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Sample records for ground ice core

  1. Ice Core Investigations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krim, Jessica; Brody, Michael

    2008-01-01

    What can glaciers tell us about volcanoes and atmospheric conditions? How does this information relate to our understanding of climate change? Ice Core Investigations is an original and innovative activity that explores these types of questions. It brings together popular science issues such as research, climate change, ice core drilling, and air…

  2. Making an Ice Core.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kopaska-Merkel, David C.

    1995-01-01

    Explains an activity in which students construct a simulated ice core. Materials required include only a freezer, food coloring, a bottle, and water. This hands-on exercise demonstrates how a glacier is formed, how ice cores are studied, and the nature of precision and accuracy in measurement. Suitable for grades three through eight. (Author/PVD)

  3. Utilization of fluorescent microspheres and a green fluorescent protein-marked strain for assessment of microbiological contamination of permafrost and ground ice core samples from the Canadian High Arctic.

    PubMed

    Juck, D F; Whissell, G; Steven, B; Pollard, W; McKay, C P; Greer, C W; Whyte, L G

    2005-02-01

    Fluorescent microspheres were applied in a novel fashion during subsurface drilling of permafrost and ground ice in the Canadian High Arctic to monitor the exogenous microbiological contamination of core samples obtained during the drilling process. Prior to each drill run, a concentrated fluorescent microsphere (0.5-microm diameter) solution was applied to the interior surfaces of the drill bit, core catcher, and core tube and allowed to dry. Macroscopic examination in the field demonstrated reliable transfer of the microspheres to core samples, while detailed microscopic examination revealed penetration levels of less than 1 cm from the core exterior. To monitor for microbial contamination during downstream processing of the permafrost and ground ice cores, a Pseudomonas strain expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was painted on the core exterior prior to processing. Contamination of the processed core interiors with the GFP-expressing strain was not detected by culturing the samples or by PCR to detect the gfp marker gene. These methodologies were quick, were easy to apply, and should help to monitor the exogenous microbiological contamination of pristine permafrost and ground ice samples for downstream culture-dependent and culture-independent microbial analyses.

  4. Utilization of Fluorescent Microspheres and a Green Fluorescent Protein-Marked Strain for Assessment of Microbiological Contamination of Permafrost and Ground Ice Core Samples from the Canadian High Arctic

    PubMed Central

    Juck, D. F.; Whissell, G.; Steven, B.; Pollard, W.; McKay, C. P.; Greer, C. W.; Whyte, L. G.

    2005-01-01

    Fluorescent microspheres were applied in a novel fashion during subsurface drilling of permafrost and ground ice in the Canadian High Arctic to monitor the exogenous microbiological contamination of core samples obtained during the drilling process. Prior to each drill run, a concentrated fluorescent microsphere (0.5-μm diameter) solution was applied to the interior surfaces of the drill bit, core catcher, and core tube and allowed to dry. Macroscopic examination in the field demonstrated reliable transfer of the microspheres to core samples, while detailed microscopic examination revealed penetration levels of less than 1 cm from the core exterior. To monitor for microbial contamination during downstream processing of the permafrost and ground ice cores, a Pseudomonas strain expressing the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was painted on the core exterior prior to processing. Contamination of the processed core interiors with the GFP-expressing strain was not detected by culturing the samples or by PCR to detect the gfp marker gene. These methodologies were quick, were easy to apply, and should help to monitor the exogenous microbiological contamination of pristine permafrost and ground ice samples for downstream culture-dependent and culture-independent microbial analyses. PMID:15691963

  5. On the nature of the dirty ice at the bottom of the GISP2 ice core

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bender, Michael L.; Burgess, Edward; Alley, Richard B.; Barnett, Bruce; Clow, Gary D.

    2010-01-01

    We present data on the triple Ar isotope composition in trapped gas from clean, stratigraphically disturbed ice between 2800 and 3040m depth in the GISP2 ice core, and from basal dirty ice from 3040 to 3053m depth. We also present data for the abundance and isotopic composition of O2 and N2, and abundance of Ar, in the basal dirty ice. The Ar/N2 ratio of dirty basal ice, the heavy isotope enrichment (reflecting gravitational fractionation), and the total gas content all indicate that the gases in basal dirty ice originate from the assimilation of clean ice of the overlying glacier, which comprises most of the ice in the dirty bottom layer. O2 is partly to completely depleted in basal ice, reflecting active metabolism. The gravitationally corrected ratio of 40Ar/38Ar, which decreases with age in the global atmosphere, is compatible with an age of 100-250ka for clean disturbed ice. In basal ice, 40Ar is present in excess due to injection of radiogenic 40Ar produced in the underlying continental crust. The weak depth gradient of 40Ar in the dirty basal ice, and the distribution of dirt, indicate mixing within the basal ice, while various published lines of evidence indicate mixing within the overlying clean, disturbed ice. Excess CH4, which reaches thousands of ppm in basal dirty ice at GRIP, is virtually absent in overlying clean disturbed ice, demonstrating that mixing of dirty basal ice into the overlying clean ice, if it occurs at all, is very slow. Order-of-magnitude estimates indicate that the mixing rate of clean ice into dirty ice is sufficient to maintain a steady thickness of dirty ice against thinning from the mean ice flow. The dirty ice appears to consist of two or more basal components in addition to clean glacial ice. A small amount of soil or permafrost, plus preglacial snow, lake or ground ice could explain the observations.

  6. On the nature of the dirty ice at the bottom of the GISP2 ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, Michael L.; Burgess, Edward; Alley, Richard B.; Barnett, Bruce; Clow, Gary D.

    2010-11-01

    We present data on the triple Ar isotope composition in trapped gas from clean, stratigraphically disturbed ice between 2800 and 3040 m depth in the GISP2 ice core, and from basal dirty ice from 3040 to 3053 m depth. We also present data for the abundance and isotopic composition of O 2 and N 2, and abundance of Ar, in the basal dirty ice. The Ar/N 2 ratio of dirty basal ice, the heavy isotope enrichment (reflecting gravitational fractionation), and the total gas content all indicate that the gases in basal dirty ice originate from the assimilation of clean ice of the overlying glacier, which comprises most of the ice in the dirty bottom layer. O 2 is partly to completely depleted in basal ice, reflecting active metabolism. The gravitationally corrected ratio of 40Ar/ 38Ar, which decreases with age in the global atmosphere, is compatible with an age of 100-250 ka for clean disturbed ice. In basal ice, 40Ar is present in excess due to injection of radiogenic 40Ar produced in the underlying continental crust. The weak depth gradient of 40Ar in the dirty basal ice, and the distribution of dirt, indicate mixing within the basal ice, while various published lines of evidence indicate mixing within the overlying clean, disturbed ice. Excess CH 4, which reaches thousands of ppm in basal dirty ice at GRIP, is virtually absent in overlying clean disturbed ice, demonstrating that mixing of dirty basal ice into the overlying clean ice, if it occurs at all, is very slow. Order-of-magnitude estimates indicate that the mixing rate of clean ice into dirty ice is sufficient to maintain a steady thickness of dirty ice against thinning from the mean ice flow. The dirty ice appears to consist of two or more basal components in addition to clean glacial ice. A small amount of soil or permafrost, plus preglacial snow, lake or ground ice could explain the observations.

  7. Ice shelf flexure at Antarctic grounding lines observed by high resolution satellite and ground measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rack, Wolfgang; Wild, Christian; Ryan, Michelle; Marsh, Oliver; McDonald, Adrian; King, Matt; Floricioiu, Dana; Wiesmann, Andreas; Price, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    Climate change is expected to impact Antarctic ice sheets primarily through changes in the oceans. This will be felt most strongly near the grounding line, where the ice sheet first comes into contact with ocean water and becomes an ice shelf. The primary objective of this work is to make use of satellite techniques for better monitoring and interpretation of the link between floating ice shelves and grounded ice. By measuring the flexure of ice due to tides we can obtain critical data to derive information on ice properties. Satellites can measure tidal bending over discrete time intervals and over large areas, whereas ground stations monitor ice dynamics continuously at discrete points. By the combination of the two we derive a complete picture of vertical ice displacement by tides for different grounding line geometries. Our field site is the Southern McMurdo Ice Shelf in the western Ross Sea region at which horizontal ice dynamics can be neglected which simplifies corresponding satellite data analysis. During a field survey in 2014/15, we acquired data of tidal flexure along a straight line perpendicular to the grounding line using 8 ground stations equipped with differential GPS receivers and high precision tiltmeters. The most landward station was located close to the grounding line, and the last station was placed 5 km away at a point which was assumed to be freely floating. Additional data acquired for the flexure analysis are ice thickness, snow and ice stratigraphy and basal ice properties using ground radar systems; as well as information of snow morphology from snow pits and ice cores. During the same period a series of TerraSAR-X 11-day repeat pass satellite data have been acquired to map tidal displacement using differential SAR interferometry (DInSAR). Before the onset of the melting season in December all interferograms show generally high coherence and are suitable for tidal flexure analysis. The ice shelf in the area is around 200m thick, and

  8. Evidence of Historical Supernovae in Ice Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Donna

    2011-05-01

    Within the framework of the U.S. Greenland Ice Core Science Project (GISP2), an ice core, known as the GISP H-Core, was collected in June, 1992 adjacent to the GISP2 summit drill site. The project scientists, Gisela A.M. Dreschhoff and Edward J. Zeller, were interested in dating solar proton events with volcanic eruptions. The GISP2-H 122-meter firn and ice core is a record of 415 years of liquid electrical conductivity (LEC) and nitrate concentrations, spanning the years 1992 at the surface through 1577 at the bottom. At the National Ice Core Laboratory in Denver, Colorado, the core (beneath the 12-meter firn) was sliced into 1.5 cm sections and analyzed. The resulting data set consisted of 7,776 individual analyses. The ultrahigh resolution sampling technique resulted in a time resolution of one week near the surface and one month at depth. The liquid electrical conductivity (LEC) sequence contains signals from a number of known volcanic eruptions and provides a dating system at specific locations along the core. The terrestrial and solar background nitrate records show seasonal and annual variations, respectively. However, major nitrate anomalies within the record do not correspond to any known terrestrial or solar events. There is evidence that these nitrate anomalies could be a record of supernovae events. Cosmic X-rays ionize atmospheric nitrogen, producing excess nitrate that is then deposited in the Polar Regions. The GISP2-H ice core has revealed nitrate anomalies at the times of the Tycho and Kepler supernovae. The Cassiopeia A supernova event may be documented in the core as well. We have developed a classroom activity for high school and college students, in which they examine several lines of evidence in the Greenland ice core, discriminating among nearby and mid-latitude volcanic activity, solar proton events, and supernovae. Students infer the date of the Cassiopeia A supernova.

  9. Ground Ice on Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martineau, N.; Pollard, W.

    2003-12-01

    On Mars, just like on Earth, water exists in various phases and participates in a broad range of key processes. Even though present surface conditions on Mars, as defined by climate and atmospheric pressure, prevents the occurrence of liquid water on the surface, there is strong evidence suggesting that water was an important land-forming agent in the past (Carr 1996). This naturally raises the question, "where has the water gone?" Surficial water reservoirs that are directly observable on Mars include seasonal water ice deposits and permanent water ice deposits at the polar caps (Kieffer and Zent 1992, Clifford et al. 2000). Due to the existence of permafrost landform systems, such as polygonal ground, rootless cones, and frost mounts, it also has been speculated that much more water may be preserved as ground ice (Lucchitta 1981, Squyres and Carr 1986, Lanagan et al. 2001). Nevertheless, comparison of the likely patterns of ground ice on Mars with terrestrial equivalents has been limited. Fortunately, NASA's 2001 Odyssey data lends support to this hypothesis by identifying significant shallow ice-rich sediments by means of flux characteristics of neutrons, and gamma radiation, and spatial correlations to regions where it has been predicted that subsurface ice is stable (Bell 2002). The ice contents and stratigraphic distribution of the subsurface sediments on Mars, derived by the Odyssey Science Team, is not unlike the upper layers of terrestrial permafrost. Terrestrial polar environments, in particular the more stable permafrost and ground ice features like ice wedges and massive ground ice, may thus provide valuable clues in the search for water and ice on Mars. Of importance is the fact that these features of the earth's surface do not owe their origin to the seasonal freezing and thawing of the active layer. Under the cold, dry polar climates of the Arctic and Antarctic, periglacial and permafrost landforms have evolved, giving rise to distinctive landscapes

  10. ICE CHEMISTRY IN STARLESS MOLECULAR CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Kalvans, J.

    2015-06-20

    Starless molecular cores are natural laboratories for interstellar molecular chemistry research. The chemistry of ices in such objects was investigated with a three-phase (gas, surface, and mantle) model. We considered the center part of five starless cores, with their physical conditions derived from observations. The ice chemistry of oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and complex organic molecules (COMs) was analyzed. We found that an ice-depth dimension, measured, e.g., in monolayers, is essential for modeling of chemistry in interstellar ices. Particularly, the H{sub 2}O:CO:CO{sub 2}:N{sub 2}:NH{sub 3} ice abundance ratio regulates the production and destruction of minor species. It is suggested that photodesorption during the core-collapse period is responsible for the high abundance of interstellar H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and O{sub 2}H and other species synthesized on the surface. The calculated abundances of COMs in ice were compared to observed gas-phase values. Smaller activation barriers for CO and H{sub 2}CO hydrogenation may help explain the production of a number of COMs. The observed abundance of methyl formate HCOOCH{sub 3} could be reproduced with a 1 kyr, 20 K temperature spike. Possible desorption mechanisms, relevant for COMs, are gas turbulence (ice exposure to interstellar photons) or a weak shock within the cloud core (grain collisions). To reproduce the observed COM abundances with the present 0D model, 1%–10% of ice mass needs to be sublimated. We estimate that the lifetime for starless cores likely does not exceed 1 Myr. Taurus cores are likely to be younger than their counterparts in most other clouds.

  11. Ice Chemistry in Starless Molecular Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalvāns, J.

    2015-06-01

    Starless molecular cores are natural laboratories for interstellar molecular chemistry research. The chemistry of ices in such objects was investigated with a three-phase (gas, surface, and mantle) model. We considered the center part of five starless cores, with their physical conditions derived from observations. The ice chemistry of oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur, and complex organic molecules (COMs) was analyzed. We found that an ice-depth dimension, measured, e.g., in monolayers, is essential for modeling of chemistry in interstellar ices. Particularly, the H2O:CO:CO2:N2:NH3 ice abundance ratio regulates the production and destruction of minor species. It is suggested that photodesorption during the core-collapse period is responsible for the high abundance of interstellar H2O2 and O2H and other species synthesized on the surface. The calculated abundances of COMs in ice were compared to observed gas-phase values. Smaller activation barriers for CO and H2CO hydrogenation may help explain the production of a number of COMs. The observed abundance of methyl formate HCOOCH3 could be reproduced with a 1 kyr, 20 K temperature spike. Possible desorption mechanisms, relevant for COMs, are gas turbulence (ice exposure to interstellar photons) or a weak shock within the cloud core (grain collisions). To reproduce the observed COM abundances with the present 0D model, 1%-10% of ice mass needs to be sublimated. We estimate that the lifetime for starless cores likely does not exceed 1 Myr. Taurus cores are likely to be younger than their counterparts in most other clouds.

  12. Seasonal precipitation timing and ice core records

    SciTech Connect

    Steig, E.J.; Grootes, P.M.; Stuiver, M. )

    1994-12-16

    This is a commentary on global circulation model experiments of moisture source changes in Greenland, urging caution in how they are applied because they have important implications for paleoclimate reconstruction from ice cores. The work comes from preliminary find is of a ice core (GISP2) of the authors. The authors conclude that at present anomalies in Greenland ice core records should not be interpreted solely in terms of source region variations. The combined use of oxygen 18, D and ionic species in the new Summit, Greenland cores should make it possible to answer empirically some of the questions raised by the GCM experiments as to the interpretation of oxygen 18 records in terms of temperature. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  13. A New Paradigm for Ice Core Drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albert, Mary; Bentley, Charles; Twickler, Mark

    2010-09-01

    The search for answers to questions about the changing climate has created an urgent need to discover past climate signatures archived in glaciers and ice sheets, and to understand current ice sheet behavior. Recognizing that U.S. scientific productivity in this area depends upon a mechanism for ensuring continuity and international cooperation in ice coring and drilling efforts, along with the availability of appropriate drills, drilling expertise, and innovations in drilling technology, the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF) has established the Ice Drilling Program Office (IDPO) and its partner, the Ice Drilling Design and Operations group (IDDO), together known as IDPO/IDDO (Figure 1). This approach to integrated research and technology planning and delivery replaces the prior approach to drilling, which involved a series of NSF contracts with the Polar Ice Coring Office (PICO) and Ice Coring and Drilling Services (ICDS). This contracting approach lacked integrated planning. Previously, NSF had no way to forecast what science the community would propose—it would get compelling climate proposals that needed ice cores for data, but in many cases no existing drill could retrieve the core needed in the proposal. Constructing the needed drill—a process that takes years—forced science objectives to be put on hold. Now the science community is able to give feedback on its needs to IDPO/IDDO continually, allowing those who develop drilling technology to begin designing and constructing drills that scientists will need for the science proposals that they will submit years in the future. As such, IDPO/IDDO represents a new paradigm for integrated science and science support.

  14. Icing in the Cake: Evidence for Ground Ice in Ceres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Britney E.; Chilton, Heather; Hughson, Kynan Horace; Scully, Jennifer E. C.; Sizemore, Hanna G.; Nathues, Andreas; Platz, Thomas; Byrne, Shane; Bland, Michael T.; Schorghofer, Norbert; O'Brien, David P.; Marchi, Simone; Hiesinger, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf; Russell, Christopher T.; Raymond, Carol; Dawn Science and Operations Team

    2016-10-01

    Without surface deposits of ice readily visible and few spectral detections of ice, the task of understanding ice on Ceres falls to other investigations. Several decades of thermal models suggest that subsurface ice on Ceres is stable for the lifetime of the solar system. Here, we report geomorphological evidence of silicate-ice mixtures, which we refer to as "ground ice", from careful analysis of the behavior of surface features on Ceres. In particular, we have focused on trends in mass wasting features. Mass wasting on Ceres is pervasive--in over 20% of craters above 10km in size, often with provocative rounded termini. We have identified three "endmember" classes of lobate mass wasting morphologies: tongue-shaped, furrowed flows hundreds of meters thick on steep slopes, tens of meter thick spatulate-sheeted flows on shallow slopes, and cuspate-sheeted flows, also tens of meters thick, but with morphology that indicates fluidization. These features on Ceres are distinct from those on dry Vesta, which shares a similar impactor population and velocity distribution due to their similar locations in the main belt. Thus, differing material properties are implied between the two bodies. Morphologically, each of these feature types possess an analog found in glaciated regions on Earth and Mars or on the surfaces of the icy satellites that help describe how down slope mass motion may be created. In particular, we identify several spectacular features that share commonatlity with rock glaciers and lahars. Moreover, these abundant features increase in number and aerial coverage towards the poles, and show progressively more fluidization towards the low latitudes. We conclude that the geomorphology of these features are evidence that Ceres' subsurface contains significant ground ice and that the ice is most abundant near the poles.

  15. Measurements of ethane in Antarctic ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verhulst, K. R.; Fosse, E. K.; Aydin, K. M.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2011-12-01

    Ethane is one of the most abundant hydrocarbons in the atmosphere. The major ethane sources are fossil fuel production and use, biofuel combustion, and biomass-burning emissions and the primary loss pathway is via reaction with OH. A paleoatmospheric ethane record would be useful as a tracer of biomass-burning emissions, providing a constraint on past changes in atmospheric methane and methane isotopes. An independent biomass-burning tracer would improve our understanding of the relationship between biomass burning and climate. The mean annual atmospheric ethane level at high southern latitudes is about 230 parts per trillion (ppt), and Antarctic firn air measurements suggest that atmospheric ethane levels in the early 20th century were considerably lower (Aydin et al., 2011). In this study, we present preliminary measurements of ethane (C2H6) in Antarctic ice core samples with gas ages ranging from 0-1900 C.E. Samples were obtained from dry-drilled ice cores from South Pole and Vostok in East Antarctica, and from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide (WAIS-D). Gases were extracted from the ice by melting under vacuum in a glass vessel sealed by indium wire and were analyzed using high resolution GC/MS with isotope dilution. Ethane levels measured in ice core samples were in the range 100-220 ppt, with a mean of 157 ± 45 ppt (n=12). System blanks contribute roughly half the amount of ethane extracted from a 300 g ice core sample. These preliminary data exhibit a temporal trend, with higher ethane levels from 0-900 C.E., followed by a decline, reaching a minimum between 1600-1700 C.E. These trends are consistent with variations in ice core methane isotopes and carbon monoxide isotopes (Ferretti et al., 2005, Wang et al., 2010), which indicate changes in biomass burning emissions over this time period. These preliminary data suggest that Antarctic ice core bubbles contain paleoatmospheric ethane levels. With further improvement of laboratory techniques it appears

  16. Boundary condition of grounding lines prior to collapse, Larsen-B Ice Shelf, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Rebesco, M; Domack, E; Zgur, F; Lavoie, C; Leventer, A; Brachfeld, S; Willmott, V; Halverson, G; Truffer, M; Scambos, T; Smith, J; Pettit, E

    2014-09-12

    Grounding zones, where ice sheets transition between resting on bedrock to full floatation, help regulate ice flow. Exposure of the sea floor by the 2002 Larsen-B Ice Shelf collapse allowed detailed morphologic mapping and sampling of the embayment sea floor. Marine geophysical data collected in 2006 reveal a large, arcuate, complex grounding zone sediment system at the front of Crane Fjord. Radiocarbon-constrained chronologies from marine sediment cores indicate loss of ice contact with the bed at this site about 12,000 years ago. Previous studies and morphologic mapping of the fjord suggest that the Crane Glacier grounding zone was well within the fjord before 2002 and did not retreat further until after the ice shelf collapse. This implies that the 2002 Larsen-B Ice Shelf collapse likely was a response to surface warming rather than to grounding zone instability, strengthening the idea that surface processes controlled the disintegration of the Larsen Ice Shelf.

  17. Fabric measurement along the NEEM ice core, Greenland, and comparison with GRIP and NGRIP ice cores.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagnat, Maurine; Azuma, Nobuhiko; Dahl Jensen, Dorthe; Eichler, Jan; Fujita, Shuji; Gillet-Chaulet, Fabien; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Samyn, Denis; Svensson, Anders; Weikusat, Ilka

    2014-05-01

    Fabric (distribution of crystallographic orientations) profile along the full NEEM ice core, Greenland, is presented in this work. Data were measured in the field by an Automatic Ice Texture Analyzer every 10 m, from 33 m down to 2461 m depth. The fabric evolves from a slightly anisotropic fabric at the top, toward a strong single maximum at about 2300 m, which is typical of a deformation pattern mostly driven by uniaxial compression and simple shearing. A sharp increase in the fabric strengthening is observed at the Holocene to Wisconsin climatic transition. A similar strengthening, toward an anisotropic single maximum-type fabric, has been observed in several ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica, and can be attributed to a positive feedback between changes in ice viscosity at the climatic transition, and the impact of a shear component of stress. Centimeter scale abrupt texture (fabric and microstructure) variations are observed in the bottom part of the core. Their positions are in good agreement with the folding hypothesis used for a climatic reconstruction by Dahl-Jensen and co authors (2013). Comparison is made to two others ice cores drilled along the same ridge; the GRIP ice core drilled at the summit of the ice sheet, and the NorthGRIP ice core, drilled 325 km to the NNW of the summit along the ridge, and 365 km upstream from NEEM. The fabric profile clearly reflects the increase in shear deformation when moving NW along the ridge from GRIP to NorthGRIP and NEEM. The difference in fabric profiles between NEEM and NorthGRIP also evidences a stronger lateral extension associated with a sharper ridge at NorthGRIP. References: Dahl-Jensen, D. and 120 co-authors. Eemian interglacial reconstructed from a Greenland folded ice core, Nature, 493, 489-493, 2013.

  18. Ice-core evidence of abrupt climate changes

    PubMed Central

    Alley, Richard B.

    2000-01-01

    Ice-core records show that climate changes in the past have been large, rapid, and synchronous over broad areas extending into low latitudes, with less variability over historical times. These ice-core records come from high mountain glaciers and the polar regions, including small ice caps and the large ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica. PMID:10677460

  19. Ice-core evidence of abrupt climate changes.

    PubMed

    Alley, R B

    2000-02-15

    Ice-core records show that climate changes in the past have been large, rapid, and synchronous over broad areas extending into low latitudes, with less variability over historical times. These ice-core records come from high mountain glaciers and the polar regions, including small ice caps and the large ice sheets of Greenland and Antarctica.

  20. Ice-core records of atmospheric sulphur

    PubMed Central

    Legrand, M.

    1997-01-01

    Sulphate and methanesulphonate (MSA), the two major sulphur species trapped in polar ice, have been extensivelyh studied in Antarctic and Greenland ice cores spanning the last centuries, as well as the entire last climatic cycle. Data from the cores are used to investigate the past contribution of volcanic and biogenic emissions to the natural sulphur budget in high latitude regions of both Hemispheres. Sulphate concentrations in polar ice very often increased during one or two years after large volcanic eruptions. Sulphate records show that fossil fuel combustion has enhanced sulphate concentrations in Greenland snow by a factor of 4 since the beginning of this century, and that no similar trend has occurred in Antarctica. At present, sulphate in Antarctic snow is mainly marine and biogenic in origin and the rate of dimethyl sulphide (DMS) emissions may have been enhanced during pst developments of El Niño Southern Oscillations (ENSO). Marine biota and non-eruptive volcanic emissions represent the two main contributors to the natural high northern latitude sulphur budget. Whele these two sources have contributed equally to the natural sulphur budget of Greenland ice over the last 9000 years BP, non-eruptive volcanic emissions largely dominated the budget at the beginning of the Holocene. A general negative correlation is observed between surcace air temperatures of the Northern Hemisphere and Greenland snow MSA concentrations over the last two centuries. Positive sea-ice anomalies also seem to strengthen DMS emissions. A steady decrease of MSA is observed in Greenland snow layers deposited since 1945, which may either be related to decreasing DMS emissions from marine biota at high northern latitudes or a changing yield of MSA from DMS oxidation driven by modification of the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere in these regions. Slightly reduced MSA concentrations are obvserved in Greenland glacial ice with respect to interglacial levels. In contrast, sulphate

  1. Bruce Plateau, Antarctic Peninsula: Ice-Core Site Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettit, E. C.; Scambos, T. A.; Bauer, R. J.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Truffer, M.; Blair, B.

    2010-12-01

    The Bruce Plateau is a broad, gently-undulating ice plateau spanning the divide of the Antarctic Peninsula near 66°S. The western side is the catchment area for the glaciers of numerous inlet fjords such as Andvord Bay, Beascochea Bay, and Barilari Bay. The eastern side is the catchment area for the glaciers of the southern Larsen B Ice Shelf and northern Larsen C Ice Shelf. Because it is the catchment for the Larsen B, the Bruce Plateau was chosen as a site to drill an ice core for paleoclimate studies. We present the results of a site characterization study of a 10 km × 10 km area near the ridge crest. We mapped surface topography using the LVIS (Laser Vegetation Imaging Sensor) instrument collected as part of NASA’s Ice Bridge program and extended these data using ground-based kinematic GPS profiles. We mapped bedrock topography through a 5 MHz Radio Echo Sounding (RES) survey. A weather station augmented with firn temperature sensors and C/A code GPS was installed at the ice-core site in February 2010 and was active for 5 months. We measured the spatial accumulation rate pattern and internal structure of the ice to 400 m with a 25 MHz RES survey near the ice-core site. The RES-mapped relative accumulation pattern was tied to measurements at the weather station, a temporary stake network, and data from the ice core. The surface topography data show that the crest of the ice divide ranges from 1980 to 2020 m above the ellipsoid, with surfaces sloping at 0.047 to the northeast (Leppard Glacier catchment) and approximately 0.04 to the southwest (Atlee Glacier). The bedrock topography consists of two hills of a few hundred meters relief, with deeper troughs under the regions leading to both Leppard and Atlee Glaciers. Ice thickness ranges from 200 m above the hills to more than 700 m deep in the troughs, as determined by a 5 MHz RES system. To the west of the hills, bedrock slopes gently downward, while surface elevation increases to the crest. This suggests

  2. Fabric measurement along the NEEM ice core, Greenland, and comparison with GRIP and NGRIP ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagnat, M.; Azuma, N.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Eichler, J.; Fujita, S.; Gillet-Chaulet, F.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Samyn, D.; Svensson, A.; Weikusat, I.

    2014-01-01

    Fabric (distribution of crystallographic orientations) profile along the full NEEM ice core, Greenland, is presented in this work. Data were measured in the field by an Automatic Ice Texture Analyzer every 10 m, from 33 m down to 2461 m depth. The fabric evolves from a slightly anisotropic fabric at the top, toward a strong single maximum at about 2300 m, which is typical of a deformation pattern mostly driven by uniaxial compression and simple shearing. A sharp increase in the fabric strengthening is observed at the Holocene to Wisconsin climatic transition. A similar strengthening, toward an anisotropic single maximum-type fabric, has been observed in several ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica, and can be attributed to a positive feedback between changes in ice viscosity at the climatic transition, and the impact of a shear component of stress. Centimeter scale abrupt texture (fabric and microstructure) variations are observed in the bottom part of the core. Their positions are in good agreement with the folding hypothesis used for a climatic reconstruction by Dahl-Jensen et al. (2013). Comparison is made to two others ice cores drilled along the same ridge; the GRIP ice core drilled at the summit of the ice sheet, and the NorthGRIP ice core, drilled 325 km to the NNW of the summit along the ridge, and 365 km upstream from NEEM. The fabric profile clearly reflects the increase in shear deformation when moving NW along the ridge from GRIP to NorthGRIP and NEEM. The difference in fabric profiles between NEEM and NorthGRIP also evidences a stronger lateral extension associated with a sharper ridge at NorthGRIP.

  3. Fabric along the NEEM ice core, Greenland, and its comparison with GRIP and NGRIP ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagnat, M.; Azuma, N.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Eichler, J.; Fujita, S.; Gillet-Chaulet, F.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Samyn, D.; Svensson, A.; Weikusat, I.

    2014-07-01

    Fabric (distribution of crystallographic orientations) along the full NEEM ice core, Greenland was measured in the field by an automatic ice texture analyzer every 10 m, from 33 m down to 2461 m depth. The fabric evolves from a slightly anisotropic fabric at the top, toward a strong single maximum at about 2300 m, which is typical of a deformation pattern mostly driven by uniaxial compression and simple shearing. A sharp increase in the fabric strengthening rate is observed at the Holocene to Wisconsin (HW) climatic transition. From a simple model we estimate that this depth is located at a transition from a state dominated by vertical compression to a state dominated by vertical shear. Comparisons are made to two others ice cores drilled along the same ridge; the GRIP ice core, drilled at the summit of the ice sheet, and the NGRIP ice core, drilled 325 km to the NNW of the summit along the ridge, and 365 km upstream from NEEM. This comparison tends to demonstrate that the ice viscosity change with the HW climatic transition must be associated with the shear-dominated state to induce the abrupt fabric strengthening observed at NEEM. This comparison therefore reflects the increasing role of shear deformation on the coring site when moving NW along the ridge from GRIP to NGRIP and NEEM. The difference in fabric profiles between NEEM and NGRIP also evidences a stronger lateral extension associated with a sharper ridge at NGRIP. Further along the core, centimeter scale abrupt texture (fabric and microstructure) variations are observed in the bottom part of the core. Their positions are in good agreement with the observed folding layers in Dahl-Jensen et al. (2013).

  4. Holocene accumulation and ice flow near the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide ice core site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutnik, Michelle R.; Fudge, T. J.; Conway, Howard; Waddington, Edwin D.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Cuffey, Kurt M.; Buizert, Christo; Taylor, Kendrick C.

    2016-05-01

    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide Core (WDC) provided a high-resolution climate record from near the Ross-Amundsen Divide in Central West Antarctica. In addition, radar-detected internal layers in the vicinity of the WDC site have been dated directly from the ice core to provide spatial variations in the age structure of the region. Using these two data sets together, we first infer a high-resolution Holocene accumulation-rate history from 9.2 kyr of the ice-core timescale and then confirm that this climate history is consistent with internal layers upstream of the core site. Even though the WDC was drilled only 24 km from the modern ice divide, advection of ice from upstream must be taken into account. We evaluate histories of accumulation rate by using a flowband model to generate internal layers that we compare to observed layers. Results show that the centennially averaged accumulation rate was over 20% lower than modern at 9.2 kyr before present (B.P.), increased by 40% from 9.2 to 2.3 kyr B.P., and decreased by at least 10% over the past 2 kyr B.P. to the modern values; these Holocene accumulation-rate changes in Central West Antarctica are larger than changes inferred from East Antarctic ice-core records. Despite significant changes in accumulation rate, throughout the Holocene the regional accumulation pattern has likely remained similar to today, and the ice-divide position has likely remained on average within 5 km of its modern position. Continent-scale ice-sheet models used for reconstructions of West Antarctic ice volume should incorporate this accumulation history.

  5. Environment at the Grounding Zone of the Whillans Ice Stream-Ross Ice Shelf, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodson, T. O.; Powell, R. D.; Mikucki, J.; Scherer, R. P.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Coenen, J. J.; Puttkammer, R.; Branecky, C.

    2015-12-01

    Grounding zones where grounded ice sheets transition to floating ice shelves, are the primary gateways through which the Antarctic Ice Sheet loses mass to the ocean. In these environments, ice, ocean, meltwater and sediment meet and interact, influencing both the ice sheet and ocean circulation beneath the ice shelf. Here, we report on conditions near the grounding zone of the Whillans Ice Stream, which feeds into the Ross Ice Shelf. Cameras and instruments lowered through an access borehole to the ocean cavity beneath the ice shelf found a 10m-thick water column comprising an upper layer of colder ice shelf water formed from mixing between meltwater with the lower layer of warmer higher salinity shelf water. This style of stratification is typical of large ice shelves, but it was uncertain whether it existed so near the grounding zone, where stronger tidal currents and/or strong subglacial stream discharges could mix the water column. Salinity and temperature of the water suggest it formed from sea ice production in the Western Ross Sea, with minimal modification beneath the ice shelf. This source region is distinct from waters previously observed at the nearby J-9 borehole, illustrating the importance of the sub-ice shelf bathymetry in steering circulation between the ocean and the grounding zone. Preliminary data suggest an active exchange of heat and nutrients between the grounding zone and the open ocean, despite being separated by 600km. Thus life found near the grounding line is probably not an isolated oasis, but may instead be part of a much broader ecosystem that spans the ice shelf. Although sea ice formation presently maintains water in the sub-ice shelf cavity near the surface freezing point, buffering many larger ice shelves from gradual ocean warming, these findings suggest that even grounding zones of extensive ice shelves may respond quickly to abrupt changes in ocean circulation, such as that observed in the Amundsen Sea.

  6. Antarctic ice core samples: culturable bacterial diversity.

    PubMed

    Shivaji, Sisinthy; Begum, Zareena; Shiva Nageswara Rao, Singireesu Soma; Vishnu Vardhan Reddy, Puram V; Manasa, Poorna; Sailaja, Buddi; Prathiba, Mambatta S; Thamban, Meloth; Krishnan, Kottekkatu P; Singh, Shiv M; Srinivas, Tanuku N R

    2013-01-01

    Culturable bacterial abundance at 11 different depths of a 50.26 m ice core from the Tallaksenvarden Nunatak, Antarctica, varied from 0.02 to 5.8 × 10(3) CFU ml(-1) of the melt water. A total of 138 bacterial strains were recovered from the 11 different depths of the ice core. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, the 138 isolates could be categorized into 25 phylotypes belonging to phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. All isolates had 16S rRNA sequences similar to previously determined sequences (97.2-100%). No correlation was observed in the distribution of the isolates at the various depths either at the phylum, genus or species level. The 25 phylotypes varied in growth temperature range, tolerance to NaCl, growth pH range and ability to produce eight different extracellular enzymes at either 4 or 18 °C. Iso-, anteiso-, unsaturated and saturated fatty acids together constituted a significant proportion of the total fatty acid composition. PMID:23041141

  7. Antarctic ice core samples: culturable bacterial diversity.

    PubMed

    Shivaji, Sisinthy; Begum, Zareena; Shiva Nageswara Rao, Singireesu Soma; Vishnu Vardhan Reddy, Puram V; Manasa, Poorna; Sailaja, Buddi; Prathiba, Mambatta S; Thamban, Meloth; Krishnan, Kottekkatu P; Singh, Shiv M; Srinivas, Tanuku N R

    2013-01-01

    Culturable bacterial abundance at 11 different depths of a 50.26 m ice core from the Tallaksenvarden Nunatak, Antarctica, varied from 0.02 to 5.8 × 10(3) CFU ml(-1) of the melt water. A total of 138 bacterial strains were recovered from the 11 different depths of the ice core. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, the 138 isolates could be categorized into 25 phylotypes belonging to phyla Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. All isolates had 16S rRNA sequences similar to previously determined sequences (97.2-100%). No correlation was observed in the distribution of the isolates at the various depths either at the phylum, genus or species level. The 25 phylotypes varied in growth temperature range, tolerance to NaCl, growth pH range and ability to produce eight different extracellular enzymes at either 4 or 18 °C. Iso-, anteiso-, unsaturated and saturated fatty acids together constituted a significant proportion of the total fatty acid composition.

  8. The 1500m South Pole Ice Core: Recovering a 40 Ka Environmental Record

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, Kimberly Ann; Neumann, Thomas Allen; Fudge, T. J.; Neumann, T. A.; Steig, E. J.; Cavitte, M. G. P.; Blankenship, D. D.

    2014-01-01

    Supported by the US National Science Foundation, a new 1500 m, approximately 40 ka old ice core will be recovered from South Pole during the 2014/15 and 2015/16 austral summer seasons using the new US Intermediate Depth Drill. The combination of low temperatures, relatively high accumulation rates and low impurity concentrations at South Pole will yield detailed records of ice chemistry and trace atmospheric gases. The South Pole ice core will provide a climate history record of a unique area of the East Antarctic plateau that is partly influenced by weather systems that cross the West Antarctic ice sheet. The ice at South Pole flows at approximately 10m a(exp-1) and the South Pole ice-core site is a significant distance from an ice divide. Therefore, ice recovered at depth originated progressively farther upstream of the coring site. New ground-penetrating radar collected over the drill site location shows no anthropogenic influence over the past approximately 50 years or upper 15 m. Depth-age scale modeling results show consistent and plausible annual-layer thicknesses and accumulation rate histories, indicating that no significant stratigraphic disturbances exist in the upper 1500m near the ice-core drill site.

  9. The 1500m South Pole Ice Core: Recovering a 40,000 year environmental record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumann, T.; Casey, K.; Fudge, T. J.; Steig, E. J.; Saltzman, E. S.; Aydin, M.; Twickler, M.; Souney, J. M., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    The stable-isotope, aerosol and atmospheric gas records in ice cores provide exceptional archives of past climate. Supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation, a new 1500 m, approximately 40,000 year old ice core will be recovered from South Pole during the current 2014-2015 austral summer season (to ~ 700 m) and next 2015-2016 austral summer season (~ 700 m to 1500 m) using the new U.S. Intermediate Depth Drill. The combination of low temperature, relatively high accumulation rate, and low impurity concentrations at South Pole will yield a detailed record of atmospheric trace gases. The South Pole ice core will also provide a record of the climate history of a unique area of the East Antarctic plateau that is partly influenced by weather systems that cross the West Antarctic ice sheet. The South Pole ice core site is at a flank site where the ice flows at approximately 10 m/yr. The ice core recovered originated as snow at progressively greater distances from the coring site. New ground-penetrating radar collected over the drill site location shows no anthropogenic influence over the past ~50 years or upper 15 m. In this submission, we describe the climate and glaciologic setting of the South Pole, and the details of the ultimate coring site.

  10. Ground ice on Mars - Inventory, distribution, and resulting landforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rossbacher, L. A.; Judson, S.

    1981-01-01

    A model is presented for the distribution of ground ice on Mars, and model predictions are compared with Viking Orbiter photographs of landforms possibly related to ground ice. Estimates of the amount of water originally outgassed on Mars and the amount of water presently on Mars are presented which show that approximately 90% of the estimated outgassed volume may be stored in the Martian subsurface as ground ice. The extent of the Martian cryosphere, the zone in which the temperature is below the freezing point of water and in which ground ice can exist, is examined, and it is shown that, in the presence of a protective surface layer approximately 10 m thick, ground ice may occur beneath the entire Martian surface. Observed features on the Martian surface considered most likely to reflect the presence of ground ice are discussed, including thermokarst-like pits and debris flows, and possibly polygonally patterned ground, curvilinear features and pingo-like mounds, and the geographic distributions of these features as seen in Viking photographs are examined. It is found that the possibly ice-related features are concentrated in the northern midlatitudes, the equatorial zone near Olympus Mons, and the Southern Hemisphere near the edge of the plains, indicating that subsurface ice may be present over the entire planet. The origin of the ice-related landforms is explained by a combination of volcanic heating and variations in insolation.

  11. Devon island ice cap: core stratigraphy and paleoclimate.

    PubMed

    Koerner, R M

    1977-04-01

    Valuable paleoclimatic information can be gained by studying the distribution of melt layers in deep ice cores. A profile representing the percentage of ice in melt layers in a core drilled from the Devon Island ice cap plotted against both time and depth shows that the ice cap has experienced a period of very warm summers since 1925, following a period of colder summers between about 1600 and 1925. The earlier period was coldest between 1680 and 1730. There is a high correlation between the melt-layer ice percentage and the mass balance of the ice cap. The relation between them suggests that the ice cap mass balance was zero (accumulation equaled ablation) during the colder period but is negative in the present warmer one. There is no firm evidence of a present cooling trend in the summer conditions on the ice cap. A comparison with the melt-layer ice percentage in cores from the other major Canadian Arctic ice caps shows that the variation of summer conditions found for the Devon Island ice cap is representative for all the large ice caps for about 90 percent of the time. There is also a good correlation between melt-layer percentage and summer sea-ice conditions in the archipelago. This suggests that the search for the northwest passage was influenced by changing climate, with the 19th-century peak of the often tragic exploration coinciding with a period of very cold summers. PMID:17733504

  12. Devon island ice cap: core stratigraphy and paleoclimate.

    PubMed

    Koerner, R M

    1977-04-01

    Valuable paleoclimatic information can be gained by studying the distribution of melt layers in deep ice cores. A profile representing the percentage of ice in melt layers in a core drilled from the Devon Island ice cap plotted against both time and depth shows that the ice cap has experienced a period of very warm summers since 1925, following a period of colder summers between about 1600 and 1925. The earlier period was coldest between 1680 and 1730. There is a high correlation between the melt-layer ice percentage and the mass balance of the ice cap. The relation between them suggests that the ice cap mass balance was zero (accumulation equaled ablation) during the colder period but is negative in the present warmer one. There is no firm evidence of a present cooling trend in the summer conditions on the ice cap. A comparison with the melt-layer ice percentage in cores from the other major Canadian Arctic ice caps shows that the variation of summer conditions found for the Devon Island ice cap is representative for all the large ice caps for about 90 percent of the time. There is also a good correlation between melt-layer percentage and summer sea-ice conditions in the archipelago. This suggests that the search for the northwest passage was influenced by changing climate, with the 19th-century peak of the often tragic exploration coinciding with a period of very cold summers.

  13. Ice sheet (de)stabilization via grounding zone processes (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianson, K. A.; Horgan, H.; Parizek, B. R.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Jacobel, R. W.; Keisling, B. A.; Dalla Santa, K. L.; Craig, B.; Walker, R. T.

    2013-12-01

    Much of the threshold behavior of marine ice sheets is thought to result from processes occurring at the grounding zone, where the ice sheet transitions into the ice shelf. At short time-scales (decades to centuries), grounding zone behavior is likely to be influenced by ongoing sediment deposition, which can stabilize the grounding zone position. Tidally driven flexure just inland of an ice shelf can further enhance stabilization by compacting subglacial till and thereby locally increasing basal shear stress. However, this competes with ocean-driven melt across a several-kilometers-wide grounding zone, where warm ocean water infiltration around bedrock obstacles can result in rapid grounding line retreat. Here we present a suite of geophysical observations (ice-penetrating radar, active-source seismic, GPS, and laser altimetry data) and data-assimilated modeling for one relatively stable (Whillans Ice Stream) and one potentially unstable (Thwaites Glacier) grounding zone in West Antarctica. The geophysical data show that estuaries occur beneath ice sheet grounding zones, where interactions between ocean water, subglacial hydrology, sediment, and tidal processes are complex and occur across a several-kilometers-wide grounding zone. Our modeling results indicate that ice stream stabilization on bedrock highs narrower than the length of the tidally-influenced grounding zone may be ephemeral if circulating warm ocean waters reduce basal resistance and enhance melt across the grounding zone. Stabilization is, however, significantly enhanced by effectively plastic beds and zones of high basal shear stress, which can be created via till compaction from tidal flexure. Thus accurate future projections of sea level require correct understanding of till rheology and local grounding zone processes (interaction of sediment, ocean water, subglacial water, and tidal processes), which are not presently included in modern whole-ice-sheet models.

  14. Implementation of counted layers for coherent ice core chronology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemieux-Dudon, B.; Bazin, L.; Landais, A.; Toyé Mahamadou Kele, H.; Guillevic, M.; Kindler, P.; Parrenin, F.; Martinerie, P.

    2015-06-01

    A recent coherent chronology has been built for four Antarctic ice cores and the NorthGRIP (NGRIP) Greenland ice core (Antarctic Ice Core Chronology 2012, AICC2012) using a Bayesian approach for ice core dating (Datice). When building the AICC2012 chronology, and in order to prevent any confusion with official ice core chronology, the AICC2012 chronology for NGRIP was forced to fit exactly the GICC05 chronology based on layer counting. However, such a strong tuning did not satisfy the hypothesis of independence of background parameters and observations for the NGRIP core, as required by Datice. We present here the implementation in Datice of a new type of markers that is better suited for constraints deduced from layer counting: the duration constraints. Estimating the global error on chronology due to such markers is not straightforward and implies some assumption on the correlation between individual counting errors for each interval of duration. We validate this new methodological implementation by conducting twin experiments and a posteriori diagnostics on the NGRIP ice core. Several sensitivity tests on marker sampling and correlation between counting errors were performed to provide some guidelines when using such a method for future dating experiments. Finally, using these markers for NGRIP in a five-core dating exercise with Datice leads to new chronologies that do not differ by more than 410 years from AICC2012 for Antarctic ice cores and 150 years from GICC05 for NGRIP over the last 60 000 years.

  15. Initial results from geophysical surveys and shallow coring of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallelonga, P.; Christianson, K.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Christian, J. E. M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Gkinis, V.; Holme, C.; Jacobel, R. W.; Karlsson, N. B.; Keisling, B. A.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Kjær, H. A.; Kristensen, M. E. L.; Muto, A.; Peters, L. E.; Popp, T.; Riverman, K. L.; Svensson, A. M.; Tibuleac, C.; Vinther, B. M.; Weng, Y.; Winstrup, M.

    2014-07-01

    The Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) is the sole interior Greenlandic ice stream. Fast flow initiates near the summit dome, and the ice stream terminates approximately 1000 km downstream in three large outlet glaciers that calve into the Greenland Sea. To better understand this important system, in the summer of 2012 we drilled a 67 m firn core and conducted ground-based radio-echo sounding (RES) and active-source seismic surveys at a site approximately 150 km downstream from the onset of streaming flow (NEGIS firn core, 75°37.61' N, 35°56.49' W). The site is representative of the upper part of the ice stream, while also being in a crevasse-free area for safe surface operations. Annual cycles were observed for insoluble dust, sodium and ammonium concentrations and for electrolytic conductivity, allowing a seasonally resolved chronology covering the past 400 yr. Annual layer thicknesses averaged 0.11 m ice equivalent (i.e.) for the period 1607-2011, although accumulation varied between 0.08 and 0.14 m i.e., likely due to flow-related changes in surface topography. Tracing of RES layers from the NGRIP (North Greenland Ice Core Project) ice core site shows that the ice at NEGIS preserves a climatic record of at least the past 51 kyr. We demonstrate that deep ice core drilling in this location can provide a reliable Holocene and late-glacial climate record, as well as helping to constrain the past dynamics and ice-lithosphere interactions of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  16. Equatorial ground ice on Mars: Steady-state stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellon, Michael T.; Jakosky, Bruce M.; Postawko, Susan E.

    1993-01-01

    Current Martian equatorial surface temperatures are too warm for water ice to exist at the surface for any appreciable length of time before subliming into the atmosphere. Subsurface temperatures are generally warmer still and, despite the presence of a diffusive barrier of porous regolith material, it has been shown by Smoluchowski, Clifford and Hillel, and Fanale et al. that buried ground ice will also sublime and be lost to the atmosphere in a relatively short time. We investigate the behavior of this subliming subsurface ice and show that it is possible for ice to maintain at a steady-state depth, where sublimation and diffusive loss to the atmosphere is balanced by resupply from beneath by diffusion and recondensation of either a deeper buried ice deposits or ground water. We examine the behavior of equatorial ground ice with a numercial time-marching molecular diffusion model. In our model we allow for diffusion of water vapor through a porous regolith, variations in diffusivity and porosity with ice content, and recondensation of sublimed water vapor. A regolith containing considerable amounts of ice can still be very porous, allowing water vapor to diffuse up from deeper within the ice layer where temperatures are warmer due to the geothermal gradient. This vapor can then recondense nearer to the surface where ice had previously sublimed and been lost to the atmosphere. As a result we find that ice deposits migrate to find a steady-state depth, which represents a balance between diffusive loss to the atmosphere through the overlying porous regolith and diffusive resupply through a porous icy regolith below. This depth depends primarily on the long-term mean surface temperature and the nature of the geothermal gradient, and is independent of the ice-free porosity and the regolith diffusivity. Only the rate of loss of ground ice depends on diffusive properties.

  17. Ground Ice at the Phoenix Landing Site: A Preflight Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellon, M. T.; Arvidson, R. E.; Seelos, F.; Tamppari, L. K.; Boynton, W. V.; Smith, P.

    2004-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Mars Scout mission, Phoenix, is to characterize the present state of water in the martian environment, in a location where water may play a significant role in the present and past habitability of Mars. Given the generally dry and cold climate of Mars today any substantial amount of water is expected to occur in the form of ground ice (subsurface ice) within the regolith. The Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer has indicated abundant subsurface hydrogen and inferred ground ice at high latitudes. Therefore, the Phoenix mission will be targeted to land in the northern high latitudes (approximately 65 degrees N - 75 degrees N) where ground ice is expected to be abundantly available for analysis. The lander will be capable of excavating, sampling, and analyzing, dry and water-rich/icy soils. The location and depth of excavation necessary to achieve the goals of sampling and analysis of icy material become important parameters to assess. In the present work we ask two key questions: 1) At what depth within the regolith do we expect to find ice? 2) How might this depth vary over the region of potential landing sites? Numerous lines of evidence can be employed to provide an indication of the presence or absence of shallow ground ice at the potential landing sites. For example geomorphology, neutrons, gamma rays, and theory each contribute clues to an overall understanding of the distribution of ice. Orbital observations provide information on a variety of spatial scales, typically 10 s of meters (patterned ground) to 100 s of kilometers (gamma rays). While information on all of these scales are important, of particular interest is how the presence and depth of ground ice might vary on spatial scales comparable to the lander and its work area. While ground ice may be stable (and present) on a regional scale, local-scale slopes and changes in the physical characteristics of soils can result in significant variations in the distribution of ice.

  18. The microstructure of polar ice. Part I: Highlights from ice core research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faria, Sérgio H.; Weikusat, Ilka; Azuma, Nobuhiko

    2014-04-01

    Polar ice sheets play a fundamental role in Earth's climate system, by interacting actively and passively with the environment. Active interactions include the creeping flow of ice and its effects on polar geomorphology, global sea level, ocean and atmospheric circulation, and so on. Passive interactions are mainly established by the formation of climate records within the ice, in form of air bubbles, dust particles, salt microinclusions and other derivatives of airborne impurities buried by recurrent snowfalls. For a half-century scientists have been drilling deep ice cores in Antarctica and Greenland for studying such records, which can go back to around a million years. Experience shows, however, that the ice-sheet flow generally disrupts the stratigraphy of the bottom part of deep ice cores, destroying the integrity of the oldest records. For all these reasons glaciologists have been studying the microstructure of polar ice cores for decades, in order to understand the genesis and fate of ice-core climate records, as well as to learn more about the physical properties of polar ice, aiming at better climate-record interpretations and ever more precise models of ice-sheet dynamics. In this Part I we review the main difficulties and advances in deep ice core drilling in Antarctica and Greenland, together with the major contributions of deep ice coring to the research on natural ice microstructures. In particular, we discuss in detail the microstructural findings from Camp Century, Byrd, Dye 3, GRIP, GISP2, NorthGRIP, Vostok, Dome C, EDML, and Dome Fuji, besides commenting also on the earlier results of some pioneering ventures, like the Jungfraujoch Expedition and the Norwegian-British-Swedish Antarctic Expedition, among others. In the companion Part II of this work (Faria et al., 2014), the review proceeds with a survey of the state-of-the-art understanding of natural ice microstructures and some exciting prospects in this field of research.

  19. Ice Core Records of Recent Northwest Greenland Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Wong, G. J.; Ferris, D.; Lutz, E.; Howley, J. A.; Kelly, M. A.; Axford, Y.; Hawley, R. L.

    2014-12-01

    Meteorological station data from NW Greenland indicate a 3oC temperature rise since 1990, with most of the warming occurring in fall and winter. According to remote sensing data, the NW Greenland ice sheet (GIS) and coastal ice caps are responding with ice mass loss and margin retreat, but the cryosphere's response to previous climate variability is poorly constrained in this region. We are developing multi-proxy records (lake sediment cores, ice cores, glacial geologic data, glaciological models) of Holocene climate change and cryospheric response in NW Greenland to improve projections of future ice loss and sea level rise in a warming climate. As part of our efforts to develop a millennial-length ice core paleoclimate record from the Thule region, we collected and analyzed snow pit samples and short firn cores (up to 21 m) from the coastal region of the GIS (2Barrel site; 76.9317o N, 63.1467o W, 1685 m el.) and the summit of North Ice Cap (76.938o N, 67.671o W, 1273 m el.) in 2011, 2012 and 2014. The 2Barrel ice core record has statistically significant relationships with regional spring and fall Baffin Bay sea ice extent, summertime temperature, and annual precipitation. Here we evaluate relationships between the 2014 North Ice Cap firn core glaciochemical record and climate variability from regional instrumental stations and reanalysis datasets. We compare the coastal North Ice Cap record to more inland records from 2Barrel, Camp Century and NEEM to evaluate spatial and elevational gradients in recent NW Greenland climate change.

  20. Is ground ice stable near the Martian equator?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paige, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Determining the present distribution of subsurface water ice on Mars will undoubtedly be a prime objective for future spacecraft missions. Past theoretical studies have predicted that Martian ground ice should be stable to evaporation only at latitudes poleward of approximately +/- 50 deg. Presented here are a new set of calculations which show that bright surficial dust deposits can protect subsurface ice deposits from evaporation at much lower latitudes than previously expected.

  1. Optimal site selection for a high-resolution ice core record in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Tessa R.; Roberts, Jason L.; Moy, Andrew D.; Curran, Mark A. J.; Tozer, Carly R.; Gallant, Ailie J. E.; Abram, Nerilie J.; van Ommen, Tas D.; Young, Duncan A.; Grima, Cyril; Blankenship, Don D.; Siegert, Martin J.

    2016-03-01

    Ice cores provide some of the best-dated and most comprehensive proxy records, as they yield a vast and growing array of proxy indicators. Selecting a site for ice core drilling is nonetheless challenging, as the assessment of potential new sites needs to consider a variety of factors. Here, we demonstrate a systematic approach to site selection for a new East Antarctic high-resolution ice core record. Specifically, seven criteria are considered: (1) 2000-year-old ice at 300 m depth; (2) above 1000 m elevation; (3) a minimum accumulation rate of 250 mm years-1 IE (ice equivalent); (4) minimal surface reworking to preserve the deposited climate signal; (5) a site with minimal displacement or elevation change in ice at 300 m depth; (6) a strong teleconnection to midlatitude climate; and (7) an appropriately complementary relationship to the existing Law Dome record (a high-resolution record in East Antarctica). Once assessment of these physical characteristics identified promising regions, logistical considerations (for site access and ice core retrieval) were briefly considered. We use Antarctic surface mass balance syntheses, along with ground-truthing of satellite data by airborne radar surveys to produce all-of-Antarctica maps of surface roughness, age at specified depth, elevation and displacement change, and surface air temperature correlations to pinpoint promising locations. We also use the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast ERA 20th Century reanalysis (ERA-20C) to ensure that a site complementary to the Law Dome record is selected. We find three promising sites in the Indian Ocean sector of East Antarctica in the coastal zone from Enderby Land to the Ingrid Christensen Coast (50-100° E). Although we focus on East Antarctica for a new ice core site, the methodology is more generally applicable, and we include key parameters for all of Antarctica which may be useful for ice core site selection elsewhere and/or for other purposes.

  2. Geomorphic evidence for the distribution of ground ice on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squyres, S. W.; Carr, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    High-resolution Viking orbiter images show evidence for quasi-viscous relaxation of topography. The relaxation is believed to be due to creep deformation of ice in near-surface materials. The global distribution of the inferred ground ice shows a pronounced latitudinal dependence. The equatorial regions of Mars appear to be ice-poor, while the heavily cratered terrain poleward of ??30?? latitude appears to be ice-rich. The style of creep poleward of ??30?? varies with latitude, possibly due to variations in ice rheology with temperature. The distribution suggests that ice at low latitudes, which is not in equilibrium with the present atmosphere, has been lost via sublimation and diffusion through the regolith, thereby causing a net poleward transport of ice over martian history.

  3. Black carbon concentration in a Greenland Dye-3 ice core

    SciTech Connect

    Chylek, P.; Johnson, B.; Wu, Hong )

    1992-10-01

    We have determined the black carbon concentration in Greenland Dye-3 ice core samples covering the time period from about 3380 to 100 years before present. The average concentration found is 1.53 microg of black carbon per 1 kg of ice. We have found significantly lower black carbon concentrations during the time period from 750 to 100 years before present connected possibly with the Little Ice Age and corresponding changes in atmospheric general circulation patterns and black carbon sources. 18 refs.

  4. What can bromine in ice cores tell us about Arctic sea ice in the past?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallelonga, Paul; Spolaor, Andrea; Maffazzoli, Niccolo; Kjær, Helle; Barbante, Carlo; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso

    2016-04-01

    Bromine is of interest as a potential sea ice proxy due to its role in polar atmospheric chemistry, particularly the photochemical "bromine explosion" events which occur over the seasonal sea ice surface. A growing body of literature has demonstrated that bromine is reliably deposited and preserved in polar ice caps and can be used to investigate variability over timescales varying from seasonal to multimillenial. For sea ice reconstructions, bromine and sodium are usually evaluated with respect to their relative abundances in seawater. Competing processes of bromine enrichment due to the bromine explosion, and bromine depletion due to scavenging and deposition, must be taken into account when comparing results from coastal and inland sampling sites. We will review existing bromine-based sea ice reconstructions and present new data for locations from Svalbard, Severnaya Zemlya, Northwest Greenland (NEEM ice core) and central East Greenland (Renland ice core).

  5. Initial results from geophysical surveys and shallow coring of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallelonga, P.; Christianson, K.; Alley, R. B.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Christian, J. E. M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Gkinis, V.; Holme, C.; Jacobel, R. W.; Karlsson, N.; Keisling, B. A.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Kjær, H. A.; Kristensen, M. E. L.; Muto, A.; Peters, L. E.; Popp, T.; Riverman, K. L.; Svensson, A. M.; Tibuleac, C.; Vinther, B. M.; Weng, Y.; Winstrup, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS) is the sole interior Greenlandic ice stream. Fast flow initiates near the summit dome, and the ice stream terminates approximately 1000 km downstream in three large outlet glaciers that calve into the Greenland Sea. To better understand this important system, in the summer of 2012 we drilled a 67 m firn core and conducted ground-based radio-echo sounding (RES) and active-source seismic surveys at a site approximately 150 km downstream from the onset of streaming flow (NEGIS firn core, 75° 37.61' N, 35°56.49' W). The site is representative of the upper part of the ice stream, while also being in a crevasse-free area for safe surface operations. Annual cycles were observed for insoluble dust, sodium and ammonium concentrations and for electrolytic conductivity, allowing a seasonally resolved chronology covering the past 400 yr. Annual layer thicknesses averaged 0.11 m ice equivalent (i.e.) for the period 1607-2011, although accumulation varied between 0.08 and 0.14 m i.e., likely due to flow-related changes in surface topography. Tracing of RES layers from the NGRIP ice core site shows that the ice at NEGIS preserves a climatic record of at least the past 51 kyr. We demonstrate that a deep ice core drilling in this location can provide a reliable Holocene and late-glacial climate record, as well as helping to constrain the past dynamics and ice-lithosphere interactions of the Greenland Ice Sheet.

  6. Role of ground ice dynamics and ecological feedbacks in recent ice wedge degradation and stabilization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mark Torre Jorgenson,; Mikhail Kanevskiy,; Yuri Shur,; Natalia Moskalenko,; Dana Brown,; Wickland, Kimberly P.; Striegl, Rob; Koch, Joshua C.

    2015-01-01

    Ground ice is abundant in the upper permafrost throughout the Arctic and fundamentally affects terrain responses to climate warming. Ice wedges, which form near the surface and are the dominant type of massive ice in the Arctic, are particularly vulnerable to warming. Yet processes controlling ice wedge degradation and stabilization are poorly understood. Here we quantified ice wedge volume and degradation rates, compared ground ice characteristics and thermal regimes across a sequence of five degradation and stabilization stages and evaluated biophysical feedbacks controlling permafrost stability near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. Mean ice wedge volume in the top 3 m of permafrost was 21%. Imagery from 1949 to 2012 showed thermokarst extent (area of water-filled troughs) was relatively small from 1949 (0.9%) to 1988 (1.5%), abruptly increased by 2004 (6.3%) and increased slightly by 2012 (7.5%). Mean annual surface temperatures varied by 4.9°C among degradation and stabilization stages and by 9.9°C from polygon center to deep lake bottom. Mean thicknesses of the active layer, ice-poor transient layer, ice-rich intermediate layer, thermokarst cave ice, and wedge ice varied substantially among stages. In early stages, thaw settlement caused water to impound in thermokarst troughs, creating positive feedbacks that increased net radiation, soil heat flux, and soil temperatures. Plant growth and organic matter accumulation in the degraded troughs provided negative feedbacks that allowed ground ice to aggrade and heave the surface, thus reducing surface water depth and soil temperatures in later stages. The ground ice dynamics and ecological feedbacks greatly complicate efforts to assess permafrost responses to climate change.

  7. Role of ground ice dynamics and ecological feedbacks in recent ice wedge degradation and stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorgenson, M. T.; Kanevskiy, M.; Shur, Y.; Moskalenko, N.; Brown, D. R. N.; Wickland, K.; Striegl, R.; Koch, J.

    2015-11-01

    Ground ice is abundant in the upper permafrost throughout the Arctic and fundamentally affects terrain responses to climate warming. Ice wedges, which form near the surface and are the dominant type of massive ice in the Arctic, are particularly vulnerable to warming. Yet processes controlling ice wedge degradation and stabilization are poorly understood. Here we quantified ice wedge volume and degradation rates, compared ground ice characteristics and thermal regimes across a sequence of five degradation and stabilization stages and evaluated biophysical feedbacks controlling permafrost stability near Prudhoe Bay, Alaska. Mean ice wedge volume in the top 3 m of permafrost was 21%. Imagery from 1949 to 2012 showed thermokarst extent (area of water-filled troughs) was relatively small from 1949 (0.9%) to 1988 (1.5%), abruptly increased by 2004 (6.3%) and increased slightly by 2012 (7.5%). Mean annual surface temperatures varied by 4.9°C among degradation and stabilization stages and by 9.9°C from polygon center to deep lake bottom. Mean thicknesses of the active layer, ice-poor transient layer, ice-rich intermediate layer, thermokarst cave ice, and wedge ice varied substantially among stages. In early stages, thaw settlement caused water to impound in thermokarst troughs, creating positive feedbacks that increased net radiation, soil heat flux, and soil temperatures. Plant growth and organic matter accumulation in the degraded troughs provided negative feedbacks that allowed ground ice to aggrade and heave the surface, thus reducing surface water depth and soil temperatures in later stages. The ground ice dynamics and ecological feedbacks greatly complicate efforts to assess permafrost responses to climate change.

  8. Large-scale volcano-ground ice interactions on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squyres, Steven W.; Wilhelms, Don E.; Moosman, Ann C.

    1987-01-01

    In the present investigation of Martian volcano-ground ice interaction processes, a numerical model is developed that encompasses conductive heat transport, surface radiation, heat transfer to the atmosphere, and H2O phase-changes in an ice-rich permafrost over which lave flows erupt, followed by the intrusion of sills. An examination is made of the two large scale interaction regions formed near Aeolis Mensae and near the volcano Hadriaca Patera, northeast of Hellas. The inferred channel discharges are compared to discharge rates calculated for lava-ground ice interactions, showing that meltwater (probably accumulated under the surface) was rapidly released at a discharge rate that was limited by soil permeability. The volcano-ground ice interactions have been an important Martian geologic process, and could account for the palagonites constituting the Martian dust.

  9. Optimal site selection for a high resolution ice core record in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, T.; Roberts, J.; Moy, A.; Curran, M.; Tozer, C.; Gallant, A.; Abram, N.; van Ommen, T.; Young, D.; Grima, C.; Blankenship, D.; Siegert, M.

    2015-11-01

    Ice cores provide some of the best dated and most comprehensive proxy records, as they yield a vast and growing array of proxy indicators. Selecting a site for ice core drilling is nonetheless challenging, as the assessment of potential new sites needs to consider a variety of factors. Here, we demonstrate a systematic approach to site selection for a new East Antarctic high resolution ice core record. Specifically, seven criteria are considered: (1) 2000 year old ice at 300 m depth, (2) above 1000 m elevation, (3) a minimum accumulation rate of 250 mm yr-1 IE, (4) minimal surface re-working to preserve the deposited climate signal, (5) a site with minimal displacement or elevation change of ice at 300 m depth, (6) a strong teleconnection to mid-latitude climate and (7) an appropriately complementary relationship to the existing Law Dome record (a high resolution record in East Antarctica). Once assessment of these physical characteristics identified promising regions, logistical considerations (for site access and ice core retrieval) were briefly considered. We use Antarctic surface mass balance syntheses, along with ground-truthing of satellite data by airborne radar surveys to produce all-of-Antarctica maps of surface roughness, age at specified depth, elevation and displacement change and surface air temperature correlations to pinpoint promising locations. We also use the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecast ERA 20th Century reanalysis (ERA-20C) to ensure a site complementary to the Law Dome record is selected. We find three promising sites in the Indian Ocean sector of East Antarctica in the coastal zone from Enderby Land to the Ingrid Christensen Coast (50-100° E). Although we focus on East Antarctica for a new ice core site, the methodology is more generally applicable and we include key parameters for all of Antarctica which may be useful for ice core site selection elsewhere and/or for other purposes.

  10. Rapid bottom melting widespread near Antarctic ice sheet grounding lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rignot, E.; Jacobs, S.

    2002-01-01

    As continental ice from Antartica reaches the grounding line and begins to float, its underside melts into the ocean. Results obtained with satellite radar interferometry reveal that bottom melt rates experienced by large outlet glaciers near their grounding lines are far higher than generally assumed.

  11. Measurements of sea ice proxies from Antarctic coastal shallow cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Vallelonga, Paul; Spolaor, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo; Frezzotti, Massimo

    2015-04-01

    Despite its close relationship with climate, the climatic impact of sea ice remains only partially understood: an indication of this is the Arctic sea ice which is declining at a faster rate than models predict. Thus, the need for reliable sea ice proxies is of crucial importance. Among the sea ice proxies that can be extracted from ice cores, interest has recently been shown in the halogens Iodine (I) and Bromine (Br) (Spolaor, A., et al., 2013a, 2013b). The production of sea ice is a source of Sodium and Bromine aerosols through frost flower crystal formation and sublimation of salty blowing snow, while Iodine is emitted by the algae living underneath sea ice. We present here the results of Na, Br and I measurements in Antarctic shallow cores, drilled during a traverse made in late 2013 - early 2014 from Talos Dome (72° 00'S, 159°12'E) to GV7 (70° 41'S, 158° 51'E) seeking for sea ice signature. The samples were kept frozen until the analyses, that were carried out by Sector Field Mass Spectroscopy Inductive Coupled Plasma (SFMS-ICP): special precautions and experimental steps were adopted for the detection of such elements. The coastal location of the cores allows a clear signal from the nearby sea ice masses. The multiple cores are located about 50 km from each other and can help us to infer the provenance of the sea ice that contributed to the proxy signature. Moreover, by simultaneously determining other chemical elements and compounds in the snow, it is possible to determine the relative timing of their deposition, thus helping us to understand their processes of emission and deposition.

  12. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in Arctic ground ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, M.; Opel, T.; Tanski, G.; Herzschuh, U.; Meyer, H.; Eulenburg, A.; Lantuit, H.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal permafrost degradation and coastal erosion in the Arctic remobilize substantial amounts of organic carbon (OC) and nutrients which have been accumulated in late Pleistocene and Holocene unconsolidated deposits. Their vulnerability to thaw subsidence, collapsing coastlines and irreversible landscape change is largely due to the presence of large amounts of massive ground ice such as ice wedges. However, ground ice has not, until now, been considered to be a source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and other elements, which are important for ecosystems and carbon cycling. Here we show, using geochemical data from a large number of different ice bodies throughout the Arctic, that ice wedges have the greatest potential for DOC storage with a maximum of 28.6 mg L-1 (mean: 9.6 mg L-1). Variation in DOC concentration is positively correlated with and explained by the concentrations and relative amounts of typically terrestrial cations such as Mg2+ and K+. DOC sequestration into ground ice was more effective during the late Pleistocene than during the Holocene, which can be explained by rapid sediment and OC accumulation, the prevalence of more easily degradable vegetation and immediate incorporation into permafrost. We assume that pristine snowmelt is able to leach considerable amounts of well-preserved and highly bioavailable DOC as well as other elements from surface sediments, which are rapidly stored in ground ice, especially in ice wedges, even before further degradation. In the Yedoma region ice wedges represent a significant DOC (45.2 Tg) and DIC (33.6 Tg) pool in permafrost areas and a fresh-water reservoir of 4172 km3. This study underlines the need to discriminate between particulate OC and DOC to assess the availability and vulnerability of the permafrost carbon pool for ecosystems and climate feedback upon mobilization.

  13. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in Arctic ground ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, M.; Opel, T.; Tanski, G.; Herzschuh, U.; Meyer, H.; Eulenburg, A.; Lantuit, H.

    2015-04-01

    Thermal permafrost degradation and coastal erosion in the Arctic remobilize substantial amounts of organic carbon (OC) and nutrients which have accumulated in late Pleistocene and Holocene unconsolidated deposits. Permafrost vulnerability to thaw subsidence, collapsing coastlines and irreversible landscape change are largely due to the presence of large amounts of massive ground ice such as ice wedges. However, ground ice has not, until now, been considered to be a source of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and other elements which are important for ecosystems and carbon cycling. Here we show, using biogeochemical data from a large number of different ice bodies throughout the Arctic, that ice wedges have the greatest potential for DOC storage, with a maximum of 28.6 mg L-1 (mean: 9.6 mg L-1). Variation in DOC concentration is positively correlated with and explained by the concentrations and relative amounts of typically terrestrial cations such as Mg2+ and K+. DOC sequestration into ground ice was more effective during the late Pleistocene than during the Holocene, which can be explained by rapid sediment and OC accumulation, the prevalence of more easily degradable vegetation and immediate incorporation into permafrost. We assume that pristine snowmelt is able to leach considerable amounts of well-preserved and highly bioavailable DOC as well as other elements from surface sediments, which are rapidly frozen and stored in ground ice, especially in ice wedges, even before further degradation. We found that ice wedges in the Yedoma region represent a significant DOC (45.2 Tg) and DIC (33.6 Tg) pool in permafrost areas and a freshwater reservoir of 4200 km2. This study underlines the need to discriminate between particulate OC and DOC to assess the availability and vulnerability of the permafrost carbon pool for ecosystems and climate feedback upon mobilization.

  14. Canadian Arctic sea ice reconstructed from bromine in the Greenland NEEM ice core.

    PubMed

    Spolaor, Andrea; Vallelonga, Paul; Turetta, Clara; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Cozzi, Giulio; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Barbante, Carlo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2016-09-21

    Reconstructing the past variability of Arctic sea ice provides an essential context for recent multi-year sea ice decline, although few quantitative reconstructions cover the Holocene period prior to the earliest historical records 1,200 years ago. Photochemical recycling of bromine is observed over first-year, or seasonal, sea ice in so-called "bromine explosions" and we employ a 1-D chemistry transport model to quantify processes of bromine enrichment over first-year sea ice and depositional transport over multi-year sea ice and land ice. We report bromine enrichment in the Northwest Greenland Eemian NEEM ice core since the end of the Eemian interglacial 120,000 years ago, finding the maximum extension of first-year sea ice occurred approximately 9,000 years ago during the Holocene climate optimum, when Greenland temperatures were 2 to 3 °C above present values. First-year sea ice extent was lowest during the glacial stadials suggesting complete coverage of the Arctic Ocean by multi-year sea ice. These findings demonstrate a clear relationship between temperature and first-year sea ice extent in the Arctic and suggest multi-year sea ice will continue to decline as polar amplification drives Arctic temperatures beyond the 2 °C global average warming target of the recent COP21 Paris climate agreement.

