renata

    2015-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) is the most frequent arbovirus worldwide. In this study, we report a large outbreak in Mato Grosso State (MT). Serum samples from 604 patients with acute febrile illness for less than five days were inoculated in C6/36 cells, then infected cells were subjected to an indirect immunofluorescence test for DENV serotypes and yellow fever virus. Serum samples were submitted to a multiplex-semi-nested-RT-PCR for 11 flaviviruses. DENV-4 was isolated in 150/604 (24.8%) and DENV-1 in 19/604 (3.1%) specimens. By RT-PCR, 331 (54.8%) samples tested positive for DENV; 321 had single infections (DENV-4 n = 305; DENV-1 n = 15; DENV-3 n = 1), nine had co-infections of DENV-1/DENV-4, and one of DENV-2/DENV-4. DENV-4 was detected in 315/331 (95.2%) positive patients from 17 municipalities, and DENV-1 in 24/331 (7.2%) patients from five cities in north-central MT and the city of Cuiaba. The incidence of infection was higher in patients aged 20-39 (142/331; 42.9%). The NS5 partial nucleotide sequence of DENV-1 was most similar to that of genotype V, DENV-2 to Southeast Asian/American, DENV-3 to genotype III, and DENV-4 to genotype II strains, considered the most frequent strains in Brazil. This outbreak coincided with the introduction of DENV-4 in the state. Cuiaba was hyperendemic for the four DENV serotypes, highlighting the necessity for arbovirus surveillance in MT. PMID:27049702

  20. Genetic Structure of Lutzomyia longipalpis Populations in Mato Grosso Do Sul, Brazil, Based on Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Mirella F. C.; Ribolla, Paulo E. M.; Alonso, Diego P.; Andrade-Filho, José D.; Casaril, Aline E.; Ferreira, Alda M. T.; Fernandes, Carlos E. S.; Brazil, Reginaldo P.; Oliveira, Alessandra G.

    2013-01-01

    Background Lutzomyialongipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) is the major vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum and thus plays a crucial role in the epidemiology of American visceral leishmaniasis (AVL). This vector is the best studied species of sand fly in the Neotropical region. Many studies claim that this vector is in fact a species complex; however there is still no consensus regarding the number of species that belong into this complex or the geographical distribution of sibling species. The aim of the present study was to analyze the genetic relationships within Lu. longipalpis populations in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. Methodology/Principal Findings We collected 30 Lu. longipalpis (15 females and 15 males) from five localities (Campo Grande, Três Lagoas, Aquidauana, Miranda and Bonito) and 30 Lu. Cruzi from Corumbá, totaling 180 sandflies from MS, and 30 Lu. longipalpis from Estrela de Alagoas, state of Alagoas (AL), Northeast Brazil. We show that eight previously described microsatellite loci were sufficient in distinguishing Lu. longipalpis from Lu. Cruzi, which is a closely related species, and in differentiating between Lu. longipalpis collected in MS versus Estrela de Alagoas. Analyses of the genotypes revealed introgression between sympatric Lu. longipalpis and Lu. Cruzi. Conclusions/Significance Our findings support the hypothesis of cryptic species within the Lu. longipalpis complex. Furthermore, our data revealed introgression between Lu. longipalpis and Lu. cruzi. This phenomenon should be further investigated to determine the level and incidence of hybridization between these two species. We also demonstrated that microsatellite markers are a powerful tool for differentiating sand fly populations and species. The present study has elucidated the population structure of Lu. longipalpis in MS and, by extension, the Neotropical Lu. longipalpis complex itself. PMID:24066129

  1. Spatial distribution and environmental factors associated to phlebotomine fauna in a border area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Mato Grosso do Sul has been undergoing a process of urbanization which results in loss of native vegetation. This withdrawal makes vectors of man and domestic animals closer, causing changes in the epidemiology of diseases such as American Visceral Leishmaniasis. The aim of the study was to evaluate the phlebotomine fauna and environmental issues related to the transmission of AVL in Ponta Porã, Mato Grosso do Sul, between 2009 and 2010. Methods Vegetation of the urban area was evaluated by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI). Results The results showed that the phlebotomine fauna of the city consists of five species, especially Lutzomyia longipalpis (Lutz and Neiva, 1912), the vector of Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum. Predominance of males was observed. The insects were captured in greater quantity in the intradomicile. Lu. longipalpis was the most frequent and abundant species, present throughout the year, with a peak population after the rainy season. Vectors can be found in high amounts in forest and disturbed environments. Conclusions The finding of Lu. longipalpis in regions with little vegetation and humidity suggests that the species is adapted to different sorts of environmental conditions, demonstrating its close association with man and the environment it inhabits. The tourist feature of Ponta Porã reinforces its epidemiological importance as a vulnerable city. The geographical location, bordering Paraguay through dry border, makes possible the existence of a corridor of vectors and infected dogs between the two countries. PMID:24898032

  2. Extreme Emission of N2O from Tropical Wetland Soil (Pantanal, South America)

    PubMed Central

    Liengaard, Lars; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Priemé, Anders; Elberling, Bo; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Kühl, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas and ozone depleter, but the global budget of N2O remains unbalanced. Currently, ∼25% of the global N2O emission is ascribed to uncultivated tropical soils, but the exact locations and controlling mechanisms are not clear. Here we present the first study of soil N2O emission from the Pantanal indicating that this South American wetland may be a significant natural source of N2O. At three sites, we repeatedly measured in situ fluxes of N2O and sampled porewater nitrate (NO3-) during the low water season in 2008 and 2009. In 2010, 10 sites were screened for in situ fluxes of N2O and soil NO3- content. The in situ fluxes of N2O were comparable to fluxes from heavily fertilized forests or agricultural soils. An important parameter affecting N2O emission rate was precipitation, inducing peak emissions of >3 mmol N2O m−2 day−1, while the mean daily flux was 0.43 ± 0.03 mmol N2O m−2 day−1. Over 170 days of the drained period, we estimated non-wetted drained soil to contribute 70.0 mmol N2O m−2, while rain-induced peak events contributed 9.2 mmol N2O m−2, resulting in a total N2O emission of 79.2 mmol N2O m−2. At the sites of repeated sampling, the pool of porewater nitrate varied (0.002-7.1μmolNO3-gdW-1) with higher concentrations of NO3- (p < 0.05) found in drained soil than in water-logged soil, indicating dynamic shifts between nitrification and denitrification. In the field, O2 penetrated the upper 60 cm of drained soil, but was depleted in response to precipitation. Upon experimental wetting the soil showed rapid O2 depletion followed by N2O accumulation and a peak emission of N2O (2.5 - 3.0mmolN2Om-2day-1). Assuming that the observed emission of N2O from these wetland soils is generally representative to the Pantanal, we suggest that this undisturbed tropical wetland potentially contributes ∼1.7% to the global N2O emission budget, a significant

  3. Extreme emission of n(2)o from tropical wetland soil (pantanal, South america).

    PubMed

    Liengaard, Lars; Nielsen, Lars Peter; Revsbech, Niels Peter; Priemé, Anders; Elberling, Bo; Enrich-Prast, Alex; Kühl, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is an important greenhouse gas and ozone depleter, but the global budget of N(2)O remains unbalanced. Currently, ∼25% of the global N(2)O emission is ascribed to uncultivated tropical soils, but the exact locations and controlling mechanisms are not clear. Here we present the first study of soil N(2)O emission from the Pantanal indicating that this South American wetland may be a significant natural source of N(2)O. At three sites, we repeatedly measured in situ fluxes of N(2)O and sampled porewater nitrate [Formula: see text] during the low water season in 2008 and 2009. In 2010, 10 sites were screened for in situ fluxes of N(2)O and soil [Formula: see text] content. The in situ fluxes of N(2)O were comparable to fluxes from heavily fertilized forests or agricultural soils. An important parameter affecting N(2)O emission rate was precipitation, inducing peak emissions of >3 mmol N(2)O m(-2) day(-1), while the mean daily flux was 0.43 ± 0.03 mmol N(2)O m(-2) day(-1). Over 170 days of the drained period, we estimated non-wetted drained soil to contribute 70.0 mmol N(2)O m(-2), while rain-induced peak events contributed 9.2 mmol N(2)O m(-2), resulting in a total N(2)O emission of 79.2 mmol N(2)O m(-2). At the sites of repeated sampling, the pool of porewater nitrate varied [Formula: see text] with higher concentrations of [Formula: see text] (p < 0.05) found in drained soil than in water-logged soil, indicating dynamic shifts between nitrification and denitrification. In the field, O(2) penetrated the upper 60 cm of drained soil, but was depleted in response to precipitation. Upon experimental wetting the soil showed rapid O(2) depletion followed by N(2)O accumulation and a peak emission of N(2)O [Formula: see text] Assuming that the observed emission of N(2)O from these wetland soils is generally representative to the Pantanal, we suggest that this undisturbed tropical wetland potentially

  4. Limnogeology in Brazil's "forgotten wilderness": a synthesis from the large floodplain lakes of the Pantanal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGlue, Michael M.; Silva, Aguinaldo; Corradini, Fabricio A.; Zani, Hiran; Trees, Mark A.; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Parolin, Mauro; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Cohen, Andrew S.; Assine, Mario L.

    2011-01-01

    Sediment records from floodplain lakes have a large and commonly untapped potential for inferring wetland response to global change. The Brazilian Pantanal is a vast, seasonally inundated savanna floodplain system controlled by the flood pulse of the Upper Paraguay River. Little is known, however, about how floodplain lakes within the Pantanal act as sedimentary basins, or what influence hydroclimatic variables exert on limnogeological processes. This knowledge gap was addressed through an actualistic analysis of three large, shallow (2- > Si4+ > Ca2+), mildly alkaline, freshwater systems, the chemistries and morphometrics of which evolve with seasonal flooding. Lake sills are bathymetric shoals marked by siliciclastic fans and marsh vegetation. Flows at the sills likely undergo seasonal reversals with the changing stage of the Upper Paraguay River. Deposition in deeper waters, typically encountered in proximity to margin-coincident topography, is dominated by reduced silty-clays with abundant siliceous microfossils and organic matter. Stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen, plus hydrogen index measured on bulk organic matter, suggest that contributions from algae (including cyanobacteria) and other C3-vegetation dominate in these environments. The presence of lotic sponge spicules, together with patterns of terrigenous sand deposition and geochemical indicators of productivity, points to the importance of the flood pulse for sediment and nutrient delivery to the lakes. Flood-pulse plumes, waves and bioturbation likewise affect the continuity of sedimentation. Short-lived radioisotopes indicate rates of 0.11-0.24 cm year-1 at sites of uninterrupted deposition. A conceptual facies model, developed from insights gained from modern seasonal processes, can be used to predict limnogeological change when the lakes become isolated on the floodplain or during intervals associated with a strengthened flood pulse. Amplification of the seasonal cycle over longer time scales

  5. 78 FR 6173 - Diana Del Grosso, Ray Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen Kelley, Andrew Wilklund, and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Diana Del Grosso, Ray Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen... Smith, Joseph Hatch, Cheryl Hatch, Kathleen Kelley, Andrew Wilklund, and Richard Kosiba...

  6. Diet Overlap and Foraging Activity between Feral Pigs and Native Peccaries in the Pantanal

    PubMed Central

    Galetti, Mauro; Camargo, Hiléia; Siqueira, Tadeu; Keuroghlian, Alexine; Donatti, Camila I.; Jorge, Maria Luisa S. P.; Pedrosa, Felipe; Kanda, Claudia Z.; Ribeiro, Milton C.

    2015-01-01

    Inter-specific competition is considered one of the main selective pressures affecting species distribution and coexistence. Different species vary in the way they forage in order to minimize encounters with their competitors and with their predators. However, it is still poorly known whether and how native species change their foraging behavior in the presence of exotic species, particularly in South America. Here we compare diet overlap of fruits and foraging activity period of two sympatric native ungulates (the white-lipped peccary, Tayassu pecari, and the collared peccary, Pecari tajacu) with the invasive feral pig (Sus scrofa) in the Brazilian Pantanal. We found high diet overlap between white-lipped peccaries and feral pigs, but low overlap between collared peccaries and feral pigs. Furthermore, we found that feral pigs may influence the foraging period of both native peccaries, but in different ways. In the absence of feral pigs, collared peccary activity peaks in the early evening, possibly allowing them to avoid white-lipped peccary activity peaks, which occur in the morning. In the presence of feral pigs, collared peccaries forage mostly in early morning, while white-lipped peccaries forage throughout the day. Our results indicate that collared peccaries may avoid foraging at the same time as white-lipped peccaries. However, they forage during the same periods as feral pigs, with whom they have lower diet overlap. Our study highlights how an exotic species may alter interactions between native species by interfering in their foraging periods. PMID:26536608

  7. Complementary data on four methods for sampling free-living ticks in the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Vanessa do Nascimento; Osava, Carolina Fonseca; Piovezan, Ubiratan; Szabó, Matias Pablo Juan

    2014-01-01

    In this study, four methods for sampling free-living ticks that are used in ecological and human tick-bite risk studies were evaluated. Cloth dragging, carbon dioxide traps and visual searches and inspection of plant litter on the ground were used in field and forest areas within the Brazilian Pantanal. Among the three tick species collected, Amblyomma sculptum predominated, followed by Amblyomma parvum and Amblyomma ovale. Dragging, a cheap and simple technique, yielded the highest numbers of ticks, particularly nymphs. The visual search detected a high number of adult ticks and provided information on tick questing height. Even though laborious, plant litter examination showed that large numbers of ticks may use this stratum. Carbon dioxide (CO2) traps are expensive and difficult to handle, but they are highly efficient for adult ticks, especially A. parvum. These data indicate that one method alone is incapable of providing a representative sample of the tick fauna in a particular area and that multiple techniques should be used for tick population studies.

  8. Neutralising antibodies for West Nile virus in horses from Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Pauvolid-Corrêa, Alex; Morales, Maria Alejandra; Levis, Silvana; Figueiredo, Luis Tadeu Moraes; Couto-Lima, Dinair; Campos, Zilca; Nogueira, Marcia Furlan; da Silva, Edson Elias; Nogueira, Rita Maria Ribeiro; Schatzmayr, Hermann Gonçalves

    2011-06-01

    Despite evidence of West Nile virus (WNV) activity in Colombia, Venezuela and Argentina, this virus has not been reported in most South American countries. In February 2009, we commenced an investigation for WNV in mosquitoes, horses and caimans from the Pantanal, Central-West Brazil. The sera of 168 horses and 30 caimans were initially tested using a flaviviruses-specific epitope-blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (blocking ELISA) for the detection of flavivirus-reactive antibodies. The seropositive samples were further tested using a plaque-reduction neutralisation test (PRNT90) for WNV and its most closely-related flaviviruses that circulate in Brazil to confirm the detection of specific virus-neutralising antibodies. Of the 93 (55.4%) blocking ELISA-seropositive horse serum samples, five (3%) were seropositive for WNV, nine (5.4%) were seropositive for St. Louis encephalitis virus, 18 (10.7%) were seropositive for Ilheus virus, three (1.8%) were seropositive for Cacipacore virus and none were seropositive for Rocio virus using PRNT90, with a criteria of ≥ four-fold antibody titre difference. All caimans were negative for flaviviruses-specific antibodies using the blocking ELISA. No virus genome was detected from caiman blood or mosquito samples. The present study is the first report of confirmed serological evidence of WNV activity in Brazil.

  9. Carbon dynamics in aboveground coarse wood biomass of wetland forests in the northern Pantanal, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöngart, J.; Arieira, J.; Felfili Fortes, C.; Cezarine de Arruda, E.; Nunes da Cunha, C.

    2008-05-01

    This is the first estimation on carbon dynamics in the aboveground coarse wood biomass (AGWB) of wetland forests in the Pantanal, located in Central Southern America. In four 1-ha plots in stands characterized by the pioneer species Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae) forest inventories (trees ≥10 cm diameter at breast height, DBH) have been performed and converted to predictions of AGWB by five different allometric models using two or three predicting parameters (DBH, tree height, wood density). Best prediction has been achieved using allometric equations with three independent variables. Carbon stocks (50% of AGWB) vary from 7.4 to 100.9 Mg C ha-1 between the four stands. Carbon sequestration differs 0.50-4.24 Mg C ha-1 yr-1 estimated by two growth models derived from tree-ring analysis describing the relationships between age and DBH for V. divergens and other tree species. We find a close correlation between estimated tree age and C-stock, C-sequestration and C-turnover (mean residence of C in AGWB).

  10. Implications of climatic seasonality on activity patterns and resource use by sympatric peccaries in northern Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, Gabriel Selbach; Coelho, Igor Pfeifer; Bastazini, Vinicius Augusto Galvão; Cordeiro, José Luís Passos; de Oliveira, Luiz Flamarion Barbosa

    2016-03-01

    We evaluated the effects of climate seasonality from a thermal and water availability perspective on the activity patterns and resource use of Pecari tajacu and Tayassu pecari during wet and dry seasons in the northeastern Brazilian Pantanal. We used camera traps and temperature sensors to record species activity patterns in relation to temperature, established five habitat categories based on flooding intensity and local vegetation characteristics, assessed the activity patterns of each species in dry and wet periods and in artificial water bodies using circular statistical metrics, and calculated niche amplitude and overlap on three axes (temperature, time, and habitat) in both periods. Peccaries shared a strong resemblance in resource use and in their responses to seasonal variations in the tested gradients. The activity patterns of both species exhibited a significant correlation with air temperature on all the evaluated measures, and both species strongly reduced their activity when the air temperature exceeded 35 °C. High temperatures associated with low water availability were most likely responsible for the changes in species activity patterns, which resulted in an increased temporal overlap in habitat use throughout the dry season. However, the peccaries avoided intensively flooded habitats; therefore, the habitat gradient overlap was greater during the wet period. Our results show that an increase in niche overlap on the environmental gradient as a result of climatic seasonality may be partially compensated by a reduction in other niche dimensions. In this case, temporal partitioning appears to be an important, viable mechanism to reduce competition by potentially competing species.

  11. Phlebotomine fauna, natural infection rate and feeding habits of Lutzomyia cruzi in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, Veruska Nogueira de; Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de; Nakazato, Luciano; Duarte, Rosemere; Souza, Cladson de Oliveira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco

    2014-11-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is transmitted by the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis and in some midwestern regions by Lutzomyia cruzi. Studies of the phlebotomine fauna, feeding habits and natural infection rate by Leishmania contribute to increased understanding of the epidemiological chain of leishmaniases and their vectorial capacity. Collections were performed in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso from 2010-2013, during which time 2,011 phlebotomines (23 species) were captured (68.70% Lu. cruzi and 20.52% Lutzomyia whitmani). Lu. cruzi females were identified by observing the shapes of the cibarium (a portion of the mouthpart) and spermatheca, from which samples were obtained for polymerase chain reaction to determine the rates of natural infection. Engorged phlebotomines were assessed to identify the blood-meal host by ELISA. A moderate correlation was discovered between the number of Lu. cruzi and the temperature and the minimum rate of infection was 6.10%. Twenty-two females were reactive to the antisera of bird (28%), dog (3.30%) and skunk (1.60%). We conclude that Lu. cruzi and Lu. whitmani have adapted to the urban environment in this region and that Lu. cruzi is the most likely vector of VL in Jaciara. Moreover, maintenance of Leishmania in the environment is likely aided by the presence of birds and domestic and synanthropic animals.

  12. Phlebotomine fauna, natural infection rate and feeding habits of Lutzomyia cruzi in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brito, Veruska Nogueira de; Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira de; Nakazato, Luciano; Duarte, Rosemere; Souza, Cladson de Oliveira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco

    2014-10-14

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is transmitted by the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis and in some midwestern regions by Lutzomyia cruzi. Studies of the phlebotomine fauna, feeding habits and natural infection rate by Leishmania contribute to increased understanding of the epidemiological chain of leishmaniases and their vectorial capacity. Collections were performed in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso from 2010-2013, during which time 2,011 phlebotomines (23 species) were captured (68.70% Lu. cruzi and 20.52% Lutzomyia whitmani). Lu. cruzi females were identified by observing the shapes of the cibarium (a portion of the mouthpart) and spermatheca, from which samples were obtained for polymerase chain reaction to determine the rates of natural infection. Engorged phlebotomines were assessed to identify the blood-meal host by ELISA. A moderate correlation was discovered between the number of Lu. cruzi and the temperature and the minimum rate of infection was 6.10%. Twenty-two females were reactive to the antisera of bird (28%), dog (3.30%) and skunk (1.60%). We conclude that Lu. cruzi and Lu. whitmani have adapted to the urban environment in this region and that Lu. cruzi is the most likely vector of VL in Jaciara. Moreover, maintenance of Leishmania in the environment is likely aided by the presence of birds and domestic and synanthropic animals.

  13. Soybean Development: The Impact of a Decade of Agricultural Change on Urban and Economic Growth in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Peter; Pellegrina, Heitor; VanWey, Leah; Spera, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    In this research we consider the impact of export-driven, soybean agriculture in Mato Grosso on regional economic growth. Here we argue that the soybean sector has served as a motor to the state’s economy by increasing the demand for services, housing, and goods, and by providing a source of investment capital to the non-agricultural sector. Specifically, we show that each square kilometer of soybean production supports 2.5 formal sector jobs outside of agriculture, and the equivalent of approximately 150,000US in annual, non-agricultural GDP. We also show that annual gains in non-agricultural employment and GDP are closely tied to soybean profitability, and thus vary from year to year. However, while this article highlights the potential of the agricultural sector as a driver of regional economic growth, it also acknowledges that this growth has been sustained by profits determined by externally set prices and the rate of exchange, and that future growth trajectories will be susceptible to potential currency of market shocks. We also show that while Mato Grosso’s economic growth has come at a significant cost to the environment, value added by the agriculture sector, directly and indirectly, has surpassed the value of the CO2-e emitted through land clearings. PMID:25919305

  14. Phlebotomine fauna, natural infection rate and feeding habits of Lutzomyia cruzi in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Brito, Veruska Nogueira; de Almeida, Arleana do Bom Parto Ferreira; Nakazato, Luciano; Duarte, Rosemere; Souza, Cladson de Oliveira; Sousa, Valéria Régia Franco

    2014-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in Brazil is transmitted by the phlebotomine Lutzomyia longipalpis and in some midwestern regions by Lutzomyia cruzi. Studies of the phlebotomine fauna, feeding habits and natural infection rate by Leishmania contribute to increased understanding of the epidemiological chain of leishmaniases and their vectorial capacity. Collections were performed in Jaciara, state of Mato Grosso from 2010-2013, during which time 2,011 phlebotomines (23 species) were captured (68.70% Lu. cruzi and 20.52% Lutzomyia whitmani). Lu. cruzi females were identified by observing the shapes of the cibarium (a portion of the mouthpart) and spermatheca, from which samples were obtained for polymerase chain reaction to determine the rates of natural infection. Engorged phlebotomines were assessed to identify the blood-meal host by ELISA. A moderate correlation was discovered between the number of Lu. cruzi and the temperature and the minimum rate of infection was 6.10%. Twenty-two females were reactive to the antisera of bird (28%), dog (3.30%) and skunk (1.60%). We conclude that Lu. cruzi and Lu. whitmani have adapted to the urban environment in this region and that Lu. cruzi is the most likely vector of VL in Jaciara. Moreover, maintenance of Leishmania in the environment is likely aided by the presence of birds and domestic and synanthropic animals. PMID:25410993

  15. Cryptococcus gattii VGII in a Plathymenia reticulata hollow in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Anzai, Mariana Caselli; Lazéra, Márcia Dos Santos; Wanke, Bodo; Trilles, Luciana; Dutra, Valéria; de Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus; Nakazato, Luciano; Takahara, Doracilde Terumi; Simi, Walquirya Borges; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the ecology of agents of cryptococcosis in Mato Grosso, without any data regarding to the sources of both agents in the environment. This study aimed to investigate Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans associated with decay in tree hollows within the urban area of three different cities of Mato Grosso. Seventy-two environmental samples collected from 72 living trees in the cities of Cuiabá, Várzea Grande and Chapada dos Guimarães were sampled and analysed. One tree (Plathymenia reticulata, Leguminosae) in the city of Cuiabá yielded 19 colonies identified as C. gattii molecular type VGII. The isolation of C. gattii VGII in the downtown city of Cuiabá is important because it fits in the Northern Macroregion, suggesting expanding and urbanisation of this genotype in different Brazilian cities.

  16. School Children's Knowledge and Perceptions of Jaguars, Pumas, and Smaller Cats around a Mosaic of Protected Areas in the Western Brazilian Pantanal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porfirio, Grasiela; Sarmento, Pedro; Fonseca, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Surveys to assess environmental knowledge are elementary tools to ensure successful environmental education. Felines are considered key components of the environment, acting as flagships for conservation. Nevertheless, they are threatened by loss of habitat, prey reductions, and poaching. In the mosaic of protected areas in the Brazilian Pantanal,…

  17. Biplot analysis of phenotypic stability in upland cotton genotypes in Mato Grosso.

    PubMed

    Farias, F J C; Carvalho, L P; Silva Filho, J L; Teodoro, P E

    2016-05-20

    Seed cotton yield is a trait governed by multiple genes that cause changes in the performance of genotypes depending on the cultivation environment. Breeding programs examine the genotype x environment interaction (GE) using precise statistical methods, such as AMMI (additive main effects and multiplicative interaction) and GGE biplot (genotype main effects + genotype x environment interaction). The AMMI method combines the analysis of variance and principal components, to adjust the main effects (genotypes and environments) and the effects of GE interaction, respectively. The GGE biplot groups the genotype additive effect together with the multiplicative effect of the GE interaction, and submits both of these to the principal components analysis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between the AMMI and GGE biplot methods and select cotton genotypes that simultaneously showed high productivity of seed cotton and stability in Mato Grosso environments. Trials were conducted with cotton cultivars in eight environments across Mato Grosso State in the 2008/2009 crop season. The experiment used a randomized block design with 16 genotypes and four replicates per genotype x environment combination. Data for seeds cotton productivity were analyzed by AMMI and GGE biplot methods. Both methods were concordant in the discrimination of environments and genotypes for phenotypic stability. The genotypes BRS ARAÇÁ and LD 05 CV had high seed cotton productivity and phenotypic stability, and could be grown in all environments across Mato Grosso State.

  18. Virtual and Embedded Nutrient Flows from Soybean Production in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Couto, E. G.; Johnson, M. S.

    2012-12-01

    The increase in international trade of agricultural products has enabled consumers to take advantage of distant resources to secure their provision of food. However, such a relationship has also distanced consumers from producers, resulting in environmental footprints often externalized to distant countries. For example, half of all soybeans grown in the state of Mato Grosso, the largest Brazilian soybean producer this past decade, were exported to China and Europe in 2009. This study looks at nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P) and potassium (K) use related to Mato Grosso soybean production and exports to China and Europe in the 2000-2009 period. More specifically we look at 'virtual' and 'embedded' NPK flows to China and Europe, where 'virtual' represents NPK inputs associated with soybean production but not actually embedded in the exported soybeans, and 'embedded' represents the NPK contained within the soybeans. Both virtual and embedded NPK export flows more than doubled between 2000 and 2009, with embedded NPK flows up to 18 times larger than virtual flows on an annual basis. We also quantify nutrient balances resulting from the soybean trade including imported and domestically produced fertilizer. Initial results suggest that the majority of embedded N may cause an issue for importing countries, while virtual P is mostly externalized to Mato Grosso which must rely on limited national production and fertilizer imports to meet P needs. This study contributes towards a more comprehensive understanding of the use of nutrients in soybean production as a component of a more complete environmental impact assessment of this agricultural product.

  19. Presence of Ureaplasma diversum in the genital tracts of female dairy cattle in Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Azevedo, Jaqueline B; Silva, Gustavo S; Rocha, Priscylla S; Pitchenin, Letícia C; Dutra, Valéria; Nakazato, Luciano; de Oliveira, Anderson Castro Soares; Pescador, Caroline A

    2017-02-01

    Ureaplasma diversum infection in bovine females may result in various reproductive problems, including granular vulvovaginitis, abortion, weak calves, salpingitis, and spontaneous abortion. The presence of U. diversum in a dairy bovine population from midwestern Brazil has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine whether U. diversum was present in dairy cattle from midwestern Brazil using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Vulvovaginal mucus was analyzed from 203 cows located in six municipalities in the north region of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. A total of 25% of dairy cows with vulvovaginitis were positive for U. diversum. The factors evaluated were included in a multivariable logistic regression model with the presence of at least one positive cow in the herd serving as the dependent variable. Three variables were significantly associated with a U. diversum-positive PCR and were included in the final multivariable model: number of parities, vulvar lesions, and reproductive problems. For each new parity, the chance of U. diversum infection decreased 0.03-fold, indicating that cows with the highest number of parities were more protected. The presence of vulvar lesions was increased 17.6-fold in females positive for U. diversum, suggesting that this bacterium could be related to the red granular lesions in the vulvar mucosa, whereas reproductive problems were increased 7.6-fold. However, further investigations should be conducted to ascertain the effects of U. diversum in association with other mycoplasma species in the herds studied.

  20. Ureaplasma diversum as a cause of pustular vulvovaginitis in bovine females in Vale Guapore, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gaeti, João Guilherme L N; Lana, Marconni V C; Silva, Gustavo S; Lerner, Letycia; de Campos, Camila G; Haruni, Fernanda; Colodel, Edson M; Costa, Eduardo F; Corbellini, Luis G; Nakazato, Luciano; Pescador, Caroline A

    2014-08-01

    Ureaplasma diversum has been associated with various reproductive problems in cattle that include granular vulvovaginitis, weak calves, and abortion. This study was conducted in a beef herd situated in the Middle-West region of Brazil, and the objectives were to verify the presence of U. diversum and to elucidate its possible relationships with independent variables in this bovine herd population. A total of 134 vaginal mucous swabs were taken for polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Of these, 51 (38 %) were PCR positive for U. diversum. Of the 58 heifers with vulvovaginal lesions characterized by hyperemia, granulated lesions, and edema distributed throughout the vulvar mucosa, 37 (64 %) were U. diversum positive; of the 76 heifers without reproductive lesions, 14 (18 %) were U. diversum positive. All tested samples were negative for bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1). Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the following two variables were significantly associated with the presence of U. diversum: the presence of vulvar lesions (p = 0.001) and the presence of a progesterone (P4) device (p = 0.001). These findings indicate that U. diversum should be considered a pathogen that is associated with pustular vulvovaginitis in heifers from the Mato Grosso state and that additional studies of the risk factors associated with intravaginal P4 device transmission should be performed.

  1. Economic analysis of vaccination to control bovine brucellosis in the States of Sao Paulo and Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Alves, A J S; Rocha, F; Amaku, M; Ferreira, F; Telles, E O; Grisi Filho, J H H; Ferreira Neto, J S; Zylbersztajn, D; Dias, R A

    2015-03-01

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic disease that causes important economic losses in Brazil, and the country has therefore established a national program for its control and eradication. Using data generated in the last national brucellosis survey, we conducted an economic analysis in two Brazilian States with different brucellosis status, Mato Grosso (with high prevalence) and Sao Paulo (with low prevalence). The economic analysis was based on the calculation of the additional benefits and costs of controlling bovine brucellosis through the vaccination of heifers aged between 3 and 8 months with S19 vaccine, considering maximal and minimal impacts of the disease. The analysis showed that vaccinating 90% of the replacement heifers aged 3-8 months of age offers the best economic performance in a vaccination program against bovine brucellosis if compared to vaccination rates of 70% and 80%. Moreover, regions with higher prevalences of bovine brucellosis would experience significant economic advantages when implementing a vaccination strategy to control the disease. This economic analysis will allow decision makers to plan more economically effective vaccination programs.

  2. Detection of Oropouche virus segment S in patients and inCulex quinquefasciatus in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Serra, Otacília Pereira; Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; Zuchi, Nayara; de Souza, Victor Costa; Naveca, Felipe Gomes; dos Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the circulation of Orthobunyavirus species in the state of Mato Grosso (MT) Brazil. During a dengue outbreak in 2011/2012, 529 serum samples were collected from patients with acute febrile illness with symptoms for up to five days and 387 pools of female Culex quinquefasciatus captured in 2013 were subjected to nested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for segment S of the Simbu serogroup followed by nucleotide sequencing and virus isolation in Vero cells. Patients (5/529; 0.9%) from Cuiabá (n = 3), Várzea Grande (n = 1) and Nova Mutum (n = 1) municipalities were positive for the S segment of Oropouche virus (OROV). Additionally, eight/387 Cx. quinquefasciatus pools were positive for the segment, with a minimum infection rate of 2.3. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that all the samples belong to the subgenotype Ia, presenting high homology with OROV strains obtained from humans and animals in the Brazilian Amazon. The present paper reports the first detection of an Orthobunyavirus, possibly OROV, in patients and in Cx. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in MT. This finding reinforces the notion that arboviruses frequently reported in the Amazon Region circulate sporadically in MT during dengue outbreaks. PMID:26517653

  3. Effects of ambient air temperature, humidity, and wind speed on seminal traits in Braford and Nellore bulls at the Brazilian Pantanal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menegassi, Silvio Renato Oliveira; Pereira, Gabriel Ribas; Bremm, Carolina; Koetz, Celso; Lopes, Flávio Guiselli; Fiorentini, Eduardo Custódio; McManus, Concepta; Dias, Eduardo Antunes; da Rocha, Marcela Kuczynski; Lopes, Rubia Branco; Barcellos, Júlio Otávio Jardim

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bioclimatic thermal stress assessed by Equivalent Temperature Index (ETI) and Temperature Humidity Index (THI) on Braford and Nellore bulls sperm quality during the reproductive seasons at the tropical region in the Brazilian Pantanal. We used 20 bulls aged approximately 24 months at the beginning of the study. Five ejaculates per animal were collected using an electroejaculator. Temperature, air humidity, and wind speed data were collected every hour from the automatic weather station at the National Institute of Meteorology. Infrared thermography images data were collected to assess the testicular temperature gradient in each animal. Data were analyzed with ANOVA using MIXED procedure of SAS and means were compared using Tukey's HSD test. The THI and ETI at 12 days (epididymal transit) were higher in January (89.7 and 28.5, respectively) and February (90.0 and 29.0, respectively) compared to other months ( P < 0.01). Total seminal defects differ only in Bradford bulls between the months of November and February. Nellore bulls had lower major defects (MaD) and total defects (TD) compared to Braford. Nellore bulls showed correlation between minor defects (MiD) and THI for 30 days (0.90) and 18 days (0.88; P < 0.05). Braford bulls showed correlation for MaD (0.89) in ETI for 12 days ( P < 0.05). Infrared thermography showed no difference between animals. Reproductive response to environmental changes is a consequence of Nellore and Braford adaptation to climate stress conditions. Both THI and ETI environmental indexes can be used to evaluate the morphological changes in the seminal parameters in Nellore or Braford bulls; however, more experiments should be performed focusing on larger sample numbers and also in reproductive assessment during the consecutive years to assess fertility potential.

  4. Evaluation of soil contamination risk under climate change scenarios using Pantanal model in a Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotb Abd-Elmabod, Sameh; Anaya-Romero, María; Jordán, Antonio; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; de la Rosa, Diego

    2013-04-01

    In this research, contamination vulnerability of Mediterranean soils was evaluated, using Andalusia (southern Spain; 87,600 km2) as a pilot area. The following components of the agro-ecological decision support system MicroLEIS DSS have been used: 1) SDBm, soil profile database, 2) CDBm, agroclimate database 3) MDBm, database of agricultural management, and 4) Pantanal model, specific assessment model for the vulnerability of soil contamination focus on nitrogen, phosphorous, heavy metals and pesticides. After the application of the model, results may be grouped into five vulnerability classes: V1-none, V2-low, V3-moderate, V4-high and V5-extreme for each specific contaminant. Physical and chemical data, and morphological description of 62 selected soil profiles from the study area were used in this study. Soil profiles were classified at sub-group level of USDA Soil Taxonomy, resulting in 37 units included in orders Inceptisols (26,9%), Entisols (21.2%), Alfisols (19.8%), Vertisols (17.9%), Mollisols (7.2%), Ultisols (4.3%) and Aridisols (2.8%). The CDBm database contains monthly average values of climate variables: mean temperature, maximum and minimum monthly rainfall, number of days of rain and humidity, collected during a consecutive period of 30 years that represent current climate scenario, and future climate scenarios (2040, 2070 and 2100). These scenarios have been calculated using climate change variation values from the State Meteorological Agency (AEMET, 2011). The MDBm contains information about agricultural use and management of wheat crop. The Pantanal expert model was applied to each soil-unit. Results showed that 9.0%, 11.6%, 29.5% and 50.8% of the total studied area was classified as V1, V2, V3, and V4, respectively, for pesticide contamination under the current climatic scenario. Under the future climate change scenario, 7.7%, 10.0%, 17.7% and 64.6% of the total studied area was classified as V1, V2, V3 and V4, respectively, for pesticide

  5. Characterizing a Dynamic Land Cover Change Frontier Using MODIS Phenology Metrics: Cropland Expansion in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, D. C.; Defries, R. S.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Morisette, J.

    2005-12-01

    The state of Mato Grosso, Brazil experienced the most rapid agricultural expansion of any region in the Amazon Basin during the existing MODIS data record. Rapid conversion of Amazon forest, transitional tropical forest, and cerrado woodland-savanna for cattle ranching and grain production continues to fragment large tracts of these biomes. Tropical forest loss is estimated annually, yet the fate of cleared lands and losses of transitional forest or cerrado have not been well characterized in this region. Using phenological information from time series of MODIS 16-day composite data, it is possible to capture the temporal dynamism of land cover change and accurately separate primary and secondary land use transitions. We use time series of cloud-cleaned MODIS NDVI and EVI at 250 m resolution to characterize land cover based on metrics of wet-season, dry-season, and annual phenology from 2000-2004. Distinct phenological signatures for forest, pasture and natural grasslands, cerrado, and cropland enable accurate classification of land cover types when compared to field validation data (overall accuracy = 85%). We estimate that more than 1.6 million hectares were converted to cropland between 2000 and 2004. The majority of new cropland resulted from the direct conversion of cerrado (35%) or forest (29%); conversion of natural grassland areas or planted pasture accounted for 36% of new cropland areas. While secondary transitions from existing cattle pasture to cropland are an important source of new agricultural production, our findings contradict recent statements that cropland agriculture is not directly associated with new deforestation activities. Separation of more seasonal cerrado vegetation from transitional tropical forest based on vegetation phenology highlights land cover dynamics in regions with no previous deforestation monitoring. Phenological information from MODIS is extremely important to monitor land cover dynamics, separate forest types, and estimate

  6. A survey of tick-borne pathogens in dogs and their ticks in the Pantanal biome, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Melo, A L T; Witter, R; Martins, T F; Pacheco, T A; Alves, A S; Chitarra, C S; Dutra, V; Nakazato, L; Pacheco, R C; Labruna, M B; Aguiar, D M

    2016-03-01

    Tick and blood samples collected from domestic dogs in the Brazilian Pantanal were tested by molecular methods for the presence of tick-borne protozoa and bacteria. Among 320 sampled dogs, 3.13% were infected by Babesia vogeli (Piroplasmida: Babesiidae), 8.75% by Hepatozoon canis (Eucoccidiorida: Hepatozoidae), 7.19% by Anaplasma platys (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), and 0.94% by an unclassified Anaplasma sp. In three tick species collected from dogs, the following tick-borne agents were detected: (a) B. vogeli, An. platys and Ehrlichia canis (Rickettsiales: Anaplasmataceae), infecting Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks; (b) H. canis, an unclassified Anaplasma sp. and Rickettsia amblyommii (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), infecting Amblyomma cajennense sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae) ticks, and (c) Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest, an emerging human pathogen, infecting Amblyomma ovale ticks. Molecular analysis, based on a mitochondrial gene, revealed that the Am. cajennense s.l. ticks of the present study corresponded to Amblyomma sculptum, a member of the Am. cajennense species complex, and that Rh. sanguineus s.l. belonged to the tropical lineage. Whereas dogs are exposed to a number of tick-borne bacterial and protozoan agents in the Pantanal biome, humans are potentially exposed to infection by spotted fever group rickettsiae (e.g. R. amblyommii and Rickettsia sp. strain Atlantic rainforest) because both Am. sculptum and Am. ovale are among the most important human-biting ticks in Brazil.

  7. Azospirillum spp. from native forage grasses in Brazilian Pantanal floodplain: biodiversity and plant growth promotion potential.

    PubMed

    Souza, Mayara S T; de Baura, Valter A; Santos, Sandra A; Fernandes-Júnior, Paulo Ivan; Reis Junior, Fábio B; Marques, Maria Rita; Paggi, Gecele Matos; da Silva Brasil, Marivaine

    2017-04-01

    A sustainable alternative to improve yield and the nutritive value of forage is the use of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) that release nutrients, synthesize plant hormones and protect against phytopathogens (among other mechanisms). Azospirillum genus is considered an important PGPB, due to the beneficial effects observed when inoculated in several plants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of new Azospirillum isolates and select bacteria according to the plant growth promotion ability in three forage species from the Brazilian Pantanal floodplain: Axonopus purpusii, Hymenachne amplexicaulis and Mesosetum chaseae. The identification of bacterial isolates was performed using specific primers for Azospirillum in PCR reactions and partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA and nifH genes. The isolates were evaluated in vitro considering biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. Based on the results of BNF and IAA, selected isolates and two reference strains were tested by inoculation. At 31 days after planting the plant height, shoot dry matter, shoot protein content and root volume were evaluated. All isolates were able to fix nitrogen and produce IAA, with values ranging from 25.86 to 51.26 mg N mL(-1) and 107-1038 µmol L(-1), respectively. The inoculation of H. amplexicaulis and A. purpusii increased root volume and shoot dry matter. There were positive effects of Azospirillum inoculation on Mesosetum chaseae regarding plant height, shoot dry matter and root volume. Isolates MAY1, MAY3 and MAY12 were considered promising for subsequent inoculation studies in field conditions.

  8. Historical reconstruction of floodplain inundation in the Pantanal (Brazil) using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantin-Cruz, Ibraim; Pedrollo, Olavo; Castro, Nilza M. R.; Girard, Pierre; Zeilhofer, Peter; Hamilton, Stephen K.

    2011-03-01

    SummaryThe relations between hydrology, geomorphology and vegetation provide the basis for understanding the ecological processes in the floodplains of rivers. In this paper, long-term (1969-2009) local flood characteristics (magnitude, duration, frequency, return period) are quantified for the floodplain of the Cuiabá River (Pantanal wetland in Brazil), using a predictive model based on artificial neural networks (ANNs) with input given by the historic river-level record. Morphological features were then described and their relation to vegetation analyzed and used to reconstruct floods. In addition to the river-level data used to train and validate a three-layer ANN, data were also used from 11 floodplain gauges across a 12 km transect lateral to the river, which were monitored during the annual floods of 2004-2007. The resulting neural network gave satisfactory estimates of water depth over the floodplain, with an absolute error of 0.09 m not exceeded in 95% of occurrences. The ANN showed that in almost all years, the level reached by the river was high enough to flood the profile completely: the exceptions were 1971 and 2001 when only 50% and 58% was flooded, to mean depths of 0.34 and 0.48 m, respectively. The highest flood was that of 1995 when the floodplain was flooded to a mean depth of 2.56 m. The median flood event (return period 2 years) produced a mean flood depth 1.80 m and lasted 119 days. Among the most important morphological features is the presence of palaeo-channels which provide hydrological connectivity between the river and the floodplain. The distribution of phytophysiognomic units is significantly influenced by local geomorphology, which determines spatial variation in the magnitude, duration, and frequency of flooding.

