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Sample records for ground theory experiment

  1. University Students' Experiences of Nonmarital Breakups: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Sarah; Popadiuk, Natalee

    2008-01-01

    Prior nonmarital breakup research has been focused on negative outcomes, rarely examining the personal growth aspects of this experience. In this study, we used a qualitative grounded theory methodology to explore the changes that university students reported experiencing as a result of a heterosexual nonmarital breakup and how those changes…

  2. A grounded theory exploration of undergraduate experiences of vicarious unemployment.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Mindi N; Nitzarim, Rachel S; Her, Pa; Dahling, Jason J

    2013-07-01

    The experiences of vicarious unemployment (VU) among 17 undergraduate student participants who had a primary caregiver who was involuntarily unemployed were explored using grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Data from semistructured interviews with 15 women and 2 men revealed the nuanced nature of experiences with unemployment among those who experience it vicariously. Struggles related to increased family stress and experiences with stigma were common across participants. As participants reflected upon these challenges, they both lamented the costs associated with the struggles and expressed appreciation for the lessons that they have learned. They emerged from their VU experiences with increased financial and job market awareness, which informed their hope for a life that is free from the struggles endured in their families. Participants expressed confidence in their ability to cultivate financial security for their own families, stable employment, and opportunities to pursue work that will allow them to give back to others. Implications for counseling and directions for future research are discussed.

  3. Grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  4. Regaining a Foothold: A Grounded Theory Study of Immigrant Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Kara Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study of immigrants reestablishing their lives in a new country used classic, Glaserian grounded theory. The purpose of the study was to discover the main concerns of the participants as they engaged in the basic social process of changing their country of residence. Using the grand tour question of "Tell me about coming to the United…

  5. "Being the Faculty Face": A Grounded Theory of Living-Learning Program Faculty Motives and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drechsler Sharp, Marybeth

    2012-01-01

    Few evident incentives exist for faculty to become involved with living-learning programs. The purpose of this constructivist grounded theory study was to investigate the motives and experiences of faculty members working with living-learning programs at doctoral-granting research institutions. Illuminating the experiences of living-learning…

  6. Positive Experiences for Participants in Suicide Bereavement Groups: A Grounded Theory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groos, Anita D.; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Grounded Theory was used to examine the experiences of 13 participants who had attended psycho-educational support groups for those bereaved by suicide. Results demonstrated core and central categories that fit well with group therapeutic factors developed by I. D. Yalom (1995) and emphasized the importance of universality, imparting information…

  7. Deformation of subglacial till near ice-sheet grounding zones: theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowal, K. N.; Worster, G.

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale ice-sheet dynamics pivot on the deformation and transport of subglacial sediment through changes in the basal sliding velocities of glaciers. Such unconsolidated, water-saturated glacigenic sediment, or till, is found to accumulate into sedimentary wedges, or till-deltas, in grounding zones separating floating ice shelves from grounded ice streams. In addition to affecting glacial slip, such sedimentation may serve to stabilise ice sheets against grounding-line retreat in response to rising sea levels. We present a fluid-mechanical explanation of the formation of these wedges in terms of the jump in hydrostatic loading and unloading of till across the grounding zone, and we compare our findings with geophysical data of sedimentary wedge formation at the modern-day grounding zone of Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica. We develop a theoretical model of wedge formation in which we treat both ice and till as viscous fluids spreading under gravity into an inviscid ocean and find that a similar wedge of underlying fluid accumulates around the grounding line in our series of fluid-mechanical laboratory experiments. The experiments were performed in a confined channel geometry. We extend our theory to unconfined geometries in which till deformation is resisted dominantly by vertical shear stresses and the flow of the overlying ice is resisted dominantly either by vertical shear stresses between the ice and till or by extensional stresses characteristic of floating ice shelves and shelfy streams. The former is relevant to less-lubricated, grounded ice sheets whereas the latter is relevant to well-lubricated ice streams, sliding over soft, deformable till of low viscosity and appreciable thickness. We formulate a local condition relating wedge slopes in each of the three scenarios and find a reasonable agreement with geophysical data.

  8. Expanding the value of qualitative theories of illness experience in clinical practice: a grounded theory of secondary heart disease prevention.

    PubMed

    Ononeze, V; Murphy, A W; MacFarlane, A; Byrne, M; Bradley, C

    2009-06-01

    Qualitative theories of illness experience are about the individual interpretations of the psychosocial and cultural aspects of living with illness. Thus, they contribute to a better understanding of health and health care provision. In this paper, we examine how a grounded theory (GT) of heart disease experience can inform secondary prevention. In-depth interviews of individual experience of heart disease were conducted with 26 patients, using GT iterative data collection and analysis framework. A GT was compiled from data and examined within a sociocultural framework to ascertain how experience influenced health behaviour. Despite individual contextual variations, the theory of 'keeping it going' describes the study sample's common attitude to living with heart disease. The theory was adequate in explaining secondary cardiac behaviour, because it identified the aspects of patients' beliefs and attitudes which are key to effective secondary prevention. The assessment of the impact of illness experience on health behaviour within a sociocultural framework helped to articulate the strong influence of social and contextual factors. The study offers an appropriate explanatory framework for encouraging health behaviour change. It emphasizes the importance of interventions being relevant to individual perceptions and interpretations. It provides a framework for designing and evaluating cardiac interventions and the theoretical principles which underpin them.

  9. The game of science: A grounded theory of the Cafe Scientifique experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabe, Lisa A.

    Science Cafes are independent groups organized throughout the world for discussion of scientific topics. Little is known about the nature of this informal learning environment. A grounded-theory study was conducted to determine what attendees perceived as the essential qualities of the Cafe Scientifique experience in one science Cafe in the Western United States. Interviews with 12 attendees were transcribed and analyzed using ATLAS-ti. Concept maps and a grounded theory describing the essential characteristics were created. Member checking was used during theory generation. Findings are described in the context of a game metaphor, whereby scientific discussion at the Cafe is viewed as an intellectual game. The grounded theory describes the game of science being played at Cafe Scientifique involving attendees as players, social norms as rules for the game, an expert as the steward of truth, topics as the content for game play, interaction as playing of the game, and intellectual stimulation as the prize for playing. During the game, ideas were identified through a short presentation followed by a question-and-answer session. During this exchange, attendees heard about, analyzed, synthesized, and applied new information. As a result of the game play, players won a prize---intellectual stimulation. The Cafe Scientifique phenomenon provides insight into informal adult education. This study suggests the need for additional study of intellectual play in adult education, the role of curiosity and desire to explore new ways of thinking, and the developmental drive in adults to seek intellectual stimulation. The essential characteristics of Cafe Scientifique may be transferable to other informal adult-education settings.

  10. Normalization of Neglect: A Grounded Theory of RNs' Experiences as Family Caregivers of Hospitalized Seniors.

    PubMed

    Taverner, Tarnia; Baumbusch, Jennifer; Taipale, Priscilla

    2016-06-01

    Often older people, while maintaining a level of independence, rely on family members to provide care and assistance. Caregivers who are also registered nurses (RNs) may provide a different perspective around the experience when their older relative is admitted to acute care. The aim of our research was to investigate and develop theory regarding nursing care provision as described by RNs, who were family caregivers to older adults, when that older adult was admitted to acute care. Over a six-month period in 2011, RNs meeting this criterion (n = 12) were interviewed individually. We identified two central categories: "Culture of Neglect" and "Vigil by the Bedside". The core category "Normalization of Neglect" was identified as the theory, grounded in the data the participants provided which described a culture of neglect that had normalized poor nursing care. These findings highlight the issue of neglect and abuse, and further investigation is warranted.

  11. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  12. Fascination and isolation: a grounded theory exploration of unusual sensory experiences in adults with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard S; Sharp, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Unusual sensory experiences are commonly seen in people with Asperger syndrome (AS). They correlate with functional impairments and cause distress. The current study investigates how these experiences have affected nine adults with AS's lives, as well as the coping strategies utilised. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using Instant Messaging software. Data were analysed using Grounded Theory. A number of inter-related categories and focused codes were identified. The categories included heightened senses, sensory stress, the stress avalanche, moderating factors, coping strategies, other people, self-acceptance, fascination, and isolation. A model was constructed as to how these categories and codes interact. How these findings link with previous research into autism spectrum disorders is discussed. Implications for services and future research are also made.

  13. Theory of plasma contactors in ground-based experiments and low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerver, M. J.; Hastings, Daniel E.; Oberhardt, M. R.

    1990-01-01

    Previous theoretical work on plasma contactors as current collectors has fallen into two categories: collisionless double layer theory (describing space charge limited contactor clouds) and collisional quasineutral theory. Ground based experiments at low current are well explained by double layer theory, but this theory does not scale well to power generation by electrodynamic tethers in space, since very high anode potentials are needed to draw a substantial ambient electron current across the magnetic field in the absence of collisions (or effective collisions due to turbulence). Isotropic quasineutral models of contactor clouds, extending over a region where the effective collision frequency upsilon sub e exceeds the electron cyclotron frequency omega sub ce, have low anode potentials, but would collect very little ambient electron current, much less than the emitted ion current. A new model is presented, for an anisotropic contactor cloud oriented along the magnetic field, with upsilon sub e less than omega sub ce. The electron motion along the magnetic field is nearly collisionless, forming double layers in that direction, while across the magnetic field the electrons diffuse collisionally and the potential profile is determined by quasineutrality. Using a simplified expression for upsilon sub e due to ion acoustic turbulence, an analytic solution has been found for this model, which should be applicable to current collection in space. The anode potential is low and the collected ambient electron current can be several times the emitted ion current.

  14. Workplace Bullying in Academe: A Grounded Theory Study Exploring How Faculty Cope with the Experience of Being Bullied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkin, La Vena

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to generate a theory about how targets of workplace bullying in academe may begin to heal from the aftermath of their ill-treatment. The emphasis was on understanding the experiences of university faculty members who had been targets of workplace bullying. A key factor in this study was to…

  15. A study of Iranian immigrants’ experiences of accessing Canadian health care services: a grounded theory

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Immigration is not a new phenomenon but, rather, has deep roots in human history. Documents from every era detail individuals who left their homelands and struggled to reestablish their lives in other countries. The aim of this study was to explore and understand the experience of Iranian immigrants who accessed Canadian health care services. Research with immigrants is useful for learning about strategies that newcomers develop to access health care services. Methods The research question guiding this study was, “What are the processes by which Iranian immigrants learn to access health care services in Canada?” To answer the question, a constructivist grounded theory approach was applied. Initially, unstructured interviews were conducted with 17 participants (11 women and six men) who were adults (at least 18 years old) and had immigrated to Canada within the past 15 years. Eight participants took part in a second interview, and four participants took part in a third interview. Results Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” emerged as the core category. The basic social process (BSP), becoming self-sufficient, was a transitional process and had five stages: becoming a stranger; feeling helpless; navigating/seeking information; employing strategies; and becoming integrated and self-sufficient. We found that “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” was the main struggle throughout this journey. Some of the immigrants were able to overcome these challenges and became proficient in accessing health care services, but others were unable to make the necessary changes and thus stayed in earlier stages/phases of transition, and sometimes returned to their country of origin. Conclusion During the course of this journey a substantive grounded theory was developed that revealed the challenges and issues confronted by this particular group of immigrants. This process explains why some Iranian

  16. Making Things Right: Nurses' Experiences with Workplace Bullying—A Grounded Theory

    PubMed Central

    Gaffney, Donna A.; DeMarco, Rosanna F.; Hofmeyer, Anne; Vessey, Judith A.; Budin, Wendy C.

    2012-01-01

    While bullying in the healthcare workplace has been recognized internationally, there is still a culture of silence in many institutions in the United States, perpetuating underreporting and insufficient and unproven interventions. The deliberate, repetitive, and aggressive behaviors of bullying can cause psychological and/or physical harm among professionals, disrupt nursing care, and threaten patient safety and quality outcomes. Much of the literature focuses on categories of bullying behaviors and nurse responses. This qualitative study reports on the experiences of nurses confronting workplace bullying. We collected data from the narratives of 99 nurses who completed an open-ended question embedded in an online survey in 2007. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data and shape a theory of how nurses make things right when confronted with bullying. In a four-step process, nurses place bullying in context, assess the situation, take action, and judge the outcomes of their actions. While many nurses do engage in a number of effective yet untested strategies, two additional concerns remain: inadequate support among nursing colleagues and silence and inaction by nurse administrators. Qualitative inquiry has the potential to guide researchers to a greater understanding of the complexities of bullying in the workplace. PMID:22567223

  17. "The Complexity of Experience": A Grounded Theory Exploration of Scholarly Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falciani-White, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This grounded theory study explores the ways in which scholars conduct their research, including how they find and organize resources, how they identify and work with collaborators, how they interact with technology during the course of their research, and how they disseminate the results of a research project. Nine scholars were interviewed…

  18. Discovering Shared Experiences of Second Generation Community College Employees: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studebaker, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The second generation community college employee had not been a target population of any previous research in the field of higher education. This study added to a broader understanding of employees, their various characteristics, and the implications of those characteristics. The purpose of this study was to develop a grounded theory defining the…

  19. Cope and Grow: A Grounded Theory Approach to Early College Entrants' Lived Experiences and Changes in a STEM Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, David Yun; Steenbergen-Hu, Saiying; Zhou, Yehan

    2015-01-01

    In this grounded theory qualitative study, we interviewed 34 graduates from one cohort of 51 students from a prestigious early college entrance program in China. Based on the interview data, we identified distinct convergent and divergent patterns of lived experiences and changes. We found several dominant themes, including peers' mutual…

  20. The Experience of Gifted Girls Transitioning from Elementary School to Sixth and Seventh Grade: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepperell, Jennifer L.; Rubel, Deborah J.

    2009-01-01

    This research explored the experiences of gifted girls transitioning from elementary school to sixth and seventh grade. The current literature indicates that gifted girls often struggle emotionally during this transition. Seven research participants were selected and interviewed over a four-month period. Grounded theory methodology was used to…

  1. Reinventing Grounded Theory: Some Questions about Theory, Ground and Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gary; James, David

    2006-01-01

    Grounded theory's popularity persists after three decades of broad-ranging critique. In this article three problematic notions are discussed--"theory," "ground" and "discovery"--which linger in the continuing use and development of grounded theory procedures. It is argued that far from providing the epistemic security promised by grounded theory,…

  2. Informed Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  3. The journey to chronic pain: a grounded theory of older adults' experiences of pain associated with leg ulceration.

    PubMed

    Taverner, Tarnia; Closs, S José; Briggs, Michelle

    2014-03-01

    This study aimed to develop a grounded theory to describe and explain the experience of pain and its impact, as reported by the individuals who had pain associated with chronic leg ulceration. The Strauss and Corbin grounded theory approach was used. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 11 people aged ≥ 65 years from Leeds in the north of England. All participants were cared for by home care nurses and had painful leg ulceration. The emergent grounded theory centered on a core category of "The journey to chronic pain." The theory suggested a trajectory consisting of three phases that the patient experiences, where the end result is a chronic pain syndrome. In phase 1, leg ulcer pain has predominantly acute nociceptive properties, and if this is not managed effectively, or ulcers do not heal, persistent pain may develop with both nociceptive and neuropathic properties (i.e., phase 2). If phase 2 pain is not managed effectively, patients may then develop refractory long-term pain (phase 3). Those who progress to phase 3 tend to experience negative consequences such as insomnia, depression, and suicidal ideation. Only when health care professionals understand and acknowledge the persistent and long-term nature of the pain in this patient group can the pain be managed effectively.

  4. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  5. Identifying the unique ground motion signatures of supershear earthquakes: Theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, M.; Bhat, H. S.; Rosakis, A. J.; Kanamori, H.

    2010-10-01

    The near field ground motion signatures associated with sub-Rayleigh and supershear ruptures are investigated using the laboratory earthquake experiment originally developed by Rosakis and coworkers (Xia et al., 2004, 2005a; Lu et al., 2007; Rosakis et al., 2007). Heterodyne laser interferometers enable continuous, high bandwidth measurements of fault-normal (FN) and fault-parallel (FP) particle velocity "ground motion" records at discrete locations on the surface of a Homalite test specimen as a sub-Rayleigh or a supershear rupture sweeps along the frictional fault. Photoelastic interference fringes, acquired using high-speed digital photography, provide a synchronized, spatially resolved, whole field view of the advancing rupture tip and surrounding maximum shear stress field. Experimental results confirm that near field ground motion records associated with the passage of a sub-Rayleigh rupture are characterized by a FN velocity swing which dominates over the FP velocity swing. The situation is shown to reverse in the supershear rupture speed regime whereby the motion along the shear Mach front is characterized by a FP particle velocity swing which dominates over the FN velocity swing. Additional distinguishing particle velocity signatures, consistent with theoretical and numerical predictions, and repeatedly observed in experimental records are (1) a pronounced peak in the FP velocity record, induced by the leading dilatational field, which sweeps the measurement station just prior to the arrival of the shear Mach front, and (2) a pronounced velocity swing in the FN record associated with the arrival of a "trailing Rayleigh disturbance", which sweeps the measurement station following passage of the shear Mach front. Each of these features are addressed in detail. We conclude by reexamining the 2002, Mw7.9 Denali fault earthquake and the remarkable set of ground motion records obtained at Pump Station 10 (PS10), located approximately 85 km east of the epicenter

  6. Getting grounded: using Glaserian grounded theory to conduct nursing research.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Cheri Ann

    2010-03-01

    Glaserian grounded theory is a powerful research methodology for understanding client behaviour in a particular area. It is therefore especially relevant for nurse researchers. Nurse researchers use grounded theory more frequently than other qualitative analysis research methods because of its ability to provide insight into clients' experiences and to make a positive impact. However, there is much confusion about the use of grounded theory.The author delineates key components of grounded theory methodology, areas of concern, and the resulting implications for nursing knowledge development. Knowledge gained from Glaserian grounded theory research can be used to institute measures for enhancing client-nurse relationships, improving quality of care, and ultimately improving client quality of life. In addition, it can serve to expand disciplinary knowledge in nursing because the resulting substantive theory is a middle-range theory that can be subjected to later quantitative testing.

  7. Identifying the Unique Ground Motion Signatures of Supershear Earthquakes: Theory and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Michael

    The near-field ground motion signatures associated with sub-Rayleigh and supershear ruptures are investigated using the laboratory earthquake experiment originally developed by Rosakis and co-workers (Xia et al., 2004, 2005; Lu et al., 2007; Rosakis et al., 2007). Heterodyne laser interferometers enable continuous, high-bandwidth measurements of fault-normal (FN), fault-parallel (FP), and vertical (V) particle velocity ``ground motion" records at discrete locations on the surface of a Homalite-100 test specimen as a sub-Rayleigh or a supershear rupture sweeps along the frictional fault. Photoelastic interference fringes, acquired using high-speed digital photography, provide a synchronized, spatially resolved, whole field view of the advancing rupture tip and surrounding maximum shear stress field. The first phase of experimental investigations examine and verify the ground motion signatures of supershear ruptures. Experimental results demonstrate that a shear Mach front produced by a stable supershear rupture is characterized by a dominant FP velocity component. The situation is shown to reverse in the sub-Rayleigh rupture speed regime whereby the FN particle velocity component dominates the ground motion record. Additional distinguishing particle velocity signatures, consistent with theoretical and numerical predictions, and repeatedly observed in experimental records are, (1) a pronounced peak in the FP velocity record induced by the leading dilatational field, which sweeps the measurement station in advance of the shear Mach front, and (2) a pronounced velocity swing in the FN record associated with the arrival of a trailing Rayleigh sub-Rayleigh (secondary) rupture, which follows the arrival of the shear Mach front. Analysis of the particle velocity records also confirms 2D steady-state theoretical predictions pertaining to the separation, attenuation, and radiation partitioning of the shear and dilatational portions of the rupture velocity field components

  8. Enduring to Gain New Perspective: A Grounded Theory Study of the Experience of Perinatal Bereavement in Black Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fenstermacher, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Black adolescents in the US experience perinatal loss at a higher rate than other races and ethnicities. The experience of eight Black urban adolescents through the first three months after perinatal loss was studied using grounded theory. The process of “enduring to gain new perspective” began with “denying and hesitating” when surprised by unplanned pregnancy but led to “getting ready for this whole new life,” followed by shock of “suffering through the loss,” “all that pain for nothing,” and “mixed emotions going everywhere.” Over time, the adolescents began “reaching out for support” and eventually “preserving the memory and maintaining relationship,” “searching for meaning and asking why,” and gaining new perspective on life.” Parallels are noted to extant bereavement theory. PMID:24391049

  9. A path of perpetual resilience: exploring the experience of a diabetes-related amputation through grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Wendy; Mortel, Thea F van de; Taylor, Beverly

    2011-08-01

    Little research has been done on the experience of diabetes-related amputation. The aim of this study was to allow amputees to describe their experiences of amputation and to generate grounded theory that will lead health professionals towards a more comprehensive understanding of the realities of post-amputation life. Unstructured interviews were conducted with five participants with a diabetes-related amputation living in a rural setting, and their respective carers. The interviews were analysed using Grounded Theory methods. Data analysis revealed three categories: 'imposed powerlessness', 'adaptive functionality' and 'endurance'. The impact of participant's amputations were influenced by continuing limb problems post-amputation and co-existing complications affecting their physical function. Medical errors and lack of awareness of the risks for diabetic amputations resulted in uncertainty and fear. The participants' sense of grief, loss and shock post operatively continued later as they came to terms with their awkwardness of movement, yet they moved forward developing their own sense of hope through a coping process that revealed remarkable ability to endure and exert control over lives that seemed to be at the whim of an ongoing disease process. The substantive theory resulting from this grounded theory study was conceptualised as 'A Path of Perpetual Resilience'. It is important that psychosocial and not just physical adjustment is considered an indicator for determining outcomes for these people, and that future care involves strategies to promote this. A greater sample size is required to determine if these findings are transferable to the general diabetes-related amputation population.

  10. Generating Curriculum Theory Through Grounded Theory Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehrke, Nathalie J.; Parker, Walter C.

    The purpose of this paper is threefold: to describe grounded theory research strategies, to present a summary of several studies in education that have followed this approach, and to explore the potential uses of the grounded theory techniques in curriculum theory generation. The paper is arranged into six parts. In the first and second parts of…

  11. Fascination and Isolation: A Grounded Theory Exploration of Unusual Sensory Experiences in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard S.; Sharp, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Unusual sensory experiences are commonly seen in people with Asperger syndrome (AS). They correlate with functional impairments and cause distress. The current study investigates how these experiences have affected nine adults with AS's lives, as well as the coping strategies utilised. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using Instant…

  12. How grounded theory can improve nursing care quality.

    PubMed

    Nathaniel, Alvita K; Andrews, Tom

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the grounded theory research method and demonstrates how nurses can employ specific grounded theories to improve patient care quality. Because grounded theory is derived from real-world experience, it is a particularly appropriate method for nursing research. An overview of the method and language of grounded theory provides a background for nurses as they read grounded theories and apply newly acquired understandings to predictable processes and patterns of behavior. This article presents 2 exemplar grounded theories with suggestions as to how nurses can apply these and other grounded theories to improve the provision of quality nursing care.

  13. Growing a Professional Identity: A Grounded Theory of the Educational Experience of Baccalaureate Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodolf, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    Nursing students experience high levels of stress while enrolled in baccalaureate nursing programs. Research has focused on the contributors of stress such as the responsibilities of patient care, the overwhelming amount of information, high stakes methods of evaluation, and rigorous course schedules. Little research has been found on the personal…

  14. Disclosing victimisation to healthcare professionals in Sweden: a constructivist grounded theory study of experiences among men exposed to interpersonal violence

    PubMed Central

    Brüggemann, Adrianus Jelmer; Swahnberg, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop a theoretical model concerning male victims' processes of disclosing experiences of victimisation to healthcare professionals in Sweden. Design Qualitative interview study. Setting Informants were recruited from the general population and a primary healthcare centre in Sweden. Participants Informants were recruited by means of theoretical sampling among respondents in a previous quantitative study. Eligible for this study were men reporting sexual, physical and/or emotional violence victimisation by any perpetrator and reporting that they either had talked to a healthcare provider about their victimisation or had wanted to do so. Method Constructivist grounded theory. 12 interviews were performed and saturation was reached after 9. Results Several factors influencing the process of disclosing victimisation can be recognised from previous studies concerning female victims, including shame, fear of negative consequences of disclosing, specifics of the patient–provider relationship and time constraints within the healthcare system. However, this study extends previous knowledge by identifying strong negative effects of adherence to masculinity norms for victimised men and healthcare professionals on the process of disclosing. It is also emphasised that the process of disclosing cannot be separated from other, even seemingly unrelated, circumstances in the men's lives. Conclusions The process of disclosing victimisation to healthcare professionals was a complex process involving the men's experiences of victimisation, adherence to gender norms, their life circumstances and the dynamics of the actual healthcare encounter. PMID:27324711

  15. Adolescent girls' experiences of underlying social processes triggering stress in their everyday life: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Haraldsson, Katarina; Lindgren, Eva-Carin; Mattsson, Bengt; Fridlund, Bengt; Marklund, Bertil

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to generate a theoretical model of underlying social processes that trigger stress in adolescent girls' everyday life. In-depth interviews regarding the experiences of stress at home, school and during leisure time were conducted with 14 17-year-old schoolgirls. Data were analysed by means of the grounded theory method. Stress was triggered in the interaction between responsibility and the way in which the girls were encountered. Triggered emotional reactions took the form of four dimensions of stress included ambivalence, frustration, despair and downheartedness. These reactions were dependent on whether the girls voluntary assumed responsibility for various situations or whether they were forced, or felt they were being forced, to assume responsibility in interaction with an encounter characterized by closeness or distance. These forms of stress reactions could appear in one dimension and subsequently shift to another. From the public health perspective, the generated stress model can be used in the planning and implementation of future actions to prevent stress and promote well-being related to stress in adolescent girls.

  16. Victimising of School Bullying: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert; Halldin, Karolina; Bolmsjo, Natalie; Petersson, Annelie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how individuals;who had been victims of school bullying; perceived their bullying experiences and how these had affected them; and to generate a grounded theory of being a victim of bullying at school. Twenty-one individuals, who all had prior experiences of being bullied in school for more than one year,…

  17. Grounded theory, feminist theory, critical theory: toward theoretical triangulation.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Kaysi Eastlick; Morrow, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Nursing and social science scholars have examined the compatibility between feminist and grounded theory traditions in scientific knowledge generation, concluding that they are complementary, yet not without certain tensions. This line of inquiry is extended to propose a critical feminist grounded theory methodology. The construction of symbolic interactionist, feminist, and critical feminist variants of grounded theory methodology is examined in terms of the presuppositions of each tradition and their interplay as a process of theoretical triangulation.

  18. Motivations of Baby Boomer Doctoral Learners: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julia J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a substantive theory of the motivations of Baby Boomer doctoral learners, using the grounded theory approach. These Baby Boomers possess a wealth of wisdom. Their experiences, coupled with educational credentials, could take their leadership abilities to the next level. The grounded theory method developed by…

  19. Grounded theory: methodology and philosophical perspective.

    PubMed

    Ghezeljeh, Tahereh Najafi; Emami, Azita

    2009-01-01

    Constructivist grounded theory reshapes the interactive relationship between researcher and participants and provides the reader with a sense of the analytical views through which the researcher examines the data. This paper presents an overview of grounded theory and constructivist grounded theory, exploring the ontological, epistemological and methodological aspects using examples from nursing research.

  20. The Mutual Relationship Between Immigrants' Disrupted Everyday Activities and Their Health: A Grounded Theory of Experiences of Korean Immigrants Settling in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hagyun; Hocking, Clare

    2016-01-01

    For Asian immigrants, immigration has the potential to disrupt all familiar routines. That is a threat to their health and well-being. This grounded theory study explored how immigrants adjust to a new environment by analyzing the experiences of 25 Korean immigrants in New Zealand. The findings suggest that immigration is a stress-inducing phenomenon that requires adjustment of valued activities and adversely affects their health. In response, participants worked on regaining control over disrupted activities by opting for two world perspectives. The study helps social workers to develop effective interventions and services for immigrants to better handle health problems.

  1. Investigating the dimension of time: findings from a modified grounded theory study about clients' experiences and descriptions of temporality or time within music therapy.

    PubMed

    Daveson, Barbara; O'Callaghan, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Many references to time or temporality are located within music therapy literature, however little research has been completed regarding this phenomenon. Findings from a modified grounded theory study about clients' experiences and descriptions of time within the context of music therapy are presented here. The study was informed by the constructivist-interpretive paradigm and a grounded-descriptive statement finding resulted. A 2-staged research methodology was used, comprising a deductive-inductive content analysis of information from the public domain, followed by data-mining of information from a minimum of 160 clients and analysis of data from at least 43 of these 160 clients. Information regarding memory experiences, the duration of music therapy effects, recall and retrieval, and experiences of time are identified. Implications for practice are emphasized, in particular the following is stressed (a) the importance of time orientation and temporal connectedness in relation to identity development, (b) temporal strategies within music experience to assist integration, recall, and retrieval of information, and (c) the importance of and the elements involved in time modification. New explanations for music therapy phenomena are shared, and areas for research highlighted. Benefits of using time dynamically to aid therapeutic process are proposed, and it is concluded that temporal experience within the context of music therapy is important in relation to both practice and research.

  2. Disorder Strength and Field-Driven Ground State Domain Formation in Artificial Spin Ice: Experiment, Simulation, and Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budrikis, Zoe; Morgan, J. P.; Akerman, J.; Stein, A.; Politi, Paolo; Langridge, S.; Marrows, C. H.; Stamps, R. L.

    2012-07-01

    Quenched disorder affects how nonequilibrium systems respond to driving. In the context of artificial spin ice, an athermal system comprised of geometrically frustrated classical Ising spins with a twofold degenerate ground state, we give experimental and numerical evidence of how such disorder washes out edge effects and provide an estimate of disorder strength in the experimental system. We prove analytically that a sequence of applied fields with fixed amplitude is unable to drive the system to its ground state from a saturated state. These results should be relevant for other systems where disorder does not change the nature of the ground state.

  3. Grounded theory methodology--narrativity revisited.

    PubMed

    Ruppel, Paul Sebastian; Mey, Günter

    2015-06-01

    This article aims to illuminate the role of narrativity in Grounded Theory Methodology and to explore an approach within Grounded Theory Methodology that is sensitized towards aspects of narrativity. The suggested approach takes into account narrativity as an aspect of the underlying data. It reflects how narrativity could be conceptually integrated and systematically used for shaping the way in which coding, category development and the presentation of results in a Grounded Theory Methodology study proceed.

  4. Grounded Theory Methodology: Positivism, Hermeneutics, and Pragmatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Age, Lars-Johan

    2011-01-01

    Glaserian grounded theory methodology, which has been widely adopted as a scientific methodology in recent decades, has been variously characterised as "hermeneutic" and "positivist." This commentary therefore takes a different approach to characterising grounded theory by undertaking a comprehensive analysis of: (a) the philosophical paradigms of…

  5. The Student Teachers' Description of Pivotal Moments during the Process of the Student Teaching Experience: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barthuly, Lourra L.

    2011-01-01

    Though research exists regarding learning styles, none has been completed specifically on the pivotal moments that occur to teachers while transforming from a student to an educator. Though the student teaching experience has been a practice in many universities, this experience is unchartered territory in the scientific community with regard to…

  6. Ground Effect - Theory and Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pistolesi, E

    1937-01-01

    The conclusion of a previous article by Pistolesi is that the increment of lift due to ground effect is largely attributable to the effect of induction of the free vortices, and is practically equivalent to a virtual increase in aspect ratio. The ground clearance was of the order of magnitude comparable to the wing chord. New reports by Le Seur and Datwyler treat the case of minimum distance from the ground and is confined to the plane problem only. The author briefly reviews these reports and also one by Timotika. References to all the reviewed reports are in the attached bibliography.

  7. Evolution of a grounded theory: conflict resolution through culture brokering.

    PubMed

    Jezewski, M A

    1995-03-01

    This article describes the evolution of the middle-range substantive theory of culture brokering. The theory was generated by first conducting a concept analysis that yielded 12 attributes of the concept of culture brokering. The concept analysis was accomplished using the anthropology, health-related, and business literature. In addition, data from an interpretive ethnographic study were used to further develop the concept of culture brokering. The theory was then generated from four grounded theory studies. Each study was used to frame the grounded theory model and to strengthen and refine the categories and links between categories within the basic social process of culture brokering. The culture brokering theory can guide the practice of nurses in situations where conflict is present in the health care interaction. The theory is grounded in the experiences of nurses attempting conflict resolution in the context of health care interactions. PMID:7778888

  8. Grounded theory as feminist research methodology.

    PubMed

    Keddy, B; Sims, S L; Stern, P N

    1996-03-01

    Feminist research is evolving, and with it new methods of doing science. In this feminist post-positivist era, grounded theory, while less inclusive and descriptive than ethnography, allows for complex analysis of complex questions. While Glaser & Strauss (the originators of this methodology) have written about grounded theory in an esoteric way, others have written extensively about this method in a much clearer and less rigid fashion. In this paper we discuss how grounded theory could be used in a creative and constantly evolving manner for feminist research.

  9. Accessibility and Autonomy Preconditions to "Our" Inclusion: A Grounded Theory Study of the Experiences of Secondary Students with Vision Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitburn, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I report core findings of a small-scale qualitative study that I conducted with a group of young people with vision impairment who attended an inclusive secondary school in the Australian state of Queensland. My objective was to capture their voiced experiences of their schooling through face-to-face interviews and to develop a…

  10. Conducting Multi-Generational Qualitative Research in Education: An Experiment in Grounded Theory. Black Studies and Critical Thinking. Volume 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    This book outlines a methodology for viewing multiple generations of African Americans, specifically those who were called or called themselves Negro, Colored, Black, or African American (NCBAA). Within this framework, African Americans of varying ages describe their lives and educational experiences, allowing researchers to address a variety of…

  11. Student as Active Agent: A Grounded Theory of the Postsecondary Transition Experiences for Students with Psychiatric Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liparini, Christina Garczynski

    2008-01-01

    Although research indicates a trend toward increased representation of students with psychiatric disabilities in postsecondary education, the experiences of these students tend to be marked by academic failure and social isolation. However, the existing qualitative and quantitative research on this student population largely excludes the…

  12. Grounded theory and feminist inquiry: revitalizing links to the past.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Marilyn; Young, Lynne E

    2010-04-01

    Grounded theory has served feminist research endeavors since the mid-1990s. Researchers from a variety of disciplines claim methodological compatibility and incorporate feminist principles into their grounded theory studies. This article seeks to demonstrate the epistemological affinity between feminist inquiry and grounded theory. Although this relationship is not necessarily unique, the authors contend that when combined, it loosens the androcentric moorings of the empirical processes underpinning grounded theory, enabling the researchers to design inquiry with greater potential to reveal issues particular to the lives and experiences of marginalized women. The article begins by retracing the roots of grounded theory and feminist inquiry to identify six key areas where the underpinnings of GT are enriched by a feminist perspective when working with women. In addition, the authors draw on the literature and their experience from a 2005 study of peer support and lone mothers' health to demonstrate the advantages of combining these theoretical perspectives. Finally, the authors recommend that nurse researchers draw on feminist principles to guide their use of grounded theory to better serve the interests of women by surfacing issues of gender and power that influence the health experience.

  13. [Thoughts regarding researchers utilizing Grounded Theory].

    PubMed

    Leite, Joséte Luzia; da Silva, Laura Johanson; de Oliveira, Rosane Mara Pontes; Stipp, Marluci Andrade Conceição

    2012-06-01

    This descriptive-reflexive study was performed with the objective to present the characteristics of researchers who use the Grounded Theory method, and outline the development of aptitudes for the researcher to become a Grounded Theoretician. The theoretical discussion was based on the frameworks of this methodology and supported by the literature. The article presents the main demands of qualitative studies using Grounded Theory, and important behaviors, attitudes and characteristics developed by the researchers. It is concluded that learning about Grounded Theory involves more than operationalizing a group of procedures and techniques. It also involves facing challenges to change one's attitude as a researcher and develop new ways of thinking and researching, gathering knowledge based on data to form a theory.

  14. A Grounded Theory of Counseling Students Who Report Problematic Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Lindy K.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Corthell, Kimere K.; Walsh, Maggie E.; Brack, Greg; Grubbs, Natalie K.

    2014-01-01

    All counselors, including students, are responsible for intervening when a colleague shows signs of impairment. This grounded theory study investigated experiences of 12 counseling students who reported problematic peers. An emergent theory of the peer reporting process is presented, along with implications for counselor educators and suggestions…

  15. Straussian Grounded-Theory Method: An Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thai, Mai Thi Thanh; Chong, Li Choy; Agrawal, Narendra M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the benefits and application of Straussian Grounded Theory method in conducting research in complex settings where parameters are poorly defined. It provides a detailed illustration on how this method can be used to build an internationalization theory. To be specific, this paper exposes readers to the behind-the-scene work…

  16. A Grounded Theory of Adult Student Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    This grounded theory study investigates adult student persistence at a community college. Student persistence in college is a prerequisite for degree achievement, which correlates with higher earnings and overall better quality of life. Persistence rates remain low for adult students, who combine their college endeavors with responsibilities to…

  17. A Grounded Theory Study of Supervision of Preservice Consultation Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a university-based supervision process for consultants-in-training (CITs) engaged in a preservice level consultation course with applied practicum experience. The study was approached from a constructivist worldview using a grounded theory methodology. Data consisted of supervision session transcripts,…

  18. Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment - Experiment Implementation Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, I.; Weilert, M.

    1999-01-01

    Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment (MISTE) is a candidate experiment competitively peer reviewed and selected for flight definition from the 1996 Fundamental Physics NASA Research Announcement (NRA).

  19. Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment. I. The normal modes

    SciTech Connect

    Comandi, G.L.; Chiofalo, M.L.; Toncelli, R.; Bramanti, D.; Polacco, E.; Nobili, A.M.

    2006-03-15

    Recent theoretical work suggests that violation of the equivalence principle might be revealed in a measurement of the fractional differential acceleration {eta} between two test bodies-of different compositions, falling in the gravitational field of a source mass--if the measurement is made to the level of {eta}{approx_equal}10{sup -13} or better. This being within the reach of ground based experiments gives them a new impetus. However, while slowly rotating torsion balances in ground laboratories are close to reaching this level, only an experiment performed in a low orbit around the Earth is likely to provide a much better accuracy. We report on the progress made with the 'Galileo Galilei on the ground' (GGG) experiment, which aims to compete with torsion balances using an instrument design also capable of being converted into a much higher sensitivity space test. In the present and following articles (Part I and Part II), we demonstrate that the dynamical response of the GGG differential accelerometer set into supercritical rotation-in particular, its normal modes (Part I) and rejection of common mode effects (Part II)-can be predicted by means of a simple but effective model that embodies all the relevant physics. Analytical solutions are obtained under special limits, which provide the theoretical understanding. A simulation environment is set up, obtaining a quantitative agreement with the available experimental data on the frequencies of the normal modes and on the whirling behavior. This is a needed and reliable tool for controlling and separating perturbative effects from the expected signal, as well as for planning the optimization of the apparatus.

  20. Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment. I. The normal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comandi, G. L.; Chiofalo, M. L.; Toncelli, R.; Bramanti, D.; Polacco, E.; Nobili, A. M.

    2006-03-01

    Recent theoretical work suggests that violation of the equivalence principle might be revealed in a measurement of the fractional differential acceleration η between two test bodies—of different compositions, falling in the gravitational field of a source mass—if the measurement is made to the level of η ≃10-13 or better. This being within the reach of ground based experiments gives them a new impetus. However, while slowly rotating torsion balances in ground laboratories are close to reaching this level, only an experiment performed in a low orbit around the Earth is likely to provide a much better accuracy. We report on the progress made with the "Galileo Galilei on the ground" (GGG) experiment, which aims to compete with torsion balances using an instrument design also capable of being converted into a much higher sensitivity space test. In the present and following articles (Part I and Part II), we demonstrate that the dynamical response of the GGG differential accelerometer set into supercritical rotation—in particular, its normal modes (Part I) and rejection of common mode effects (Part II)—can be predicted by means of a simple but effective model that embodies all the relevant physics. Analytical solutions are obtained under special limits, which provide the theoretical understanding. A simulation environment is set up, obtaining a quantitative agreement with the available experimental data on the frequencies of the normal modes and on the whirling behavior. This is a needed and reliable tool for controlling and separating perturbative effects from the expected signal, as well as for planning the optimization of the apparatus.

  1. Grounded theory in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 70.

    PubMed

    Watling, Christopher J; Lingard, Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research in general and the grounded theory approach in particular, have become increasingly prominent in medical education research in recent years. In this Guide, we first provide a historical perspective on the origin and evolution of grounded theory. We then outline the principles underlying the grounded theory approach and the procedures for doing a grounded theory study, illustrating these elements with real examples. Next, we address key critiques of grounded theory, which continue to shape how the method is perceived and used. Finally, pitfalls and controversies in grounded theory research are examined to provide a balanced view of both the potential and the challenges of this approach. This Guide aims to assist researchers new to grounded theory to approach their studies in a disciplined and rigorous fashion, to challenge experienced researchers to reflect on their assumptions, and to arm readers of medical education research with an approach to critically appraising the quality of grounded theory studies.

  2. Tribology theory versus experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John

    1987-01-01

    Tribology, the study of friction and wear of materials, has achieved a new interest because of the need for energy conservation. Fundamental understanding of this field is very complex and requires a knowledge of solid-state physics, material science, chemistry, and mechanical engineering. This paper is meant to be didactic in nature and outlines some of the considerations needed for a tribology research program. The approach is first to present a simple model, a field emission tip in contact with a flat surface, in order to elucidate important considerations, such as contact area, mechanical deformations, and interfacial bonding. Then examples from illustrative experiments are presented. Finally, the current status of physical theories concerning interfacial bonding are presented.

  3. Ground test experiment for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tollison, D. K.; Waites, H. B.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years a new body of control theory has been developed for the design of control systems for Large Space Structures (LSS). The problems of testing this theory on LSS hardware are aggravated by the expense and risk of actual in orbit tests. Ground tests on large space structures can provide a proving ground for candidate control systems, but such tests require a unique facility for their execution. The current development of such a facility at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the subject of this report.

  4. The Erosion of a Method: Examples from Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greckhamer, Thomas; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2005-01-01

    Since its original inception in the 1960s grounded theory has been widely used by many qualitative researchers. However, recently epistemologically different versions of grounded theory have been presented and this epistemological diversity among grounded theorists and the erosion of the method will be the major focus of this paper. The first…

  5. An Evening of Grounded Theory: Teaching Process through Demonstration and Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huehls, Frances

    2005-01-01

    Grounded theory can be effectively introduced in a survey course through a combination of lecture/demonstration and simulation. The class session presented here illustrates a way to introduce graduate students to the process of grounded theory and gain hands-on experience through simulation. The lesson utilizes concepts that the students are…

  6. Ground test experiment for large space structures, appendix I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tollison, D. K.; Waites, H. B.

    1984-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center has developed a Large Space Structure (LSS) ground test verification experiment facility having adequate fidelity and flexibility to accommodate the demands of LSS control theory testing. The first experiment is in the subsystem verification and integration phase. This test employs the ASTROMAST, a lightweight S glass composite deployable beam structure, as the test article and is cited to prove out centralized and distributed sensor control strategies.

  7. Adolescents coping with mood disorder: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Meadus, R J

    2007-04-01

    A grounded theory methodology was used to explore the phenomenon of coping as experienced by adolescents with a mood disorder. Mood disorders among children and adolescents are more persistent than previously thought and have numerous negative associated features, including further episodes of depression, impaired social, academic and vocational relationships, use of alcohol and other drugs, and an increased risk of suicide. Current literature offered little awareness of how adolescents cope with a mood disorder, as well as their perspective of how such an illness impacts their lives. A substantive theory regarding the process of coping for adolescents with a mood disorder was generated from the data collected from one male and eight female adolescents. Using grounded theory coding procedures, a four-phase coping theory identified by the categories feeling different, cutting off connections, facing the challenge/reconnecting, and learning from the experience was developed. The core category identified in this research was An Unplanned Journey: Coping Through Connections. Implications identified for nursing practice, research and education included greater attention on the prevention of adolescent mood disorder, and the education of adolescents about the development and enhancement of healthy coping skills. PMID:17352785

  8. Grounded Theory in Practice: Is It Inherently a Mixed Method?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. B.; McGowan, M. W.; Turner, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    We address 2 key points of contention in this article. First, we engage the debate concerning whether particular methods are necessarily linked to particular research paradigms. Second, we briefly describe a mixed methods version of grounded theory (MM-GT). Grounded theory can be tailored to work well in any of the 3 major forms of mixed methods…

  9. Constructing a Grounded Theory of E-Learning Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonso-Díaz, Laura; Yuste-Tosina, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    This study traces the development of a grounded theory of assessment in e-learning environments, a field in need of research to establish the parameters of an assessment that is both reliable and worthy of higher learning accreditation. Using grounded theory as a research method, we studied an e-assessment model that does not require physical…

  10. Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment. II. The rejection of common mode forces

    SciTech Connect

    Comandi, G.L.; Toncelli, R.; Chiofalo, M.L.; Bramanti, D.; Nobili, A.M.

    2006-03-15

    'Galileo Galilei on the ground' (GGG) is a fast rotating differential accelerometer designed to test the equivalence principle (EP). Its sensitivity to differential effects, such as the effect of an EP violation, depends crucially on the capability of the accelerometer to reject all effects acting in common mode. By applying the theoretical and simulation methods reported in Part I of this work, and tested therein against experimental data, we predict the occurrence of an enhanced common mode rejection of the GGG accelerometer. We demonstrate that the best rejection of common mode disturbances can be tuned in a controlled way by varying the spin frequency of the GGG rotor.

  11. A Grounded Theory of Western-Trained Asian Group Leaders Leading Groups in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taephant, Nattasuda; Rubel, Deborah; Champe, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This grounded theory research explored the experiences of Western-trained Asian group leaders leading groups in Asia. A total of 6 participants from Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand were interviewed 3 times over 9 months. The recursive process of data collection and analysis yielded substantive theory describing the participants' process of…

  12. Sustaining the Image of Life: A Grounded Theory Study of Funeral Service Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sharen

    2012-01-01

    This grounded theory dissertation explores the educational experiences of funeral service students as they matriculate through the college of funeral service. Student interviews were utilized to explore the world of funeral service education. The analysis of the data led to the discovery of the theory, "Sustaining the Image of Life." The…

  13. Reconceptualising Moderation in Asynchronous Online Discussions Using Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachopoulos, Panos; Cowan, John

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a grounded theory study of the moderation of asynchronous online discussions, to explore the processes by which tutors in higher education decide when and how to moderate. It aims to construct a theory of e-moderation based on some key factors which appear to influence e-moderation. It discusses previous research on the…

  14. Community Involvement of High School Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Karin Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study focused on the perspectives of high school seniors, college freshmen, and working young adults in Orange County, California, to create a useful and practical theory about high school students' civic participation as it relates to students' enrollment in postsecondary education. Data collection consisted of…

  15. Empowerment in School Nursing Practice: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broussard, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Professional empowerment is vital to nurses' productivity and job satisfaction. A grounded theory study was conducted to describe the basic social process experienced by school nurses in relation to professional empowerment. Interviews with 10 school nurses led to the development of a situation-specific theory of school nurse empowerment, "Making…

  16. A Grounded Theory of Master's-Level Counselor Research Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Maribeth F.; Duncan, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    A grounded theory approach was used to examine the research identity of 17 master's-level counseling trainees and practitioners. The emergent theory gave an understanding to sources of variation in the process and outcome of research identity. The authors provide recommendations for counselor educators to use with current and former students.

  17. Ground movement analysis based on stochastic medium theory.

    PubMed

    Fei, Meng; Wu, Li-chun; Zhang, Jia-sheng; Deng, Guo-dong; Ni, Zhi-hui

    2014-01-01

    In order to calculate the ground movement induced by displacement piles driven into horizontal layered strata, an axisymmetric model was built and then the vertical and horizontal ground movement functions were deduced using stochastic medium theory. Results show that the vertical ground movement obeys normal distribution function, while the horizontal ground movement is an exponential function. Utilizing field measured data, parameters of these functions can be obtained by back analysis, and an example was employed to verify this model. Result shows that stochastic medium theory is suitable for calculating the ground movement in pile driving, and there is no need to consider the constitutive model of soil or contact between pile and soil. This method is applicable in practice. PMID:24701184

  18. A Laboratory Experiment on the Statistical Theory of Nuclear Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, Walter

    1971-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate laboratory experiment on the statistical theory of nuclear reactions. The experiment involves measuring the relative cross sections for formation of a nucleus in its meta stable excited state and its ground state by applying gamma-ray spectroscopy to an irradiated sample. Involves 3-4 hours of laboratory time plus…

  19. A taxonomy of dignity: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper has its origins in Jonathan Mann's insight that the experience of dignity may explain the reciprocal relationships between health and human rights. It follows his call for a taxonomy of dignity: "a coherent vocabulary and framework to characterize dignity." Methods Grounded theory procedures were use to analyze literature pertaining to dignity and to conduct and analyze 64 semi-structured interviews with persons marginalized by their health or social status, individuals who provide health or social services to these populations, and people working in the field of health and human rights. Results The taxonomy presented identifies two main forms of dignity–human dignity and social dignity–and describes several elements of these forms, including the social processes that violate or promote them, the conditions under which such violations and promotions occur, the objects of violation and promotion, and the consequences of dignity violation. Together, these forms and elements point to a theory of dignity as a quality of individuals and collectives that is constituted through interaction and interpretation and structured by conditions pertaining to actors, relationships, settings, and the broader social order. Conclusion The taxonomy has several implications for work in health and human rights. It suggests a map to possible points of intervention and provides a language in which to talk about dignity. PMID:19239684

  20. Grounded theory in nursing research: Part 1--Methodology.

    PubMed

    McCann, Terence V; Clark, Eileen

    2003-01-01

    The epistemological underpinnings of grounded theory make it valuable in the study of nursing, which is premised on an interpersonal process between nurses and clients. Further, it is a useful style of research when there is little prior information about a topic. In this article (Part 1), Terence McCann and Eileen Clark outline the key features of this methodology. In the follow-up article (Part 2, McCann and Clark 2003a), a critique is provided of grounded theory and the two main approaches to this methodology. In the final article in the series (Part 3, McCann and Clark 2003b), the authors illustrate how grounded theory can be applied to nursing research with examples from McCann's Australian study (McCann and Baker 2001) of how community mental health nurses promote wellness with clients who are experiencing an early episode of psychotic illness.

  1. Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.

    PubMed

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2008-05-16

    We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range.

  2. Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.

    PubMed

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2008-05-16

    We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range. PMID:18518481

  3. Ensemble Theory for Stealthy Hyperuniform Disordered Ground States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torquato, Salvatore

    Disordered hyperuniform many-particle systems have been receiving recent attention because they are distinguishable exotic states of matter poised between a crystal and liquid that are endowed with novel thermodynamic and physical properties. It has been shown numerically that systems of particles interacting with ``stealthy'' bounded, long-ranged pair potentials (similar to Friedel oscillations) have classical ground states that are, counterintuitively, disordered, hyperuniform and highly degenerate. The task of formulating an ensemble theory that yields analytical predictions for the structural characteristics and other properties of stealthy degenerate ground states in d-dimensional Euclidean space is highly nontrivial because the dimensionality of the configuration space depends on the number density and there is a multitude of ways of sampling the ground-state manifold, each with its own probability measure for finding a particular ground-state configuration. A new type of statistical-mechanical theory had to be invented to characterize these exotic states of matter. I report on some initial progress that we have made in this direction. We show that stealthy disordered ground states behave like ''pseudo''-equilibrium hard-sphere systems in Fourier space. Our theoretical predictions for the structure and thermodynamic properties of the stealthy disordered ground states and associated excited states are in excellent agreement with computer simulations across dimensions.