  15. Canadian Arctic sea ice reconstructed from bromine in the Greenland NEEM ice core

    PubMed Central

    Spolaor, Andrea; Vallelonga, Paul; Turetta, Clara; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Cozzi, Giulio; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Barbante, Carlo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing the past variability of Arctic sea ice provides an essential context for recent multi-year sea ice decline, although few quantitative reconstructions cover the Holocene period prior to the earliest historical records 1,200 years ago. Photochemical recycling of bromine is observed over first-year, or seasonal, sea ice in so-called “bromine explosions” and we employ a 1-D chemistry transport model to quantify processes of bromine enrichment over first-year sea ice and depositional transport over multi-year sea ice and land ice. We report bromine enrichment in the Northwest Greenland Eemian NEEM ice core since the end of the Eemian interglacial 120,000 years ago, finding the maximum extension of first-year sea ice occurred approximately 9,000 years ago during the Holocene climate optimum, when Greenland temperatures were 2 to 3 °C above present values. First-year sea ice extent was lowest during the glacial stadials suggesting complete coverage of the Arctic Ocean by multi-year sea ice. These findings demonstrate a clear relationship between temperature and first-year sea ice extent in the Arctic and suggest multi-year sea ice will continue to decline as polar amplification drives Arctic temperatures beyond the 2 °C global average warming target of the recent COP21 Paris climate agreement. PMID:27650478

  16. Canadian Arctic sea ice reconstructed from bromine in the Greenland NEEM ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spolaor, Andrea; Vallelonga, Paul; Turetta, Clara; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Cozzi, Giulio; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Barbante, Carlo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A.; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2016-09-01

    Reconstructing the past variability of Arctic sea ice provides an essential context for recent multi-year sea ice decline, although few quantitative reconstructions cover the Holocene period prior to the earliest historical records 1,200 years ago. Photochemical recycling of bromine is observed over first-year, or seasonal, sea ice in so-called “bromine explosions” and we employ a 1-D chemistry transport model to quantify processes of bromine enrichment over first-year sea ice and depositional transport over multi-year sea ice and land ice. We report bromine enrichment in the Northwest Greenland Eemian NEEM ice core since the end of the Eemian interglacial 120,000 years ago, finding the maximum extension of first-year sea ice occurred approximately 9,000 years ago during the Holocene climate optimum, when Greenland temperatures were 2 to 3 °C above present values. First-year sea ice extent was lowest during the glacial stadials suggesting complete coverage of the Arctic Ocean by multi-year sea ice. These findings demonstrate a clear relationship between temperature and first-year sea ice extent in the Arctic and suggest multi-year sea ice will continue to decline as polar amplification drives Arctic temperatures beyond the 2 °C global average warming target of the recent COP21 Paris climate agreement.

  17. Canadian Arctic sea ice reconstructed from bromine in the Greenland NEEM ice core.

    PubMed

    Spolaor, Andrea; Vallelonga, Paul; Turetta, Clara; Maffezzoli, Niccolò; Cozzi, Giulio; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Barbante, Carlo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Cuevas, Carlos A; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2016-01-01

    Reconstructing the past variability of Arctic sea ice provides an essential context for recent multi-year sea ice decline, although few quantitative reconstructions cover the Holocene period prior to the earliest historical records 1,200 years ago. Photochemical recycling of bromine is observed over first-year, or seasonal, sea ice in so-called "bromine explosions" and we employ a 1-D chemistry transport model to quantify processes of bromine enrichment over first-year sea ice and depositional transport over multi-year sea ice and land ice. We report bromine enrichment in the Northwest Greenland Eemian NEEM ice core since the end of the Eemian interglacial 120,000 years ago, finding the maximum extension of first-year sea ice occurred approximately 9,000 years ago during the Holocene climate optimum, when Greenland temperatures were 2 to 3 °C above present values. First-year sea ice extent was lowest during the glacial stadials suggesting complete coverage of the Arctic Ocean by multi-year sea ice. These findings demonstrate a clear relationship between temperature and first-year sea ice extent in the Arctic and suggest multi-year sea ice will continue to decline as polar amplification drives Arctic temperatures beyond the 2 °C global average warming target of the recent COP21 Paris climate agreement. PMID:27650478

  18. The isotopic composition of methane in polar ice cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, H.; Chou, C. C.; Welhan, J. A.; Stevens, C. M.; Engelkemeir, A.

    1988-01-01

    Air bubbles in polar ice cores indicate that about 300 years ago the atmospheric mixing ratio of methane began to increase rapidly. Today the mixing ratio is about 1.7 parts per million by volume, and, having doubled once in the past several hundred years, it will double again in the next 60 years if current rates continue. Carbon isotope ratios in methane up to 350 years in age have been measured with as little as 25 kilograms of polar ice recovered in 4-meter-long ice-core segments. The data show that: (1) in situ microbiology or chemistry has not altered the ice-core methane concentrations, and (2) that the carbon-13 to carbon-12 ratio of atmospheric CH4 in ice from 100 years and 300 years ago was about 2 per mil lower than at present. Atmospheric methane has a rich spectrum of isotopic sources: the ice-core data indicate that anthropogenic burning of the earth's biomass is the principal cause of the recent C-13H4 enrichment, although other factors may also contribute.

  19. Sedimentary record of ice divide migration and ice streams in the Keewatin core region of the Laurentide Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodder, Tyler J.; Ross, Martin; Menzies, John

    2016-06-01

    The Aberdeen Lake region of central mainland Nunavut is a former core region of the Laurentide Ice Sheet that is characterized by streamlined glacial landforms classified into multiple crosscutting flow sets and near continuous till blanket. The presence of widespread till near the centre of the Keewatin Ice Dome raises questions about its origin. Detailed drillcore logging revealed a complex stratigraphy consisting of at least 6 till units, variably preserved across the study area. Till provenance analysis indicates deposition by near opposite-trending ice flow phases, interpreted as evidence of reconfiguration of the Keewatin Ice Divide. At the surface, large north-northwesterly aligned landforms are present across the study area. The till stratigraphy within these landforms indicates the same NNW ice flow phase is responsible for considerable till production. This ice flow phase is also correlated to a long regional dispersal train of erratics toward the Gulf of Boothia. The production of an extensive, thick (~ 12 m), till sheet during the NNW-trending ice flow phase occurred far from the ice margin at a time of extensive ice cover of mainland Nunavut, likely from an east-west oriented ice divide. A deglacial westerly trending ice flow phase formed small drumlins atop the larger NNW streamlined till ridges and deposited a surficial till unit that is too thin to mask the NNW flow set across the study area. It is proposed that the Boothia paleo-ice stream catchment area propagated deep into the Laurentide Ice Sheet and contributed to significant till production in this core region of the Keewatin Sector prior to the westerly ice flow shift. The apparent relationship between till thickness and the size of the associated or correlated drumlins, flow sets, and dispersal trains indicates complex erosion/deposition interplay is involved in the formation of streamlined subglacial landforms.

  20. Updated ice core record captures industrial era carbon variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-09-01

    In 1999, researchers published data from ice cores collected at Law Dome, a research site in East Antarctica. These data are distinguished by their high time resolution and by their overlap with modern measurements, providing one of the most important records of how the atmosphere's chemical composition changed over the past 1000 years. Air trapped in bubbles in the ice core let researchers measure the concentration of carbon dioxide and other gases and analyze the ratio of carbon-13 to carbon-12 isotopes in the atmospheric carbon dioxide. Burning fossil fuel releases carbon dioxide that is depleted in carbon-13 isotopes, and the Law Dome record provided evidence that modern increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are due to anthropogenic activity. In a new study, Rubino et al., a team that includes some of the authors from the original analysis, use novel tools and techniques to update their ice core record.

  1. Characterization of insoluble nanoparticles in Antarctic ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, A.; Edwards, R.; Van Riessen, A.; Saunders, M.; Smith, A. M.; Curran, M. A.; Goodwin, I. D.; Feiteng, W.

    2013-12-01

    Insoluble nanoparticles in the form of aerosols have significant effects on climate and biogeochemical cycles. Records of these aerosols are essential for understanding paleoclimate forcing and future climate change. These particles and their precursors are emitted to the atmosphere from a variety of primary and secondary sources including biomass burning as well as biogenic, anthropogenic, volcanic, extraterrestrial, and terrestrial mineral emissions. While a large body of research exists with respect to mineral dust particles (on the micrometer scale) derived from ice and sediment cores, very little is known with regards to the history of insoluble particles on the nano scale. Ice core records are the only reliable way to study the past history of these particles. Here, we will present new data regarding the physical and chemical properties of nanoparticles found in ice cores from East Antarctica.

  2. Pre-cometary ice composition from hot core chemistry.

    PubMed

    Tornow, Carmen; Kührt, Ekkehard; Motschmann, Uwe

    2005-10-01

    Pre-cometary ice located around star-forming regions contains molecules that are pre-biotic compounds or pre-biotic precursors. Molecular line surveys of hot cores provide information on the composition of the ice since it sublimates near these sites. We have combined a hydrostatic hot core model with a complex network of chemical reactions to calculate the time-dependent abundances of molecules, ions, and radicals. The model considers the interaction between the ice and gas phase. It is applied to the Orion hot core where high-mass star formation occurs, and to the solar-mass binary protostar system IRAS 16293-2422. Our calculations show that at the end of the hot core phase both star-forming sites produce the same prebiotic CN-bearing molecules. However, in the Orion hot core these molecules are formed in larger abundances. A comparison of the calculated values with the abundances derived from the observed line data requires a chemically unprocessed molecular cloud as the initial state of hot core evolution. Thus, it appears that these objects are formed at a much younger cloud stage than previously thought. This implies that the ice phase of the young clouds does not contain CN-bearing molecules in large abundances before the hot core has been formed. The pre-biotic molecules synthesized in hot cores cause a chemical enrichment in the gas phase and in the pre-cometary ice. This enrichment is thought to be an important extraterrestrial aspect of the formation of life on Earth and elsewhere.

  3. Modeling Ice Table Depth, Ground Ice Content, and δD-δ18O of Ground Ice in the Cold Dry Soils of Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, D. A.; Lacelle, D.; Pollard, W.; Davila, A.; McKay, C. P.

    2016-09-01

    In the upper McMurdo Dry Valleys, ice table depths range from 0 to 80 cm. This study explores the effects of ground temperature and humidity and advective flows on water vapour flux and ice table depth using the REGO vapour-diffusion model.

  4. Origin of glacial dust in four East Antarctica ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delmonte, B.; Petit, J. R.; Basile-Doelsh, I.; Jagoutz, E.; Michard, A.; Maggi, V.; Revel-Rolland, M.

    2003-04-01

    We investigated the geographic origin of mineral aerosol (dust) windblown from the Southern Hemisphere continents and preserved in four East Antarctica ices cores using 87Sr/86Sr -143Nd/144Nd isotopic systems. For the equivalent size range (diameter < 5 micron) the isotope composition is compared to the signature of Potential Source Areas (PSAs) of the Southern Hemisphere. Our initial collection of PSA samples was recently documented by new samples of loesses, fluvial and sands deposits from South America, South Africa, New Zealand and the Antarctic Dry Valleys. In addition, the isotopic fingerprint was measured on ice core from glacial climate (corresponding to even number of marine isotopic stages) for four different ice cores from the East Antarctic Plateau: EPICA-Dome C (75^o06'S, 123^o 24'E; Stage 2,4,6), Vostok (78^o S, 106^o E; Stage 6), Dome B (77^o05' S, 94^o 55' E; Stage 2) and Komsomolskaia (74^o 05' S, 97^o 29' E, Stage 2). The Sr-Nd signature of dust from the four sites appear very close from each other, and confirm the previous results from Basile (1997) from the Vostok ice core. Altogether, they define a restricted isotopic field, and suggest provenance from the same source(s). The comparison with the isotopic signature from the PSAs allows to exclude South Africa as possible candidate, but a partial overlap arises among Southern South America (Chile, Argentina), New Zealand and the Antarctic Dry Valleys. A possible contribution from all these three sources cannot be excluded. However New Zealand and Antarctic source and contribution to Antarctic ice seem quite negligible, an hypothesis as also supported by the absence of volcanic ashes from these area in the Vostok ice core. for the last four glacial/interglacial cycles. Our data confirm previous studies (Grousset et al., 1992, Basile et al., 1997) suggesting South America as the dominant source for dust in East Antarctica in glacial times.

  5. Climatic Changes on Tibetan Plateau Based on Ice Core Records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, T.

    2008-12-01

    Climatic changes have been reconstructed for the Tibetan Plateau based on ice core records. The Guliya ice core on the Tibetan Plateau presents climatic changes in the past 100,000 years, thus is comparative with that from Vostok ice core in Antarctica and GISP2 record in Arctic. These three records share an important common feature, i.e., our climate is not stable. It is also evident that the major patterns of climatic changes are similar on the earth. Why does climatic change over the earth follow a same pattern? It might be attributed to solar radiation. We found that the cold periods correspond to low insolation periods, and warm periods to high insolation periods. We found abrupt climatic change in the ice core climatic records, which presented dramatic temperature variation of as much as 10 °C in 50 or 60 years. Our major challenge in the study of both climate and environment is that greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4 are possibly amplifying global warming, though at what degree remains unclear. One of the ways to understand the role of greenhouse gases is to reconstruct the past greenhouse gases recorded in ice. In 1997, we drilled an ice core from 7100 m a.s.l. in the Himalayas to reconstruct methane record. Based on the record, we found seasonal cycles in methane variation. In particular, the methane concentration is high in summer, suggestiing active methane emission from wet land in summer. Based on the seasonal cycle, we can reconstruct the methane fluctuation history in the past 500 years. The most prominent feature of the methane record in the Himalayan ice core is the abrupt increase since 1850 A.D.. This is closely related to the industrial revolution worldwide. We can also observe sudden decrease in methane concentration during the World War I and World War II. It implies that the industrial revolution has dominated the atmospheric greenhouse gas emission for about 100 years. Besides, the average methane concentration in the Himalayan ice core is

  6. An automated approach for annual layer counting in ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winstrup, M.; Svensson, A.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Winther, O.; Steig, E.; Axelrod, A.

    2012-04-01

    The temporal resolution of some ice cores is sufficient to preserve seasonal information in the ice core record. In such cases, annual layer counting represents one of the most accurate methods to produce a chronology for the core. Yet, manual layer counting is a tedious and sometimes ambiguous job. As reliable layer recognition becomes more difficult, a manual approach increasingly relies on human interpretation of the available data. Thus, much may be gained by an automated and therefore objective approach for annual layer identification in ice cores. We have developed a novel method for automated annual layer counting in ice cores, which relies on Bayesian statistics. It uses algorithms from the statistical framework of Hidden Markov Models (HMM), originally developed for use in machine speech recognition. The strength of this layer detection algorithm lies in the way it is able to imitate the manual procedures for annual layer counting, while being based on purely objective criteria for annual layer identification. With this methodology, it is possible to determine the most likely position of multiple layer boundaries in an entire section of ice core data at once. It provides a probabilistic uncertainty estimate of the resulting layer count, hence ensuring a proper treatment of ambiguous layer boundaries in the data. Furthermore multiple data series can be incorporated to be used at once, hence allowing for a full multi-parameter annual layer counting method similar to a manual approach. In this study, the automated layer counting algorithm has been applied to data from the NGRIP ice core, Greenland. The NGRIP ice core has very high temporal resolution with depth, and hence the potential to be dated by annual layer counting far back in time. In previous studies [Andersen et al., 2006; Svensson et al., 2008], manual layer counting has been carried out back to 60 kyr BP. A comparison between the counted annual layers based on the two approaches will be presented

  7. High Resolution Continuous Flow Analysis System for Polar Ice Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dallmayr, Remi; Azuma, Kumiko; Yamada, Hironobu; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Vallelonga, Paul; Azuma, Nobuhiko; Takata, Morimasa

    2014-05-01

    In the last decades, Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) technology for ice core analyses has been developed to reconstruct the past changes of the climate system 1), 2). Compared with traditional analyses of discrete samples, a CFA system offers much faster and higher depth resolution analyses. It also generates a decontaminated sample stream without time-consuming sample processing procedure by using the inner area of an ice-core sample.. The CFA system that we have been developing is currently able to continuously measure stable water isotopes 3) and electrolytic conductivity, as well as to collect discrete samples for the both inner and outer areas with variable depth resolutions. Chemistry analyses4) and methane-gas analysis 5) are planned to be added using the continuous water stream system 5). In order to optimize the resolution of the current system with minimal sample volumes necessary for different analyses, our CFA system typically melts an ice core at 1.6 cm/min. Instead of using a wire position encoder with typical 1mm positioning resolution 6), we decided to use a high-accuracy CCD Laser displacement sensor (LKG-G505, Keyence). At the 1.6 cm/min melt rate, the positioning resolution was increased to 0.27mm. Also, the mixing volume that occurs in our open split debubbler is regulated using its weight. The overflow pumping rate is smoothly PID controlled to maintain the weight as low as possible, while keeping a safety buffer of water to avoid air bubbles downstream. To evaluate the system's depth-resolution, we will present the preliminary data of electrolytic conductivity obtained by melting 12 bags of the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling (NEEM) ice core. The samples correspond to different climate intervals (Greenland Stadial 21, 22, Greenland Stadial 5, Greenland Interstadial 5, Greenland Interstadial 7, Greenland Stadial 8). We will present results for the Greenland Stadial -8, whose depths and ages are between 1723.7 and 1724.8 meters, and 35.520 to

  8. Neutrino oscillation studies with IceCube-DeepCore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, B. J. P.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schulte, L.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wills, L.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.

    2016-07-01

    IceCube, a gigaton-scale neutrino detector located at the South Pole, was primarily designed to search for astrophysical neutrinos with energies of PeV and higher. This goal has been achieved with the detection of the highest energy neutrinos to date. At the other end of the energy spectrum, the DeepCore extension lowers the energy threshold of the detector to approximately 10 GeV and opens the door for oscillation studies using atmospheric neutrinos. An analysis of the disappearance of these neutrinos has been completed, with the results produced being complementary with dedicated oscillation experiments. Following a review of the detector principle and performance, the method used to make these calculations, as well as the results, is detailed. Finally, the future prospects of IceCube-DeepCore and the next generation of neutrino experiments at the South Pole (IceCube-Gen2, specifically the PINGU sub-detector) are briefly discussed.

  9. A TEM analysis of nanoparticulates in a Polar ice core

    SciTech Connect

    Esquivel, E.V.; Murr, L.E

    2004-03-15

    This paper explores the prospect for analyzing nanoparticulates in age-dated ice cores representing times in antiquity to establish a historical reference for atmospheric particulate regimes. Analytical transmission electron microscope (TEM) techniques were utilized to observe representative ice-melt water drops dried down on carbon/formvar or similar coated grids. A 10,000-year-old Greenland ice core was melted, and representative water drops were transferred to coated grids in a clean room environment. Essentially, all particulates observed were aggregates and either crystalline or complex mixtures of nanocrystals. Especially notable was the observation of carbon nanotubes and related fullerene-like nanocrystal forms. These observations are similar with some aspects of contemporary airborne particulates including carbon nanotubes and complex nanocrystal aggregates.

  10. Recent increase in Antarctic Peninsula ice core uranium concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potocki, Mariusz; Mayewski, Paul A.; Kurbatov, Andrei V.; Simões, Jefferson C.; Dixon, Daniel A.; Goodwin, Ian; Carleton, Andrew M.; Handley, Michael J.; Jaña, Ricardo; Korotkikh, Elena V.

    2016-09-01

    Understanding the distribution of airborne uranium is important because it can result in both chemical and radiological toxicity. Ice cores offer the most robust reconstruction of past atmospheric levels of toxic substances. Here we present the first sub-annually dated, continuously sampled ice core documenting change in U levels in the Southern Hemisphere. The ice core was recovered from the Detroit Plateau, northern Antarctic Peninsula, in 2007 by a joint Brazilian-Chilean-US team. It displays a significant increase in U concentration that coincides with reported mining activities in the Southern Hemisphere, notably Australia. Raw U concentrations in the Detroit Plateau ice core increased by as much as 102 between the 1980s and 2000s accompanied by increased variability in recent years. Decadal mean U concentrations increased by a factor of ∼3 from 1980 to 2007, reaching a mean of 205 pg/L from 2000 to 2007. The fact that other terrestrial source dust elements such as Ce, La, Pr, and Ti do not show a similar increase and that the increased U concentrations are enriched above natural crustal levels, supports an anthropogenic source for the U as opposed to a change in atmospheric circulation.

  11. Earth's Climate History from Glaciers and Ice Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Lonnie

    2013-03-01

    Glaciers serve both as recorders and early indicators of climate change. Over the past 35 years our research team has recovered climatic and environmental histories from ice cores drilled in both Polar Regions and from low to mid-latitude, high-elevation ice fields. Those ice core -derived proxy records extending back 25,000 years have made it possible to compare glacial stage conditions in the Tropics with those in the Polar Regions. High-resolution records of δ18O (in part a temperature proxy) demonstrate that the current warming at high elevations in the mid- to lower latitudes is unprecedented for the last two millennia, although at many sites the early Holocene was warmer than today. Remarkable similarities between changes in the highland and coastal cultures of Peru and regional climate variability, especially precipitation, imply a strong connection between prehistoric human activities and regional climate. Ice cores retrieved from shrinking glaciers around the world confirm their continuous existence for periods ranging from hundreds to thousands of years, suggesting that current climatological conditions in those regions today are different from those under which these ice fields originated and have been sustained. The ongoing widespread melting of high-elevation glaciers and ice caps, particularly in low to middle latitudes, provides strong evidence that a large-scale, pervasive and, in some cases, rapid change in Earth's climate system is underway. Observations of glacier shrinkage during the 20th and 21st century girdle the globe from the South American Andes, the Himalayas, Kilimanjaro (Tanzania, Africa) and glaciers near Puncak Jaya, Indonesia (New Guinea). The history and fate of these ice caps, told through the adventure, beauty and the scientific evidence from some of world's most remote mountain tops, provide a global perspective for contemporary climate. NSF Paleoclimate Program

  12. Large-scale volcano-ground ice interactions on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Squyres, S. W.; Wilhelms, D.E.; Moosman, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    The process of volcano-ground ice interaction on Mars is investigated by thermodynamic calculations and observations of Viking Orbiter images. We develop a numerical model of volcano-ground ice interaction that includes heat transport by conduction, radiation from the surface, heat transfer to the atmosphere, and H2O phase changes in an ice-rich permafrost. We consider eruption of lava flows over permafrost, and intrusion of sills into permafrost. For eruption of lava over permafrost, most of the heat in the flow is lost by radiation and atmospheric effects. The amount of H2O liquid and vapor produced is small, and its removal would not be sufficient to cause collapse that would lower the surface of the lava flow below the surrounding terrain. For intrusion of a sill, most of the heat in the sill eventually goes into H2O phase changes, producing much larger amounts of water that could have profound geomorphic and geochemical effects. Approximate meltwater discharge rates are calculated for both extrusive and intrusive interactions. We examine two large regions of large-scale volcano-ground ice interactions. Near Aeolis Mensae, intrusion of a complex of dikes and sills into ice-rich ground has produced substantial melting, with mobilization and flow of material. This interaction probably also produced large quantities of palagonite tuff and breccia. Morphologic evidence for progressive fluidization implies that meltwater was stored beneath the surface for some time, and that most of the release of water and volcanic mudflow took place late in the interaction. Northeast of Hellas, several large channels emanate from the area near the volcano Hadriaca Patera. If genetically related to the volcanic activity, large collapse features at the sources of some channels must have originated due to heat from large buried magma bodies. A channel emerging directly from the base of Hadriaca Patera may have originated from release of heat from thick extruded material. Other small

  13. Recent ice sheet snow accumulation and firn storage of meltwater inferred by ground and airborne radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miege, Clement

    Recent surface mass balance changes in space and time over the polar ice sheets need to be better constrained in order to estimate the ice-sheet contribution to sea-level rise. The mass balance of any ice body is obtained by subtracting mass losses from mass gains. In response to climate changes of the recent decades, ice-sheet mass losses have increased, making ice-sheet mass balance negative and raising sea level. In this work, I better quantify the mass gained by snowfall across the polar ice sheets; I target specific regions over both Greenland and West Antarctica where snow accumulation changes are occurring due to rising air temperature. Southeast Greenland receives 30% of the total snow accumulation of the Greenland ice sheet. In this work, I combine internal layers observed in ice-penetrating radar data with firn cores to derive the last 30 years of accumulation and to measure the spatial pattern of accumulation toward the southeast coastline. Below 1800 m elevation, in the percolation zone, significant surface melt is observed in the summer, which challenges both firn-core dating and internal-layer tracing. While firn-core drilling at 1500 m elevation, liquid water was found at ˜20-m depth in a firn aquifer that persisted over the winter. The presence of this water filling deeper pore space in the firn was unexpected, and has a significant impact on the ice sheet thermal state and the estimate of mass balance made using satellite altimeters. Using a 400-MHz ice-penetrating radar, the extent of this widespread aquifer was mapped on the ground, and also more extensively from the air with a 750-MHz airborne radar as part of the NASA Operation IceBridge mission. Over three IceBridge flight campaigns (2011-2013), based on radar data, the firn aquifer is estimated to cover ˜30,000 km2 area within the wet-snow zone of the ice sheet. I use repeated flightlines to understand the temporal variability of the water trapped in the firn aquifer and to simulate its

  14. Structure and form of grounding lines of modern ice sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinto, K. J.; Bell, R. E.; Cochran, J. R.; Boghosian, A.; Porter, D. F.

    2015-12-01

    The form of the bed at the grounding line of a glacier and the character of the underlying rock can be critical to the stability of the glacier. Aerogravity measurements offer a unique insight in to the character of the grounding line environment. By combining depth measurements from further onshore radar and geological information from magnetic surveys, gravity-based models can reveal both the depth and slope of the bed at the grounding line. Where bed elevation is known at the grounding line, gravity models can show the density structure of the underlying rock. Operation IceBridge has flown coincident radar, lidar, photography, gravity and magnetic airborne surveys along fjords and over ice shelves in both Greenland and Antarctica. Aerogravity measurements have been used extensively to model the bathymetry of the sea floor in front of the grounding line, and to identify the depth of the grounding line in areas where radar measurements have proven challenging. These models have also been used to reveal the range of conditions at present day grounding lines, as well as those experienced in the past and predicted for future grounding line positions. In some regions, we have identified low-density sediment accumulations, at both present day grounding lines and within fjords, that we interpret to be terminal moraines deposited by the glacier itself during hiatuses in retreat. In other regions, we find that the present day grounding line is stalled on a ridge of high-density rock. Ridges such as these remain in the same position through many cycles of advance and retreat of the glacier. Our synthesis of gravity data from a wide range of glacial environments can be used to identify likely drivers of change at the grounding line, whether this is the depth, the slope, or the geological character of the glacier bed.

  15. Biological proxies recorded in a Belukha ice core, Russian Altai

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papina, T.; Blyakharchuk, T.; Eichler, A.; Malygina, N.; Mitrofanova, E.; Schwikowski, M.

    2013-10-01

    Different biological proxies such as pollen, cysts, and diatoms were identified and quantified in the upper part of a Belukha ice core from the Russian Altai. The ice core from the Belukha glacier collected in 2001 (4062 m a.s.l., 49°48' N, 86°34' E) was analyzed with annual resolution in the period 1964-2000. Daily data of the frequency of synoptic patterns observed in the Northern Hemisphere along with daily data of precipitation have been used to identify the predominant atmospheric circulations (elementary circulating mechanisms, or ECMs) generating the entry of biological proxies on the glacier surface. It was shown that the high-resolution records of diatoms, cysts, spores, and plant pollen in the Belukha ice core are the biological proxies for the changes in the structure of precipitation in the Altai region since these records can reflect changes in the contribution of different atmospheric circulation to annual or seasonal precipitation. The joint consideration of the transport ability of the biological species and the data of precipitation allowed us to determine the main modern sources of biological proxies deposited at the Belukha glacier. The main sources of diatoms in the Belukha ice core are water bodies of the Aral, Caspian, and northern Kazakhstan basins; coniferous tree pollen originated from the taiga forest of the boreal zone of western Siberia; pollen of deciduous trees and herbs from steppe and forest-steppe vegetation in the northern Altai and eastern Kazakhstan; and cysts and spores of plants were transported from local water bodies and forests. The identified source regions of the biological species are supported by back trajectory analyses and are in good agreement with emission source regions of the trace elements in the ice core.

  16. Elastic response of a grounded ice sheet coupled to a floating ice shelf.

    PubMed

    Sayag, Roiy; Worster, M Grae

    2011-09-01

    An ice sheet that spreads into an ocean is forced to bend owing to its buoyancy and detaches from the bedrock to form a floating ice shelf. The location of the transition between the grounded sheet and the floating shelf, defined as the grounding line, behaves as a free boundary. We develop a model of an elastic grounded sheet resting on a deformable elastic bed and coupled to an elastic floating shelf. We find that the grounding-line position is determined by the geometry of the bed and the bending-buoyancy length scale of the system. These two contributions depend on the reaction modulus of the bed in opposite ways. We show that the structure of the floating shelf depends on the bending-buoyancy length scale only, allowing us to calculate the bending stiffness of the elastic sheet independently of the properties of the bed. Relations between the structure of the floating shelf and the grounding-line position are also developed. Our theoretical predictions agree with laboratory experiments made using thick elastic sheets and a dense salt solution. Our findings may provide new insights into the dynamics near grounding lines, as well as methods to infer the bending stiffness of ice sheets and the grounding-line position from satellite altimetery that can be applied to elastic sheets in general.

  17. A prelanding assessment of the ice table depth and ground ice characteristics in Martian permafrost at the Phoenix landing site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mellon, M.T.; Boynton, W.V.; Feldman, W.C.; Arvidson, R. E.; Titus, Joshua T.N.; Bandfield, L.; Putzig, N.E.; Sizemore, H.G.

    2009-01-01

    We review multiple estimates of the ice table depth at potential Phoenix landing sites and consider the possible state and distribution of subsurface ice. A two-layer model of ice-rich material overlain by ice-free material is consistent with both the observational and theoretical lines of evidence. Results indicate ground ice to be shallow and ubiquitous, 2-6 cm below the surface. Undulations in the ice table depth are expected because of the thermodynamic effects of rocks, slopes, and soil variations on the scale of the Phoenix Lander and within the digging area, which can be advantageous for analysis of both dry surficial soils and buried ice-rich materials. The ground ice at the ice table to be sampled by the Phoenix Lander is expected to be geologically young because of recent climate oscillations. However, estimates of the ratio of soil to ice in the ice-rich subsurface layer suggest that that the ice content exceeds the available pore space, which is difficult to reconcile with existing ground ice stability and dynamics models. These high concentrations of ice may be the result of either the burial of surface snow during times of higher obliquity, initially high-porosity soils, or the migration of water along thin films. Measurement of the D/H ratio within the ice at the ice table and of the soil-to-ice ratio, as well as imaging ice-soil textures, will help determine if the ice is indeed young and if the models of the effects of climate change on the ground ice are reasonable. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  18. A prelanding assessment of the ice table depth and ground ice characteristics in Martian permafrost at the Phoenix landing site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mellon, Michael T.; Boynton, William V.; Feldman, William C.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Titus, Timothy N.; Bandfield, Joshua L.; Putzig, Nathaniel E.; Sizemore, Hanna G.

    2008-11-01

    We review multiple estimates of the ice table depth at potential Phoenix landing sites and consider the possible state and distribution of subsurface ice. A two-layer model of ice-rich material overlain by ice-free material is consistent with both the observational and theoretical lines of evidence. Results indicate ground ice to be shallow and ubiquitous, 2-6 cm below the surface. Undulations in the ice table depth are expected because of the thermodynamic effects of rocks, slopes, and soil variations on the scale of the Phoenix Lander and within the digging area, which can be advantageous for analysis of both dry surficial soils and buried ice-rich materials. The ground ice at the ice table to be sampled by the Phoenix Lander is expected to be geologically young because of recent climate oscillations. However, estimates of the ratio of soil to ice in the ice-rich subsurface layer suggest that that the ice content exceeds the available pore space, which is difficult to reconcile with existing ground ice stability and dynamics models. These high concentrations of ice may be the result of either the burial of surface snow during times of higher obliquity, initially high-porosity soils, or the migration of water along thin films. Measurement of the D/H ratio within the ice at the ice table and of the soil-to-ice ratio, as well as imaging ice-soil textures, will help determine if the ice is indeed young and if the models of the effects of climate change on the ground ice are reasonable.

  19. Quantifying signal dispersion in a hybrid ice core melting system.

    PubMed

    Breton, Daniel J; Koffman, Bess G; Kurbatov, Andrei V; Kreutz, Karl J; Hamilton, Gordon S

    2012-11-01

    We describe a microcontroller-based ice core melting and data logging system allowing simultaneous depth coregistration of a continuous flow analysis (CFA) system (for microparticle and conductivity measurement) and a discrete sample analysis system (for geochemistry and microparticles), both supplied from the same melted ice core section. This hybrid melting system employs an ice parcel tracking algorithm which calculates real-time sample transport through all portions of the meltwater handling system, enabling accurate (1 mm) depth coregistration of all measurements. Signal dispersion is analyzed using residence time theory, experimental results of tracer injection tests and antiparallel melting of replicate cores to rigorously quantify the signal dispersion in our system. Our dispersion-limited resolution is 1.0 cm in ice and ~2 cm in firn. We experimentally observe the peak lead phenomenon, where signal dispersion causes the measured CFA peak associated with a given event to be depth assigned ~1 cm shallower than the true event depth. Dispersion effects on resolution and signal depth assignment are discussed in detail. Our results have implications for comparisons of chemistry and physical properties data recorded using multiple instruments and for deconvolution methods of enhancing CFA depth resolution.

  20. Dissolved Chemical Ions in an Ice Core of Grigoriev Ice Cap, Kyrgyz Tien Shan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SHUN, A.; Takeuchi, N.; Sera, S.; Fujita, K.; Okamoto, S.; Naoki, K.; Aizen, V. B.

    2012-12-01

    Snow and ice of glaciers contain various chemical ions supplied through the atmosphere and preserve them for a long period of time. Thus, analysis of soluble ions in glaciers is important to reveal material circulation and climate change in the cryosphere. Many glaciers are distributed over the mountains of the Central Asia. Chemical analysis of ice cores recovered from there play an important role to understand the atmosphere and material circulation peculiar to the Eurasian Continent. In this study, we analyzed the concentration of major ions in the ice core drilled on Grigoriev Ice Cap, Kyrgys Tien Shan, located in the northwestern part of Central Asia. We aim to understand material circulation in this area based on the chemical records. Then, we have attempted to reconstruct the environmental change of Central Asia, combining the chronology, hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratio, and density of dust in the ice core analyzed by prior researches. In this study, we used 2,176 samples of a snow pit and ice core from the surface to bed (86.87 m total length) on the top of Grigoriev Ice Cap (4,660 m high), Kyrgys Tien Shan in September, 2007. Samples were cut every 1-5 cm and scraped thinly, and transported frozen to Chiba University, Japan. After that, we dispensed those for various experiments, and analyzed the concentration of major ions using ion chromatography. By the way, it is estimated that the date of the bottom of this ice core is approximately 12,000 years ago by prior researches. The concentration of major ions dissolved in the ice core of Grigoriev Ice Cap revealed that Ca is the most dominant species in the measured ions and it accounted for more than 50 % (Eq ratio) of the mean of the entire core. This suggests that CaCO3 included in mineral dust derived from deserts around Tien Shan strongly influence the chemical composition of the Ice Cap. In addition, this composition is similar to those of Urumqi No.1 Glacier (Tien Shan), Mustagh Ata Glacier

  1. Low-latitude ice cores and freshwater availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrwald, Natalie Marie

    2009-12-01

    Recent retreat of Tibetan Plateau glaciers affects at least half a billion people. Himalayan glaciers seasonally release meltwater into tributaries of the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra Rivers and supply freshwater necessary to support agricultural and economic practices. Tibetan Plateau glaciers are retreating more rapidly than mountain glaciers elsewhere in the world, and this retreat is accelerating. The Naimona'nyi (30°27'N; 81°91'E, 6050 m a.s.l), Guliya (35°17'N; 81°29'E, 6710 m a.s.l.) and Dasuopu (28°23'N; 85°43'E, 7200 m a.s.l.) ice cores place this recent retreat into a longer time perspective through quantifying climate parameters such as past temperature, aridity, and atmospheric chemistry. Naimona'nyi has not accumulated mass since at least 1950, as evidenced by the virtual lack of radiogenic isotopes (36Cl, 3 H, and beta radioactivity) present in the ice core. These isotopes were produced by U.S. and Soviet atmospheric thermonuclear bomb tests conducted in the 1950s and 1960s and provide independent dating horizons for the ice cores. Lead-210 dates imply that the uppermost preserved glacial ice on Naimona'nyi formed during the 1940s. While this is the highest documented glacial thinning in the world other glaciers at elevations similar to that of Naimona'nyi, such as Kilimanjaro (3°4'S; 37°21'E, 5893 m a.s.l.), are also losing mass at their summits. The global scope of high-elevation glacial thinning suggests that ablation on the Earth's highest ice fields may be more prevalent as global mean temperatures continue to increase. Glacial thinning has not been taken into account in future projections of regional freshwater availability, and the net mass loss indicates that Himalayan glaciers currently store less freshwater than assumed in models. The acceleration of Tibetan Plateau glacial retreat has been hypothesized to be due in part to deposition of black carbon (BC) from biomass burning on to ice fields, thereby lowering the reflectivity of

  2. Oil Detection In and Under Sea Ice Using Ground-Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbronn, L.; Bradford, J.; Liberty, L.; Dickins, D.; Brandvik, P. J.

    2007-12-01

    Marine oil spills can occur in the Arctic due to pipeline breaks or leaks and spills from storage or production facilities. Depending on the time of year and scenario, a portion or all of the spill may become trapped under and/or encapsulated within the sea ice sheet. The current methods for locating spilled oil include visually inspecting drilled ice cores or sending divers under the ice. Speed is a key issue in oil clean-up. A non-invasive method of detecting oil quickly and reliably would greatly facilitate the clean-up and lessen the impact on the environment. First-year ice thicknesses of 0.5-2.0 m, typical of the Arctic region, can be well-resolved using radar. Oil film thicknesses can range from a few mm to 20 cm depending on the ice-water interface topography. For typical conditions a frequency of 500 MHz gives a 1/4 wavelength limit of 7 cm; therefore a typical spill scenario is a thin-bed problem for ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Interference due to thin-beds may cause amplitude, phase and frequency anomalies in the reflected wavelet. In April 2006, SINTEF conducted a contained oil-spill under natural Arctic sea ice conditions in a fjord on Svalbard. Using data collected during that experiment from a 500 MHz antenna and complex trace analysis we computed the instantaneous frequency, instantaneous phase and the envelope function and found significant differences in the data before and after the oil was inserted. These results demonstrated the potential of GPR to be a practical system for oil in ice detection under certain conditions. As a follow-on to the 2006 project, we have undertaken a detailed modeling effort to estimate GPR response to specific variables, such as ice and oil thicknesses, ice salinity and temperature.

  3. Critical Fracture Toughness Measurements of an Antarctic Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christmann, Julia; Müller, Ralf; Webber, Kyle; Isaia, Daniel; Schader, Florian; Kippstuhl, Sepp; Freitag, Johannes; Humbert, Angelika

    2014-05-01

    Fracture toughness is a material parameter describing the resistance of a pre-existing defect in a body to further crack extension. The fracture toughness of glacial ice as a function of density is important for modeling efforts aspire to predict calving behavior. In the presented experiments this fracture toughness is measured using an ice core from Kohnen Station, Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica. The samples were sawed in an ice lab at the Alfred Wegener Institute in Bremerhaven at -20°C and had the dimensions of standard test samples with thickness 14 mm, width 28 mm and length 126 mm. The samples originate from a depth of 94.6 m to 96 m. The grain size of the samples was also identified. The grain size was found to be rather uniform. The critical fracture toughness is determined in a four-point bending approach using single edge V-notch beam samples. The initial notch length was around 2.5 mm and was prepared using a drilling machine. The experimental setup was designed at the Institute of Materials Science at Darmstadt. In this setup the force increases linearly, until the maximum force is reached, where the specific sample fractures. This procedure was done in an ice lab with a temperature of -15°C. The equations to calculate the fracture toughness for pure bending are derived from an elastic stress analysis and are given as a standard test method to detect the fracture toughness. An X-ray computer tomography (CT scanner) was used to determine the ice core densities. The tests cover densities from 843 kg m-3 to 871 kg m-3. Thereby the influence of the fracture toughness on the density was analyzed and compared to previous investigations of this material parameter. Finally the dependence of the measured toughness on thickness, width, and position in the core cross-section was investigated.

  4. Geomorphological evidence for pervasive ground ice on Ceres from Dawn data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Britney E.; Scully, Jennifer; Chilton, Heather T.; Hughson, Kynan; Sizemore, Hanna; Bland, Michael; Schenk, Paul; Nathues, Andreas; Platz, Thomas; O'Brien, David P.; Byrne, Shane; Schorghofer, Norbert; Ammanito, Eleonora; Russell, Christopher T.; Raymond, Carol A.; DeSanctis, Maria Cristina; Marchi, Simone; Li, Jian-Yang; LeCorre, Lucille; Reddy, Vishnu; Hiesinger, Harald; Jaumann, Ralf; Sykes, Mark; McCord, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Five decades of observations of Ceres have explored the likelihood that the innermost dwarf planet boasts an ice rich bulk composition. We report geomorphological evidence from Dawn Framing Camera data suggesting that its surface has likely been shaped by surface and/or shallow subsurface ice, including possible evaporative and flow processes within silicate-ice mixtures. Here we highlight three classes of features that possess strong evidence for ground ice. First, ubiquitous craters with scallop-shaped rims, in some cases “breached,” are characterized by mass wasting processes and by the recession of crater walls in asymmetric patterns; these could be influenced by processes analogous to those in sublimating ice-rich terrain on Mars and those formed by mass wasting in terrestrial glaciated regions. The degradation of crater walls appears to be responsible for the nearly complete removal of some craters, particularly at low latitudes. Second, several high latitude, high elevation craters feature lobed flows that emanate from cirque-shaped head walls and bear strikingly similar morphology to flows on other ice-rich planetary surfaces. Possible similarities to terrestrial rock glaciers include lobate toes and indications of furrows and ridges consistent with flow of ice-cored or ice-cemented material. Other lobed flows persist at the base of crater walls and mass wasting features. Many flow features evidently terminate at ramparts. Third, there are frequent irregular domes, peaks and mounds within crater floors that depart from traditional crater central peaks or peak complexes. In some cases the irregular domes show evidence for high albedo or activity. One possible formation scenario could include extrusion and refreezing of subsurface water, forming domes in similar processes to ice lens formation in pingos. The distribution of these classes of features, including latitudinal variation in their abundance and/or appearance, suggests that ground ice is a key

  5. High-resolution mineral dust and sea ice proxy records from the Talos Dome ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüpbach, S.; Federer, U.; Kaufmann, P. R.; Albani, S.; Barbante, C.; Stocker, T. F.; Fischer, H.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we report on new non-sea salt calcium (nssCa2+, mineral dust proxy) and sea salt sodium (ssNa+, sea ice proxy) records along the East Antarctic Talos Dome deep ice core in centennial resolution reaching back 150 thousand years (ka) before present. During glacial conditions nssCa2+ fluxes in Talos Dome are strongly related to temperature as has been observed before in other deep Antarctic ice core records, and has been associated with synchronous changes in the main source region (southern South America) during climate variations in the last glacial. However, during warmer climate conditions Talos Dome mineral dust input is clearly elevated compared to other records mainly due to the contribution of additional local dust sources in the Ross Sea area. Based on a simple transport model, we compare nssCa2+ fluxes of different East Antarctic ice cores. From this multi-site comparison we conclude that changes in transport efficiency or atmospheric lifetime of dust particles do have a minor effect compared to source strength changes on the large-scale concentration changes observed in Antarctic ice cores during climate variations of the past 150 ka. Our transport model applied on ice core data is further validated by climate model data. The availability of multiple East Antarctic nssCa2+ records also allows for a revision of a former estimate on the atmospheric CO2 sensitivity to reduced dust induced iron fertilisation in the Southern Ocean during the transition from the Last Glacial Maximum to the Holocene (T1). While a former estimate based on the EPICA Dome C (EDC) record only suggested 20 ppm, we find that reduced dust induced iron fertilisation in the Southern Ocean may be responsible for up to 40 ppm of the total atmospheric CO2 increase during T1. During the last interglacial, ssNa+ levels of EDC and EPICA Dronning Maud Land (EDML) are only half of the Holocene levels, in line with higher temperatures during that period, indicating much reduced sea

  6. Spatial and temporal characteristics of the Little Ice Age: The Antarctic ice-core record

    SciTech Connect

    Mosley-Thompson, E.; Thompson, L.G.

    1992-03-01

    Recently, ice core records from both hemispheres, in conjunction with other proxy records (e.g., tree rings, speleothems and corals), have shown that the Little Ice Age (LIA) was spatially extensive, extending to the Antarctic. This paper examines the temporal and spatial characteristics of the dust and delta 18O information from Antarctic ice cores. Substantial differences exist in the records. For example, a 550-year record of delta 18O and dust concentrations from Siple Station, Antarctica suggests that, less dusty conditions prevailed from A.D. 1600 to 1830. Alternately, dust and delta 18O data from South Pole Station indicate that opposite conditions (e.g., cooler and more dusty) were prevalent during the LIA. Three additional Antarctic delta 18O records are integrated with the Siple and South Pole histories for a more comprehensive picture of LIA conditions. The records provide additional support for the LIA temperature opposition between the Antarctic Peninsula region and East Antarctica. In addition, periods of strongest LIA cooling are not temporally synchronous over East Antarctica. These strong regional differences demonstrate that a suite of spatially distributed, high resolution ice core records will be necessary to characterize the LIA in Antarctica.

  7. An Ice Core Melter System for Continuous Major and Trace Chemical Analyses of a New Mt. Logan Summit Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Handley, M. J.; Sneed, S. D.; Mayewski, P. A.; Kreutz, K. J.; Fisher, D. A.

    2004-12-01

    The ice core melter system at the University of Maine Climate Change Institute has been recently modified and updated to allow high-resolution (<1-2 cm ice/sample), continuous and coregistered sampling of ice cores, most notably the 2001 Mt. Logan summit ice core (187 m to bedrock), for analyses of 34 trace elements (Sr, Cd, Sb, Cs, Ba, Pb, Bi, U, As, Al, S, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, REE suite) by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), 8 major ions (Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-, MSA) by ion chromatography (IC), stable water isotopes (δ 18O, δ D, d) and volcanic tephra. The UMaine continuous melter (UMCoM) system is housed in a dedicated clean room with HEPA filtered air. Standard clean room procedures are employed during melting. A Wagenbach-style continuous melter system has been modified to include a pure Nickel melthead that can be easily dismantled for thorough cleaning. The system allows melting of both ice and firn without wicking of the meltwater into unmelted core. Contrary to ice core melter systems in which the meltwater is directly channeled to online instruments for continuous flow analyses, the UMCoM system collects discrete samples for each chemical analysis under ultraclean conditions. Meltwater from the pristine innermost section of the ice core is split between one fraction collector that accumulates ICP-MS samples in acid pre-cleaned polypropylene vials under a class-100 HEPA clean bench, and a second fraction collector that accumulates IC samples. A third fraction collector accumulates isotope and tephra samples from the potentially contaminated outer portion of the core. This method is advantageous because an archive of each sample remains for subsequent analyses (including trace element isotope ratios), and ICP-MS analytes are scanned for longer intervals and in replicate. Method detection limits, calculated from de-ionized water blanks passed through the entire UMCoM system, are below 10% of average Mt

  8. Revised estimates of Greenland ice sheet thinning histories based on ice-core records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecavalier, Benoit S.; Milne, Glenn A.; Vinther, Bo M.; Fisher, David A.; Dyke, Arthur S.; Simpson, Matthew J. R.

    2013-03-01

    Ice core records were recently used to infer elevation changes of the Greenland ice sheet throughout the Holocene. The inferred elevation changes show a significantly greater elevation reduction than those output from numerical models, bringing into question the accuracy of the model-based reconstructions and, to some extent, the estimated elevation histories. A key component of the ice core analysis involved removing the influence of vertical surface motion on the δ18O signal measured from the Agassiz and Renland ice caps. We re-visit the original analysis with the intent to determine if the use of more accurate land uplift curves can account for some of the above noted discrepancy. To improve on the original analysis, we apply a geophysical model of glacial isostatic adjustment calibrated to sea-level records from the Queen Elizabeth Islands and Greenland to calculate the influence of land height changes on the δ18O signal from the two ice cores. This procedure is complicated by the fact that δ18O contained in Agassiz ice is influenced by land height changes distant from the ice cap and so selecting a single location at which to compute the land height signal is not possible. Uncertainty in this selection is further complicated by the possible influence of Innuitian ice during the early Holocene (12-8 ka BP). Our results indicate that a more accurate treatment of the uplift correction leads to elevation histories that are, in general, shifted down relative to the original curves at GRIP, NGRIP, DYE-3 and Camp Century. In addition, compared to the original analysis, the 1-σ uncertainty is considerably larger at GRIP and NGRIP. These changes reduce the data-model discrepancy reported by Vinther et al. (2009) at GRIP, NGRIP, DYE-3 and Camp Century. A more accurate treatment of isostasy and surface loading also acts to improve the data-model fits such that the residuals at all four sites for the period 8 ka BP to present are significantly reduced compared to the

  9. The Search for Supernova Grains in an Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, A. L.; Boyd, R. N.; Davis, M. E.; Thompson, L. G.; Davis, A. M.; Lewis, R. S.; Zinner, E.

    2006-12-01

    A search was conducted for grains of the potential core-collapse supernova (SN) condensate minerals corundum (Al2O3), hibonite (CaAl12O19), and spinel (MgAl2O4) among grains filtered from the 308.6 m Guliya ice core recovered from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau in China. Simple models are developed and calculations are presented to estimate the number of Al2O3 grains that would be deposited per cm2 on the Earth by a nearby core-collapse SN and to estimate the number of presolar oxide grains that could be contained in micrometeorite (MM) grains that are accreted by the Earth. A total of 698 candidate SN condensate grains were identified in six Guliya ice core grain samples from the following time periods: ~2-10, ~25-27, ~34-36, ~53-57, ~59-62, and ~68-72 kyr. A procedure developed at the University of Chicago to identify presolar grains in meteoric samples was used to find these candidate grains. Nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) analysis, performed at Washington University on 37 grains from the ~34-36, ~53-57, and ~59-62 kyr samples, indicated that none possessed the extreme oxygen-16 enhancements expected from a SN source. However, nine of the 37 grains did possess the oxygen-16 enhancements consistent with calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs).

  10. Penny ice cap cores, baffin island, canada, and the wisconsinan foxe dome connection: two states of hudson bay ice cover

    PubMed

    Fisher; Koerner; Bourgeois; Zielinski; Wake; Hammer; Clausen; Gundestrup; Johnsen; Goto-Azuma; Hondoh; Blake; Gerasimoff

    1998-01-30

    Ice cores from Penny Ice Cap, Baffin Island, Canada, provide continuous Holocene records of oxygen isotopic composition (delta18O, proxy for temperature) and atmospheric impurities. A time scale was established with the use of altered seasonal variations, some volcanic horizons, and the age for the end of the Wisconsin ice age determined from the GRIP and GISP2 ice cores. There is pre-Holocene ice near the bed. The change in delta18O since the last glacial maximum (LGM) is at least 12.5 per mil, compared with an expected value of 7 per mil, suggesting that LGM ice originated at the much higher elevations of the then existing Foxe Dome and Foxe Ridge of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. The LGM delta18O values suggest thick ice frozen to the bed of Hudson Bay.

  11. Penny ice cap cores, baffin island, canada, and the wisconsinan foxe dome connection: two states of hudson bay ice cover

    PubMed

    Fisher; Koerner; Bourgeois; Zielinski; Wake; Hammer; Clausen; Gundestrup; Johnsen; Goto-Azuma; Hondoh; Blake; Gerasimoff

    1998-01-30

    Ice cores from Penny Ice Cap, Baffin Island, Canada, provide continuous Holocene records of oxygen isotopic composition (delta18O, proxy for temperature) and atmospheric impurities. A time scale was established with the use of altered seasonal variations, some volcanic horizons, and the age for the end of the Wisconsin ice age determined from the GRIP and GISP2 ice cores. There is pre-Holocene ice near the bed. The change in delta18O since the last glacial maximum (LGM) is at least 12.5 per mil, compared with an expected value of 7 per mil, suggesting that LGM ice originated at the much higher elevations of the then existing Foxe Dome and Foxe Ridge of the Laurentide Ice Sheet. The LGM delta18O values suggest thick ice frozen to the bed of Hudson Bay. PMID:9445472

  12. IceChrono1: a probabilistic model to compute a common and optimal chronology for several ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrenin, Frédéric; Bazin, Lucie; Capron, Emilie; Landais, Amaëlle; Lemieux-Dudon, Bénédicte; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    Polar ice cores provide exceptional archives of past environmental conditions. The dating of ice cores and the estimation of the age scale uncertainty are essential to interpret the climate and environmental records that they contain. It is however a complex problem which involves different methods. Here, we present IceChrono1, a new probabilistic model integrating various sources of chronological information to produce a common and optimized chronology for several ice cores, as well as its uncertainty. IceChrono1 is based on the inversion of three quantities: the surface accumulation rate, the Lock-In Depth (LID) of air bubbles and the thinning function. The chronological information integrated into the model are: models of the sedimentation process (accumulation of snow, densification of snow into ice and air trapping, ice flow), ice and air dated horizons, ice and air depth intervals with known durations, Δdepth observations (depth shift between synchronous events recorded in the ice and in the air) and finally air and ice stratigraphic links in between ice cores. The optimization is formulated as a least squares problem, implying that all densities of probabilities are assumed to be Gaussian. It is numerically solved using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm and a numerical evaluation of the model's Jacobian. IceChrono follows an approach similar to that of the Datice model which was recently used to produce the AICC2012 chronology for 4 Antarctic ice cores and 1 Greenland ice core. IceChrono1 provides improvements and simplifications with respect to Datice from the mathematical, numerical and programming point of views. The capabilities of IceChrono is demonstrated on a case study similar to the AICC2012 dating experiment. We find results similar to those of Datice, within a few centuries, which is a confirmation of both IceChrono and Datice codes. We also test new functionalities with respect to the original version of Datice: observations as ice intervals

  13. Time series of organochlorine pesticides from ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, K. A.; Steig, E. J.; Hermanson, M. H.

    2001-05-01

    The transport to the Arctic from lower latitudes of organochlorine compounds (OCs), including PCBs and various biocides, is a major environmental health issue. Time series of OC deposition from the atmosphere are of considerable interest for establishing a historical pattern of Arctic inputs relative to uses and regulations. Deposition rates of particular compounds may remain high for some time after use has ceased because of long-term revolatilization from temperate soil and oceanic reservoirs. Obtaining time series of OCs from ice cores has been problematic due to the large sample sizes required for analysis and concerns that post-depositional loss from the firn may obscure the primary depositional signal. We report here results of OC measurements on a 38-m firn/ice core from Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard (78° 51'53"N, 17° 25'30"E, 1230 m asl). The core covers approximately the period 1930 to 2000 A.D., providing complete coverage of all commercial OC production and use. Among the notable results include a distinct peak in hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH) and DDT concentrations in the 1960s, consistent with known usage histories. A decrease in use of technical (α -enriched) HCH in the United States after 1960 is known to have led to a decrease in the α /γ -HCH ratio since that time, which is precisely what we observe in the core, further supporting the reliability of these time series. We also find that the ratios of primary OCs to their decomposition products are also much higher, overall, than what has been observed in, for example, Arctic sediment cores. High DDT/DDE and cis/trans-chlordane ratios are indicative of recently-produced OCs. Our results suggest two important conclusions. First, that transport to the Arctic is remarkably fast, on the order of months rather than years. Second, that post-depositional decomposition of OCs in the ice core environment is negligible, at least at high-accumulation rate sites like Lomonosovfonna (>30 cm/year ice equiv). The

  14. Trace elements in a dated ice core from Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Keshin, S.S.; Xudong Huang; Olmez, I. ); Langway, C.C. Jr. )

    1992-01-01

    Aerosol particles from both natural and anthropogenic sources are emitted into the atmosphere and transported by wind systems by various mechanisms. Once airborne, the particles, which contain various trace elements, accumulate on the earth's surface as either condensation nuclei or by dry fallout processes. In the polar regions, these particles are incorporated and deposited in snow layers in sequential time-unit increments. The trace analysis of elements contained in dated annual snow layers provides a measure of the elemental chemistry content of the atmosphere for the same time interval. A 164-m-deep, 10-cm-diam ice core was obtained at Byrd Station, Antarctica, in November 1989. Other physical and chemistry studies on this ice core have identified its detailed chronology in annual increments for the past 1360 yr. This study presents the results of the instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) measurements made on 26 individually dated samples of this core, selected between the 6.43- and 118.15-m depths.

  15. Geomorphological Evidence for Pervasive Ground Ice on Ceres from Dawn Observations of Craters and Flows.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, B. E.; Chilton, H.; Hughson, K.; Scully, J. E. C.; Russell, C. T.; Sizemore, H. G.; Nathues, A.; Platz, T.; Bland, M. T.; Schenk, P.; Hiesinger, H.; Jaumann, R.; Byrne, S.; Schorghofer, N.; Ammannito, E.; Marchi, S.; O'Brien, D. P.; Sykes, M. V.; Le Corre, L.; Capria, M. T.; Reddy, V.; Raymond, C. A.; Mest, S. C.; Feldman, W. C.

    2015-12-01

    Five decades of observations of Ceres' albedo, surface composition, shape and density suggest that Ceres is comprised of both silicates and tens of percent of ice. Historical suggestions of surficial hydrated silicates and evidence for water emission, coupled with its bulk density of ~2100 kg/m3 and Dawn observations of young craters containing high albedo spots support this conclusion. We report geomorphological evidence from survey data demonstrating that evaporative and fluid-flow processes within silicate-ice mixtures are prevalent on Ceres, and indicate that its surface materials contain significant water ice. Here we highlight three classes of features that possess strong evidence for ground ice. First, ubiquitous scalloped and "breached" craters are characterized by mass wasting and by the recession of crater walls in asymmetric patterns; these appear analogous to scalloped terrain on Mars and protalus lobes formed by mass wasting in terrestrial glaciated regions. The degradation of crater walls appears to be responsible for the nearly complete removal of some craters, particularly at low latitudes. Second, several high latitude, high elevation craters feature lobed flows that emanate from cirque-shaped head walls and bear strikingly similar morphology to terrestrial rock glaciers. These similarities include lobate toes and indications of furrows and ridges consistent with ice-cored or ice-cemented material. Other lobed flows persist at the base of crater walls and mass wasting features. Many flow features evidently terminate at ramparts. Third, there are frequent irregular domes, peaks and mounds within crater floors that depart from traditional crater central peaks or peak complexes. In some cases the irregular domes show evidence for high albedo or activity, and thus given other evidence for ice, these could be due to local melt and extrusion via hydrologic gradients, forming domes similar to pingos. The global distribution of these classes of features

  16. 10Be in ice - four decades, two ice sheets, 15 deep coring sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berggren, Ann-Marie; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran

    2010-05-01

    Over the last few decades, numerous studies of 10Be in ice cores from Antarctica and Greenland have comprised a significant source of information on climate, solar activity and geomagnetic field intensity over the past 800 000 years. There is, however, a large variability in the available 10Be records in terms of resolution and time coverage. We here present a comprehensive summary of results that have been put forward since the 1960s. Marine sediment was the first type of natural archive in which 10Be was detected (Arnold, 1956), and a decade later McCorkell et al. (1967) pioneered the ice archive field by counting 10Be beta activity in samples from Camp Century, Greenland. The method demands a large amount of material; in this case 1.2×106 litres of water were used. Using accelerator mass spectrometry, AMS, Raisbeck et al. (1978) undertook the second study of 10Be in polar ice, measuring 10Be concentrations in ice from Dome C, Antarctica. The AMS technique is exclusively used today for measurements of 10Be in small ice volumes (

  17. Small scale folding observed in the NEEM ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Daniela; Llorens, Maria-Gema; Westhoff, Julien; Steinbach, Florian; Bons, Paul D.; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Griera, Albert; Weikusat, Ilka

    2015-04-01

    Disturbances on the centimeter scale in the layering of the NEEM ice core (North Greenland) can be mapped by means of visual stratigraphy as long as the ice does have a visual layering, such as, for example, cloudy bands. Different focal depths of the visual stratigraphy method allow, to a certain extent, a three dimensional view of the structures. In this study we present a structural analysis of the visible folds, discuss characteristics and frequency and present examples of typical fold structures. With this study we aim to quantify the potential impact of small scale folding on the integrity of climate proxy data. We also analyze the structures with regard to the stress environment under which they formed. The structures evolve from gentle waves at about 1700 m to overturned z-folds with increasing depth. Occasionally, the folding causes significant thickening of layers. Their shape indicates that they are passive features and are probably not initiated by rheology differences between layers. Layering is heavily disturbed and tracing of single layers is no longer possible below a depth of 2160 m. Lattice orientation distributions for the corresponding core sections were analyzed where available in addition to visual stratigraphy. The data show axial-plane parallel strings of grains with c.axis orientations that deviate from that of the matrix, which has more or less a single-maximum fabric at the depth where the folding occurs. We conclude from these data that folding is a consequence of deformation along localized shear planes and kink bands. The findings are compared with results from other deep ice cores. The observations presented are supplemented by microstructural modeling using a crystal plasticity code that reproduces deformation, applying a Fast Fourier Transform (FFT), coupled with ELLE to include dynamic recrystallization processes. The model results reproduce the development of bands of grains with a tilted orientation relative to the single maximum

  18. Optimisation of glaciological parameters for ice core chronology by implementing counted layers between identified depth levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazin, L.; Lemieux-Dudon, B.; Landais, A.; Guillevic, M.; Kindler, P.; Parrenin, F.; Martinerie, P.

    2014-08-01

    A~recent coherent chronology has been built for 4 Antarctic ice cores and the NorthGRIP (NGRIP) Greenland ice core (Antarctic Ice Core Chronology 2012, AICC2012) using a bayesian approach for ice core dating (Datice). When building the AICC2012 chronology, and in order to prevent any confusion with official ice cores chronology, it has been imposed that the AICC2012 chronology for NGRIP should respect exactly the GICC05 chronology based on layer counting. However, such a strong tuning did not satisfy the hypothesis of independence of background parameters and observations for the NGRIP core as required by Datice. We present here the implementation in Datice of a new type of markers that is better suited to constraints deduced from layer counting: the markers of age-difference. Using this type of markers for NGRIP in a 5 cores dating exercise with Datice, we have performed several sensitivity tests and show that the new ice core chronologies obtained with these new markers do not differ by more than 400 years from AICC2012 for Antarctic ice cores and by more than 130 years from GICC05 for NGRIP over the last 60 000 years. With this new parameterization, the accumulation rate and lock-in depth associated with NGRIP are more coherent with independent estimates than those obtained in AICC2012. While these new chronologies should not be used yet as new ice core chronologies, the improved methodology presented here should be considered in the next coherent ice core dating exercise.

  19. Peregrinations of the Greenland Ice Sheet divide in the last glacial cycle: implications for central Greenland ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Shawn J.; Cuffey, Kurt M.

    2000-06-01

    The superb quality of the climate chronology archived in the Summit, Greenland ice cores (GRIP, GISP2) testifies that the Greenland Ice Sheet divide has been generally stable through the last glacial cycle. The ice sheet has experienced a broad range of paleoclimate conditions, ice sheet margin configurations, and internal dynamical adjustments in glacial-interglacial transitions, however. It is unlikely that the Summit region escaped shifts in ice divide position, geometry, elevation, and flow characteristics. Details of this dynamical history are important to several aspects of ice core studies. The magnitudes of pure and simple shearing, reconstruction of vertical ice velocity, the explicit location of the ice divide, and the divide 'residence time' at different locations are all of interest in interpretation of climatic variables and physical properties of ice in the ice cores. We apply a three-dimensional, thermomechanical ice sheet model to examine the evolution of these dynamical variables over the last 160 kyr in central Greenland. While a high-elevation ice dome is present in the Summit region throughout the simulation, ice divide migrations of up to 150 km are predicted. All points in the vicinity of the Summit ice cores, including the modern divide, have been subject to flowline shifts and variable, non-zero shear deformation during the adjustment from glacial to Holocene conditions, from ca. 10 ka to the present. Modelled divide peregrinations and strain rate history are consistent with the observed disturbance of deep ice in the GRIP and GISP2 ice cores, which has muddled paleoclimate reconstructions for the last interglacial (Eemian) period in Greenland. Dynamical excursions are also evident north of the modern summit, where the NGRIP ice core is currently being drilled [Dahl-Jensen et al., J. Glaciol. 43 (1997) 300-306]. However, the prevailing flow direction and deformation regime at the NGRIP site are much more stable than those at GRIP and GISP2

  20. Fire in Ice: Glacial-Interglacial biomass burning in the NEEM ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zennaro, Piero; Kehrwald, Natalie; Zangrando, Roberta; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Earth is an intrinsically flammable planet. Fire is a key Earth system process with a crucial role in biogeochemical cycles, affecting carbon cycle mechanisms, land-surface properties, atmospheric chemistry, aerosols and human activities. However, human activities may have also altered biomass burning for thousands of years, thus influencing the climate system. We analyse the specific marker levoglucosan to reconstruct past fire events in ice cores. Levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose) is an organic compound that can be only released during the pyrolysis of cellulose at temperatures > 300°C. Levoglucosan is a major fire product in the fine fraction of woody vegetation combustion, can be transported over regional to global distances, and is deposited on the Greenland ice sheet. The NEEM, Greenland ice core (77 27'N, 51 3'W, 2454 masl) documents past fire activity changes from the present back to the penultimate interglacial, the Eemian. Here we present a fire activity reconstruction from both North American and Eurasian sources over the last 120,000 yrs based on levoglucosan signatures in the NEEM ice core. Biomass burning significantly increased over the boreal Northern Hemisphere since the last glacial, resulting in a maximum between 1.5 and 3.5 kyr BP yet decreasing from ~2 kyr BP until the present. Major climate parameters alone cannot explain the observed trend and thus it is not possible to rule out the hypothesis of early anthropogenic influences on fire activity. Over millennial timescales, temperature influences Arctic ice sheet extension and vegetation distribution at Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and may have altered the distance between NEEM and available fuel loads. During the last Glacial, the combination of dry and cold climate conditions, together with low boreal insolation and decreased atmospheric carbon dioxide levels may have also limited the production of available biomass. Diminished boreal forest extension and the southward

  1. Glacial-interglacial sea ice proxies from the Antarctic Peninsula using the James Ross Island ice core.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benton, A. K.; Mulvaney, R.; Triest, J.; Abram, N.

    2014-12-01

    Ice core records from Antarctica have shown promise as highly-resolved indicators of regional sea ice change, but to date semi-quantified reconstructions do not extend back more than ~150 years. In this study the chemical composition of the James Ross Island ice core is presented as a potential sea ice proxy record spanning the full Holocene and into the last glacial interval. A CFA-TE method was used to analyse the chemical composition of the entire 363.9m core including final 5m which contains evidence of glacial age ice. MSA- and major anions were measured at 4cm effective resolution, along with trace elements Na, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, H2O2, NO3, total conductivity and dust at <0.5cm effective resolution. Seasonal signals from H2O2 in the upper 50m of the core support the use of non sea salt-SO42- for determining seasonality in deeper sections. This multi-proxy analysis of the oldest ice core to date from the Antarctic Peninsula region allows the concurrent interpretation of sea ice changes and their environmental drivers. The potential dual influence of previous winter sea ice extent and air pathway source region on MSA concentrations in the core are interpreted with use of Na as a winter maximum indicator and Ca and dust signal strength showing changes in dust flux indicating potential source region variation.

  2. Recent Increases in Snow Accumulation and Decreases in Sea-Ice Concentration Recorded in a Coastal NW Greenland Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Thompson, J. T.; Wong, G. J.; Hawley, R. L.; Kelly, M. A.; Lutz, E.; Howley, J.; Ferris, D. G.

    2013-12-01

    A significant rise in summer temperatures over the past several decades has led to widespread retreat of the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) margin and surrounding sea ice. Recent observations from geodetic stations and GRACE show that ice mass loss progressed from South Greenland up to Northwest Greenland by 2005 (Khan et al., 2010). Observations from meteorological stations at the U.S. Thule Air Force Base, remote sensing platforms, and climate reanalyses indicate a 3.5C mean annual warming in the Thule region and a 44% decrease in summer (JJAS) sea-ice concentrations in Baffin Bay from 1980-2010. Mean annual precipitation near Thule increased by 12% over this interval, with the majority of the increase occurring in fall (SON). To improve projections of future ice loss and sea-level rise in a warming climate, we are currently developing multi-proxy records (lake sediment cores, ice cores, glacial geologic data, glaciological models) of Holocene climate variability and cryospheric response in NW Greenland, with a focus on past warm periods. As part of our efforts to develop a millennial-length ice core paleoclimate record from the Thule region, we collected and analyzed snow pit samples and short firn cores (up to 20 m) from the coastal region of the GIS (2Barrel site; 76.9317 N, 63.1467 W) and the summit of North Ice Cap (76.938 N, 67.671 W) in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The 2Barrel ice core was sampled using a continuous ice core melting system at Dartmouth, and subsequently analyzed for major anion and trace element concentrations and stable water isotope ratios. Here we show that the 2Barrel ice core spanning 1990-2010 records a 25% increase in mean annual snow accumulation, and is positively correlated (r = 0.52, p<0.01) with ERA-Interim precipitation. The 2Barrel annual sea-salt Na concentration is strongly correlated (r = 0.5-0.8, p<0.05) with summer and fall sea-ice concentrations in northern Baffin Bay near Thule (Figure 1). We hypothesize that the positive

  3. Radiocarbon analyses along the EDML ice core in Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Wal, R. S. W.; Meijer, H. A. J.; de Rooij, M.; van der Veen, C.

    2007-02-01

    Samples, 17 in total, from the EDML core drilled at Kohnen station Antarctica are analysed for 14CO and 14CO2 with a dry-extraction technique in combination with accelerator mass spectrometry. Results of the in situ produced 14CO fraction show a very low concentration of in situ produced 14CO. Despite these low levels in carbon monoxide, a significant in situ production is observed in the carbon dioxide fraction. For the first time we found background values for the ice samples which are equal to line blanks. The data set is used to test a model for the production of 14C in the ice matrix, in combination with a degassing as 14CO2 and possibly as 14CO into the air bubbles. Application of the model, for which no independent validation is yet possible, offers the opportunity to use radiocarbon analysis as dating technique for the air bubbles in the ice. Assigning an arbitrary error of 25% to the calculation of the in situ production leads to age estimates, after correction for the in situ production, which are in agreement with age estimates based on a volcanic layer match of EDML to the Dome C timescale in combination with a correction for firn diffusion.

  4. Ice cores and SeaRISE: What we do (and don't) know

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alley, Richard B.

    1991-01-01

    Ice core analyses are needed in SeaRISE to learn what the West Antarctic ice sheet and other marine ice sheets were like in the past, what climate changes led to their present states, and how they behave. The major results of interest to SeaRISE from previous ice core analyses in West Antarctic are that the end of the last ice age caused temperature and accumulation rate increases in inland regions, leading to ice sheet thickening followed by thinning to the present.

  5. Quantification of Dead-ice Melting in Ice-Cored Moraines at the High-Arctic Glacier Holmströmbreen, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schomacker, A.; Kjaer, K. H.

    2007-12-01

    An extensive dead-ice area has developed at the stagnant snout of the Holmströmbreen glacier on Svalbard following its Little Ice Age maximum. Dead-ice appears mainly as ice-cored moraines, ice-cored eskers and ice- cored kames. The most common dead-ice landform is sediment gravity flows on ice-cored slopes surrounding a large ice-walled, moraine-dammed lake. The lake finally receives the sediment from the resedimentation processes. Dead-ice melting is described and quantified through field studies and analyses of high-resolution, multi-temporal aerial photographs and satellite imagery. Field measurements of backwasting of ice-cored slopes indicate short-term melting rates of c. 9.2 cm/day. Long-term downwasting rates indicate a surface lowering of ice-cored moraines of c. 0.9 m/yr from 1984-2004. Different measures for dead-ice melting are assessed in relation to the temperature record from Svalbard since the termination of the Little Ice Age. The most prominent impact of dead-ice melting is the evolution of the ice-walled lake with an area increasing near-exponentially over the last 40 years. As long as backwasting and mass movement processes prevent build-up of an insulating debris-cover and expose ice-cores to melting, the de-icing continues even though the area is characterized by continuous permafrost.

  6. Water isotopic ratios from a continuously melted ice core sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkinis, V.; Popp, T. J.; Blunier, T.; Bigler, M.; Schüpbach, S.; Johnsen, S. J.