  9. Karyotypic description of the stingless bee Oxytrigona cf. flaveola (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponina) of a colony from Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to broaden knowledge on the cytogenetics of the subtribe Meliponina, by furnishing cytogenetic data as a contribution to the characterization of bees from the genus Oxytrigona. Individuals of the species Oxytrigona cf. flaveola, members of a colony from Tangará da Serra, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, were studied. The chromosome number was 2n = 34, distributed among four chromosomal morphologies, with the karyotype formula 8m+8sm+16st+2t. Size heteromorphism in the first metacentric pair, subsequently confirmed by sequential staining with fluorochrome (DA/DAPI/CMA3 ), was apparent in all the examined individuals The nucleolar organizing regions (NORs) are possibly located in this metacentric chromosome pair. These data will contribute towards a better understanding of the genus Oxytrigona. Given that species in this group are threatened, the importance of their preservation and conservation can be shown in a sensible, concise fashion through studies such as this. PMID:21637423

  10. Ecosystem-scale CH4 and CO2 fluxes in a seasonally flooded scrub forest of the Brazilian Pantanal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlitis, G. L.; Dalmagro, H. J.; Arruda, P. H. Z. D.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Pinto-Jr, O. B.; Lobo, F. D. A.; Couto, E. G.; Nogueira, J. D. S.; Johnson, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    The Pantanal is the largest floodplain in South America, comprised of a mixture of savannah vegetation with patches of semi-deciduous and seasonally flooded forests. In this study we investigated ecosystem-scale methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and the possible factors that control these fluxes, such as the water level soil temperature and the soil redox potential. Trace gas fluxes were measured using an eddy covariance system installed on a 28 m tall tower. The study area was chosen because it is densely vegetated and experiences a seasonal flood pulse of about 6 months, which is typical for the Northern Pantanal. The measurements were performed over two flood cycles, from December to June 2013/2014 and 2014/2015. Methane fluxes showed a seasonal progression, with higher emission rates during the flooding period and near zero fluxes prior to inundation and again after recession. Major peaks of CH4 (0.30 μmol m-2 s-1) were observed after the soil became completely flooded and soil redox values were < -200 mV. The average (± sd) values of CH4 flux for the 2013/2014 and 2014/2015 seasons were 0.10 ± 0.06 μmol m-2 s-1 and 0.14 ± 0.04 μmol m-2 s-1, respectively. In contrast, CO2 fluxes are strongly negative during the flooded period, indicating net CO2 uptake by the forest, with average (± sd) values of -4.12 ± 3.34 μmol m-2 s-1 for 2013/2014 and -4.14 ± 2.62 μmol m-2 s-1 for 2014/2015. These data indicate that seasonally flooded forests of the Pantanal are potentially large sinks for CO2 but strong sources for CH4, especially during the flood pulse when anaerobic soil conditions concomitantly enhance CH4 production and limit CO2 production

  11. Geologic survey in the south-central region of Mato Grosso

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Balieiro, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    The field observations made in the Cuiaba Project area are described. Many geologic cross-sections were done in which the stratigraphic units and the geologic structures defined in the literature and observed in the LANDSAT MSS imagery were recognized.

  12. Organic Control of Dioctahedral and Trioctahedral Clay Formation in an Alkaline Soil System in the Pantanal Wetland of Nhecolândia, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Meunier, Jean-François; Martins-Silva, Elisângela R.; Furian, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the formation of authigenic clays in an alkaline soil system surrounding lakes of the Nhecolândia region, Pantanal wetland. The presence of trioctahedral Mg-smectites (stevensite and saponite types), which requires low Al and Fe contents in the soil solution for its formation, contrasts with the neoformation of dioctahedral Fe-mica (glauconite, and Fe-illite), which instead requires solutions relatively enriched in Al and Fe. This study aims to understand the conditions of co-existence of both, Mg-smectite and Fe-mica a common clay association in former or modern alkaline soil systems and sediments. The study was carried out along an alkaline soil catena representative of the region. The soil organization revealed that Mg-smectite occur in top soil close to the lake, whereas Fe-mica dominate in the clay fraction of deeper greenish horizons a few meters apart. We propose here that this spatial distribution is controlled by the lateral transfer of Fe and Al with organic ligands. Alkaline organic rich solutions (DOC up to 738 mg L-1) collected in the watertable were centrifuged and filtered through membranes of decreasing pore size (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm, 30 KDa, 10 KDa, 3 KDa) to separate colloidal and dissolved fractions. Fe, Al, Si, Mg and K were analysed for each fraction. Although the filtration had no influence on Si and K contents, almost 90% of Fe (up to 2.3 mg L-1) and Al (up to 7 mg L-1) are retained at the first cutoff threshold of 0.45μm. The treatment of the same solutions by oxygen peroxide before filtration shows that a large proportion of Fe and Al were bonded to organic colloids in alkaline soil solution at the immediate lake border, allowing Mg-smectite precipitation. The fast mineralization of the organic matter a few meters apart from the lake favors the release of Fe and Al necessary for Fe-mica neoformation. In comparison with chemical and mineralogical characteristics of alkaline environments described in the

  13. Organic Control of Dioctahedral and Trioctahedral Clay Formation in an Alkaline Soil System in the Pantanal Wetland of Nhecolândia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barbiero, Laurent; Berger, Gilles; Rezende Filho, Ary T; Meunier, Jean-François; Martins-Silva, Elisângela R; Furian, Sonia

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on the formation of authigenic clays in an alkaline soil system surrounding lakes of the Nhecolândia region, Pantanal wetland. The presence of trioctahedral Mg-smectites (stevensite and saponite types), which requires low Al and Fe contents in the soil solution for its formation, contrasts with the neoformation of dioctahedral Fe-mica (glauconite, and Fe-illite), which instead requires solutions relatively enriched in Al and Fe. This study aims to understand the conditions of co-existence of both, Mg-smectite and Fe-mica a common clay association in former or modern alkaline soil systems and sediments. The study was carried out along an alkaline soil catena representative of the region. The soil organization revealed that Mg-smectite occur in top soil close to the lake, whereas Fe-mica dominate in the clay fraction of deeper greenish horizons a few meters apart. We propose here that this spatial distribution is controlled by the lateral transfer of Fe and Al with organic ligands. Alkaline organic rich solutions (DOC up to 738 mg L-1) collected in the watertable were centrifuged and filtered through membranes of decreasing pore size (0.45 μm, 0.2 μm, 30 KDa, 10 KDa, 3 KDa) to separate colloidal and dissolved fractions. Fe, Al, Si, Mg and K were analysed for each fraction. Although the filtration had no influence on Si and K contents, almost 90% of Fe (up to 2.3 mg L-1) and Al (up to 7 mg L-1) are retained at the first cutoff threshold of 0.45μm. The treatment of the same solutions by oxygen peroxide before filtration shows that a large proportion of Fe and Al were bonded to organic colloids in alkaline soil solution at the immediate lake border, allowing Mg-smectite precipitation. The fast mineralization of the organic matter a few meters apart from the lake favors the release of Fe and Al necessary for Fe-mica neoformation. In comparison with chemical and mineralogical characteristics of alkaline environments described in the

  14. Phenotypic and molecular fingerprinting of fast growing rhizobia of field-grown pigeonpea from the eastern edge of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Costa, F M; Schiavo, J A; Brasil, M S; Leite, J; Xavier, G R; Fernandes, P I

    2014-01-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of rhizobial isolates obtained from root nodules of pigeonpea plants grown at the eastern edge of the Brazilian Pantanal. The bacterial isolates were isolated from root nodules from field-growing pigeonpea grown in two rural settlements of the Aquidauana municipality. The bacterial isolates were characterized phenotypically by means of cultural characterization, intrinsic antibiotic resistance (IAR), salt and high incubation temperature tolerance, and amylolytic and cellulolytic activities. The molecular characterization of the bacterial isolates was carried out using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and Box-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. In addition, the symbiotic performance of selected rhizobial isolates was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment using sterile substrate. The phenotypic characterization revealed that the bacterial strains obtained from pigeonpea root nodules presented characteristics that are uncommon among rhizobial isolates, indicating the presence of new species nodulating the pigeonpea plants in the Brazilian Pantanal. The molecular fingerprinting of these bacterial isolates also showed a highly diverse collection, with both techniques revealing less than 25% similarity among bacterial isolates. The evaluation of symbiotic performance also indicated the presence of microorganisms with high potential to increase the growth and nitrogen content at the shoots of pigeonpea plants. The results obtained in this study indicate the presence of a highly diversified rhizobial community nodulating the pigeonpea at the eastern edge of the Brazilian Pantanal.

  15. Age-related and stand-wise estimates of carbon stocks and sequestration in the aboveground coarse wood biomass of wetland forests in the northern Pantanal, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schöngart, J.; Arieira, J.; Felfili Fortes, C.; Cezarine de Arruda, E.; Nunes da Cunha, C.

    2011-11-01

    In this study we use allometric models combined with tree ring analysis to estimate carbon stocks and sequestration in the aboveground coarse wood biomass (AGWB) of wetland forests in the Pantanal, located in central South America. In four 1-ha plots in stands characterized by the pioneer tree species Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae) forest inventories (trees ≥10 cm diameter at breast height, D) have been performed and converted to estimates of AGWB by two allometric models using three independent parameters (D, tree height H and wood density ρ). We perform a propagation of measurement errors to estimate uncertainties in the estimates of AGWB. Carbon stocks of AGWB vary from 7.8 ± 1.5 to 97.2 ± 14.4 Mg C ha-1 between the four stands. From models relating tree ages determined by dendrochronological techniques to C-stocks in AGWB we derived estimates for C-sequestration which differs from 0.50 ± 0.03 to 3.34 ± 0.31 Mg C ha-1 yr-1. Maps based on geostatistic techniques indicate the heterogeneous spatial distribution of tree ages and C-stocks of the four studied stands. This distribution is the result of forest dynamics due to the colonizing and retreating of V. divergens and other species associated with pluriannual wet and dry episodes in the Pantanal, respectively. Such information is essential for the management of the cultural landscape of the Pantanal wetlands.

  16. Leishmania infantum AS A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL, BRAZIL.

    PubMed

    Castro, Ludiele Souza; França, Adriana de Oliveira; Ferreira, Eduardo de Castro; Hans Filho, Günther; Higa Júnior, Minoru German; Gontijo, Célia Maria Ferreira; Pereira, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; Dorval, Maria Elizabeth Moraes C

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of the Leishmania genus. Leishmania(Leishmania) infantum, causing cutaneous leishmaniasis, has been described in patients living in areas where visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In this study, it was possible to characterize this species in seven slides from cutaneous tissue imprints from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

  17. Ixodid fauna and zoonotic agents in ticks from dogs: first report of Rickettsia rickettsii in Rhipicephalus sanguineus in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, mid-western Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, Robson Ferreira Cavalcante; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Matias, Jaqueline; e Silva, Elaine Araújo; de Fatima Cepa Matos, Maria; Andreotti, Renato

    2013-05-01

    Ticks from 148 dogs from the urban area of the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were collected, classified and analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for the identification of Rickettsia spp., Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania spp. A total of 2015 ticks were collected. The species Rhipicephalus sanguineus (98.9 %) and Amblyomma cajennense (1.1 %) were identified. Molecular analysis revealed that no tick samples were infected by T. cruzi. Regarding Leishmania spp., tick samples from 36 dogs spread across all regions of the municipality were positive for L. chagasi. One tick sample was positive for Rickettsia spp. (gltA gene) in the PCR reaction. This sample was submitted to further PCR based on the ompA gene and the amplicon was sequenced. Identity of 100 % was found with homologous sequences of R. rickettsii available in GenBank. This paper is the first to report the natural infection of R. sanguineus by R. rickettsii in the municipality of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, mid-western Brazil.

  18. What Shapes the Phylogenetic Structure of Anuran Communities in a Seasonal Environment? The Influence of Determinism at Regional Scale to Stochasticity or Antagonistic Forces at Local Scale

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Vanda Lúcia; Strüssmann, Christine; Tomas, Walfrido Moraes

    2015-01-01

    Ecological communities are structured by both deterministic and stochastic processes. We investigated phylogenetic patterns at regional and local scales to understand the influences of seasonal processes in shaping the structure of anuran communities in the southern Pantanal wetland, Brazil. We assessed the phylogenetic structure at different scales, using the Net Relatedness Index (NRI), the Nearest Taxon Index (NTI), and phylobetadiversity indexes, as well as a permutation test, to evaluate the effect of seasonality. The anuran community was represented by a non-random set of species with a high degree of phylogenetic relatedness at the regional scale. However, at the local scale the phylogenetic structure of the community was weakly related with the seasonality of the system, indicating that oriented stochastic processes (e.g. colonization, extinction and ecological drift) and/or antagonist forces drive the structure of such communities in the southern Pantanal. PMID:26102202

  19. Introduction of the dengue virus type 4 in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bertolacci-Rocha, Lívia Garcia; Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio da; Lichs, Gislene Garcia de Castro; Dal Fabbro, Márcia Maria Ferrairo Janini; Motta-Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra

    2014-08-01

    We report on the first isolation of dengue virus serotype 4 (DENV-4) in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, in February, 2012. The cases were isolated in the city of Campo Grande, the state capital, and presented the classic signs and symptoms of dengue fever. DENV-4 was primarily identified through viral isolation in C6/36 clone lineage of Aedes albopictus cells; followed by indirect immunofluorescence, using type-specific monoclonal antibodies. The results were subsequently confirmed by Nested RT-PCR tests. The first description of the introduction of DENV-4 in a state whose population is susceptible to this serotype and the circulation of three other serotypes in the area is cause for concern due to the increased possibility of severe and lethal cases of the disease, and of huge epidemics.

  20. Observational descriptive study of cutaneous manifestations in patients from Mato Grosso with viral chronic hepatitis*

    PubMed Central

    Rostey, Renato Roberto Liberato; Souto, Francisco José Dutra

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Extrahepatic manifestations are seen in association with chronic infection by hepatitis B or C virus including cutaneous disorders. The frequency of these findings seems to vary among different places and reports. There is a lack of information about this issue in Brazil. OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of cutaneous findings affecting HBV or HCV carriers from a reference outpatient unit in Mato Grosso. METHODS A cross-sectional observational study. RESULTS 108 patients were studied. 88.9% presented some cutaneous findings but must of them were nonrelated to chronic viral infection. Four patients had cutaneous or autoimmune syndromes that may be HBV or HCV related. CONCLUSION In our study we found no statistical association between viral hepatitis and skin diseases. PMID:26734863

  1. Farm-scale distribution of deforestation and remaining forest cover in Mato Grosso

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Peter D.; Vanwey, Leah

    2016-04-01

    An analysis of data on property size and type as well as land use reveals the distribution of deforestation, remaining forest cover and carbon stocks in Mato Grosso, Brazil's third largest state. Nearly two-thirds of remaining forests and carbon reserves, equating to between 2 and 3 Pg of carbon, are located on private properties. Around 80% of forests and carbon reserves are on properties larger than 1,000 ha, with smallholder farms and public land reform settlements controlling only a tiny fraction of the state's remaining forest and carbon reserves. Efforts to reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation must target owners controlling most of the remaining forest and land types with the highest deforestation rates. We thus suggest that policymakers seeking to protect the remaining forest should focus both incentives and enforcement of anti-deforestation laws in the larger properties where most of these forests are located.

  2. Thermoluminescence dating of archaeological ceramics collected from state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatumi, S. H.; Martins, G. R.; Kashimoto, E. M.; Ayta, W. E. F.; Watanabe, S.

    Systematic field work has been carried out since 1993, in order to recover the archaeological sites, situated in places which will be inundated directly or indirectly by the installation of the Hydroelectric Complex "Porto Primavera". A total of 14 archaeological sites were discovered in the right margin of the Parana river, State of Mato Grosso do Sul. Equivalent doses of ancient ceramics collected from these sites were determined by Additive dose method. The estimated ages were in the range of (239 ± 10) to (1248 ± 100) years. A burned charcoal sample was also collected from the oldest site and dated by 14C dating method (Centre de Faibles Radioactivités, Laboratoire Mixte C.N.R.S. - CEA, France). An age of about (1015 ± 75) BP was obtained and agrees with the one found by TL method.

  3. Vulvovaginal candidiasis in Mato Grosso, Brazil: pregnancy status, causative species and drugs tests

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Luciana Basili; de Souza Carvalho Melhem, Márcia; Szeszs, Maria Walderez; Filho, José Meirelles; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2011-01-01

    Causative agent in majority of VVC is Candida albicans, but infection due to non-C. albicans is common. Use of empiric antifungal therapy in Brazil due to syndromic management of vulvovaginitis could act as risk factor for increase resistance among VVC causative agents. From Mato Grosso patients, 160 with culture-proved among 404 women who had clinical symptoms of VVC, were enrolled in this study. 70 non-pregnant women and 90 pregnant women were included. Candida albicans was the most prevalent, representing 72.9% in the non-pregnant group and 92.3% in the pregnant group. Differences in species distribution were noted between the two groups, being C. parapsilosis the second more prevalent species among non-pregnant women. Susceptibility testing revealed high susceptibility to fluconazole (except for C. krusei), itraconazole, ketoconazole, and amphotericin B regardless the species (C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, C. glabrata, C. krusei) analyzed. PMID:24031756

  4. Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, M M; Uchôa, M A; Ide, S

    2013-02-01

    Dung beetles (Coleoptera: Scarabaeoidea) in three landscapes in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Dung Beetles are important for biological control of intestinal worms and dipterans of economic importance to cattle, because they feed and breed in dung, killing parasites inside it. They are also very useful as bioindicators of species diversity in agricultural or natural environments. The aims of this paper were to study the species richness, and abundance of dung beetles, helping to answer the question: are there differences in the patterns of dung beetle diversity in three environments (pasture, agriculture and forest) in the municipality of Dourados, in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 105 samplings were carried out weekly, from November 2005 to November 2007, using three pitfall traps in each environment. The traps were baited with fresh bovine dung, and 44,355 adult dung beetles from 54 species were captured: two from Hyborosidae and 52 from Scarabaeidae. Five species were constant, very abundant and dominant on the pasture, two in the agricultural environment, and two in the environment of Semideciduous forest. Most of the species were characterised as accessories, common and not-dominant. The species with higher abundance was Ataenius platensis Blanchard, 1844. The indexes of Shannon-Wiener diversity were: 2.90 in the pasture, 2.84 in the agricultural environment and 2.66 in the area of native forest. The medium positive presence of dung beetles in the traps in each environment were: 36.88, 42.73 and 20.18 individuals per trap, in the pasture, agricultural environment and in the native forest, respectively. The pasture environment presented a higher diversity index. The species diversity of dung beetles was superior where there was higher abundance and regularity of resource (bovine dung).

  5. Epidemiological study on leishmaniasis in an area of environmental tourism and ecotourism, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, 2006-2007.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Ana Rachel Oliveira de; Nunes, Vânia Lúcia Brandão; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; de Arruda, Carla Cardozo Pinto; Santos, Mirella Ferreira da Cunha; Rocca, Maria Elizabeth Gizi; Aquino, Ricardo Braga

    2009-01-01

    The aims of this study were to carry out a serological survey of canine leishmaniasis and identify the phlebotomine fauna in the urban area of Bonito, Mato Grosso do Sul. The serological survey was conducted on a sample of 303 dogs, by means of the indirect immunofluorescence test. Phlebotomines were captured using automated light traps. The serological survey found that 30% of the dogs were seropositive, both from the center and from all districts of the town. A total of 2,772 specimens of phlebotomines were caught and the species most found was Lutzomyia longipalpis (90.4%), which corroborated its role as the vector of for canine visceral leishmaniasis in the region. Phlebotomines of the species Bichromomyia flaviscutellata (the main vector for Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis) and Nyssomyia whitmani (the vector for Leishmania (Viannia) brasiliensis) were also caught. The findings indicate the need for continuous epidemiological surveillance, with attention towards diminishing the vector breeding sites and the transmission of these diseases in that region.

  6. Gamma spectrometric and magnetic interpretation of Cabaçal copper deposit in Mato Grosso (Brazil): Implications for hydrothermal fluids remobilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Vanessa Biondo; Mantovani, Marta Silvia Maria

    2016-12-01

    The Cabaçal Au-Zn-Cu Deposit, Mato Grosso, Brazil, was explored between 1987 and 1991, when 869,279 tons of ore rich in Au and Cu have been extracted. The hydrothermal alteration in the Cabaçal mine suggests a volcanogenic genetic model in which hydrothermal centers generated sericitization, chloritization and silicification alterations at different stages. The hydrothermal alteration affects the radioelements in different ways, generating a characteristic gamma spectrometric signature for the affected area. The eTh/K ratio map evidenced that the hydrothermalized area extends beyond south limits of the Cabaçal gabbro dykes formation, which host Cabaçal and Santa Helena mines. Magnetic data over the region show the same behavior for this formation, indicating that the magnetic source extends in subsurface. This behavior was recovered by the 3D model inverted for the region, which recovered a positive apparent magnetic contrast associated with this body, with an increasing deepness to south. It is possible that the south subsurface portion of the magnetic source may contain economic concentrations of Au remobilized by hydrothermal fluids. However, to confirm this hypothesis it is necessary to develop geochemical and borehole analysis of the area.

  7. [Epidemiological trends for malaria in the cities of the upper Paraguay River basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil 1990-1996].

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, W K; Vicente, M G; Silva, M A; de Castro, L L

    1998-01-01

    Through the Regional Office of the Brazilian National Health Foundation in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, we obtained numerical data on malaria for the upper Paraguay basin (UPB): 159 cases in 1990, 126 in 1991, 135 in 1992, 61 in 1993, 143 in 1994, 41 in 1995, and 20 in 1996, the majority of which were imported cases. There were no autochthonous cases in 1990, and since 1991 the rates of over 15% dropped to around 1.60%. Imported cases, corresponding to 0. 63% in 1990, increased in 1991 and 1992 to some 1.50%, and to 3.28% in 1993. Induced cases were recorded only in 1991 and 1992 (less than 1%). Most cases were between 16 and 45 years of age. There was a predominance of Plasmodium vivax in the thick blood smears. Although autochthonous cases of malaria are not the majority, the disease is still an important public health problem in the UPB in the presence of the Anopheles (N.) darlingi vector and human migration into the region.

  8. [Triatoma vandae sp.n. of the oliveirai complex from the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae)].

    PubMed

    Carcavallo, Rodolfo U; Jurberg, José; Rocha, Dayse da Silva; Galvao, Cleber; Noireau, François; Lent, Herman

    2002-07-01

    There are several specific complexes belonging to the genus Triatoma Laporte, 1832, which are generally associated to specific geographic areas. Recent publications have linked the oliveirai complex to ecosystems of Mato Grosso, which are also present in other Brazilian states and even in other bordering countries as eastern Paraguay. The study of the abundant material collected during the last years allowed the description of several new species of the oliveirai complex: T. jurbergi Carcavallo, Galvão Lent, 1998; T. baratai Carcavallo Jurberg, 2000 and T. klugi Carcavallo, Jurberg, Lent Galvão, 2001. Another new species belonging to the same complex is described here as T. vandae sp.n. It originates from the state of Mato Grosso, and has been reared in the insectary of the Laboratório Nacional e Internacional de Referência em Taxonomia de Triatomíneos, Departamento de Entomologia, Instituto Oswaldo Cruz-Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro.

  9. Leishmania infantum AS A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF CUTANEOUS LEISHMANIASIS IN THE STATE OF MATO GROSSO DO SUL, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    CASTRO, Ludiele Souza; FRANÇA, Adriana de Oliveira; FERREIRA, Eduardo de Castro; HANS, Günther; HIGA, Minoru German; GONTIJO, Célia Maria Ferreira; PEREIRA, Agnes Antônia Sampaio; DORVAL, Maria Elizabeth Moraes C.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous leishmaniasis is caused by different species of theLeishmania genus. Leishmania(Leishmania) infantum, causing cutaneous leishmaniasis, has been described in patients living in areas where visceral leishmaniasis is endemic. In this study, it was possible to characterize this species in seven slides from cutaneous tissue imprints from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. PMID:27007566

  10. Predicting the geographic distribution of Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae) and visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Paulo Silva de; Sciamarelli, Alan; Batista, Paulo Mira; Ferreira, Ademar Dimas; Nascimento, João; Raizer, Josué; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2013-12-01

    To understand the geographic distribution of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil, both the climatic niches of Lutzomyia longipalpis and VL cases were analysed. Distributional data were obtained from 55 of the 79 counties of MS between 2003-2012. Ecological niche models (ENM) of Lu. longipalpis and VL cases were produced using the maximum entropy algorithm based on eight climatic variables. Lu. longipalpis showed a wide distribution in MS. The highest climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis was observed in southern MS. Temperature seasonality and annual mean precipitation were the variables that most influenced these models. Two areas of high climatic suitability for the occurrence of VL cases were predicted: one near Aquidauana and another encompassing several municipalities in the southeast region of MS. As expected, a large overlap between the models for Lu. longipalpis and VL cases was detected. Northern and northwestern areas of MS were suitable for the occurrence of cases, but did not show high climatic suitability for Lu. longipalpis. ENM of vectors and human cases provided a greater understanding of the geographic distribution of VL in MS, which can be applied to the development of future surveillance strategies.

  11. [Managerial performance in public health services: a case study in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Ana Rita; Hortale, Virginia Alonso

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents part of a doctoral dissertation that developed a theoretical model capable of identifying managerial performance in various administrative levels of a Municipal Health Secretariat. The methodology was a case study of the Municipal Health Secretariat in Campo Grande, capital of the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. The theoretical model was based on recent debates emphasizing the need to modernize public administration, with an emphasis on efficacy and efficiency in the organizations as a whole. Some 31 interviews were conducted with the objective of identifying the managers' performance, through questions based on their daily practices in planning, organization, direction, and control. Managers from higher hierarchical levels obtained better results, while those in basic health units generally developed activities and complied with decisions passed down by imposition, with limited capacity to plan, organize, or control activities pertaining to their management sphere. These results stem partially from the charismatic leadership and centralizing administration of the current management in the municipal health system.

  12. [Demographic profile of Boróro Indians from Mato Grosso State, Brazil, 1993-1996].

    PubMed

    Souza, Luciene Guimarães de; Pagliaro, Heloisa; Santos, Ricardo Ventura

    2009-02-01

    This paper analyzes the demographic profile of the Boróro Indians from Mato Grosso State, Brazil, from 1993 to 1996. Data came from annual collection and registration of vital statistics conducted by the health service in three villages (Garças, Meruri, and Morada dos Boróro). The average annual population growth rate was 2.4%. Nearly half (44%) of the population was younger than 15 years (median 16 years). The crude birth rate was 30.9 per 1,000 and the crude death rate 7.3 per 1,000 inhabitants. The infant mortality rate was high (58.8 per thousand live births), probably resulting from precarious health conditions in the villages. The results showed that women married younger than men and that there were numerous unmarried adult men (26.7%) and women (13.3%), as compared to data from other indigenous groups. The total fertility rate of Boróro women was 4.3, quite low compared to other indigenous communities in Brazil. The study emphasizes the importance of systematically collecting and analyzing demographic data on indigenous populations.

  13. The Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program in Mato Grosso State, Brazil: implementation analysis.

    PubMed

    Mota, Reinaldo Gaspar da; Barros, Nelson Filice

    2016-09-01

    Although the 224 health professionals engaged by the More Doctors for Brazil Project (Projeto Mais Médicos para o Brazil, PMMB) to strengthen the National Primary Health Care Policy (Política Nacional de Atenção Básica, PNab) in 104 municipalities of Mato Grosso (MT) State have encountered significant problems in the work process, important advances have resulted in the health of populations served by the More Doctors Programme (Programa Mais Médicos, PMM). This article analyses the implementation and development of the PMM in MT, from 2013 to 2015, on the basis of primary data from focus groups and interviews of social stakeholders at the institutions involved and secondary data from reports by supervisors, tutors, managers and institutions on the MT State Coordinating Committee (CCE) of the PMM. Despite political difficulties in managing implementation, the results show that the endeavour was beneficial in that it surmounted previous obstacles, afforded users greater access, prompted discussion of the problem and proposed and experimented with ways to strengthen primary health care. We conclude that there is a need for broader academic discussion of the provision and training of doctors, of the model of care and of human resource capacity-building by continuing professional development with integration among teaching, service and community.

  14. Population dynamics of caterpillars on three cover crops before sowing cotton in Mato Grosso (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Silvie, P J; Menzel, C A; Mello, A; Coelho, A G

    2010-01-01

    Direct seeding mulch-based cropping systems under a preliminary cover crop such as millet are common in some areas of Brazil. Lepidopteran pests that damage cotton, soybean and maize crops can proliferate on cover crops, so preventive chemical treatments are necessary. Very little data is available on these pests on cover crops. This paper presents the dynamics of Spodoptera frugiperda, S. eridania, Mocis latipes and Diatraea saccharalis caterpillars monitored at Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso state (Brazil) during the of 2005/2006 and 2006/2007 cropping seasons on four cover crops, i.e. finger millet (Eleusine coracana), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) and ruzigrass (Brachiaria ruziziensis). The pests were visually counted on plants within a 1 m2 transect (wooden frame). Caterpillars were reared to facilitate identification of collected species and parasitoids. Many S. frugiperda caterpillars were observed on millet in 2005, with a maximum of 37 caterpillars/m2. On sorghum, we found 30 caterpillars/m2, or 0.83 caterpillars/plant. The Diatraea borer attacked sorghum later than the other pests. M. latipes was also observed on millet. The millet cover crop had to be dried for at least 1 month before direct drilling the main cotton crop in order to impede S. frugiperda infestations on cotton plantlets, thus avoiding the need for substantial resowing. The comparative methodological aspects are discussed.

  15. Effects of flooding cycles in the Pantanal on the turnover of soil nitrogen pools and emission of N2O

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liengaard, L.; Nielsen, L. P.; Revsbech, N. P.; Elberling, B.; Priemé, A.; Prast, A. E.; Kühl, M.

    2011-06-01

    The global nitrous oxide (N2O) budget remains unbalanced. Currently, ~25 % of the global N2O emission is ascribed to uncultivated tropical soils, but the exact locations and controlling mechanisms are not clear. In this study, we present the first detailed study of the dynamics of soil nitrogen pools and flux of N2O from the world's largest wetland Pantanal, South America. At three long-term measurement sites we measured porewater pH, NO3-, NH4+ , N2O and O2 as well as N2O dynamics in soil slurry, and in situ fluxes of N2O and CO2. The pool of inorganic nitrogen changed (7.1-92 μg NH4+-N g dw-1, and 0.1-201 μg NO3--N g dw-1) with the seasonal flooding and drying cycles, indicating dynamic shifts between ammonification, nitrification and denitrification. In the field, O2 penetrated to a depth of 60 cm in dry soil, but O2 was rapidly depleted in response to precipitation. Soil pH fluctuated from pH 7-7.5 in flooded soil to pH 3.5-4.5 in the same drained soil. Microsensor measurements showed rapid N2O accumulation reaching >500-1000 Pa in soil slurries due to incomplete denitrification. In situ fluxes of N2O were comparable to heavily fertilized forest or agricultural soils. The dominating parameter affecting N2O emission rate was precipitation inducing peak emissions of >3 mmol N2O m-2 d-1, while the mean daily flux was 0.43 mmol N2O m-2 d-1. Single measurement based screening of in situ activity at 10 Pantanal sites during dry conditions averaged 0.39 mmol N2O m-2 d-1. The in situ N2O fluxes were only weakly correlated (r2 = 0.177) with NO3- and pH value, showing a tendency (p = 0.063) for NO3- concentration to be positively correlated with the in situ N2O flux and a weaker tendency (p = 0.138) for the pH value to be negatively correlated with the in situ N2O flux. Over 170 days of the drained period we estimated non-wetted drained soil to contribute 70.0 mmol N2O m-2, while rain induced peak events contributed 9.2 mmol N2O m-2, resulting in a total N2O emission

  16. Serosurvey for selected viral infections in free-ranging jaguars (Panthera onca) and domestic carnivores in Brazilian Cerrado, Pantanal, and Amazon.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Mariana Malzoni; de Ramos Filho, José Domingues; Scheffer, Karin Corrêa; Coelho, Claudio José; Cruz, Paula Sônia; Ikuta, Cassia Yumi; Jácomo, Anah Tereza de Almeida; Porfírio, Grasiela Edith de Oliveira; Silveira, Leandro; Sollmann, Rahel; Tôrres, Natália Mundim; Ferreira Neto, José Soares

    2013-07-01

    We investigated the exposure of jaguar (Panthera onca) populations and domestic carnivores to selected viral infections in the Cerrado, Amazon, and Pantanal biomes of Brazil. Between February 2000 and January 2010, we collected serum samples from 31 jaguars, 174 dogs (Canis lupus familiaris), and 35 domestic cats (Felis catus). Serologic analyses for antibodies to rabies virus, canine distemper virus (CDV), feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and for feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen were conducted. The jaguars from Cerrado and Pantantal were exposed to rabies virus, while the jaguars from the Pantanal and the dogs from all three areas were exposed to CDV. Two cats from the Amazonian site were antigen-positive for FeLV, but no jaguars had FeLV antigen or FIV antibody. Canine distemper and rabies viruses should be carefully monitored and considered potential threats to these jaguar populations. Currently FIV and FeLV do not appear to represent a health threat for jaguar populations in this area. Domestic dogs and cats in these areas should be vaccinated, and the movement of domestic animals around protected areas should be restricted.

  17. Variation in the parasite community of the sardine fish Triportheus nematurus (Actinopterygii: Characidae) from the Medalha lagoon in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa-Pereira, R; Paiva, F; Tavares, L E R

    2014-09-01

    In July 2009 and July 2010 (two dry periods separated by an atypically large flood in the Pantanal wetland of Brazil), 34 and 33 specimens of the sardine fish Triportheus nematurus were collected, respectively, for the study of the metazoan parasite community of this species. Parasite ecological and community descriptors were calculated for both host samples, and possible similarities were tested statistically. Five species of metazoan parasites were identified, four of which were common to both host samples. A total of 61 metazoan parasites were collected from all fish hosts (17 specimens in July 2009 (mean: 0.5 ± 0.66 parasites/fish) and 44 specimens in July 2010 (mean: 1.33 ± 1.41 parasites/fish)). The nematode Procamallanus hilarii and the monogenean Anacanthorus sp. were the most prevalent and abundant species in 2009 and 2010, respectively. The mean total abundance and species richness were significantly higher in 2010. Parasite communities in both samples of T. nematurus were characterized by species with low prevalence, abundance, mean total abundance and species richness, thus indicating low parasite diversity. Significant differences in the prevalence and abundance of P. hilarii and Anacanthorus sp. between the two samples allowed the discrimination of infracommunities, which were united in two distinct groups. This appears to be the first evidence that the peculiar hydrological dynamics of the southern Pantanal wetland (Brazil) exert an important influence over the structure of the parasite community.

  18. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal

    PubMed Central

    Olifiers, Natalie; Jansen, Ana Maria; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; D’Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Gompper, Matthew Edzart

    2015-01-01

    Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This study shows the

  19. Health assessment of wild lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) populations in the Atlantic Forest and Pantanal biomes, Brazil (1996-2012).

    PubMed

    Medici, Emília Patrícia; Mangini, Paulo Rogerio; Fernandes-Santos, Renata Carolina

    2014-10-01

    Abstract The lowland tapir (Tapirus terrestris) is found in South America and is listed as Vulnerable to Extinction by the International Union for Conservation of Nature, Red List of Threatened Species. Health issues, particularly infectious diseases, are potential threats for the species. Health information from 65 wild tapirs from two Brazilian biomes, Atlantic Forest (AF) and Pantanal (PA), were collected during a long-term study (1996-2012). The study included physic, hematologic and biochemical evaluations, microbiologic cultures, urinalysis, and serologic analyses for antibodies against 13 infectious agents (viral and bacterial). The AF and PA tapirs were significantly different for several hematologic and biochemical parameters. Ten bacteria taxa were identified in the AF and 26 in the PA. Antibodies against five viruses were detected: Bluetongue virus, eastern equine encephalitis virus, western equine encephalitis virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, and porcine parvovirus. A high prevalence of exposure to Leptospira interrogans (10 serovars: Autumnalis, Bratislava, Canicola, Copenhageni, Grippotyphosa, Hardjo, Hebdomadis, Icterohaemorrhagiae, Pomona, and Pyrogenes) was detected in both the AF and PA sites. A greater diversity of serovars and higher antibody titers were found in the PA. Statistically significant differences between sites were found for L. interrogans, equine encephalitis virus, and porcine parvovirus. Based on physical evaluations, both AF and PA populations were healthy. The differences in the overall health profile of the AF and PA tapir populations appear to be associated with environmental factors and infectious diseases ecology. The extensive datasets on hematology, biochemistry, urinalysis, and microbiology results from this paper can be used as reference values for wild tapirs.

  20. Co-Infection and Wild Animal Health: Effects of Trypanosomatids and Gastrointestinal Parasites on Coatis of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Olifiers, Natalie; Jansen, Ana Maria; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Bianchi, Rita de Cassia; D'Andrea, Paulo Sergio; Mourão, Guilherme de Miranda; Gompper, Matthew Edzart

    2015-01-01

    Wild animals are infected by diverse parasites, but how they influence host health is poorly understood. We examined the relationship of trypanosomatids and gastrointestinal parasites with health of wild brown-nosed coatis (Nasua nasua) from the Brazilian Pantanal. We used coati body condition and hematological parameters as response variables in linear models that were compared using an information theoretic approach. Predictors were high/low parasitemias by Trypanosoma cruzi and T. evansi, and indices representing the abundance of distinct groups of gastrointestinal parasites. We also analyzed how host health changed with host sex and reproductive seasonality. Hemoparasites was best related to coati body condition and hematological indices, whereas abundance of gastrointestinal parasites was relatively less associated with coati health. Additionally, some associations were best predicted by models that incorporated reproductive seasonality and host sex. Overall, we observed a lower health condition during the breeding season, when coatis are under reproductive stress and may be less able to handle infection. In addition, females seem to handle infection better than males. Body condition was lower in coatis with high parasitemias of T. evansi, especially during the reproductive season. Total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, platelets and eosinophils were also lower in animals with high T. evansi parasitemias. Total white blood cell counts and mature neutrophils were lower in animals with high parasitemias for both Trypanosoma species, with neutrophils decreasing mainly during the reproductive season. Overall, decreases in hematological parameters of females with T. evansi high parasitemias were less evident. For T. cruzi, monocytes decreased in individuals with high parasitemias. High abundances of microfilariae in the bloodstream, and cestode eggs and coccidian oocysts in feces were also associated with coati blood parameters. This study shows the

  1. Cyanobacteria enhance methylmercury production: a hypothesis tested in the periphyton of two lakes in the Pantanal floodplain, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Lázaro, Wilkinson L; Guimarães, Jean Remy D; Ignácio, Aurea R A; Da Silva, Carolina J; Díez, Sergi

    2013-07-01

    The toxic potential of mercury (Hg) in aquatic systems is due to the presence and production of methylmercury (MeHg). Recent studies in tropical floodplain environments showed that periphyton associated with the roots of aquatic macrophytes produce MeHg. Periphyton communities are the first link in the food chain and one of the main MeHg sources in aquatic environments. The aim of this work was to test the hypotheses that the algal community structure affects potential methylation, and ecologically distinct communities with different algal and bacterial densities directly affect the formation of MeHg in the roots of macrophytes. To evaluate these, net MeHg production in the roots of Eichhornia crassipes in relation to the taxonomic structure of associated periphytic algae was evaluated. Macrophyte root samples were collected in the dry and flood season from two floodplain lakes in the Pantanal (Brazil). These lakes have different ecological conditions as a function of their lateral hydrological connectivity with the Paraguay River that is different during times of drought. Results indicated that MeHg production was higher in the flood season than in the dry season. MeHg production rates were higher in the disconnected lake in comparison to the connected lake during the dry season. MeHg production exhibited a strong positive co-variation with cyanobacteria abundance (R(2)=0.78; p<0.0001 in dry; R(2)=0.40; p=0.029 in flood) and with total algal biomass (R(2)=0.86; p<0.0001), and a negative co-variation with Zygnemaphyceae (R(2)=0.50; p=0.0018) in the lake community in dry season. This indicates that ecological conditions that favour the establishment and development of cyanobacteria are associated with higher rates of methylation in aquatic systems. This suggests that cyanobacteria could be a proxy for sites of MeHg production in some natural aquatic environments.

  2. Cytogenetic and Molecular Data Support the Occurrence of Three Gymnotus Species (Gymnotiformes: Gymnotidae) Used as Live Bait in Corumbá, Brazil: Implications for Conservation and Management of Professional Fishing.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Tatiane Pires; Marques, Débora Karla Silvestre; Vitorino, Carla de Andrade; Faria, Karina de Cassia; Braga, Gisele da Silva Ferreira; Ferreira, Daniela Cristina; Venere, Paulo Cesar

    2017-04-01

    In the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, electric fish (Gymnotus spp.) are the primary source of live bait, accounting for more than three-quarters of total sales. Based on chromosomal and molecular markers, the present study attempted to identify the Gymnotus species used as bait in the region of Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Three species were detected, based on their distinct karyotypes: G. paraguensis (2n = 54), G. sylvius (2n = 40), and G. pantanal (2n = 39-40, X1X2Y/X1X1X2X2), with no evidence being found of interspecific hybrids. All three species presented a single nucleolar organizer regions (NOR) (heterochromatin CMA3(+)/DAPI(-)) and pericentromeric heterochromatin in almost all chromosomes, with a few distal and/or interstitial blocks. G. sylvius and G. pantanal had one and two pairs of chromosomes with 5S rDNA sites, respectively, while G. paraguensis had 17 chromosome pairs with these markers. The three species formed well-defined clusters in the DNA barcoding analysis. The integrated analysis of the cytogenetic and DNA barcoding data confirmed that the diversity of Gymnotus species exploited as live bait in the study region has been underestimated. These findings indicate that the markers analyzed represent valuable tools for the conservation and fishery management of the Gymnotus stocks exploited.

  3. Simulium (Chirostilbia) brunnescens (Diptera: Simuliidae) - new species from the Brazilian cerrado, Manso Dam, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Maia-Herzog, Marilza; Valente, Ana Carolina Dos Santos; Luna-Dias, Antonio Paulino A; Gil-Azevedo, Leonardo Henrique; Marchon-Silva, Verônica

    2012-08-01

    A new species of Simuliidae, Simulium (Chirostilbia) brunnescens, was discovered at Chapada dos Guimarães, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, and nearby municipalities (Paranatinga, Rosário do Oeste and Nobres). This species is described here based on the adults, pupae and larvae. This species is closely related to Simulium (C.) subpallidum Lutz, but could be differentiated in all stages: females, leg colour pattern and frontal dilatation size; males, gonostyle shape; pupae, number of gill filaments; larvae, body size and colour, postgenal cleft, ratio between antenna and stalk of labral fan.

  4. Prey selection by two benthic fish species in a Mato Grosso stream, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rezende, Carla Ferreira; Mazzoni, Rosana; Caramaschi, Erica Pellegrini; Rodrigues, Daniela; Moraes, Maíra

    2011-12-01

    Key to understand predator choice is the relationship between predator and prey abundance. There are few studies related to prey selection and availability. Such an approach is still current, because the ability to predict aspects of the diet in response to changes in prey availability is one of the major problems of trophic ecology. The general objective of this study was to evaluate prey selection by two species (Characidium cf. vidali and Pimelodella lateristriga) of the Mato Grosso stream, in Saquarema, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Benthos and fishes were collected in June, July and September of 2006 and January and February of 2007. Fish were collected with electric fishing techniques and benthos with a surber net. Densities of benthic organisms were expressed as the number of individuals per/m2. After sampling, the invertebrates were fixed in 90% ethanol, and, in the laboratory, were identified to the lowest taxonomical level. Approximately, seventy individuals from each species were selected randomly in each month. Fishes were fixed in 10% formalin in the field and transferred to 70 degrees GL ethanol in the laboratory. Fishes had their stomachs removed for subsequent analysis. Fish diet was described according to the numeric frequency method. The Manly Electivity Index was applied in order to verify prey selection. The most abundant families in both benthos and diet of both fish species were the same, indicating that these species consume mainly most abundant prey in the environment. We concluded that prey selection occurs even for preys that had small abundance in the environment. However, it is the availability of the macroinvertebrate resources that determines the major composition of items in diet of fish, demonstrating that the abundance is the factor that most influences the choice of prey.

  5. Satellite Altimetry and SAR Remote Sensing for Monitoring Inundation in the Pantanal Wetland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dettmering, Denise; Strehl, Franziska; Schwatke, Christian; Seitz, Florian

    2016-08-01

    Large wetlands are an important component of the global water cycle and the knowledge of water flow and storage dynamics within these regions is valuable for many applications such as flood risk assessment and water availability studies. Most of the inundation areas are remote regions without significant infrastructure, especially without in-situ gauging observations. Remote sensing techniques can help to provide highly valuable information for hydrological questions.Combining water level and water extent from different remote sensing sensors allows for the quantification of water volume changes in remote inundation areas.