  4. The Constant Comparative Analysis Method Outside of Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fram, Sheila M.

    2013-01-01

    This commentary addresses the gap in the literature regarding discussion of the legitimate use of Constant Comparative Analysis Method (CCA) outside of Grounded Theory. The purpose is to show the strength of using CCA to maintain the emic perspective and how theoretical frameworks can maintain the etic perspective throughout the analysis. My…

  5. Marshaling Resources: A Classic Grounded Theory Study of Online Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalof, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Students who enroll in online courses comprise one quarter of an increasingly diverse student body in higher education today. Yet, it is not uncommon for an online program to lose over 50% of its enrolled students prior to graduation. This study used a classic grounded theory qualitative methodology to investigate the persistent problem of…

  6. Year 7 Students, Information Literacy, and Transfer: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, James E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the views of year 7 students, teacher librarians, and teachers in three state secondary schools in rural New South Wales, Australia, on information literacy and transfer. The aims of the study included the development of a grounded theory in relation to information literacy and transfer in these schools. The study's perspective…

  7. The Use of Grounded Theory within "Feminist" Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brine, Jacky

    A four-stage feminist research project investigating European Social Fund (ESF)-funded vocational training for unemployed women used the grounded theory approach. Stage 1 involved the formation of the research questions and design. Steps included the ontological, epistemological, and methodological positioning of the researcher. Stage 2 was the…

  8. Maintaining Healthy Behaviors Following Weight Loss: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Cox, Tiffany L.; Ard, Jamy D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Rutt, Candace D.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the process of how women maintained their healthy behaviors after a weight management program using a grounded theory approach. We conducted 2 focus groups and 23 interviews with a purposeful sample of African American and Caucasian women aged 30 and older who lost greater than 5% of their body weight during a weight management…

  9. Women's Bodies as a "Puzzle" for College Men: Grounded Theory Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Patricia Barthalow

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the level of college men's understanding about women's bodies (i.e., reproductive anatomy and physiology) in order to structure learning experiences of most relevance and interest to them. A grounded theory research design, using the constant comparative method, was used in order to gain a deeper…

  10. Professional Identity Development: A Grounded Theory of Transformational Tasks of New Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Donna M.; Dollarhide, Colette T.; Moss, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    Professional identity development is an important professional issue. Examining the lived experiences of counselors-in-training (CITs), the authors used grounded theory methodology to describe the transformational tasks that are required for professional identity development. Tasks include finding a personal definition of counseling, internalizing…

  11. A Grounded Theory of Counselor Educators Integrating Social Justice into Their Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odegard, Melissa A.; Vereen, Linwood G.

    2010-01-01

    The topic of social justice has received considerable attention in the counseling literature; however, little empirical research exists. This grounded theory study examined 4 counselor educators' process of integrating social justice constructs into their pedagogy. Data analysis revealed 4 primary experiences that emerged in the participants'…

  12. Teachers' Perceived Influences on Technology Integration Decisions: A Grounded Theory on Instructional Decisions after Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhaus, Karen Larsen

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative grounded theory study explored teachers' instructional decisions around planning and practice for technology integration after participation in professional development. The purpose of this study was to determine how a long-term hybrid professional development experience influenced, if at all, math teachers' instructional…

  13. Constructing Grounded Theory: Reflections on a Case Study of a Professor of Architectural Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janesick, Valerie J.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses a case study describing the philosophy of teaching design to architecture students as practiced by one professor. A model of his architectural design curriculum emerged. Three issues arose: constructing theory from data grounded in experience, posing appropriate research questions, and understanding the roots of ethnographic inquiry.…

  14. Learning the Ropes: A Grounded Theory Study of Children Crossing Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Patricia E.

    2012-01-01

    Educators in American public school settings have tried to determine the best practices to reach an increasingly diverse student population. In this qualitative study using grounded theory design, 13 individuals who have graduated from high schools in northern Virginia were asked to recollect their experiences as they moved through the dual…

  15. Recognizing Social Class in the Psychotherapy Relationship: A Grounded Theory Exploration of Low-Income Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Cole, Odessa D.; Nitzarim, Rachel S.

    2012-01-01

    The process of psychotherapy among 16 low-income clients was explored using grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967) in order to understand and identify their unique experiences and needs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 women and 4 men who had attended at least 6 sessions of psychotherapy within 6 months of the…

  16. The journey into fatherhood: A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Sansiriphun, Nantaporn; Kantaruksa, Kannika; Klunklin, Areewan; Baosuang, Chavee; Liamtrirat, Saowanee

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the process of transition into fatherhood for Thai men from childbirth to the postpartum period. Forty-one first-time Thai fathers were voluntarily recruited from two hospitals in Chiang Mai, Thailand, from December 2012 to June 2013. In-depth interviews were used to collect the data, which were analyzed based on grounded theory methodology. The basic social process that emerged as the core category was termed: "the journey into fatherhood." This process was divided into three phases: labor, delivery, and family beginning. Within this process, there were various situations, challenges, and pressures, which caused many changes of mood and feelings for the first-time fathers. Throughout this process, they applied various strategies to manage their concerns and needs, in order to develop into masterly fathers. Identifying the process of the journey into fatherhood provides nurses and midwives insight into the new fathers' experiences, which will enable them to be more sensitive, respectful, and effective caregivers. PMID:26245824

  17. The journey into fatherhood: A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Sansiriphun, Nantaporn; Kantaruksa, Kannika; Klunklin, Areewan; Baosuang, Chavee; Liamtrirat, Saowanee

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the process of transition into fatherhood for Thai men from childbirth to the postpartum period. Forty-one first-time Thai fathers were voluntarily recruited from two hospitals in Chiang Mai, Thailand, from December 2012 to June 2013. In-depth interviews were used to collect the data, which were analyzed based on grounded theory methodology. The basic social process that emerged as the core category was termed: "the journey into fatherhood." This process was divided into three phases: labor, delivery, and family beginning. Within this process, there were various situations, challenges, and pressures, which caused many changes of mood and feelings for the first-time fathers. Throughout this process, they applied various strategies to manage their concerns and needs, in order to develop into masterly fathers. Identifying the process of the journey into fatherhood provides nurses and midwives insight into the new fathers' experiences, which will enable them to be more sensitive, respectful, and effective caregivers.

  18. Sociocultural Theory and the Mediated Learning Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozulin, Alex

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the two theories that have contributed most to the development of the mediational approach to learning, Vygotskian sociocultural theory and Feuerstein's theory of Mediated Learning Experience. Both theories emphasize the importance of sociocultural forces in shaping a child's development and learning, and have generated a number of…

  19. No theory of justice can ground health care reform.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Griffin

    2012-01-01

    This essay argues that no theory or single conception of justice can provide a fundamental grounding for health care reform in the United States. To provide such a grounding, (1) there would need to be widespread support among citizens for a particular conception of justice, (2) citizens would have to apprehend this common conception of justice as providing the strongest available rationale for health care reform, and (3) this rationale would have to overwhelm countervailing values. I argue that neither of the first two conditions is met.

  20. Student nurse socialisation in compassionate practice: a Grounded Theory study.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Katherine; Horton, Khim; Smith, Pam

    2012-10-01

    Compassionate practice is expected of Registered Nurses (RNs) around the world while at the same time remaining a contested concept. Nevertheless, student nurses are expected to enact compassionate practice in order to become RNs. In order for this to happen they require professional socialisation within environments where compassion can flourish. However, there is concern that student nurse socialisation is not enabling compassion to flourish and be maintained upon professional qualification. In order to investigate this further, a glaserian Grounded Theory study was undertaken using in-depth, digitally recorded interviews with student nurses (n=19) at a university in the north of England during 2009 and 2010. Interviews were also undertaken with their nurse teachers (n=5) and data from National Health Service (NHS) patients (n=72,000) and staff (n=290,000) surveys were used to build a contextual picture of the student experience. Within the selected findings presented, analysis of the data indicates that students aspire to the professional ideal of compassionate practice although they have concerns about how compassionate practice might fit within the RN role because of constraints on RN practice. Students feel vulnerable to dissonance between professional ideals and practice reality. They experience uncertainty about their future role and about opportunities to engage in compassionate practice. Students manage their vulnerability and uncertainty by balancing between an intention to uphold professional ideals and challenge constraints, and a realisation they might need to adapt their ideals and conform to constraints. This study demonstrates that socialisation in compassionate practice is compromised by dissonance between professional idealism and practice realism. Realignment between the reality of practice and professional ideals, and fostering student resilience, are required if students are to be successfully socialised in compassionate practice and enabled

  1. Student nurse socialisation in compassionate practice: a Grounded Theory study.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Katherine; Horton, Khim; Smith, Pam

    2012-10-01

    Compassionate practice is expected of Registered Nurses (RNs) around the world while at the same time remaining a contested concept. Nevertheless, student nurses are expected to enact compassionate practice in order to become RNs. In order for this to happen they require professional socialisation within environments where compassion can flourish. However, there is concern that student nurse socialisation is not enabling compassion to flourish and be maintained upon professional qualification. In order to investigate this further, a glaserian Grounded Theory study was undertaken using in-depth, digitally recorded interviews with student nurses (n=19) at a university in the north of England during 2009 and 2010. Interviews were also undertaken with their nurse teachers (n=5) and data from National Health Service (NHS) patients (n=72,000) and staff (n=290,000) surveys were used to build a contextual picture of the student experience. Within the selected findings presented, analysis of the data indicates that students aspire to the professional ideal of compassionate practice although they have concerns about how compassionate practice might fit within the RN role because of constraints on RN practice. Students feel vulnerable to dissonance between professional ideals and practice reality. They experience uncertainty about their future role and about opportunities to engage in compassionate practice. Students manage their vulnerability and uncertainty by balancing between an intention to uphold professional ideals and challenge constraints, and a realisation they might need to adapt their ideals and conform to constraints. This study demonstrates that socialisation in compassionate practice is compromised by dissonance between professional idealism and practice realism. Realignment between the reality of practice and professional ideals, and fostering student resilience, are required if students are to be successfully socialised in compassionate practice and enabled

  2. Application of grounded theory to content definition: a case study.

    PubMed

    Audiss, D; Roth, T

    1999-02-01

    Successful implementation of a clinical information system requires clinician involvement throughout the process of content definition and system development to ensure acceptance of the automated care process. In these times of downsizing, however, clinicians are not always able to participate fully in the dontent definition phase of system development and often become frustrated with their inability to obtain the patient information they need from the system. The qualitative research principles of grounded theory afford clinicians the opportunity to participate in content definition for information systems. This article presents a case study of the application of grounded theory to develop systematically the content definition for a clinical information system in preparation for implementation on four medical-surgical units.

  3. MTX (Microwave Tokamak Experiment) facility and machine grounding plan

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, H.H.; Rice, B.W.; Petersen, D.E.; Herrera, C.H.

    1987-10-07

    A key issue in the design of fusion research experiments and their related facilities is the control of ground currents. Because of the large magnetic field, high voltages and high currents present in most of these installations, it is essential to avoid ground loops, and to control ground currents during both normal operations and fault conditions. This paper describes the grounding policy that was developed for MTX. The vault area was divided into zones, and each of the four walls was treated as a separate grounding area. Cable runs and magnet buss bars were run into the machine radially. The paper also describes the steps taken to isolate diagnostic signals and power for pumps and instruments. The paper outlines some of the field calculations used to predict problem areas, and to reveal voltage isolation levels that were required. The paper includes the active ground fault detection system used to insure the integrity of the ground system. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  4. Satisfaction with College Major: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milsom, Amy; Coughlin, Julie

    2015-01-01

    All college students must eventually choose and complete a major. Many switch majors, and some change it multiple times. Despite extensive literature addressing factors that influence students' initial choice of major, few scholars have examined students' experiences after enrollment in a selected major. In this study, we used a grounded theory…

  5. Staying theoretically sensitive when conducting grounded theory research.

    PubMed

    Reay, Gudrun; Bouchal, Shelley Raffin; A Rankin, James

    2016-09-01

    Background Grounded theory (GT) is founded on the premise that underlying social patterns can be discovered and conceptualised into theories. The method and need for theoretical sensitivity are best understood in the historical context in which GT was developed. Theoretical sensitivity entails entering the field with no preconceptions, so as to remain open to the data and the emerging theory. Investigators also read literature from other fields to understand various ways to construct theories. Aim To explore the concept of theoretical sensitivity from a classical GT perspective, and discuss the ontological and epistemological foundations of GT. Discussion Difficulties in remaining theoretically sensitive throughout research are discussed and illustrated with examples. Emergence - the idea that theory and substance will emerge from the process of comparing data - and staying open to the data are emphasised. Conclusion Understanding theoretical sensitivity as an underlying guiding principle of GT helps the researcher make sense of important concepts, such as delaying the literature review, emergence and the constant comparative method (simultaneous collection, coding and analysis of data). Implications for practice Theoretical sensitivity and adherence to the GT research method allow researchers to discover theories that can bridge the gap between theory and practice. PMID:27641705

  6. Staying theoretically sensitive when conducting grounded theory research.

    PubMed

    Reay, Gudrun; Bouchal, Shelley Raffin; A Rankin, James

    2016-09-01

    Background Grounded theory (GT) is founded on the premise that underlying social patterns can be discovered and conceptualised into theories. The method and need for theoretical sensitivity are best understood in the historical context in which GT was developed. Theoretical sensitivity entails entering the field with no preconceptions, so as to remain open to the data and the emerging theory. Investigators also read literature from other fields to understand various ways to construct theories. Aim To explore the concept of theoretical sensitivity from a classical GT perspective, and discuss the ontological and epistemological foundations of GT. Discussion Difficulties in remaining theoretically sensitive throughout research are discussed and illustrated with examples. Emergence - the idea that theory and substance will emerge from the process of comparing data - and staying open to the data are emphasised. Conclusion Understanding theoretical sensitivity as an underlying guiding principle of GT helps the researcher make sense of important concepts, such as delaying the literature review, emergence and the constant comparative method (simultaneous collection, coding and analysis of data). Implications for practice Theoretical sensitivity and adherence to the GT research method allow researchers to discover theories that can bridge the gap between theory and practice.

  7. Health as expanding consciousness: a nursing perspective for grounded theory research.

    PubMed

    Brown, Janet Witucki

    2011-07-01

    Margaret Newman's theory of health as expanding consciousness provides an excellent nursing perspective for nursing grounded theory research studies. Application of this nursing theory to grounded theory research provides a unitary-transformative paradigm perspective to the sociological underpinnings of grounded theory methodology. The fit between this particular nursing theory and grounded theory methodology is apparent when purpose, timing, process, and health outcomes of the two are compared. In this column, the theory of health as expanding consciousness is described and the theory's research as praxis methodology is compared to grounded theory methodology. This is followed by a description of how the theory of health as expanding consciousness can be utilized as a perspective for nursing grounded theory research.

  8. Ensemble Theory for Stealthy Hyperuniform Disordered Ground States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torquato, S.; Zhang, G.; Stillinger, F. H.

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown numerically that systems of particles interacting with isotropic "stealthy" bounded long-ranged pair potentials (similar to Friedel oscillations) have classical ground states that are (counterintuitively) disordered, hyperuniform, and highly degenerate. Disordered hyperuniform systems have received attention recently because they are distinguishable exotic states of matter poised between a crystal and liquid that are endowed with novel thermodynamic and physical properties. The task of formulating an ensemble theory that yields analytical predictions for the structural characteristics and other properties of stealthy degenerate ground states in d -dimensional Euclidean space Rd is highly nontrivial because the dimensionality of the configuration space depends on the number density ρ and there is a multitude of ways of sampling the ground-state manifold, each with its own probability measure for finding a particular ground-state configuration. The purpose of this paper is to take some initial steps in this direction. Specifically, we derive general exact relations for thermodynamic properties (energy, pressure, and isothermal compressibility) that apply to any ground-state ensemble as a function of ρ in any d , and we show how disordered degenerate ground states arise as part of the ground-state manifold. We also derive exact integral conditions that both the pair correlation function g2(r ) and structure factor S (k ) must obey for any d . We then specialize our results to the canonical ensemble (in the zero-temperature limit) by exploiting an ansatz that stealthy states behave remarkably like "pseudo"-equilibrium hard-sphere systems in Fourier space. Our theoretical predictions for g2(r ) and S (k ) are in excellent agreement with computer simulations across the first three space dimensions. These results are used to obtain order metrics, local number variance, and nearest-neighbor functions across dimensions. We also derive accurate analytical

  9. Minority nursing student success: A grounded theory case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mister, Brenda J.

    There has been a dramatic increase in the nation's racial and ethnic minority populations over recent years. This increase is placing a higher demand on the health care industry to provide culturally competent care to these diverse populations. This challenge is met with yet another problem as the nation faces a critical shortage of nurses, particularly minority nurses. This shortage is only expected to worsen over the next several years. As schools of nursing across the country are being asked to increase the number of nursing program graduates, specifically minorities, they are confronted with a double edged sword as retention rates are decreasing, and attrition rates are increasing. This is particularly troublesome when many racial and ethnic minority nursing students do not graduate. This qualitative study was implemented to assess and understand the perceived educational experiences of racial and ethnic minority nursing students enrolled in a rural community college nursing program on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Eight voluntary nursing students who identified themselves as either a racial or ethnic minority participated in the study. Data were collected by: individual audio-taped interview sessions; audio-taped focus group sessions; and documentation of field notes. Participants also provided demographic information and were asked to provide a brief written response to a scenario regarding increasing the recruitment and retention rates of minority nursing students. All data were analyzed utilizing the constant comparative method. Results of the study revealed six different themes: personal support systems and peer relationships; college services and academic resources; faculty support; cultural understanding versus cultural insensitivity; personal attributes of self-efficacy/advice for future nursing students; and suggestions for college and nursing program improvement. After the major themes were examined one central theme, a grounded theory, was born. The

  10. Empowerment in school nursing practice: a grounded theory approach.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Lisa

    2007-12-01

    Professional empowerment is vital to nurses' productivity and job satisfaction. A grounded theory study was conducted to describe the basic social process experienced by school nurses in relation to professional empowerment. Interviews with 10 school nurses led to the development of a situation-specific theory of school nurse empowerment, Making a Difference: The Role of the School Nurse in the Health of Children in Schools. This theory was derived from four theoretical constructs: (a) enlisting support, (b) getting through the day, (c) maintaining control over practice, and (d) adjusting to challenges. Interviews revealed that knowing at the end of each school day that they made a difference in the health of children resulted in feelings of empowerment. Participants cited various areas in which their sense of empowerment was limited, including salaries and workload. Despite these issues, they believed they had a positive impact on the health of children, leading to job satisfaction and feelings of value.

  11. GIFTS EDU Ground-based Measurement Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, W. L., Sr.; Zollinger, L. J.; Huppi, R. J.; Reisse, R. A.; Larar, A. M.; Liu, X.; Tansock, J. J., Jr.; Jensen, S. M.; Revercomb, H. E.; Feltz, W. F.; Bingham, G. E.

    2007-01-01

    Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) is an imaging infrared spectrometer designed for atmospheric soundings. The EDU groundbased measurement experiment was held in Logan, Utah during September 2006 to demonstrate its extensive capabilities for geosynchronous and other applications.

  12. Taking-On: A Grounded Theory of Addressing Barriers in Task Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austinson, Julie Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study of taking-on was conducted using classical grounded theory methodology (Glaser, 1978, 1992, 1998, 2001, 2005; Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Classical grounded theory is inductive, empirical, and naturalistic; it does not utilize manipulation or constrained time frames. Classical grounded theory is a systemic research method used to generate…

  13. Electrodeposition in microgravity: Ground-based experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, C.; Coble, H. D.

    1982-01-01

    Electrodeposition was studied at one-hundreth g and compared with bench studies at 1 g. The low gravity was achieved during KC-135 aircraft parobolic flights. Flow in a simple cobalt cell (1 M CoSO4) operating under typical commercial conditions (10 to 20 mA/sq cm and 1 V) was monitored with a Schlieren optical system. Natural convection was absent at one-hundreth g. Quantitative comparisons on a cobalt cell with shielded electrodes using interferometry were carried out. Fringe shift differences indicate greater semi-infinite linear diffusion at 1 g than at one-hundreth g for cobalt. Since a shielded electrode operates under diffusion controlled conditions, no differences between 1 g and one-hundreth g would be expected. Similar comparisons on a shielded electrode copper cell were inconclusive. Bench codeposition experiments using polystyrene neutral buoyancy particles coupled with a shielded electrode cobalt cell were begun. Tracking of 12 micron particles showed no measurable difference between thermal/Brownian motion when the cell was operational or nonoperational. Initial experiments on codeposition quality showed a strong dependence upon cathode surface preparation in a shielded electrode configuration.

  14. Toward a Theory of "Experience"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Jornet, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    "Experience" is one of the most used terms in (science) education, and it is recognized as being related to learning (education). Yet "what" experience is and "how" it is related to learning and change remains untheorized. In this paper, we mainly draw on the work of J. Dewey and L. S. Vygotsky but also on M. Bakhtin…

  15. Psychotherapists' spiritual, religious, atheist or agnostic identity and their practice of psychotherapy: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Magaldi-Dopman, Danielle; Park-Taylor, Jennie; Ponterotto, Joseph G

    2011-05-01

    In this present grounded theory study, 16 experienced psychologists, who practiced from varied theoretical orientations and came from diverse religious/spiritual/nonreligious backgrounds, explored their personal religious/spiritual/nonreligious identity development journeys, their experiences with clients' religious/spiritual content in psychotherapy sessions, and how their identity may have influenced the way they interacted with religious/spiritual material during sessions. Results revealed that psychologists' spiritual/religious/nonreligious identity is conflicted and complex and that their academic and clinical training did not provide sufficient opportunity to examine how this may affect their therapeutic work. A tentative grounded theory emerged suggesting that psychologists both identified with and were activated by clients' spiritual/religious conflicts and their internal experiences about the spiritual/religious content, both of which presented significant challenges to therapeutic work.

  16. Inquiring into Children's Music Experiences: Groundings in Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Shelley M.

    2010-01-01

    Highlighting various seminal studies in music education provides grounding for the necessity of connecting children's school music experiences with their daily lived music experiences. Allowing children to make more seamless connections between these two contexts heightens the possibility of creating increasingly meaningful school music…

  17. A Lifespan Perspective on Cooperative Education Learning: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study sits at the intersection of two trends in vocational education. The first trend is a narrative approach to understanding cooperative education learning; the second is a movement away from career development theories toward the view that individuals use work experiences to help construct their lives. Both trends view learning…

  18. A grounded theory of abstraction in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, Jean-Daniel

    2003-01-01

    In artificial intelligence, abstraction is commonly used to account for the use of various levels of details in a given representation language or the ability to change from one level to another while preserving useful properties. Abstraction has been mainly studied in problem solving, theorem proving, knowledge representation (in particular for spatial and temporal reasoning) and machine learning. In such contexts, abstraction is defined as a mapping between formalisms that reduces the computational complexity of the task at stake. By analysing the notion of abstraction from an information quantity point of view, we pinpoint the differences and the complementary role of reformulation and abstraction in any representation change. We contribute to extending the existing semantic theories of abstraction to be grounded on perception, where the notion of information quantity is easier to characterize formally. In the author's view, abstraction is best represented using abstraction operators, as they provide semantics for classifying different abstractions and support the automation of representation changes. The usefulness of a grounded theory of abstraction in the cartography domain is illustrated. Finally, the importance of explicitly representing abstraction for designing more autonomous and adaptive systems is discussed. PMID:12903672

  19. A Brush with Research: Teaching Grounded Theory in the Art and Design Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Mike; Barrett, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Grounded Theory is a systematic approach to social research that allows for new concepts and theories to emerge from gathered data, as opposed to relying on either established theory or personal conjecture to interpret social processes. Although Grounded Theory is a well-known method within social science literature, it is relatively unknown in…

  20. The illness of women and men with sickle cell disease: a Grounded Theory study1

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Rosa Cândida; Ferreira, Silvia Lúcia; Santos, Ane Caroline da Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to understand the meanings given by women and men with sickle cell disease on the illness experience. Method: analytical study with a qualitative approach, conducted with 17 adults with sickle cell disease using the Theory Based on Data, or Grounded Theory, as theoretical-methodological referential. Data were collected between the years of 2012 and 2013, in an individual in-depth interview. All the interviews were recorded and analyzed according to the Grounded Theory comparative analysis technique. Results: data show four categories which group the experience of illness, the feelings experienced and the path to living with sickle cell disease. Conclusions: it was possible to understand that the experience was built by a process in which these people redefined the meaning of their lives, applying new directions to life and to care regarding the experience of the illness. In the context of chronic disease, the nurse's care is also seen in this study as a foundation, providing attention, directions, and guidance through the required confrontations. Understanding the experience lived by these people, it is possible to enlarge the dimensions and the essence of nursing care required throughout life. PMID:26626003

  1. Men in Nursing: Intention, Intentionality, Caring, and Healing: Emphasis on the Results of a Grounded Theory Study.

    PubMed

    Zahourek, Rothlyn P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to amplify the results section of a grounded theory study on how men in nursing view and experience intention, intentionality, caring, and healing. This is the second grounded theory study addressing intentionality in healing. The first study included a female population. The theory that was generated-Intentionality: The Matrix of Healing (IMH)-is examined with these new data. The results are compared with issues generally faced by men in nursing and how they described their beliefs and experiences with intentionality and healing. The theory (IMH) is supported; the importance of action in this cohort was an additional emphasis. This article provides an expanded view of men in nursing and their experiences as nurses and with intentionality, caring, and healing and has implications for the development of holistic nursing theory as well.

  2. Teaching Theory Construction With Initial Grounded Theory Tools: A Reflection on Lessons and Learning.

    PubMed

    Charmaz, Kathy

    2015-12-01

    This article addresses criticisms of qualitative research for spawning studies that lack analytic development and theoretical import. It focuses on teaching initial grounded theory tools while interviewing, coding, and writing memos for the purpose of scaling up the analytic level of students' research and advancing theory construction. Adopting these tools can improve teaching qualitative methods at all levels although doctoral education is emphasized here. What teachers cover in qualitative methods courses matters. The pedagogy presented here requires a supportive environment and relies on demonstration, collective participation, measured tasks, progressive analytic complexity, and accountability. Lessons learned from using initial grounded theory tools are exemplified in a doctoral student's coding and memo-writing excerpts that demonstrate progressive analytic development. The conclusion calls for increasing the number and depth of qualitative methods courses and for creating a cadre of expert qualitative methodologists.

  3. Interfacial adhesion: Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Finley, Clarence W.; Banerjea, Amitava

    1988-01-01

    Adhesion, the binding of different materials at an interface, is of general interest to many branches of technology, e.g., microelectronics, tribology, manufacturing, construction, etc. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of such diverse interfaces. In addition, experimental techniques generally have practical objectives, such as the achievement of sufficient strength to sustain mechanical or thermal effects and/or have the proper electronic properties. In addition, the theoretical description of binding at interfaces is quite limited, and a proper data base for such theoretical analysis does not exist. This presentation will review both experimental and theoretical aspects of adhesion in nonpolymer materials. The objective will be to delineate the critical parameters needed, governing adhesion testing along with an outline of testing objectives. A distinction will be made between practical and fundamental objectives. Examples are given where interfacial bonding may govern experimental consideration. The present status of theory is presented along wiith recommendations for future progress and needs.

  4. Interfacial adhesion - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Banerjea, Amitava; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Finley, Clarence W.

    1988-01-01

    Adhesion, the binding of different materials at an interface, is of general interest to many branches of technology, e.g., microelectronics, tribology, manufacturing, construction, etc. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of such diverse interfaces. In addition, experimental techniques generally have practical objectives, such as the achievement of sufficient strength to sustain mechanical or thermal effects and/or have the proper electronic properties. In addition, the theoretical description of binding at interfaces is quite limited, and a proper data base for such theoretical analysis does not exist. This presentation will review both experimental and theoretical aspects of adhesion in nonpolymer materials. The objective will be to delineate the critical parameters needed, governing adhesion testing along with an outline of testing objectives. A distinction will be made between practical and fundamental objectives. Examples are given where interfacial bonding may govern experimental consideration. The present status of theory is presented along with recommendations for future progress and needs.

  5. Clients' relational conceptions of conjoint couple and family therapy quality: a grounded formal theory.

    PubMed

    Chenail, Ronald J; George, Sally St; Wulff, Dan; Duffy, Maureen; Scott, Karen Wilson; Tomm, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Based upon a qualitative metasynthesis of 49 articles centered on clients' experiences of their conjoint couple and family therapy, the investigators constructed a grounded formal theory of Clients' Relational Conceptions of Conjoint Couple and Family Therapy Quality. The theory suggests from pretherapy conceptions to posttherapy reflections, clients' perceptions of conjoint couple and family therapy quality appear to consist of clients' constructed meanings regarding a series of interrelated relationships between clients and their therapists and therapy environments, between clients and themselves, between clients and other family members, and between process and outcome both inside and outside therapy. Within and across these relationships, clients appear to focus on expectations, connections, balance, and change when evaluating the quality of their clinical experiences. Based upon this theory, the investigators recommend that researchers continue to explore this clinical phenomenon and that therapists regularly seek clients' conceptions of quality in therapy.

  6. Shared ideology in Alcoholics Anonymous: a grounded theory approach.

    PubMed

    Wright, K B

    1997-01-01

    This article uses grounded theory to explore the shared ideology espoused in Alcoholics Anonymous, specifically the nature and role of shared ideology in increasing the efficacy of the recovery process, and the features of the group's tenets and meetings that help facilitate members' indoctrination. Findings support Kassel and Wagner's (1993) contention of shared ideology's major role in the change process of the group, and Antze's (1976) categorizations of the AA ideology and alcoholics' characteristics. Antze's (1979) finding that AA ideology removes the concept of drinking from the voluntary sphere was also supported. The group was found to be a context in which members could change their assumptive worlds through reinterpreting life events, as Frank and Frank (1991) contended. Little support was found for Alexander and Rollins's (1984) comparison of AA to religious cults. The findings underscore the importance of human interaction as persuasion and reinforcement for AA ideology.

  7. Understanding Jordanian Psychiatric Nurses' Smoking Behaviors: A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Aldiabat, Khaldoun M.; Clinton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Smoking is prevalent in psychiatric facilities among staff and patients. However, there have been few studies of how contextual factors in specific cultures influence rates of smoking and the health promotion role of psychiatric nurses. This paper reports the findings of a classical grounded theory study conducted to understand how contextual factors in the workplace influences the smoking behaviors of Jordanian psychiatric nurses (JPNs). Method. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with a sample of eight male JPNs smokers at a psychiatric facility in Amman, Jordan. Findings. Constant comparative analysis identified becoming a heavy smoker as a psychosocial process characterized by four sub-categories: normalization of smoking; living in ambiguity; experiencing workplace conflict; and, facing up to workplace stressors. Conclusion. Specific contextual workplace factors require targeted smoking cessation interventions if JPNs are to receive the help they need to reduce health risks associated with heavy smoking. PMID:23844286

  8. Shared ideology in Alcoholics Anonymous: a grounded theory approach.

    PubMed

    Wright, K B

    1997-01-01

    This article uses grounded theory to explore the shared ideology espoused in Alcoholics Anonymous, specifically the nature and role of shared ideology in increasing the efficacy of the recovery process, and the features of the group's tenets and meetings that help facilitate members' indoctrination. Findings support Kassel and Wagner's (1993) contention of shared ideology's major role in the change process of the group, and Antze's (1976) categorizations of the AA ideology and alcoholics' characteristics. Antze's (1979) finding that AA ideology removes the concept of drinking from the voluntary sphere was also supported. The group was found to be a context in which members could change their assumptive worlds through reinterpreting life events, as Frank and Frank (1991) contended. Little support was found for Alexander and Rollins's (1984) comparison of AA to religious cults. The findings underscore the importance of human interaction as persuasion and reinforcement for AA ideology. PMID:10977242

  9. The journey of an integrationist: A grounded theory analysis.

    PubMed

    Rihacek, Tomas; Danelova, Ester

    2016-03-01

    Surveys among psychotherapists tend to show a high preference for integrationism/eclecticism. There is, however, a lack of empirical studies exploring the process by which these psychotherapists arrive at this orientation. To answer this question, 22 autobiographies published by integrative psychotherapists were analyzed using grounded theory analytic procedures. The analysis resulted in a 3-stage developmental model, consisting of (a) the Adherence Phase, (b) the Destabilization Phase, and (c) the Consolidation Phase. The results are discussed in relation to several speculative models of psychotherapist development toward integration, as well as empirical literature on psychotherapist development. The results suggest that the tendency toward integration is best regarded as a natural part of the process of psychotherapist development. PMID:26785357

  10. Advanced gamma ray balloon experiment ground checkout and data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackstone, M.

    1976-01-01

    A software programming package to be used in the ground checkout and handling of data from the advanced gamma ray balloon experiment is described. The Operator's Manual permits someone unfamiliar with the inner workings of the software system (called LEO) to operate on the experimental data as it comes from the Pulse Code Modulation interface, converting it to a form for later analysis, and monitoring the program of an experiment. A Programmer's Manual is included.

  11. Grounded Theory as a "Family of Methods": A Genealogical Analysis to Guide Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babchuk, Wayne A.

    2011-01-01

    This study traces the evolution of grounded theory from a nuclear to an extended family of methods and considers the implications that decision-making based on informed choices throughout all phases of the research process has for realizing the potential of grounded theory for advancing adult education theory and practice. [This paper was…

  12. Similarity Theory of Withdrawn Water Temperature Experiment

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Selective withdrawal from a thermal stratified reservoir has been widely utilized in managing reservoir water withdrawal. Besides theoretical analysis and numerical simulation, model test was also necessary in studying the temperature of withdrawn water. However, information on the similarity theory of the withdrawn water temperature model remains lacking. Considering flow features of selective withdrawal, the similarity theory of the withdrawn water temperature model was analyzed theoretically based on the modification of governing equations, the Boussinesq approximation, and some simplifications. The similarity conditions between the model and the prototype were suggested. The conversion of withdrawn water temperature between the model and the prototype was proposed. Meanwhile, the fundamental theory of temperature distribution conversion was firstly proposed, which could significantly improve the experiment efficiency when the basic temperature of the model was different from the prototype. Based on the similarity theory, an experiment was performed on the withdrawn water temperature which was verified by numerical method. PMID:26065020

  13. GroundBIRD Experiment: Detecting CMB Polarization Power in a Large Angular Scale from the Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oguri, S.; Choi, J.; Hazumi, M.; Kawai, M.; Tajima, O.; Won, E.; Yoshida, M.

    2014-09-01

    GroundBIRD is a ground-based experiment designed to detect large angular scale odd-parity patterns in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization (-modes). We employ a high-speed rotation scan (20 rpm) instead of the usual left-right azimuthal scan; it allows a significant expansion of the scan range to without any effect from the detector noise. We use microwave kinetic inductance detectors (MKIDs) arrays with a small telescope; our target multipole () range is . We plan to start the test observation in Japan in 2014; these will then be moved to the Atacama highland in Chile for scientific observations.

  14. Theory and experiment in gravitational physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    New technological advances have made it feasible to conduct measurements with precision levels which are suitable for experimental tests of the theory of general relativity. This book has been designed to fill a new need for a complete treatment of techniques for analyzing gravitation theory and experience. The Einstein equivalence principle and the foundations of gravitation theory are considered, taking into account the Dicke framework, basic criteria for the viability of a gravitation theory, experimental tests of the Einstein equivalence principle, Schiff's conjecture, and a model theory devised by Lightman and Lee (1973). Gravitation as a geometric phenomenon is considered along with the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism, the classical tests, tests of the strong equivalence principle, gravitational radiation as a tool for testing relativistic gravity, the binary pulsar, and cosmological tests.

  15. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was “what is going on in the field of dying today?” What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient’s death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on “gut feelings” - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia

  16. A Newtonian Theory of the Fizeau Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, James; Woodyard, James

    2011-10-01

    In 1965, Fox reviewed the experiments considered as evidence against Ritz's theory of emission and found almost all of them to be compatible with Ritz's theory by applying a simple modification. His critiques have been restated by some graduate textbooks such as Jackson's Classical Electrodynamics. Unfortunately, the vast majority of textbooks at the undergraduate level have entirely ignored Fox's paper. Over the past decade, we have continued the work of Ritz into gravitational and atomic phenomena with great success but now revisit some of Fox's reservations about the emission theory of electromagnetism. His most serious argument against Newtonian physics was Fizeau's experiment, which both he and Einstein considered incompatible with classical kinematics. Unknown to Fox, the Italian physicist Carlo Somigliana published a paper in 1922 reminding the physics community that this ``inconsistency'' had been solved 30 years before Einstein by Woldemar Voigt. We will review this important paper and discuss possible reasons for Fox's ignorance of this important contribution.

  17. Pathways, Networks, and Systems: Theory and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph H. Nadeau; John D. Lambris

    2004-10-30

    The international conference provided a unique opportunity for theoreticians and experimenters to exchange ideas, strategies, problems, challenges, language and opportunities in both formal and informal settings. This dialog is an important step towards developing a deep and effective integration of theory and experiments in studies of systems biology in humans and model organisms.

  18. Gambler Risk Perception: A Mental Model and Grounded Theory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Spurrier, Michael; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Rhodes, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have investigated how gamblers perceive risk or the role of risk perception in disordered gambling. The purpose of the current study therefore was to obtain data on lay gamblers' beliefs on these variables and their effects on decision-making, behaviour, and disordered gambling aetiology. Fifteen regular lay gamblers (non-problem/low risk, moderate risk and problem gamblers) completed a semi-structured interview following mental models and grounded theory methodologies. Gambler interview data was compared to an expert 'map' of risk-perception, to identify comparative gaps or differences associated with harmful or safe gambling. Systematic overlapping processes of data gathering and analysis were used to iteratively extend, saturate, test for exception, and verify concepts and themes emerging from the data. The preliminary findings suggested that gambler accounts supported the presence of expert conceptual constructs, and to some degree the role of risk perception in protecting against or increasing vulnerability to harm and disordered gambling. Gambler accounts of causality, meaning, motivation, and strategy were highly idiosyncratic, and often contained content inconsistent with measures of disordered gambling. Disordered gambling appears heavily influenced by relative underestimation of risk and overvaluation of gambling, based on explicit and implicit analysis, and deliberate, innate, contextual, and learned processing evaluations and biases. PMID:24402720

  19. Evolving Grounded Theory Methodology: towards a discursive approach.

    PubMed

    McCreaddie, May; Payne, Sheila

    2010-06-01

    Grounded Theory Methodology (GTM) is a widely cited research approach based upon symbolic interaction with a focus on interaction, action and processes. Relatively recently, Discursive Psychology; a language-based interaction research approach also based on symbolic interaction, emerged. At present Discursive Psychology is principally cited in the social sciences literature. Given Discursive Psychology's symbolic interaction foundations, what relevance does this approach have for evolving GTM? A number of methodological challenges were posed by a study looking at humour in Clinical Nurse Specialist-patient interactions. This paper will use the phenomenon of spontaneous humour in healthcare interactions to illustrate the potential for a new form of GTM drawing on discursive approaches; Discursive GTM. First, the challenges presented by a study looking at spontaneous humour in Clinical Nurse Specialist-patient interactions are presented. Second, the research approach adopted to meet these challenges - Discursive GTM (DGTM) - is explicated and the results of the study are outlined. Third, the different GTM approaches and Discursive Psychology are compared and contrasted in relation to the DGTM approach adopted. Finally, the challenges and tensions of using DGTM as well as the opportunities afforded by the use of naturally occurring data are reviewed. The authors contend that a DGTM approach may be appropriate in analyzing certain phenomena. In particular, we highlight the potential contribution of naturally occurring data as an adjunct to researcher-elicited data. Thus, when exploring particular phenomena, a DGTM approach may address the potentially under-developed symbolic interaction tenet of language.

  20. Academic learning for specialist nurses: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Millberg, Lena German; Berg, Linda; Brämberg, Elisabeth Björk; Nordström, Gun; Ohlén, Joakim

    2014-11-01

    The aim was to explore the major concerns of specialist nurses pertaining to academic learning during their education and initial professional career. Specialist nursing education changed in tandem with the European educational reform in 2007. At the same time, greater demands were made on the healthcare services to provide evidence-based and safe patient-care. These changes have influenced specialist nursing programmes and consequently the profession. Grounded Theory guided the study. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire with open-ended questions distributed at the end of specialist nursing programmes in 2009 and 2010. Five universities were included. Further, individual, pair and group interviews were used to collect data from 12 specialist nurses, 5-14 months after graduation. A major concern for specialist nurses was that academic learning should be "meaningful" for their professional future. The specialist nurses' "meaningful academic learning process" was characterised by an ambivalence of partly believing in and partly being hesitant about the significance of academic learning and partly receiving but also lacking support. Specialist nurses were influenced by factors in two areas: curriculum and healthcare context. They felt that the outcome of contribution to professional confidence was critical in making academic learning meaningful.

  1. A Critique of the Capacity of Strauss Grounded Theory for Prediction, Change, and Control in Organisational Strategy via a Grounded Theorisation of Leisure and Cultural Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakir, Ali; Bakir, Vian

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we critique grounded theory's ability to fulfil its aim of offering a practical vehicle for prediction, change, and control as stipulated in grounded theory's original formulation by Glaser and Strauss, and later developed by Strauss. We do this through a case study approach, whereby we develop a grounded theory of leisure and…

  2. A Grounded Theory Study of the Re-Entry Process of Teen Parents' Return to School after Dropping Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Brenda L.

    2013-01-01

    Without the rich stories of the experiences of teen parents who drop out of school and then re-enter, we do not have a total picture of the dropout phenomenon and how best to address the issues for this marginalized group. Using the research strategies of Charmaz' social constructivist grounded theory, Melton has gathered detailed stories about…

  3. Underlying Consumer-Valuing Structures of Baby Boomers as Older Adults in Community Colleges: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palazesi, Louis Mark; Bower, Beverly L.; Schwartz, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a grounded theory that fills in gaps in the higher education literature on the concept of educational consumer value and perceptions that support consumer value. Specifically, this study focuses on the learning experiences of Baby Boomers (40-60 year old adults) as older adult students attending community…

  4. The Study of Electronic Medical Record Adoption in a Medicare Certified Home Health Agency Using a Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Joy L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to examine the experiences of clinicians in the adoption of Electronic Medical Records in a Medicare certified Home Health Agency. An additional goal for this study was to triangulate qualitative research between describing, explaining, and exploring technology acceptance. The experiences…

  5. Space Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Ground Testing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    In support of the Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Flight Experiment (FE) Project in which a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for STS-119, STS- 128, STS-131 and STS-133 as well as Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour for STS-134, a significant ground test campaign was completed. The primary goals of the test campaign were to provide ground test data to support the planning and safety certification efforts required to fly the flight experiment as well as validation for the collected flight data. These test included Arcjet testing of the tile protuberance, aerothermal testing to determine the boundary layer transition behavior and resultant surface heating and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) testing in order to gain a better understanding of the flow field characteristics associated with the flight experiment. This paper provides an overview of the BLT FE Project ground testing. High-level overviews of the facilities, models, test techniques and data are presented, along with a summary of the insights gained from each test.

  6. Results of the June 1993 Yuma ground penetration experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mirkin, M.I.; Grosch, T.O.; Murphy, T.J.; Ayasli, S.; Hellsten, H.; Vickers, R.; Ralston, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    Recently, considerable interest has been expressed in the use of radar to detect underground targets both small (e.g., antipersonnel mines) and large (e.g., buried vehicles). Particular interest has been directed at airborne SAR for this purpose. Several important issues requiring study include the scattering signature of objects buried in soil media, the attenuation and scattering of radar energy in inhomogeneous soils, and the impact of clutter (and particularly the impact of surface clutter layover) on subsurface target detection and recognition. To address these issues, a radar ground penetration experiment was conducted in the desert near Yuma, AZ from June 4--15, 1993. In this experiment a number of large and small targets of various shapes were buried at depths up to 3 m, and data was collected using several air and ground-based radars using both real and synthetic aperture data processing. The variety of radars available covered the range from 20 to 1,500 MHz. The data collected was calibrated with sufficient accuracy to permit the measurement of in situ radar signatures, allowing the calculation of ground penetration losses. Data from this test have been analyzed to develop a phenomenological understanding of soil penetration losses and clutter backscattering, and to investigate the characteristic signatures of specific buried targets. These data are compared to laboratory soil measurements and modeling studies. This paper will describe the experiment, sensors, sample radar measurements and some of the results of the data analysis.

  7. Results of the June 1993 Yuma ground penetration experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirkin, Mitchell I.; Grosch, Theodore O.; Murphy, Thomas J.; Ayasli, Serpil; Hellsten, Hans; Vickers, Roger S.; Ralston, James M.

    1994-07-01

    Recently, considerable interest has been expressed in the use of radar to detect underground targets both small (e.g., antipersonnel mines) and large (e.g., buried vehicles). Particular interest has been directed at airborne SAR for this purpose. Several important issues requiring study include the scattering signature of objects buried in soil media, the attenuation and scattering of radar energy in inhomogeneous soils, and the impact of clutter (and particularly the impact of surface clutter layover) on subsurface target detection and recognition. To address these issues, a radar ground penetration experiment was conducted in the desert near Yuma, AZ from June 4 to 15, 1993. In this experiment a number of large and small targets of various shapes were buried at depths up to 3 m, and data was collected using several air- and ground-based radars using both real and synthetic aperture data processing. The variety of radars available covered the range from 20 to 1500 MHz. The data collected was calibrated with sufficient accuracy to permit the measurement of in situ radar signatures, allowing the calculation of ground penetration losses. Data from this test have been analyzed to develop a phenomenological understanding of soil penetration losses and clutter backscattering, and to investigate the characteristic signatures of specific buried targets. These data are compared to laboratory soil measurements and modeling studies. This paper will describe the experiment, sensors, sample radar measurements and some of the results of the data analysis.

  8. Understanding the Conceptual Development Phase of Applied Theory-Building Research: A Grounded Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a provisional grounded theory of conceptual development for applied theory-building research. The theory described here extends the understanding of the components of conceptual development and provides generalized relations among the components. The conceptual development phase of theory-building research has been widely…

  9. Grounding meaning in experience: A broad perspective on embodied language.

    PubMed

    Buccino, Giovanni; Colagè, Ivan; Gobbi, Nicola; Bonaccorso, Giorgio

    2016-10-01

    This work reviews key behavioural, neurophysiological and neuroimaging data on the neural substrates for processing the meaning of linguistic material, and tries to articulate the picture emerging from those findings with the notion of meaning coming from specific approaches in philosophy of language (the "internalist" view) and linguistics (words point at experiential clusters). The reviewed findings provide evidence in favour of a causal role of brain neural structures responsible for sensory, motor and even emotional experiences in attributing meaning to words expressing those experiences and, consequently, lend substantial support to an embodied and "internalist" conception of linguistic meaning. Key evidence concern verbs, nouns and adjectives with a concrete content, but the challenge that abstract domains pose to the embodied approach to language is also discussed. This work finally suggests that the most fundamental role of embodiment might be that of establishing commonalities among individual experiences of different members of a linguistic community, and that those experiences ground shared linguistic meanings. PMID:27477443

  10. Grounding meaning in experience: A broad perspective on embodied language.

    PubMed

    Buccino, Giovanni; Colagè, Ivan; Gobbi, Nicola; Bonaccorso, Giorgio

    2016-10-01

    This work reviews key behavioural, neurophysiological and neuroimaging data on the neural substrates for processing the meaning of linguistic material, and tries to articulate the picture emerging from those findings with the notion of meaning coming from specific approaches in philosophy of language (the "internalist" view) and linguistics (words point at experiential clusters). The reviewed findings provide evidence in favour of a causal role of brain neural structures responsible for sensory, motor and even emotional experiences in attributing meaning to words expressing those experiences and, consequently, lend substantial support to an embodied and "internalist" conception of linguistic meaning. Key evidence concern verbs, nouns and adjectives with a concrete content, but the challenge that abstract domains pose to the embodied approach to language is also discussed. This work finally suggests that the most fundamental role of embodiment might be that of establishing commonalities among individual experiences of different members of a linguistic community, and that those experiences ground shared linguistic meanings.

  11. Investigation of the RbCa molecule: Experiment and theory

    PubMed Central

    Pototschnig, Johann V.; Krois, Günter; Lackner, Florian; Ernst, Wolfgang E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a thorough theoretical and experimental study of the electronic structure of RbCa. The mixed alkali–alkaline earth molecule RbCa was formed on superfluid helium nanodroplets. Excited states of the molecule in the range of 13 000–23 000 cm−1 were recorded by resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight spectroscopy. The experiment is accompanied by high level ab initio calculations of ground and excited state properties, utilizing a multireference configuration interaction method based on multiconfigurational self consistent field calculations. With this approach the potential energy curves and permanent electric dipole moments of 24 electronic states were calculated. In addition we computed the transition dipole moments for transitions from the ground into excited states. The combination of experiment and theory allowed the assignment of features in the recorded spectrum to the excited 32Σ+, 42Σ+, 32Π, 52Σ+, 42Π, 62Σ+, 62Π, and 72Π states, where the experiment allowed to benchmark the calculation. This is the first experimental work giving insight into the previously unknown RbCa molecule, which offers great prospects in ultracold molecular physics due to its magnetic and electronic dipole moment in the 2Σ+ ground state. PMID:25922550

  12. Grounded Theory: Managing the Challenge for Those Facing Institutional Review Board Oversight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary Katherine; Netting, F. Ellen; Thomas, M. Lori

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine one of the earliest systematic forms of qualitative inquiry to identify some of the boundaries needed in grounded theory designs to provide a small corner of clarity in the discourse about what is acceptable science from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) perspective. Beginning with an overview of grounded theory research as…

  13. Knowledge, Identity, & Professionalism: A Grounded Theory Analysis of How Urban Career Teachers Navigate Their Professional Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodeur, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    This grounded theory study highlights the words of urban career teachers who participated on a wikispace (wiki). The purpose of the investigation was to offer urban career teachers a space, outside of their daily work, in which to recognize and understand their professionalism. The grounded theory content analysis is carried out by way of a study…

  14. A Novel Method of Enhancing Grounded Theory Memos with Voice Recording

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Rachel; Close, Helen

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors present the recent discovery of a novel method of supplementing written grounded theory memos with voice recording, the combination of which may provide significant analytical advantages over solely the traditional written method. Memo writing is an essential component of a grounded theory study, however it is often…

  15. Towards a computational theory of experience.

    PubMed

    Fekete, Tomer; Edelman, Shimon

    2011-09-01

    A standing challenge for the science of mind is to account for the datum that every mind faces in the most immediate--that is, unmediated--fashion: its phenomenal experience. The complementary tasks of explaining what it means for a system to give rise to experience and what constitutes the content of experience (qualia) in computational terms are particularly challenging, given the multiple realizability of computation. In this paper, we identify a set of conditions that a computational theory must satisfy for it to constitute not just a sufficient but a necessary, and therefore naturalistic and intrinsic, explanation of qualia. We show that a common assumption behind many neurocomputational theories of the mind, according to which mind states can be formalized solely in terms of instantaneous vectors of activities of representational units such as neurons, does not meet the requisite conditions, in part because it relies on inactive units to shape presently experienced qualia and implies a homogeneous representation space, which is devoid of intrinsic structure. We then sketch a naturalistic computational theory of qualia, which posits that experience is realized by dynamical activity-space trajectories (rather than points) and that its richness is measured by the representational capacity of the trajectory space in which it unfolds.