    2011-06-01

    A new technique for on-line high resolution isotopic analysis of liquid water, tailored for ice core studies is presented. We build an interface between an Infra Red Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (IR-CRDS) and a Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) system. The system offers the possibility to perform simultaneuous water isotopic analysis of δ18O and δD on a continuous stream of liquid water as generated from a continuously melted ice rod. Injection of sub μl amounts of liquid water is achieved by pumping sample through a fused silica capillary and instantaneously vaporizing it with 100 % efficiency in a home made oven at a temperature of 170 °C. A calibration procedure allows for proper reporting of the data on the VSMOW scale. We apply the necessary corrections based on the assessed performance of the system regarding instrumental drifts and dependance on humidity levels. The melt rates are monitored in order to assign a depth scale to the measured isotopic profiles. Application of spectral methods yields the combined uncertainty of the system at below 0.1 ‰ and 0.5 ‰ for δ18O and δD, respectively. This performance is comparable to that achieved with mass spectrometry. Dispersion of the sample in the transfer lines limits the resolution of the technique. In this work we investigate and assess these dispersion effects. By using an optimal filtering method we show how the measured profiles can be corrected for the smoothing effects resulting from the sample dispersion. Considering the significant advantages the technique offers, i.e. simultaneuous measurement of δ18O and δD, potentially in combination with chemical components that are traditionally measured on CFA systems, notable reduction on analysis time and power consumption, we consider it as an alternative to traditional isotope ratio mass spectrometry with the possibility to be deployed for field ice core studies. We present data acquired in the framework of the NEEM deep ice core drilling project in

  7. Water isotopic ratios from a continuously melted ice core sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gkinis, V.; Popp, T. J.; Blunier, T.; Bigler, M.; Schüpbach, S.; Kettner, E.; Johnsen, S. J.

    2011-11-01

    A new technique for on-line high resolution isotopic analysis of liquid water, tailored for ice core studies is presented. We built an interface between a Wavelength Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (WS-CRDS) purchased from Picarro Inc. and a Continuous Flow Analysis (CFA) system. The system offers the possibility to perform simultaneuous water isotopic analysis of δ18O and δD on a continuous stream of liquid water as generated from a continuously melted ice rod. Injection of sub μl amounts of liquid water is achieved by pumping sample through a fused silica capillary and instantaneously vaporizing it with 100% efficiency in a~home made oven at a temperature of 170 °C. A calibration procedure allows for proper reporting of the data on the VSMOW-SLAP scale. We apply the necessary corrections based on the assessed performance of the system regarding instrumental drifts and dependance on the water concentration in the optical cavity. The melt rates are monitored in order to assign a depth scale to the measured isotopic profiles. Application of spectral methods yields the combined uncertainty of the system at below 0.1‰ and 0.5‰ for δ18O and δD, respectively. This performance is comparable to that achieved with mass spectrometry. Dispersion of the sample in the transfer lines limits the temporal resolution of the technique. In this work we investigate and assess these dispersion effects. By using an optimal filtering method we show how the measured profiles can be corrected for the smoothing effects resulting from the sample dispersion. Considering the significant advantages the technique offers, i.e. simultaneuous measurement of δ18O and δD, potentially in combination with chemical components that are traditionally measured on CFA systems, notable reduction on analysis time and power consumption, we consider it as an alternative to traditional isotope ratio mass spectrometry with the possibility to be deployed for field ice core studies. We present

  8. Deep Radiostratigraphy of the East Antarctic Plateau: Connecting the Dome C and Vostok Ice Core Sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavitte, Marie G. P.; Blankenship, Donald D.; Young, Duncan A.; Schroeder, Dustin M.; Parrenin, Frederic; Lemeur, Emmanuel; Macgregor, Joseph A.; Siegert, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Several airborne radar-sounding surveys are used to trace internal reflections around the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica Dome C and Vostok ice core sites. Thirteen reflections, spanning the last two glacial cycles, are traced within 200 km of Dome C, a promising region for million-year-old ice, using the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics High-Capacity Radar Sounder. This provides a dated stratigraphy to 2318 m depth at Dome C. Reflection age uncertainties are calculated from the radar range precision and signal-to-noise ratio of the internal reflections. The radar stratigraphy matches well with the Multichannel Coherent Radar Depth Sounder (MCoRDS) radar stratigraphy obtained independently. We show that radar sounding enables the extension of ice core ages through the ice sheet with an additional radar-related age uncertainty of approximately 1/3-1/2 that of the ice cores. Reflections are extended along the Byrd-Totten Glacier divide, using University of Texas/Technical University of Denmark and MCoRDS surveys. However, core-to-core connection is impeded by pervasive aeolian terranes, and Lake Vostok's influence on reflection geometry. Poor radar connection of the two ice cores is attributed to these effects and suboptimal survey design in affected areas. We demonstrate that, while ice sheet internal radar reflections are generally isochronal and can be mapped over large distances, careful survey planning is necessary to extend ice core chronologies to distant regions of the East Antarctic ice sheet.

  9. Methane and nitrous oxide in the ice core record.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Eric; Spahni, Renato

    2007-07-15

    Polar ice cores contain, in trapped air bubbles, an archive of the concentrations of stable atmospheric gases. Of the major non-CO2 greenhouse gases, methane is measured quite routinely, while nitrous oxide is more challenging, with some artefacts occurring in the ice and so far limited interpretation. In the recent past, the ice cores provide the only direct measure of the changes that have occurred during the industrial period; they show that the current concentration of methane in the atmosphere is far outside the range experienced in the last 650,000 years; nitrous oxide is also elevated above its natural levels. There is controversy about whether changes in the pre-industrial Holocene are natural or anthropogenic in origin. Changes in wetland emissions are generally cited as the main cause of the large glacial-interglacial change in methane. However, changing sinks must also be considered, and the impact of possible newly described sources evaluated. Recent isotopic data appear to finally rule out any major impact of clathrate releases on methane at these time-scales. Any explanation must take into account that, at the rapid Dansgaard-Oeschger warmings of the last glacial period, methane rose by around half its glacial-interglacial range in only a few decades. The recent EPICA Dome C (Antarctica) record shows that methane tracked climate over the last 650,000 years, with lower methane concentrations in glacials than interglacials, and lower concentrations in cooler interglacials than in warmer ones. Nitrous oxide also shows Dansgaard-Oeschger and glacial-interglacial periodicity, but the pattern is less clear.

  10. Fire in ice: two millennia of boreal forest fire history from the Greenland NEEM ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zennaro, P.; Kehrwald, N.; McConnell, J. R.; Schüpbach, S.; Maselli, O. J.; Marlon, J.; Vallelonga, P.; Leuenberger, D.; Zangrando, R.; Spolaor, A.; Borrotti, M.; Barbaro, E.; Gambaro, A.; Barbante, C.

    2014-10-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of greenhouse gases and influences regional to global climate. Pre-industrial fire-history records from black carbon, charcoal and other proxies provide baseline estimates of biomass burning at local to global scales spanning millennia, and are thus useful to examine the role of fire in the carbon cycle and climate system. Here we use the specific biomarker levoglucosan together with black carbon and ammonium concentrations from the North Greenland Eemian (NEEM) ice cores (77.49° N, 51.2° W; 2480 m a.s.l) over the past 2000 years to infer changes in boreal fire activity. Increases in boreal fire activity over the periods 1000-1300 CE and decreases during 700-900 CE coincide with high-latitude NH temperature changes. Levoglucosan concentrations in the NEEM ice cores peak between 1500 and 1700 CE, and most levoglucosan spikes coincide with the most extensive central and northern Asian droughts of the past millennium. Many of these multi-annual droughts are caused by Asian monsoon failures, thus suggesting a connection between low- and high-latitude climate processes. North America is a primary source of biomass burning aerosols due to its relative proximity to the Greenland Ice Cap. During major fire events, however, isotopic analyses of dust, back trajectories and links with levoglucosan peaks and regional drought reconstructions suggest that Siberia is also an important source of pyrogenic aerosols to Greenland.

  11. Measurement of the fracture toughness of polycrystalline bubbly ice from an Antarctic ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christmann, J.; Muller, R.; Webber, K. G.; Isaia, D.; Schader, F. H.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Freitag, J.; Humbert, A.

    2015-05-01

    The critical fracture toughness is a material parameter describing the resistance of a cracked body to further crack extension. It is an important parameter for simulating and predicting the breakup behavior of ice shelves from the calving of single icebergs to the disintegration of entire ice shelves over a wide range of length scales. The fracture toughness values are calculated with equations that are derived from an elastic stress analysis. Additionally, an X-ray computer tomography (CT scanner) was used to identify the density as a function of depth. The critical fracture toughness of 91 Antarctic bubbly ice samples with densities between 840 and 870 kg m-3 has been determined by applying a four-point bending technique on single-edge v-notched beam samples. The examined ice core was drilled 70 m north of Kohnen Station, Dronnning Maud Land (75°00' S, 00°04' E; 2882 m). Supplementary data are available at Analogue modelling of the influence of ice shelf collapse on the flow of ice sheets grounded below sea-level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corti, Giacomo; Zeoli, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The sudden breakup of ice shelves is expected to result in significant acceleration of inland glaciers, a process related to the removal of the buttressing effect exerted by the ice shelf on the tributary glaciers. This effect has been tested in previous analogue models, which however applied to ice sheets grounded above sea level (e.g., East Antarctic Ice Sheet; Antarctic Peninsula and the Larsen Ice Shelf). In this work we expand these previous results by performing small-scale laboratory models that analyse the influence of ice shelf collapse on the flow of ice streams draining an ice sheet grounded below sea level (e.g., the West Antarctic Ice Sheet). The analogue models, with dimensions (width, length, thickness) of 120x70x1.5cm were performed at the Tectonic Modelling Laboratory of CNR-IGG of Florence, Italy, by using Polydimethilsyloxane (PDMS) as analogue for the flowing ice. This transparent, Newtonian silicone has been shown to well approximate the rheology of natural ice. The silicone was allowed to flow into a water reservoir simulating natural conditions in which ice streams flow into the sea, terminating in extensive ice shelves which act as a buttress for their glaciers and slow their flow. The geometric scaling ratio was 10(-5), such that 1cm in the models simulated 1km in nature; velocity of PDMS (a few mm per hour) simulated natural velocities of 100-1000 m/year. Instability of glacier flow was induced by manually removing a basal silicone platform (floating on water) exerting backstresses to the flowing analogue glacier: the simple set-up adopted in the experiments isolates the effect of the removal of the buttressing effect that the floating platform exerts on the flowing glaciers, thus offering insights into the influence of this parameter on the flow perturbations resulting from a collapse event. The experimental results showed a significant increase in glacier velocity close to its outlet following ice shelf breakup, a process similar to what

  12. Holocene biomass burning recorded in polar and low-latitude ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrwald, N. M.; Zennaro, P.; Zangrando, R.; Gabrielli, P.; Thompson, L. G.; Gambaro, A.; Barbante, C.

    2011-12-01

    Ice cores contain specific molecular markers including levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose) and other pyrochemical evidence that provides much-needed information on the role of fire in regions with no existing data of past fire activity. Levoglucosan is a cellulose combustion product produced at burning temperatures of 300°C or greater. We first trace fire emissions from a boreal forest source in the Canadian Shield through transport and deposition at Summit, Greenland. Atmospheric and surface samples suggest that levoglucosan in snow can record biomass burning events up to 1000s of kilometers away. Levoglucosan does degrade by interacting with hydroxyl radicals in the atmosphere, but it is emitted in large quantities, allowing the use as a biomass burning tracer. These quantified atmospheric biomass burning emissions and associated parallel oxalate and levoglucosan peaks in snow pit samples validates levoglucosan as a proxy for past biomass burning in snow records and by extension in ice cores. The temporal and spatial resolution of chemical markers in ice cores matches the core in which they are measured. The longest temporal resolution extends back approximately eight glacial cycles in the EPICA Dome C ice core, but many ice cores provide high-resolution Holocene records. The spatial resolution of chemical markers in ice cores depends on the core location where low-latitude ice cores primarily reflect regional climate parameters, and polar ice cores integrate hemispheric signals. Here, we compare levoglucosan flux measured during the late Holocene in the Kilimanjaro (3°04.6'S; 37°21.2'E, 5893 masl) and NEEM, Greenland (77°27' N; 51°3'W, 2454 masl) ice cores. We contrast the Holocene results with levoglucosan flux across the past 600,000 years in the EPICA Dome C (75°06'S, 123°21'E, 3233 masl) ice core.

  13. The role of soils and soil heterogeneities in the dynamics and stability of Martian ground ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sizemore, Hanna Gail

    The dynamical state and equilibrium location of shallow ground ice on Mars have relevance to a variety of science questions, as well as future human and robotic exploration. I investigate the role of soils in the dynamical transport of ground ice and the role of soil heterogeneities in the equilibrium depth of the ice table. First, assuming ice to be in equilibrium with atmospheric water vapor, I develop a multi-dimensional model of ground-ice stability and use it to place quantitative constraints on the response of the ice table to meter-scale rocks, dust lenses, and albedo variations in the current climate. I find that rocks create localized areas of deep ice, producing depressions of a few to 60 cm over a horizontal range of 1-2 rock radii. Patches of dust produce locally shallow ice; however, the magnitude of this effect is small (1-4 cm). I employ these results to investigate the role played by heterogeneities in orbital estimates of ice table depth. I find that surface rocks can account for more than half of the discrepancy between ice table depths inferred from leakage neutron flux and those predicted by ice-stability simulations that utilize thermophysical observations. Turning to considerations of ground-ice dynamics, I present laboratory measurements of the structural properties most relevant to gas transport in five groups of Mars-analog soils. These measurements indicate that diffusive loss of ground ice on Mars can likely proceed up to four times faster than predicted by theoretical studies and that the pore volume in some Mars-analog soils is sufficiently large to explain high volumetric ice abundances inferred from Mars Odyssey Gamma Ray Spectrometer data as simple pore ice. The upcoming Mars Scout Mission Phoenix may provide links between the dynamical and equilibrium views of ground-ice. I combine simulations of ground-ice stability with statistical estimates of the abundance of rocks at the Phoenix landing site to predict the degree of ice table

  14. A modeling experiment on the grounding of an ice shelf in the central Arctic Ocean during MIS 6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobsson, M.; Siegert, M.; Paton, M.

    2003-12-01

    High-resolution chirp sonar subbottom profiles from the Lomonosov Ridge in the central Arctic Ocean, acquired from the Swedish icebreaker Oden in 1996, revealed large-scale erosion of the ridge crest down to depths of 1000 m below present sea level [Jakobsson, 1999]. Subsequent acoustic mapping during the SCICEX nuclear submarine expedition in 1999 showed glacial fluting at the deepest eroded areas and subparallel ice scours from 950 m water depth to the shallowest parts of the ridge crest [Polyak et al., 2001]. The directions of the mapped glaciogenic bed-forms and the redeposition of eroded material on the Amerasian side of the ridge indicate ice flow from the Barents-Kara Sea area. Core studies revealed that sediment drape the eroded areas from Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 5.5 and, thus, it was proposed that the major erosional event took place during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 6 [Jakobsson et al., 2001]. Glacial geological evidence suggests strongly that the Late Saalian (MIS 6) ice sheet margin reached the shelf break of the Barents-Kara Sea [Svendsen et al. in press] and this gives us two possible ways to explain the ice erosional features on the Lomonosov Ridge. One is the grounding of a floating ice shelf and the other is the scouring from large deep tabular iceberg. Here we apply numerical ice sheet modeling to test the hypothesis that an ice shelf emanating from the Barents/Kara seas grounded across part of the Lomonsov Ridge and caused the extensive erosion down to a depth of around 1000 m below present sea level. A series of model experiments was undertaken in which the ice shelf mass balance (surface accumulation and basal melting) and ice shelf strain rates were adjusted. Grounding of the Lomonosov Ridge was not achieved when the ice shelf strain rate was 0.005 yr-1 (i.e. a free flowing ice shelf). However this model produced two interesting findings. First, with basal melt rates of up to 50 cm yr-1 an ice shelf grew from the St. Anna Trough ice stream

  15. Antarctic ice sheet: preliminary results of first core hole to bedrock.

    PubMed

    Gow, A J; Ueda, H T; Garfield, D E

    1968-09-01

    The Antarctic ice sheet at Byrd Station has been core-drilled to bedrock; the vertical thickness of the ice is 2164 meters. Liquid water-indicative of pressure melting-was encountered at the bed. Heat flow through the base of the ice sheet is estimated at 1.8 microcalories per square centimeter per second. The minimum temperature was -28.8 degrees C at 800 meters; maximum ice density, 0.9206 at 1000 meters. Core studies reveal the existence of a chemically pure, structurally stratified sheet comprising bubbly ice to 900 meters that transforms to bubble-free deformed ice, with substantially vertically orientated c-axis structure, below 1200 meters. Below 1800 meters the deformed ice structure gives way to large annealed crystals. Several thin layers of dirt between 1300 and 1700 meters are tentatively identified as volcanic ash, and horizontally banded debris, including fragments of granite, is present in the basal ice.

  16. Halogen-based reconstruction of Russian Arctic sea ice area from the Akademii Nauk ice core (Severnaya Zemlya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spolaor, A.; Opel, T.; McConnell, J. R.; Maselli, O. J.; Spreen, G.; Varin, C.; Kirchgeorg, T.; Fritzsche, D.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Vallelonga, P.

    2016-01-01

    The role of sea ice in the Earth climate system is still under debate, although it is known to influence albedo, ocean circulation, and atmosphere-ocean heat and gas exchange. Here we present a reconstruction of 1950 to 1998 AD sea ice in the Laptev Sea based on the Akademii Nauk ice core (Severnaya Zemlya, Russian Arctic). The chemistry of halogens bromine (Br) and iodine (I) is strongly active and influenced by sea ice dynamics, in terms of physical, chemical and biological process. Bromine reacts on the sea ice surface in autocatalyzing "bromine explosion" events, causing an enrichment of the Br / Na ratio and hence a bromine excess (Brexc) in snow compared to that in seawater. Iodine is suggested to be emitted from algal communities growing under sea ice. The results suggest a connection between Brexc and spring sea ice area, as well as a connection between iodine concentration and summer sea ice area. The correlation coefficients obtained between Brexc and spring sea ice (r = 0.44) as well as between iodine and summer sea ice (r = 0.50) for the Laptev Sea suggest that these two halogens could become good candidates for extended reconstructions of past sea ice changes in the Arctic.

  17. Sea ice variability during the Holocene: evidence from marine and ice cores in the Ross Sea area, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mezgec, Karin; Melis, Romana; Crosta, Xavier; Traversi, Rita; Severi, Mirko; Colizza, Ester; Braida, Martina; Stenni, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    High latitudes are particularly interesting places to document natural climate variability. Sea ice is an important element in the climate system because it influences bottom water formation and ocean circulation and regulates the ocean-atmosphere heat exchange. Understanding climate and environmental changes through the reconstruction of past sea ice variability, atmospheric circulation and oceanographic conditions in the Southern Ocean could represent one of the most important keys to predict with confidence future climate changes on global scale. In fact, the oceanic area surrounding Antarctica represents the main source of bottom water formation affecting the global climate through the oceanic circulation. In this study, we present an interdisciplinary proxies analysis considering marine and ice core records, as part of the ESF PolarCLIMATE HOLOCLIP (Holocene climate variability at high-southern latitudes: an integrated perspective) project, to document sea ice variability in the Ross Sea continental shelf area. Diatom assemblages from three sediment cores located in the north-western Ross Sea (Joides Basin, Cape Hallett and Wood Bay) have been studied and the sea salt Na+ (a potential proxy of sea ice) records from two ice core sites (Taylor Dome and Talos Dome) facing the Ross Sea area have been considered. The significant positive correlations among the sea ice diatom Fragilariopsis curta relative abundance and sea salt Na+ records from Talos Dome and Taylor Dome ice cores, suggest that sea salt Na+ could be used as a proxy for sea ice extent and/or duration in the Ross Sea area. These preliminary results look as a positive premise in view of integrating proxies from different realms (marine and glacial) in order to achieve a more complete view of the climate and environmental changes occurring during the Holocene. The combination of geological and glacial records will greatly improve our knowledge on paleo sea ice dynamics.

  18. HiRISE observations of new impact craters exposing Martian ground ice

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dundas, Colin M.; Byrne, Shane; McEwen, Alfred S.; Mellon, Michael T.; Kennedy, Megan R.; Daubar, Ingrid J.; Saper, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Twenty small new impact craters or clusters have been observed to excavate bright material inferred to be ice at mid and high latitudes on Mars. In the northern hemisphere, the craters are widely distributed geographically and occur at latitudes as low as 39°N. Stability modeling suggests that this ice distribution requires a long-term average atmospheric water vapor content around 25 precipitable microns, more than double the present value, which is consistent with the expected effect of recent orbital variations. Alternatively, near-surface humidity could be higher than expected for current column abundances if water vapor is not well-mixed with atmospheric CO2, or the vapor pressure at the ice table could be lower due to salts. Ice in and around the craters remains visibly bright for months to years, indicating that it is clean ice rather than ice-cemented regolith. Although some clean ice may be produced by the impact process, it is likely that the original ground ice was excess ice (exceeding dry soil pore space) in many cases. Observations of the craters suggest small-scale heterogeneities in this excess ice. The origin of such ice is uncertain. Ice lens formation by migration of thin films of liquid is most consistent with local heterogeneity in ice content and common surface boulders, but in some cases nearby thermokarst landforms suggest large amounts of excess ice that may be best explained by a degraded ice sheet.

  19. HiRISE observations of new impact craters exposing Martian ground ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dundas, Colin M.; Byrne, Shane; McEwen, Alfred S.; Mellon, Michael T.; Kennedy, Megan R.; Daubar, Ingrid J.; Saper, Lee

    2014-01-01

    Twenty small new impact craters or clusters have been observed to excavate bright material inferred to be ice at mid-latitudes and high latitudes on Mars. In the northern hemisphere, the craters are widely distributed geographically and occur at latitudes as low as 39°N. Stability modeling suggests that this ice distribution requires a long-term average atmospheric water vapor content around 25 precipitable micrometers, more than double the present value, which is consistent with the expected effect of recent orbital variations. Alternatively, near-surface humidity could be higher than expected for current column abundances if water vapor is not well mixed with atmospheric CO2, or the vapor pressure at the ice table could be lower due to salts. Ice in and around the craters remains visibly bright for months to years, indicating that it is clean ice rather than ice-cemented regolith. Although some clean ice may be produced by the impact process, it is likely that the original ground ice was excess ice (exceeding dry soil pore space) in many cases. Observations of the craters suggest small-scale heterogeneities in this excess ice. The origin of such ice is uncertain. Ice lens formation by migration of thin films of liquid is most consistent with local heterogeneity in ice content and common surface boulders, but in some cases, nearby thermokarst landforms suggest large amounts of excess ice that may be best explained by a degraded ice sheet.

  1. Toward an integrated ice core chronology using relative and orbital tie-points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazin, L.; Landais, A.; Lemieux-Dudon, B.; Toyé Mahamadou Kele, H.; Blunier, T.; Capron, E.; Chappellaz, J.; Fischer, H.; Leuenberger, M.; Lipenkov, V.; Loutre, M.-F.; Martinerie, P.; Parrenin, F.; Prié, F.; Raynaud, D.; Veres, D.; Wolff, E.

    2012-04-01

    Precise ice cores chronologies are essential to better understand the mechanisms linking climate change to orbital and greenhouse gases concentration forcing. A tool for ice core dating (DATICE [developed by Lemieux-Dudon et al., 2010] permits to generate a common time-scale integrating relative and absolute dating constraints on different ice cores, using an inverse method. Nevertheless, this method has only been applied for a 4-ice cores scenario and for the 0-50 kyr time period. Here, we present the bases for an extension of this work back to 800 ka using (1) a compilation of published and new relative and orbital tie-points obtained from measurements of air trapped in ice cores and (2) an adaptation of the DATICE inputs to 5 ice cores for the last 800 ka. We first present new measurements of δ18Oatm and δO2/N2 on the Talos Dome and EPICA Dome C (EDC) ice cores with a particular focus on Marine Isotopic Stages (MIS) 5, and 11. Then, we show two tie-points compilations. The first one is based on new and published CH4 and δ18Oatm measurements on 5 ice cores (NorthGRIP, EPICA Dronning Maud Land, EDC, Talos Dome and Vostok) in order to produce a table of relative gas tie-points over the last 400 ka. The second one is based on new and published records of δO2/N2, δ18Oatm and air content to provide a table of orbital tie-points over the last 800 ka. Finally, we integrate the different dating constraints presented above in the DATICE tool adapted to 5 ice cores to cover the last 800 ka and show how these constraints compare with the established gas chronologies of each ice core.

  2. Microorganisms in the Malan ice core and their relation to climatic and environmental changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Tandong; Xiang, Shurong; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wang, Ninglian; Wang, Youqing

    2006-03-01

    A 102-m-long ice core retrieved from the Malan Ice Cap on the Tibetan Plateau provides us with a historical record of the microorganisms trapped in the ice. The microorganisms in the Malan ice core are identified as α, β, and γ-Proteobacteia, and the LGC, HGC, and CFB group by means of the results of 16S rRNA sequence analysis and physiological characteristics, while the eukaryotes in the ice core are mainly composed of Chlamydomonas sp. and Pseudochlorella sp. based on the phylogenetic examination of the 18S rRNA gene. The microbial populations show observable differences at different depths in the ice core, reflecting the effects of climatic and environmental changes on the distribution of the microorganisms in the glacier. Examination of the Malan ice core shows four general periods of microbial concentration, which correspond to four phases of temperature revealed by δ18O values in the core. Observations also indicate that microorganism concentrations tend to be negatively correlated with the temperature at a relatively long timescale and, to some extent, positively correlated with mineral concentrations. The present study demonstrates that more microorganisms are associated with colder periods while fewer microorganisms are associated with warm periods, which provides us with a new proxy for the reconstruction of past climatic and environmental changes by means of ice core analysis.

  3. Little Ice Age evidence from a south-central North American ice core, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Naftz, D.L.; Klusman, R.W.; Michel, R.L.; Schuster, P.F.; Ready, M.M.; Taylor, H.E.; Yanosky, T.M.; McConnaughey, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    In the past, ice-core records from mid-latitude glaciers in alpine areas of the continental United States were considered to be poor candidates for paleoclimate records because of the influence of meltwater on isotopic stratigraphy. To evaluate the existence of reliable paleoclimatic records, a 160-m ice core, containing about 250 yr of record was obtained from Upper Fremont Glacier, at an altitude of 4000 m in the Wind River Range of south-central North America. The ??18O (SMOW) profile from the core shows a -0.95??? shift to lighter values in the interval from 101.8 to 150 m below the surface, corresponding to the latter part of the Little Ice Age (LIA). Numerous high-amplitude oscillations in the section of the core from 101.8 to 150 m cannot be explained by site-specific lateral variability and probably reflect increased seasonality or better preservation of annual signals as a result of prolonged cooler temperatures that existed in this alpine setting. An abrupt decrease in these large amplitude oscillations at the 101.8-m depth suggests a sudden termination of this period of lower temperatures which generally coincides with the termination of the LIA. Three common features in the ??18O profiles between Upper Fremont Glacier and the better dated Quelccaya Ice Cap cores indicate a global paleoclimate linkage, further supporting the first documented occurrence of the LIA in an ice-core record from a temperate glacier in south-central North America.

  4. Hydrogeomorphic processes of thermokarst lakes with grounded-ice and floating-ice regimes on the Arctic coastal plain, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arp, C.D.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Urban, F.E.; Grosse, G.

    2011-01-01

    Thermokarst lakes cover > 20% of the landscape throughout much of the Alaskan Arctic Coastal Plain (ACP) with shallow lakes freezing solid (grounded ice) and deeper lakes maintaining perennial liquid water (floating ice). Thus, lake depth relative to maximum ice thickness (1·5–2·0 m) represents an important threshold that impacts permafrost, aquatic habitat, and potentially geomorphic and hydrologic behaviour. We studied coupled hydrogeomorphic processes of 13 lakes representing a depth gradient across this threshold of maximum ice thickness by analysing remotely sensed, water quality, and climatic data over a 35-year period. Shoreline erosion rates due to permafrost degradation ranged from L) with periods of full and nearly dry basins. Shorter-term (2004–2008) specific conductance data indicated a drying pattern across lakes of all depths consistent with the long-term record for only shallow lakes. Our analysis suggests that grounded-ice lakes are ice-free on average 37 days longer than floating-ice lakes resulting in a longer period of evaporative loss and more frequent negative P − EL. These results suggest divergent hydrogeomorphic responses to a changing Arctic climate depending on the threshold created by water depth relative to maximum ice thickness in ACP lakes.

  5. Extraction of Ice Sheet Layers from Two Intersected Radar Echograms Near Neem Ice Core in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, S.; Muller, J.-P.

    2016-06-01

    Accumulation of snow and ice over time result in ice sheet layers. These can be remotely sensed where there is a contrast in electromagnetic properties, which reflect variations of the ice density, acidity and fabric orientation. Internal ice layers are assumed to be isochronous, deep beneath the ice surface, and parallel to the direction of ice flow. The distribution of internal layers is related to ice sheet dynamics, such as the basal melt rate, basal elevation variation and changes in ice flow mode, which are important parameters to model the ice sheet. Radar echo sounder is an effective instrument used to study the sedimentology of the Earth and planets. Ice Penetrating Radar (IPR) is specific kind of radar echo sounder, which extends studies of ice sheets from surface to subsurface to deep internal ice sheets depending on the frequency utilised. In this study, we examine a study site where folded ice occurs in the internal ice sheet south of the North Greenland Eemian ice drilling (NEEM) station, where two intersected radar echograms acquired by the Multi-channel Coherent Radar Depth Sounder (MCoRDS) employed in the NASA's Operation IceBridge (OIB) mission imaged this folded ice. We propose a slice processing flow based on a Radon Transform to trace and extract these two sets of curved ice sheet layers, which can then be viewed in 3-D, demonstrating the 3-D structure of the ice folds.

  6. Snow algae in an ice core drilled on Grigoriev Ice cap in the Kyrgyz Tien Shen Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, M.; Takeuchi, N.; Sera, S.; Fujita, K.; Okamoto, S.; Naoki, K.; Aizen, V. B.

    2012-12-01

    Snow algae are photosynthetic microorganisms and are living on the surfase of glaciers. They grow on melting surface from spring to summer and their biomass and community structure are changed with physical and chemical conditions on glaciers. Ice cores drilled from glaciers also contain snow algae that grew in the past. Studying biomass and community structure of snow algae in ice cores could reveal the temporal variation in snow algae in the past, and also environmental conditions relating propagation of snow algae. In this study, we anlalyzed snow algae preserved in an ice core of Grigoriev Ice cap located in eastern Kyrgyzstan of the central Asia, and to describe their temporal variations for the last 200 years. The ice core drilling was carried out on September in 2007 on the Grigoriev Ice cap in the Kyrgyz Tien Shen Mountains. A 87 m long ice core from the surface to the bedrock was recovered at the top of the ice cap. The core was horizontally cut every 5 cm (total 1212 samples). The samples were melted and preserved as a 3% formalin solution. After the sample water was filtered through a hydrophilized PTFE membrane filter, observed by microscope. Snow algae in the sample water were counting. The algal biomass was represented by the cell number per unit water volume. Here, we showed the results between the surface to the 64 m in depth. We also analyzed the snow algal communities on the surface of the ice cap collected from five different sites from the top down to the terminus. Microscopy revealed that the ice core contained three taxa of filamentous cyanobacteria, an unicellular cyanobacterium, and two green algae. They were also found on the ice or snow surface of the i Ice cap. The quantitative analyses of the algae in the part of upper 64 m deep of the ice core samples revealed that the algal biomass varied significantly and showed many peaks. Furthermore, the biomass profile differed among the taxa. The filamentous cyanobacterium varied from 0.0 to 4

  7. Deformation of subglacial till near ice-sheet grounding zones: theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowal, K. N.; Worster, G.

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale ice-sheet dynamics pivot on the deformation and transport of subglacial sediment through changes in the basal sliding velocities of glaciers. Such unconsolidated, water-saturated glacigenic sediment, or till, is found to accumulate into sedimentary wedges, or till-deltas, in grounding zones separating floating ice shelves from grounded ice streams. In addition to affecting glacial slip, such sedimentation may serve to stabilise ice sheets against grounding-line retreat in response to rising sea levels. We present a fluid-mechanical explanation of the formation of these wedges in terms of the jump in hydrostatic loading and unloading of till across the grounding zone, and we compare our findings with geophysical data of sedimentary wedge formation at the modern-day grounding zone of Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica. We develop a theoretical model of wedge formation in which we treat both ice and till as viscous fluids spreading under gravity into an inviscid ocean and find that a similar wedge of underlying fluid accumulates around the grounding line in our series of fluid-mechanical laboratory experiments. The experiments were performed in a confined channel geometry. We extend our theory to unconfined geometries in which till deformation is resisted dominantly by vertical shear stresses and the flow of the overlying ice is resisted dominantly either by vertical shear stresses between the ice and till or by extensional stresses characteristic of floating ice shelves and shelfy streams. The former is relevant to less-lubricated, grounded ice sheets whereas the latter is relevant to well-lubricated ice streams, sliding over soft, deformable till of low viscosity and appreciable thickness. We formulate a local condition relating wedge slopes in each of the three scenarios and find a reasonable agreement with geophysical data.

  8. Greenland ice cores constrain glacial atmospheric fluxes of phosphorus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Dallmayr, Remi; Gabrieli, Jacopo; Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Hirabayashi, Motohiro; Svensson, Anders; Vallelonga, Paul

    2015-10-01

    Phosphorus is a limiting nutrient for primary productivity, but little is known about past atmospheric fluxes to the open ocean. In this study, phosphate and phosphorus concentrations have been determined in the North Greenland Eemian Ice Drilling Project ice core for selected periods during the last glacial. Phosphate was determined continuously by using a molybdenum blue spectroscopic absorption method and discretely using an ion chromatograph. Total P was determined discretely using an inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometer. For the last glacial period, we found concentrations of between 3 and 62 nM PO43- and 7 and 929 nM P. We find glacial atmospheric fluxes of phosphorus to Greenland were 4 to 11 times higher than in the past century, with the highest input during the cold glacial stadials (GS). Changes in P and PO43- fluxes between mild glacial interstadials (GI) and GS correlate positively with dust variability. The soluble fraction of P is larger in the mild GIs as compared to the dust-rich GSs. For the very high phosphate and phosphorus loads during the Last Glacial Maximum, the relationship between phosphate and dust is weaker than in GIs and milder GSs, suggesting either secondary phosphate sources or multiple dust sources. Based on crustal abundances, we find that dust inputs are sufficient to account for all P deposited during all periods investigated except the Last Glacial Maximum. During the glacial, sea salts contributed 10-3 nM P, while land biogenic emissions were a minor source of P.

  9. The RECAP ice core - recovering a full Glacial record from Eastern Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinther, Bo

    2016-04-01

    During May-June 2015 the 584m an international team drilled the RECAP (REnland ice CAp Project) ice core to bedrock on the Renland ice cap in Eastern Greenland. The exact drill site selection was determined from a detailed radio echo sounding (RES) grid, that had been measured from the ice cap surface right before drilling operations began. The RES data suggested that the ice cap internal layers are horizontal almost right down to the bed at the selected site, and that ice from the Glacial period was present some 30-50m above bedrock. The RES results have now been confirmed by measurements on the RECAP core that shows the entire Glacial being nicely preserved in the 20m section indicated by the RES measurements. The RECAP core thus yields the first undisturbed ice core record from Eastern Greenland covering the last Glacial, a marked improvement compared to the landmark 1988 Renland ice core that was disturbed by ice flow features both during the mid-Holocene and especially during Marine Isotope Stages 4 and 5.

  10. CO2 diffusion in polar ice: observations from naturally formed CO2 spikes in the Siple Dome (Antarctica) ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jinho; Headly, Melissa; Wahlen, Martin; Brook, Edward J.; Mayewski, Paul A.; Taylor, Kendrick C.

    One common assumption in interpreting ice-core CO2 records is that diffusion in the ice does not affect the concentration profile. However, this assumption remains untested because the extremely small CO2 diffusion coefficient in ice has not been accurately determined in the laboratory. In this study we take advantage of high levels of CO2 associated with refrozen layers in an ice core from Siple Dome, Antarctica, to study CO2 diffusion rates. We use noble gases (Xe/Ar and Kr/Ar), electrical conductivity and Ca2+ ion concentrations to show that substantial CO2 diffusion may occur in ice on timescales of thousands of years. We estimate the permeation coefficient for CO2 in ice is ˜4 × 10-21 mol m-1 s-1: Pa-1 at -23°C in the top 287 m (corresponding to 2.74 kyr). Smoothing of the CO2 record by diffusion at this depth/age is one or two orders of magnitude smaller than the smoothing in the firn. However, simulations for depths of ˜930-950 m (˜60-70 kyr) indicate that smoothing of the CO2 record by diffusion in deep ice is comparable to smoothing in the firn. Other types of diffusion (e.g. via liquid in ice grain boundaries or veins) may also be important but their influence has not been quantified.

  11. Young (late Amazonian), near-surface, ground ice features near the equator, Athabasca Valles, Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burr, D.M.; Soare, R.J.; Wan, Bun Tseung J.-M.; Emery, J.P.

    2005-01-01

    A suite of four feature types in a ???20 km2 area near 10?? N, 204?? W in Athabasca Valles is interpreted to have resulted from near-surface ground ice. These features include mounds, conical forms with rimmed summit depressions, flatter irregularly-shaped forms with raised rims, and polygonal terrain. Based on morphology, size, and analogy to terrestrial ground ice forms, these Athabascan features are interpreted as pingos, collapsing pingos, pingo scars, and thermal contraction polygons, respectively. Thermal Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (THEMIS) data and geological features in the area are consistent with a sedimentary substrate underlying these features. These observations lead us to favor a ground ice interpretation, although we do not rule out volcanic and especially glaciofluvial hypotheses. The hypothesized ground ice that formed the mounds and rimmed features may have been emplaced via the deposition of saturated sediment during flooding; an alternative scenario invokes magmatically cycled groundwater. The ground ice implicit in the hypothesized thermal contraction polygons may have derived either from this flooding/ground water, or from atmospheric water vapor. The lack of obvious flood modification of the mounds and rimmed features indicates that they formed after the most recent flood inundated the area. Analogy with terrestrial pingos suggests that ground ice may be still extant within the positive relief mounds. As the water that flooded down Athabasca Valles emerged via a volcanotectonic fissure from a deep aquifer, any extant pingo ice may contain evidence of a deep subsurface biosphere. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Establishing a Reliable Depth-Age Relationship for the Denali Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wake, C. P.; Osterberg, E. C.; Winski, D.; Ferris, D.; Kreutz, K. J.; Introne, D.; Dalton, M.

    2015-12-01

    Reliable climate reconstruction from ice core records requires the development of a reliable depth-age relationship. We have established a sub-annual resolution depth-age relationship for the upper 198 meters of a 208 m ice core recovered in 2013 from Mt. Hunter (3,900 m asl), Denali National Park, central Alaska. The dating of the ice core was accomplished via annual layer counting of glaciochemical time-series combined with identification of reference horizons from volcanic eruptions and atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Using the continuous ice core melter system at Dartmouth College, sub-seasonal samples have been collected and analyzed for major ions, liquid conductivity, particle size and concentration, and stable isotope ratios. Annual signals are apparent in several of the chemical species measured in the ice core samples. Calcium and magnesium peak in the spring, ammonium peaks in the summer, methanesulfonic acid (MSA) peaks in the autumn, and stable isotopes display a strong seasonal cycle with the most depleted values occurring during the winter. Thin ice layers representing infrequent summertime melt were also used to identify summer layers in the core. Analysis of approximately one meter sections of the core via nondestructive gamma spectrometry over depths from 84 to 124 m identified a strong radioactive cesium-137 peak at 89 m which corresponds to the 1963 layer deposited during extensive atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. Peaks in the sulfate and chloride record have been used for the preliminary identification of volcanic signals preserved in the ice core, including ten events since 1883. We are confident that the combination of robust annual layers combined with reference horizons provides a timescale for the 20th century that has an error of less than 0.5 years, making calibrations between ice core records and the instrumental climate data particularly robust. Initial annual layer counting through the entire 198 m suggests the Denali Ice

  13. The design and performance of IceCube DeepCore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R.; Abdou, Y.; Abu-Zayyad, T.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Allen, M. M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Beatty, J. J.; Bechet, S.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Benabderrahmane, M. L.; BenZvi, S.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Brown, A. M.; Buitink, S.; Caballero-Mora, K. S.; Carson, M.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clevermann, F.; Cohen, S.; Colnard, C.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; De Clercq, C.; Degner, T.; Demirörs, L.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; Dierckxsens, M.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Feusels, T.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Heinen, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, B.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hussain, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kenny, P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Köhne, J.-H.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Kroll, G.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Larson, M. J.; Lauer, R.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Marotta, A.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Meagher, K.; Merck, M.; Mészáros, P.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Milke, N.; Miller, J.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Naumann, U.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; O'Murchadha, A.; Panknin, S.; Paul, L.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Porrata, R.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Richman, M.; Rodrigues, J. P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Rutledge, D.; Ruzybayev, B.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Santander, M.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Schmidt, T.; Schönwald, A.; Schukraft, A.; Schultes, A.; Schulz, O.; Schunck, M.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Strahler, E. A.; Ström, R.; Stüer, M.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tamburro, A.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Overloop, A.; van Santen, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Wallraff, M.; Walter, M.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, C.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zarzhitsky, P.; Zoll, M.

    2012-05-01

    The IceCube neutrino observatory in operation at the South Pole, Antarctica, comprises three distinct components: a large buried array for ultrahigh energy neutrino detection, a surface air shower array, and a new buried component called DeepCore. DeepCore was designed to lower the IceCube neutrino energy threshold by over an order of magnitude, to energies as low as about 10 GeV. DeepCore is situated primarily 2100 m below the surface of the icecap at the South Pole, at the bottom center of the existing IceCube array, and began taking physics data in May 2010. Its location takes advantage of the exceptionally clear ice at those depths and allows it to use the surrounding IceCube detector as a highly efficient active veto against the principal background of downward-going muons produced in cosmic-ray air showers. DeepCore has a module density roughly five times higher than that of the standard IceCube array, and uses photomultiplier tubes with a new photocathode featuring a quantum efficiency about 35% higher than standard IceCube PMTs. Taken together, these features of DeepCore will increase IceCube's sensitivity to neutrinos from WIMP dark matter annihilations, atmospheric neutrino oscillations, galactic supernova neutrinos, and point sources of neutrinos in the northern and southern skies. In this paper we describe the design and initial performance of DeepCore.

  14. The Design and Performance of IceCube DeepCore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stamatikos, M.

    2012-01-01

    The IceCube neutrino observatory in operation at the South Pole, Antarctica, comprises three distinct components: a large buried array for ultrahigh energy neutrino detection, a surface air shower array, and a new buried component called DeepCore. DeepCore was designed to lower the IceCube neutrino energy threshold by over an order of magnitude, to energies as low as about 10 GeV. DeepCore is situated primarily 2100 m below the surface of the icecap at the South Pole, at the bottom center of the existing IceCube array, and began taking pbysics data in May 2010. Its location takes advantage of the exceptionally clear ice at those depths and allows it to use the surrounding IceCube detector as a highly efficient active veto against the principal background of downward-going muons produced in cosmic-ray air showers. DeepCore has a module density roughly five times higher than that of the standard IceCube array, and uses photomultiplier tubes with a new photocathode featuring a quantum efficiency about 35% higher than standard IceCube PMTs. Taken together, these features of DeepCore will increase IceCube's sensitivity to neutrinos from WIMP dark matter annihilations, atmospheric neutrino oscillations, galactic supernova neutrinos, and point sources of neutrinos in the northern and southern skies. In this paper we describe the design and initial performance of DeepCore.

  15. Greenland ice cores tell tales on the extent of the Greenland Ice Sheet during the warm climate Eemian period 130.000 - 115.000 years BP.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl-Jensen, D.

    2012-12-01

    A new Greenland ice core has been drilled. The first results from the NEEM ice core are presented and then combined with the results from the other deep ice cores from the Greenland Ice Sheet. All the ice cores drilled though the Greenland ice sheets have been analyzed and the results show that all the ice cores contain ice from the last interglacial, the Eemian, near the base. Is it thus clear that the Greenland Ice Sheet did exist 124.000 years ago in the previous warm climate period where it was more than 5 deg C warmer over Greenland. The difference between the Eemian and the Holocene stable oxygen isotope values have been combined with an ice sheet flow model constrained by the ice core results and internal radio echo sounding layers to estimate the volume of the Greenland Ice Sheet 124.000 years ago. The results show that South Greenland has not been ice free during the Eemian period and that the sea level contribution from the Greenland Ice Sheet has been 2.0 +-0.5 m.

  16. The Search for Supernova Signatures in an Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, A. L.; Boyd, R. N.; Davis, M. E.; Thompson, L. G.; Davis, A. M.; Lewis, R. S.; Zinner, E.

    2005-07-01

    It has been suggested that ice cores may preserve detectable enhancements of some terrestrially rare radioisotopes, 10Be, 26Al, 36Cl, resulting from a near-Earth core-collapse supernova(SN) [J. Ellis, B.D. Fields and D.N. Schramm, Astrophys. J. 470 (1996) 1227]. Both 10Be and 36Cl are also produced by atmospheric cosmic ray spallation and hence are influenced by processes that modulate the Earth's cosmic ray flux. Previous studies [G.M. Raisbeck, F. Yiou, D. Bourles, C. Lorius, J. Jouzel and N. I. Barkov, Nature 326 (1987) 273], [L.G. Thompson, T. Yao, M.E. Davis, K.A. Henderson, E. Mosley-Thompson, P.-N. Lin, J. Beer, H.-A. Synal, J. Cole-Dai and J.F. Bolzan, Science 276 (1997) 1821] have suggested that enhancements occurred in the 10Be and 36Cl fluxes at ˜35 ky and at ˜60 ky for 10Be. Thus we have searched for potential SN condensates with 26Al amongst grains filtered from the 308.6m Guliya ice core recovered from the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau in China [L.G. Thompson, T. Yao, M.E. Davis, K.A. Henderson, E. Mosley-Thompson, P.-N. Lin, J. Beer, H.-A. Synal, J. Cole-Dai and J.F. Bolzan, Science 276 (1997) 1821].We searched for potential core-collapse SN condensate grains corundum (Al2O3), hibonite (CaAl12O19) and spinel (MgAl2O4) (see [D.S. Ebel and L. Grossman, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 65 (2001) 469]) in Guliya grain samples from the following time periods: ˜2-10 ky, ˜25-27 ky, ˜34-36 ky, ˜53-57 ky, ˜59-62 ky and ˜68-72 ky. These minerals are rare among terrestrial rocks and fine-grained atmospheric dust of terrestrial origin. Furthermore, they are insoluble in the acids employed in the sample preparation process and therefore separable from other minerals, such as silicates, that have high terrestrial abundances. Candidate SN condensate grains were identified among their terrestrial diluents employing a procedure developed at the University of Chicago for detecting presolar grains in meteoritic samples [S. Amari, R.S. Lewis and E. Anders, Geochim. Cosmochim

  17. Twentieth century sea-ice trends in the Ross Sea from a high-resolution, coastal ice-core record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinclair, Kate E.; Bertler, Nancy A. N.; Bowen, Melissa M.; Arrigo, Kevin R.

    2014-05-01

    We present the first proxy record of sea-ice area (SIA) in the Ross Sea, Antarctica, from a 130 year coastal ice-core record. High-resolution deuterium excess data show prevailing stable SIA from the 1880s until the 1950s, a 2-5% reduction from the mid-1950s to the early-1990s, and a 5% increase after 1993. Additional support for this reconstruction is derived from ice-core methanesulphonic acid concentrations and whaling records. While SIA has continued to decline around much of the West Antarctic coastline since the 1950s, concurrent with increasing air and ocean temperatures, the underlying trend is masked in the Ross Sea by a switch to positive SIA anomalies since the early-1990s. This increase is associated with a strengthening of southerly winds and the enhanced northward advection of sea ice.

  18. Arcticibacter eurypsychrophilus sp. nov., isolated from ice core.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liang; Liu, Yongqin; Gu, Zhengquan; Yao, Tandong; Xu, Baiqing; Wang, Ninglian; Jiao, Nianzhi; Liu, Hongcan; Zhou, Yuguang

    2015-02-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped, non-flagellated bacterium, strain MJ9-5(T), was isolated from ice core of Muji Glacier. Colonies of strain MJ9-5(T) were pink, convex and round on R2A agar. Strain MJ9-5(T) grew between -1 to 25 °C with an optimum growth temperature of 10-15 °C. The strain tolerated 0-1.2 % (w/v) NaCl with an optimum of 1 %. The major cellular fatty acids of strain MJ9-5(T) were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω6c and/or C1 6 : 1ω7c). The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 38.5 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MJ9-5(T) was related to members of the genus Arcticibacter. On the basis of the phenotypic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis, a novel species of this genus, Arcticibacter eurypsychrophilus sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is MJ9-5(T) ( = KCTC 42008(T) = JCM 19862(T)).

  19. Greenland ice core δ18O records - from Camp Century to NEEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinther, B. M.

    2012-04-01

    During the past five decades deep ice cores have been drilled at six locations on the Greenland Ice Sheet, all cores yielding records of δ18O from the past. Hence δ18O records from southern, central and north-western Greenland locations can now be interpreted. Furthermore several δ18O records from ice cores drilled on small ice caps in the vicinity of the Greenland Ice Sheet are available. An inter-comparison of the Holocene sections of the ice cores has suggested that both climate change and ice sheet elevation change played major parts in determining the millennial scale evolution of the δ18O signals seen in the records [Vinther et al. 2009]. While all glacial δ18O records show very prominent abrupt climate change in the form of Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles it is interesting to note that long term trends in glacial δ18O differ between the records. A significant part of these differences are likely to be a consequence of different elevation histories in the different areas of the Greenland Ice Sheet during the glacial period. Reference: Vinther, B.M, Buchardt, S.L., Clausen, H.B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Johnsen, S.J., Fisher, D.A., Koerner, R.M., Raynaud, D., Lipenkov, V., Andersen, K.K, Blunier, T., Rasmussen, S.O., Steffensen, J.P., Svensson, A.M., Holocene thinning of the Greenland ice sheet, Nature, 461, 385-388, 2009.

  20. Dating the Siple Dome (Antarctica) ice core by manual and computer interpretation of annual layering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Kendrick C.; Alley, Richard B.; Meese, Debra A.; Spencer, Matthew K.; Brook, Ed J.; Dunbar, Nelia W.; Finkel, Robert C.; Gow, Anthony J.; Kurbatov, Andrei V.; Lamorey, Gregg W.; Mayewski, Paul A.; Meyerson, Eric A.; Nishiizumi, Kunihiko; Zielinski, Gregory A.

    The Holocene portion of the Siple Dome (Antarctica) ice core was dated by interpreting the electrical, visual and chemical properties of the core. The data were interpreted manually and with a computer algorithm. The algorithm interpretation was adjusted to be consistent with atmospheric methane stratigraphic ties to the GISP2 (Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2) ice core, 10 Be stratigraphic ties to the dendrochronology 14 C record and the dated volcanic stratigraphy. The algorithm interpretation is more consistent and better quantified than the tedious and subjective manual interpretation.

  1. Initial Continuous Chemistry Results From The Roosevelt Island Ice Core (RICE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjær, H. A.; Vallelonga, P. T.; Simonsen, M. F.; Neff, P. D.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Svensson, A.; Dahl-Jensen, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Roosevelt Island ice core (79.36° S, -161.71° W) was drilled in 2011-13 at the top of the Roosevelt Island ice dome, a location surrounded by the Ross ice shelf. The RICE ice core provides a unique opportunity to look into the past evolution of the West Antarctic Ice sheet. Further the site has high accumulation; 0.26 m of ice equivalent is deposited annually allowing annual layer determination for many chemical parameters. The RICE core was drilled to bedrock and has a total length of 763 metres. Preliminary results derived from water isotopes suggest that the oldest ice reaches back to the Eemian, with the last glacial being compressed in the bottom 60 metres. We present preliminary results from the RICE ice core including continuous measurements of acidity using an optical dye method, insoluble dust particles, conductivity and calcium. The core was analyzed at the New Zealand National Ice Core Research Facility at GNS Science in Wellington. The analytical set up used to determine climate proxies in the ice core was a modified version of the Copenhagen CFA system (Bigler et al., 2011). Key volcanic layers have been matched to those from the WAIS record (Sigl et al., 2013). A significant anti-correlation between acidity and calcium was seen in the Holocene part of the record. Due to the proximity to the ocean a large fraction of the calcium originates from sea salt and is in phase with total conductivity and sodium. In combination with the insoluble dust record, calcium has been apportioned into ocean-related and dust-related sources. Variability over the Holocene is presented and attributed to changing inputs of marine and dust aerosols.

  2. Insights into the nature of radar attenuation through impure ice from broadband dielectric spectroscopy of polar ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillman, D.; MacGregor, J. A.; Grimm, R. E.

    2011-12-01

    Water ice is ubiquitous in our solar system and is a key target for planetary radar sounders. A primary unknown in many radar surveys is the energy loss due to conduction (attenuation) within the medium being studied. Electrical conduction through ice is controlled by the mobility, concentration and charge of lattice- and water-soluble impurities. Despite extensive study of the physical and chemical characteristics of lab-frozen and naturally forming ices, several questions have remained as to which impurities can increase conduction and the mechanisms by which this conduction occurs. Here we investigate the role of impurities in electrical conduction using broadband dielectric spectroscopy of terrestrial polar ice cores and report several findings of interest to present and future radar investigations of extraterrestrial ice masses. 1. The dielectric strength of meteoric ice-core samples we studied was often much less than that of pure lab-frozen ice, which suggests that the balance of minority and majority charge carriers in naturally forming ice is much closer to being "crossed-over" than previously realized. 2. Samples with high acid concentrations also have high HF conductivities due to an increase in L-defects caused by chloride, i.e., the ionic defects induced by acid in the lattice partition more chloride into the lattice for charge balance. This behavior explains the larger HF conductivity of acids per unit concentration versus that of chloride and their similar activation energies. 3. The DC conductivity of polar ice is much lower than reported previously from in situ Antarctic field surveys, and is best explained if conduction from acids arises from ionic defects in the ice lattice, rather than through liquid networks. Its conductivity is much less than that of single crystal ice because of the low conductivity of grain boundaries through which charges must migrate. 4. In nearly all the meteoric ice-core samples that we studied, we observed two

  3. How Will Sea Ice Loss Affect the Greenland Ice Sheet? On the Puzzling Features of Greenland Ice-Core Isotopic Composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pausata, Francesco S. R.; Legrande, Allegra N.; Roberts, William H. G.

    2016-01-01

    The modern cryosphere, Earth's frozen water regime, is in fast transition. Greenland ice cores show how fast theses changes can be, presenting evidence of up to 15 C warming events over timescales of less than a decade. These events, called Dansgaard/Oeschger (D/O) events, are believed to be associated with rapid changes in Arctic sea ice, although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The modern demise of Arctic sea ice may, in turn, instigate abrupt changes on the Greenland Ice Sheet. The Arctic Sea Ice and Greenland Ice Sheet Sensitivity (Ice2Ice Chttps://ice2ice.b.uib.noD) initiative, sponsored by the European Research Council, seeks to quantify these past rapid changes to improve our understanding of what the future may hold for the Arctic. Twenty scientists gathered in Copenhagen as part of this initiative to discuss the most recent observational, technological, and model developments toward quantifying the mechanisms behind past climate changes in Greenland. Much of the discussion focused on the causes behind the changes in stable water isotopes recorded in ice cores. The participants discussed sources of variability for stable water isotopes and framed ways that new studies could improve understanding of modern climate. The participants also discussed how climate models could provide insights into the relative roles of local and nonlocal processes in affecting stable water isotopes within the Greenland Ice Sheet. Presentations of modeling results showed how a change in the source or seasonality of precipitation could occur not only between glacial and modern climates but also between abrupt events. Recent fieldwork campaigns illustrate an important role of stable isotopes in atmospheric vapor and diffusion in the final stable isotope signal in ice. Further, indications from recent fieldwork campaigns illustrate an important role of stable isotopes in atmospheric vapor and diffusion in the final stable isotope signal in ice. This feature complicates

  4. Volcanic Synchronization: Applications and potential for the WAIS Divide ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigl, M.; McConnell, J. R.; Maselli, O.; Pasteris, D.; Lawrence, R.; Isaksson, E. D.; Anschuetz, H.; Udisti, R.; Severi, M.; Fudge, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    We present a new, annually dated sulfur record from the WAIS Divide ice core in West Antarctica spanning most of the last 27,000 years, analyzed using high-resolution continuous flow analysis coupled to two mass spectrometers. The high dating accuracy, demonstrated through comparison to independent, annually dated ice core records from NorthGRIP and Law Dome, permitted use of this new ice core record as a reference volcano chronology for Antarctica. Using volcanic time markers, seven new sulfur records from low accumulation ice core sites in East Antarctica (Norwegian US Traverse) covering the last 250 to 2,000 years were synchronized to the WAIS Divide timescale, providing a understanding of the spatial pattern of past climate variability. Changes in past climate forcing, as indicated by ice core records of mineral dust, volcanic aerosols or black carbon - all measured conjointly at high resolution - can thus be addressed on a continental scale and contrasted to temperature histories from Antarctica. We further evaluate the potential of linking the current WAIS Divide timescale to ice core records in East Antarctica (e.g. EPICA Dome C, EPICA Dronning Maud Land, Talos Dome) which had been synchronized to each other using volcanic time markers during the last glacial period. Volcanic synchronization allows investigation of the relative timing of climate events (e.g. abrupt climate changes), with age uncertainties being independent from the uncertainties of the gas-age to ice-age difference inherent in using paleo-gas records for synchronization.

  5. Investigating a newly discovered firn aquifer on Disko Ice Cap, west Greenland: Insights from ground observations, remote sensing, and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trusel, L. D.; Das, S. B.; Smith, B.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; Evans, M. J.; Frey, K. E.; Osman, M.; York, A.

    2015-12-01

    Expanding and intensifying surface melt have accelerated contributions from Greenland to global sea level rise in recent decades. Yet, important questions remain regarding the evolution and eventual fate of this meltwater over time and space, a fact underscored by recent observations of expansive aquifers within the Greenland Ice Sheet firn. In April 2015 we observed liquid water retained at depth in an ice cap on Disko Island, central west Greenland. Two adjacent ~20 m firn/ice cores were collected before intercepting a layer saturated with liquid water as evident by water drainage from our cores. Borehole temperature profiling confirms increasing temperature with depth, revealing 0°C isothermal firn below ~10 m depth. Detailed physical stratigraphic analyses conducted on these cores allow us to assess firn properties and their small scale (< 1m) spatial heterogeneity. Notably, multiple, thick (>1 m) and likely impermeable refrozen melt horizons exist above the inferred aquifer surface, raising questions about processes of aquifer formation. To discern the spatial character of the observed firn liquid water and melt stratigraphy, we utilize ground penetrating radar collected in 2014, as well as airborne radar data collected through NASA Operation IceBridge in 2012 and 12 days prior to our field observations in 2015. Glaciochemical analyses on our ice cores reveal preservation of an annual signal allowing derivation of net snow accumulation rates. Combined with surface mass balance modeled by RACMO2.3 and melt assessed via microwave remote sensing, we investigate the recently prevailing climatic and glaciological conditions on Disko. This work will provide new insights into mechanisms of firn aquifer formation and sustenance more broadly, as well as the representation of aquifers in existing radar observations and firn models.

  6. A new method for geochemical characterization of atmospheric mineral dust from polar ice cores: preliminary results from Talos Dome ice core (East Antarctica, Pacific-Ross Sea sector)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baccolo, Giovanni; Delmonte, Barbara; Clemenza, Massimiliano; Previtali, Ezio; Maggi, Valter

    2015-04-01

    Assessing the elemental composition of atmospheric dust entrapped in polar ice cores is important for the identification of the potential dust sources and thus for the reconstruction of past atmospheric circulation, at local, regional and global scale. Accurate determination of major and trace elements in the insoluble fraction of dust extracted from ice cores is also useful to better understand some geochemical and biogeochemical mechanisms which are linked with the climate system. The extremely reduced concentration of dust in polar ice (typical Antarctic concentrations during interglacials are in the range of 10 ppb), the limited availability of such samples and the high risk of contamination make these analyses a challenge. A new method based on low background Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was specifically developed for this kind of samples. The method allows the determination of the concentration of up to 35 elements in extremely reduced dust samples (20-30 μg). These elements span from major to trace and ultra-trace elements. Preliminary results from TALDICE (TALos Dome Ice CorE, East Antarctica, Pacific-Ross Sea Sector) ice core are presented along with results from potential source areas in Victoria Land. A set of 5 samples from Talos Dome, corresponding to the last termination, MIS3, MIS4 and MIS6 were prepared and analyzed by INAA.

  7. High basal melting forming a channel at the grounding line of Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsh, Oliver J.; Fricker, Helen A.; Siegfried, Matthew R.; Christianson, Knut; Nicholls, Keith W.; Corr, Hugh F. J.; Catania, Ginny

    2016-01-01

    Antarctica's ice shelves are thinning at an increasing rate, affecting their buttressing ability. Channels in the ice shelf base unevenly distribute melting, and their evolution provides insight into changing subglacial and oceanic conditions. Here we used phase-sensitive radar measurements to estimate basal melt rates in a channel beneath the currently stable Ross Ice Shelf. Melt rates of 22.2 ± 0.2 m a-1 (>2500% the overall background rate) were observed 1.7 km seaward of Mercer/Whillans Ice Stream grounding line, close to where subglacial water discharge is expected. Laser altimetry shows a corresponding, steadily deepening surface channel. Two relict channels to the north suggest recent subglacial drainage reorganization beneath Whillans Ice Stream approximately coincident with the shutdown of Kamb Ice Stream. This rapid channel formation implies that shifts in subglacial hydrology may impact ice shelf stability.

  8. Geomorphic Evidence for Martian Ground Ice and Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanner, L. C.; Allen, C. C.; Bell, M. S.

    2004-01-01

    Recent results from gamma-ray and neutron spectrometers on Mars Odyssey indicate the presence of a hydrogen-rich layer tens of centimeters thick in the uppermost meter in high latitudes (>60 ) on Mars. This hydrogen-rich layer correlates to regions of ice stability. Thus, the subsurface hydrogen is thought to be water ice constituting 35+/- 15% by weight near the north and south polar regions. We refine the location of subsurface ice deposits at a < km scale by combining existing spectroscopy data with surface features indicative of subsurface ice. A positive correlation between spectroscopy data and geomorphic ice indicators has been previously suggested for high latitudes. Here we expand the comparative study to northern mid latitudes (30 deg.N- 65 deg.N).

  9. Geomorphic Evidence for Martian Ground Ice and Climate Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanner, L. C.; Allen, C. C.; Bell, M. S.

    2004-01-01

    Recent results from gamma-ray and neutron spectrometers on Mars Odyssey indicate the presence of a hydrogen-rich layer tens of centimeters thick in the uppermost meter in high latitudes (greater than 60) on Mars. This hydrogen-rich layer correlates to regions of ice stability. Thus, the subsurface hydrogen is thought to be water ice constituting 35 plus or minus 15% by weight near the north and south polar regions. We refine the location of subsurface ice deposits at a less than km scale by combining existing spectroscopy data with surface features indicative of subsurface ice. A positive correlation between spectroscopy data and geomorphic ice indicators has been previously suggested for high latitudes. Here we expand the comparative study to northern mid latitudes (30 degrees N- 65 degrees N).

  10. Visual-Stratigraphic Dating of the GISP2 Ice Core: Basis, Reproducibility, and Application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alley, R. B.; Shuman, C. A.; Meese, D. A.; Gow, A. J.; Taylor, K. C.; Cuffey, K. M.; Fitzpatrick, J. J.; Grootes, P. M.; Zielinski, G. A.; Ram, M.; Spinelli, G.; Elder, B.

    1997-01-01

    Annual layers are visible in the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice core from central Greenland, allowing rapid dating of the core. Changes in bubble and grain structure caused by near-surface, primarily summertime formation of hoar complexes provide the main visible annual marker in the Holocene, and changes in "cloudiness" of the ice correlated with dustiness mark Wisconsinan annual cycles; both markers are evident and have been intercalibrated in early Holocene ice. Layer counts are reproducible between different workers and for one worker at different times, with 1% error over century-length times in the Holocene. Reproducibility is typically 5% in Wisconsinan ice-age ice and decreases with increasing age and depth. Cumulative ages from visible stratigraphy are not significantly different from independent ages of prominent events for ice older than the historical record and younger than approximately 50,000 years. Visible observations are not greatly degraded by "brittle ice" or many other core-quality problems, allowing construction of long, consistently sampled time series. High accuracy requires careful study of the core by dedicated observers.

  11. Polaromonas eurypsychrophila sp. nov., isolated from an ice core.

    PubMed

    Xing, Tingting; Yao, Tandong; Liu, Yongqin; Wang, Ninglian; Xu, Bainqing; Shen, Liang; Gu, Zhengquan; Gu, Bixi; Liu, Hongcan; Zhou, Yuguang

    2016-07-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, beige bacterium, strain B717-2T, was isolated from an ice core drilled from Muztagh Glacier on the Tibetan Plateau, China. According to phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the novel strain was related most closely to Polaromonas vacuolataand shared 97.7 % similarity with the type strain of this species. It grew optimally at pH 7, at 15 °C and with 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c, C18 : 1ω6c) and C16 : 0. The sole respiratory quinone was Q-8. The DNA G+C content was 63.4 mol %. In DNA-DNA hybridization tests, strain B717-2T shared 37.0±1.9, 30.0±1.7, 26.0±0.9, 23.4±0.5 and 18.4±1.9 % DNA-DNA relatedness with Polaromonas jejuensisJS12-13T, P. vacuolata 34-PT, Polaromonas aquatica CCUG 39402T, Polaromonas glacialisCr4-12T and Polaromonas cryoconitiCr4-35T, respectively. Based on the phenotypic, phylogenetic and genetic characteristics, strain B717-2T represents a novel species of the genus Polaromonas, for which the name Polaromonaseurypsychrophila sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B717-2T (=CGMCC 1.15322T=JCM 31171T). PMID:27082956

  12. Massilia yuzhufengensis sp. nov., isolated from an ice core.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liang; Liu, Yongqin; Wang, Ninglian; Yao, Tandong; Jiao, Nianzhi; Liu, Hongcan; Zhou, Yuguang; Xu, Baiqing; Liu, Xiaobo

    2013-04-01

    A gram-negative, rod-shaped, aerobic, motile bacterium, strain Y1243-1(T), was isolated from an ice core drilled from Yuzhufeng Glacier, Tibetan Plateau, China. Cells had polar flagella. The novel strain shared 94.7-97.6 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with the type strains of species of the genus Massilia. The novel isolate is thus classified in the genus Massilia. The major fatty acids of strain Y1243-1(T) were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH) (43.98 %), C16 : 0 (27.86 %), C10 : 0 3-OH (7.10 %), C18 : 0 (6.95 %) and C18 : 1ω7c (5.01 %). The predominant isoprenoid quinone was Q-8. The DNA G+C content of strain Y1243-1(T) was 65.7 mol% (Tm). The major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. A number of phenotypic characteristics distinguished the novel isolate from the type strains of recognized Massilia species. Furthermore, in DNA-DNA hybridization tests, strain Y1243-1(T) shared 45 % relatedness with its closest phylogenetic relative, Massilia consociata CCUG 58010(T). From the genotypic and phenotypic data, it is evident that strain Y1243-1(T) represents a novel species of the genus Massilia, for which the name Massilia yuzhufengensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is Y1243-1(T) ( = KACC 16569(T) = CGMCC 1.12041(T)).

  13. Polaromonas eurypsychrophila sp. nov., isolated from an ice core.

    PubMed

    Xing, Tingting; Yao, Tandong; Liu, Yongqin; Wang, Ninglian; Xu, Bainqing; Shen, Liang; Gu, Zhengquan; Gu, Bixi; Liu, Hongcan; Zhou, Yuguang

    2016-07-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped, beige bacterium, strain B717-2T, was isolated from an ice core drilled from Muztagh Glacier on the Tibetan Plateau, China. According to phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences, the novel strain was related most closely to Polaromonas vacuolataand shared 97.7 % similarity with the type strain of this species. It grew optimally at pH 7, at 15 °C and with 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol and diphosphatidylglycerol. The major fatty acids were summed feature 3 (C16 : 1ω7c and/or iso-C15 : 0 2-OH), summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c, C18 : 1ω6c) and C16 : 0. The sole respiratory quinone was Q-8. The DNA G+C content was 63.4 mol %. In DNA-DNA hybridization tests, strain B717-2T shared 37.0±1.9, 30.0±1.7, 26.0±0.9, 23.4±0.5 and 18.4±1.9 % DNA-DNA relatedness with Polaromonas jejuensisJS12-13T, P. vacuolata 34-PT, Polaromonas aquatica CCUG 39402T, Polaromonas glacialisCr4-12T and Polaromonas cryoconitiCr4-35T, respectively. Based on the phenotypic, phylogenetic and genetic characteristics, strain B717-2T represents a novel species of the genus Polaromonas, for which the name Polaromonaseurypsychrophila sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is B717-2T (=CGMCC 1.15322T=JCM 31171T).

  14. Ice core evidence for a recent increase in snow accumulation in coastal Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philippe, Morgane; Tison, Jean-Louis; Fjøsne, Karen; Hubbard, Bryn; Kjær, Helle Astrid; Lenaerts, Jan; Sheldon, Simon Geoffrey; De Bondt, Kevin; Claeys, Philippe; Pattyn, Frank

    2016-04-01

    Ice cores provide temporal records of snow accumulation, a crucial component of Antarctic mass balance. Coastal areas are particularly under-represented in such records, despite their relatively high and sensitive accumulation rates. Here we present records from a 120 m ice core drilled on Derwael Ice Rise, coastal Dronning Maud Land (DML), East Antarctica in 2012. We date the ice core bottom back to 1745 ± 2 AD. δ18O and δD stratigraphy is supplemented by discontinuous major ion profiles, and verified independently by electrical conductivity measurements (ECM) to detect volcanic horizons. The resulting annual layer history is combined with the core density profile to calculate accumulation history, corrected for the influence of ice deformation. The mean long-term accumulation is 0.425 ± 0.035 m water equivalent (w.e.) a-1 (average corrected value). Reconstructed annual accumulation rates show an increase from 1955 onward to a mean value of 0.61 ± 0.02 m w.e. a-1 between 1955 and 2012. This trend is compared to other reported accumulation data in Antarctica, generally showing a high spatial variability. Applying the Community Earth System Model demonstrated that sea ice and atmosphere patterns largely explain the accumulation variability. This is the first and longest record from a coastal ice core in East Antarctica showing a steady increase during the 20th and 21st centuries, thereby confirming modelling predictions.

  15. Carbonyl sulfide hydrolysis in polar ice cores and the feasibility of recovering a paleoatmospheric history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicewonger, M. R.; Aydin, K. M.; Saltzman, E. S.; Fudge, T. J.; Waddington, E. D.; Verhulst, K. R.

    2012-12-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) is the most abundant sulfur gas in the atmosphere with a current tropospheric mean level of 484 parts per trillion [Montzka et al., 2007]. The major sources of COS are biomass burning, oceanic emissions of COS, and the atmospheric oxidation of precursor sulfur compounds CS2 and DMS emitted from the oceans and soils. The major losses of atmospheric COS are uptake by vegetation and soil. The uptake of COS by terrestrial vegetation provides a link between the global budget of COS and the carbon cycle. We measured COS in polar ice cores from four Antarctic sites: Taylor Dome, Siple Dome, South Pole, and West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide. The COS samples ranged in age from 0.2-42 ky BP. There are large differences between the measurements from the various sites during overlapping time periods. COS levels in ice from the warmer sites (Siple Dome and WAIS-D) are considerably lower than those from the colder sites (Taylor Dome and South Pole). This result suggests that the difference reflects COS loss to hydrolysis within the ice core bubbles. The kinetics of COS hydrolysis in aqueous solution have been studied, but there is no information about reaction rates in ice. A 1-dimensional heat and ice flow model was used to determine the temperature history for each ice core sample. Assuming a pseudo-first order Arrhenius rate equation for COS loss in ice, we can correct each ice core sample for post-depositional COS loss. The temperature histories are used with an objective minimization algorithm to determine the optimal kinetic parameters for COS loss to obtain agreement between ice core measurements from different sites. The results indicate that the ice core data from all sites can be reconciled with a single COS atmospheric history. The uncertainty in this history becomes large in warm ice at longer time scales. This study suggests that reconstructing paleoatmospheric COS will require measurements in ice cores from sites with cold surface temperatures

  16. SOLUBILITY OF WATER ICE IN METALLIC HYDROGEN: CONSEQUENCES FOR CORE EROSION IN GAS GIANT PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, H. F.; Militzer, B.

    2012-01-20

    Using ab initio simulations we investigate whether water ice is stable in the cores of giant planets, or whether it dissolves into the layer of metallic hydrogen above. By Gibbs free energy calculations we find that for pressures between 10 and 40 Mbar the ice-hydrogen interface is thermodynamically unstable at temperatures above approximately 3000 K, far below the temperature of the core-mantle boundaries in Jupiter and Saturn. This implies that the dissolution of core material into the fluid layers of giant planets is thermodynamically favored, and that further modeling of the extent of core erosion is warranted.

  17. Bipolar volcanic events in ice cores and the Toba eruption at 74 ka BP (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, A.