  6. Assessing the MODIS Crop Detection Algorithm for Soybean Crop Area Mapping and Expansion in the Mato Grosso State, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ricardo Ducati, Jorge; da Silveira, Luiz Gonzaga

    2014-01-01

    Estimations of crop area were made based on the temporal profiles of the Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) obtained from moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. Evaluation of the ability of the MODIS crop detection algorithm (MCDA) to estimate soybean crop areas was performed for fields in the Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Using the MCDA approach, soybean crop area estimations can be provided for December (first forecast) using images from the sowing period and for February (second forecast) using images from the sowing period and the maximum crop development period. The area estimates were compared to official agricultural statistics from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and from the National Company of Food Supply (CONAB) at different crop levels from 2000/2001 to 2010/2011. At the municipality level, the estimates were highly correlated, with R2 = 0.97 and RMSD = 13,142 ha. The MCDA was validated using field campaign data from the 2006/2007 crop year. The overall map accuracy was 88.25%, and the Kappa Index of Agreement was 0.765. By using pre-defined parameters, MCDA is able to provide the evolution of annual soybean maps, forecast of soybean cropping areas, and the crop area expansion in the Mato Grosso state. PMID:24983007

  7. [Congenital defects in the cities with high use of pesticides in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Noemi Pereira; Moi, Gisele Pedroso; Atanaka-Santos, Marina; Silva, Ageo Mário Candido; Pignati, Wanderlei Antônio

    2014-10-01

    Mato Grosso is the largest agricultural producer and the largest national consumer of pesticides in Brazil. Maternal exposure to pesticides in the periconceptional period has been associated with increased risk of congenital malformations. This article aims to analyze the association between the use of pesticides and congenital malformations in cities with highest exposure to pesticides in Mato Grosso. It was a case-control study conducted with 219 live births with congenital malformations and 862 live births. The average use of pesticides was estimated in the prior and subsequent trimester to the date of fertilization and throughout the periconceptional period per city, month and year of use. Subsequently, these measures were quartilized and transformed into indicator-type (dummy) variables, attributing an exposure level for each interquartile interval. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was conducted. Significant associations were observed (p < 0.05) in the third (OR = 1.66, 95% CI 0.98 to 2.79) and fourth quartile (OR = 1.88, 95% CI 1.09 to 3.24) of the post-fertilization period and the fourth quartile (OR = 2.04, 95% CI 1.17 to 3.56) throughout the periconceptional period. Maternal exposure to pesticides was associated with higher incidence of congenital malformations.

  8. Slash and burn versus "agronegócio". Tales of forest degradation in the maroon area of Vila Bela da SantíssimaTrindade, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leite, José C.; Ferreira, António A. J.

    2014-05-01

    Over the last four decades, deforestation in Brazil occurred systematically in the area known as the "arcof deforestation", an extensive geographical area located in the interface of the Cerrado and the Amazon biomes. The deforestation process replaces the forest and the slash and burn agriculture systems by modern intensive agriculture systems targeted at the production of cash crops like cotton, maize or soybeans, and to graze cattle.The so called "agronegócio" system. The reduction of pristine forest areas where traditional (indigenous, maroons and riverside) population conduct slash and burn agriculture, reduces the recovery time of the abandoned fields after exhaustion by agriculture crops, reason why the return to the same spots for another cycle of slash and burn occurs before the forest recovers completely from the previous cycle. In fact, the frequency of the cycles is increasing with the expansion of farm land and the reduction of available forest. This work encompasses the reasons, causes and/or motivations of the deforestation trends in the Vila Bela da SantíssimaTrindade, near the Bolivian border of Mato Grosso in Brazil, over a time span of four decades. The arc of deforestation has passed the region in the 1980's, leaving yet a large area of pristine forest where the traditional communities kept practicing a slash and burn agriculture system. Nevertheless, due to the reduction of available area, and specially due to the exposure of traditional communities to the "western civilization culture", there is an increasing abandonment of the traditional systems and associated culture and knowledge. In this context, the traditional communities may become a deforestation/degradation factor. To prevent this situation, the GUYAGROFOR project was implemented, to value traditional knowledge, identify bottlenecks in the increase of added value to the local traditional products, and to test methodologies to maintain and if possible improve soil fertility near the

  9. Chewing lice of the genus Myrsidea waterston (Phthiraptera: Menoponidae) from the emberizidae and thraupidae (Passeriformes) in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sychra, Oldrich; Literak, Ivan; Capek, Miroslav

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the first record of three chewing lice species of the genus Myrsidea collected from one emberizid and two thraupid hosts in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Morphological characters of M. seminuda are added for the last redescription of this species and a new key to males of 'bonariensis species group' is presented.

  10. Epidemiological aspects of field intoxication by Amorimia pubiflora (Malpighiaceae) in cattle in Mato Grosso and experimental reproduction of intoxication in cattle and sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the county of Colniza, Mato Grosso, the main limitation for livestock production is the occurrence of "sudden death" in cattle, which affects in some farms up to 50% of the herd. In visits to some of the farms where the problem occurred, in 2004, 2011 and 2012, the presence of Amorimia pubiflora ...

  11. Chromosome number, microsporogenesis, microgametogenesis, and pollen viability in the Brazilian native grass Mesosetum chaseae (Poaceae).

    PubMed

    Silva, L A C; Pagliarini, M S; Santos, S A; Silva, N; Souza, V F

    2012-11-28

    The genus Mesosetum is a primarily South American genus with 42 species. Mesosetum chaseae, regionally known as 'grama-do-cerrado', is abundant in the Pantanal Matogrossense (Brazil); it is a valuable resource for livestock and for environmental conservation. We collected specimens from the Nhecolandia sub-region of the Brazilian Pantanal, located in Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. We examined chromosome number, ploidy level, meiotic behavior, microgametogenesis, and pollen viability of 10 accessions. All the accessions were diploid, derived from x = 8, presenting 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes. Chromosomes paired as bivalents showing, predominantly, two terminal chiasmata. Interstitial chiasmata were rare. Meiosis was quite normal producing only a few abnormal tetrads in some accessions. Microgametogenesis, after two mitotic divisions, produced three-celled pollen grains. Pollen viability was variable among plant and accessions and was not correlated with meiotic abnormalities.

  12. Novel Babesia and Hepatozoon agents infecting non-volant small mammals in the Brazilian Pantanal, with the first record of the tick Ornithodoros guaporensis in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Rafael William; Aragona, Mônica; Muñoz-Leal, Sebastián; Pinto, Leticia Borges; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; Braga, Isis Assis; Costa, Jackeliny dos Santos; Martins, Thiago Fernandes; Marcili, Arlei; Pacheco, Richard de Campos; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2016-04-01

    Taking into account the diversity of small terrestrial mammals of the Pantanal, the present study aimed to verify the occurrence of infection by Ehrlichia spp., Anaplasma spp., Rickettsia spp., Hepatozoon spp., Babesia spp. and parasitism by ticks in non-volant small mammals collected in the Brazilian Pantanal. Samples of blood, liver and spleen were collected from 64 captured animals, 22 marsupials and 42 rodents. Pathogen detection was performed by the use of genus-specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. Ticks collected from the animals consisted of Amblyomma sculptum and Amblyomma triste nymphs, and Ornithodoros guaporensis larvae. None of the vertebrate samples (blood, liver, or spleen) yielded detectable DNA of Rickettsia spp. or Ehrlichia spp. The blood of the rodent Hylaeamys megacephalus yielded an Anaplasma sp. genotype (partial 16S rRNA gene) 99% similar to multiple Anaplasma spp. genotypes around the world. The blood of three rodents of the species Calomys callosus were positive for a novel Hepatozoon sp. agent, phylogenetically related (18S rDNA gene) to distinct Hepatozoon genotypes that have been detected in rodents from different parts of the world. One marsupial (Monodelphis domestica) and three rodents (Thrichomys pachyurus) were positive to novel piroplasmid genotypes, phylogenetically (18S rDNA gene) related to Theileria bicornis, Cytauxzoon manul, and Cytauxzoon felis. The present study provides the first molecular detection of Hepatozoon sp. and piroplasmids in small mammals in Brazil. Additionally, we expanded the distribution of O. guaporensis to Brazil, since this tick species was previously known to occur only in Bolivia.

  13. Land-use and environmental changes in the Cerrados of South-Eastern Mato Grosso -- Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grecchi, Rosana Cristina

    The human-induced changes of the Earth's land surfaces have been unprecedented, with outcomes often indicating degradation and loss of environmental quality. Mato Grosso State in Brazil, location of the study area, underwent extensive land-use and land-cover changes in recent decades with the rates, patterns and consequences poorly documented until now. In this context, the aim of the present research is to propose a multidisciplinary approach for quantifying historical land-use and environmental changes in the southeast part of this State, where the Cerrado biome (Brazilian savannas) has been intensively converted into agricultural lands. The methodology includes three parts: remote sensing change detection, land vulnerability mapping, and identification of key environmental indicators. Land-use/cover information was extracted from a temporal remote sensing dataset using an object-oriented classification approach, and the changes quantified employing a post-classification method. In addition, the study area was assessed for its vulnerabilities, focusing mainly on erosion risks, wetlands, and areas with limited or no suitability for crops. Finally, key environmental indicators were identified from the preceding steps and analyzed within the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Pressure-State-Response (PSR) framework. The results provided an improved mapping of the Cerrados natural vegetation conversion into crops and pastures, and indicate that the Cerrado vegetation was intensively converted and also became more fragmented in the time frame studied. Between 1985 and 2005 the area lost approximately 6491 km 2 of Cerrados (42 %). Modeling based on the Universal Soil Loss Equation indicated significant increase in erosion risk from 1985 to 2005 mainly related to the increase in crop areas and the crops' encroachment into more fragile lands. The identification of environmental indicators rendered complex environmental information more

  14. Molecular detection of Mayaro virus during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Central-West Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zuchi, Nayara; Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes dos; Pereira, Fernanda Carla; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini

    2014-09-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV) is frequently reported in Pan-Amazonia. The aim of this study was to investigate the circulation of alphaviruses during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Serum samples from dengue-suspected patients were subjected to multiplex semi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for 11 flaviviruses and five alphaviruses, to nucleotide sequencing and to viral isolation. MAYV was detected in 15 (2.5%) of 604 patients. Twelve were co-infected with dengue virus 4, which was isolated from 10 patients. The molecular detection of MAYV in dengue-suspected patients suggests that other arboviruses may be silently circulating during dengue outbreaks in Brazil.

  15. Molecular detection of Mayaro virus during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Central-West Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zuchi, Nayara; Heinen, Letícia Borges da Silva; dos Santos, Marcelo Adriano Mendes; Pereira, Fernanda Carla; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini

    2014-01-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV) is frequently reported in Pan-Amazonia. The aim of this study was to investigate the circulation of alphaviruses during a dengue outbreak in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Serum samples from dengue-suspected patients were subjected to multiplex semi-nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction for 11 flaviviruses and five alphaviruses, to nucleotide sequencing and to viral isolation. MAYV was detected in 15 (2.5%) of 604 patients. Twelve were co-infected with dengue virus 4, which was isolated from 10 patients. The molecular detection of MAYV in dengue-suspected patients suggests that other arboviruses may be silently circulating during dengue outbreaks in Brazil. PMID:25141284

  16. Comparison of sampling designs for estimating deforestation from landsat TM and MODIS imagery: a case study in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shanyou; Zhang, Hailong; Liu, Ronggao; Cao, Yun; Zhang, Guixin

    2014-01-01

    Sampling designs are commonly used to estimate deforestation over large areas, but comparisons between different sampling strategies are required. Using PRODES deforestation data as a reference, deforestation in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil from 2005 to 2006 is evaluated using Landsat imagery and a nearly synchronous MODIS dataset. The MODIS-derived deforestation is used to assist in sampling and extrapolation. Three sampling designs are compared according to the estimated deforestation of the entire study area based on simple extrapolation and linear regression models. The results show that stratified sampling for strata construction and sample allocation using the MODIS-derived deforestation hotspots provided more precise estimations than simple random and systematic sampling. Moreover, the relationship between the MODIS-derived and TM-derived deforestation provides a precise estimate of the total deforestation area as well as the distribution of deforestation in each block.

  17. Spotted fever group Rickettsia in Amblyomma dubitatum tick from the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Matias, Jaqueline; Garcia, Marcos Valério; Cunha, Rodrigo Casquero; Aguirre, André de Abreu Rangel; Barros, Jacqueline Cavalvante; Csordas, Bárbara Guimarães; Andreotti, Renato

    2015-03-01

    Rickettsia infection of each tick was evaluated by the hemolymph test and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting gltA and ompA genes. All hemolymph tests were negative and PCR of one A. dubitatum detected both Rickettsia genes. Sequence of ompA exhibited a 99% identity with Rickettsia parkeri and R. africae and a 98% identity with R. sibirica. Rickettsia of the spotted fever group in A. dubitatum is described for the first time in an urban area within the municipality of Campo Grande in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul (MS), Brazil. This finding reinforces the importance of more detailed studies to determine the role of A. dubitatum in the transmission of spotted fever agents.

  18. Comparison of Sampling Designs for Estimating Deforestation from Landsat TM and MODIS Imagery: A Case Study in Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shanyou; Zhang, Hailong; Liu, Ronggao; Cao, Yun; Zhang, Guixin

    2014-01-01

    Sampling designs are commonly used to estimate deforestation over large areas, but comparisons between different sampling strategies are required. Using PRODES deforestation data as a reference, deforestation in the state of Mato Grosso in Brazil from 2005 to 2006 is evaluated using Landsat imagery and a nearly synchronous MODIS dataset. The MODIS-derived deforestation is used to assist in sampling and extrapolation. Three sampling designs are compared according to the estimated deforestation of the entire study area based on simple extrapolation and linear regression models. The results show that stratified sampling for strata construction and sample allocation using the MODIS-derived deforestation hotspots provided more precise estimations than simple random and systematic sampling. Moreover, the relationship between the MODIS-derived and TM-derived deforestation provides a precise estimate of the total deforestation area as well as the distribution of deforestation in each block. PMID:25258742

  19. Effects of a diversion hydropower facility on the hydrological regime of the Correntes River, a tributary to the Pantanal floodplain, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantin-Cruz, Ibraim; Pedrollo, Olavo; Girard, Pierre; Zeilhofer, Peter; Hamilton, Stephen K.

    2015-12-01

    Facilities that produce hydroelectricity by diversion of part of the river's flow, which are often considered to have lower environmental impact than conventional hydropower dams, are being built in large numbers on river systems throughout the world, yet their cumulative impacts are not well understood. This study evaluated the hydrological effects of operation of a diversion hydropower facility on the Correntes River in Brazil (mean discharge 73 m3 s-1), which is potentially important because of the ecological implications for the floodplains of the Pantanal into which it flows. Many similar dams are built or proposed on rivers feeding the Pantanal. The 210-MW facility known as Ponte de Pedra diverts part of the river flow into a diversion channel in a nearly "run-of-river" design. The natural (reconstructed) and regulated (observed) flow regimes were characterized using Indicators of Hydrologic Alteration (IHA) and Flow Duration Curves (FDC). Seven parameters of IHA were significantly altered by the reservoir formation (magnitude of lowest monthly flow, minimum flows of 1, 3 and 7 days, maximum flow of 90 days and counts of high and low pulses). Among these, Principal Components Analysis identified the maximum flow of 90 days and the count of high flow pulses as integrators of hydrological alterations. The FDC showed that the reservoir also changed the seasonal regime of the flows, with greater changes in the lowest flow season. The reduction of river-floodplain connectivity and loss of associated ecosystem services are the major downstream ecological implications of this altered flow regime. To maintain the seasonal flooding regime while meeting the requirements for hydroelectric production, proposed limits for flow regime alterations are up to ±18% in low flow, ±24% in the rising limb and ±22% in high flow and the falling limb, relative to the natural flow. Operational changes to maintain flows with these limits could easily be implemented because the

  20. Cross-Sectional Study of Hepatitis A Virus Infection in the Pantanal Population before Vaccine Implementation in Brazil: Usage of Non-Invasive Specimen Collection

    PubMed Central

    Tourinho, Renata Santos; de Almeida, Adilson José; Villar, Livia Melo; Murat, Paula Guerra; Capelin, Gina Jonasson Mousquer; Motta Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra; de Paula, Vanessa Salete

    2015-01-01

    Population-based prevalence studies are essential tools for screening of hepatitis A and provide important data on susceptible groups. However, surveillance in isolated communities is difficult because of the limited access to these areas and the need for blood sample collection. This study aimed to determine the anti-HAV prevalence using oral fluid samples to provide an alternative tool for epidemiological studies that might be useful for vaccination-related decisions. The study population was composed of 224 volunteers from South Pantanal, aged 3 to 86 years old. This study was performed using oral fluids, previously standardized for anti-HAV antibody detection, which were collected using a ChemBio device. Eluates were tested using modified commercial EIA to detect anti-HAV antibodies. The overall prevalence was 79.1%, corresponding to 178 reactive EIA tests out of 224 samples. The age stratified data revealed a prevalence of 47.8% between 0–10 years, 84% in 11–20 years and 91.9% in subjects older than 21 years. Results indicate that hepatitis A prevalence was higher in adolescents and adults, corroborating the literature reports. Thus, oral fluid samples could replace serum in HAV epidemiological studies in isolated communities as they are efficient at detecting anti-HAV antibodies. PMID:26133128

  1. Can Scat Analysis Describe the Feeding Habits of Big Cats? A Case Study with Jaguars (Panthera onca) in Southern Pantanal, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Perilli, Miriam L. L.; Lima, Fernando; Rodrigues, Flávio H. G.; Cavalcanti, Sandra M. C.

    2016-01-01

    Large cats feeding habits have been studied through two main methods: scat analysis and the carcasses of prey killed by monitored animals. From November 2001 to April 2004, we studied jaguar predation patterns using GPS telemetry location clusters on a cattle ranch in southern Pantanal. During this period, we recorded 431 carcasses of animals preyed upon by monitored jaguars. Concurrently, we collected 125 jaguar scats opportunistically. We compared the frequencies of prey found through each method. We also compared the prey communities using Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient. These comparisons allowed us to evaluate the use of scat analysis as a means to describe jaguar feeding habits. Both approaches identified prey communities with high similarity (Bray-Curtis coefficient > 70). According to either method, jaguars consume three main prey: cattle (Bos taurus), caiman (Caiman yacare) and peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu). The two methods did not differ in the frequency of the three main prey over dry and wet seasons or years sampled. Our results show that scat analysis is effective and capable of describing jaguar feeding habits. PMID:27002524

  2. Cross-Sectional Study of Hepatitis A Virus Infection in the Pantanal Population before Vaccine Implementation in Brazil: Usage of Non-Invasive Specimen Collection.

    PubMed

    Tourinho, Renata Santos; de Almeida, Adilson José; Villar, Livia Melo; Murat, Paula Guerra; Capelin, Gina Jonasson Mousquer; Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta; de Paula, Vanessa Salete

    2015-06-30

    Population-based prevalence studies are essential tools for screening of hepatitis A and provide important data on susceptible groups. However, surveillance in isolated communities is difficult because of the limited access to these areas and the need for blood sample collection. This study aimed to determine the anti-HAV prevalence using oral fluid samples to provide an alternative tool for epidemiological studies that might be useful for vaccination-related decisions. The study population was composed of 224 volunteers from South Pantanal, aged 3 to 86 years old. This study was performed using oral fluids, previously standardized for anti-HAV antibody detection, which were collected using a ChemBio device. Eluates were tested using modified commercial EIA to detect anti-HAV antibodies. The overall prevalence was 79.1%, corresponding to 178 reactive EIA tests out of 224 samples. The age stratified data revealed a prevalence of 47.8% between 0-10 years, 84% in 11-20 years and 91.9% in subjects older than 21 years. Results indicate that hepatitis A prevalence was higher in adolescents and adults, corroborating the literature reports. Thus, oral fluid samples could replace serum in HAV epidemiological studies in isolated communities as they are efficient at detecting anti-HAV antibodies.

  3. Can Scat Analysis Describe the Feeding Habits of Big Cats? A Case Study with Jaguars (Panthera onca) in Southern Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Perilli, Miriam L L; Lima, Fernando; Rodrigues, Flávio H G; Cavalcanti, Sandra M C

    2016-01-01

    Large cats feeding habits have been studied through two main methods: scat analysis and the carcasses of prey killed by monitored animals. From November 2001 to April 2004, we studied jaguar predation patterns using GPS telemetry location clusters on a cattle ranch in southern Pantanal. During this period, we recorded 431 carcasses of animals preyed upon by monitored jaguars. Concurrently, we collected 125 jaguar scats opportunistically. We compared the frequencies of prey found through each method. We also compared the prey communities using Bray-Curtis similarity coefficient. These comparisons allowed us to evaluate the use of scat analysis as a means to describe jaguar feeding habits. Both approaches identified prey communities with high similarity (Bray-Curtis coefficient > 70). According to either method, jaguars consume three main prey: cattle (Bos taurus), caiman (Caiman yacare) and peccaries (Tayassu pecari and Pecari tajacu). The two methods did not differ in the frequency of the three main prey over dry and wet seasons or years sampled. Our results show that scat analysis is effective and capable of describing jaguar feeding habits.

  4. Prevalence, mean intensity of infestation and host specificity of Spinturnicidae mites (Acari: Mesostigmata) on bats (Mammalia: Chiroptera) in the Pantanal, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, Camila de Lima; Graciolli, Gustavo

    2013-06-01

    Acari ectoparasites were collected from bats during 12 months in the Rio Negro farm (19°34'22″S and 56°14'36″W), Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul. A total of 654 bats belonging to the families Phyllostomidae, Noctilionidae, Molossidae, Vespertilionidae and Emballonuridae were captured. Only 136 bats of nine genera and 11 species were parasitised. Periglischrus iheringi Oudemans was the most abundant mite species, and this prevalence may be related to the low degree of host specificity of this species and due to the broad geographical distribution of its hosts. The greatest mean intensity was found to Periglischrus torrealbai Machado-Allison on Phyllostomus discolor Wagner (Phyllostomidae) and Periglischrus tonatii Herrin and Tipton associated with Lophostoma silviculum d'Orbigny (Phyllostomidae), which also had the highest prevalence of infestation.

  5. [HTLV 1/2 infection: prenatal performance as a disease control strategy in State of Mato Grosso do Sul].

    PubMed

    Dal Fabbro, Márcia Maria Ferrairo Janini; Cunha, Rivaldo Venâncio da; Bóia, Márcio Neves; Portela, Patrícia; Botelho, Carlos Augusto; Freitas, Gisele Maria Brandão de; Soares, Joana; Ferri, Juliana; Lupion, Juliana

    2008-01-01

    In this study, the prevalence of HTLV 1/2 infection among pregnant women in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul was estimated by means of the ELISA, Western Blot and PCR techniques, in blood samples collected by peripheral venous puncture. 116,689 pregnant women were examined and 153 were diagnosed as presenting HTLV 1/2 infection, with prevalence of 0.13%. Among these 153 pregnant women, 133 (86.9%) had type 1 and 20 (11.1%) had type 2; 73.2% were black, brown or indigenous; about 90% performed domestic activities; and 75.8% (116/153) had been to school for seven years or less. The 153 pregnant women had 172 pregnancies during the study period and 164 pregnancies were followed. Out of pregnancies that were followed, 6.7% (11/164) evolved to abortion, 26.8% (41/153) reported previous abortions and 31.7% (13/41) had had more than two abortions. Comorbidities were found in 17% (26/153), among whom 3.3% (5/153) had HIV (p<0.000002). The authors emphasize the importance of identifying pregnant women with HTLV 1/2 infection, as a strategy for disease control and prevention.

  6. DECREASING PREVALENCE OF THE ACUTE/SUBACUTE CLINICAL FORM OF PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS IN MATO GROSSO DO SUL STATE, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Fabris, Larissa Rodrigues; Andrade, Úrsulla Vilella; Santos, Aline Ferreira Dos; Marques, Ana Paula da Costa; de Oliveira, Sandra Maria do Valle Leone; Mendes, Rinaldo Pôncio; Paniago, Anamaria Mello Miranda

    2014-01-01

    With the objective to evaluate the behavior of paracoccidioidomycosis in the last three decades, clinical and epidemiological data of 595 patients admitted to clinical services of the Federal University of Mato Grosso do Sul from 1980 to 2009 were investigated. Gender, age distribution, clinical form, comorbidity with tuberculosis or AIDS, and mortality were compared by decades of clinical admission. It was shown that during the three decades there was a decrease in women percentage, and the same manner occurred a reduction in participants in the age group of 20 to 39 years. Moreover, the acute/subacute forms have been diminished in the period. These fluctuations are closely related and can be simultaneously analyzed. Increased AIDS co-infection prevalence from the first to the second decade was also revealed, coinciding with the appearance of the retroviral epidemic and stabilizing during the third decade. No change in the tuberculosis co-infection rate was observed (overall = 6.9%). It reinforces the importance of this co-morbidity. The overall mortality rate remained steady at 6.7%, not varying significantly from one decade to another. The persistent mortality rate calls attention to the importance of this neglected disease. PMID:24626413

  7. Defending public interests in private lands: compliance, costs and potential environmental consequences of the Brazilian Forest Code in Mato Grosso

    PubMed Central

    Stickler, Claudia M.; Nepstad, Daniel C.; Azevedo, Andrea A.; McGrath, David G.

    2013-01-01

    Land-use regulations are a critical component of forest governance and conservation strategies, but their effectiveness in shaping landholder behaviour is poorly understood. We conducted a spatial and temporal analysis of the Brazilian Forest Code (BFC) to understand the patterns of regulatory compliance over time and across changes in the policy, and the implications of these compliance patterns for the perceived costs to landholders and environmental performance of agricultural landscapes in the southern Amazon state of Mato Grosso. Landholdings tended to remain in compliance or not according to their status at the beginning of the study period. The perceived economic burden of BFC compliance on soya bean and beef producers (US$3–5.6 billion in net present value of the land) may in part explain the massive, successful campaign launched by the farm lobby to change the BFC. The ecological benefits of compliance (e.g. greater connectivity and carbon) with the BFC are diffuse and do not compete effectively with the economic benefits of non-compliance that are perceived by landholders. Volatile regulation of land-use decisions that affect billions in economic rent that could be captured is an inadequate forest governance instrument; effectiveness of such regulations may increase when implemented in tandem with positive incentives for forest conservation. PMID:23610168

  8. Leishmania amazonensis DNA in wild females of Lutzomyia cruzi (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Everton Falcão; Casaril, Aline Etelvina; Mateus, Nathália Lopes Fontoura; Murat, Paula Guerra; Fernandes, Wagner Souza; Oshiro, Elisa Teruya; de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi

    2015-01-01

    Studies on natural infection by Leishmania spp of sandflies collected in endemic and nonendemic areas can provide important information on the distribution and intensity of the transmission of these parasites. This study sought to investigate the natural infection by Leishmaniain wild female sandflies. The specimens were caught in the city of Corumbá, state of Mato Grosso do Sul (Brazil) between October 2012-March 2014, and dissected to investigate flagellates and/or submitted to molecular analysis to detect Leishmania DNA. A total of 1,164 females (77.56% of which were Lutzomyia cruzi) representing 11 species were investigated using molecular analysis; 126 specimens of Lu. cruziwere dissected and also submitted to molecular analysis. The infection rate based on the presence of Leishmania DNA considering all the sandfly species analysed was 0.69%; only Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis was identified in Lu. cruzi by the molecular analysis. The dissections were negative for flagellates. This is the first record of the presence of L. (L.) amazonensis DNA in Lu. cruzi, and the first record of this parasite in this area. These findings point to the need for further investigation into the possible role of this sandfly as vector of this parasite. PMID:26602870

  9. [Demographic profile of the Xavánte Indian population in Sangradouro-Volta Grande, Mato Grosso].

    PubMed

    Souza, L G; Santos, R V

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes the demographic profile of the Xavánte population at the Sangradouro-Volta Grande Indigenous Reserve in Mato Grosso, Brazil, from 1993 to 1997. The survey included annual censuses and vital statistics from 7 Xavánte villages. Permanent contact with Brazilian national society, established in the 1940s and 50s, caused a population drop due to epidemics and clashes. In 1995 there were 825 individuals in the community. The crude birth rate (57.7/1,000) and death rate (9.1/1,000) were higher than the national averages. The majority (56%) of the population is under 15 years of age (median: 13 years) and the infant mortality rate is high (87.1 per thousand live births), probably resulting from precarious sanitary conditions in the villages. Other results included the persistence of polygyny; low levels of migration; a dynamic of splits and formation of new villages; traditional housing patterns maintained in the old villages and abandoned in the new ones. The recent demographic recovery in the data from Sangradouro-Volta Grande is similar to that observed in the Pimentel Barbosa community. The study highlights the importance of systematically collecting and analyzing demographic data from indigenous populations.

  10. Tick-borne agents in domesticated and stray cats from the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    André, Marcos Rogério; Herrera, Heitor Miraglia; Fernandes, Simone de Jesus; de Sousa, Keyla Cartens Marques; Gonçalves, Luiz Ricardo; Domingos, Iara Helena; de Macedo, Gabriel Carvalho; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias

    2015-09-01

    Anaplasmataceae agents, piroplasmids and Hepatozoon spp. have emerged as important pathogens among domestic and wild felines. The present work aimed to detect the presence of species belonging to the Anaplasmataceae family, piroplasmas and Hepatozoon spp. DNA in blood samples of domesticated and stray cats in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil. Between January and April 2013, whole blood samples were collected from 151 cats (54 males, 95 females and two without gender registration) in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. DNA extracted from cat blood samples was submitted to conventional PCR assays for Theileria/Babesia/Cytauxzoon spp. (18S rRNA, ITS-1), Ehrlichia spp. (16S rRNA, dsb, groESL), Anaplasma spp. (16S rRNA, groESL) and Hepatozoon spp. (18S rRNA) followed by phylogenetic reconstructions. Out of 151 sampled cats, 13 (8.5%) were positive for Ehrlichia spp. closely related to Ehrlichia canis, 1 (0.66%) for Hepatozoon spp. closely related to Hepatozoon americanum and Hepatozoon spp. isolate from a wild felid, 1 (0.66%) for Cytauxzoon sp. closely related do Cytauxzoon felis, and 18 (11.9%) for Babesia/Theileria (one sequence was closely related to Babesia bigemina, eight for Babesia vogeli, five to Theileria spp. from ruminants [Theileria ovis, Theileria lestoquardi] and four to Theileria sp. recently detected in a cat). The present study showed that Ehrlichia spp., piroplasmids (B. vogeli, Theileria spp. and Cytauxzoon spp.) and, more rarely, Hepatozoon spp. circulate among stray and domesticated cats in the city of Campo Grande, state of Mato Grosso do Sul, midwestern Brazil.

  11. A new genus of freshwater crab of the tribe Kingsleyini Bott, 1970 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae) with description of a new species from Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Manuel; Tavares, Marcos; Magalhães, Célio

    2016-10-02

    A new genus and species of freshwater crab, Melothelphusa apiaka n. gen., n. sp., from Mato Grosso, Central Brazil is described and illustrated. Brasiliothelphusa dardanelosensis Magalhães & Türkay, 2010, is assigned to the new genus Melothelphusa. Therefore, the genus Brasiliothelphusa Magalhães & Türkay, 1986, is restricted to its type species B. tapajoense Magalhães & Türkay, 1986. The new taxa can be easily separated from their close relatives by a suite of morphological characters from the first gonopod.

  12. [The magic universe of cures: the role of magic practices and witchcraft in the universe of 17th century Mato Grosso].

    PubMed

    Sá, Mario

    2009-01-01

    The article analyzes the role of healing agents played by practitioners of magic and witchcraft in Mato Grosso society during the 17th century. It observes that magic and witchcraft were developed as competitors, alternatives or associated with other forms of healing (official and lay). It points out how such roles contributed to the process of subjugating its practitioners, especially Africans, Indians and their descendents, and were appropriated as an opportunity for survival in the colonial slave society. The pastoral visit made by Bruno Pinna in 1785 to Cuiabá and nearby areas served as the principal source of knowledge regarding the practices and practitioners of magic and witchcraft.

  13. Hyphessobrycon petricolus, a new species of tetra (Characiformes: Characidae) from the rio Madeira basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Willian M; Lima, Flávio C T; Barros, Bruno S

    2017-01-17

    A new species of Hyphessobrycon is described from the rio Roosevelt, rio Madeira basin, Mato Grosso State, Brazil. Hyphessobrycon petricolus sp. n. can be distinguished from its congeners by the unique combination of the following features: a well-defined, relatively narrow dark midlateral stripe on body extending from immediately behind posterior margin of opercle to the middle caudal-fin rays, relatively conspicuous humeral blotch, and 16-20 branched anal-fin rays. Comments on the remaining Hyphessobrycon species presenting a conspicuous dark midlateral stripe are presented.

  14. Canine visceral leishmaniosis in Anastácio, Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cortada, V M C L; Doval, M E C; Souza Lima, M A A; Oshiro, E T; Meneses, C R V; Abreu-Silva, A L; Cupolilo, E; Souza, C S F; Cardoso, F O; Zaverucha do Valle, T; Brazil, R P; Calabrese, K S; Gonçalves da Costa, S C

    2004-07-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniosis (CVL) may be an important factor preceding human outbreaks of the disease. We report that the prevalence of canine visceral leishmaniosis infection has been increasing in recent years in Anastácio town, located in the central western region of Brazil. Serological investigations showed that 75.3% of dogs presented antibody titres ranging from 1/40 to 1/160 in the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (IFAT). Bone marrow and lymph node aspirates provided positive cultures and furnished parasites for enzymological and serological typing in 42.5% and 41.1% of the cases, respectively. All the strains were typed as Leishmania (L.) chagasi. This is primarily a canine disease that spills over into the human population as a zoonosis. The study showed the epidemiological features of the infection in a region in which the problem of visceral leishmaniosis has been underestimated.

  15. [Seasonal evaluation of mammal species richness and abundance in the "Mário Viana" municipal reserve, Mato Grosso, Brasil].

    PubMed

    Rocha, Ednaldo Cândido; Silva, Elias; Martins, Sebastião Venâncio; Barreto, Francisco Cândido Cardoso

    2006-09-01

    We evaluated seasonal species presence and richness, and abundance of medium and large sized mammalian terrestrial fauna in the "Mário Viana" Municipal Biological Reserve, Nova Xavantina, Mato Grosso, Brazil. During 2001, two monthly visits were made to an established transect, 2,820 m in length. Records of 22 mammal species were obtained and individual footprint sequences quantified for seasonal calculation of species richness and relative abundance index (x footprints/km traveled). All 22 species occurred during the rainy season, but only 18 during the dry season. Pseudalopex vetulus (Lund, 1842) (hoary fox), Eira barbara (Linnaeus, 1758) (tayra), Puma concolor (Linnaeus, 1771) (cougar) and Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris (Linnaeus, 1766) (capybara) were only registered during the rainy season. The species diversity estimated using the Jackknife procedure in the dry season (19.83, CI = 2.73) was smaller than in the rainy season (25.67, CI = 3.43). Among the 18 species common in the two seasons, only four presented significantly different abundance indexes: Dasypus novemcinctus Linnaeus, 1758 (nine-banded armadillo), Euphractus sexcinctus (Linnaeus, 1758) (six-banded armadillo), Dasyprocta azarae Lichtenstein, 1823 (Azara's Agouti) and Tapirus terrestris (Linnaeus, 1758) (tapir). On the other hand, Priodontes maximus (Kerr, 1792) (giant armadillo) and Leopardus pardalis (Linnaeus, 1758) (ocelot) had identical abundance index over the two seasons. Distribution of species abundance in the sampled area followed the expected pattern for communities in equilibrium, especially in the rainy season, suggesting that the environment still maintains good characteristics for mammal conservation. The present study shows that the reserve, although only 470 ha in size, plays an important role for conservation of mastofauna of the area as a refuge in an environment full of anthropic influence (mainly cattle breeding in exotic pasture).

  16. Habitat suitability mapping of Anopheles darlingi in the surroundings of the Manso hydropower plant reservoir, Mato Grosso, Central Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Zeilhofer, Peter; Santos, Emerson Soares dos; Ribeiro, Ana LM; Miyazaki, Rosina D; Santos, Marina Atanaka dos

    2007-01-01

    Background Hydropower plants provide more than 78 % of Brazil's electricity generation, but the country's reservoirs are potential new habitats for main vectors of malaria. In a case study in the surroundings of the Manso hydropower plant in Mato Grosso state, Central Brazil, habitat suitability of Anopheles darlingi was studied. Habitat profile was characterized by collecting environmental data. Remote sensing and GIS techniques were applied to extract additional spatial layers of land use, distance maps, and relief characteristics for spatial model building. Results Logistic regression analysis and ROC curves indicate significant relationships between the environment and presence of An. darlingi. Probabilities of presence strongly vary as a function of land cover and distance from the lake shoreline. Vector presence was associated with spatial proximity to reservoir and semi-deciduous forests followed by Cerrado woodland. Vector absence was associated with open vegetation formations such as grasslands and agricultural areas. We suppose that non-significant differences of vector incidences between rainy and dry seasons are associated with the availability of anthropogenic breeding habitat of the reservoir throughout the year. Conclusion Satellite image classification and multitemporal shoreline simulations through DEM-based GIS-analyses consist in a valuable tool for spatial modeling of A. darlingi habitats in the studied hydropower reservoir area. Vector presence is significantly increased in forested areas near reservoirs in bays protected from wind and wave action. Construction of new reservoirs under the tropical, sub-humid climatic conditions should therefore be accompanied by entomologic studies to predict the risk of malaria epidemics. PMID:17343728

  17. Cytogenetic analysis in Thoracocharax stellatus (Kner, 1858) (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae) from Paraguay River Basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Edson Lourenço; de Borba, Rafael Splendore; Centofante, Liano; Miyazawa, Carlos Suetoshi; Parise-Maltempi, Patrícia Pasquali

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Thoracocharax stellatus (Characiformes, Gasteropelecidae) is a small Neotropical species of fish, widely distributed in several rivers of South America. Evidence for karyotype heteromorphysm in populations from different geographical regions has been reported for this species. In this way, populations of Thoracocharax stellatus from the Paraguay River basin were cytogenetically characterized and the results were compared with other studies performed in the same species but from different basins. The results showed a diploid number of 2n = 54 for Thoracocharax stellatus, with chromosomes arranged in 6 metacentric (m), 6 submetacentric (sm), 2 subtelocentric (st) and 40 acrocentric (a), for both sexes, with a simple Nucleolus Organiser Region (NOR) system reported by the techniques of silver nitrate impregnation and fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) using 18S rDNA sequences as probe. The distribution of constitutive heterochromatin, observed by the C-band technique and Chromomycin A3 staining showed great similarity among the analyzed populations and consists mainly of discrete blocks in the pericentromeric and telomeric regions of most chromosomes. The presence of female heterogamety was also observed indicating a ZZ/ZW system with W chromosome almost totally heterochromatic. The results also show cytogenetic diversity of the group and are useful to understand the mechanisms of karyotype evolution of the family. PMID:24260672

  18. Tungiasis in a free-ranging jaguar (Panthera onca) population in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Widmer, Cynthia E; Azevedo, Fernando C C

    2012-03-01

    Tungiasis is an ectoparasitic disease caused by fleas of the genus Tunga. The disease is reported to occur mostly in human populations. In wildlife, however, the occurrence and impact of this disease remains uncertain. We captured and examined 12 free-ranging jaguars for the presence of Tunga penetrans in the Pantanal region of Mato Grosso do Sul state, Brazil. Tungiasis prevalence was 100% in the population; lesions were confined to the jaguar's paws. T. penetrans was identified based on the characteristics of the embedded fleas and the morphological identification of a collected free-living flea. The intensity and stage of infestation varied between individual animals. However, in general, all captured jaguars were in good health. The 100% prevalence of tungiasis may be related to the fact that all captures were performed during the dry season. Their high ecological requirements for space make jaguars potential disseminators of T. penetrans in the Pantanal region. Because cattle ranching and ecotourism are the main economic activities in the Pantanal, further studies should evaluate the risks of tungiasis to human and animal health. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of tungiasis in jaguars.

  19. [Prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1/2) infection among puerperae in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, 2006].

    PubMed

    Ydy, Ranuce Ribeiro Aziz; Ferreira, Dalton; Souto, Francisco José Dutra; Fontes, Cor Jésus Fernandes

    2009-01-01

    The prevalence of human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1/2) infection among puerperae in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, is unknown. Through this cross-sectional study, the prevalence of HTLV-1/2 infection among puerperae attended at three public maternity hospitals in Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, was defined. Between April and September 2006, 3,831 deliveries took place and 2,965 puerperae underwent serological tests for HTLV-1/2: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and western blot. The mean age of the women studied was 23.9 years. The prevalence of HTLV-1/2 was 0.2%, i.e. similar to the prevalence observed in the general population of many developed centers in Brazil. This finding of low prevalence suggests that there is still no justification for introducing public health interventions for the population of pregnant women in our setting, to reduce the vertical transmission of HTLV-1/2.

  20. Inclusions of nanocrystalline hydrous aluminium silicate “Phase Egg” in superdeep diamonds from Juina (Mato Grosso State, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wirth, Richard; Vollmer, Christian; Brenker, Frank; Matsyuk, Stanislav; Kaminsky, Felix

    2007-07-01

    Inclusions in alluvial diamond from Juina (Mato Grosso, Brazil) have been investigated by TEM methods (electron diffraction, HRTEM, AEM, HAADF, EELS) and Raman spectroscopy. The inclusion paragenesis of Juina diamonds is dominated by ultrahigh-pressure ("superdeep") phases. One of these diamonds, sample #1.1/4, contains several micrometer-sized (approximately 200 μm by 50-70 μm) inclusions, which have been studied. TEM foils prepared applying Focused Ion Beam (FIB) technique revealed that these inclusions consist of a porous, nanocrystalline groundmass, which is composed of nanometre-sized crystals of a hydrous aluminium silicate phase with Al:Si approximately 1:1 and chemical composition of phase "Egg" (AlSiO 3(OH)), a minor volume fraction of nanocrystalline stishovite and pore space, which was originally filled with a fluid or gas. The nanocrystalline hydrous aluminium silicate phase is idiomorphic, randomly oriented (approximately 20-30 nm in size) predominantly with tetragonal crystal structure ( a0 = 0.743 nm, c0 = 0.706 nm). The monoclinic structure of synthetic phase "Egg" determined at ambient conditions [M.W. Schmidt, L.W. Finger, R.J. Ross, R.E. Dinnebier, Synthesis, crystal structure, and phase relations of AlSiO 3OH, a high-pressure hydrous phase, American Mineralogist 83 (1998) 881 - 888] is only occasionally observed. The fluid filling in the porosity has been released into the vacuum of the FIB during TEM specimen preparation. Quench products of the fluid containing minor concentrations of F- P- S- Cl- K- Ca and Ba were detected at the walls of the pores. In addition phase "Egg" is identified by μ-Raman spectroscopy within a second sample (RS 43a) from the same location. The presence of Phase "Egg" in the inclusions in diamond may suggest that crustal material has been subducted to a depth of the lower Transition Zone. Although, metastable growth of nanocrystalline high-pressure phases or extension of their respective stability fields to lower

  1. Climate Variability is Influencing Agricultural Expansion and Output in a Key Agricultural Region of Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spera, S. A.; Cohn, A.; VanWey, L.; Mustard, J. F.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decade, the Brazilian state of Mato Grosso has both expanded and intensified its agricultural production to become the country's leading producer of soy, corn, and cotton. Yet this increase in agricultural production may be threatened due to changes in the region's climate stemming from deforestation caused by the agricultural expansion itself. The sensitivity of Mato Grosso's agriculture to climate variability has important implications for both climate change mitigation and climate adaptation. The vast bulk of research on the drivers of land use change in the region has examined economic and institutional drivers. Leveraging a novel remote sensing-derived dataset classifying shifts between single (cultivating one commercial crop per growing season) and double cropping (cultivating two commercial crops per growing season), we investigated the influence of climate variability on land use change during the period 2000 to 2011. Over the past decade, over half of Mato Grosso's farm area transitioned from single cropping to double cropping. We used regression analysis (controlling for space and time fixed effects) to show monthly rainfall, monthly temperature, agricultural commodity prices, and agricultural revenue to be the main drivers of adoption of double cropping and reversion to single cropping in the region. The influence of climate varies as much as five orders of magnitude across these outcomes, with both temperature and precipitation exhibiting the largest climatic influence on the transition from single to double cropping. Temperature consistently proves to be more important, explaining three times more of the variance than precipitation for each outcome. Months at the beginning of a given first crop season, the end of that first crop season, and middle of the subsequent second crop season are particularly important for planting decisions in the subsequent growing year. Fitting our land transition models using remote-sensing derived

  2. In vitro activities of plant extracts from the Brazilian Cerrado and Pantanal against Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Carolina da Silva; Borges, Ligia Miranda Ferreira; Nicácio, José; Alves, Reginaldo Dias; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Violante, Ivana Maria Póvoa; Hamerski, Lidilhone; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues

    2013-07-01

    A total of 73 ethanol extracts from different anatomical parts of 44 plant species belonging to 24 families, native to the Mid-Western region of Brazil, were assessed in vitro for their effect on the reproductive cycle of engorged females of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, using the adult immersion test. All extracts were evaluated at the concentration of 0.2 % and, among the extracts tested, the one obtained from the fruits of Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae) proved to be highly efficacious, showing 99.1 % of product effectiveness. Extracts from other three species were shown to be moderately active, namely Nymphaea amazonum trunk (Nymphaeaceae) [51.7 %], Strychnos pseudoquina trunk (Loganiaceae) [48 %] [corrected] and Ocotea lancifolia leaves (Lauraceae) [34.5 %], while the remaining extracts were shown to be weakly active or inactive. This is the first report on the bioactivity of these species on egg production by engorged females of R. microplus.