  16. The ETscope Ground Array for the ULTRA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvin, J.; Fava, L.; Lebrun, L.; Teyssier, D.; Vallania, P.; Vigorito, C.; EUSO Collaboration

    2003-07-01

    The ETscope detector designed for the ULTRA experiment is a small array made of 7 particle detection stations. operating simultaneously with an optical telescope it ˇ detects the Extensive Air Showers in coincidence with the Cerenkov light, diffused by the impact on the ground. The main goal of the detector is the characterization of the impinging shower by the measurement of size and arrival direction. These informations, together with the UV light measurement and an accurate MC simulation, will allow the determination of the diffusing features of the ground. Since it must be placed on different surfaces including sea, it has been optimized as portable, floating and waterpro of detector. First test has been performed during October 2002 at Mont-Cenis in the Alps region, at the France-Italy border. Detector performances and preliminary results will be discussed here.

  17. Ground-Based Experiments on Vibrational Thermal Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatz, Michael F.; Rogers, Jeffrey L.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-based experiments on g-jitter effects in fluid flow provide insight that complements both theoretical studies and space-based experiments on this problem. We report preliminary results for experiments on Rayleigh-Benard convection subjected to time-dependent accelerations on a shaker table. For sinusoidal modulation, two qualitatively different pattern forming mechanisms come into play: geometry induced wavenumber selection (as in the standard "no-shake" Rayleigh-Benard problem) and dispersion induced wavenumber selection due to parametric instability (as in the Faraday surface-wave problem). We discuss preliminary results on the competition and co-existence of patterns due to these different instability mechanisms. We also discuss the implications of this work on the general question of pattern formation in the presence of noise.

  18. Theory, experiment and applications of metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, WenXuan; Mei, ZhongLei; Cui, TieJun

    2015-12-01

    In this review article, a brief introduction on the theory, experiments and applications of metamaterials is presented. The main focuses are concentrated on the composing meta-atoms, the method of transformation optics, the experimental demonstration of negative refraction, and the realizations of invisibility cloaks and electromagnetic black hole. At the end of this review, some typical applications of metamaterials, including high-performance antennas made of zero-refractive-index materials, inhomogeneous metamaterial lenses, and planar metasurfaces, are introduced in details.

  19. Coherent synchrotron radiation: Theory and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Courtland L. Bohn

    2002-07-19

    Our understanding of the generation of coherent synchrotron radiation in magnetic bending systems and its impact on beam dynamics has grown considerably over the past few years. The search for understanding has brought a number of surprises, all related to the complexity of the fully self-consistent problem. Herein I survey the associated phenomenology, theory, and experiments while emphasizing important subtleties that have recently been uncovered. I conclude by speculating on courses of future investigations that may prove fruitful.

  20. On the ground state of Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bakry, Ahmed S.; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > The ground state overlap for sets of meson potential trial states is measured. > Non-uniform gluonic distributions are probed via Wilson loop operator. > The locally UV-regulated flux-tube operators can optimize the ground state overlap. - Abstract: We investigate the overlap of the ground state meson potential with sets of mesonic-trial wave functions corresponding to different gluonic distributions. We probe the transverse structure of the flux tube through the creation of non-uniform smearing profiles for the string of glue connecting two color sources in Wilson loop operator. The non-uniformly UV-regulated flux-tube operators are found to optimize the overlap with the ground state and display interesting features in the ground state overlap.

  1. Qualitative research in healthcare: an introduction to grounded theory using thematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, A L; Hadfield, M; Chapman, C J

    2015-01-01

    In today's NHS, qualitative research is increasingly important as a method of assessing and improving quality of care. Grounded theory has developed as an analytical approach to qualitative data over the last 40 years. It is primarily an inductive process whereby theoretical insights are generated from data, in contrast to deductive research where theoretical hypotheses are tested via data collection. Grounded theory has been one of the main contributors to the acceptance of qualitative methods in a wide range of applied social sciences. The influence of grounded theory as an approach is, in part, based on its provision of an explicit framework for analysis and theory generation. Furthermore the stress upon grounding research in the reality of participants has also given it credence in healthcare research. As with all analytical approaches, grounded theory has drawbacks and limitations. It is important to have an understanding of these in order to assess the applicability of this approach to healthcare research. In this review we outline the principles of grounded theory, and focus on thematic analysis as the analytical approach used most frequently in grounded theory studies, with the aim of providing clinicians with the skills to critically review studies using this methodology.

  2. Telling and Not-Telling: A Classic Grounded Theory of Sharing Life-Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Trudy Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study of "Telling and Not-Telling" was conducted using the classic grounded theory methodology (Glaser 1978, 1992, 1998; Glaser & Strauss, 1967). This unique methodology systematically and inductively generates conceptual theories from data. The goal is to discover theory that explains, predicts, and provides practical…

  3. Occupational therapy students in the process of interprofessional collaborative learning: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Howell, Dana

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to generate a theory of the interprofessional collaborative learning process of occupational therapy (OT) students who were engaged in a collaborative learning experience with students from other allied health disciplines. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews with nine OT students from four different interprofessional collaborative learning experiences at three universities. The emergent theory explained OT students' need to build a culture of mutual respect among disciplines in order to facilitate interprofessional collaborative learning. Occupational therapy students went through a progression of learned skills that included learning how to represent the profession of OT, hold their weight within a team situation, solve problems collaboratively, work as a team, and ultimately, to work in an actual team in practice. This learning process occurred simultaneously as students also learned course content. The students had to contend with barriers and facilitators that influenced their participation and the success of their collaboration. Understanding the interprofessional learning process of OT students will help allied health faculty to design more effective, inclusive interprofessional courses.

  4. Simulating Terrorist Cells: Experiments and Mathematical Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGough, Lauren

    How well do mathematical models of terrorist cells apply to the reallife struggle against terrorism? Certainly, mathematical models have been useful in the past for military planning and predicting the behavior of U.S. adversaries, but how well do mathematical projections of terrorist behavior actually hold up when tested on living people and real situations? This paper first presents a mathematical model of terrorist cells and their functionality, and then discusses the procedure and results of an experiment conducted to test this model’s theoretical projections by comparing them with experimental results, thus confronting the question of theory versus reality.

  5. Laser Ground System for Communication Experiments with ARTEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzkov, Volodymyr; Volovyk, Dmytro; Kuzkov, Sergii; Sodnik, Zoran; Pukha, Sergii; Caramia, Vincenzo

    2012-10-01

    The ARTEMIS satellite with the OPALE laser communication terminal on-board was launched on 12 July, 2001. 1789 laser communications sessions were performed between ARTEMIS and SPOT-4 (PASTEL) from 01 April 2003 to 09 January 2008 with total duration of 378 hours. Regular laser communication experiments between ESA's Optical Ground Station (OGS - altitude 2400 m above see level) and ARTEMIS in various atmosphere conditions were also performed. The Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) launched the KIRARI (OICETS) satellite with laser communication terminal called LUCE. Laser communication links between KIRARI and ARTEMIS were successfully realized and international laser communications experiments from the KIRARI satellite were also successfully performed with optical ground stations located in the USA (JPL), Spain (ESA OGS), Germany (DLR), and Japan (NICT). The German Space Agency (DLR) performed laser communication links between two LEO satellites (TerraSAR-X and NFIRE), demonstrating data transfer rates of 5.6Gbit/s and performed laser communication experiments between the satellites and the ESA optical ground station. To reduce the influence of weather conditions on laser communication between satellites and ground stations, a network of optical stations situated in different atmosphere regions needs to be created. In 2002, the Main Astronomical Observatory (MAO) started the development of its own laser communication system to be placed into the Cassegrain focus of its 0.7m AZT-2 telescope (Fe = 10.5m), located in Kyiv 190 meters above sea level. The work was supported by the National Space Agency of Ukraine and by ESA ARTEMIS has an orbital position of 21.4° E and an orbital inclination of more than 9.75°. As a result we developed a precise tracking system for AZT-2 telescope (weighing more than 2 tons) using micro-step motors. Software was developed for computer control of the telescope to track the satellite's orbit and a tracking accuracy of 0.6 arcsec was achieved

  6. CTE Teachers' Perspectives on the Process of CTE and Science Content Integration: A Grounded Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spindler, Matthew Kenneth

    The integration of career and technical education (CTE) and academic curricular content that capitalizes on natural and inherent connections represents a challenge for CTE professionals. The research question that was used to guide the current study was: What are CTE teachers' perspectives of and experiences with the process of CTE and science content integration? And more specifically, to generate a grounded theory which explicates the process of CTE and science content integration from the perspective of CTE teachers. The CTE teachers expressed that the process of CTE and science content integration was a process of evolutionizing. From the perspective of the CTE teachers involved integrating CTE and science content resulted in their programs of study being adapted into something different than they were before the process of integration was begun. The CTE teachers revealed that the evolutions in their programs of study and themselves were associated with three other categories within the grounded theory: (a) connecting; (b) enacting; and (c) futuring. The process of CTE and science content integration represents a deep and complex episode for CTE teachers. The process of CTE and science content integration requires connecting to others, putting ideas into action, and an orienting towards the future.

  7. Shear layer excitation, experiment versus theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechert, D. W.; Stahl, B.

    1984-01-01

    The acoustical excitation of shear layers is investigated. Acoustical excitation causes the so-called orderly structures in shear layers and jets. Also, the deviations in the spreading rate between different shear layer experiments are due to the same excitation mechanism. Measurements in the linear interaction region close to the edge from which the shear layer is shed are examined. Two sets of experiments (Houston 1981 and Berlin 1983/84) are discussed. The measurements were carried out with shear layers in air using hot wire anemometers and microphones. The agreement between these measurements and the theory is good. Even details of the fluctuating flow field correspond to theoretical predictions, such as the local occurrence of negative phase speeds.

  8. Directivity in NGA earthquake ground motions: Analysis using isochrone theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spudich, P.; Chiou, B.S.J.

    2008-01-01

    We present correction factors that may be applied to the ground motion prediction relations of Abrahamson and Silva, Boore and Atkinson, Campbell and Bozorgnia, and Chiou and Youngs (all in this volume) to model the azimuthally varying distribution of the GMRotI50 component of ground motion (commonly called 'directivity') around earthquakes. Our correction factors may be used for planar or nonplanar faults having any dip or slip rake (faulting mechanism). Our correction factors predict directivity-induced variations of spectral acceleration that are roughly half of the strike-slip variations predicted by Somerville et al. (1997), and use of our factors reduces record-to-record sigma by about 2-20% at 5 sec or greater period. ?? 2008, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  9. [Nursing care systematization according to the nurses' view: a methodological approach based on grounded theory].

    PubMed

    de Medeiros, Ana Lúcia; dos Santos, Sérgio Ribeiro; de Cabral, Rômulo Wanderley Lima

    2012-09-01

    This study was aimed at understanding, from the nurses' perspective, the experience of going through the Systematization of nursing care (SNC) in an obstetric service unit. We used grounded theory as the theoretical and methodological framework. The subjects of this study consisted of thirteen nurses from a public hospital in the city of João Pessoa, in the state of Paraíba. The data analysis resulted in the following phenomenon. "perceiving SNC as a working method that organizes, directs and improves the quality of care by bringing visibility and providing security for the nursing staff" The nurses expressed the extent of knowledge about the SNC experienced in obstetrics as well as considered the nursing process as a decision-making process, which guides the reasoning of nurses in the planning of nursing care in obstetrics. It was concluded that nurses perceive the SNC as an instrument of theoretical-practical articulation leading to personalized assistance.

  10. Seniors' self-preservation by maintaining established self and defying deterioration - A grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Jeanette Källstrand; Hildingh, Cathrine; Buer, Nina; Thulesius, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to understand how seniors who are living independently resolve issues influenced by visual impairment and high fall risk. We interviewed and observed 13 seniors with visual impairment in their homes. We also interviewed six visual instructors with experience from many hundreds of relevant incidents from the same group of seniors. We found that the seniors are resolving their main concern of "remaining themselves as who they used to be" by self-preservation. Within this category, the strategies maintaining the established self and defying deterioration emerged as the most prominent in our data. The theme maintaining the established self is mostly guided by change inertia and includes living the past (retaining past activities, reminiscing, and keeping the home intact) and facading (hiding impairment, leading to avoidance of becoming a burden and to risk juggling). Defying deterioration is a proactive scheme and involves moving (by exercising, adapting activities, using walking aids, driving), adapting (by finding new ways), and networking by sustaining old support networks or finding new networks. Self-preservation is generic human behavior and modifying this theory to other fields may therefore be worthwhile. In addition, health care providers may have use for the theory in fall preventive planning.

  11. Seniors' self-preservation by maintaining established self and defying deterioration - A grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Jeanette Källstrand; Hildingh, Cathrine; Buer, Nina; Thulesius, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to understand how seniors who are living independently resolve issues influenced by visual impairment and high fall risk. We interviewed and observed 13 seniors with visual impairment in their homes. We also interviewed six visual instructors with experience from many hundreds of relevant incidents from the same group of seniors. We found that the seniors are resolving their main concern of "remaining themselves as who they used to be" by self-preservation. Within this category, the strategies maintaining the established self and defying deterioration emerged as the most prominent in our data. The theme maintaining the established self is mostly guided by change inertia and includes living the past (retaining past activities, reminiscing, and keeping the home intact) and facading (hiding impairment, leading to avoidance of becoming a burden and to risk juggling). Defying deterioration is a proactive scheme and involves moving (by exercising, adapting activities, using walking aids, driving), adapting (by finding new ways), and networking by sustaining old support networks or finding new networks. Self-preservation is generic human behavior and modifying this theory to other fields may therefore be worthwhile. In addition, health care providers may have use for the theory in fall preventive planning. PMID:27172511

  12. Seniors’ self-preservation by maintaining established self and defying deterioration – A grounded theory

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Jeanette Källstrand; Hildingh, Cathrine; Buer, Nina; Thulesius, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to understand how seniors who are living independently resolve issues influenced by visual impairment and high fall risk. We interviewed and observed 13 seniors with visual impairment in their homes. We also interviewed six visual instructors with experience from many hundreds of relevant incidents from the same group of seniors. We found that the seniors are resolving their main concern of “remaining themselves as who they used to be” by self-preservation. Within this category, the strategies maintaining the established self and defying deterioration emerged as the most prominent in our data. The theme maintaining the established self is mostly guided by change inertia and includes living the past (retaining past activities, reminiscing, and keeping the home intact) and facading (hiding impairment, leading to avoidance of becoming a burden and to risk juggling). Defying deterioration is a proactive scheme and involves moving (by exercising, adapting activities, using walking aids, driving), adapting (by finding new ways), and networking by sustaining old support networks or finding new networks. Self-preservation is generic human behavior and modifying this theory to other fields may therefore be worthwhile. In addition, health care providers may have use for the theory in fall preventive planning. PMID:27172511

  13. Support Needs for Canadian Health Providers Responding to Disaster: New Insights from a Grounded Theory Approach

    PubMed Central

    Fahim, Christine; O'Sullivan, Tracey L.; Lane, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: An earlier descriptive study exploring the various supports available to Canadian health and social service providers who deployed to the 2010 earthquake disaster in Haiti, indicated that when systems are compromised, professionals are at physical, emotional and mental risk during overseas deployment. While these risks are generally well-identified, there is little literature that explores the effectiveness of the supports in place to mitigate this risk. This study provides evidence to inform policy development regarding future disaster relief, and the effectiveness of supports available to responders assisting with international disaster response. Methods: This study follows Strauss and Corbin’s 1990 structured approach to grounded theory to develop a framework for effective disaster support systems. N=21 interviews with Canadian health and social service providers, who deployed to Haiti in response to the 2010 earthquake, were conducted and analyzed. Resulting data were transcribed, coded and analysed for emergent themes. Results and Discussion: Three themes were identified in the data and were used to develop the evolving theory. The interview data indicate that the experiences of responders are determined based on an interaction between the individual’s ‘lens’ or personal expectations, as well as the supports that an organization is able to provide. Therefore, organizations should consider the following factors: experience, expectations, and supports, to tailor a successful support initiative that caters to the needs of the volunteer workforce. PMID:26203399

  14. Culturally Responsive Teaching in the Context of Mathematics: A Grounded Theory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, Emily P.; Adams, Thomasenia L.

    2012-01-01

    In this grounded theory case study, four interconnected, foundational cornerstones of culturally responsive mathematics teaching (CRMT), communication, knowledge, trust/relationships, and constant reflection/revision, were systematically unearthed to develop an initial working theory of CRMT that directly informs classroom practice. These…

  15. Identifying Barriers in Implementing Outcomes-Based Assessment Program Review: A Grounded Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresciani, Marilee J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to identify the typical barriers encountered by faculty and administrators when implementing outcomes-based assessment program review. An analysis of interviews with faculty and administrators at nine institutions revealed a theory that faculty and administrators' promotion, tenure (if applicable),…

  16. The Remodeling Process: A Grounded Theory Study of Perceptions of Treatment among Adult Male Incest Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheela, Rochelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted grounded theory study to explore incest offender perceptions of treatment to generate explanatory theory of sexual abuse treatment process. Findings from theoretical sampling of 20 adult male incest offenders revealed that offenders felt remodeling process occurred as they faced discovery of their abuse and went through treatment.…

  17. Common Ground of Two Paradigms: Incorporating Critical Theory into Current Art Therapy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Clinical art therapy and studio-based community art therapy represent two major paradigms in art therapy practice. This viewpoint explores how critical theory can be incorporated into both paradigms and result in common ground between them. Critical theory encompasses an understanding of oppression in psychological, social, and cultural contexts…

  18. Exploring Knowledge Exchange between Senior and Future Leaders: A Grounded-Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzaga, Stephanie Young

    2009-01-01

    A grounded theory study examined senior leaders methods of knowledge sharing with junior leaders in a small commercial mortgage company. The study was designed to develop an emergent theory to explain the cultural elements that influenced the methods leaders used to transfer knowledge to junior people. The study identified a systemic value of…

  19. Being There: A Grounded-Theory Study of Student Perceptions of Instructor Presence in Online Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeler, William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of experienced individual online students at a community college in Texas in order to generate a substantive theory of community college student perceptions of online instructor presence. This qualitative study used Active Interviewing and followed a Straussian grounded-theory design to…

  20. Scenistic Methods in Training: Definitions and Theory Grounding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to describe the scenistic approach to training with corresponding activities and the theory bases that support the approach. Design/methodology/approach: Presented is the definition of the concept of scenistic training along with the step-by-step details of the implementation of the approach. Scenistic methods,…

  1. Theory and experiments on centrifuge cratering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, R. M.; Holsapple, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    Centrifuge experimental techniques provide possibilities for laboratory simulation of ground motion and cratering effects due to explosive loadings. The results of a similarity analysis for the thermomechanical response of a continuum show that increased gravity is a necessary condition for subscale testing when identical materials for both model and prototype are being used. The general similarity requirements for this type of subscale testing are examined both theoretically and experimentally. The similarity analysis is used to derive the necessary and sufficient requirements due to the general balance and jump equations and gives relations among all the scale factors for size, density, stress, body forces, internal energy, heat supply, heat conduction, heat of detonation, and time. Additional constraints due to specific choices of material constitutive equations are evaluated separately. The class of constitutive equations that add no further requirements is identified. For this class of materials, direct simulation of large-scale cratering events at small scale on the centrifuge is possible and independent of the actual constitutive equations. For a rate-independent soil it is shown that a small experiment at gravity g and energy E is similar to a large event at 1 G but with energy equal to g3E. Consequently, experiments at 500 G with 8 grams of explosives can be used to simulate a kiloton in the field. A series of centrifuge experiments was performed to validate the derived similarity requirements and to determine the practicality of applying the technique to dry granular soils having little or no cohesion. Ten shots using Ottawa sand at various gravities confirmed reproducibility of results in the centrifuge environment, provided information on particle size effects, and demonstrated the applicability of the derived similitude requirements. These experiments used 0.5-4 grams of pentaerythritol-tetranitrate (PETN) and 1.7 grams of lead-azide explosives. They

  2. Dry friction avalanches: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Buldyrev, Sergey V; Ferrante, John; Zypman, Fredy R

    2006-12-01

    Experimental evidence and theoretical models are presented supporting the conjecture that dry friction stick-slip is described by self-organized criticality. We use the data, obtained with a pin-on-disk tribometer set to measure lateral force, to examine the variation of the friction force as a function of time. We study nominally flat surfaces of matching aluminum and steel. The probability distribution of force drops follows a negative power law with exponents mu in the range 3.2-3.5. The frequency power spectrum follows a 1/f alpha pattern with alpha in the range 1-1.8. We first compare these experimental results with the well-known Robin Hood model of self-organized criticality. We find good agreement between theory and experiment for the force-drop distribution but not for the power spectrum. We explain this on a physical basis and propose a model which takes explicitly into account the stiffness and inertia of the tribometer. Specifically, we numerically solve the equation of motion of a block on a friction surface pulled by a spring and show that for certain spring constants the motion is characterized by the same power law spectrum as in experiments. We propose a physical picture relating the fluctuations of the force drops to the microscopic geometry of the surface.

  3. Dry friction avalanches: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Ferrante, John; Zypman, Fredy R.

    2006-12-01

    Experimental evidence and theoretical models are presented supporting the conjecture that dry friction stick-slip is described by self-organized criticality. We use the data, obtained with a pin-on-disk tribometer set to measure lateral force, to examine the variation of the friction force as a function of time. We study nominally flat surfaces of matching aluminum and steel. The probability distribution of force drops follows a negative power law with exponents μ in the range 3.2-3.5. The frequency power spectrum follows a 1/fα pattern with α in the range 1-1.8. We first compare these experimental results with the well-known Robin Hood model of self-organized criticality. We find good agreement between theory and experiment for the force-drop distribution but not for the power spectrum. We explain this on a physical basis and propose a model which takes explicitly into account the stiffness and inertia of the tribometer. Specifically, we numerically solve the equation of motion of a block on a friction surface pulled by a spring and show that for certain spring constants the motion is characterized by the same power law spectrum as in experiments. We propose a physical picture relating the fluctuations of the force drops to the microscopic geometry of the surface.

  4. The persistence of women in STEM: A constructivist grounded theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamm, Ryan

    Men and women have reached relative parity in most sectors of the United States workforce. Yet women remain underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields (AAUW, 2010). Underrepresentation persists despite several decades of research, legislation, and intervention focused on gender equality in STEM fields (Clewell, 2002). The underrepresentation or shortage of women in STEM fields is identifiable primarily in degree attainment, in workforce demographics, and in a gender wage gap. Situated in constructivist grounded theory, this study asks how do women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, particularly those in established career positions, persist when encountering personal and institutional barriers, resistance, and hostility? I use an interpretive-constructivist lens to conduct a grounded theory study exploring the experiences of women who persist in STEM fields, their relation to extant literature on this topic, and the connections to K-12 education practices, specifically curriculum. To understand the connections to curriculum I employ Pinar's (2012) method of currere. Pinar (2012) contends currere "provides a strategy for students of curriculum to study the relations between academic knowledge and life history in the interests of self-understanding and social reconstruction" (p.44). This qualitative study explored nine female STEM workers stories of persistence as each respondent works in STEM fields were gender parity has yet to be established. This study presents a substantive theory: As women persist in STEM fields they reframe themselves to be situated in the overlapping intersection of the social processes that correspond to "engagement" and "persistence." This reframing is possible by interpreting one's present day circumstances by independently removing oneself from current circumstances to understand the cumulative effect of both past and present. The findings highlight the importance

  5. Bottlebrush Block Polymers: Quantitative Theory and Experiments.

    PubMed

    Dalsin, Samuel J; Rions-Maehren, Thomas G; Beam, Marissa D; Bates, Frank S; Hillmyer, Marc A; Matsen, Mark W

    2015-12-22

    The self-assembly of bottlebrush block polymers into a lamellar phase was investigated using a combination of experiment and self-consistent field theory (SCFT). Nine diblock bottlebrush polymers were synthesized with atactic polypropylene side chains (block A) and polystyrene side chains (block B) attached to poly(norbornene) backbones of various contour lengths, L, and the resulting lamellar structures were analyzed using small-angle X-ray scattering. The scaling of the lamellar period, d0 ∼ L(γ), exhibited an increasing exponent from γ ≈ 0.3 at small L to γ ≈ 0.9 at large L. The small exponents occurred for starlike molecules where the size of the side chains is comparable to L, while the larger exponents occurred for the more brushlike molecules where the side chains extend radially outward from the backbone. The bottlebrushes were then modeled using flexible side chains of types A and B attached to a semiflexible backbone with an adjustable persistence length, ξb. The resulting SCFT predictions for d0 showed remarkable quantitative agreement with the experimental data, where ξb was similar to the radius of the bottlebrushes. The theory was then used to examine the joint-distribution functions for the position and orientation of different segments along the backbone. This revealed a bilayer arrangement of the bottlebrushes in the lamellar phase, with a high degree of backbone orientation at the A/B interfaces that almost completely vanished near the center of the domains. This finding clearly refutes the prevailing interpretation that the large scaling exponent γ is a result of highly extended backbone conformations. PMID:26544636

  6. Acetylene: Synergy between theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundberg, James K.; Field, Robert W.; Sherrill, C. David; Seidl, Edward T.; Xie, Yaoming; Schaefer, Henry F., III

    1993-06-01

    Six anomalous vibronic feature states [˜2 cm-1 full-width at half-maximum (FWHM), each consisting of ˜20 partially resolved eigenstates] have been observed in stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectra of C2D2. Of the two plausible assignments for these features, the one most consistent with spectroscopic observations would imply that the lowest energy cis-bent triplet state of acetylene has T0≤25 820 cm-1, which is inconsistent with previous ab initio predictions. New higher level ab initio quantum mechanical methods have been used to predict the energy difference between X˜ 1Σg+ ground state and the cis-bent ã 3B2 lowest triplet state of acetylene. In conjunction with a triple zeta plus double polarization plus f function (TZ2Pf) basis set, the coupled cluster including single, double, and linearized triple excitations CCSD(T) method yields T0=ΔE(ã 3B2-X˜ 1Σg+)=30 500 cm-1. The true value of T0 for the ã 3B2 state is estimated to be ˜500 cm-1 higher. At the same level of theory the zero-point levels of the lowest triplet state of the trans-bent (ã 3Bu) and vinylidene (ã 3B2) isomers lie at still higher energies. This result conclusively rules out any triplet assignment for the anomalous feature states. The alternative assignment, as highly excited vibrational levels of the X˜ 1Σg+ state, is surprising in view of the Franck-Condon selectivity, dynamical stability, and nonselective relaxation of this special class of ``bright states'' observed in the SEP spectra. Such an assignment would be implausible in the absence of the present ab initio calculations. Previous experimental observations [Lisy and Klemperer, J. Chem. Phys. 72, 3880 (1980) and Wendt, Hippler, and Hunziker, J. Chem. Phys. 70, 4044 (1979)] of acetylene triplet states are discussed and shown to be completely consistent with each other and with the present ab initio ordering of the cis and trans isomeric minima on the T1 potential energy surface: cis ã 3B2 below trans ã 3Bu .

  7. An Embodied Model for Sensorimotor Grounding and Grounding Transfer: Experiments with Epigenetic Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangelosi, Angelo; Riga, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The grounding of symbols in computational models of linguistic abilities is one of the fundamental properties of psychologically plausible cognitive models. In this article, we present an embodied model for the grounding of language in action based on epigenetic robots. Epigenetic robotics is one of the new cognitive modeling approaches to…

  8. An embodied model for sensorimotor grounding and grounding transfer: experiments with epigenetic robots.

    PubMed

    Cangelosi, Angelo; Riga, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The grounding of symbols in computational models of linguistic abilities is one of the fundamental properties of psychologically plausible cognitive models. In this article, we present an embodied model for the grounding of language in action based on epigenetic robots. Epigenetic robotics is one of the new cognitive modeling approaches to modeling autonomous mental development. The robot model is based on an integrative vision of language in which linguistic abilities are strictly dependent on and grounded in other behaviors and skills. It uses simulated robots that learn through imitation the names of basic actions. Robots also learn higher order action concepts through the process of grounding transfer. The simulation demonstrates how new, higher order behavioral abilities can be autonomously built on previously grounded basic action categories following linguistic interaction with human users. PMID:21702830

  9. An embodied model for sensorimotor grounding and grounding transfer: experiments with epigenetic robots.

    PubMed

    Cangelosi, Angelo; Riga, Thomas

    2006-07-01

    The grounding of symbols in computational models of linguistic abilities is one of the fundamental properties of psychologically plausible cognitive models. In this article, we present an embodied model for the grounding of language in action based on epigenetic robots. Epigenetic robotics is one of the new cognitive modeling approaches to modeling autonomous mental development. The robot model is based on an integrative vision of language in which linguistic abilities are strictly dependent on and grounded in other behaviors and skills. It uses simulated robots that learn through imitation the names of basic actions. Robots also learn higher order action concepts through the process of grounding transfer. The simulation demonstrates how new, higher order behavioral abilities can be autonomously built on previously grounded basic action categories following linguistic interaction with human users.

  10. Starved bearing technology theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Heshmat, H.

    1988-01-01

    This dissertation describes using developments in free boundary problems analysis and extending them to include temperature effects in starved journal bearings. The study used bearing sizes ranging from 3 in. to 12 in. in diameter and conditions ranging from full hydrodynamic lubrication to a state of extreme lubricant starvation. The oil delivery of oil rings was experimentally determined, and the characteristics of rings through several regimes of operation were determined up to journal speeds at which the ring becomes unstable and oil delivery ceases. A parametric study of ring weight, size, shape, tooth depth and orientation, as well as ring material, yielded an optimum ring configuration from the standpoint of maximum oil delivery to the bearing. Results of an extensive series of tests showed an excellent agreement with the theory and confirmed some of the essential conclusions of the analysis, namely, that the effects of starvation accelerate below the 50% starvation line and that the start of the incomplete film depends only on the level of starvation. Noted for starved bearings was an optimum length-to-diameter ratio which is on the order of 0.6 to 0.8. The form and occurrence of cavitation, film rupture, and the cavitation in starved bearings are all determined in detail in the light of available experiments. A correlation is offered that provides an estimate of the expected mixing temperature in terms of known geometric and operational parameters.

  11. Tone-excited jet: Theory and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, K. K.; Lepicovsky, J.; Tam, C. K. W.; Morris, P. J.; Burrin, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed study to understand the phenomenon of broadband jet-noise amplification produced by upstream discrete-tone sound excitation has been carried out. This has been achieved by simultaneous acquisition of the acoustic, mean velocity, turbulence intensities, and instability-wave pressure data. A 5.08 cm diameter jet has been tested for this purpose under static and also flight-simulation conditions. An open-jet wind tunnel has been used to simulate the flight effects. Limited data on heated jets have also been obtained. To improve the physical understanding of the flow modifications brought about by the upstream discrete-tone excitation, ensemble-averaged schlieren photographs of the jets have also been taken. Parallel to the experimental study, a mathematical model of the processes that lead to broadband-noise amplification by upstream tones has been developed. Excitation of large-scale turbulence by upstream tones is first calculated. A model to predict the changes in small-scale turbulence is then developed. By numerically integrating the resultant set of equations, the enhanced small-scale turbulence distribution in a jet under various excitation conditions is obtained. The resulting changes in small-scale turbulence have been attributed to broadband amplification of jet noise. Excellent agreement has been found between the theory and the experiments. It has also shown that the relative velocity effects are the same for the excited and the unexcited jets.

  12. Organizational Culture Shapes the Adoption and Incorporation of Simulation into Nursing Curricula: A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Susan M.; Eva, Kevin; Martin, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To create a substantive mid-range theory explaining how the organizational cultures of undergraduate nursing programs shape the adoption and incorporation of mid-to high-level technical fidelity simulators as a teaching strategy within curricula. Method. A constructivist grounded theory was used to guide this study which was conducted in Ontario, Canada, during 2011-12. Semistructured interviews (n = 43) with participants that included nursing administrators, nursing faculty, and simulation leaders across multiple programs (n = 13) informed this study. Additionally, key documents (n = 67) were reviewed. Purposeful and theoretical sampling was used and data were collected and analyzed simultaneously. Data were compared among and between sites. Findings. The organizational elements that shape simulation in nursing (OESSN) model depicts five key organizational factors at the nursing program level that shaped the adoption and incorporation of simulation: (1) leaders working in tandem, (2) information exchange, (3) physical locale, (4) shared motivators, and (5) scaffolding to manage change. Conclusions. The OESSN model provides an explanation of the organizational factors that contributed to the adoption and incorporation of simulation into nursing curricula. Nursing programs that use the OESSN model may experience a more rapid or broad uptake of simulation when organizational factors that impact adoption and incorporation are considered and planned for. PMID:24818018

  13. Stigma in abortion care: application to a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Lipp, Allyson

    2011-02-01

    A recent research study found that being more directly involved in medical abortion places greater demands on the nurses. The demands required by nurses working in abortion care may be increased by the stigma attached to such an antisocial action. This paper presents an application of stigma theory, as espoused by Goffman, based on a qualitative research study on abortion. It is argued that women attending for abortion are stigmatised and nurses, although 'wise', have an affiliate stigma through their close association with the procedure. It is proposed that the situation can be ameliorated by addressing stigma at policy, local and personal levels. Examples from other areas of practice are outlined for possible application to practice.

  14. Development of three-dimensional state-space wake theory and application in dynamic ground effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ke

    In topics of rotorcraft wake analysis, state-space wake theory has a recognized reputation for advantages in real-time simulation, preliminary design and eigenvalue analysis. Developments in the past decades greatly improved range of validity and accuracy of the state-space modeling approach. This work focuses on further improvement of the state-space wake theory and applications in representing dynamic ground effect. Extended state-space model is developed to represent non-zero mass flux on rotor disk. Its instant practical application, representing ground effect with a mass source ground rotor, is evaluated in both steady and dynamic aspects. Investigations of partial ground effect simulation by state-space model are carried out in different rotor configurations. Additional work is done in improving simulation efficiency of practical application of state-space modeling.

  15. Continuity means "preserving a consistent whole"--A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Östman, Malin; Jakobsson Ung, Eva; Falk, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Living with a chronic disease like chronic heart failure (CHF) results in disruptions, losses, and setbacks in the participants' daily lives that affect health and well-being. By using grounded theory method, we illuminate whether persons with CHF experience discontinuity in life and, if so, what helps them to preserve and strengthen continuity in their daily lives. Thirteen individual interviews and one group interview with five participants, aged 62 to 88 years, were carried out. Through data collection and data analysis, we constructed three concepts that make up a model illustrating the participants' experiences in daily life in relation to corporeality, temporality, and identity: experiences of discontinuity, recapturing approaches, and reconciliation. The first concept, experiences of discontinuity, was constructed from the following categories: the alienated body, the disrupted time, and the threatened self. The second concept, recapturing approaches, consists of categories with continuity creative constructions: repossessing the body, maintaining a façade, seizing the day, restoring the balance of time, and preserving self. These actions are intended to overcome problems and master changes in order to maintain balance in daily life through constructions that recreate normality and predictability. The third concept, reconciliation, was constructed from three categories: feel normal, set to adjust, and be positioned. These categories describe how the participants minimize their experiences of discontinuity by recapturing approaches in order to reconcile with various changes and maintain continuity in daily life. Our findings provide a fresh perspective on continuity that may contribute to the development of significant interventions in continuity of care for persons with CHF. However, continuity requires that healthcare systems support each patient's ability to manage change, reorientation, and adjustment to the new situation in order to make it easier for

  16. Continuity means “preserving a consistent whole”—A grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Ung, Eva Jakobsson; Falk, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Living with a chronic disease like chronic heart failure (CHF) results in disruptions, losses, and setbacks in the participants’ daily lives that affect health and well-being. By using grounded theory method, we illuminate whether persons with CHF experience discontinuity in life and, if so, what helps them to preserve and strengthen continuity in their daily lives. Thirteen individual interviews and one group interview with five participants, aged 62 to 88 years, were carried out. Through data collection and data analysis, we constructed three concepts that make up a model illustrating the participants’ experiences in daily life in relation to corporeality, temporality, and identity: experiences of discontinuity, recapturing approaches, and reconciliation. The first concept, experiences of discontinuity, was constructed from the following categories: the alienated body, the disrupted time, and the threatened self. The second concept, recapturing approaches, consists of categories with continuity creative constructions: repossessing the body, maintaining a façade, seizing the day, restoring the balance of time, and preserving self. These actions are intended to overcome problems and master changes in order to maintain balance in daily life through constructions that recreate normality and predictability. The third concept, reconciliation, was constructed from three categories: feel normal, set to adjust, and be positioned. These categories describe how the participants minimize their experiences of discontinuity by recapturing approaches in order to reconcile with various changes and maintain continuity in daily life. Our findings provide a fresh perspective on continuity that may contribute to the development of significant interventions in continuity of care for persons with CHF. However, continuity requires that healthcare systems support each patient's ability to manage change, reorientation, and adjustment to the new situation in order to make it easier

  17. Readying One's Self: A Grounded Theory Investigation of the LatinoJustice PRLDEF LawBound Program Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Angela Marie Banner

    2011-01-01

    This study was a grounded theory investigation of the LatinoJustice PRLDEF LawBound participants. The research was conducted using the grounded theory method developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967) and Glaser (1978, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1998, 2001, 2003, 2005) to discover an explanatory theory directly from the data. The discovery of the…

  18. "You're a Grounded Theorist for the Day": Teaching Students the Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docan-Morgan, Tony

    2010-01-01

    Undergraduate research experience offers students a host of benefits including: (a) improving interpersonal and technical skills; (b) fostering independent learning and analytical abilities; and (c) creating close personal connections with faculty members. However, Rodrick and Dickmeyer (2002) suggest that, "although communication educators…

  19. 'Single molecule': theory and experiments, an introduction.

    PubMed

    Riveline, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    At scales below micrometers, Brownian motion dictates most of the behaviors. The simple observation of a colloid is striking: a permanent and random motion is seen, whereas inertial forces play a negligible role. This Physics, where velocity is proportional to force, has opened new horizons in biology. The random feature is challenged in living systems where some proteins--molecular motors--have a directed motion whereas their passive behaviors of colloid should lead to a Brownian motion. Individual proteins, polymers of living matter such as DNA, RNA, actin or microtubules, molecular motors, all these objects can be viewed as chains of colloids. They are submitted to shocks from molecules of the solvent. Shapes taken by these biopolymers or dynamics imposed by motors can be measured and modeled from single molecules to their collective effects. Thanks to the development of experimental methods such as optical tweezers, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), micropipettes, and quantitative fluorescence (such as Förster Resonance Energy Transfer, FRET), it is possible to manipulate these individual biomolecules in an unprecedented manner: experiments allow to probe the validity of models; and a new Physics has thereby emerged with original biological insights. Theories based on statistical mechanics are needed to explain behaviors of these systems. When force-extension curves of these molecules are extracted, the curves need to be fitted with models that predict the deformation of free objects or submitted to a force. When velocity of motors is altered, a quantitative analysis is required to explain the motions of individual molecules under external forces. This lecture will give some elements of introduction to the lectures of the session 'Nanophysics for Molecular Biology'.

  20. 'Single molecule': theory and experiments, an introduction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    At scales below micrometers, Brownian motion dictates most of the behaviors. The simple observation of a colloid is striking: a permanent and random motion is seen, whereas inertial forces play a negligible role. This Physics, where velocity is proportional to force, has opened new horizons in biology. The random feature is challenged in living systems where some proteins - molecular motors - have a directed motion whereas their passive behaviors of colloid should lead to a Brownian motion. Individual proteins, polymers of living matter such as DNA, RNA, actin or microtubules, molecular motors, all these objects can be viewed as chains of colloids. They are submitted to shocks from molecules of the solvent. Shapes taken by these biopolymers or dynamics imposed by motors can be measured and modeled from single molecules to their collective effects. Thanks to the development of experimental methods such as optical tweezers, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), micropipettes, and quantitative fluorescence (such as Förster Resonance Energy Transfer, FRET), it is possible to manipulate these individual biomolecules in an unprecedented manner: experiments allow to probe the validity of models; and a new Physics has thereby emerged with original biological insights. Theories based on statistical mechanics are needed to explain behaviors of these systems. When force-extension curves of these molecules are extracted, the curves need to be fitted with models that predict the deformation of free objects or submitted to a force. When velocity of motors is altered, a quantitative analysis is required to explain the motions of individual molecules under external forces. This lecture will give some elements of introduction to the lectures of the session 'Nanophysics for Molecular Biology'. PMID:24565227

  1. Supersaturated Electrolyte Solutions: Theory and Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izmailov, Alexander F.; Myerson, Allan S.; Na, Han-Soo

    1995-01-01

    Highly supersaturated electrolyte solutions can be prepared and studied employing an electrodynamic levitator trap (ELT) technique. The ELT technique involves containerless suspension of a microdroplet thus eliminating dust, dirt, and container walls which normally cause heterogeneous nucleation. This allows very high supersaturations to be achieved. A theoretical study of the experimental results obtained for the water activity in microdroplets of various electrolyte solutions is based on the development of the Cahn-Hilliard formalism for electrolyte solutions. In the approach suggested the metastable state for electrolyte solutions is described in terms of the conserved order parameter omega(r,t) associated with fluctuations of the mean solute concentration n(sub 0). Parameters of the corresponding Ginzburg-Landau free energy functional which defines the dynamics of metastable state relaxation are determined and expressed through the experimentally measured quantities. A correspondence of 96-99 % between theory and experiment for all solutions studied was achieved and allowed the determination of an analytical expression for the spinodal concentration n(sub spin), and its calculation for various electrolyte solutions at 298 K. The assumption that subcritical solute clusters consist of the electrically neutral Bjerrum pairs has allowed both analytical and numerical investigation of the number-size N(sub c) of nucleation monomers (aggregates of the Bjerrum pairs) which are elementary units of the solute critical clusters. This has also allowed estimations for the surface tension Alpha, and equilibrium bulk energy Beta per solute molecule in the nucleation monomers. The dependence of these properties on the temperature T and on the solute concentration n(sub 0) through the entire metastable zone (from saturation concentration n(sub sat) to spinodal n(sub spin) is examined. It has been demonstrated that there are the following asymptotics: N(sub c), = I at spinodal

  2. Promoting participation in healthcare situations for children with JIA: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Gilljam, Britt-Mari; Arvidsson, Susann; Nygren, Jens M; Svedberg, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Children's right to participate in their own healthcare has increasingly become highlighted in national and international research as well as in government regulations. Nevertheless, children's participation in healthcare is unsatisfactorily applied in praxis. There is a growing body of research regarding children's participation, but research from the children's own perspective is scarce. The aim of this study was thus to explore the experiences and preferences for participation in healthcare situations among children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) as a foundation for creating strategies to promote their participation in pediatric healthcare. Twenty children, aged 8 to 17 years, with JIA were interviewed individually and in focus groups. In order to increase the children's opportunities to express their own experiences, different interview techniques were used, such as draw-and-tell and role play with dolls. The analysis was conducted with a constructivist grounded theory. The result explores children's perspective of influencing processes promoting their participation in healthcare situations. The core category that emerged was, "Releasing fear and uncertainty opens up for confidence and participation," and the categories related to the core category are, "surrounded by a sense of security and comfort," and "strengthened and supported to become involved." In conclusion, the knowledge gained in this study offers new insights from the perspective of children themselves, and can constitute a valuable contribution to the understanding of necessary conditions for the development of specific interventions that promote participation among children in healthcare situations.

  3. Barriers to Healthcare Provision for Victims of Sexual Assault: A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Shahali, Shadab; Mohammadi, Eesa; Lamyian, Minoor; Kashanian, Maryam; Eslami, Mohammad; Montazeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Victims of sexual assault need comprehensive healthcare services to deal with the consequences of their experience. However, there are still many girls/women that delay seeking healthcare after they experience sexual assault. Objectives: To explore the process of health care and clinical services for victims of sexual assault in the health care centers of Iran. Patients and Methods: This was a qualitative study based on the grounded theory method. The sample consisted of 23 health care providers and 10 victims of sexual violence. Unstructured interviews and observations were used for data collection. Constant comparative analysis was used according to the Strauss and Corbin method. Results: The analysis of all data led to the extraction of four categories: “performing routines”, “victims’ expectations”, “conflict between expectations of victims and existing healthcare services”, and the core category of “neglect of healthcare providers to address the needs and expectations of victims”. Providers were offering health care to the victims of sexual violence regardless of their needs. Due to this neglect, victims sought illegal solutions to overcome the consequences that led to social stigma. Conclusions: The findings indicate the lack of mutual understanding between health care providers and victims of sexual violence in relation to the expectations and priorities of victims. PMID:27231579

  4. Promoting participation in healthcare situations for children with JIA: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Gilljam, Britt-Mari; Arvidsson, Susann; Nygren, Jens M.; Svedberg, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Children's right to participate in their own healthcare has increasingly become highlighted in national and international research as well as in government regulations. Nevertheless, children's participation in healthcare is unsatisfactorily applied in praxis. There is a growing body of research regarding children's participation, but research from the children's own perspective is scarce. The aim of this study was thus to explore the experiences and preferences for participation in healthcare situations among children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) as a foundation for creating strategies to promote their participation in pediatric healthcare. Twenty children, aged 8 to 17 years, with JIA were interviewed individually and in focus groups. In order to increase the children's opportunities to express their own experiences, different interview techniques were used, such as draw-and-tell and role play with dolls. The analysis was conducted with a constructivist grounded theory. The result explores children's perspective of influencing processes promoting their participation in healthcare situations. The core category that emerged was, “Releasing fear and uncertainty opens up for confidence and participation,” and the categories related to the core category are, “surrounded by a sense of security and comfort,” and “strengthened and supported to become involved.” In conclusion, the knowledge gained in this study offers new insights from the perspective of children themselves, and can constitute a valuable contribution to the understanding of necessary conditions for the development of specific interventions that promote participation among children in healthcare situations. PMID:27172512

  5. Restoring integrity—A grounded theory of coping with a fast track surgery programme

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Fridlund, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives The aim of this study was to generate a theory conceptualizing and explaining behavioural processes involved in coping in order to identify the predominant coping types and coping type-specific features. Background Patients undergoing fast track procedures do not experience a higher risk of complications, readmission, or mortality. However, such programmes presuppose an increasing degree of patient involvement, placing high educational, physical, and mental demands on the patients. There is a lack of knowledge about how patients understand and cope with fast track programmes. Design The study design used classical grounded theory. Methods The study used a multimodal approach with qualitative and quantitative data sets from 14 patients. Results Four predominant types of coping, with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features, existed among patients going through a fast track total hip replacement programme. These patients’ main concern was to restore their physical and psychosocial integrity, which had been compromised by reduced function and mobility in daily life. To restore integrity they economized their mental resources, while striving to fulfil the expectations of the fast track programme. This goal was achieved by being mentally proactive and physically active. Three out of the four predominant types of coping matched the expectations expressed in the fast track programme. The non-matching behaviour was seen among the most nervous patients, who claimed the right to diverge from the programme. Conclusion In theory, four predominant types of coping with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features occur among patients going through a fast track total hip arthroplasty programme. PMID:26751199

  6. Breaking Ground: A Study of Gestalt Therapy Theory and Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Paul J.

    In both Gestalt therapy and Holland's theory of vocational choice, person-environment interaction receives considerable emphasis. Gestalt therapy theory suggests that people make contact (that is, meet needs) through a characteristic style of interacting with the environment. Holland identifies six personality types in his theory and asserts that…

  7. Grounded Learning Experience: Helping Students Learn Physics through Visuo-Haptic Priming and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shih-Chieh Douglas

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate the effects of a grounded learning experience on college students' mental models of physics systems. The grounded learning experience consisted of a priming stage and an instruction stage, and within each stage, one of two different types of visuo-haptic representation was applied: visuo-gestural simulation…

  8. Gravitation theory - Empirical status from solar system experiments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordtvedt, K. L., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Review of historical and recent experiments which speak in favor of a post-Newtonian relativistic gravitational theory. The topics include the foundational experiments, metric theories of gravity, experiments designed to differentiate among the metric theories, and tests of Machian concepts of gravity. It is shown that the metric field for any metric theory can be specified by a series of potential terms with several parameters. It is pointed out that empirical results available up to date yield values of the parameters which are consistent with the prediction of Einstein's general relativity.

  9. How Australian Female Adolescents Prioritize Pregnancy Protection: A Grounded Theory Study of Contraceptive Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jennifer L.; Skinner, S. Rachel; Fenwick, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Grounded theory principles were systematically employed to reveal key differences in pregnancy risk and underlying disparities in contraceptive use in (a) never-pregnant (b) pregnant-terminated and (c) pregnant-continued teenagers. Analysis of 69 semistructured interviews revealed a bicausal model of pregnancy protection that accounted for…

  10. A Grounded Theory Study of Effective Global Leadership Development Strategies: Perspectives from Brazil, India, and Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokkesmoe, Karen Jane

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study focuses on global leadership and global leadership development strategies from the perspective of people from three developing countries, Brazil, India, and Nigeria. The study explores conceptualizations of global leadership, the skills required to lead effectively in global contexts, and recommended…

  11. Instilling Foundation Behaviors of Professional Practice in Undergraduate Athletic Training Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to investigate the implementation of the "Foundational Behaviors of Professional Practice" in undergraduate athletic training education program curriculums accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education [CAATE]. Specifically, this study examined the educational and…

  12. Integration of Learning: A Grounded Theory Analysis of College Students' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, James P.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a grounded theory of "integration of learning" among traditional aged college students, which is characterized by the demonstrated ability to link various skills and knowledge learned in a variety of contexts. The author analyzed 194 interviews with students at liberal arts colleges to investigate empirically the ways…

  13. How Homeless Sector Workers Deal with the Death of Service Users: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakeman, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Homeless sector workers often encounter the deaths of service users. A modified grounded theory methodology project was used to explore how workers make sense of, respond to, and cope with sudden death. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 16 paid homeless sector workers who had experienced the death of someone with whom they worked.…

  14. Making Connections: Grounding Professional Development in the Developmental Theories of Vygotsky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eun, Barohny

    2008-01-01

    Professional development is grounded in the developmental theories of Vygotsky in an attempt to better understand the mechanism underlying teacher development. The rationale for the use of Vygotskian framework is provided in the context of describing the various models of professional development. Within this theoretical framework, it is argued…

  15. A Grounded Theory of Collaborative Synchronizing in Relation to Challenging Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multiprofessional collaboration as well as collaboration between professionals and challenging students and their parents in which the focus for these collaborations was on handling the challenging students' academic and social behavior. A grounded theory study of collaboration between a prereferral…

  16. Conceptualization of Calling: A Grounded Theory Exploration of CCCU Women Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longman, Karen A.; Dahlvig, Jolyn; Wikkerink, Richard J.; Cunningham, Debra; O'Connor, Candy M.