    2013-12-01

    Acidity spikes in Greenland and Antarctic ice cores are applied as tracers of past volcanic activity. Besides providing information on the timing and magnitude of past eruptions, the acidity spikes are also widely used for synchronization of ice cores. All of the deep Greenland ice cores are thus synchronized throughout the last glacial cycle based on volcanic markers. Volcanic matching of ice cores from the two Hemispheres is much more challenging but it is feasible in periods of favourable conditions. Over the last two millennia, where ice cores are precisely dated, some 50 bipolar volcanic events have thus been identified. In order for an eruption to express a bipolar fingerprint it generally needs to be a low latitude eruption with stratospheric injection. Sometimes tephra is associated with the ice-core acidity spikes, but most often there is no tephra present in the ice. As yet, an unknown eruption occurring in 1259 AD is the only event reported to have deposited tephra in both Greenland and Antarctica. During the last glacial period bipolar volcanic matching is very challenging and very little work has been done, but recent high-resolution ice core records have the potential to provide bipolar ice core matching for some periods. Recently, Greenland and Antarctic ice cores have been linked by acidity spikes in the time window of the most recent eruption (the YTT eruption) of the Indonesian Toba volcano that is situated close to equator in Sumatra. Ash from this Toba event is widespread over large areas in Asia and has been identified as far west as Africa, but no corresponding tephra has been found in polar ice cores despite several attempts. The age of the YTT eruption is well constrained by recent Ar-Ar dating to have occurred some 74 ka ago close to the Marine Isotope Stage 4/5 boundary and close to the onset of the cold Greenland Stadial 20 and the corresponding mild Antarctic Isotopic Maxima 19 and 20. Surprisingly, no single outstanding acidity spike

  18. Little ice age evidence from a south-central North American ice core, U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect

    Naftz, D.L.; Klusman, R.W.; Michel, R.L.

    1996-02-01

    In the past, ice-core records from mid-latitude glaciers in alpine areas of the continental United States were considered to be poor candidates for paleoclimate records because of the influence of meltwater on isotopic stratigraphy. To evaluate the existence of reliable paleoclimatic records, a 160-m ice core, containing about 250 yr of record was obtained from Upper Fremont Glacier, at an altitude of 4000 m in the Wind River Range of south-central North America. The {gamma}{sup 18}O (SMOW) profile from the core shows a -0.95{per_thousand} shift to lighter values in the interval from 101.8 to 150 m below the surface, corresponding to the latter part of the Little Ice Age (LIA). Numerous high-amplitude oscillations in the section of the core from 101.8 to 150 m cannot be explained by site-specific lateral variability and probably reflect increased seasonality or better preservation of annual signals as a result of prolonged cooler temperatures that existed in this alpine setting. An abrupt decrease in these large amplitude oscillations at the 101.8-m depth suggests a sudden termination of this period of lower temperatures which generally coincides with the termination of the LIA. Three common features in the {gamma}{sup 18}O profiles between Upper Fremont Glacier and the better dated Quelccaya Ice Cap cores indicate a global paleoclimate linkage, further supporting the first documented occurrence of the LIA in an ice-core record from a temperate glacier in south-central North America.

  19. Comparison of In-Situ, Model and Ground Based In-Flight Icing Severity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Christopher J.; Serke, David J.; Adriaansen, Daniel R.; Reehorst, Andrew L.; Politovich, Marica K.; Wolff, Cory A.; McDonough, Frank

    2011-01-01

    As an aircraft flies through supercooled liquid water, the liquid freezes instantaneously to the airframe thus altering its lift, drag, and weight characteristics. In-flight icing is a contributing factor to many aviation accidents, and the reliable detection of this hazard is a fundamental concern to aviation safety. The scientific community has recently developed products to provide in-flight icing warnings. NASA's Icing Remote Sensing System (NIRSS) deploys a vertically--pointing Ka--band radar, a laser ceilometer, and a profiling multi-channel microwave radiometer for the diagnosis of terminal area in-flight icing hazards with high spatial and temporal resolution. NCAR s Current Icing Product (CIP) combines several meteorological inputs to produce a gridded, three-dimensional depiction of icing severity on an hourly basis. Pilot reports are the best and only source of information on in-situ icing conditions encountered by an aircraft. The goal of this analysis was to ascertain how the testbed NIRSS icing severity product and the operational CIP severity product compare to pilot reports of icing severity, and how NIRSS and CIP compare to each other. This study revealed that the icing severity product from the ground-based NASA testbed system compared very favorably with the operational model-based product and pilot reported in-situ icing.

  20. Effects of postdepositional processing on nitrogen isotopes of nitrate in the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Lei; Zatko, Maria C.; Alexander, Becky; Fudge, T. J.; Schauer, Andrew J.; Murray, Lee T.; Mickley, Loretta J.

    2015-07-01

    Records of ice core nitrate and its isotopes hold the potential to assess past atmospheric conditions regarding NOx and oxidant levels. However, relating such records to past atmospheric conditions requires a site-specific understanding of the postdepositional processing of snow nitrate. We report δ15N(NO3-) records from the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) ice core over major climate transitions. Model calculations and comparison with records of parameters influencing UV-driven postdepositional processing of snow nitrate suggest that the observed variability in GISP2 δ15N(NO3-) over major climate transitions is primarily driven by changes in the degree of postdepositional loss of snow nitrate. Estimates of the fractional loss of snow nitrate is (16-23)% in the Holocene and (45-53)% in the glacial period, suggesting a (41 ± 32)% lower nitrate depositional flux to Greenland during the glacial period relative to the Holocene.

  1. Coupled ice shelf-ocean modeling and complex grounding line retreat from a seabed ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rydt, J.; Gudmundsson, G. H.

    2016-05-01

    Recent observations and modeling work have shown a complex mechanical coupling between Antarctica's floating ice shelves and the adjacent grounded ice sheet. A prime example is Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, which has a strong negative mass balance caused by a recent increase in ocean-induced melting of its ice shelf. The mass loss coincides with the retreat of the grounding line from a seabed ridge, on which it was at least partly grounded until the 1970s. At present, it is unclear what has caused the onset of this retreat and how feedback mechanisms between the ocean and ice shelf geometry have influenced the ice dynamics. To address these questions, we present the first results from an offline coupling between a state-of-the-art shallow-ice flow model with grounding line resolving capabilities and a three-dimensional ocean general circulation model with a static implementation of the ice shelf. A series of idealized experiments simulate the retreat from a seabed ridge in response to changes in the ocean forcing, and we show that the retreat becomes irreversible after 20 years of warm ocean conditions. A comparison to experiments with a simple depth-dependent melt rate parameterization demonstrates that such parameterizations are unable to capture the details of the retreat process, and they overestimate mass loss by more than 40% over a 50 year timescale.

  2. Methane in ground ice and frozen Quaternary deposits of Western Yamal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiliev, A. A.; Streletskaya, I. D.; Melnikov, V. P.; Oblogov, G. E.

    2015-12-01

    The content and the genesis of methane in underground ice and frozen Quaternary sediments of Western Yamal is studied. The minimum concentration of methane in frozen Quaternary deposits was found for sand: 15-100 ppm V. The maximum concentration of methane reaches 3000 ppm V in marine clays. The concentration of methane in the ice wedges is 100-700 ppm V, and in the massive ground ice can be more than 10 000 ppm V. The high content of methane in the massive ground ice we explain by migration of methane from freezing deposits into ice body during its formation. The close connection between methane concentration and organic carbon content is found.

  3. Cosmogenic 10Be Depth Profile in top 560 m of West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welten, K. C.; Woodruff, T. E.; Caffee, M. W.; Edwards, R.; McConnell, J. R.; Bisiaux, M. M.; Nishiizumi, K.

    2009-12-01

    Concentrations of cosmogenic 10Be in polar ice samples are a function of variations in solar activity, geomagnetic field strength, atmospheric mixing and annual snow accumulation rates. The 10Be depth profile in ice cores also provides independent chronological markers to tie Antarctic to Greenland ice cores and to tie Holocene ice cores to the 14C dendrochronology record. We measured 10Be concentrations in 187 samples from depths of 0-560 m of the main WAIS Divide core, WDC06A. The ice samples are typically 1-2 kg and represent 2-4 m of ice, equivalent to an average temporal resolution of ~12 years, based on the preliminary age-depth scale proposed for the WDC core, (McConnell et al., in prep). Be, Al and Cl were separated using ion exchange chromatography techniques and the 10Be concentrations were measured by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) at PRIME lab. The 10Be concentrations range from 8.1 to 19.1 x 10^3 at/g, yielding an average of (13.1±2.1) x 10^3 at/g. Adopting an average snow accumulation rate of 20.9 cm weq/yr, as derived from the age-depth scale, this value corresponds to an average 10Be flux of (2.7±0.5) x 10^5 atoms/yr/cm2. This flux is similar to that of the Holocene part of the Siple Dome (Nishiizumi and Finkel, 2007) and Dome Fuji (Horiuchi et al. 2008) ice cores, but ~30% lower than the value of 4.0 x 10^5 atoms/yr/cm2 for GISP2 (Finkel and Nishiizumi, 1997). The periods of low solar activity, known as Oort, Wolf, Spörer, Maunder and Dalton minima, show ~20% higher 10Be concentrations/fluxes than the periods of average solar activity in the last millennium. The maximum 10Be fluxes during some of these periods of low solar activity are up to ~50% higher than average 10Be fluxes, as seen in other polar ice cores, which makes these peaks suitable as chronologic markers. We will compare the 10Be record in the WAIS Divide ice core with that in other Antarctic as well as Greenland ice cores and with the 14C treering record. Acknowledgment. This

  4. Fire in ice: two millennia of Northern Hemisphere fire history from the Greenland NEEM ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zennaro, P.; Kehrwald, N.; McConnell, J. R.; Schüpbach, S.; Maselli, O.; Marlon, J.; Vallelonga, P.; Leuenberger, D.; Zangrando, R.; Spolaor, A.; Borrotti, M.; Barbaro, E.; Gambaro, A.; Barbante, C.

    2014-02-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of greenhouse gases and influences regional to global climate. Pre-industrial fire-history records from black carbon, charcoal and other proxies provide baseline estimates of biomass burning at local to global scales, but there remains a need for broad-scale fire proxies that span millennia in order to understand the role of fire in the carbon cycle and climate system. We use the specific biomarker levoglucosan, and multi-source black carbon and ammonium concentrations to reconstruct fire activity from the North Greenland Eemian (NEEM) ice cores (77.49° N; 51.2° W, 2480 m a.s.l.) over the past 2000 years. Increases in boreal fire activity (1000-1300 CE and 1500-1700 CE) over multi-decadal timescales coincide with the most extensive central and northern Asian droughts of the past two millennia. The NEEM biomass burning tracers coincide with temperature changes throughout much of the past 2000 years except for during the extreme droughts, when precipitation changes are the dominant factor. Many of these multi-annual droughts are caused by monsoon failures, thus suggesting a connection between low and high latitude climate processes. North America is a primary source of biomass burning aerosols due to its relative proximity to the NEEM camp. During major fire events, however, isotopic analyses of dust, back-trajectories and links with levoglucosan peaks and regional drought reconstructions suggest that Siberia is also an important source of pyrogenic aerosols to Greenland.

  5. Recent North West Greenland climate variability documented by NEEM shallow ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson-Delmotte, Valérie; Steen-Larsen, Hans-Christian; Popp, Trevor; Vinther, Bo; Oerter, Hans; Ortega, Pablo; White, Jim; Orsi, Anais; Falourd, Sonia; Minster, Benedicte; Jouzel, Jean; Landais, Amaelle; Risi, Camille; Werner, Martin; Swingedouw, Didier; Fettweis, Xavier; Gallée, Hubert; Sveinbjornsdottir, Arny; Gudlaugsdottir, Hera; Box, Jason

    2014-05-01

    Short water stable isotope records obtained from NEEM ice cores (North West Greenland) have been shown to be sensitive to NW Greenland temperature variations, and sea-ice extent in the Baffin Bay area (Steen-Larsen et al, JGR, 2011), with maximum snowfall deposition during summer, therefore providing information complementary to other Greenland ice core records. At the NEEM deep drilling camp, several snow pits and shallow ice cores have been retrieved and analysed at high resolution (seasonal to annual) for water stable isotopes using mass spectrometry and laser instruments in order to document recent climate variability, complementing and facilitating the interpretation of the long records obtained from the deep ice core which extends back to the last interglacial period (NEEM, Nature, 2013). The different pits and shallow ice core records allow to document the signal to noise ratio and to produce a robust stack back to 1750, and up to 2011. The stack record of annual mean d18O depicts a recent isotopic enrichment in parallel with the Greenland warming inferred from coastal weather stations, and shows that many features of decadal variations are in fact well captured by the low resolution profiles measured along the deep ice core data. Recent variations can therefore be compared to long-term trends and centennial variations of the last Holocene, documented at about 5 year resolution. For the past decades to centuries, the NEEM isotopic records are compared with estimations and simulations of local temperature for different seasons, results from NEEM borehole temperature inversions, d18O records from other Greenland ice cores, large scale modes of variability (NAO and AMO) and with simulations from atmospheric general circulation models equiped with water stable isotopes.

  6. Ground-Based Geophysical Surveys of the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christianson, K.; Jacobel, R. W.; Peters, L. E.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Alley, R. B.; Riverman, K. L.; Muto, A.

    2012-12-01

    On both the Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets, mass discharge from the ice interior to the ocean is concentrated in large fast-flowing features, termed outlet glaciers on Greenland and ice streams in West Antarctica. In Greenland, the locations of outlet glaciers are controlled primarily by bedrock topography; in West Antarctica ice streams are dynamic and shift their location based on subglacial hydrology and subglacial sediment conditions, especially on the Siple Coast. The most dramatic exception to this general division of fast-flowing ice masses is the Northeast Greenland Ice Stream (NEGIS), an area of fast flowing ice that initiates near the ice sheet summit and drains much of the ice sheet's northeast quadrant. Although fast-flow likely initiates due to the anomalous presence of high geothermal heat flux, and thus basal melt, near the ice sheet summit, the surface expression of NEGIS is similar to that of a West Antarctic ice stream. Here we present the first ground-based geophysical data ever gathered on the NEGIS. GPS data show the ice stream is characterized by complex variations in surface topography with an amplitude of ~30 m. Ice-penetrating radar (IPR) data show the presence of internal reflecting horizons through the entire ice thickness. Although some deep layers are disturbed, indicating possible basal melt, three zones of the ice stream exhibit internal layer deformation through the entire ice column. Two of these zones correspond to the current shear margins; the third zone's origin is unclear. IPR data also show that the ice stream's location is not solely controlled by the underlying bedrock topography. Evidence for the lack of conformance of streaming flow to bedrock features, and for shifting dynamics (possible paleo-shear margins), reinforces the conclusion that this feature is similar to a West Antarctic ice stream. The presence of a West Antarctic style ice stream in Greenland highlights the ability of the ice sheet to dynamically shift

  7. Chemical signals of past climate and environment from polar ice cores and firn air.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Eric W

    2012-10-01

    Chemical and isotopic records obtained from polar ice cores have provided some of the most iconic datasets in Earth system science. Here, I discuss how the different records are formed in the ice sheets, emphasising in particular the contrast between chemistry held in the snow/ice phase, and that which is trapped in air bubbles. Air diffusing slowly through the upper firn layers of the ice sheet can also be sampled in large volumes to give more recent historical information on atmospheric composition. The chemical and geophysical issues that have to be solved to interpret ice core data in terms of atmospheric composition and emission changes are also highlighted. Ice cores and firn air have provided particularly strong evidence about recent changes (last few decades to centuries), including otherwise inaccessible data on increases in compounds that are active as greenhouse gases or as agents of stratospheric depletion. On longer timescales (up to 800,000 years in Antarctica), ice cores reveal major changes in biogeochemical cycling, which acted as feedbacks on the very major changes in climate between glacial and interglacial periods.

  8. Systems for measuring thickness of temperate and polar ice from the ground or from the air.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watts, R.D.; Wright, D.L.

    1981-01-01

    Equipment has been designed and tested for ground-based and airborne sounding of temperate glaciers. Echoes have been obtained from ice depths of 550m using the airborne system and about 1000m using the ground-based system. -from Authors

  9. Insights into the Thwaites Glacier grounding zone from Operation IceBridge aerogravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinto, K. J.; Bell, R. E.; Cochran, J. R.; Elieff, S.; Frearson, N.

    2010-12-01

    Operation IceBridge acquired 1500 km of geophysical data, at 10 km spacing, in front of the Thwaites Glacier grounding line during the 2009 season. The gravity anomalies recorded by the survey have been used to model the bathymetry of the sea floor in front of the glacier, an area inaccessible to previous surveys. The resulting map reveals previously unseen detail of the Thwaites grounding zone, as well as the spatial extent of features that were formerly only known as points affecting the ice surface. The modeled bathymetry in front of Thwaites Glacier is marked by an undulating ridge running sub-parallel to the grounding line, 40 km seaward. The highest peak on the ridge is in contact with the overlying ice shelf, hindering its flow. Ridge elevation decreases to the west, with a maximum ridge depth of 850 m and an average relief of 350 m. This is comparable in scale to the recently identified ridge crossing the channel of nearby Pine Island Glacier (Jenkins et al., 2010). The present-day grounding line of Thwaites appears to be marked by a more subdued ridge, in which we have identified a 20 km wide hollow, to a water depth of 1200 m. Our model shows that this hollow corresponds to a landward bight in the grounding line, in the region through which the fast ice flow of Thwaites Glacier is focused. This correlation was not visible on previous, coarser scale maps of the grounding line, and shows a clear relationship between the bathymetry and ice flow. Gravity inversions have been constrained by nearby marine surveys, satellite images of the ice rise at the peak of the ridge and radar and laser data from the IceBridge survey to constrain ice thickness. The absolute values of predicted bathymetry are dependent on the density of the rocks in the subsurface, for example the presence or absence of volcanic material or loose sediments. Some models of the geology of the survey area are also proposed. Uncertainty of underlying geology may account for ~100 m errors in the

  10. A Method for Continuous (239)Pu Determinations in Arctic and Antarctic Ice Cores.

    PubMed

    Arienzo, M M; McConnell, J R; Chellman, N; Criscitiello, A S; Curran, M; Fritzsche, D; Kipfstuhl, S; Mulvaney, R; Nolan, M; Opel, T; Sigl, M; Steffensen, J P

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (NWT) resulted in the injection of plutonium (Pu) into the atmosphere and subsequent global deposition. We present a new method for continuous semiquantitative measurement of (239)Pu in ice cores, which was used to develop annual records of fallout from NWT in ten ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica. The (239)Pu was measured directly using an inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometer, thereby reducing analysis time and increasing depth-resolution with respect to previous methods. To validate this method, we compared our one year averaged results to published (239)Pu records and other records of NWT. The (239)Pu profiles from the Arctic ice cores reflected global trends in NWT and were in agreement with discrete Pu profiles from lower latitude ice cores. The (239)Pu measurements in the Antarctic ice cores tracked low latitude NWT, consistent with previously published discrete records from Antarctica. Advantages of the continuous (239)Pu measurement method are (1) reduced sample preparation and analysis time; (2) no requirement for additional ice samples for NWT fallout determinations; (3) measurements are exactly coregistered with all other chemical, elemental, isotopic, and gas measurements from the continuous analytical system; and (4) the long half-life means the (239)Pu record is stable through time. PMID:27244483

  11. A Method for Continuous (239)Pu Determinations in Arctic and Antarctic Ice Cores.

    PubMed

    Arienzo, M M; McConnell, J R; Chellman, N; Criscitiello, A S; Curran, M; Fritzsche, D; Kipfstuhl, S; Mulvaney, R; Nolan, M; Opel, T; Sigl, M; Steffensen, J P

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric nuclear weapons testing (NWT) resulted in the injection of plutonium (Pu) into the atmosphere and subsequent global deposition. We present a new method for continuous semiquantitative measurement of (239)Pu in ice cores, which was used to develop annual records of fallout from NWT in ten ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica. The (239)Pu was measured directly using an inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometer, thereby reducing analysis time and increasing depth-resolution with respect to previous methods. To validate this method, we compared our one year averaged results to published (239)Pu records and other records of NWT. The (239)Pu profiles from the Arctic ice cores reflected global trends in NWT and were in agreement with discrete Pu profiles from lower latitude ice cores. The (239)Pu measurements in the Antarctic ice cores tracked low latitude NWT, consistent with previously published discrete records from Antarctica. Advantages of the continuous (239)Pu measurement method are (1) reduced sample preparation and analysis time; (2) no requirement for additional ice samples for NWT fallout determinations; (3) measurements are exactly coregistered with all other chemical, elemental, isotopic, and gas measurements from the continuous analytical system; and (4) the long half-life means the (239)Pu record is stable through time.

  12. Orbital tuning of deep ice cores using O2/N2 of trapped air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, K.; Aoki, S.; Nakazawa, T.

    2014-12-01

    The chronology of the first Dome Fuji deep ice core (80,000-340,000 yr BP) was established by orbital tuning of measured O2/N2 ratios in trapped air to the past local summer insolation at the drill site (Kawamura et al., 2007). The O2/N2 ratios found in ice cores are generally lower than atmospheric ratio because of size-dependent molecular fractionation during bubble close-off. The magnitude of this gas fractionation appears to be influenced by snow metamorphism when the layer was originally at the surface, which in turn is controlled by local summer insolation (Fujita et al., 2009). The O2/N2 record has little 100,000-yr periodicity (strongest in climatic records), suggesting insignificant climatic influence in the orbital tuning. Agreement of the O2/N2 chronology with U-Th radiometric chronology of speleothems (within ~2000 yr) suggests that O2/N2 and summer insolation are indeed in phase. However, it may not be common to all ice cores that O2/N2 signal only records local summer insolation. For example, the GISP2 ice core (Greenland) has clear imprint of abrupt climate changes in the O2/N2 record, indicating climatic (non-insolation) signal in the record and the possibility of phase variability of O2/N2 relative to the past insolation (Suwa and Bender, 2008). Here we present new O2/N2 record from the second Dome Fuji ice core with significant improvements in ice core storage practice and mass spectrometry. In particular, the ice core had been stored at about -50 ˚C until the air extraction except during transportations, which prevent fractionation due to gas loss during the core storage. The precision of the new O2/N2 data set is improved by a factor of 3 over the previous data, and we do not observe outliers (there were 15% outliers in the previous data). Clear imprint of local insolation is recognizable in the new O2/N2, which would enable us to generate a chronology with accuracy of ~2000 yr towards older periods. Samples from the first core after long

  13. Reservoir storage loss due to grounded ice during winter operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidou, O.; Ouarda, T. B. M. J.; Bilodeau, L.

    2007-03-01

    SummaryThe immobilization of water in the form of deposited ice on the reservoir's embankments during winter operations has received little attention in hydrological literature. In Nordic countries like Canada, this phenomenon is likely to have significant negative impacts on reservoir operation. In a previous work (Seidou, O., Ouarda, T.B.M.J., Bilodeau, L., Hessami, M., St-Hilaire, A., Bruneau, P., 2006. Modeling ice growth on Canadian lakes using artificial neural metworks. Water Resources Research 42. doi: doi:10.1029/2005WR004622); the authors developed a global artificial neural network model to predict ice thickness growth in unmonitored Canadian lakes and reservoirs. This model is used in this paper to compute a time series of ice thickness on the Gouin reservoir (Saint-Maurice River, Quebec, Canada) and the Outardes 4 reservoir (Aux Outardes River, Quebec, Canada). This and the relationship between surface water area and water level were then used to evaluate the volume of ice left on the banks of the two reservoirs during winter operation, as its water level is progressively lowered in order to release water for hydroelectric production at downstream power dams. Results show that the ratio of frozen water left on the banks to the active storage varies from 2% to 8% at the Gouin reservoir, and from 0.41% to 1.15% at the Outardes 4 reservoir depending on the water usage policy and the geometry of the reservoir.

  14. Testing the integrity of stable isotope records of two Spitsbergen ice cores by using high-resolution tritium data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Wel, L. G.; Meijer, H. A. J.; Isaksson, E.; Helsen, M. M.; van de Wal, R. S. W.; Martma, T.; Pohjola, V. A.; Moore, J. C.

    2009-04-01

    The ratios of 1H16O2H and 1H18O1H in precipitation water vary with temperature and can therefore be used as a proxy for past climate. Ever since the 1960-s, retrieving these isotope signals has been the main motivation for the drilling of deep ice cores. Most of the ice core records originate from selected sites in Greenland and Antarctica. Other Arctic locations are much less used. However, since the late 1990-s ice cores have been drilled on the Lomonosovfonna and Holtedahlfonna ice caps in Spitsbergen. The advantages of drilling at these sites lies in the high accumulation rate present in Spitsbergen, as well as the very location of the Spitsbergen archipelago. However, due to relatively high temperatures in this region, the isotope record is affected by melt and subsequent percolation, thereby potentially losing its value for climatic studies. In an attempt to test the integrity of the Spitsbergen cores, we measured the concentration of the radioactive isotope of hydrogen (tritium) at high spatial (and thus temporal) resolution. Due to above-ground nuclear bomb tests in the 1950-s and 1960-s, the tritium signal in the atmosphere has been highly variable in that period, with distinct peaks. Moreover, due to the high load of tritium in the stratosphere at that time, spring and early summer mixing between stratosphere and troposphere induced a clear seasonal pattern in precipitation records for two decades. The tritium concentration in precipitation has been measured (monthly average) since the 1950-s. After precipitation the tritium record is altered due to decay, diffusion and melt. Incorporating information of these three processes into a numerical model, we produce a quantitative estimate how much the isotope record is influenced by melt and percolation. This gives us a tool to determine whether the stable isotope record is a valid proxy for past temperatures.

  15. Bathymetry and geological structures beneath the Ross Ice Shelf at the mouth of Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica, modeled from ground-based gravity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muto, A.; Christianson, K.; Horgan, H.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Alley, R. B.

    2012-12-01

    Grounding zones of ice sheets and contiguous ice shelves are important in understanding ice sheet dynamics, as key processes that influence the grounded ice and its discharge into the ocean occur in these regions. Ice-ocean interactions are controlled by the relatively poorly known bathymetry and the configuration of the cavity beneath ice shelves. In addition, knowledge of submarine geological structures and their distributions contributes to understanding the dynamic history of the glaciers and ice streams feeding the ice shelves. However, detailed geophysical surveys of these areas remain scarce due largely to the logistic difficulties of obtaining observational data about the subglacial environment beneath an ice shelf. Here we present a 3D model of the bathymetry and geological structures beneath the Ross Ice Shelf in an embayment at the mouth of Whillans Ice Stream. We use gravity data collected at 82 locations with a portable gravimeter, in conjunction with high-resolution active-source seismic and ice-penetrating radar data to constrain thicknesses of the water column, sediments, ice and firn where the data sets overlap. The active-source seismic survey revealed a shallow water column and soft sediments approximately 15 km seaward of the grounding zone. We explore the extent of such water and sedimentary columns, and the density of the sediment, in a ~500 km-2 embayment that is roughly triangular in shape. Finally, we discuss the uncertainties and trade-offs of the various methods.

  16. Anthropogenic emissions and combustion products recorded in a Colle Gnifetti ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabrieli, J.; Kehrwald, N. M.; Zennaro, P.; Lim, S.; Laj, P.; Barbante, C.

    2012-12-01

    Ice cores provide direct and highly resolved records of atmospheric parameters that record both climate signals and forcing factors. European Alpine glaciers are located near densely populated and industrialized areas and provide excellent archives of past air pollution. Ice cores to bedrock on Colle Gnifetti, Monte Rosa (45°55'51''N, 07°52'34''E; 4450 m a.s.l.) permit centennial to millennial reconstruction of past regional climate, while snow pit and shallow core studies from the same site allow multiple parameter reconstructions of anthropogenic emissions. Air pollution includes fossil fuel and biomass burning products that influence regional smog and contain trace elements hazardous to human health. Here, we examine a high-resolution suite of anthropogenic and natural emissions (black carbon, levoglucosan, trace elements, heavy metals) and climate proxies (major ions and stable isotopes) in a 12 m Colle Gnifetti ice core to determine seasonal changes in anthropogenic emissions and their interaction with climate parameters. This is the first study to compare black carbon (a fossil fuel and biomass combustion tracer) with levoglucosan (a fire activity biomarker) in a European ice core. The combination of these two proxies can determine changing combustion product sources through time. Our results demonstrate that anthropogenic emissions influence the summer aerosol flux while crustal sources dominate the winter aerosol flux. These ice core chemical data are consistent with observational data and boundary layer dynamics that transport pollutants concentrated in the Po Valley and similar industrial lowland regions to glacier surfaces during the summer.

  17. Mercurian Impact Craters: Implications for Polar Ground Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, Nadine G.; Allen, Ruth A.; Vilas, Faith

    1999-10-01

    Recent radar observations of Mercury have detected strong depolarized echoes from the north and south polar regions which have been interpreted by some as ice deposits in the floors of permanently shadowed impact craters. We have used the experience from Mars, where subsurface ice lowers the depth-to-diameter ratio ( d/ D) of impact craters, to test for subsurface ice deposits on Mercury. This analysis determines the d/ D ratios for 170 impact craters in the Borealis (north polar), Tolstoj (equatorial), Kuiper (equatorial), and Bach (south polar) quadrangles of the planet. Possible effects from sun angle and terrain were eliminated. To test whether d/ D differences could be detected at Mariner 10 resolutions (˜1 km/pixel), we perform a similar analysis using Mariner 9 images of Mars which have similar resolutions. We demonstrate that d/ D differences due to terrain softening can be detected between craters in the martian polar regions and the equatorial regions at the Mariner 9 resolutions. Although our initial results indicate that the south polar Bach Quadrangle has a statistically lower d/ D than the north polar (Borealis) or two equatorial (Tolstoj and Kuiper) quadrangles, further investigation reveals that this finding is most likely the result of the filtering which was applied to the images of the Bach quadrangle by JPL. Thus, no unequivocal evidence exists that the possible ice deposits in craters at Mercury's north and south poles are the exposed portions of more extensive subsurface ice caps. Combined with the temporal constraint imposed by the fact that the proposed ice deposits are found only in USGS Class 4 craters, this suggests a large, rapidly emplaced exogenic source of water to Mercury during the Mansurian period. We suggest that the source was multiple impacts from a fragmented comet or a comet shower.

  18. Coupled ice shelf-ocean modeling and complex grounding line retreat for Pine Island Glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Rydt, Jan; Gudmundsson, Hilmar

    2016-04-01

    Recent observations and modeling work have shown a complex mechanical coupling between Antarctica's floating ice shelves and the adjacent grounded ice sheet. A prime example is Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica, which has a strong negative mass balance caused by a recent increase in ocean-induced melting of its ice shelf. The mass loss coincides with the retreat of the grounding line from a seabed ridge, on which it was at least partly grounded until the 1970s. At present, it is unclear what has caused the onset of this retreat, and how feedback mechanisms between the ocean and iceshelf geometry have influenced the ice dynamics. To address these questions, we present results from an offline coupling between a state-of-the-art shallow-ice flow model with grounding line resolving capabilities, and a three-dimensional ocean general circulation model with a static implementation of the ice shelf. A series of idealized experiments simulate the retreat from a seabed ridge in response to changes in the ocean forcing, and we show that the retreat becomes irreversible after 20 years of warm ocean conditions. A comparison to experiments with a simple depth-dependent meltrate parameterisation demonstrates that such parameterizations are unable to capture the details of the retreat process, and they overestimate mass loss by more than 40% over a 50-year timescale.

  19. In Situ Production of Methyl Chloride in Siple Dome and WAIS Divide Ice Cores from Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frausto-Vicencio, I.; Verhulst, K. R.; Aydin, M.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2013-12-01

    Methyl chloride (CH3Cl) is a naturally-occurring halocarbon with a global mean abundance of 550 pmol mol-1 and a lifetime of about 1 year. It constitutes about 16% of the total chlorine burden in the stratosphere. The sources of methyl chloride are mainly natural and include tropical vegetation, oceans and biomass burning. Oxidation with the hydroxyl radical is the primary removal mechanism with additional loss via microbial degradation in soils and in the oceans. Previous measurements suggest ice cores from cold Antarctic sites (Dome Fuji, South Pole, Taylor Dome) preserve a record of atmospheric CH3Cl variability during the Holocene (Saito et al., 2007; Williams et al., 2007; Verhulst et al., in review). However, measurements at Siple Dome displayed evidence of in situ enhancement (Saltzman et al., 2009). This study involves new CH3Cl measurements in 117 ice core samples from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide (WAIS-D) 06A ice core. Measurements from the Holocene are compared with earlier CH3Cl measurements from Taylor Dome and Siple Dome. In Late Holocene ice (5-0 ky BP), the WAIS-D and Siple Dome show evidence of in situ CH3Cl enrichment. The mean level and scatter are both larger than in Taylor Dome ice of the same age. The in situ enrichment is not time or depth-dependent. Interestingly, for most of the Early Holocene (11-5 ky BP), Siple Dome and WAIS-D exhibit less scatter and are closer to the Taylor Dome ice core data. In situ CH3Cl production may be purely chemical or involve biological reactions. Here, we investigate whether the excess CH3Cl in the Siple Dome and the WAIS-D ice cores can be explained by differences in ice chemistry between the various Antarctic sites. The results of this research will help establish the causes of CH3Cl production in ice cores and provide a basis to assess the possibility of studying long-term atmospheric CH3Cl variability using ice core data.

  20. Ground Based Retrievals of Small Ice Crystals and Water Phase in Arctic Cirrus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Subhashree; Mitchell, David L.; DeSlover, Daniel

    2009-03-01

    The microphysical properties of cirrus clouds are uncertain due to the problem of ice particles shattering at the probe inlet upon sampling. To facilitate better estimation of small ice crystal concentrations in cirrus clouds, a new ground-based remote sensing technique has been used in combination with in situ aircraft measurements. Data from the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment (M-PACE), conducted at the north slope of Alaska (winter 2004), have been used to test a new method for retrieving the liquid water path (LWP) and ice water path (IWP) in mixed phase clouds. The framework of the retrieval algorithm consists of the modified anomalous diffraction approximation or MADA (for mixed phase cloud optical properties), a radar reflectivity-ice microphysics relationship and a temperature-dependent ice particle size distribution (PSD) scheme. Cloud thermal emission measurements made by the ground-based Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) yield information on the total water path (TWP) while reflectivity measurements from the Millimeter Cloud Radar (MMCR) are used to derive the IWP. The AERI is also used to indicate the concentration of small ice crystals (D<50 μm) relative to the larger ice particles. Combining this small crystal information with the PSD scheme describing the larger particle concentrations yields the retrieved PSD. Small ice crystals are evaluated using the absorption properties of photon tunneling or wave resonance while the liquid water fraction is evaluated using classical Beer's law absorption. While this is still a work in progress, the anticipated products from this AERI-radar retrieval scheme are the IWP, LWP, small-to-large ice crystal number concentration ratio and effective diameter for cirrus, as well as the ice particle number concentration for a given ice water content (IWC).

  1. A comparison of the present and last interglacial periods in six Antarctic ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson-Delmotte, V.; Buiron, D.; Ekaykin, A.; Frezzotti, M.; Gallée, H.; Jouzel, J.; Krinner, G.; Landais, A.; Motoyama, H.; Oerter, H.; Pol, K.; Pollard, D.; Ritz, C.; Schlosser, E.; Sime, L. C.; Sodemann, H.; Stenni, B.; Uemura, R.; Vimeux, F.

    2010-10-01

    We compare the present and last interglacial periods as recorded in Antarctic water stable isotope records now available at various temporal resolutions from six East Antarctic ice cores: Vostok, Taylor Dome, EPICA Dome C (EDC), EPICA Dronning Maud Land (EDML), Dome Fuji and the recent TALDICE ice core from Talos Dome. We first review the different modern site characteristics in terms of ice flow, meteorological conditions, precipitation intermittency and moisture origin, as depicted by meteorological data, atmospheric reanalyses and Lagrangian moisture source diagnostics. These different factors can indeed alter the relationships between temperature and water stable isotopes. Using five records with sufficient resolution on the EDC3 age scale, common features are quantified through principal component analyses. Consistent with instrumental records and atmospheric model results, the ice core data depict rather coherent and homogenous patterns in East Antarctica during the last two interglacials. Across the East Antarctic plateau, regional differences, with respect to the common East Antarctic signal, appear to have similar patterns during the current and last interglacials. We identify two abrupt shifts in isotopic records during glacial inception at TALDICE and EDML, likely caused by regional sea ice expansion. These regional differences are discussed in terms of moisture origin and in terms of past changes in local elevation histories which are compared to ice sheet model results. Our results suggest that, for coastal sites, elevation changes may contribute significantly to inter-site differences. These elevation changes may be underestimated by current ice sheet models.

  2. A comparison of the present and last interglacial periods in six Antarctic ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson-Delmotte, V.; Buiron, D.; Ekaykin, A.; Frezzotti, M.; Gallée, H.; Jouzel, J.; Krinner, G.; Landais, A.; Motoyama, H.; Oerter, H.; Pol, K.; Pollard, D.; Ritz, C.; Schlosser, E.; Sime, L. C.; Sodemann, H.; Stenni, B.; Uemura, R.; Vimeux, F.

    2011-04-01

    We compare the present and last interglacial periods as recorded in Antarctic water stable isotope records now available at various temporal resolutions from six East Antarctic ice cores: Vostok, Taylor Dome, EPICA Dome C (EDC), EPICA Dronning Maud Land (EDML), Dome Fuji and the recent TALDICE ice core from Talos Dome. We first review the different modern site characteristics in terms of ice flow, meteorological conditions, precipitation intermittency and moisture origin, as depicted by meteorological data, atmospheric reanalyses and Lagrangian moisture source diagnostics. These different factors can indeed alter the relationships between temperature and water stable isotopes. Using five records with sufficient resolution on the EDC3 age scale, common features are quantified through principal component analyses. Consistent with instrumental records and atmospheric model results, the ice core data depict rather coherent and homogenous patterns in East Antarctica during the last two interglacials. Across the East Antarctic plateau, regional differences, with respect to the common East Antarctic signal, appear to have similar patterns during the current and last interglacials. We identify two abrupt shifts in isotopic records during the glacial inception at TALDICE and EDML, likely caused by regional sea ice expansion. These regional differences are discussed in terms of moisture origin and in terms of past changes in local elevation histories, which are compared to ice sheet model results. Our results suggest that elevation changes may contribute significantly to inter-site differences. These elevation changes may be underestimated by current ice sheet models.

  3. Tree ring effects and ice core acidities clarify the volcanic record of the first millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillie, M. G. L.; McAneney, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2012 Plummer et al., in presenting the volcanic chronology of the Antarctic Law Dome ice core, chose to list connections to acid layers in other ice cores and also possible chronological coincidences between ice acid dates and the precise dates of frost damage, and/or reduced growth in North American bristlecone pines. We disagree with the chronological links indicated by Plummer et al. for the period before AD 700, and in this paper we show that a case can be made that better linkages between ice acid and tree ring effects occur for this period if the ice chronologies are systematically moved forward by around 7 years, consistent with a hypothesis published by Baillie in 2008. In the paper we seek to explore the proposition that frost damage rings in North American bristlecone pines are a very useful indicator of the dates of certain large explosive volcanic eruptions; the dating of major eruptions being critical for any clear understanding of volcanic forcing. This paper cannot prove that there is an error in the Greenland Ice Core Chronology 2005 (GICC05), and in equivalent ice chronologies from the Antarctic, however, it does provide a coherent argument for an apparent ice dating offset. If the suggested offset were to prove correct it would be necessary to locate where the error occurs in the ice chronologies and in this regard the dating of the increasingly controversial Icelandic Eldgjá eruption in the AD 930s, and the China/Korean Millennium eruption which occurs some 7 years after Eldgjá, may well be critical. In addition, if the offset were to be substantiated it would have implications for the alleged identification of tephra at 429.3 m in the Greenland GRIP core, currently attributed to the Italian volcano Vesuvius and used as a critical zero error point in the GICC05 chronology.

  4. Post-coring entrapment of modern air in polar ice: Evidence from CFC-12 measurements in Antarctic firn air and shallow ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, K. M.; Montzka, S. A.; Battle, M. O.; Williams, M. B.; de Bruyn, W. J.; Butler, J. H.; Verhulst, K. R.; Tatum, C.; Gun, B. K.; Plotkin, D. A.; Hall, B. D.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2009-12-01

    This study is a comparison of CFC-12 (CCl2F2) measurements in firn air and ice core samples from three Antarctic sites: South Pole, West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide (79.46°S, 112.13°W), and Siple Dome (81.65°S, 148.81°W). CFC-12 is a synthetic chlorofluorocarbon manufactured during the mid-late 20th century for use as a refrigerant and an aerosol spray propellant. Its atmospheric history is well established with agreement among instrumental time series measurements and industry-reported production data [Walker et al., 2000], the distribution of dissolved CFC-12 in the oceans [e.g. Weiss et al., 1985], and firn air measurements [Butler et al., 1999]. The atmospheric history indicates that there was no measureable CFC-12 in the atmosphere prior to the 1940’s. The firn air CFC-12 profiles are consistent with the known atmospheric history of this gas. In contrast, the air in ice core samples collected near the close-off depth exhibit anomalously high CFC-12 levels. We propose that this is due to entrapment of modern air in open pores that close after drilling, resulting in elevated CFC-12 mixing ratios. These results demonstrate how the composition of air trapped in shallow ice cores can be altered during the post-drilling period through purely physical processes. Comparison of firn air and ice core bubble composition is one of the commonly used tools for studying the bubble close-off process. The post-drilling entrapment process detected in this study represents a potential complication for such investigations.

  5. Lewis icing research tunnel test of the aerodynamic effects of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runyan, L. James; Zierten, Thomas A.; Hill, Eugene G.; Addy, Harold E., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A wind tunnel investigation of the effect of aircraft ground deicing/anti-icing fluids on the aerodynamic characteristics of a Boeing 737-200ADV airplane was conducted. The test was carried out in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel. Fluids tested include a Newtonian deicing fluid, three non-Newtonian anti-icing fluids commercially available during or before 1988, and eight new experimental non-Newtonian fluids developed by four fluid manufacturers. The results show that fluids remain on the wind after liftoff and cause a measurable lift loss and drag increase. These effects are dependent on the high-lift configuration and on the temperature. For a configuration with a high-lift leading-edge device, the fluid effect is largest at the maximum lift condition. The fluid aerodynamic effects are related to the magnitude of the fluid surface roughness, particularly in the first 30 percent chord. The experimental fluids show a significant reduction in aerodynamic effects.

  6. Glacial ice cores: A model system for developing extraterrestrial decontamination protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christner, Brent C.; Mikucki, Jill A.; Foreman, Christine M.; Denson, Jackie; Priscu, John C.

    2005-04-01

    Evidence gathered from spacecraft orbiting Mars has shown that water ice exists at both poles and may form a large subsurface reservoir at lower latitudes. The recent exploration of the martian surface by unmanned landers and surface rovers, and the planned missions to eventually return samples to Earth have raised concerns regarding both forward and back contamination. Methods to search for life in these icy environments and adequate protocols to prevent contamination can be tested with earthly analogues. Studies of ice cores on Earth have established past climate changes and geological events, both globally and regionally, but only recently have these results been correlated with the biological materials (i.e., plant fragments, seeds, pollen grains, fungal spores, and microorganisms) that are entrapped and preserved within the ice. The inclusion of biology into ice coring research brings with it a whole new approach towards decontamination. Our investigations on ice from the Vostok core (Antarctica) have shown that the outer portion of the cores have up to 3 and 2 orders of magnitude higher bacterial density and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) than the inner portion of the cores, respectively, as a result of drilling and handling. The extreme gradients that exist between the outer and inner portion of these samples make contamination a very relevant aspect of geomicrobiological investigations with ice cores, particularly when the actual numbers of ambient bacterial cells are low. To address this issue and the inherent concern it raises for the integrity of future investigations with ice core materials from terrestrial and extraterrestrial environments, we employed a procedure to monitor the decontamination process in which ice core surfaces are painted with a solution containing a tracer microorganism, plasmid DNA, and fluorescent dye before sampling. Using this approach, a simple and direct method is proposed to verify the authenticity of geomicrobiological

  7. Investigation of Molecular Marker Lipids in Alpine Ice Cores Via Stir Bar Sorptive Extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makou, M. C.; Eglinton, T. I.; Thompson, L. G.; Hughen, K. A.

    2005-12-01

    Recently developed analytical techniques were employed to identify and quantify organic molecular markers trapped in high-altitude ice. While various compounds represent potentially useful proxies for biomass burning, vegetation type, atmospheric circulation, and anthropogenic activity, prior attempts to measure organic compounds in ice cores have typically required large volumes of sample material that are incompatible with generation of high-resolution paleoclimate records. We employed stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) and thermal desorption (TD), coupled with gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC/TOF-MS), to examine the organic content of small quantities (≤ 30 ml) of ice. To test the utility of the approach, post-industrial ice core samples from the Huascarán and Sajama sites (Andes), the Dasuopu and Puruogangri sites (Tibetan Plateau), and Mt. Kilimanjaro (east Africa) were tested. n-Alkanes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkyl amides and nitriles, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and various diterpenoids were identified in this suite of cores. These marker compounds suggest inputs from biomass burning, fresh vascular plant material, and anthropogenic activities such as fossil fuel combustion. Differences in distributions of the alkyl amide and nitrile homologues between the different sites suggest a predominantly local or regional supply of organic matter. Pre-industrial samples from the Sajama and Puruogangri ice cores were also analyzed in order to assess the character of biomarker assemblages in the absence of anthropogenic contributions and investigate changes in inputs over time. PAHs and diterpenoids, which may result from biomass burning and were observed in the modern Sajama samples, occurred in two Holocene Sajama samples, but not in a last glacial sample. Enhanced inputs of terrestrial vegetation combustion biomarkers were consistent with periods of enhanced aridity in both cores. This study demonstrates the utility of SBSE, TD

  8. Investigation of a deep ice core from the Elbrus western plateau, the Caucasus, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalenko, V.; Sokratov, S.; Kutuzov, S.; Ginot, P.; Legrand, M.; Preunkert, S.; Lavrentiev, I.; Kozachek, A.; Ekaykin, A.; Faïn, X.; Lim, S.; Schotterer, U.; Lipenkov, V.; Toropov, P.

    2015-12-01

    A 182 m ice core was recovered from a borehole drilled into bedrock on the western plateau of Mt. Elbrus (43°20´53.9'' N, 42°25´36.0'' E; 5115 m a.s.l.) in the Caucasus, Russia, in 2009. This is the first ice core in the region that represents a paleoclimate record that is practically undisturbed by seasonal melting. Relatively high snow accumulation rates at the drilling site enabled the analysis of the intraseasonal variability in climate proxies. Borehole temperatures ranged from -17 °C at 10 m depth to -2.4 °C at 182 m. A detailed radio-echo sounding survey showed that the glacier thickness ranged from 45 m near the marginal zone of the plateau up to 255 m at the glacier center. The ice core has been analyzed for stable isotopes (δ18O and δD), major ions (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, F-), succinic acid (HOOCCH2COOH), and tritium content. The mean annual net accumulation rate of 1455 mm w.e. for the last 140 years was estimated from distinct annual oscillations of δ18O, δD, succinic acid, and NH4+. Annual layer counting also helped date the ice core, agreeing with the absolute markers of the tritium 1963 bomb horizon located at the core depth of 50.7 m w.e. and the sulfate peak of the Katmai eruption (1912) at 87.7 m w.e. According to mathematical modeling results, the ice age at the maximum glacier depth is predicted to be ~ 660 years BP. The 2009 borehole is located downstream from this point, resulting in an estimated basal ice age of less than 350-400 years BP at the drilling site. The glaciological and initial chemical analyses from the Elbrus ice core help reconstruct the atmospheric history of the European region.

  9. A 300 000 year isotopic record from the TALDICE ice core (East Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenni, B.

    2009-04-01

    The TALos Dome Ice CorE (TALDICE) project retrieved an ice core from a peripheral dome of East Antarctica. This international project aimed at drilling an ice core reaching back in time the past two climatic cycles (about 250,000 years). Talos Dome (72˚ 49' S, 159˚ 11' E; 2315 m; 80 kg m-2 yr-1; -41˚ C) is located at about 290 km from the Southern Ocean, 250 km from the Ross Sea, 275 km from the Zucchelli Station (Terra Nova Bay). Backtrajectory analyses suggest that Talos Dome is mainly influenced by air masses arriving both from the Pacific (Ross Sea) and Indian Ocean sectors. In December 2007 the drilling team reached the depth of 1619.2 m. A preliminary dating based on an ice flow model and an inverse method suggests for the upper 1560 m an age of about 300 000 years BP. This near coastal site allows a higher climate resolution study for the Holocene compared to the ones obtained from the more inland drilling sites. The paleotemperature reconstructions from Antarctic ice cores relies mainly on ^D and ^18O records. The main factors controlling the observed distribution of their surface values in Antarctic snow are mainly related to the condensation temperature and the origin of moisture. Measuring both isotopes in the ice allow the determination of the deuterium excess (d=^D-8*^18O) which is mainly controlled by the climatic conditions in the moisture source regions. The ice cores have been cut in the cold laboratory of the Alfred Wegener Institut at Bremerhaven. ^18O and ^D measurements have been performed on a continuous basis of 100 cm ("bag samples") and 10 cm (detailed samples) in Italy and France. The full ^18O record obtained from the bag samples is presented here along with a preliminary deuterium excess data set. The long term climate variability is in good agreement with the EPICA Dome C ice core with the exception of trends during interglacial periods (present and past interglacial). While most of the Holocene record shows a good agreement

  10. Direct linking of Greenland and Antarctic ice cores at the Toba eruption (74 ka BP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, A.; Bigler, M.; Blunier, T.; Clausen, H. B.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Fischer, H.; Fujita, S.; Goto-Azuma, K.; Johnsen, S. J.; Kawamura, K.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Kohno, M.; Parrenin, F.; Popp, T.; Rasmussen, S. O.; Schwander, J.; Seierstad, I.; Severi, M.; Steffensen, J. P.; Udisti, R.; Uemura, R.; Vallelonga, P.; Vinther, B. M.; Wegner, A.; Wilhelms, F.; Winstrup, M.

    2013-03-01

    The Toba eruption that occurred some 74 ka ago in Sumatra, Indonesia, is among the largest volcanic events on Earth over the last 2 million years. Tephra from this eruption has been spread over vast areas in Asia, where it constitutes a major time marker close to the Marine Isotope Stage 4/5 boundary. As yet, no tephra associated with Toba has been identified in Greenland or Antarctic ice cores. Based on new accurate dating of Toba tephra and on accurately dated European stalagmites, the Toba event is known to occur between the onsets of Greenland interstadials (GI) 19 and 20. Furthermore, the existing linking of Greenland and Antarctic ice cores by gas records and by the bipolar seesaw hypothesis suggests that the Antarctic counterpart is situated between Antarctic Isotope Maxima (AIM) 19 and 20. In this work we suggest a direct synchronization of Greenland (NGRIP) and Antarctic (EDML) ice cores at the Toba eruption based on matching of a pattern of bipolar volcanic spikes. Annual layer counting between volcanic spikes in both cores allows for a unique match. We first demonstrate this bipolar matching technique at the already synchronized Laschamp geomagnetic excursion (41 ka BP) before we apply it to the suggested Toba interval. The Toba synchronization pattern covers some 2000 yr in GI-20 and AIM-19/20 and includes nine acidity peaks that are recognized in both ice cores. The suggested bipolar Toba synchronization has decadal precision. It thus allows a determination of the exact phasing of inter-hemispheric climate in a time interval of poorly constrained ice core records, and it allows for a discussion of the climatic impact of the Toba eruption in a global perspective. The bipolar linking gives no support for a long-term global cooling caused by the Toba eruption as Antarctica experiences a major warming shortly after the event. Furthermore, our bipolar match provides a way to place palaeo-environmental records other than ice cores into a precise climatic

  11. High-resolution, continuous method for measurement of acidity in ice cores.

    PubMed

    Pasteris, Daniel R; McConnell, Joseph R; Edwards, Ross

    2012-02-01

    The acid content of ice core samples provides information regarding the history of volcanism, biogenic activity, windblown dust, forest fires, and pollution-induced acid rain. A continuous ice core analysis allows for collection of high-resolution data in a very efficient manner, but this technique has not been readily applied to the measurement of pH and acidity in ice cores. The difficulty arises because the sample is highly undersaturated with respect to carbon dioxide (CO(2)) immediately after melting, making it difficult to maintain stable concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide and carbonic acid (H(2)CO(3)). Here, we present a solution to this problem in the form of a small flow-through bubbling chamber that is supplied with a known concentration of CO(2). The bubbling action allows for quick equilibration while the small size of the chamber limits sample mixing in order to maintain high resolution. Thorough error analysis provides a measurement uncertainty of ±0.20 μM or ±5% of the acidity value, whichever is greater, and the T95 signal response time is determined to be 1.25 min. The performance of the technique is further evaluated with data from a 63-year ice core from northwest Greenland for which all major ion species were also measured. The measured acidity closely matches the acidity derived from a charge balance calculation, indicating that all of the analytes were measured accurately. The performance specifications that we provide are applicable to ice cores with low concentrations of alkaline dust (<500 ppb), which includes the vast majority of ice cores that are collected. To date, the method has not been evaluated with samples containing high alkaline dust concentrations, such as Greenland cores from the last glacial period, where measurement could be made difficult by memory effects as particles coat the internal surfaces of the sample stream.

  12. High-resolution, continuous method for measurement of acidity in ice cores.

    PubMed

    Pasteris, Daniel R; McConnell, Joseph R; Edwards, Ross

    2012-02-01

    The acid content of ice core samples provides information regarding the history of volcanism, biogenic activity, windblown dust, forest fires, and pollution-induced acid rain. A continuous ice core analysis allows for collection of high-resolution data in a very efficient manner, but this technique has not been readily applied to the measurement of pH and acidity in ice cores. The difficulty arises because the sample is highly undersaturated with respect to carbon dioxide (CO(2)) immediately after melting, making it difficult to maintain stable concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide and carbonic acid (H(2)CO(3)). Here, we present a solution to this problem in the form of a small flow-through bubbling chamber that is supplied with a known concentration of CO(2). The bubbling action allows for quick equilibration while the small size of the chamber limits sample mixing in order to maintain high resolution. Thorough error analysis provides a measurement uncertainty of ±0.20 μM or ±5% of the acidity value, whichever is greater, and the T95 signal response time is determined to be 1.25 min. The performance of the technique is further evaluated with data from a 63-year ice core from northwest Greenland for which all major ion species were also measured. The measured acidity closely matches the acidity derived from a charge balance calculation, indicating that all of the analytes were measured accurately. The performance specifications that we provide are applicable to ice cores with low concentrations of alkaline dust (<500 ppb), which includes the vast majority of ice cores that are collected. To date, the method has not been evaluated with samples containing high alkaline dust concentrations, such as Greenland cores from the last glacial period, where measurement could be made difficult by memory effects as particles coat the internal surfaces of the sample stream. PMID:22148513

  13. Low time resolution analysis of polar ice cores cannot detect impulsive nitrate events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smart, D. F.; Shea, M. A.; Melott, A. L.; Laird, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Ice cores are archives of climate change and possibly large solar proton events (SPEs). Wolff et al. (2012) used a single event, a nitrate peak in the GISP2-H core, which McCracken et al. (2001a) time associated with the poorly quantified 1859 Carrington event, to discredit SPE-produced, impulsive nitrate deposition in polar ice. This is not the ideal test case. We critique the Wolff et al. analysis and demonstrate that the data they used cannot detect impulsive nitrate events because of resolution limitations. We suggest reexamination of the top of the Greenland ice sheet at key intervals over the last two millennia with attention to fine resolution and replicate sampling of multiple species. This will allow further insight into polar depositional processes on a subseasonal scale, including atmospheric sources, transport mechanisms to the ice sheet, postdepositional interactions, and a potential SPE association.

  14. Ancient Biomolecules from Deep Ice Cores Reveal a Forested Southern Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Willerslev, Eske; Cappellini, Enrico; Boomsma, Wouter; Nielsen, Rasmus; Hebsgaard, Martin B.; Brand, Tina B.; Hofreiter, Michael; Bunce, Michael; Poinar, Hendrik N.; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Johnsen, Sigfus; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder; Bennike, Ole; Schwenninger, Jean-Luc; Nathan, Roger; Armitage, Simon; de Hoog, Cees-Jan; Alfimov, Vasily; Christl, Marcus; Beer, Juerg; Muscheler, Raimund; Barker, Joel; Sharp, Martin; Penkman, Kirsty E.H.; Haile, James; Taberlet, Pierre; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Casoli, Antonella; Campani, Elisa; Collins, Matthew J.

    2009-01-01

    One of the major difficulties in paleontology is the acquisition of fossil data from the 10% of Earth’s terrestrial surface that is covered by thick glaciers and ice sheets. Here we reveal that DNA and amino acids from buried organisms can be recovered from the basal sections of deep ice cores and allow reconstructions of past flora and fauna. We show that high altitude southern Greenland, currently lying below more than two kilometers of ice, was once inhabited by a diverse array of conifer trees and insects that may date back more than 450 thousand years. The results provide the first direct evidence in support of a forested southern Greenland and suggest that many deep ice cores may contain genetic records of paleoenvironments in their basal sections. PMID:17615355

  15. Greenland ice cores tell tales on past climate changes (Louis Agassiz Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe

    2014-05-01

    Greenland ice cores contain very highly resolved climate records reaching 128.000 years back in time. When dated and matched they tell tales on very abrupt climate changes especially during the glacial period demonstrating that internal energy exchange in the climate system can cause dramatic and fast changes with no external forcing. When the water stable isotope records from the six deep ice cores are compared they inform on both temperature changes and elevation changes of the Greenland ice sheet during glacial and interglacial periods. The temperature and elevation changes during the last 128.000 years are presented and the knowledge gained is used to discuss how this knowledge can be used to predict the future volume change of the Greenland ice sheet. This knowledge can improve estimates of future sea level rise predictions and is a demonstration of how knowledge from the past can be used to predict the future.

  16. Rootless Cones on Mars: A Consequence of Lava-Ground Ice Interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fagents, S. A.; Greeley, R.; Lanagan, P.

    2002-01-01

    Fields of small cratered cones on Mars are interpreted to have formed by rootless eruptions due to explosive interaction of lava with ground ice contained within the regolith beneath the flow. Melting and vaporization of the ice, and subsequent explosive expansion of the vapour, act to excavate the lava and construct a rootless cone around the explosion site. Similar features are found in Iceland, where flowing lava encountered water-saturated substrates. The martian cones have basal diameters of c. 30-1000 m and are located predominantly in the northern volcanic plains. High-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera images offer significant improvements over Viking data for interpretation of cone origins. A new model of the dynamics of cone formation indicates that very modest amounts of water ice are required to initiate and sustain the explosive interactions that produced the observed features. This is consistent with the likely low availability of water ice in the martian regolith. The scarcity of impact craters on many of the host lava flows indicates very young ages, suggesting that ground ice was present as recently as less than 10 - l00 Ma, and may persist today. Rootless cones therefore act as a spatial and temporal probe of the distribution of ground ice on Mars, which is of key significance in understanding the evolution of the martian climate. The location of water in liquid or solid form is of great importance to future robotic and human exploration strategies, and to the search for extraterrestrial life.

  17. Insight of dust provenance in Antarctic ice cores prior to M.I.S. 6 from ice magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanci, L.; Delmonte, B.

    2014-12-01

    The identification of dust provenance and its characteristics is a key issue to understand climate, atmospheric and environmental changes, and provides key constraints to dust transport processes. Many traditional geochemical methods for dust source tracking are not relevant in Antarctic ice cores because of their extremely low dust content, spanning from a few ppb during warm interglacial periods to a few hundreds of ppb, in the case of relatively dustier glacial periods. For the same reason, the Sr-Nd-Pb radiogenic isotope composition of mineral dust in ice cores, that is the most widely-used technique for dust source fingerprint has intrinsic limitations related to dust abundance that drastically limit the temporal information one can achieve. Rock-magnetic properties of aerosol dust, instead, can be measured directly in small ice samples despite its very low concentration. Intensity of isothermal remanent magnetization and coercivity of magnetic minerals are directly related to that of insoluble dust and these magnetic properties are informative of the dust provenance areas. We investigated rock-magnetic properties of aerosol dust in Antartic ice older than M.I.S. 6 in EPiCA Dome-C and Vostok ice core to gather information on dust provenance prior to the last interglacial times. New and previously published results from rock-magnetism suggests that aerosol dust provenance has changed in time during subsequent glacial-interglacial climatic stages. Moreover parallel changes in Dome-C and Vostok sites suggest that such changes result from long-distance dust transportation implying that transportation paths and/or dust sources did not remained the same during the last few glacial-interglacial cycles.

  18. Lower limb ice application alters ground reaction force during gait initiation

    PubMed Central

    Muniz, Thiago B.; Moraes, Renato; Guirro, Rinaldo R. J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cryotherapy is a widely used technique in physical therapy clinics and sports. However, the effects of cryotherapy on dynamic neuromuscular control are incompletely explained. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of cryotherapy applied to the calf, ankle and sole of the foot in healthy young adults on ground reaction forces during gait initiation. METHOD: This study evaluated the gait initiation forces, maximum propulsion, braking forces and impulses of 21 women volunteers through a force platform, which provided maximum and minimum ground reaction force values. To assess the effects of cooling, the task - gait initiation - was performed before ice application, immediately after and 30 minutes after removal of the ice pack. Ice was randomly applied on separate days to the calf, ankle and sole of the foot of the participants. RESULTS: It was demonstrated that ice application for 30 minutes to the sole of the foot and calf resulted in significant changes in the vertical force variables, which returned to their pre-application values 30 minutes after the removal of the ice pack. Ice application to the ankle only reduced propulsion impulse. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that although caution is necessary when performing activities that require good gait control, the application of ice to the ankle, sole of the foot or calf in 30-minute intervals may be safe even preceding such activities. PMID:25993625

  19. Atmospheric volcanic loading derived from bipolar ice cores: Accounting for the spatial distribution of volcanic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chaochao; Oman, Luke; Robock, Alan; Stenchikov, Georgiy L.

    2007-05-01

    Previous studies have used small numbers of ice core records of past volcanism to represent hemispheric or global radiative forcing from volcanic stratospheric aerosols. With the largest-ever assembly of volcanic ice core records and state-of-the-art climate model simulations of volcanic deposition, we now have a unique opportunity to investigate the effects of spatial variations on sulfate deposition and on estimates of atmospheric loading. We have combined 44 ice core records, 25 from the Arctic and 19 from Antarctica, and Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE simulations to study the spatial distribution of volcanic sulfate aerosols in the polar ice sheets. We extracted volcanic deposition signals by applying a high-pass loess filter to the time series and examining peaks that exceed twice the 31-year running median absolute deviation. Our results suggest that the distribution of volcanic sulfate aerosol follows the general precipitation pattern in both regions, indicating the important role precipitation has played in affecting the deposition pattern of volcanic aerosols. We found a similar distribution pattern for sulfate aerosols from the 1783-1784 Laki and 1815 Tambora eruptions, as well as for the total β activity after the 1952-1954 low-latitude Northern Hemisphere and 1961-1962 high-latitude Northern Hemisphere atmospheric nuclear weapon tests. This confirms the previous assumption that the transport and deposition of nuclear bomb test debris resemble those of volcanic aerosols. We compare three techniques for estimating stratospheric aerosol loading from ice core data: radioactive deposition from nuclear bomb tests, Pinatubo sulfate deposition in eight Antarctic ice cores, and climate model simulations of volcanic sulfate transport and deposition following the 1783 Laki, 1815 Tambora, 1912 Katmai, and 1991 Pinatubo eruptions. By applying the above calibration factors to the 44 ice core records, we have estimated the stratospheric sulfate aerosol

  20. Persistence and variability of ice-stream grounding lines on retrograde bed slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robel, Alexander A.; Schoof, Christian; Tziperman, Eli

    2016-08-01

    In many ice streams, basal resistance varies in space and time due to the dynamically evolving properties of subglacial till. These variations can cause internally generated oscillations in ice-stream flow. However, the potential for such variations in basal properties is not considered by conventional theories of grounding-line stability on retrograde bed slopes, which assume that bed properties are static in time. Using a flow-line model, we show how internally generated, transient variations in ice-stream state interact with retrograde bed slopes. In contrast to predictions from the theory of the marine ice-sheet instability, our simulated grounding line is able to persist and reverse direction of migration on a retrograde bed when undergoing oscillations in the grounding-line position. In turn, the presence of a retrograde bed may also suppress or reduce the amplitude of internal oscillations in ice-stream state. We explore the physical mechanisms responsible for these behaviors and discuss the implications for observed grounding-line migration in West Antarctica.

  1. Arctic ice core records of vanillic acid from Siberia, Greenland, and Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grieman, M. M.; Saltzman, E. S.; McConnell, J.; Fritzsche, D.; Opel, T.; Isaksson, E. D.; Schwikowski, M.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major source for atmospheric gases and aerosols, and an important part of the global carbon cycle and radiation budget. The factors controlling centennial and millennial variability in regional to global biomass burning dynamics are not well understood because there are few well-dated proxy records only. We are exploring ice core records of organic compounds resulting from incomplete combustion of lignin as tracers for biomass burning. In this study we investigate the distribution of vanillic acid (VA) in Arctic ice cores. VA is a major product of conifer combustion, but may also be produced from angiosperms. VA was measured in ice core samples using ion chromatography with electrospray MS/MS detection. Here we present measurements of vanillic acid in three Arctic ice cores from Siberia (Akademii Nauk; 0-3 kyr bp), northern Greenland (Tunu; 0-1.75 kyr bp), and Svalbard (Lomonosovfonna; 0-0.75 kyr bp). The Siberian record exhibits 3 strong centennial scale maxima (1200-600 BC, AD 300-800, and AD 1450-1700). All three cores exhibit a smaller feature around 1250, with a subsequent decline in Greenland and Svalbard. VA levels in Greenland and Svalbard are generally smaller than those in Siberia. These results suggest strong regional input from Northern Eurasian sources (i.e. boreal forests) to the Siberian core, and lower Arctic-wide "background" levels at the other sites.

  2. Assimilation of Sonic Velocity and Thin Section Measurements from the NEEM Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, Michael; Pettit, Erin; Kluskiewicz, Dan; Waddington, Edwin

    2016-04-01

    We examine the measurement of crystal orientation fabric (COF) in ice cores using thin sections and sound-wave velocities, focusing on the NEEM core in Greenland. Ice crystals have substantial plastic anisotropy, with shear orthogonal to the crystallographic c-axis occuring far more easily than deformation in other orientations. Due to strain-induced grain-rotation, COFs can become highly anisotropic, resulting in bulk anisotropic flow. Thin-section measurements taken from ice cores allow sampling of the crystal fabric distribution. Thin-section measurements, however, suffer from sampling error, as they sample a small amount of ice, usually on the order of a hundred grans. They are typically only taken at intervals of several meters, which means that meter-scale variations in crystal fabric are difficult to capture. Measuring sonic velocities in ice cores provides an alternate method of determining crystal fabric. The speed of vertical compression waves is affected by the vertical clustering of c-axes, but is insensitive to azimuthal fabric anisotropy. By measuring splitting between the fast and slow shear-wave directions, information on the azimuthal distribution of orientations can be captured. Sonic-velocity measurements cannot capture detailed information on the orientation distribution of the COF, but they complement thin-section measurements with several advantages. Sonic-logging measurements can be taken at very short intervals, eliminating spatial gaps. In addition, sonic logging samples a large volume of ice with each measurement, reducing sampling error. Our logging tool has a depth resolution of around 3m/s, and can measure velocity features on the order of 1m/s. Here, we show the results of compression-wave measurements at NEEM. We also combine sonic-velocity measurements and thin-section measurements to produce a more accurate and spatially-complete representation of ice-crystal orientations in the vicinity of the NEEM core.

  3. A centrifugal ice microtome for measurements of atmospheric CO2 on air trapped in polar ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bereiter, B.; Stocker, T. F.; Fischer, H.

    2012-10-01

    For atmospheric CO2 reconstructions using ice cores, the technique to release the trapped air from the ice samples is crucial for the precision and accuracy of the measurements. We present here a new dry extraction technique in combination with a new gas analytical system that together show significant improvements with respect to current systems. Ice samples (3-15 g) are pulverized using a novel Centrifugal Ice Microtome (CIM) by shaving the ice in a cooled vacuum chamber (-27 °C) in which no friction occurs due to the use of magnetic bearings. Both, the shaving principle of the CIM and the use of magnetic bearings have not been applied so far in this field. Shaving the ice samples produces finer ice powder and releases a minimum of 90% of the trapped air compared to 50%-70% when needle crushing is employed. In addition, the friction-free motion with an optimized design to reduce contaminations of the inner surfaces of the device result in a reduced system offset of about 2.0 ppmv compared to 4.9ppmv. The gas analytical part shows a factor two higher precision than our corresponding part of the previous system and all processes except the loading and cleaning of the CIM now run automatically. Compared to our previous system the new system shows a 3 times better measurement reproducibility of about 1.1 ppmv (1σ) which is similar to the best reproducibility of other systems applied in this field. With this high reproducibility, replicate measurements are not required anymore for most prospective measurement campaigns resulting in a possible output of 12-20 measurements per day compared to a maximum of 6 with other systems.

  4. A centrifugal ice microtome for measurements of atmospheric CO2 on air trapped in polar ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bereiter, B.; Stocker, T. F.; Fischer, H.

    2013-02-01

    For atmospheric CO2 reconstructions using ice cores, the technique to release the trapped air from the ice samples is essential for the precision and accuracy of the measurements. We present here a new dry extraction technique in combination with a new gas analytical system that together show significant improvements with respect to current systems. Ice samples (3-15 g) are pulverised using a novel centrifugal ice microtome (CIM) by shaving the ice in a cooled vacuum chamber (-27 °C) in which no friction occurs due to the use of magnetic bearings. Both, the shaving principle of the CIM and the use of magnetic bearings have not been applied so far in this field. Shaving the ice samples produces finer ice powder and releases a minimum of 90% of the trapped air compared to 50%-70% when needle crushing is employed. In addition, the friction-free motion with an optimized design to reduce contaminations of the inner surfaces of the device result in a reduced system offset of about 2.0 ppmv compared to 4.9 ppmv. The gas analytical part shows a higher precision than the corresponding part of our previous system by a factor of two, and all processes except the loading and cleaning of the CIM now run automatically. Compared to our previous system, the complete system shows a 3 times better measurement reproducibility of about 1.1 ppmv (1 σ) which is similar to the best reproducibility of other systems applied in this field. With this high reproducibility, no replicate measurements are required anymore for most future measurement campaigns resulting in a possible output of 12-20 measurements per day compared to a maximum of 6 with other systems.

  5. Measurements and numerical simulation of fabric evolution along the Talos Dome ice core, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagnat, M.; Buiron, D.; Arnaud, L.; Broquet, A.; Schlitz, P.; Jacob, R.; Kipfstuhl, S.

    2012-12-01

    We present measurements of fabrics and microstructures made along the Talos Dome ice core, a core drilled in East Antarctica in the framework of the TALDICE project. Fabric and average grain size data are analyzed regarding changes in climatic conditions. In particular, the fabric strength increases sharply going downward from Holocene to Wisconsin ice. Following (Durand et al., 2007), this change is associated with a positive feedback between variations in ice viscosity, due to variations in dust content, and the impact of a shear stress component, increasing with depth. A ViscoPlastic Self-Consistent modeling approach is used to simulate the fabric evolution for a "perfect dome" configuration. The discrepancies between the measured and the simulated fabrics highlight the depth ranges where shear strongly affects the fabric strengthening. Finally, the grain size and fabric analyses show the occurrence of dynamic recrystallization mechanisms (continuous and discontinuous) along the core.

  6. Nitrate ion spikes in ice cores not suitable as proxies for solar proton events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duderstadt, Katharine A.; Dibb, Jack E.; Schwadron, Nathan A.; Spence, Harlan E.; Solomon, Stanley C.; Yudin, Valery A.; Jackman, Charles H.; Randall, Cora E.

    2016-03-01

    Nitrate ion spikes in polar ice cores are contentiously used to estimate the intensity, frequency, and probability of historical solar proton events, quantities that are needed to prepare for potentially society-crippling space weather events. We use the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model to calculate how large an event would have to be to produce enough odd nitrogen throughout the atmosphere to be discernible as nitrate peaks at the Earth's surface. These hypothetically large events are compared with probability of occurrence estimates derived from measured events, sunspot records, and cosmogenic radionuclides archives. We conclude that the fluence and spectrum of solar proton events necessary to produce odd nitrogen enhancements equivalent to the spikes of nitrate ions in Greenland ice cores are unlikely to have occurred throughout the Holocene, confirming that nitrate ions in ice cores are not suitable proxies for historical individual solar proton events.

  7. Magnetic properties of aerosol dust in Antarctic ice cores as a proxy for dust provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanci, L.; Delmonte, B.

    2012-04-01

    Laboratory-induced remanent magnetization of polar ice is a measurement of the magnetization carried by the ferromagnetic dust particles in the ice. Ferromagnetic minerals in the aerosol dust have variable rock-magnetic properties and concentration that are directly related to the source material and transport dynamics. Magnetic methods, which are particularly effective in recognizing volcanic material and highly oxidized soils, can be used as a tool to discriminate among aerosol dust sources. In Antarctic ice the rock-magnetism of aerosol dust showed, in fact, distinct properties in ice from glacial and interglacial periods that may reflect different dust source areas. The comparison of magnetic properties of ice samples with that from Possible Source Area (PSA) samples shows a general good agreement between South American PSA and glacial ice dust. However, many questions are risen when considering the magnetic properties of interglacial samples from both Dome-C and Talos Dome ice cores. No good agreement has been found between interglacial samples and any of the measured PSA samples from the most common areas, suggesting that these cores have a significant contribution of dust from a source that has not been yet taken into consideration. In particular, the extremely high IRM measured in some interglacial samples is likely to be explained only with a large concentration of Fe-rich rocks such as volcanic or meteoritic material.