  3. Occurrence of Aglae caerulea Lepeletier & Serville (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Euglossini) in the Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso State, Brazil.

    PubMed

    dos Anjos-Silva, Evandson J; Camillo, Evandro; Garófalo, Carlos A

    2006-01-01

    In a study conducted in the gallery forest of the Vale doVeu de Noiva in the Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Guimarães, Mato Grosso state, chemical baits were used to attract and sample male orchid bees. From September 2003 to July 2005, male euglossine bees were captured monthly, from 8:00 a.m. to 4:00 p.m. as they arrived at the baits. Of the 264 males captured, eight males belonged to Aglae caerulea Lepeletier & Serville, a cleptoparasitic euglossine species that presumably occurred only in the Amazon basin. Therefore, the occurrence of A. caerulea in this study area extends its geographical distribution range by approximately 2,400 km southwards in South America, as it is now recorded in both the Amazon and Platina basins.

  4. Land Transformation and Occupation Impacts of Farming Practices for the Production of Soybean in Mato Grosso, Brazil, Using Life Cycle Impact Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lathuilliere, M. J.; Miranda, E. J.; Couto, E. G.; Johnson, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    The state of Mato Grosso is the largest producer of soybean in Brazil with production continuously increasing since 2000 through a near tripling of cropland area under soybean cultivation. This increase in production has occurred by land cover transformation (extensification into natural ecosystems, e.g. forest to crop) and land use intensification (increase in area by conversion of already cleared land, e.g. pasture to crop), largely to satisfy international demand. In this study, we assess cradle-to-farm gate impacts of soybean production in Mato Grosso using life cycle impact assessment applied to data collected from 110 farms. We combine 21 impact indicators of land transformation and occupation (i.e. land use and land cover change) to show impacts of life cycle stages of production to land, air, water, resource use, biodiversity and ecosystem services. The greatest damage to human health and ecosystem quality came from land transformation which primarily takes place in the tropical forest (Amazon) and savanna (Cerrado/Cerradão) biomes. Soybean production in tropical forest landscapes has greater impacts on climate regulation, biotic production and groundwater recharge compared to production in native savanna areas, while impacts on biodiversity, erosion and soil water purification are roughly equivalent for tropical forest vs. savanna transformation and occupation. Soybean production practices showed hot spots of damage to environmental quality and resources from phosphorous fertilizer application and diesel consumption in machinery through impact pathways such as terrestrial and aquatic acidification and the use of non-renewable energy. Life cycle impact assessment modeling can provide further information into the production process to enlighten decision making with respect to impacts occurring along the soybean product supply chain.

  5. [Study of sand flies (Diptera, Psychodidae, Phlebotominae) in the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, from 1999 to 2000].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Alessandra Gutierrez; Andrade Filho, José Dilermando; Falcão, Alda Lima; Brazil, Reginaldo Peçanha

    2003-01-01

    From February 1999 to February 2000, sand flies were captured weekly with CDC light traps at five sites in the urban area of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil. Traps were placed in 11 different ecotopes in the environment (ground level, tree canopies, and forest edge) and the peridomicile (chicken coops and banana trees). A total of 1,245 sand flies were captured, belonging to 28 species: 4 species from genus Brumptomyia Fran a & Parrot, 1921 and 24 from genus Lutzomyia Fran a, 1924. The species were: B. avellari, B. brumpti, B. galindoi, B. pintoi, L. aragaoi, L. bourrouli, L. campograndensis, L. cerradincola, L. christenseni, L. claustrei, L. cortelezzii, L. corumbaensis, L. cruzi, L. damascenoi, L. flaviscutellata, L. hermanlenti, L. lenti, L. longipalpis, L. longipennis, L. migonei, L. punctigeniculata, L. quinquefer, L. renei, L. shannoni, L. sordellii, L. teratodes, L. termitophila, and L. whitmani. L. longipalpis and L. cruzi, vectors of visceral leishmaniasis, and L. whitmani, L. flaviscutellata and L. migonei, vectors of cutaneous leishmaniasis, were captured in the urban area. The most frequent species were L. termitophila, L. aragaoi, L. lenti, L. longipennis, and L. longipalpis.

  6. Phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in the municipality of Várzea Grande: an area of transmission of visceral leishmaniasis in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Missawa, Nanci Akemi; Dias, Edelberto Santos

    2007-12-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has been naturally transmitted in periurban areas due to the emergence and reemergence of its vectors in such areas. Aimed to further knowledge on ecological aspects affecting the occurrence of phlebotomine sand flies in VL transmission areas in the municipality of Várzea Grande, state of Mato Grosso (MT), Brazil, sand fly captures were carried out. Monthly collections of sand flies were undertaken with CDC light-traps, which were left in both intradomiciliary and peridomiciliary areas of ten residences during four consecutive days between January 2004 and June 2006. Twenty-two species of genus Lutzomyia and one of Brumptomyia were captured. The most abundant species was Lutzomyia longipalpis (65.23%), followed by L. evandroi (16.26%), L. lenti (7.69%), L. whitmani (4.92%), L. sallesi (2.34%) and L. termitophila (1.32%). The highest density of the main VL vector, L. longipalpis, was found in peridomiciliary areas, mostly males. No significant correlation was found between environment (temperature, air relative humidity and rain fall) and phlebotomine density; although a slight increase in sand fly density has been observed in the period following rainfalls, particularly L. longipalpis. No correlation was observed between distribution and density of L. longipalpis, prevalence of human VL cases and the presence of serologically positive dogs. The presence of infected dogs, increased vector density, susceptibility rate and interruption of epidemiological surveillance may raise the risk of VL transmission to man in Várzea Grande.

  7. HIV Type 1 Molecular Epidemiology in pol and gp41 Genes Among Naive Patients from Mato Grosso do Sul State, Central Western Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Silveira, Alexsander Augusto; Cardoso, Ludimila Paula Vaz; Francisco, Roberta Barbosa Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Antiretroviral naive patients (n=49) were recruited in central western Brazil (Campo Grande City/Mato Grosso do Sul State, located across the Bolivia and Paraguay borders). HIV-1 protease (PR), reverse transcriptase (RT), and env gp41 HR1 fragments were sequenced. Genetic diversity was analyzed by REGA/phylogenetic analyses. Intersubtype recombinants were identified by SimPlot/phylogenetic trees. PR/RT resistance was analyzed by Calibrated Population Resistance/Stanford databases. T-20 resistance in gp41 was assessed by Stanford, Los Alamos, and other sources. Of HIV-1 subtypes 65.3% were BPRBRT, 10.2% were CPRCRT, and 8.2% were F1PRF1RT. Intersubtype recombinants were 16.3%: four B/F1 and four B/C (two were “CRF31_BC-like”). The Pol-RT V75M mutation was detected in two homosexual partners; one patient had the T215S revertant mutation. T-20/gp41 resistance mutations were L44M (n=2) and V38A (n=1). The high percentage of non-B isolates (∼35%) highlights the importance of molecular surveillance studies in settings distant from the origin of the epidemic. Our data help elaborate the molecular epidemiological map of HIV-1 in Brazil. PMID:21790471

  8. Relation of the activities of the IPDF/INPE project (reforestation subproject) during the year 1979. [Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Filho, P. H.; Shimabukuro, Y. E.; Demedeiros, J. S.; Desantana, C. C.; Alves, E. C. M.

    1981-01-01

    The state of Mato Grosso do Sul was selected as the study area to define the recognizable classes of Eucalyptus spp. and Pinus spp. by visual and automatic analyses. For visual analysis, a preliminary interpretation key and a legend of 6 groups were derived. Based on these six groups, three final classes were defined for analysis: (1) area prepared for reforestation; (2) area reforested with Eucalyptus spp.; and (3) area reforested with Pinus spp. For automatic interpretation the area along the highway from Ribas do Rio Pardo to Agua Clara was classified into the following classes: eucalytus, bare soil, plowed soil, pine and "cerrado". The results of visual analysis show that 67% of the reforested farms have relative differences in area estimate below 5%, 22%, between 5% and 10%; and 11% between 10% and 20%. The reforested eucalyptus area is 17 times greater than the area of reforested pine. Automatic classification of eucalyptus ranged from 73.03% to 92.30% in the training areas.

  9. Search for Borrelia sp. in ticks collected from potential reservoirs in an urban forest reserve in the State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil: a short report.

    PubMed

    Costa, I P da; Bonoldi, V L N; Yoshinari, N H

    2002-07-01

    A total of 128 ticks of the genus Amblyomma were recovered from 5 marsupials (Didelphis albiventris) - with 4 recaptures - and 17 rodents (16 Bolomys lasiurus and 1 Rattus norvegicus) captured in an urban forest reserve in Campo Grande, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Of the ticks collected, 95 (78.9%) were in larval form and 22 (21.1%) were nymphs; the only adult (0.8%) was identified as A. cajennense. Viewed under dark-field microscopy in the fourth month after seeding, 9 cultures prepared from spleens and livers of the rodents, blood of the marsupials, and macerates of Amblyomma sp. nymphs revealed spiral-shaped, spirochete-like structures resembling those of Borrelia sp. Some of them showed little motility, while others were non-motile. No such structures could be found either in positive Giemsa-stained culture smears or under electron microscopy. No PCR amplification of DNA from those cultures could be obtained by employing Leptospira sp., B. burgdorferi, and Borrelia sp. primers. These aspects suggest that the spirochete-like structures found in this study do not fit into the genera Borrelia or Leptospira, requiring instead to be isolated for proper identification.

  10. The influence of industrial and agricultural waste on water quality in the Água Boa stream (Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil).

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Monyque Palagano; Dourado, Priscila Leocadia Rosa; de Souza Rodrigues, Mayara; Raposo, Jorge Luiz; Grisolia, Alexeia Barufatti; de Oliveira, Kelly Mari Pires

    2015-07-01

    Water quality monitoring is used to determine the impact of human activities on the environment. We evaluated water quality in the Água Boa stream, located within the municipality of Dourados, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, by analyzing physico-chemical, chemical, and microbiological parameters, as well as chlorophyll concentrations. Five sets of water samples were collected between December 2012 and November 2013 from three locations within the stream. The results showed the presence of Escherichia coli and antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas spp. strains and high concentrations of organic matter (total dissolved solids), inorganic species (Mg, Ca, and Fe), and agrochemical residues (thiamethoxam). The main stream water contaminants are derived from urban, industrial, and agricultural activities within the watershed. Given the presence of contaminants, it is important that such findings are disseminated in order to highlight the risks that contact with this water may pose to human health. To preserve the environment and improve site conditions, people would need to participate by demanding that normative national and international standards be respected and that the situation be supervised by the competent governmental agencies; this would make it possible to reverse or minimize contamination problems within the Água Boa stream.

  11. FIRST REPORT ON Cryptococcus neoformans IN PIGEON EXCRETA FROM PUBLIC AND RESIDENTIAL LOCATIONS IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF CUIABÁ, STATE OF MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

    PubMed Central

    Takahara, Doracilde Terumi; Lazéra, Márcia dos Santos; Wanke, Bodo; Trilles, Luciana; Dutra, Valéria; de Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus; Nakazato, Luciano; Anzai, Mariana Caselli; Leite, Diniz Pereira; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Cryptococcosis is a severe systemic mycosis caused by two species of Cryptococcus that affect humans and animals: C. neoformans and C. gattii. Cosmopolitan and emergent, the mycosis results from the interaction between a susceptible host and the environment. The occurrence of C. neoformans was evaluated in 122 samples of dried pigeon excreta collected in 49 locations in the City of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, including public squares (n = 5), churches (n = 4), educational institutions (n = 3), health units (n = 8), open areas covered with asbestos (n = 4), residences (n = 23), factory (n = 1) and a prison (n = 1). Samples collected from July to December of 2010 were seeded on Niger seed agar (NSA). Dark brown colonies were identified by urease test, carbon source assimilation tests and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium. Polymerase chain reaction primer pairs specific for C. neoformans were also used for identification. Cryptococcus neoformans associated to pigeon excreta was isolated from eight (6.6%) samples corresponding to six (12.2%) locations. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from urban areas, predominantly in residences, constituting a risk of acquiring the disease by immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals. PMID:24213188

  12. Occurrence of co-infection by Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi and Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi in a dog in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Savani, Elisa San Martin Mouriz; Nunes, Vania Lúcia Brandão; Galati, Eunice Aparecida Bianchi; Castilho, Tiago Moreno; Araujo, Fernando Shiroma de; Ilha, Iêda Maria Novaes; Camargo, Maria Cecília Gibrail de Oliveira; D'Auria, Sandra Regina Nicoletti; Floeter-Winter, Lucile Maria

    2005-11-01

    A natural case of co-infection by Leishmania and Trypanosoma is reported in a dog (Canis familiaris) in south- western state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Both amastigote and trypomastigote forms were observed after Giemsa staining of cytological preparations of the dog's bone marrow aspirate. No parasite was detected using medium culture inoculation of the sample. DNA obtained from the bone marrow aspirate sample and from the blood buffy coat was submitted to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with a set of rDNA-based primers S4/S12. The nucleotide sequence of the PCR product was identical to that of Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi. The S4/S12 PCR was then used as template in a nested-PCR using a specific Leishmania set S17/S18 as primers, to explain the amastigote forms. The nucleotide sequence of the new PCR product was identical to that of Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi. This case, as far as we know, is the first report of a dog co-infected with these parasites, suggesting that besides L. (L.) chagasi, the natural transmission of T. (T.) evansi occurs in the area under study.

  13. Edge effects and landscape matrix use by a small mammal community in fragments of semideciduous submontane forest in Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Santos-Filho, M; Silva, D J da; Sanaiotti, T M

    2008-11-01

    A community of small mammals was studied in seasonal semideciduous submontane forest in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. This study evaluated the use of edge and matrix pasture, by different small mammal species. Overall, 31 areas were studied, with a total sampling effort of 33,800 trap x nights. Only seven of the 25 species captured in the study sites were able to use the pasture matrix; we classified these species as generalists. Fourteen species were found to be intermediate in habits, being able to use forest edges. We found only four species habitat specialists, occurring only on transect lines in the interior of the fragment, at least 150 m from the edge. Transects located in the pasture matrix and 50 m from the edge had significantly lower species richness and abundance than transects located in the fragment edge or in the interior of the fragment. All transects located within the fragment had similar species richness and abundance, but transects located 50 m from the edge had slightly lower, but non-significant, species richness than transects located 100 m apart from edges. Rarefaction curves demonstrated that only medium-sized fragments (100-300 ha) reached an asymptote of species accumulation. The other areas require further sampling, or more sampling transect, before species accumulation curves stabilize, due to a continued increase in species number.

  14. Surveying the area of deforestation of the Amazon by LANDSAT satellite imagery. [Mato grosso, Goias and Para, Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Tardin, A. T.; Dossantos, A. P.; Lee, D. C. L.; Soaresmaia, F. C.; Mendonca, F. J.; Assuncao, G. V.; Rodrigues, J. E.; Demouraabdon, M.; Novaes, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    LANDSAT imagery was used to determine the amount of deforestation in a study area comprising 55 million hectares of the Amazon region. Results show that more than 4 million hectares were deforested. Maps and pictures of the deforested area in relation to the total area of the Amazon are included.

  15. Hydrological cycle.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, H C; Mercante, M A; Santos, E T

    2011-04-01

    The Pantanal hydrological cycle holds an important meaning in the Alto Paraguay Basin, comprising two areas with considerably diverse conditions regarding natural and water resources: the Plateau and the Plains. From the perspective of the ecosystem function, the hydrological flow in the relationship between plateau and plains is important for the creation of reproductive and feeding niches for the regional biodiversity. In general, river declivity in the plateau is 0.6 m/km while declivity on the plains varies from 0.1 to 0.3 m/km. The environment in the plains is characteristically seasonal and is home to an exuberant and abundant diversity of species, including some animals threatened with extinction. When the flat surface meets the plains there is a diminished water flow on the riverbeds and, during the rainy season the rivers overflow their banks, flooding the lowlands. Average annual precipitation in the Basin is 1,396 mm, ranging from 800 mm to 1,600 mm, and the heaviest rainfall occurs in the plateau region. The low drainage capacity of the rivers and lakes that shape the Pantanal, coupled with the climate in the region, produce very high evaporation: approximately 60% of all the waters coming from the plateau are lost through evaporation. The Alto Paraguay Basin, including the Pantanal, while boasting an abundant availability of water resources, also has some spots with water scarcity in some sub-basins, at different times of the year. Climate conditions alone are not enough to explain the differences observed in the Paraguay River regime and some of its tributaries. The complexity of the hydrologic regime of the Paraguay River is due to the low declivity of the lands that comprise the Mato Grosso plains and plateau (50 to 30 cm/km from east to west and 3 to 1.5 cm/km from north to south) as well as the area's dimension, which remains periodically flooded with a large volume of water.

  16. Prevalence and clinical characteristics of wheezing in children in the first year of life, living in Cuiabá, Mato Grosso, Brazil☆

    PubMed Central

    Moraes, Lillian Sanchez Lacerda; Takano, Olga Akiko; Mallol, Javier; Solé, Dirceu

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence and the clinical characteristics of wheezing in infants aged 12 to 15 months in the city of Cuiabá, Mato Grosso State, Midwest Brazil. METHODS: Parents and/or guardians of infants were interviewed and completed a written standardized questionnaire of the Estudio Internacional de Sibilancia en Lactantes (EISL) - phase 3 at primary healthcare clinics at the same day of children vaccination or at home, from August of 2009 to November of 2010. RESULTS: 1,060 parents and/or guardians completed the questionnaire, and 514 (48.5%) infants were male. Among the studied infants, 294 (27.7%) had at least one episode of wheezing during the first year of life, beggining at 5.8±3.0 months of age, with a predominance of male patients. The prevalence of occasional wheezing (<3 episodes of wheezing) was 15.0% and recurrent wheezing (≥3 episodes) was 12.7%. Among the infants with recurrent wheezing, the use of inhaled β2-agonist, oral corticosteroid, leukotriene receptor antagonist, as well as night symptoms, respiratory distress, and hospitalization due to severe episodes were significantly more frequent. Physician-diagnosed asthma was observed in 28 (9.5%) of the wheezing infants. Among the wheezing infants, 80 (27.7%) were diagnosed with pneumonia, of whom 33 (11.2%) required hospitalization; neverthless, no differences between occasional and recurrent wheezing infants were found. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of recurrent wheezing and physician-diagnosed asthma in infants were lower compared with those observed in other Brazilian studies. Recurrent wheezing had early onset and high morbity. PMID:25510994

  17. Mayaro virus and dengue virus 1 and 4 natural infection in culicids from Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Serra, Otacília Pereira; Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Ribeiro, Ana Lúcia Maria; dos Santos, Fábio Alexandre Leal; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the diversity of Culicidae species and their frequency of infection with flaviviruses and alphaviruses in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Mosquitoes were captured with Nasci aspirators and hand net in 200 census tracts, identified alive at species level and pooled in one-20 (11,090 mosquitoes, 14 species). Female pools (n = 610) were subjected to multiplex seminested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for 11 flavivirus and five alphavirus. Positive pools were tested by single RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing, by RT-PCR for E1 gene [Mayaro virus (MAYV)] and by inoculation in Vero cells (MAYV) or C6/36 cells (flaviviruses). One/171 Aedes aegypti was positive for dengue virus (DENV)-1, 12/403 Culex quinquefasciatus, and four/171Ae. aegypti for MAYV, which was isolated from two pools containing two nonengorged females of Ae. aegypti and two ofCx. quinquefasciatus. DENV-4 was detected in 58/171 pools of Ae. aegytpi, 105/403 Cx. quinquefasciatus, two/five Psorophora sp., two/11 Psorophora varipes/Psorophora albigenu, one/one Sabethes chloropterus, two/five Culex bidens/Culex interfor, and one/one Aedes sp. DENV-4 was isolated from two pools containing three and 16 nonengorged Cx. quinquefasciatus females. Phylogenetic analysis revealed MAYV belongs to genotype L, clustering with human samples of the virus previously identified in the city. Cuiabá has biodiversity and ecosystem favourable for vector proliferation, representing a risk for arbovirus outbreaks. PMID:26784852

  18. Mayaro virus and dengue virus 1 and 4 natural infection in culicids from Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Serra, Otacília Pereira; Cardoso, Belgath Fernandes; Ribeiro, Ana Lúcia Maria; Santos, Fábio Alexandre Leal dos; Slhessarenko, Renata Dezengrini

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to verify the diversity of Culicidae species and their frequency of infection with flaviviruses and alphaviruses in Cuiabá, state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Mosquitoes were captured with Nasci aspirators and hand net in 200 census tracts, identified alive at species level and pooled in one-20 (11,090 mosquitoes, 14 species). Female pools (n = 610) were subjected to multiplex seminested-reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for 11 flavivirus and five alphavirus. Positive pools were tested by single RT-PCR followed by nucleotide sequencing, by RT-PCR for E1 gene [Mayaro virus (MAYV)] and by inoculation in Vero cells (MAYV) or C6/36 cells (flaviviruses). One/171 Aedes aegypti was positive for dengue virus (DENV)-1, 12/403 Culex quinquefasciatus, and four/171Ae. aegypti for MAYV, which was isolated from two pools containing two nonengorged females of Ae. aegypti and two of Cx. quinquefasciatus. DENV-4 was detected in 58/171 pools of Ae. aegytpi, 105/403 Cx. quinquefasciatus, two/five Psorophora sp., two/11 Psorophora varipes/Psorophora albigenu, one/one Sabethes chloropterus, two/five Culex bidens/Culex interfor, and one/one Aedes sp. DENV-4 was isolated from two pools containing three and 16 nonengorged Cx. quinquefasciatus females. Phylogenetic analysis revealed MAYV belongs to genotype L, clustering with human samples of the virus previously identified in the city. Cuiabá has biodiversity and ecosystem favourable for vector proliferation, representing a risk for arbovirus outbreaks.

  19. Microbispora sp. LGMB259 Endophytic Actinomycete Isolated from Vochysia divergens (Pantanal, Brazil) Producing β-Carbolines and Indoles with Biological Activity

    PubMed Central

    Savi, Daiani C.; Shaaban, Khaled A.; Vargas, Nathalia; Ponomareva, Larissa V.; Possiede, Yvelise M.; Thorson, Jon S.; Glienke, Chirlei; Rohr, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic actinomycetes encompass bacterial groups that are well known for the production of a diverse range of secondary metabolites. Vochysia divergens is a medicinal plant, common in the “Pantanal” region (Brazil) and was focus of many investigations, but never regarding its community of endophytic symbionts. During a screening program, an endophytic strain isolated from the V. divergens, was investigated for its potential to show biological activity. The strain was characterized as Microbispora sp. LGMB259 by spore morphology and molecular analyze using nucleotide sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Strain LGMB259 was cultivated in R5A medium producing metabolites with significant antibacterial activity. The strain produced 4 chemically related β-carbolines, and 3 Indoles. Compound 1-Vinyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid displayed potent activity against the Gram-positive bacterial strains Micrococcus luteus NRRL B-2618 and Kocuria rosea B-1106, and was highly active against two human cancer cell lines, namely the prostate cancer cell line PC3 and the non-small-cell lung carcinoma cell line A549, with IC50 values of 9.45 and 24.67 µM, respectively. 1-Vinyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylic acid also showed moderate activity against the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC204508, as well as the phytopathogenic fungiPhyllosticta citricarpa LGMB06 and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides FDC83. PMID:25385358

  20. Shifting Patterns of Pasturelands and Stocking Rates of Cattle in Brazil: 1940 to 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, L. C. P.; Santos, A.; Pimenta, F. M.; Costa, M. H.

    2015-12-01

    In this work, we investigate the shifting in historical patterns of pastureland (natural and planted) in Brazil using a new high-resolution (approximately 1 km x 1 km) spatially explicit reconstruction of land use from 1940 to 2012 and stocking rate of cattle maps from 1990 to 2012. We also identified the top 5% (highest yields) pixels in the 2010 stocking rate map and we assessed the historical trends in intensification and extensification practices in Brazil. We focus our analyzes in Amazonia and Cerrado biomes, in Mato Grosso and Pará states, and in the new agricultural frontier called MATOPIBA - which is formed by Maranhão, Tocantins, Piauí, and Bahia states. Natural pastureland expanded until the 1970s and, after that, most areas with natural pasture were replaced by planted pasture, which is more profitable. In 2012, natural pastures were still predominant in the Pampas (located in southern Rio Grande do Sul) and the Pantanal (located in western Mato Grosso do Sul). On the other hand, planted pastureland expanded in area between 1975 and 2012, especially in the Cerrado biome. Brazilian stocking rate of cattle increased, but remains close to 1.0 head/ha between 1990 and 2010 and the top 5% were about twice as high as the average in all regions analyzed. The yield gap (difference between average and the top 5% pixels) was largest in Pará state, where the stocking rate of cattle was below 50% of the potential given 2010 practices. The increase in cattle production in Amazonia biome and in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará came from both intensification and expansion of pasturelands. In contrast, pasturelands in Cerrado and MATOPIBA decreased in area while stocking rates of cattle increased gradually. Our results provide new insights about land use change and productivity in Brazilian territory that could guide future agricultural and conservation discussions, decisions, and policies.

  1. Evaluation of the efficiency of nested q-PCR in the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex directly from tuberculosis-suspected lesions in post-mortem macroscopic inspections of bovine carcasses slaughtered in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ricardo César Tavares; Furlanetto, Leone Vinícius; Maruyama, Fernanda Harumy; Araújo, Cristina Pires de; Barros, Sílvia Letícia Bomfim; Ramos, Carlos Alberto do Nascimento; Dutra, Valéria; Araújo, Flábio Ribeiro de; Paschoalin, Vânia Margaret Flosi; Nakazato, Luciano; Figueiredo, Eduardo Eustáquio de Souza

    2015-08-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is a zoonotic disease caused by Mycobacterium bovis, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTC). The quick and specific detection of this species is of extreme importance, since BTB may cause economic impacts, in addition to presenting imminent risks to human health. In the present study a nested real-time PCR test (nested q-PCR) was used in post-mortem evaluations to assess cattle carcasses with BTB-suspected lesions. A total of 41,193 cattle slaughtered in slaughterhouses located in the state of Mato Grosso, were examined. Of the examined animals, 198 (0.48%) showed BTB-suspected lesions. M. bovis was isolated in 1.5% (3/198) of the samples. Multiplex-PCR detected MTC in 7% (14/198) of the samples. The nested q-PCR test detected MTC in 28% (56/198) of the BTB-suspected lesions, demonstrating higher efficiency when compared to the multiplex-PCR and conventional microbiology. Nested q-PCR can therefore be used as a complementary test in the national program for control and eradication of bovine tuberculosis.

  2. Xingu Project - Integrating Land Use Planning and Water Governance in Amazonia: Towards Improved Freshwater Security in the Agricultural Frontier of Mato Grosso.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krusche, A. V.; Ballester, M. V.; Neill, C.; Elsenbeer, H.; Johnson, M. S.; Coe, M. T.; Garavello, M.; Molina, S. G.; Empinotti, V.; Reichardt, F.; Deegan, L.; Harris, L.

    2014-12-01

    The main goal of this project is to identify how impacts from land conversion, cropland expansion and intensification of both crop and animal production interact to affect regional evapotranspiration, rainfall generation, river flooding, and water quality and stream habitats, allowing us to identify thresholds of change that will endanger agricultural production, livelihoods of non-agricultural settlers and the region's new urban population and infrastructure. We will survey the effects of this on (1) soybean farmers, (2) cattle ranchers, (3) small-scale farm families, (4) rural non-agriculturists, including fishers, and (5) urban residents and map their roles as stakeholders. We will also conduct current water use surveys among the different stakeholder groups, accompanied by questions on desired aspects for future freshwater security to identify targets for desirable outcomes of water governance strategies. These targets, together with the information on land use drivers, water quantity and quality and predicted scenarios for global changes will be incorporated into a fully integrated and interactive geospatially oriented socio-ecological model that can serve as framework for future water governance that enhances Freshwater Security in such systems. This is an international cooperation initiative lead by Brazil and with the participation of Canada, Germany and United States of America.

  3. KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a hospital in the Midwest region of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Biberg, Camila Arguelo; Rodrigues, Ana Claudia Souza; do Carmo, Sidiane Ferreira; Chaves, Claudia Elizabeth Volpe; Gales, Ana Cristina; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues

    2015-06-01

    The emergence of β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the last few decades has become major challenge faced by hospitals. In this study, isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2)-producing K. pneumoniae from a tertiary hospital in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were characterized. Bacterial identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF; Bruker Daltonics, Germany) mass spectrometry. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems were determined using the agar dilution method as recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Carbapenemase production was detected using the modified Hodge test (MHT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by DNA sequencing. Of 360 (12.2%) K. pneumoniae isolates obtained between May 2009 and May 2010, 44 (12.2%) were carbapenem nonsusceptible. Of these 44 isolates, thirty-six K. pneumoniae isolates that were positive by MHT and PCR carried the bla KPC-2 gene. Thus, KPC-2producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has been present in a Brazilian hospital located in the Midwest region since at least 2009.

  4. KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in a hospital in the Midwest region of Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Biberg, Camila Arguelo; Rodrigues, Ana Claudia Souza; do Carmo, Sidiane Ferreira; Chaves, Claudia Elizabeth Volpe; Gales, Ana Cristina; Chang, Marilene Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    The emergence of β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the last few decades has become major challenge faced by hospitals. In this study, isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-2 (KPC-2)-producing K. pneumoniae from a tertiary hospital in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, were characterized. Bacterial identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF; Bruker Daltonics, Germany) mass spectrometry. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of carbapenems were determined using the agar dilution method as recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Carbapenemase production was detected using the modified Hodge test (MHT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by DNA sequencing. Of 360 (12.2%) K. pneumoniae isolates obtained between May 2009 and May 2010, 44 (12.2%) were carbapenem nonsusceptible. Of these 44 isolates, thirty-six K. pneumoniae isolates that were positive by MHT and PCR carried the bla KPC-2 gene. Thus, KPC-2producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has been present in a Brazilian hospital located in the Midwest region since at least 2009. PMID:26273265

  5. [Habitat heterogeneity, richness and structure of assemblages of dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) in areas of cerrado in the Chapada dos Parecis, Mato Grosso state, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Silva, Ricardo J da; Diniz, Soraia; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    2010-01-01

    Ecological theory of habitat heterogeneity and limited niche-similarity assumes that more heterogeneous environments provide a greater amount and diversity of resources than simple environments, resulting in a greater diversity of species. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the habitat heterogeneity on the richness of dung beetles and to examine the spatial patterns of assemblage structure in relation to patterns of habitat heterogeneity. Dung beetles were collected using pitfall traps without bait in 30 points distributed in an area of cerrado sensu lato, in the region of Tangará da Serra, MT, Brazil, including areas of cerrado sensu stricto, campo sujo, cerradão and gallery forest. A total of 1,291 dung beetles were collected, distributed in 16 genera and 29 species. Overall habitat heterogeneity exerted a negative effect on patterns of dung beetles richness. Higher levels of species richness were observed in areas of cerrado campo sujo, while the areas of gallery forest were the most species poor. Regarding assembly structure, it was found that the dung beetles were separated into two major groups, one formed by the presence of specialized species in forest areas and other composed of species that occurred predominantly in cerrado. In conclusion, it was found that habitat complexity influenced the distribution of dung beetles, but the level of turnover in species composition along the heterogeneity gradient was relatively weak.

  6. Returning "Region" to World Regional Geography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Peter W.; Legates, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    World regional geography textbooks rarely focus on the process of region formation, despite frequent calls to reincorporate a regional approach to teaching global geography. An instructional strategy using problem-based learning in a small honors section of a large world regional geography course is described. Using a hypothetical scenario…

  7. Ionospheric research. [E region, F region, D region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Progress is reported in the following areas: D-region theory; E and F-region; wave propagation; mass spectrometer measurements; and atmospheric reactions. Various supporting operations are included: design and construction of instrumentation; and programming.

  8. Nycthemeral Rhythm of Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Craggy Region, Transitioning Between the Wetland and the Plateau, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Infran, J O M; Souza, D A; Fernandes, W S; Casaril, A E; Eguchi, G U; Oshiro, E T; Fernandes, C E S; Paranhos Filho, A C; Oliveira, A G

    2016-09-29

    Recording the nycthemeral rhythm of sand flies allows the evaluation of the daily activity in different ecotypes, the period of greatest activity, and their degree of anthropophily. We investigated the fauna and the rhythm of sand fly activity in an ecotourism region in Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) state, Brazil. Sand flies were captured monthly, using a Shannon trap for 24 h periods between July 2012 and June 2014. We collected 1,815 sand flies, in which Lutzomyia whitmani (=Nyssomyia whitmani, sensu Galati) and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the most abundant species during the dry season, with activity from 5 p.m.-7 a.m. and 6 p.m.-5 a.m., respectively. Both species require particular attention as vectors of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in several regions of Brazil, including MS. However, Lutzomyia dispar was more anthropophilic, and was most active between January and March, from 5 p.m. to 5 a.m. Lutzomyia misionensis (=Pintomyia misionensis, sensu Galati) was present throughout both years, active from 4 p.m. to 5 a.m. Other species were active from 5 p.m. to 6 a.m. Due to intense tourism in the months that coincide with a high number of vectors for leishmaniases in Piraputanga, it is essential to determine vector-monitoring strategies in the area by investigating sand fly rhythm while not neglecting other periods of the year when the insects are present.

  9. Nycthemeral Rhythm of Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) in a Craggy Region, Transitioning Between the Wetland and the Plateau, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Infran, J O M; Souza, D A; Fernandes, W S; Casaril, A E; Eguchi, G U; Oshiro, E T; Fernandes, C E S; Paranhos Filho, A C; Oliveira, A G

    2017-01-01

    Recording the nycthemeral rhythm of sand flies allows the evaluation of the daily activity in different ecotypes, the period of greatest activity, and their degree of anthropophily. We investigated the fauna and the rhythm of sand fly activity in an ecotourism region in Mato Grosso do Sul (MS) state, Brazil. Sand flies were captured monthly, using a Shannon trap for 24 h periods between July 2012 and June 2014. We collected 1,815 sand flies, in which Lutzomyia whitmani (=Nyssomyia whitmani, sensu Galati) and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the most abundant species during the dry season, with activity from 5 p.m.-7 a.m. and 6 p.m.-5 a.m., respectively. Both species require particular attention as vectors of Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis and Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum in several regions of Brazil, including MS. However, Lutzomyia dispar was more anthropophilic, and was most active between January and March, from 5 p.m. to 5 a.m. Lutzomyia misionensis (=Pintomyia misionensis, sensu Galati) was present throughout both years, active from 4 p.m. to 5 a.m. Other species were active from 5 p.m. to 6 a.m. Due to intense tourism in the months that coincide with a high number of vectors for leishmaniases in Piraputanga, it is essential to determine vector-monitoring strategies in the area by investigating sand fly rhythm while not neglecting other periods of the year when the insects are present.

  10. Greenhouse Gas Emissions in the Brazilian Semiarid Region: Environmental, Climate and Social Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa Neto, E. R.; Ometto, J. P.; Aguiar, A. P. D.; Mata, M. V.

    2014-12-01

    Removing a forest to open new agricultural lands, which has been very intensive in countries like Brazil during the last decades, contributes to about 12% of the global anthropogenic emissions. Forest cover removal releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GEE) like methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as a result of burning trees, followed by gradual decomposition of the forest biomass left on the ground while pasture or crop plantations are being established. In Brazil, the 2nd Brazilian National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) presents the mean annual net CO2 emissions caused by changes in land use (LUC) in each Brazilian biome and the first place in the ranking is occupied by the Amazon Rainforest Biome (860,874 Gg), followed by Savannah (302,715 Gg), Atlantic Forest (79,109 Gg), Caatinga (37,628 Gg), Pantanal (16,172 Gg) and Pampa (-102 Gg) (MCT 2010). Despite these results, the estimates of CO2 emissions caused by LUC in the Brazilian semiarid region (Caatinga) are very limited and scarce, and associated to uncertainties directly related to the estimated biomass in different types of vegetation which are spatially distributed within the biome, as well as the correct representation of the dynamics of the deforestation process itself, and the more accurate mapping use and land cover. Based on such facts, this project is estimating the emissions of the main greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) caused by land use changes in an area of Caatinga biome in Pernambuco State through the model INPE-EM. So far, it is known that from decades of 1940 up to 1995, Caatinga biome has contributed with about 3.2 % to total land use change emissions in the country, and recently (1990-2005), the contributions of Caatinga are even higher (over 30%), according to the 2nd Brazilian National Communication (2010). By means means of the model INPE-EM (data still being acquired), we are trying to diminish the

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions in the Brazilian semiarid region: environmental, climate and social constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa-Neto, Eráclito; Ometto, Jean

    2014-05-01

    The process of removing a forest to open new agricultural lands, which has been very intensive in developing countries like Brazil during the last decades (Lapola et al, 2014), contributes to about 12% of the global anthropogenic emissions (Le Quéré et al., 2009). Forest cover removal releases carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases (GEE) like methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), as a result of burning trees, followed by gradual decomposition of the forest biomass left on the ground while pasture or crop plantations are being established (Ramankutty et al., 2007). In Brazil, the 2nd Brazilian National Communication to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), presents the mean annual net CO2 emissions caused by changes in land use in each Brazilian biome and the first place in the ranking is occupied by the Amazon Rainforest Biome (860,874 Gg), followed by Savannah (302,715 Gg), Atlantic Forest (79,109 Gg), Caatinga (37,628 Gg), Pantanal (16,172 Gg) and Pampa (-102 Gg) (MCT 2010). Despite these results, the estimates of CO2 emissions caused by land use changes in the Brazilian semiarid region (Caatinga) are very limited and scarce, and associated to uncertainties which are directly related to the estimated biomass in different types of vegetation which are spatially distributed within the biome, as well as the correct representation of the dynamics of the deforestation process itself, and the more accurate mapping use and land cover. Based on such facts, this project is estimating the emissions of the main greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O and CH4) caused by land use changes in an area of Caatinga biome in Pernambuco State through the model INPE-EM. So far, it is known that from decades of 1940 up to 1995, Caatinga biome has contributed with about 3.2 % to total land use change emissions in the country (Leite et al, 2012), and recently (1990-2005), the contributions of Caatinga are even higher (over 30%), according to the 2nd

  12. A morphological and molecular study of two species of Raphidascaroides Yamaguti, 1941 (Nematoda: Anisakidae), parasites of doradid catfish (Siluriformes) in South America, with a description of R. moraveci n. sp.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Felipe B; Tavares, Luiz E R; Scholz, Tomáš; Luque, José L

    2015-05-01

    Nematodes of the genus Raphidascaroides Yamaguti, 1941 parasitising doradid catfishes (Siluriformes: Doradidae) in Brazil were studied based on morphological and molecular evaluation of newly collected material. A new species, Raphidascaroides moraveci n. sp., is described from the intestine of Platydoras armatulus (Valenciennes) from River Miranda, River Paraguay basin, Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul. The new species differs from all of the congeners in having short spicules (163-217 μm in length) representing less than 1% of the total body length and in the posterior region of cloacal opening covered by small rudimentary spines. In addition, it differs from the other congeneric species in the number and arrangement of the caudal papillae and the structure of lips and tail. Raphidascaroides moraveci n. sp. is the third species described from freshwater fishes and the second one in the Neotropical Region. New morphological data on R. brasiliensis Moravec & Thatcher, 1997 from Megalodoras uranoscopus (Eigenmann & Eigenmann) and Platydoras costatus (Linnaeus) (both new host records) from River Xingu, River Amazon basin, Pará, are provided including scanning electron micrographs of taxonomically important structures. The differentiation of the new species is supported by molecular data (partial sequences of the small and large subunits of the rRNA gene).

  13. Regional Sustainable Environmental Management

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regional sustainable environmental management is an interdisciplinary effort to develop a sufficient understanding of the interactions between ecosystems, the economy, law, and technology to formulate effective long-term management strategies on a regional scale. Regional sustai...

  14. Thermal requirements and estimate number of generations of Palmistichus elaeisis (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in different Eucalyptus plantations regions.

    PubMed

    Pereira, F F; Zanuncio, J C; Oliveira, H N; Grance, E L V; Pastori, P L; Gava-Oliveira, M D

    2011-05-01

    To use Palmistichus elaeisis Delvare and LaSalle, 1993 (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in a biological control programme of Thyrinteina arnobia (Stoll, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), it is necessary to study thermal requirements, because temperature can affect the metabolism and bioecological aspects. The objective was to determine the thermal requirements and estimate the number of generations of P. elaeisis in different Eucalyptus plantations regions. After 24 hours in contact with the parasitoid, the pupae was placed in 16, 19, 22, 25, 28 and 31 °C, 70 ± 10% of relative humidity and 14 hours of photophase. The duration of the life cycle of P. elaeisis was reduced with the increase in the temperature. At 31 °C the parasitoid could not finish the cycle in T. arnobia pupae. The emergence of P. elaeisis was not affected by the temperature, except at 31 °C. The number of individuals was between six and 1238 per pupae, being higher at 16 °C. The thermal threshold of development (Tb) and the thermal constant (K) of this parasitoid were 3.92 °C and 478.85 degree-days (GD), respectively, allowing for the completion of 14.98 generations per year in Linhares, Espírito Santo State, 13.87 in Pompéu and 11.75 in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State and 14.10 in Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul State.

  15. TESA-blot for the diagnosis of Chagas disease in dogs from co-endemic regions for Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma evansi and Leishmania chagasi.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, E S; Souza, A I; Pinedo-Cancino, V; Marcondes, M; Marcili, A; Camargo, L M A; Camacho, A A; Stolf, A M S; Teixeira, M M G

    2009-07-01

    We standardized serodiagnosis of dogs infected with Trypanosoma cruzi using TESA (trypomastigote excreted-secreted antigen)-blot developed for human Chagas disease. TESA-blot showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. In contrast, ELISA using TESA (TESA-ELISA) or epimastigotes (epi-ELISA) as antigen yielded 100% sensitivity but specificity of 94.1% and 49.4%, respectively. When used in field studies in an endemic region for Chagas disease, visceral leishmaniasis and Trypanosoma evansi (Mato Grosso do Sul state, Central Brazil), positivities were 9.3% for TESA-blot, 10.7% for TESA-ELISA and 32% for epi-ELISA. Dogs from a non-endemic region for these infections (Rondonia state, western Amazonia) where T. cruzi is enzootic showed positivity of 4.5% for TESA-blot and epi-ELISA and 6.8% for TESA-ELISA. Sera from urban dogs from Santos, São Paulo, where these diseases are absent, yielded negative results. TESA-blot was the only method that distinguished dogs infected with T. cruzi from those infected with Leishmania chagasi and/or Trypanosoma evansi.

  16. ERLN Regional Support

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Regional labs play important roles in the Environmental Response Laboratory Network. They can serve as point of contact; coordinate sample flow, special analytical service requests, or training exercises; and partner with regional emergency/disaster staff.

  17. Region 9 RTOC Charter

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    U.S. EPA Pacific Southwest (Region 9) Regional Tribal Operations Committee (RTOC) Charter as amended 11/13/2014: Mission, Goals, Scope, Structure & Membership, Meetings, Administration, Charter Amendment/Review, and Current Working Draft.

  18. Utah: Salt Lake Region

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Winter and Summer Views of the Salt Lake Region     View Larger Image Magnificent views of the region surrounding Salt Lake City, Utah are captured in these winter and summer images from the ...

  19. Region 9 Tribal Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA Region 9 helps tribes strengthen management of environmental programs in Indian country, and ensure that tribes have a voice in decisions. The region serves 148 federally recognized tribes with the states of Arizona, California, and Nevada.

  20. Regional Smart Growth Alliances

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page describes the Urban Land Institute regional smart growth alliances that received funding from EPA to help support economic development, accommodate growth, enhance quality of, and protect the environment in regions across the country.