    2011-01-01

    This grounded theory study provides a conceptualization of the role of calling in women's leadership development based on semistructured interviews with 16 female leaders in the Council for Christian Colleges & Universities. Centered in the participants knowing and using their unique talents and strengths, which were often viewed as being clues to…

  17. Leading Effective Educational Technology in K-12 School Districts: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Lara Gillian C.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic grounded theory qualitative study was conducted investigating the process of effectively leading educational technology in New Jersey public K-12 school districts. Data were collected from educational technology district leaders (whether formal or non-formal administrators) and central administrators through a semi-structured online…

  18. Getting Clean in a Drug Rehabilitation Program in Prison: A Grounded Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sharon; Ferguson, Neil

    2005-01-01

    High-risk drug use is prevalent among UK prison populations (Lipton, 1995) while recovery in prison is both complex and variable. Grounded theory methodology was employed to gain a greater understanding of the perceptions and conceptualisations of "risk," "need" and "motivation" in relation to prisoner drug abusing practices, criminal practices,…

  19. The Role of Professional School Counselors in Working with Students in Gangs: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Jennifer Cahoon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a grounded theory that contributed to the understanding of the professional school counselor's role at the secondary school level in working with students in gangs. The study explored the role of the professional school counselor from the first person perspective of the professional school counselor and…

  20. Philosophical Roots of Classical Grounded Theory: Its Foundations in Symbolic Interactionism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldiabat, Khaldoun M.; Le Navenec, Carole-Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Although many researchers have discussed the historical relationship between the Grounded Theory methodology and Symbolic Interactionism, they have not clearly articulated the congruency of their salient concepts and assumptions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a thorough discussion of this congruency. A hypothetical example about smoking…

  1. Action Learning and Constructivist Grounded Theory: Powerfully Overlapping Fields of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the shared characteristics between action learning (AL) and the research methodology constructivist grounded theory (CGT). Mirroring Edmonstone's [2011. "Action Learning and Organisation Development: Overlapping Fields of Practice." "Action Learning: Research and Practice" 8 (2): 93-102] article, which…

  2. Clarification of the Blurred Boundaries between Grounded Theory and Ethnography: Differences and Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldiabat, Khaldoun; Le Navenec, Carol-Lynne

    2011-01-01

    There is confusion among graduate students about how to select the qualitative methodology that best fits their research question. Often this confusion arises in regard to making a choice between a grounded theory methodology and an ethnographic methodology. This difficulty may stem from the fact that these students do not have a clear…

  3. Executive Function and Reading Aptitude: A Grounded Theory Analysis of Teacher Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study investigated teacher perspectives on the relationship between executive function and reading aptitude. The influence of executive function may be underestimated in terms of its impact on reading aptitude, which could have significant implications on how reading aptitude is currently defined. The foundational…

  4. Construction of a Conceptualization of Personal Knowledge within a Knowledge Management Perspective Using Grounded Theory Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straw, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The current research used grounded theory methodology (GTM) to construct a conceptualization of personal knowledge within a knowledge management (KM) perspective. The need for the current research was based on the use of just two categories of knowledge, explicit and tacit, within KM literature to explain diverse characteristics of personal…

  5. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  6. A Grounded Theory of Text Revision Processes Used by Young Adolescents Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuknis, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the revising processes used by 8 middle school students who are deaf or hard-of-hearing as they composed essays for their English classes. Using grounded theory, interviews with students and teachers in one middle school, observations of the students engaging in essay creation, and writing samples were collected for analysis.…

  7. Reading Comprehension Profiles of High-Functioning Students on the Autism Spectrum: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Pamela; Carnahan, Christina R.; Jacobs, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, this study sought to understand what influences reading comprehension and how meaning is made from text among high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a think-aloud procedure, 13 individuals ages 7-13 with ASD read 16 passages at their instructional reading level.…

  8. The Process of Social Identity Development in Adolescent High School Choral Singers: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to describe the process of adolescent choral singers' social identity development within three midsized, midwestern high school mixed choirs. Forty-nine interviews were conducted with 36 different participants. Secondary data sources included memoing, observations, and interviews with the choir…

  9. Leading Critically: A Grounded Theory of Applied Critical Thinking in Leadership Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jekins, Daniel M.; Cutchens, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the development of a grounded theory of applied critical thinking in leadership studies and examines how student-centered experiential learning in leadership education bridged critical thinking with action. Over three semester undergraduate students in an upper level leadership studies course at a large four-year public…

  10. Using Popular Media and a Collaborative Approach to Teaching Grounded Theory Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Ghoston, Michelle R.; Drape, Tiffany; Ruff, Chloe; Mukuni, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Popular movies were used in a doctoral-level qualitative research methods course as a way to help students learn about how to collect and analyze qualitative observational data in order to develop a grounded theory. The course was designed in such a way that collaboration was central to the generation of knowledge. Using media depictions had the…

  11. A Grounded Theory of Connectivity and Persistence in a Limited Residency Doctoral Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Steven R.; Snyder, Martha M.; Dringus, Laurie P.; Maddrey, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Limited-residency and online doctoral programs have an attrition rate significantly higher than traditional programs. This grounded-theory study focused on issues pertaining to communication between students, their peers and faculty and how interpersonal communication may affect persistence. Data were collected from 17 students actively working on…

  12. A Grounded Theory of Prospective Teachers' Meta-Cognitive Process: Internalizing the Professional Standards of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative research study examined 190 concurrent education students' case-based reflections from 2005 to 2008. A grounded theory analysis was applied to 3,800 reflection logs. The article describes the use of constant comparison and theoretical saturation that identified two core categories emerging from participants' meta-cognitive…

  13. Applying Grounded Theory to Weight Management among Women: Making a Commitment to Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Ivankova, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    In this study we developed a theory grounded in data from women who continued healthy eating behaviors after a weight management program. Participant recruitment was guided by theoretical sampling strategies for focus groups and individual interviews. Inclusion criteria were: African American or Caucasian women aged 30+ who lost [greater than or…

  14. The Conflicts between Grounded Theory Requirements and Institutional Requirements for Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckerhoff, Jason; Guillemette, Francois

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the conflicts between grounded theory (GT) requirements and institutional requirements for scientific research such as they were experienced by researchers and students. The overview of how GT was originally conceived served as background to the analysis of the problems GT users often faced when they submitted research…

  15. Stress and Coping Strategies in the Lives of Recent Immigrants: A Grounded Theory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yakushko, Oksana

    2010-01-01

    A grounded theory was utilized to develop a model of stress and coping experienced by recent immigrants to the United States. Maximum variation sampling was used to gather data from 20 leaders within immigrant and refugee communities in a Midwest U.S. city. A theoretical model was developed by identifying causal conditions, contexts, intervening…

  16. Developing a Paradigm Model of Youth Leadership Development and Community Engagement: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hastings, Lindsay J.; Barrett, Leverne A.; Barbuto, John E., Jr.; Bell, Lloyd C.

    2011-01-01

    This grounded theory study explored the impact of community engagement on how youth leaders develop. A paradigm model illustrating this developmental process is presented, which includes the conditions that empowered the youth to engage in their community, the strategies used by the youth and the adults in their work together, the conditions that…

  17. Using Grounded Theory to Understand Resiliency in Pre-Teen Children of High-Conflict Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomrenke, Marlene

    2007-01-01

    Using grounded theory, this study identified factors that contributed to children's ability to utilize their resilient attributes. Children between the ages of 9 and 12 from high-conflict separated or divorced families participated in a study that examined how family and community interactions promote resilient behaviour. Substantive-level theory…

  18. Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes toward Professional Development: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielder, Amy

    2010-01-01

    Elementary teachers' attitudes toward professional development and ways to increase teachers' participation in professional development were explored in this qualitative, grounded theory. The researcher conducted five focus groups comprised of elementary classroom teachers, special area teachers, and Instructional Facilitators. Data from the focus…

  19. Motivating and Inhibiting Factors in Online Gambling Behaviour: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Abby; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    To date, there has been very little empirical research examining why people gamble online or--just as importantly--why they do not gamble online. A grounded theory study examining the motivating and inhibiting factors in online gambling was carried out. The sample comprised 15 online gamblers, 14 offline gamblers, and 11 non-gamblers, and resulted…

  20. Student Affairs Professionals Supporting Students with Disabilities: A Grounded Theory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Ezekiel; Vaccaro, Annemarie; Vargas, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    In an action-based grounded theory project, the authors collected data from 31 student affairs professionals. During seven focus groups, practitioners described feeling unknowledgeable about disability law, accommodations, and diagnoses. However, they drew upon their core values and transferrable skills to support individual students. Participants…

  1. How Robotics Programs Influence Young Women's Career Choices: A Grounded Theory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Cecilia Dosh-Bluhm

    2014-01-01

    The fields of engineering, computer science, and physics have a paucity of women despite decades of intervention by universities and organizations. Women's graduation rates in these fields continue to stagnate, posing a critical problem for society. This qualitative grounded theory (GT) study sought to understand how robotics programs influenced…

  2. Finding the Groove: A Grounded Theory Study on Leading Others to a Productive Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roshann Reed

    2011-01-01

    Finding the groove was systematically discovered directly from data following the classical grounded theory methodology developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967) and further developed by Glaser (1965, 1978, 1992, 1998, 2001). This basic social process emerged from data as the pattern of behavior that leaders proceed through to increase performer…

  3. Graphic Novels as Great Books: A Grounded Theory Study of Faculty Teaching Graphic Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Boniecki, Jeannie

    2013-01-01

    This Glaserian grounded theory study, through conceptual coding of interviews and course syllabi, aimed at exploring the motivations and aspirations university professors had when they offered courses dedicated to the study of graphic novels. As a result, the emergence of the graphic novel as a vital literary influence in 21st-century academia was…

  4. Looping as an Educational Practice in Deaf Education: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Yvonne Theresa Artis

    2009-01-01

    The current qualitative study, using a grounded theory approach, explores the benefits of looping as an instructional practice by comparing the success of deaf and hard-of-hearing students in looping classrooms to the success of hearing students in looping classrooms. Limited information is currently available about the success of looping as an…

  5. Theorizing Teachers' Perspectives on an EFL Textbook for Public High Schools of Iran: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namaghi, Seyyed Ali Ostovar; Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Saboor; Tajzad, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore language teachers' perspectives on Iranian third grade senior high school EFL textbook, which is prescribed by the Ministry of Education. In data collection and analysis, the researchers used theoretical sampling and the coding schemes presented in grounded theory. Final analysis yielded "Negative…

  6. Phenomenography and Grounded Theory as Research Methods in Computing Education Research Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnunen, Paivi; Simon, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses two qualitative research methods, phenomenography and grounded theory. We introduce both methods' data collection and analysis processes and the type or results you may get at the end by using examples from computing education research. We highlight some of the similarities and differences between the aim, data collection and…

  7. Residents' Interaction with Their College Living-Learning Peer Mentor: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Jonathan Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This study used Strauss and Corbin's (1998) grounded theory model to describe and explain the stories of residents' interactions with their peer mentor, in a health, education, and human development living-learning community (LLC). The question answered in this study was: What is the impact of the interaction between a peer mentor and…

  8. Perspectives on the Aetiology of ODD and CD: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Patrick; Sanders, James; Hagen, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are common reasons for youth to be seen for clinical intervention. The intent of this constructivist grounded theory study was to evaluate clinicians' perspectives on the aetiology of antisocial disorders. Six professionals from various professional…

  9. Doing the Things We Do: A Grounded Theory of Academic Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraw, Gregory; Wadkins, Theresa; Olafson, Lori

    2007-01-01

    The authors conducted a grounded theory study of academic procrastination to explore adaptive and maladaptive aspects of procrastination and to help guide future empirical research. They discuss previous research on the definition and dimensionality of procrastination and describe the study in which interview data were collected in 4 stages,…

  10. A Grounded Theory Study of the Relationship between E-Mail and Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camargo, Marta Rocha

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: This study consisted of a qualitative investigation into the role of e-mail in work-related burnout among high technology employees working full time and on-site for Internet, hardware, and software companies. Method: Grounded theory methodology was used to provide a systemic approach in categorising, sorting, and analysing data…

  11. Does the Saenger gedanken experiment advance Einstein's special relativity theory?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Werner

    1987-12-01

    The basics of Einstein's theory of special relativity are reviewed, and the impact of the Saenger gedanken experiment on the theory is considered. The application of this experiment to the clock paradox is stressed. The relevance of special relativity on some current astrophysical problems is addressed.

  12. Coupled Simulations, Ground-Based Experiments and Flight Experiments for Astrodynamics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, R.; Brown, M.; Lorrain, P.; Capon, C.; Lambert, A.; Benson, C.; Tuttle, S.; Griffin, D.

    Near-Earth satellites undergo complex and poorly understood interactions with their environment, leading to large uncertainties in predicting orbits and an associated risk of collision with other satellites and with space debris. The nature, evolution and behaviour of the growing cloud of space debris in that environment is even less well understood. Significant effort and expenditure is currently being made by governments in Australia, UK, USA, Europe and elsewhere in space surveillance and tracking, in order to mitigate the risk. However, a major gap exists with respect to the science of in-orbit behaviour. Research is underway in Australia to enable the prediction of the orbits of near-Earth space objects with order(s) of magnitude greater fidelity than currently possible. This is being achieved by coupling together the necessary parts of the puzzle - the physics of rarefied space object “aerodynamics” and the space physics and space weather that affects it - and employing our capabilities in ground-based and in-orbit experiments, ground-based observations and high performance computing to do so. As part of the effort, UNSW Canberra is investing $10M to develop a sustainable university-led program to develop and fly affordable in-orbit missions for space research. In the coming 6 years, we will fly a minimum of four cubesat missions, some in partnership with DSTO, which will include flight experiments for validating Space Situational Awareness astrodynamics simulation and observation capabilities. The flights are underpinned by ground-based experimental research employing space test chambers, advanced diagnostics, and supercomputer simulations that couple DSMC and Particle-in-Cell methods for modelling space object interactions with the ionosphere. This paper will describe the research both underway and planned, with particular emphasis on the coupled numerical/experimental/flight approach.

  13. The arcing rate for a High Voltage Solar Array - Theory, experiment and predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Daniel E.; Cho, Mengu; Kuninaka, Hitoshi

    1992-01-01

    All solar arrays have biased surfaces which can be exposed to the space environment. It has been observed that when the array bias is less than a few hundred volts negative then the exposed conductive surfaces may undergo arcing in the space plasma. A theory for arcing is developed on these high voltage solar arrays which ascribes the arcing to electric field runaway at the interface of the plasma, conductor and solar cell dielectric. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory for the High Voltage Solar Array (HVSA) experiment which will fly on the Japanese Space Flyer Unit (SFU) in 1994. The theory was compared in detail to the experiment and shown to give a reasonable explanation for the data. The combined theory and ground experiments were then used to develop predictions for the SFU flight.

  14. Arcing rates for High Voltage Solar Arrays - Theory, experiment, and predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Daniel E.; Cho, Mengu; Kuninaka, Hitoshi

    1992-01-01

    All solar arrays have biased surfaces that can be exposed to the space environment. It has been observed that when the array bias is less than a few hundred volts negative, then the exposed conductive surfaces may undergo arcing in the space plasma. A theory for arcing is developed on these high voltage solar arrays that ascribes the arcing to electric field runaway at the interface of the plasma, conductor, and solar cell dielectric. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory for the High Voltage Solar Array experiment that will fly on the Japanese Space Flyer Unit (SFU) in 1994. The theory was compared in detail with the experiment and shown to give a reasonable explanation for the data. The combined theory and ground experiments were then used to develop predictions for the SFU flight.

  15. Multiconfiguration Pair-Density Functional Theory Outperforms Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory and Multireference Perturbation Theory for Ground-State and Excited-State Charge Transfer.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soumen; Sonnenberger, Andrew L; Hoyer, Chad E; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura

    2015-08-11

    The correct description of charge transfer in ground and excited states is very important for molecular interactions, photochemistry, electrochemistry, and charge transport, but it is very challenging for Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT). KS-DFT exchange-correlation functionals without nonlocal exchange fail to describe both ground- and excited-state charge transfer properly. We have recently proposed a theory called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), which is based on a combination of multiconfiguration wave function theory with a new type of density functional called an on-top density functional. Here we have used MC-PDFT to study challenging ground- and excited-state charge-transfer processes by using on-top density functionals obtained by translating KS exchange-correlation functionals. For ground-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT performs better than either the PBE exchange-correlation functional or CASPT2 wave function theory. For excited-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT (unlike KS-DFT) shows qualitatively correct behavior at long-range with great improvement in predicted excitation energies.

  16. How Female Professionals Successfully Process and Negotiate Involuntary Job Loss at Faith-Based Colleges and Universities: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Debra Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Using a constructivist grounded theory approach (Charmaz, 2006), this qualitative study examined how eight female senior-level professionals employed at faith-based colleges and universities processed and navigated the experience of involuntary job loss and successfully transitioned to another position. The theoretical framework of psychological…

  17. How Female Professionals Successfully Process and Negotiate Involuntary Job Loss at Faith-Based Colleges and Universities: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Debra Jayne

    2013-01-01

    Using a constructivist grounded theory approach (Charmaz, 2006), this qualitative study examined how 8 female senior-level professionals employed at faith-based colleges and universities processed and navigated the experience of involuntary job loss and successfully transitioned to another position. The purpose of this research was to contribute…

  18. How parents process child health and nutrition information: A grounded theory model.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate low-income parents' experiences receiving, making meaning of, and applying sociocultural messages about childhood health and nutrition. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents from 16 low-income Early Head Start families. Verbatim interview transcripts, observations, field notes, documentary evidence, and follow-up participant checks were used during grounded theory analysis of the data. Data yielded a potential theoretical model of parental movement toward action involving (a) the culture and context influencing parents, (b) parents' sources of social and cultural messages, (c) parental values and engagement, (d) parental motivation for action, (e) intervening conditions impacting motivation and application, and (f) parent action taken on the individual and social levels. Parent characteristics greatly impacted the ways in which parents understood and applied health and nutrition information. Among other implications, it is recommended that educators and providers focus on a parent's beliefs, values, and cultural preferences regarding food and health behaviors as well as his/her personal/family definition of "health" when framing recommendations and developing interventions. PMID:26626822

  19. How parents process child health and nutrition information: A grounded theory model.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate low-income parents' experiences receiving, making meaning of, and applying sociocultural messages about childhood health and nutrition. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents from 16 low-income Early Head Start families. Verbatim interview transcripts, observations, field notes, documentary evidence, and follow-up participant checks were used during grounded theory analysis of the data. Data yielded a potential theoretical model of parental movement toward action involving (a) the culture and context influencing parents, (b) parents' sources of social and cultural messages, (c) parental values and engagement, (d) parental motivation for action, (e) intervening conditions impacting motivation and application, and (f) parent action taken on the individual and social levels. Parent characteristics greatly impacted the ways in which parents understood and applied health and nutrition information. Among other implications, it is recommended that educators and providers focus on a parent's beliefs, values, and cultural preferences regarding food and health behaviors as well as his/her personal/family definition of "health" when framing recommendations and developing interventions.

  20. Applicability of Aerospace Materials Ground Flammability Test Data to Spacecraft Environments Theory and Applied Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Williams, Jim; Beeson, Harold

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ground test data in reference to flammability to spacecraft environments. It reviews the current approach to spacecraft fire safety, the challenges to fire safety that the Constellation program poses, the current trends in the evaluation of the Constellation materials flammability, and the correlation of test data from ground flammability tests with the spacecraft environment. Included is a proposal for testing and the design of experiments to test the flammability of materials under similar spacecraft conditions.

  1. Teaching practice experience: linking theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Ayer, S J

    1986-09-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between the theory and practice of the art of teaching as experienced by the author during a period of teaching practice in a school of nursing. It examines such concepts as 'aims', 'objectives', 'scheme of work' and 'lesson plans' and sets these in the context of practical classroom teaching.

  2. Teaching practice experience: linking theory to practice.

    PubMed

    Ayer, S J

    1986-09-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between the theory and practice of the art of teaching as experienced by the author during a period of teaching practice in a school of nursing. It examines such concepts as 'aims', 'objectives', 'scheme of work' and 'lesson plans' and sets these in the context of practical classroom teaching. PMID:3639891

  3. A controlled experiment in ground water flow model calibration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hill, M.C.; Cooley, R.L.; Pollock, D.W.

    1998-01-01

    Nonlinear regression was introduced to ground water modeling in the 1970s, but has been used very little to calibrate numerical models of complicated ground water systems. Apparently, nonlinear regression is thought by many to be incapable of addressing such complex problems. With what we believe to be the most complicated synthetic test case used for such a study, this work investigates using nonlinear regression in ground water model calibration. Results of the study fall into two categories. First, the study demonstrates how systematic use of a well designed nonlinear regression method can indicate the importance of different types of data and can lead to successive improvement of models and their parameterizations. Our method differs from previous methods presented in the ground water literature in that (1) weighting is more closely related to expected data errors than is usually the case; (2) defined diagnostic statistics allow for more effective evaluation of the available data, the model, and their interaction; and (3) prior information is used more cautiously. Second, our results challenge some commonly held beliefs about model calibration. For the test case considered, we show that (1) field measured values of hydraulic conductivity are not as directly applicable to models as their use in some geostatistical methods imply; (2) a unique model does not necessarily need to be identified to obtain accurate predictions; and (3) in the absence of obvious model bias, model error was normally distributed. The complexity of the test case involved implies that the methods used and conclusions drawn are likely to be powerful in practice.Nonlinear regression was introduced to ground water modeling in the 1970s, but has been used very little to calibrate numerical models of complicated ground water systems. Apparently, nonlinear regression is thought by many to be incapable of addressing such complex problems. With what we believe to be the most complicated synthetic

  4. Space Technology 5 Post-Launch Ground Attitude Estimation Experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harman, Richard R.

    2007-01-01

    The Space Technology (ST)-5 satellites were launched March 22, 2006 on a Pegasus XL launch vehicle into a Sun-synchronous orbit. The three micro-satellites which constituted the ST-5 mission were kept in a formation which allowed three successive measurements taken of the Earth s magnetic field in order to study short term fluctuations of the field. The attitude of each satellite was computed on the ground using data from the science grade magnetometer as well as the miniature spinning Sun sensor (MSSS) which was the primary attitude sensor. Attitude and orbit maneuvers were performed using a single axial cold gas thruster. This paper describes the ground attitude estimation process and performance as well as anomaly resolutions.

  5. Nonproportionality of Scintillator Detectors: Theory and Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Stephen; Cherepy, Nerine; Hull, Giulia; Valentine, John; Moses, William; Choong, Woon-Seng

    2009-08-17

    On the basis of nonproportionality data obtained for several scintillators, we have developed a theory to describe the carrier dynamics to fit the light yield versus electron energy. The theory of Onsager was adapted to explain how the carriers form excitons or sequentially arrive at the activators to promote the ion to an excited state, and the theory of Birks was employed to allow for exciton-exciton annihilation. We then developed a second theory to deduce the degradation in resolution that results from nonproportionality by evoking Landau fluctuations, which are essentially variations in the deposited energy density that occur as the high energy electron travels along its trajectory. In general there is good agreement with the data, in terms of fitting the nonproportionality curves and reproducing the literature values of nonproportionality's contribution to the scintillator resolution. With the resurgence of interest in developing scintillator detectors that have good energy resolution, an improved understanding of nonproportionality has become a crucial matter since it presents the fundamental limit to the achievable resolution. In order to hasten an improved understanding of scintillator nonproportionality, we have constructed an instrument referred to as SLYNCI (Scintillator Light Yield Nonproportionality Compton Instrument). This is a second-generation instrument to the original device developed by Valentine and coworkers, wherein several new principles of operation have served to increase the data rate by an order of magnitude as discussed in detail in References. In the present article, the focus is on a theory to describe the measured electron response, which is the light yield as a function of the electron energy. To do this, we account for transport of carriers and excitons, in terms of how they transfer their energy to the activators with competition from nonradiative decay pathways. This work builds on the original work of Murray and coworkers, and

  6. Composite box beam analysis - Theory and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauchau, O. A.; Coffenberry, B. S.; Rehfield, L. W.

    1987-01-01

    Beam theory is widely used as a first approximation in numerous structural applications. When applied to composite beams, the accuracy of beam theory becomes questionable because (1) the shearing and warping deformations become significant, as the shearing stiffness of composite laminates is often very low, and (2) several elastic couplings can occur that strongly influence the behavior of composite beams. The torsional behavior of thin-walled composite beams has important implications for aeronautical structures and is deeply modified by the above nonclassical effects. This paper presents two comprehensive analysis methodologies for composite beams and describes experimental results obtained from a thin-walled, rectangular cross-sectional beam. The theoretical predictions are found in good agreement with the observed twist and strain distributions. Out-of-plane torsional warping of the cross-section is found to be the key factor for an accurate modeling of the torsional behavior of such structures.

  7. Adaptive piezoelectric shell structures: theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzou, H. S.; Zhong, J. P.

    1993-07-01

    Active "smart" space and mechanical structures with adaptive dynamic characteristics have long been interested in a variety of high-performance systems, e.g. flexible space structures, flexible robots, "smart" machines etc. In this paper, an active adaptive structure made of piezoelectric materials is proposed and evaluated. Electromechanical equations of motion and generalised boundary conditions of a generic piezoelectric shell subjected to mechanical and electrical excitations are derived using Hamilton's principle and the linear piezoelectric theory. The structural adaptivity is achieved by a voltage feedback (open or closed loops) utilising the converse piezoelectric effect. Applications of the theory is demonstrated in a bimorph beam case and a cylindrical shell case. Frequency manipulation of the bimorph beam is studied theoretically and experimentally. Damping control of the cylindrical shell via in-plane membrane forces is also investigated.

  8. A Grounded Theory Study on Journeying through the Shield to Sacredness: "Ni'hokaa' Diyin Dine'e Idliini Dolzin"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    In doing a grounded theory study, the researcher does not identify a hypothesis, formulate research questions, or state a specific problem at the beginning of the research. Grounded theory research begins with data collection, minimizing preconceptions about outcomes to the greatest extent possible. I began my research with this attitude of not…

  9. A Grounded Theory for Identifying Students with Emotional Disturbance: Promising Practices for Assessment, Intervention, and Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Dori

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative grounded theory study examined how practicing professionals involved in the ED identification process reconstructed the category of "emotional disturbance" as it applied to students in an alternative educational setting. A grounded theory integrates six emergent themes and essentially reframes the existing ED criteria in contemporary…

  10. Stigma and treatment delay in first-episode psychosis: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Lauren; Carter, Tandrea; Leiner, Amy S.; Bergner, Erin; Thompson, Nancy J.; Compton, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Aim A longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is associated with greater morbidity in the early course of schizophrenia. This formative, hypothesis-generating study explored the effects of stigma, as perceived by family members, on DUP. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 African American family members directly involved in treatment initiation for a relative with first-episode psychosis. Data analysis relied on a grounded theory approach. A testable model informed by constructs of Link's modified labelling theory was developed. Results Four main themes were identified, including: (i) society's beliefs about mental illnesses; (ii) families' beliefs about mental illnesses; (iii) fear of the label of a mental illness; and (iv) a raised threshold for the initiation of treatment. A grounded theory model was developed as a schematic representation of the themes and subthemes uncovered in the family members' narratives. Conclusions The findings suggest that due to fear of the official label of a mental illness, certain coping mechanisms may be adopted by families, which may result in a raised threshold for treatment initiation, and ultimately treatment delay. If the relationships within the grounded theory model are confirmed by further qualitative and quantitative research, public educational programs could be developed with the aim of reducing this threshold, ultimately decreasing DUP. PMID:20199480

  11. Ground test experience with large composite structures for commercial transports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bohon, H. L.; Chapman, A. J., III; Leybold, H. A.

    1983-01-01

    The initial ground test of each component resulted in structural failure at less than ultimate design loads. While such failures represent major program delays, the investigation and analysis of each failure revealed significant lessons for effective utilization of composites in primary structure. Foremost among these are secondary loads that produce through-the-thickness forces which may lead to serious weaknesses in an otherwise sound structural design. The sources, magnitude, and effects of secondary loads need to be thoroughly understood and accounted for by the designers of composite primary aircraft structures.

  12. Description of the Large-Gap Magnetic Suspension System (LGMSS) ground based experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the Large Gap Magnetic Suspension System (LGMSS) ground-based experiment is provided. A description of the experiment, as originally defined, and the experiment objectives and potential applications of the technology resulting from the experiment are presented. Also, the results of two studies which were conducted to investigate the feasibility of implementing the experiment are presented and discussed. Finally, a description of the configuration which was selected for the experiment is described, and a summary of the paper is presented.

  13. When the lie is the truth: grounded theory analysis of an online support group for factitious disorder.

    PubMed

    Lawlor, Aideen; Kirakowski, Jurek

    2014-08-15

    Factitious disorder (FD) is poorly understood because of the elusiveness of sufferers. What is known is based on speculation from observational case studies and this is evident by the manifold diagnostic and treatment issues associated with FD. This study sought to fill the gap in the literature and overcome the elusiveness of FD sufferers by analysing their text communications in two online communities. One hundred twenty four posts by 57 members amounting to approximately 38,000 words were analysed using grounded theory. The analysis showed that contrary to current theories of FD, motivation is conscious and not unconscious, members did experience symptoms associated with the disorder, and they were also upset by their behaviour and wanted to recover but were deterred by fear. Furthermore, using the excessive appetitive model by Orford (2001) it is hypothesised that the characteristics of FD described by the members were congruent with those associated with addiction. PMID:24745468

  14. Search for the ground-state electronic configurations of correlated organometallic metallocenes from constraint density functional theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nawa, Kenji; Kitaoka, Yukie; Nakamura, Kohji; Imamura, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Toru; Ito, Tomonori; Weinert, M.

    2016-07-01

    The ground-state electronic configurations of the correlated organometallic metallocenes, M Cp2,M =V , Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni, are investigated using constraint density functional theory combined with nonempirical Ueff parameters determined from linear-response theory. The relative stability of the various d -orbital electronic configurations of these organometallic molecules is found to be sensitive to the amount of correlation. Using nonempirical values of Ueff, the calculated electronic configurations are in agreement with the experiments: 4A2 g ,3E2 g ,6A1 g ,1A1 g ,2E1 g , and 3A2 g for the VCp2,CrCp2,MnCp2,FeCp2,CoCp2 , and NiCp2, respectively.

  15. A Grounded Theory Study of Aircraft Maintenance Technician Decision-Making

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norcross, Robert

    Aircraft maintenance technician decision-making and actions have resulted in aircraft system errors causing aircraft incidents and accidents. Aircraft accident investigators and researchers examined the factors that influence aircraft maintenance technician errors and categorized the types of errors in an attempt to prevent similar occurrences. New aircraft technology introduced to improve aviation safety and efficiency incur failures that have no information contained in the aircraft maintenance manuals. According to the Federal Aviation Administration, aircraft maintenance technicians must use only approved aircraft maintenance documents to repair, modify, and service aircraft. This qualitative research used a grounded theory approach to explore the decision-making processes and actions taken by aircraft maintenance technicians when confronted with an aircraft problem not contained in the aircraft maintenance manuals. The target population for the research was Federal Aviation Administration licensed aircraft and power plant mechanics from across the United States. Nonprobability purposeful sampling was used to obtain aircraft maintenance technicians with the experience sought in the study problem. The sample population recruitment yielded 19 participants for eight focus group sessions to obtain opinions, perceptions, and experiences related to the study problem. All data collected was entered into the Atlas ti qualitative analysis software. The emergence of Aircraft Maintenance Technician decision-making themes regarding Aircraft Maintenance Manual content, Aircraft Maintenance Technician experience, and legal implications of not following Aircraft Maintenance Manuals surfaced. Conclusions from this study suggest Aircraft Maintenance Technician decision-making were influenced by experience, gaps in the Aircraft Maintenance Manuals, reliance on others, realizing the impact of decisions concerning aircraft airworthiness, management pressures, and legal concerns

  16. Facilitating classroom based interprofessional learning: a grounded theory study of university educators' perceptions of their role adequacy as facilitators.

    PubMed

    Derbyshire, Julie A; Machin, Alison I; Crozier, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    The provision of inter professional learning (IPL) within undergraduate programmes is now well established within many Higher Education Institutions (HEIs). IPL aims to better equip nurses and other health professionals with effective collaborative working skills and knowledge to improve the quality of patient care. Although there is still ambiguity in relation to the optimum timing and method for delivering IPL, effective facilitation is seen as essential. This paper reports on a grounded theory study of university educators' perceptions of the knowledge and skills needed for their role adequacy as IPL facilitators. Data was collected using semi structured interviews with nine participants who were theoretically sampled from a range of professional backgrounds, with varied experiences of education and involvement in facilitating IPL. Constant comparative analysis was used to generate four data categories: creating and sustaining an IPL group culture through transformational IPL leadership (core category), readiness for IPL facilitation, drawing on past interprofessional learning and working experiences and role modelling an interprofessional approach. The grounded theory generated from this study, although propositional, suggests that role adequacy for IPL facilitation is dependent on facilitator engagement in a process of 'transformational interprofessional learning leadership' to create and sustain a group culture.

  17. Pursuing meaning and purpose in life among Thai adolescents living with HIV: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Balthip, Quantar; Purnell, Marguerite J

    2014-01-01

    This grounded theory study aimed to understand how Thai adolescents living with HIV pursued meaning and purpose in life. Data were gathered from 11 adolescents in southern Thailand who were between ages 18 and 20 years, and who had lived with HIV for 2 or more years. Purposive and theoretical sampling techniques were used to recruit the participants. Data were collected through in-depth interviews, participant observations, and field notes. Strauss and Corbin's (1998) grounded theory method guided data analysis. The core category of "pursuing meaning and purpose in life among Thai adolescents living with HIV" emerged out of a recursive process of uncertainty, inferiority, self-realization, and growth that comprised three categories: (a) condition: realizing self-value, (b) strategy: being connected to prolonging life, and (c) consequence: achieving peace and calm. The findings enhance knowledge that would benefit nurses helping adolescents living with HIV find meaning and purpose in life.

  18. Simulations of Ground and Space-Based Oxygen Atom Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minton, T. K.; Cline, J. A.; Braunstein, M.

    2002-01-01

    Fast, pulsed atomic oxygen sources are a key tool in ground-based investigations of spacecraft contamination and surface erosion effects. These technically challenging ground-based studies provide a before and after picture of materials under low-earth-orbit (LEO) conditions. It would be of great interest to track in real time the pulsed flux from the source to the surface sample target and beyond in order to characterize the population of atoms and molecules that actually impact the surface and those that make it downstream to any coincident detectors. We have performed simulations in order to provide such detailed descriptions of these ground-based measurements and to provide an assessment of their correspondence to the actual LEO environment. Where possible we also make comparisons to measured fluxes and erosion yields. To perform the calculations we use a detailed description of a measurement beam and surface geometry based on the W, pulsed apparatus at Montana State University. In this system, a short pulse (on the order of 10 microseconds) of an O/O2 beam impacts a flat sample about 40 cm downstream and slightly displaced &om the beam s central axis. Past this target, at the end of the beam axis is a quadrupole mass spectrometer that measures the relative in situ flux of 0102 to give an overall normalized erosion yield. In our simulations we use the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method, and track individual atoms within the atomic oxygen pulse. DSMC techniques are typically used to model rarefied (few collision) gas-flows which occur at altitudes above approximately 110 kilometers. These techniques are well suited for the conditions here, and multi-collision effects that can only be treated by this or a similar technique are included. This simulation includes collisions with the surface and among gas atoms that have scattered from the surface. The simulation also includes descriptions of the velocity spread and spatial profiles of the O/O2 beam

  19. Millimeter Wave Rheometry: Theory and Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, Jaehun; McCloy, John S.; Crum, J. V.; Sundaram, S. K.

    2011-01-29

    A novel millimeter wave (MMW) rheometry is developed to determine the viscosity of fluid based on an unsteady film flow in an inclined plane. The method measures fringes due to MMW interference between the front and back surfaces of the fluid flowing across the field of view of a ceramic wave guide coupled to a MMW receiver. With knowledge of the dielectric constant, the interference fringe spacing is used to calculate the thickness of the fluid layer. This thickness is then transformed into the viscosity by means of a simple hydrodynamic theory. Our results show that the MMW rheometry can easily distinguish between the 30, 100, and 200 Pa•s silicone oils. The geometry of the method allows for potential industrial applications such as measuring viscosity of the flowing slag in slagging coal gasifiers. The MMW rheometry with simple modifications can be easily extended to measure important non-Newtonian fluid characteristics such as yield stress.

  20. Newton and Colour: The Complex Interplay of Theory and Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Roberto De Andrade; Silva, Cibelle Celestino

    2001-01-01

    Elucidates some aspects of Newton's theory of light and colors, specifically as presented in his first optical paper in 1672. Analyzes Newton's main experiments intended to show that light is a mixture of rays with different refrangibilities. (SAH)

  1. Introduction to Classical Density Functional Theory by a Computational Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeanmairet, Guillaume; Levy, Nicolas; Levesque, Maximilien; Borgis, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    We propose an in silico experiment to introduce the classical density functional theory (cDFT). Density functional theories, whether quantum or classical, rely on abstract concepts that are nonintuitive; however, they are at the heart of powerful tools and active fields of research in both physics and chemistry. They led to the 1998 Nobel Prize in…

  2. Experience, Theory, and Practical Wisdom in Teaching and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunenberg, Mieke; Korthagen, Fred

    2009-01-01

    In this contribution, we discuss what it means to be a professional teacher with practical wisdom, and how practical wisdom is related to theory and experience. These questions are especially relevant as nowadays, in many countries, teacher education becomes more school-based. Building on theories on the functioning of the human mind in general,…

  3. Theory Writing as Becoming: Past Experiences Thrice-Lived.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gale, Xin Liu

    This paper contends that if the teaching of theory is to be liberatory rather than alienating, the process of theorizing and theory writing needs to be demystifed. To do this, the paper first describes a personal experience that set the course of an educator's life--her learning of English (taught to her by her father) in China. The paper then…

  4. Diagrammatic perturbation theory applied to the ground state of the water molecule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, D. M.; Wilson, S.

    1977-01-01

    The diagrammatic many-body perturbation theory is applied to the ground state of the water molecule within the algebraic approximation. Using four different basis sets, the total energy, the equilibrium OH bond length, and the equilibrium HOH bond angle are examined. The latter is found to be a particularly sensitive test of the convergence of perturbation expansions. Certain third-order results, which incorporate all two-, three-, and four-body effects, show evidence of good convergence properties.

  5. The symbol-grounding problem in numerical cognition: A review of theory, evidence, and outstanding questions.

    PubMed

    Leibovich, Tali; Ansari, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    How do numerical symbols, such as number words, acquire semantic meaning? This question, also referred to as the "symbol-grounding problem," is a central problem in the field of numerical cognition. Present theories suggest that symbols acquire their meaning by being mapped onto an approximate system for the nonsymbolic representation of number (Approximate Number System or ANS). In the present literature review, we first asked to which extent current behavioural and neuroimaging data support this theory, and second, to which extent the ANS, upon which symbolic numbers are assumed to be grounded, is numerical in nature. We conclude that (a) current evidence that has examined the association between the ANS and number symbols does not support the notion that number symbols are grounded in the ANS and (b) given the strong correlation between numerosity and continuous variables in nonsymbolic number processing tasks, it is next to impossible to measure the pure association between symbolic and nonsymbolic numerosity. Instead, it is clear that significant cognitive control resources are required to disambiguate numerical from continuous variables during nonsymbolic number processing. Thus, if there exists any mapping between the ANS and symbolic number, then this process of association must be mediated by cognitive control. Taken together, we suggest that studying the role of both cognitive control and continuous variables in numerosity comparison tasks will provide a more complete picture of the symbol-grounding problem.

  6. The symbol-grounding problem in numerical cognition: A review of theory, evidence, and outstanding questions.

    PubMed

    Leibovich, Tali; Ansari, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    How do numerical symbols, such as number words, acquire semantic meaning? This question, also referred to as the "symbol-grounding problem," is a central problem in the field of numerical cognition. Present theories suggest that symbols acquire their meaning by being mapped onto an approximate system for the nonsymbolic representation of number (Approximate Number System or ANS). In the present literature review, we first asked to which extent current behavioural and neuroimaging data support this theory, and second, to which extent the ANS, upon which symbolic numbers are assumed to be grounded, is numerical in nature. We conclude that (a) current evidence that has examined the association between the ANS and number symbols does not support the notion that number symbols are grounded in the ANS and (b) given the strong correlation between numerosity and continuous variables in nonsymbolic number processing tasks, it is next to impossible to measure the pure association between symbolic and nonsymbolic numerosity. Instead, it is clear that significant cognitive control resources are required to disambiguate numerical from continuous variables during nonsymbolic number processing. Thus, if there exists any mapping between the ANS and symbolic number, then this process of association must be mediated by cognitive control. Taken together, we suggest that studying the role of both cognitive control and continuous variables in numerosity comparison tasks will provide a more complete picture of the symbol-grounding problem. PMID:26913782

  7. Acoustic noise from volcanoes - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woulff, G.; Mcgetchin, T. R.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses some theoretical aspects of acoustic investigation of volcanoes and describes a field experiment involving the recording, analysis, and interpretation of acoustic radiation from energetic fumaroles at Volcan Acatenango, Guatemala, during mid-January 1973. Particular attention is given to deriving information about the flow velocity of the erupting medium from acoustics as a means to study eruption dynamics. Theoretical considerations suggest that acoustic power radiated during gaseous volcanic eruptions may be related to gas exit velocity according to appropriate power laws. Eruption acoustics proves useful as a means of quantitative monitoring of volcanic activity.

  8. Microwave electron gun theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, J.

    1992-01-01

    A general microwave electron gun (rf gun) theory and some new ideas about further reducing the emittance of electron beams are reviewed and introduced briefly. Experimental results are presented from a thermionic cathode rf gun which has been developed for Beijing Free-Electron Laser Project (BFELP) at Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP), Academia Sinica as the injector of 30 MeV constant gradient linac. LaB6 is used as the thermionic emitter with 100 crystal surface and the temperature around 1620 °C. Back bombardment heating effect and another effect connected with the cathode surface temperature was observed. An electron beam with macropulse length 4 μs, repetition rate 12.5 Hz, greater than 500 mA beam current during macropulse and around 1 MeV maximum energy has been obtained. In the last section of this article, two useful formulas used to determine electric field distribution near the cathode surface and coupling coefficient β of a rf gun are introduced.

  9. Electrochemical vapor deposition - Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiwiet, N. J.; Schoonman, J.

    The theory for the growth of ionically conducting Zr(Y)O(2-x) and electronically conducting LaCrO3 is discussed. Experimental parameters important to EVD (electrochemical vapor deposition) growth films of stabilized zirconia are presented. It is shown that in the modeling of the EVD growth of Zr(Y)O(2-x) it is important to consider the changes in the mole fractions of electrons and holes with Po2. At high temperatures only electrons need to be considered in EVD growth. At low temperatures the presence of holes at the metal/chloride interface may play an important role in the observed faceted morphology of EVD-grown Zr(Y)O(2-x). For the interconnect LaCrO3, ionic diffusion is rate limiting for EVD film growth and very high temperatures (1600 K) are necessary for moderate growth rates of 3 micron/h. Information on oxygen diffusion in doped LaCro3 is necessary for a more thorough understanding of the EVD growth.

  10. Making sense of medically unexplained symptoms in general practice: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Stone, Louise

    2013-06-01

    Background General practitioners often encounter patients with medically unexplained symptoms. These patients share many common features, but there is little agreement about the best diagnostic framework for describing them. Aims This study aimed to explore how GPs make sense of medically unexplained symptoms. Design Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 GPs. Each participant was asked to describe a patient with medically unexplained symptoms and discuss their assessment and management. Setting The study was conducted among GPs from teaching practices across Australia. Methods Participants were selected by purposive sampling and all interviews were transcribed. Iterative analysis was undertaken using constructivist grounded theory methodology. Results GPs used a variety of frameworks to understand and manage patients with medically unexplained symptoms. They used different frameworks to reason, to help patients make sense of their suffering, and to communicate with other health professionals. GPs tried to avoid using stigmatising labels such as 'borderline personality disorder', which were seen to apply a 'layer of dismissal' to patients. They worried about missing serious physical disease, but managed the risk by deliberately attending to physical cues during some consultations, and focusing on coping with medically unexplained symptoms in others. They also used referrals to exclude serious disease, but were wary of triggering a harmful cycle of uncoordinated care. Conclusion GPs were aware of the ethical relevance of psychiatric diagnoses, and attempted to protect their patients from stigma. They crafted helpful explanatory narratives for patients that shaped their experience of suffering. Disease surveillance remained an important role for GPs who were managing medically unexplained symptoms.

  11. How family carers engage with technical health procedures in the home: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    McDonald, Janet; McKinlay, Eileen; Keeling, Sally; Levack, William

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the experiences of family carers who manage technical health procedures at home and describe their learning process. Design A qualitative study using grounded theory. Participants New Zealand family carers (21 women, 5 men) who managed technical health procedures such as enteral feeding, peritoneal dialysis, tracheostomy care, a central venous line or urinary catheter. In addition, 15 health professionals involved in teaching carers were interviewed. Methods Semistructured interviews were coded soon after completion and preliminary analysis influenced subsequent interviews. Additional data were compared with existing material and as analysis proceeded, initial codes were grouped into higher order concepts until a core concept was described. Interviewing continued until no new ideas emerged and concepts were well defined. Results The response of carers to the role of managing technical health procedures in the home is presented in terms of five dispositions: (1) Embracing care, (2) Resisting, (3) Reluctant acceptance, (4) Relinquishing and (5) Being overwhelmed. These dispositions were not static and carers commonly changed between them. Embracing care included cognitive understanding of the purpose and benefits of a procedure; accepting a ‘technical’ solution; practical management; and an emotional response. Accepting embrace is primarily motivated by perceived benefits for the recipient. It may also be driven by a lack of alternatives. Resisting or reluctant acceptance results from a lack of understanding about the procedure or willingness to manage it. Carers need adequate support to avoid becoming overwhelmed, and there are times when it is appropriate to encourage them to relinquish care for the sake of their own needs. Conclusions The concept of embracing care encourages health professionals to extend their attention beyond simply the practical aspects of technical procedures to assessing and addressing carers’ emotional and

  12. Rubber friction: comparison of theory with experiment.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, B; Persson, B N J; Dieluweit, S; Tada, T

    2011-12-01

    We have measured the friction force acting on a rubber block slid on a concrete surface. We used both unfilled and filled (with carbon black) styrene butadiene (SB) rubber and have varied the temperature from -10 °C to 100 °C and the sliding velocity from 1 μm/s to 1000 μm/s. We find that the experimental data at different temperatures can be shifted into a smooth master-curve, using the temperature-frequency shifting factors obtained from measurements of the bulk viscoelastic modulus. The experimental data has been analyzed using a theory which takes into account the contributions to the friction from both the substrate asperity-induced viscoelastic deformations of the rubber, and from shearing the area of real contact. For filled SB rubber the frictional shear stress σ(f) in the area of real contact results mainly from the energy dissipation at the opening crack on the exit side of the rubber-asperity contact regions. For unfilled rubber we instead attribute σ(f) to shearing of a thin rubber smear film, which is deposited on the concrete surface during run in. We observe very different rubber wear processes for filled and unfilled SB rubber, which is consistent with the different frictional processes. Thus, the wear of filled SB rubber results in micrometer-sized rubber particles which accumulate as dry dust, which is easily removed by blowing air on the concrete surface. This wear process seams to occur at a steady rate. For unfilled rubber a smear film forms on the concrete surface, which cannot be removed even using a high-pressure air stream. In this case the wear rate appears to slow down after some run in time period.

  13. Guided ionization waves: Theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, X.; Naidis, G. V.; Laroussi, M.; Ostrikov, K.

    2014-07-01

    This review focuses on one of the fundamental phenomena that occur upon application of sufficiently strong electric fields to gases, namely the formation and propagation of ionization waves-streamers. The dynamics of streamers is controlled by strongly nonlinear coupling, in localized streamer tip regions, between enhanced (due to charge separation) electric field and ionization and transport of charged species in the enhanced field. Streamers appear in nature (as initial stages of sparks and lightning, as huge structures-sprites above thunderclouds), and are also found in numerous technological applications of electrical discharges. Here we discuss the fundamental physics of the guided streamer-like structures-plasma bullets which are produced in cold atmospheric-pressure plasma jets. Plasma bullets are guided ionization waves moving in a thin column of a jet of plasma forming gases (e.g., He or Ar) expanding into ambient air. In contrast to streamers in a free (unbounded) space that propagate in a stochastic manner and often branch, guided ionization waves are repetitive and highly-reproducible and propagate along the same path-the jet axis. This property of guided streamers, in comparison with streamers in a free space, enables many advanced time-resolved experimental studies of ionization waves with nanosecond precision. In particular, experimental studies on manipulation of streamers by external electric fields and streamer interactions are critically examined. This review also introduces the basic theories and recent advances on the experimental and computational studies of guided streamers, in particular related to the propagation dynamics of ionization waves and the various parameters of relevance to plasma streamers. This knowledge is very useful to optimize the efficacy of applications of plasma streamer discharges in various fields ranging from health care and medicine to materials science and nanotechnology.

  14. A qualitative study of middle school students' perceptions of factors facilitating the learning of science: Grounded theory and existing theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spector, Barbara S.; Gibson, Charles W.

    The purpose of this study was to explore middle school students' perceptions of what factors facilitated their learning of science. Florida's Educational Reform Act of 1983 funded programs providing the state's precollege students with summer learning opportunities in science. mathematics, and computers. The programs were intended to encourage the development of creative approaches to the teaching of these disciplines. Under this program, between 50 and 60 high-achieving middle school students were in residence on the University of South Florida campus for 12 consecutive days of study in the World of Water (WOW) program. There were two sessions per summer involving a total of 572 participants. Eighi specially trained teachers were in residence with the students. Between 50 and 70 experts from the university, government. business, and industry interacted with the students each year in an innovative science/technology/society (STS) program. An assignment toward the close of the program asked students to reflect on their experiences in residence at the university and write an essay comparing learning in the WOW program to learning in their schools. Those essays were the base for this study. This was a qualitative study using a discursive approach to emergent design to generate grounded theory. Document review, participant observation, and open-ended interviews were used to gather and triangulate data in five phases. Some of the factors that middle school students perceived as helpful to learning science were (a) experiencing the situations about which they were learning; (b) having live presentations by professional experts; (c) doing hands-on activities: (d) being active learners; (e) using inductive reasoning to generate new knowledge; (f) exploring transdisciplinary approaches to problem solving; (g) having adult mentors; (h) interacting with peers and adults; (i) establishing networks; (j) having close personal friends who shared their interest in learning; (k

  15. Decomposition of acetaldehyde : experiment and detailed theory.

    SciTech Connect

    Gupte, K. S.; Kiefer, J. H.; Tranter, R. S.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B.; Chemistry; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2007-01-01

    The classic pyrolytic decomposition of acetaldehyde has been examined to the higher temperatures used in combustion and also lower pressures with 85 laser-schlieren, shock-tube measurements of density gradient covering 40-500 torr and 1550-2400 K. This work is supplemented and modeled with a CASPT2 based variable reaction coordinate RRKM prediction of the dissociation kinetics. These RRKM predictions are then incorporated in good two-dimensional master equation fits of the strong falloff seen in the laser-schlieren experiments, and also that shown in some previous shock-tube results using UV absorption of the acetaldehyde as diagnostic. The laser-schlieren data provide not only unambiguous dissociation rates but also solid indications of the secondary chemistry. Modeling of the full density gradient profiles offers good estimates of rates for H-atom abstraction from both the acetaldehyde and the HCO radical, again at high temperatures.

  16. Ground-based dosimetry support for experiment AR002

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassou, R.; Benton, E. V.

    1976-01-01

    Actinomyces levoris colonies were exposed to alpha particles at the 184-inch cyclotron, and Streptomyces levoris colonies were exposed to Ne-20 ions. A description is given of the experimental conditions for each experiment along with tables listing the doses delivered to the colonies. The doses for the Actinomyces levoris exposures came from calibrations made by the cyclotron operators, while the doses for the Streptomyces levoris exposures came in part from cave calibrations and also in part from calculations.