  8. Application of composite flow laws to grain size distributions derived from polar ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Tobias; de Bresser, Hans; Jansen, Daniela; Weikusat, Ilka; Garbe, Christoph; Kipfstuhl, Sepp

    2014-05-01

    Apart from evaluating the crystallographic orientation, focus of microstructural analysis of natural ice during the last decades has been to create depth-profiles of mean grain size. Several ice flow models incorporated mean grain size as a variable. Although such a mean value may coincide well with the size of a large proportion of the grains, smaller/larger grains are effectively ignored. These smaller/larger grains, however, may affect the ice flow modeling. Variability in grain size is observed on centimeter, meter and kilometer scale along deep polar ice cores. Composite flow laws allow considering the effect of this variability on rheology, by weighing the contribution of grain-size-sensitive (GSS, diffusion/grain boundary sliding) and grain-size-insensitive (GSI, dislocation) creep mechanisms taking the full grain size distribution into account [1]. Extraction of hundreds of grain size distributions for different depths along an ice core has become relatively easy by automatic image processing techniques [2]. The shallow ice approximation is widely adopted in ice sheet modeling and approaches the full-Stokes solution for small ratios of vertical to horizontal characteristic dimensions. In this approximation shear stress in the vertical plain dominates the strain. This assumption is not applicable at ice divides or dome structures, where most deep ice core drilling sites are located. Within the upper two thirds of the ice column longitudinal stresses are not negligible and ice deformation is dominated by vertical strain. The Dansgaard-Johnsen model [3] predicts a dominating, constant vertical strain rate for the upper two thirds of the ice sheet, whereas in the lower ice column vertical shear becomes the main driver for ice deformation. We derived vertical strain rates from the upper NEEM ice core (North-West Greenland) and compared them to classical estimates of strain rates at the NEEM site. Assuming intervals of constant accumulation rates, we found a

  9. Grounding-line migration in plan-view marine ice-sheet models: results of the ice2sea MISMIP3d intercomparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattyn, Frank; Perichon, Laura; Durand, Gaël; Gagliardini, Olivier; Favier, Lionel; Hindmarsh, Richard; Zwinger, Thomas; Participants, Mismip3d

    2013-04-01

    Predictions of marine ice-sheet behaviour require models able to simulate grounding line migration. We present results of an intercomparison experiment for plan-view marine ice-sheet models. Verification is effected by comparison with approximate analytical solutions for flux across the grounding line using simplified geometrical configurations (no lateral variations, no buttressing effects from lateral drag). A unique steady state grounding line position exists for ice sheets on a downward sloping bed under those simplified conditions. Perturbation experiments specifying spatial (lateral) variation in basal sliding parameters permitted the evolution of curved grounding lines, generating buttressing effects. The experiments showed regions of compression and extensional flow across the grounding line, thereby invalidating the boundary layer theory. Models based on the shallow ice approximation, which neither resolve membrane stresses, nor reproduce the approximate analytical results unless appropriate parameterizations for ice flux are imposed at the grounding line, are invalid. Steady-state grounding line positions were found to be dependent on the level of physical model approximation. Models that only include membrane stresses result in ice sheets with a larger span than those that also incorporate vertical shearing at the grounding line, such as higher-order and full-Stokes models. From a numerical perspective, resolving grounding lines requires a sufficiently small grid size (

  10. Holocene climate variability from ice core records in the Ross Sea area (East Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braida, Martina; Stenni, Barbara; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Pol, Katy; Selmo, Enricomaria; Mezgec, Karin

    2014-05-01

    Past polar climate variability can be documented at high resolution thanks to ice core records, which have revealed significant Holocene variations in Antarctica. Paleotemperature reconstructions from Antarctic ice cores are mainly based on δ18O (δD) records, a proxy for local, precipitation-weighted atmospheric temperatures. Here, we present a new climate record spanning the past 12,000 years resulting from high resolution (10 cm) stable isotope analyses of the ice core drilled at Talos Dome (TD) in East Antarctica from 2003 to 2007 in the framework of the TALDICE (TALos Dome Ice CorE) project. Talos Dome (72°49'S, 159°11'E; 2315 m; -41°C) is an ice dome on the edge of the East Antarctic plateau, where moisture is mainly advected from the Indian and western Pacific sectors of the Southern Ocean. Pacific moisture arriving at TD has been transported above the Ross Sea, where extensive presence of sea ice also occurs during summer. High-resolution δ18O data have been measured using both IRMS and CRDS techniques on 10 cm samples, leading to a mean time resolution of two years. The long-term trend of the TALDICE δ18O profile shows characteristic features already observed in other ice cores from the East Antarctic plateau. Following the approach of Pol et al. (2011), high frequency climate variability has been investigated using a 3000-year running standard deviation on the de-trended record. The results are compared to the same analysis performed on the nearby Taylor Dome ice core δ18O data, which is the single East Antarctic ice core showing a strong Holocene decreasing trend. Despite these trend differences, both sites share common features regarding changes in variance. We also investigate changes in deuterium excess, a proxy reflecting changes in moisture source conditions. Both deuterium excess records show a two-step increasing trend in the first part of the Holocene. Taylor Dome deuterium excess however depicts an enhanced variability since about 7000

  11. Chronology of Pu isotopes and 236U in an Arctic ice core.

    PubMed

    Wendel, C C; Oughton, D H; Lind, O C; Skipperud, L; Fifield, L K; Isaksson, E; Tims, S G; Salbu, B

    2013-09-01

    In the present work, state of the art isotopic fingerprinting techniques are applied to an Arctic ice core in order to quantify deposition of U and Pu, and to identify possible tropospheric transport of debris from former Soviet Union test sites Semipalatinsk (Central Asia) and Novaya Zemlya (Arctic Ocean). An ice core chronology of (236)U, (239)Pu, and (240)Pu concentrations, and atom ratios, measured by accelerator mass spectrometry in a 28.6m deep ice core from the Austfonna glacier at Nordaustlandet, Svalbard is presented. The ice core chronology corresponds to the period 1949 to 1999. The main sources of Pu and (236)U contamination in the Arctic were the atmospheric nuclear detonations in the period 1945 to 1980, as global fallout, and tropospheric fallout from the former Soviet Union test sites Novaya Zemlya and Semipalatinsk. Activity concentrations of (239+240)Pu ranged from 0.008 to 0.254 mBq cm(-2) and (236)U from 0.0039 to 0.053 μBq cm(-2). Concentrations varied in concordance with (137)Cs concentrations in the same ice core. In contrast to previous published results, the concentrations of Pu and (236)U were found to be higher at depths corresponding to the pre-moratorium period (1949 to 1959) than to the post-moratorium period (1961 and 1962). The (240)Pu/(239)Pu ratio ranged from 0.15 to 0.19, and (236)U/(239)Pu ranged from 0.18 to 1.4. The Pu atom ratios ranged within the limits of global fallout in the most intensive period of nuclear atmospheric testing (1952 to 1962). To the best knowledge of the authors the present work is the first publication on biogeochemical cycles with respect to (236)U concentrations and (236)U/(239)Pu atom ratios in the Arctic and in ice cores.

  12. High-resolution sulfur isotopes in ice cores identify large stratospheric volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, Andrea; Sigl, Michael; Adkins, Jess; Paris, Guillaume; McConnell, Joe

    2016-04-01

    The record of the volcanic forcing of climate over the past 2500 years is reconstructed primarily from sulfate concentrations in ice cores. Of particular interest are stratospheric eruptions, as these afford sulfate aerosols the longest residence time and largest dispersion in the atmosphere, and thus the greatest impact on radiative forcing. Identification of stratospheric eruptions currently relies on the successful matching of the same volcanic sulphate peak in ice cores from both the Northern and Southern hemispheres (a "bipolar event"). These are interpreted to reflect the global distribution of sulfur aerosols by the stratospheric winds. Despite its recent success, this method relies on precise and accurate dating of ice cores, in order to distinguish between a true 'bipolar event' and two separate eruptions that occurred in close temporal succession. Sulfur isotopes can been used to distinguish between these two scenarios since stratospheric sulfur aerosols are exposed to UV radiation which imparts a mass independent fractionation (Baroni et al., 2007). Mass independent fractionation of sulfate in ice cores thus offers a novel method of fingerprinting stratospheric eruptions, and thus refining the historic record of explosive volcanism and its forcing of climate. Here we present new high-resolution (sub-annual) sulfur isotope data from the Tunu Ice core in Greenland over seven eruptions. Sulfur isotopes were measured by MC-ICP-MS, which substantially reduces sample size requirements and allows high temporal resolution from a single ice core. We demonstrate the efficacy of the method on recent, well-known eruptions (including Pinatubo and Katmai/Novarupta), and then apply it to unidentified sulfate peaks, allowing us to identify new stratospheric eruptions. Baroni, M., Thiemens, M. H., Delmas, R. J., & Savarino, J. (2007). Mass-independent sulfur isotopic compositions in stratospheric volcanic eruptions. Science, 315(5808), 84-87. http://doi.org/10

  13. Ground penetrating radar detection of subsnow slush on ice-covered lakes in interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusmeroli, A.; Grosse, G.

    2012-12-01

    Lakes are abundant throughout the pan-Arctic region. For many of these lakes ice cover lasts for up to two thirds of the year. The frozen cover allows human access to these lakes, which are therefore used for many subsistence and recreational activities, including water harvesting, fishing, and skiing. Safe traveling condition onto lakes may be compromised, however, when, after significant snowfall, the weight of the snow acts on the ice and causes liquid water to spill through weak spots and overflow at the snow-ice interface. Since visual detection of subsnow slush is almost impossible our understanding on overflow processes is still very limited and geophysical methods that allow water and slush detection are desirable. In this study we demonstrate that a commercially available, lightweight 1 GHz, ground penetrating radar system can detect and map extent and intensity of overflow. The strength of radar reflections from wet snow-ice interfaces are at least twice as much in strength than returns from dry snow-ice interface. The presence of overflow also affects the quality of radar returns from the base of the lake ice. During dry conditions we were able to profile ice thickness of up to 1 m, conversely, we did not retrieve any ice-water returns in areas affected by overflow.

  14. Chemical compositions of past soluble aerosols reconstructed from NEEM (Greenland) and Dome C (Antarctica) ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyabu, Ikumi; Iizuka, Yoshinori; Fukui, Manabu; Fischer, Hubertus; Schüpbach, Simon; Gfeller, Gideon; Mulvaney, Robert; Hansson, Margareta

    2015-04-01

    Polar ice core preserve past atmospheric aerosols, which is a useful proxy for understanding the interaction between climate changes and atmospheric aerosols. One useful technique for reconstructing past soluble aerosols from ice core is the determination of dissolved ion species. However, since salts and acids melt into ions, chemical compositions of soluble aerosols in the ice cores have not been cleared. To clarify the temporal variations in the chemical compositions of past soluble aerosols, this study investigated chemical compositions of soluble particles preserved in the NEEM (Greenland) and Dome C (Antarctica) ice cores using new method 'ice-sublimation method'. The ice-sublimation method can extract soluble salts particles as a solid state without melting. The ice core samples are selected from the sections from the last termination (the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to Holocene) of Dome C (inland Antarctica) and NEEM ice cores. Using ice-sublimation method, soluble salts particles were extracted. Chemical components of extracted particles were analysed by scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive spectroscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The major components of soluble salts particles in the Dome C ice core are CaSO4, Na2SO4 and NaCl. The CaSO4 and NaCl fractions were high in the first half of the last termination, whereas the Na2SO4 fraction is high in the latter half of the last termination. The major components of soluble salts particles in the NEEM ice core are CaCO3, CaSO4, NaCl and Na2SO4. The fractions of CaCO3, CaSO4 and NaCl were high in LGM, whereas those of NaCl and Na2SO4 were high in Holocene. The changes in the salts compositions in Dome C ice core are mainly controlled by concentration of terrestrial material (Ca2+). In the first half of the last termination, most of the terrestrial material (CaCO3) reacted with H2SO4 but some of sea-salt (NaCl) was not reacted with H2SO4 due to high Ca2+ concentration. As a result, the CaSO4 and Na

  15. Historical variations of mercury stable isotope ratios in Arctic glacier firn and ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdanowicz, C. M.; Krümmel, E. M.; Poulain, A. J.; Yumvihoze, E.; Chen, J.; Å trok, M.; Scheer, M.; Hintelmann, H.

    2016-09-01

    The concentration and isotopic composition of mercury (Hg) were determined in glacier core samples from Canadian Arctic ice caps dating from preindustrial to recent time (early 21st century). Mean Hg levels increased from ≤ 0.2 ng L-1 in preindustrial time to ~0.8-1.2 ng L-1 in the modern industrial era (last ~200 years). Hg accumulated on Arctic ice caps has Δ199Hg and Δ201Hg that are higher (~ -1 to 2.9‰) than previously reported for Arctic snow impacted by atmospheric Hg depletion events (mostly < -1‰), suggesting that these events contribute little to Hg accumulation on ice caps. The range of δ202Hg, Δ199Hg, and Δ201Hg in glacier cores overlaps with that of Arctic Hg0(g) and of seawater in Baffin Bay and also with that of midlatitude precipitation and industrial Hg sources, including coal and Hg ores. A core from Agassiz ice cap (80.7°N) shows a ~ +1‰ shift in δ202Hg over the nineteenth to twentieth centuries that could reflect changes in the isotopic composition of the atmospheric Hg pool in the High Arctic in response to growing industrial emissions at lower latitudes. This study is the first ever to report on historical variations of Hg stable isotope ratios in Arctic ice cores. Results could help constrain future modeling efforts of the global Hg biogeochemical cycle and the atmosphere's response to changing Hg emissions, past and future.

  16. Carbonaceous aerosol tracers in ice-cores record multi-decadal climate oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Osamu; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Bendle, James A. P.; Izawa, Yusuke; Suzuki, Ikuko; Shiraiwa, Takayuki; Fujii, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Carbonaceous aerosols influence the climate via direct and indirect effects on radiative balance. However, the factors controlling the emissions, transport and role of carbonaceous aerosols in the climate system are highly uncertain. Here we investigate organic tracers in ice cores from Greenland and Kamchatka and find that, throughout the period covered by the records (1550 to 2000 CE), the concentrations and composition of biomass burning-, soil bacterial- and plant wax- tracers correspond to Arctic and regional temperatures as well as the warm season Arctic Oscillation (AO) over multi-decadal time-scales. Specifically, order of magnitude decreases (increases) in abundances of ice-core organic tracers, likely representing significant decreases (increases) in the atmospheric loading of carbonaceous aerosols, occur during colder (warmer) phases in the high latitudinal Northern Hemisphere. This raises questions about causality and possible carbonaceous aerosol feedback mechanisms. Our work opens new avenues for ice core research. Translating concentrations of organic tracers (μg/kg-ice or TOC) from ice-cores, into estimates of the atmospheric loading of carbonaceous aerosols (μg/m3) combined with new model constraints on the strength and sign of climate forcing by carbonaceous aerosols should be a priority for future research. PMID:26411576

  17. The ice-core record of volcanism: Status and future directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigl, Michael; McConnell, Joseph R.; Chellman, Nathan; Ludlow, Francis; Curran, Mark; Plunkett, Gill; Büntgen, Ulf; Toohey, Matthew; Burke, Andrea; Grieman, Mackenzie

    2016-04-01

    Radiative forcing resulting from stratospheric aerosols produced by major volcanic eruptions is a dominant driver of climate variability in the Earth's past. Accurate knowledge of the climate anomalies resulting from volcanic eruptions provides important information for understanding the global and regional responses of the Earth system to external forcing agents. Based on a unique compilation of newly obtained, high-resolution, ice-core measurements, as well as palaeo-climatic evidence inferred from existing tree-ring records and historical documentary sources, we revised the dating of ice-core based reconstructions of past volcanic eruptions and confirmed the dominant role of explosive volcanism on short-term summer temperature variability throughout the past 2,500 years. Continuous weekly surface snow measurements obtained from Summit, Greenland (2005-2014) further allow placing volcanic sulphate emissions arising from a series of moderate volcanic eruptions during the last decade into a multi-millennial context. While these updated ice core records provide a more accurate constraint on the timing and magnitude of volcanic eruptions, there is also new data emerging on the geographic locations of past eruptions, atmospheric transport of volcanic fallout and climatic consequences (e.g. sea-ice; hydro-climate) from studying volcanic deposits (e.g. extent of volcanic ash deposition), proxy data and historical records. On the basis of selected case studies we will discuss the role volcanic eruptions have played in the Earth's climate system during the past and identify potential additional constraints provided by ice cores.

  18. Imaging Basal Crevasses at the Grounding Line of Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobel, R. W.; Dawson, E. C.; Christianson, K.

    2015-12-01

    We acquired gridded ground-based radar data at the WIS grounding zone where the transition from limited- or no-slip conditions at the base of grounded ice to free-slip conditions beneath floating ice occurs across a region only a few kilometers wide. This transition is either an elastic-flexural transition from bedrock to hydrostatically-supported elevations (often tidally influenced), a transition from thicker to thinner ice over a flat bed, or some combination of these. In either case, the stress field of the ice changes as it flows across the grounding zone, often resulting in brittle deformation, which is manifested as basal crevassing at the ice-sheet base and sometimes as strand cracks at the surface. The position and morphology of these features reveal important information about the stress state across this transition where ice and ocean interact. Our surveys indicate a complex pattern of basal crevassing with many imaged in two or more profile segments as a linear feature at the bed, usually trending oblique to flow and often extending for several kilometers. Due to the wide beam pattern of our antennas, we image many of the crevasses from off-nadir reflections. Thus their arrival times are later than the primary basal reflection and segments of the crevasse appear "below" the bed, when in fact they are merely trending oblique to the profile. Often these returns have a reversed phase relative to the bed echo because the high dielectric contrast of seawater and a favorable geometry enable reflections with little loss (but a second phase reversal) from the ice-water interface near the crevasse base. In a few cases, these crevasse echoes from targets trending oblique to the profile appear to mimic the geometry of a sub-ice sediment "wedge", while in reality the radar never penetrates below the basal interface. Only about 25% of the crevasses appear to extend any significant distance upward into the basal ice, typically at low angles. A subset of these are

  19. Retrieving the paleoclimatic signal from the deeper part of the EPICA Dome C ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tison, J.-L.; de Angelis, M.; Littot, G.; Wolff, E.; Fischer, H.; Hansson, M.; Bigler, M.; Udisti, R.; Wegner, A.; Jouzel, J.; Stenni, B.; Johnsen, S.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Landais, A.; Lipenkov, V.; Loulergue, L.; Barnola, J.-M.; Petit, J.-R.; Delmonte, B.; Dreyfus, G.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Durand, G.; Bereiter, B.; Schilt, A.; Spahni, R.; Pol, K.; Lorrain, R.; Souchez, R.; Samyn, D.

    2015-08-01

    An important share of paleoclimatic information is buried within the lowermost layers of deep ice cores. Because improving our records further back in time is one of the main challenges in the near future, it is essential to judge how deep these records remain unaltered, since the proximity of the bedrock is likely to interfere both with the recorded temporal sequence and the ice properties. In this paper, we present a multiparametric study (δD-δ18Oice, δ18Oatm, total air content, CO2, CH4, N2O, dust, high-resolution chemistry, ice texture) of the bottom 60 m of the EPICA (European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica) Dome C ice core from central Antarctica. These bottom layers were subdivided into two distinct facies: the lower 12 m showing visible solid inclusions (basal dispersed ice facies) and the upper 48 m, which we will refer to as the "basal clean ice facies". Some of the data are consistent with a pristine paleoclimatic signal, others show clear anomalies. It is demonstrated that neither large-scale bottom refreezing of subglacial water, nor mixing (be it internal or with a local basal end term from a previous/initial ice sheet configuration) can explain the observed bottom-ice properties. We focus on the high-resolution chemical profiles and on the available remote sensing data on the subglacial topography of the site to propose a mechanism by which relative stretching of the bottom-ice sheet layers is made possible, due to the progressively confining effect of subglacial valley sides. This stress field change, combined with bottom-ice temperature close to the pressure melting point, induces accelerated migration recrystallization, which results in spatial chemical sorting of the impurities, depending on their state (dissolved vs. solid) and if they are involved or not in salt formation. This chemical sorting effect is responsible for the progressive build-up of the visible solid aggregates that therefore mainly originate "from within", and not from

  20. Antarctic climate variability from ice core records over the last two millennia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braida, Martina; Stenni, Barbara; Masson-Delmotte, Valerie; Dreossi, Giuliano; Oerter, Hans; Selmo, Enricomaria; Severi, Mirko; Goosse, Hugues; Mezgec, Karin

    2013-04-01

    The climate of the past can be successfully investigated through the study of polar ice sheets. Paleotemperature reconstructions from Antarctic ice cores are based on water isotope profiles, thanks to the existing relationship between δ18O (or δD) and the temperature at the site. Here we present the climate record of the past 2000 years resulting from the stable isotope analysis of the ice core drilled at Talos Dome in East Antarctica from 2003 to 2007 in the framework of the European TALDICE (TALos Dome Ice CorE) project. Talos Dome (72°49'S, 159°11'E; 2315 m; -41°C) is an ice dome on the edge of the East Antarctic plateau. The snow accumulation rate of the site (80 kg m-2 yr-1) allows extracting high-resolution data for the past millennia. The main moisture sources of snow precipitation at this near-coastal site are located in the Indian Ocean and the Ross Sea. Isotopic analyses of TALDICE detailed (10 cm) samples have been performed in the framework of the ESF-HOLOCLIP project, whose main objective is to integrate the ice core, the marine core and the modeling data to investigate the climate variability of the high latitude southern hemisphere over the Holocene. The isotopic record obtained from the TALDICE ice core is here compared with a shallow firn core (89 m long) previously drilled at Talos Dome, at a 5 km distance, and covering the past 800 years. The two isotopic records are stacked to reduce the stratigraphic noise and compared with other available isotopic records from Antarctica to highlight common trends and regional variability in the climatic signal over the past two millennia. We compare the data with a simulation performed with a three-dimensional earth system model of intermediate complexity (LOVECLIM) with and without data assimilation. Considering the δ18O profile from the TALDICE ice core and comparing it with the ones from the other available records we can observe common negative isotopic anomalies in the period from about 1450 to

  1. The first Greenland ice core record of methanesulfonate and sulfate over a full glacial cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Hansson, M.E.; Saltzman, E.S. )

    1993-06-18

    The authors report on methanesulfonate and non-seasalt sulfate found in an artic ice core from Greenland. The ice core record stretches back in time roughly 130,000 years, through a full glacial cycle. This record reveals a decreasing concentration of MSA with the advance of the glacial period, and a drop in temperatures, while the non-seasalt sulfate increased in concentration. The MSA data is in contrast to similar measurements from the southern hemisphere. The ratio of MSA to non-seasalt sulfate is found to have a strong linear relationship to the temperature, higher ratios being associated with warmer climatic periods.

  2. Global ice-core research: Understanding and applying environmental records of the past

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cecil, L. DeWayne; Green, Jaromy R.; Naftz, David L.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental changes are of major concern at low- or mid-latitude regions of our Earth simply because this is where 80 to 90 percent of the world’s human population live. Ice cores collected from isolated polar regions are, at best, proxy indicators of low- and mid-latitude environmental changes. Because polar icecore research is limiting in this sense, ice cores from low- and mid-latitude glaciers are being used to study past environmental changes in order to better understand and predict future environmental changes that may affect the populated regions of the world.

  3. Neutrino oscillations with IceCube DeepCore and PINGU

    SciTech Connect

    DeYoung, T.; Collaboration: IceCube-PINGU Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The IceCube neutrino telescope was augmented with the DeepCore infill array, completed in the 2010/11 austral summer, to enhance its response to neutrinos below 100 GeV. At these energies, neutrino oscillation effects are visible in the flux of atmospheric neutrinos traversing path lengths comparable to the Earth's diameter. Initial measurements of muon neutrino disappearance parameters using data from DeepCore are presented, as well as an estimate of potential future precision. In addition, plans for a Precision IceCube Next Generation Upgrade (PINGU), which could permit determination of the neutrino mass hierarchy within the coming decade, are discussed.

  4. Microwave signatures of ice hydrometeors from ground-based observations above Summit, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pettersen, Claire; Bennartz, Ralf; Kulie, Mark S.; Merrelli, Aronne J.; Shupe, Matthew D.; Turner, David D.

    2016-04-01

    Multi-instrument, ground-based measurements provide unique and comprehensive data sets of the atmosphere for a specific location over long periods of time and resulting data compliment past and existing global satellite observations. This paper explores the effect of ice hydrometeors on ground-based, high-frequency passive microwave measurements and attempts to isolate an ice signature for summer seasons at Summit, Greenland, from 2010 to 2013. Data from a combination of passive microwave, cloud radar, radiosonde, and ceilometer were examined to isolate the ice signature at microwave wavelengths. By limiting the study to a cloud liquid water path of 40 g m-2 or less, the cloud radar can identify cases where the precipitation was dominated by ice. These cases were examined using liquid water and gas microwave absorption models, and brightness temperatures were calculated for the high-frequency microwave channels: 90, 150, and 225 GHz. By comparing the measured brightness temperatures from the microwave radiometers and the calculated brightness temperature using only gas and liquid contributions, any residual brightness temperature difference is due to emission and scattering of microwave radiation from the ice hydrometeors in the column. The ice signature in the 90, 150, and 225 GHz channels for the Summit Station summer months was isolated. This measured ice signature was then compared to an equivalent brightness temperature difference calculated with a radiative transfer model including microwave single-scattering properties for several ice habits. Initial model results compare well against the 4 years of summer season isolated ice signature in the high-frequency microwave channels.

  5. Isotopic Content of Ground Ice in the Lower Kolyma River Valley (Eastern Siberia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spektor, V.; Vonk, J.; Kholodov, A. L.; Spawn, S.; Spektor, V. B.; Andreeva, V. V.; Natali, S.

    2014-12-01

    The report deals with the results of isotopic investigations in ground ice of Quaternary sediments in the Lower Kolyma River Lowland. The field works were undertaken in 2012 and 2013. Analyses of oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) stable isotopes were obtained using the Picarro Isotopic Liquid Water Analyzer (Biogeosciences group, ETH-Zurich, Switzerland). The ground ice samples were collected both from four boreholes (BH) drilled on the right limit of the Kolyma River valley and from one section (S) in the Duvanny Yar exposure. Late Pleistocene wedge ice (Ice complex) was recovered by the BH13/1 located on a yedoma relics towering over the low thermokarst plain (N68°30.7' E161°29.6') and S12/4 in the Duvanny Yar exposure (N68°37.8' E159°08.6'). Isotopes δ18O and δD range from -31.413 to -34.05 and from -244.934 to -260.57, correspondingly. Modern wedge ice was recovered by the BH13/3 located on the joint Kolyma and Panteleikha Rivers floodplain underlain by river-bed sediments (N68°36.8', E161°21'). Isotopes range from -25.83 to -26.32(δ18O) and from -197.09 to -204.47 (δD). Oblique segregated ice layers adjacent to a modern ice wedge were recovered by the BH12/2 on the annually flooded thermokarst plain (N68˚30.8' E161˚30). Isotopes range from -18.778 to -20.897 (δ18O) and from -149.883 to -168.901 (δD). The δD contents are the lowest here, resulting possibly from mixed (ice wedging and segregation) mechanism of ice lenses formation. Segregated ice was recovered by the BH13/2 on the Schuch'e lake alas (N68°44.77', E161°23.3') and S12/4 in the transition layer of the Duvanny Yar. Isotopes range from -19.63 to -23.43 (δ18O) and from -146.77 to -177.23 (δD). Preliminary results are as follows: 1) all samples are distributed near the line of meteoric water providing evidence for atmospheric origin of ground ice in the region; 2) isotope distribution exhibits a clear distinction between Late Pleistocene wedge ice, modern wedge ice, segregated ice

  6. Surface water mass composition changes captured by cores of Arctic land-fast sea ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, I. J.; Eicken, H.; Mahoney, A. R.; Van Hale, R.; Gough, A. J.; Fukamachi, Y.; Jones, J.

    2016-04-01

    In the Arctic, land-fast sea ice growth can be influenced by fresher water from rivers and residual summer melt. This paper examines a method to reconstruct changes in water masses using oxygen isotope measurements of sea ice cores. To determine changes in sea water isotope composition over the course of the ice growth period, the output of a sea ice thermodynamic model (driven with reanalysis data, observations of snow depth, and freeze-up dates) is used along with sea ice oxygen isotope measurements and an isotopic fractionation model. Direct measurements of sea ice growth rates are used to validate the output of the sea ice growth model. It is shown that for sea ice formed during the 2011/2012 ice growth season at Barrow, Alaska, large changes in isotopic composition of the ocean waters were captured by the sea ice isotopic composition. Salinity anomalies in the ocean were also tracked by moored instruments. These data indicate episodic advection of meteoric water, having both lower salinity and lower oxygen isotopic composition, during the winter sea ice growth season. Such advection of meteoric water during winter is surprising, as no surface meltwater and no local river discharge should be occurring at this time of year in that area. How accurately changes in water masses as indicated by oxygen isotope composition can be reconstructed using oxygen isotope analysis of sea ice cores is addressed, along with methods/strategies that could be used to further optimize the results. The method described will be useful for winter detection of meteoric water presence in Arctic fast ice regions, which is important for climate studies in a rapidly changing Arctic. Land-fast sea ice effective fractionation coefficients were derived, with a range of +1.82‰ to +2.52‰. Those derived effective fractionation coefficients will be useful for future water mass component proportion calculations. In particular, the equations given can be used to inform choices made when

  7. The Ice Core Data Gateway: The one stop gateway to ice core data held at the Antarctic Glaciological Data Center (AGDC), the World Data Center for Paleoclimatology, and the Arctic System Science's Data Coordination Center (ADCC).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, R.; Scambos, T.; Eakin, M.; Anderson, D.; McNeave, C.

    2002-12-01

    The Ice Core Data Gateway archives and distributes physical and geochemical data from ice cores collected in both the northern and southern hemispheres. Typical data sets include age-depth relationships, oxygen and hydrogen isotope concentrations, major element chemistry, accumulation rates and pollen. The data are in general presented as ASCII files with a short text metadata description. The archive is designed to provide access to ice core data sets over the long term, thereby making them available for comparison with future data: a critical component of change detection studies. By facilitating broad data access, the center promotes interdisciplinary scientific research. Investigators are encouraged to contribute data sets derived from ice cores to the Ice Core Data Gateway. Data center staff will work with you to compile data set documentation prior to making the data available to users. Contributing scientists are given prominent recognition in the documentation, and while the data center answers technical questions about format, citations for usage, etc., it can refer scientific questions to contributors if requested. Contributing your data to the Ice Core Data Gateway and associated data centers directly supports to NSF Office of Polar Programs Guidelines and Award Conditions for Scientific Data (http://www.nsf.gov/pubsys/ods/getpub.cfm?opp991). This effort is being coordinated with the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Initiative and U.S. component of the International Trans Antarctic Science Expedition (ITASE), and includes data from the Arctic System Science Program's Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) ice core.

  8. Bathymetry of Grounding Zones and Sub-Ice Shelf Cavities of the Amundsen Sea, from Operation IceBridge Gravity Inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinto, K. J.; Cochran, J. R.; Bell, R. E.

    2012-12-01

    In order to understand the observed changes in thinning and grounding line position of outlet glaciers it is essential to have accurate maps of the bathymetry of the sea floor within and around the grounding zone. This bathymetry controls the stability of the grounding line as well as access and circulation of seawater under their stabilizing ice shelves. Since 2009 Operation IceBridge has flown gridded surveys over four of the ice shelves of the Amundsen Sea embayment. We present a 3D inversion of the gravity from the region, supplemented by 2D profile models across the ice shelves to provide a self-consistent bathymetric model of the grounding zone and sub ice cavity of Pine Island, Thwaites, Dotson and Crosson ice shelves. Much attention has been paid to the largest outlet glaciers of the Amundsen Sea, and to the bathymetry beneath the floating ice in front of their grounding zones. Considerable changes have also been observed from the smaller Amundsen ice shelves, Crosson and Dotson, which flow to the east and north respectively, between Thwaites Glacier and Getz ice shelf, but little is known about their sub-ice bathymetry. The Amundsen Sea region is vulnerable to the influence of relatively warm circumpolar deep water encroaching on to the continental shelf. The influence of these waters at the grounding zone of the glaciers in the region is dictated by the depth and orientation of bathymetric features of the sea floor. The dominant geological fabric of the region is a NE-SW trending series of ridges and troughs, formed in association with the rifting of the Amundsen Sea region. The bathymetry models from OIB gravity inversions reveal the continuation of the deep (~1500 m) trough of the Kohler Glacier under Crosson Ice Shelf. At the eastern end of the trough, at the front of Crosson ice shelf, the sea floor rises to an average of ~500 m depth over a broad, 50 km wide region. Further east from here the NE-SW fabric is continued in a previously reported ridge

  9. Ice slurry ingestion reduces both core and facial skin temperatures in a warm environment.

    PubMed

    Onitsuka, Sumire; Zheng, Xinyan; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2015-07-01

    Internal body cooling by ingesting ice slurry has recently attracted attention. Because ice slurries are ingested through the mouth, it is possible that this results in conductive cooling of the facial skin and brain. However, no studies have investigated this possibility. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of ice slurry ingestion on forehead skin temperature at the point of conductive cooling between the forehead skin and brain. Eight male subjects ingested either 7.5g/kg of ice slurry (-1°C; ICE), a cold sports drink (4°C; COOL), or a warm sports drink (37°C; CON) for 15min in a warm environment (30°C, 80% relative humidity). Then, they remained at rest for 1h. As physiological indices, rectal temperature (Tre), mean skin temperature, forehead skin temperature (Thead), heart rate, nude body mass, and urine specific gravity were measured. Subjective thermal sensation (TS) was measured at 5-min intervals throughout the experiment. With ICE, Tre and Thead were significantly reduced compared with CON and COOL conditions (p<0.05). The results of the other physiological indices were not significantly different. TS with ICE was significantly lower than that with CON and COOL (p<0.05) and was correlated with Tre or Thead (p<0.05). These results indicate that ice slurry ingestion may induce conductive cooling between forehead skin and brain, and reduction in core and forehead skin temperature reduced thermal sensation.

  10. cm-scale variations of crystal orientation fabric in cold Alpine ice core from Colle Gnifetti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerch, Johanna; Weikusat, Ilka; Eisen, Olaf; Wagenbach, Dietmar; Erhardt, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of the microstructural parameters of ice has been an important part of ice core analyses so far mainly in polar cores in order to obtain information about physical processes (e.g. deformation, recrystallisation) on the micro- and macro-scale within an ice body. More recently the influence of impurities and climatic conditions during snow accumulation on these processes has come into focus. A deeper understanding of how palaeoclimate proxies interact with physical properties of the ice matrix bears relevance for palaeoclimatic interpretations, improved geophysical measurement techniques and the furthering of ice dynamical modeling. Variations in microstructural parameters e.g. crystal orientation fabric or grain size can be observed on a scale of hundreds and tens of metres but also on a centimetre scale. The underlying processes are not necessarily the same on all scales. Especially for the short-scale variations many questions remain unanswered. We present results from a study that aims to investigate following hypotheses: 1. Variations in grain size and fabric, i.e. strong changes of the orientation of ice crystals with respect to the vertical, occur on a centimetre scale and can be observed in all depths of an ice core. 2. Palaeoclimate proxies like dust and impurities have an impact on the microstructural processes and thus are inducing the observed short-scale variations in grain size and fabric. 3. The interaction of proxies with the ice matrix leads to depth intervals that show correlating behaviour as well as ranges with anticorrelation between microstructural parameters and palaeoclimatic proxies. The respective processes need to be identified. Fabric Analyser measurements were conducted on more than 80 samples (total of 8 m) from different depth ranges of a cold Alpine ice core (72 m length) drilled in 2013 at Colle Gnifetti, Switzerland/Italy. Results were obtained by automatic image processing, providing estimates for grain size distributions

  11. Identifying deformation mechanisms in the NEEM ice core using EBSD measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuiper, Ernst-Jan; Weikusat, Ilka; Drury, Martyn R.; Pennock, Gill M.; de Winter, Matthijs D. A.

    2015-04-01

    Deformation of ice in continental sized ice sheets determines the flow behavior of ice towards the sea. Basal dislocation glide is assumed to be the dominant deformation mechanism in the creep deformation of natural ice, but non-basal glide is active as well. Knowledge of what types of deformation mechanisms are active in polar ice is critical in predicting the response of ice sheets in future warmer climates and its contribution to sea level rise, because the activity of deformation mechanisms depends critically on deformation conditions (such as temperature) as well as on the material properties (such as grain size). One of the methods to study the deformation mechanisms in natural materials is Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD). We obtained ca. 50 EBSD maps of five different depths from a Greenlandic ice core (NEEM). The step size varied between 8 and 25 micron depending on the size of the deformation features. The size of the maps varied from 2000 to 10000 grid point. Indexing rates were up to 95%, partially by saving and reanalyzing the EBSP patterns. With this method we can characterize subgrain boundaries and determine the lattice rotation configurations of each individual subgrain. Combining these observations with arrangement/geometry of subgrain boundaries the dislocation types can be determined, which form these boundaries. Three main types of subgrain boundaries have been recognized in Antarctic (EDML) ice core¹². Here, we present the first results obtained from EBSD measurements performed on the NEEM ice core samples from the last glacial period, focusing on the relevance of dislocation activity of the possible slip systems. Preliminary results show that all three subgrain types, recognized in the EDML core, occur in the NEEM samples. In addition to the classical boundaries made up of basal dislocations, subgrain boundaries made of non-basal dislocations are also common. ¹Weikusat, I.; de Winter, D. A. M.; Pennock, G. M.; Hayles, M

  12. Mapping the grounding zone of Ross Ice Shelf using ICESat laser altimetry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brunt, Kelly M.; Fricker, Helen A.; Padman, Laurie; Scambos, Ted A.; O'Neel, Shad

    2010-01-01

    We use laser altimetry from the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) to map the grounding zone (GZ) of the Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica, at 491 locations where ICESat tracks cross the grounding line (GL). Ice flexure in the GZ occurs as the ice shelf responds to short-term sea-level changes due primarily to tides. ICESat repeat-track analysis can be used to detect this region of flexure since each repeated pass is acquired at a different tidal phase; the technique provides estimates for both the landward limit of flexure and the point where the ice becomes hydrostatically balanced. We find that the ICESat-derived landward limits of tidal flexure are, in many places, offset by several km (and up to ∼60 km) from the GL mapped previously using other satellite methods. We discuss the reasons why different mapping methods lead to different GL estimates, including: instrument limitations; variability in the surface topographic structure of the GZ; and the presence of ice plains. We conclude that reliable and accurate mapping of the GL is most likely to be achieved when based on synthesis of several satellite datasets

  13. Small Scale Polygons and the History of Ground Ice on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mellon, Michael T.

    2003-01-01

    Recent progress on polygon modeling has focused on the diameter and surface relief that we expect of thermal-contraction polygons in martian permafrost. With this in mind, we developed a finite-element model of thermal-contraction-crack behavior in permafrost in a martian climate. This model was generated from a finite element code by Jay Melosh (called TECTON) originally developed for terrestrial and planetary crustal-deformation studies. We adapted this model to martian permafrost by including time (and temperature) dependent rheologies, boundary conditions, and isotropic thermal-contraction, as well as several small adaptations to a martian environment. We tested our model extensively, including comparison to an analytic solution of pre-fracture stress. We recently published an analysis of two potential sources of water for forming the recent gullies. In this work we first evaluated the potential for near-surface ground ice (in the top meter or so of soil) to melt under conditions of solar heating on sloped surfaces at high obliquity, utilizing both thermal and diffusion-based ground-ice-stability models; our results suggested that the ground ice will sublimate, and the ice table will recede to greater depths before the melting temperature can be reached. An exception can occur only for extremely salt-rich ice, depressing the freezing point.

  14. A ground penetrating radar investigation of a glacial-marine ice- contact delta, Pineo Ridge, eastern coastal Maine

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tary, A.K.; Duncan, M. FitzGerald; Weddle, T.K.

    2007-01-01

    In eastern coastal Maine, many flat-topped landforms, often identified as glacial-marine deltas, are cultivated for blueberry production. These agriculturally valuable features are not exploited for aggregate resources, severely limiting stratigraphic exposure. Coring is often forbidden; where permissible, coarse-grained surficial sediments make coring and sediment retrieval difficult. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has become an invaluable tool in an ongoing study of the otherwise inaccessible subsurface morphology in this region and provides a means of detailing the large-scale sedimentary structures comprising these features. GPR studies allow us to reassess previous depositional interpretations and to develop alternative developmental models. The work presented here focuses on Pineo Ridge, a large, flat-topped ice-marginal glacial-marine delta complex with a strong linear trend and two distinct landform zones, informally termed East Pineo and West Pineo. Previous workers have described each zone separately due to local morphological variation. Our GPR work further substantiates this geomorphic differentiation. East Pineo developed as a series of deltaic lobes prograding southward from an ice-contact margin during the local marine highstand. GPR data do not suggest postdepositional modification by ice-margin re-advance. We suggest that West Pineo has a more complex, two-stage depositional history. The southern section of the feature consists of southward-prograding deltaic lobes deposited during retreat of the Laurentide ice margin, with later erosional modification during marine regression. The northern section of West Pineo formed as a series of northward-prograd- ing deltaic lobes as sediment-laden meltwater may have been diverted by the existing deposits of the southern section of West Pineo. ?? 2007 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

  15. Last deglaciation and last glacial climatic record from the new coastal TALDICE ice core (East Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buiron, D.; Stenni, B.; Frezzotti, M.; Chappellaz, J.; Lemieux-Dudon, B.

    2009-12-01

    The TALDICE project retrieved a new ice core from a peripheral dome of East Antarctica. Talos Dome (72° 49’ S, 159° 11’ E; 2315 m; 80 kg m-2 yr-1; -41°C) is located in the Northern Victoria Land, close from the Ross Sea. Back-trajectory analyses suggest that the site is mostly fed by air masses arriving both from the Pacific (and Ross Sea) and Indian Ocean sectors. In December 2007 the drilling team reached the depth of 1619.2 m. A preliminary dating based on an ice flow model and an inverse method suggests an age of about 300,000 years BP at 1560 m of depth. We measured the methane (CH4) mixing ratio in the Talos Dome ice core at a depth resolution ranging from 0.5 to 4 m. Two laboratories (LGGE and Bern) were involved, using slightly different techniques. The CH4 mixing ratio measured in the TALDICE ice core allows us to define tie points with respect to other ice cores from Greenland and Antarctica, using in particular the rapid CH4 changes associated with the last termination and the D/O events. Additional chronological constraints are offered by the isotopic composition of molecular oxygen, the dust profile, and volcanic peaks. The comparison of water isotopic profiles from Talos Dome, EDC, EDML (Antarctica) and North-GRIP (Greenland) ice cores, once put on a common time scale, reveals that during the last deglaciation, climatic changes at Talos Dome were essentially in phase with the Antarctic plateau, and that the bipolar seesaw is also valid for this coastal site. A similar comparison extended to the last glacial period (work in progress) enables us to evaluate the timing, shape and duration of the Talos Dome warm events with respect to AIM events on the Antarctic plateau, and to the Dansgaard/Oeschger events in Greenland.

  16. Nitrate and chloride in Antarctic ice cores - postdepositional effects and the preservation of atmospheric signals (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasteris, D.; McConnell, J. R.; Edwards, R.; Isaksson, E. D.; Albert, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Continuous nitrate and chloride measurements have been made from an array of ice cores located in interior Dronning Maud Land that cover the last 2000 years. The average snow accumulation rates at the ice core sites range from 2.7 to 10 cm weq yr-1, which has enabled the study of how accumulation rate affects the preservation and diffusion of nitrate and chloride in the snow. High-resolution dating of the ice cores by tie-point matching with the WAIS Divide ice core has allowed the effects of temporal changes in accumulation rate to also be observed. Results show a strong linear dependence of nitrate concentration on site-average accumulation rate, suggesting that fresh snow concentrations and reemission rates of nitrate from the snowpack are homogenous across the study area. Bulk chloride to sodium ratios over scales greater than 1 m are close to bulk sea salt composition at all of the sites, suggesting that little net gain or loss of volatile chloride has occurred. However, the chloride signal is heavily diffused relative to sodium and the extent of diffusion does not increase with depth in the ice cores, suggesting that it is a near-surface phenomenon. Possible mechanisms behind the observed chloride diffusion pattern will be discussed. Lastly, a sustained decline in nitrate concentration occurred during the Little Ice Age (LIA, 1500-1900 C.E.), but the high-resolution snow accumulation records show that it is not caused by a decrease in accumulation rate during that time. The nitrate record is highly correlated with published methane isotope data from Antarctica (δ13CH4), suggesting that the decline during the LIA was caused by a decrease in a biomass burning nitrate source. Average nitrate concentration versus site-average inverse accumulation rate Composite time series of nitrate (thick black line), δ13CH4 (thin red line with diamonds), and black carbon (dashed black line).

  17. Ground-Based Icing Condition Remote Sensing System Definition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reehorst, Andrew L.; Koenig, George G.

    2001-01-01

    This report documents the NASA Glenn Research Center activities to assess and down select remote sensing technologies for the purpose of developing a system capable of measuring icing condition hazards aloft. The information generated by such a remote sensing system is intended for use by the entire aviation community, including flight crews. air traffic controllers. airline dispatchers, and aviation weather forecasters. The remote sensing system must be capable of remotely measuring temperature and liquid water content (LWC), and indicating the presence of super-cooled large droplets (SLD). Technologies examined include Profiling Microwave Radiometer, Dual-Band Radar, Multi-Band Radar, Ka-Band Radar. Polarized Ka-Band Radar, and Multiple Field of View (MFOV) Lidar. The assessment of these systems took place primarily during the Mt. Washington Icing Sensors Project (MWISP) in April 1999 and the Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS) from November 1999 to February 2000. A discussion of the various sensing technologies is included. The result of the assessment is that no one sensing technology can satisfy all of the stated project goals. Therefore a proposed system includes radiometry and Ka-band radar. A multilevel approach is proposed to allow the future selection of the fielded system based upon required capability and available funding. The most basic level system would be the least capable and least expensive. The next level would increase capability and cost, and the highest level would be the most capable and most expensive to field. The Level 1 system would consist of a Profiling Microwave Radiometer. The Level 2 system would add a Ka-Band Radar. The Level 3 system would add polarization to the Ka-Band Radar. All levels of the system would utilize hardware that is already under development by the U.S. Government. However, to meet the needs of the aviation community, all levels of the system will require further development. In addition to the proposed system

  18. Investigations of the Martian mid-latitudes: Implications for ground ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dundas, Colin Morrisey

    2009-06-01

    This dissertation examines several questions in Martian surface processes relating to water or ice using a combination of geomorphology and modeling. I first examine sublimation of ice from new small mid-latitude craters with freshly exposed ice imaged by the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera. I discuss the theory of sublimation by free convection and describe a model that improves on the standard version used in the Mars literature. This model shows some differences from experimental data, but this appears to be because experimental conditions do not accurately capture the sublimation regime appropriate to the Martian surface. I use this sublimation model in concert with a thermal model and calculate sublimation rates at the sites of freshly exposed ice. Calculated sublimated thicknesses of one or more millimeters during the period when HiRISE images show ice imply that this ice is relatively pure, not pore-filling. The ice table thus revealed appears consistent with a model of the Martian subsurface in which relatively clean ice overlies pore-filling ice. Pingos are hills with cores of ice formed by freezing of liquid water under pressure. Possible pingos on Mars have been much discussed because they would have significant implications for Martian hydrological processes. I surveyed HiRISE images across a broad portion of the Martian surface searching for fractured mounds. Such features are candidate pingos, since pingos often develop surface fractures as they grow. A small number of Martian landforms, not previously identified, are morphologically consistent with pingos; however, landforms that appear related to these do show morphological differences from pingos. Other origins are possible, particularly since it is difficult to produce the requisite hydrologic conditions for pingo formation. Previously proposed pingos on Mars lack surface fracturing and are unlikely to be pingos.

  19. Volcanic Terrain and the Origin of Ground Ice in Utopia Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soare, R. J.; Horgan, B.; Conway, S. J.; El-Maarry, M. R.

    2014-07-01

    We discuss the formation of ground ice and of periglacial landforms in volcanic terrain at the mid- to low-lats of Utopia Planitia and show that there is no spatial coincidence between these landforms and the so-called "latitude-dependent mantle".

  20. Air fractionation in plate-like inclusions within the EPICA-DML deep ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelcu, A.; Faria, S. H.; Kipfstuhl, S.; Schmidt, B.; Kuhs, W. F.

    2009-04-01

    On ice samples from the ice core recovered in the frame of the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica at the deep drilling site in Dronning Maud Land (75°00S; 00°04E) micro-Raman spectrochemical analysis was applied to typical relaxation features appearing after the extraction of an ice core. Essentially, these relaxation microinclusions are little planar polygonal cavities possessing hexagonal symmetry i.e. thin negative crystals lying on the basal plane of the hosting ice crystallite. Usually named plate-like inclusions, PLIs, they tend to change their aspect ratio becoming in general rounder, thicker or thinner depending on the equilibrium established between the structure-composition of the ice and the minute environmental temperature-pressure conditions around a specific PLI, but still preserving a very large aspect ratio (typically 20:1). Muguruma and others (1966) and Mae (1968) have reported studies on plate hexagonal voids, i.e. PLIs, produced (only) in tensile deformation tests of natural and artificial single ice crystals while the first report of PLIs in Antarctic ice cores was presented by Gow (1971). In spite of these early studies and the abundance of PLIs in stored ice core samples, extended investigations of these relaxation features are scarce. We present the results of the first successful study of the chemical composition of PLIs using microfocus Raman spectroscopy (Nedelcu and others, in press). We observe that the relaxation features contain mainly O2 and N2 in their interior, with N2/O2 ratios smaller than 3.7 (the nowadays atmospheric air N2/O2 ratio), indicating a general oxygen enrichment that is not so different from O2 enrichments reported in other investigations on polar ice samples (Nakahara and others, 1988, Ikeda and others, 1999). These results seem to lend support to the current hypothesis that O2 diffuses faster than N2 through the ice matrix (Ikeda-Fukazawa and others, 2001, 2005; Severinghaus and Battle, 2006). More

  1. Ice core record of fatty acids over the past 450 years in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Kimitaka; Suzuki, Ikuko; Fujii, Yoshiyuki; Watanabe, Okitsugu

    Fatty acids have been studied in the ice core taken from Site-J, Greenland using a capillary gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Their molecular distributions showed a strong even/odd carbon number predominance with two maxima at C16 and C24 or C22 acids. Unsaturated fatty acids such as oleic acid (C18∶1) were also detected in the ice samples as major species, being in contrast to the remote marine aerosols in which unsaturated fatty acids are depleted by photochemical degradation. This suggests that organic aerosols derived from marine and terrestrial biological sources are transported long distances in the atmosphere over the south Greenland ice sheet without serious photochemical transformation. Total concentrations of fatty acids were relatively constant (ca. 10 µg/kg-ice) in the 16th to 19th centuries, however, they significantly increased in the 20th century with maxima in the 1930s-1950s and 1980s (up to ca. 100 µg/kg-ice), suggesting an enhanced sea-to-air emission of organic matter and subsequent transport over the Greenland. The increased concentrations of fatty acids in this century were found to be consistent with an increased arctic temperature. During warmer periods, atmospheric circulation is enhanced and more lipids which are enriched in the sea surface microlayers are emitted to the atmosphere by bubble bursting mechanisms and imprinted in the ice core of south Greenland.

  2. Phylogenetic analysis of anaerobic psychrophilic enrichment cultures obtained from a greenland glacier ice core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan, Peter P.; Miteva, Vanya I.; Brenchley, Jean E.

    2003-01-01

    The examination of microorganisms in glacial ice cores allows the phylogenetic relationships of organisms frozen for thousands of years to be compared with those of current isolates. We developed a method for aseptically sampling a sediment-containing portion of a Greenland ice core that had remained at -9 degrees C for over 100,000 years. Epifluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry results showed that the ice sample contained over 6 x 10(7) cells/ml. Anaerobic enrichment cultures inoculated with melted ice were grown and maintained at -2 degrees C. Genomic DNA extracted from these enrichments was used for the PCR amplification of 16S rRNA genes with bacterial and archaeal primers and the preparation of clone libraries. Approximately 60 bacterial inserts were screened by restriction endonuclease analysis and grouped into 27 unique restriction fragment length polymorphism types, and 24 representative sequences were compared phylogenetically. Diverse sequences representing major phylogenetic groups including alpha, beta, and gamma Proteobacteria as well as relatives of the Thermus, Bacteroides, Eubacterium, and Clostridium groups were found. Sixteen clone sequences were closely related to those from known organisms, with four possibly representing new species. Seven sequences may reflect new genera and were most closely related to sequences obtained only by PCR amplification. One sequence was over 12% distant from its closest relative and may represent a novel order or family. These results show that phylogenetically diverse microorganisms have remained viable within the Greenland ice core for at least 100,000 years.

  3. Beryllium-10 in the Taylor Dome ice core: Applications to Antarctic glaciology and paleoclimatology

    SciTech Connect

    Steig, E.J.

    1996-12-31

    An ice core was drilled at Taylor dome, East Antarctica, reaching to bedrock at 554 meters. Oxygen-isotope measurements reveal climatic fluctuations through the last interglacial period. To facilitate comparison of the Taylor Dome paleoclimate record with geologic data and results from other deep ice cores, several glaciological issues need to be addressed. In particular, accumulation data are necessary as input for numerical ice-flow-models, for determining the flux of chemical constituents from measured concentrations, and for calculation of the offset in age between ice and trapped air in the core. The analysis of cosmogenic beryllium-10 provides a geochemical method for constraining the accumulation-rate history at Taylor Dome. High-resolution measurements were made in shallow firn cores and snow pits to determine the relationship among beryllium-10 concentrations, wet and dry deposition mechanisms, and snow-accumulation rates. Comparison between theoretical and measured variations in deposition over the last 75 years constrains the relationship between beryllium-10 deposition and global average production rates. The results indicate that variations in geomagnetically-modulated production-rate do not strongly influence beryllium-10 deposition at Taylor Dome. Although solar modulation of production rate is important for time scales of years to centuries, snow-accumulation rate is the dominant control on ice-core beryllium-10 concentrations for longer periods. Results show that the Taylor Dome core can be used to provide new constraints on regional climate over the last 130,000 years, complementing the terrestrial and marine geological record from the Dry Valley, Transantarctic Mountains and western Ross Sea.

  4. A 420 Year Annual 10Be Record from the WAIS Divide Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodruff, T. E.; Welten, K. C.; Caffee, M. W.; Nishiizumi, K.

    2011-12-01

    Annual ice layers archive the cosmogenic radionuclide 10Be, which is in turn an important proxy for solar activity, complementary to the 14C tree ring archive. Although production is primarily determined by the strength of the solar magnetic field 10Be deposition is also determined by local weather phenomena and snow accumulation rates, especially within shorter timescales. Accordingly, multiple ice core records of varying locations and accumulation rates are necessary to build a representative 10Be archive. We are presently engaged in a study to obtain continuous 10Be and 36Cl records in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide ice core, a high snow accumulation site analogous to the GISP2 core from Greenland (Finkel and Nishiizumi1997). Here we present an annual resolution record of 10Be in the WAIS Divide core spanning the last 420 years including the Maunder (1645-1715 AD) and Dalton (1790-1830 AD) solar minima. Preliminary results for the periods of 1580-1740 and 1945-2006 AD show that the10Be flux during the Maunder Minimum was ~60% higher than in the last 60 years (4.8 vs. 3.0 x 105 atoms yr-1 cm-2). Although the low sunspot numbers during the Maunder Minimum suggest little change in solar activity, the 10Be data show that the heliomagnetic field strength continued to vary in a 11-year cycle, as observed in other annual 10Be records (e.g., Beer et al. 1990; Berggren et al. 2009). The 10Be record for the WAIS Divide core will be compared to 10Be records of Greenland ice cores as well as the 14C tree ring record. Acknowledgment. This work was supported by NSF grants ANT-0839042 and 0839137. Beer J. et al. 1990.Nature 347, 164. Finkel R. C. and Nishiizumi K. 1997.J. Geophys. Res. 102, 26,699. Berggren A.- M., et al. 2009. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L11801.

  5. Synchronizing the North American Varve Chronology with Greenland ice core records using meteoric 10Be flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeJong, B.; Balco, G.; Ridge, J. C.; Rood, D. H.; Bierman, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    The North American Varve Chronology (NAVC) is a floating 5700-year sequence of glacial lake varves deposited in the Connecticut River Valley of the northeast US ~18,000-12,500 years ago. The NAVC is an annually resolved record of regional climate and ice-marginal processes at 40-45° N latitude, near the margin of the retreating Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS). NAVC deposition occurred at the same time as rapid and abrupt Arctic and North Atlantic climate changes that took place during the last deglaciation. An age estimate for the NAVC based on radiocarbon dated plant macrofossils in individual varves implies a relationship between ice-marginal events recorded by the NAVC and climate events recorded in Greenland ice cores. For example, the retreat rate of the LIS up the Connecticut River Valley increased during the Bolling warming in Greenland, a readvance of the LIS margin took place during the Older Dryas cold period, and a correlation between an outburst flood from glacial Lake Iroquois and the Intra-Allerod Cold Period supports the hypothesis that the flood affected North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. On the other hand, a doubling of the ice-margin retreat rate recorded by the NAVC around 16,000 years ago coincides with a relatively cold period in Greenland. Our goal is to investigate the precise time relationship between these events by synchronizing the NAVC with the Greenland ice core time scale using atmospherically-produced 10Be. Existing 10Be flux records, including those from Greenland ice cores, exhibit solar variability on a range of time scales. Because this variability is globally synchronous, a 10Be flux record for the NAVC can, in principle, be used to align NAVC and ice core timescales. We are generating such a record at present. First, we are analyzing short varve sections at high temporal resolution to evaluate the magnitude of solar variability signals; a single section analyzed so far displays interannual variability with a period consistent

  6. Effect of multilayer ice chemistry on gas-phase deuteration in starless cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sipilä, O.; Caselli, P.; Taquet, V.

    2016-06-01

    Context. Astrochemical models commonly used to study the deuterium chemistry in starless cores consider a two-phase approach in which the ice on the dust grains is assumed to be entirely reactive. Recent experimental studies suggest that cold interstellar ices are mostly inert, and a multilayer model distinguishing the chemical processes at the surface and in the ice bulk would be more appropriate. Aims: We investigate whether the multilayer model can be as successful as the bulk model in reproducing the observed abundances of various deuterated gas-phase species toward starless cores. Methods: We calculated abundances for various deuterated species as functions of time using a pseudo-time-dependent chemical model adopting fixed physical conditions. We also estimated abundance gradients in starless cores by adopting a modified Bonnor-Ebert sphere as a core model. In the multilayer ice scenario, we consider desorption from one or several monolayers on the surface. Results: We find that the multilayer model predicts abundances of DCO+ and N2D+ that are about an order of magnitude lower than observed; the difference is caused by the trapping of CO and N2 within the grain mantle. As a result of the mantle trapping, deuteration efficiency in the gas phase increases and we find stronger deuterium fractionation in ammonia than has been observed. Another distinguishing feature of the multilayer model is that becomes the main deuterated ion at high density. The bulk ice model is generally easily reconciled with observations. Conclusions: Our results underline that more theoretical and experimental work is needed to understand the composition and morphology of interstellar ices, and the desorption processes that can act on them. With the current constraints, the bulk ice model appears to reproduce the observations more accurately than the multilayer ice model. According to our results, the abundance ratio of H2D+ to N2D+ is higher than 100 in the multilayer model, while only

  7. Grounding and calving cycle of Mertz Ice Tongue revealed by shallow Mertz Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianwei; Holland, David M.; Cheng, Xiao; Gong, Peng

    2016-09-01

    A recent study, using remote sensing, provided evidence that a seafloor shoal influenced the 2010 calving event of the Mertz Ice Tongue (MIT), by partially grounding the MIT several years earlier. In this paper, we start by proposing a method to calculate firn air content (FAC) around Mertz from seafloor-touching icebergs. Our calculations indicate the FAC around Mertz region as 4.87 ± 1.31 m. We then design an indirect method of using freeboard and sea surface height data extracted from ICESat/GLAS, FAC, and relatively accurate seafloor topography to detect grounding sections of the MIT between 2002 and 2008 and analyze the process of grounding prior to the calving event. By synthesizing remote sensing data, we point out that the grounding position was localized northeast of the Mertz ice front close to the Mertz Bank. The grounding outlines of the tongue caused by the Mertz Bank are extracted as well. From 2002 to 2008, the grounding area increased and the grounding became more pronounced. Additionally, the ice tongue could not effectively climb over the Mertz Bank in following the upstream ice flow direction and that is why MIT rotated clockwise after late 2002. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the area-increasing trend of the MIT changed little after calving (˜ 36 km2 a-1), thus allowing us to use remote sensing to estimate the elapsed time until the MIT can reground on and be bent by the shoal. This period is approximately 70 years. Our observations suggest that the calving of the MIT is a cyclical process controlled by the presence of the shallow Mertz Bank location and the flow rate of the tongue. This calving cycle also explains the cyclic variations in sea-surface conditions around the Mertz detected by earlier studies.

  8. An extended climate archive from the Eastern Alpine ice coring site of Mt Ortles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreossi, Giuliano; Carturan, Luca; De Blasi, Fabrizio; Paolo, Gabrielli; Spolaor, Andrea; Jacopo, Gabrieli; Barbante, Carlo; Seppi, Roberto; Dinale, Roberto; Zanoner, Thomas; Stenni, Barbara; Fontana Giancarlo, Dalla; Thompson, Lonnie G.

    2016-04-01

    Oxygen and hydrogen stable isotope content of ice cores has been extensively used for temperature reconstruction. The most elevated glaciers of the Alpine area have been utilized for ice coring for more than four decades, but the scarcity of drilling projects in the Eastern Alps and of isotopic records covering a long time period for the entire Alpine region suggest that the paleoclimatic potential of this mountain area is still largely unexploited. In autumn 2011 four deep cores were drilled on Mt Ortles, South Tyrol, Italy, at 3859 m a.s.l. An extensive reconstructed temperature record for the Ortles summit, based on the surrounding meteorological station data, is available for the last 150 years, while an automatic weather station had been operating from 2011 to 2015 in proximity of the drilling site. A preliminary age scale has been utilized for dating the two cores for which the isotopic record is available (core #1 and #2), creating an Ortles stacked record and comparing the Ortles data to temperatures and to other Alpine isotope records. The comparison among different ice core locations shows some similarities in the observed fluctuations, despite the considerable distance between the sites and the substantial geographical variability of temperature, precipitation and moisture source patterns characterizing the Alps.

  9. Annually resolved ice core records of tropical climate variability over the past ~1800 years.

    PubMed

    Thompson, L G; Mosley-Thompson, E; Davis, M E; Zagorodnov, V S; Howat, I M; Mikhalenko, V N; Lin, P-N

    2013-05-24

    Ice cores from low latitudes can provide a wealth of unique information about past climate in the tropics, but they are difficult to recover and few exist. Here, we report annually resolved ice core records from the Quelccaya ice cap (5670 meters above sea level) in Peru that extend back ~1800 years and provide a high-resolution record of climate variability there. Oxygen isotopic ratios (δ(18)O) are linked to sea surface temperatures in the tropical eastern Pacific, whereas concentrations of ammonium and nitrate document the dominant role played by the migration of the Intertropical Convergence Zone in the region of the tropical Andes. Quelccaya continues to retreat and thin. Radiocarbon dates on wetland plants exposed along its retreating margins indicate that it has not been smaller for at least six millennia. PMID:23558172

  10. Time-series analysis of chemical trends in a dated ice core from Antarctica

    SciTech Connect

    Keskin, S.S.; Olmez, I.; Langway, C.C. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Polar ice sheets contain valuable information about past atmospheric conditions. Atmospherically produced or transported substances from natural and anthropogenic sources are preserved stratigraphically within the ice layers as a result of both wet and dry deposition mechanisms. Substances deposited include aerosols and gaseous compounds. The analysis of trace elements contained in dated annual snow layers provides a measure of the elemental chemistry content of the atmosphere during the same time interval. The aerosol content of the atmosphere and ice sheets is one of the most important parameters for cloud/radiation interaction processes. Ice cores were obtained from the Byrd Station, West Antarctica, in November, 1989. This study presents results obtained from instrumental neutron activation analysis and ion chromatography on 30 samples over a 20 year period.

  11. Tephrochronology of the Siple Dome ice core, West Antarctica: correlations and sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, Nelia W.; Kurbatov, Andrei V.

    2011-06-01

    A total of 24 tephra-bearing volcanic layers have been recognized between 550 and 987 m depth in the Siple Dome A (SDM-A) ice core, in addition to a number already recognized tephra in the upper 550 m ( Dunbar et al., 2003; Kurbatov et al., 2006). The uniform composition and distinctive morphological of the particles composing these tephra layers suggest deposition as a result of explosive volcanic eruptions and that the layers therefore represent time-stratigraphic markers in the ice core. Despite the very fine grain size of these tephra (mostly less than 20 microns), robust geochemical compositions were determined by electron microprobe analysis. The source volcanoes for these tephra layers are largely found within the Antarctic plate. Statistical geochemical correlations tie nine of the tephra layers to known eruptions from Mt. Berlin, a West Antarctic volcano that has been very active for the past 100,000 years. Previous correlations were made to an eruption of Mt. Takahe, another West Antarctic volcano, and one to Mt. Hudson, located in South America ( Kurbatov et al., 2006). The lowest tephra layer in the ice core, located at 986.21 m depth, is correlated to a source eruption with an age of 118.1 ± 1.3 ka, suggesting a chronological pinning point for the lower ice. An episode of anomalously high volcanic activity in the ice in the SDM-A core between 18 and 35 ka ( Gow and Meese, 2007) appears to be related to eruptive activity of Mt. Berlin volcano. At least some of the tephra layers found in the SDM-A core appear to be the result of very explosive eruptions that spread ash across large parts of West Antarctica, off the West Antarctic coast, as well as also being recognized in East Antarctica ( Basile et al., 2001; Narcisi et al., 2005, 2006). Some of these layers would be expected to should be found in other deep Antarctic ice cores, particularly ones drilled in West Antarctica, providing correlative markers between different cores. The analysis of the

  12. 10Be climate fingerprints during the Eemian in the NEEM ice core, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturevik-Storm, Anna; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran; Berggren, Ann-Marie; Muscheler, Raimund; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Vinther, Bo M.; Usoskin, Ilya

    2014-09-01

    Several deep Greenland ice cores have been retrieved, however, capturing the Eemian period has been problematic due to stratigraphic disturbances in the ice. The new Greenland deep ice core from the NEEM site (77.45°N, 51.06°W, 2450 m.a.s.l) recovered a relatively complete Eemian record. Here we discuss the cosmogenic 10Be isotope record from this core. The results show Eemian average 10Be concentrations about 0.7 times lower than in the Holocene which suggests a warmer climate and approximately 65-90% higher precipitation in Northern Greenland compared to today. Effects of shorter solar variations on 10Be concentration are smoothed out due to coarse time resolution, but occurrence of a solar maximum at 115.26-115.36 kyr BP is proposed. Relatively high 10Be concentrations are found in the basal ice sections of the core which may originate from the glacial-interglacial transition and relate to a geomagnetic excursion about 200 kyr BP.

  13. TALDICE-1 age scale of the Talos Dome deep ice core, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buiron, D.; Chappellaz, J.; Stenni, B.; Frezzotti, M.; Baumgartner, M.; Capron, E.; Landais, A.; Lemieux-Dudon, B.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Montagnat, M.; Parrenin, F.; Schilt, A.

    2011-01-01

    A new deep ice core drilling program, TALDICE, has been successfully handled by a European team at Talos Dome, in the Ross Sea sector of East Antarctica, down to 1620 m depth. Using stratigraphic markers and a new inverse method, we produce the first official chronology of the ice core, called TALDICE-1. We show that it notably improves an a priori chronology resulting from a one-dimensional ice flow model. It is in agreement with a posteriori controls of the resulting accumulation rate and thinning function along the core. An absolute uncertainty of only 300 yr is obtained over the course of the last deglaciation. This uncertainty remains lower than 600 yr over Marine Isotope Stage 3, back to 50 kyr BP. The phasing of the TALDICE ice core climate record with respect to the central East Antarctic plateau and Greenland records can thus be determined with a precision allowing for a discussion of the mechanisms at work at sub-millennial time scales.

  14. TALDICE-1 age scale of the Talos Dome deep ice core, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buiron, D.; Chappellaz, J.; Stenni, B.; Frezzotti, M.; Baumgartner, M.; Capron, E.; Landais, A.; Lemieux-Dudon, B.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Montagnat, M.; Parrenin, F.; Schilt, A.

    2010-09-01

    A new deep ice core drilling, TALDICE, has been successfully handled by a European team at Talos Dome, in the Ross Sea sector of East Antarctica, down to 1620 m depth. Using stratigraphic markers and a new inverse method, we produce the first official chronology of the ice core, called TALDICE-1. We show that it notably improves an a priori chronology resulting from a one-dimensional ice flow model, and that it is in agreement with a posteriori controls of the resulting accumulation rate and thinning function along the core. An absolute uncertainty of only 300 yr is obtained in the course of the last deglaciation. This uncertainty remains lower than 600 yr over Marine Isotope Stage 3, back to 50 kyr BP. The phasing of the TALDICE ice core climate record with respect to the central East Antarctic plateau and Greenland records can thus be determined with a precision allowing for a discussion of the mechanisms at work at sub-millennial time scales.

  15. 10Be climate fingerprints during the Eemian in the NEEM ice core, Greenland

    PubMed Central

    Sturevik-Storm, Anna; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran; Berggren, Ann-Marie; Muscheler, Raimund; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Vinther, Bo M.; Usoskin, Ilya

    2014-01-01

    Several deep Greenland ice cores have been retrieved, however, capturing the Eemian period has been problematic due to stratigraphic disturbances in the ice. The new Greenland deep ice core from the NEEM site (77.45°N, 51.06°W, 2450 m.a.s.l) recovered a relatively complete Eemian record. Here we discuss the cosmogenic 10Be isotope record from this core. The results show Eemian average 10Be concentrations about 0.7 times lower than in the Holocene which suggests a warmer climate and approximately 65–90% higher precipitation in Northern Greenland compared to today. Effects of shorter solar variations on 10Be concentration are smoothed out due to coarse time resolution, but occurrence of a solar maximum at 115.26–115.36 kyr BP is proposed. Relatively high 10Be concentrations are found in the basal ice sections of the core which may originate from the glacial-interglacial transition and relate to a geomagnetic excursion about 200 kyr BP. PMID:25266953

  16. PeV Neutrinos Observed by IceCube from Cores of Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, Floyd W.

    2013-01-01

    I show that the high energy neutrino flux predicted to arise from active galactic nuclei cores can explain the PeV neutrinos detected by IceCube without conflicting with the constraints from the observed extragalactic cosmic-ray and gamma-ray backgrounds.

  17. Bipolar ice core records of millennial scale climate variability : an overview of recent findings (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masson-Delmotte, V.; Landais, A.

    2013-12-01

    Greenland and Antarctic ice cores offer high resolution records of the imprints of millennial scale climate variability on polar climate, aerosol deposition, and atmospheric composition (Wolff et al, QSR, 2010). Improved chronologies and spatial coverage provide new data against which the mechanisms involved in millennial variability and simulated by climate models can be tested. We will first discuss the bipolar sequence of events based on the new AICC2012 chronology, during the last climatic cycle (Veres et al, Clim. Past, 2013; Bazin et al, Clim. Past, 2013). The matrix of ice cores allows to investigate regional differences in the cross-Greenland fingerprints of Dansgaard-Oeschger events (Guillevic et al, Clim. Past, 2013) and the circum-Antarctic signature of their Antarctic Isotopic Maxima counterpart (Buiron et al, QSR, 2012). While Heinrich events have long remained difficult to identify in ice core records, a step change in atmospheric CO2 concentrations has been identified during Heinrich 4 (Ahn et al, GRL, 2012), challenging the gradual CO2 emissions expected from the classical bipolar see-saw explanation. High resolution Antarctic data also reveal centennial to millennial variability during interglacial periods and glacial inceptions which bears similarities with glacial Antarctic Isotopic Maxima, questioning the source and amplifiers of glacial millennial variability. New investigations of the magnitude and recurrence of millennial variability based on multiple long Antarctic ice core records are expected to provide further hints on the interplay between mean climatic states and this millennial variability.

  18. Degradation of ground ice in a changing climate: the potential impact of groundwater flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Grandpré, I.; Fortier, D.; Stephani, E.

