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Sample records for ground theory experiment

  1. Assessing Working Students' College Experiences: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, David X.; Alcantara, Lucia

    2007-01-01

    This study explores working students' college experiences using the grounded theory approach. Focus groups were conducted to allow working students to elaborate on their college experiences, clarifying issues not easily addressed through surveys. Two theoretical propositions are offered to describe how working students are constantly searching for…

  2. Grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Harris, Tina

    2015-04-29

    Grounded theory is a popular research approach in health care and the social sciences. This article provides a description of grounded theory methodology and its key components, using examples from published studies to demonstrate practical application. It aims to demystify grounded theory for novice nurse researchers, by explaining what it is, when to use it, why they would want to use it and how to use it. It should enable nurse researchers to decide if grounded theory is an appropriate approach for their research, and to determine the quality of any grounded theory research they read.

  3. [A Grounded Theory Approach on Nurses' Experience with Workplace Bullying].

    PubMed

    Kang, Jiyeon; Yun, Seonyoung

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the workplace bullying experience of Korean nurses. Participants were twenty current or former hospital nurses who had experienced workplace bullying. Data were collected through focus group and individual in-depth interviews from February to May, 2015. Theoretical sampling method was applied to the point of theoretical saturation. Transcribed interview contents were analyzed using Corbin and Strauss's grounded theory method. A total of 110 concepts, 48 sub-categories, and 17 categories were identified through the open coding process. As a result of axial coding based on the paradigm model, the central phenomenon of nurses' workplace bullying experience was revealed as 'teaching that has become bullying', and the core category was extracted as 'surviving in love-hate teaching' consisting of a four-step process: confronting reality, trial and error, relationship formation, and settlement. The relationship formation was considered to be the key phase to proceed to the positive settlement phase, and the participants utilized various strategies such as having an open mind, developing human relationships, understanding each other in this phase. The in-depth understanding of the workplace bullying experience has highlighted the importance of effective communication for cultivating desirable human relationships between nurses.

  4. Regaining a Foothold: A Grounded Theory Study of Immigrant Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg, Kara Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study of immigrants reestablishing their lives in a new country used classic, Glaserian grounded theory. The purpose of the study was to discover the main concerns of the participants as they engaged in the basic social process of changing their country of residence. Using the grand tour question of "Tell me about coming to the United…

  5. Resisting Coherence: Trans Men's Experiences and the Use of Grounded Theory Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, D. Chase J.

    2017-01-01

    In this methodological reflective manuscript, I explore my decision to use a grounded theoretical approach to my dissertation study on trans* men in higher education. Specifically, I question whether grounded theory as a methodology is capable of capturing the complexity and capaciousness of trans*-masculine experiences. Through the lenses of…

  6. Resisting Coherence: Trans Men's Experiences and the Use of Grounded Theory Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catalano, D. Chase J.

    2017-01-01

    In this methodological reflective manuscript, I explore my decision to use a grounded theoretical approach to my dissertation study on trans* men in higher education. Specifically, I question whether grounded theory as a methodology is capable of capturing the complexity and capaciousness of trans*-masculine experiences. Through the lenses of…

  7. "Being the Faculty Face": A Grounded Theory of Living-Learning Program Faculty Motives and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drechsler Sharp, Marybeth

    2012-01-01

    Few evident incentives exist for faculty to become involved with living-learning programs. The purpose of this constructivist grounded theory study was to investigate the motives and experiences of faculty members working with living-learning programs at doctoral-granting research institutions. Illuminating the experiences of living-learning…

  8. "Being the Faculty Face": A Grounded Theory of Living-Learning Program Faculty Motives and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drechsler Sharp, Marybeth

    2012-01-01

    Few evident incentives exist for faculty to become involved with living-learning programs. The purpose of this constructivist grounded theory study was to investigate the motives and experiences of faculty members working with living-learning programs at doctoral-granting research institutions. Illuminating the experiences of living-learning…

  9. Positive Experiences for Participants in Suicide Bereavement Groups: A Grounded Theory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groos, Anita D.; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Grounded Theory was used to examine the experiences of 13 participants who had attended psycho-educational support groups for those bereaved by suicide. Results demonstrated core and central categories that fit well with group therapeutic factors developed by I. D. Yalom (1995) and emphasized the importance of universality, imparting information…

  10. The First-Year University Experience for Sexual Minority Students: A Grounded Theory Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alessi, Edward J.; Sapiro, Beth; Kahn, Sarilee; Craig, Shelley L.