  17. Theory and experiment in biomedical science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Roland

    2012-10-01

    A physicist might regard a person as a collection of electrons and quarks, and a biologist might regard her as an assemblage of biochemical molecules. But according to some speakers at a recent Welch conference [1] biology is a branch of physics. Then biomedical research is a branch of applied physics. Even if one adopts a more modest perspective, it is still true that physics can contribute strongly to biomedical research. An example on the experimental side is the recent studies of G protein-coupled receptors (targeted by more than 50 percent of therapeutic drugs) using synchrotron radiation and nuclear magnetic resonance. On the theory side, one might classify models as microscopic (e.g., simulations of molecules, ions, or electrons), mesoscopic (e.g., simulations of pathways within a cell), or macroscopic (e.g., calculations of processes involving the whole body). We have recently introduced a new macroscopic method for estimating the biochemical response to pharmaceuticals, surgeries, or other medical interventions, and applied it in a simple model of the response to bariatric surgeries [2]. An amazing effect is that the most widely used bariatric surgery (Roux-en-Y-gastric bypass) usually leads to remission of type 2 diabetes in days, long before there is any significant weight loss (with further beneficial effects in the subsequent months and years). Our results confirm that this effect can be largely explained by the enhanced post-meal excretion of glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), an incretin that increases insulin secretion from the pancreas, but also suggest that other mechanisms are likely to be involved, possibly including an additional insulin-independent pathway for glucose transport into cells. [4pt] [1] Physical Biology, from Atoms to Medicine, edited by Ahmed H. Zewail (Imperial College Press, London, 2008).[0pt] [2] Roland E. Allen, Tyler D. Hughes, Jia Lerd Ng, Roberto D. Ortiz, Michel Abou Ghantous, Othmane Bouhali, Abdelilah Arredouani

  18. Can Multiconfigurational Self-Consistent Field Theory and Density Functional Theory Correctly Predict the Ground State of Metal-Metal-Bonded Complexes?

    PubMed

    Carlson, Rebecca K; Odoh, Samuel O; Tereniak, Stephen J; Lu, Connie C; Gagliardi, Laura

    2015-09-01

    The electronic structure of a diiron (FeFe) complex with strong metal-metal interaction and those of analogous complexes (CoCo, CoMn, CoFe, and FeMn) with much weaker metal-metal bonding are investigated with wave function-based methods and density functional theory. The delocalization and bonding between the metal centers in the diiron complex is only fully captured after inclusion of the complete set of 3d and 4d orbitals in the active space, a situation best suited for restricted active space (RAS) approaches. Truncation of the included set of 4d orbitals results in inappropriate localization of some 3d orbitals, incorrect description of the ground spin state as well as wrong spin state energetics, as compared to experiment. Using density functional theory, some local functionals are able to predict the correct ground spin states, and describe the chemical bonding and structural properties of all the metal-metal complexes considered in this work. In contrast, the introduction of some exact exchange results in increased localization of 3d orbitals and wrong spin state energetics, a situation that is particularly troublesome for the diiron complex.

  19. Spatiality & Experience in the Curriculum: A Remapping of Dewey's Theory of Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Ricky Lee

    This paper proposes a reconsideration of John Dewey's theory of experience with particular emphasis on his notion of situational interactions. The paper asks what problems are created by a theory of experience that sees situations as a construction of only two worlds, internal and external, and carefully considers these issues. It first states…

  20. Nanofluid Drop Evaporation: Experiment, Theory, and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerken, William James

    Nanofluids, stable colloidal suspensions of nanoparticles in a base fluid, have potential applications in the heat transfer, combustion and propulsion, manufacturing, and medical fields. Experiments were conducted to determine the evaporation rate of room temperature, millimeter-sized pendant drops of ethanol laden with varying amounts (0-3% by weight) of 40-60 nm aluminum nanoparticles (nAl). Time-resolved high-resolution drop images were collected for the determination of early-time evaporation rate (D2/D 02 > 0.75), shown to exhibit D-square law behavior, and surface tension. Results show an asymptotic decrease in pendant drop evaporation rate with increasing nAl loading. The evaporation rate decreases by approximately 15% at around 1% to 3% nAl loading relative to the evaporation rate of pure ethanol. Surface tension was observed to be unaffected by nAl loading up to 3% by weight. A model was developed to describe the evaporation of the nanofluid pendant drops based on D-square law analysis for the gas domain and a description of the reduction in liquid fraction available for evaporation due to nanoparticle agglomerate packing near the evaporating drop surface. Model predictions are in relatively good agreement with experiment, within a few percent of measured nanofluid pendant drop evaporation rate. The evaporation of pinned nanofluid sessile drops was also considered via modeling. It was found that the same mechanism for nanofluid evaporation rate reduction used to explain pendant drops could be used for sessile drops. That mechanism is a reduction in evaporation rate due to a reduction in available ethanol for evaporation at the drop surface caused by the packing of nanoparticle agglomerates near the drop surface. Comparisons of the present modeling predictions with sessile drop evaporation rate measurements reported for nAl/ethanol nanofluids by Sefiane and Bennacer [11] are in fairly good agreement. Portions of this abstract previously appeared as: W. J

  1. The timing of the literature review in grounded theory research: an open mind versus an empty head.

    PubMed

    Giles, Tracey; King, Lindy; de Lacey, Sheryl

    2013-01-01

    The timing of the literature review in grounded theory has been debated for decades, with previous recommendations to delay the review now under question. Mounting evidence suggests that a preliminary review can enhance theoretical sensitivity and rigor and may lead to innovative insights. However, researchers must acknowledge the influence of prior knowledge during data analysis and theory development to avoid bias. This article critically examines the ongoing debate and recommends that we should not seek to avoid preconceptions but ensure that they are well grounded in evidence and always subject to further investigation, revision, and refutation. If used reflexively, a preliminary literature review may well enhance grounded theory research.

  2. Decomposition of nitroimidazole ions: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Feketeová, Linda; Postler, Johannes; Zavras, Athanasios; Scheier, Paul; Denifl, Stephan; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2015-05-21

    Nitroimidazoles are important compounds with chemotherapeutic applications as antibacterial drugs or as radiosensitizers in radiotherapy. Despite their use in biological applications, little is known about the fundamental properties of these compounds. Understanding the ionization reactions of these compounds is crucial in evaluating the radiosensitization potential and in developing new and more effective drugs. Thus, the present study investigates the decomposition of negative and positive ions of 2-nitroimidazole and 4(5)-nitroimidazole using low- and high-energy Collision-Induced Dissociation (CID) and Electron-Induced Dissociation (EID) by two different mass spectrometry techniques and is supported by quantum chemistry calculations. EID of [M+H](+) leads to more extensive fragmentation than CID and involves many radical cleavages including loss of H˙ leading to the formation of the radical cation, M˙(+). The stability (metastable decay) and the fragmentation (high-energy CID) of the radical cation M˙(+) have been probed in a crossed-beam experiment involving primary electron ionization of the neutral nitroimidazole. Thus, fragments in the EID spectra of [M+H](+) that come from further dissociation of radical cation M˙(+) have been highlighted. The loss of NO˙ radical from M˙(+) is associated with a high Kinetic Energy Release (KER) of 0.98 eV. EID of [M-H](-) also leads to additional fragments compared to CID, however, with much lower cross section. Only EID of [M+H](+) leads to a slight difference in the decomposition of 2-nitroimidazole and 4(5)-nitroimidazole.

  3. Microwave Plasma Window Theory and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKelvey, Andrew; Zheng, Peng; Franzi, Matthew; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, Ronald; Plasma, Pulsed Power,; Microwave Laboratory Team

    2011-10-01

    The microwave plasma window is an experiment designed to promote RF breakdown in a controlled vacuum-gas environment using a DC bias. Experimental data has shown that this DC bias will significantly reduce the RF power required to yield breakdown, a feature also shown in recent simulation. The cross-polarized conducting array is biased at (100's V) DC on the surface of a Lucite vacuum window. Microwave power is supplied to the window's surface by a single 1-kW magnetron operating at 2.45 GHz CW. The goal of this project is to establish controllable characteristics relating vacuum pressure, DC bias, RF power required for surface breakdown, as well as RF transmission after the formation of plasma. Experimental data will be compared with multipactor susceptibility curves generated using a Monte Carlo simulation which incorporates an applied DC bias and finite pressures of air and argon. Research supported by an AFOSR grant on the Basic Physics of Distributed Plasma Discharge, AFRL, L-3 Communications, and Northrop Grumman.

  4. Twisted Ribbons: Theory, Experiment and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chopin, Julien; Davidovitch, Benjamin; Silva, Flavio A.; Toledo Filho, Romildo D.; Kudrolli, Arshad

    2014-03-01

    We investigate, experimentally and theoretically, the buckling and wrinkling instabilities of a pre-stretched ribbon upon twisting and propose strategies for the fabrication of structured yarns. Our experiment consists in a thin elastic sheet in the form of a ribbon which is initially stretched by a fixed load and then subjected to a twist by rotating the ends through a prescribed angle. We show that a wide variety of shapes and instabilities can be obtained by simply varying the applied twist and tension. The observed structures which include helicoids with and without longitudinal and transverse wrinkles, and spontaneous creases, can be organized in a phase diagram with the tension and twist angle as control parameters [J. Chopin and A. Kudrolli, PRL (2013)]. Using a far-from-threshold analysis and a slender body approximation, we provide a comprehensive understanding of the longitudinal and transverse instabilities and show that several regimes emerge depending on subtle combinations of loading and geometrical parameters. Further, we show that the wrinkling instabilities can be manipulated to fabricate structured yarns which may be used to encapsulate amorphous materials or serve as efficient reinforcements for cement-based composites. COPPETEC / CNPq - Science Without Border Program

  5. Decomposition of nitroimidazole ions: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Feketeová, Linda; Postler, Johannes; Zavras, Athanasios; Scheier, Paul; Denifl, Stephan; O'Hair, Richard A J

    2015-05-21

    Nitroimidazoles are important compounds with chemotherapeutic applications as antibacterial drugs or as radiosensitizers in radiotherapy. Despite their use in biological applications, little is known about the fundamental properties of these compounds. Understanding the ionization reactions of these compounds is crucial in evaluating the radiosensitization potential and in developing new and more effective drugs. Thus, the present study investigates the decomposition of negative and positive ions of 2-nitroimidazole and 4(5)-nitroimidazole using low- and high-energy Collision-Induced Dissociation (CID) and Electron-Induced Dissociation (EID) by two different mass spectrometry techniques and is supported by quantum chemistry calculations. EID of [M+H](+) leads to more extensive fragmentation than CID and involves many radical cleavages including loss of H˙ leading to the formation of the radical cation, M˙(+). The stability (metastable decay) and the fragmentation (high-energy CID) of the radical cation M˙(+) have been probed in a crossed-beam experiment involving primary electron ionization of the neutral nitroimidazole. Thus, fragments in the EID spectra of [M+H](+) that come from further dissociation of radical cation M˙(+) have been highlighted. The loss of NO˙ radical from M˙(+) is associated with a high Kinetic Energy Release (KER) of 0.98 eV. EID of [M-H](-) also leads to additional fragments compared to CID, however, with much lower cross section. Only EID of [M+H](+) leads to a slight difference in the decomposition of 2-nitroimidazole and 4(5)-nitroimidazole. PMID:25899156

  6. Results of NASA/FAA ground and flight simulation experiments concerning helicopter IFR airworthiness criteria

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebacqz, J. V.; Chen, R. T. N.; Gerdes, R. M.; Weber, J. M.; Forrest, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    A sequence of ground and flight simulation experiments was conducted to investigate helicopter instrument-flight-rules airworthiness criteria. The first six of these experiments and major results are summarized. Five of the experiments were conducted on large-amplitude motion base simulators. The NASA-Army V/STOLAND UH-1H variable-stability helicopter was used in the flight experiment. Artificial stability and control augmentation, longitudinal and lateral control, and in pitch and roll attitude augmentation were investigated.

  7. Fracture Intersection Waves: Theory and Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abell, B.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.

    2013-12-01

    intersection waves depends on the relative stiffness between the two orthogonal fractures. Laboratory experiments were performed on an intersection between four aluminum blocks (0.29 m x 0.76 m x 0.76 m) as a function of stress. Piezoelectric contact transducers (1MHz) were used to propagate and measure intersection waves propagated along the intersection between the aluminum samples. Compressional and shear wave data were collected for samples subjected to bi-axial loading conditions used to close both the horizontal and vertical fracture planes individually. The measured waveforms verified that the velocity of the intersection wave did indeed range from the wedge velocity, at low applied loads, to the bulk velocity, when both fractures were under high load; indicating an agreement with the theoretical formulation for intersection waves. Intersection waves are a potential tool for characterizing the mechanical and hydraulic properties of fracture intersections because the velocity of these waves depends on the specific stiffness of the intersection. Acknowledgments: The authors wish to acknowledge support of this work by the Geosciences Research Program, Office of Basic Energy Sciences US Department of Energy (DE-FG02-09ER16022) and by the Geo-mathematical Imaging Group at Purdue University.

  8. GroundBIRD: an experiment for CMB polarization measurements at a large angular scale from the ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajima, Osamu; Choi, Jhoon; Hazumi, Masashi; Ishitsuka, Hikaru; Kawai, Masanori; Yoshida, Mitsuhiro

    2012-09-01

    Odd-parity patterns in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization, B-modes, could provide important cosmological information. Detection of the primordial B-mode power at a large angular scale would be a smoking gun signature of the inflationary universe. In particular, detecting a reionization bump (at a multipole of <= 10) should be a clear evidence of it. GroundBIRD is designed to detect the B-mode signal at this large angular scale from the ground. We will use superconducting detector arrays with small telescope that will also be cooled down to 4K. Therefore, the basic design can be extended to a satellite experiment. GroundBIRD employs a high-speed (20 rpm) rotation scan instead of the usual left-right azimuthal scan; this allows us to maintain a high-speed scan without any deceleration, resulting in a significant expansion of the scan range to 60° without any effect of the detector 1/f noise. Our target is measuring the CMB polarization power in a multipole (l) range of 6 <= l <= 300. We plan to start commissioning the instruments in Japan in early 2014; they will then be moved to the Atacama Desert in Chile for scientific observations.

  9. A grounded theory: seeking relief from flatus as relevant client-nurse action and interaction.

    PubMed

    Annells, Merilyn

    2007-01-01

    Flatus problems are not uncommon among gastroenterological clients and those in other care settings. Yet what clients and nurses do productively about those problems in regard to their actions and interactions and why they do so has not previously been the focus of research. Holistic health management requires trustworthy qualitative evidence to guide best practice in this regard. This study systematically developed a substantive grounded theory that details and explains the trajectory of the basic social process: seeking relief from being discommoded (inconvenienced, troubled) by flatus in the situational context of client-nurse interactions. In the theory, there is also a focus on the context of nursing care situations, possible constraints, and likely outcomes. Grounded theory method was applied. Data were collected through semistructured individual interviews, nonparticipant observation, and document analysis regarding incidents and situations involving 38 participants-clients and registered nurses. The results show that clients, when trying to do something about the situation, can be severely discommoded by flatus problems and are hampered by embarrassment and the social taboo about admitting that one is bothered by flatus. The individual may or may not disclose the problem to a nurse, and nurses may or may not be attuned to these problems. There are ways for nurses to be helpful in these situations and possible remedies are identified in this article.

  10. BigBOSS: The Ground-Based Stage IV BAO Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schlegel, David; Bebek, Chris; Heetderks, Henry; Ho, Shirley; Lampton, Michael; Levi, Michael; Mostek, Nick; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Perlmutter, Saul; Roe, Natalie; Sholl, Michael; Smoot, George; White, Martin; Dey, Arjun; Abraham, Tony; Jannuzi, Buell; Joyce, Dick; Liang, Ming; Merrill, Mike; Olsen, Knut; Salim, Samir

    2009-04-01

    The BigBOSS experiment is a proposed DOE-NSF Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with an all-sky galaxy redshift survey. The project is designed to unlock the mystery of dark energy using existing ground-based facilities operated by NOAO. A new 4000-fiber R=5000 spectrograph covering a 3-degree diameter field will measure BAO and redshift space distortions in the distribution of galaxies and hydrogen gas spanning redshifts from 0.2< z< 3.5. The Dark Energy Task Force figure of merit (DETF FoM) for this experiment is expected to be equal to that of a JDEM mission for BAO with the lower risk and cost typical of a ground-based experiment.

  11. A theory of electron cyclotron waves generated along auroral field lines observed by ground facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, C. S.; Yoon, Peter H.; Freund, H. P.

    1989-01-01

    A generation mechanism for radio waves in the frequency range 150 - 700 kHz observed by ground facilities is suggested in terms of an electromagnetic electron cyclotron instability driven by auroral electrons. The excited waves can propagate downward along the ambient magnetic field lines and are thus observable with ground facilities. The trapped auroral electrons are supposed to play an important role in the generation process, because they give rise to a thermal anisotropy which consequently leads to the instability. The present work is a natural extension of the theory proposed earlier by Wu et al. (1983) which was discussed in a different context but may be used to explain the observed waves originated at low altitudes. This paper presents a possible wave generation mechanism valid in the entire auroral field-line region of interest.

  12. Nursing personnel's views on oral health from a health promotion perspective: a grounded theory analysis.

    PubMed

    Paulsson, Gun; Söderfeldt, Björn; Nederfors, Tommy; Fridlund, Bengt

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a model for how nursing personnel view oral health in general and the oral health of the care receivers in particular, applying a health promotion perspective and using grounded theory analysis. Data were collected through interviews with 17 nursing personnel, selected by strategic sampling. Analysis of the transcribed interviews showed that there were four strategies, related to staff education, hospital resources, and leadership motivation. The strategies were grounded in data and emerged from the interaction between the two main categories: 'the valuation of the importance of oral health' and 'the behavior towards oral health maintenance'. They were characterized as the routine, theoretical, practical, and flexible strategies, with the latter considered ideal. As increased knowledge is one important part in enhancing the nursing personnel's ability to perform oral hygiene procedures, there is a need for education among nursing personnel, primarily among those using a routine strategy. PMID:11902612

  13. Sifting, sorting and saturating data in a grounded theory study of information use by practice nurses: a worked example.

    PubMed

    Hoare, Karen J; Mills, Jane; Francis, Karen

    2012-12-01

    The terminology used to analyse data in a grounded theory study can be confusing. Different grounded theorists use a variety of terms which all have similar meanings. In the following study, we use terms adopted by Charmaz including: initial, focused and axial coding. Initial codes are used to analyse data with an emphasis on identifying gerunds, a verb acting as a noun. If initial codes are relevant to the developing theory, they are grouped with similar codes into categories. Categories become saturated when there are no new codes identified in the data. Axial codes are used to link categories together into a grounded theory process. Memo writing accompanies this data sifting and sorting. The following article explains how one initial code became a category providing a worked example of the grounded theory method of constant comparative analysis. The interplay between coding and categorization is facilitated by the constant comparative method.

  14. Quantum theory as the most robust description of reproducible experiments

    SciTech Connect

    De Raedt, Hans; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Michielsen, Kristel

    2014-08-15

    It is shown that the basic equations of quantum theory can be obtained from a straightforward application of logical inference to experiments for which there is uncertainty about individual events and for which the frequencies of the observed events are robust with respect to small changes in the conditions under which the experiments are carried out. - Highlights: • It is shown that logical inference, that is, inductive reasoning, provides a rational explanation for the success of quantum theory. • The Schrödinger equation is obtained through logical inference applied to robust experiments. • The singlet and triplet states follow from logical inference applied to the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen-Bohm experiment. • Robustness also leads to the quantum theoretical description of the Stern-Gerlach experiment.

  15. Virtual patient design: exploring what works and why. A grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Bateman, James; Allen, Maggie; Samani, Dipti; Kidd, Jane; Davies, David

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Virtual patients (VPs) are online representations of clinical cases used in medical education. Widely adopted, they are well placed to teach clinical reasoning skills. International technology standards mean VPs can be created, shared and repurposed between institutions. A systematic review has highlighted the lack of evidence to support which of the numerous VP designs may be effective, and why. We set out to research the influence of VP design on medical undergraduates. Methods This is a grounded theory study into the influence of VP design on undergraduate medical students. Following a review of the literature and publicly available VP cases, we identified important design properties. We integrated them into two substantial VPs produced for this research. Using purposeful iterative sampling, 46 medical undergraduates were recruited to participate in six focus groups. Participants completed both VPs, an evaluation and a 1-hour focus group discussion. These were digitally recorded, transcribed and analysed using grounded theory, supported by computer-assisted analysis. Following open, axial and selective coding, we produced a theoretical model describing how students learn from VPs. Results We identified a central core phenomenon designated ‘learning from the VP’. This had four categories: VP Construction; External Preconditions; Student–VP Interaction, and Consequences. From these, we constructed a three-layer model describing the interactions of students with VPs. The inner layer consists of the student's cognitive and behavioural preconditions prior to sitting a case. The middle layer considers the VP as an ‘encoded object’, an e-learning artefact and as a ‘constructed activity’, with associated pedagogic and organisational elements. The outer layer describes cognitive and behavioural change. Conclusions This is the first grounded theory study to explore VP design. This original research has produced a model which enhances understanding

  16. High voltage surface-charged environment test results from space flight and ground simulation experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grier, N. T.

    1979-01-01

    Surface-charged particle interactions were investigated for a small 100 sq cm conventionally constructed solar cell panel in ground facilities and in a flight experiment. The flight data substantiated preflight ground test results showing that at high positive biases the cover glass over each solar cell enhances the coupling current and that, at high negative biases, arcs create large transients in the coupling current.

  17. Engineering theory of slide processes in the design of earth dams on a soft ground foundation

    SciTech Connect

    Krasil'nikov, N.A.

    1987-11-01

    This paper discusses the slope stability and landslide propensity of several hydroelectric plant earth dams throughout the Soviet Union from the standpoint of slide theory and compares the research of several Soviet institutions into this problem with existing standards and recommendations on dam stability and reliability. The comparisons are made for earth dams having a soft ground foundation under static loading conditions. Applicable properties are discussed for a wide range of soils and rocks including clays, loams, sands, alluvials, and soft and hard gravels. Seismic effects are not discussed.

  18. Phenomenography and grounded theory as research methods in computing education research field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinnunen, Päivi; Simon, Beth

    2012-06-01

    This paper discusses two qualitative research methods, phenomenography and grounded theory. We introduce both methods' data collection and analysis processes and the type or results you may get at the end by using examples from computing education research. We highlight some of the similarities and differences between the aim, data collection and analysis phases and the type of resulting outcomes of these methods. We also discuss the challenges and threats the both methods may pose to the researcher. We conclude that while aimed at tackling different types of research questions, both of these methods provide computing education researchers a useful tool in their research method toolbox.

  19. A grounded theory of faculty's use of humanization to create online course climate.

    PubMed

    Cox-Davenport, Rebecca A

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to study the way faculty establish course social presence in an online course. The community of inquiry model by Garrison, Anderson, and Archer distinguished the area of social presence as an important component of online learning, and this study sought to understand how faculty perceive and create social presence in their online classroom. By employing a grounded theory approach, a substantive theory was developed to explain the way in which faculty create and maintain an online course climate. The sample consisted of 10 nursing faculty teaching various master's in nursing courses. Through a rigorous qualitative process using nursing faculty interviews and online course analysis, humanization was found to be the core category in setting online course climate. Faculty's efforts to humanize the climate lead each member of the community to view the other members as real, thereby enabling the establishment of online social presence.

  20. How parents manage the risk of child sexual abuse: a grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Babatsikos, Georgia; Miles, Debra

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to understand how parents manage the risk of child sexual abuse, including prevention as well as early intervention and detection strategies. Using a social constructivist theoretical foundation and grounded theory methods, qualitative in-depth interviews were conducted with Australian parents between 2006 and 2008. Based on the data, a balance theory was developed, which explains how parents attempt to balance the type of information given to children in order to protect their children from sexual abuse without scaring them as well as how parents manage sexual boundary crossing incidents experienced by their children in the context of complex social relationships. Implications for prevention programs as well as reporting of child sexual abuse are discussed.

  1. Feeling like me again: a grounded theory of the role of breast reconstruction surgery in self-image.

    PubMed

    McKean, L N; Newman, E F; Adair, P

    2013-07-01

    The present study aimed to develop a theoretical understanding of the role of breast reconstruction in women's self-image. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 women from breast cancer support groups who had undergone breast reconstruction surgery. A grounded theory methodology was used to explore their experiences. The study generated a model of 'breast cancer, breast reconstruction and self-image', with a core category entitled 'feeling like me again' and two principal categories of 'normal appearance' and 'normal life'. A further two main categories, 'moving on' and 'image of sick person' were generated. The results indicated a role of breast reconstruction in several aspects of self-image including the restoration of pre-surgery persona, which further promoted adjustment.

  2. What's on the therapist's mind? A grounded theory analysis of family therapist reflections during individual therapy sessions.

    PubMed

    Rober, Peter; Elliott, Robert; Buysse, Ann; Loots, Gerrit; De Corte, Kim

    2008-01-01

    The authors used a videotape-assisted recall procedure to study the content of family therapists' inner conversations during individual sessions with a standardized client. Grounded theory was used to analyze therapists' reflections, resulting in a taxonomy of 282 different codes in a hierarchical tree structure of six levels, organized into four general domains: attending to client process; processing the client's story; focusing on therapists' own experience; and managing the therapeutic process. In addition to providing a descriptive model of therapists' inner conversation, this research led to an appreciation of the wealth of therapists' inner conversation. In particular, the authors found that therapists work hard to create an intersubjective space within which to talk by trying to be in tune with their clients and by using clients as a guide.

  3. Transformative Learning: A Case for Using Grounded Theory as an Assessment Analytic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Barbara A. B.; Munoz, Leslie; Abrams, Leah; Bass, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    Transformative Learning Theory and pedagogies leverage disruptive experiences as catalysts for learning and teaching. By facilitating processes of critical analysis and reflection that challenge assumptions, transformative learning reframes what counts as knowledge and the sources and processes for gaining and producing it. Students develop a…

  4. Pion condensation and instabilities: current theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gyulassy, M.

    1980-05-01

    Current calculations of pion condensation phenomena in symmetric nuclear matter are reviewed. The RPA and MFA methods are compared. Latest results (LBL-10572) with a relativistic MFA theory constrained by bulk nuclear properties are presented. The differences between equilibrium (condensation) and nonequilibrium (dynamic) instabilities are discussed. Finally, two-proton correlation experiments aimed at looking for critical scattering phenomena and two-pion correlation experiments aimed at looking for pion field coherence are analyzed. 10 figures, 2 tables.

  5. Magnetohydrodynamic Particle Acceleration Processes: SSX Experiments, Theory, and Astrophysical Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Michael R.

    2006-11-16

    Project Title: Magnetohydrodynamic Particle Acceleration Processes: SSX Experiments, Theory, and Astrophysical Applications PI: Michael R. Brown, Swarthmore College The purpose of the project was to provide theoretical and modeling support to the Swarthmore Spheromak Experiment (SSX). Accordingly, the theoretical effort was tightly integrated into the SSX experimental effort. During the grant period, Michael Brown and his experimental collaborators at Swarthmore, with assistance from W. Matthaeus as appropriate, made substantial progress in understanding the physics SSX plasmas.

  6. A grounded theory study on the role of differentiated instruction in effective middle school science teaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Brian Kirby

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to develop a model explaining the role of differentiated instruction (DI) in effective middle school science teaching. The study examined the best teaching practices and differentiated elements from eight general education middle school science teachers, all scoring at the highest level of a teaching effectiveness measure on their evaluations, through a collection of observational, interview, survey, and teaching artifact data. The data were analyzed through the methodology of a systematic grounded theory qualitative approach using open, axial, and selective coding to develop a model describing how and to what degree effective middle school science teachers differentiated their best teaching practices. The model that emerged from the data shows instruction as a four-phase process and highlights the major elements of best practices and DI represented at each phase. The model also depicts how teachers narrowed the scope of their differentiating strategies as instruction progressed. The participants incorporated DI into their pedagogies, though in different degrees at each phase, and primarily by using variety to present concepts with multiple types of instruction followed by a series of sense-making activities related to several learning modalities. Teachers scaffolded students carefully, using informal and formal assessment data to inform future instructional decisions and especially their plans to reteach or extend on a concept. The model is intended to provide insight into the value of DI for middle school science teaching.

  7. Vibrating superleak second-sound transducers. Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, N.

    1984-06-01

    The properties of vibrating superleak second-sound transducers of the type invented by Rudnick and co-workers and Sherlock and Edwards are discussed. Recent theoretical treatments of these transducers are reviewed, and an error in Saslow's theory of the detection process is corrected. The theory is then extended so as to take into account Poiseuille flow of the normal fluid through the superleak. We also describe experiments in which the transducers are used to excite and detect second sound in a resonant cavity containing superfluid4He. Our results indicate that the flow of the normal fluid component through the superleak is very important under the conditions commonly found in experiments involving these transducers. The experimental results are in good general agreement with the theory.

  8. Shanto Iyengar's Agenda Setting Experiments and Tentative Theory of Priming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jung, Donald J.

    This paper focuses on the experimental findings of Shanto Iyengar with regard to media agenda-setting and a theory of priming, summarizing his work across time. Following an introduction, the next section briefly reviews five of Iyengar's experiments on agenda-setting and priming, giving an overview and conclusions for each. The final section, a…

  9. Attachment Theory in Supervision: A Critical Incident Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pistole, M. Carole; Fitch, Jenelle C.

    2008-01-01

    Critical incident experiences are a powerful source of counselor development (T. M. Skovholt & P. R. McCarthy, 1988a, 1988b) and are relevant to attachment issues. An attachment theory perspective of supervision is presented and applied to a critical incident case scenario. By focusing on the behavioral systems (i.e., attachment, caregiving, and…

  10. Theory and Experiments on Supersonic Air-to-Air Ejectors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fabri, J; Paulon, J

    1958-01-01

    A comparison of experiment with theory is made for air ejectors having cylindrical mixing sections and operating under conditions of supersonic primary flow and either mixed or supersonic regimes of mixing. The effect on ejector performance of such parameters as mixer length and cross section, terminating diffuser, primary Mach number, and primary nozzle position is presented in terms of mass flow and pressure ratio.

  11. Gravitation experiments at Stanford. [using general relativity theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipa, J. A.

    1980-01-01

    The experimental situation in post-Newtonian gravitation is briefly reviewed in order to reexamine the extent to which experiment supports or refutes general relativity. A description is given of the equivalence principle project, the gyroscope experiment, and the search for gravity waves. It is noted that even though some doubt has been cast on the value of the perihelion advance and the gravitational redshift as precise tests of general relativity in the past few years, many competing theories have been ruled out; in particular, the results from the Viking mission significantly reduce the credibility of the Brans-Dicke theory (Brans and Dicke, 1961). The dimensionless constant omega in this theory is now forced to exceed 50, while the value originally proposed was 6 (omega being infinity in general relativity). It is noted that the gyro experiment described is capable of putting much tighter limits on this parameter, and together with the other experiments in progress will help place gravitational theory on a firmer experimental footing.

  12. String-Coupled Pendulum Oscillators: Theory and Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloney, Michael J.

    1978-01-01

    A coupled-oscillator system is given which is readily set up, using only household materials. The normal-mode analysis of this system is worked out, and an experiment or demonstration is recommended in which one verifies the theory by measuring two times and four lengths. (Author/GA)

  13. Electromechanical instability in soft materials: Theory, experiments and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suo, Zhigang

    2013-03-01

    Subject to a voltage, a membrane of a dielectric elastomer reduces thickness and expands area, possibly straining over 100%. The phenomenon is being developed as transducers for broad applications, including soft robots, adaptive optics, Braille displays, and electric generators. The behavior of dielectric elastomers is closely tied to electromechanical instability. This instability may limit the performance of devices, and may also be used to achieve giant actuation strains. This talk reviews the theory of dielectric elastomers, coupling large deformation and electric potential. The theory is developed within the framework of continuum mechanics and thermodynamics. The theory attempts to answer commonly asked questions. How do mechanics and electrostatics work together to generate large deformation? How efficiently can a material convert energy from one form to another? How do molecular processes affect macroscopic behavior? The theory is used to describe electromechanical instability, and is related to recent experiments.

  14. Parochial Dissonance: A Grounded Theory of Wisconsin's New North Response to the Employability Skills Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baneck, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a theory that explained the beliefs and behaviors of participants from business, not-for-profit business, education, and government sectors when resolving the employability skills gap. Classical grounded theory was the inductive methodology applied to this study. The New North, an 18 county region located…

  15. Entrepreneurial Orientation of Community College Workforce Divisions and the Impact of Organizational Structure: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schiefen, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    This research focused on how organizational structure of community colleges influenced the entrepreneurial orientation of deans, directors, vice presidents, and vice chancellors of workforce units. Using grounded theory methodology, the researcher identified three emergent theories applicable to both integrated and separate workforce units. These…

  16. Final Harvest of Above-Ground Biomass and Allometric Analysis of the Aspen FACE Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mark E. Kubiske

    2013-04-15

    The Aspen FACE experiment, located at the US Forest Service Harshaw Research Facility in Oneida County, Wisconsin, exposes the intact canopies of model trembling aspen forests to increased concentrations of atmospheric CO2 and O3. The first full year of treatments was 1998 and final year of elevated CO2 and O3 treatments is scheduled for 2009. This proposal is to conduct an intensive, analytical harvest of the above-ground parts of 24 trees from each of the 12, 30 m diameter treatment plots (total of 288 trees) during June, July & August 2009. This above-ground harvest will be carefully coordinated with the below-ground harvest proposed by D.F. Karnosky et al. (2008 proposal to DOE). We propose to dissect harvested trees according to annual height growth increment and organ (main stem, branch orders, and leaves) for calculation of above-ground biomass production and allometric comparisons among aspen clones, species, and treatments. Additionally, we will collect fine root samples for DNA fingerprinting to quantify biomass production of individual aspen clones. This work will produce a thorough characterization of above-ground tree and stand growth and allocation above ground, and, in conjunction with the below ground harvest, total tree and stand biomass production, allocation, and allometry.

  17. Study of Fluid Experiment System (FES)/CAST/Holographic Ground System (HGS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Cummings, Rick; Jones, Brian

    1992-01-01

    The use of holographic and schlieren optical techniques for studying the concentration gradients in solidification processes has been used by several investigators over the years. The HGS facility at MSFC has been primary resource in researching this capability. Consequently, scientific personnel have been able to utilize these techniques in both ground based research and in space experiments. An important event in the scientific utilization of the HGS facilities was the TGS Crystal Growth and the casting and solidification technology (CAST) experiments that were flown on the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML) mission in March of this year. The preparation and processing of these space observations are the primary experiments reported in this work. This project provides some ground-based studies to optimize on the holographic techniques used to acquire information about the crystal growth processes flown on IML. Since the ground-based studies will be compared with the space-based experimental results, it is necessary to conduct sufficient ground based studies to best determine how the experiment worked in space. The current capabilities in computer based systems for image processing and numerical computation have certainly assisted in those efforts. As anticipated, this study has certainly shown that these advanced computing capabilities are helpful in the data analysis of such experiments.

  18. Ground-based sensors for the SR-71 sonic boom propagation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norris, Stephen R.; Haering, Edward A., Jr.; Murray, James E.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes ground-level measurements of sonic boom signatures made as part of the SR-71 sonic boom propagation experiment recently completed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. Ground level measurements were the final stage of this experiment which also included airborne measurements at near and intermediate distances from an SR-71 research aircraft. Three types of sensors were deployed to three station locations near the aircraft ground track. Pressure data were collected for flight conditions from Mach 1.25 to Mach 1.60 at altitudes from 30,000 to 48,000 ft. Ground-level measurement techniques, comparisons of data sets from different ground sensors, and sensor system strengths and weaknesses are discussed. The well-known N-wave structure dominated the sonic boom signatures generated by the SR-71 aircraft at most of these conditions. Variations in boom shape caused by atmospheric turbulence, focusing effects, or both were observed for several flights. Peak pressure and boom event duration showed some dependence on aircraft gross weight. The sonic boom signatures collected in this experiment are being compiled in a data base for distribution in support of the High Speed Research Program.

  19. Generating or developing grounded theory: methods to understand health and illness.

    PubMed

    Woods, Phillip; Gapp, Rod; King, Michelle A

    2016-06-01

    Grounded theory is a qualitative research methodology that aims to explain social phenomena, e.g. why particular motivations or patterns of behaviour occur, at a conceptual level. Developed in the 1960s by Glaser and Strauss, the methodology has been reinterpreted by Strauss and Corbin in more recent times, resulting in different schools of thought. Differences arise from different philosophical perspectives concerning knowledge (epistemology) and the nature of reality (ontology), demanding that researchers make clear theoretical choices at the commencement of their research when choosing this methodology. Compared to other qualitative methods it has ability to achieve understanding of, rather than simply describing, a social phenomenon. Achieving understanding however, requires theoretical sampling to choose interviewees that can contribute most to the research and understanding of the phenomenon, and constant comparison of interviews to evaluate the same event or process in different settings or situations. Sampling continues until conceptual saturation is reached, i.e. when no new concepts emerge from the data. Data analysis focusses on categorising data (finding the main elements of what is occurring and why), and describing those categories in terms of properties (conceptual characteristics that define the category and give meaning) and dimensions (the variations within properties which produce specificity and range). Ultimately a core category which theoretically explains how all other categories are linked together is developed from the data. While achieving theoretical abstraction in the core category, it should be logical and capture all of the variation within the data. Theory development requires understanding of the methodology not just working through a set of procedures. This article provides a basic overview, set in the literature surrounding grounded theory, for those wanting to increase their understanding and quality of research output.

  20. How People Reason: A Grounded Theory Study of Scientific Reasoning about Global Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shiyu

    Scientific reasoning is crucial in both scientific inquiry and everyday life. While the majority of researchers have studied "how people reason" by focusing on their cognitive processes, factors related to the underpinnings of scientific reasoning are still under-researched. The present study aimed to develop a grounded theory that captures not only the cognitive processes during reasoning but also their underpinnings. In particular, the grounded theory and phenomenographic methodologies were integrated to explore how undergraduate students reason about competing theories and evidence on global climate change. Twenty-six undergraduate students were recruited through theoretical sampling. Constant comparative analysis of responses from interviews and written assessments revealed that participants were mostly drawn to the surface features when reasoning about evidence. While prior knowledge might not directly contribute to participants' performance on evidence evaluation, it affected their level of engagement when reading and evaluating competing arguments on climate issues. More importantly, even though all participants acknowledged the relative correctness of multiple perspectives, they predominantly favored arguments that supported their own beliefs with weak scientific reasoning about the opposing arguments. Additionally, factors such as personal interests, religious beliefs, and reading capacity were also found to have bearings on the way participants evaluated evidence and arguments. In all, this work contributes to the current endeavors in exploring the nature of scientific reasoning. Taking a holistic perspective, it provides an in-depth discussion of factors that may affect or relate to scientific reasoning processes. Furthermore, in comparison with traditional methods used in the literature, the methodological approach employed in this work brought an innovative insight into the investigation of scientific reasoning. Last but not least, this research may

  1. Taming theory with thought experiments: Understanding and scientific progress.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Michael T

    2016-08-01

    I claim that one way thought experiments contribute to scientific progress is by increasing scientific understanding. Understanding does not have a currently accepted characterization in the philosophical literature, but I argue that we already have ways to test for it. For instance, current pedagogical practice often requires that students demonstrate being in either or both of the following two states: 1) Having grasped the meaning of some relevant theory, concept, law or model, 2) Being able to apply that theory, concept, law or model fruitfully to new instances. Three thought experiments are presented which have been important historically in helping us pass these tests, and two others that cause us to fail. Then I use this operationalization of understanding to clarify the relationships between scientific thought experiments, the understanding they produce, and the progress they enable. I conclude that while no specific instance of understanding (thus conceived) is necessary for scientific progress, understanding in general is. PMID:27474183

  2. Clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches in osteopathy - a qualitative grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Oliver P; Petty, Nicola J; Moore, Ann P

    2014-02-01

    There is limited understanding of how osteopaths make decisions in relation to clinical practice. The aim of this research was to construct an explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of experienced osteopaths in the UK. Twelve UK registered osteopaths participated in this constructivist grounded theory qualitative study. Purposive and theoretical sampling was used to select participants. Data was collected using semi-structured interviews which were audio-recorded and transcribed. As the study approached theoretical sufficiency, participants were observed and video-recorded during a patient appointment, which was followed by a video-prompted interview. Constant comparative analysis was used to analyse and code data. Data analysis resulted in the construction of three qualitatively different therapeutic approaches which characterised participants and their clinical practice, termed; Treater, Communicator and Educator. Participants' therapeutic approach influenced their approach to clinical decision-making, the level of patient involvement, their interaction with patients, and therapeutic goals. Participants' overall conception of practice lay on a continuum ranging from technical rationality to professional artistry, and contributed to their therapeutic approach. A range of factors were identified which influenced participants' conception of practice. The findings indicate that there is variation in osteopaths' therapeutic approaches to practice and clinical decision-making, which are influenced by their overall conception of practice. This study provides the first explanatory theory of the clinical decision-making and therapeutic approaches of osteopaths.

  3. Integrating care for neurodevelopmental disorders by unpacking control: A grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Waxegård, Gustaf; Thulesius, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Background To establish integrated healthcare pathways for patients with neurodevelopmental disorders (ND) such as autism spectrum disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is challenging. This study sets out to investigate the main concerns for healthcare professionals when integrating ND care pathways and how they resolve these concerns. Methods Using classic grounded theory (Glaser), we analysed efforts to improve and integrate an ND care pathway for children and youth in a Swedish region over a period of 6 years. Data from 42 individual interviews with a range of ND professionals, nine group interviews with healthcare teams, participant observation, a 2-day dialogue conference, focus group meetings, regional media coverage, and reports from other Swedish regional ND projects were analysed. Results The main concern for participants was to deal with overwhelming ND complexity by unpacking control, which is control over strategies to define patients’ status and needs. Unpacking control is key to the professionals’ strivings to expand constructive life space for patients, to squeeze health care to reach available care goals, to promote professional ideologies, and to uphold workplace integrity. Control-seeking behaviour in relation to ND unpacking is ubiquitous and complicates integration of ND care pathways. Conclusions The Unpacking control theory expands central aspects of professions theory and may help to improve ND care development. PMID:27609793

  4. Colour polymeric paints research under atomic oxygen in flight and ground-based experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernik, V. N.; Naumov, S. F.; Sokolova, S. P.; Gerasimova, T. I.; Kurilyonok, A. O.; Poruchikova, Ju. V.; Novikova, V. A.

    2003-09-01

    Three types of colour coatings were tested to atomic oxygen resistance on ground-based and in-flight experiments. The epoxy enamels colouring change and significant mass losses are observed. The effect of atomic oxygen on silicone enamels almost does not change their colouring and mass. Protection of the epoxy enamels by a layer of silicone varnish increases paints resistance.

  5. Free-field ground motions for the nonproliferation experiment: Preliminary comparisons with nearby nuclear events

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, K.H.; Peratt, A.L.

    1994-06-01

    Since 1987, we have installed fixed arrays of tri-axial accelerometers in the fire-field near the shot horizons for low-yield ({le} 20 kt) nuclear events in the N-tunnel complex beneath Rainier Mesa. For the Nonproliferation Experiment (NPE) we augmented the array to achieve 23 free-field stations. Goals are: (a) to examine robustness and stability of various free-field source function estimates -- e.g., reduced displacement potentials (RDP) and spectra; (b) to compare close-in with regional estimates to test whether detailed close-in free-field and/or surface ground motion data can improve predictability of regional-teleseismic source functions; (c) to provide experimental data for checking two-dimensional numerical simulations. We report preliminary comparisons between experimental free-field data for NPE (1993) and three nearby nuclear events (MISTY ECHO, 1988; MINERAL QUARRY, 1990; HUNTERS TROPHY, 1992). All four working points are within 1 km of each other in the same wet tuff bed, thus reducing concerns about possible large differences in material properties between widely separated shots. Initial comparison of acceleration and velocity seismograms for the four events reveals: (1) There is a large departure from the spherical symmetry commonly assumed in analytic treatments of source theory; both vertical and tangential components are surprisingly large. (2) All shots show similar first-peak particle-velocity amplitude decay rates suggesting significant attenuation even in the supposedly purely elastic region. (3) Sharp (>20 Hz) arrivals are not observed at tunnel level from near-surface pP reflections or spall-closure sources -- but broadened peaks are seen that suggest more diffuse reflected energy from the surface and from the Paleozoic limestone basement below tunnel level.

  6. Experimenting with an Evolving Ground/Space-based Software Architecture to Enable Sensor Webs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart

    2005-01-01

    A series of ongoing experiments are being conducted at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center to explore integrated ground and space-based software architectures enabling sensor webs. A sensor web, as defined by Steve Talabac at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center(GSFC), is a coherent set of distributed nodes interconnected by a communications fabric, that collectively behave as a single, dynamically adaptive, observing system. The nodes can be comprised of satellites, ground instruments, computing nodes etc. Sensor web capability requires autonomous management of constellation resources. This becomes progressively more important as more and more satellites share resource, such as communication channels and ground station,s while automatically coordinating their activities. There have been five ongoing activities which include an effort to standardize a set of middleware. This paper will describe one set of activities using the Earth Observing 1 satellite, which used a variety of ground and flight software along with other satellites and ground sensors to prototype a sensor web. This activity allowed us to explore where the difficulties that occur in the assembly of sensor webs given today s technology. We will present an overview of the software system architecture, some key experiments and lessons learned to facilitate better sensor webs in the future.

  7. Improving INPE'S balloon ground facilities for operation of the protoMIRAX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiello-Francisco, F.; Rinke, E.; Fernandes, J. O.; Cardoso, L.; Cardoso, P.; Braga, J.

    2014-10-01

    The system requirements for reusing the scientific balloon ground facilities available at INPE were a challenge to the ground system engineers involved in the protoMIRAX X-ray astronomy experiment. A significant effort on software updating was required for the balloon ground station. Considering that protoMIRAX is a pathfinder for the MIRAX satellite mission, a ground infrastructure compatible with INPE's satellite operation approach would be useful and highly recommended to control and monitor the experiment during the balloon flights. This approach will make use of the SATellite Control System (SATCS), a software-based architecture developed at INPE for satellite commanding and monitoring. SATCS complies with particular operational requirements of different satellites by using several customized object-oriented software elements and frameworks. We present the ground solution designed for protoMIRAX operation, the Control and Reception System (CRS). A new server computer, properly configured with Ethernet, has extended the existing ground station facilities with switch, converters and new software (OPS/SERVER) in order to support the available uplink and downlink channels being mapped to TCP/IP gateways required by SATCS. Currently, the CRS development is customizing the SATCS for the kernel functions of protoMIRAX command and telemetry processing. Design-patterns, component-based libraries and metadata are widely used in the SATCS in order to extend the frameworks to address the Packet Utilization Standard (PUS) for ground-balloon communication, in compliance with the services provided by the data handling computer onboard the protoMIRAX balloon.

  8. Managing uncertainty: a grounded theory of stigma in transgender health care encounters.

    PubMed

    Poteat, Tonia; German, Danielle; Kerrigan, Deanna

    2013-05-01

    A growing body of literature supports stigma and discrimination as fundamental causes of health disparities. Stigma and discrimination experienced by transgender people have been associated with increased risk for depression, suicide, and HIV. Transgender stigma and discrimination experienced in health care influence transgender people's health care access and utilization. Thus, understanding how stigma and discrimination manifest and function in health care encounters is critical to addressing health disparities for transgender people. A qualitative, grounded theory approach was taken to this study of stigma in health care interactions. Between January and July 2011, fifty-five transgender people and twelve medical providers participated in one-time in-depth interviews about stigma, discrimination, and health care interactions between providers and transgender patients. Due to the social and institutional stigma against transgender people, their care is excluded from medical training. Therefore, providers approach medical encounters with transgender patients with ambivalence and uncertainty. Transgender people anticipate that providers will not know how to meet their needs. This uncertainty and ambivalence in the medical encounter upsets the normal balance of power in provider-patient relationships. Interpersonal stigma functions to reinforce the power and authority of the medical provider during these interactions. Functional theories of stigma posit that we hold stigmatizing attitudes because they serve specific psychological functions. However, these theories ignore how hierarchies of power in social relationships serve to maintain and reinforce inequalities. The findings of this study suggest that interpersonal stigma also functions to reinforce medical power and authority in the face of provider uncertainty. Within functional theories of stigma, it is important to acknowledge the role of power and to understand how stigmatizing attitudes function to maintain

  9. Investigating Agile User-Centered Design in Practice: A Grounded Theory Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussain, Zahid; Slany, Wolfgang; Holzinger, Andreas

    This paper investigates how the integration of agile methods and User-Centered Design (UCD) is carried out in practice. For this study, we have applied grounded theory as a suitable qualitative approach to determine what is happening in actual practice. The data was collected by semi-structured interviews with professionals who have already worked with an integrated agile UCD methodology. Further data was collected by observing these professionals in their working context, and by studying their documents, where possible. The emerging themes that the study found show that there is an increasing realization of the importance of usability in software development among agile team members. The requirements are emerging; and both low and high fidelity prototypes based usability tests are highly used in agile teams. There is an appreciation of each other's work from both UCD professionals and developers and both sides can learn from each other.

  10. Revisiting Symbolic Interactionism as a Theoretical Framework Beyond the Grounded Theory Tradition.

    PubMed

    Handberg, Charlotte; Thorne, Sally; Midtgaard, Julie; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2015-08-01

    The tight bond between grounded theory (GT) and symbolic interactionism (SI) is well known within the qualitative health research field. We aimed to disentangle this connection through critical reflection on the conditions under which it might add value as an underpinning to studies outside the GT tradition. Drawing on an examination of the central tenets of SI, we illustrate with a field study using interpretive description as methodology how SI can be applied as a theoretical lens through which layers of socially constructed meaning can help surface the subjective world of patients. We demonstrate how SI can function as a powerful framework for human health behavior research through its capacity to orient questions, inform design options, and refine analytic directions. We conclude that using SI as a lens can serve as a translation mechanism in our quest to interpret the subjective world underlying patients' health and illness behavior.

  11. Diagrammatic perturbation theory - The ground state of the carbon monosulfide molecule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S.

    1977-01-01

    Diagrammatic many-body perturbation theory is employed in a study of the ground state of the carbon monosulfide molecule for bond lengths close to the equilibrium value. The calculations are complete through third order in the energy within the algebraic approximation. Two different zero-order Hamiltonians are considered, and all two-, three-, and four-body terms are determined for the corresponding perturbation expansions. Many-body effects are found to be very important. Pade approximants to the energy expansion are constructed, and upper bounds evaluated. Almost 53 percent of the estimated correlation energy is recovered. The variation of components of the correlation energy with nuclear separation is investigated. Spectroscopic constants are also calculated.

  12. Driving and sustaining culture change in Olympic sport performance teams: a first exploration and grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Cruickshank, Andrew; Collins, Dave; Minten, Sue

    2014-02-01

    Stimulated by growing interest in the organizational and performance leadership components of Olympic success, sport psychology researchers have identified performance director-led culture change as a process of particular theoretical and applied significance. To build on initial work in this area and develop practically meaningful understanding, a pragmatic research philosophy and grounded theory methodology were engaged to uncover culture change best practice from the perspective of newly appointed performance directors. Delivered in complex and contested settings, results revealed that the optimal change process consisted of an initial evaluation, planning, and impact phase adjoined to the immediate and enduring management of a multidirectional perception- and power-based social system. As the first inquiry of its kind, these findings provide a foundation for the continued theoretical development of culture change in Olympic sport performance teams and a first model on which applied practice can be based.