  1. [Regional aging in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bucher, H

    1996-01-01

    Elderly people in Germany have a specific regional distribution. Recent regional population projections show that these patterns will change. The most dynamic process of aging will take place in the suburban parts of the large western Germany agglomerations, whereas in eastern Germany aging concentrates in regions with a lower density. There will be a regional deconcentration of elderly people with consequences for the planning of infrastructure.

  2. Learning Regions in Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thinesse-Demel, Jutta

    2010-01-01

    In 2000, the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) launched the programme "Learning Regions--Providing Support for Networks'" in cooperation with the Lander. It was co-financed by the European Social Fund (ESF). Some 90 regions were selected and financially supported. After one year, 71 regions continued to build-up…

  3. Reversed-polarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.

    1982-01-01

    It is found by a statistical study of 58 reversed-polarity regions (RPRs) covering the 11-year period 1969-1979 that RPRs (1) have a lifespan comparable to normal active regions, (2) do not show a tendency to rotate toward a more normal alignment, and (3) have stable configurations that do not suggest stress due to their anomalous magnetic alignment. As in normal regions, RPR magnetic complexity is found to be the primary factor in flare productivity. Weak-field RPRs produce no flares, and regions with complex spots produce more flares than regions with non-complex spots by a factor of five. The main difference between RPRs and normal regions lies in complex spot frequency, with less that 17% of normal active regions having such spots and fewer than 1.8% having long-lived complex ones, while 41% of RPRs have complex spots and 24% have long-lived complex spots.

  4. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes.

    PubMed

    Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Rossa, Giselle Ayres Razera; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Gennari, Solange Maria; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2014-04-01

    Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí) in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63) and 66.7% (2/3) of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil.

  5. Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae, a spotted fever group agent infecting Amblyomma parvum ticks in two Brazilian biomes

    PubMed Central

    Nieri-Bastos, Fernanda Aparecida; Lopes, Marcos Gomes; Cançado, Paulo Henrique Duarte; Rossa, Giselle Ayres Razera; Faccini, João Luiz Horácio; Gennari, Solange Maria; Labruna, Marcelo Bahia

    2014-01-01

    Adult ticks of the species Amblyomma parvum were collected from the vegetation in the Pantanal biome (state of Mato Grosso do Sul) and from horses in the Cerrado biome (state of Piauí) in Brazil. The ticks were individually tested for rickettsial infection via polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting three rickettsial genes, gltA, ompA and ompB. Overall, 63.5% (40/63) and 66.7% (2/3) of A. parvum ticks from Pantanal and Cerrado, respectively, contained rickettsial DNA, which were all confirmed by DNA sequencing to be 100% identical to the corresponding fragments of the gltA, ompA and ompB genes of Candidatus Rickettsia andeanae. This report is the first to describe Ca. R. andeanae in Brazil. PMID:24714968

  6. Transition Region Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansteen, V.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    The SOLAR TRANSITION REGION comprises the PLASMA between the CHROMOSPHERE and the CORONA. In both of these regions the temperature is fairly uniform. The transition region, by contrast, is believed to be characterized by a very steep temperature rise from a chromospheric temperature of slightly less than 104 K to coronal temperatures on the order of 106 K. The goal of modeling the transition regi...

  7. The Regional Educational Laboratories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. Office of Reform Assistance and Dissemination.

    The Regional Educational Laboratory Program is the U.S. Department of Education's largest research and development investment designed to help educators, policymakers, and communities improve schools and help all students attain their potential. The network of 10 regional laboratories works to ensure that those involved in education improvement at…

  8. Ad Hoc Rural Regionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamin, Elisabeth M.; Marcucci, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    A new regionalism has been much documented and researched for metropolitan areas; this article documents that there is a new rural regionalism as well. In the United States, these groups appear most likely to emerge in areas that are challenged by outcomes characterizing globalization's effects on the rural condition: namely, exurban or…

  9. REGIONAL EMAP PROPOSALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The US EPA's Environmental Assessment and Monitoring Program (EMAP) annually funds regional EMAP (REMAP) projects through each of the regions to support the improvement of monitoring activities by the states. The last call for proposals emphasized the need to support biological m...

  10. MC-6 Casius Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-6 quadrangle, Casius region of Mars. Except for the highly dissected southwestern part, which contains faults, mesas, and buttes of Nilosyrtis Mensae, the Casius region is dominated by light-colored and dark, relatively smooth plains. Latitude range 30 to 65 degrees, longitude range -120 to -60 degrees.

  11. Regions and Western Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunt, Barry M.

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that regional geography is undergoing important changes in its method of study to achieve a greater degree of relevancy in the context of a global system. Presents Western Europe as a case study to reflect this new approach. Includes 11 maps illustrating 6 generalizations applied to regional patterns. (CFR)

  12. Reversed-polarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.

    1980-01-01

    The 58 RPRS studied have a lifespan comparable to normal active regions and have no tendency to rotate toward a more normal alignment. They seem to have stable configurations with no apparent evidence suggesting stress due to their anomalous magnetic alignment. Magnetic complexity in RPRs is the key to flare productivity just as it is in normal regions - weak field RPRs produced no flares and regions with complex spots produced more flares than regions with noncomplex spots by a factor of 5. The RPRs however, differ from normal regions in the frequency of having complex spots, particularly the long lived complex spots, in them. Less than 17 percent of normal ARs have complex spots; less than 1.8 percent have long lived complex spots. In contrast, 41 percent of RPRs have complex spots and 24 percent have long lived complex spots.

  13. Antibacterial activity and phytochemical analysis of Vochysia divergens (Vochysiaceae).

    PubMed

    Hess, S C; Brum, R L; Honda, N K; Cruz, A B; Moretto, E; Cruz, R B; Messana, I; Ferrari, F; Cechinel Filho, V; Yunes, R A

    1995-07-07

    Vochysia divergens Pohl (Vochysiaceae) is a tree commonly found in wet soils of 'Pantanal' of Mato Grosso, Brazil, and used in folk medicine against infections and asthma. We have studied different extracts and some isolated compounds from this plant for antibacterial activity. From the extracts of the stem bark beta-sitosterol, betulinic acid and sericic acid were isolated. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for Staphylococcus aureus were: ethanolic extract (MIC = 1.5 mg/ml); ethyl acetate extract (MIC = 2.0 mg/ml); and sericic acid (MIC = 1.0 mg/ml). Escherichia coli was resistant until 5 mg/ml.

  14. Regional ocean data assimilation.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Christopher A; Moore, Andrew M; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Cornuelle, Bruce D

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the past 15 years of developments in regional ocean data assimilation. A variety of scientific, management, and safety-related objectives motivate marine scientists to characterize many ocean environments, including coastal regions. As in weather prediction, the accurate representation of physical, chemical, and/or biological properties in the ocean is challenging. Models and observations alone provide imperfect representations of the ocean state, but together they can offer improved estimates. Variational and sequential methods are among the most widely used in regional ocean systems, and there have been exciting recent advances in ensemble and four-dimensional variational approaches. These techniques are increasingly being tested and adapted for biogeochemical applications.

  15. Drycleaner Database - Region 7

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    THIS DATA ASSET NO LONGER ACTIVE: This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Drycleaner Database (R7DryClnDB) which tracks all Region7 drycleaners who notify Region 7 subject to Maximum Achievable Control Technologiy (MACT) standards. The Air and Waste Management Division is the primary managing entity for this database. This work falls under objectives for EPA's 2003-2008 Strategic Plan (Goal 4) for Healthy Communities & Ecosystems, which are to reduce chemical and/or pesticide risks at facilities.

  16. Upper Extremity Regional Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Neal, Joseph M.; Gerancher, J.C.; Hebl, James R.; Ilfeld, Brian M.; McCartney, Colin J.L.; Franco, Carlo D.; Hogan, Quinn H.

    2009-01-01

    Brachial plexus blockade is the cornerstone of the peripheral nerve regional anesthesia practice of most anesthesiologists. As part of the American Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine’s commitment to providing intensive evidence-based education related to regional anesthesia and analgesia, this article is a complete update of our 2002 comprehensive review of upper extremity anesthesia. The text of the review focuses on (1) pertinent anatomy, (2) approaches to the brachial plexus and techniques that optimize block quality, (4) local anesthetic and adjuvant pharmacology, (5) complications, (6) perioperative issues, and (6) challenges for future research. PMID:19282714

  17. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163), i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP), urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers) were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid economic and demographic

  18. Regional Instrumentation Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromie, William J.

    1980-01-01

    Focuses on the activities of regional instrumentation centers that utilize the state-of-the-art instruments and methodology in basic scientific research. The emphasis is on the centers involved in mass spectroscopy, magnetic resonance spectroscopy, lasers, and accelerators. (SA)

  19. Mercury's South Polar Region

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows 89 wide-angle camera (WAC) images of Mercury’s south polar region acquired by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) over one complete Mercury solar day (176 Earth days). Thi...

  20. Regional Hearing Clerk

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Regional Hearing Clerk receives filings for proceedings under the Consolidated Rules of Practice Governing the Administrative Assessment of Civil Penalties and the Revocation/Termination or Suspension of Permits, 40 Code of Federal Regulations Part 22

  1. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a chronic pain condition. It causes intense pain, usually in the arms, hands, legs, or feet. ... in skin temperature, color, or texture Intense burning pain Extreme skin sensitivity Swelling and stiffness in affected ...

  2. Regional Screening Levels (RSLs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Regional Screening Level RSL Home Page introduces risk assessors to Chemical Risk Assessment preliminary remediation goals PRG risk based concentration RBC and risk calculations for the assessment of human Health.

  3. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... regional pain syndrome is an uncommon form of chronic pain that usually affects an arm or a leg. ... exercises may be. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) . Chronic pain is sometimes eased by applying electrical impulses to ...

  4. Regional Health Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fuller, Sherrilynne

    1997-01-01

    Abstract In general, there is agreement that robust integrated information systems are the foundation for building successful regional health care delivery systems. Integrated Advanced Information Management System (IAIMS) institutions that, over the years, have developed strategies for creating cohesive institutional information systems and services are finding that IAIMS strategies work well in the even more complex regional environment. The key elements of IAIMS planning are described and lessons learned are discussed in the context of regional health information systems developed. The challenges of aligning the various information agencies and agendas in support of a regional health information system are complex ; however, the potential rewards for health care in quality, efficacy, and cost savings are enormous. PMID:9067887

  5. Regionalism and Secession

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    strong independence movements in Spain, but not in Gennany? How have state fonna.tion and the relationship betv.re.en the center and the region...affected independence movements ? This thesis provides a historical analysis of Bavarian and Catalan regionalism and argues that autonomy mitigates...Catalonians struggle actively and adamantly for autonomy. Why are there strong independence movements in Spain, but not in Germany? How have state

  6. MC-16 Memnonia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-16 quadrangle, Memnonia region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands in the southern two-thirds are cut in the northeastern part by a large outflow channel, Mangala Vallis. The highlands are bounded to the north by undulating wind-eroded deposits and to the east by lava flows of the Tharsis region. Latitude range -30 to 0 degrees, longitude range 135 to 180 degrees.

  7. On regional geomagnetic charts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alldredge, L.R.

    1987-01-01

    When regional geomagnetic charts for areas roughly the size of the US were compiled by hand, some large local anomalies were displayed in the isomagnetic lines. Since the late 1960s, when the compilation of charts using computers and mathematical models was started, most of the details available in the hand drawn regional charts have been lost. One exception to this is the Canadian magnetic declination chart for 1980. This chart was constructed using a 180 degrees spherical harmonic model. -from Author

  8. Modeling the transition region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singer, Bart A.

    1994-04-01

    The calculation of engineering flows undergoing laminar-turbulent transition presents special problems. Mean-flow quantities obey neither the fully laminar nor the fully turbulent correlations. In addition, local maxima in skin friction, wall temperature, and heat transfer often occur near the end of the transition region. Traditionally, modeling this region has been important for the design of turbine blades, where the transition region is long in relation to the chord length of the blade. More recently, the need for better transition-region models has been recognized by designers of hypersonic vehicles where the high Mach number, the low Reynolds number, and the low-disturbance flight environment emphasize the importance of the transition region. Needless to say, a model that might work well for the transitional flows typically found in gas turbines will not necessarily work well for the external surface of a hypersonic vehicle. In Section 2 of this report, some of the important flow features that control the transition region will be discussed. In Section 3, different approaches to the modeling problem will be summarized and cataloged. Fully turbulent flow models will be discussed in detail in Section 4; models specifically designed for transitional flow, in Section 5; and the evaluation of models, in Section 6.

  9. New Agromyza Fallén (Diptera, Agromyzidae) from Brazil and a key for the Neotropical species.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Viviane R DE; Couri, Márcia S

    2016-01-01

    Agromyza Fallén (Diptera, Agromyzidae) is a genus of leaf mining flies, including species with high economic importance. The knowledge of this genus is very poor in the neotropics, with 12 known species, only six of them recorded from Brazil. This paper describes two new Agromyza species from "Cerrado" and "Pantanal" biomes and records three other species represented only by females that could not be identified to species level. We also present a taxonomic key to segregate the 14 Neotropical species. The specimens were collected in Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul states and are deposited at Museu de Zoologia, Universidade de São Paulo (São Paulo, Brazil) and Museu Nacional, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) collections. The adults were photographed and the male terminalia were dissected and illustrated.

  10. Northeast Regional Biomass Program

    SciTech Connect

    Lusk, P.D.

    1992-12-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program has been in operation for a period of nine years. During this time, state managed programs and technical programs have been conducted covering a wide range of activities primarily aim at the use and applications of wood as a fuel. These activities include: assessments of available biomass resources; surveys to determine what industries, businesses, institutions, and utility companies use wood and wood waste for fuel; and workshops, seminars, and demonstrations to provide technical assistance. In the Northeast, an estimated 6.2 million tons of wood are used in the commercial and industrial sector, where 12.5 million cords are used for residential heating annually. Of this useage, 1504.7 mw of power has been generated from biomass. The use of wood energy products has had substantial employment and income benefits in the region. Although wood and woodwaste have received primary emphasis in the regional program, the use of municipal solid waste has received increased emphasis as an energy source. The energy contribution of biomass will increase as potentia users become more familiar with existing feedstocks, technologies, and applications. The Northeast Regional Biomass Program is designed to support region-specific to overcome near-term barriers to biomass energy use.

  11. Ultrasound in regional anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Griffin, J; Nicholls, B

    2010-04-01

    Ultrasound guidance is rapidly becoming the gold standard for regional anaesthesia. There is an ever growing weight of evidence, matched with improving technology, to show that the use of ultrasound has significant benefits over conventional techniques, such as nerve stimulation and loss of resistance. The improved safety and efficacy that ultrasound brings to regional anaesthesia will help promote its use and realise the benefits that regional anaesthesia has over general anaesthesia, such as decreased morbidity and mortality, superior postoperative analgesia, cost-effectiveness, decreased postoperative complications and an improved postoperative course. In this review we consider the evidence behind the improved safety and efficacy of ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia, before discussing its use in pain medicine, paediatrics and in the facilitation of neuraxial blockade. The Achilles' heel of ultrasound-guided regional anaesthesia is that anaesthetists are far more familiar with providing general anaesthesia, which in most cases requires skills that are achieved faster and more reliably. To this ends we go on to provide practical advice on ultrasound-guided techniques and the introduction of ultrasound into a department.

  12. Regional anesthesia at home

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Gloria S.; Choy, Lynna P.; Ilfeld, Brian M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review To review the recently published peer-reviewed literature involving regional anesthesia and analgesia in patients at home. Recent findings The potential benefits and risks of regional anesthesia and analgesia at home are pertinent queries, and increased data regarding these topics are rapidly becoming available. Of particular interest is the use of continuous peripheral nerve blocks at home and their potential effect upon hospitalization duration and recovery profile. Summary Advantages of regional techniques include site-specific anesthesia and decreased postoperative opioid use. For shoulder surgeries, the interscalene block provides effective analgesia with minimal complications, whereas the impact and risks of intraarticular injections remain unclear. Perineural catheters are an analgesic option that offer improved pain relief among other benefits. They are now being used at home in both adult and pediatric populations. PMID:18660659

  13. NV PFA Regional Data

    SciTech Connect

    James Faulds

    2015-10-28

    This project focused on defining geothermal play fairways and development of a detailed geothermal potential map of a large transect across the Great Basin region (96,000 km2), with the primary objective of facilitating discovery of commercial-grade, blind geothermal fields (i.e. systems with no surface hot springs or fumaroles) and thereby accelerating geothermal development in this promising region. Data included in this submission consists of: structural settings (target areas, recency of faulting, slip and dilation potential, slip rates, quality), regional-scale strain rates, earthquake density and magnitude, gravity data, temperature at 3 km depth, permeability models, favorability models, degree of exploration and exploration opportunities, data from springs and wells, transmission lines and wilderness areas, and published maps and theses for the Nevada Play Fairway area.

  14. Climatic Concepts and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Paul F.

    Designed for students in grades 7 through 12, this teaching unit presents illustrative resource materials depicting concepts related to climate and geographic regions. Emphasis is on giving students an understanding of climatic elements and factors, not as isolated, disjointed entities, but as a dynamic interplay of forces having a very definite…

  15. Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Benchmarks: WICHE Region 2012 presents information on the West's progress in improving access to, success in, and financing of higher education. The information is updated annually to monitor change over time and encourage its use as a tool for informed discussion in policy and education communities. To establish a general context for the…

  16. Regional cancer pain syndromes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victor T; Janjan, Nora; Jain, Subash; Chau, Chi

    2006-12-01

    Cancer pain often presents in a body region. This review summarizes articles from 1999-2004 relevant to cancer pain syndromes in the head and neck, chest, back, abdomen, pelvis, and limbs. Although the evidence is limited, progress is being made in further development of the evidence base to support and guide current practice.

  17. Norway's Regional Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kintzer, Frederick C.

    1974-01-01

    Created in 1969 as a 3-college system coordinated by the Regional College section of the Ministry of Education, the current 6 institutions represent Norway's attempt to extend equal opportunity and employment-oriented education to rural and remote areas. (Editor)

  18. REGIONAL CONFERENCE SUMMARIES, 1966.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Adult, Vocational, and Technical Education (DHEW/OE), Washington, DC. Div. of Vocational and Technical Education.

    AN AVERAGE OF 200 TEACHER EDUCATORS, STATE DIRECTORS, LAYMEN, AND REPRESENTATIVES OF VARIOUS AGENCIES ATTENDED EACH OF NINE REGIONAL CONFERENCES CONDUCTED THROUGHOUT THE UNITED STATES TO DISCUSS THE INFLUENCE OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC CHANGES AND PROBLEMS IN PLANNING AND CONDUCTING VOCATIONAL AND TECHNICAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS. MAJOR SPEECHES PRESENTED…

  19. Australia's Regional Youth Exodus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabriel, M.

    2002-01-01

    Examines media coverage of youth outmigration from Tasmania in the context of Australia's regional crisis. Focuses on how young people are constructed by others and positioned in others' visions of their rural home towns. Discusses two recurring narratives: strategies to keep youth at home, and preoccupation with the "best and brightest"…

  20. TVA and regional development

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Although TVA is best known as a producer of electric power, its mission, in the words of Franklin D. Roosevelt, called for a program that touches and gives life to all forms of human concerns. This booklet provides general information about the scores of ways - beyond the electric power generation - in which the agency serves the region and nation.

  1. MC-24 Phaethontis Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-24 quadrangle, Phaethontis region of Mars. The Phaethontis quadrangle is dominated by heavily cratered highlands and low-lying areas forming relatively smooth plains. Latitude range -65 to -30 degrees, longitude range 120 to 180.

  2. MC-2 Diacria Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-2 quadrangle, Diacria region of Mars. The northern two-thirds is dominated by relatively smooth plains. The southeastern part is marked by aureole deposits of the largest known volcano in the solar system, Olympus Mons. Latitude range 30 to 65 degrees, longitude range 120 to 180.

  3. MC-14 Amenthes Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-14 quadrangle, Amenthes region of Mars. The southern part includes heavily cratered highlands. The northern part is dominated by relatively smooth plains of Elysium Planitia and the eastern half of the Isidis basin. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range -135 to -90 degrees.

  4. MC-3 Arcadia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-3 quadrangle, Arcadia region of Mars. The southern part contains the large shield volcano, Alba Patera, and the highly faulted Tempe Terra province, which includes many small volcanoes. The northern part is dominated by relatively smooth plains. Latitude range 30 to 65 degrees, longitude range 60 to 120 degrees.

  5. Regionalism. Clip and Save.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2002-01-01

    Focuses on the art movement, called Regionalism, discussing the painters involved and describing the characteristics of the art movement. Provides a set of learning activities and background information on John Steuart Curry. Includes a discussion of Curry's painting, "Tornado Over Kansas," and a reproduction of the painting. (CMK)

  6. Regional Norms for English.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kachru, Braj B.

    The debate continues about regional norms for English usage around the world, although the discussion has become more realistic and less didactic. Educated non-native varieties are increasingly accepted, distinctions are being made between national and international language uses, and localized varieties are no longer considered as necessarily…

  7. Recipe for Regional Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Fred D.

    1994-01-01

    The Ceramics Corridor has created new jobs in New York's Appalachian region by fostering ceramics research and product development by small private companies. Corridor business incubators offer tenants low overhead costs, fiber-optic connections to Alfred University's mainframe computer, rental of lab space, and use of equipment small companies…

  8. Active region seismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdan, Tom; Braun, D. C.

    1995-01-01

    Active region seismology is concerned with the determination and interpretation of the interaction of the solar acoustic oscillations with near-surface target structures, such as magnetic flux concentration, sunspots, and plage. Recent observations made with a high spatial resolution and a long temporal duration enabled measurements of the scattering matrix for sunspots and solar active regions to be carried out as a function of the mode properties. Based on this information, the amount of p-mode absorption, partial-wave phase shift, and mode mixing introduced by the sunspot, could be determined. In addition, the possibility of detecting the presence of completely submerged magnetic fields was raised, and new procedures for performing acoustic holography of the solar interior are being developed. The accumulating evidence points to the mode conversion of p-modes to various magneto-atmospheric waves within the magnetic flux concentration as being the unifying physical mechanism responsible for these diverse phenomena.

  9. Regional Seismic Wave Propagation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-31

    Baikal to the Pamirs, earthquakes occuring in the Baikal region, Sinkiang , the Gobi desert, southwest China and the Himalayas generated Lg/P ratios...data were obtained from stations within the USSR from earthquake events occuring in Baikal, Sinkiang , the Gobi desert, Southwest China and the...earthquakes originating in the Sinkiang province and recorded by seismo- graphic stations along the Pamir-Lena River profile [25] 0 - recorded by short

  10. Northwest Regional Climate Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipschultz, Fred

    2011-01-01

    Objectives are to establish a continuing, inclusive National process that: 1) synthesizes relevant science and information 2) increases understanding of what is known & not known 3) identifies information needs related to preparing for climate variability and change, and reducing climate impacts and vulnerability 4) evaluates progress of adaptation & mitigation activities 5) informs science priorities 6) builds assessment capacity in regions and sectors 7) builds understanding & skilled use of findings

  11. MC-7 Cebrenia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-7 quadrangle, Cebrenia region of Mars. The northwestern two-thirds is dominated by light-colored and dark, relatively smooth plains. The southeastern part is marked by one of three prominent Elysium shield volcanoes, Hecates Tholus, and the ridge system of Phlegra Montes. Latitude range 30 to 65 degrees, longitude range -180 to -120 degrees.

  12. MC-23 Aeolis Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-23 quadrangle, Aeolis region of Mars. The southern part is dominated by heavily cratered highlands that are cut by two large channels having features characteristic of terrestrial river beds. The highlands are separated from the northern plains of Elysium Planitia by a highly dissected, discontinuous northwest trending scarp. The northeastern part is marked by a large shield volcano, Apollinaris Patera. Latitude range - 30 to 0 degrees, longitude range -180 to -135 degrees.

  13. MC-12 Arabia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-12 quadrangle, Arabia region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands dominate the Arabia quadrangle. The northeastern part is marked by a large impact crater, Cassini. Cassini is an ancient remnant of the many large impact events that occurred during the period of heavy bombardment. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range -45 to 0 degrees.

  14. Mc-9 Tharsis Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-9 quadrangle, Tharsis region of Mars. Three of the four largest shield volcanoes on Mars--Olympus, Ascraeus, and Pavonis Montes--lie within the Tharsis quadrangle, together with several smaller shields. The north-central part is marked by highly faulted terrain of Ceraunius Fossae. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range 90 to 135 degrees.

  15. MC-26 Argyre Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-26 quadrangle, Argyre region of Mars. The west-central part is marked by the large Argyre impact basin, defined by a rim of rugged mountain blocks that surrounds a nearly circular expanse of light-colored plains 800 km across. The large basin is surrounded by heavily cratered highlands. Latitude range -65 to -30 degrees, longitude range 0 to 60 degrees.

  16. Regional Renewable Energy Cooperatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazendonk, P.; Brown, M. B.; Byrne, J. M.; Harrison, T.; Mueller, R.; Peacock, K.; Usher, J.; Yalamova, R.; Kroebel, R.; Larsen, J.; McNaughton, R.

    2014-12-01

    We are building a multidisciplinary research program linking researchers in agriculture, business, earth science, engineering, humanities and social science. Our goal is to match renewable energy supply and reformed energy demands. The program will be focused on (i) understanding and modifying energy demand, (ii) design and implementation of diverse renewable energy networks. Geomatics technology will be used to map existing energy and waste flows on a neighbourhood, municipal, and regional level. Optimal sites and combinations of sites for solar and wind electrical generation (ridges, rooftops, valley walls) will be identified. Geomatics based site and grid analyses will identify best locations for energy production based on efficient production and connectivity to regional grids and transportation. Design of networks for utilization of waste streams of heat, water, animal and human waste for energy production will be investigated. Agriculture, cities and industry produce many waste streams that are not well utilized. Therefore, establishing a renewable energy resource mapping and planning program for electrical generation, waste heat and energy recovery, biomass collection, and biochar, biodiesel and syngas production is critical to regional energy optimization. Electrical storage and demand management are two priorities that will be investigated. Regional scale cooperatives may use electric vehicle batteries and innovations such as pump storage and concentrated solar molten salt heat storage for steam turbine electrical generation. Energy demand management is poorly explored in Canada and elsewhere - our homes and businesses operate on an unrestricted demand. Simple monitoring and energy demand-ranking software can easily reduce peaks demands and move lower ranked uses to non-peak periods, thereby reducing the grid size needed to meet peak demands. Peak demand strains the current energy grid capacity and often requires demand balancing projects and

  17. Transition Region Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brekke, P.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Ultraviolet emission lines emitted from the SOLAR TRANSITION REGION are often shifted from their expected rest wavelengths. Shifts of spectral lines are due to the so-called DOPPLER EFFECT, where the source of emission is moving either away from or towards the observer, causing a change in the apparent wavelength. The shifted emission lines are most often interpreted as a flow of plasma along ...

  18. Regional technical cooperation.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, P H

    1997-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic threatens economic development in Asia because Asia offers fertile conditions for unchecked transmission and because the epidemic has the most impact on young adults who make up a large sector of the work force. Prevention is still possible, however, and should be viewed as an investment in the future. Effective prevention strategies will have regional as well as domestic components and will recognize the hierarchy of interventions and spread the burden among the public sector, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and the private sector in each country. The public sector should 1) ensure that markets function well and do not discriminate against infected individuals; 2) provide a supportive macroeconomic framework of fiscal, trade, and credit policies; and 3) provide public and quasipublic goods, such as information and training. The contribution of NGOs should are vital for reducing the suffering involved with HIV/AIDS. Private sector contributions can include care facilities, research and development, and funding. The private sector must realize that the threat to the stock of human capital posed by HIV/AIDS will reduce profits. The regional dimensions of the HIV/AIDS epidemic relate 1) to factors that contribute to transmission and 2) to approaches that can be taken to prevent transmission and curb its impact. The Greater Mekong Subregion Work Program on HIV/AIDS is a good example of a cooperative regional effort to prevent and control HIV/AIDS. The epidemic requires cooperation among sectors and among countries.

  19. Regional Shelter Analysis Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Dillon, Michael B.; Dennison, Deborah; Kane, Jave; Walker, Hoyt; Miller, Paul

    2015-08-01

    The fallout from a nuclear explosion has the potential to injure or kill 100,000 or more people through exposure to external gamma (fallout) radiation. Existing buildings can reduce radiation exposure by placing material between fallout particles and exposed people. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory was tasked with developing an operationally feasible methodology that could improve fallout casualty estimates. The methodology, called a Regional Shelter Analysis, combines the fallout protection that existing buildings provide civilian populations with the distribution of people in various locations. The Regional Shelter Analysis method allows the consideration of (a) multiple building types and locations within buildings, (b) country specific estimates, (c) population posture (e.g., unwarned vs. minimally warned), and (d) the time of day (e.g., night vs. day). The protection estimates can be combined with fallout predictions (or measurements) to (a) provide a more accurate assessment of exposure and injury and (b) evaluate the effectiveness of various casualty mitigation strategies. This report describes the Regional Shelter Analysis methodology, highlights key operational aspects (including demonstrating that the methodology is compatible with current tools), illustrates how to implement the methodology, and provides suggestions for future work.

  20. Region counting algorithm based on region labeling automaton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sudi; Gu, Guoqing

    2007-12-01

    Region counting is a conception in computer graphics and image analysis, and it has many applications in medical area recently. The existing region-counting algorithms are almost based on filling method. Although filling algorithm has been improved well, the speed of these algorithms used to count regions is not satisfied. A region counting algorithm based on region labeling automaton is proposed in this paper. By tracing the boundaries of the regions, the number of the region can be obtained fast. And the proposed method was found to be fastest and requiring less memory.

  1. Southeast Regional Experiment Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1994-08-01

    This is the final report of the Southeast Regional Experiment Station project. The Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC), a research institute of the University of Central Florida (UCF), has operated the Southeast Regional Experiment Station (SE RES) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) since September 1982. Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque (SNLA) provides technical program direction for both the SE RES and the Southwest Regional Experiment Station (SW RES) located at the Southwest Technology Development Institute at Las Cruces, New Mexico. This cooperative effort serves a critical role in the national photovoltaic program by conducting system evaluations, design assistance and technology transfer to enhance the cost-effective utilization and development of photovoltaic technology. Initially, the research focus of the SE RES program centered on utility-connected PV systems and associated issues. In 1987, the SE RES began evaluating amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film PV modules for application in utility-interactive systems. Stand-alone PV systems began receiving increased emphasis at the SE RES in 1986. Research projects were initiated that involved evaluation of vaccine refrigeration, water pumping and other stand-alone power systems. The results of this work have led to design optimization techniques and procedures for the sizing and modeling of PV water pumping systems. Later recent research at the SE RES included test and evaluation of batteries and charge controllers for stand-alone PV system applications. The SE RES project provided the foundation on which FSEC achieved national recognition for its expertise in PV systems research and related technology transfer programs. These synergistic products of the SE RES illustrate the high visibility and contributions the FSEC PV program offers to the DOE.

  2. [Ultrasound and regional anaesthesia].

    PubMed

    Delaunay, L; Plantet, F; Jochum, D

    2009-02-01

    The use of ultrasound is the latest major evolution in regional anaesthesia. Review of available literature shows significant changes in clinical practice. Ultrasound guidance allows the visualization of anatomical variations or unsuspected intraneural injections, reduces the volume of local anaesthetic injections and confirms correct local anaesthetic distribution or catheter placement. No study has found a statistical difference in success rates and safety because all studies were underpowered. However, the ability to visualize an invasive procedure that has been performed blindly in the past is an undeniable progress in terms of safety. The necessity to be familiar with the machine and the learning curve can be repulsive. The aim of this article is to demystify ultrasound guidance by explaining the fundamentals of the clinical use of ultrasound. With the help of different chapters, the authors explain the different adjustments and possible artefacts and give easy solutions for the use of bedside ultrasound. Training is essential and can be performed on manikins or training phantom. For each region the main anatomical landmarks are explained. One must be familiar with several imaging techniques: short axis (transverse) or long axis (longitudinal) nerve imaging, in-plane or out-of-plane imaging and hydrolocalization. Viewing the needle's tip position during its progression remains the main safety endpoint. Therefore, electrical nerve stimulation and ultrasound guidance should be combined, especially for beginners, to confirm proximity to neural structures and to help in case of difficulty. Optimizing safety and clinical results must remain a key priority in regional anaesthesia. Finally, specific regulations concerning the transducers are described. Paediatric specificities are also mentioned.

  3. Regional river sulfur runoff

    SciTech Connect

    Husar, R.B.; Husar, J.D.

    1985-01-20

    The water and sulfur runoff data for 54 large river basins were assembled, covering 65% of the nondesert land area of the world. The sulfur concentration ranges from 0.5 mg S/L for the West African rivers Niger and Volta to 100 mg S/L in the Colorado River; the world average is 3.2 mg S/L. The concentrations in central and eastern Europe as well as central and eastern North America exceed 8 mg S/L. The sulfur runoff density is also highest in the river basins over these industrialized regions, exceeding 2 g S/m/sup 2//yr. However, high sulfur runoff density in excess of 3 g S/m/sup 2//yr is also measured over the Pacific islands New Zealand and New Guinea and the archipelagos of Indonesia and the Philippines. The natural background sulfur runoff was estimated by assuming that South America, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands are unperturbed by man and that the average river sulfur concentration is in the range 1--3 mg S/L. Taking these background concentration values, the man-induced sulfur runoff for Europe ranges between 2 and 8 times the natural flow, and over North America, man's contribution ranges between 1 and 5 times the natural runoff. The global sulfur flow from nondesert land to the oceans and the Caspian Sea is estimated as 131 Tg S/yr, of which 46--85 Tg S/yr is attributed to natural causes. The regional river sulfur runoff pattern discussed in this paper does not have enough spatial resolution to be directly applicable to studies of the environmental effects of man-induced sulfur flows. However, it points to the continental-size regions where those perturbations are most evident and to the magnitude of the perturbations as expressed in units of the natural flows.

  4. Regional river sulfur runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husar, Rudolf B.; Husar, Janja Djukic

    1985-01-01

    The water and sulfur runoff data for 54 large river basins were assembled, covering 65% of the nondesert land area of the world. The sulfur concentration ranges from 0.5 mg S/L for the West African rivers Niger and Volta to 100 mg S/L in the Colorado River; the world average is 3.2 mg S/L. The concentrations in central and eastern Europe as well as central and eastern North America exceed 8 mg S/L. The sulfur runoff density is also highest in the river basins over these industrialized regions, exceeding 2 g S/m2/yr. However, high sulfur runoff density in excess of 3 g S/m2/yr is also measured over the Pacific islands New Zealand and New Guinea and the archipelagos of Indonesia and the Philippines. The natural background sulfur runoff was estimated by assuming that South America, Africa, Australia, and the Pacific Islands are unperturbed by man and that the average river sulfur concentration is in the range 1-3 mg S/L. Taking these background concentration values, the man-induced sulfur runoff for Europe ranges between 2 and 8 times the natural flow, and over North America, man's contribution ranges between 1 and 5 times the natural runoff. The global sulfur flow from nondesert land to the oceans and the Caspian Sea is estimated as 131 Tg S/yr, of which 46-85 Tg S/yr is attributed to natural causes. The regional river sulfur runoff pattern discussed in this paper does not have enough spatial resolution to be directly applicable to studies of the environmental effects of man-induced sulfur flows. However, it points to the continental-size regions where those perturbations are most evident and to the magnitude of the perturbations as expressed in units of the natural flows.

  5. Complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sebastin, Sandeep J

    2011-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) previously known as reflex sympathetic dystrophy is a chronic neurological disorder involving the limbs characterized by disabling pain, swelling, vasomotor instability, sudomotor abnormality, and impairment of motor function. CRPS is not uncommon after hand surgery and may complicate post-operative care. There is no specific diagnostic test for CRPS and the diagnosis is based on history, clinical examination, and supportive laboratory findings. Recent modifications to diagnostic criteria have enabled clinicians to diagnose this disease more consistently. This review gives a synopsis of CRPS and discusses the diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options based on the limited evidence in the literature. PMID:22022040

  6. MC-27 Noachis Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-27 quadrangle, Noachis region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands dominate the Noachis quadrangle. The northeastern part is marked by the western half of the ancient large Hellas basin, defined by a rim of rugged mountain blocks that surrounds a nearly circular expanse of light-colored plains. The southeastern part is marked by the Peneus caldera and part of the Amphitrites shield volcano and associated ridged plains that may be basaltic flows. Latitude range -65 to -30 degrees, longitude range -60 to 0 degrees.

  7. MC-8 Amazonis Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-8 quadrangle, Amazonis region of Mars. The central part, which is dominated by light-colored, relatively smooth to hummocky plains of Amazonis Planitia, is partly bounded to the east by the western flank of the largest known volcano in the solar system, Olympus Mons, and its associated aureole deposits. Moderately cratered knobby terrain is west of the plains of Amazonis Planitia. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range 135 to 180 degrees.

  8. MC-15 Elysium Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-15 quadrangle, Elysium region of Mars. The Elysium quadrangle includes relatively smooth lowland plains immediately north of the more cratered highlands. The plains are interrupted on the northwest by two large shield volcanoes, Elysium Mons and Albor Tholus. The plains are also marked by an elongate crater, Orcus Patera, at the east boundary and a band of knobby terrain that extends northeastward through the eastern part. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range -180 to -135 degrees.

  9. MC-18 Coprates Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-18 quadrangle, Coprates region of Mars. Moderately cratered and faulted highland ridged plains in the northern and southern parts are cut by the prominent Valles Marineris chasma system, which reaches depths of 10 km and extends in an east-southeast direction for about 2,500 km across the quadrangle. The long, central canyons appear to be large, fault-bounded rifts, whereas some of the isolated, northern canyons are the sources of large outflow channels. Latitude range -30 to 0 degrees, longitude range 45 to 90 degrees.

  10. MC-21 Iapygia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-21 quadrangle, Iapygia region of Mars. Heavily cratered and in places dissected highlands dominate the Iapygia quadrangle. The west-central part is marked by a large impact crater, Huygens. Huygens is an ancient remnant of the many large impact events that occurred during the period of heavy bombardment. The southern one-third is characterized by mountainous and knobby terrain of the northern rim of the enormous Hellas impact basin. Latitude range -30 to 0 degrees, longitude range -90 to -45 degrees.

  11. MC-29 Eridania Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-29 quadrangle, Eridania region of Mars. The quadrangle is dominated by heavily cratered highlands, with some moderately cratered plains in the central part and large ridge systems in the southern part. The west-central part is marked by a large impact crater, Kepler. Kepler is an ancient remnant of the many large impact events that occurred during the period of heavy bombardment. Latitude range -65 to 30 degrees, longitude range -180 to -120 degrees.

  12. Regional flood probabilities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troutman, B.M.; Karlinger, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    The T-year annual maximum flood at a site is defined to be that streamflow, that has probability 1/T of being exceeded in any given year, and for a group of sites the corresponding regional flood probability (RFP) is the probability that at least one site will experience a T-year flood in any given year. The RFP depends on the number of sites of interest and on the spatial correlation of flows among the sites. We present a Monte Carlo method for obtaining the RFP and demonstrate that spatial correlation estimates used in this method may be obtained with rank transformed data and therefore that knowledge of the at-site peak flow distribution is not necessary. We examine the extent to which the estimates depend on specification of a parametric form for the spatial correlation function, which is known to be nonstationary for peak flows. It is shown in a simulation study that use of a stationary correlation function to compute RFPs yields satisfactory estimates for certain nonstationary processes. Application of asymptotic extreme value theory is examined, and a methodology for separating channel network and rainfall effects on RFPs is suggested. A case study is presented using peak flow data from the state of Washington. For 193 sites in the Puget Sound region it is estimated that a 100-year flood will occur on the average every 4,5 years.

  13. Colorado Regional Faults

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hussein, Khalid

    2012-02-01

    Citation Information: Originator: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Originator: Colorado Geological Survey (CGS) Publication Date: 2012 Title: Regional Faults Edition: First Publication Information: Publication Place: Earth Science & Observation Center, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Science, University of Colorado, Boulder Publisher: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Description: This layer contains the regional faults of Colorado Spatial Domain: Extent: Top: 4543192.100000 m Left: 144385.020000 m Right: 754585.020000 m Bottom: 4094592.100000 m Contact Information: Contact Organization: Earth Science &Observation Center (ESOC), CIRES, University of Colorado at Boulder Contact Person: Khalid Hussein Address: CIRES, Ekeley Building Earth Science & Observation Center (ESOC) 216 UCB City: Boulder State: CO Postal Code: 80309-0216 Country: USA Contact Telephone: 303-492-6782 Spatial Reference Information: Coordinate System: Universal Transverse Mercator (UTM) WGS’1984 Zone 13N False Easting: 500000.00000000 False Northing: 0.00000000 Central Meridian: -105.00000000 Scale Factor: 0.99960000 Latitude of Origin: 0.00000000 Linear Unit: Meter Datum: World Geodetic System 1984 (WGS ’984) Prime Meridian: Greenwich Angular Unit: Degree Digital Form: Format Name: Shape file

  14. Mountain regions in peril

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    The United Nations has declared 2002 the International Year of Mountains (IYM) to bring attention to a number of threats that affect ecosystems and human populations in mountainous and highland regions around the world.“More than half of humanity—3 billion people—relies on mountains for safe, fresh water, water to grow food, to produce electricity to sustain industries and, most important, water to drink,“ said Jacques Diouf, director-general of the U.N. Food and Agriculture Organization, the primary IYM sponsor. “Yet, mountain glaciers, the source of water for many of the world's river systems and people, are melting at unprecedented rates.”

  15. Complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Carr, Emily S.; De La Cerda, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a neurologic disorder that often results in debilitating chronic pain, but the diagnosis may elude providers as it is one of exclusion. A history of trauma may be elucidated. We report a case of CRPS and review the clinical findings, appropriate workup, and treatment options for the patient. The patient we describe went through an extensive workup before receiving the correct diagnosis. Delay in diagnosis leads to prolonged suffering for the patient and, at times, unnecessary invasive debridement procedures. Raising awareness of this entity may help physicians make the correct diagnosis early, as well as initiate a collaborative effort between neurology, anesthesiology, and dermatology to provide the patient the most favorable outcome. PMID:27365892

  16. MC-28 Hellas Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-28 quadrangle, Hellas region of Mars. The northwestern part includes the eastern half of the ancient large Hellas basin, defined by a rim of rugged mountain blocks that surrounds a nearly circular expanse of light-colored plains. The southwestern part is marked by part of the Amphitrites shield volcano and associated ridged plains that may be basaltic lava flows. The northern part includes a low, dissected shield volcano, Hadriaca Patera, and associated plains that may be basaltic lava flows. These plains are dissected in places by large sinuous channels. The eastern part is dominated by high-standing heavily cratered highlands, perhaps uplifted by the Hellas impact event. Latitude range -65 to -30 degrees, longitude range -120 to -60 degrees.

  17. MC-25 Thaumasia Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-25 quadrangle, Thaumasia region of Mars. In the northern part, a prominent physiographic feature, Thaumasia plateau, includes a complex array of small- and large-scale faults and ridges and ancient volcanoes. Channel systems, upturned beds, and large troughs occur in places along the southern edge of the plateau. In the southern part, the lowlands that surround the plateau include heavily cratered highland terrain and relatively smooth, low plains. The east-central part is marked by a relatively young large impact crater, Lowell. Lowell is one of several large, relatively young impact events on Mars that followed the period of heavy bombardment. Latitude range -65 to -30 degrees, longitude range 60 to 120 degrees.

  18. MC-17 Phoenicis Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-17 quadrangle, Phoenicis Lacus region of Mars. Two of the four largest shield volcanoes on Mars are within the northwestern part, the south half of Pavonis Mons and Arsia Mons. The eastern part includes Syria and Sinai Plana. Most of the quadrangle forms the Tharsis plateau--the highest plateau on Mars; its elevation, 10 km, is twice that of the Tibetan Plateau, the highest plateau on Earth. Also in the northeastern part is Noctis Labyrinthus, a complex system of fault valleys at the west end of Valles Marineris. The south-central part is marked by the large fault system, Claritas Fossae. Latitude range -30 to 0 degrees, longitude range 90 to 135 degrees.