    2011-12-01

    Climate changes affecting the North West portion of Canada alter the thermal state of the permafrost and promote ground ice degradation. Melting of ground ice leads to greater water flow into the ground and to significant hydraulic changes (i.e. drainage of peatland and lakes, triggering of thermokarst and new groundwater flow patterns). Road infrastructures built on permafrost are particularly sensitive to permafrost degradation. Road construction and maintenance induce heat flux into the ground by the increase of solar radiation absorption (comparing to natural ground), the increase of snow cover on side slopes, the infiltration of water in embankment material and the migration of surface water in the active layer. The permafrost under the roads is therefore submitted to a warmer environment than in natural ground and his behavior reflects how the permafrost will act in the future with the global warming trend. The permafrost degradation dynamic under a road was studied at the Beaver Creek (Yukon) experimental site located on the Alaska Highway. Permafrost was characterized as near-zero Celcius and highly susceptible to differential thaw-settlement due to the ground ice spatial distribution. Ice-rich cryostructures typical of syngenetic permafrost (e.g. microlenticular) were abundant in the upper and lower cryostratigraphic units of fine-grained soils (Units 1, 2A, and 2C). The middle ice-poor silt layer (Unit 2B) characterized by porous cryostructure comprised the top of a buried ice-wedge network extending several meters in the underlying layers and susceptible to degradation by thermo-erosion. These particular features of the permafrost at the study site facilitated the formation of taliks (unfrozen zones) under the road which leaded to a greater water flow. We believe that water flow is promoting an acceleration of permafrost degradation by advective heat transfer. This process remains poorly studied and quantified in permafrost environment. Field data on

  19. A Pleistocene ice core record of atmospheric O2 concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stolper, D. A.; Bender, M. L.; Dreyfus, G. B.; Yan, Y.; Higgins, J. A.

    2016-09-01

    The history of atmospheric O2 partial pressures (PO2) is inextricably linked to the coevolution of life and Earth’s biogeochemical cycles. Reconstructions of past PO2 rely on models and proxies but often markedly disagree. We present a record of PO2 reconstructed using O2/N2 ratios from ancient air trapped in ice. This record indicates that PO2 declined by 7 per mil (0.7%) over the past 800,000 years, requiring that O2 sinks were ~2% larger than sources. This decline is consistent with changes in burial and weathering fluxes of organic carbon and pyrite driven by either Neogene cooling or increasing Pleistocene erosion rates. The 800,000-year record of steady average carbon dioxide partial pressures (PCO2) but declining PO2 provides distinctive evidence that a silicate weathering feedback stabilizes PCO2 on million-year time scales.

  20. Radioactive fallouts as temporal makers for glacier ice cores dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clemenza, M.; Cucciati, G.; Maggi, V.; Pattavina, L.; Previtali, E.

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we intend to show how analytical methods used in nuclear physics, as gamma spectroscopy, are powerful tools for the dating of environmental archives. Specifically, we will show how events related to the release in the environment of great amount of radioactive isotopes ( e.g., atmospheric nuclear test explosions) can be used as temporal markers in alpine glaciers. The radio-isotope selected for the dating of ice carrots is 137Cs , because of its chemical and nuclear properties. The radioactive measurements have been conducted using a low-background high-purity germanium detector. The sensitivity for the prepared samples is 10mBq/kg. We will illustrate how dating curves (date versus depth of the sample) can be considered as an absolute calibrator for all the other chemical dating methods used on glacier samples analyses.

  1. Be-10 Variations in Dome Fuji Ice Core During the Last Deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, T.; Horiuchi, K.; Yasudomi, Y.; Sugawara, A.; Matsuzaki, H.; Motoyama, H.; Shibata, Y.; Minoura, K.

    2007-12-01

    Cosmogenic Be-10 is produced in the atmosphere by an interaction of cosmic ray particles and nitrogen and oxygen atoms. The Be-10 is then quickly attached to aerosols and falls on the surface of the land and sea. Assuming Be-10 in an ice core reflects the variations of the production rate of the nuclide, it is possible to know the history of the cosmic ray flux from an ice core record of the nuclide. Several Be-10 records in the Holocene epoch have been obtained from ice cores from Greenland (Beer et al., 1988, 1990; Finkel and Nishiizumi, 1997) and Antarctica (Raisbeck et al., 1990; Steig et al., 1996, Bard et al., 1997; Horiuchi et al., 2007). The records show Be-10 variations relevant to the known periodicities and amplitudes of the solar activity, which, as well as the intensity of the earth's magnetic field, controls the cosmic ray flux in the atmosphere (Lal and Peters, 1967; Masarik and Beer, 1999). However, the detailed Be-10 records of the last deglaciation are very few (Finkel and Nishiizumi, 1997) and much less investigated than those of the Holocene epoch. In this paper, we present a Be-10 record of the last deglaciation, which is obtained from an ice core retrieved from Dome Fuji station, Eastern Antarctica (77° 19' S, 39° 42' E). The Be-10 was analyzed by using an accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) of MALT at the University of Tokyo, Japan. One of the problems that should be considered when we investigate the past changes in the cosmic rays by using the Be-10 variations is contamination of local meteorological signals. The last deglaciation was marked by large, hemispheric, millennial-scale climate variations: the Bølling-Allerød and Younger Dryas periods in the north and the Antarctic Cold Reversal in the south. Because these events were not coincident in the north and south (Blunier et al., 1998; Blunier and Brook, 2001), the nature of the Be-10 flux variations may be different in Greenland and Antarctica if climatic changes really influenced

  2. Volcano/ground ice interactions in Elysium Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouginis-Mark, P. J.

    1985-11-01

    The occurrence within Elysium Planitia of meltwater deposits, possible pseudocraters, collapse features within troughs, and outflow channels indicates that a layer of subsurface volatiles existed at the time of volcanic activity within this area. The pseudocraters are interpreted to be indicators of near-surface volatiles, while meltwater deposits and the degree of preservation of trough walls and floors are thought to signify greater volatile depths. A latitudinal variation in the distribution of these features indicates either that the depth to the volatile layer increased from less than about 50 m at 35 deg N to greater than 600 m at 24 deg N, or that an ice wedge that existed at 35 deg N thinned to nonexistence at 24 deg N. Braided distributary channel systems within the chaotic terrain north of Elysium Planitia show that ephemeral lakes were repeatedly created and drained at this locality. The existence of volatiles contemporaneous with volcanic activity permits a search to be made for explosively generated landforms predicted to exist by previous theoretical models. Morphological evidence for strombolian, vulcanian and plinian eruptions is lacking within western Elysium Planitia; there are no identifiable cinder cones, pyroclastic flow deposits, or mantled areas indicative of large airfall deposits at an image resolution of 50-150 m/pixel. However, the pseudocraters indicate that small-scale phreatomagmatic activity may have taken place.

  3. Ground Penetrating Radar Detection of Ice Wedge Geometry: Implications for Climate Change Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, K. K.; Haltigin, T.; Pollard, W. H.

    2011-12-01

    Polygonal features in the Canadian High Arctic are found in many areas, have diverse appearances, and occur in a variety of surface materials. As part of a larger project using geophysical methods to study ice wedge depth, width, and thickness, ground penetrating radar (GPR) data were collected across polygonal surface features on Devon Island. As with polygonal features in other locations on Earth, not all of the features studied on Devon Island contain subsurface ice, however polygons with notable surface troughs did contain fairly large ice wedges. The polygons in this study were formed in fine sediments near Thomas Lee Inlet east of the Haughton impact crater, and GPR data were collected at 200 MHz and 400 MHz using the GSSI, Inc. SIR-3000 system. Although both GPR and capacity-coupled resistivity (CCR) data were collected, the CCR data may have been adversely affected by melt water at the base of the active layer. Conversely, the GPR data show the thickness of the active layer, the width of the top of the ice wedge, and other subsurface stratigraphic features very well. Locations and widths of wedge ice were confirmed by augering and trenching to the tops of the ice wedges. GPR data clearly delineate the edges of the tops of ice wedges. Interestingly, the GPR-determined edges correlate with surface tensional cracks that appear to be related to subsidence above the wedge. It is possible that this subsidence is caused by an increase in active layer thickness and downward melting of the ice wedge in response to increasing temperatures over several years or more. If this is the case, small amounts of surface subsidence above ice wedges could be a useful indicator of past and current climate change in Arctic regions. To address this possibility, a broader study is proposed.

  4. Oxygen-18 concentrations in recent precipitation and ice cores on the Tibetan Plateau

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tian, L.; Yao, T.; Schuster, P.F.; White, J.W.C.; Ichiyanagi, K.; Pendall, Elise; Pu, J.; Yu, W.

    2003-01-01

    A detailed study of the climatic significance of ??18O in precipitation was completed on a 1500 km southwest-northeast transect of the Tibetan Plateau in central Asia. Precipitation samples were collected at four meteorological stations for up to 9 years. This study shows that the gradual impact of monsoon precipitation affects the spatial variation of ??18O-T relationship along the transect. Strong monsoon activity in the southern Tibetan Plateau results in high precipitation rates and more depleted heavy isotopes. This depletion mechanism is described as a precipitation "amount effect" and results in a poor ??18O-T relationship at both seasonal and annual scales. In the middle of the Tibetan Plateau, the effects of the monsoon are diminished but continue to cause a reduced correlation of ??18O and temperature at the annual scale. At the monthly scale, however, a significant ??18O-T relationship does exist. To the north of the Tibetan Plateau beyond the extent of the effects of monsoon precipitation, ??18O in precipitation shows a strong temperature dependence. ??18O records from two shallow ice cores and historic air temperature data were compared to verify the modern ??18O-T relationship. ??18O in Dunde ice core was positively correlated with air temperature from a nearby meteorological station in the north of the plateau. The ??18O variation in an ice core from the southern Plateau, however, was inversely correlated with precipitation amount at a nearby meteorological station and also the accumulation record in the ice core. The long-term variation of ??18O in the ice core record in the monsoon regions of the southern Tibetan Plateau suggest past monsoon seasons were probably more expansive. It is still unclear, however, how changes in large-scale atmosphere circulation might influence summer monsoon precipitation on the Tibetan Plateau.

  5. Time-scale synchronization among EDC, EDML and TD ice cores (Antarctica) by volcanic stratigraphies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severi, Mirko; Becagli, Silvia; Castellano, Emiliano; Manganelli, Desirè; Traversi, Rita; Udisti, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    In the framework of the TALDICE project (TALos Dome Ice CorE), a deep ice core has been drilled on a peripheral dome of East Antarctica. The perforation at Talos Dome (159°11' E 72°49'S 2315 m a.s.l.) reached 1620 m during the 2007-2008 austral summer, covering a period of about 250 kyr. A reliable high-resolution synchronisation of the TD volcanic stratigraphy with the well dated EPICA DC and EPICA DML ice cores is a basic tool for the construction of a reliable timescale and will be a powerful tool to discover whether related climatic events in different sectors of the Antarctic continent occurred at the same time or if there was an offset for the same event in different sites. In this optic, a FIC (Fast Ion Chromatography) system (coupled to a CFA - Continuous Flow Analysis setup) was used to reconstruct the paleo-volcanic record at this site as was already done for the two EPICA cores with very high resolution (ranging from less than 1 to about 3.5 cm per sample). Here we report the results of the synchronisation among the TD and the EDC and EDML ice-cores via individuation of synchronous volcanic events for the last 40 kyr. Several isochronous volcanic events were identified by the comparison of the volcanic stratigraphies and these signatures will be an helpful tool in carrying on a fine-tuning of the pure glaciological model of the TD timescale. Low resolution accumulation rates at TD site for the last deglaciation were then derived from the comparison of couples of volcanic events using the EDC3 agescale. These accumulation rates were then compared to those derived via glaciological modelling showing a very good agreement. This kind of volcanic synchronisation was already carried out for the two EPICA ice cores and for the Vostok and EPICA-DC cores. Once this comparison will be fully available, it will be possible to synchronize these 4 archives and to extend the peak to peak comparison to other Antarctic ice cores. Furthermore the comparison of several

  6. The contribution of ice core studies to the understanding of environmental processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oeschger, H.

    Data obtained from the studies of polar ice cores supplement the records available from tree rings, peat bogs, lake and ocean sediments, and provide a relatively new data source to understand processes of the complex climatic and global cycles. The main sources of ice core data are stable and radioactive isotopes, soluble and particulate matter, and the composition of the gases occluded in the ice. Such information can be used to investigate the history and the variability of carbon dioxide and the climate system. Temperature and other climatic data obtained from δ18O measurements of polar ice cores can be correlated with similar information obtained from carbonate lake sediments. Comparison of the δ18O profiles of the Dye 3 ice core and central European lake sediments show distinct similarities such as the identification of the Older Dryas-Bolling/Allerød-Younger Dryas-Preboreal sequence. Measurements of the cosmic ray produced isotope 10Be on only 1 kg polar ice samples are possible by accelerator mass spectrometry. The resulting data reveals the 11-year solar modulation cycle and the Maunder Minimum of solar activity from 1645 to 1745 AD. The 10Be concentration values for the Maunder Minimum are a factor 1.6 higher than the average for the past 800 years. Using a carbon cycle model these 10Be variations can be compared to the 14C variations found in tree rings. The relatively good correlation suggests a common origin of the 10Be and 14C fluctuations and serves as a check of carbon cycle models. During the Wisconsin stage all of the Dye 3 ice core parameters measured to date (δ18O, CO2/air, SO4-, NO3-, Cl-, dust) show values fluctuating between two different boundary conditions. This suggests that the climate system existing at that time oscillated between a cold and a warm state, probably strongly influenced by different ocean circulations and ice cover. During the Wisconsin stage a cold system dominated; the transition to the Holocene is considered as the

  7. Air bubble migration rates as a proxy for bubble pressure distribution in ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadic, Ruzica; Schneebeli, Martin; Bertler, Nancy

    2015-04-01

    Air bubble migration can be used as a proxy to measure the pressure of individual bubbles and can help constrain the gradual close-off of gas bubbles and the resulting age distribution of gases in ice cores. The close-off depth of single bubbles can vary by tens of meters, which leads to a distribution of pressures for bubbles at a given depth. The age distribution of gases (along with gas-age-ice-age differences) decreases the resolution of the gas level reconstructions from ice cores and limits our ability to determine the phase relationship between gas and ice, and thus, the impact of rapid changes of greenhouse gases on surface temperatures. For times of rapid climate change, including the last 150 years, and abrupt climate changes further back in the past, knowledge of the age distribution of the gases trapped in air bubbles will enable us to refine estimates of atmospheric changes. When a temperature gradient is applied to gas bubbles in an ice sample, the bubbles migrate toward warmer ice. This motion is caused by sublimation from the warm wall and subsequent frost deposition on the cold wall. The migration rate depends on ice temperature and bubble pressure and is proportional to the temperature gradient. The spread in migration rates for bubbles in the same samples at given temperatures should therefore reflect the variations in bubble pressures within a sample. Air bubbles with higher pressures would have been closed off higher in the firn column and thus have had time to equilibrate with the surrounding ice pressure, while air bubbles that have been closed off recently would have pressures that are similar to todays atmospheric pressure above the firn column. For ice under pressures up to ~13-16 bar, the pressure distribution of bubbles from a single depth provides a record of the trapping function of air bubbles in the firn column for a certain time in the past. We will present laboratory experiments on air bubble migration, using Antarctic ice core

  8. Recent climate tendencies on an East Antarctic ice shelf inferred from a shallow firn core network

    PubMed Central

    Schlosser, E; Anschütz, H; Divine, D; Martma, T; Sinisalo, A; Altnau, S; Isaksson, E

    2014-01-01

    Nearly three decades of stable isotope ratios and surface mass balance (SMB) data from eight shallow firn cores retrieved at Fimbul Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, in the Austral summers 2009–2011 have been investigated. An additional longer core drilled in 2000/2001 extends the series back to the early eighteenth century. Isotope ratios and SMB from the stacked record of all cores were also related to instrumental temperature data from Neumayer Station on Ekström Ice Shelf. Since the second half of the twentieth century, the SMB shows a statistically significant negative trend, whereas the δ18O of the cores shows a significant positive trend. No trend is found in air temperature at the nearest suitable weather station, Neumayer (available since 1981). This does not correspond to the statistically significant positive trend in Southern Annular Mode (SAM) index, which is usually associated with a cooling of East Antarctica. SAM index and SMB are negatively correlated, which might be explained by a decrease in meridional exchange of energy and moisture leading to lower precipitation amounts. Future monitoring of climate change on the sensitive Antarctic ice shelves is necessary to assess its consequences for sea level change. Key Points Mass balance and stable oxygen isotope ratios from shallow firn cores Decreasing trend in surface mass balance, no trend in stable isotopes Negative correlation between SAM and SMB PMID:25821663

  9. Latest results on atmospheric neutrino oscillations from IceCube/DeepCore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de André, J. P. A. M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-05-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory, located at the South Pole, is the world’s largest neutrino detector. DeepCore, the low energy extension for IceCube, with a threshold of about ten GeV is well suited to study neutrino oscillations using neutrinos produced in the Earth’s atmosphere and traveling distances as large as the Earth’s diameter before being detected. Using these neutrinos DeepCore makes measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters θ23 and |Δm 2 32| with precisions approaching that of dedicated experiments, and based on preliminary studies these results can still be further improved. These new studies as well as the current results obtained in DeepCore are discussed here.

  10. Investigation of a deep ice core from the Elbrus Western Plateau, the Caucasus, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhalenko, V.; Sokratov, S.; Kutuzov, S.; Ginot, P.; Legrand, M.; Preunkert, S.; Lavrentiev, I.; Kozachek, A.; Ekaykin, A.; Faïn, X.; Lim, S.; Schotterer, U.; Lipenkov, V.; Toropov, P.

    2015-07-01

    A 182 m ice core has been recovered from a borehole drilled through the glacier to the bedrock at the Western Plateau of Mt Elbrus (43°20'53.9'' N, 42°25'36.0'' E; 5115 m a.s.l.), the Caucasus, Russia, in 2009. This is the first ice core in the region which represents a paleoclimate record practically undisturbed by seasonal melting. Relatively high snow accumulation rate at the drilling site enabled analysis of the intra-seasonal climate proxies' variability. Borehole temperatures ranged from -17 °C at 10 m depth and -2.4 °C at 182 m. A detailed radio-echo sounding survey showed that the glacier thickness ranged from 45 m near marginal zone of the plateau up to 255 m at the central part. The ice core has been analyzed for stable isotopes (δ18O and δ D), major ions (K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, NH4+, SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, F-), succinic acid (HOOCCH2COOH), and tritium content. The mean annual net accumulation rate was estimated from distinct annual oscillations of δ18O, δ D, succinic acid, and NH4+ and is 1455 mm w.e. for the last 140 years. Using annual layer counting also for the dating of the ice core, a good agreement with the absolute markers of the tritium 1963 bomb test time horizon located at the core depth of 50.7 m w.e. and the sulfate peak of the Katmai eruption (1912) at 87.7 m w.e. was obtained. According to mathematical modeling results, the bottom ice age at the maximal glacier depth is predicted to be about 660 years BP. As the 2009 borehole was situated downstream of this point, the estimated bottom ice age of the drilling site does not exceed 350-400 years BP. Taking into account the information that we have acquired on the Western Plateau Elbrus glacier and first results of the ice core analysis, these data can be used to reconstruct the atmospheric history of the European region.

  11. Chronological refinement of an ice core record at Upper Fremont Glacier in south central North America

    SciTech Connect

    Schuster, Paul F.; White, David E.; Naftz, David L.; Cecil, L. DeWayne

    2000-02-27

    The potential to use ice cores from alpine glaciers in the midlatitudes to reconstruct paleoclimatic records has not been widely recognized. Although excellent paleoclimatic records exist for the polar regions, paleoclimatic ice core records are not common from midlatitude locations. An ice core removed from the Upper Fremont Glacier in Wyoming provides evidence for abrupt climate change during the mid-1800s. Volcanic events (Krakatau and Tambora) identified from electrical conductivity measurements (ECM) and isotopic and chemical data from the Upper Fremont Glacier were reexamined to confirm and refine previous chronological estimates of the ice core. At a depth of 152 m the refined age-depth profile shows good agreement (1736{+-}10 A.D.) with the {sup 14}C age date (1729{+-}95 A.D.). The {delta}{sup 18}O profile of the Upper Fremont Glacier (UFG) ice core indicates a change in climate known as the Little Ice Age (LIA). However, the sampling interval for {delta}{sup 18}O is sufficiently large (20 cm) such that it is difficult to pinpoint the LIA termination on the basis of {delta}{sup 18}O data alone. Other research has shown that changes in the {delta}{sup 18}O variance are generally coincident with changes in ECM variance. The ECM data set contains over 125,000 data points at a resolution of 1 data point per millimeter of ice core. A 999-point running average of the ECM data set and results from f tests indicates that the variance of the ECM data decreases significantly at about 108 m. At this depth, the age-depth profile predicts an age of 1845 A.D. Results indicate the termination of the LIA was abrupt with a major climatic shift to warmer temperatures around 1845 A.D. and continuing to present day. Prediction limits (error bars) calculated for the profile ages are {+-}10 years (90% confidence level). Thus a conservative estimate for the time taken to complete the LIA climatic shift to present-day climate is about 10 years, suggesting the LIA termination in

  12. Chronological refinement of an ice core record at Upper Fremont Glacier in south central North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, P.F.; White, D.E.; Naftz, D.L.; Cecil, L.D.

    2000-01-01

    The potential to use ice cores from alpine glaciers in the midlatitudes to reconstruct paleoclimatic records has not been widely recognized. Although excellent paleoclimatic records exist for the polar regions, paleoclimatic ice core records are not common from midlatitude locations. An ice core removed from the Upper Fremont Glacier in Wyoming provides evidence for abrupt climate change during the mid-1800s. Volcanic events (Krakatau and Tambora) identified from electrical conductivity measurements (ECM) and isotopic and chemical data from the Upper Fremont Glacier were reexamined to confirm and refine previous chronological estimates of the ice core. At a depth of 152 m the refined age-depth profile shows good agreement (1736 ?? 10 A.D.) with the 14C age date (1729 ?? 95 A.D.). The ??18O profile of the Upper Fremont Glacier (UFG) ice core indicates a change in climate known as the Little Ice Age (LIA). However, the sampling interval for ??18O is sufficiently large (20 cm) such that it is difficult to pinpoint the LIA termination on the basis of ??18O data alone. Other research has shown that changes in the ??18O variance are generally coincident with changes in ECM variance. The ECM data set contains over 125,000 data points at a resolution of 1 data point per millimeter of ice core. A 999-point running average of the ECM data set and results from f tests indicates that the variance of the ECM data decreases significantly at about 108 m. At this depth, the age-depth profile predicts an age of 1845 A.D. Results indicate the termination of the LIA was abrupt with a major climatic shift to warmer temperatures around 1845 A.D. and continuing to present day. Prediction limits (error bars) calculated for the profile ages are ??10 years (90% confidence level). Thus a conservative estimate for the time taken to complete the LIA climatic shift to present-day climate is about 10 years, suggesting the LIA termination in alpine regions of central North America may have

  13. Continuous and discrete measurements of atmospheric methane from an ice core from Roosevelt Island, East Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blunier, T.; Simonsen, M. F.; Brook, E.; Lee, J.; Vallelonga, P. T.; Bertler, N. A. N.

    2014-12-01

    A new ice core from Roosevelt Island was drilled for the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) project to establish the history of deglaciation of the Ross Sea. Evidence of glacial retreat in the Ross Sea Embayment shows that deglaciation happened in several stages of rapid collapse and persisted well after the melting of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets was complete. The drill location on a small island surrounded by sea ice makes dating the core a challenge. We present a timescale for Roosevelt Island using mixing ratios of methane in air preserved within the ice core measured continuously with a Picarro laser spectrometer as well as in high-resolution with gas chromatography (GC). Discrete data from GC analysis over the top 400m of core replicate both the magnitude and variations from other high-resolution ice core records from WAIS Divide, Law Dome, GISP2 and NEEM S1. Both the continuous and discrete methane records of the RICE core were matched to these established records and provide an accurate and consistent depth-age relationship for the past 3.6kyr. The deeper part of the core was measured continuously in July 2014. First inspection of the data suggests that the oldest section of the core reaches into the previous interglacial (Eemian). We will present preliminary evaluated continuous methane data for the deeper part of the core together with a first time scale for the Roosevelt Island ice core.

  14. Antarctic climate signature in the Greenland ice core record

    PubMed Central

    Barker, Stephen; Knorr, Gregor

    2007-01-01

    A numerical algorithm is applied to the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP2) dust record from Greenland to remove the abrupt changes in dust flux associated with the Dansgaard–Oeschger (D–O) oscillations of the last glacial period. The procedure is based on the assumption that the rapid changes in dust are associated with large-scale changes in atmospheric transport and implies that D–O oscillations (in terms of their atmospheric imprint) are more symmetric in form than can be inferred from Greenland temperature records. After removal of the abrupt shifts the residual, dejumped dust record is found to match Antarctic climate variability with a temporal lag of several hundred years. It is argued that such variability may reflect changes in the source region of Greenland dust (thought to be the deserts of eastern Asia). Other records from this region and more globally also reveal Antarctic-style variability and suggest that this signal is globally pervasive. This provides the potential basis for suggesting a more important role for gradual changes in triggering more abrupt transitions in the climate system. PMID:17954910

  15. Geomorphic Indicators of Ground Ice on Mars and Evidence for Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mustard, J. F.

    2003-12-01

    Until recently, indications of the presence of ice in the near surface of Mars, outside the polar caps, has depended upon the interpretation of morphology from imaging data. Early work in this area was based primarily on Viking orbiter images where several large landforms (100s to 1000s of meters in scale) were interpreted to be related to the presence of ice in the regolith or upper crust. These include lineated valley fill, concentric crater fill, softened terrain, and polygons, and are typically found between the latitudes of 30° -60° N and S. Without direct measurements of the presence of water, the interpretations rely on analogies with Earth's periglacial and glacial morphologies as well as geophysical modeling of ice-rich soils and crustal material. New spacecraft data from the Mars Global Surveyor and Mars Odyssey missions have significantly added to the family of morphologies with ground-ice affinities. From the high spatial resolution images acquired by Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) a new array of polygons have been detected which range in size from 25-200 m and show strong latitudinal gradients above 50° . A possibly related morphology exhibiting a regularly spaced surface texture resembling the texture of a basketball is also found in these high latitudes. A number of morphologies indicating viscous flow on steep slopes are found in the mid-latitudes and are consistent with an ice-rich soils deforming under martian surface conditions. A continuous deposit, meters-thick and interpreted to be ice rich is observed at latitudes above 60° , but that is in a degraded condition at lower latitudes (formerly ice-rich) and absent in the equatorial regions (within 30° ). The neutron spectrometer on the Odyssey spacecraft made direct measurements of hydrogen which shows clearly the presence of high water-ice abundance (>70% by volume) in the surface soils in the northern and southern latitudes above 60° . This critical observation ties in well with theoretical

  16. Non-climatic signal in ice core records: lessons from Antarctic megadunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ekaykin, Alexey; Eberlein, Lutz; Lipenkov, Vladimir; Popov, Sergey; Scheinert, Mirko; Schröder, Ludwig; Turkeev, Alexey

    2016-06-01

    We present the results of glaciological investigations in the megadune area located 30 km to the east of Vostok Station (central East Antarctica) implemented during the 58th, 59th and 60th Russian Antarctic Expedition (January 2013-2015). Snow accumulation rate and isotope content (δD, δ18O and δ17O) were measured along the 2 km profile across the megadune ridge accompanied by precise GPS altitude measurements and ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey. It is shown that the spatial variability of snow accumulation and isotope content covaries with the surface slope. The accumulation rate regularly changes by 1 order of magnitude within the distance < 1 km, with the reduced accumulation at the leeward slope of the dune and increased accumulation in the hollow between the dunes. At the same time, the accumulation rate averaged over the length of a dune wave (22 mm w.e.) corresponds well with the value obtained at Vostok Station, which suggests no additional wind-driven snow sublimation in the megadunes compared to the surrounding plateau. The snow isotopic composition is in negative correlation with the snow accumulation. Analysing dxs / δD and 17O-excess / δD slopes (where dxs = δD - 8 ṡ δ18O and 17O-excess = ln(δ17O / 1000 + 1) -0.528 ṡ ln (δ18O / 1000 + 1)), we conclude that the spatial variability of the snow isotopic composition in the megadune area could be explained by post-depositional snow modifications. Using the GPR data, we estimated the apparent dune drift velocity (4.6 ± 1.1 m yr-1). The full cycle of the dune drift is thus about 410 years. Since the spatial anomalies of snow accumulation and isotopic composition are supposed to drift with the dune, a core drilled in the megadune area would exhibit the non-climatic 410-year cycle of these two parameters. We simulated a vertical profile of snow isotopic composition with such a non-climatic variability, using the data on the dune size and velocity. This artificial profile is then compared

  17. Towards a bipolar layer-counted ice-core chronology for the 41-75 ka time interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svensson, Anders; Bigler, Matthias; Blunier, Thomas; Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Fischer, Hubertus; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Rasmussen, Sune; Schwander, Jakob; Seierstad, Inger; Steffensen, Jørgen Peder; Vallelonga, Paul; Vinther, Bo; Wegner, Anna; Wilhelms, Frank; Winstrup, Mai

    2015-04-01

    Precise chronologies have been developed for Greenland and Antarctic ice cores based on counting of annual layers in high-resolution water isotope and impurity profiles. Antarctic ice cores are layer-counted back to 31 ka (WAIS Divide ice core) whereas Greenland ice cores are dated back to 60 ka (NGRIP ice core, GICC05 time scale). Beyond 60 ka, in Marine Isotope Stage 4 (MIS4), annual layers in Greenland are thin (less than 1 cm in NGRIP in the coldest periods) and annual layer counting is more uncertain. In the Antarctic EDML ice core annual layers are somewhat thicker over most of MIS4 although they are still marginal for counting. Greenland and Antarctic ice cores are tightly linked at the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion (41 ka) and at the Toba YTT eruption (74 ka) providing end constrains for the investigated time interval. In this work, annual layer counting has been performed in parallel in the NGRIP and EDML ice cores for the time interval 41-75 ka using high-resolution records of visual stratigraphy, dust concentrations, and continuous chemistry. For NGRIP the GICC05 time scale is adapted for the period 41-60 ka. The NGRIP and EDML ice cores are then synchronized by identifying series of bipolar volcanic eruptions in acidity records of electrolytic conductivity, sulfur concentrations, and electric measurements of the solid ice (ECM and DEP). The synchronization is constrained by the layer counting that provides interval durations between volcanic markers. In some periods, a pattern of several bipolar volcanic events provides robust synchronization, but there are longer intervals for which there are no synchronization due to the lack of unambiguous bipolar markers. Over periods of robust synchronization the North-South phasing of climate (water isotopes) and dust concentrations can be investigated at decadal precision. During MIS4 the resulting time scale shows a North-South phasing somewhat different from that of the modelled AICC2012 time scale.

  18. Multi-proxy fingerprint of Heinrich event 4 in Greenland ice core records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillevic, M.; Bazin, L.; Landais, A.; Stowasser, C.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Blunier, T.; Eynaud, F.; Falourd, S.; Michel, E.; Minster, B.; Popp, T.; Prié, F.; Vinther, B. M.

    2014-03-01

    Glacial climate was characterised by two types of abrupt events. Greenland ice cores record Dansgaard-Oeschger events, marked by abrupt warming in-between cold, stadial phases. Six of these stadials coincide with major Heinrich events (HE), identified from ice-rafted debris (IRD) and large excursions in carbon and oxygen stable isotopic ratios in North Atlantic deep sea sediments, documenting major ice sheet collapse events. This finding has led to the paradigm that glacial cold events are induced by the response of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation to such massive freshwater inputs, supported by sensitivity studies conducted with climate models of various complexities. This mechanism could however never be confirmed or infirmed because the exact timing of Heinrich events and associated low latitude hydrological cycle changes with respect to Greenland stadials has so far remained elusive. Here, we provide the first multi-proxy fingerprint of H4 within Stadial 9 in Greenland ice cores through ice and air proxies of low latitude climate and water cycle changes. Our new dataset demonstrates that Stadial 9 consists of three phases, characterised first by Greenland cooling during 550 ± 60 years (as shown by markers of Greenland temperature δ18O and δ15N), followed by the fingerprint of Heinrich Event 4 as identified from several proxy records (abrupt decrease in 17O excess and Greenland methane sulfonic acid (MSA), increase in CO2 and methane mixing ratio, heavier δ D-CH4 and δ18Oatm), lasting 740 ± 60 years, itself ending approximately 390 ± 50 years prior to abrupt Greenland warming. Preliminary investigations on GS-13 encompassing H5, based on the ice core proxies δ18O, MSA, δ18Oatm, CH4 and CO2 data also reveal a 3 phase structure, as well as the same sequence of events. The decoupling between stable cold Greenland temperature and low latitude HE imprints provides new targets for benchmarking climate model simulations and testing mechanisms

  19. Ice-core Records of Atmospheric Halogen Concentrations over Western Antarctica - Past and Present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maselli, O. J.; McConnell, J. R.; Sigl, M.; Layman, L.; Pasteris, D.; Das, S. B.; Criscitiello, A. S.

    2012-12-01

    High temporal resolution halogen records from Western Antarctica will be presented which cover the transition from present day into the Pleistocene epoch (25,000 years B.P.). The WAIS Divide Ice Core (79°28' S, 112°05' W) was analysed for Chlorine, Bromine and Iodine at annual resolution (up to ~16,000 years B.P.) using a continuous melt system coupled with parallel mass spectrometers (ICP-MS) - a technique developed at the Desert Research Institute in Reno, Nevada. The ICP-MS technique measures both the soluble species and insoluble particulate species that have been trapped in the ice. The high resolution, continuous record allows us to observe the annual concentration cycles of halogens trapped in the ice and compare the seasonal timings of the signals from 16,000 years ago to present. Seasonal cycles observed in an array of shallow ice cores in south western Antarctica give insight into the present day spatial distribution of the halogen species. The results from the ice cores are compared to satellite imaging that shows the daylight distributions of halogen oxides over the entire Antarctic continent. Dramatic changes in absolute Iodine concentrations are observed through the transition from the glacial to interglacial period whilst average bromine concentrations remain relatively unchanged. This observation supports a source or sink of the iodine which is independent of bromine. The temporal variability of all halogen concentrations observed in the ice on a decadal scale appears to be closely linked to the regional temperature proxy (δ18O of water) which may be a reflection of changes in deposition mechanisms as well as of sources or sinks.

  20. Permafrost landscapes in transition - towards modeling interactions, thresholds and feedbacks related to ice-rich ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westermann, Sebastian; Langer, Moritz; Lee, Hanna; Berntsen, Terje; Boike, Julia; Krinner, Gerhard; Aalstad, Kristoffer; Schanke Aas, Kjetil; Peter, Maria; Heikenfeld, Max; Etzelmüller, Bernd

    2016-04-01

    Thawing of permafrost is governed by a complex interplay of different processes, of which only conductive heat transfer is taken into account in most model studies. However, heat conduction alone can not account for the dynamical evolution of many permafrost landscapes, e.g. in areas rich in ground ice shaped by thermokarst ponds and lakes. Novel process parameterizations are required to include such phenomena in future projections of permafrost thaw and hereby triggered climatic feedbacks. Recently, we have demonstrated a physically-based parameterization for thaw process in ice-rich ground in the permafrost model CryoGrid 3, which can reproduce the formation of thermokarst ponds and subsidence of the ground following thawing of ice-rich subsurface layers. Long-term simulations for different subsurface stratigraphies in the Lena River Delta, Siberia, demonstrate that the hydrological regime can both accelerate and delay permafrost thawing. If meltwater from thawed ice-rich layers can drain, the ground subsides while at the same time the formation of a talik is delayed. If the meltwater pools at the surface, a pond is formed which enhances heat transfer in the ground and leads to the formation of a talik. The PERMANOR project funded by the Norwegian Research Council until 2019 will extend this work by integrating such small-scale processes in larger-scale Earth System Models (ESMs). For this purpose, the project will explore and develop statistical approaches, in particular tiling, to represent permafrost landscape dynamics on subgrid scale. Ultimately, PERMANOR will conceptualize process understanding from in-situ studies to develop new model algorithms and pursue their implementation in a coupled ESM framework.

  1. Multi-decadal variability in the Greenland ice core records obtained using intrinsic timescale decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jiansong; Tung, Ka-Kit; Li, King-Fai

    2016-08-01

    By performing a new adaptive time series decomposition on the composite average of multiple ice core records obtained from the Arctic and Greenland, we extracted a robust quasi-oscillatory signal with a period of ~70 years throughout the preceding millennium, and showed that it is strongly connected to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). In the same decomposition there exists the Greenland signature of the Little Ice Age and Medieval Warm Period. Throughout the warm and cold periods the AMO properties remained robust. It implies that the evolution of the AMO has its own coherent mechanism and was little affected by these large climatic excursions.

  2. Five millennia of surface temperatures and ice core bubble characteristics from the WAIS Divide deep core, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fegyveresi, John M.; Alley, Richard B.; Fitzpatrick, Joan J.; Cuffey, Kurt M.; McConnell, Joseph R.; Voigt, Donald E.; Spencer, Matthew K.; Stevens, Nathan T.

    2016-03-01

    Bubble number densities from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide deep core in West Antarctica record relatively stable temperatures during the middle Holocene followed by late Holocene cooling. We measured bubble number density, shape, size, and arrangement on new samples of the main WAIS Divide deep core WDC06A from ~580 m to ~1600 depth. The bubble size, shape, and arrangement data confirm that the samples satisfy the requirements for temperature reconstructions. A small correction for cracks formed after core recovery allows extension of earlier work through the "brittle ice" zone, and a site-specific calibration reduces uncertainties. Using an independently constructed accumulation rate history and a steady state bubble number density model, we determined a temperature reconstruction that agrees closely with other independent estimates, showing a stable middle Holocene, followed by a cooling of ~1.25°C in the late Holocene. Over the last ~5 millennia, accumulation has been higher during warmer times by ~12%°C-1, somewhat stronger than for thermodynamic control alone, suggesting dynamic processes.

  3. Denali Ice Core Record of North Pacific Hydroclimate, Temperature and Atmospheric Circulation over the Past Millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Wake, C. P.; Kreutz, K. J.; Winski, D.; Ferris, D. G.; Introne, D.; Campbell, S.; Birkel, S. D.

    2015-12-01

    While tree ring and lake sediment core studies have revealed a great deal about North Pacific (e.g. Alaska) surface temperature variability over the past millennium, we do not have an equivalent understanding of North Pacific hydroclimate variability or temperatures at high elevations. A millennial-length precipitation proxy record is needed to place late 20th century Alaskan precipitation increases into longer context, and to evaluate hydroclimate changes during the Little Ice Age and Medieval Climate Anomaly. High-elevation summer temperature records would be valuable for understanding the sensitivity of Alaskan glaciers to past warm and cool periods. Here we present an overview of the new Denali Ice Core record collected from the summit plateau (4000 m a.s.l.) of Mt. Hunter (63° N, 151° W) in Denali National Park, Alaska. Two parallel ice cores were collected to bedrock (208 m in length) in May-June 2013, sampled using the Dartmouth continuous melter system, and analyzed for major ions, trace elements, particle concentration and size distribution, and stable isotope ratios at Dartmouth and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire. The cores are dated using robust annual oscillations in dust elements, methanesulfonate, ammonium, and stable isotopes, and validated using major volcanic eruptions recorded as sulfate, chloride and heavy metal spikes, and the 1963 nuclear weapons testing 137Cs spike. Preliminary analyses indicate a significant increase in both summer temperature and annual accumulation over the 20th century, and significant relationships with major ocean-atmospheric modes including the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. We compare the new Denali record to the Eclipse Icefield and Mt. Logan ice core records and develop composite records of North Pacific hydroclimate and atmospheric circulation variability over the past millennium.

  4. Could a new ice core offer an insight into the stability of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet during the last interglacial?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulvaney, R.; Hindmarsh, R. C.

    2013-12-01

    Vaughan et al., in their 2011 paper 'Potential Seaways across West Antarctica' (Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 12, Q10004, doi:10.1029/2011GC003688), offer the intriguing prospect that substantial ice loss from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet during the previous interglacial period might have resulted in the opening of a seaway between the Weddell Sea and the Amundsen Sea. One of their potential seaways passes between the south western corner of the present Ronne Ice Shelf and the Pine Island Bay, through what is currently the course of the Rutford Ice Stream, between the Ellsworth Mountains and the Fletcher Promontory. To investigate whether this seaway could have existed (and to recover a paleoclimate and ice sheet history from the Weddell Sea), a team from the British Antarctic Survey and the Laboratoire de Glaciologie et Géophysique de l'Environnement drilled an ice core from a close to a topographic dome in the ice surface on the Fletcher Promontory in January 2012, reaching the bedrock at 654.3m depth from the surface. The site was selected to penetrate directly through the centre of a Raymond cupola observed in internal radar reflections from the ice sheet, with the intention that this would ensure we obtained the oldest ice available from the Fletcher Promontory. The basal ice sheet temperature measured was -18°C, implying the oldest ice would not have melted away from the base, while the configuration of the Raymond cupola in the radar horizons suggested stability in the ice dome topography during the majority of the Holocene. Our hypothesis is that chemical analysis of the ice core will reveal whether the site was ever relatively close to open sea water or ice shelf in the Rutford channel 20 km distant, rather than the current 700 km distance to sea ice/open water in either the Weddell Sea or the Amundsen Sea. While we do not yet have the chemistry data to test this hypothesis, in this poster we will discuss whether there is in reality any potential local

  5. Amundsen-coast grounding-line retreat mapped with satellite photogrammetry and Ice Bridge and ICESat laser altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, B. E.; Shean, D. E.; Joughin, I. R.

    2012-12-01

    The Amundsen coast of Antarctica is at present the site of some of the largest ice-sheet contributions to global sea-level change. NASA's Ice Bridge program has made detailed ice-thickness and altimetry surveys on the principal glaciers in this region, including Pine Island, Thwaites, Pope and Smith, focusing attention on the grounding zones in each case, where warming ocean waters have led to thinning of the seaward ends of these glaciers. This has led to accelerated discharge in three ways: by directly removing ice from the glaciers, by steepening the surface profiles near the grounding zone, and by thinning the ice towards the flotation point, reducing the area in contact with the bed and removing basal shear stress. By combining data from IceSat and Ice Bridge laser altimetry with Worldview stereophotogrammetry, we have developed maps of elevation change throughout the basins of these glaciers. These, together with Ice Bridge and AGASEA ice-thickness measurements, allow us to estimate ice freeboard at any time between 2003 and 2011 for any point for which we have an ice thickness measurement. Based on this, we have mapped grounding line positions for the major surveyed glaciers in the area. These maps show extensive grounding-line retreat in Pine Island and Pope glaciers through 2010, and substantial thinning near the Thwaites ice shelf bringing further ice into flotation. Extrapolation of current thinning rates, under the assumption that their spatial pattern and magnitude will remain constant, gives one scenario for the near future rate of grounding line retreat. Under this scenario, the current rate grounding line retreat can continue, at least locally, for the next 20-30 years, with slower rates of retreat thereafter as the grounding line reaches ice with larger surface slopes. Alternately, if the thinning pattern follows the grounding line, with peak thinning rates in the 10-20 km immediately upstream of the grounding line, the initial phase of the retreat

  6. Coastal ice core evidence for a circum-Antarctic bipolar seesaw during the last deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stenni, Barbara; Buiron, Daphné; Frezzotti, Massimo

    2010-05-01

    The transition from the last glacial period into the Holocene has a different shape in Antarctica, and the surrounding Southern Ocean, than in Greenland, and more generally in the Northern Hemisphere. Typically, the warming associated with the last deglaciation is relatively steady in Antarctica although interrupted by a return to cold conditions, the Antarctic Cold Reversal before the onset of the Holocene. Instead, it is, in Greenland, characterized by two rapid warmings respectively at the onset of the Bölling-Alleröd and of the Holocene with in-between the Younger-Dryas, a well-marked cold event, which follows the Bölling-Alleröd. Recent studies attempted at explaining the different sequence of events in the two hemispheres through the ocean bi-polar see-saw that explains the competition between deep waters formed in the North Atlantic and in the Southern Ocean. Critical to document the causes and mechanisms involved in this different Greenland / Antarctic behaviour (more generally between North and South) is our ability to define the timing of events between Greenland and Antarctica, which indeed has long been a matter of intense debate. Here we investigate a new 1620 m long ice core drilled at Talos Dome (TD) a peripheral dome of East Antarctica in the framework of the TALDICE (TAlos Dome Ice CorE) project, involving five European nations and led by Italy. TD is located in the Ross Sea sector, about 550 km north of Taylor Dome and 1100 km East from the EPICA Dome C drilling site. The TALDICE coring site (159°11'E 72°49'S; 2315 m; T -41°C; www.taldice.org) is located near the dome summit and is characterised by an annual snow accumulation rate of 80 mm water equivalent. In this study, we present the new oxygen isotope record from the TALDICE ice core with a focus on the time window between 8 and 25 ky. In this work, methane measurements have been used to synchronise TALDICE to NGRIP and EPICA (EDC and EDML) ice cores on GICC05 age scale. The TALDICE and

  7. Tree ring and ice core time scales around the Santorini eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfroth, Elin; Muscheler, Raimund; Aldahan, Ala; Possnert, Göran; Berggren, Ann-Marie

    2010-05-01

    When studying cosmogenic radionuclides in ice core and tree ring archives around the Santorini eruption a ~20 year discrepancy was found between the records (Muscheler 2009). In this study a new 10Be dataset from the NGRIP ice core is presented. It has a resolution of 7 years and spans the period 3752-3244 BP (1803-1295 BC). The NGRIP 10Be record and the previously published 10Be GRIP record were compared to the IntCal datasets to further investigate the discrepancy between the ice core and tree ring chronologies. By modelling the 14C production rate based on atmospheric 14C records a comparison could be made to the 10Be flux which is assumed to represent the 10Be production rate. This showed a time shift of ~23 years between the records. The sensitivity of the results to changes in important model parameters was evaluated. Uncertainties in the carbon cycle model cannot explain a substantial part of the timing differences. Potential influences of climate and atmospheric processes on the 10Be deposition were studied using δ18O from the respective cores and GISP2 ice core ion data. The comparison to δ18O revealed a small but significant correlation between 10Be flux and δ18O when the 14C-derived production signal was removed from the 10Be curves. The ion data, as proxies for atmospheric circulation changes, did not show any correlations to the 10Be record or the 10Be/14C difference. When including possible data uncertainties there is still a minimum discrepancy of ~10 years between the 10Be ice core and the 14C tree ring record. Due to lack of alternative explanations it is concluded that the ice core and/or the tree ring chronologies contains unaccounted errors in this range. This also reconciles the radiocarbon 1627-1600 BC (Friedrich et al., 2006) and ice core 1642±5 BC (Vinther et al., 2006) datings of the Santorini eruption. Friedrich, W.L., Kromer, B., Friedrich, M., Heinemeier, J., Pfeiffer, T., & Talamo, S., 2006: Santorini eruption radiocarbon dated to

  8. Small-scale disturbances in the stratigraphy of ice cores: observations and numerical model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, Daniela; LLorens, Maria-Gema; Westhoff, Julien; Steinbach, Florian; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Bons, Paul D.; Griera, Albert; Eichler, Jan; Weikusat, Ilka

    2016-04-01

    Visual stratigraphy of ice cores from Greenland as well as Antarctica revealed folding on a cm scale, with fold amplitudes varying from less than 1 cm to a few decimetres. Stratigraphy bands are visualized by an indirect light source scattering on surfaces inside the ice, mainly particles and air bubbles / hydrates. Due to their potential influence on the integrity of the climatic record, folds have been subject to modelling studies, however, the initial formation of the disturbances is not fully understood. In this study we present a detailed analysis of the visible folds from the NEEM ice core from Greenland and the EDML ice core from Antarctica, discuss their characteristics and frequency and present examples of typical fold structures. We also analyse the structures with regard to the deformation boundary conditions under which they formed. In case of the NEEM core the structures evolve from gentle waves at about 1500 m to overturned z-folds with increasing depth. Occasionally, the folding causes significant thickening of layers. Their similar-fold shape indicates that they are passive features and are probably not initiated by rheology differences between alternating layers. Layering is heavily disturbed and tracing of single layers is no longer possible below a depth of 2160 m. C-axes orientation distributions for the corresponding core sections were analysed where available in addition to visual stratigraphy. The data show axial-plane parallel strings of grains with c-axis orientations that deviate from that of the matrix, which shows a single-maximum fabric at the depth where the folding occurs. In case of the EDML ice cores the folding starts at a depth of about 1700 m and show very similar characteristics as found in the NEEM core. Numerical modelling of crystal viscoplasticity deformation and dynamic recrystallisation was used to improve the understanding of the formation of the observed structures during deformation. The modelling reproduces the

  9. Tephra studies on the deep Talos Dome ice core, East Antarctic Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narcisi, B.; Petit, J.; Delmonte, B.; Stenni, B.

    2011-12-01

    In the context of the TALDICE (TALos Dome Ice CorE) project conducted by a consortium of five European nations led by Italy, a 1620-m long ice core has been drilled at Talos Dome (72°49'S, 159°11'E; 2315 m; www.taldice.org), on the eastern edge of the East Antarctic plateau during the field seasons 2004-2008. Owing to its relatively high accumulation rate, this near-coastal core preserves a detailed undisturbed paleoclimate record covering the past 250,000 years, back to Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 7.5. The Talos Dome ice is a significant volcanic ash archive. During core inspection of the TALDICE core, more than 100 macroscopic tephra layers were located and inventoried, with an average tephra frequency one order of magnitude greater than the tephra frequency in deep cores from inland East Antarctic plateau over the last two glacial cycles. TALDICE prominent tephra layers, studied by scanning electron microscopy, Coulter Counter and electron microprobe analysis, display an alkaline geochemical character indicating an origin in nearby volcanoes of the Melbourne Volcanic Province (McMurdo Volcanic Group). Our tephra record helps reconstruct an improved history of explosive eruptions in northern Victoria Land, supplementing the stratigraphic record obtained by outcrop studies and documenting previously unknown temporal trends and specific episodes. Investigations on less prominent tephra horizons are in progress with the aim of complementing the Holocene volcanic record of local visible beds and establishing the detailed tephrostratigraphy for the region. To date about ten discrete ice sections showing anomalously coarse grain size has proved to contain significant concentrations of unreworked volcanic glass. Single shard major element analyses of some invisible volcanic horizons indicate subalkaline compositions, which are incompatible with Antarctic volcanism and suggesting long-distance tephra transport from either South American and/or New Zealand volcanoes

  10. The Spatial and Temporal Variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation Recorded in Ice Core Major Ion Time Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wawrzeniak, T. L.; Wake, C. P.; Fischer, H.; Fisher, D. A.; Schwikowski, M.

    2006-05-01

    The North Atlantic Oscillation represents a significant mode of atmospheric variability for the Arctic and sub- Artic climate system. Developing a longer-term record of the spatial and temporal variability of the NAO could improve our understanding of natural climate variability in the region. Previous work has shown a significant relationship between Greenland ice core records and the NAO. Here, we have compared sea-salt and dust records from nine ice cores around the Arctic region to sea level pressure and NAO indices to evaluate the extent to which these ice cores can be used to reconstruct the NAO.

  11. Post-depositional migration and preservation of methanesulfonic acid (MSA) in polar ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osman, M.; Marchal, O.; Guo, W.; Das, S. B.; Evans, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    Methanesulfonic acid (MSA; CH3SO3-) in ice cores is a unique, high-resolution proxy of regional sea ice behavior, marine primary productivity, and synoptic climatology. Significant uncertainties remain, however, in both our understanding of the production and transfer of MSA to the ice sheet, as well as its preservation over time, compromising the paleoclimatological utility of the proxy. Here we apply a numerical modeling approach to quantitatively investigate the post-depositional processes affecting MSA migration and preservation within the firn and ice column, building on recent observational and theoretical studies. Our model allows us to evaluate the timing and magnitude of the vertical movement of MSA in response to varying influences, including the competing effects of 1) concentration gradients of sea-salts typically deposited asynchronously to MSA, 2) snow accumulation and densification rates, and 3) in situ temperature gradients. We first test the model against a recently collected ice core from a high accumulation site in coastal West Antarctica, where monthly-resolved MSA records show an abrupt shift from a summer-to-winter maximum in MSA at ~23m depth (ρ ≈ 650 kg/m3), near the firn-ice transition. We find our model to be a robust predictor of the observed migrational features in this record, capturing both (i) the abrupt shift in summer-to-winter maximal concentrations of MSA (steady state ≈ 3.2 yrs), and (ii) the depression of the seasonal amplitude at depth. Further, our modeling results suggest post-depositional effects can lead to substantial interannual alteration of the MSA signal, contrary to previous assumptions that MSA migration is confined within annual layers at high accumulation sites. Using a broad range of polar MSA records and their associated, site-specific environmental conditions, we will evaluate the fidelity of subannual to interannual variability of MSA records and systematically determine the factors conducive to its

  12. Multilayer formation and evaporation of deuterated ices in prestellar and protostellar cores

    SciTech Connect

    Taquet, Vianney; Charnley, Steven B.; Sipilä, Olli

    2014-08-10

    Extremely large deuteration of several molecules has been observed toward prestellar cores and low-mass protostars for a decade. New observations performed toward low-mass protostars suggest that water presents a lower deuteration in the warm inner gas than in the cold external envelope. We coupled a gas-grain astrochemical model with a one-dimensional model of a collapsing core to properly follow the formation and the deuteration of interstellar ices as well as their subsequent evaporation in the low-mass protostellar envelopes with the aim of interpreting the spatial and temporal evolutions of their deuteration. The astrochemical model follows the formation and the evaporation of ices with a multilayer approach and also includes a state-of-the-art deuterated chemical network by taking the spin states of H{sub 2} and light ions into account. Because of their slow formation, interstellar ices are chemically heterogeneous and show an increase of their deuterium fractionation toward the surface. The differentiation of the deuteration in ices induces an evolution of the deuteration within protostellar envelopes. The warm inner region is poorly deuterated because it includes the whole molecular content of ices, while the deuteration predicted in the cold external envelope scales with the highly deuterated surface of ices. We are able to reproduce the observed evolution of water deuteration within protostellar envelopes, but we are still unable to predict the super-high deuteration observed for formaldehyde and methanol. Finally, the extension of this study to the deuteration of complex organics, important for the prebiotic chemistry, shows good agreement with the observations, suggesting that we can use the deuteration to retrace their mechanisms and their moments of formation.

  13. A modified extraction technique for liberating occluded gases from ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowers, Todd; Jubenville, Jennifer

    2000-12-01

    We have developed a new dry extraction technique to extract air from large pieces of glacial ice. The primary reason for developing this technique was to be able to perform a single extraction and measure a single sample of air from an ice core sample for as many atmospheric constituents as possible. The procedure is modeled after the dry extraction -"cheese grater" design of Etheridge et al. [1988]. Extracted air samples are analyzed for the elemental and isotopic composition of O2 and N2 as well as the CH4 concentration. Extensive experimental work to determine the integrity of the extraction procedure yielded blank values and external precision which are comparable with exiting extraction procedures. Overall external precision for δO2/N2, δ18O of O2, and δ15of N2 analyses is ±2.1‰, ±0.074‰, and ±0.045‰, respectively. Variable δO2/N2 results from ice which is either completely bubbly or clathrated are in good agreement with previous measurements. Variable δO2/N2 results from Greenland Ice Sheet Project (GISP) II ice samples spanning the clathrate formation region (1000-1500 m) are markedly different from previous results obtained with a "wet" extraction procedure. We attribute the differences to variable δO2/N2 ratios in bubbles and clathrates in the clathrate formation region combined with a 21% difference in our extraction efficiency for bubbly versus clathrated ice. The overall uncertainty and blank value for CH4 measurements are ±19 ppb and 16 ppb, respectively. CH4 concentrations for ice between 115 and 140 meters below the surface (mbs) from the GISPII ice core appear to be 4.3% higher than the average value measured by five other laboratories. We attribute our elevated values to uncertainties in the actual concentration of our working standard and small differences in the CH4 concentration of the liberated air relative to the total air trapped in ice. Our corrected CH4 data spanning the last 25 kyr are indistinguishable from the Brook et al

  14. International effort helps decipher mysteries of paleoclimate from Antarctic ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vostok Project Members

    Ice cores drilled at Vostok Station, Antarctica, and studied over the past 10 years by Russia, France, and the United States (Figure 1) are providing a wealth of information about past climate and environmental changes over more than a full glacial-interglacial cycle. The ice cores show that East Antarctica was colder and drier during glacial periods than during the Holocene and that large-scale atmospheric circulation was more vigorous during glacial times. They also support evidence from deep-sea sediment studies favoring orbital forcing of Pleistocene climate, reveal direct correlations of carbon dioxide and methane concentrations with temperature, and indicate how the accumulation of trace compounds have changed through time.

  15. Continuous and discrete measurements of atmospheric methane from an ice core from Roosevelt Island, East Ross Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, James; Brook, Ed; Blunier, Thomas; Paul, Vallelonga; Bertler, Nancy

    2014-05-01

    A new ice core from Roosevelt Island was drilled for the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) project to establish the history of deglaciation of the Ross Sea through the Holocene. Evidence of glacial retreat in the Ross Sea Embayment shows that deglaciation happened in several stages of rapid collapse and persisted well after the melting of the Northern Hemisphere ice sheets was complete. The ice rise on Roosevelt Island records the timing of the last leap when the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) receded past Roosevelt Island. In order to discern the timing of deglaciation, a precise age-depth relationship is required for the RICE ice core. We present a timescale for Roosevelt Island using mixing ratios of methane in air preserved within the ice core measured continuously with a Picarro laser spectrometer as well as in high-resolution with gas chromatography (GC). Discrete data from GC analysis over the top 400m of core replicate both the magnitude and variations from other high-resolution ice core records from WAIS Divide, Law Dome, GISP2 and NEEM S1. Both the continuous and discrete methane records of the RICE core were matched to these established records and provide an accurate and consistent depth-age relationship for the past 3.6kyr. Future work on the 400-750m depth section is expected to extend the RICE chronology to at least the Last Glacial Maximum.

  16. 10Be evidence for the Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic reversal in the EPICA Dome C ice core.

    PubMed

    Raisbeck, G M; Yiou, F; Cattani, O; Jouzel, J

    2006-11-01

    An ice core drilled at Dome C, Antarctica, is the oldest ice core so far retrieved. On the basis of ice flow modelling and a comparison between the deuterium signal in the ice with climate records from marine sediment cores, the ice at a depth of 3,190 m in the Dome C core is believed to have been deposited around 800,000 years ago, offering a rare opportunity to study climatic and environmental conditions over this time period. However, an independent determination of this age is important because the deuterium profile below a depth of 3,190 m depth does not show the expected correlation with the marine record. Here we present evidence for enhanced 10Be deposition in the ice at 3,160-3,170 m, which we interpret as a result of the low dipole field strength during the Matuyama-Brunhes geomagnetic reversal, which occurred about 780,000 years ago. If correct, this provides a crucial tie point between ice cores, marine cores and a radiometric timescale. PMID:17080088

  17. A simple parameterisation of melting near the grounding lines of ice shelves and tidewater glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, A.

    2012-04-01

    Both the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets are experiencing rapid change, at least in part as a result of acceleration of some of their larger, marine-terminating outlet glaciers. It is generally assumed that the accelerations have been driven by the ocean, probably through changes in the submarine melt rate. However, the processes that drive melting, particularly in the region close to the grounding line are difficult to observer and quantify. The rapid flow of the outlet glaciers is almost always associated with an active sub-glacial hydrological system, so in the key regions where the glaciers either discharge into ice shelves or terminate in fjords there will be a flow of freshwater draining across the grounding line from the glacier bed. The input of freshwater to the ocean provides a source of buoyancy and drives convective motion alongside the ice-ocean interface. This process is modelled using the theory of buoyant plumes that has previously been applied to the study of the larger-scale circulation beneath ice shelves. The plume grows through entrainment of ocean waters, and the heat brought into the plume as a result drives melting at the ice-ocean interface. The equations are non-dimensionalised using scales appropriate for the region where the sub-glacial drainage, rather than the subsequent addition of meltwater, supplies the majority of the buoyancy forcing. It is found that the melt rate within this region can be approximated reasonably well by a simple expression that is linear in ocean temperature, has a cube root dependence on the flux of sub-glacial meltwater, and a more complex dependency on the slope of the ice-ocean interface. The model is used to investigate variability in melting induced by changes in both ocean temperature and sub-glacial discharge for a number of realistic examples of ice shelves and tidewater glaciers. The results show how warming ocean waters and increasing sub-glacial drainage both generate increases in melting near the

  18. Effects of sudden mixing in the solar core on solar neutrinos and ice ages.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ezer, D.; Cameron, A. G. W.

    1972-01-01

    Some numerical experiments with a solar model have been conducted in connection with the hypothesis regarding the effects of mixing in the solar core. Questions concerning a plausible mechanism by which such a mixing could be produced are explored. The variation of solar luminosity throughout the numerical experiments is shown. In connection with a great change in luminosity after a second mixing, it is suggested that the earth is presently undergoing an ice age.

  19. Denali Ice Core Record of North Pacific Sea Surface Temperatures and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polashenski, D.; Osterberg, E. C.; Winski, D.; Ferris, D. G.; Kreutz, K. J.; Wake, C. P.; Introne, D.

    2015-12-01

    Ice cores collected from high elevation alpine glaciers in the Alaska Range provide a unique opportunity to investigate changes in the regional climate of southern Alaska and the north Pacific over the past millennium. In this study, we seek to investigate changes in sea surface temperature (SST) in the north-central Pacific Ocean using the deuterium excess (d-excess) record from the Mt. Hunter ice cores collected in Denali National Park, Alaska. A collaborative research team from Dartmouth College and the Universities of Maine and New Hampshire collected two parallel ice cores to bedrock (208 m long) in May-June 2013 from the Mt. Hunter summit plateau (63º N, 151º W, 4,000 m above sea level). The cores were melted on a continuous melter system in the Dartmouth ice core lab and then analyzed for concentrations of major ions and trace elements, as well as stable water isotope ratios. The depth-age scale of the cores was determined using annual layer counting of δ18O and the concentrations of Mg, NH4, and Methanesulfonic acid (MSA) obtained by ion chromatography. The depth-age scale was validated using large, well-dated volcanic eruptions and the spike in 137Cs concentrations associated with nuclear weapons testing in 1963. Preliminary analyses indicate that the full record spans the past millennium. Analysis of the isotope data set extending back to 1938 using reanalysis data shows a positive correlation (p<0.05) between d-excess at the core site and the north-central Pacific SST. The north-central Pacific region of positive SST-d-excess correlation occurs at one node of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and thus the Denali cores are sensitive to PDO variability with low (high) d-excess associated with positive (negative) PDO index values. We also note a significant (p<0.05) declining trend in d-excess from 1938-2012, which we hypothesize to represent a rising proportion of Arctic moisture sources influencing Denali as Arctic temperatures and evaporation

  20. High permafrost ice contents in Holocene slope deposits as observed from shallow geophysics and a coring program in Pangnirtung, Nunavut, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbonneau, A.; Allard, M.; L'Hérault, E.; LeBlanc, A.

    2011-12-01

    A study of permafrost conditions was undertaken in the Hamlet of Pangnirtung, Nunavut, by the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) and Université Laval's Centre d'études nordiques (CEN) to support decision makers in their community planning work. The methods used for this project were based on geophysical and geomorphological approaches, including permafrost cores drilled in surficial deposits and ground penetrating radar surveys using a GPR Pulse EKKO 100 extending to the complete community area and to its projected expansion sector. Laboratory analysis allowed a detailed characterization of permafrost in terms of water contents, salinity and grain size. Cryostratigraphic analysis was done via CT-Scan imagery of frozen cores using medical imaging softwares such as Osiris. This non destructive method allows a 3D imaging of the entire core in order to locate the amount of the excess ice, determine the volumetric ice content and also interpret the ice-formation processes that took place during freezing of the permafrost. Our new map of the permafrost conditions in Pangnirtung illustrates that the dominant mapping unit consist of ice-rich colluvial deposits. Aggradationnal ice formed syngenitically with slope sedimentation. Buried soils were found imbedded in this colluvial layer and demonstrates that colluviation associated with overland-flow during snowmelt occurred almost continuously since 7080 cal. BP. In the eastern sector of town, the 1 to 4 meters thick colluviums cover till and a network of ice wedges that were revealed as spaced hyperbolic reflectors on GPR profiles. The colluviums also cover ice-rich marine silt and bedrock in the western sector of the hamlet; marine shells found in a permafrost core yielded a radiocarbon date of 9553 cal. BP which provides a revised age for the local deglaciation and also a revised marine submergence limit. Among the applied methods, shallow drilling in coarse grained permafrost, core recovery and CT-Scan allowed the

  1. 9,400 years of cosmic radiation and solar activity from ice cores and tree rings

    PubMed Central

    Steinhilber, Friedhelm; Beer, Jürg; Brunner, Irene; Christl, Marcus; Fischer, Hubertus; Heikkilä, Ulla; Kubik, Peter W.; Mann, Mathias; McCracken, Ken G.; Miller, Heinrich; Miyahara, Hiroko; Oerter, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the temporal variation of cosmic radiation and solar activity during the Holocene is essential for studies of the solar-terrestrial relationship. Cosmic-ray produced radionuclides, such as 10Be and 14C which are stored in polar ice cores and tree rings, offer the unique opportunity to reconstruct the history of cosmic radiation and solar activity over many millennia. Although records from different archives basically agree, they also show some deviations during certain periods. So far most reconstructions were based on only one single radionuclide record, which makes detection and correction of these deviations impossible. Here we combine different 10Be ice core records from Greenland and Antarctica with the global 14C tree ring record using principal component analysis. This approach is only possible due to a new high-resolution 10Be record from Dronning Maud Land obtained within the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica in Antarctica. The new cosmic radiation record enables us to derive total solar irradiance, which is then used as a proxy of solar activity to identify the solar imprint in an Asian climate record. Though generally the agreement between solar forcing and Asian climate is good, there are also periods without any coherence, pointing to other forcings like volcanoes and greenhouse gases and their corresponding feedbacks. The newly derived records have the potential to improve our understanding of the solar dynamics and to quantify the solar influence on climate. PMID:22474348

  2. New mineral dust record from the TALDICE ice core (East Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, V.; Delmonte, B.; Albani, S.; Mazzola, C.

    2010-12-01

    Aeolian mineral dust is an active component of the climate system, interacting both directly and indirectly with radiation and biogeochemistry. Its deposition and stratigraphical preservation in appropriate environmental setting leaves deposits that once dated can be used as paleoclimate proxies. In particular dust records from ice cores can provide insights into past variations of environmental conditions at the dust source areas, atmospheric circulation, the hydrological cycle at source and deposition sites and dust deposition mechanisms. Here we present the new dust record from the 1620 m deep TALDICE ice core, drilled at Talos Dome (159°11' E, 72°49' S, 2315 m A.S.L.), on the edge of the East Antarctic plateau, about 290 km from the Southern Ocean and 250 km from the Ross Sea. We analysed variations in dust concentration, depositional flux, size distributions and geochemical fingerprint. The TALDICE dust records confirms the major findings from previous ice core studies in terms of the big glacial/interglacial variations in dust deposition, thanks to the relatively high accumulation rate and good dating. We also show new peculiar aspects emerging for this record, such as the importance of Antarctic sources for dust for this peripheral sites and the relation between variations in dust deposition during the deglaciation and the Holocene to variations in the atmospheric circulation in the Ross Sea.

  3. 9,400 years of cosmic radiation and solar activity from ice cores and tree rings.

    PubMed

    Steinhilber, Friedhelm; Abreu, Jose A; Beer, Jürg; Brunner, Irene; Christl, Marcus; Fischer, Hubertus; Heikkilä, Ulla; Kubik, Peter W; Mann, Mathias; McCracken, Ken G; Miller, Heinrich; Miyahara, Hiroko; Oerter, Hans; Wilhelms, Frank

    2012-04-17

    Understanding the temporal variation of cosmic radiation and solar activity during the Holocene is essential for studies of the solar-terrestrial relationship. Cosmic-ray produced radionuclides, such as (10)Be and (14)C which are stored in polar ice cores and tree rings, offer the unique opportunity to reconstruct the history of cosmic radiation and solar activity over many millennia. Although records from different archives basically agree, they also show some deviations during certain periods. So far most reconstructions were based on only one single radionuclide record, which makes detection and correction of these deviations impossible. Here we combine different (10)Be ice core records from Greenland and Antarctica with the global (14)C tree ring record using principal component analysis. This approach is only possible due to a new high-resolution (10)Be record from Dronning Maud Land obtained within the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica in Antarctica. The new cosmic radiation record enables us to derive total solar irradiance, which is then used as a proxy of solar activity to identify the solar imprint in an Asian climate record. Though generally the agreement between solar forcing and Asian climate is good, there are also periods without any coherence, pointing to other forcings like volcanoes and greenhouse gases and their corresponding feedbacks. The newly derived records have the potential to improve our understanding of the solar dynamics and to quantify the solar influence on climate.

  4. Significant recent warming over the northern Tibetan Plateau from ice core δ18O records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, W.; Hou, S.; Zhang, W.; Wang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Wu, S.; Pang, H.

    2016-02-01

    Stable oxygen isotopic records in ice cores provide valuable information about past temperature, especially for regions with scarce instrumental measurements. This paper presents the δ18O result of an ice core drilled to bedrock from Mt. Zangser Kangri (ZK), a remote area on the northern Tibetan Plateau (TP). We reconstructed the temperature series for 1951-2008 from the δ18O records. In addition, we combined the ZK δ18O records with those from three other ice cores in the northern TP (Muztagata, Puruogangri, and Geladaindong) to reconstruct a regional temperature history for the period 1951-2002 (RTNTP). The RTNTP showed significant warming at 0.51 ± 0.07 °C (10 yr)-1 since 1970, a higher rate than the trend of instrumental records of the northern TP (0.43 ± 0.08 °C (10 yr)-1) and the global temperature trend (0.27 ± 0.03°C (10 yr)-1) at the same time. In addition, the ZK temperature record, with extra length until 2008, seems to suggest that the rapid elevation-dependent warming continued for this region during the last decade, when the mean global temperature showed very little change. This could provide insights into the behavior of the recent warming hiatus at higher elevations, where instrumental climate records are lacking.

  5. Continuous flow analysis method for determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus in ice cores.

    PubMed

    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Vallelonga, Paul; Svensson, Anders; Kristensen, Magnus Elleskov L; Tibuleac, Catalin; Bigler, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for all living organisms. Phosphorus is often present in nature as the soluble phosphate ion PO4(3-) and has biological, terrestrial, and marine emission sources. Thus PO4(3-) detected in ice cores has the potential to be an important tracer for biological activity in the past. In this study a continuous and highly sensitive absorption method for detection of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in ice cores has been developed using a molybdate reagent and a 2-m liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC). DRP is the soluble form of the nutrient phosphorus, which reacts with molybdate. The method was optimized to meet the low concentrations of DRP in Greenland ice, with a depth resolution of approximately 2 cm and an analytical uncertainty of 1.1 nM (0.1 ppb) PO4(3-). The method has been applied to segments of a shallow firn core from Northeast Greenland, indicating a mean concentration level of 2.74 nM (0.26 ppb) PO4(3-) for the period 1930-2005 with a standard deviation of 1.37 nM (0.13 ppb) PO4(3-) and values reaching as high as 10.52 nM (1 ppb) PO4(3-). Similar levels were detected for the period 1771-1823. Based on impurity abundances, dust and biogenic particles were found to be the most likely sources of DRP deposited in Northeast Greenland.

  6. Integration of geophysical, ground surface, and remote sensing methods to identify ice features in discontinuous permafrost near Fairbanks, Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, T. A.; Bjella, K.; Hiemstra, C. A.; Newman, S. D.; Anderson, J.; Edwards, J.; Arcone, S. A.; Wagner, A. M.; Barbato, R.; Berkowitz, J.; Deeb, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    Ground ice features such as ice wedges, segregation ice, and thermokarst cave ice are present in the subsurface in a variety of spatial scales and patterns. Accurately identifying the character and extent of these ice features in permafrost terrains allows engineers and planners to cost effectively create innovative infrastructure designs to withstand the changing environment. We are assembling a holistic view of how a variety of surficial and standoff geophysical measurements can be combined with classic ground based measurements to delineate subsurface permafrost features. We are combining horizontal geophysical measurements; borehole mapping; multispectral and radar remote sensing; airborne and ground-based LiDAR; snow, soil, and vegetation mapping; and subsurface thermal measurements and modeling at three field sites in discontinuous permafrost of Interior Alaska. Our sites cross transects representing upland and lowland permafrost and a variety of soil and vegetation compositions. With our measurements we identified and mapped a 300 meter wide swath of ice rich frozen peat at one of our lowland field sites. The high ice content was confirmed with borehole measurements. This ice rich permafrost region yields higher electrical resistivity values than the nearby permafrost and is associated with anomalously low seasonal thaw depths compared to other sites nearby. Surface soils in the ice rich region have high soil moisture contents, low redox potential (30-100 mV), and elevated soil microbial activity. The ice rice region yields low phase changes from paired interferometric synthetic aperture radar measurements collected in late spring and late summer. One interpretation of this result is that the ice rich area experiences minimal summer season subsidence. Taken in total, our results suggest the ice rich peat region has distinct surface signatures and subsurface geophysical characteristics that may be extrapolated to other areas to identify ice rich permafrost in

  7. Ground penetrating radar survey of the ice-filled active crater of Mount Baker, Washington

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, M.; Clark, D. H.; Caplan-Auerbach, J.