  13. Self-Reorientation Following Colorectal Cancer Treatment - A Grounded Theory Study.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Ann-Caroline B; Axelsson, Malin; Berndtsson, Ina; Brink, Eva

    2015-01-01

    After colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment, people reorganize life in ways that are consistent with their understanding of the illness and their expectations for recovery. Incapacities and abilities that have been lost can initiate a need to reorient the self. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have explicitly focused on the concept of self-reorientation after CRC treatment. The aim of the present study was therefore to explore self-reorientation in the early recovery phase after CRC surgery. Grounded theory analysis was undertaken, using the method presented by Charmaz. The present results explained self-reorientation as the individual attempting to achieve congruence in self-perception. A congruent self-perception meant bringing together the perceived self and the self that was mirrored in the near environs. The results showed that societal beliefs and personal explanations are essential elements of self-reorientation, and that it is therefore important to make them visible.

  14. Negotiating identity development among undocumented immigrant college students: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Lauren M; Chen, Eric C

    2013-04-01

    This qualitative study explored the identity development process of 11 undocumented college students living in the United States, focusing on how undocumented college students negotiate the interplay of acculturation, ethnic identity, and educational and career pursuits. A semistructured interview protocol was used and data analysis was iterative, consistent with grounded theory methodology. Four major themes emerged from the data: (a) "sewn with two threads" describes the salience of bicultural identity; (b) enhancement of positive attributes as a result of documentation struggles; (c) challenging reflections, addressing the ways in which documentation status challenges one's perception of oneself and the world; and (d) identity formation as an ongoing negotiation, capturing the long-term shifts in understanding of status implications and emotional response to this understanding. Findings are discussed in terms of their implications for educators, counseling psychologists, and career counselors. Suggestions regarding how mental health professionals can educate and empower undocumented immigrant youth are presented.

  15. Nursing students' time management, reducing stress and gaining satisfaction: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Mirzaei, Tayebeh; Oskouie, Fatemeh; Rafii, Forough

    2012-03-01

    In the course of their studies, nursing students must learn many skills and acquire the knowledge required for their future profession. This study investigates how Iranian nursing students manage their time according to the circumstances and obstacles of their academic field. Research was conducted using the grounded theory method. Twenty-one nursing students were purposefully chosen as participants. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews and analyzed using the method suggested by Corbin and Strauss. One of the three processes that the nursing students used was "unidirectional time management." This pattern consists of accepting the nursing field, overcoming uncertainty, assessing conditions, feeling stress, and trying to reduce stress and create satisfaction. It was found that students allotted most of their time to academic tasks in an attempt to overcome their stress. The findings of this study indicate the need for these students to have time for the extra-curricular activities and responsibilities that are appropriate to their age.

  16. Self-Reorientation Following Colorectal Cancer Treatment – A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Ann-Caroline B; Axelsson, Malin; Berndtsson, Ina; Brink, Eva

    2015-01-01

    After colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment, people reorganize life in ways that are consistent with their understanding of the illness and their expectations for recovery. Incapacities and abilities that have been lost can initiate a need to reorient the self. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have explicitly focused on the concept of self-reorientation after CRC treatment. The aim of the present study was therefore to explore self-reorientation in the early recovery phase after CRC surgery. Grounded theory analysis was undertaken, using the method presented by Charmaz. The present results explained self-reorientation as the individual attempting to achieve congruence in self-perception. A congruent self-perception meant bringing together the perceived self and the self that was mirrored in the near environs. The results showed that societal beliefs and personal explanations are essential elements of self-reorientation, and that it is therefore important to make them visible. PMID:26312124

  17. Constraining theories of gravity from Light Deviation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos, Richard; Biswas, Tirthabir; Carl Brans Collaboration, Dr.; Tirthabir Biswas Collaboration, Dr.

    2016-03-01

    Modifications of Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR) are notorious for introducing ghosts and tachyons which renders these theories classically unstable and any attempts to quantize them doomed to fail. Over the last few years, concrete criteria on covariant modifications to GR have been derived that ensures that the gravitational theory is free from such instabilities, at least, around the Minkowski vacuum. The most general consistent action can be parameterized by two mass scales: the first one controls the scale of nonlocality in the graviton interaction, and the second characterizes the mass of a Brans-Dicke type scalar mode that can be present in the metric tensor. Our goal has been to develop techniques to directly constrain these mass parameters from experimental tests of GR. In particular, I will talk about the constraints from the light bending experiments. Support from the SURE Grant and Dr. Brans.

  18. Determining quality in doctoral programming: A grounded theory study of biological sciences, English studies, and special education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fansler, A. Gigi

    This study uses the grounded theory approach to identify how 12 faculty members at Illinois State University define the key determinants of a quality doctoral program. Two sets of interviews were conducted, lasting from 45 to 90 minutes. The first round of interviews was guided by the following open-ended questions: (1) How do you define a quality doctoral program? (2) What has led you to define quality in that way? and (3) What events or actions have you experienced that have been evidence of "quality?" While these three served as the primary questions, many follow-up questions and prompts were used throughout the entire interview process. A subsequent interview was conducted with the participants in order to explore the 12 emergent categories. The theory was generated using the transcriptions from both rounds of interviews and a conceptual map that was revised throughout the process. The researcher used open-coding, axial coding, and selective coding throughout the study until saturation of the data was achieved, and relationships among the categories were formed. The following nine factors of the model emerged from the data: (a) professional mentorship; (b) faculty productivity; (c) program accountability and/or evaluation; (d) students who publish; (e) solid educational experience; (f) quality of students; (g) student placement; (h) experience as a faculty member; (i) experiences as a doctoral student. The first seven describe how the 12 faculty members defined a quality doctoral program. The last two address the factors that led the participants to define quality in the way they did. This study provides leaders of higher education institutions a glimpse of one stakeholder group's perceptions of what constitutes a quality doctoral program. Such information can be used as a starting point for assessing quality of doctoral programs in an era of accountability.

  19. Hartree-Fock many-body perturbation theory for nuclear ground-states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichai, Alexander; Langhammer, Joachim; Binder, Sven; Roth, Robert

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the order-by-order convergence behavior of many-body perturbation theory (MBPT) as a simple and efficient tool to approximate the ground-state energy of closed-shell nuclei. To address the convergence properties directly, we explore perturbative corrections up to 30th order and highlight the role of the partitioning for convergence. The use of a simple Hartree-Fock solution for the unperturbed basis leads to a convergent MBPT series for soft interactions, in contrast to the divergent MBPT series obtained with a harmonic oscillator basis. For larger model spaces and heavier nuclei, where a direct high-order MBPT calculation is not feasible, we perform third-order calculations and compare to advanced ab initio coupled-cluster results for the same interactions and model spaces. We demonstrate that third-order MBPT provides ground-state energies for nuclei up into the tin isotopic chain in excellent agreement with the best available coupled-cluster calculations at a fraction of the computational cost.

  20. Onboard Autonomy and Ground Operations Automation for the Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) CubeSat Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Ortega, Kevin; Tran, Daniel; Bellardo, John; Williams, Austin; Piug-Suari, Jordi; Crum, Gary; Flatley, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) is a cubesat manifested for launch in October 2013 that will flight validate autonomous operations for onboard instrument processing and product generation for the Intelligent Payload Module (IPM) of the Hyperspectral Infra-red Imager (HyspIRI) mission concept. We first describe the ground and flight operations concept for HyspIRI IPM operations. We then describe the ground and flight operations concept for the IPEX mission and how that will validate HyspIRI IPM operations. We then detail the current status of the mission and outline the schedule for future development.

  1. Weak localization in graphene: theory, simulations, and experiments.

    PubMed

    Hilke, Michael; Massicotte, Mathieu; Whiteway, Eric; Yu, Victor

    2014-01-01

    We provide a comprehensive picture of magnetotransport in graphene monolayers in the limit of nonquantizing magnetic fields. We discuss the effects of two-carrier transport, weak localization, weak antilocalization, and strong localization for graphene devices of various mobilities, through theory, experiments, and numerical simulations. In particular, we observe a minimum in the weak localization and strong localization length reminiscent of the minimum in the conductivity, which allows us to make the connection between weak and strong localization. This provides a unified framework for both localizations, which explains the observed experimental features. We compare these results to numerical simulation and find a remarkable agreement between theory, experiment, and numerics. Various graphene devices were used in this study, including graphene on different substrates, such as glass and silicon, as well as low and high mobility devices.

  2. Quantum theory as the most robust description of reproducible experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Raedt, Hans; Katsnelson, Mikhail I.; Michielsen, Kristel

    2014-08-01

    It is shown that the basic equations of quantum theory can be obtained from a straightforward application of logical inference to experiments for which there is uncertainty about individual events and for which the frequencies of the observed events are robust with respect to small changes in the conditions under which the experiments are carried out. There is no quantum world. There is only an abstract physical description. It is wrong to think that the task of physics is to find out how nature is. Physics concerns what we can say about nature [45]. Physics is to be regarded not so much as the study of something a priori given, but rather as the development of methods of ordering and surveying human experience. In this respect our task must be to account for such experience in a manner independent of individual subjective judgment and therefore objective in the sense that it can be unambiguously communicated in ordinary human language [46]. The physical content of quantum mechanics is exhausted by its power to formulate statistical laws governing observations under conditions specified in plain language [46]. The first two sentences of the first quote may be read as a suggestion to dispose of, in Mermin's words [47], the "bad habit" to take mathematical abstractions as the reality of the events (in the everyday sense of the word) that we experience through our senses. Although widely circulated, these sentences are reported by Petersen [45] and there is doubt that Bohr actually used this wording [48]. The last two sentences of the first quote and the second quote suggest that we should try to describe human experiences (confined to the realm of scientific inquiry) in a manner and language which is unambiguous and independent of the individual subjective judgment. Of course, the latter should not be construed to imply that the observed phenomena are independent of the choices made by the individual(s) in performing the scientific experiment [49].The third quote

  3. ESRO study program for a space experiment on gravitation theories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, G. M.

    1971-01-01

    ESRO is considering a space experiment which is the definition phase. A more complete utilization of space techniques, leading to highly accurate acceleration measurements in a heliocentric spacecraft, together with an improved laser signal propagation method (using a space-borne atomic clock), could substantially increase the validity of the gravitational time delay test during solar conjunction. Preliminary investigations of the primary required techniques were carried out. These studies included an orbit analysis, investigation of drag-free techniques, and studies of the time measuring instrument. These studies were used to define the framework of a space experiment on gravitation theories. A preliminary feasibility study of the mission is being undertaken.

  4. Correlation of theory and experiment for high-pressure hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, W. G.; Ross, M.; Bender, C. F.; Rogers, F. J.; Olness, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Recent quantum calculations and high-pressure experiments both agree on the magnitude of the forces with which hydrogen molecules interact. The calculated forces have to be determined in two steps: the repulsion is determined by Hartree-Fock calculations while the attraction is deduced semiempirically. The experimental forces are inferred from recent data on hydrogen shockcompressed to 214 kbar. The agreement indicates the usefulness of a pair-potential description of dense hydrogen and suggests, using potentials consistent with both theory and experiment, that pressures of at least 1.7 Mbar will be required to make metallic hydrogen. The expected lifetime of the metal at atmospheric pressure is very short.

  5. Sound propagation through a variable area duct - Experiment and theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silcox, R. J.; Lester, H. C.

    1981-01-01

    A comparison of experiment and theory has been made for the propagation of sound through a variable area axisymmetric duct with zero mean flow. Measurement of the acoustic pressure field on both sides of the constricted test section was resolved on a modal basis for various spinning mode sources. Transmitted and reflected modal amplitudes and phase angles were compared with finite element computations. Good agreement between experiment and computation was obtained over a wide range of frequencies and modal transmission variations. The study suggests that modal transmission through a variable area duct is governed by the throat modal cut-off ratio.

  6. Friction at the nanoscale:theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marder, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Bowden and Tabor established more than 50 years ago that friction is due to populations of asperities. In recent years, increasingly detailed experiments have begun to document the dynamics of these asperities during sliding, and to show that several different modes of motion are possible. I will discuss experiments that probe slipping motion of macroscopic samples down to the nanoscale, and show that the small slow slipping motions are described by the rate and state theory of friction that was developed for very different length and time scales.

  7. The physics of musical scales: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durfee, Dallin S.; Colton, John S.

    2015-10-01

    The theory of musical scales involves mathematical ratios, harmonic resonators, beats, and human perception and provides an interesting application of the physics of waves and sound. We first review the history and physics of musical scales, with an emphasis on four historically important scales: twelve-tone equal temperament, Pythagorean, quarter-comma meantone, and Ptolemaic just intonation. We then present an easy way for students and teachers to directly experience the qualities of different scales using MIDI synthesis.

  8. Unsteady Thick Airfoil Aerodynamics: Experiments, Computation, and Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strangfeld, C.; Rumsey, C. L.; Mueller-Vahl, H.; Greenblatt, D.; Nayeri, C. N.; Paschereit, C. O.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental, computational and theoretical investigation was carried out to study the aerodynamic loads acting on a relatively thick NACA 0018 airfoil when subjected to pitching and surging, individually and synchronously. Both pre-stall and post-stall angles of attack were considered. Experiments were carried out in a dedicated unsteady wind tunnel, with large surge amplitudes, and airfoil loads were estimated by means of unsteady surface mounted pressure measurements. Theoretical predictions were based on Theodorsen's and Isaacs' results as well as on the relatively recent generalizations of van der Wall. Both two- and three-dimensional computations were performed on structured grids employing unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS). For pure surging at pre-stall angles of attack, the correspondence between experiments and theory was satisfactory; this served as a validation of Isaacs theory. Discrepancies were traced to dynamic trailing-edge separation, even at low angles of attack. Excellent correspondence was found between experiments and theory for airfoil pitching as well as combined pitching and surging; the latter appears to be the first clear validation of van der Wall's theoretical results. Although qualitatively similar to experiment at low angles of attack, two-dimensional URANS computations yielded notable errors in the unsteady load effects of pitching, surging and their synchronous combination. The main reason is believed to be that the URANS equations do not resolve wake vorticity (explicitly modeled in the theory) or the resulting rolled-up un- steady flow structures because high values of eddy viscosity tend to \\smear" the wake. At post-stall angles, three-dimensional computations illustrated the importance of modeling the tunnel side walls.

  9. Comparison Between Theory and Experiment for Wings at Supersonic Speeds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincenti, Walter G

    1951-01-01

    This paper presents a critical comparison made between experimental and theoretical results for the aerodynamic characteristics of wings at supersonic flight speeds. As a preliminary, a brief, nonmathematical review is given of the basic assumptions and general findings of supersonic wing theory in two and three dimensions. Published data from two-dimensional pressure-distribution tests are then used to illustrate the effects of fluid viscosity and to assess the accuracy of linear theory as compared with the more exact theories which are available in the two-dimensional case. Finally, an account is presented of an NACA study of the over-all force characteristics of three-dimensional wings at supersonic speed. In this study, the lift, pitching moment, and drag characteristics of several families of wings of varying plan form and section were measured in the wind tunnel and compared with values predicted by the three-dimensional linear theory. The regions of agreement and disagreement between experiment and theory are noted and discussed.

  10. A direct method for measuring acoustic ground impedance in long-range propagation experiments.

    PubMed

    Soh, Jin H; Gilbert, Kenneth E; Frazier, W M Garth; Talmadge, Carrick L; Waxler, Roger

    2010-11-01

    A method is reported for determining ground impedance in long-range propagation experiments by using the definition of impedance directly. The method is envisioned as way of measuring the impedence at multiple locations along the propagation path, using the signals broadcast during the experiment itself. In a short-range (10 m) test, the direct method was in good agreement with a more conventional model-based least-squares method. The utility of the direct method was demonstrated in a 400 m propagation experiment in a agricultural field. The resulting impedance was consistent with the impedance measured previously in the same field. PMID:21110540

  11. Abiotic formation of bioorganic compounds in space--preliminary experiments on ground and future exobiology experiments in space.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, K; Kaneko, T; Hashimoto, H; Kouchi, A; Saito, T; Yamashita, M

    1998-06-01

    Simulation experiments on ground have shown that "amino acid precursors", which give amino acids after acid-hydrolysis, can be formed when an ice mixture simulating ice mantles of interstellar dust particles (lSDs) is irradiated with high energy particles or UV light. It is strongly suggested that such bioorganic compounds were delivered by comets for the first biosphere on the Earth. It is of great interest to confirm this hypothesis in actual space conditions, such as in an exposed facility of JEM. Fundamental designs for such exobiology experiments in earth orbit (EEEO) will be discussed.

  12. Shear-Limited Diffusion and Viscosity: Experiments and Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, C. Fred

    2001-10-01

    Experiments and theory on collisional diffusion and viscosity demonstrate enhanced transport in the 2D bounce-averaged regime, limited by shear in the plasma rotation. The experiments are performed on relatively quiescent pure-ion or pure electron plasma columns, where the shear in the drift rotation ωE (r) can be controlled accurately. For long plasma columns, we measure test particle diffusion(F. Anderegg, et al.), Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2128 (1997). and bulk viscosity(J.M. Kriesel and C.F. Driscoll, submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. (2001).) coefficients which quantitatively agree with recent 3D theories(D.H.E. Dubin, Phys. Plasmas 5), 1688 (1998). of E × B drift collisions with impact parameters in the range rc < ρ < λ_D. In general, this transport is substantially greater than would be expected for velocity-scattering collisions with ρ < r_c. For finite plasma length L_p, thermal particles may bounce axially many times before rotational shear separates them in θ and this number of bounces Nb ≡ ( barv / 2L_p) / (r ; partial ωE / partial r) characterizes the approach to the 2D bounce-averaged regime. Experiments measuring electron viscosity coefficients and separate experiments measuring tagged ion diffusion coefficients each show transport enhancements up to 100×, scaling quantitatively as Nb over the range 1 < Nb < 10^2. In the zero-shear limit of Nb arrow ∞ , theory treats the particles as z-averaged rods of charge undergoing 2D E × B drift dynamics. For this case, Taylor and McNamara showed that Bohm-like diffusion results from large-scale thermally-excited ``Dawson-Okuda'' vortices. More recently, Dubin(D.H.E. Dubin and D.Z. Jin, Phys. Lett. A 284), 112 (2001). analyzed the 2D test-particle diffusion with applied background shear, showing that the particle diffusion decreases with increasing shear. Overall, this new theory gives fair quantitative agreement with the diffusion experiments from the 3D (or high shear) regime with Nb <= 1 to the 2D (or

  13. Participation a Key Factor for Life Recovery After Disaster: A Grounded Theory Study in an Iranian Context

    PubMed Central

    Nakhaei, Maryam; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Masoumi, Gholam Reza; Hosseini, Mohammad Ali; Parsa-Yekta, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background Since life recovery after disasters is a subjective and multifaceted construct influenced by different factors, and survivors’ main concerns and experiences are not clear, the researchers intended to explore this process. Materials and Methods This study was conducted in 2011 - 2014 based on the grounded theory approach. Participants were selected by purposeful sampling followed by theoretical sampling to achieve conceptual and theoretical saturation. Data were collected through interviews, observation, focus group discussion, and document reviews. Data were analyzed by Strauss and Corbin’s (2008) recommended approach. Results Transcribed data from 26 interviews (managers, health care providers, and receivers), field notes, and other documents were analyzed, and 1,652 open codes were identified. The codes were categorized, using constant comparative analysis, into five main categories including reactive exposure, subsiding emotions, need for comprehensive health recovery, improvement of normalization (new normality achievement), and contextual factors. The process of life recovery after disaster was also explored. Conclusions The results clarified a deep perception of participants’ experiences after disaster. The path of life recovery after disasters involves participants’ striving to achieve a comprehensive health recovery, which starts with the need for all-inclusive health recovery as a main concern; this is the motivator for a responding strategy. This strategy is participatory, and the process is progressive; achievement of a new normality is the final goal, with new development and levels of empowerment. PMID:27703797

  14. Unexploded ordnance detection experiments at extensive fully ground-truthed test sites at Yuma Proving Ground and Eglin AFB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeLuca, Clyde C.; Marinelli, Vincent R.; Ressler, Marc A.; Ton, Tuan T.

    1999-08-01

    The US Army Research Laboratory (ARL), under the sponsorship of the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program, is conducting experiments to establish and enhance the ability of low-frequency, ultra-wideband synthetic aperture radar (SAR) to detect and discriminate unexploded ordnance (UXO). Preliminary investigations using ARL's BoomSAR - a UWB radar mounted atop a mobile boom lift platform - concluded that the radar image texture and frequency-dependent scattering from mines and mine-like targets could be exploited in the development of automatic target detection algorithms. To support further investigations, ARL established extensive UXO test sites at the US Army Yuma Proving Ground, Arizona, and Eglin AFB, Florida. The soils at both test sties have been characterized in terms of physical, chemical and electromagnetic properties. Precise location, depth, and orientation information was recorded for each of the approximately 500 inert ordnance test targets at each site. This information helps researchers to better understand the phenomenology associated with UXO target scattering and to more accurately evaluate and modify data processing programs. The ultimate goal is to develop innovative automatic target detection algorithms that provide a high probability of detection with an acceptable false-alarm rate under varying environmental conditions and operational scenarios. This paper present details on the design and characterization of the two test sites and some initial results from BoomSAR data collections.

  15. Grounding in Instant Messaging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox Tree, Jean E.; Mayer, Sarah A.; Betts, Teresa E.

    2011-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated predictions of the "collaborative theory of language use" (Clark, 1996) as applied to instant messaging (IM). This theory describes how the presence and absence of different grounding constraints causes people to interact differently across different communicative media (Clark & Brennan, 1991). In Study 1, we…

  16. Ground truth report 1975 Phoenix microwave experiment. [Joint Soil Moisture Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanchard, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    Direct measurements of soil moisture obtained in conjunction with aircraft data flights near Phoenix, Arizona in March, 1975 are summarized. The data were collected for the Joint Soil Moisture Experiment.

  17. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter–nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  18. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Schneck, K.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter–nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implicationsmore » of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.« less

  19. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeño, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, P.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.; SuperCDMS Collaboration

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  20. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeno, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, Priscilla B.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, Jeter C.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, W.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-05-01

    We examine the consequences of the effective eld theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering or current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. We demonstrate that spectral di*erences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. We also discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  1. Dark matter effective field theory scattering in direct detection experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Schneck, K.; Cabrera, B.; Cerdeño, D. G.; Mandic, V.; Rogers, H. E.; Agnese, R.; Anderson, A. J.; Asai, M.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Barker, D.; Basu Thakur, R.; Bauer, D. A.; Billard, J.; Borgland, A.; Brandt, D.; Brink, P. L.; Bunker, R.; Caldwell, D. O.; Calkins, R.; Chagani, H.; Chen, Y.; Cooley, J.; Cornell, B.; Crewdson, C. H.; Cushman, P.; Daal, M.; Di Stefano, P. C. F.; Doughty, T.; Esteban, L.; Fallows, S.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Godfrey, G. L.; Golwala, S. R.; Hall, J.; Harris, H. R.; Hofer, T.; Holmgren, D.; Hsu, L.; Huber, M. E.; Jardin, D. M.; Jastram, A.; Kamaev, O.; Kara, B.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kennedy, A.; Leder, A.; Loer, B.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lukens, P.; Mahapatra, R.; McCarthy, K. A.; Mirabolfathi, N.; Moffatt, R. A.; Morales Mendoza, J. D.; Oser, S. M.; Page, K.; Page, W. A.; Partridge, R.; Pepin, M.; Phipps, A.; Prasad, K.; Pyle, M.; Qiu, H.; Rau, W.; Redl, P.; Reisetter, A.; Ricci, Y.; Roberts, A.; Saab, T.; Sadoulet, B.; Sander, J.; Schnee, R. W.; Scorza, S.; Serfass, B.; Shank, B.; Speller, D.; Toback, D.; Upadhyayula, S.; Villano, A. N.; Welliver, B.; Wilson, J. S.; Wright, D. H.; Yang, X.; Yellin, S.; Yen, J. J.; Young, B. A.; Zhang, J.

    2015-05-18

    We examine the consequences of the effective field theory (EFT) of dark matter-nucleon scattering for current and proposed direct detection experiments. Exclusion limits on EFT coupling constants computed using the optimum interval method are presented for SuperCDMS Soudan, CDMS II, and LUX, and the necessity of combining results from multiple experiments in order to determine dark matter parameters is discussed. Here. we demonstrate that spectral differences between the standard dark matter model and a general EFT interaction can produce a bias when calculating exclusion limits and when developing signal models for likelihood and machine learning techniques. In conclusion, we discuss the implications of the EFT for the next-generation (G2) direct detection experiments and point out regions of complementarity in the EFT parameter space.

  2. Where is the patient in models of patient-centred care: a grounded theory study of total joint replacement patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patient-centered care ideally considers patient preferences, values and needs. However, it is unclear if policies such as wait time strategies for hip and knee replacement surgery (TJR) are patient-centred as they focus on an isolated episode of care. This paper describes the accounts of people scheduled to undergo TJR, focusing on their experience of (OA) as a chronic disease that has considerable impact on their everyday lives. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with participants scheduled to undergo TJR who were recruited from the practices of two orthopaedic surgeons. We first used maximum variation and then theoretical sampling based on age, sex and joint replaced. 33 participants (age 38-79 years; 17 female) were included in the analysis. 20 were scheduled for hip replacement and 13 for knee replacement. A constructivist approach to grounded theory guided sampling, data collection and analysis. Results While a specific hip or knee was the target for surgery, individuals experienced multiple-joint symptoms and comorbidities. Management of their health and daily lives was impacted by these combined experiences. Over time, they struggled to manage symptoms with varying degrees of access to and acceptance of pain medication, which was a source of constant concern. This was a multi-faceted issue with physicians reluctant to prescribe and many patients reluctant to take prescription pain medications due to their side effects. Conclusions For patients, TJR surgery is an acute intervention in the experience of chronic disease, OA and other comorbidities. While policy has focused on wait time as patient/surgeon decision for surgery to surgery date, the patient’s experience does not begin or end with surgery as they struggle to manage their pain. Our findings suggest that further work is needed to align the medical treatment of OA with the current policy emphasis on patient-centeredness. Patient-centred care may require a

  3. Extension of nanoconfined DNA: Quantitative comparison between experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iarko, V.; Werner, E.; Nyberg, L. K.; Müller, V.; Fritzsche, J.; Ambjörnsson, T.; Beech, J. P.; Tegenfeldt, J. O.; Mehlig, K.; Westerlund, F.; Mehlig, B.

    2015-12-01

    The extension of DNA confined to nanochannels has been studied intensively and in detail. However, quantitative comparisons between experiments and model calculations are difficult because most theoretical predictions involve undetermined prefactors, and because the model parameters (contour length, Kuhn length, effective width) are difficult to compute reliably, leading to substantial uncertainties. Here we use a recent asymptotically exact theory for the DNA extension in the "extended de Gennes regime" that allows us to compare experimental results with theory. For this purpose, we performed experiments measuring the mean DNA extension and its standard deviation while varying the channel geometry, dye intercalation ratio, and ionic strength of the buffer. The experimental results agree very well with theory at high ionic strengths, indicating that the model parameters are reliable. At low ionic strengths, the agreement is less good. We discuss possible reasons. In principle, our approach allows us to measure the Kuhn length and the effective width of a single DNA molecule and more generally of semiflexible polymers in solution.

  4. A horizontal vane radiometer: Experiment, theory, and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, David; Larraza, Andres; Garcia, Alejandro

    2016-03-01

    The existence of two motive forces on a Crookes radiometer has complicated the investigation of either force independently. The thermal creep shear force in particular has been subject to differing interpretations of the direction in which it acts and its order of magnitude. In this article, we provide a horizontal vane radiometer design which isolates the thermal creep shear force. The horizontal vane radiometer is explored through experiment, kinetic theory, and the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The qualitative agreement between the three methods of investigation is good except for a dependence of the force on the width of the vane even when the temperature gradient is narrower than the vane which is present in the DSMC method results but not in the theory. The experimental results qualitatively resemble the theory in this regard. The quantitative agreement between the three methods of investigation is better than an order of magnitude in the cases examined. The theory is closer to the experimental values for narrow vanes and the simulations are closer to the experimental values for the wide vanes. We find that the thermal creep force acts from the hot side to the cold side of the vane. We also find the peak in the radiometer's angular speed as a function of pressure is explained as much by the behavior of the drag force as by the behavior of the thermal creep force.

  5. Preliminary results from an airborne experiment using along-track interferometry for ground moving target indication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapin, Elaine; Chen, Curtis W.

    2005-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) along track interferometry (ATI) has been used extensively to measure ocean surface currents. Given its ability to measure small velocities of relatively radar-dark water surfaces, there is great potential that this technique can be adapted for ground moving target indication (GMTI) applications, particularly as a method for detecting very slwo targets with small radar cross sections. In this paper we describe preliminary results from an ATI GMTI experiment.

  6. SuReSim: simulating localization microscopy experiments from ground truth models.

    PubMed

    Venkataramani, Varun; Herrmannsdörfer, Frank; Heilemann, Mike; Kuner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has become a widely used tool in many areas of research. However, designing and validating super-resolution experiments to address a research question in a technically feasible and scientifically rigorous manner remains a fundamental challenge. We developed SuReSim, a software tool that simulates localization data of arbitrary three-dimensional structures represented by ground truth models, allowing users to systematically explore how changing experimental parameters can affect potential imaging outcomes.

  7. A theory for modeling ground-water flow in heterogeneous media

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooley, Richard L.

    2004-01-01

    Construction of a ground-water model for a field area is not a straightforward process. Data are virtually never complete or detailed enough to allow substitution into the model equations and direct computation of the results of interest. Formal model calibration through optimization, statistical, and geostatistical methods is being applied to an increasing extent to deal with this problem and provide for quantitative evaluation and uncertainty analysis of the model. However, these approaches are hampered by two pervasive problems: 1) nonlinearity of the solution of the model equations with respect to some of the model (or hydrogeologic) input variables (termed in this report system characteristics) and 2) detailed and generally unknown spatial variability (heterogeneity) of some of the system characteristics such as log hydraulic conductivity, specific storage, recharge and discharge, and boundary conditions. A theory is developed in this report to address these problems. The theory allows construction and analysis of a ground-water model of flow (and, by extension, transport) in heterogeneous media using a small number of lumped or smoothed system characteristics (termed parameters). The theory fully addresses both nonlinearity and heterogeneity in such a way that the parameters are not assumed to be effective values. The ground-water flow system is assumed to be adequately characterized by a set of spatially and temporally distributed discrete values, ?, of the system characteristics. This set contains both small-scale variability that cannot be described in a model and large-scale variability that can. The spatial and temporal variability in ? are accounted for by imagining ? to be generated by a stochastic process wherein ? is normally distributed, although normality is not essential. Because ? has too large a dimension to be estimated using the data normally available, for modeling purposes ? is replaced by a smoothed or lumped approximation y?. (where y is a

  8. A Grounded Theory Study of the Mentoring Process Involved With Undergraduate Athletic Training Students

    PubMed Central

    Pitney, William A; Ehlers, Greg G

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To gain insight regarding the mentoring processes involving students enrolled in athletic training education programs and to create a mentoring model. Design and Setting: We conducted a grounded theory study with students and mentors currently affiliated with 1 of 2 of the athletic training education programs accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs. Participants: Sixteen interviews were conducted, 13 with athletic training students and 3 with individuals identified as mentors. The students ranged in age from 20 to 24 years, with an average of 21.6 years. The mentors ranged from 24 to 38 years of age, with an average of 33.3 years. Participants were purposefully selected based on theoretic sampling and availability. Data Analysis: The transcribed interviews were analyzed using open-, axial-, and selective-coding procedures. Member checks, peer debriefings, and triangulation were used to ensure trustworthiness. Results: Students who acknowledged having a mentor overwhelmingly identified their clinical instructor in this role. The open-coding procedures produced 3 categories: (1) mentoring prerequisites, (2) interpersonal foundations, and (3) educational dimensions. Mentoring prerequisites included accessibility, approachability, and protégé initiative. Interpersonal foundations involved the mentor and protégé having congruent values, trust, and a personal relationship. The educational dimensions category involved the mentor facilitating knowledge and skill development, encouraging professional perspectives, and individualizing learning. Although a student-certified athletic trainer relationship can be grounded in either interpersonal or educational aspects, the data support the occurrence of an authentic mentoring relationship when the dimensions coalesced. Conclusions: Potential mentors must not only be accessible but also approachable by a prospective protégé. Mentoring takes initiative on behalf of a

  9. Night sky luminance under clear sky conditions: Theory vs. experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2014-05-01

    Sky glow is caused by both natural phenomena and factors of anthropogenic origin, and of the latter ground-based light sources are the most important contributors for they emit the spatially linked spectral radiant intensity distribution of artificial light sources, which are further modulated by local atmospheric optics and perceived as the diffuse light of a night sky. In other words, sky glow is closely related to a city's shape and pattern of luminaire distribution, in practical effect an almost arbitrary deployment of random orientation of heterogeneous electrical light sources. Thus the luminance gradation function measured in a suburban zone or near the edges of a city is linked to the City Pattern or vice versa. It is shown that clear sky luminance/radiance data recorded in an urban area can be used to retrieve the bulk luminous/radiant intensity distribution if some a-priori information on atmospheric aerosols is available. For instance, the single scattering albedo of aerosol particles is required under low turbidity conditions, as demonstrated on a targeted experiment in the city of Frýdek-Mistek. One of the main advantages of the retrieval method presented in this paper is that the single scattering approximation is satisfactorily accurate in characterizing the light field near the ground because the dominant contribution to the sky glow has originated from beams propagated along short optical paths.

  10. Exploring the Complexities of Learning Motivation in Pre-Service Teacher Education Students: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosskopf, Kristin

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded-theory study investigated learning motivation differences among three achievement groupings of undergraduate students enrolled in the College of Education and Human Sciences at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln. Nine students participated in in-depth interviews that explored their reasons for pursuing their degree,…

  11. The Importance of Student and Teacher Interactions for Disaffected Middle School Students: A Grounded Theory Study of Community Day Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Brianna L.

    2011-01-01

    Students who are expelled from school often demonstrate the need for alternative learning environments that respond to their academic disengagement as well as their behavioral challenges. Teachers in such environments contend with a variety of student needs while attempting to engage students in the learning process. This grounded theory study…

  12. School Counselors' Strategies for Social Justice Change: A Grounded Theory of What Works in the Real World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singh, Anneliese A.; Urbano, Alessandra; Haston, Meg; McMahon, Eleanor

    2010-01-01

    A qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to explore the strategies that 16 school counselors who self-identified as social justice agents used to advocate for systemic change within their school communities. Findings included seven overarching themes: (a) using political savvy to navigate power structures, (b) consciousness raising,…

  13. A Grounded Theory of Behavior Management Strategy Selection, Implementation, and Perceived Effectiveness Reported by First-Year Elementary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smart, Julie B.; Igo, L. Brent

    2010-01-01

    In this grounded theory study, 19 teachers were interviewed and then, in constant comparative fashion, the interview data were analyzed. The theoretical model that emerged from the data describes novice teachers' tendencies to select and implement differing strategies related to the severity of student behavior. When confronting mild student…

  14. Mentoring: A Grounded Theory Study Examining How the Relationship between the Mentor and Mentee Becomes Mutually Beneficial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, David Richard

    2013-01-01

    This grounded theory qualitative study examined the mentee/mentor relationship between five first year teachers and their five assigned mentors in a school district in Central Florida. To generate a model that seeks to explain how and why a mentee/mentor relationship changes and evolves from that of a single directional stream of information to…

  15. Discovering and Articulating What Is Not yet Known: Using Action Learning and Grounded Theory as a Knowledge Management Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauleen, David J.; Corbitt, Brian; Yoong, Pak

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a conceptual model for the discovery and articulation of emergent organizational knowledge, particularly knowledge that develops when people work with new technologies. Design/methodology/approach: The model is based on two widely accepted research methods--action learning and grounded theory--and is illustrated using a case…

  16. Accreditation Follow-Up: A Grounded Theory Qualitative Study of WASC-Accredited Private Schools in Southern California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serafin, Marsha Jean

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory qualitative study was to explore the value and effectiveness of key aspects of the accreditation process. The aspects explored were the procedures and structures that school leadership establishes in response both to the schoolwide Action Plans that a school develops as part of the self-study process and to the…

  17. Navigating Multiple Worlds: A Grounded Theory of Latina Students' Identity as Latina First-Generation College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Patricia Lynn

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore Latina students' identity as Latina first-generation college students. Constructivist grounded theory (Charmaz, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006) was used to explore two research questions: (a) For Latina students who are the first in their family to go to college, what is their understanding of being a Latina…

  18. Compatibility between Text Mining and Qualitative Research in the Perspectives of Grounded Theory, Content Analysis, and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Chong Ho; Jannasch-Pennell, Angel; DiGangi, Samuel

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this article is to illustrate that text mining and qualitative research are epistemologically compatible. First, like many qualitative research approaches, such as grounded theory, text mining encourages open-mindedness and discourages preconceptions. Contrary to the popular belief that text mining is a linear and fully automated…

  19. First Generation College Students in Engineering: A Grounded Theory Study of Family Influence on Academic Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Denise Rutledge

    2012-01-01

    This work develops a constructivist grounded theory describing the influence of family and those that serve a role similar to family on the academic decision making of undergraduate first generation in college (FGC) students majoring in engineering. FGC students, in this study, are students with neither parent having attained a bachelor's…

  20. Fluorescence-based video profile beam diagnostics: Theory and experience

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, D.; Gilpatrick, D.; Shinas, M.; Garcia, R.; Yuan, V.; Zander, M.

    1994-05-01

    Inelastic collisions between accelerated particles and residual gas in the accelerator vessel can cause the residual gas to fluoresce. The gas fluorescence intensity is proportional to the current density of the particle beam. This process provides the foundation for a video diagnostic system to measure the profile and position of accelerated particle beams. This, in fact, has proven to be a useful diagnostic at several installations. This paper describes the light production process resulting from beam -- residual gas interactions and gives formulas for estimating the beam radiance for various conditions. Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) radiance calculations will be used as an example. In addition, measurement experiences with the GTA video diagnostics system will be discussed.

  1. Negotiating the role of the professional nurse: The pedagogy of simulation: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Walton, Joni; Chute, Elizabeth; Ball, Lynda

    2011-01-01

    Simulation is the mainstay of laboratory education in health sciences, yet there is a void of pedagogy-the art and science of teaching. Nursing faculty does not have adequate evidence-based resources related to how students learn through simulation. The research questions that were addressed were as follows: (a) How do students learn using simulation? (b) What is the process of learning with simulations from the students' perspective? (c) What faculty teaching styles promote learning? and (d) How can faculty support students during simulation? Grounded theory methodology was used to explore how senior baccalaureate nursing students learn using simulation. Twenty-six students participated in this research study. Sixteen nursing students who completed two semesters of simulation courses volunteered for in-depth audio-taped interviews. In addition, there were two focus groups with five senior students in each group who validated findings and identified faculty teaching styles and supportive interventions. Negotiating the Role of the Professional Nurse was the core category, which included the following phases (I) feeling like an imposter, (II) trial and error, (III) taking it seriously, (IV) transference of skills and knowledge, and (V) professionalization. Faculty traits and teaching strategies for teaching with simulation were also identified. A conceptual model of the socialization process was developed to assist faculty in understanding the ways students learn with simulation and ways to facilitate their development. These findings provide a midrange theory for the pedagogy of simulation and will help faculty gain insight and help to assimilate into teaching-learning strategies. PMID:21925463

  2. New graduate nurses as knowledge brokers in general practice in New Zealand: a constructivist grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Hoare, Karen J; Mills, Jane; Francis, Karen

    2013-07-01

    Practice nursing in New Zealand is not well described in the literature. One survey illustrated that most of the New Zealand practice nurses sampled did not know of the country's two premier evidence-based health websites. A recent review compared general practice in the UK, New Zealand and Australia and found that whereas there had been significant developments in empowering the practice nurse workforce to run nurse-led clinics in the UK, New Zealand and Australia lagged behind. The aim of this reported constructivist grounded theory study was to investigate practice nurses' use of information. Conducted in Auckland, New Zealand, data were collected through ethnographic techniques in one general practice between September 2009 and January 2010 to enhance theoretical sensitivity to the area of information use. Subsequently, six experienced practice nurses (one twice after moving jobs) and five new graduate nurses from five different general practices were interviewed, using open-ended questions, between January 2010 and August 2011. Concurrent data collection and analysis occurred throughout the study period. The use of memos, the constant comparative method, data categorisation and finally, data abstraction resulted in the final theory of reciprocal role modelling. Experienced practice nurses role modelled clinical skills to new graduate nurses. Unexpectedly, new graduate nurses were unconscious experts at sourcing information and role modelled this skill to experienced practice nurses. Once this attribute was acknowledged by the experienced practice nurse, mutual learning occurred that enabled both groups of nurses to become better practitioners. Graduate nurses of the millennial generation were identified as a resource for experienced practice nurses who belong to the baby boomer generation and generation X. PMID:23638795

  3. Assessment of ground effects on the propagation of aircraft noise: The T-38A flight experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, W. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A flight experiment was conducted to investigate air to ground propagation of sound at gazing angles of incidence. A turbojet powered airplane was flown at altitudes ranging from 10 to 160 m over a 20-microphone array positioned over grass and concrete. The dependence of ground effects on frequency, incidence angle, and slant range was determined using two analysis methods. In one method, a microphone close to the flight path is compared to down range microphones. In the other method, comparisons are made between two microphones which were equidistant from the flight path but positioned over the two surfaces. In both methods, source directivity angle was the criterion by which portions of the microphone signals were compared. The ground effects were largest in the frequency range of 200 to 400 Hz and were found to be dependent on incidence angle and slant range. Ground effects measured for angles of incidence greater than 10 deg to 15 deg were near zero. Measured attenuation increased with increasing slant range for slant ranges less than 750 m. Theoretical predictions were found to be in good agreement with the major details of the measured results.

  4. Nitrate Accumulation and Leaching in Surface and Ground Water Based on Simulated Rainfall Experiments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong; Gao, Jian-en; Li, Xing-hua; Zhang, Shao-long; Wang, Hong-jie

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the process of nitrate accumulation and leaching in surface and ground water, we conducted simulated rainfall experiments. The experiments were performed in areas of 5.3 m2 with bare slopes of 3° that were treated with two nitrogen fertilizer inputs, high (22.5 g/m2 NH4NO3) and control (no fertilizer), and subjected to 2 hours of rainfall, with. From the 1st to the 7th experiments, the same content of fertilizer mixed with soil was uniformly applied to the soil surface at 10 minutes before rainfall, and no fertilizer was applied for the 8th through 12th experiments. Initially, the time-series nitrate concentration in the surface flow quickly increased, and then it rapidly decreased and gradually stabilized at a low level during the fertilizer experiments. The nitrogen loss in the surface flow primarily occurred during the first 18.6 minutes of rainfall. For the continuous fertilizer experiments, the mean nitrate concentrations in the groundwater flow remained at less than 10 mg/L before the 5th experiment, and after the 7th experiment, these nitrate concentrations were greater than 10 mg/L throughout the process. The time-series process of the changing concentration in the groundwater flow exhibited the same parabolic trend for each fertilizer experiment. However, the time at which the nitrate concentration began to change lagged behind the start time of groundwater flow by approximately 0.94 hours on average. The experiments were also performed with no fertilizer. In these experiments, the mean nitrate concentration of groundwater initially increased continuously, and then, the process exhibited the same parabolic trend as the results of the fertilization experiments. The nitrate concentration decreased in the subsequent experiments. Eight days after the 12 rainfall experiments, 50.53% of the total nitrate applied remained in the experimental soil. Nitrate residues mainly existed at the surface and in the bottom soil layers, which represents a

  5. Nitrate Accumulation and Leaching in Surface and Ground Water Based on Simulated Rainfall Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hong; Gao, Jian-en; Li, Xing-hua; Zhang, Shao-long; Wang, Hong-jie

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the process of nitrate accumulation and leaching in surface and ground water, we conducted simulated rainfall experiments. The experiments were performed in areas of 5.3 m2 with bare slopes of 3° that were treated with two nitrogen fertilizer inputs, high (22.5 g/m2 NH4NO3) and control (no fertilizer), and subjected to 2 hours of rainfall, with. From the 1st to the 7th experiments, the same content of fertilizer mixed with soil was uniformly applied to the soil surface at 10 minutes before rainfall, and no fertilizer was applied for the 8th through 12th experiments. Initially, the time-series nitrate concentration in the surface flow quickly increased, and then it rapidly decreased and gradually stabilized at a low level during the fertilizer experiments. The nitrogen loss in the surface flow primarily occurred during the first 18.6 minutes of rainfall. For the continuous fertilizer experiments, the mean nitrate concentrations in the groundwater flow remained at less than 10 mg/L before the 5th experiment, and after the 7th experiment, these nitrate concentrations were greater than 10 mg/L throughout the process. The time-series process of the changing concentration in the groundwater flow exhibited the same parabolic trend for each fertilizer experiment. However, the time at which the nitrate concentration began to change lagged behind the start time of groundwater flow by approximately 0.94 hours on average. The experiments were also performed with no fertilizer. In these experiments, the mean nitrate concentration of groundwater initially increased continuously, and then, the process exhibited the same parabolic trend as the results of the fertilization experiments. The nitrate concentration decreased in the subsequent experiments. Eight days after the 12 rainfall experiments, 50.53% of the total nitrate applied remained in the experimental soil. Nitrate residues mainly existed at the surface and in the bottom soil layers, which represents a

  6. The paradigm model of distorted doctor-patient relationship in Southern Iran: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Kalateh Sadati, Ahmad; Tabei, Seyed Ziauddin; Ebrahimzade, Najme; Zohri, Mohsen; Argasi, Hossein; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    The doctor-patient relationship (DPR) is one of the most important subjects in medical sociology and health policy. Due to mutual understanding, undistorted DPRs not only result in satisfaction of both doctors and patients, but also help to reduce financial burdens for patients and the health care system. The purpose of this research was to identify a DPR based on the qualitative paradigm model which is called the grounded theory (GT) methodology. The data were collected from 3 focus groups, the participants of which consisted of 21 faculty members of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. The content of the interviews, following the transcription stage, was organized based on open, axial, and selective coding. Results showed that DPR was distorted which was the consequence of an inefficient structure in the healthcare system which is related to several cultural barriers. In this situation, agency is determinant so the doctor's personality determines the direction of DPR. Consequences of such scenarios are the patient’s distrust, patient's dissatisfaction, lack of mutual understanding, patient suppression, and patient deception. Therefore, the health care system should emphasize on reforming its inefficient infrastructures, so that, besides being controlled and surveyed, physicians are socialized ethically. PMID:27390617

  7. Swedish pediatric diabetes teams' perception of fathers' involvement: A Grounded Theory study.

    PubMed

    Boman, Ase; Povlsen, Lene; Dahlborg-Lyckhage, Elisabeth; Borup, Ina

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze how Swedish pediatric diabetes teams perceived and discussed fathers' involvement in the care of their child with type 1 diabetes. It also aimed to discuss how the teams' attitudes towards the fathers' involvement developed during the data collection process. The Constructivist Grounded Theory design was used and data were collected during three repeated focus group discussions with three Swedish pediatric diabetes teams. The core category of the teams' perception of fathers' involvement emerged as: If dad attends, we are happy - if mom doesn't, we become concerned. Initially the teams balanced their perception of fathers' involvement on the mother's role as the primary caregiver. In connection with the teams' directed attention on fathers, in the focus group discussions, the teams' awareness of the importance of fathers increased. As a consequence, the team members began to encourage fathers' engagement in their child's care. We conclude that by increasing the teams' awareness of fathers as a health resource, an active health promotion perspective could be implemented in pediatric diabetes care.

  8. Assimilating to Hierarchical Culture: A Grounded Theory Study on Communication among Clinical Nurses.

    PubMed

    Kim, MinYoung; Oh, Seieun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a substantive model that accounts for the explanatory social processes of communication in which nurses were engaged in clinical settings in Korea. Grounded theory methodology was used in this study. A total of 15 clinical nurses participated in the in-depth interviews. "Assimilating to the hierarchical culture" emerged as the basic social process of communication in which the participants engaged in their work environments. To adapt to the cultures of their assigned wards, the nurses learned to be silent and engaged in their assimilation into the established hierarchy. The process of assimilation consisted of three phases based on the major goals that nurses worked to achieve: getting to know about unspoken rules, persevering within the culture, and acting as senior nurse. Seven strategies and actions utilized to achieve the major tasks emerged as subcategories, including receiving strong disapproval, learning by observing, going silent, finding out what is acceptable, minimizing distress, taking advantages as senior nurse, and taking responsibilities as senior nurse. The findings identified how the pattern of communication in nursing organizations affected the way in which nurses were assimilated into organizational culture, from individual nurses' perspectives. In order to improve the rigid working atmosphere and culture in nursing organizations and increase members' satisfaction with work and quality of life, managers and staff nurses need training that focuses on effective communication and encouraging peer opinion-sharing within horizontal relationships. Moreover, organization-level support should be provided to create an environment that encourages free expression.

  9. Development of the Thai healthy aging model: A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Thiamwong, Ladda; McManus, Michael S; Suwanno, Jom

    2013-06-01

    To develop a model of healthy aging from the perspective of Thais, a grounded theory approach, including in-depth interviews and focus groups, was used. A purposive sample of 39 community-dwelling adults aged 40-85 years old was interviewed. The Thai healthy aging model composed of three themes: normality, nature, and dharma. In Thai, they are called tham-ma-da, tham-ma-chat, and tham-ma, or "Thai 3Ts". The theme of normality encompasses subthemes of staying physically active by being involved in plenty of physical activities, and being mentally active with creative and thoughtful hobbies and work. The theme of nature encompasses subthemes of living simply and being careful with money. The theme of dharma encompasses subthemes of enjoyment through helping family and participating in community activities, staying away from stress and worries by talking openly and honestly with someone, making merit, and helping other people without expecting anything in return. A greater understanding of healthy aging is a benefit for older adults and healthcare providers in an intervention-design process. Research can contribute valuable information to shape policy for healthy aging as well.

  10. Exploring student nurse anesthetist stressors and coping using grounded theory methodology.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Joy Kieffer

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the challenges that recent graduates of nurse anesthesia programs coped with during their anesthesia curriculum from their perspective. The initial research questions for this study were: From the graduates'perspective, what were the stressors that they encountered during their nurse anesthesia program? And how did they successfully negotiate those stressors in order to graduate from their program? This phenomenon was studied using grounded theory methodology. The data were collected by individual, semistructured, in-depth interviews with 12 recent nurse anesthesia program graduates, from 5 different nurse anesthesia programs, who have been out of school for less than 2 years. This exploration into student nurse anesthetist stress and coping articulates 3 phases of development as these students progressed through their program. The phases are transitioning in (first 9 months of program), finding their way (9 to 18 months into program), and transitioning out (18 to 28 months into program). Coping mechanisms employed by the participants were problem focused, emotion focused, and a combination of the 2. Recommendations for action and future research are discussed.

  11. Decision-making regarding organ donation in Korean adults: A grounded-theory study.

    PubMed

    Yeun, Eun Ja; Kwon, Young Mi; Kim, Jung A

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the hidden patterns of behavior leading toward the decision to donate organs. Thirteen registrants at the Association for Organ Sharing in Korea were recruited. Data were collected using in-depth interview and the interview transcripts were analyzed using Glaserian grounded-theory methodology. The main problem of participants was "body attachment" and the core category (management process) was determined to be "pursuing life." The theme consisted of four phases, which were: "hesitating," "investigating," "releasing," and "re-discovering. " Therefore, to increase organ donations, it is important to find a strategy that will create positive attitudes about organ donation through education and public relations. These results explain and provide a deeper understanding of the main problem that Korean people have about organ donation and their management of decision-making processes. These findings can help care providers to facilitate the decision-making process and respond to public needs while taking into account the sociocultural context within which decisions are made.