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study used grounded theory to understand the role of minority stress on the first-year experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning emerging adults attending a university in the Northeastern part of the United States. Twenty-one lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning sophomores participated in focus groups…

  11. Positive Experiences for Participants in Suicide Bereavement Groups: A Grounded Theory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groos, Anita D.; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Grounded Theory was used to examine the experiences of 13 participants who had attended psycho-educational support groups for those bereaved by suicide. Results demonstrated core and central categories that fit well with group therapeutic factors developed by I. D. Yalom (1995) and emphasized the importance of universality, imparting information…

  12. The First-Year University Experience for Sexual Minority Students: A Grounded Theory Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alessi, Edward J.; Sapiro, Beth; Kahn, Sarilee; Craig, Shelley L.

    2017-01-01

    This exploratory study used grounded theory to understand the role of minority stress on the first-year experience of lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning emerging adults attending a university in the Northeastern part of the United States. Twenty-one lesbian, gay, bisexual, queer, and questioning sophomores participated in focus groups…

  13. Electromagnetic Scattering from a Cavity in a Ground Plane: Theory and Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-03-01

    frequencies where other integral equation-based techniques admit spurious solutions. Radar cross section calculations are compared to experimental...Scattering from a Cavity in a Ground Plane: Theory and Experiment I. Introduction 1.1 Motivation Methods of radar cross section (RCS) reduction have been...the RPV by radar , RCS enhancement without compromising flying qualities appears attrac- tive. Comer reflectors or Luneberg lenses are devices that can

  14. Deformation of subglacial till near ice-sheet grounding zones: theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowal, K. N.; Worster, G.

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale ice-sheet dynamics pivot on the deformation and transport of subglacial sediment through changes in the basal sliding velocities of glaciers. Such unconsolidated, water-saturated glacigenic sediment, or till, is found to accumulate into sedimentary wedges, or till-deltas, in grounding zones separating floating ice shelves from grounded ice streams. In addition to affecting glacial slip, such sedimentation may serve to stabilise ice sheets against grounding-line retreat in response to rising sea levels. We present a fluid-mechanical explanation of the formation of these wedges in terms of the jump in hydrostatic loading and unloading of till across the grounding zone, and we compare our findings with geophysical data of sedimentary wedge formation at the modern-day grounding zone of Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica. We develop a theoretical model of wedge formation in which we treat both ice and till as viscous fluids spreading under gravity into an inviscid ocean and find that a similar wedge of underlying fluid accumulates around the grounding line in our series of fluid-mechanical laboratory experiments. The experiments were performed in a confined channel geometry. We extend our theory to unconfined geometries in which till deformation is resisted dominantly by vertical shear stresses and the flow of the overlying ice is resisted dominantly either by vertical shear stresses between the ice and till or by extensional stresses characteristic of floating ice shelves and shelfy streams. The former is relevant to less-lubricated, grounded ice sheets whereas the latter is relevant to well-lubricated ice streams, sliding over soft, deformable till of low viscosity and appreciable thickness. We formulate a local condition relating wedge slopes in each of the three scenarios and find a reasonable agreement with geophysical data.

  15. Emergency Nursing Experiences in Assisting People With Suicidal Behavior: A Grounded Theory Study.

    PubMed

    Vedana, Kelly Graziani Giacchero; Magrini, Daniel Fernando; Miasso, Adriana Inocenti; Zanetti, Ana Carolina Guidorizzi; de Souza, Jacqueline; Borges, Tatiana Longo

    2017-08-01

    To understand emergency nursing experiences in assisting people with suicidal behavior. Grounded theory study with symbolic interactionism conducted in 2015 to 2016 in Brazil with 19 nurses. Assistance for people with suicidal behavior is critical, challenging, evokes different feelings and requires knowledge, skills and emotional control. Nurses did not feel prepared or supported, and identified recurrent gaps and problems. Nurses occupied a limited role, restricted to attending to physical needs. They predominantly manifested opposition, judgments and incomprehension about patients. This study presents key elements to be addressed in interventions and investigations regarding nursing support, training and supervision. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Introduction to grounded theory].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shou-Yu; Windsor, Carol; Yates, Patsy

    2012-02-01

    Grounded theory, first developed by Glaser and Strauss in the 1960s, was introduced into nursing education as a distinct research methodology in the 1970s. The theory is grounded in a critique of the dominant contemporary approach to social inquiry, which imposed "enduring" theoretical propositions onto study data. Rather than starting from a set theoretical framework, grounded theory relies on researchers distinguishing meaningful constructs from generated data and then identifying an appropriate theory. Grounded theory is thus particularly useful in investigating complex issues and behaviours not previously addressed and concepts and relationships in particular populations or places that are still undeveloped or weakly connected. Grounded theory data analysis processes include open, axial and selective coding levels. The purpose of this article was to explore the grounded theory research process and provide an initial understanding of this methodology.