    2010-12-01

    Sherman Crater, the center of volcanic activity at Mount Baker, in northwest Washington, provides an excellent site to study glacier dynamics in an active crater because of its history of sudden, significant increases in geothermal activity, its confined geometry, the potential hazards it poses to downstream reservoirs, and the paucity of recent research related to these hazards. We present results from a ground penetrating radar (GPR) survey of the crater conducted in the summers of 2009 and 2010, including characterization of the subglacial crater morphology, estimates for the crater glacier’s volume, maximum depth, annual mass balance and surface velocity and for the crater’s geothermal flux density. We used a GSSI SIR-3000 GPR system and a low frequency (80 MHz) antenna in common-offset (reflection) collection mode to image subglacial conditions along several west-east and south-north transects within the crater. We processed the GPR data with GSSI’s RADAN 6.0 and paired the surface elevations of each transect to the ice-surface topography using GPS locations and spot altimeter readings. GPR profiles reveal several sets of distinct basal and englacial reflectors. Along west-east (longitudinal) transects, the crater’s bedrock topography largely follows the glacier’s surface (high to the west, descending to the east), but the ice thins dramatically along the margin nearest the crater rim’s eastern breach. The prominent basal reflectors in the GPR transects are consistent with an ice/hydrothermally altered rock interface, but short more well-defined segments suggest the presence of bedrock (towards the center of the crater) and water (near the eastern breach) at the base of the ice. GPR data combined with surface ice melting measurements yield a first-order estimate for the area-averaged accumulation rate of 4.8 +/- 0.1 m yr-1 and ablation rate of 2.4 +/- 0.3 m yr-1 water equivalent from surface melting. The resulting calculated geothermal flux for

  8. Ice thickness profile surveying with ground penetrating radar at Artesonraju Glacier, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisolm, Rachel; Rabatel, Antoine; McKinney, Daene; Condom, Thomas; Cochacin, Alejo; Davila Roller, Luzmilla

    2014-05-01

    Tropical glaciers are an essential component of the water resource systems in the mountainous regions where they are located, and a warming climate has resulted in the accelerated retreat of Andean glaciers in recent decades. The shrinkage of Andean glaciers influences the flood risk for communities living downstream as new glacial lakes have begun to form at the termini of some glaciers. As these lakes continue to grow in area and volume, they pose an increasing risk of glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). Ice thickness measurements have been a key missing link in studying the tropical glaciers in Peru and how climate change is likely to impact glacial melt and the growth of glacial lakes. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) has rarely been applied to glaciers in Peru to measure ice thickness, and these measurements can tell us a lot about how a warming climate will affect glaciers in terms of thickness changes. In the upper Paron Valley (Cordillera Blanca, Peru), an emerging lake has begun to form at the terminus of the Artesonraju Glacier, and this lake has key features, including overhanging ice and loose rock likely to create slides, that could trigger a catastrophic GLOF if the lake continues to grow. Because the glacier mass balance and lake mass balance are closely linked, ice thickness measurements and measurements of the bed slope of the Artesonraju Glacier and underlying bedrock can give us an idea of how the lake is likely to evolve in the coming decades. This study presents GPR data taken in July 2013 at the Artesonraju Glacier as part of a collaboration between the Unidad de Glaciologia y Recursos Hidricos (UGRH) of Peru, the Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD) of France and the University of Texas at Austin (UT) of the United States of America. Two different GPR units belonging to UGRH and UT were used for subsurface imaging to create ice thickness profiles and to characterize the total volume of ice in the glacier. A common midpoint

  9. A new direction for Antarctic ice cores: reconstructing Pacific decadal variability and Australian drought history from the Law Dome ice core.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Tessa; Roberts, Jason; Plummer, Chris; Kiem, Anthony; van Ommen, Tas

    2015-04-01

    Decadal scale SST oscillations in the Pacific significantly influence rainfall variability and drought risk across and beyond the Pacific region. Understanding long-term decadal SST behavior in the Pacific is necessary to assess past and future climate, particularly drought risk. However, short instrumental records through much of the Pacific region, in particular the South Pacific, make such assessments difficult. A new reconstruction of Pacific decadal variability covering the last millennium has been produced from the Law Dome ice core, a high snow accumulation site in East Antarctica. The Law Dome ice core samples (at sub-annual resolution) a broad mid-latitude swathe of the Indian and South West Pacific region. This region exhibits wind speed and direction anomalies that are coherent with the phase of the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation (IPO), an index measuring the decadal-scale Pacific SST state. This is the first millennial length IPO reconstruction and is based on the annual accumulation (snowfall) and sub-annual sea salt (wind proxy) records from Law Dome. To demonstrate the versatility of this new IPO reconstruction, we used it to explore drought history in eastern Australia, a region where drought risk is elevated during IPO positive phases. To do this, we super-imposed the 1000 year IPO reconstruction on a Law Dome proxy for eastern Australian rainfall (previously shown to represent rainfall with high significance during IPO positive phases (r =0.406-0.677, p <0.0001-0.01). Eight 'mega-droughts' (dry periods >5 years duration) were identified over the last millennium. Six mega-droughts occurred between AD 1000-1320 including one 39 y drought (AD 1174-1212). Water resources and infrastructure planning in Australia has been based on very limited statistical certainty around drought risk due to the short (~100 year) instrumental record and lack of rainfall proxies. This study shows that, similar to SW North America, Australia also experienced mega

  10. Impact of climate fluctuations on deposition of DDT and hexachlorocyclohexane in mountain glaciers: evidence from ice core records.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoping; Gong, Ping; Zhang, Qianggong; Yao, Tandong

    2010-02-01

    How do climate fluctuations affect DDT and hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) distribution in the global scale? In this study, the interactions between climate variations and depositions of DDT and HCH in ice cores from Mt. Everest (the Tibetan Plateau), Mt. Muztagata (the eastern Pamirs) and the Rocky Mountains were investigated. All data regarding DDT/HCH deposition were obtained from the published results. Concentrations of DDT and HCH in an ice core from Mt. Everest were associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation. Concentrations of DDT in an ice core from Mt. Muztagata were significantly correlated with the Siberia High pattern. Concentrations of HCH in an ice core from Snow Dome of the Rocky Mountains responded to the North Atlantic Oscillation. These associations suggested that there are some linkages between climate variations and the global distribution of persistent organic pollutants.

  11. Comparative evaluation of the indigenous microbial diversity vs. drilling fluid contaminants in the NEEM Greenland ice core.

    PubMed

    Miteva, Vanya; Burlingame, Caroline; Sowers, Todd; Brenchley, Jean

    2014-08-01

    Demonstrating that the detected microbial diversity in nonaseptically drilled deep ice cores is truly indigenous is challenging because of potential contamination with exogenous microbial cells. The NEEM Greenland ice core project provided a first-time opportunity to determine the origin and extent of contamination throughout drilling. We performed multiple parallel cultivation and culture-independent analyses of five decontaminated ice core samples from different depths (100-2051 m), the drilling fluid and its components Estisol and Coasol, and the drilling chips collected during drilling. We created a collection of diverse bacterial and fungal isolates (84 from the drilling fluid and its components, 45 from decontaminated ice, and 66 from drilling chips). Their categorization as contaminants or intrinsic glacial ice microorganisms was based on several criteria, including phylogenetic analyses, genomic fingerprinting, phenotypic characteristics, and presence in drilling fluid, chips, and/or ice. Firmicutes and fungi comprised the dominant group of contaminants among isolates and cloned rRNA genes. Conversely, most Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria originating from the ice were identified as intrinsic. This study provides a database of potential contaminants useful for future studies of NEEM cores and can contribute toward developing standardized protocols for contamination detection and ensuring the authenticity of the microbial diversity in deep glacial ice.

  12. Reconciling radiocarbon and ice core timescales over the Holocene - Cosmogenic radionuclides as synchronization tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muscheler, R.; Adolphi, F.; Mekhaldi, F.

    2015-12-01

    The atmospheric production rates of cosmogenic radionuclides, such as 14C and 10Be, vary globally due to external processes, namely the solar and geomagnetic modulation of the galactic cosmic ray flux as well as solar proton events. This signature is recorded in various archives such as ice cores (10Be) and tree-rings (14C). Hence, cosmogenic radionuclides offer a means to continuously assess timescale differences between two of the most widely used timescales in paleoclimatology - the radiocarbon and the ice core timescales. Short lived solar proton events additionally provide distinct marker horizons that allow synchronization of discrete horizons at annual precision. We will present a cosmogenic radionuclide based synchronization of the Greenland ice core timescale (GICC05, Svensson et al., 2008) and the radiocarbon timescale (IntCal13, Reimer et al., 2013) over the Holocene. This synchronization allows radiocarbon dated and ice core paleoclimate records to be compared on a common timescale at down to sub-decadal precision. We will compare these results to independent discrete isochrones obtained from tephrochronology and solar proton events. In addition, we will discuss implications for the accuracy and uncertainty estimates of GICC05 over the Holocene. Reimer, P. J., Bard, E., Bayliss, A., Beck, J. W., Blackwell, P. G., Bronk Ramsey, C., Buck, C. E., Cheng, H., Edwards, R. L., Friedrich, M., Grootes, P. M., Guilderson, T. P., Haflidason, H., Hajdas, I., Hatté, C., Heaton, T. J., Hoffmann, D. L., Hogg, A. G., Hughen, K. A., Kaiser, K. F., Kromer, B., Manning, S. W., Niu, M., Reimer, R. W., Richards, D. A., Scott, E. M., Southon, J. R., Staff, R. A., Turney, C. S. M., and van der Plicht, J.: IntCal13 and Marine13 Radiocarbon Age Calibration Curves 0-50,000 Years cal BP, Radiocarbon, 55, 1869-1887, 10.2458/azu_js_rc.55.16947, 2013. Svensson, A., Andersen, K. K., Bigler, M., Clausen, H. B., Dahl-Jensen, D., Davies, S. M., Johnsen, S. J., Muscheler, R., Parrenin

  13. Ice core from Akademii Nauk ice cap, Severnaya Zemlya (Russian Arctic), dated with a Nye model modified for a growing glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, Diedrich; Opel, Thomas; Meyer, Hanno

    2010-05-01

    From 1999 to 2001 a 724 m deep ice core has been drilled from surface to bedrock close to summit of the Akademii Nauk ice cap, Severnaya Zemlya (Russian Arctic), within a joint German-Russian project. The analysis of stable water isotopes and major ion concentration in high resolution were used for reconstruction of past climate and environmental changes. The upper 304 m of the core were dated by counting annual stable isotope cycles considering radioactive (1986, 1963) and volcanic events (1956, 1912, 1783, 1259) as reference horizons. The resulting depth-age relationship and the corresponding annual-layer thickness imply that the ice cap was not in dynamic steady state but had been growing until recent times. That does not comply with requirements of a standard Nye or Dansgaard-Johnson flow model approach. To take into account the peculiarities of Akademii Nauk ice cap a Nye model was modified by adding a growing term according to the found relationship between annual layer thickness and depth. Using the volcanoes identified an average increase of altitude of about 0.08 m w.e. per year was calculated since AD 1259. The model enables us to reconstruct the altitude changes of the ice cap with time and to consider an altitude effect to correct the stable isotope values and to explain decreasing sea-salt ion data. Using the suggested model annual layer thickness can be decompressed to accumulation rates at the altitude where the precipitation was originally deposited. The model can also be used for dating deeper parts of ice core where volcanoes are not identified up to now. Applying this model, the ice core has an age of about 2 500 years, much less than claimed for an older core from Akademii Nauk ice cap. Consequently, the ice cap is much younger and only of Late Holocene age, as also assumed for most Arctic ice caps and glaciers outside Greenland. However, the lowest part of Akademii Nauk ice cap is probably a remnant of an older ice cap stage.

  14. Midlatitude Ice-Rich Ground on Mars: An Important Target for Science and In Situ Resource Utilization on Human Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoker, Carol; Heldmann, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    The region of ROI is characterized by proven presence of near surface ground ice and numerous periglacial features. Midlatitude ground ice on Mars is of significant scientific interest for understanding the history and evolution of ice stability on Mars, the impact that changes in insolation produced by variations in Mars’ orbital parameters has on the regions climate, and could provide human exploration with a reliable and plentiful in situ resource. For both science and exploration, assessing the astrobiological potential of the ice is important in terms of (1) understanding the potential for life on Mars and (2) evaluating the presence of possible biohazards in advance of human exploration. Heldmann et al. (2014) studied locations on Mars in the Amazonis Planitia region where near surface ground ice was exposed by new impact craters (Byrne et al. 2009). The study examined whether sites in this region were suitable for human exploration including reviewing the evidence for midlatitude ground ice, discussing the possible explanations for its occurrence, assessing its potential habitability for modern life, and evaluating the resource potential. They systematically analyzed remote-sensing data sets to identify a viable landing site. Five sites where ground ice was exposed were examined with HiRise imaging and were classified according to (1) presence of polygons as a proxy for subsurface ice, (2) presence and abundance of rough topographic obstacles (e.g., large cracks, cliffs, uneven topography), (3) rock density, (4) presence and abundance of large boulders, and (5) presence of craters. A suitable landing site was found having ground ice at only 0.15m depth, and no landing site hazards within a 25 km landing ellipse. This paper presents results of that study and examines the relevance of this ROI to the workshop goals.

  15. Application of ground-penetrating radar imagery for three-dimensional visualisation of near-surface structures in ice-rich permafrost, Barrow, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munroe, J.S.; Doolittle, J.A.; Kanevskiy, M.Z.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Nelson, F.E.; Jones, Benjamin M.; Shur, Y.; Kimble, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    Three-dimensional ground-penetrating radar (3D GPR) was used to investigate the subsurface structure of ice-wedge polygons and other features of the frozen active layer and near-surface permafrost near Barrow, Alaska. Surveys were conducted at three sites located on landscapes of different geomorphic age. At each site, sediment cores were collected and characterised to aid interpretation of GPR data. At two sites, 3D GPR was able to delineate subsurface ice-wedge networks with high fidelity. Three-dimensional GPR data also revealed a fundamental difference in ice-wedge morphology between these two sites that is consistent with differences in landscape age. At a third site, the combination of two-dimensional and 3D GPR revealed the location of an active frost boil with ataxitic cryostructure. When supplemented by analysis of soil cores, 3D GPR offers considerable potential for imaging, interpreting and 3D mapping of near-surface soil and ice structures in permafrost environments.

  16. A Record of Rising 20th Century Snow Accumulation from the Denali Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterberg, E. C.; Winski, D.; Ferris, D. G.; Wake, C. P.; Kreutz, K. J.; Campbell, S.

    2015-12-01

    Snow accumulation records derived from ice cores are one of the only direct archives of precipitation changes that extend prior to the instrumental period. In Alaska, the development of centennial scale precipitation records is needed to contextualize the current rapid changes in precipitation and glacial mass balance occurring along the North Pacific margin. Here, we investigate precipitation changes over the last three centuries using an ice core collected to bedrock from Mt. Hunter (63° N, 151° W, 4,000 meters above sea level) in Denali National Park, Alaska. To develop the snow accumulation record, we calculated water equivalent annual layer thicknesses in the ice core by identification of annual peaks in major ions (MSA, Cl-, NO3-, SO42-, Na+, NH4+, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+) and water isotopes. We then corrected the annual layer thickness for thinning using three different flow models (Nye, Hooke and Dansgaard-Johnsen) that have been widely used to simulate layer thickness with depth near an ice divide. Each of these models is optimized such that the discrepancy between the annual layer counted age scale and the modeled age scale is minimized. Our results show that water equivalent annual accumulation has increased from 1.43 meters in 1900 to 2.03 meters by 2012, an increase of 42%. The Mt. Hunter accumulation record is regionally representative of precipitation in southwest and central Alaska based on strong correlations with reanalysis precipitation data. Comparisons with ERA-Interim reanalysis data show that years of high accumulation on Denali are associated with stronger southerly winds, warmer sea surface and air temperatures, and pressure anomalies resembling a positive phase of the East Pacific-North Pacific Pattern. Together, this analysis shows that precipitation on Mt. Hunter has a strong positive correlation (R2=0.73) with annual average meridional wind strength in southwestern Alaska, which is related to atmospheric pressure gradients between the

  17. Snow precipitation at four ice core sites in East Antarctica: provenance, seasonality and blocking factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarchilli, Claudio; Frezzotti, Massimo; Ruti, Paolo Michele

    2011-11-01

    Snow precipitation is the primary mass input to the Antarctic ice sheet and is one of the most direct climatic indicators, with important implications for paleoclimatic reconstruction from ice cores. Provenance of precipitation and the dynamic conditions that force these precipitation events at four deep ice core sites (Dome C, Law Dome, Talos Dome, and Taylor Dome) in East Antarctica were analysed with air mass back trajectories calculated using the Lagrangian model and the mean composite data for precipitation, geopotential height and wind speed field data from the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecast from 1980 to 2001. On an annual basis, back trajectories showed that the Atlantic-Indian and Ross-Pacific Oceans were the main provenances of precipitation in Wilkes Land (80%) and Victoria Land (40%), respectively, whereas the greatest influence of the ice sheet was on the interior near the Vostok site (80%) and in the Southwest Ross Sea (50%), an effect that decreased towards the coast and along the Antarctic slope. Victoria Land received snowfall atypically with respect to other Antarctica areas in terms of pathway (eastern instead of western), seasonality (summer instead of winter) and velocity (old air age). Geopotential height patterns at 500 hPa at low (>10 days) and high (2-6 days) frequencies during snowfall cycles at two core sites showed large positive anomalies at low frequencies developing in the Tasman Sea-Eastern Indian Ocean at higher latitudes (60-70°S) than normal. This could be considered part of an atmospheric blocking event, with transient eddies acting to decelerate westerlies in a split region area and accelerate the flow on the flanks of the low-frequency positive anomalies.

  18. Temperature reconstruction for the Tibetan Plateau in the past 2ka years from ice cores and human documentary record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X.

    2011-12-01

    Temperature variation in the past 2000 years on the plateau is reconstructed from Puruogangri ice core d18O, and compared before compositing with other three ice core records as the Dunde ice core (northeast Plateau), Guliya ice core (northwest Plateau) and Dasuopu ice core (south Plateau). The comparison reveals the synchroneity of large-scale climate events, and the composition highlights the warming in the 7th century and 12-13th centuries, and the cold in the 19th century. We searched for historical documentary about Tibet since A.D. 620, extracting record of human activities and social development directly determined or indirectly influenced by climate, and categorizing it into five aspects as basic resources, economic development, military strength, national coherence, and cultural and religious development, to quantify Tibetan development till A.D. 1900. Curve based upon the sum of the five aspects shows Tibetan national strength variation in the past 2000 years. The composited ice core record and Tibetan national strength variation shows consistency, especially during the Songtsen Gampo reign, medieval warm period and the 19th century cold period, thus suggesting the dominative role of climate change in Tibetan civilization before modern ages, as well as proposing the potential application of historical record in paleoclimate reconstruction on the Tibetan Plateau.

  19. Sharing Common Ground: Texas and the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasinda, Sheri; Grote-Garcia, Stephanie; Durham, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    When browsing through professional catalogs or attending national conferences, one cannot help but notice the growing emphasis on the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). So, what does this mean for Texas teachers? As part of a special four-part series in our Texas Journal of Literacy Education, a special task force from the TALE Board will share…

  20. McCall Glacier record of Arctic climate change: Interpreting a northern Alaska ice core with regional water isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, E. S.; Nolan, M.; McConnell, J.; Sigl, M.; Cherry, J.; Young, J.; Welker, J. M.

    2016-01-01

    We explored modern precipitation and ice core isotope ratios to better understand both modern and paleo climate in the Arctic. Paleoclimate reconstructions require an understanding of how modern synoptic climate influences proxies used in those reconstructions, such as water isotopes. Therefore we measured periodic precipitation samples at Toolik Lake Field Station (Toolik) in the northern foothills of the Brooks Range in the Alaskan Arctic to determine δ18O and δ2H. We applied this multi-decadal local precipitation δ18O/temperature regression to ∼65 years of McCall Glacier (also in the Brooks Range) ice core isotope measurements and found an increase in reconstructed temperatures over the late-20th and early-21st centuries. We also show that the McCall Glacier δ18O isotope record is negatively correlated with the winter bidecadal North Pacific Index (NPI) climate oscillation. McCall Glacier deuterium excess (d-excess, δ2H - 8*δ18O) values display a bidecadal periodicity coherent with the NPI and suggest shifts from more southwestern Bering Sea moisture sources with less sea ice (lower d-excess values) to more northern Arctic Ocean moisture sources with more sea ice (higher d-excess values). Northern ice covered Arctic Ocean McCall Glacier moisture sources are associated with weak Aleutian Low (AL) circulation patterns and the southern moisture sources with strong AL patterns. Ice core d-excess values significantly decrease over the record, coincident with warmer temperatures and a significant reduction in Alaska sea ice concentration, which suggests that ice free northern ocean waters are increasingly serving as terrestrial precipitation moisture sources; a concept recently proposed by modeling studies and also present in Greenland ice core d-excess values during previous transitions to warm periods. This study also shows the efficacy and importance of using ice cores from Arctic valley glaciers in paleoclimate reconstructions.

  1. An ice core record of net snow accumulation and seasonal snow chemistry at Mt. Waddington, southwest British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neff, P. D.; Steig, E. J.; Clark, D. H.; McConnell, J. R.; Pettit, E. C.; Menounos, B.

    2011-12-01

    We recovered a 141 m ice core from Combatant Col (51.39°N, 125.22°W, 3000 m asl) on the flank of Mt. Waddington, southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia, Canada. Aerosols and other impurities in the ice show unambiguous seasonal variations, allowing for annual dating of the core. Clustered melt layers, originating from summer surface heating, also aid in the dating of the core. Seasonality in water stable isotopes is preserved throughout the record, showing little evidence of diffusion at depth, and serves as an independent verification of the timescale. The annual signal of deuterium excess is especially well preserved. The record of lead deposition in the core agrees with those of ice cores from Mt. Logan and from Greenland, with a sharp drop-off in concentration in the 1970s and early 1980s, further validating the timescales. Despite significant summertime melt at this mid-latitude site, these data collectively reveal a continuous and annually resolved 36-year record of snow accumulation. We derived an accumulation time series from the Mt. Waddington ice core, after correcting for ice flow. Years of anomalously high or low snow accumulation in the core correspond with extremes in precipitation data and geopotential height anomalies from reanalysis data that make physical sense. Specifically, anomalously high accumulation years at Mt. Waddington correlate with years where "Pineapple Express" atmospheric river events bring large amounts of moisture from the tropical Pacific to western North America. The Mt. Waddington accumulation record thus reflects regional-scale climate. These results demonstrate the potential of ice core records from temperate glaciers to provide meaningful paleoclimate information. A longer core to bedrock (250-300 m) at the Mt. Waddington site could yield ice with an age of several hundred to 1000 years.

  2. Spatial heterogeneity of Greenland ice-core dust composition and provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bory, A.; Biscaye, P.; Piotrowski, A.; Steffensen, J. P.

    2003-04-01

    By comparing mineralogical and isotopic (Sr and Nd) composition of mineral dust extracted from Greenland ice-cores and snow deposits with that of fine particles in sediment samples from potential source areas (PSA) for Greenland dust, it has been shown that eastern Asia was the source for central Greenland dust during several intervals of the last Glacial period [Biscaye et al., 1997; Svensson et al., 2000], in two intervals of the Holocene [Svensson, 1998], and through the present day [Bory et al., 2002; Bory et al., in press]. Based on transport patterns, it has often been suggested, however, that North American and African dust could reach the Greenland ice cap. Mosher et al. [1993], for instance, claimed to have identified an African source for a dust event at Dye 3 in southern Greenland. Identifying possible non-Asian dust sources to Greenland is important since it would bear on the large temporal variability of ice-core dust concentration, whose causes remain largely unexplained, as well as on the validation of dust transport models. Determining the degree of spatial heterogeneity of Greenland dust composition, and therefore provenance, can be done by analyzing contemporaneous dust samples in as many locations as possible. Here we report on six samples from six Greenland ice-cores, representing several decades of dust deposition each, all expect one within the 17th and 18th century. The six locations (Dye 3, A8-Crete region, Renland, GRIP, NorthGRIP, Hans Tausen) range from 65-82^oN and 27-43^oW. Variations in tracers composition (mineralogical and isotopic) are apparent, particularly between sites located on top of the ice cap and those located around the periphery, reflecting a distribution with altitude of dust sources and transport patterns to the ice-cap. The lower altitude sites are likely to be influenced by proximal dust sources. These results, however, confirm that long-range dust transport from eastern Asia is the main source of dust deposited on

  3. Global Climate Change: Valuable Insights from Concordant and Discordant Ice Core Histories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosley-Thompson, E.; Thompson, L. G.; Porter, S. E.; Goodwin, B. P.; Wilson, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Earth's ice cover is responding to the ongoing large-scale warming driven in part by anthropogenic forces. The highest tropical and subtropical ice fields are dramatically shrinking and/or thinning and unique climate histories archived therein are now threatened, compromised or lost. Many ice fields in higher latitudes are also experiencing and recording climate system changes although these are often manifested in less evident and spectacular ways. The Antarctic Peninsula (AP) has experienced a rapid, widespread and dramatic warming over the last 60 years. Carefully selected ice fields in the AP allow reconstruction of long histories of key climatic variables. As more proxy climate records are recovered it is clear they reflect a combination of expected and unexpected responses to seemingly similar climate forcings. Recently acquired temperature and precipitation histories from the Bruce Plateau are examined within the context provided by other cores recently collected in the AP. Understanding the differences and similarities among these records provides a better understanding of the forces driving climate variability in the AP over the last century. The Arctic is also rapidly warming. The δ18O records from the Bona-Churchill and Mount Logan ice cores from southeast Alaska and southwest Yukon Territory, respectively, do not record this strong warming. The Aleutian Low strongly influences moisture transport to this geographically complex region, yet its interannual variability is preserved differently in these cores located just 110 km apart. Mount Logan is very sensitive to multi-decadal to multi-centennial climate shifts in the tropical Pacific while low frequency variability on Bona-Churchill is more strongly connected to Western Arctic sea ice extent. There is a natural tendency to focus more strongly on commonalities among records, particularly on regional scales. However, it is also important to investigate seemingly poorly correlated records, particularly

  4. Evidence for recent climate change on Mars from the identification of youthful near-surface ground ice.

    PubMed

    Mustard, J F; Cooper, C D; Rifkin, M K

    2001-07-26

    Ground ice in the crust and soil may be one of the largest reservoirs of water on Mars. Near-surface ground ice is predicted to be stable at latitudes higher than 40 degrees (ref. 4), where a number of geomorphologic features indicative of viscous creep and hence ground ice have been observed. Mid-latitude soils have also been implicated as a water-ice reservoir, the capacity of which is predicted to vary on a 100,000-year timescale owing to orbitally driven variations in climate. It is uncertain, however, whether near-surface ground ice currently exists at these latitudes, and how it is changing with time. Here we report observational evidence for a mid-latitude reservoir of near-surface water ice occupying the pore space of soils. The thickness of the ice-occupied soil reservoir (1-10 m) and its distribution in the 30 degrees to 60 degrees latitude bands indicate a reservoir of (1.5-6.0) x 104 km3, equivalent to a global layer of water 10-40 cm thick. We infer that the reservoir was created during the last phase of high orbital obliquity less than 100,000 years ago, and is now being diminished.

  5. Globally synchronous ice core volcanic tracers and abrupt cooling during the last glacial period

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bay, R.C.; Bramall, N.E.; Price, P.B.; Clow, G.D.; Hawley, R.L.; Udisti, R.; Castellano, E.

    2006-01-01

    We perform a Monte Carlo pattern recognition analysis of the coincidence between three regional volcanic histories from ice coring of Greenland and Antarctica over the period 2 to 45 ka, using SO4 anomalies in Greenland and East Antarctica determined by continuous core chemistry, together with West Antarctic volcanic ash layers determined by remote optical borehole logging and core assays. We find that the Antarctic record of volcanism correlates with Glacial abrupt climate change at a 95% to >99.8% (???3??) significance level and that volcanic depositions at the three locations match at levels exceeding 3??, likely indicating that many common horizons represent single eruptive events which dispersed material world wide. These globally coincident volcanics were associated with abrupt cooling, often simultaneous with onsets or sudden intensifications of millennial cold periods. The striking agreement between sites implies that the consistency of current timescales obtained by isotopic and glaciological dating methods is better than estimated. Copyright 2006 by the American Geogphysical Union.

  6. Volcanic ash layers in the long TALDICE ice core (East Antarctic plateau)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narcisi, B.; Petit, J. R.; Chappellaz, J.; Buiron, D.

    2009-04-01

    The TALDICE (TALos Dome Ice CorE) European project aims to provide a continuous and detailed climatic and environmental record of the last two glacial cycles through the study of a deep ice core from the Antarctic coastal site of Talos Dome (72°49' S, 159°11' E, 2315 m). Drilling was completed in December 2007 at the depth of 1620 m. Tephra studies in the TALDICE record can contribute to solve correlation and dating issues, as well as to provide new insight into the Late Quaternary explosive volcanic history of tephra source regions. A hundred of visible volcanic events have been detected so far during core logging; most likely further tephra layers invisible to the naked eye will be discovered by grain size analysis for continental dust studies. We have characterised 35 tephra layers from the uppermost 1300 m of the TALDICE ice core, spanning the last 70 kyr. Grain size and ash concentration measurements were performed using a Coulter counter set up in a dust-free clean room. Volcanic ash particles were studied under a scanning electron microscope and were characterised for their major element composition with an electron microprobe. Volcanic grains in the studied samples are up to 150 µm large and mainly consist of pristine glass fragments showing various morphologies. The glass geochemical composition is invariably alkaline, indicating provenance from Antarctic within-plate volcanoes. Both coarse particle size and chemical signature of the studied samples strongly suggest that are derived from vents of the McMurdo volcanic province, located ca. 200 km from Talos Dome. A few studied layers contain coarse feldspar grains in addition to glass particles and could be suitable for radiometric dating. Our study provides the first well-dated tephrostratigraphy for the northern Victoria Land region along with initial tephrostratigraphic links with other Antarctic climatic records.

  7. The Search for Transient Astrophysical Neutrino Emission with IceCube-DeepCore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; Beiser, E.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blumenthal, J.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Buzinsky, N.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Fedynitch, A.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Gier, D.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Groh, J. C.; Groß, A.; Ha, C.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jero, K.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kiryluk, J.; Kläs, J.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, G.; Kroll, M.; Kunnen, J.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Middlemas, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Paul, L.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Pütz, J.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Richter, S.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Saba, S. M.; Sabbatini, L.; Sander, H.-G.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Schatto, K.; Scheriau, F.; Schimp, M.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitz, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schulte, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Smith, M. W. E.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stanisha, N. A.; Stasik, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.; IceCube Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of a search for astrophysical sources of brief transient neutrino emission using IceCube and DeepCore data acquired between 2012 May 15 and 2013 April 30. While the search methods employed in this analysis are similar to those used in previous IceCube point source searches, the data set being examined consists of a sample of predominantly sub-TeV muon-neutrinos from the Northern Sky (-5^\\circ \\lt δ \\lt 90^\\circ ) obtained through a novel event selection method. This search represents a first attempt by IceCube to identify astrophysical neutrino sources in this relatively unexplored energy range. The reconstructed direction and time of arrival of neutrino events are used to search for any significant self-correlation in the data set. The data revealed no significant source of transient neutrino emission. This result has been used to construct limits at timescales ranging from roughly 1 s to 10 days for generic soft-spectra transients. We also present limits on a specific model of neutrino emission from soft jets in core-collapse supernovae.

  8. Stable isotope constraints on Holocene carbon cycle changes from an Antarctic ice core.

    PubMed

    Elsig, Joachim; Schmitt, Jochen; Leuenberger, Daiana; Schneider, Robert; Eyer, Marc; Leuenberger, Markus; Joos, Fortunat; Fischer, Hubertus; Stocker, Thomas F

    2009-09-24

    Reconstructions of atmospheric CO(2) concentrations based on Antarctic ice cores reveal significant changes during the Holocene epoch, but the processes responsible for these changes in CO(2) concentrations have not been unambiguously identified. Distinct characteristics in the carbon isotope signatures of the major carbon reservoirs (ocean, biosphere, sediments and atmosphere) constrain variations in the CO(2) fluxes between those reservoirs. Here we present a highly resolved atmospheric delta(13)C record for the past 11,000 years from measurements on atmospheric CO(2) trapped in an Antarctic ice core. From mass-balance inverse model calculations performed with a simplified carbon cycle model, we show that the decrease in atmospheric CO(2) of about 5 parts per million by volume (p.p.m.v.). The increase in delta(13)C of about 0.25 per thousand during the early Holocene is most probably the result of a combination of carbon uptake of about 290 gigatonnes of carbon by the land biosphere and carbon release from the ocean in response to carbonate compensation of the terrestrial uptake during the termination of the last ice age. The 20 p.p.m.v. increase of atmospheric CO(2) and the small decrease in delta(13)C of about 0.05 per thousand during the later Holocene can mostly be explained by contributions from carbonate compensation of earlier land-biosphere uptake and coral reef formation, with only a minor contribution from a small decrease of the land-biosphere carbon inventory.

  9. Non-Target Analyses of organic compounds in ice cores using HPLC-ESI-UHRMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuth, Christoph; Müller-Tautges, Christina; Eichler, Anja; Schwikowski, Margit; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    To study the global climatic and environmental changes it is necessary to know the environmental and especially atmospheric conditions of the past. By analysing climate archives, such as for example ice cores, unique environmental information can be obtained. In contrast to the well-established analysis of inorganic species in ice cores, organic compounds have been analysed in ice cores to a much smaller extent. Because of current analytical limitations it has become commonplace to focus on 'total organic carbon' measurements or specific classes of organic molecules, as no analytical methods exist that can provide a broad characterization of the organic material present[1]. On the one hand, it is important to focus on already known atmospheric markers in ice cores and to quantify, where possible, in order to compare them to current conditions. On the other hand, unfortunately a wealth of information is lost when only a small fraction of the organic material is examined. However, recent developments in mass spectrometry in respect to higher mass resolution and mass accuracy enable a new approach to the analysis of complex environmental samples. The qualitative characterization of the complex mixture of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) in the ice using high-resolution mass spectrometry allows for novel insights concerning the composition and possible sources of aerosol derived WSOC deposited at glacier sites. By performing a non-target analysis of an ice core from the Swiss Alps using previous enrichment by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization and ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-UHRMS) 475 elemental formulas distributed onto 659 different peaks were detected. The elemental formulas were classified according to their elemental composition into CHO-, CHON-, CHOS-, CHONS-containing compounds and 'others'. Several methods for the analysis of complex data sets of high resolution

  10. Factors affecting the reproducibility of trace element analyses of ice core samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhodes, R. H.; Baker, J.; Millet, M.; Bertler, N.

    2010-12-01

    Ice cores provide high-resolution records of past atmospheric and environmental conditions. Increasingly, conventional stable isotope and major ion analyses of ice cores are being complimented by determination of ultra-trace levels of trace elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Typically, these analyses are performed on acidified, melted, ice without removal of particulates by centrifugation or filtration. We have carried out a systematic investigation of the factors influencing the reproducibility of trace element determinations in ice core samples, which can be considered to contain three inorganic chemical components: marine salt, aerosol and mineral dust. The prevalent method of ICP-MS analysis of ice core samples involves analysing acidified samples (typically to 1% HNO3). To mimic these conditions, we undertook systematic leaching experiments on geochemically well-characterised, powdered, rock standards to examine how trace element measurements varied depending on the length of the acidification time, whether samples were frozen after acidification or not, dust lithology and the dust concentration. Four certified standards were leached at a dust concentration of 10 ppm in 1% HNO3 and leachates were sampled at regular time intervals up to a period of several months. The standards encompass a range of lithologies and textures, including basalt (BHVO-2), dolerite (W-2), granite (JG-2) and Fe-Mn oxyhydroxide (Nod P-1) materials. The basalt, dolerite and granite all have silicate mineralogies and showed some similar trace element trends during leaching. For example, the concentration of Al in the leachates increased by between 125% and 280% during the first 12 hr and did not stop rising after 8 weeks of leaching. In contrast, rare earth element and Y concentrations in the leachates became constant after just 2 hr. However, total element recovery differed between lithologies. After 12 hr of acidification the recovery of elements from Na

  11. The IceCube data acquisition system for galactic core collapse supernova searches

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, Volker; Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration

    2014-11-18

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory was designed to detect highly energetic neutrinos. The detector was built as a lattice of 5160 photomultiplier tubes monitoring one cubic kilometer of clear Antarctic ice. Due to low photomultiplier dark noise rates in the cold and radio-pure ice, IceCube is also able to detect bursts of O(10MeV) neutrinos expected to be emitted from core collapse supernovae. The detector will provide the world’s highest statistical precision for the lightcurves of galactic supernovae by observing an induced collective rise in all photomultiplier rates [1]. This paper presents the supernova data acquisition system, the search algorithms for galactic supernovae, as well as the recently implemented HitSpooling DAQ extension. HitSpooling will overcome the current limitation of transmitting photomultiplier rates in intervals of 1.6384 ms by storing all recorded time-stamped hits for supernova candidate triggers. From the corresponding event-based information, the average neutrino energy can be estimated and the background induced by detector noise and atmospheric muons can be reduced.

  12. Magnetic properties of aerosol dust in peripheral and inner Antarctic ice cores as a proxy for dust provenance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanci, L.; Delmonte, B.

    2013-11-01

    We use laboratory-induced remanent magnetization of polar ice to measure the rock-magnetic properties of the aerosol dust directly in ice samples. Former studies on Vostok and EPICA-Dome C ice core, recovered on the inner East Antarctic ice sheet, revealed that glacial and interglacial periods of the latter are characterized by distinct magnetic mineralogies at Dome C, which might reflect different dust source areas. In this work we present the first results on glacial and Holocene samples from the TALDICE ice core, collected at the peripheral site of Talos Dome located at high-elevation on the ice sheet close to some ice-free areas of the Transantarctic mountains. Magnetic properties of interglacial samples from both Dome-C and Talos Dome ice cores turned out to have peculiar characteristics that suggest an enhanced concentration of Fe-rich minerals in the aerosol dust, compared to Vostok. The most likely explanation for the extremely high dust magnetization measured in interglacial samples is the presence of volcanic material, although occasional occurrence of meteoritic material (micrometeorites) cannot be ruled out. The volcanic nature of the Holocene aerosol dust and its variability between sites provides further constrains on dust geographic provenance that are complementary to geochemical and physical evidences. Moreover, the calculations of the flux of the highly magnetic dust provide information on wind transport toward the continent interior during the Holocene.

  13. Identifying and Tracking Individual Updraft Cores using Cluster Analysis: A TWP-ICE case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Tao, W.; Collis, S. M.; Varble, A.

    2013-12-01

    Cumulus parameterizations in GCMs depend strongly on the vertical velocity structures of convective updraft cores, or plumes. There hasn't been an accurate way of identifying these cores. The majority of previous studies treat the updraft as a single grid column entity, thus missing many intrinsic characteristics, e.g., the size, strength and spatial orientation of an individual core, its life cycle, and the time variations of the entrainment/detrainment rates associated with its life cycle. In this study, we attempt to apply an innovative algorithm based on the centroid-based k-means cluster analysis to improve our understanding of convection and its associated updraft cores. Both 3-D Doppler radar retrievals and cloud-resolving model simulations of a TWP-ICE campaign case during the monsoon period will be used to test and improve this algorithm. This will provide for more in-depth comparisons between CRM simulations and observations that were not possible previously using the traditional piecewise analysis with each updraft column. The first step is to identify the strongest cores (maximum velocity >10 m/s), since they are well defined and produce definite answers when the cluster analysis algorithm is applied. The preliminary results show that the radar retrieved updraft cores are smaller in size and with the maximum velocity located uniformly at higher levels compared with model simulations. Overall, the model simulations produce much stronger cores compared with the radar retrievals. Within the model simulations, the bulk microphysical scheme simulation produces stronger cores than the spectral bin microphysical scheme. Planned researches include using high temporal-resolution simulations to further track the life cycle of individual updraft cores and study their characteristics.

  14. Bacterial study of Vostok drilling fluid: the tool to make ice core finding confident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekhina, I. A.; Petit, J. R.; Lukin, V. V.; Bulat, S. A.

    2003-04-01

    Decontamination of Vostok ice core is a critical issue in molecular biology studies. Core surface contains a film of hardly removable 'dirty' drilling fluid representing a mixture of polyhydrocarbons (PHC) including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and freon. To make ice microbial finding more confident the original Vostok drilling fluid sampled from different depths (110m - 3600m) was analyzed for bacterial content by ribosomal DNA sequencing. Total, 33 clones of 16S ribosomal DNA were recovered from four samples of drilling fluid at 110, 2750, 3400, and 3600m leading to identification of 8 bacterial species. No overlapping was observed even for neighboring samples (3400m and 3600m). At present four major bacteria with the titer more than 103-104 cells per ml (as estimated from PCR results) are identified. Among them we found: unknown representative of Desulfobacteraceae which are able to oxidize sulphates and degrade benzenes (110m); PAH-degrading alpha-proteobacterium Sphingomonas natatoria (3400m); alpha-proteobacterium representing closely-related group of Sphingomonas sp. (e.g., S. aurantiaca) which are able to degrade PAH as well, and human pathogen closely related to Haloanella gallinarum of CFB group (3600m). Four additional species were revealed as single clones and showed relatedness to human pathogens and saprophytes as well as soil bacteria. These bacteria may represent drilling fluid contaminants introduced during its sampling or DNA extraction procedure. Of four major bacteria revealed, one species, Sphingomonas natatoria, has been met by us in the Vostok core from 3607 m depth (AF532054) whereas another Sphingomonas sp. which we refer to as S. aurantiaca was found in Antarctic microbial endolithic community (AF548567), hydrocarbon-containing soil near Scott Base in Antarctica (AF184221) and even isolated from 3593m Vostok accretion ice (AF324199) and Taylor Dome core (AF395031). The source for major human pathogen-related bacteria is rather uncertain

  15. Estimating Trapped Gas Concentrations as Bubbles Within Lake Ice Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fantello, N.; Parsekian, A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.

    2015-12-01

    Climate warming is currently one of the most important issues that we are facing. The degradation of permafrost beneath thermokarst lakes has been associated with enhanced methane emissions and it presents a positive feedback to climate warming. Thermokarst lakes release methane to the atmosphere mainly by ebullition (bubbling) but there are a large number of uncertainties regarding the magnitude and variability of these emissions. Here we present a methodology to estimate the amount of gas released from thermokarst lakes through ebullition using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). This geophysical technique is well suited for this type of problem because it is non-invasive, continuous, and requires less effort and time than the direct visual inspection. We are studying GPR data collected using 1.2 GHz frequency antennas in Brooklyn Lake, Laramie, WY, in order to quantify the uncertainties in the method. Although this is not a thermokarst lake, gas bubbles are trapped in the ice and spatial variability in bubble concentration within the ice is evident. To assess the variability in bulk physical properties of the ice due to bubbles, we gathered GPR data from different types of ice. We compared the velocity of the groundwave and reflection obtained from radargrams, and found on each case a larger value for the groundwave velocity suggesting a non-homogeneous medium and that the concentration of bubbles is prone to be near the surface instead of at greater depths. We use a multi-phase dielectric-mixing model to estimate the amount of gas present in a sample of volume of ice and found an uncertainty in relative permittivity (estimated using reflection velocity) of 0.0294, which translates to an uncertainty of 1.1% in gas content; and employing groundwave velocity we found 0.0712 and 2.9%, respectively. If locations of gas seeps in lakes could be detected and quantified using GPR along with field measurements, this could help to constrain future lake-source carbon gas

  16. Aurora Basin North (ABN) &amp;ndash; a new 2000 year ice core record from East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Southern Hemisphere climate reconstructions are limited by quantity and spatial coverage of well resolved paleo-climate records from the last 2000 years. This was the motivation to drill an ice core at a new site in East Antarctica, 550km inland and about half way between the coastal Law Dome and inland Dome C sites. Drilling of a 303m ice core was completed in Jan 2014 and here we present the first results from the top 80m of this new ice core. The ABN project is focussed on understanding the variability over the last 2000 years of a range of climate parameters including, temperature, snowfall, volcanic forcing, solar forcing, greenhouse gas forcing, sea ice extent, atmospheric variability (ENSO, SAM, IPO), dust sources from Australia, and biomass burning events.

  17. Changes in Black Carbon Deposition to Antarctica from Two Ice Core Records, A.D. 1850-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bisiaux, Marion M.; Edward, Ross; McConnell, Joseph R.; Curran, Mark A. J.; VanOmmen, Tas D.; Smith, Andrew M.; Neumann, Thomas A.; Pasteris, Daniel R.; Penner, Joyce E.; Taylor, Kendrick

    2012-01-01

    Continuous flow analysis was based on a steady sample flow and in-line detection of BC and other chemical substances as described in McConnell et al. (2007). In the cold room, previously cut one meter ice core sticks of 3x3cm, are melted continuously on a heated melter head specifically designed to eliminate contamination from the atmosphere or by the external parts of the ice. The melted ice from the most inner part of the ice stick is continuously pumped by a peristaltic pump and carried to a clean lab by Teflon lines. The recorded signal is continuous, integrating a sample volume of about 0.05 mL, for which the temporal resolution depends on the speed of melting, ice density and snow accumulation rate at the ice core drilling site. For annual accumulation derived from the WAIS and Law Dome ice cores, we assumed 3.1 cm water equivalent uncertainty in each year's accumulation from short scale spatial variability (glaciological noise) which was determined from several measurements of annual accumulation in multiple parallel ice cores notably from the WAIS Divide ice core site (Banta et al., 2008) and from South Pole site (McConnell et al., 1997; McConnell et al., 2000). Refractory black carbon (rBC) concentrations were determined using the same method as in (Bisiaux et al., 2011) and adapted to continuous flow measurements as described by (McConnell et al., 2007). The technique uses a single particle intracavity laser induced incandescence photometer (SP2, Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, Colorado) coupled to an ultrasonic nebulizer/desolvation (CETAC UT5000) Flow Injection Analysis (FIA). All analyses, sample preparation etc, were performed in a class 100 cleanroom using anti contamination "clean techniques". The samples were not acidified.

  18. Phylogenetic and physiological diversity of microorganisms isolated from a deep greenland glacier ice core

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miteva, V. I.; Sheridan, P. P.; Brenchley, J. E.

    2004-01-01

    We studied a sample from the GISP 2 (Greenland Ice Sheet Project) ice core to determine the diversity and survival of microorganisms trapped in the ice at least 120,000 years ago. Previously, we examined the phylogenetic relationships among 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences in a clone library obtained by PCR amplification from genomic DNA extracted from anaerobic enrichments. Here we report the isolation of nearly 800 aerobic organisms that were grouped by morphology and amplified rDNA restriction analysis patterns to select isolates for further study. The phylogenetic analyses of 56 representative rDNA sequences showed that the isolates belonged to four major phylogenetic groups: the high-G+C gram-positives, low-G+C gram-positives, Proteobacteria, and the Cytophaga-Flavobacterium-Bacteroides group. The most abundant and diverse isolates were within the high-G+C gram-positive cluster that had not been represented in the clone library. The Jukes-Cantor evolutionary distance matrix results suggested that at least 7 isolates represent new species within characterized genera and that 49 are different strains of known species. The isolates were further categorized based on the isolation conditions, temperature range for growth, enzyme activity, antibiotic resistance, presence of plasmids, and strain-specific genomic variations. A significant observation with implications for the development of novel and more effective cultivation methods was that preliminary incubation in anaerobic and aerobic liquid prior to plating on agar media greatly increased the recovery of CFU from the ice core sample.

  19. Ice core studies of anthropogenic sulfate and nitrate trends in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto-Azuma, Kumiko; Koerner, Roy M.

    2001-03-01

    Ice core studies have shown that sulfate and nitrate concentrations in Arctic snow have increased significantly since the end of the 19th century due to the influx of anthropogenic pollutants transported from industrialized regions. Trends of increasing sulfate and nitrate concentrations in snow are evident in all the ice core data from Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, and Svalbard. Temporal patterns, however, show spatial variation. In the area around Dye 3, south Greenland, significant increases in sulfate are found beginning in the 1890s. Increases in nitrate began ˜50 years later. A similar pattern is seen at Penny Ice Cap, Baffin Island, in the Canadian low Arctic. In contrast, both sulfate and nitrate concentrations started to increase significantly in the 1940s on Agassiz Ice Cap, Ellesmere Island, in the Canadian high Arctic; and Snøfjellafonna, Svalbard. At Summit, central Greenland, and sites in north Greenland, sharp sulfate increases occurred at about the turn of the 20th century and again about 1940 or 1950, where the latter increase is the greater of the two. At these central and north Greenland sites, significant increases in nitrate began about 1940 or 1950. The difference between the magnitude and timing of increasing trends of the sulfate ions at these sites can be attributed to their having different source regions and pathways for these pollutant ions. The pollutant sources appear to be North America for south Greenland and Baffin Island, Eurasia, for Ellesmere Island and Svalbard, and both North America and Eurasia for central and north Greenland.

  20. Expression and Characterization of an Ice Binding Protein from a Bacterium Isolated at a Depth of 3,519 Meters in the Vostok Ice Core, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christner, B. C.; Achberger, A.; Brox, T. I.; Skidmore, M. L.

    2011-12-01

    The cryopreservation of microorganisms in ancient glacial ice is possible if lethal levels of macromolecular damage are not incurred and cellular integrity is not compromised via intracellular ice formation or recrystallization. There are numerous examples of cold-adapted species that prevent or limit ice crystal growth by producing ice-binding proteins (IBP). Previously, a bacterium (isolate 3519-10; Flavobacteriaceae family) recovered from a depth of 3,519 meters below the surface in the Vostok ice core was shown to produce and secrete an IBP that inhibits the recrystallization of ice. To explore the phenotypic advantage that IBPs confer to ice-entrapped cells, experiments were designed to examine the expression of 3519-10's IBP gene and protein at different temperatures, assess the effect of the IBP on bacterial viability in ice, and determine how the IBP influences the physical structure of the ice. Total RNA isolated from aerobic cultures grown at temperatures between 4C to 25C and analyzed by reverse transcription-PCR indicated constitutive expression of the IBP gene. Additionally, SDS-PAGE analysis of 3519-10's extracellular proteins revealed a polypeptide corresponding to the predicted size of the 54 kDa IBP at all temperatures tested. The total extracellular protein fraction was subsequently used in assays with Escherichia coli to examine the effect of the IBP on bacterial survival in warm ice (-5C) and after freeze-thaw cycling. In the presence of 100 μg mL-1 of extracellular protein from 3519-10, the survival of E. coli was increased by greater than 100-fold; however, the survival of E. coli suspensions containing the same concentration of bovine serum albumin was not significantly different than controls (p<0.05). Microscopic analysis of ice formed in the presence of the IBP indicated that in a mm^2 field of view, there were 5 times as many crystals as in ice formed in the presence of washed 3519-10 cells and non-IBP producing bacteria, and 10 times as

  1. Proxies and measurement techniques for mineral dust in Antarctic ice cores.

    PubMed

    Ruth, Urs; Barbante, Carlo; Bigler, Matthias; Delmonte, Barbara; Fischer, Hubertus; Gabrielli, Paolo; Gaspari, Vania; Kaufmann, Patrik; Lambert, Fabrice; Maggi, Valter; Marino, Federica; Petit, Jean-Robert; Udisti, Roberto; Wagenbach, Dietmar; Wegner, Anna; Wolff, Eric W

    2008-08-01

    To improve quantitative interpretation of ice core aeolian dust records, a systematic methodological comparison was made. This involved methods for water-insoluble particle counting (Coulter counter and laser-sensing particle detector), soluble ion analysis (ion chromatography and continuous flow analysis), elemental analysis (inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy at pH 1 and after full acid digestion), and water-insoluble elemental analysis (proton induced X-ray emission). Antarctic ice core samples covering the last deglaciation from the EPICA Dome C (EDC) and the EPICA Dronning Maud Land (EDML) cores were used. All methods correlate very well among each other, but the ratios of glacial age to Holocene concentrations, which are typically a factor approximately 100, differ between the methods by up to a factor of 2 with insoluble particles showing the largest variability. The recovery of ICP-MS measurements depends on the digestion method and is differentfor different elements and during different climatic periods. EDC and EDML samples have similar dust composition, which suggests a common dust source or a common mixture of sources for the two sites. The analyzed samples further reveal a change of dust composition during the last deglaciation.

  2. Melting and metallization of silica in the cores of gas giants, ice giants, and super Earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazevet, S.; Tsuchiya, T.; Taniuchi, T.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Guyot, F.

    2015-07-01

    The physical state and properties of silicates at conditions encountered in the cores of gas giants, ice giants, and of Earth-like exoplanets now discovered with masses up to several times the mass of the Earth remain mostly unknown. Here, we report on theoretical predictions of the properties of silica, SiO2, up to 4 TPa and about 20 000 K by using first principles molecular dynamics simulations based on density functional theory. For conditions found in the super Earths and in ice giants, we show that silica remains a poor electrical conductor up to 10 Mbar due to an increase in the Si-O coordination with pressure. For Jupiter and Saturn cores, we find that MgSiO3 silicate has not only dissociated into MgO and SiO2, as shown in previous studies, but that these two phases have likely differentiated to lead to a core made of liquid SiO2 and solid (Mg,Fe)O.

  3. Variations of ion concentrations in the deep ice core and surface snow at NEEM, Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goto-Azuma, K.; Wegner, A.; Hansson, M.; Hirabayashi, M.; Kuramoto, T.; Miyake, T.; Motoyama, H.; NEEM Aerosol Consortium members

    2012-04-01

    Discrete samples were collected from the CFA (Continuous Flow Analysis) melt fractions during the field campaign carried out at NEEM, Greenland in 2009-2011, and were distributed to different laboratories. Ionic species were analyzed at National Institute of Polar Research (Japan) and Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (Germany). Here we present and compare the ion concentration data obtained by both institutes. Most of the ions show good agreement between the two institutes. As is indicated with the CFA data (Bigler and the NEEM Aerosol Consortium members, EGU 2012), ion chromatograph data also display that calcium and sodium, mainly originated from terrestrial dust and sea-salt, respectively, show large variations associated with Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) events. Chloride, fluoride, sulfate, sodium, potassium and magnesium also show such variations, as has been already reported for other Greenland ice cores. New ion data obtained from the NEEM deep core also show large variability of oxalate and phosphate concentrations during DO events. Acetate, which is thought to be mainly derived from biomass burning, as is oxalate, appears to show variability associated with DO events, but to a lesser extent. On the other hand, nitrate, ammonium and methanesulfonate do not show such variations. Together with ion data from the deep ice core, we present those from the pits dug during the NEEM field campaign to discuss seasonal variations of ionic species. The seasonal and millennial scale variations of ions are thought to be caused by changes in atmospheric circulation and source strength.

  4. A new method for high-resolution methane measurements on polar ice cores using continuous flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Schüpbach, Simon; Federer, Urs; Kaufmann, Patrik R; Hutterli, Manuel A; Buiron, Daphné; Blunier, Thomas; Fischer, Hubertus; Stocker, Thomas F

    2009-07-15

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. Rapid variations of the CH4 concentration, as frequently registered, for example, during the last ice age, have been used as reliable time markers for the definition of a common time scale of polar ice cores. In addition, these variations indicate changes in the sources of methane primarily associated with the presence of wetlands. In order to determine the exact time evolution of such fast concentration changes, CH4 measurements of the highest resolution in the ice core archive are required. Here, we present a new, semicontinuous and field-deployable CH4 detection method, which was incorporated in a continuous flow analysis (CFA) system. In CFA, samples cut along the axis of an ice core are melted at a melt speed of typically 3.5 cm/min. The air from bubbles in the ice core is extracted continuously from the meltwater and forwarded to a gas chromatograph (GC) for high-resolution CH4 measurements. The GC performs a measurement every 3.5 min, hence, a depth resolution of 15 cm is achieved atthe chosen melt rate. An even higher resolution is not necessary due to the low pass filtering of air in ice cores caused by the slow bubble enclosure process and the diffusion of air in firn. Reproducibility of the new method is 3%, thus, for a typical CH4 concentration of 500 ppb during an ice age, this corresponds to an absolute precision of 15 ppb, comparable to traditional analyses on discrete samples. Results of CFA-CH4 measurements on the ice core from Talos Dome (Antarctica) illustrate the much higher temporal resolution of our method compared with established melt-refreeze CH4 measurements and demonstrate the feasibility of the new method.

  5. Isotopic composition of ice cores and meltwater from upper fremont glacier and Galena Creek rock glacier, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeWayne, Cecil L.; Green, J.R.; Vogt, S.; Michel, R.; Cottrell, G.

    1998-01-01

    Meltwater runoff from glaciers can result from various sources, including recent precipitation and melted glacial ice. Determining the origin of the meltwater from glaciers through isotopic analysis can provide information about such things as the character and distribution of ablation on glaciers. A 9.4 m ice core and meltwater were collected in 1995 and 1996 at the glacigenic Galena Creek rock glacier in Wyoming's Absaroka Mountains. Measurements of chlorine-36 (36Cl), tritium (3H), sulphur-35 (35S), and delta oxygen-18 (??18O) were compared to similar measurements from an ice core taken from the Upper Fremont Glacier in the Wind River Range of Wyoming collected in 1991-95. Meltwater samples from three sites on the rock glacier yielded 36Cl concentrations that ranged from 2.1 ?? 1.0 X 106 to 5.8??0.3 X 106 atoms/l. The ice-core 36Cl concentrations from Galena Creek ranged from 3.4??0.3 X 105 to 1.0??0.1 X 106 atoms/l. Analysis of an ice core from the Upper Fremont Glacier yielded 36Cl concentrations of 1.2??0.2 X 106 and 5.2??0.2 X 106 atoms/l for pre- 1940 ice and between 2 X 106 and 3 X 106 atoms/l for post-1980 ice. Purdue's PRIME Lab analyzed the ice from the Upper Fremont Glacier. The highest concentration of 36Cl in the ice was 77 ?? 2 X 106 atoms/l and was deposited during the peak of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing in the late 1950s. This is an order of magnitude greater than the largest measured concentration from both the Upper Fremont Glacier ice core that was not affected by weapons testing fallout and the ice core collected from the Galena Creek rock glacier. Tritium concentrations from the rock glacier ranged from 9.2??0.6 to 13.2??0.8 tritium units (TU) in the meltwater to -1.3??1.3 TU in the ice core. Concentrations of 3H in the Upper Fremont Glacier ice core ranged from 0 TU in the ice older than 50 years to 6-12 TU in the ice deposited in the last 10 years. The maximum 3H concentration in ice from the Upper Fremont Glacier deposited in the

  6. Assessing the Pleistocene hemispheric climate links through correlating loess, marine and ice-core records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Near continuous loess-soil records in China cover the past 22 million years. Here, we compare various independent climate proxies from the terrestrial, marine and ice-core domains to re-evaluate the regional and global significance of the China loess with special emphases to the Quaternary portion. The results confirm that the intensity of loess deposition in China is closely coupled with the northern high latitude climate from the over-orbital to millennial scales, and that loess accumulation rates (LAR) and loess particle-size reflect many features of the northern high latitude ice conditions. Consequently, correlating the loess and marine records could offer the possibility for addressing the hemispheric climate links. Our loess-marine correlations show that both records are broadly coupled during the Pleistocene. However, numerous decoupled features exist between the two records. Marine oxygen isotope record shows a general trend of increased ice-volume during the Pleistocene. This trend has no clear reflection in the loess LAR and grain-size data. A prominent change at ~ 430 ka, referred to as the Mid-Brunhes Event (MBE), is clearly documented in both marine and EPICA ice records while its reflections in loess are rather ambiguous. Both marine and EPICA data show a cooler-than-average interglacial for the marine-oxygen isotope stage 13 (MIS-13) while a series of terrestrial records show a warm-extreme interglacial for the northern hemisphere. During a number of glacial intervals, such as MIS-16, MIS 14, MIS-12 and MIS-3, interglacial-level of loess grain-size are observed while they have no obvious reflections in the marine and EPICA ice records. Based on a multi-proxy approach, we argue that these decoupled features between the loess and marine records are attributable to the asymmetrical behaviors of the Pleistocene climates between the southern and northern hemispheres.

  7. Continuous flow analysis method for determination of dissolved reactive phosphorus in ice cores.

    PubMed

    Kjær, Helle Astrid; Vallelonga, Paul; Svensson, Anders; Kristensen, Magnus Elleskov L; Tibuleac, Catalin; Bigler, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient for all living organisms. Phosphorus is often present in nature as the soluble phosphate ion PO4(3-) and has biological, terrestrial, and marine emission sources. Thus PO4(3-) detected in ice cores has the potential to be an important tracer for biological activity in the past. In this study a continuous and highly sensitive absorption method for detection of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) in ice cores has been developed using a molybdate reagent and a 2-m liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC). DRP is the soluble form of the nutrient phosphorus, which reacts with molybdate. The method was optimized to meet the low concentrations of DRP in Greenland ice, with a depth resolution of approximately 2 cm and an analytical uncertainty of 1.1 nM (0.1 ppb) PO4(3-). The method has been applied to segments of a shallow firn core from Northeast Greenland, indicating a mean concentration level of 2.74 nM (0.26 ppb) PO4(3-) for the period 1930-2005 with a standard deviation of 1.37 nM (0.13 ppb) PO4(3-) and values reaching as high as 10.52 nM (1 ppb) PO4(3-). Similar levels were detected for the period 1771-1823. Based on impurity abundances, dust and biogenic particles were found to be the most likely sources of DRP deposited in Northeast Greenland. PMID:24128116

  8. The ice-core record - Climate sensitivity and future greenhouse warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lorius, C.; Raynaud, D.; Jouzel, J.; Hansen, J.; Le Treut, H.

    1990-01-01

    The prediction of future greenhouse-gas-warming depends critically on the sensitivity of earth's climate to increasing atmospheric concentrations of these gases. Data from cores drilled in polar ice sheets show a remarkable correlation between past glacial-interglacial temperature changes and the inferred atmospheric concentration of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. These and other palaeoclimate data are used to assess the role of greenhouse gases in explaining past global climate change, and the validity of models predicting the effect of increasing concentrations of such gases in the atmosphere.

  9. The ice-core record - Climate sensitivity and future greenhouse warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorius, C.; Raynaud, D.; Jouzel, J.; Hansen, J.; Le Treut, H.

    1990-09-01

    The prediction of future greenhouse-gas-warming depends critically on the sensitivity of earth's climate to increasing atmospheric concentrations of these gases. Data from cores drilled in polar ice sheets show a remarkable correlation between past glacial-interglacial temperature changes and the inferred atmospheric concentration of gases such as carbon dioxide and methane. These and other palaeoclimate data are used to assess the role of greenhouse gases in explaining past global climate change, and the validity of models predicting the effect of increasing concentrations of such gases in the atmosphere.

  10. Ejecta Curtains and Ground Ice on Mars: Efficiencies of Volatile Release

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesko, C. S.; Asphaug, E.; Gisler, G. R.; Zahnle, K.; Weaver, R. P.; Gittings, M. L.

    2004-12-01

    One of the leading hypotheses that might account for a vigorous hydrologic cycle in the late Hesperian on Mars is that major impact events injected near-surface water into the atmosphere (Segura et al. 2001). In particular, a 50 km diameter impactor is calculated to deposit several meters of "rock rain" globally, potentially triggering the widespread global release of water from ground ice. While the release of volatiles near the impact site is a comparatively simple matter of plotting shock levels as a function of distance, and assuming that target rocks shocked to greater than a given level release all their ice as vapor (Dey, 1989), the potentially greater effect is how efficiently the crater ejecta, which is far more widespread, releases vapor. Near the crater thick sheets of poorly sorted but shock-heated materials plow up the surface at relatively low velocities. Far from the crater the ejecta strike the surface at high velocities but are more thinly spread or confined to discrete patches or jets. Beginning with 1D models, and moving to 2D and eventually 3D models, we examine, using the adaptive-mesh Eulerian hydrocode SAGE (Gisler et al. 2004), the effect of crater ejecta and secondary impacts on the transient volatile budget in the proposed late Hesperian hydrologic cycles. We make use of advanced equations of state, including mixed Alluvium-H20 equation of state in the ice-saturated regolith.

  11. C2-C4 alkanes measured in a South Pole ice core: Are atmospheric histories of light hydrocarbons preserved in Antarctic ice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, M. B.; Aydin, M.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2007-12-01

    Non-methane hydrocarbons play a significant role in global atmospheric photochemical system, but we have little knowledge about their atmospheric variability on long time scales. In this study, we analyze ethane (C2H6), propane (C3H8) and n-butane (C4H10) in a South Pole ice core, to examine the potential for using polar ice cores to reconstruct atmospheric histories of these gases. Air was dry- extracted from 124 ice core samples from the SPRESSO core, a 295 m core drilled in 2002 near South Pole as part of the ITASE campaign. The mean gas ages estimated for these samples range from 150 B.C.E. to 1720 C.E. The average mixing ratios for ethane, propane, and n-butane are 798±417 ppt, 234±89 ppt and 117±48 ppt, respectively. Point to point variability generally lies within the estimate of analytical uncertainty. These measurements demonstrate that 1) recoverable amounts of light hydrocarbons exist in polar ice, and 2) there is no evidence of down-core trends to suggest systematic loss or production with time. However, the hydrocarbon levels in this ice core are considerably higher than those in modern air over Antarctica (by factors of 2, 7, and 10 respectively for ethane, propane, and n-butane). The ice core data are not normally distributed, but appear to have a lower limit with superimposed variability. These "baseline levels" are roughly 300 ppt (C2H6), 80 ppt (C3H8), and 40 ppt (C4H10) and are consistent with modern ambient air and firn air levels measured at South Pole. A working hypothesis to explain these results is that alkane levels in ice reflect a combination of two components: 1) entrapped air possibly recording the atmospheric histories of these gases, and 2) some source of alkane contamination that is generated at or near bubble close-off, but does not continue at depth. It is unlikely that the elevated alkane levels reflect contamination during storage, extraction, or analysis.

  12. Climatic and insolation control on the high-resolution total air content in the NGRIP ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicher, Olivier; Baumgartner, Matthias; Schilt, Adrian; Schmitt, Jochen; Schwander, Jakob; Stocker, Thomas F.; Fischer, Hubertus

    2016-10-01

    Because the total air content (TAC) of polar ice is directly affected by the atmospheric pressure and temperature, its record in polar ice cores was initially considered as a proxy for past ice sheet elevation changes. However, the Antarctic ice core TAC record is known to also contain an insolation signature, although the underlying physical mechanisms are still a matter of debate. Here we present a high-resolution TAC record over the whole North Greenland Ice Core Project ice core, covering the last 120 000 years, which independently supports an insolation signature in Greenland. Wavelet analysis reveals a clear precession and obliquity signal similar to previous findings on Antarctic TAC, with a different insolation history. In our high-resolution record we also find a decrease of 4-6 % (4-5 mL kg-1) in TAC as a response to Dansgaard-Oeschger events (DO events). TAC starts to decrease in parallel to increasing Greenland surface temperature and slightly before CH4 reacts to the warming but also shows a two-step decline that lasts for several centuries into the warm interstadial. The TAC response is larger than expected considering only changes in air density by local temperature and atmospheric pressure as a driver, pointing to a transient firnification response caused by the accumulation-induced increase in the load on the firn at bubble close-off, while temperature changes deeper in the firn are still small.

  13. Ground state study of the thin ferromagnetic nano-islands for artificial spin ice arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Vieira Júnior, D. S.; Leonel, S. A. Dias, R. A. Toscano, D. Coura, P. Z. Sato, F.

    2014-09-07

    In this work, we used numerical simulations to study the magnetic ground state of the thin elongated (elliptical) ferromagnetic nano-islands made of Permalloy. In these systems, the effects of demagnetization of dipolar source generate a strong magnetic anisotropy due to particle shape, defining two fundamental magnetic ground state configurations—vortex or type C. To describe the system, we considered a model Hamiltonian in which the magnetic moments interact through exchange and dipolar potentials. We studied the competition between the vortex states and aligned states—type C—as a function of the shape of each elliptical nano-islands and constructed a phase diagram vortex—type C state. Our results show that it is possible to obtain the elongated nano-islands in the C-state with aspect ratios less than 2, which is interesting from the technological point of view because it will be possible to use smaller islands in spin ice arrays. Generally, the experimental spin ice arrangements are made with quite elongated particles with aspect ratio approximately 3 to ensure the C-state.

  14. Variation of Accumulation Rates Over the Last Eight Centuries on the East Antarctic Plateau Derived from Volcanic Signals in Ice Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anschuetz, H.; Sinisalo, A.; Isaksson, E.; McConnell, J. R.; Hamran, S.-E.; Bisiaux, M. M.; Pasteris, D.; Neumann, T. A.; Winther, J.-G.

    2011-01-01

    Volcanic signatures in ice-core records provide an excellent means to date the cores and obtain information about accumulation rates. From several ice cores it is thus possible to extract a spatio-temporal accumulation pattern. We show records of electrical conductivity and sulfur from firn cores from the Norwegian-USA scientific traverse during the International Polar Year 2007-2009 (IPY) through East Antarctica. Major volcanic eruptions are identified and used to assess century-scale accumulation changes. The largest changes seem to occur in the most recent decades with accumulation over the period 1963- 2007/08 being up to 25 % different from the long-term record. There is no clear overall trend, some sites show an increase in accumulation over the period 1963 to present while others show a decrease. Almost all of the sites above 3200 m above sea level (asl) suggest a decrease. These sites also show a significantly lower accumulation value than large-scale assessments both for the period 1963 to present and for the long-term mean at the respective drill sites. The spatial accumulation distribution is influenced mainly by elevation and distance to the ocean (continentality), as expected. Ground-penetrating radar data around the drill sites show a spatial variability within 10-20 % over several tens of kilometers, indicating that our drill sites are well representative for the area around them. Our results are important for large-scale assessments of Antarctic mass balance and model validation.

  15. Preliminary Results From a Heavily Instrumented Engine Ice Crystal Icing Test in a Ground Based Altitude Test Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flegel, Ashlie B.; Oliver, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Preliminary results from the heavily instrumented ALF502R-5 engine test conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center Propulsion Systems Laboratory are discussed. The effects of ice crystal icing on a full scale engine is examined and documented. This same model engine, serial number LF01, was used during the inaugural icing test in the Propulsion Systems Laboratory facility. The uncommanded reduction of thrust (rollback) events experienced by this engine in flight were simulated in the facility. Limited instrumentation was used to detect icing on the LF01 engine. Metal temperatures on the exit guide vanes and outer shroud and the load measurement were the only indicators of ice formation. The current study features a similar engine, serial number LF11, which is instrumented to characterize the cloud entering the engine, detect/characterize ice accretion, and visualize the ice accretion in the region of interest. Data were acquired at key LF01 test points and additional points that explored: icing threshold regions, low altitude, high altitude, spinner heat effects, and the influence of varying the facility and engine parameters. For each condition of interest, data were obtained from some selected variations of ice particle median volumetric diameter, total water content, fan speed, and ambient temperature. For several cases the NASA in-house engine icing risk assessment code was used to find conditions that would lead to a rollback event. This study further helped NASA develop necessary icing diagnostic instrumentation, expand the capabilities of the Propulsion Systems Laboratory, and generate a dataset that will be used to develop and validate in-house icing prediction and risk mitigation computational tools. The ice accretion on the outer shroud region was acquired by internal video cameras. The heavily instrumented engine showed good repeatability of icing responses when compared to the key LF01 test points and during day-to-day operation. Other noticeable

  16. Atmospheric Mercury Depositional Chronology Reconstructed from Lake Sediments and Ice Core in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shichang; Huang, Jie; Wang, Feiyue; Zhang, Qianggong; Zhang, Yulan; Li, Chaoliu; Wang, Long; Chen, Pengfei; Sharma, Chhatra Mani; Li, Qing; Sillanpää, Mika; Hou, Juzhi; Xu, Baiqing; Guo, Junming

    2016-03-15

    Alpine lake sediments and glacier ice cores retrieved from high mountain regions can provide long-term records of atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic contaminants such as mercury (Hg). In this study, eight lake sediment cores and one glacier ice core were collected from high elevations across the Himalaya-Tibet region to investigate the chronology of atmospheric Hg deposition. Consistent with modeling results, the sediment core records showed higher Hg accumulation rates in the southern slopes of the Himalayas than those in the northern slopes in the recent decades (post-World War II). Despite much lower Hg accumulation rates obtained from the glacier ice core, the temporal trend in the Hg accumulation rates matched very well with that observed from the sediment cores. The combination of the lake sediments and glacier ice core allowed us to reconstruct the longest, high-resolution atmospheric Hg deposition chronology in High Asia. The chronology showed that the Hg deposition rate was low between the 1500s and early 1800, rising at the onset of the Industrial Revolution, followed by a dramatic increase after World War II. The increasing trend continues to the present-day in most of the records, reflecting the continuous increase in anthropogenic Hg emissions from South Asia. PMID:26878654

  17. Atmospheric Mercury Depositional Chronology Reconstructed from Lake Sediments and Ice Core in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

    PubMed

    Kang, Shichang; Huang, Jie; Wang, Feiyue; Zhang, Qianggong; Zhang, Yulan; Li, Chaoliu; Wang, Long; Chen, Pengfei; Sharma, Chhatra Mani; Li, Qing; Sillanpää, Mika; Hou, Juzhi; Xu, Baiqing; Guo, Junming

    2016-03-15

    Alpine lake sediments and glacier ice cores retrieved from high mountain regions can provide long-term records of atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic contaminants such as mercury (Hg). In this study, eight lake sediment cores and one glacier ice core were collected from high elevations across the Himalaya-Tibet region to investigate the chronology of atmospheric Hg deposition. Consistent with modeling results, the sediment core records showed higher Hg accumulation rates in the southern slopes of the Himalayas than those in the northern slopes in the recent decades (post-World War II). Despite much lower Hg accumulation rates obtained from the glacier ice core, the temporal trend in the Hg accumulation rates matched very well with that observed from the sediment cores. The combination of the lake sediments and glacier ice core allowed us to reconstruct the longest, high-resolution atmospheric Hg deposition chronology in High Asia. The chronology showed that the Hg deposition rate was low between the 1500s and early 1800, rising at the onset of the Industrial Revolution, followed by a dramatic increase after World War II. The increasing trend continues to the present-day in most of the records, reflecting the continuous increase in anthropogenic Hg emissions from South Asia.