  12. Utilizing grounded theory to explore the information-seeking behavior of senior nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Vicky; Holtslander, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    Background: The ability to find and retrieve information efficiently is an important skill for undergraduate nursing students. Yet a number of studies reveal that nursing students are not confident in their library searching skills and encounter barriers to retrieving relevant information for assignments. Objectives: This grounded theory study examined strategies used by students to locate information for class assignments and identified barriers to their success. Methods: Purposive sampling was used to recruit eleven students, who were asked to record their searching processes while completing a class assignment, and semi-structured, open-ended, audiotaped interviews took place to discuss the students' journals and solicit additional data. Methods of information seeking, strategies used to find information, and barriers to searching were identified. Results: Students' main concern was frustration caused by the challenge of choosing appropriate words or phrases to query databases. The central theme that united all categories and explained most of the variation among the data was “discovering vocabulary.” Conclusions: Teaching strategies to identify possible words and phrases to use when querying information sources should be emphasized more in the information literacy training of undergraduate nursing students. PMID:22272155

  13. The evolutionary development of the scientific mind: A grounded theory of adventuring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maloney, Katrina Martin

    Teaching and learning science is hard, and the cognitive skills needed to be successful in science are complex. Science educators have explored a number of different ways to teach and learn science that impacts the widest variety of learners in a classroom. The grounded theory of adventuring explains both why scientific thinking is an evolutionarily important trait and illustrates a common thread throughout a variety of teaching and learning behaviors. Adventuring incorporates the dimensions of exploring, mavericking, and acquiring and applying skills that are the hallmarks of positive science education. The disciplines of psychology, sociology, biology, and ecology are connected in this study in order to fully illustrate the complexities of the subject. By exploring the psychology/sociology of teachers teaching science and students learning science, and connecting that to the biology of the hardware, this study explains how we could be teaching and learning science in a way for which our brains are best suited, and in ways that reach all learners.

  14. Nursing Challenges in Motivating Nursing Students through Clinical Education: A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Nasrin, Hanifi; Soroor, Parvizy; Soodabeh, Joolaee

    2012-01-01

    Nurses are the first role models for students in clinical settings. They can have a significant role on students' motivation. The purpose of this study was to explore the understanding of nursing students and instructors concerning the role of nurses in motivating nursing students through clinical education. The sampling was first started purposefully and continued with theoretical sampling. The study collected qualitative data through semistructured and interactive interviews with 16 nursing students and 4 nursing instructors. All interviews were recorded, transcribed, and analyzed using grounded theory approach. One important pattern emerged in this study was the “concerns of becoming a nurse,” which itself consisted of three categories: “nurses clinical competency,” “nurses as full-scale mirror of the future,” and “Monitoring and modeling through clinical education” (as the core variable). The findings showed that the nurses' manners of performance as well as the profession's prospect have a fundamental role in the process of formation of motivation through clinical education. Students find an insight into the nursing profession by substituting themselves in the place of a nurse, and as result, are or are not motivated towards the clinical education. PMID:22830005

  15. Analysis of the decision-making process leading to appendectomy: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Gerry; Weibull, Henrik; Larsson, Bodil Wilde

    2004-11-01

    The aim was to develop a theoretical understanding of the decision-making process leading to appendectomy. A qualitative interview study was performed in the grounded theory tradition using the constant comparative method to analyze data. The study setting was one county hospital and two local hospitals in Sweden, where 11 surgeons and 15 surgical nurses were interviewed. A model was developed which suggests that surgeons' decision making regarding appendectomy is formed by the interplay between their medical assessment of the patient's condition and a set of contextual characteristics. The latter consist of three interacting factors: (1) organizational conditions, (2) the professional actors' individual characteristics and interaction, and (3) the personal characteristics of the patient and his or her family or relatives. In case the outcome of medical assessment is ambiguous, the risk evaluation and final decision will be influenced by an interaction of the contextual characteristics. It was concluded that, compared to existing, rational models of decision making, the model presented identified potentially important contextual characteristics and an outline on when they come into play.

  16. Client-public health nurse relationships in child health care: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K

    1992-08-01

    Client-public health nurse relationships are considered to be important in nursing literature. However, little research in nursing has touched this area. The purpose of this paper is to describe a study of the patterns of interaction in terms of relationships between clients (mother and child under 1 year of age) and public health nurses in child health care at Finnish health centres. The qualitative data were collected by observing client-public health nurse interactions during visits. In total, 1554 interactions were observed over 2 years from 20 visits to child health centres. The grounded theory method was used in this study. Various relationships were identified between child and mother, child and public health nurse and mother and public health nurse. The relationship between child and mother during the visit was called a tender, protective and persuasive relationship. The relationship between child and public health nurse was called a persuasive and entertainment relationship. The main relationship between mother and public health nurse was called relationship supporting self-confidence. Suggestions for nursing practice and further research are made. PMID:1506539

  17. Opium addiction in patients with coronary artery disease: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Farahani, Mansoureh A; Ghaffari, Fatemeh; Seyed Fatemi, Naiemeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: There are widespread misconceptions about the positive effects of opium on coronary artery disease (CAD). Thus, we performed a study to explore the opium addiction process contributing factors among CAD patients using a grounded theory approach. Methods: The sample comprised 30 addicted CAD patients and their family members, physicians, nurses and friends. Purposive and theoretical sampling was employed; semi-structured interviews were conducted. Coding and constant comparative analysis techniques were as proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1998). Results: The core category was ‘Fighting for Survival’, comprising three main themes, namely, ‘the gateway’, ‘blowing into the fire’ and ‘getting stuck in the mud’. Conclusion: Increasing knowledge about the adverse effects of opium on the cardiovascular system would reinforce prevention and rehabilitation measures. Involving patients’ family-members in addiction prevention and rehabilitation programs and referring patients to specialized rehabilitation centres could help patients quit opium. Healthcare providers (HCPs) should notice to the effects of opium consumption among CAD patients; nursing care must be holistic in nature. Although opium is stigmatised in Iran, HCPs must treat addicted CAD patients similar to other patients. Nursing students’ must be aware of the negative effects of illegal drugs on CAD patients and the misconceptions regarding the positive effects thereof. Any misconceptions must be probed and clarified. Rehabilitation centres must be supervised by cardiologists and HCPs. PMID:26793658

  18. Assessment of learning powered mobility use--applying grounded theory to occupational performance.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Lisbeth; Durkin, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    Collaboration by two grounded theory researchers, who each had developed a learning continuum instrument, led to the emergence of a new tool for assessment of learning powered mobility use. We undertook a rigorous process of comparative reanalysis that included merging, modifying, and expanding our previous research findings. A new instrument together with its facilitating strategies emerged in the course of revisits to our existing rich account of data taken from real environment powered mobility practice over an extensive time period. Instrument descriptors, categories, phases, and stages allow a facilitator to assess actual phase and plot actual occupational performance and provide a learner with the just right challenge through the learning process. Facilitating strategies are described for each of the phases and provide directions for involvement during learner performance. The learning approach is led by a belief system that the intervention is user-led, working in partnership and empowering the learner. The new assessment tool is inclusive of every potential powered mobility user because it focuses on the whole continuum of the learning process of powered mobility use from novice to expert. The new tool was appraised by clinicians and has been used successfully in clinical practice in the United Kingdom and Sweden.

  19. Negotiating the equivocality of palliative care: a grounded theory of team communicative processes in inpatient medicine.

    PubMed

    Ledford, Christy J W; Canzona, Mollie Rose; Cafferty, Lauren A; Kalish, Virginia B

    2016-01-01

    In the majority of U.S. hospitals, inpatient medicine teams make palliative care decisions in the absence of a formalized palliative system. Using a grounded theory approach, interviews with inpatient team members were systematically analyzed to uncover how participants conceptualize palliative care and how they regard the communicative structures that underlie its delivery. During analysis, Weick's model of organizing emerged as a framework that fit the data. The 39 participant inpatient team members discussed palliative care as primarily a communicative process. Themes describing the meaning of palliative care emerged around the concepts of receiver of care, timeline of care, and location of care. The emerging model included four stages in the communicative processes of inpatient palliative care: (a) interpret the need, (b) initiate the conversation, (c) integrate the processes, and (d) identify what works. In contrast to stable, focused palliative care teams or hospice care teams, which have prescribed patient populations and processes, the inpatient medicine team faces the equivocality of providing palliative care within a broader practice. This research offers a four-phase model to show how these inpatient teams communicate within this context. Implications for the provision of palliative care are discussed.

  20. The paradigm model of distorted doctor-patient relationship in Southern Iran: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Kalateh Sadati, Ahmad; Tabei, Seyed Ziauddin; Ebrahimzade, Najme; Zohri, Mohsen; Argasi, Hossein; Bagheri Lankarani, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    The doctor-patient relationship (DPR) is one of the most important subjects in medical sociology and health policy. Due to mutual understanding, undistorted DPRs not only result in satisfaction of both doctors and patients, but also help to reduce financial burdens for patients and the health care system. The purpose of this research was to identify a DPR based on the qualitative paradigm model which is called the grounded theory (GT) methodology. The data were collected from 3 focus groups, the participants of which consisted of 21 faculty members of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. The content of the interviews, following the transcription stage, was organized based on open, axial, and selective coding. Results showed that DPR was distorted which was the consequence of an inefficient structure in the healthcare system which is related to several cultural barriers. In this situation, agency is determinant so the doctor's personality determines the direction of DPR. Consequences of such scenarios are the patient's distrust, patient's dissatisfaction, lack of mutual understanding, patient suppression, and patient deception. Therefore, the health care system should emphasize on reforming its inefficient infrastructures, so that, besides being controlled and surveyed, physicians are socialized ethically. PMID:27390617

  1. Correlation Between Accretion Theory and Spontaneous Rotation Experiments*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landreman, M.; Coppi, B.; di Sanzo, C.

    2007-11-01

    The main observations that are consistent with the accretion theory [1] of the spontaneous rotation phenomenon include: i) the reversal of the direction of rotation in the transition from the L- to the H confinement regime that is attributed, by the theory, to the inversion of the phase velocity direction of ballooning modes excited at the edge of the plasma column; ii) the propagation of angular momentum from the outer edge toward the center of the plasma column during the L-H transition; iii) the strong effects of the magnetic field topology of the outermost magnetic surfaces and of the edge plasma regimes on the magnitude and direction of the spontaneous rotation; and iv) the intrinsic connection between spontaneous rotation and the plasma transport properties. The transition in the phase velocity direction of the considered modes is related to that which led [2] to the first experimental identification of collisional drift modes by a (linear) Q-machine where the transition marked the switch-off and on of modes with different mode numbers. A quantitative analysis of the factors that enter the application of the theory to current experiments (e.g. Alcator C-Mod) is given and the developments that this involves are discussed. *Sponsored in part by the US D.O.E. and the N.S.F. [1] B. Coppi, Nucl. Fus. 42, 1 (2002) [2] B. Coppi, H. W. Hendel, et al, PPPL Report MATT-523 (1967)

  2. Pendulating—A grounded theory explaining patients’ behavior shortly after having a leg amputated due to vascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Ulla Riis; Hommel, Ami; Bååth, Carina; Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although the group of vascular leg amputated patients constitutes some of the most vulnerable and frail on the orthopedic wards, previous research of amputated patients has focused on patients attending gait training in rehabilitation facilities leaving the patient experience shortly after surgery unexplored. Understanding patients’ behavior shortly after amputation could inform health professionals in regard to how these vulnerable patients’ needs at hospital can be met as well as how to plan for care post-discharge. Aim To construct a grounded theory (GT) explaining patients’ behavior shortly after having a leg amputated as a result of vascular disease. Method In line with constructivist GT methodology, data from ethnographic observations and interviews were simultaneously collected and analyzed using the constant comparative method covering the patients’ experiences during the first 4 weeks post-surgery. Data collection was guided by theoretical sampling and comprised 11 patients. A GT was constructed. Results Patients went through a three-phased process as they realized they were experiencing a life-changing event. The first phase was “Losing control” and comprised the sub-categories “Being overwhelmed” and “Facing dependency.” The second phase was “Digesting the shock” and comprised the sub-categories “Swallowing the life-changing decision,” “Detecting the amputated body” and “Struggling dualism.” The third phase was “Regaining control” and comprised the sub-categories “Managing consequences” and “Building-up hope and self-motivation.” “Pendulating” was identified as the core category describing the general pattern of behavior and illustrated how patients were swinging both cognitively and emotionally throughout the process. Conclusion The theory of “Pendulating” offers a tool to understand the amputated patients’ behavior and underlying concerns and to recognize where they are in the

  3. Men who batter intimate partners: a grounded theory study of the development of male violence in intimate partner relationships.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Donna Scott; Brackley, Margaret

    2005-04-01

    Intimate partner violence is a serious and pervasive problem in U.S. society, with 25% of women and 7.6% of men reporting physical abuse by an intimate partner each year. Understanding the risk factors for development of violence is essential toward the development of interventions to reduce partner violence. Much of the understanding about the development of partner violence is based on research with victims rather than perpetrators. The study was conducted with men convicted of assault on an intimate female partner. Grounded theory was the method used to analyze data from interviews with 16 men participating in a batterers' intervention and prevention program. From the data, the Violent Couples Model was developed. The primary elements of the Violent Couples Model are justifying violence, minimizing violence, childhood exposure to violence, ineffective anger management, childhood experience of violence, and ineffective conflict resolution. Social and familial factors serve as moderating elements. Contextual elements of the model include power and control, social isolation, desensitization, insecure maternal relationships, the view of violence as a private problem, ambivalent intimate relationships, objectification of women, immaturity, lack of awareness about what constitutes violence, mistrust, traditional views of the roles of women, financial issues, and jealousy. Interventions indicated in the model are primary, or preventive, in nature. The model focuses on prevention efforts with the family as a whole, rather than on batterers alone. PMID:16020047

  4. Men who batter intimate partners: a grounded theory study of the development of male violence in intimate partner relationships.

    PubMed

    Tilley, Donna Scott; Brackley, Margaret

    2005-04-01

    Intimate partner violence is a serious and pervasive problem in U.S. society, with 25% of women and 7.6% of men reporting physical abuse by an intimate partner each year. Understanding the risk factors for development of violence is essential toward the development of interventions to reduce partner violence. Much of the understanding about the development of partner violence is based on research with victims rather than perpetrators. The study was conducted with men convicted of assault on an intimate female partner. Grounded theory was the method used to analyze data from interviews with 16 men participating in a batterers' intervention and prevention program. From the data, the Violent Couples Model was developed. The primary elements of the Violent Couples Model are justifying violence, minimizing violence, childhood exposure to violence, ineffective anger management, childhood experience of violence, and ineffective conflict resolution. Social and familial factors serve as moderating elements. Contextual elements of the model include power and control, social isolation, desensitization, insecure maternal relationships, the view of violence as a private problem, ambivalent intimate relationships, objectification of women, immaturity, lack of awareness about what constitutes violence, mistrust, traditional views of the roles of women, financial issues, and jealousy. Interventions indicated in the model are primary, or preventive, in nature. The model focuses on prevention efforts with the family as a whole, rather than on batterers alone.

  5. Design of a 40/50 GHz satellite ground station for fade mitigation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koudelka, O.; Schmidt, M.; Ebert, J.

    2013-05-01

    Due to the increasing demand in satellite capacity, driven by applications such as high-definition television (HDTV), 3D-TV and interactive broadband services, higher frequency bands will have to be exploited. The capacity on Ku-band is already becoming scarce and Ka-band systems are more commonly used. It can be expected that 40 and 50 GHz (Q and V band) will have to be used in the future. At these frequencies the wave propagation effects have a significant impact on the performance. The traditional approach of implementing large fade margins in the system design is not suitable as it leads to expensive ground terminals. Fade mitigation by adaptive coding and modulation (ACM) is a cost-efficient method. To investigate the Q/V-band for future commercial exploitation, ESA's ALPHASAT satellite will provide experimental payloads for communications and wave propagation experiments. In Graz a Q/V-band ground station is currently under development. It will be equipped with a 3 m tracking antenna, a 50 W Klystron amplifier and a 290 K LNA. Fade mitigation experiments will be conducted, initially using DVB-S2 modems which allow to vary the modulation scheme, the Forward Error Correction code and the symbol rate under control of the ACM computer. In addition, uplink power control can be combined with the ACM methods. A specially developed signal analyser provides precise measurement of the signal/noise ratio. In addition, propagation data will be available from a beacon receiver, also developed by Joanneum Research. Important goals of the experiment are to investigate the reliability of links under realistic operating conditions using ACM and to develop efficient ACM and signal/noise ratio measurement algorithms which can be later implemented in optimised modems for Q/V-band. The paper describes the ground station design and addresses the planned fade mitigation experiments.

  6. Ground testing of array modules for the photovoltaic array space power (PASP) experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert K.; Grier, Norman T.

    1987-01-01

    One of the objectives of the PASP experiment is the verification of cost-effective ground simulations of high-voltage solar array/space-environment interactions by comparing the results with flight data. These ground tests consist of electrical characterization, thermal cycling, and plasma chamber simulations. The results of the latter tests are reported. Five array modules which are representative of the flight arrays were tested. The module types are planar silicon, planar gallium arsenide, planar silicon passivated with an integrally deposited cover glass, mini-Cassegrainian concentrator, and SLATS concentrator. The modules were biased to -1000 V in varying plasma densities from 4 x 103 to 2 x 105 e-/cu cm. Each array was tested in both dark and illuminated conditions with a load resistance. In addition to monitoring arcing during the plasma tests, the arrays were visually inspected and electrically characterized before and after exposure in the chamber. The electrical results are tabulated and briefly discussed.

  7. Skylab program earth resources experiment package: Ground truth data for test sites (SL-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Field measurements were performed at selected ground sites in order to provide comparative calibration measurements of sensors for the Earth Resources Experiment Package. Specifically, the solar radiation (400 to 1300 namometers) and thermal radiation (8-14 micrometers) were measured. Sites employed for the thermal measurements consisted of warm and cold water lakes. The thermal brightness temperature of the lake water, the temperature and humidity profile above the lake, and near surface meteorology (wind speed, pressure, etc.) were measured near the time of overpass. Sites employed for the solar radiation measurements were two desert type sites. Ground measurements consisted of: (1) direct solar radiation - optical depth; (2) diffuse solar radiation; (3) total solar radiation, (4) target directional (normal) reflectance; (5) target hemispherical reflectance; and (6) near surface meteorology.

  8. Sexual life and fertility desire in long-term HIV serodiscordant couples in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Even though remarkable progress has been achieved, HIV/AIDS continues to be a major global health priority. HIV discordant relationship is one of the emerging issues in HIV prevention endeavour. In Ethiopia, very little is known about HIV-serodiscordant couples particularly how they manage their sexual relationship and fertility desire. Therefore, we conduct this study with the aim of exploring the experiences of HIV discordant couples about their sexual life, and fertility desire in the context of long-term relationships in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods A grounded theory approach was employed using in-depth interviews among 36 informants in ART/PMTCT centers of three public hospitals, a health center and one PLHIV association in Addis Ababa. Theoretical sampling was used to recruit 28 clients who lived in a discordant relationship and eight health care providers as key informants. Data collection and analysis were undertaken simultaneously using a constant comparison. The analysis was facilitated using OpenCode software. Results A grounded theory pertaining to sexual life and desire to have a child among HIV discordant couples emerged as “maintaining the relationship” as a core category. Couples pass through a social process of struggle to maintain their relationship. The causal conditions for couples to enter into the process of struggle to maintain their relationship were collectively categorized as “Entering in-to a transition” (knowing HIV serostatus) and this includes mismatch of desire to have a child, controversy on safe sex versus desire to have a child, and undeniable change in sexual desire and practice through time were the features in entering into-transition. Then after the transition, couples engaged in certain actions/strategies that are categorized as “dealing with discordancy” such as entertaining partner’s interest by scarifying once self interest to maintain their relationship. Conclusions HIV discordant couples

  9. Being a Female Veteran: A Grounded Theory of Coping With Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Burkhart, Lisa; Hogan, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Female veterans, the fastest growing segment in the military, have unique pre-military histories and military experiences that are associated with post-military physical and mental health service needs. Successful treatment is contingent on a clearer understanding of the processes underlying these experiences. Data from 20 female veterans who served post–Gulf War were analyzed to generate a substantive theory of the process of women who entered, served in, and transitioned out of the military. Coping with transitions emerged as the basic psychosocial process used by female veterans. The Coping with transitions process is comprised of seven categories: Choosing the Military, Adapting to the Military, Being in the Military, Being a Female in the Military, Departing the Military, Experiencing Stressors of Being a Civilian, and Making Meaning of Being a Veteran-Civilian. The results of this study provide a theoretical description of the process female veterans experience when transitioning from a civilian identity, through military life stressors and adaptations, toward gaining a dual identity of being a veteran-civilian. PMID:25745366

  10. Chemical Characterization of the Aerosol During the CLAMS Experiment Using Aircraft and Ground Stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castanho, A. D.; Martins, J.; Artaxo, P.; Hobbs, P. V.; Remer, L.; Yamasoe, M.; Fattori, A.

    2002-05-01

    During the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) Experiment Nuclepore filters were collected in two ground stations and aboard the University of Wasghington's Convair 580 Reserarch Aircraft. The two ground stations were chosen in strategic positions to characterize the chemical composition, the mass concentration, black carbon (BC) content, and the absorption properties of the aerosol particles at the surface level. One of the stations was located at the Cheasapeake lighthouse (25 km from the coast) and the other one was located at the Wallops Island. Aerosol particles where collected in two stages, fine (d<2.5um) and coarse mode (2.5experiment. Airborne samples were also collected on the UW Convair 580 Aircraft. The aircraft samples where used to characterize the elemental composition, mass concentration, BC content, and absorption properties of the aerosol in the atmospheric column in the CLAMS Experiment area. Some of the filters were also submitted to Scanning Electron Microscopy analysis. The particulate matter mass for all the samples were obtained gravimetrically. The concentration of black carbon in the fine filters was optically determined by a broadband reflectance technique. The spectral (from UV to near IR) reflectance in the fine and coarse mode filter were also obtained with a FieldSpec ASD spectrometer. Aerosol elemental characterization (Na through Pb) was obtained by the PIXE (Particle induced X ray emission) analyses of the nuclepore filters. The sources of the aerosol measured at the ground stations were estimated by principal component analyses mainly in the Wallops Island, where a longer time series was collected. One of the main urban components identified in the aerosol during the experiment was sulfate. Black carbon

  11. Ground station hardware for the ATS-F millimeter wave experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffield, T. L.

    1973-01-01

    The results are presented of a program to design, fabricate, test, and install a primary ATS-F millimeter wave ground receiving station. Propagation parameters at millimeter waves are discussed along with the objective of the overall experiment. A general description is given of the receiving system and its function in the experiment. Typical receiver characteristics are presented which show that the experiment is entirely feasible from a link SNR standpoint. The receiving system hardware designs are discussed with separate treatment given to the propagation and the radiometer receiver designs. The modification and relocation are described of an existing 15-ft antenna to meet the ATS-F requirements. The design of a dual frequency feed subsystem and self calibration equipment is included.

  12. Grounding theories of W(e)Learn: a framework for online interprofessional education.

    PubMed

    Casimiro, Lynn; MacDonald, Colla J; Thompson, Terrie Lynn; Stodel, Emma J

    2009-07-01

    Interprofessional care (IPC) is a prerequisite for enhanced communication between healthcare team members, improved quality of care, and better outcomes for patients. A move to an IPC model requires changing the learning experiences of healthcare providers during and after their qualification program. With the rapid growth of online and blended approaches to learning, an educational framework that explains how to construct quality learning events to provide IPC is pressing. Such a framework would offer a quality standard to help educators design, develop, deliver, and evaluate online interprofessional education (IPE) programs. IPE is an extremely delicate process due to issues related to knowledge, status, power, accountability, personality traits, and culture that surround IPC. In this paper, a review of the pertinent literature that would inform the development of such a framework is presented. The review covers IPC, IPE, learning theories, and eLearning in healthcare. PMID:19517287

  13. Social meanings and understandings in patient-nurse interaction in the community practice setting: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The patient-nurse relationship is a traditional concern of healthcare research. However, patient-nurse interaction is under examined from a social perspective. Current research focuses mostly on specific contexts of care delivery and experience related to medical condition or illness, or to nurses’ speciality. Consequentially, this paper is about the social meanings and understandings at play within situated patient-nurse interaction in the community practice setting in a transforming healthcare service. Methods Grounded theory methodology was used and the research process was characterised by principles of theoretical sensitivity and constant comparative analysis. The field of study was four health centres in the community. The participants were patients and nurses representative of those attending or working in the health centres and meeting there by scheduled appointment. Data collection methods were observations, informal interviews and semi-structured interviews. Results Key properties of ‘Being a good patient, being a good nurse’, ‘Institutional experiences’ and ‘Expectations about healthcare’ were associated with the construction of a category entitled ‘Experience’. Those key properties captured that in an evolving healthcare environment individuals continually re-constructed their reality of being a patient or nurse as they endeavoured to perform appropriately; articulation of past and present healthcare experiences was important in that process. Modus operandi in role as patient was influenced by past experiences in healthcare and by those in non-healthcare institutions in terms of engagement and involvement (or not) in interaction. Patients’ expectations about interaction in healthcare included some uncertainly as they strived to make sense of the changing roles and expertise of nurses and, differentiating between the roles and expertise of nurses and doctors. Conclusions The importance of social meanings and understandings

  14. Nonadiabatic molecular dynamics simulations: synergies between theory and experiments.

    PubMed

    Tavernelli, Ivano

    2015-03-17

    Recent developments in nonadiabatic dynamics enabled ab inito simulations of complex ultrafast processes in the condensed phase. These advances have opened new avenues in the study of many photophysical and photochemical reactions triggered by the absorption of electromagnetic radiation. In particular, theoretical investigations can be combined with the most sophisticated femtosecond experimental techniques to guide the interpretation of measured time-resolved observables. At the same time, the availability of experimental data at high (spatial and time) resolution offers a unique opportunity for the benchmarking and the improvement of those theoretical models used to describe complex molecular systems in their natural environment. The established synergy between theory and experiments can produce a better understanding of new ultrafast physical and chemical processes at atomistic scale resolution. Furthermore, reliable ab inito molecular dynamics simulations can already be successfully employed as predictive tools to guide new experiments as well as the design of novel and better performing materials. In this paper, I will give a concise account on the state of the art of molecular dynamics simulations of complex molecular systems in their excited states. The principal aim of this approach is the description of a given system of interest under the most realistic ambient conditions including all environmental effects that influence experiments, for instance, the interaction with the solvent and with external time-dependent electric fields, temperature, and pressure. To this end, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is among the most efficient and accurate methods for the representation of the electronic dynamics, while trajectory surface hopping gives a valuable representation of the nuclear quantum dynamics in the excited states (including nonadiabatic effects). Concerning the environment and its effects on the dynamics, the quantum mechanics

  15. Nonadiabatic molecular dynamics simulations: synergies between theory and experiments.

    PubMed

    Tavernelli, Ivano

    2015-03-17

    Recent developments in nonadiabatic dynamics enabled ab inito simulations of complex ultrafast processes in the condensed phase. These advances have opened new avenues in the study of many photophysical and photochemical reactions triggered by the absorption of electromagnetic radiation. In particular, theoretical investigations can be combined with the most sophisticated femtosecond experimental techniques to guide the interpretation of measured time-resolved observables. At the same time, the availability of experimental data at high (spatial and time) resolution offers a unique opportunity for the benchmarking and the improvement of those theoretical models used to describe complex molecular systems in their natural environment. The established synergy between theory and experiments can produce a better understanding of new ultrafast physical and chemical processes at atomistic scale resolution. Furthermore, reliable ab inito molecular dynamics simulations can already be successfully employed as predictive tools to guide new experiments as well as the design of novel and better performing materials. In this paper, I will give a concise account on the state of the art of molecular dynamics simulations of complex molecular systems in their excited states. The principal aim of this approach is the description of a given system of interest under the most realistic ambient conditions including all environmental effects that influence experiments, for instance, the interaction with the solvent and with external time-dependent electric fields, temperature, and pressure. To this end, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) is among the most efficient and accurate methods for the representation of the electronic dynamics, while trajectory surface hopping gives a valuable representation of the nuclear quantum dynamics in the excited states (including nonadiabatic effects). Concerning the environment and its effects on the dynamics, the quantum mechanics

  16. General theory of experiment containing reproducible data: The reduction to an ideal experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nigmatullin, Raoul R.; Zhang, Wei; Striccoli, Domenico

    2015-10-01

    The authors suggest a general theory for consideration of all experiments associated with measurements of reproducible data in one unified scheme. The suggested algorithm does not contain unjustified suppositions and the final function that is extracted from these measurements can be compared with hypothesis that is suggested by the theory adopted for the explanation of the object/phenomenon studied. This true function is free from the influence of the apparatus (instrumental) function and when the "best fit", or the most acceptable hypothesis, is absent, can be presented as a segment of the Fourier series. The discrete set of the decomposition coefficients describes the final function quantitatively and can serve as an intermediate model that coincides with the amplitude-frequency response (AFR) of the object studied. It can be used by theoreticians also for comparison of the suggested theory with experimental observations. Two examples (Raman spectra of the distilled water and exchange by packets between two wireless sensor nodes) confirm the basic elements of this general theory. From this general theory the following important conclusions follow: 1. The Prony's decomposition should be used in detection of the quasi-periodic processes and for quantitative description of reproducible data. 2. The segment of the Fourier series should be used as the fitting function for description of observable data corresponding to an ideal experiment. The transition from the initial Prony's decomposition to the conventional Fourier transform implies also the elimination of the apparatus function that plays an important role in the reproducible data processing. 3. The suggested theory will be helpful for creation of the unified metrological standard (UMS) that should be used in comparison of similar data obtained from the same object studied but in different laboratories with the usage of different equipment. 4. Many cases when the conventional theory confirms the experimental

  17. Exo-zodi detection capability of the Ground-Based European Nulling Interferometry Experiment (GENIE) instrument.

    PubMed

    Wallner, Oswald; Flatscher, Reinhold; Ergenzinger, Klaus

    2006-06-20

    The Ground-Based European Nulling Interferometry Experiment (GENIE) is intended as an Earth-based precursor for the European Darwin mission that will prepare the Darwin science program and demonstrate the required technology at system level. We propose a compact nulling interferometer design consisting of a two-telescope aperture configuration, an optional split-pupil add-on, and only four active control loops for counteracting environmentally induced disturbances. We show by simulation that the proposed instrument is able to detect, within a few minutes of observation time, exo-zodiacal dust clouds around Sunlike stars at 20 parsecs that are 20 times stronger than the local zodiacal dust cloud density.

  18. Liquid Structures and Physical Properties -- Ground Based Studies for ISS Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelton, K. F.; Bendert, J. C.; Mauro, N. A.

    2012-01-01

    Studies of electrostatically-levitated supercooled liquids have demonstrated strong short- and medium-range ordering in transition metal and alloy liquids, which can influence phase transitions like crystal nucleation and the glass transition. The structure is also related to the liquid properties. Planned ISS experiments will allow a deeper investigation of these results as well as the first investigations of a new type of coupling in crystal nucleation in primary crystallizing liquids, resulting from a linking of the stochastic processes of diffusion with interfacial-attachment. A brief description of the techniques used for ground-based studies and some results relevant to planned ISS investigations are discussed.

  19. The complexity of managing COPD exacerbations: a grounded theory study of European general practice

    PubMed Central

    Risør, Mette Bech; Spigt, Mark; Iversen, R; Godycki-Cwirko, M; Francis, N; Altiner, A; Andreeva, E; Kung, K; Melbye, H

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To understand the concerns and challenges faced by general practitioners (GPs) and respiratory physicians about primary care management of acute exacerbations in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Design 21 focus group discussions (FGDs) were performed in seven countries with a Grounded Theory approach. Each country performed three rounds of FGDs. Setting Primary and secondary care in Norway, Germany, Wales, Poland, Russia, The Netherlands, China (Hong Kong). Participants 142 GPs and respiratory physicians were chosen to include urban and rural GPs as well as hospital-based and out patient-clinic respiratory physicians. Results Management of acute COPD exacerbations is dealt with within a scope of concerns. These concerns range from ‘dealing with comorbidity’ through ‘having difficult patients’ to ‘confronting a hopeless disease’. The first concern displays medical uncertainty regarding diagnosis, medication and hospitalisation. These clinical processes become blurred by comorbidity and the social context of the patient. The second concern shows how patients receive the label ‘difficult’ exactly because they need complex attention, but even more because they are time consuming, do not take responsibility and are non-compliant. The third concern relates to the emotional reactions by the physicians when confronted with ‘a hopeless disease’ due to the fact that most of the patients do not improve and the treatment slows down the process at best. GPs and respiratory physicians balance these concerns with medical knowledge and practical, situational knowledge, trying to encompass the complexity of a medical condition. Conclusions Knowing the patient is essential when dealing with comorbidities as well as with difficult relations in the consultations on exacerbations. This study suggests that it is crucial to improve the collaboration between primary and secondary care, in terms of, for example, shared consultations

  20. How Iranian Medical Trainees Approach their Responsibilities in Clinical Settings; A Grounded Theory Research

    PubMed Central

    Asemani, Omid; Iman, Mohammad Taghi; Moattari, Marzieh; Khayyer, Mohammad; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Tabei, Seyed Ziaaddin

    2015-01-01

    Background: It seems we are now experiencing “responsibility problems” among medical trainees (MTs) and some of those recently graduated from medical schools in Iran. Training responsible professionals have always been one of the main concerns of medical educators. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of research in the literature on “responsibility” especially from the medical education point of view. Therefore, the present study was carried out with the aim of presenting a theoretical based framework for understanding how MTs approach their responsibilities in educational settings. Method: This qualitative study was conducted at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (SUMS) using the grounded theory methodology. 15 MTs and 10 clinical experts and professional nurses were purposefully chosen as participants. Data was analyzed using the methodology suggested by Corbin and Strauss, 1998. Results: “Try to find acceptance toward expectations”, “try to be committed to meet the expectations” and “try to cope with unacceptable expectations” were three main categories extracted based on the research data. Abstractly, the main objective for using these processes was “to preserve the integrity of student identity” which was the core category of this research too. Moreover, it was also found that practically, “responsibility” is considerably influenced by lots of positive and negative contextual and intervening conditions. Conclusion: “Acceptance” was the most decisive variable highly effective in MTs’ responsibility. Therefore, investigating the “process of acceptance” regarding the involved contextual and intervening conditions might help medical educators correctly identify and effectively control negative factors and reinforce the constructive ones that affect the concept of responsibility in MTs. PMID:26379351

  1. Work and Risk: Perceptions of Nuclear-Power Personnel. a Study in Grounded Theory.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields, Claire Dewitt

    1992-01-01

    The utility industry has devoted time and money to assure personnel within nuclear power plants are informed about occupational risks. Radiation-protection training programs are designed to present information to employees about occupational radiation and protective procedures. Work -related concerns are known to create stress, affect the morale of the workforce, influence collective bargaining, and increase compensation claims. This study was designed to determine perceptions of risk among employees of nuclear power plants and identify variables that influence these perceptions. Four power plants were included in the study, one in Canada and three in the United States. Data were generated through participant observations and interviews of 350 participants during a period of 3 weeks at each plant. Data were gathered and analyzed following procedures advanced by Grounded Theory, a naturalistic methodology used in this study. Training content, information, and communication materials were additional sources of data. Findings indicated employees believed health and safety risks existed within the work environment. Perceptions of risk were influenced by training quality, the work environment, nuclear myths and images of the general public, and fears of family members. Among the three groups of workers, administration personnel, security personnel, and radiation workers, the latter identified a larger number of risks. Workers perceived radiation risks, shift work, and steam pipe ruptures as high-level concerns. Experiencing stress, making mistakes, and fear of sabotage were concerns shared among all employee groups at various levels of concern. Strategies developed by employees were used to control risk. Strategies included teamwork, humor, monitoring, avoidance, reframing, and activism. When risks were perceived as uncontrollable, the employee left the plant. A coping strategy of transferring concerns about radiological risks to nonradiological risks were uncovered in

  2. Assimilating to Hierarchical Culture: A Grounded Theory Study on Communication among Clinical Nurses

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a substantive model that accounts for the explanatory social processes of communication in which nurses were engaged in clinical settings in Korea. Grounded theory methodology was used in this study. A total of 15 clinical nurses participated in the in-depth interviews. “Assimilating to the hierarchical culture” emerged as the basic social process of communication in which the participants engaged in their work environments. To adapt to the cultures of their assigned wards, the nurses learned to be silent and engaged in their assimilation into the established hierarchy. The process of assimilation consisted of three phases based on the major goals that nurses worked to achieve: getting to know about unspoken rules, persevering within the culture, and acting as senior nurse. Seven strategies and actions utilized to achieve the major tasks emerged as subcategories, including receiving strong disapproval, learning by observing, going silent, finding out what is acceptable, minimizing distress, taking advantages as senior nurse, and taking responsibilities as senior nurse. The findings identified how the pattern of communication in nursing organizations affected the way in which nurses were assimilated into organizational culture, from individual nurses’ perspectives. In order to improve the rigid working atmosphere and culture in nursing organizations and increase members’ satisfaction with work and quality of life, managers and staff nurses need training that focuses on effective communication and encouraging peer opinion-sharing within horizontal relationships. Moreover, organization-level support should be provided to create an environment that encourages free expression. PMID:27253389

  3. Assimilating to Hierarchical Culture: A Grounded Theory Study on Communication among Clinical Nurses.

    PubMed

    Kim, MinYoung; Oh, Seieun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a substantive model that accounts for the explanatory social processes of communication in which nurses were engaged in clinical settings in Korea. Grounded theory methodology was used in this study. A total of 15 clinical nurses participated in the in-depth interviews. "Assimilating to the hierarchical culture" emerged as the basic social process of communication in which the participants engaged in their work environments. To adapt to the cultures of their assigned wards, the nurses learned to be silent and engaged in their assimilation into the established hierarchy. The process of assimilation consisted of three phases based on the major goals that nurses worked to achieve: getting to know about unspoken rules, persevering within the culture, and acting as senior nurse. Seven strategies and actions utilized to achieve the major tasks emerged as subcategories, including receiving strong disapproval, learning by observing, going silent, finding out what is acceptable, minimizing distress, taking advantages as senior nurse, and taking responsibilities as senior nurse. The findings identified how the pattern of communication in nursing organizations affected the way in which nurses were assimilated into organizational culture, from individual nurses' perspectives. In order to improve the rigid working atmosphere and culture in nursing organizations and increase members' satisfaction with work and quality of life, managers and staff nurses need training that focuses on effective communication and encouraging peer opinion-sharing within horizontal relationships. Moreover, organization-level support should be provided to create an environment that encourages free expression. PMID:27253389

  4. Longevity of Paramecium Cell Clone under Microgravity in Space: Hypergravity Experiment as a Ground Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Y.; Mogami, Y.; Baba, S. A.

    We proposed a space experiment aboard International Space Station to explore the effects of the stay under microgravity on the longevity of Paramecium cell clone (Mogami et al., 1999, Adv. Space Res., 23/12, 2087-2090). Former space experiments in CYTOS and Space Lab D-1 demonstrated that Paramecium proliferated faster in space. In combination with the fact that aging process in Paramecium is largely related to the fission age, the results of the proliferation experiment in space may predict that the longevity of Paramecium decreases when measured by clock time. As a ground simulation of the space experiment, we made an experiment to assess the aging process under hypergravity, which is known to reduce the proliferation rate. As a result, the length of autogamy immaturity increased when measured by clock time, whereas it remained unchanged by fission age (Kato et al., 2003, Zool. Sci., 1373-1380). It is therefore expected that autogamy immaturity in the measure of the clock time would be shortened under microgravity. Since the length of clonal life span of Paramecium is related to the length of autogamy immaturity, the result of hypergravity experiment may support the prediction above; i.e. a decrease in the clonal longevity of Paramecium under microgravity in space.

  5. Shear Wave Generation and Modeling Ground Motion From a Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Underground Explosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitarka, Arben; Mellors, Robert; Rodgers, Arthur; Vorobiev, Oleg; Ezzedine, Souheil; Matzel, Eric; Ford, Sean; Walter, Bill; Antoun, Tarabay; Wagoner, Jeffery; Pasyanos, Mike; Petersson, Anders; Sjogreen, Bjorn

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the excitation and propagation of far-field (epicentral distance larger than 20 m) seismic waves by analyzing and modeling ground motion from an underground chemical explosion recorded during the Source Physics Experiment (SPE), Nevada. The far-field recorded ground motion is characterized by complex features, such as large azimuthal variations in P- and S-wave amplitudes, as well as substantial energy on the tangential component of motion. Shear wave energy is also observed on the tangential component of the near-field motion (epicentral distance smaller than 20 m) suggesting that shear waves were generated at or very near the source. These features become more pronounced as the waves propagate away from the source. We address the shear wave generation during the explosion by modeling ground motion waveforms recorded in the frequency range 0.01-20 Hz, at distances of up to 1 km. We used a physics based approach that combines hydrodynamic modeling of the source with anelastic modeling of wave propagation in order to separate the contributions from the source and near-source wave scattering on shear motion generation. We found that wave propagation scattering caused by the near-source geological environment, including surface topography, contributes to enhancement of shear waves generated from the explosion source. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-06NA25946/ NST11-NCNS-TM-EXP-PD15.

  6. Shuttle Payload Ground Command and Control: An Experiment Implementation Combustion Module-2 Software Development, STS-107

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carek, David Andrew

    2003-01-01

    This presentation covers the design of a command and control architecture developed by the author for the Combustion Module-2 microgravity experiment, which flew aboard the STS-107 Shuttle mission, The design was implemented to satisfy a hybrid network that utilized TCP/IP for both the onboard segment and ground segment, with an intermediary unreliable transport for the space to ground segment. With the infusion of Internet networking technologies into Space Shuttle, Space Station, and spacecraft avionics systems, comes the need for robust methodologies for ground command and control. Considerations of high bit error links, and unreliable transport over intermittent links must be considered in such systems. Internet protocols applied to these systems, coupled with the appropriate application layer protections, can provide adequate communication architectures for command and control. However, there are inherent limitations and additional complexities added by the use of Internet protocols that must be considered during the design. This presentation will discuss the rationale for the: framework and protocol algorithms developed by the author. A summary of design considerations, implantation issues, and learned lessons will be will be presented. A summary of mission results using this communications architecture will be presented. Additionally, areas of further needed investigation will be identified.

  7. Spaceflight Holography Investigation in a Virtual Apparatus (SHIVA) Ground Experiments and Concepts for Flight Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miernik, Janie H.; Trolinger, James D.; Lackey, Jeffrey D.; Milton, Martha E.; Waggoner, Jason; Pope, Regina D.

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses the development and design of an experimental test cell for ground-based testing to provide requirements for the Spaceflight Holography Investigation in a Virtual Apparatus (SHIVA) experiment. Ground-based testing of a hardware breadboard set-up is being conducted at Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama. SHIVA objectives are to test and validate new solutions of the general equation of motion of a particle in a fluid, including particle-particle interaction, wall effects, motion at higher Reynolds Number, and a motion and dissolution of a crystal moving in a fluid. These objectives will be achieved by recording a large number of holograms of particle motion in the International Space Station (ISS) glove box under controlled conditions, extracting the precise three- dimensional position of all the particles as a function of time, and examining the effects of all parameters on the motion of the particles. This paper will describe the mechanistic approach to enabling the SHIVA experiment to be performed in a ISS glove box in microgravity. Because the particles are very small, surface tension becomes a major consideration in designing the mechanical method to meet the experiments objectives in microgravity, To keep a particle or particles in the center of the test cell long enough to perform and record the experiment and to preclude contribution to particle motion, requires avoiding any initial velocity in particle placement. A Particle Injection Mechanism (PIM) designed for microgravity has been devised and tested to enable SHIVA imaging. Also, a test cell capture mechanism, to secure the test cell during vibration on a specially designed shaker table for the SHIVA experiment will be described. Concepts for flight design are also presented.

  8. Theory and Experiments of Topologically Driven Flows in Nematic Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conklin, Christopher; Vinals, Jorge; Peng, Chenhui; Guo, Yubing; Shiyanovskii, Sergij; Wei, Qi-Huo; Lavrentovich, Oleg

    We present theory, numerical solutions, and experiments of electric field driven flows in nematic liquid crystals (LC) in which a patterned molecular orientation acts as an electrolytic active medium. Surface patterning by photoalignment in a thin cell is used to create various alignments of a nematic liquid crystal film, that may include topological defects. The active patterned LC electrolyte converts electric field energy into LC flows and transport of embedded particles of any type (fluid, solid, gaseous) along predesigned trajectories, and without limitation on the electric nature (charge, polarizability) of these particles and interfaces. Flow is quadratic in the electric field which leads, even for an imposed AC field, to systematic flow velocities, including persistent vortices of controllable rotation speed and direction. The latter are essential for micro- and nanoscale mixing applications.

  9. Constraining PCP Violating Varying Alpha Theory through Laboratory Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Maity, Debaprasad; Chen, Pisin; /NCTS, Taipei /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2012-06-06

    In this report we have studied the implication of a parity and charge-parity (PCP) violating interaction in varying alpha theory. Due to this interaction, the state of photon polarization can change when it passes through a strong background magnetic field. We have calculated the optical rotation and ellipticity of the plane of polarization of an electromagnetic wave and tested our results against different laboratory experiments. Our model contains a PCP violating parameter {beta} and a scale of alpha variation {omega}. By analyzing the laboratory experimental data, we found the most stringent constraints on our model parameters to be 1 {le} {omega} {le} 10{sup 13} GeV{sup 2} and -0.5 {le} {beta} {le} 0.5. We also found that with the existing experimental input parameters it is very difficult to detect the ellipticity in the near future.

  10. FONO - A difficult case for theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Timothy J.; Rice, Julia E.

    1992-01-01

    High levels of ab initio theory are used to investigate the equilibrium structures, vibrational spectra, and relative energetics of FNO2, cis-FONO, and trans-FONO isomers. FNO2 is determined to be 36.9 +/- 2.5 kcal/mol (0 K) more stable than cis-FONO, which is more stable than trans-FONO by 2.5 +/- 1.0 kcal/mol (0 K). The molecular structure of cis-FONO is shown to have typical F-O and central O-N single bond distances, indicating that cis-FONO has a structure analogous to HONO. The computed vibrational spectrum of cis-FONO is shown to be consistent with IR matrix isolation experiments, including isotopic shifts. The experimentally deduced structure of FONO is shown to be incorrect because one of the vibrational bands included in the normal coordinate analysis is either a combination band or an overtone.

  11. Particle filtration: A comparison between theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Quintard, M.; Whitaker, S.

    1994-12-01

    The process of filtration of non-charged, submicron particles represents an example of transport in homogeneous and heterogeneous porous media that can be analyzed using the method of volume averaging. In this article the authors develop the local volume averaged particle transport equation for a homogeneous filter and compare the results with experimental data. The particle continuity equation is represented in terms of the first correction to the Smoluchowski equation that takes into account particle inertia effects for small Stokes numbers. This leads to a cellular efficiency that contains a minimum in the efficiency as a function of the particle size, and this allows them to identify the most penetrating particle size. Comparison of the theory with experimental results indicates that the first correction to the Smoluchowski equation gives reasonable results for the most penetrating particle size and for smaller particles; however, results for larger particles clearly indicate the need to extend the Smoluchowski equation to include higher order corrections. The influence of local heterogeneities on the measured filter efficiency may account for some of the observed differences between theory and experiment.

  12. Development of a conceptual framework for understanding financial barriers to care among patients with cardiovascular-related chronic disease: a protocol for a qualitative (grounded theory) study

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, David J.T.; Manns, Braden J.; Hemmelgarn, Brenda R.; Sanmartin, Claudia; King-Shier, Kathryn M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases may face financial barriers to accessing health care, even in Canada, where universal health care insurance is in place. No current theory or framework is adequate for understanding the impact of financial barriers to care on these patients or how they experience financial barriers. The overall objective of this study is to develop a framework for understanding the role of financial barriers to care in the lives of patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases and the impact of such barriers on their health. Methods: We will perform an inductive qualitative grounded theory study to develop a framework to understand the effect of financial barriers to care on patients with cardiovascular-related chronic diseases. We will use semistructured interviews (face-to-face and telephone) with a purposive sample of adult patients from Alberta with at least 1 of hypertension, diabetes, heart disease or stroke. We will analyze interview transcripts in triplicate using grounded theory coding techniques, including open, focused and axial coding, following the principle of constant comparison. Interviews and analysis will be done iteratively to theoretical saturation. Member checking will be used to enhance rigour. Interpretation: A comprehensive framework for understanding financial barriers to accessing health care is instrumental for both researchers and clinicians who care for patients with chronic diseases. Such a framework would enable a better understanding of patient behaviour and nonadherence to recommended medical therapies and lifestyle modifications. PMID:27398378

  13. Granular flow in a rotating drum: Experiments and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hung, C. Y.; Stark, C. P.; Capart, H.; Li, L.; Smith, B.; Grinspun, E.

    2015-12-01

    Erosion at the base of a debris flow fundamentally controls how large the flow will become and how far it will travel. Experimental observations of this important phenomenon are rather limited, and this lack has led theoretical treatments to making ad hoc assumptions about the basal process. In light of this, we carried out a combination of laboratory experiments and theoretical analysis of granular flow in a rotating drum, a canonical example of steady grain motion in which entrainment rates can be precisely controlled. Our main result is that basal sediment is entrained as the velocity profile adjusts to imbalance in the flow of kinetic energy.Our experimental apparatus consisted of a 40cm-diameter drum, 4cm-deep, half-filled with 2.3mm grains. Rotation rates varied from 1-70 rpm. We varied the effective scale by varying effective gravity from 1g to 70g on a geotechnical centrifuge. The field of grain motion was recorded using high-speed video and mapped using particle tracking velocimetry. In tandem we developed a depth-averaged theory using balance equations for mass, momentum and kinetic energy. We assumed a linearized GDR Midi granular rheology [da Cruz, 2005] and a Coulomb friction law along the sidewalls [Jop et al., 2005]. A scaling analysis of our equations yields a dimensionless "entrainment number" En, which neatly parametrizes the flow geometry in the drum for a wide range of variables, e.g., rotation rate and effective gravity. At low En, the flow profile is planar and kinetic energy is balanced locally in the flow layer. At high En, the flow profile is sigmoidal (yin-yang shaped) and the kinetic energy is dominated by longitudinal, streamwise transfer. We observe different scaling behavior under each of these flow regimes, e.g., between En and kinetic energy, surface slope and flow depth. Our theory correctly predicts their scaling exponents and the value of En at which the regime transition takes place. We are also able to make corrections for

  14. Status Update on the GPM Ground Validation Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) Field Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Walt; Krajewski, Witold

    2013-04-01

    The overarching objective of integrated hydrologic ground validation activities supporting the Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) is to provide better understanding of the strengths and limitations of the satellite products, in the context of hydrologic applications. To this end, the GPM Ground Validation (GV) program is conducting the first of several hydrology-oriented field efforts: the Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) experiment. IFloodS will be conducted in the central to northeastern part of Iowa in Midwestern United States during the months of April-June, 2013. Specific science objectives and related goals for the IFloodS experiment can be summarized as follows: 1. Quantify the physical characteristics and space/time variability of rain (rates, DSD, process/"regime") and map to satellite rainfall retrieval uncertainty. 2. Assess satellite rainfall retrieval uncertainties at instantaneous to daily time scales and evaluate propagation/impact of uncertainty in flood-prediction. 3. Assess hydrologic predictive skill as a function of space/time scales, basin morphology, and land use/cover. 4. Discern the relative roles of rainfall quantities such as rate and accumulation as compared to other factors (e.g. transport of water in the drainage network) in flood genesis. 5. Refine approaches to "integrated hydrologic GV" concept based on IFloodS experiences and apply to future GPM Integrated GV field efforts. These objectives will be achieved via the deployment of the NASA NPOL S-band and D3R Ka/Ku-band dual-polarimetric radars, University of Iowa X-band dual-polarimetric radars, a large network of paired rain gauge platforms with attendant soil moisture and temperature probes, a large network of both 2D Video and Parsivel disdrometers, and USDA-ARS gauge and soil-moisture measurements (in collaboration with the NASA SMAP mission). The aforementioned measurements will be used to complement existing operational WSR-88D S-band polarimetric radar measurements

  15. Analysis and Ground Testing for Validation of the Inflatable Sunshield in Space (ISIS) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lienard, Sebastien; Johnston, John; Adams, Mike; Stanley, Diane; Alfano, Jean-Pierre; Romanacci, Paolo

    2000-01-01

    The Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST) design requires a large sunshield to protect the large aperture mirror and instrument module from constant solar exposure at its L2 orbit. The structural dynamics of the sunshield must be modeled in order to predict disturbances to the observatory attitude control system and gauge effects on the line of site jitter. Models of large, non-linear membrane systems are not well understood and have not been successfully demonstrated. To answer questions about sunshield dynamic behavior and demonstrate controlled deployment, the NGST project is flying a Pathfinder experiment, the Inflatable Sunshield in Space (ISIS). This paper discusses in detail the modeling and ground-testing efforts performed at the Goddard Space Flight Center to: validate analytical tools for characterizing the dynamic behavior of the deployed sunshield, qualify the experiment for the Space Shuttle, and verify the functionality of the system. Included in the discussion will be test parameters, test setups, problems encountered, and test results.