  17. Getting to know a stranger--rural nurses' experiences of mentoring: a grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jane; Francis, Karen; Bonner, Ann

    2008-04-01

    Mentoring is often proposed as a solution to the problem of successfully recruiting and retaining nursing staff. The aim of this constructivist grounded theory study was to explore Australian rural nurses' experiences of mentoring. The research design used was reflexive in nature resulting in a substantive, constructivist grounded theory study. A national advertising campaign and snowball sampling were used to recruit nine participants from across Australia. Participants were rural nurses who had experience in mentoring others. Standard grounded theory methods of theoretical sampling, concurrent data collection and analysis using open, axial and theoretical coding and a story line technique to develop the core category and category saturation were used. To cultivate the reflexivity required of a constructivist study, we also incorporated reflective memoing, situational analysis mapping techniques and frame analysis. Data was generated through eleven interviews, email dialogue and shared situational mapping. Cultivating and growing new or novice rural nurses using supportive relationships such as mentoring was found to be an existing, integral part of experienced rural nurses' practice, motivated by living and working in the same communities. Getting to know a stranger is the first part of the process of cultivating and growing another. New or novice rural nurses gain the attention of experienced rural nurses through showing potential or experiencing a critical incidence. The problem of retaining nurses is a global issue. Experienced nurses engaged in clinical practice have the potential to cultivate and grow new or novice nurses-many already do so. Recognising this role and providing opportunities for development will help grow a positive, supportive work environment that nurtures the experienced nurses of tomorrow.

  18. The game of science: A grounded theory of the Cafe Scientifique experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabe, Lisa A.

    Science Cafes are independent groups organized throughout the world for discussion of scientific topics. Little is known about the nature of this informal learning environment. A grounded-theory study was conducted to determine what attendees perceived as the essential qualities of the Cafe Scientifique experience in one science Cafe in the Western United States. Interviews with 12 attendees were transcribed and analyzed using ATLAS-ti. Concept maps and a grounded theory describing the essential characteristics were created. Member checking was used during theory generation. Findings are described in the context of a game metaphor, whereby scientific discussion at the Cafe is viewed as an intellectual game. The grounded theory describes the game of science being played at Cafe Scientifique involving attendees as players, social norms as rules for the game, an expert as the steward of truth, topics as the content for game play, interaction as playing of the game, and intellectual stimulation as the prize for playing. During the game, ideas were identified through a short presentation followed by a question-and-answer session. During this exchange, attendees heard about, analyzed, synthesized, and applied new information. As a result of the game play, players won a prize---intellectual stimulation. The Cafe Scientifique phenomenon provides insight into informal adult education. This study suggests the need for additional study of intellectual play in adult education, the role of curiosity and desire to explore new ways of thinking, and the developmental drive in adults to seek intellectual stimulation. The essential characteristics of Cafe Scientifique may be transferable to other informal adult-education settings.

  19. Normalization of Neglect: A Grounded Theory of RNs' Experiences as Family Caregivers of Hospitalized Seniors.

    PubMed

    Taverner, Tarnia; Baumbusch, Jennifer; Taipale, Priscilla

    2016-06-01

    Often older people, while maintaining a level of independence, rely on family members to provide care and assistance. Caregivers who are also registered nurses (RNs) may provide a different perspective around the experience when their older relative is admitted to acute care. The aim of our research was to investigate and develop theory regarding nursing care provision as described by RNs, who were family caregivers to older adults, when that older adult was admitted to acute care. Over a six-month period in 2011, RNs meeting this criterion (n = 12) were interviewed individually. We identified two central categories: "Culture of Neglect" and "Vigil by the Bedside". The core category "Normalization of Neglect" was identified as the theory, grounded in the data the participants provided which described a culture of neglect that had normalized poor nursing care. These findings highlight the issue of neglect and abuse, and further investigation is warranted.