  19. Strengthening regional safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Palhares, L.; Almeida, G.; Mafra, O.

    1996-08-01

    Nuclear cooperation between Argentina and Brazil has been growing since the early 1980`s and as it grew, so did cooperation with the US Department of Energy (DOE). The Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (ABACC) was formed in December 1991 to operate the Common System of Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials (SCCC). In April 1994, ABACC and the DOE signed an Agreement of Cooperation in nuclear material safeguards. This cooperation has included training safeguards inspectors, exchanging nuclear material measurement and containment and surveillance technology, characterizing reference materials, and studying enrichment plant safeguards. The goal of the collaboration is to exchange technology, evaluate new technology in Latin American nuclear facilities, and strengthen regional safeguards. This paper describes the history of the cooperation, its recent activities, and future projects. The cooperation is strongly supported by all three governments: the Republics of Argentina and Brazil and the United States.

  20. Reull Vallis Source Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] (Released 1 July 2002) The jumbled, chaotic terrain in this THEMIS image may represent a source region for the Reull Vallis, one of the larger channel systems in the southern hemisphere of Mars. Such regions of chaos are thought to form by the catastrophic release of groundwater. If this was the case, then the water would have flowed down gradient to the south and may have contributed to the formation of the Reull Vallis. The top of the image shows two short segments of channels that are interrupted by the chaos, demonstrating that there was a channel system in place before the ground foundered to produce the chaos. One of the more intriguing features seen among the jumbled blocks are narrow ledges that vaguely resemble bath tub rings in the way they conform to the topography. Two good examples are seen running roughly left-right across the image about a fourth of the way down. At first they appear to be layers protruding from the cliff faces, but upon closer inspection a more ledge-like character is evident. Note how they appear different between the south-facing and north facing cliffs. The occurrence of one of these features on the south-facing interior rim of the largest crater in the image but nowhere else around the rim argues against the idea that the ledges are due to a layer of rock cropping out throughout the landscape. Instead, they appear more like the edges of a layer of sediment that drapes the topography. It is possible that the sediment is mixed with ice and is best preserved in the shadowed portions of the terrain. There is no easy explanation for these unusual features. They represent one more Martian enigma.

  1. Regional brain hypometabolism is unrelated to regional amyloid plaque burden

    PubMed Central

    Altmann, Andre; Ng, Bernard; Landau, Susan M.; Jagust, William J.

    2015-01-01

    See Sorg and Grothe (doi:10.1093/brain/awv302) for a scientific commentary on this article. In its original form, the amyloid cascade hypothesis of Alzheimer’s disease holds that fibrillar deposits of amyloid are an early, driving force in pathological events leading ultimately to neuronal death. Early clinicopathological investigations highlighted a number of inconsistencies leading to an updated hypothesis in which amyloid plaques give way to amyloid oligomers as the driving force in pathogenesis. Rather than focusing on the inconsistencies, amyloid imaging studies have tended to highlight the overlap between regions that show early amyloid plaque signal on positron emission tomography and that also happen to be affected early in Alzheimer’s disease. Recent imaging studies investigating the regional dependency between metabolism and amyloid plaque deposition have arrived at conflicting results, with some showing regional associations and other not. We extracted multimodal neuroimaging data from the Alzheimer’s disease neuroimaging database for 227 healthy controls and 434 subjects with mild cognitive impairment. We analysed regional patterns of amyloid deposition, regional glucose metabolism and regional atrophy using florbetapir (18F) positron emission tomography, 18F-fluordeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, respectively. Specifically, we derived grey matter density and standardized uptake value ratios for both positron emission tomography tracers in 404 functionally defined regions of interest. We examined the relation between regional glucose metabolism and amyloid plaques using linear models. For each region of interest, correcting for regional grey matter density, age, education and disease status, we tested the association of regional glucose metabolism with (i) cortex-wide florbetapir uptake; (ii) regional (i.e. in the same region of interest) florbetapir uptake; and (iii) regional florbetapir uptake

  2. Landslides of Palestinian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwahsh, H.

    2013-12-01

    Natural disasters are extreme sudden events caused by environmental and natural actors that take away the lives of many thousands of people each year and damage large amount of properties. They strike anywhere on earth, often without any warning. A risk maps of natural disaster are very useful to identify the places that might be adversely affected in the event of natural disaster. The earthquakes are one of natural disaster that have the greatest hazards and will cause loss of life and properties due to damaging the structures of building, dams, bridges. In addition, it will affect local geology and soil conditions. The site effects play an important role in earthquake risk because of its amplification or damping simulation. Another parameter in developing risk map is landslide, which is also one of the most important topics in site effect hazards. Palestine region has been suffering landslide hazards because of the topographical and geological conditions of this region. Most Palestine consists of mountainous area, which has great steep slopes and the type of soil is mainly grayish to yellowish silty clay (Marl Soil). Due to the above mentioned factors many landslides have been occurred from Negev south to the northern borders of Palestine. An example of huge and destruction landslide in a Palestine authority is the landslide in the White Mountain area in the city of Nablus, which occurred in 1997. The geotechnical and geophysical investigation as well as slope stability analysis should be considered in making landslide maps that are necessary to develop risk levels of the natural disaster. Landslides occurred in slopes that are created naturally or by human beings. Failure of soil mass occurs, and hence landslide of soil mass happen due to sliding of soil mass along a plane or curved surface. In general, the slopes become unstable when the shear stresses (driving force) generated in the soil mass exceed the available shearing resistance on the rupture surface

  3. USArray Regional Phase Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehler, J. S.; Shearer, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The regional Pn and Sn phases, which are typically described as headwaves that propagate in the uppermost mantle, are sensitive to heterogeneities in the mantle lid and complement other seismic studies with poorer vertical resolution at this depth. We have experimented with a variety of approaches to image the velocity structure and anisotropy in the western U.S., starting with separate Pn and Sn time-term tomographies, but also localized cross-correlation and stacking approaches that benefit from the regular USArray station arrangement. Later we combined the data sets for joint Pn-Sn inversions and the resulting Vp/Vs maps provide further insight into the nature of the seismic anomalies. Now that USArray has reached the east coast, we are updating our models to include the cumulative station footprint. The sparser source distribution in the eastern U.S., and the resulting longer ray paths, provide new challenges and justify the inclusion of additional parameters that account for the velocity gradient in the mantle lid. Our results show generally higher Pn velocities in the eastern U.S., but we observe patches of lower velocities around the New Madrid seismic zone and below the eastern Appalachians. We find that the Pn fast axes generally do not agree with SKS splitting orientations, suggesting significant vertical changes in anisotropy in the upper mantle. For example, the circular pattern of the fast polarization direction of SKS in the western U.S. is much less pronounced in the Pn results, and in the eastern U.S. the dominant Pn fast direction is approximately north-south, whereas the SKS fast polarizations are oriented roughly parallel to the absolute plate motion direction. Since Pn and Sn travel through the crust, they can provide additional information on crustal thickness. In several regions our results and estimates from receiver function studies are inconsistent. For example, beneath the Colorado Plateau our crustal thickness estimates are about 35-40 km

  4. A Regional Resource: Appalachian Campuses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roesch, Harry

    1975-01-01

    An Appalachian Regional Commission survey of 180 institutions of higher education in the Appalachian Region pinpoints which institutions offer technical assistance to state and local governments and officals. (Author)

  5. On Titan's Xanadu region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Robert H.; Barnes, Jason W.; Melosh, H. Jay

    2011-08-01

    A large, circular marking ˜1800 km across is seen in near-infrared images of Titan. The feature is centered at 10°S, 120°W on Titan, encompasses much of Titan's western Xanadu region, and has an off-center, quasi-circular, inner margin about 700 km across, with lobate outer margins extending 200-500 km from the inner margin. On the feature's southern flank is Tui Regio, an area that has very high reflectivity at 5 μm, and is hypothesized to exhibit geologically recent cryovolcanic flows (Barnes, J.W. et al. [2006]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33), similar to flows seen in Hotei Regio, a cryovolcanic area whose morphology may be controlled by pre-existing, crustal fractures resulting from an ancient impact (Soderblom, L.A. et al. [2009]. Icarus, 204). The spectral reflectivity of the large, circular feature is quite different than that of its surroundings, making it compositionally distinct, and radar measurements of its topography, brightness temperature and volume scattering also suggest that the feature is quite distinct from its surroundings. These and several other lines of evidence, in addition to the feature's morphology, suggest that it may occupy the site of an ancient impact.

  6. Sudurnes Regional Heating Corp.

    SciTech Connect

    Lienau, P.J.

    1996-11-01

    The Svartsengi geothermal area is close to the town of Grindavik on the Rekjanes peninsula and is part of an active fissure swarm, lined with crater-rows and open fissures and faults. The high-temperature area has an area of 2 sq. km and shows only limited signs of geothermal activity at the surface. The reservoir, however, contains lots of energy and at least 8 wells supply the Svartsengi Power Plant with steam. The steam is not useable for domestic heating purposes so that heat exchangers are used to heat cold groundwater with the steam. Some steam is also used for producing 16.4 MW{sub e} of electrical power. The article shows the distribution system piping hot water to nine towns and the Keflavik International Airport. The effluent brine from the Svartsengi Plant is disposed of into a surface pond, called the Blue Lagoon, popular to tourists and people suffering from psoriasis and other forms of eczema seeking therapeutic effects from the silica rich brine. This combined power plant and regional district heating system (cogeneration) is an interesting and unique design for the application of geothermal energy.

  7. Europa Wedge Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This image shows an area of crustal separation on Jupiter's moon, Europa. Lower resolution pictures taken earlier in the tour of NASA's Galileo spacecraft revealed that dark wedge-shaped bands in this region are areas where the icy crust has completely pulled apart. Dark material has filled up from below and filled the void created by this separation.

    In the lower left corner of this image, taken by Galileo's onboard camera on December 16, 1997, a portion of one dark wedge area is visible, revealing a linear texture along the trend of the wedge. The lines of the texture change orientation slightly and reflect the fact that we are looking at a bend in the wedge. The older, bright background, visible on the right half of the image, is criss-crossed with ridges. A large, bright ridge runs east-west through the upper part of the image, cutting across both the older background plains and the wedge. This ridge is rough in texture, with numerous small terraces and troughs containing dark material.

    North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the northwest. This image, centered at approximately 16.5 degrees south latitude and 196.5 degrees west longitude, covers an area approximately 10 kilometers square (about 6.5 miles square). The resolution of this image is about 26 meters per picture element. This image was taken by the solid state imaging system from a distance of 1250 kilometers (750 miles).

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the Galileo mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is an operating division of California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo mission home page at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/ galileo.

  8. Regions. [Africa, Middle East].

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    This discussion of population focuses on the regions of Africa and the Middle East. In South Africa more white women are working but fewer black women work. The overall result is that the percentage of women who work is declining. Marita de Beer, research liaison executive at the South African Advertising Research Foundation, reports that the female population grew by 31% in the past 10 years while the number of working women has grown by only 11%. Among blacks the female population rose by 36%, but the number of workers among them declined by about 1%. Married women are among the fastest growing groups of working women in South Africa. The most recent estimate of the population of Nigeria is 92 million. According to Professor Vremudia Diejomaoh, Nigeria's population will probably reach 155 million by 2000 with 33% living in urban areas. In Saudi Arabia the Pan Arab Research Center recently completed a census of retail outlets in 3 metropolitan areas: Jeddah, Riyadh, and Dammam. The types of outlets surveyed include large supermarkets, small supermarkets, groceries with and without deep freeze, tobacco shops, meat shop/delis, small cafeterias, large restaurants/hotels, cosmetics shops or perfumeries, camera stores, toy shops, pharmacies, watch and gift shop, newsstands, department store, and appliance outlets. Using the Census of Retail Outlets as a base, Pan Arab Research Center also has a new distribution audit system that will cover 500 outlets. By plotting Arab countries according to their population policies and their current growth rates, it is possible to project where the middle class will grow fastest in the Arab world. The countries that have declining growth rates and strong population programs designed to encourage lower fertility rates among women are Egypt, Tunisia, Morocco, Algeria, and Lebanon. The countries most likely to have a better per capita distribution of resources within this decade are those where governments encourage reductions in

  9. Regional governance: strategies and disputes in health region management

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Adriano Maia; Giovanella, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the regional governance of the health systemin relation to management strategies and disputes. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES A qualitative study with health managers from 19 municipalities in the health region of Bahia, Northeastern Brazil. Data were drawn from 17 semi-structured interviews of state, regional, and municipal health policymakers and managers; a focus group; observations of the regional interagency committee; and documents in 2012. The political-institutional and the organizational components were analyzed in the light of dialectical hermeneutics. RESULTS The regional interagency committee is the chief regional governance strategy/component and functions as a strategic tool for strengthening governance. It brings together a diversity of members responsible for decision making in the healthcare territories, who need to negotiate the allocation of funding and the distribution of facilities for common use in the region. The high turnover of health secretaries, their lack of autonomy from the local executive decisions, inadequate technical training to exercise their function, and the influence of party politics on decision making stand as obstacles to the regional interagency committee’s permeability to social demands. Funding is insufficient to enable the fulfillment of the officially integrated agreed-upon program or to boost public supply by the system, requiring that public managers procure services from the private market at values higher than the national health service price schedule (Brazilian Unified Health System Table). The study determined that “facilitators” under contract to health departments accelerated access to specialized (diagnostic, therapeutic and/or surgical) services in other municipalities by direct payment to physicians for procedure costs already covered by the Brazilian Unified Health System. CONCLUSIONS The characteristics identified a regionalized system with a conflictive pattern of governance and

  10. An interactive region merging method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Rongteng

    2011-11-01

    The paper presents a novel region merging method based on the interactive information from users. An image firstly is partitioned into homogeneous regions by using an initial segmentation and the regions will be label by taking an interactive scheme. In this scheme, the users only roughly specify the position and main features of the object and background, then any region will belong to non-label region or label region i.e. object or background. A similarity rule is used to guide the merging process with the help of the users' markers. And then the object of interest is extracted from the image. Experiment results show that the proposed method is efficient for us to extract the object of interest from the complex background.

  11. Regional Climate Tutorial: Assessing Regional Climate Change and Its Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, E.; Fisher, A.

    2002-05-01

    Recent scientific progress now enables credible projections of global changes in climate over long time periods. But people will experience global climate change where they live and work, and have difficulty thinking of a future beyond their grandchildren's lifetime. Although the task of projecting climate change and its impacts is far more challenging for regional and relatively near-term time scales, these are the scales at which actions most easily can be taken to moderate negative impacts. This tutorial will summarize what is known about projecting changes in regional climate, and about assessing the impacts for sectors such as forests, agriculture, fresh water quantity and quality, coastal zones, human health, and ecosystems. The Mid-Atlantic Regional Assessment (MARA) is used to provide context and illustrate how adaptation within the region and feedback from other regions influence the impacts that might be experienced.

  12. Global and regional air quality responses to regional CO reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, M. M.; Adelman, Z.; Dolwick, P.; Jang, C.; West, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Ozone (O3) precursor emissions influence global and regional air quality and climate through changes in the tropospheric concentrations of O3, methane (CH4), and aerosols. Here we examine the influence of regional carbon monoxide (CO) emissions on air quality by simulating 50% reductions in anthropogenic CO emissions from 10 world regions (Australia/New Zealand, Southeast Asia, East Asia, India, Southern Africa, Northern Africa/Middle East, Former Soviet Union, Europe, South America, and North America), using the global chemical transport model MOZART-4. The IPCC AR5 Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP 8.5) emissions inventory for 2005 and global meteorology from the Goddard Earth Observing System Model, version 5 (GEOS-5) for 2004-2005 are used as inputs to MOZART-4, run at 1.9 x 2.5 degree horizontal resolution. Base case global air quality is first simulated for the year 2005, and the resulting distributions of tropospheric O3 and related species are compared with observations. Then CO emission reductions from each of the 10 regions are simulated individually. We quantify global and regional changes in O3 and PM2.5 at the surface and within the troposphere, including the influence of each regional reduction on long-term O3 concentrations via CH4 and the long-range transport of O3 and CO. This analysis shows the sensitivity of global and regional air quality to anthropogenic CO emissions from many world regions, in contrast to previous studies of only a few regions. Beyond this study, these simulations will be used to estimate the net radiative forcing due to CO emission reductions from these world regions.

  13. Hawaii Regional Sediment Management: Regional Sediment Budget for the Poipu Region of Kauai, HI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    represent regular maintenance activities such as dredging, bypassing, or nourishment . The region addressed in this study has experienced one or more of these...Hawaii Coastal Geology Group US United States USACE US Army Corps of Engineers USGS US Geological Survey WIS Wave Information Study ERDC/CHL...This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) reviews the development of a regional sediment budget for the Poipu Region on the

  14. What's Happening to Regional Policy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ravenhall, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Back in November, voters in the North East of England overwhelmingly rejected the move towards an elected regional assembly. The scale of the defeat (three to one) of a Government-backed scheme was a rude awakening for the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister and the range of regional agencies created since 1997. After all, it was felt that the…

  15. About the REL Pacific Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific, 2014

    2014-01-01

    REL Pacific is one of ten Regional Educational Laboratories established and funded by the U.S. Department of Education's Institute of Education Sciences. Their region encompasses approximately 4.9 million square miles and serves seven Pacific island entities, including American Samoa; the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands; the Federated…

  16. CLIMATE IMPACTS ON REGIONAL WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The New England region (including the 6 New England
    states plus upstate New York) offers a very diverse geography,
    matched by an equally diverse economy and human
    population. Livelihoods throughout the region are based
    on service industries that depend heavily on comm...

  17. Regional Early Childhood Policy Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Judith

    2008-01-01

    The UNESCO-UNICEF joint regional policy review project was launched in September 2006 with the aim to support the countries of Asia-Pacific region in meeting the first goal of Education For All (EFA) on Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) by identifying, documenting and sharing good practices as well as constraints and challenges in early…

  18. MISR Regional SAMUM Imagery Overview

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... View Data  |  Download Data About this Web Site: Visualizations of select MISR Level 3 data for special regional ... in the northern hemisphere (see the table at right). By design, the images show data for a fixed geographical region, with a fixed ...

  19. MISR Regional VBBE Imagery Overview

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-08-24

    ... View Data  |  Download Data About this Web Site: Visualizations of select MISR Level 3 data for special regional ... in the northern hemisphere (see the table at right). By design, the images show data for a fixed geographical region, with a fixed ...

  20. Global forcing and regional interactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1992-01-01

    The Climate System Modeling Program (CSMP) sponsored a “Global Forcing and Regional Interaction Workshop” from October 21 to 23, 1991, at Colorado State University's Pingree Park campus, to evaluate the relationship between global climate forcing and the response of the land surface on a regional scale. The general aim of the workshop was to develop specific action plans and preliminary science research strategies for regional-global interactions. Each participant was invited to identify tractable, high pay-off science issues related to global forcing and regional interactions. The workshop, with twenty-six participants about evenly split between atmospheric scientists, hydrologists, and ecologists, was also designed to facilitate a network of collaborators to prepare multidisciplinary research proposals. Discussion also focused on regional climate over the last 200 years and included the influence of atmosphere-land surface processes on natural climate variability. Several major recommendations were made on topics discussed.

  1. About Region 8’s Central Regional Laboratory

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Region 8 laboratory plays a critical role in protecting people's health and the environment through the analysis of air, water, soil, and biota samples (plant, fish, and occasionally, mammalian tissue).

  2. Regional strategies for global leadership.

    PubMed

    Ghemawat, Pankaj

    2005-12-01

    The leaders of such global powerhouses as GE, Wal-Mart, and Toyota seem to have grasped two crucial truths: First, far from becoming submerged by the rising tide of globalization, geographic and other regional distinctions may in fact be increasing in importance. Second, regionally focused strategies, used in conjunction with local and global initiatives, can significantly boost a company's performance. The business and economic data reveal a highly regionalized world. For example, trade within regions, rather than across them, drove the surge of international commerce in the second half of the twentieth century. Regionalization is also apparent in foreign direct investment, companies' international sales, and competition among the world's largest multinationals. Harvard Business School Professor Pankaj Ghemawat says that the most successful companies employ five types of regional strategies in addition to--or even instead of--global ones: home base, portfolio, hub, platform, and mandate. Some companies adopt the strategies in sequence, but the most nimble switch from one to another and combine approaches as their markets and businesses evolve. At Toyota, for example, exports from the home base continue to be substantial even as the company builds up an international manufacturing presence. And as Toyota achieves economies of scale and scope with a strong network of hubs, the company also pursues economies of specialization through interregional mandates. Embracing regional strategies requires flexibility and creativity. A company must decide what constitutes a region, choose the most appropriate strategies, and mesh those strategies with the organization's existing structures. In a world that is neither truly global nor truly local, finding ways of coordinating within and across regions can deliver a powerful competitive advantage.

  3. Finding Distant Galactic HII Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, L. D.; Armentrout, W. P.; Johnstone, B. M.; Bania, T. M.; Balser, Dana S.; Wenger, Trey V.; Cunningham, V.

    2015-12-01

    The WISE Catalog of Galactic H ii Regions contains ˜2000 H ii region candidates lacking ionized gas spectroscopic observations. All candidates have the characteristic H ii region mid-infrared morphology of WISE 12 μ {{m}} emission surrounding 22 μ {{m}} emission, and additionally have detected radio continuum emission. We here report Green Bank Telescope hydrogen radio recombination line and radio continuum detections in the X-band (9 GHz; 3 cm) of 302 WISE H ii region candidates (out of 324 targets observed) in the zone 225^\\circ ≥slant {\\ell }≥slant -20^\\circ , | {\\text{}}b| ≤slant 6^\\circ . Here we extend the sky coverage of our H ii region Discovery Survey, which now contains nearly 800 H ii regions distributed across the entire northern sky. We provide LSR velocities for the 302 detections and kinematic distances for 131 of these. Of the 302 new detections, 5 have ({\\ell },{\\text{}}b,v) coordinates consistent with the Outer Scutum-Centaurus Arm (OSC), the most distant molecular spiral arm of the Milky Way. Due to the Galactic warp, these nebulae are found at Galactic latitudes >1° in the first Galactic quadrant, and therefore were missed in previous surveys of the Galactic plane. One additional region has a longitude and velocity consistent with the OSC but lies at a negative Galactic latitude (G039.183-01.422 -54.9 {km} {{{s}}}-1). With Heliocentric distances >22 kpc and Galactocentric distances >16 kpc, the OSC H ii regions are the most distant known in the Galaxy. We detect an additional three H ii regions near {\\ell }≃ 150^\\circ whose LSR velocities place them at Galactocentric radii >19 kpc. If their distances are correct, these nebulae may represent the limit to Galactic massive star formation.

  4. Active Region Release Two CMEs

    NASA Video Gallery

    Solar material can be seen blowing off the sun in this video captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) on the night of Feb. 5, 2013. This active region on the sun sent out two coronal ...

  5. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 3

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 3 (DE, DC, MD, PA, VA, WV) is provided here.

  6. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 10

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 10 (AK, ID, OR, WA) is provided here.

  7. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 5

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the conformity SIP adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 5 (IL, IN, MI, OH, WI) is provided here.

  8. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 7

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 7 (IA, KS, MO, NE) is provided here.

  9. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 6

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 6 (AR, LA, NM, OK, TX) is provided here.

  10. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 4

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 4 (AL, FL, GA, KY, MS, NC, SC, TN) is provided here.

  11. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 2

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 2 (NJ, NY, PR, VI) is provided here.

  12. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 8

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 3 (CO, MT, ND, SD, UT, WY) is provided here.

  13. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 1

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 1 (CT, ME, MA, NH, RI, VT) is provided here.

  14. Boundary Preserving Dense Local Regions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jaechul; Grauman, Kristen

    2015-05-01

    We propose a dense local region detector to extract features suitable for image matching and object recognition tasks. Whereas traditional local interest operators rely on repeatable structures that often cross object boundaries (e.g., corners, scale-space blobs), our sampling strategy is driven by segmentation, and thus preserves object boundaries and shape. At the same time, whereas existing region-based representations are sensitive to segmentation parameters and object deformations, our novel approach to robustly sample dense sites and determine their connectivity offers better repeatability. In extensive experiments, we find that the proposed region detector provides significantly better repeatability and localization accuracy for object matching compared to an array of existing feature detectors. In addition, we show our regions lead to excellent results on two benchmark tasks that require good feature matching: weakly supervised foreground discovery and nearest neighbor-based object recognition.

  15. Conformity Adequacy Review: Region 9

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Resources are for air quality and transportation government and community leaders. Information on the adequacy/inadequacy of state implementation plans (SIPs) in EPA Region 9 (AZ, CA, HI, NV, AS, GU) is provided here.

  16. [Regional anesthesia and cancer immunology].

    PubMed

    Igarashi, Toru; Mori, Katsuya; Inoue, Kei; Suzuki, Takeshi; Morisaki, Hiroshi

    2013-09-01

    Regional anesthesia has been widely applied as an excellent method for perioperative analgesia. Recent studies suggested that regional anesthesia is a promising approach to minimize the risk of surgical site infection and postoperative cancer recurrence, subsequently providing the benefits to the long-term outcome. In particular, it is of great interest that regional anesthesia might be able to reduce cancer recurrence. In cancer patients, innate immunity against cancer could be depressed, resulting in the predisposition to evoke metastasis. Besides, during the perioperative periods, tumor immunity is significantly depressed due to surgical pain, activation of sympathetic nervous system, inflammatory responses, and others. In this review article, we discuss the tumor immunity during the perioperative period, with focus on the alterations of tumor immunity and regional anesthesia.

  17. Multimodal analgesia and regional anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Tornero Tornero, C; Fernández Rodríguez, L E; Orduña Valls, J

    2017-03-24

    Multimodal analgesia provides quality analgesia, with fewer side effects due to the use of combined analgesics or analgesic techniques. Regional anaesthesia plays a fundamental role in achieving this goal. The different techniques of regional anaesthesia that include both peripheral and central blocks in either a single dose or in continuous infusion help to modulate the nociceptive stimuli that access the central level. The emergence of the ultrasound as an effective system to perform regional anaesthesia techniques has allowed the development of new regional anaesthesia techniques that formerly could not be carried out since only neurostimulation or skin references were used. It is essential to take into account that even with effective blocking it is advisable to associate other drugs by other routes, in this way we will be able to reduce the required doses individually and attempt to achieve a synergistic, not purely additive, effect.

  18. A regional technology transfer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chenery, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    The activities of the NC/STRC are reported. The background and organization of the regional dissemination center, and marketing methods are discussed along with the services provided, and available information resources.

  19. MC-10 Lanae Palus Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-10 quadrangle, Lanae Palus region of Mars. The western part is dominated by lava flows of the Tharsis region. The central part includes ridged terrain of Lunae Planum. The west and north borders of Lunae Planum are dissected by the large, relatively young outflow channel, Kasei Vallis, which terminates in Chryse Planitia. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range 45 to 90 degrees.

  20. ESPC Regional Arctic Prediction System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    the Navy the capability to conduct short-term (1 week) to extended (2 weeks) coupled weather forecasts for the Arctic region. APPROACH To...sensitivity of the Arctic weather forecast to key numerical parameters; and 5) conduct extensive validation and verification of the coupled system and...SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE ESPC Regional Arctic Prediction System 5a. CONTRACT

  1. MC-13 Syrtis Major Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-13 quadrangle, Syrtis Major region of Mars. The central part is dominated by dark dust and lava flows of the Syrtis Major Planitia region. These lava flows are partly bounded to the east by a large depression, Isidis basin, which contains smooth plains, and to the west and north by heavily cratered and moderately faulted highlands. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range -90 to -45 degrees.

  2. Revisiting Health Regionalization in Canada.

    PubMed

    Barker, Paul; Church, John

    2017-04-01

    Twenty years ago, many of Canada's provinces began to introduce regional health authorities to address problems with their health care systems. With this action, the provinces sought to achieve advances in community decision-making, the integration of health services, and the provision of care in the home and community. The authorities were also to help restrict health care costs. An assessment of the authorities indicates, however, that over the past two decades they have been unable to meet their objectives. Community representatives continue to play little role in determining the appropriate health services for their regions. Gains have been made towards integrating health services, but the plan for a near seamless set of health services has not been realized. Funding for health services remains focused on hospital and physician care, and health care expenditures have until very recently been little affected by regional authorities. This disappointing performance has caused some provinces to abandon their regional authorities, but this article argues that the provision of greater autonomy and a better public appreciation of their role and potential may lead to more successful regional authorities. Accordingly, the objective of this article is to reveal the shortcomings of regional health authorities in Canada while at the same time arguing that changes can be made to increase the chances of more workable authorities.

  3. Regional sinkhole susceptibility maps: The Latium Region case (central Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Vigna, F.; Teoli, P.; Mazza, R.; Leoni, G.; Capelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    Several and frequent studies were internationally presented about landslide susceptibility, meanwhile in literature is missing a broad diffusion of studies regarding sinkhole susceptibility. That's why sinkhole recurrence depends on several geological conditions related to specific geological and hydrogeological context (sinkhole prone area) that vary case by case. Notwithstanding this regionalization problem of sinkhole recurrence, in the central Appenine sedimentary basins (Italy) a certain number of geological, geomorphologic and hydrogeological conditions (sinkhole predisposing issues) can be considered in common between the surveyed sinkholes. Eventually this could be compared with similar geological conditions and sinkhole occurrence in the rest of Italy or in other countries. In this case study is presented a probabilistic approach regarding the Latium Region deriving from the comparison between the regional sinkhole inventory realized during a precedent project and the dataset of the new Hydrogeological Map of Latium Region (scale 1:100.000). Indexed elements, chosen because associated to the majority of sinkhole phenomena, are: outcropping lithologies, water table depth, main faults (even if buried), hydrothermal springs, land use and the epicentres of recent earthquakes. These indexed elements were weighted and combined in a matrix which preliminary result is the sinkhole susceptibility map of Latium Region. When definitively validated, this approach could be suitable for local authorities to planning more targeted studies in major hazard areas.

  4. Aircraft Observations into the Characteristics of Biomass Burning Instigated 'Regional Haze' Over the Amazon during the SAMBBA Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darbyshire, Eoghan

    2013-04-01

    Rhondonia and Cerrado agricultural fires in Mato Grosso. Thus, the ten (of twenty) SAMMBA flights that encountered haze, sampled from a diversity of haze types. The haze was sampled using the standard instrumentation suite available onboard FAAM, a C-ToF-AMS (Compact Time-of-flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer) and a SP2 (Single Particle Soot Photometer), thereby allowing a detailed physiochemical analysis: results from the AMS yielded size resolved chemical composition of organic and inorganic (e.g. nitrate, sulphate) components, whilst the SP2 yielded size resolved black carbon mass on a single particle basis. SAMBBA also represented the first utilization of the C-ToF-AMS in sampling BB in Amazonia. This data allows the preliminary presentation of the chemical and physical characteristics of regional haze during SAMBBA including the structure, in terms of vertical profiles and spatial distribution, and composition, in terms of mass loadings, size distributions, number concentrations and chemical processing. For instance, vertical profiles displayed significant structures, with layering from differing sources; typically a local shallow boundary layer would be covered by the extensive regional haze and above this, in the free troposphere, multiple detached layers were observed. This work complements the other, exhaustive, work of SAMBBA participants, helping to provide the most detailed characterization of Amazonian BB to date, aiding understanding of weather, climate and, more tangibly in an expanding Brazil, air quality issues.

  5. Ig Constant Region Effects on Variable Region Structure and Function

    PubMed Central

    Janda, Alena; Bowen, Anthony; Greenspan, Neil S.; Casadevall, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    The adaptive humoral immune response is responsible for the generation of antimicrobial proteins known as immunoglobulin molecules or antibodies. Immunoglobulins provide a defense system against pathogenic microbes and toxins by targeting them for removal and/or destruction. Historically, antibodies have been thought to be composed of distinct structural domains known as the variable and constant regions that are responsible for antigen binding and mediating effector functions such as opsonization and complement activation, respectively. These domains were thought to be structurally and functionally independent. Recent work has revealed however, that in some families of antibodies, the two regions can influence each other. We will discuss the body of work that led to these observations, as well as the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain how these two different antibody regions may interact in the function of antigen binding. PMID:26870003

  6. Regional waveform calibration in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lupei; Helmberger, Donald V.; Saikia, Chandan K.; Woods, Bradley B.

    1997-10-01

    Twelve moderate-magnitude earthquakes (mb 4-5.5) in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region are investigated to determine their focal mechanisms and to relocate them using their regional waveform records at two broadband arrays, the Kyrgyzstan Regional Network (KNET), and the 1992 Pakistan Himalayas seismic experiment array (PAKH) in northern Pakistan. We use the "cut-and-paste" source estimation technique to invert the whole broadband waveforms for mechanisms and depths, assuming a one-dimensional velocity model developed for the adjacent Tibetan plateau. For several large events the source mechanisms obtained agree with those available from the Harvard centroid moment tensor (CMT) solutions. An advantage of using regional broadband waveforms is that focal depths can be better constrained either from amplitude ratios of Pnl to surface waves for crustal events or from time separation between the direct P and the shear-coupled P wave (sPn + sPmP) for mantle events. All the crustal events are relocated at shallower depths compared with their International Seismological Centre bulletin or Harvard CMT depths. After the focal depths are established, the events are then relocated horizontally using their first-arrival times. Only minor offsets in epicentral location are found for all mantle events and the bigger crustal events, while rather large offsets (up to 30 km) occur for the smaller crustal events. We also tested the performance of waveform inversion using only two broadband stations, one from the KNET array in the north of the region and one from the PAKH array in the south. We found that this geometry is adequate for determining focal depths and mechanisms of moderate size earthquakes in the Pamir-Hindu Kush region.

  7. Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    The Keystone Center

    2005-06-15

    The Keystone Center convened and facilitated a year-long Dialogue on "Regional Transmission Projects: Finding Solutions" to develop recommendations that will help address the difficult and contentious issues related to expansions of regional electric transmission systems that are needed for reliable and economic transmission of power within and across regions. This effort brought together a cross-section of affected stakeholders and thought leaders to address the problem with the collective wisdom of their experience and interests. Transmission owners sat at the table with consumer advocates and environmental organizations. Representatives from regional transmission organizations exchanged ideas with state and federal regulators. Generation developers explored common interests with public power suppliers. Together, the Dialogue participants developed consensus solutions about how to begin unraveling some of the more intractable issues surrounding identification of need, allocation of costs, and reaching consensus on siting issues that can frustrate the development of regional transmission infrastructure. The recommendations fall into three broad categories: 1. Recommendations on appropriate institutional arrangements and processes for achieving regional consensus on the need for new or expanded transmission infrastructure 2. Recommendations on the process for siting of transmission lines 3. Recommendations on the tools needed to support regional planning, cost allocation, and siting efforts. List of Dialogue participants: List of Dialogue Participants: American Electric Power American Transmission Company American Wind Energy Association California ISO Calpine Corporation Cinergy Edison Electric Institute Environmental Defense Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Great River Energy International Transmission Company ISO-New England Iowa Public Utility Board Kanner & Associates Midwest ISO National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners National Association

  8. Hawaii Regional Sediment Management: Regional Sediment Budget for the Kekaha Region of Kauai, HI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    study regions, have been developed by the University of Hawaii Coastal Geology Group (UH CGG) (Fletcher et al. 2012) for the US Geological Survey...maintenance activities such as dredging, bypassing, or nourishment . The region addressed in this study has experienced one or more of these activities... Coastal Geology Group US United States USACE US Army Corps of Engineers USGS US Geological Survey WIS Wave Information Study ERDC/CHL CHETN

  9. Correlation of regional breath sound with regional ventilation in emphysema

    SciTech Connect

    Ploysongsang, Y.; Pare, J.A.; Macklem, P.T.

    1982-09-01

    We measured regional breath sound intensities (Ib) by a microphone amplifier system in 8 subjects with emphysema. We also measured regional white noise transmissions (Tn) from the same areas in all subjects. The recorded areas were 5, 10, 15, and 20 cm from the apex of the lung just lateral to the right anterior midclavicular line. Xenon ventilation indexes (xenon tidal raw counts, an index of total regional ventilation; xenon equilibration raw counts, an index of ventilating lung volume; xenon ventilation per unit volume (Vr), an index of ventilation per unit volume) were also recorded from the same areas. The Ib, Tn, Ib/Tn (an index of sound generation), and xenon ventilation indexes were all expressed as a fraction of the mean value of all four recorded areas. The Ib and Ib/Tn correlated best with the xenon tidal raw counts, correlated well with the xenon equilibration raw counts, and correlated poorly with Vr. We conclude that Ib and Ib/Tn can be used to quantify regional ventilation in subjects with emphysema.

  10. Northeast Regional Biomass Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1992-04-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is entering its ninth year of operation. The management and the objectives have virtually remained unchanged and are stated as follows. The program conducted by NRBP has three basic features: (1) a state grant component that provides funds (with a 50 percent matching requirement) to each of the states in the region to strengthen and integrate the work of state agencies involved in biomass energy; (2) a series of technical reports and studies in areas that have been identified as being of critical importance to the development of biomass energy in the region; and (3) a continuous long range planning component with heavy private sector involvement that helps to identify activities necessary to spur greater development and use of biomass energy in the Northeast.

  11. Northeast Regional Biomass Energy Program

    SciTech Connect

    O'Connell, R.A.

    1992-02-01

    The Northeast Regional Biomass Program (NRBP) is entering its ninth year of operation. The management and the objectives have virtually remained unchanged and are stated as follows. The program conducted by NRBP has three basic features: (1) a state grant component that provides funds (with a 50 percent matching requirement) to each of the states in the region to strengthen and integrate the work of state agencies involved in biomass energy; (2) a series of technical reports and studies in areas that have been identified as being of critical importance to the development of biomass energy in the region; and (3) a continuous long range planning component with heavy private sector involvement that helps to identify activities necessary to spur greater development and use of biomass energy in the Northeast.

  12. Satellites monitor Atlanta regional development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, William J.; Blackmon, C.C.; Rudasill, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    Since the adoption of a Regional Development Plan in 1975, the Atlanta Regional Commission has investigated methods for monitoring regional development patterns in a periodic, efficient manner. A promising approach appears to be the use of Landsat satellite data. In cooperation with the Earth Resources Observation Systems (EROS) Data Center, the commission used machine processing of digital temporal overlays of Landsat data collected in 1972, 1974 and 1976 to detect land use and land cover changes in the Atlanta metropolitan area. Results of the analysis revealed the conversion of forested and open space areas to residential, commercial and industrial land use in the urban-rural fringe zone from 1972 to 1974 and from 1974 to 1976. The study indicated that a land use and land cover change-detection program may be used to revise small-area forecasts of land use, population and employment made by planning models.

  13. Regional Cooperation to Strengthen Safeguards

    SciTech Connect

    Minnini, Margot; Elkhamri, Oksana O.

    2016-06-06

    President Obama’s decision over four years ago to ”pivot” toward Asia represented an important strategic shift in American foreign policy and a rebalancing of U.S. economic and security engagement in the Asia-Pacific countries. The United States has since supported a variety of regional initiatives aimed at promoting nuclear security and safeguards. When a new regional organization, the Asia-Pacific Safeguards Network (APSN) was established in 2010, DOE/NNSA became an early member and enthusiastic advocate. Launched on the initiative of Australia, Japan, Republic of Korea, and Indonesia, the APSN aims to strengthen the quality and effectiveness of safeguards implementation in the Asia-Pacific region.

  14. Regional sea level change in the Thailand-Indonesia region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenoglio-Marc, L.; Becker, M. H.; Buchhaupt, C.

    2013-12-01

    It is expected that the regional sea level rise will strongly affect particular regions with direct impacts including submergence of coastal zones, rising water tables and salt intrusion into groundwaters. It can possibly also exacerbate other factors as floodings, associated to storms and hurricanes, as well as ground subsidence of anthropogenic nature. The Thailand-Vietnam-Indonesian region is one of those zones. On land, the Chao-Praya and Mekong Delta are fertile alluvial zones. The potential for sea level increases and extreme floodings due to global warming makes the Deltas a place where local, regional, and global environmental changes are converging. We investigate the relative roles of regional and global mechanisms resulting in multidecadal variations and inflections in the rate of sea level change. Altimetry and GRACE data are used to investigate the variation of land floodings. The land surface water extent is evaluated at 25 km sampling intervals over fifteen years (1993-2007) using a multisatellite methodology which captures the extent of episodic and seasonal inundations, wetlands, rivers, lakes, and irrigated agriculture, using passive and active (microwaves and visible observations. The regional sea level change is analysed during the period 1993-2012 using satellite altimetry, wind and ocean model data, tide gauge data and GPS. The rates of absolute eustatic sea level rise derived from satellite altimetry through 19-year long precise altimeter observations are in average higher than the global mean rate. Several tide gauge records indicate an even higher sea level rise relative to land. We show that the sea level change is closely linked to the ENSO mode of variability and strongly affected by changes in wind forcing and ocean circulation. We have determined the vertical crustal motion at a given tide gauge location by differencing the tide gauge sea level time-series with an equivalent time-series derived from satellite altimetry and by computing

  15. Floristic study of Mirabad region.

    PubMed

    Hasanzadeh Gorttapeh, A; Panahy, J

    2007-10-15

    The study area (Mirabad) is located between 36 degrees, 55' to 37 degrees north latitude and 45 degrees, 05' to 55 degrees, 44' east longitude in west Azerbaijan province. In this study, Flora of this region was determined by using available references. We encountered 192 species that belongs to 126 genera and 41 families. The largest family of region is Asteraceae with 31 sp. and the largest Genera is Astragalus with 7 sp. The main life forms are: Hemicryptophyte with 30.2% and Therophyte with 28.1%. The most extended chorotype with 62.5% is related to: Irano_Turanian.

  16. Hydrodynamics of post CHF region

    SciTech Connect

    Ishii, M.; De Jarlais, G.

    1984-04-01

    Among various two-phase flow regimes, the inverted flow in the post-dryout region is relatively less well understood due to its special heat transfer conditions. The review of existing data indicates further research is needed in the areas of basic hydrodynamics related to liquid core disintegration mechanisms, slug and droplet formations, entrainment, and droplet size distributions. In view of this, the inverted flow is studied in detail both analytically and experimentally. Criteria for initial flow regimes in the post-dryout region are given. Preliminary models for subsequent flow regime transition criteria are derived together with correlations for a mean droplet diameter based on the adiabatic simulation data.

  17. Solitary neurilemmoma in postaural region.

    PubMed

    Adhikary, Bivas; Sen, Indranil; Basu, Asim Jiban; Bandyopadhyay, Saumyendra Nath; Saha, Debdas; Basu, Sumit Kumar

    2007-05-01

    Neurilemmoma in postaural region arising from great auricular nerve is an extremely rare tumour. An 11 years boy presented with pain and swelling behind his left ear for last 3-4 years. The clinical examination revealed the swelling appeared to be diffuse with the margin being ill defined. On radiological examination a diffuse homogeneous mass was seen in the postaural region of the left side. The tumour was completely removed by an incision through postaural route. Histopathological study revealed neurilemmoma. Postoperative period was uneventful.

  18. Regional High School Senior Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Philip R., Jr.

    In order to identify the educational needs and aspirations of graduating high school seniors in the service region of the University of Maine at Augusta, a survey instrument was designed and administered to 1,950 seniors at 19 institutions. In all, 1,744 completed surveys were returned, a 92 percent response rate. The data are sub-grouped into…

  19. Microinstabilities in the pedestal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickinson, David; Dudson, Benjamin; Wilson, Howard; Roach, Colin

    2014-10-01

    The regulation of transport at the pedestal top is important for the inter-ELM pedestal dynamics. Linear gyrokinetic analysis of the pedestal region during an ELM cycle on MAST has shown kinetic ballooning modes to be unstable at the knee of the pressure profile and in the steep pedestal region whilst microtearing modes (MTMs) dominate in the shallow gradient region inboard of the pedestal top. The transition between these instabilities at the pedestal knee has been observed in low and high collisionality MAST pedestals, and is likely to play an important role in the broadening of the pedestal. Nonlinear simulations are needed in this region to understand the microturbulence, the corresponding transport fluxes, and to gain further insight into the processes underlying the pedestal evolution. Such gyrokinetic simulations are numerically challenging and recent upgrades to the GS2 gyrokinetic code help improve their feasibility. We are also exploring reduced models that capture the relevant physics using the plasma simulation framework BOUT + + . An electromagnetic gyrofluid model has recently been implemented with BOUT + + that has significantly reduced computational cost compared to the gyrokinetic simulations against which it will be benchmarked. This work was funded by the RCUK Energy programme, EURATOM and a EUROFusion fellowship WP14-FRF-CCFE/Dickinson and was carried out using: HELIOS at IFERC, Japan; ARCHER (EPSRC Grant No. EP/L000237/1); HECToR (EPSRC Grant No. EP/H002081/1).