  18. Greenland ice core {open_quotes}signal{close_quotes} characteristics: An expanded view of climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Mayewski, P.A.; Meeker, L.D.; Morrison, M.C.; Twickler, M.S.; Whitlow, S.I.; Ferland, K.K.; Meese, D.A.; Legrand, M.R.; Steffensen, J.P.

    1993-07-20

    The last millenium of Earth history is of particular interest because it documents the environmental complexities of both natural variability and anthropogenic activity. The authors have analyzed the major ions contained in the Greenland Ice Sheet Project 2 (GISP 2) ice core from the present to {approximately}674 A.D. to yield an environmental reconstruction for this period that includes a description of nitrogen and sulfur cycling, volcanic emissions, sea salt and terrestrial influences. They have adapted and extended mathematical procedures for extracting sporadic (e.g., volcanic) events, secular trends, and periodicities found in the data sets. Finally, by not assuming that periodic components (signals) were {open_quotes}stationary{close_quotes} and by utilizing evolutionary spectral analysis, they were able to reveal periodic processes in the climate system which change in frequency, {open_quotes}turn on,{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}turn off{close_quotes} with other climate transitions such as that between the little ice age and the medieval warm period. 42 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Thallium as a tracer for preindustrial volcanic eruptions in an ice core record from Illimani, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Kellerhals, Thomas; Tobler, Leonhard; Brütsch, Sabina; Sigl, Michael; Wacker, Lukas; Gäggeler, Heinz W; Schwikowski, Margit

    2010-02-01

    Trace element records from glacier and ice sheet archives provide insights into biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric circulation changes, and anthropogenic pollution history. We present the first continuous high-resolution thallium (Tl) record, derived from an accurately dated ice core from tropical South America, and discuss Tl as a tracer for volcanic eruptions. We identify four prominent Tl peaks and propose that they represent signals from the massive explosive eruptions of the "unknown 1258" A.D. volcano, of Kuwae ( approximately 1450 A.D.), Tambora (1815 A.D.), and Krakatoa (1883 A.D.). The highly resolved record was obtained with an improved setup for the continuous analysis of trace elements in ice with inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). The new setup allowed for a stronger initial acidification of the meltwater and shorter tubing length, thereby reducing the risk of memory effects and losses of analytes to the capillary walls. With a comparison of the continuous method to the established conventional decontamination and analysis procedure for discrete samples, we demonstrate the accuracy of the continuous method for Tl analyses.

  20. Thallium as a tracer for preindustrial volcanic eruptions in an ice core record from Illimani, Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Kellerhals, Thomas; Tobler, Leonhard; Brütsch, Sabina; Sigl, Michael; Wacker, Lukas; Gäggeler, Heinz W; Schwikowski, Margit

    2010-02-01

    Trace element records from glacier and ice sheet archives provide insights into biogeochemical cycles, atmospheric circulation changes, and anthropogenic pollution history. We present the first continuous high-resolution thallium (Tl) record, derived from an accurately dated ice core from tropical South America, and discuss Tl as a tracer for volcanic eruptions. We identify four prominent Tl peaks and propose that they represent signals from the massive explosive eruptions of the "unknown 1258" A.D. volcano, of Kuwae ( approximately 1450 A.D.), Tambora (1815 A.D.), and Krakatoa (1883 A.D.). The highly resolved record was obtained with an improved setup for the continuous analysis of trace elements in ice with inductively coupled plasma sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS). The new setup allowed for a stronger initial acidification of the meltwater and shorter tubing length, thereby reducing the risk of memory effects and losses of analytes to the capillary walls. With a comparison of the continuous method to the established conventional decontamination and analysis procedure for discrete samples, we demonstrate the accuracy of the continuous method for Tl analyses. PMID:20050662

  1. Adsorption and dissociation of acidic trace gases on ice surfaces - caught in the act with core level spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldner, Astrid; Orlando, Fabrizio; Ammann, Markus; Kleibert, Armin; Huthwelker, Thomas; Peter, Thomas; Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten

    2015-04-01

    Chemistry and physical processes in Earth's ice and snow cover can change the composition of the atmosphere and the contaminant content of the cryosphere. They have thus direct impacts on geochemical cycles and the climate system. Our ability to predict the fate of chemicals in snow or air masses in exchange with the cryosphere on a regional scale or to model those in snow chemistry models is currently hampered by our limited understanding of the underlying mechanisms on a molecular level. So far, direct experimental observations under environmentally relevant conditions of the ice surface and of the adsorption of trace gases to it are very limited. The unique approach of this study is to combine two surface sensitive spectroscopic methods to directly probe the hydrogen-bonding network at the ice surface ( ~1 nm depth) and the concentration, depth profile (~1 to 10 nm), and dissociation degree of the dopant. We present first core-electron photoemission (XPS) and partial electron yield X-ray absorption (NEXAFS) measurements of formic acid adsorbed to ice at 240 K. The analysis of oxygen NEXAFS spectra reveals information on changes in the hydrogen-bonding network of the ice surface upon adsorption of formic acid. Depth profiles based on XPS measurements indicate that the adsorbed acid stays at the ice surface. Furthermore we obtained a preliminary estimation of the degree of formic acid dissociation at the ice surface. Results are compared to earlier core-electron studies of several trace gases adsorbed to ice at 240 K and compared to results from more traditional method to and snow to reveal fundamental aspects of the ice surface and how it interacts with dopants. Even with the focus on adsorption of acidic trace gases to ice, results of this study will thus be of high relevance also for other chemical processes in ice and snow. This is of interest not only in environmental science but also in material science, cryobiology, and astrophysics.

  2. Characterizing black carbon in rain and ice cores using coupled tangential flow filtration and transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, A.; Edwards, R.; Saunders, M.; Chakrabarty, R. K.; Subramanian, R.; van Riessen, A.; Smith, A. M.; Lambrinidis, D.; Nunes, L. J.; Vallelonga, P.; Goodwin, I. D.; Moy, A. D.; Curran, M. A. J.; van Ommen, T. D.

    2015-09-01

    Antarctic ice cores have been used to study the history of black carbon (BC), but little is known with regards to the physical and chemical characteristics of these particles in the remote atmosphere. Characterization remains limited by ultra-trace concentrations in ice core samples and the lack of adequate methods to isolate the particles unaltered from the melt water. To investigate the physical and chemical characteristics of these particles, we have developed a tangential flow filtration (TFF) method combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tests using ultrapure water and polystyrene latex particle standards resulted in excellent blanks and significant particle recovery. This approach has been applied to melt water from Antarctic ice cores as well as tropical rain from Darwin, Australia with successful results: TEM analysis revealed a variety of BC particle morphologies, insoluble coatings, and the attachment of BC to mineral dust particles. The TFF-based concentration of these particles has proven to give excellent results for TEM studies of BC particles in Antarctic ice cores and can be used for future studies of insoluble aerosols in rainwater and ice core samples.

  3. Characterizing black carbon in rain and ice cores using coupled tangential flow filtration and transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, A.; Edwards, R.; Saunders, M.; Chakrabarty, R. K.; Subramanian, R.; van Riessen, A.; Smith, A. M.; Lambrinidis, D.; Nunes, L. J.; Vallelonga, P.; Goodwin, I. D.; Moy, A. D.; Curran, M. A. J.; van Ommen, T. D.

    2015-06-01

    Antarctic ice cores have been used to study the history of black carbon (BC), but little is known with regards to the physical and chemical characteristics of these particles in the remote atmosphere. Characterization remains limited by ultra-trace concentrations in ice core samples and the lack of adequate methods to isolate the particles unaltered from the melt water. To investigate the physical and chemical characteristics of these particles, we have developed a tangential flow filtration (TFF) method combined with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tests using ultrapure water and polystyrene latex particle standards resulted in excellent blanks and significant particle recovery. This approach has been applied to melt water from Antarctic ice cores as well as tropical rain from Darwin, Australia with successful results: TEM analysis revealed a variety of BC particle morphologies, insoluble coatings, and the attachment of BC to mineral dust particles. The TFF-based concentration of these particles has proven to give excellent results for TEM studies of BC particles in Antarctic ice cores and can be used for future studies of insoluble aerosols in rainwater and ice core samples.

  4. Ice core reconstruction of sea ice change in the Amundsen-Ross Seas since 1702 A.D.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Elizabeth R.; Abram, Nerilie J.

    2016-05-01

    Antarctic sea ice has been increasing in recent decades, but with strong regional differences in the expression of sea ice change. Declining sea ice in the Bellingshausen Sea since 1979 (the satellite era) has been linked to the observed warming on the Antarctic Peninsula, while the Ross Sea sector has seen a marked increase in sea ice during this period. Here we present a 308 year record of methansulphonic acid from coastal West Antarctica, representing sea ice conditions in the Amundsen-Ross Sea. We demonstrate that the recent increase in sea ice in this region is part of a longer trend, with an estimated ~1° northward expansion in winter sea ice extent (SIE) during the twentieth century and a total expansion of ~1.3° since 1702. The greatest reconstructed SIE occurred during the mid-1990s, with five of the past 30 years considered exceptional in the context of the past three centuries.

  5. Spatially-resolved chemical analysis of frozen ice cores by cryo-cell-UV-laser-ablation-ICPMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Wolfgang; Della Lunga, Damiano; Rasmussen, Sune O.; Svensson, Anders

    2015-04-01

    High-latitude ice cores have become the master records of late Pleistocene climate variability. Especially the high-resolution data from Greenland of the past ~125 ka reveal a remarkably changeable glacial climate, and these rapid climate oscillations have been shown to take place within a few years only [1, 2]. The requirement for an improvement in spatial resolution in ice core analysis arises from 1) the continuous thinning of annual layers in deep parts of ice cores to below what is routinely resolvable by continuous flow analysis and 2) the concomitant recrystallization of ice that potentially affects the location of impurities and thus the identification of annual layers. We developed a new technique to analyze elemental concentrations at ppb-levels in frozen ice cores at ~100 um (0.1 mm) resolution, which focuses on seasalt and dust tracers (e.g. Na, Mg, Ca, Al, Fe). It utilizes a custom-built, peltier-cooled cryo-sample holder fully compatible with the two-volume Laurin LA-cell of our RESOlution M-50 excimer (193 nm ArF) LA system, which is coupled to an Agilent 7500cs ICPMS, operated in reaction cell gas mode with H2 to eliminate 40Ar and 40Ar16O to access 40Ca and 56Fe [3]. Using 3 x 5 cm strips of ice cores per sample holder, this setup allows elemental concentrations to be acquired using both depth-profiling along (chains of) spots and/or as continuous lateral profiles, following surface cleaning with a major-element-free ceramic blade. Ice crystal boundaries can be observed with transmitted or reflected light illumination. We focus on NGRIP samples from Greenland Stadial 22 (GS22; ~84-88 ka; ~2695-2720 m) with its corresponding transitions. Owing to analysis in frozen ice, we can easily identify - relative to ice crystal boundaries - the location of cation impurities in both clear ice and so-called cloudy bands that are enriched in impurities. We find a remarkable difference in the location of impurities between these different ice domains [4]. Lower

  6. Possible recent warming hiatus on the northwestern Tibetan Plateau derived from ice core records.

    PubMed

    An, Wenling; Hou, Shugui; Zhang, Wangbin; Wu, Shuangye; Xu, Hao; Pang, Hongxi; Wang, Yetang; Liu, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have reported enhanced warming trend on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), even during the warming hiatus period. However, most of these studies are based on instrumental data largely collected from the eastern TP, whereas the temperature trend over the extensive northwestern TP remains uncertain due to few meteorological stations. Here we combined the stable isotopic δ(18)O record of an ice core recovered in 2012 from the Chongce glacier with the δ(18)O records of two other ice cores (i.e., Muztagata and Zangser Kangri) in the same region to establish a regional temperature series for the northwestern TP. The reconstruction shows a significant warming trend with a rate of 0.74 ± 0.12 °C/decade for the period 1970-2000, but a decreasing trend from 2001 to 2012. This is consistent with the reduction of warming rates during the recent decade observed at the only two meteorological stations on the northwestern TP, even though most stations on the eastern TP have shown persistent warming during the same period. Our results suggest a possible recent warming hiatus on the northwestern TP. This could have contributed to the relatively stable status of glaciers in this region. PMID:27612305

  7. Climatological significance of δ18O in north Tibetan ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Tandong; Thompson, Lonnie G.; Mosley-Thompson, Ellen; Zhihong, Yang; Xingping, Zhang; Lin, Ping-Nan

    1996-12-01

    Oxygen isotopic ratios (δ18O) of precipitation samples collected over several years at three meteorological stations on the northern Tibetan Plateau were used to conduct the first investigation of the relationship between δ18O and contemporaneous air temperatures (Ta). Inferring past temperatures from δ18O measured in recently acquired Tibetan ice cores necessitates establishing whether a δ18O-Ta relationship exists. For each station a strong temporal relationship is found between δ18O and Ta, particularly for monthly averages which remove synoptic-scale influences such as changes in condensation level, condensation temperature, and moisture sources. Moisture source is identified as a major factor in the spatial distribution of δ18O, but air temperature determines the temporal fluctuations of δ18O at individual sites on the northern Tibetan Plateau. The 30-year records of annually averaged δ18O from three different ice coring sites are not correlated significantly with contemporaneous air temperature records from their closest meteorological station (150 to 200 km). However, since 1960 the three air temperature records reveal a modest warming trend, while the three contemporaneous δ18O records show a modest 18O enrichment.

  8. The Laschamp geomagnetic excursion featured in nitrate record from EPICA-Dome C ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traversi, R.; Becagli, S.; Poluianov, S.; Severi, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Usoskin, I. G.; Udisti, R.

    2016-01-01

    Here we present the first direct comparison of cosmogenic 10Be and chemical species in the period of 38-45.5 kyr BP spanning the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion from the EPICA-Dome C ice core. A principal component analysis (PCA) allowed to group different components as a function of the main sources, transport and deposition processes affecting the atmospheric aerosol at Dome C. Moreover, a wavelet analysis highlighted the high coherence and in-phase relationship between 10Be and nitrate at this time. The evident preferential association of 10Be with nitrate rather than with other chemical species was ascribed to the presence of a distinct source, here labelled as “cosmogenic”. Both the PCA and wavelet analyses ruled out a significant role of calcium in driving the 10Be and nitrate relationship, which is particularly relevant for a plateau site such as Dome C, especially in the glacial period during which the Laschamp excursion took place. The evidence that the nitrate record from the EDC ice core is able to capture the Laschamp event hints toward the possibility of using this marker for studying galactic cosmic ray flux variations and thus also major geomagnetic field excursions at pluri-centennial-millennial time scales, thus opening up new perspectives in paleoclimatic studies.

  9. The Laschamp geomagnetic excursion featured in nitrate record from EPICA-Dome C ice core.

    PubMed

    Traversi, R; Becagli, S; Poluianov, S; Severi, M; Solanki, S K; Usoskin, I G; Udisti, R

    2016-01-01

    Here we present the first direct comparison of cosmogenic (10)Be and chemical species in the period of 38-45.5 kyr BP spanning the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion from the EPICA-Dome C ice core. A principal component analysis (PCA) allowed to group different components as a function of the main sources, transport and deposition processes affecting the atmospheric aerosol at Dome C. Moreover, a wavelet analysis highlighted the high coherence and in-phase relationship between (10)Be and nitrate at this time. The evident preferential association of (10)Be with nitrate rather than with other chemical species was ascribed to the presence of a distinct source, here labelled as "cosmogenic". Both the PCA and wavelet analyses ruled out a significant role of calcium in driving the (10)Be and nitrate relationship, which is particularly relevant for a plateau site such as Dome C, especially in the glacial period during which the Laschamp excursion took place. The evidence that the nitrate record from the EDC ice core is able to capture the Laschamp event hints toward the possibility of using this marker for studying galactic cosmic ray flux variations and thus also major geomagnetic field excursions at pluri-centennial-millennial time scales, thus opening up new perspectives in paleoclimatic studies. PMID:26819064

  10. Possible recent warming hiatus on the northwestern Tibetan Plateau derived from ice core records

    PubMed Central

    An, Wenling; Hou, Shugui; Zhang, Wangbin; Wu, Shuangye; Xu, Hao; Pang, Hongxi; Wang, Yetang; Liu, Yaping

    2016-01-01

    Many studies have reported enhanced warming trend on the Tibetan Plateau (TP), even during the warming hiatus period. However, most of these studies are based on instrumental data largely collected from the eastern TP, whereas the temperature trend over the extensive northwestern TP remains uncertain due to few meteorological stations. Here we combined the stable isotopic δ18O record of an ice core recovered in 2012 from the Chongce glacier with the δ18O records of two other ice cores (i.e., Muztagata and Zangser Kangri) in the same region to establish a regional temperature series for the northwestern TP. The reconstruction shows a significant warming trend with a rate of 0.74 ± 0.12 °C/decade for the period 1970–2000, but a decreasing trend from 2001 to 2012. This is consistent with the reduction of warming rates during the recent decade observed at the only two meteorological stations on the northwestern TP, even though most stations on the eastern TP have shown persistent warming during the same period. Our results suggest a possible recent warming hiatus on the northwestern TP. This could have contributed to the relatively stable status of glaciers in this region. PMID:27612305

  11. The Laschamp geomagnetic excursion featured in nitrate record from EPICA-Dome C ice core

    PubMed Central

    Traversi, R.; Becagli, S.; Poluianov, S.; Severi, M.; Solanki, S. K.; Usoskin, I. G.; Udisti, R.

    2016-01-01

    Here we present the first direct comparison of cosmogenic 10Be and chemical species in the period of 38–45.5 kyr BP spanning the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion from the EPICA-Dome C ice core. A principal component analysis (PCA) allowed to group different components as a function of the main sources, transport and deposition processes affecting the atmospheric aerosol at Dome C. Moreover, a wavelet analysis highlighted the high coherence and in-phase relationship between 10Be and nitrate at this time. The evident preferential association of 10Be with nitrate rather than with other chemical species was ascribed to the presence of a distinct source, here labelled as “cosmogenic”. Both the PCA and wavelet analyses ruled out a significant role of calcium in driving the 10Be and nitrate relationship, which is particularly relevant for a plateau site such as Dome C, especially in the glacial period during which the Laschamp excursion took place. The evidence that the nitrate record from the EDC ice core is able to capture the Laschamp event hints toward the possibility of using this marker for studying galactic cosmic ray flux variations and thus also major geomagnetic field excursions at pluri-centennial-millennial time scales, thus opening up new perspectives in paleoclimatic studies. PMID:26819064

  12. Polychlorinated biphenyls in glaciers. 1. Deposition history from an Alpine ice core.

    PubMed

    Pavlova, Pavlina Aneva; Schmid, Peter; Bogdal, Christian; Steinlin, Christine; Jenk, Theo M; Schwikowski, Margit

    2014-07-15

    We present a highly time-resolved historical record of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from an Alpine ice core (Fiescherhorn glacier, Switzerland). Introduced in the 1940s, PCBs were widely used industrial chemicals. Because of their persistence they are still found in the environment, long after their production phase-out. The Fiescherhorn ice core record covers the entire time period of industrial use of PCBs, that is, 1940-2002. The total concentration of six PCBs varies from 0.5 to 5 ng L(-1) and reveals a temporal trend, with an 8-fold increase from the early 1940s to the peak value in the 1970s. The level in 2002 is comparable to the concentration in the 1940s, when PCBs were introduced into the market. The time trend of PCBs associated with the particulate fraction closely follows the trend found in the dissolved fraction, but the absolute values are a factor of 10 lower. In addition to changing emissions, fluctuations in the PCB record were explained by variabilty in convective transport and postdepositional processes such as surface melting. Concentrations of PCBs are in agreement with data from seasonal snow samples in the Alps, but are a factor of 100 higher than concentrations measured in the Arctic. Contrasting time trends and congener patterns between the Alpine and Arctic region indicate the importance of atmospheric transport and postdepositional effects.

  13. Human and climate impacts on Holocene fire activity recorded in polar and mountain ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehrwald, Natalie; Zennaro, Piero; Kirchgeorg, Torben; Li, Quanlian; Wang, Ninglian; Power, Mitchell; Zangrando, Roberta; Gabrielli, Paolo; Thompson, Lonnie; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo

    2014-05-01

    Fire is one of the major influences of biogeochemical change on local to hemispheric scales through emitting greenhouse gases, altering atmospheric chemistry, and changing primary productivity. Levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose) is a specific molecular that can only be produced by cellulose burning at temperatures > 300°C, comprises a major component of smoke plumes, and can be transported across > 1000 km distances. Levoglucosan is deposited on and archived in glaciers over glacial interglacial cycles resulting in pyrochemical evidence for exploring interactions between fire, climate and human activity. Ice core records provide records of past biomass burning from regions of the world with limited paleofire data including polar and low-latitude, high-altitude regions. Here, we present Holocene fire activity records from the NEEM, Greenland (77° 27'N; 51° 3'W; 2454 masl), EPICA Dome C, Antarctica (75° 06'S; 123° 21'E; 3233 masl), Kilimanjaro, Tanzania (3° 05'S, 21.2° E, 5893 masl) and the Muztagh, China (87.17° E; 36.35° N; 5780 masl ice cores. The NEEM ice core reflects boreal fire activity from both North American and Eurasian sources. Temperature is the dominant control of NEEM levoglucosan flux over decadal to millennial time scales, while droughts influence fire activity over sub-decadal timescales. Our results demonstrate the prominence of Siberian fire sources during intense multiannual droughts. Unlike the NEEM core, which incorporates the largest land masses in the world as potential fire sources, EPICA Dome C is located far from any possible fire source. However, EPICA Dome C levoglucosan concentrations are consistently above detection limits and demonstrate a substantial 1000-fold increase in fire activity beginning approximately 800 years ago. This significant and sustained increase coincides with Maori arrival and dispersal in New Zealand augmented by later European arrival in Australia. The EPICA Dome C levoglucosan profile is

  14. Late Quaternary Variations of Atmospheric Nitrous Oxide Reconstructed from Polar Ice Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilt, A.; Baumgartner, M.; Blunier, T.; Schwander, J.; Spahni, R.; Fischer, H.; Stocker, T. F.

    2009-12-01

    Air extracted from polar ice cores offers the unique possibility to reconstruct the past composition of Earth’s atmosphere, and thus to study natural changes in biogeochemical cycles. Here, we present records of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) measured along the EPICA Dome C, EPICA Dronning Maud Land, Talos Dome and NGRIP ice cores. These records allow for the reconstruction of the N2O concentration during the interglacials of the last 800,000 years, while for most glacial time intervals an atmospheric record is missing due to insitu production of N2O in the ice. N2O which has both terrestrial and marine sources, varies in concert with Antarctic temperature during all interglacials back to Marine Isotope Stage 19. However, in contrast to carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), N2O does not show lower concentrations in response to the lower temperature recorded for the interglacials between 800,000 and 440,000 years before present compared to the interglacials of the last 440,000 years. Also, N2O remains substantially longer at interglacial levels than CH4 at the end of most interglacials. On millennial time scales, N2O shows variations in concert with CH4 throughout the last 800,000 years. We suggest that these millennial-scale variations have been driven by a similar mechanism as the Dansgaard/Oeschger events known from the last glacial. We further establish a N2O composite record which covers, without gaps, more than one glacial-interglacial cycle, i.e. it reaches back to the beginning of the penultimate interglacial (Marine Isotope Stage 5.5) about 140,000 years ago. This composite record reveals substantial N2O variations in response to all Dansgaard/Oeschger events of the last glacial, and a N2O concentration of about 200 parts per billion by volume during the Last Glacial Maximum.

  15. Earthquakes and Ice Cores Point to Wet Feet at the NorthGRIP Deep Drill Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahl-Jensen, D.; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Gundestrup, N. S.

    2001-12-01

    A seismic broadband station was placed at the NorthGRIP deep drill site (75N, 42W) on the Greenland Ice Cap for the summer 2000. During the 2 month acquisition period 15 earthquakes with sufficient quality for Receiver Function analysis aimed at crust and mantle structure under NorthGRIP were recorded. The models are consistent with the presence of a thin sedimentary layer at the base of the ice. The seismic velocities in the sediments are lower than in the ice, indicating wet sediments. The results from the deep drilling program reveal high basal temperatures at the base of the 3080 m thick ice at NorthGRIP. The measured temperatures and the observed layer thickness' in the ice core indicate that there is basal melting of the order of 5 mm /yr. and that the geothermal heatflow is of the order of 100 mW/m2 (REF), much higher than expected. A detailed radio echo mapping of the bedrock show that NorthGRIP is located in a large, flat-bottomed valley, suggesting that the sediments observed are lacustrine. The thin layer of sediments cannot account for the unexpected high heatflow causing equally unexpected basal melting. The geology is presumed to be Precambrian. Heatflow determined in a similar way at the GRIP deep drill site (73N, 38W) is 51 mW/ m2 (Dahl-Jensen et al, 1998), more in line with expected values. Magnetic anomaly data do not indicate any volcanic structures, which could help explain the high heatflow. Gravity anomaly data show that NorthGRIP is located at the edge of marked gravity discontinuity. The cause of the discontinuity is not known, but "edge effects" could be speculated upon to be the cause of the high heatflow. D. Dahl-Jensen, N. Gundestrup, H. Miller, O. Watanabe, S.J. Johnsen, J.P. Steffensen, H.B. Clausen, A. Svensson, L.B. Larsen in press: The NorthGRIP drilling program. Annals of Glaciology, vol 35 D. Dahl-Jensen, K Mosegaard, N. Grundestrup, G.D. Clow, S.J. Johnson and N. Balling 1998: Past Temperatures Directly from the Greenland Ice

  16. Core to Atmosphere Exploration of Ice Giants: A Uranus Mission Concept Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensema, R. J.; Arias-Young, T. M.; Wilkins, A. N.; Ermakov, A.; Bennett, C.; Dietrich, A.; Hemingway, D.; Klein, V.; Mane, P.; Marr, K. D.; Masterson, J.; Siegel, V.; Stober, K. J.; Talpe, M.; Vines, S. K.; Wetteland, C. J.

    2014-12-01

    Ice giants remain largely unexplored, as their large distance from the Sun limits both Earth-based observations and spacecraft visits. The significant occurrence of ice giant-sized planets among detected exoplanets presents an impetus to study Uranus to understand planetary formation, dynamics, and evolution. In addition, Uranus is also uniquely interesting, given the large inclination of its rotation axis and magnetospheric configuration. In this work, we design a mission concept that aims to maximize scientific return by measuring Uranus' chemical composition, internal structure, and magnetosphere, the first two being primary indicators of ice giant formation mechanisms. For this study, we analyze the trade space for a Uranus mission constrained by a cost cap of $1B. We discuss the decision making processes behind our choices of the science priorities, instrument suite and orbital configuration. Trade space decisions include a strong onboard instrument suite in lieu of a descent probe, an orbiter instead of a flyby mission, and design constraints on the power and propulsion systems. The mission, CAELUS (Core and Atmospheric Evolution Laboratory for Uranus Science), is designed for an August 2023 launch. Following a 14-year cruise with multiple planetary gravity assists, the spacecraft would begin its science mission, which consists of a series of ten 30-day near-polar orbits around Uranus. The instrument suite would consist of a microwave radiometer, Doppler seismometer, magnetometer, and UV spectrometer. These four instruments, along with a high-gain antenna capable of gravity science, would provide a comprehensive science return that meets the bulk of the scientific objectives of the 2013 NRC Planetary Science Decadal Survey for ice giants, most notably those regarding the chemical composition, interior structure, and dynamo of Uranus. This mission concept was created as part of an educational exercise for the 2014 Planetary Science Summer School at the Jet

  17. Palynology as an age-control tool for ice cores. First results of PAMOGIS - Pollen Analyses of the Mt. Ortles Glacier Ice Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Festi, Daniela; Kofler, Werner; Gabrielli, Paolo; Oeggl, Klaus

    2014-05-01

    Glacier ice cores from the mid latitude are capable of retaining essential information on past climate, environmental and human activities on a seasonal/annual time resolution. However, for a correct interpretation of the ice record a good chronological control is essential. Absolute time markers such as 3H peaks and Sahara dust horizons, together with radiometric methods such as 210Pb, radiocarbon from carbonaceous aerosol particles and AMS-dating are commonly used to obtain the age depth model of ice cores. In this frame we present the first pollen-based chronology from the Eastern Alps. Results of pollen analyses performed on a 10 m firn core taken on the top of Alto dell'Ortles Glacier (3905 m a.s.l.) will be discussed. Palynological data are compared and complemented with stable isotopes, major ions and trace elements analyses. Based on the single species flowering periods, our results show that the pollen spectrum presents seasonal and inter-annual variability that enables to distinguish snow accumulated in the three different flowering seasons and winter snow. According to these four components a seasonal and annual chronology was established, proving that the 10 m firn core encompasses four years of snow accumulation and presents a clear seasonal palynological signal. These first results reveal the potential of pollen content of glacier snow and ice as a chronological tool that can contribute to the construction of a robust chronological model with a seasonal to annual resolution. This study is the first step and the base for future research on deeper ice cores on the Alto dell'Ortles Glacier (Ortles project: www.ortles.org).

  18. Soil temperatures and stability of ice-cemented ground in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, C.; Mellon, M. T.; Friedmann, E. I.

    1998-01-01

    Year-round temperature measurements at 1600 m elevation during 1994 in the Asgard Range Antarctica, indicate that the mean annual frost point of the ice-cemented ground, 25 cm below the surface, is -21.7 +/- 0.2 degrees C and the mean annual frost point of the atmosphere is -27.5 +/- 1.0 degrees C. The corresponding mean annual temperatures are -24.9 degrees C and -23.3 degrees C. These results imply that there is a net flux of water vapour from the ice to the atmosphere resulting in a recession of the ice-cemented ground by about 0.4-0.6 mm yr-1. The level of the ice-cemented permafrost is about 12 cm below the level of dry permafrost. The summer air temperatures would have to increase about 7 degrees C for thawing temperatures to just reach the top of the subsurface ice. Either subsurface ice at this location is evaporating over time or there are sporadic processes that recharge the ice and maintain equilibrium over long timescales.

  19. Anomalously high arsenic concentration in a West Antarctic ice core and its relationship to copper mining in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwanck, Franciele; Simões, Jefferson C.; Handley, Michael; Mayewski, Paul A.; Bernardo, Ronaldo T.; Aquino, Francisco E.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic variability records are preserved in snow and ice cores and can be utilized to reconstruct air pollution history. The Mount Johns ice core (79°55‧S; 94°23‧W and 91.2 m depth) was collected from the West Antarctic Ice Sheet in the 2008/09 austral summer. Here, we report the As concentration variability as determined by 2137 samples from the upper 45 m of this core using ICP-SFMS (CCI, University of Maine, USA). The record covers approximately 125 years (1883-2008) showing a mean concentration of 4.32 pg g-1. The arsenic concentration in the core follows global copper mining evolution, particularly in Chile (the largest producer of Cu). From 1940 to 1990, copper-mining production increased along with arsenic concentrations in the MJ core, from 1.92 pg g-1 (before 1900) to 7.94 pg g-1 (1950). In the last two decades, environmental regulations for As emissions have been implemented, forcing smelters to treat their gases to conform to national and international environmental standards. In Chile, decontamination plants required by the government started operating from 1993 to 2000. Thereafter, Chilean copper production more than doubled while As emission levels declined, and the same reduction was observed in the Mount Johns ice core. After 1999, arsenic concentrations in our samples decreased to levels comparable to the period before 1900.

  20. Glacial-interglacial dynamics of Antarctic firn columns: comparison between simulations and ice core air-?15N measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capron, E.; Landais, A.; Buiron, D.; Cauquoin, A.; Chappellaz, J. A.; Debret, M.; Jouzel, J.; Leuenberger, M.; Martinerie, P.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Mulvaney, R.; Parrenin, F.; Prié, F.

    2013-12-01

    Correct estimation of the firn lock-in depth is essential for correctly linking gas and ice chronologies in ice core studies. Here, two approaches to constrain the firn depth evolution in Antarctica are presented over the last deglaciation: outputs of a firn densification model, and measurements of δ15N of N2 in air trapped in ice core, assuming that δ15N is only affected by gravitational fractionation in the firn column. Since the firn densification process is largely governed by surface temperature and accumulation rate, we have investigated four ice cores drilled in coastal (Berkner Island, BI, and James Ross Island, JRI) and semi-coastal (TALDICE and EPICA Dronning Maud Land, EDML) Antarctic regions. Combined with available ice core air- δ15N measurements from the EPICA Dome C (EDC) site, the studied regions encompass a large range of surface accumulation rates and temperature conditions. Our δ15N profiles reveal a heterogeneous response of the firn structure to glacial-interglacial climatic changes. While firn densification simulations correctly predict TALDICE δ15N variations, they systematically fail to capture the large millennial-scale δ15N variations measured at BI and the δ15N glacial levels measured at JRI and EDML - a mismatch previously reported for central East Antarctic ice cores. New constraints of the EDML gas-ice depth offset during the Laschamp event (41 ka) and the last deglaciation do not favour the hypothesis of a large convective zone within the firn as the explanation of the glacial firn model- δ15N data mismatch for this site. While we could not conduct an in-depth study of the influence of impurities in snow for firnification from the existing datasets, our detailed comparison between the δ15N profiles and firn model simulations under different temperature and accumulation rate scenarios suggests that the role of accumulation rate may have been underestimated in the current description of firnification models.

  1. Glacial-interglacial dynamics of Antarctic firn columns: comparison between simulations and ice core air-δ15N measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capron, E.; Landais, A.; Buiron, D.; Cauquoin, A.; Chappellaz, J.; Debret, M.; Jouzel, J.; Leuenberger, M.; Martinerie, P.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Mulvaney, R.; Parrenin, F.; Prié, F.

    2013-05-01

    Correct estimation of the firn lock-in depth is essential for correctly linking gas and ice chronologies in ice core studies. Here, two approaches to constrain the firn depth evolution in Antarctica are presented over the last deglaciation: outputs of a firn densification model, and measurements of δ15N of N2 in air trapped in ice core, assuming that δ15N is only affected by gravitational fractionation in the firn column. Since the firn densification process is largely governed by surface temperature and accumulation rate, we have investigated four ice cores drilled in coastal (Berkner Island, BI, and James Ross Island, JRI) and semi-coastal (TALDICE and EPICA Dronning Maud Land, EDML) Antarctic regions. Combined with available ice core air-δ15N measurements from the EPICA Dome C (EDC) site, the studied regions encompass a large range of surface accumulation rates and temperature conditions. Our δ15N profiles reveal a heterogeneous response of the firn structure to glacial-interglacial climatic changes. While firn densification simulations correctly predict TALDICE δ15N variations, they systematically fail to capture the large millennial-scale δ15N variations measured at BI and the δ15N glacial levels measured at JRI and EDML - a mismatch previously reported for central East Antarctic ice cores. New constraints of the EDML gas-ice depth offset during the Laschamp event (~41 ka) and the last deglaciation do not favour the hypothesis of a large convective zone within the firn as the explanation of the glacial firn model-δ15N data mismatch for this site. While we could not conduct an in-depth study of the influence of impurities in snow for firnification from the existing datasets, our detailed comparison between the δ15N profiles and firn model simulations under different temperature and accumulation rate scenarios suggests that the role of accumulation rate may have been underestimated in the current description of firnification models.

  2. Detection prospects for GeV neutrinos from collisionally heated gamma-ray bursts with IceCube/DeepCore.

    PubMed

    Bartos, I; Beloborodov, A M; Hurley, K; Márka, S

    2013-06-14

    Jet reheating via nuclear collisions has recently been proposed as the main mechanism for gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission. In addition to producing the observed gamma rays, collisional heating must generate 10-100 GeV neutrinos, implying a close relation between the neutrino and gamma-ray luminosities. We exploit this theoretical relation to make predictions for possible GRB detections by IceCube + DeepCore. To estimate the expected neutrino signal, we use the largest sample of bursts observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment in 1991-2000. GRB neutrinos could have been detected if IceCube + DeepCore operated at that time. Detection of 10-100 GeV neutrinos would have significant implications, shedding light on the composition of GRB jets and their Lorentz factors. This could be an important target in designing future upgrades of the IceCube + DeepCore observatory. PMID:25165903

  3. Detection prospects for GeV neutrinos from collisionally heated gamma-ray bursts with IceCube/DeepCore.

    PubMed

    Bartos, I; Beloborodov, A M; Hurley, K; Márka, S

    2013-06-14

    Jet reheating via nuclear collisions has recently been proposed as the main mechanism for gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission. In addition to producing the observed gamma rays, collisional heating must generate 10-100 GeV neutrinos, implying a close relation between the neutrino and gamma-ray luminosities. We exploit this theoretical relation to make predictions for possible GRB detections by IceCube + DeepCore. To estimate the expected neutrino signal, we use the largest sample of bursts observed by the Burst and Transient Source Experiment in 1991-2000. GRB neutrinos could have been detected if IceCube + DeepCore operated at that time. Detection of 10-100 GeV neutrinos would have significant implications, shedding light on the composition of GRB jets and their Lorentz factors. This could be an important target in designing future upgrades of the IceCube + DeepCore observatory.

  4. Chlorine-36 and cesium-137 in ice-core samples from mid-latitude glacial sites in the Northern Hemisphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Green, J.R.; Cecil, L.D.; Synal, H.-A.; Kreutz, K.J.; Wake, C.P.; Naftz, D.L.; Frape, S.K.

    2000-01-01

    Chlorine-36 (36Cl) concentrations, 36Cl/Cl ratios, and 36Cl fluxes in ice-core samples collected from the Upper Fremont Glacier (UFG) in the Wind River Mountain Range, Wyoming, United States and the Nangpai Gosum Glacier (NGG) in the Himalayan Mountains, Nepal, were determined and compared with published results from the Dye-3 ice-core drilling site on the Greenland Ice Sheet. Cesium-137 (137Cs) concentrations in the NGG also were determined. The background fluxes for 36Cl for each glacial site were similar: (1.6??0.3)??10-2 atoms/cm2 s for the UFG samples, (0.7??0.1)??10-2 atoms/cm2 s for the NGG samples, and (0.4??0.1)??10-2 atoms/cm2 s for the Dye-3 samples. The 36Cl fluxes in ice that was deposited as snow during peak atmospheric nuclear weapon test (1957-1958) were (33??1)??10-2 atoms/cm2 s for the UFG site, (291??3)??10-2 atoms/cm2 s for the NGG site, and (124??5)??10-2 atoms/ cm2 s for the Dye-3 site. A weapon test period 137Cs concentration of 0.79??0.05 Bq/kg in the NGG ice core also was detected in the same section of ice that contained the largest 36Cl concentration. ?? 2000 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. All-flavour search for neutrinos from dark matter annihilations in the Milky Way with IceCube/DeepCore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aartsen, M. G.; Abraham, K.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J. A.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, M.; Altmann, D.; Andeen, K.; Anderson, T.; Ansseau, I.; Anton, G.; Archinger, M.; Arguelles, C.; Arlen, T. C.; Auffenberg, J.; Axani, S.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S. W.; Baum, V.; Bay, R.; Beatty, J. J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Becker, K.-H.; BenZvi, S.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bernhard, A.; Besson, D. Z.; Binder, G.; Bindig, D.; Bissok, M.; Blaufuss, E.; Blot, S.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Börner, M.; Bos, F.; Bose, D.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Brayeur, L.; Bretz, H.-P.; Burgman, A.; Casey, J.; Casier, M.; Cheung, E.; Chirkin, D.; Christov, A.; Clark, K.; Classen, L.; Coenders, S.; Collin, G. H.; Conrad, J. M.; Cowen, D. F.; Cruz Silva, A. H.; Daughhetee, J.; Davis, J. C.; Day, M.; de André, J. P. A. M.; De Clercq, C.; del Pino Rosendo, E.; Dembinski, H.; De Ridder, S.; Desiati, P.; de Vries, K. D.; de Wasseige, G.; de With, M.; DeYoung, T.; Díaz-Vélez, J. C.; di Lorenzo, V.; Dujmovic, H.; Dumm, J. P.; Dunkman, M.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Eichmann, B.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fahey, S.; Fazely, A. R.; Feintzeig, J.; Felde, J.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Fösig, C.-C.; Franckowiak, A.; Fuchs, T.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gaior, R.; Gallagher, J.; Gerhardt, L.; Ghorbani, K.; Giang, W.; Gladstone, L.; Glagla, M.; Glüsenkamp, T.; Goldschmidt, A.; Golup, G.; Gonzalez, J. G.; Góra, D.; Grant, D.; Griffith, Z.; Haack, C.; Haj Ismail, A.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Hansen, E.; Hansmann, B.; Hansmann, T.; Hanson, K.; Hebecker, D.; Heereman, D.; Helbing, K.; Hellauer, R.; Hickford, S.; Hignight, J.; Hill, G. C.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoffmann, R.; Holzapfel, K.; Homeier, A.; Hoshina, K.; Huang, F.; Huber, M.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hultqvist, K.; In, S.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobi, E.; Japaridze, G. S.; Jeong, M.; Jero, K.; Jones, B. J. P.; Jurkovic, M.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Katz, U.; Kauer, M.; Keivani, A.; Kelley, J. L.; Kemp, J.; Kheirandish, A.; Kim, M.; Kintscher, T.; Kiryluk, J.; Kittler, T.; Klein, S. R.; Kohnen, G.; Koirala, R.; Kolanoski, H.; Konietz, R.; Köpke, L.; Kopper, C.; Kopper, S.; Koskinen, D. J.; Kowalski, M.; Krings, K.; Kroll, M.; Krückl, G.; Krüger, C.; Kunnen, J.; Kunwar, S.; Kurahashi, N.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Lanfranchi, J. L.; Larson, M. J.; Lennarz, D.; Lesiak-Bzdak, M.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Lu, L.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maggi, G.; Mahn, K. B. M.; Mancina, S.; Mandelartz, M.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Maunu, R.; McNally, F.; Meagher, K.; Medici, M.; Meier, M.; Meli, A.; Menne, T.; Merino, G.; Meures, T.; Miarecki, S.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Montaruli, T.; Moulai, M.; Nahnhauer, R.; Naumann, U.; Neer, G.; Niederhausen, H.; Nowicki, S. C.; Nygren, D. R.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Olivas, A.; Omairat, A.; O'Murchadha, A.; Palczewski, T.; Pandya, H.; Pankova, D. V.; Penek, Ö.; Pepper, J. A.; Pérez de los Heros, C.; Pfendner, C.; Pieloth, D.; Pinat, E.; Posselt, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Quinnan, M.; Raab, C.; Rädel, L.; Rameez, M.; Rawlins, K.; Reimann, R.; Relich, M.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Richman, M.; Riedel, B.; Robertson, S.; Rongen, M.; Rott, C.; Ruhe, T.; Ryckbosch, D.; Rysewyk, D.; Sabbatini, L.; Sanchez Herrera, S. E.; Sandrock, A.; Sandroos, J.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schimp, M.; Schlunder, P.; Schmidt, T.; Schoenen, S.; Schöneberg, S.; Schönwald, A.; Schumacher, L.; Seckel, D.; Seunarine, S.; Soldin, D.; Song, M.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stahlberg, M.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stasik, A.; Steuer, A.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stößl, A.; Ström, R.; Strotjohann, N. L.; Sullivan, G. W.; Sutherland, M.; Taavola, H.; Taboada, I.; Tatar, J.; Tenholt, F.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Terliuk, A.; Tešić, G.; Tilav, S.; Toale, P. A.; Tobin, M. N.; Toscano, S.; Tosi, D.; Tselengidou, M.; Turcati, A.; Unger, E.; Usner, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vanheule, S.; van Rossem, M.; van Santen, J.; Veenkamp, J.; Vehring, M.; Voge, M.; Vraeghe, M.; Walck, C.; Wallace, A.; Wallraff, M.; Wandkowsky, N.; Weaver, Ch.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whelan, B. J.; Wickmann, S.; Wiebe, K.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wille, L.; Williams, D. R.; Wills, L.; Wissing, H.; Wolf, M.; Wood, T. R.; Woolsey, E.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, D. L.; Xu, X. W.; Xu, Y.; Yanez, J. P.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.; Zoll, M.

    2016-10-01

    We present the first IceCube search for a signal of dark matter annihilations in the Milky Way using all-flavour neutrino-induced particle cascades. The analysis focuses on the DeepCore sub-detector of IceCube, and uses the surrounding IceCube strings as a veto region in order to select starting events in the DeepCore volume. We use 329 live-days of data from IceCube operating in its 86-string configuration during 2011-2012. No neutrino excess is found, the final result being compatible with the background-only hypothesis. From this null result, we derive upper limits on the velocity-averaged self-annihilation cross-section, < σ _A v rangle , for dark matter candidate masses ranging from 30 GeV up to 10 TeV, assuming both a cuspy and a flat-cored dark matter halo profile. For dark matter masses between 200 GeV and 10 TeV, the results improve on all previous IceCube results on < σ _A v rangle , reaching a level of 10^{-23} cm^3 s^{-1}, depending on the annihilation channel assumed, for a cusped NFW profile. The analysis demonstrates that all-flavour searches are competitive with muon channel searches despite the intrinsically worse angular resolution of cascades compared to muon tracks in IceCube.

  6. Methanesulphonic acid from Talos Dome ice core as a marker of past periodicity of Ross Sea ice extent and southern hemisphere atmospheric circulation mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becagli, S.; Castellano, E.; Curran, M.; Manganelli, D.; Marino, F.; Morganti, A.; Proposito, M.; Severi, M.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.

    2009-04-01

    This work contributes to the understanding of variation in methanesulphonic (MSA) concentration in an ice core drilled during the 1996-97 Antarctic Campaign at the coastal plateau site of Talos Dome (East Antarctica) as function of sea ice extent in Ross Sea sector and southern hemisphere atmospheric circulation mode. Unperturbed stratigraphy and high ice thickness make Talos Dome a promising site for deep ice coring, which started in December 2004 and reached a depth of 1619.2 m, which is a few meters above the bedrock, in December 2007. This ice core record is assumed to cover the previous 120 kyr. In preparation of the deep drilling, an 89 m firn core (TD96) was drilled at the dome culmination in November 1996 and, in this work, the results obtained from this firn core are reported. MSA stratigraphy from TD96 core was compared with anomalies of the satellite-measured sea ice extension (1973-1995) in the Ross Sea and Wilkes Land oceanic sector. In spite of the sparseness of sea ice data, the MSA maxima fit with many positive sea ice anomalies in the Ross Sea. This evidence suggests that marine biogenic activity enhanced by large sea ice cover is an important, but not exclusive, factor in controlling MSA concentration in snow precipitation at Talos Dome. Other than source intensity, differences in regional atmospheric transport mechanisms affect the arrival of MSA-rich aerosol at Talos Dome. To clarify the role of transport processes in bringing biogenic aerosol to Talos Dome, a spectral analysis was applied to the MSA, SOI (South Oscillation Index), and SAM (Southern Annular Mode) record. Synchronicity or phase shift between the chemical signature and atmospheric circulation modes were tested. The variations in the MSA profile have a periodicity of 6.9, 4.9, 3.5, and 2.9 years. The 6.9 and 2.9 year periodicities show a strong positive correlation and are synchronous with corresponding SOI periodicity. This variability could be related to an increase in MSA source

  7. New ice core records on the glacial/interglacial change in atmospheric δ13CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, H.; Schmitt, J.; Schneider, R.; Elsig, J.; Lourantou, A.; Leuenberger, M.; Stocker, T. F.; Koehler, P.; Lavric, J.; Raynaud, D. P.; Chappellaz, J. A.

    2010-12-01

    The reconstruction of δ13CO2 using Antarctic ice cores promises a deeper understanding on the causes of past atmospheric CO2 changes. Previous measurements on the Taylor Dome ice core over the last 30,000 years (Smith et al., 1999) indicated marine processes to be dominating the significant δ13CO2 changes over the transition, whereas glacial δ13CO2 was only slightly depleted relative to the Holocene (Leuenberger et al., 1992; Smith et al., 1999). However, significant uncertainty and the low temporal resolution of the Taylor Dome δ13CO2 data prevented a more detailed interpretation. Recently, substantial improvements have been made in the analysis and the resolution of ice core δ13CO2 records (Elsig et al., 2009; Lourantou et al., 2010). With these and new measurements presented here, three independent δ13CO2 data sets over the last glacial/interglacial transition have now been derived from the two EPICA and the Talos Dome ice cores. Two of the methods use traditional dry extraction techniques with a reproducibility of 0.07-0.1‰. The third method uses a novel sublimation technique with a reproducibility of 0.05‰. Here we compare the data sets, their analytical setups and discuss their joint information as well as their differences. The three records provide a more detailed picture on the temporal evolution of δ13CO2 and confirm two pronounced isotope minima between 18-12,000 years BP in parallel to the two major phases of CO2 increase (Lourantou et al., 2010; Smith et al., 1999) as also reflected in marine sediments (Marchitto et al., 2007; Skinner et al., 2010). Accordingly, a release of old carbon from the deep ocean is most likely responsible for a large part of the long-term increase in atmospheric CO2 in this time interval. However, the fast CO2 jumps at a round 12,000 and 14,000 years BP may be partly of terrestrial origin (Elsig, 2009; Köhler et al., 2010b). The new sublimation data set provides also unambiguous δ13CO2 data for clathrate ice in

  8. A 16,000-yr tephra framework for the Antarctic ice sheet: a contribution from the new Talos Dome core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narcisi, Biancamaria; Petit, Jean Robert; Delmonte, Barbara; Scarchilli, Claudio; Stenni, Barbara

    2012-08-01

    A detailed tephra record for the last 16,000 years of the TALDICE ice core drilled at Talos Dome (East Antarctica, Pacific/Ross Sea sector) is documented. Traces of 26 different explosive volcanic eruptions, dated by ice core chronology and framed within the climate (δ18O) record for the core, have been identified. Glass major element composition and grain size data indicate that all prominent tephra layers derive from Antarctic volcanic activity and likely originated in proximal volcanoes of the Melbourne Volcanic Province (Northern Victoria Land). Two other Antarctic horizons may have originated from the more distant volcanoes of Mount Berlin (Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica) and Mount Erebus (Ross Island, Southern Victoria Land). Moreover, based on glass-shard geochemistry and a 20-year analysis of atmospheric back trajectories suggesting ash transport from South America to the drilling site by the circumpolar westerly circulation, a few faint microtephra horizons are attributed to Andean volcanic activity. Two of these tephras are interpreted to be related to known Holocene explosive eruptions from the volcanoes of Mount Hudson and Mount Burney. Finally, by comparing compositional features in conjunction with age data, three TALDICE tephras have been successfully correlated with volcanic layers in other ice records of the Antarctic ice sheet. Altogether, our results expand the Antarctic tephrostratigraphic framework and add value to the prospects for continental-scale correlations between ice cores and Southern Hemisphere sediment archives.

  9. Linking two thousand years of European historical records with environmental change recorded in a high Alpine ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohleber, Pascal; Spaulding, Nicole; Mayewski, Paul; Kurbatov, Andrei; Hoffmann, Helene; Erhardt, Tobias; Fischer, Hubertus; More, Alexander; Loveluck, Christopher; Luongo, Matthew; Kabala, Jakub; McCormick, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Its extraordinary network of historical and archaeological records makes Europe exceptionally promising for investigating environmental change and human response over the last two thousand years. Among natural proxy archives, ice core records offer a wide range of environmental reconstructions including natural and human source histories of the chemistry of the atmosphere. To link these robust environmental records with historical evidence of past civilizations remains a great challenge, however. In central Europe the unique target for a comparison for environmental change recorded in ice cores and human activity is the small firn saddle of Colle Gnifetti (4550 m above sea level on the Italian-Swiss border). Its exceptionally low net accumulation make Colle Gnifetti (CG) the only feasible site in the Alps for retrieving a long-term ice core record beyond the last century. However, at CG rapid annual layer thinning eventually limits conventional cm-resolution analysis to multi-annual signals and hampers dating by annual layer counting beyond a few hundred years. Thereby, a crucial gap is introduced to the sub-seasonal time scale of events typically recorded in written archives. In our ongoing project we pioneer correlating the CG environmental ice core archive with a unique compilation of European historical records provided through the Harvard Initiative for the Science of the Human Past and the Digital Atlas of Roman and Medieval Civilization. For this purpose, state-of-the-art glacio-chemical analysis was performed on a newly recovered CG ice core, including continuous flow analysis chemistry and stable isotopes. A crucial contribution comes from the application of LA-ICP-MS (laser ablation ion coupled plasma mass spectrometry) to meter long sections of frozen ice samples, developed and operated by the University of Maine's Climate Change Institute, offering glacio-chemical records up to 100 μm in resolution. The new methods significantly improves sampling

  10. Evidence for in-situ metabolic activity in ice sheets based on anomalous trace gas records from the Vostok and other ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowers, T.

    2003-04-01

    Measurements of trace gas species in ice cores are the primary means for reconstructing the composition of the atmosphere. The longest such record comes from the Vostok core taken from the central portion of the East Antarctic ice sheet [Petit et al., 1999]. In general, the trace gas records from Vostok are utilized as the reference signal when correlating trace gas measurements from other ice cores. The underlying assumption implicit in such endeavors is that the bubbles recovered from the ice cores record the composition of the atmosphere at the time the bubbles were formed. Another implicit assumption is that the composition of the bubbles has not been compromised by the extremely long storage periods within the ice sheet. While there is ample evidence that certain trace gas records (e.g. CO2 and CH4) have probably not been compromised, anomalous nitrous oxide (N2O) measurements from the penultimate glacial termination at Vostok are consistent with in-situ (N2O) production [Sowers, 2001]. In general, trace gas measurements from high altitude tropical/temperate glaciers are higher than expected based on contemporaneous measurements from polar cores. Measurements spanning the last 25kyr from the Sajama ice core from central Bolivia (18oS, 69oW, 6542masl), for example, were 1X-5X higher than contemporaneous values recorded in polar ice cores [Campen et al., 2003]. While other physical factors (like temperature/melting) may contribute to the elevated trace gas levels at these sites, the most likely explanation involves the accumulation of in-situ metabolic trace gas byproducts. Stable isotope measurements provide independent information for assessing the origin of the elevated trace gas levels in select samples. For the penultimate glacial termination at Vostok, the anomalous (N2O) values carry high δ15Nbulk and low δ18Obulk values that would be predicted if the added (N2O) was associated with in-situ nitrification. At Sajama, low δ13CH4 values observed during

  11. Radar and Geomorphic Evidence of the Occurrence of Massive Ground Ice in the Martian Northern Plains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clifford, S. M.; PetitJean, M.; Costard, F.; Mouginot, J.; Parker, T. J.

    2013-09-01

    The possibility that a large ocean or massive ice-sheet once occupied the Martian northern plains has been proposed based on the interpretive identification of various landforms, including sedimentary deposits [1, 2], outwash plains [3] and possible paleoshorelines - the latter based largely on the work of Parker et al. [4-7], who identified evidence of a series of nested levels, which they interpreted as shorelines, located along the highland/lowland boundary. The combination of high-resolution orbiter images with MOLA gridded topography has enabled the compilation of regional and global maps of the proposed shorelines. The highest and oldest of these is called the 'Arabian Level' and is believed to date back to the Late Noachian. In the much higher resolution (~0.2 - 20 m/pixel) MOC, HiRISE and HRSC images, the Arabian Level exhibits evidence of terracing (potentially indicative of wave-cut erosion); however, the topographically lower/younger 'shore-lines' do not. The interior plains encompassed by these lower levels include vast expanses of coldclimate landforms, such as polygonal ground and scalloped depressions [8], a relationship that is consistent with either an initially warm, but progresssively cooling, aqueous environment - or initial conditions that were cold from the outset. In either case, the flow-front-like morphologies associated with the lower levels may have resulted from ice-shoving due to shortlived transgresssive events caused by later episodes of outflow channel activity around the northern plains [6]. Apparent discrepancies between the absolute elevation of the Arabian Level with the perimeter of an equipotential surface have been cited as potential serious weaknesses of the paleoocean hypothesis [2]. However, improved shoreline maps, based on the recent influx of new, higher-resolution images, combined with recognition of the potential effect of true polar wander on the post-ocean/ice-sheet deformation of shorelines [9] have helped resolve

  12. 10Be in ice at high resolution: Solar activity and climate signals observed and GCM-modeled in Law Dome ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, Joel; Heikkilä, Ulla; van Ommen, T. D.; Smith, A. M.

    2010-05-01

    Changes in solar activity modulate the galactic cosmic ray flux, and in turn, the production rate of 10Be in the earth's atmosphere. The best archives of past changes in 10Be production rate are the polar ice cores. Key challenges in interpreting these archives as proxies for past solar activity lie in separating the useful solar activity (or production) signal from the interfering meteorological (or climate) signal, and furthermore, in determining the atmospheric source regions of 10Be deposited to the ice core site. In this study we use a new monthly resolution composite 10Be record, which spans the past decade, and a general circulation model (ECHAM5-HAM), to constrain both the production and climate signals in 10Be concentrations at the Law Dome ice core site, East Antarctica. This study differs from most previous work on 10Be in Antarctica due to the very high sample resolution achieved. This high resolution, through a time period where accurate instrumental measurements of solar activity and climate are available, allows us to examine the response of 10Be concentrations in ice to short-term (monthly to annual) variations in solar activity, and to short-term variations in climate, including seasonality. We find a significant correlation (r2 = 0.56, P < 0.005, n = 92) between observed 10Be concentrations and solar activity (represented by the neutron counting rate). The most pervasive climate influence is a seasonal cycle, which shows maximum concentrations in mid-to-late-summer and minimum concentrations in winter. Model results show reasonable agreement with observations; both a solar activity signal and seasonal cycle in 10Be are captured. However, the modeled snow accumulation rate is too high by approximately 60%. According to the model, the main atmospheric source region of 10Be deposited to Law Dome is the 30-90°S stratosphere (~50%), followed by the 30-90°S troposphere (~30%). An enhancement in the fraction of 10Be arriving to Law Dome from the

  13. 1000 Year Record of Heavy Metal Contamination from the RICE Ice Core, Roosevelt Island, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuohy, A.; Neff, P. D.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Edwards, R.

    2014-12-01

    Since the onset of industrialisation, atmospheric concentrations of heavy metal pollutants have increased. We present a new record from Antarctica for the past 1000 years, which provides a unique opportunity to establish a baseline of natural heavy metal concentration variability and allows us to distinguish anthropogenic contributions. As part of the Roosevelt Island Climate Evolution (RICE) project, a 764m deep ice core was drilled in 2012 and 2013 at Roosevelt Island. The site is located at the north-western edge of the Ross Ice Shelf, and as such is highly influenced by weather systems derived from the South Pacific sector of the Southern Ocean. This presents the opportunity to develop a high-resolution record of background environmental contamination that is representative of the Southern Hemisphere. The isolation of Roosevelt Island from local sources of heavy metals results in a record that is indicative of large-scale source and transport changes. Over 2000 samples from the top 300m of the ice core, as well as snow pit and firn core samples, have been analysed for concentrations of 37 different elements. Analyses were made using a Thermo Scientific Element XR with front end modifications to maximise sensitivity to ensure high-quality data for the extremely low concentrations - parts per quadrillion (ppq) for some elements. The transition metal/metalloid elements selected for detailed investigation are Pb, Fe, Al, Co, Mn, Tl, As. High resolution (sub-annual) heavy metal data over the 20th Century are presented and contrasted with lower resolution (three year averaged) data for the past 1000 years. Snow samples collected during storm events at Roosevelt Island suggest heavy metal concentrations are associated with long range transport paths over the Southern Ocean, as modelled in Hysplit. By accounting for changes in source strength over the industrial period (using enrichment factors), the RICE heavy metal record can be used to infer large-scale transport

  14. Ground-based imaging remote sensing of ice clouds: uncertainties caused by sensor, method and atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinner, Tobias; Hausmann, Petra; Ewald, Florian; Bugliaro, Luca; Emde, Claudia; Mayer, Bernhard

    2016-09-01

    In this study a method is introduced for the retrieval of optical thickness and effective particle size of ice clouds over a wide range of optical thickness from ground-based transmitted radiance measurements. Low optical thickness of cirrus clouds and their complex microphysics present a challenge for cloud remote sensing. In transmittance, the relationship between optical depth and radiance is ambiguous. To resolve this ambiguity the retrieval utilizes the spectral slope of radiance between 485 and 560 nm in addition to the commonly employed combination of a visible and a short-wave infrared wavelength.An extensive test of retrieval sensitivity was conducted using synthetic test spectra in which all parameters introducing uncertainty into the retrieval were varied systematically: ice crystal habit and aerosol properties, instrument noise, calibration uncertainty and the interpolation in the lookup table required by the retrieval process. The most important source of errors identified are uncertainties due to habit assumption: Averaged over all test spectra, systematic biases in the effective radius retrieval of several micrometre can arise. The statistical uncertainties of any individual retrieval can easily exceed 10 µm. Optical thickness biases are mostly below 1, while statistical uncertainties are in the range of 1 to 2.5.For demonstration and comparison to satellite data the retrieval is applied to observations by the Munich hyperspectral imager specMACS (spectrometer of the Munich Aerosol and Cloud Scanner) at the Schneefernerhaus observatory (2650 m a.s.l.) during the ACRIDICON-Zugspitze campaign in September and October 2012. Results are compared to MODIS and SEVIRI satellite-based cirrus retrievals (ACRIDICON - Aerosol, Cloud, Precipitation, and Radiation Interactions and Dynamics of Convective Cloud Systems; MODIS - Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer; SEVIRI - Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager). Considering the identified

  15. A synthetic ice core approach to estimate ion relocation in an ice field site experiencing periodical melt: a case study on Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vega, Carmen P.; Pohjola, Veijo A.; Beaudon, Emilie; Claremar, Björn; van Pelt, Ward J. J.; Pettersson, Rickard; Isaksson, Elisabeth; Martma, Tõnu; Schwikowski, Margit; Bøggild, Carl E.

    2016-05-01

    Physical and chemical properties of four different ice cores (LF-97, LF-08, LF-09 and LF-11) drilled at Lomonosovfonna, Svalbard, were compared to investigate the effects of meltwater percolation on the chemical and physical stratigraphy of these records. A synthetic ice core approach was employed as reference record to estimate the ionic relocation and meltwater percolation length at this site during the period 2007-2010. Using this method, a partial ion elution sequence obtained for Lomonosovfonna was NO3- > SO42-, Mg2+, Cl-, K+, Na+ with nitrate being the most mobile within the snowpack. The relocation length of most of the ions was on the order of 1 m during this period. In addition, by using both a positive degree day (PDD) and a snow-energy model approaches to estimate the percentage of melt at Lomonosovfonna, we have calculated a melt percentage (MP) of the total annual accumulation within the range between 48 and 70 %, for the period between 2007 and 2010, which is above the MP range suggested by the ion relocation evidenced in the LF-syn core (i.e., MP = 30 %). Using a firn-densification model to constrain the melt range, a MP of 30 % was found over the same period, which is consistent with the results of the synthetic ice core approach, and a 45 % of melt for the last 60 years. Considering the ionic relocation lengths and annual melt percentages, we estimate that the atmospheric ionic signal remains preserved in recently drilled Lomonosovfonna ice cores at an annual or bi-annual resolution when weather conditions were similar to those during the 2007-2010 period.

  16. Evidence for Pacific Climate Regime Shifts as Preserved in a Southeast Alaska Ice Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, S. E.; Mosley-Thompson, E. S.; Thompson, L. G.

    2012-12-01

    Climate modes emanating from the Pacific sector have far-reaching effects across the globe. The El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) reflects anomalies in the sea surface temperature and pressure fields over the tropical Pacific, but climate implications from these anomalies extend to monsoon regions of Asia to North America and even Europe. The Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) explains sea surface temperature anomalies in the North Pacific sector and influences the long-term behavior of the ENSO cycle as well as the storm track over North America expressed as the Pacific/North American Pattern (PNA). The impacts of both climate change and drastically reduced Arctic sea ice cover on these teleconnection patterns are poorly understood, and with little knowledge about their past behavior, predicting the changes in these climate modes is extremely difficult. An ice core from the col between Mt. Bona and Mt. Churchill in southeast Alaska provides an opportunity to examine the PDO prior to both the start of instrumental records and the more recent effects of anthropogenic climate change. The Bona-Churchill records of isotopic, dust, and chemical composition are compared to nearby meteorological station and 20th century reanalysis data to evaluate their strength as climate recorders. Climate indices such as the PDO and PNA, along with indices created to describe the strength and position of the Aleutian Low and Siberian High, are incorporated into the analysis to determine if proxy relationships are altered under different climate regimes. Satellite records of sea ice extent within the Sea of Okhotsk and the Bering Sea, when compared to the Bona-Churchill data, show a distinct change in behavior in the mid-1990s possibly in response to the temporary negative shift in the PDO. This behavioral shift is explored and placed into a broader climate context to determine whether similar events have occurred in the past or if this shift is unique to a rapidly warming Arctic.

  17. Volatility of unevenly sampled fractional Brownian motion: an application to ice core records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, J.; Griffin, J.

    2008-12-01

    The analysis of many natural time series and especially those related to ice core records often suffers from uneven sampling intervals. Here, we introduce a method that allows one to reliably estimate the volatility properties of fractional Brownian motion despite uneven sampling. It is based on the linear correlations of the process which are used to rescale the volatility series. For high-resolution temperature proxy records from Antarctica, we confirm that its volatility properties reveal a strong nonlinear component in the time series for time scales of 1 - 100 kyr. The results suggest that temperature increments appear in clusters of big and small increments --- a big (positive or negative) climate change is most likely followed by a big (positive or negative) climate change and a small climate change is most likely followed by a small climate change.

  18. Volatility of unevenly sampled fractional Brownian motion: an application to ice core records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidsen, J.; Griffin, J.

    2009-05-01

    The analysis of many natural time series and especially those related to ice core records often suffers from uneven sampling intervals. Here, we introduce a method that allows one to reliably estimate the volatility properties of fractional Brownian motion despite uneven sampling. It is based on the linear correlations of the process which are used to rescale the volatility series. For high-resolution temperature proxy records from Antarctica, we confirm that its volatility properties reveal a strong nonlinear component in the time series for time scales of 5 - 200 kyr. The results suggest that temperature increments appear in clusters of big and small increments --- a big (positive or negative) climate change is most likely followed by a big (positive or negative) climate change and a small climate change is most likely followed by a small climate change.

  19. Black Carbon Record from an Eastern Pamir Ice Core and its Biomass Contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mo; Xu, Baiqing; Kaspari, Susan; Gleixner, Gerd

    2014-05-01

    Black carbon (BC) and levoglucosan concentrations were measured in an ice core, covering time period 1868-2000 AD, from Mt. Muztagh Ata, east Pamir, to recover temporal trend of BC emission, and contribution of biomass as an energy resource. BC concentration before 1950 AD is 0.37 ng/g on average, increases rapidly afterwards to the maximum value of 2.0 ng/g during 1980s, and then shortly decreases dramatically, which is likely due to the economic collapse of the Former USSR. Levoglucosan concentration presents a similar variation with BC, especially in the recent three decades, and suggests in the source regions biomass burning (including lignite) plays an important role in historical BC emission.

  20. Temperature reconstruction from 10 to 120 kyr b2k from the NGRIP ice core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kindler, P.; Guillevic, M.; Baumgartner, M.; Schwander, J.; Landais, A.; Leuenberger, M.; Spahni, R.; Capron, E.; Chappellaz, J.

    2014-04-01

    In order to reconstruct the temperature of the North Greenland Ice Core Project (NGRIP) site, new measurements of δ15N have been performed covering the time period from the beginning of the Holocene to Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) event 8. Together with previously measured and mostly published δ15N data, we present for the first time a NGRIP temperature reconstruction for the whole last glacial period from 10 to 120 kyr b2k (thousand years before 2000 AD) including every DO event based on δ15N isotope measurements combined with a firn densification and heat diffusion model. The detected temperature rises at the onset of DO events range from 5 °C (DO 25) up to 16.5 °C (DO 11) with an uncertainty of ±3 °C. To bring measured and modelled data into agreement, we had to reduce the accumulation rate given by the NGRIP ss09sea06bm timescale in some periods by 30 to 35%, especially during the last glacial maximum. A comparison between reconstructed temperature and δ18Oice data confirms that the isotopic composition of the stadial was strongly influenced by seasonality. We evidence an anticorrelation between the variations of the δ18Oice sensitivity to temperature (referred to as α) and obliquity in agreement with a simple Rayleigh distillation model. Finally, we suggest that α might be influenced by the Northern Hemisphere ice sheet volume.

  1. Can we retrieve a clear paleoclimatic signal from the deeper part of the EPICA Dome C ice core?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tison, J.-L.; de Angelis, M.; Littot, G.; Wolff, E.; Fischer, H.; Hansson, M.; Bigler, M.; Udisti, R.; Wegner, A.; Jouzel, J.; Stenni, B.; Johnsen, S.; Masson-Delmotte, V.; Landais, A.; Lipenkov, V.; Loulergue, L.; Barnola, J.-M.; Petit, J.-R.; Delmonte, B.; Dreyfus, G.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Durand, G.; Bereiter, B.; Schilt, A.; Spahni, R.; Pol, K.; Lorrain, R.; Souchez, R.; Samyn, D.

    2015-01-01

    An important share of paleoclimatic information is buried within the lowermost layers of deep ice cores. Because improving our records further back in time is one of the main challenges in the near future, it is essential to judge how deep these records remain unaltered, since the proximity of the bedrock is likely to interfere both with the recorded temporal sequence and the ice properties. In this paper, we present a multiparametric study (δD-δ18Oice, δ18Oatm, total air content, CO2, CH4, N2O, dust, high resolution chemistry, ice texture) of the bottom 60 m of the EPICA Dome C ice core from central Antarctica. These bottom layers have been subdivided in two sections: the lower 12 m showing visible solid inclusions (basal ice) and the 48 m above which we refer to as "deep ice". Some of the data are consistent with a pristine paleoclimatic signal, others show clear anomalies. It is demonstrated that neither large scale bottom refreezing of subglacial water, nor mixing (be it internal or with a local basal end-term from a previous/initial ice sheet configuration) can explain the observed bottom ice properties. We focus on the high-resolution chemical profiles and on the available remote sensing data on the subglacial topography of the site to propose a mechanism by which relative stretching of the bottom ice sheet layers is made possible, due to the progressively confining effect of subglacial valley sides. This stress field change, combined with bottom ice temperature close to the pressure melting point, induces accelerated migration recrystallization, which results in spatial chemical sorting of the impurities, depending on their state (dissolved vs. solid) and if they are involved or not in salt formation. This chemical sorting effect is responsible for the progressive build-up of the visible solid aggregates that therefore mainly originate "from within", and not from incorporation processes of allochtone material at the ice-bedrock interface. We also discuss

  2. Validity of the Temperature Reconstruction from Water Isotopes in Ice Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jouzel, J.; Alley, R. B.; Cuffey, K. M.; Dansgaard, W.; Grootes, P.; Hoffmann, G.; Johnsen, S. J.; Koster, R. D.; Peel, D.; Shuman, C. A.; Stievenard, M.; Stuiver, M.; White, J.

    1997-01-01

    Well-documented present-day distributions of stable water isotopes (HDO and others) show the existence, in middle and high latitudes, of a linear relationship between the mean annual isotope content of precipitation (SD and 51"0) and the mean annual temperature at the precipitation site. Paleoclimatologists have used this relationship, which is particularly well obeyed over Greenland and Antarctica, to infer paleotemperatures from ice core data. There is, however, growing evidence that spatial and temporal isotope/ surface temperature slopes differ, thus complicating the use of stable water isotopes as paleothermometers. In this paper we review empirical estimates of temporal slopes in polar regions and relevant information that can be inferred from isotope models: simple, Rayleigh-type distillation models and (particularly over Greenland) general circulation models (GCMS) fitted with isotope tracer diagnostics. Empirical estimates of temporal slopes appear consistently lower than present-day spatial slopes and are dependent on the timescale considered. This difference is most probably due to changes in the evaporative origins of moisture, changes in the seasonality of the precipitation, changes in the strength of the inversion layer, or some combination of these changes. Isotope models have not yet been used to evaluate the relative influences of these different factors. The apparent disagreement in the temporal and spatial slopes clearly makes calibrating the isotope paleothermometer difficult. Nevertheless, the use of a (calibrated) isotope paleothermometer appears justified; empirical estimates and most (though not all) GCM results support the practice of interpreting ice core isotope records in terms of local temperature changes.

  3. Nitrogen isotopes in ice core nitrate linked to anthropogenic atmospheric acidity change.

    PubMed

    Geng, Lei; Alexander, Becky; Cole-Dai, Jihong; Steig, Eric J; Savarino, Joël; Sofen, Eric D; Schauer, Andrew J

    2014-04-22

    Nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ(15)N) in Greenland snow nitrate and in North American remote lake sediments has decreased gradually beginning as early as ∼1850 Christian Era. This decrease was attributed to increasing atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic nitrate, reflecting an anthropogenic impact on the global nitrogen cycle, and the impact was thought to be amplified ∼1970. However, our subannually resolved ice core records of δ(15)N and major ions (e.g., NO3(-), SO4(2-)) over the last ∼200 y show that the decrease in δ(15)N is not always associated with increasing NO3(-) concentrations, and the decreasing trend actually leveled o