  20. Nurses experience of using scientific knowledge in clinical practice: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Renolen, Åste; Hjälmhult, Esther

    2015-12-01

    Guidelines recommend the use of evidence-based practice in nursing. Nurses are expected to give patients care and treatment based on the best knowledge available. They may have knowledge and positive attitudes, but this does not mean that they are basing their work on evidence-based practice. Knowledge is still lacking about what is needed to successfully implement evidence-based practice. The aim of this study was to gain more knowledge about what nurses perceive as the most important challenge in implementing evidence-based practice and to explain how they act to face and overcome this challenge. We used classical grounded theory methodology and collected data through four focus groups and one individual interview in different geographical locations in one large hospital trust in Norway. Fourteen registered clinical practice nurses participated. We analysed the data in accordance with grounded theory, using the constant comparative method. Contextual balancing of knowledge emerged as the core category and explains how the nurses dealt with their main concern, how to determine what types of knowledge they could trust. The nurses' main strategies were an inquiring approach, examining knowledge and maintaining control while taking care of patients. They combined their own experienced-based knowledge and the guidelines of evidence-based practice with a sense of control in the actual situation. The grounded theory contextual balancing of knowledge may help us to understand how nurses detect what types of knowledge they can trust in clinical practice. The nurses needed to rely on what they did, and they seemed to rely on their own experience rather than on research. © 2015 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  1. Navigating cancer using online communities: a grounded theory of survivor and family experiences.

    PubMed

    Harkin, Lydia Jo; Beaver, Kinta; Dey, Paola; Choong, Kartina

    2017-05-03

    People affected by cancer often have unmet emotional and social support needs. Online cancer communities are a convenient channel for connecting cancer survivors, allowing them to support one another. However, it is unclear whether online community use makes a meaningful contribution to cancer survivorship, as little previous research has examined the experience of using contemporary cancer communities. We aimed to explore the experiences of visitors to online cancer communities. Twenty-three in-depth interviews were conducted with online cancer community visitors, including cancer survivors (n = 18), family members (n = 2), and individuals who were both a survivor and family member (n = 3). Interviews were analysed using a grounded theory approach. A theory developed explaining how individuals 'navigated' the experience of cancer using online cancer communities. Online advice and information led participants on a 'journey to become informed'. Online friendships normalised survivorship and cast participants on a 'journey to recreate identity'. Participants navigated a 'journey through different worlds' as they discovered relevant and hidden communities. This theory highlights virtual paths people affected by cancer can take to self-manage their experience of the disease. Online community experiences can be improved by promoting online evaluation skills and signposting visitors to bereavement support. Cancer survivors can benefit through both lurking and posting in online communities. However, individuals risk becoming distressed when they befriend individuals who may soon die. Additionally, people affected by rarer cancers can struggle to find shared experiences online and may need to look elsewhere for support.

  2. From Fantasy to Reality: A Grounded Theory of Experiences in the Swinging Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Kimberly, Claire; Hans, Jason D

    2017-04-01

    Swinger couples-committed couples who consensually engage in extra-relational sex for recreational purposes-are difficult for researchers to access due to the social stigma associated with swinging. This study builds upon the limited research on swinger couples by examining personal experiences with swinging. Specifically, 32 semi-structured interviews with swingers (16 husband-wife dyads, interviewed separately) were analyzed using grounded theory methods to understand the process of transitioning into and maintaining marital satisfaction in the swinging lifestyle. The model formed included (a) antecedent steps taken to enter into the lifestyle, (b) types of desires fulfilled, (c) stated benefits of being in the lifestyle, and (d) rules that guided couples throughout the process. Although variations were found across couples, the effective use of verbal and non-verbal communication to increase sexual and marital satisfaction within these non-monogamous couples was paramount to their experiences.

  3. Fascination and isolation: a grounded theory exploration of unusual sensory experiences in adults with Asperger syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard S; Sharp, Jonathan

    2013-04-01

    Unusual sensory experiences are commonly seen in people with Asperger syndrome (AS). They correlate with functional impairments and cause distress. The current study investigates how these experiences have affected nine adults with AS's lives, as well as the coping strategies utilised. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using Instant Messaging software. Data were analysed using Grounded Theory. A number of inter-related categories and focused codes were identified. The categories included heightened senses, sensory stress, the stress avalanche, moderating factors, coping strategies, other people, self-acceptance, fascination, and isolation. A model was constructed as to how these categories and codes interact. How these findings link with previous research into autism spectrum disorders is discussed. Implications for services and future research are also made.