  20. Future and present regional wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salameh, T.; Vrac, M.; Drobinski, P.; Naveau, P.

    2009-04-01

    Accurate and rapid determination of near-surface wind fields in a complex area (orography, inhomogeneous surface properties) is a challenge for applications like the evaluation of wind energy production, the prediction of pollution transport and hazardous conditions for aeronautics and ship navigation, among others. This work presents a statistical downscaling approach for regional near-surface wind field in the region of southern France (characterized by the presence of major mountain ranges). It is based on generalized additive models (GAM, Salameh et al. 2008), relating large-scale upper air to local-scale surface atmospheric fields. We apply our statistical downscaling model conditionally on regional circulation patterns defined from measurements. Hence, near-surface wind components in southern France are simulated based on large-scale information from ERA-40 reanalyses (1991-2001) and from IPCC scenarios (1991-2001 and 2040-2050). The performances of our method are evaluated, (1) by comparing downscaled wind from ERA-40 and from IPCC, and (2) by comparing them with measurements, for the period 1991-2001. Then, we evaluate the change in regional atmospheric circulations in southern France, by comparing future and present downscaled wind.

  1. Biocapacity optimization in regional planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jianjun; Yue, Dongxia; Li, Kai; Hui, Cang

    2017-01-01

    Ecological overshoot has been accelerating across the globe. Optimizing biocapacity has become a key to resolve the overshoot of ecological demand in regional sustainable development. However, most literature has focused on reducing ecological footprint but ignores the potential of spatial optimization of biocapacity through regional planning of land use. Here we develop a spatial probability model and present four scenarios for optimizing biocapacity of a river basin in Northwest China. The potential of enhanced biocapacity and its effects on ecological overshoot and water consumption in the region were explored. Two scenarios with no restrictions on croplands and water use reduced the overshoot by 29 to 53%, and another two scenarios which do not allow croplands and water use to increase worsened the overshoot by 11 to 15%. More spatially flexible transition rules of land use led to higher magnitude of change after optimization. However, biocapacity optimization required a large amount of additional water resources, casting considerable pressure on the already water-scarce socio-ecological system. Our results highlight the potential for policy makers to manage/optimize regional land use which addresses ecological overshoot. Investigation on the feasibility of such spatial optimization complies with the forward-looking policies for sustainable development and deserves further attention.

  2. Regional Security Application and Checkmate!

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-04-01

    30 F. Time, Geo- Spatial , and Resource Constraints ................................................ 32 G. Summary...leverage human interactions and computer modeling and tools to provide participants with useful insights on complex multi -disciplinary issues. It’s...and interdependent multi -disciplinary issues associated with such challenges. In this regard: (a) A regional S.E.N.S.E. application that addresses

  3. Biocapacity optimization in regional planning

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jianjun; Yue, Dongxia; Li, Kai; Hui, Cang

    2017-01-01

    Ecological overshoot has been accelerating across the globe. Optimizing biocapacity has become a key to resolve the overshoot of ecological demand in regional sustainable development. However, most literature has focused on reducing ecological footprint but ignores the potential of spatial optimization of biocapacity through regional planning of land use. Here we develop a spatial probability model and present four scenarios for optimizing biocapacity of a river basin in Northwest China. The potential of enhanced biocapacity and its effects on ecological overshoot and water consumption in the region were explored. Two scenarios with no restrictions on croplands and water use reduced the overshoot by 29 to 53%, and another two scenarios which do not allow croplands and water use to increase worsened the overshoot by 11 to 15%. More spatially flexible transition rules of land use led to higher magnitude of change after optimization. However, biocapacity optimization required a large amount of additional water resources, casting considerable pressure on the already water-scarce socio-ecological system. Our results highlight the potential for policy makers to manage/optimize regional land use which addresses ecological overshoot. Investigation on the feasibility of such spatial optimization complies with the forward-looking policies for sustainable development and deserves further attention. PMID:28112224

  4. SDO Sees Active Region Outbursts

    NASA Video Gallery

    This close up video by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory shows an active region near the right-hand edge of the sun’s disk, which erupted with at least a dozen minor events over a 30-hour period fr...

  5. PREL Pacific Region Language Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacific Region Educational Lab., Honolulu, HI.

    This collection of 10 cue cards presents English translations of common English words and expressions into 10 Pacific Region languages: Palauan, Samoan, Chamorro, Hawaiian, Carolinian, Chuukese, Pohnpeian, Marshallese, Yapese, and Kosraean. The cards translate the following: hello, good morning, good afternoon, good night, thank you, you're…

  6. Education and Italian Regional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Liberto, Adriana

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we study the connection between growth and human capital in a convergence regression for the panel of Italian regions. We include measures of average primary, secondary and tertiary education. We find that increased education seems to contribute to growth only in the South. Decomposing total schooling into its three constituent…

  7. Regional Needs Analysis Report. 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) is required to develop a comprehensive and ongoing needs assessment process to analyze demand for additional degrees and programs [RCW 28B.76.230 (1)]. This report fulfills a portion of that mandate by focusing on employer demand on the regional level, but also includes additional information on…

  8. MC-1 Mare Boreum Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-1 quadrangle, Mare Boreum region of Mars. The central part is covered by a residual ice cap that is cut by spiral-patterned troughs exposing layered terrain. The cap is surrounded by broad flat plains and large dune fields. Latitude range 65 to 90, longitude range -180 to 180.

  9. MC-5 Ismenius Lacus Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-5 quadrangle, Ismenius Lacus region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands of the southern part are separated from the relatively smooth plains of the northern part by a belt of dissected terrain, containing mesas and buttes. Latitude range 30 to 65 degrees, longitude range -60 to 0 degrees.

  10. Regional Expertise and Culture Proficiency

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    for culture and language training and education Abbe (2008) Social initiative Willingness to communicate in cross-cultural settings; interest in... intercultural skills during officer formal education Montgomery, AL: Air War College, Air University. Russell et al. (1995, July). Intercultural communication ...JPEC) community with foreign language and regional expertise capabilities, integrate the capabilities into all force planning activities, and obtain

  11. 32 CFR 1605.7 - Region Manager.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Region Manager. 1605.7 Section 1605.7 National... ORGANIZATION Region Administration § 1605.7 Region Manager. (a) Subject to the direction and control of the Director of Selective Service, the Region Manager of Selective Service for each region shall be...

  12. Algorithms for Labeling Focus Regions.

    PubMed

    Fink, M; Haunert, Jan-Henrik; Schulz, A; Spoerhase, J; Wolff, A

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we investigate the problem of labeling point sites in focus regions of maps or diagrams. This problem occurs, for example, when the user of a mapping service wants to see the names of restaurants or other POIs in a crowded downtown area but keep the overview over a larger area. Our approach is to place the labels at the boundary of the focus region and connect each site with its label by a linear connection, which is called a leader. In this way, we move labels from the focus region to the less valuable context region surrounding it. In order to make the leader layout well readable, we present algorithms that rule out crossings between leaders and optimize other characteristics such as total leader length and distance between labels. This yields a new variant of the boundary labeling problem, which has been studied in the literature. Other than in traditional boundary labeling, where leaders are usually schematized polylines, we focus on leaders that are either straight-line segments or Bezier curves. Further, we present algorithms that, given the sites, find a position of the focus region that optimizes the above characteristics. We also consider a variant of the problem where we have more sites than space for labels. In this situation, we assume that the sites are prioritized by the user. Alternatively, we take a new facility-location perspective which yields a clustering of the sites. We label one representative of each cluster. If the user wishes, we apply our approach to the sites within a cluster, giving details on demand.

  13. Regional Sediment Budgets for the Haleiwa Region, Oahu, Hawaii

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Hawaii by Jessica H. Podoski PURPOSE: This Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) reviews the development of conceptual...morphology and coastal processes have on sediment pathways and transport volumes. In the Southeast Oahu Region, Mokapu Point to Makapuu Point RSB...and Development Center, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory,3909 Halls Ferry Road,Vicksburg,MS,39180-6199 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9

  14. Numerical Simulation of Regional Circulation in the Monterey Bay Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Y. H.; Dietrich, D. E.; Ferziger, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study is to produce a high-resolution numerical model of Mon- terey Bay area in which the dynamics are determined by the complex geometry of the coastline, steep bathymetry, and the in uence of the water masses that constitute the CCS. Our goal is to simulate the regional-scale ocean response with realistic dynamics (annual cycle), forcing, and domain. In particular, we focus on non-hydrostatic e ects (by comparing the results of hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic models) and the role of complex geometry, i.e. the bay and submarine canyon, on the nearshore circulation. To the best of our knowledge, the current study is the rst to simulate the regional circulation in the vicinity of Monterey Bay using a non-hydrostatic model. Section 2 introduces the high resolution Monterey Bay area regional model (MBARM). Section 3 provides the results and veri cation with mooring and satellite data. Section 4 compares the results of hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic models.

  15. [Regional clinical audit, guideline targets, and local and regional benchmarks].

    PubMed

    Casino, F G; Lopez, T

    2005-01-01

    Regional clinical Audit, guideline Targets and local and regional Benchmarks In order to improve the quality of dialysis treatment, we have devised some routines, particularly suitable for electronic data management systems. First, we suggest a systematic monthly analysis of 10 common clinical performance measures (CPM), with the following guideline based targets: predialysis systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 140 mmHg; session length >/= 240 min; dialysis dose (spKt/V) >/=1.3; normalized protein catabolic rate (NPCR) >/=1.2 g/kg/d; hemoglobin (Hb) >/=11 g/dL; serum calcium (Ca) 8.4-9.5 mg/dL; serum phosphorus (P) 3.5-5.5 mg/dL; Ca x P /=20 mmol/L; serum potassium (K) 3.5-6.0 mmol/L. The Hb target should be reached in at least 85% of all maintenance hemodialysis (HD) patients in the unit; for all other targets, an arbitrary >/=80% is proposed. Since the above percentages are quite difficult to reach on a short-term basis, an intermediate local or regional standard (benchmark) could be devised as an average of the percentage of patients who actually reach the targets for each CPM at any dialysis unit in a given regional area; and therefore, from truly comparable patients. As an example, we simulated a regional audit by using the above targets with available data from 398 patients from southern Italy. A further step in this process was to find the cause(s) of failure in each patient who did not reach the targets. To this end, we suggest a systematic search of the well-known factors that could affect each CPM, for each failed patient. As an example, we screened all patients with Hb < 11 g/dL at a single unit, to establish the presence/absence of any common cause associated with inadequate response to epoetin treatment. Moreover, by using criteria for prescribing iron therapy or increasing epoetin dose, we found that some patients did not receive the appropriate therapy after blood sampling results. To avoid this possible

  16. Marine cloud brightening: regional applications.

    PubMed

    Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack

    2014-12-28

    The general principle behind the marine cloud brightening (MCB) climate engineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with substantial concentrations of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre-sized seawater particles might significantly enhance cloud albedo and longevity, thereby producing a cooling effect. This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1. We focus discussion herein on advantages associated with engaging in limited-area seeding, regional effects rather than global; and the levels of seeding that may be required to address changing current and near-term conditions in the Arctic. We also mention the possibility that MCB might be capable of producing a localized cooling to help stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet.

  17. Marine cloud brightening: regional applications

    PubMed Central

    Latham, John; Gadian, Alan; Fournier, Jim; Parkes, Ben; Wadhams, Peter; Chen, Jack

    2014-01-01

    The general principle behind the marine cloud brightening (MCB) climate engineering technique is that seeding marine stratocumulus clouds with substantial concentrations of roughly monodisperse sub-micrometre-sized seawater particles might significantly enhance cloud albedo and longevity, thereby producing a cooling effect. This paper is concerned with preliminary studies of the possible beneficial application of MCB to three regional issues: (1) recovery of polar ice loss, (2) weakening of developing hurricanes and (3) elimination or reduction of coral bleaching. The primary focus is on Item 1. We focus discussion herein on advantages associated with engaging in limited-area seeding, regional effects rather than global; and the levels of seeding that may be required to address changing current and near-term conditions in the Arctic. We also mention the possibility that MCB might be capable of producing a localized cooling to help stabilize the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. PMID:25404682

  18. [Health in Andean regional integration].

    PubMed

    Agudelo, Carlos A

    2007-01-01

    Despite their shared history, the Andean countries are socially and politically diverse, with heterogeneous health realities and complex integration processes. General developments such as the Latin American Free Trade Association and Latin American Integration Association have existed for decades, along with others of a regional scope, like the Andean Community of Nations, Caribbean Community, and Central American Common Market. The health field has a specific instrument in the Andean Region called the Hipólito Unánue Agreement, created in 1971. Integration processes have concentrated on economic aspects, based on preferential customs agreements that have led to an important long-term increase in trade. Less progress has been made in the field of health in terms of sharing national experiences, knowledge, and capabilities. Analysis of experiences in health has shown that integration depends on the countries' respective strengths and to a major extent on national political processes.

  19. Schwannoma Located in Nasopharyngeal Region

    PubMed Central

    Aksoy, Fadlullah; Senturk, Erol; Ozturan, Orhan

    2016-01-01

    Schwannoma is a tumor which has neuroectoderm origins, is hard, well-circumscribed, encapsulated, and slow growing benign cranial tumor, and may autonomously grow out of the nerve sheath of peripheral nerves. It is mostly seen in the head and neck region. In the paranasal sinus and nose areas, it is seen at a rate of 4%. The diagnosis is mostly made after histopathological examination. In this paper, a Schwannoma case observed in the nasopharyngeal region was presented in a 20-year-old female who had complaints of sleeping with open mouth, snoring, foreign body feeling in throat, and swallowing difficulties. The tumor was extracted via transoral approach. No recurrence was observed during follow-up over the next year. This case presentation is presented for the first time in the literature in English. PMID:27293938

  20. Sustainable development: a regional perspective.

    PubMed

    Icamina, P

    1988-12-01

    This article discusses sustainable development in Asia and current environmental problems in this region. Droughts and rainy seasons pose a major concern indicating environmental limitations: India's 1987 drought halted world grain production and China suffered US $435 million in flooding damage. Deforestation and land degradation are consequences of a rising population's demand for agriculture, fuelwood, irrigation, and hydroelectric projects; 1815 million hectares of forest are cleared/year and 40% of the land could possible be subjected to soil erosion. Although population growth is declining in some Asian countries, the continent inhabits the greatest proportion of world population; 300 million are underfed. Food production remains a problem for this region because of bad weather, highly populated areas, less cropland, soil erosion, and limited water supply. Efforts currently employed to conserve natural resources include community reforestation, providing available drinking water, substituting firewood for fuelwood, and delivering primary health care.

  1. EPA Region 3 Quality Management Plans

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Has links to resources that describe the Region's Quality Assurance Program, which is a collection of the Region's ongoing quality assurance (QA) policies, procedures, responsibilities and management systems.

  2. Pollutant transport among California regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angevine, Wayne M.; Brioude, Jerome; McKeen, Stuart; Holloway, John S.; Lerner, Brian M.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Guha, Abhinav; Andrews, Arlyn; Nowak, John B.; Evan, Stephanie; Fischer, Marc L.; Gilman, Jessica B.; Bon, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    Several regions within California have significant air quality issues. Transport of pollutants emitted in one region to another region may add to the impact of local emissions. In this work, Lagrangian particle dispersion model simulations show the amounts of tracers that are transported within and among four regions, Southern California, the San Francisco Bay Area, the Central Valley, and the rest of the state. The simulations cover May and June of 2010, the California Research at the Nexus of Air Quality and Climate Change experiment period. Tracers of automobile emissions and one type of agricultural emission are used. Tracer mixing ratios are compared to airborne and ground-based measurements. The age of tracers in each location is also presented. Vertical profiles and diurnal cycles help to clarify the transport process. As is well known, Southern California emissions are transported to the east and affect the desert areas, and Bay Area automobile emissions are an important source of pollutants in the San Joaquin Valley. A novel result is that the Southern California Bight is filled with a mixture of well-aged carbon monoxide tracer from Southern California and the Bay Area. Air over the Bight is also affected by the agricultural emissions represented by the agricultural tracer, dominantly from the Central Valley where its sources are largest. There is no indication of transport from Southern California to the Central Valley. Emissions from the Central Valley do make their way to Southern California, as shown by the agricultural tracer, but automobile emissions from the Valley are insignificant in Southern California.

  3. Cold regions hydrology and hydraulics

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.L. ); Crissman, R.D. )

    1990-01-01

    This monograph addresses a narrow aspect of cold regions engineering, namely the effects of cold weather on the traditional civil engineering disciplines of hydrology and hydraulics. Hydrologic and hydraulic considerations in the design, construction, and operation of civil works are very important. Many of the problems encountered in the design and construction of buildings, transportation systems, water supply facilities, waste treatment facilities, and hazardous waste disposal facilities, for example are closely tied to the characteristics of the site hydrology.

  4. American Foreign Policy: Regional Perspectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-15

    economic growth and op- portunities, and diminishes the quality of life for all. To support Latin American countries better in their quest to improve...the Middle East at the ground level, with private- sector civilian programs to help improve the quality of life and good governance in the region...more than just the virtual foundations of the postmodern information society. 4. Energy and environmental insecurity have reached a tipping point. The

  5. Indian Ocean Region - Superpower Interests.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-21

    Arab-Israeli wars, the Iraq-Iran war dividing the Muslim world and the occupation of Afghanistan by the Soviet troops, lead- ing to regional conflicts...with its policy of apartheid the Palestinian problem leading to Arab-Israeli wars, the Iraq-Iran war dividing the Muslim world and the occupation of...interested in the Malay archipelago--the Spice Islands. The Dutch also established themselves firmly at the Cape of Good Hope, in Mauritius, on the coast

  6. A Regional Medical Library Network *

    PubMed Central

    Pizer, Irwin H.

    1969-01-01

    The raison d'être for cooperative networks is discussed, and the development of the SUNY Biomedical Communication Network is traced briefly; a description of the system and its products is given. The cooperative cataloging program engaged in with the Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine and the National Library of Medicine is described, as are the efforts of the Network in the production of regional and state-wide union lists of serials. PMID:5778720

  7. Source Contributions at Regional Distances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-05-14

    turbidity, and source excitation can in some instances be recovered. High frequency RSTN data with bandwidths as high as 7 Hz are analyzed. The coda Q values...observations used in this study are seismograms from Nevada Test Site (NTS) nuclear explosions and earthquakes in the California/Gulf of California region. The...Yield estimates of Nevada Test Site explosions obtained from seismic Lg waves, J.Geophys.Res., 91, 2137-2151 Nuttli, O.W. (1988): Lg magnitudes and yield

  8. MC-11 Oxia Palus Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-11 quadrangle, Oxia Palus region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands of the southeastern two-thirds are cut by several large outflow channels. These channels terminate at the dark large depression, Chryse basin, which contain relatively smooth plains in the northwestern part. Latitude range 0 to 30 degrees, longitude range 0 to 45 degrees.

  9. MC-22 Mare Tyrrhenum Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-22 quadrangle, Mare Tyrrhenum region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands dominate the Mare Tyrrhenum quadrangle. The central part is marked by a large shield volcano, Tyrrhena Patera, and associated ridged plains of Hesperia Planum that probably are made up of basaltic lava flows. Latitude range -30 to 0 degrees, longitude range -135 to -90 degrees.

  10. MC-19 Margaritifer Sinus Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-19 quadrangle, Margaritifer Sinus region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands, which dominate the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle, are marked by large expanses of chaotic terrain. In the northwestern part, the major rift zone of Valles Marineris connects with a broad canyon filled with chaotic terrain. Latitude range -30 to 0, longitude range 0 to 45 degrees.

  11. MC-20 Sinus Sabeus Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-20 quadrangle, Sinus Sabeus region of Mars. Heavily cratered highlands dominate the Sinus Sabeus quadrangle. The northern part is marked by a large impact crater, Schiaparelli. Schiaparelli is an ancient remnant of the many large impact events that occurred during the period of heavy bombardment. Latitude range -30 to 0 degrees, longitude range -45 to 0.

  12. Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth J. Nemeth

    2006-08-30

    The Southeast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership's (SECARB) Phase I program focused on promoting the development of a framework and infrastructure necessary for the validation and commercial deployment of carbon sequestration technologies. The SECARB program, and its subsequent phases, directly support the Global Climate Change Initiative's goal of reducing greenhouse gas intensity by 18 percent by the year 2012. Work during the project's two-year period was conducted within a ''Task Responsibility Matrix''. The SECARB team was successful in accomplishing its tasks to define the geographic boundaries of the region; characterize the region; identify and address issues for technology deployment; develop public involvement and education mechanisms; identify the most promising capture, sequestration, and transport options; and prepare action plans for implementation and technology validation activity. Milestones accomplished during Phase I of the project are listed below: (1) Completed preliminary identification of geographic boundaries for the study (FY04, Quarter 1); (2) Completed initial inventory of major sources and sinks for the region (FY04, Quarter 2); (3) Completed initial development of plans for GIS (FY04, Quarter 3); (4) Completed preliminary action plan and assessment for overcoming public perception issues (FY04, Quarter 4); (5) Assessed safety, regulatory and permitting issues (FY05, Quarter 1); (6) Finalized inventory of major sources/sinks and refined GIS algorithms (FY05, Quarter 2); (7) Refined public involvement and education mechanisms in support of technology development options (FY05, Quarter 3); and (8) Identified the most promising capture, sequestration and transport options and prepared action plans (FY05, Quarter 4).

  13. Decay of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Choudhary, Debi Prasad

    2005-01-01

    We examine the record of sunspot group areas observed over a period of 100 years to determine the rate of decay of solar active regions. We exclude observations of groups when they are more than 60deg in longitude from the central meridian and only include data when at least three days of observations are available following the date of maximum area for a spot group's disk passage. This leaves data for some 24,000 observations of active region decay. We find that the decay rate is a constant 20 microHem/day for spots smaller than about 200 microHem (about the size of a supergranule). This decay rate increases linearly to about 90 microHem/day for spots with areas of 1000 microHem. We find no evidence for significant variations in active region decay from one solar cycle to another. However, we do find that the decay rate is slower at lower latitudes. This gives a slower decay rate during the declining phase of sunspot cycles.

  14. Developing a Regional Recovery Framework

    SciTech Connect

    Lesperance, Ann M.; Olson, Jarrod; Stein, Steven L.; Clark, Rebecca; Kelly, Heather; Sheline, Jim; Tietje, Grant; Williamson, Mark; Woodcock, Jody

    2011-09-01

    Abstract A biological attack would present an unprecedented challenge for local, state, and federal agencies; the military; the private sector; and individuals on many fronts ranging from vaccination and treatment to prioritization of cleanup actions to waste disposal. To prepare the Seattle region to recover from a biological attack, the Seattle Urban Area Security Initiative (UASI) partners collaborated with military and federal agencies to develop a Regional Recovery Framework for a Biological Attack in the Seattle Urban Area. The goal was to reduce the time and resources required to recover and restore wide urban areas, military installations, and other critical infrastructure following a biological incident by providing a coordinated systems approach. Based on discussions in small workshops, tabletop exercises, and interviews with emergency response agency staff, the partners identified concepts of operation for various areas to address critical issues the region will face as recovery progresses. Key to this recovery is the recovery of the economy. Although the Framework is specific to a catastrophic, wide-area biological attack using anthrax, it was designed to be flexible and scalable so it could also serve as the recovery framework for an all-hazards approach. The Framework also served to coalesce policy questions that must be addressed for long-term recovery. These questions cover such areas as safety and health, security, financial management, waste management, legal issues, and economic development.

  15. Regional projection of climate impact indices over the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casanueva, Ana; Frías, M.; Dolores; Herrera, Sixto; Bedia, Joaquín; San Martín, Daniel; Gutiérrez, José Manuel; Zaninovic, Ksenija

    2014-05-01

    Climate Impact Indices (CIIs) are being increasingly used in different socioeconomic sectors to transfer information about climate change impacts and risks to stakeholders. CIIs are typically based on different weather variables such as temperature, wind speed, precipitation or humidity and comprise, in a single index, the relevant meteorological information for the particular impact sector (in this study wildfires and tourism). This dependence on several climate variables poses important limitations to the application of statistical downscaling techniques, since physical consistency among variables is required in most cases to obtain reliable local projections. The present study assesses the suitability of the "direct" downscaling approach, in which the downscaling method is directly applied to the CII. In particular, for illustrative purposes, we consider two popular indices used in the wildfire and tourism sectors, the Fire Weather Index (FWI) and the Physiological Equivalent Temperature (PET), respectively. As an example, two case studies are analysed over two representative Mediterranean regions of interest for the EU CLIM-RUN project: continental Spain for the FWI and Croatia for the PET. Results obtained with this "direct" downscaling approach are similar to those found from the application of the statistical downscaling to the individual meteorological drivers prior to the index calculation ("component" downscaling) thus, a wider range of statistical downscaling methods could be used. As an illustration, future changes in both indices are projected by applying two direct statistical downscaling methods, analogs and linear regression, to the ECHAM5 model. Larger differences were found between the two direct statistical downscaling approaches than between the direct and the component approaches with a single downscaling method. While these examples focus on particular indices and Mediterranean regions of interest for CLIM-RUN stakeholders, the same study

  16. Regional air pollution over Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krysztofiak, G.; Catoire, V.; Dorf, M.; Grossmann, K.; Hamer, P. D.; Marécal, V.; Reiter, A.; Schlager, H.; Eckhardt, S.; Jurkat, T.; Oram, D.; Quack, B.; Atlas, E.; Pfeilsticker, K.

    2012-12-01

    During the SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) campaign in Nov. and Dec. 2011 a number of polluted air masses were observed in the marine and terrestrial boundary layer (0 - 2 km) and in the free troposphere (2 - 12 km) over Borneo/Malaysia. The measurements include isoprene, CO, CO2, CH4, N2O, NO2, SO2 as primary pollutants, O3 and HCHO as secondary pollutants, and meteorological parameters. This set of trace gases can be used to fingerprint different sources of local and regional air pollution (e.g., biomass burning and fossil fuel burning, gas flaring on oil rigs, emission of ships and from urban areas, volcanic emissions, and biogenic emissions). Individual sources and location can be identified when the measurements are combined with a nested-grid regional scale chemical and meteorological model and lagrangian particle dispersion model (e.g., CCATT-BRAMS and FLEXPART). In the case of the former, emission inventories of the primary pollutants provide the basis for the trace gas simulations. In this region, the anthropogenic influence on air pollution seems to dominate over natural causes. For example, CO2 and CH4 often show strong correlations with CO, suggesting biomass burning or urban fossil fuel combustion dominates the combustion sources. The study of the CO/CO2 and CH4/CO ratios can help separate anthropogenic combustion from biomass burning pollution sources. In addition, these ratios can be used as a measure of combustion efficiency to help place the type of biomass burning particular to this region within the wider context of fire types found globally. On several occasions, CH4 enhancements are observed near the ocean surface, which are not directly correlated with CO enhancements thus indicating a non-combustion-related CH4 source. Positive correlations between SO2 and CO show the anthropogenic influence of oil rigs located in the South China Sea. Furthermore, SO2 enhancements are observed without any increase in CO

  17. Regional Slip Tendency Analysis of the Great Basin Region

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-09-30

    Slip and dilation tendency on the Great Basin fault surfaces (from the USGS Quaternary Fault Database) were calculated using 3DStress (software produced by Southwest Research Institute). Slip and dilation tendency are both unitless ratios of the resolved stresses applied to the fault plane by the measured ambient stress field. - Values range from a maximum of 1 (a fault plane ideally oriented to slip or dilate under ambient stress conditions) to zero (a fault plane with no potential to slip or dilate). - Slip and dilation tendency values were calculated for each fault in the Great Basin. As dip is unknown for many faults in the USGS Quaternary Fault Database, we made these calculations using the dip for each fault that would yield the maximum slip or dilation tendency. As such, these results should be viewed as maximum slip and dilation tendency. - The resulting along‐fault and fault‐to‐fault variation in slip or dilation potential is a proxy for along fault and fault‐to‐fault variation in fluid flow conduit potential. Stress Magnitudes and directions were calculated across the entire Great Basin. Stress field variation within each focus area was approximated based on regional published data and the world stress database (Hickman et al., 2000; Hickman et al., 1998 Robertson‐Tait et al., 2004; Hickman and Davatzes, 2010; Davatzes and Hickman, 2006; Blake and Davatzes 2011; Blake and Davatzes, 2012; Moeck et al., 2010; Moos and Ronne, 2010 and Reinecker et al., 2005). The minimum horizontal stress direction (Shmin) was contoured, and spatial bins with common Shmin directions were calculated. Based on this technique, we subdivided the Great Basin into nine regions (Shmin <070, 070140). Slip and dilation tendency were calculated using 3DStress for the faults within each region using the mean Shmin for the region. Shmin variation throughout Great Basin

  18. 50 CFR 2.2 - Regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regional offices. 2.2 Section 2.2 Wildlife... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND LOCATIONS § 2.2 Regional offices. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has eight... Complex, 911 NE. 11th Avenue, Portland, Oregon 97232. (b) Southwest Regional Office (Region...

  19. Appalachian Regional Commission: 1987 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Jack, Ed.; And Others

    The Appalachian Regional Commission (ARC) used its $105 million appropriation for fiscal year 1987 to support three major program areas in the 13 state region: (1) creating and retaining regional jobs; (2) assisting in construction of basic facilities, particularly water and sewer systems, in the region's 90 poorest counties; and (3) working…

  20. The French Regions and Their Social Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jany-Catrice, Florence

    2009-01-01

    In this article, a new indicator designed to capture the multidimensionality of the social health of the French regions is put to the test. Drawing on regional data for 2004, this indicator of social health (ISH) sheds new light on the social performance of the French regions. The worst performers are the highly urbanised regions, whereas others,…

  1. 40 CFR 1.61 - Regional Offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regional Offices. 1.61 Section 1.61... INFORMATION Field Installations § 1.61 Regional Offices. Regional Administrators are responsible to the... Headquarters Staff Offices; (b) Developing, proposing, and implementing approved Regional programs...

  2. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  3. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  4. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  5. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  6. 47 CFR 90.1211 - Regional plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Regional plan. 90.1211 Section 90.1211... § 90.1211 Regional plan. (a) To facilitate the shared use of the 4.9 GHz band, each region may submit a plan on guidelines to be used for sharing the spectrum within the region. Any such plan must...

  7. Seismotectonics of the Iran Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engdahl, E. R.; Bergman, E. A.; Myers, S. C.

    2008-12-01

    More than 2000 instrumentally recorded earthquakes occurring in the Iran region during the period 1918- 2008 have been relocated using an advanced seismic location technique. Relocation sharpens the image of seismic activity in the region and - more importantly - significantly improves event focal depths. Iranian seismicity is largely a result of the early stages of continent/continent collision (25-35mm/yr of northwards overall shortening) between the Arabian Peninsula and Eurasia. Most earthquakes in the Iranian continental lithosphere occur in the upper crust (consistent with focal depths of available local seismic network hypocenters), with crustal shortening accommodated entirely by thickening and distributed deformation. This shortening across Iran results in thrust and strike-slip faulting. In the Zagros Mountains nearly all earthquakes are confined to the upper crust (depths < 20 km), and there is no evidence for a seismically active subducted slab dipping NE beneath central Iran. Moreover, the Zagros has many earthquakes but their magnitudes are all less than Mw 7.0 and nearly all the moment release occurs near the SW topographic edge (i.e., elevations between 500-1000m) of the belt. The moment release in the Zagros cannot account for the expected convergence across it, suggesting that the missing moment release is being accommodated aseismically. In southeastern Iran, where the Arabian seafloor is being subducted beneath the Makran coast, low-level earthquake activity occurs in the upper crust as well as to depths of at least 150 km within a northward-dipping subducting slab. Near the Oman Line, a region transitional between the Zagros and the Makran, seismicity extends to depths of up to 30-45 km in the crust, consistent with low-angle thrusting of Arabian basement beneath central Iran. In north-central Iran, along the Alborz mountain belt, seismic activity occurs primarily in the upper crust but with some infrequent events in the lower crust

  8. NASA Regional Planetary Image Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arvidson, Raymond E.

    2001-01-01

    The Regional Planetary Image Facility (RPIF) provided access to data from NASA planetary missions and expert assistance about the data sets and how to order subsets of the collections. This ensures that the benefit/cost of acquiring the data is maximized by widespread dissemination and use of the observations and resultant collections. The RPIF provided education and outreach functions that ranged from providing data and information to teachers, involving small groups of highly motivated students in its activities, to public lectures and tours. These activities maximized dissemination of results and data to the educational and public communities.

  9. [Health, marginality and regional development].

    PubMed

    Urbina-Fuentes, M; Narro-Robles, J; Wolpert-Barraza, E; Meljem-Moctezuma, J

    1996-01-01

    The paper discusses the close link between marginality, regional development and health. In order to do so, reference is made to some health indicators like nutrition, causes of death and health infrastructure within the low as well as the high marginality areas. The paper also presents the strategies that the Ministry of Health has established to assist the population living in the high marginality areas. It specifies the related activities that are being carried out through the national institutes of health and the sanitary regulation offices.

  10. MC-30 Mare Australe Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-30 quadrangle, Mare Australe region of Mars. The central part is dominated by a permanent residual ice cap that is enclosed by layered and troughed terrain. This cap is much smaller than the northern ice cap due to differing amounts of solar heating. The layered and troughed terrain is encircled by heavily and moderately cratered terrains that include unique depositional and erosional landforms, including large pits, troughs, and complex ridge systems. Latitude range -90 to -60 degrees, longitude range -180 to 180 degrees.

  11. MC-4 Mare Acidalium Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Mars digital-image mosaic merged with color of the MC-4 quadrangle, Mare Acidalium region of Mars. The central part is characterized by dark depression--the northern Chryse basin, which contains relatively smooth plains where several large outflow channels terminate. The depression is partly bounded to the southwest by the highly faulted and heavily cratered Tempe Terra province, to the southeast by the heavily cratered Arabia Terra province, and to the north by relatively smooth plains of Vastitas Borealis. Latitude range 30 to 65 degrees, longitude range 0 to 60 degrees.

  12. Emergency Medicine in Remote Regions.

    PubMed

    Renouf, Tia; Pollard, Megan

    2016-09-09

    Rural and remote places like Sable Island (Nova Scotia) or François (Newfoundland) pose a challenge in delivering both health care and appropriate education that today's learners need to practice in a rural setting. This education can be difficult to deliver to students far from academic centers. This is especially true for learners and practitioners at offshore locations like ships, oil installations, or in the air when patients are transported via fixed wing aircraft or helicopter. The following editorial provides a snapshot of the setting and the challenges faced while working as a physician on a ship, in remote regions.

  13. Emergency Medicine in Remote Regions

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Megan

    2016-01-01

    Rural and remote places like Sable Island (Nova Scotia) or François (Newfoundland) pose a challenge in delivering both health care and appropriate education that today’s learners need to practice in a rural setting. This education can be difficult to deliver to students far from academic centers. This is especially true for learners and practitioners at offshore locations like ships, oil installations, or in the air when patients are transported via fixed wing aircraft or helicopter. The following editorial provides a snapshot of the setting and the challenges faced while working as a physician on a ship, in remote regions. PMID:27738573

  14. Solar active region display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  15. Regional solid waste management study

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    In 1990, the Lower Savannah Council of Governments (LSCOG) began dialogue with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) regarding possibilities for cooperation and coordination of solid waste management practices among the local governments and the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy eventually awarded a grant to the Lower Savannah Council of Governments for the development of a study, which was initiated on March 5, 1992. After careful analysis of the region`s solid waste needs, this study indicates a network approach to solid waste management to be the most viable. The network involves the following major components: (1) Rural Collection Centers, designed to provide convenience to rural citizens, while allowing some degree of participation in recycling; (2) Rural Drop-Off Centers, designed to give a greater level of education and recycling activity; (3) Inert landfills and composting centers, designed to reduce volumes going into municipal (Subtitle D) landfills and produce useable products from yard waste; (4) Transfer Stations, ultimate landfill disposal; (5) Materials Recovery Facilities, designed to separate recyclables into useable and sellable units, and (6) Subtitle D landfill for burial of all solid waste not treated through previous means.

  16. Nuclear weapons and regional conflict

    SciTech Connect

    Latter, A.L.; Martinelli, E.A.

    1993-05-01

    An important national defense objective for the US in the post cold-war era -- according to Secretary of Defense, Cheney is to deter regional conflicts. To satisfy this objective there is more or less general agreement that nuclear weapons are not needed, especially against regional powers like Iraq that do not (as yet) have a nuclear capability. Modern conventional weapons (PGMs), it is believed, are adequate when used in the traditional way of fighting: massive ground forces with heavy ground equipment, supported by air and naval forces. Of course, there are arguments against this view. For example, nuclear advocates call attention to deeply buried targets that are unattackable with conventional munitions. But this argument, and others, for US use (or threat of use) of nuclear weapons are presently discounted in favor of the political/moral advantages of a no-first-use policy. We do not wish to take sides in this debate. We believe, however, that the debate win continue as political, military, technical and economic factors undergo inevitable changes. In this brief paper, we want to present another pro-nuclear argument which, to the best of our knowledge, has received little or no attention. This argument, we believe, could become important in weighing the pros and cons of the debate if domestic pressures cause the defense budget to undergo such severe cuts that we must either abandon our political commitments or adopt a non-traditional war-fighting strategy that is effective under a greatly reduced defense budget.

  17. A region addresses patient safety.

    PubMed

    Feinstein, Karen Wolk; Grunden, Naida; Harrison, Edward I

    2002-06-01

    The Pittsburgh Regional Healthcare Initiative (PRHI) is a coalition of 35 hospitals, 4 major insurers, more than 30 major and small-business health care purchasers, dozens of corporate and civic leaders, organized labor, and partnerships with state and federal government all working together to deliver perfect patient care throughout Southwestern Pennsylvania. PRHI believes that in pursuing perfection, many of the challenges facing today's health care delivery system (eg, waste and error in the delivery of care, rising costs, frustration and shortage among clinicians and workers, financial distress, overcapacity, and lack of access to care) will be addressed. PRHI has identified patient safety (nosocomial infections and medication errors) and 5 clinical areas (obstetrics, orthopedic surgery, cardiac surgery, depression, and diabetes) as ideal starting points. In each of these areas of work, PRHI partners have assembled multifacility/multidisciplinary groups charged with defining perfection, establishing region-wide reporting systems, and devising and implementing recommended improvement strategies and interventions. Many design and conceptual elements of the PRHI strategy are adapted from the Toyota Production System and its Pittsburgh derivative, the Alcoa Business System. PRHI is in the proof-of-concept phase of development.

  18. Cold dust in hot regions

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenilayam, Gopika; Fich, Michel; Ade, Peter; Bintley, Dan; Chapin, Ed; Chrysostomou, Antonio; Jenness, Tim; Dunlop, James S.; Holland, Wayne S.; Ivison, Rob; Gibb, Andy; Halpern, Mark; Scott, Douglas; Greaves, Jane S.; Robson, Ian

    2014-03-01

    We mapped five massive star-forming regions with the SCUBA-2 camera on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope. Temperature and column density maps are obtained from the SCUBA-2 450 and 850 μm images. Most of the dense clumps we find have central temperatures below 20 K, with some as cold as 8 K, suggesting that they have no internal heating due to the presence of embedded protostars. This is surprising, because at the high densities inferred from these images and at these low temperatures such clumps should be unstable, collapsing to form stars and generating internal heating. The column densities at the clump centers exceed 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}, and the derived peak visual extinction values are from 25 to 500 mag for β = 1.5-2.5, indicating highly opaque centers. The observed cloud gas masses range from ∼10 to 10{sup 3} M {sub ☉}. The outer regions of the clumps follow an r {sup –2.36±0.35} density distribution, and this power-law structure is observed outside of typically 10{sup 4} AU. All these findings suggest that these clumps are high-mass starless clumps and most likely contain high-mass starless cores.

  19. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  20. Regional case studies--Africa.

    PubMed

    Prentice, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Africa is the final continent to be affected by the nutrition transition and, as elsewhere, is characterized by the paradoxical coexistence of malnutrition and obesity. Several features of the obesity epidemic in Africa mirror those in other emerging nations: it penetrates the richer nations and urban areas first with a strong urban- rural gradient; initially it affects the wealthy, but later there is a demographic switch as obesity becomes a condition more associated with poverty, and it shares many of the same drivers related to the increasing affordability of highly refined oils and carbohydrates, and a move away from subsistence farm work and towards sedentary lifestyles. Africa also has some characteristics of the obesity epidemic that stand out from other regions such as: (1) excepting some areas of the Pacific, Africa is probably the only region in which obesity (especially among women) is viewed culturally as a positive and desirable trait, leading to major gender differences in obesity rates in many countries; (2) most of Africa has very low rates of obesity in children, and to date African obesity is mostly an adult syndrome; (3) Africans seem genetically prone to higher rates of diabetes and hypertension in association with obesity than Caucasians, but seem to be relatively protected from dislipidemias; (4) the case-specific deaths and disabilities from diabetes and hypertension in Africa are very high due to the paucity of health services and the strain that the 'double burden' of disease places on health systems.

  1. Evolution of active region outflows throughout an active region lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangrilli, L.; Poletto, G.

    2016-10-01

    Context. We have shown previously that SOHO/UVCS data allow us to detect active region (AR) outflows at coronal altitudes higher than those reached by other instrumentation. These outflows are thought to be a component of the slow solar wind. Aims: Our purpose is to study the evolution of the outflows in the intermediate corona from AR 8100, from the time the AR first forms until it dissolves, after several transits at the solar limb. Methods: Data acquired by SOHO/UVCS at the time of the AR limb transits, at medium latitudes and at altitudes ranging from 1.5 to 2.3 R⊙, were used to infer the physical properties of the outflows through the AR evolution. To this end, we applied the Doppler dimming technique to UVCS spectra. These spectra include the H i Lyα line and the O vi doublet lines at 1031.9 and 1037.6 Å. Results: Plasma speeds and electron densities of the outflows were inferred over several rotations of the Sun. AR outflows are present in the newly born AR and persist throughout the entire AR life. Moreover, we found two types of outflows at different latitudes, both possibly originating in the same negative polarity area of the AR. We also analyzed the behavior of the Si xii 520 Å line along the UVCS slit in an attempt to reveal changes in the Si abundance when different regions are traversed. Although we found some evidence for a Si enrichment in the AR outflows, alternative interpretations are also plausible. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that outflows from ARs are detectable in the intermediate corona throughout the whole AR lifetime. This confirms that outflows contribute to the slow wind.

  2. [Epidemiological imaginary in Campania Region].

    PubMed

    Greco, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    The interviews on the epidemiological imaginary, collected within the framework of the project Sebiorec,(1) clearly demonstrate that also in Campania, on the border between the provinces of Naples and Caserta - where the issue of waste and land devastation take forms that are unprecedented compared to any other part of Europe - there is a widespread, strong, sacrosanct demand of participation in environment and health management. The request of deliberative ecological democracy is pressing.(2) There is an urgent need to meet that plethora of rights emerging in the "knowledge society" and in the "risk society" that someone has called "rights for scientific citizenship."(3) This request of the population of Campania, net of local cultural specificity, it is quite similar to that of the people of any other region of Europe. The context in which this request of participation is expressed, however, is quite different. Not only and not just for that real or perceived social pre-modern and familist web that would replace a modern civil society in Campania and all across the Southern Italian regions, but also and especially for some structural causes that we here try to list. Campania is a unique region in Europe - in many ways different even from other regions of southern Italy - due to the conjunction of at least five factors, not independent from each other. 1) The presence of a widespread organized crime which, in many areas, metropolitan and non-metropolitan alike, and especially in the provinces of Naples and Caserta, is a sort of state against the State and has one of its main levers of power and a major source of its wealth in the illegal control of the territory, in its different dimensions (military, but also economic, social and even cultural). 2) A huge social and economic disintegration, exacerbated in the last twenty years by a process of deindustrialization (until the early nineties Naples was the fifth industrial city of Italy, today it is a desert where

  3. Regional strategy tested in Caribbean.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia have joined forces in the world's 1st regional Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) effort -- the Caribbean CSM. The Barbados Family Planning Association (BFPS) is overseeing the operation, which begins selling 2 contraceptive pills and a condom in early February. Costs and start-up times were shaved by adopting brand names and advertising materials from Jamaica's highly successful CSM project. Jamaica's popular "Panther" condom and "Perle" oral contraceptive (OC) are being used by the Caribbean CSM project. Perle's 9-year-old package has been redesigned and the Caribbean CSM project also is selling a 2nd, low-dose version called "Perle-LD." The products are manufactured in the US by Syntex as Noriday and Norminest, respectively. But the regional approach's financial gains also had a debit side, most notably a tripling of bureaucratic procedures. Part of project difficulties stem from differences among the 3 Caribbean countries. While sharing a common cultural heritage, St. Lucians speak a patois dialect in addition to the English prevalent on the other islands. The biggest hurdle was overcoming an economic disparity between Barbados and its less affluent neighbors, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. The CSM project decided to try a 2-tier product pricing strategy. In US currency, prices run $1.75 per cycle for both OCs on Barbados, but $1.26 on St. Vincent and St. Lucia. A Panther 3-pack costs 75 cents on Barbados and 42 cents on the othe 2 islands. The project is being promoted with generic family planning media advertisements. The project also has held physician orientation seminars on each island. The pilot program will be accompanied by retailer training seminars. In addition the project may introduce a spermicidal foaming tablet, once the US Food and Drug Administration approvs a new American-made product. The unique Caribbean CSM project may spread an idea as potent as the family planning message. Its success could transmit the

  4. Geomorphology of Titan's Polar Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birch, S. P.; Hayes, A. G., Jr.; Dietrich, W. E.; Malaska, M. J.; Kirk, R. L.; Lucas, A.