  16. Ground-based activities in preparation of SELENE ISS experiment on self-rewetting fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savino, R.; Abe, Y.; Castagnolo, D.; Celata, G. P.; Kabov, O.; Kawaji, M.; Sato, M.; Tanaka, K.; Thome, J. R.; Van Vaerenbergh, S.

    2011-12-01

    SELENE (SELf rewetting fluids for thermal ENErgy management) is a microgravity experiment proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) in response to the Announcement of Opportunities for Physical Sciences. Main objectives of the microgravity research onboard ISS include the quantitative investigation of heat transfer performances of "self-rewetting fluids" and "nano self-rewetting fluids" in model heat pipes and validation of adequate theoretical and numerical modelling able to predict their behaviour in microgravity conditions. This article summarizes the results of ground-based research activities in preparation of the microgravity experiments. They include: 1) thermophysical properties measurements; 2) study of thermo-soluto-capillary effects in micro-channels; 3) numerical modelling; 4) thermal and concentration distribution measurements with optical (e.g. interferometric) and intrusive techniques; 5) surface tension-driven effects and thermal performances test on different capillary structures and heat pipes; 6) breadboards development and support to definition of scientific requirements.

  17. Pt{sup +}-catalyzed oxidation of methane: Theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Pavlov, M.; Blomberg, M.R.A.; Siegbahn, P.E.M.; Wesendrup, R.; Heinemann, C.; Schwarz, H.

    1997-02-20

    The oxidation of methane with molecular oxygen using the atomic platinum cation as a catalyst, yielding methanol, formaldehyde, and higher oxidation products, has been studied both computationally and experimentally. The most relevant reaction pathways have been followed in detail. To this end a large number of stationary points, both minima and transition states, have been optimized using a hybrid density functional theory method (B3LYP). At these optimized geometries, energies have been calculated using both an empirical scaling scheme (PCI-80) and the B3LYP method employing extended basis sets with several polarization functions. Good agreement with available experimental data has been obtained. For the parts of the catalytic cycle where detailed experimental results have not been available, the new calculated results have complemented the experimental picture to reach an almost complete understanding of the reaction mechanisms. Spin-orbit effects have been incorporated using an empirical approach, which has lead to improved agreement with experiments. The new FTICR experiments reported in the present study have helped to clarify some of the most complicated reaction sequences. 61 refs., 9 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Linking theory to practice in introductory practice learning experiences.

    PubMed

    Fotheringham, Diane; Lamont, David; Macbride, Tamsin; MacKenzie, Laura

    2015-03-01

    Nurse educators internationally are challenged with finding a sufficient number of suitable practice learning experiences for student nurses. This paper reports on a study which aimed to evaluate the utilisation of specialised and highly technical environments ("new" environments) as first practice learning experiences for adult nursing students in the UK. A survey was conducted on 158 first year student nurses who were allocated to either "new" or "old" (those that have been traditionally used) environments. Data analysis was conducted using Mann-Whitney U test and exploratory factor analysis was performed. Results have demonstrated that all environments afford novice nurses the opportunity to observe or practice the essential skills of nursing. In addition, the "new" environments have revealed greater opportunity to observe and practice aspects of practice related to governance of care. This paper concludes that a nursing curriculum which makes clear association between the essential nature of nursing and practice based learning outcomes will help the student to appreciate contemporary nursing practice and to link nursing theory with practice. Further research is required to explain the observation that aspects of practice related to governance are more visible within highly technical areas of practice.

  19. Maintaining the balance: New Zealand secondary school nurses' perceptions of skin infections in young people--a grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Catherine I; Hoare, Karen J

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the perceptions of New Zealand secondary school nurses regarding skin infections in young people aged 14-18 years. A constructivist grounded theory method was adopted. Ten non-structured interviews were conducted with secondary school nurses working in Auckland, New Zealand, between January and July 2013. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed and analysed using all tenets of grounded theory that included writing memos, theoretical sampling and the constant comparative method. Analysis revealed the core category Maintaining the balance, which is presented as a grounded theory model. It represents the constant state of balancing the school nurse undergoes in trying to counter the risk to the student. The nurse attempts to tip the balance in favour of action, by reducing barriers to healthcare, providing youth-friendly, affordable and accessible healthcare, and following up until resolution is achieved. The nurse is aware that failing to monitor until resolution can again tip the fulcrum back to inaction, placing the young person at risk again. It is concluded that nurses are knowledgeable about the risks present in the communities they serve and are innovative in the methods they employ to ensure satisfactory outcomes for young people experiencing skin infections. School nursing is an evolving model for delivering primary healthcare to young people in New Zealand. The grounded theory model 'Maintaining the balance' describes a model of care where nursing services are delivered where young people spend time, and the nurse is immersed in the community. This model of care may be transferable to other healthcare situations.

  20. Data Analyses in Molecular Beam Experiments: Theory and Application.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandukwalla Pruisken, Gulnar

    The first part of this work deals with the general subject of data analysis in molecular beam experiments. We develop new and general schemes for extracting the centre -of-mass frame differential photodissociation cross section from the fragment time-of-flight (TOF) distributions obtained in laboratory experiments. The methodology involves elementary numerical computations and naturally incorporates the experimental resolution and statistical error analysis. As an important part of these developments, we perform a series of computer experiments which simulate the true situation in the laboratory. These simulations produce 'synthetic' TOF data and provide a perfect medium for testing and further developing our ideas on data analysis. Our studies have resulted in a particularly simple and powerful iterative procedure which we call the 'Inverse Quadrature Method'. This approach is a variant on the Gauss Quadrature technique for numerical integration and satisfies our criteria for TOF data analysis in the most efficient manner. We have also introduced another method called the 'Method of Moments' which is particularly suited for on-line data analysis. In the second part of this work, the new methodology is applied to a real laboratory experiment. We report the results of the one and two photon dissociation of Fe(CO) _5 at 248 nm. The experiment was done using a crossed laser-molecular beam set up with a rotatable mass spectrometer. Time of flight spectra of the primary iron containing photofragments were recorded under collision free conditions. The centre-of-mass velocity distributions extracted from the TOF data indicate that the one photon absorption process involves a sequential uncorrelated loss of CO ligands but is not governed by Boltzmann statistics. Model calculations based on the Separate Statistical Ensemble (SSE) theory show the right behavior but do not provide quantitative agreement with our experimental data. For the two photon dissociation of FE(CO)_5

  1. A Grounded Theory for Regional Development through the IT Offshoring Industry with the Triple-Helix Involvment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Villarreal de la Garza, Sonia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative grounded study was to explore the thoughts, experiences, and needs of potential clients and of the triple-helix members with the intention to establish a framework to support the development of the regional economy through the information technology (IT) and business processing outsourcing (BPO) offshoring industry.…

  2. Information needs and behaviors of geoscience educators: A grounded theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aber, Susan Ward

    2005-12-01

    Geoscience educators use a variety of resources and resource formats in their classroom teaching to facilitate student understanding of concepts and processes that define subject areas considered in the realm of geoscience. In this study of information needs and behaviors of geoscience educators, the researcher found that participants preferred visual media such as personal photographic and digital images, as well as published figures, animations, and cartoons, and that participants bypassed their academic libraries to meet these information needs. In order to investigate the role of information in developing introductory geoscience course and instruction, a grounded theory study was conducted through a qualitative paradigm with an interpretive approach and naturalistic inquiry. The theoretical and methodological framework was constructivism and sense-making. Research questions were posited on the nature of geoscience subject areas and the resources and resource formats used in conveying geoscience topics to science and non-science majors, as well as educators' preferences and concerns with curriculum and instruction. The underlying framework was to investigate the place of the academic library and librarian in the sense-making, constructivist approach of geoscience educators. A purposive sample of seven geoscience educators from four universities located in mid-western United States was identified as exemplary teachers by department chairpersons. A triangulation of data collection methods included semi-structured interviews, document reviews, and classroom observations. Data were analyzed using the constant comparative method, which included coding, categorizing, and interpreting for patterns and relationships. Contextual factors were identified and a simple model resulted showing the role of information in teaching for these participants. While participants developed lectures and demonstrations using intrapersonal knowledge and personal collections, one barrier

  3. Hopelessness as a basis for tuberculosis diagnostic delay in the Arkhangelsk region: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Data about delayed tuberculosis diagnosis in Northern Russia are scarce yet such knowledge could enhance the care of tuberculosis. The Arkhangelsk region is situated in the north of Russia, where the population is more than one million residents. The aim of the study was to understand factors influencing diagnostic delay among patients with tuberculosis in the Arkhangelsk region and to develop a theoretical model in order to explain diagnostic delay from the patients’ perspectives. Methods Twenty-three patients who had experienced diagnostic delay of tuberculosis were interviewed in Arkhangelsk. Using a qualitative approach, we conducted focus-group discussions for data gathering using Grounded Theory with the Paradigm Model to analyse the phenomenon of diagnostic delay. Results The study resulted in a theoretical model of the pathway of delay of tuberculosis diagnosis in the Arkhangelsk region in answer to the question: “Why and how do patients in the Arkhangelsk region delay tuberculosis diagnosis?” The model included categories of causal conditions, context and intervening conditions, action/interaction strategies, and consequences. The causal condition and main concern of the patients was that they were overpowered by hopelessness. Patients blamed policy, the administrative system, and doctors for their unfortunate life circumstances. This was accompanied by avoidance of health care, denial of their own health situations, and self-treatment. Only a deadly threat was a sufficient motivator for some patients to seek medical help. “Being overpowered by hopelessness” was identified as the core category that affected their self-esteem and influenced their entire lives, including family, work and social relations, and appeared even stronger in association with alcohol use. This category reflected the passive position of many patients in this situation, including their feelings of inability to change anything in their lives, to obtain employment

  4. The transition of childbirth practices among tribal women in Gujarat, India - a grounded theory approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Under the National Rural Health Mission, the current emphasis is on achieving universal institutional births through incentive schemes as part of reforms related to childbirth in India. There has been rapid progress in achieving this goal. To understand the choices made as well as practices and perceptions related to childbirth amongst tribal women in Gujarat and how these have been influenced by modernity in general and modernity brought in through maternal health policies. Method A model depicting the transition in childbirth practices amongst tribal women was constructed using the grounded theory approach with; 8 focus groups of women, 5 in depth interviews with traditional birth attendants, women, and service providers and field notes on informal discussions and observations. Results A transition in childbirth practices across generations was noted, i.e. a shift from home births attended by Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) to hospital births. The women and their families both adapted to and shaped this transition through a constant ’trade-off between desirable and essential’- the desirable being a traditional homebirth in secure surroundings and the essential being the survival of mother and baby by going to hospital. This transition was shaped by complex multiple factors: 1) Overall economic growth and access to modern medical care influencing women’s choices, 2) External context in terms of the international maternal health discourses and national policies, especially incentive schemes for promoting institutional deliveries, 3) Socialisation into medical childbirth practices, through exposure to many years of free outreach services for maternal and child health, 4) Loss of self reliance in the community as a consequence of role redefinition and deskilling of the TBAs and 5) Cultural belief that intervention is necessary during childbirth aiding easy acceptance of medical interventions. Conclusion In resource poor settings where choices are

  5. Tailoring a response to youth binge drinking in an Aboriginal Australian community: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background While Aboriginal Australian health providers prioritise identification of local community health needs and strategies, they do not always have the opportunity to access or interpret evidence-based literature to inform health improvement innovations. Research partnerships are therefore important when designing or modifying Aboriginal Australian health improvement initiatives and their evaluation. However, there are few models that outline the pragmatic steps by which research partners negotiate to develop, implement and evaluate community-based initiatives. The objective of this paper is to provide a theoretical model of the tailoring of health improvement initiatives by Aboriginal community-based service providers and partner university researchers. It draws from the case of the Beat da Binge community-initiated youth binge drinking harm reduction project in Yarrabah. Methods A theoretical model was developed using the constructivist grounded theory methods of concurrent sampling, data collection and analysis. Data was obtained from the recordings of reflective Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) processes with Aboriginal community partners and young people, and university researchers. CBPR data was supplemented with interviews with theoretically sampled project participants. The transcripts of CBPR recordings and interviews were imported into NVIVO and coded to identify categories and theoretical constructs. The identified categories were then developed into higher order concepts and the relationships between concepts identified until the central purpose of those involved in the project and the core process that facilitated that purpose were identified. Results The tailored alcohol harm reduction project resulted in clarification of the underlying local determinants of binge drinking, and a shift in the project design from a social marketing awareness campaign (based on short-term events) to a more robust advocacy for youth mentoring into

  6. Ground water pollution by roof runoff infiltration evidenced with multi-tracer experiments.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Adrian A; Hoehn, Eduard; Koch, Sabine

    2003-03-01

    The infiltration of urban roof runoff into well permeable subsurface material may have adverse effects on the ground water quality and endanger drinking water resources. Precipitation water from three different roofs of an industrial complex was channelled to a pit and infiltrated into a perialpine glaciofluvial gravel-and-sand aquifer. A shaft was constructed at the bottom of the pit and equipped with an array of TDR probes, lysimeters and suction cups that allowed measuring and sampling soil water at different depths. A fast infiltration flow was observed during natural rainfall events and during artificial infiltration experiments. For a better understanding of the behaviour of contaminants, experiments were conducted with cocktails of compounds of different reactivity (ammonium, strontium, atratone) and of non-reactive tracers (uranine, bromide, naphthionate), which represent different classes of pollutants. The experiment identified cation exchange reactions influencing the composition of the infiltrating water. These processes occurred under preferential flow conditions in macropores of the material. Measuring concentration changes under the controlled inflow of tracer experiments, the pollution potential was found to be high. Non-reactive tracers exhibited fast breakthrough and little sorption. PMID:12553990

  7. Ground water pollution by roof runoff infiltration evidenced with multi-tracer experiments.

    PubMed

    Ammann, Adrian A; Hoehn, Eduard; Koch, Sabine

    2003-03-01

    The infiltration of urban roof runoff into well permeable subsurface material may have adverse effects on the ground water quality and endanger drinking water resources. Precipitation water from three different roofs of an industrial complex was channelled to a pit and infiltrated into a perialpine glaciofluvial gravel-and-sand aquifer. A shaft was constructed at the bottom of the pit and equipped with an array of TDR probes, lysimeters and suction cups that allowed measuring and sampling soil water at different depths. A fast infiltration flow was observed during natural rainfall events and during artificial infiltration experiments. For a better understanding of the behaviour of contaminants, experiments were conducted with cocktails of compounds of different reactivity (ammonium, strontium, atratone) and of non-reactive tracers (uranine, bromide, naphthionate), which represent different classes of pollutants. The experiment identified cation exchange reactions influencing the composition of the infiltrating water. These processes occurred under preferential flow conditions in macropores of the material. Measuring concentration changes under the controlled inflow of tracer experiments, the pollution potential was found to be high. Non-reactive tracers exhibited fast breakthrough and little sorption.

  8. Space radiation research in Europe: flight experiments and ground-based studies.

    PubMed

    Durante, M; Reitz, G; Angerer, O

    2010-08-01

    Exposure to space radiation has long been acknowledged as a potential showstopper for long-duration manned interplanetary missions. In an effort to gain more information on space radiation risk and to develop countermeasures, NASA initiated several years ago a Space Radiation Health Program, which is currently supporting biological experiments performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. Accelerator-based radiobiology research in the field of space radiation research is also under way in Russia and Japan. The European Space Agency (ESA) supports research in the field in three main directions: spaceflight experiments on the International Space Station; modeling and simulations of the space radiation environment and transport; and, recently, ground-based radiobiology experiments exploiting the high-energy SIS18 synchrotron at GSI in Germany (IBER program). Several experiments are currently under way within IBER, and so far, beams of C and Fe-ions at energies between 11 and 1,000 MeV/n have been used in cell and tissue targets. PMID:20532544

  9. On the photophysics of metallophthalocyanine-based photothermal sensitizers: synergism between theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Giampaolo; Soldatova, Alexandra V; Rosa, Angela

    2008-03-01

    A comprehensive understanding of the factors governing the efficiency of metallophthalocyanine-based photothermal sensitizers requires the knowledge of their excited-state dynamics. This can only be properly gained when the nature and energy of the excited states (often spectroscopically silent) lying between the photogenerated state and the ground state are known. Here the excited state deactivation mechanism of two very promising metallophthalocyanine-based photothermal sensitizers, NiPc(OBu)(8) and NiNc(OBu)(8), is reviewed. It is shown that time dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) methods are capable to provide reliable information on the nature and energies of the low-lying excited states along the relaxation pathways. TDDFT calculations and ultrafast experiments consistently show that benzoannulation of the Pc ring modifies the photodeactivation mechanism of the photogenerated S(1)(pi,pi*) state by inducing substantial changes in the relative energies of the excited states lying between the S(1)(pi,pi*) state and the ground state. PMID:18178253

  10. Understanding Pulsed Plasma Jets with Advanced Simulations, Ground and Space Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatsonis, Nikolaos

    2004-11-01

    Pulsed plasma jets are found in diverse areas, such as thruster plume/spacecraft interactions, artificial release experiments, space plasma physics, and plasma materials processing. We review recent experimental and computational work and elucidate on physical characteristics and processes relevant to electric propulsion plumes. We present first results of experimental investigations of pulsed plasma thruster (PPT) plumes that led to the development of a new method of operation for triple and quadruple Langmuir probes. This novel current-mode method involves biasing all probe electrodes and requires the measurement of probe currents providing the electron temperature, the electron density and the ratio of ion speed to most probable thermal speed. We review the current-mode probe theory for a single species, two-temperature, collisionless plasma along with formal sensitivity analysis of the new diagnostic. The NASA Glenn Research Center laboratory Teflon® PPT used in the experiments was operating at discharge energies of 5, 20 and 40 Joules, with a pulse duration of 10-15 microseconds, ablating 20-50 micrograms/pulse. We present current-mode triple and quadruple probe measurements obtained at various locations in the plume of the plasma source. Extensive comparisons between double probe and current-mode probe measurements validate the new method. We present next computational modeling of plumes from a NASA Glenn Research Center laboratory micro Pulsed Plasma Thruster. The axisymmetric, hybrid (fluid/particle) methodology that introduced several new modeling and algorithmic approaches. Neutrals are modeled with the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method and ions with a Hybrid-Particle-in-Cell (hybrid-PIC) collisional method. Electrons are modeled as a massless fluid with a momentum equation. The Non-Time-Counter methodology is used for neutral-neutral, elastic ion-neutral, and charge exchange collisions. Ion-electron collisions are modeled with the use of a

  11. Control system design for spacecraft formation flying: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, Andrew Dunbar

    Spacecraft formation flying is an enabling technology for many future space science missions, such as separated spacecraft interferometers (SSI). However the sensing, control and coordination of such instruments pose many new design challenges. SSI missions will require precise relative sensing and control, fuel-efficient, fuel-balanced operation to maximize mission life and group-level autonomy to reduce operations costs. Enabling these new formation flying capabilities requires precise relative sensing and estimation, enhanced control capabilities such as cooperative control (multiple independent spacecraft acting together), group-level formation management and informed design of a system architecture to manage distributed sensing and control-system resources. This research defines an end-to-end control system, including the key elements unique to the formation flying problem: cooperative control, relative sensing, coordination, and the control-system architecture. A new control-system design optimizes performance under typical spacecraft constraints (e.g., on-off actuators, finite fuel, limited computation power, limited contact with ground control, etc.). Standard control techniques have been extended, and new ones synthesized to meet these goals. In designing this control system, several contributions have been made to the field of spacecraft formation flying control including: an analytic two-vehicle fuel-time-optimal cooperative control algorithm, a fast numeric multi-vehicle, optimal cooperative control algorithm that can be used as a feedforward or a feedback controller, a fleet-level coordinator for autonomous fuel balancing, validation of GPS-based relative sensing for formation flying, and trade studies of the relative control and relative-estimation-architecture design problems. These research contributions are mapped to possible applications for three spacecraft formation flying missions currently in development. The lessons learned from this research

  12. A passive seismic experiment and ground penetration radar to characterize subsurface cavities in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asmaidi Chan, Septriandi; Ismail Kaka, SanLinn

    2014-05-01

    We have carried out a small-scale passive seismic experiment over a known shallow cavity at King Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals in an attempt to characterize the near surface cavities. This experiment was conducted as part of a larger study to develop an integrated geophysical approach (i.e. seismic, gravity, resistivity and ground penetration radar) in detecting and characterizing shallow subsurface cavities. Characterizing shallow cavities is of particular interest in the eastern province of Saudi Arabia where many cavities were discovered during a number of construction projects. We used a Geospace passive seismic recording system to collect continuous data over a partly dolomitized limestone bed with several fractures and cavities. Systematically selected time series data at different times of the day were processed using Geopsy software developed by the SESAME (Site Effects Assessment using Ambient Excitations) project. Data from the 10 Hz geophone was used in this experiment and we extracted part of the data recorded during the night as this has been found to exclude most of the anthropologic noise that usually masks signals on data recorded during the day time. We analyzed time series data and performed spectral analysis. Horizontal-to-vertical ratio (H/V) and power spectral density (PSD) were performed as an enhancement tool to determine the resonance frequencies possibly associated with the shallow cavity. Various processing windows with 5% cosine tapers were applied to reduce spectral leakage. To retain the analysis at frequency range of interest between 0.1 to 20 Hz, a band-pass-filter with smoothing procedure described by Kamo and Omachi (1998) was applied. Moreover, the same frequency peaks were picked at each measuring point to check the stability of the H/V curve. The preliminary results (frequency peaks in the spectral H/V ambient ground motions as well as PSD plots) do not uniquely define the near surface cavity. However, further

  13. Grounded Learning Experience: Helping Students Learn Physics through Visuo-Haptic Priming and Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Shih-Chieh Douglas

    In this dissertation, I investigate the effects of a grounded learning experience on college students' mental models of physics systems. The grounded learning experience consisted of a priming stage and an instruction stage, and within each stage, one of two different types of visuo-haptic representation was applied: visuo-gestural simulation (visual modality and gestures) and visuo-haptic simulation (visual modality, gestures, and somatosensory information). A pilot study involving N = 23 college students examined how using different types of visuo-haptic representation in instruction affected people's mental model construction for physics systems. Participants' abilities to construct mental models were operationalized through their pretest-to-posttest gain scores for a basic physics system and their performance on a transfer task involving an advanced physics system. Findings from this pilot study revealed that, while both simulations significantly improved participants' mental modal construction for physics systems, visuo-haptic simulation was significantly better than visuo-gestural simulation. In addition, clinical interviews suggested that participants' mental model construction for physics systems benefited from receiving visuo-haptic simulation in a tutorial prior to the instruction stage. A dissertation study involving N = 96 college students examined how types of visuo-haptic representation in different applications support participants' mental model construction for physics systems. Participant's abilities to construct mental models were again operationalized through their pretest-to-posttest gain scores for a basic physics system and their performance on a transfer task involving an advanced physics system. Participants' physics misconceptions were also measured before and after the grounded learning experience. Findings from this dissertation study not only revealed that visuo-haptic simulation was significantly more effective in promoting mental model

  14. Design for human factors (DfHF): a grounded theory for integrating human factors into production design processes.

    PubMed

    Village, Judy; Searcy, Cory; Salustri, Filipo; Patrick Neumann, W

    2015-01-01

    The 'design for human factors' grounded theory explains 'how' human factors (HF) went from a reactive, after-injury programme in safety, to being proactively integrated into each step of the production design process. In this longitudinal case study collaboration with engineers and HF Specialists in a large electronics manufacturer, qualitative data (e.g. meetings, interviews, observations and reflections) were analysed using a grounded theory methodology. The central tenet in the theory is that when HF Specialists acclimated to the engineering process, language and tools, and strategically aligned HF to the design and business goals of the organisation, HF became a means to improve business performance. This led to engineers 'pulling' HF Specialists onto their team. HF targets were adopted into engineering tools to communicate HF concerns quantitatively, drive continuous improvement, visibly demonstrate change and lead to benchmarking. Senior management held engineers accountable for HF as a key performance indicator, thus integrating HF into the production design process. Practitioner Summary: Research and practice lack explanations about how HF can be integrated early in design of production systems. This three-year case study and the theory derived demonstrate how ergonomists changed their focus to align with design and business goals to integrate HF into the design process.

  15. Exploring the use of grounded theory as a methodological approach to examine the 'black box' of network leadership in the national quality forum.

    PubMed

    Hoflund, A Bryce

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes how grounded theory was used to investigate the "black box" of network leadership in the creation of the National Quality Forum. Scholars are beginning to recognize the importance of network organizations and are in the embryonic stages of collecting and analyzing data about network leadership processes. Grounded theory, with its focus on deriving theory from empirical data, offers researchers a distinctive way of studying little-known phenomena and is therefore well suited to exploring network leadership processes. Specifically, this paper provides an overview of grounded theory, a discussion of the appropriateness of grounded theory to investigating network phenomena, a description of how the research was conducted, and a discussion of the limitations and lessons learned from using this approach.

  16. A grounded theory approach towards understanding the self perceived effects of meditation on people being treated for cancer.

    PubMed

    Brennan, C; Stevens, J

    1998-10-01

    The activities undertaken by people suffering cancer and receiving oncology treatment are known to cause high levels of anxiety. In an oncology clinic in rural Australia, nurses and volunteers promoted the use of meditation to reduce the stress caused by the terminally associated illness and its treatments. The use and self-perceived effects of meditation by cancer sufferers and their partners was explored using a grounded theory approach. Data were gathered and analysed from a series of semi-structured interviews and the findings used to generate theory regarding the use of meditation within the oncology domain. A number of theories were generated by this data and they are discussed in relation to current nursing practice and future research.

  17. Theory and Modeling of the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassibry, J. T.; Stanic, M. D.; Awe, T. J.; Hanna, D. S.; Davis, J. S.; Hsu, S. C.; Witherspoon, F. D.

    2010-11-01

    High pressures and temperatures may be generated at the center an imploding plasma liner. These phenomena are being studied on the Plasma Liner Experiment (PLX) in which a spherical liner is formed via the merging of plasma jets. The basic physical processes include pulsed plasma acceleration, plasma jet propagation in a vacuum, plasma jet merging, liner formation, liner implosion, stagnation, and rarefaction. Each of these processes is dominated by different physics, requiring different models. For example, λei at the jet merging radius may be ˜1 cm, so that liner formation is partially collisionless, while liner implosion is collision dominated. Further, the liner transitions from optically thin to gray during the implosion. An overview of the theory and modeling plan in support of PLX will be given, which includes 1D rad-hydro, 3D hydro, 3D MHD, 2D PIC, and 2D hybrid codes. We will emphasize our recent 3D hydro modeling, which provides insights into liner formation, implosion, and effects of initial jet parameters on scaling of peak pressure.

  18. Single Molecule Spectroscopy of Monomeric LHCII: Experiment and Theory

    PubMed Central

    Malý, Pavel; Gruber, J. Michael; van Grondelle, Rienk; Mančal, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    We derive approximate equations of motion for excited state dynamics of a multilevel open quantum system weakly interacting with light to describe fluorescence-detected single molecule spectra. Based on the Frenkel exciton theory, we construct a model for the chlorophyll part of the LHCII complex of higher plants and its interaction with previously proposed excitation quencher in the form of the lutein molecule Lut 1. The resulting description is valid over a broad range of timescales relevant for single molecule spectroscopy, i.e. from ps to minutes. Validity of these equations is demonstrated by comparing simulations of ensemble and single-molecule spectra of monomeric LHCII with experiments. Using a conformational change of the LHCII protein as a switching mechanism, the intensity and spectral time traces of individual LHCII complexes are simulated, and the experimental statistical distributions are reproduced. Based on our model, it is shown that with reasonable assumptions about its interaction with chlorophylls, Lut 1 can act as an efficient fluorescence quencher in LHCII. PMID:27189196

  19. Electromagnetic fields radiated from electrostatic discharges: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Perry F.; Ondrejka, Arthur R.; Ma, Mark T.; Ladbury, John M.

    1988-02-01

    The fields radiated by electrostatic discharges (ESD) are studied both theoretically and experimentally. The ESD spark is modeled theoretically as an electrically short, time dependent, linear dipole situated above an infinite ground plane. Experimentally, sparks of varying voltages are generated by a commercially available simulator and used to excite a number of targets including: (1) the extended inner conductor of a coaxial cable mounted in a ground plane, (2) direct discharges to a ground plane, (3) indirect radiation from a large metal plate, (4) a metal chair over a a ground plane, and (5) a metal trash can. Results show that relatively low-voltage sparks (2 to 4 kV) excite the strongest radiated fields. This suggests that the spark fields can pose a significant interference threat to electronic equipment into the gigahertz range.

  20. Resolution of holograms produced by the fluid experiment system and the holography ground system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, Howard L.

    1987-01-01

    The Fluid Experiment System (FES) was developed to study low temperature crystal growth of triglycine sulfate from solution in a low gravity environment onboard Spacelab. The first flight of FES was in 1985. FES uses an optical system to take holograms of the growing crystal to be analyzed after the mission in the Holography Ground System (HGS) located in the Test Laboratory at Marshall Space Flight Center. Microscopic observation of the images formed by the reconstructed holograms is critical to determining crystal growth rate and particle velocity. FES and HGS were designed for a resolution of better than 20 micrometers, but initial observation of the flight holograms show a limit of 80 micrometers. The resolution of the FES holograms is investigated, as well as the role of beam intensity ratio and exposure time on the resolution of HGS produced holograms.

  1. Simulation of autonomous observing with a ground-based telescope: the LSST experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, Stephen; Cook, Kem; Miller, Michelle; Petry, Catherine; Chandrasekharan, Srinivasan; Saha, Abhijit; Allsman, Robyn; Axelrod, Timothy; Claver, Charles; Delgado, Francisco; Ivezic, Zeljko; Jones, R. Lynne; Krughoff, Simon; Pierfederici, Francesco; Pinto, Phillip

    2010-07-01

    A survey program with multiple science goals will be driven by multiple technical requirements. On a ground-based telescope, the variability of conditions introduces yet greater complexity. For a program that must be largely autonomous with minimal dwell time for efficiency it may be quite difficult to foresee the achievable performance. Furthermore, scheduling will likely involve self-referential constraints and appropriate optimization tools may not be available. The LSST project faces these issues, and has designed and implemented an approach to performance analysis in its Operations Simulator and associated post-processing packages. The Simulator has allowed the project to present detailed performance predictions with a strong basis from the engineering design and measured site conditions. At present, the Simulator is in regular use for engineering studies and science evaluation, and planning is underway for evolution to an operations scheduling tool. We will describe the LSST experience, emphasizing the objectives, the accomplishments and the lessons learned.

  2. Description of the Large Gap Magnetic Suspension System (LGMSS) ground-based experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groom, Nelson J.

    1991-01-01

    A description of the Large Gap Magnetic Suspension System (LGMSS) ground-based experiment is presented. The LGMSS provides five degrees of freedom control of a cylindrical suspended element which is levitated above a floor-mounted array of air core electromagnets. The uncontrolled degree of freedom is rotation about the long axis of the cylinder (roll). Levitation and control forces are produced on a permanent magnet core which is embedded in the cylinder. The cylinder also contains light emitting diodes (LEDs), assorted electrons, and a power supply. The LEDs provide active targets for an optical position measurement system which is being developed in-house at the Langley Research Center. The optical position measurement system will provide six degrees of freedom position information for the LGMSS control system.

  3. The 2010 Nobel Prize in physics—ground-breaking experiments on graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, Y.

    2011-11-01

    The 2010 Nobel Prize in physics was awarded to Professors Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov for their ground-breaking experiments on graphene, a single atomic layer of carbon, and more generally, for their pioneering work in uncovering a new class of materials, namely two-dimensional atomic crystals. This paper gives an accessible account and review of the story of graphene; from its first description in the literature, to the realization and confirmation of its remarkable properties, through to its impressive potential for broad-reaching applications. The story of graphene is written within the context of the enormous impact that Geim and Novoselovs' work has had on this field of research, and recounts their personal pathways of discovery, which ultimately led to their award of the 2010 Nobel Prize.

  4. Ground-based PIV and numerical flow visualization results from the surface tension driven convection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pline, Alexander D.; Wernet, Mark P.; Hsieh, Kwang-Chung

    1991-01-01

    The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a Space Transportation System flight experiment to study both transient and steady thermocapillary fluid flows aboard the United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 (USML-1) Spacelab mission planned for June, 1992. One of the components of data collected during the experiment is a video record of the flow field. This qualitative data is then quantified using an all electric, two dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique called Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT), which uses a simple space domain particle tracking algorithm. Results using the ground based STDCE hardware, with a radiant flux heating mode, and the PDT system are compared to numerical solutions obtained by solving the axisymmetric Navier Stokes equations with a deformable free surface. The PDT technique is successful in producing a velocity vector field and corresponding stream function from the raw video data which satisfactorily represents the physical flow. A numerical program is used to compute the velocity field and corresponding stream function under identical conditions. Both the PDT system and numerical results were compared to a streak photograph, used as a benchmark, with good correlation.

  5. Ground-based PIV and numerical flow visualization results from the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pline, Alexander D.; Werner, Mark P.; Hsieh, Kwang-Chung

    1991-01-01

    The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a Space Transportation System flight experiment to study both transient and steady thermocapillary fluid flows aboard the United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 (USML-1) Spacelab mission planned for June, 1992. One of the components of data collected during the experiment is a video record of the flow field. This qualitative data is then quantified using an all electric, two dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique called Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT), which uses a simple space domain particle tracking algorithm. Results using the ground based STDCE hardware, with a radiant flux heating mode, and the PDT system are compared to numerical solutions obtained by solving the axisymmetric Navier Stokes equations with a deformable free surface. The PDT technique is successful in producing a velocity vector field and corresponding stream function from the raw video data which satisfactorily represents the physical flow. A numerical program is used to compute the velocity field and corresponding stream function under identical conditions. Both the PDT system and numerical results were compared to a streak photograph, used as a benchmark, with good correlation.

  6. Searching for Organics During the Robotic Mars Analog Rio Tinto Drilling Experiment: Ground Truth and Contamination Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonaccorsi, R.; Stoker, C. R.; Marte Project Science Team

    2007-03-01

    The Mars Analog Rio Tinto Experiment (MARTE) performed a simulation of a Mars drilling experiment at the Rio Tinto (Spain). Ground-truth and contamination issues during the distribution of bulk organics and their CN isotopic composition in hematite and go

  7. Bioconvection in a stratified environment: Experiments and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bearon, R. N.; Grünbaum, D.

    2006-12-01

    concentrated in a thin boundary region. The ratio of chamber depth to boundary region depth is d ≫1. Using matched asymptotic analysis, we obtain the critical value of the cell Rayleigh number, Rcrit, for which the forcing due to a perturbation in cell concentration in the upper region drives flow. The effect of the salinity stratification depends on the salt Rayleigh number, Rs. If Rs1/6=o(d), the salinity gradient suppresses the vertical extent of the perturbation to the flow and salinity to a region of nondimensional depth O(Rs-1/6). The critical cell Rayleigh number is unaffected by the salinity gradient and is given at leading order by Rcrit=2d3δ, where δ is the ratio of horizontal to vertical cell self-diffusion. If Rs1/6=O(d ), the salinity gradient confines perturbations in the flow and salinity to the thin boundary region, and Rcrit is specified as an algebraic function of Rs. The experiments are then discussed in light of the derived theory.

  8. Safety in numbers 7: Veni, vidi, duci: a grounded theory evaluation of nursing students' medication dosage calculation problem-solving schemata construction.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Keith W; Higginson, Ray; Clochesy, John M; Coben, Diana

    2013-03-01

    This paper evaluates nursing students' transition through schemata construction and competence development in medication dosage calculation problem-solving (MDC-PS). We advance a grounded theory from interview data that reflects the experiences and perceptions of two groups of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students: eight students exposed to a prototype authentic MDC-PS environment and didactic transmission methods of education and 15 final year students exposed to the safeMedicate authentic MDC-PS environment. We advance a theory of how classroom-based 'chalk and talk' didactic transmission environments offered multiple barriers to accurate MDC-PS schemata construction among novice students. While conversely it was universally perceived by all students that authentic learning and assessment environments enabled MDC-PS schemata construction through facilitating: 'seeing' the authentic features of medication dosage problems; context-based and situational learning; learning within a scaffolded environment that supported construction of cognitive links between the concrete world of clinical MDC-PS and the abstract world of mathematics; and confidence-building in their cognitive and functional competence ability. Drawing on the principle of veni, vidi, duci (I came, I saw, I calculated), we combined the two sets of evaluations to offer a grounded theoretical basis for schemata construction and competence development within this critical domain of professional practice. PMID:23287565

  9. Safety in numbers 7: Veni, vidi, duci: a grounded theory evaluation of nursing students' medication dosage calculation problem-solving schemata construction.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Keith W; Higginson, Ray; Clochesy, John M; Coben, Diana

    2013-03-01

    This paper evaluates nursing students' transition through schemata construction and competence development in medication dosage calculation problem-solving (MDC-PS). We advance a grounded theory from interview data that reflects the experiences and perceptions of two groups of undergraduate pre-registration nursing students: eight students exposed to a prototype authentic MDC-PS environment and didactic transmission methods of education and 15 final year students exposed to the safeMedicate authentic MDC-PS environment. We advance a theory of how classroom-based 'chalk and talk' didactic transmission environments offered multiple barriers to accurate MDC-PS schemata construction among novice students. While conversely it was universally perceived by all students that authentic learning and assessment environments enabled MDC-PS schemata construction through facilitating: 'seeing' the authentic features of medication dosage problems; context-based and situational learning; learning within a scaffolded environment that supported construction of cognitive links between the concrete world of clinical MDC-PS and the abstract world of mathematics; and confidence-building in their cognitive and functional competence ability. Drawing on the principle of veni, vidi, duci (I came, I saw, I calculated), we combined the two sets of evaluations to offer a grounded theoretical basis for schemata construction and competence development within this critical domain of professional practice.

  10. Vocabulary Learning Strategies from the Bottom-Up: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ostovar-Namaghi, Seyyed Ali; Malekpur, Akram

    2015-01-01

    Lots of studies have tried to test the effect of strategy training on vocabulary development. However, instead of trying to uncover the strategies that learners actually use, they have tried to expose learners to a list of strategies supported by theories. Although these theory-driven studies have provided the field with significant and…

  11. Hyper-Theory-of-Mind in Children with Psychotic Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Clemmensen, Lars; van Os, Jim; Skovgaard, Anne Mette; Væver, Mette; Blijd-Hoogewys, Els M. A.; Bartels-Velthuis, Agna A.; Jeppesen, Pia

    2014-01-01

    Background Alterations in Theory-of-Mind (ToM) are associated with psychotic disorder. In addition, studies in children have documented that alterations in ToM are associated with Psychotic Experiences (PE). Our aim was to examine associations between an exaggerated type of ToM (HyperToM) and PE in children. Children with this type of alteration in ToM infer mental states when none are obviously suggested, and predict behaviour on the basis of these erroneous beliefs. Individuals with HyperToM do not appear to have a conceptual deficit (i.e. lack of representational abilities), but rather they apply their theory of the minds of others in an incorrect or biased way. Method Hypotheses were tested in two studies with two independent samples: (i) a general population sample of 1630 Danish children aged 11–12 years, (ii) a population-based sample of 259 Dutch children aged 12–13 years, pertaining to a case-control sampling frame of children with auditory verbal hallucinations. Multinomial regression analyses were carried out to investigate the associations between PE and ToM and HyperToM respectively. Analyses were adjusted for gender and proxy measures of general intelligence. Results Low ToM score was significantly associated with PE in sample I (OR = 1.6 95%CI 1.1–2.3 χ2(4) = 12.42 p = 0.010), but not in sample II (OR = 0.9 95%CI 0.5–1.8 χ2(3) = 7.13 p = 0.816). HyperToM was significantly associated with PE both in sample I (OR = 1.8, 95%CI 1.2–2.7 χ2(3) = 10.11 p = 0.006) and II (OR = 4.6, 95%CI 1.3–16.2 χ2(2) = 7.56 p = 0.018). HyperToM was associated particularly with paranoid delusions in both sample I (OR = 2.0, 95%CI: 1.1–3.7% χ2(4) = 9.93 p = 0.021) and II (OR = 6.2 95%CI: 1.7–23.6% χ2(4) = 9.90 p = 0.044). Conclusion Specific alterations in ToM may be associated with specific types of psychotic experiences. HyperToM may index risk for developing psychosis and

  12. Time-lapse 3D ground-penetrating radar during plot-scale infiltration experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allroggen, Niklas; Jackisch, Conrad; Tronicke, Jens

    2016-04-01

    In electrical resistive soils, surface-based ground-penetrating radar (GPR) is known as the geophysical tool providing the highest spatial resolution. Thus, 2D and 3D GPR surveys are commonly used for imaging subsurface structures or estimating soil moisture content. Due to its sensitivity to soil moisture and its non-invasive character, GPR provides a large potential to monitor soil moisture variation at high temporal and spatial resolution. As shown in previous experiments, the acquisition of time-lapse GPR data under field conditions requires a high data quality in terms of repeatability as well as spatial and temporal resolution. We present hydrogeophysical field experiments at the plot scale (1m x 1m), during which we record time-lapse 3D GPR. For GPR data acquisition, we use a pulseEKKO PRO GPR system equipped with a pair of 500 MHz antennas in combination with a specially designed metal-free measuring platform. Additionally, we collect tracer and soil moisture data, which are used to improve the interpretation of the GPR data with special focus on preferential flow paths and their structured advective flow field. After an accurate time-lapse GPR data processing, we compare 3D reflection events before and after infiltration and quantitatively interpret their relative time-shift in terms of soil moisture variations. Thereby, we are able to account for basically all of the infiltrated water. The first experiments demonstrate the general applicability of our experimental approach but are limited by the number of acquired time steps and measurement during the sprinkling period (the time of the highest temporal dynamics) are not possible at all. Based on this experience we redesign our experimental setup to continuously collect GPR data during irrigation and infiltration. Thereby, we strongly increase the temporal resolution of our measurements, improve the interpretability of the GPR data, and monitor the temporal and spatial dynamics of shallow subsurface

  13. Plasma mitigation of shock wave: experiments and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Spencer P.

    2007-12-01

    Two types of plasma spikes, generated by on-board 60 Hz periodic and pulsed dc electric discharges in front of two slightly different wind tunnel models, were used to demonstrate the non-thermal plasma techniques for shock wave mitigation. The experiments were conducted in a Mach 2.5 wind tunnel. (1) In the periodic discharge case, the results show a transformation of the shock from a well-defined attached shock into a highly curved shock structure, which has increased shock angle and also appears in diffused form. As shown in a sequence with increasing discharge intensity, the shock in front of the model moves upstream to become detached with increasing standoff distance from the model and is eliminated near the peak of the discharge. The power measurements exclude the heating effect as a possible cause of the observed shock wave modification. A theory using a cone model as the shock wave generator is presented to explain the observed plasma effect on shock wave. The analysis shows that the plasma generated in front of the model can effectively deflect the incoming flow; such a flow deflection modifies the structure of the shock wave generated by the cone model, as shown by the numerical results, from a conic shape to a curved one. The shock front moves upstream with a larger shock angle, matching well with that observed in the experiment. (2) In the pulsed dc discharge case, hollow cone-shaped plasma that envelops the physical spike of a truncated cone model is produced in the discharge; consequently, the original bow shock is modified to a conical shock, equivalent to reinstating the model into a perfect cone and to increase the body aspect ratio by 70%. A significant wave drag reduction in each discharge is inferred from the pressure measurements; at the discharge maximum, the pressure on the frontal surface of the body decreases by more than 30%, the pressure on the cone surface increases by about 5%, whereas the pressure on the cylinder surface remains

  14. A novel eddy current damper: theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Babak; Khamesee, Mir Behrad; Golnaraghi, Farid

    2009-04-01

    A novel eddy current damper is developed and its damping characteristics are studied analytically and experimentally. The proposed eddy current damper consists of a conductor as an outer tube, and an array of axially magnetized ring-shaped permanent magnets separated by iron pole pieces as a mover. The relative movement of the magnets and the conductor causes the conductor to undergo motional eddy currents. Since the eddy currents produce a repulsive force that is proportional to the velocity of the conductor, the moving magnet and the conductor behave as a viscous damper. The eddy current generation causes the vibration to dissipate through the Joule heating generated in the conductor part. An accurate, analytical model of the system is obtained by applying electromagnetic theory to estimate the damping properties of the proposed eddy current damper. A prototype eddy current damper is fabricated, and experiments are carried out to verify the accuracy of the theoretical model. The experimental test bed consists of a one-degree-of-freedom vibration isolation system and is used for the frequency and transient time response analysis of the system. The eddy current damper model has a 0.1 m s-2 (4.8%) RMS error in the estimation of the mass acceleration. A damping coefficient as high as 53 Ns m-1 is achievable with the fabricated prototype. This novel eddy current damper is an oil-free, inexpensive damper that is applicable in various vibration isolation systems such as precision machinery, micro-mechanical suspension systems and structure vibration isolation.

  15. Exploring Primary Children's Views and Experiences of the School Ground: The Case of a Greek School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christidou, Vasilia; Tsevreni, Irida; Epitropou, Maria; Kittas, Constantinos

    2013-01-01

    The present study explores the use of a conventional school ground of a primary school and its potential as a space for creative play and environmental learning. Children's play behavior and views of the school ground are explored, as well as their vision for its improvement. The research constitutes part of a wider school ground project and was…

  16. Employees' and Managers' Accounts of Interactive Workplace Learning: A Grounded Theory of "Complex Integrative Learning"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armson, Genevieve; Whiteley, Alma

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate employees' and managers' accounts of interactive learning and what might encourage or inhibit emergent learning. Design/methodology/approach: The approach taken was a constructivist/social constructivist ontology, interpretive epistemology and qualitative methodology, using grounded theory…

  17. A Theory-Grounded Measure of Adolescents' Response to a Media Literacy Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Kathryn; Yanovitzky, Itzhak; Carpenter, Amanda; Banerjee, Smita C.; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Hecht, Michael L.; Elek, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Media literacy interventions offer promising avenues for the prevention of risky health behaviors among children and adolescents, but current literature remains largely equivocal about their efficacy. The primary objective of this study was to develop and test theoretically-grounded measures of audiences' degree of engagement with the content of…

  18. Using Grounded Theory and Action Research to Raise Attainment in, and Enjoyment of, Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterfield, Jill

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a small-scale, qualitative research project that critically reflects on the process and impact of using both grounded and action research to enhance attainment and enjoyment of reading, in such a way as to raise awareness at an individual and whole school level. The purpose of the project was to ascertain if the selected…

  19. Observation of TGFs onboard "Vernov" satellite and TGEs in ground-based experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogomolov, Vitaly; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Svertilov, Sergey; Garipov, Gali; Iyudin, Anatoly; Klimov, Pavel; Morozenko, Violetta; Maximov, Ivan; Mishieva, Tatiana; Klimov, Stanislav; Pozanenko, Alexey; Rothkaehl, Hanna

    2016-04-01

    "Vernov" satellite with RELEC experiment on-board was launched on 2014 July, 8 into a polar solar-synchronous orbit. The payload includes DRGE gamma-ray spectrometer providing measurements in 10-3000 keV energy range with four detectors directed to atmosphere. Total area of DRGE detectors is ~500 cm2. The data were recorded both in monitoring and gamma by gamma modes with timing accuracy ~15 us. Several TGF candidates with 10-40 gammas in a burst with duration <1ms were detected. Analysis of data from other instruments on-board "Vernov" satellite shows the absence of significant electromagnetic pulses around correspondent time moments. Comparison with WWLLN lightning network data base also indicates that there were no thunderstorms connected with most of detected TGF candidates. Possible connection of these flashes with electron precipitations is discussed. Ground-based experiments, with similar gamma-spectrometers were conducted, to study the spectral, temporal and spatial characteristics of TGEs in 20-3000 keV energy range, as well, as to search the fast hard X-ray and gamma-ray flashes possibly appearing at the moment of lightning. The time of each gamma-quantum interaction was recorded with an ~15 us s accuracy together with detailed spectral data. Measurements were done on the ground at Moscow region, and at mountain altitude in Armenia at Aragatz station. During the time interval covering spring, summer and autumn of 2015 a number of TGEs were detected. Measured low-energy gamma-ray spectra usually contain a set of lines that can be interpreted as radiation of Rn-222 daughter isotopes. The increase of Rn-222 radiation was detected during rainfalls with thunderstorm, as well, as during rainy weather without thunderstorms. Variations of Rn-222 radiation dominate at low energies (<2.6MeV) and must be taken into account in the experiments performed to measure low energy gamma-radiation from the electrons accelerated in thunderclouds. There were no significant

  20. Chemical and physical characterisation of low clouds: results from the FEBUKO ground-based cloud experiment.

    PubMed

    Acker, Karin; Wieprecht, Wolfgang; Möller, Detlev

    2003-12-01

    Clouds play an immense role in transport and transformation of atmospheric trace species. In the joint project FEBUKO (Field investigations of budgets and conversions of particle phase organics in tropospheric cloud processes) the microphysics and chemistry of different types of aerosols, the role of aerosol chemical composition for cloud formation as well as the chemical transformation in cloud processes have been investigated by means of ground-based cloud experiments at Mt. Schmücke in the Thuringian Forest (Germany). The groups involved used a wide range of measurements of trace gases, aerosol particles and cloud droplets at three sites to study their sources and sinks, especially those in cloud. Although kind and behaviour of organic substances were of special interest (e.g., organic acids, peroxides, organic carbon, soot) attention was paid to the role of inorganic soluble material being the main part of the cloud condensation nuclei. In this paper we present selected results from the first experiment in autumn 2001.