  4. Using Grounded Theory Method to Capture and Analyze Health Care Experiences.

    PubMed

    Foley, Geraldine; Timonen, Virpi

    2015-08-01

    Grounded theory (GT) is an established qualitative research method, but few papers have encapsulated the benefits, limits, and basic tenets of doing GT research on user and provider experiences of health care services. GT can be used to guide the entire study method, or it can be applied at the data analysis stage only. We summarize key components of GT and common GT procedures used by qualitative researchers in health care research. We draw on our experience of conducting a GT study on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients' experiences of health care services. We discuss why some approaches in GT research may work better than others, particularly when the focus of study is hard-to-reach population groups. We highlight the flexibility of procedures in GT to build theory about how people engage with health care services. GT enables researchers to capture and understand health care experiences. GT methods are particularly valuable when the topic of interest has not previously been studied. GT can be applied to bring structure and rigor to the analysis of qualitative data. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  5. Theory of plasma contactors in ground-based experiments and low Earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerver, M. J.; Hastings, Daniel E.; Oberhardt, M. R.

    1990-01-01

    Previous theoretical work on plasma contactors as current collectors has fallen into two categories: collisionless double layer theory (describing space charge limited contactor clouds) and collisional quasineutral theory. Ground based experiments at low current are well explained by double layer theory, but this theory does not scale well to power generation by electrodynamic tethers in space, since very high anode potentials are needed to draw a substantial ambient electron current across the magnetic field in the absence of collisions (or effective collisions due to turbulence). Isotropic quasineutral models of contactor clouds, extending over a region where the effective collision frequency upsilon sub e exceeds the electron cyclotron frequency omega sub ce, have low anode potentials, but would collect very little ambient electron current, much less than the emitted ion current. A new model is presented, for an anisotropic contactor cloud oriented along the magnetic field, with upsilon sub e less than omega sub ce. The electron motion along the magnetic field is nearly collisionless, forming double layers in that direction, while across the magnetic field the electrons diffuse collisionally and the potential profile is determined by quasineutrality. Using a simplified expression for upsilon sub e due to ion acoustic turbulence, an analytic solution has been found for this model, which should be applicable to current collection in space. The anode potential is low and the collected ambient electron current can be several times the emitted ion current.

  6. Experience of providing cultural safety in mental health to Aboriginal patients: A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    McGough, Shirley; Wynaden, Dianne; Wright, Michael

    2017-02-06

    The need for mental health clinicians to practice cultural safety is vital in ensuring meaningful care and in moving towards improving the mental health outcomes for Aboriginal people. The concept of cultural safety is particularly relevant to mental health professionals as it seeks to promote cultural integrity and the promotion of social justice, equity and respect. A substantive theory that explained the experience of providing cultural safety in mental health care to Aboriginal patients was developed using grounded theory methodology. Mental health professionals engaged in a social psychological process, called seeking solutions by navigating the labyrinth to overcome the experience of being unprepared. During this process participants moved from a state of being unprepared to one where they began to navigate the pathway of cultural safety. The findings of this research suggest health professionals have a limited understanding of the concept of cultural safety. The experience of providing cultural safety has not been adequately addressed by organizations, health services, governments, educational providers and policy makers. Health services, organizations and government agencies must work with Aboriginal people to progress strategies that inform and empower staff to practice cultural safety.

  7. Workplace Bullying in Academe: A Grounded Theory Study Exploring How Faculty Cope with the Experience of Being Bullied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkin, La Vena

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to generate a theory about how targets of workplace bullying in academe may begin to heal from the aftermath of their ill-treatment. The emphasis was on understanding the experiences of university faculty members who had been targets of workplace bullying. A key factor in this study was to…

  8. Workplace Bullying in Academe: A Grounded Theory Study Exploring How Faculty Cope with the Experience of Being Bullied

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkin, La Vena

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study used a grounded theory methodology to generate a theory about how targets of workplace bullying in academe may begin to heal from the aftermath of their ill-treatment. The emphasis was on understanding the experiences of university faculty members who had been targets of workplace bullying. A key factor in this study was to…