    2014-12-01

    Numerous lakes and seas have been observed in Titan's polar regions (Stofan et al., 2007), primarily at the north pole (Hayes et al., 2008), while evidence for channelized fluid flow has been found at all latitudes (Lorenz et al., 2008), though primarily at the poles as well. We construct a geomorphologic map of both poles at latitudes higher than 600 using a combination of the Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar images along with topographic data in the form of SARTopo (Stiles et al., 2009) and sparsely distributed Digital Terrain Models. Utilizing data from flybys Ta through T98, we define five governing morphologic units: plains, small depressions, large seas, mountains and ridge and valley networks. These units are subdivided according to their radar properties (bright or dark, uniformity), morphologies (degree of dissection, undulation, curvature and organization, regional slope), relative elevations and contact relations. These units are systematically mapped in a repeatable, quantitative manner along with various structural features such as remnant ridges, channels, alluvial fans and scarps. In combining SAR imagery with topographic data, our geomorphic map reveals a stratigraphic sequence from which we can infer processes. We find that the North Pole is dominated by an elevated, radar-dark plains unit, embedded by numerous filled, wet and dry small depressions with a sparse number of channels. The dark-plains unit transitions into a highly dissected radar-bright, lowland unit closer to the mare. A high density of radar-dark remnant ridges, channels and alluvial fans characterizes this unit. The South Pole is markedly different from the North, having far fewer lakes, no large filled seas, larger elevation gradients and a greater number of mountain regions while also being dominated by an organized ridge and valley network. Our work suggests the South Pole is not a drier version of the North. Rather the observed dichotomy between the two poles is likely the

  5. Reliability of regional climate simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahrens, W.; Block, A.; Böhm, U.; Hauffe, D.; Keuler, K.; Kücken, M.; Nocke, Th.

    2003-04-01

    Quantification of uncertainty becomes more and more a key issue for assessing the trustability of future climate scenarios. In addition to the mean conditions, climate impact modelers focus in particular on extremes. Before generating such scenarios using e.g. dynamic regional climate models, a careful validation of present-day simulations should be performed to determine the range of errors for the quantities of interest under recent conditions as a raw estimate of their uncertainty in the future. Often, multiple aspects shall be covered together, and the required simulation accuracy depends on the user's demand. In our approach, a massive parallel regional climate model shall be used on the one hand to generate "long-term" high-resolution climate scenarios for several decades, and on the other hand to provide very high-resolution ensemble simulations of future dry spells or heavy rainfall events. To diagnosis the model's performance for present-day simulations, we have recently developed and tested a first version of a validation and visualization chain for this model. It is, however, applicable in a much more general sense and could be used as a common test bed for any regional climate model aiming at this type of simulations. Depending on the user's interest, integrated quality measures can be derived for near-surface parameters using multivariate techniques and multidimensional distance measures in a first step. At this point, advanced visualization techniques have been developed and included to allow for visual data mining and to qualitatively identify dominating aspects and regularities. Univariate techniques that are especially designed to assess climatic aspects in terms of statistical properties can then be used to quantitatively diagnose the error contributions of the individual used parameters. Finally, a comprehensive in-depth diagnosis tool allows to investigate, why the model produces the obtained near-surface results to answer the question if the

  6. Selection of USSR foreign similarity regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disler, J. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The similarity regions in the United States and Canada were selected to parallel the conditions that affect labeling and classification accuracies in the U.S.S.R. indicator regions. In addition to climate, a significant condition that affects labeling and classification accuracies in the U.S.S.R. is the proportion of barley and wheat grown in a given region (based on sown areas). The following regions in the United States and Canada were determined to be similar to the U.S.S.R. indicator regions: (1) Montana agrophysical unit (APU) 104 corresponds to the Belorussia high barley region; (2) North Dakota and Minnesota APU 20 and secondary region southern Manitoba and Saskatchewan correspond to the Ural RSFSR barley and spring wheat region; (3) Montana APU 23 corresponds to he North Caucasus barley and winter wheat region. Selection criteria included climates, crop type, crop distribution, growth cycles, field sizes, and field shapes.

  7. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L.

    1996-11-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations. Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  8. Venus - Landslide in Navka Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Magellan spacecraft has observed remnant landslide deposits apparently resulting from the collapse of volcanic structures. This Magellan radar image is centered about 25.4 degrees south latitude and 308 degrees east longitude in the southwestern Navka Region of Venus. The image shows a 17.4 kilometer (10.8 mile) diameter volcanic dome on the plains. The dome is approximately 1.86 kilometers (1.2 mile) in height and it has a slope of about 23 degrees. The northwest and northeast flanks of the dome have collapsed to form landslides that have deposited debris on the plains. The image shows an area 110 kilometers (68 miles) across and 100 kilometers (62 miles) in length.

  9. Regional geothermal exploration in Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, P.; Boulos, F. K.; Swanberg, C. A.

    1983-01-01

    A study is presented of the evaluation of the potential geothermal resources of Egypt using a thermal gradient/heat flow technique and a groundwater temperature/chemistry technique. Existing oil well bottom-hole temperature data, as well as subsurface temperature measurements in existing boreholes, were employed for the thermal gradient/heat flow investigation before special thermal gradient holes were drilled. The geographic range of the direct subsurface thermal measurements was extended by employing groundwater temperature and chemistry data. Results show the presence of a regional thermal high along the eastern margin of Egypt with a local thermal anomaly in this zone. It is suggested that the sandstones of the Nubian Formation may be a suitable reservoir for geothermal fluids. These findings indicate that temperatures of 150 C or higher may be found in this reservoir in the Gulf of Suez and Red Sea coastal zones where it lies at a depth of 4 km and deeper.

  10. Adolescent pregnancy: a regional tragedy.

    PubMed

    Conner, S L

    1992-12-01

    Adolescent childbearing increased 16% over 1986-90 in the Southern region of the US from 38.4 to 44.6 births/1000 girls aged 15-17; adolescent birth rates declined only in Oklahoma at the rate of 1%. Southern states spent more than $5.7 billion in Aid to Families with Dependent Children, Medicaid, and food stamps in 1991 to support families started by adolescent mothers, but federal and state spending combined for the primary prevention of adolescent pregnancy totalled only $110 million in the same states. Public expenditures related to adolescent childbearing in Alabama in fiscal year 1991 totalled more than $117 million, yet less than $1.5 million is spent on preventing teen pregnancy. The author stresses the need for stronger state commitment, leadership, and funds for programs to prevent pregnancy. Thus far, Alabama has definitely not done enough to address the HIV and AIDS pandemic.

  11. Surface chemistry in photodissociation regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esplugues, G. B.; Cazaux, S.; Meijerink, R.; Spaans, M.; Caselli, P.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The presence of dust can strongly affect the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. We model the chemistry in photodissociation regions (PDRs) using both gas-phase and dust-phase chemical reactions. Aims: Our aim is to determine the chemical compositions of the interstellar medium (gas/dust/ice) in regions with distinct (molecular) gas densities that are exposed to radiation fields with different intensities. Methods: We have significantly improved the Meijerink PDR code by including 3050 new gas-phase chemical reactions and also by implementing surface chemistry. In particular, we have included 117 chemical reactions occurring on grain surfaces covering different processes, such as adsorption, thermal desorption, chemical desorption, two-body reactions, photo processes, and cosmic-ray processes on dust grains. Results: We obtain abundances for different gas and solid species as a function of visual extinction, depending on the density and radiation field. We also analyse the rates of the formation of CO2 and H2O ices in different environments. In addition, we study how chemistry is affected by the presence/absence of ice mantles (bare dust or icy dust) and the impact of considering different desorption probabilities. Conclusions: The type of substrate (bare dust or icy dust) and the probability of desorption can significantly alter the chemistry occurring on grain surfaces, leading to differences of several orders of magnitude in the abundances of gas-phase species, such as CO, H2CO, and CH3OH. The type of substrate, together with the density and intensity of the radiation field, also determine the threshold extinction to form ices of CO2 and H2O. We also conclude that H2CO and CH3OH are mainly released into the gas phase of low, far-ultraviolet illuminated PDRs through chemical desorption upon two-body surface reactions, rather than through photodesorption.

  12. Scandinavia and the Baltic Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera were combined to create this cloud-free natural-color mosaic of Scandinavia and the Baltic region. The image extends from 64oN, 0oE in the northwest to 56oN, 32oE in the southeast, and has been draped over a shaded relief Digital Terrain Elevation Model from the United States Geological Survey. It is displayed in an equidistant conic projection.

    The image area includes southern Norway, Sweden and Finland, northern Denmark, Estonia, Latvia and part of western Russia. Norway's rugged western coastline is deeply indented by fjords. Elongated lakes, formed by glacial erosion and deposition, are characteristic of the entire region, and are particularly dense throughout Finland and Sweden. Numerous islands are present, and a virtually continuous chain of small, scattered islands occur between Sweden and Finland. The northern and eastern waters of the Baltic Sea are almost fresh, since the Baltic receives saltwater only from the narrow and shallow sounds between Denmark and Sweden that connect it to the North Sea. Most of the major cities within the image area are coastal, including St. Petersburg, Stockholm, Helsinki, Riga, and Oslo.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) observes the daylit Earth continuously from pole to pole, and every 9 days views the entire globe between 82 degrees north and 82 degrees south latitude.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  13. [Chromosomal variation in Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) from populations of Bryansk region, Saratov region (Russia), and Gomel region (Belarus)].

    PubMed

    Belyanina, S I

    2015-02-01

    Cytogenetic analysis was performed on samples of Chironomus plumosus L. (Diptera, Chironomidae) taken from waterbodies of various types in Bryansk region (Russia) and Gomel region (Belarus). Karyotypes of specimens taken from stream pools of the Volga were used as reference samples. The populations of Bryansk and Gomel regions (except for a population of Lake Strativa in Starodubskii district, Bryansk region) exhibit broad structural variation, including somatic mosaicism for morphotypes of the salivary gland chromosome set, decondensation of telomeric sites, and the presence of small structural changes, as opposed to populations of Saratov region. As compared with Saratov and Bryansk regions, the Balbiani ring in the B-arm of chromosome I is repressed in populations of Gomel region. It is concluded that the chromosome set of Ch. plumosus in a range of waterbodies of Bryansk and Gomel regions is unstable.

  14. 36 CFR 261.77 - Prohibitions in Region 8, Southern Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Prohibitions in Region 8, Southern Region. 261.77 Section 261.77 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE PROHIBITIONS Prohibitions in Regions § 261.77 Prohibitions in Region 8, Southern Region. (a)...

  15. Regional food culture and development.

    PubMed

    Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2007-01-01

    Food culture is most influenced by the locality of its origin, which will have been one of food acquisition and processing by various means. It is generally agreed, and is the basis of much United Nations, especially Food and Agriculture Organisation strategic development policy, that successful agriculture, horticulture and aquaculture along with fishing, underpin economically viable and healthy communities with their various food cultures. We also know that this must be in tandem with maternal literacy and operational health care systems. These elements are best represented on a regional basis. There is a growing consumer interest in knowing where one's food comes from as a measure of "food integrity". However, food production alone can be a precarious business and relate to a lesser or greater extent to local food culture and to trade, which may be complementary or at-odds with each other. Likewise, the local food culture may have its strengths and weaknesses as far as its ability to meet nutritional and health needs is concerned. Local food production may be restricted because of geographical or socio-economic conditions which preclude food diversity, although this may be compensated for by trade. Where food adequacy and diversity is compromised, and soils poor, various macronutrient, micronutrient (from animals and plants) and phytonutrient (nutritionally-advantageous food component from plants) deficiencies may be in evidence. These food system problems may be intertwined with food culture--for example, "rice-based and water-soluble vitamin poor"; "few animal-derived foods like meat, fish, eggs and milk with associated low calcium, vitamin D, Vitamin B12 and long chain n-3 fatty acid intakes"; "low fruit and vegetable intake with limited carotenoids and other phytonutrients". Geo-satellite surveillance and mapping as identifying such "hot spots": for regional food problems, as well as hot spots where most of the world's biodiversity is found (1.4 % of land on

  16. Time-Dependent Photodissociation Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David; Natta, Antonella

    1995-01-01

    We present theoretical models of the time-dependent thermal and chemical structure of molecular gas suddenly exposed to far-ultraviolet (FUV) (6 eV less than hv less than 13.6 eV) radiation fields and the consequent time- dependent infrared emission of the gas. We focus on the response of molecular hydrogen for cloud densities ranging from n = 10(exp 3) to 10(exp 6)/cu cm and FUV fluxes G(sub 0) = 10(exp 3)-10(exp 6) times the local FUV interstellar flux. For G(sub 0)/n greater than 10(exp -2) cu cm, the emergent H(sub 2) vibrational line intensities are initially larger than the final equilibrium values. The H(sub 2) lines are excited by FUV fluorescence and by collisional excitation in warm gas. Most of the H(sub 2) intensity is generated at a characteristic hydrogen column density of N approximately 10(exp 21)/sq cm, which corresponds to an FUV optical depth of unity caused by dust opacity. The time dependence of the H(sub 2) intensities arises because the initial abundances of H(sub 2) at these depths is much higher than the equilibrium values, so that H(sub 2) initially competes more effectively with dust in absorbing FUV photons. Considerable column densities of warm (T approximately 1000) K H(sub 2) gas can be produced by the FUV pumping of H(sub 2) vibrational levels followed by collisional de-excitation, which transfers the energy to heat. In dense (n greater than or approximately 10(exp 5)/cu cm) gas exposed to high (G(sub 0) greater than or approximately 10(exp 4)) fluxes, this warm gas produces a 2-1 S(1)/1-0 S(l) H(sub 2) line ratio of approximately 0.1, which mimics the ratio found in shocked gas. In lower density regions, the FUV pumping produces a pure-fluorescent ratio of approximately 0.5. We also present calculations of the time dependence of the atomic hydrogen column densities and of the intensities of 0 I 6300 A, S II 6730 A, Fe II 1.64 microns, and rotational OH and H20 emission. Potential applications include star-forming regions, clouds

  17. 7 CFR 2610.3 - Regional organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, Wyoming, and Utah. Western Region, 600 Harrison Street, Suite 225..., and Utah. Western Region, 600 Harrison Street, Room 225, San Francisco, California 94107, (415)...

  18. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 3

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview of ocean dumping in Mid Atlantic, US. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships.

  19. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 1

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview of ocean dumping in New England, US. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships.

  20. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 2

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview of ocean dumping in NY, NJ and Puerto Rico. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships

  1. Enhancing regional security agreements through cooperative monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.

    1995-05-01

    This paper proposes that strengthening regional capabilities for formulating and implementing arms control and confidence-building measures is a tangible method of enhancing regional security. It discusses the importance of developing a regional infrastructure for arms control and confidence building and elucidates the role of technology in facilitating regional arms control and confidence-building agreements. In addition, it identifies numerous applications for regional cooperative monitoring in the areas of arms control, resource management, international commerce and disaster response. The Cooperative Monitoring Center at Sandia National Laboratories, whose aim is to help individual countries and regions acquire the tools they need to develop their own solutions to regional problems, is discussed briefly. The paper ends with recommendations for establishing regional cooperative monitoring centers.

  2. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 6

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview of ocean dumping in South Central, US. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships

  3. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 4

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview of ocean dumping in Southeast United States. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships

  4. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 10

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview of ocean dumping in Pacific Northwest, US. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships.

  5. Managing Ocean Dumping in EPA Region 9

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Overview of ocean dumping in Pacific Southwest, US. Includes materials dumped in the Region, ocean dumping permits issues, dredged material testing guidance, ocean disposal site descriptions and information, regional dredging teams and other partnerships.

  6. Diode having trenches in a semiconductor region

    DOEpatents

    Palacios, Tomas Apostol; Lu, Bin; Matioli, Elison de Nazareth

    2016-03-22

    An electrode structure is described in which conductive regions are recessed into a semiconductor region. Trenches may be formed in a semiconductor region, such that conductive regions can be formed in the trenches. The electrode structure may be used in semiconductor devices such as field effect transistors or diodes. Nitride-based power semiconductor devices are described including such an electrode structure, which can reduce leakage current and otherwise improve performance.

  7. C60 in Photodissociation Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, Pablo; Berné, Olivier; Sheffer, Yaron; Wolfire, Mark G.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    2014-10-01

    Recent studies have confirmed the presence of buckminsterfullerene (C60) in different interstellar and circumstellar environments. However, several aspects regarding C60 in space are not yet well understood, such as the formation and excitation processes, and the connection between C60 and other carbonaceous compounds in the interstellar medium, in particular polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this paper, we study several photodissociation regions (PDRs) where C60 and PAHs are detected and the local physical conditions are reasonably well constrained to provide observational insights into these questions. C60 is found to emit in PDRs where the dust is cool (Td = 20-40 K) and even in PDRs with cool stars. These results exclude the possibility for C60 to be locked in grains at thermal equilibrium in these environments. We observe that PAH and C60 emission are spatially uncorrelated and that C60 is present in PDRs where the physical conditions (in terms of radiation field and hydrogen density) allow for full dehydrogenation of PAHs, with the exception of Ced 201. We also find trends indicative of an increase in C60 abundance within individual PDRs, but these trends are not universal. These results support models where the dehydrogenation of carbonaceous species is the first step toward C60 formation. However, this is not the only parameter involved and C60 formation is likely affected by shocks and PDR age.

  8. Hybrid regional air pollution models

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.L.

    1980-03-01

    This discussion deals with a family of air quality models for predicting and analyzing the fine particulate loading in the atmosphere, for assessing the extent and degree of visibility impairment, and for determining the potential of pollutants for increasing the acidity of soils and water. The major horizontal scales of interest are from 400km to 2000km; and the time scales may vary from several hours, to days, weeks, and a few months or years, depending on the EPA regulations being addressed. First the role air quality models play in the general family of atmospheric simulation models is described. Then, the characteristics of a well-designed, comprehensive air quality model are discussed. Following this, the specific objectives of this workshop are outlined, and their modeling implications are summarized. There are significant modeling differences produced by the choice of the coordinate system, whether it be the fixed Eulerian system, the moving Lagrangian system, or some hybrid of the two. These three systems are briefly discussed, and a list of hybrid models that are currently in use are given. Finally, the PNL regional transport model is outlined and a number of research needs are listed.

  9. Transition Region and Coronal Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfson, C. Jacob

    2001-01-01

    This contract is for the development and flight of an experiment to study the solar atmosphere with excellent spatial and temporal resolution; and reduction and analysis of the resultant data. After being launched into a near perfect orbit on 2 April 1998, the spacecraft and instrument remain in good condition and the resultant data are spectacular. Over 6.6 million images have now been taken. Observing highlights this month included several coordinations with CDS, studies of the quiet Sun with SUMER and NMI, coordinations with observers at the SPO Dunn Tower Telescope, and a variety of active region observations. Some of the latter were relatively unique in that they emphasized using the hottest (284A) channel of TRACE. We were informed of the results of the Senior Review Committee's evaluation of all Space Science on-orbit missions and the corresponding fiscal year budgets for TRACE. The budget for FY-02 is modestly less than is being spent in FY-01 and for the years beyond that it is much, much lower.

  10. MHD Simulations: Corotating Interaction Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiengarten, T.; Kleimann, J.; Fichtner, H.; Kissmann, R.

    2014-09-01

    Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) form in the solar wind when parcels of fast-speed wind interact with slow-speed wind due to the rotation of the Sun. The resulting buildup of pressure generates disturbances that, with increasing time (or distance from the Sun), may develop into a so-called forward-reverse shock pair. During solar-quiet times CIRs can be the dominant force shaping large-scale structures in the heliosphere. Studying CIRs is therefore important because the associated shocks are capable of e.g. accelerating energetic particles or deflecting cosmic rays. The global structure of CIRs can be modeled with an MHD approach that gives the plasma quantities needed to model the transport of particles in the heliosphere with e.g. stochastic differential equations. Here, we show results from 3D-MHD simulations with our code CRONOS for a) analytic boundary conditions where results can be compared to those obtained with a different code and b) boundary conditions derived with the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model from observational data (WSO), which are compared to spacecraft observations.

  11. Regional Interagency Disaster Response Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moe, K.; Sullivan, D.; Butow, S.; Beilin, P.

    2008-12-01

    In affiliation with the "Great Worden Quake II" (GWQII) disaster preparedness exercise, the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field California, the Air Force National Guard (ANG) 129th Rescue Wing, Moffett Field, California, and the Bay Area Automated Mapping Association,led by the IT group for the City of Walnut Creek, California, will engage in a technology transfer demonstration utilizing the collaborative environment developed for NASA's very successful wildfire mapping campaigns during the years 2006-2008. The aircraft platform will be the ANG C-130, a viable candidate to substitute for the Ikana UAV, which cannot fly from Ames because of FAA restrictions on UAV flights over populated areas. In this technology transfer demonstration, we will: (1) Prove, document and train Regional Fire departments how to link and use NASA real-time data with existing software (ESRI, IRRIS, etc). (2) Demonstrate how to access and use this data as a bridge between the real-time (3) Refine the questions and capabilities that would be involved and developed with this type of real-time data available This paper describes this exercise.

  12. The Baltics: Regional energy profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic`s exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

  13. The Baltics: Regional energy profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    However, all three Baltic Republics are heavily dependent on primary energy imports. Domestic energy sources in the Baltics are limited to oil shale mines in Estonia, small oil deposits in Lithuania, peat, and some very small hydroelectric power plants. A RBMK nuclear power station, similar to Chernobyl, operates at Snieckus in Lithuania, but the reactor fuel is also imported from Russia. However, Lithuania and Estonia are net exporters of electricity despite their reliance on primary fuels imports. The major power stations in these two Republics are the Ignalina Nuclear Power Station and the two thermal power plants at Narva in Estonia which are fueled by oil shale. The only oil refinery in the Baltics is also located in Lithuania, at Mazeikiai. This refinery has the capacity to satisfy the demand for selected refined products of the entire region, including the Kaliningrad oblast, a noncontiguous part of Russia. The Mazeikiai refinery has operated at only forty to sixty percent capacity since 1990 due to halts in crude oil supplies from Russia. The Baltic Republics also import one hundred percent of their coal and natural gas supplies. Russia is the main trading partner for all the Baltic states, accounting for more than half of their trade flow. Mutual trade within the Baltics has been surprisingly low. Other Baltic states contribute less than ten percent to each Republic's exports or imports, even less than Belarus or Ukraine. Aside from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, only Kazakhstan contributes more than two percent to Baltics trade.

  14. 50 CFR 1.7 - Regional director.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR GENERAL PROVISIONS DEFINITIONS § 1.7 Regional director. Regional director means the official in charge of a region of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service or the authorized representative of such official....

  15. 29 CFR 102.4 - Region; subregion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Region; subregion. 102.4 Section 102.4 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8 Definitions § 102.4 Region; subregion. The term region as used herein shall mean that part of the United States or any Territory...

  16. Intern Perceptions of Dialect and Regionalism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hara, Hunter

    2005-01-01

    Interns at The University of Tampa investigate how perceptions of dialect and regionalism may impact the learning environment and more precisely, the learner. Regionalism is defined as a belief that one's region of origin is a primary determinant of the quality of one's standards of living, social forms, customary beliefs, levels of…

  17. Regional Differences in Attitudes toward Corporal Punishment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Clifton P.

    1994-01-01

    Used data from 1988 General Social Survey for 978 adults to analyze regional differences in attitudes toward corporal punishment. Results revealed that most respondents in each of four regions favored spanking children; support varied among regions. After controlling for sociodemographic variables, northeast respondents had significantly less…

  18. Careerism and the Decline of Regional Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairweather, Malcolm; Rumney, Thomas

    The aim of this paper is to offer possible explanations for the declining interest in regional geography. One of the major contributing factors is employment potential. Employment is perceived as being relatively limited for persons defining their interests as "regional" within geography. Students, therefore, do not enroll in regional geography…

  19. Regional Profiles of Higher Education, 2001. Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Funding Council for England, Bristol.

    This is the third annual edition of the regional profiles of higher education. As in previous editions, this report sets out a range of data on the pattern of higher education in each of the nine regions of England. The regional dimension of higher education continues to grow in importance. Higher education in England retains its core academic and…

  20. 28 CFR 44.305 - Regional offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Regional offices. 44.305 Section 44.305... Enforcement Procedures § 44.305 Regional offices. The Special Counsel, in consultation with the Attorney General, shall establish such regional offices as may be necessary to carry out his or her duties....

  1. LATIN--Latin American Regional News Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nichols, John Spicer

    The establishment of a regional news agency for Latin America to improve the balance of news flow and increase the transmission of news more applicable to regional problems has often been proposed. Despite wide acceptance of the concept, the birth of the Third World's first regional news agency, Agencia Latinoamericana de Informacion (LATIN), has…

  2. Efficient Calculation of Regional Synthetic Seismograms,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-08-14

    The general behavior of regional seismograms as a function of source type, depth, distance, and frequency is not generally available in many regions of the world ...discriminants tested in other regions of the world . In order to perform such a theoretical transport of an empirical discriminant, we must have a

  3. Motor Functions of the Broca's Region

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binkofski, Ferdinand; Buccino, Giovanni

    2004-01-01

    Broca's region in the dominant cerebral hemisphere is known to mediate the production of language but also contributes to comprehension. This region evolved only in humans and is constituted of Brodmann's areas 44 and 45 in the inferior frontal gyrus. There is, however, evidence that Broca's region overlaps, at least in part, with the ventral…

  4. Cooperative monitoring of regional security agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.L.

    1995-08-01

    This paper argues that cooperative monitoring plays a critical role in the implementation of regional security agreements and confidence building measures. A framework for developing cooperative monitoring options is proposed and several possibilities for relating bilateral and regional monitoring systems to international monitoring systems are discussed. Three bilateral or regional agreements are analyzed briefly to illustrate different possibilities: (1) the demilitarization of the Sinai region between Israel and Egypt in the 1970s; (2) the 1991 quadripartite agreement for monitoring nuclear facilities among Brazil, Argentina, The Argentine-Brazilian Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials and the International Atomic Energy Agency; and (3) a bilateral Open Skies agreement between Hungary and Romania in 1991. These examples illustrate that the relationship of regional or bilateral arms control or security agreements to international agreements depends on a number of factors: the overlap of provisions between regional and international agreements; the degree of interest in a regional agreement among the international community; efficiency in implementing the agreement; and numerous political considerations.Given the importance of regional security to the international community, regions should be encouraged to develop their own infrastructure for implementing regional arms control and other security agreements. A regional infrastructure need not preclude participation in an international regime. On the contrary, establishing regional institutions for arms control and nonproliferation could result in more proactive participation of regional parties in developing solutions for regional and international problems, thereby strengthening existing and future international regimes. Possible first steps for strengthening regional infrastructures are identified and potential technical requirements are discussed.

  5. Regional variations in seismic boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumlyanska, Ludmila

    2010-05-01

    in the same depth interval [1, 2]. A general approach to the solving of the seismic tomography task by the method of Taylor's approximation is as follows: construction of a generalized field of mid-point of arrival times of waves at the observation station; construction of mid-points travel-time curves, i.e. cross-sections of the generalized field of mid-point of the arrival times of waves; inversion of travel time of the mid-point curve into speed curve. Due to the imposed limitations there are no abrupt velocity leaps in the model in use. First derivatives of the velocity for each curve were calculated points of local extreme were identified in order to determine the seismic boundaries. Maps of depths of occurrences of seismic boundaries at about 410 km, 670 km, 1700 km, and 2800 km were constructed. In general there is a deviation from generally accepted values beneath regions with different geodynamic regimes. There is a correlation of the 410 km and 670 km boundaries behaviour with the observed heat flow anomalies and gravitational field. [1] V.Geyko, T. Tsvetkova, L. Shymlanskaya, I. Bugaienko, L. Zaets Regional 3-D velocity model of the mantle of Sarmatia (south-west of the East European Platform). Geophysical Journal, 2005, iss. 6, P. 927-939. (In Russian) [2] V. Geyko, L. Shymlanskaya, T. Tsvetkova, I.Bugaenko, L.Zaets Three-dimensional model of the upper mantle of Ukraine constructed from the times of P waves arrival. Geophysical Journal, 2006, iss. 1, P. 3-16. (In Russian)

  6. Osteodistraction in the craniofacial region.

    PubMed

    Bertelè, G; Mercanti, M; Stella, F; Albanese, M; De Santis, D

    2005-04-01

    In the specific field of maxillofacial surgery, the use of osseous distraction is always more and more helpful not only in the rehabilitation of malformation pathologies, but also in the clinical situations that require bone deficit correction resulting from traumatic events and postsurgical effects, for example oncologic surgery. The reason for this versatility in the distraction protocols is, undoubtedly, due to the fact that, at present, they are valid surgical methods in alternative to or supporting maxillofacial surgery, since they are feasible from a very early age and they obtain a level of distraction that is often higher than with orthopedic devices or conventional surgery. There are multiple indications for osteodistraction and they range from cases of hyper- or hypodevelopment of the maxilla and mandible, of both their anteroposterior and transverse components, to complex syndromes such as cleft lip and palate. Even the clinical distraction of the upper and middle thirds of the cranium, through a coronal craniotomy, has been shown to be a safe surgical procedure and it allows, for example, the successful rehabilitation of adult patients suffering from hemifacial microsomia or craniosynostosis. With the continuous and constant evolution of the integration of osteodistraction principles in the rehabilitation of the craniofacial region, an ever-more effective interdisciplinary relationship between orthodontics and osteodistraction has been seen with growing interest. More often treatment plans are programmed in which the orthodontic and osteodistractive phases are integrated and complete each other, each supporting the other. Scientific and clinical progress achieved in this field in recent years, allows more and more refined therapeutic solutions to be programmed, permitting craniofacial operations and to repair an ankylotic dental arch or reposition osteointegrated implants to the most convenient bone sites.

  7. MHD simulations: Corotating Interaction Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiengarten, T.; Kleimann, J.; Fichtner, H.; Kühl, P.; Heber, B.; Kissmann, R.

    2013-12-01

    Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) form in the solar wind when parcels of fast-speed wind interact with slow-speed wind due to the rotation of the Sun. The resulting buildup of pressure generates disturbances that, with increasing time (or distance from the Sun), may develop into a so-called forward-reverse shock-pair. During solar-quiet times CIRs can be the dominant force shaping large-scale structures in the heliosphere. Studying CIRs is therefore important because the associated shocks are capable of e.g. accelerating energetic particles or deflecting cosmic rays. The global structure of CIRs can be modeled with an MHD approach that gives the plasma quantities needed to model the transport of particles in the heliosphere (with e.g. stochastic differential equations (SDEs)). Our MHD code CRONOS employs a semi-discrete finite volume scheme with adaptive time-stepping Runge-Kutta integration. The solenoidality of the magnetic field is ensured via constrained transport and the code supports Cartesian, Cylindrical and Spherical coordinates (including coordinate singularities) with the option for non-equidistant grids. The code runs in parallel (MPI) and supports the HDF5 output data format. Here, we show results from 3D-MHD simulations with our code CRONOS for a) analytic boundary conditions where results can be compared to those obtained with a different code and b) boundary conditions derived with the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model from observational data (WSO), which are compared to spacecraft observations. Comparison with Pizzo (1982) for analytic boundary conditions Comparison with STEREO A for Carrington Rotation 2060

  8. Securing non-volatile memory regions

    DOEpatents

    Faraboschi, Paolo; Ranganathan, Parthasarathy; Muralimanohar, Naveen

    2013-08-20

    Methods, apparatus and articles of manufacture to secure non-volatile memory regions are disclosed. An example method disclosed herein comprises associating a first key pair and a second key pair different than the first key pair with a process, using the first key pair to secure a first region of a non-volatile memory for the process, and using the second key pair to secure a second region of the non-volatile memory for the same process, the second region being different than the first region.

  9. CME Productivity of Active Regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, J.; Shen, C.; Ye, P.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, R.; Wang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Solar active regions (ARs) are the major sources of two kinds of the most violent solar eruptions, namely flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Although they are believed to be two phenomena in the same eruptive process, the productivity of them could be quiet different for various ARs. Why is an AR productive? And why is a flare-rich AR CME-poor? To answer these questions, we compared the recent super flare-rich but CME-poor AR 12192, with other four ARs; two were productive in both flares and CMEs and the other two were inert to produce any M-class or intenser flares or CMEs. By investigating the photospheric parameters based on the SDO/HMI vector magnetogram, we find the three productive ARs have larger magnetic flux, current and free magnetic energy than the inert ARs. Furthermore, the two ARs productive in both flares and CMEs contain higher current helicity, concentrating along both sides of the flaring neutral lines, indicating the presence of a seed magnetic structure( that is highly sheared or twisted) of a CME; they also have higher decay index in the low corona, showing weak constraint. The results suggest that productive ARs are always large and have strong current system and sufficient free energy to power flares, and more importantly whether or not a flare is accompanied by a CME is seemingly related to (1) if there is significant sheared or twisted core field serving as the seed of the CME and (2) if the constraint of the overlying arcades is weak enough. Moreover, some productive ARs may frequently produce more than one CME. How does this happen? We do a statistical investigation of waiting times of quasi-homologous CMEs ( CME ssuccessive originating from the same ARs within short intervals) from super ARs in solar cycle 23 to answer this question. The waiting times of quasi-homologous CMEs have a two-component distribution with a separation at about 18 hours, the first component peaks at 7 hours. The correlation analysis among CME waiting times

  10. Ticks and rickettsial infection in the wildlife of two regions of the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Soares, Herbert S; Barbieri, Amália R M; Martins, Thiago F; Minervino, Antonio H H; de Lima, Júlia T R; Marcili, Arlei; Gennari, Solange M; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2015-01-01

    During 2009-2012, wild animals and their ticks were sampled in two areas within the Amazon biome of Brazil, in the states of Mato Grosso and Pará. Animal tissues, blood, and ticks were molecularly tested for Rickettsia and Coxiella DNA. A total of 182 wild animals were sampled, comprising 28 mammalian, five avian, and three reptilian species. Animal tissues or blood were all negative for Rickettsia or Coxiella DNA. A total of 454 ticks (22 larvae, 226 nymphs, 127 males, 79 females) were collected from 52 (28.6%) animals, and identified into 15 species: Amblyomma cajennense, A. naponense, A. humerale, A. nodosum, A. goeldii, A. oblongoguttatum, A. longirostre, A. calcaratum, A. coelebs, A. pacae, A. geayii, A. rotundatum, A. auricularium, A. ovale, and Haemaphysalis juxtakochi. While no Coxiella DNA was identified in ticks, six Rickettsia species were detected in the ticks. "Candidatus Rickettsia amblyommii" was the most common agent, detected in four tick species, A. cajennense, A. auricularium, A. longirostre, and A. humerale. The second most common agent, R. bellii, was detected in A. humerale and A. naponense. Rickettsia rhipicephali was detected in H. juxtakochi, and R. felis in A. humerale. Two possible new Rickettsia species were detected in A. naponense ticks, namely, a novel spotted fever group agent close-related to R. africae in Pará, and a novel Canadensis group agent in Mato Grosso. Results of the present study expand our knowledge on the tick fauna, and on the yet infantile knowledge of tick-borne rickettsiae in the Amazon biome.

  11. Numerical conformal mapping and its inverse of unbounded multiply connected regions onto logarithmic spiral slit regions and straight slit regions.

    PubMed

    Yunus, A A M; Murid, A H M; Nasser, M M S

    2014-02-08

    This paper presents a boundary integral equation method with the adjoint generalized Neumann kernel for computing conformal mapping of unbounded multiply connected regions and its inverse onto several classes of canonical regions. For each canonical region, two integral equations are solved before one can approximate the boundary values of the mapping function. Cauchy's-type integrals are used for computing the mapping function and its inverse for interior points. This method also works for regions with piecewise smooth boundaries. Three examples are given to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Eighteen Years of the Great Lakes Regional Counseling Psychology Conference: Revisiting the Need for Regional Conferences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado-Romero, Edward A.; Bowman, Sharon L.; Gerstein, Lawrence H.

    2006-01-01

    The Great Lakes Regional Conference on Counseling Psychology is the only conference to continuously fulfill the 1987 mandate issued by Division 17 for regional counseling conferences. The rationale for regional conferences is reviewed, and the 18-year history of the Great Lakes Regional Conference is examined. The authors conclude by noting the…

  13. Low level methylmercury exposure affects neuropsychological function in adults

    PubMed Central

    Yokoo, Edna M; Valente, Joaquim G; Grattan, Lynn; Schmidt, Sérgio Luís; Platt, Illeane; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2003-01-01

    Background The neurotoxic effects of methylmercury (MeHg) have been demonstrated in both human and animal studies. Both adult and fetal brains are susceptible to the effects of MeHg toxicity. However, the specific effects of adult exposures have been less well-documented than those of children with prenatal exposures. This is largely because few studies of MeHg exposures in adults have used sensitive neurological endpoints. The present study reports on the results of neuropsychological testing and hair mercury concentrations in adults (>17 yrs) living in fishing communities of Baixada Cuiabana (Mato Grosso) in the Pantanal region of Brazil. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in six villages on the Cuiaba River. Participants included 129 men and women older than 17 years of age. They were randomly selected in proportion to the age range and number of inhabitants in each village. Questionnaire information was collected on demographic variables, including education, occupation, and residence history. Mercury exposure was determined by analysis of hair using flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The neurocognitive screening battery included tests from the Wechsler Memory Scale and the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Concentrated Attention Test of the Toulouse-Pierron Factorial Battery, the Manual Ability Subtests of the Tests of Mechanical Ability, and the Profile of Mood States. Results Mercury exposures in this population were associated with fish consumption. The hair mercury concentration in the 129 subjects ranged from 0.56 to 13.6 μg/g; the mean concentration was 4.2 ± 2.4 micrograms/g and the median was 3.7 μg/g. Hair mercury levels were associated with detectable alterations in performance on tests of fine motor speed and dexterity, and concentration. Some aspects of verbal learning and memory were also disrupted by mercury exposure. The magnitude of the effects increased with hair mercury concentration, consistent with a dose

  14. Spatial region filtering in IRAF/PROS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Eric; Roll, John; Schmidt, Dennis; Vanhilst, Mike; Burg, Richard

    1992-01-01

    In order to analyze x ray data, it is nearly always necessary to extract source and background events from a data set. Typically, this is done by defining geometric spatial regions of the data set to describe the source and background. For example, one might wish to extract source events from a circular or elliptical region centered at a particular pixel, and background events from a circular or elliptical annulus whose inner radius matches the source region. At the same time, it might be necessary to exclude one or more nearby sources from the source or background region in question. Thus, it might be necessary to define a pie-shaped region or even an entirely irregularly-shaped region to exclude. A spatial filtering scheme called REGIONS was implemented in IRAF/PROS to support these and other types of spatial region extraction. It allows users to create a spatial mask by specifying one or more ASCII geometric shape descriptors (box, circle, ellipse, pie, point, annulus, and polygon) as regions to be included or excluded in the mask. In addition, two or more shapes can be combined using Boolean algebra to create an infinite variety of sophisticated regions. Each geometric shape has a specific set of parameters that describe that shape. For example, a circle is described by a center and a radius, while a box is described by a center, length, width, and rotation angle. These quantities can be specified in units of pixels or, in cases where the target image contains world coordinate system information, they can be described in units such as RA and Dec. Users can create region mask files by feeding an ASCII region descriptor to the IRAF/PROS plcreate task. Temporary masks can also be created from ASCII region descriptors by individual applications that call the routines in the region creation library. This library implements a yacc-based region parser that compiles the ASCII descriptors into 'software CPU' instructions which are then executed to create the mask. The

  15. Depth of origin of solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, E. N.

    1984-01-01

    Observations show that the individual bipolar magnetic regions on the sun remain confined during their decay phase, with much of the magnetic field pulling back under the surface, in reverse of the earlier emergence. This suggests that the magnetic field is held on a short rein by subsurface forces, for otherwise the region would decay entirely by dispersing across the face of the sun. With the simple assumption that the fields at the surface are controlled from well-defined anchor points at a depth h, it is possible to relate the length l of the bipolar region at the surface to the depth h, with h about equal to l. The observed dimensions l about equal to 100,000 km for normal active regions, and l about equal to 10,000 km for the ephemeral active regions, indicate comparable depths of origin. More detailed observational studies of the active regions may be expected to shed further light on the problem.

  16. Regional manifold learning for disease classification.

    PubMed

    Ye, Dong Hye; Desjardins, Benoit; Hamm, Jihun; Litt, Harold; Pohl, Kilian M

    2014-06-01

    While manifold learning from images itself has become widely used in medical image analysis, the accuracy of existing implementations suffers from viewing each image as a single data point. To address this issue, we parcellate images into regions and then separately learn the manifold for each region. We use the regional manifolds as low-dimensional descriptors of high-dimensional morphological image features, which are then fed into a classifier to identify regions affected by disease. We produce a single ensemble decision for each scan by the weighted combination of these regional classification results. Each weight is determined by the regional accuracy of detecting the disease. When applied to cardiac magnetic resonance imaging of 50 normal controls and 50 patients with reconstructive surgery of Tetralogy of Fallot, our method achieves significantly better classification accuracy than approaches learning a single manifold across the entire image domain.

  17. Climate impacts of regional SO2 emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamarque, J. F.; Fiore, A. M.; Shindell, D. T.

    2015-12-01

    Climate impacts of regional SO2 emissions J.-F. Lamarque, A. M. Fiore and D. Shindell In this talk, we present the analysis of constant -forcing present-day simulations pertaining to the perturbation of SO2 emissions over the United States and China. Using 3 chemistry-climate models (CESM, GFDL and GISS), we show that the removal of SO2 anthropogenic emissions over each region leads to significant (at the 95% or above; significance is also assessed relative to internal variability as determined from a 200-year control simulation with perpetual year 2000 conditions) perturbations in temperature over multiple regions of the Northern Hemisphere. While more limited, significant perturbations in regional precipitation are also found. While the overall (global and zonal means) forcing from Chinese emissions is similar to the US case, we found that the regional response to the emissions has different regional distributions.

  18. Regional Changes in Extreme Climatic Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, J. L.; Sloan, L. C.; Snyder, M. A.

    2002-12-01

    This study focuses on California as a climatically complex region that is vulnerable to changes in water supply and delivery. A regional climate model is employed to assess changes in the frequency and intensity of extreme temperatures and precipitation. Significant increases in daily minimum and maximum temperatures occur with a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration. Increases in daily temperatures lead to increases in prolonged heat waves and length of the growing season. Changes in total and extreme precipitation vary by geographic region.

  19. Region 7 Laboratory Information Management System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This is metadata documentation for the Region 7 Laboratory Information Management System (R7LIMS) which maintains records for the Regional Laboratory. Any Laboratory analytical work performed is stored in this system which replaces LIMS-Lite, and before that LAST. The EPA and its contractors may use this database. The Office of Policy & Management (PLMG) Division at EPA Region 7 is the primary managing entity; contractors can access this database but it is not accessible to the public.

  20. The Amazon Region; A Vision of Sovereignty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    or government agency. STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT THE AMAZON REGION; A VISION OF SOVEREIGNTY BY LIEUTENANT COLONEL EDUARDO JOSE BARBOSA...BARRACKS, PA 17013-5050 USAWC STRATEGY RESEARCH PROJECT The Amazon Region; A vision of Sovereignty by LTC Eduardo Jose Barbosa John Garofano...Distribution is unlimited. DTXG QUikLIxi’ JKsjr.^ 11 ABSTRACT AUTHOR: Eduardo Jose Barbosa TITLE: The Amazon Region; A vision of Sovereignty. FORMAT