  9. A study of Iranian immigrants' experiences of accessing Canadian health care services: a grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Dastjerdi, Mahdieh; Olson, Karin; Ogilvie, Linda

    2012-09-29

    Immigration is not a new phenomenon but, rather, has deep roots in human history. Documents from every era detail individuals who left their homelands and struggled to reestablish their lives in other countries. The aim of this study was to explore and understand the experience of Iranian immigrants who accessed Canadian health care services. Research with immigrants is useful for learning about strategies that newcomers develop to access health care services. The research question guiding this study was, "What are the processes by which Iranian immigrants learn to access health care services in Canada?" To answer the question, a constructivist grounded theory approach was applied. Initially, unstructured interviews were conducted with 17 participants (11 women and six men) who were adults (at least 18 years old) and had immigrated to Canada within the past 15 years. Eight participants took part in a second interview, and four participants took part in a third interview. Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, "tackling the stumbling blocks of access" emerged as the core category. The basic social process (BSP), becoming self-sufficient, was a transitional process and had five stages: becoming a stranger; feeling helpless; navigating/seeking information; employing strategies; and becoming integrated and self-sufficient. We found that "tackling the stumbling blocks of access" was the main struggle throughout this journey. Some of the immigrants were able to overcome these challenges and became proficient in accessing health care services, but others were unable to make the necessary changes and thus stayed in earlier stages/phases of transition, and sometimes returned to their country of origin. During the course of this journey a substantive grounded theory was developed that revealed the challenges and issues confronted by this particular group of immigrants. This process explains why some Iranian immigrants are able to access Canadian health care

  10. A study of Iranian immigrants’ experiences of accessing Canadian health care services: a grounded theory

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Immigration is not a new phenomenon but, rather, has deep roots in human history. Documents from every era detail individuals who left their homelands and struggled to reestablish their lives in other countries. The aim of this study was to explore and understand the experience of Iranian immigrants who accessed Canadian health care services. Research with immigrants is useful for learning about strategies that newcomers develop to access health care services. Methods The research question guiding this study was, “What are the processes by which Iranian immigrants learn to access health care services in Canada?” To answer the question, a constructivist grounded theory approach was applied. Initially, unstructured interviews were conducted with 17 participants (11 women and six men) who were adults (at least 18 years old) and had immigrated to Canada within the past 15 years. Eight participants took part in a second interview, and four participants took part in a third interview. Results Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” emerged as the core category. The basic social process (BSP), becoming self-sufficient, was a transitional process and had five stages: becoming a stranger; feeling helpless; navigating/seeking information; employing strategies; and becoming integrated and self-sufficient. We found that “tackling the stumbling blocks of access” was the main struggle throughout this journey. Some of the immigrants were able to overcome these challenges and became proficient in accessing health care services, but others were unable to make the necessary changes and thus stayed in earlier stages/phases of transition, and sometimes returned to their country of origin. Conclusion During the course of this journey a substantive grounded theory was developed that revealed the challenges and issues confronted by this particular group of immigrants. This process explains why some Iranian

  11. The experiences of families of critically ill patients in Greece: a social constructionist grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Plakas, Sotirios; Cant, Bob; Taket, Ann

    2009-02-01

    The experiences of patients' families in intensive care units (ICUs) are of international concern. In Greece however, adequate attention has not been paid to this issue. To explore the experiences of critical care patients' families in Greece. The intensive care units of 3 general district hospitals in the area of Athens, Greece. The social constructionist version of grounded theory was used. In-depth interviews with 25 relatives of critically ill patients were carried out, and participant and non-participant observation was used to cross-validate the data obtained. Seven major categories were identified, with 32 components across all categories. The experiences of families revolved around the two core categories of "Intense Emotions" and "Vigilant Attendance". The study conceptualised two new categories in this field, "Religiosity" and "Loss of Intimacy" and enhanced the category "Vigilant Attendance". Three further categories were identified, namely "Caring", "Dignity" and "Information". The various interrelationships between the categories were also examined. The study has examined the experience of Greek patients' families from a qualitative perspective and suggests that major changes need to be made in terms of management and support.

  12. Mental health professional experiences of the flexible assertive community treatment model: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Lexén, Annika; Svensson, Bengt

    2016-08-01

    Despite the lack of evidence for effectiveness of the Flexible Assertive Community Treatment (Flexible ACT), the model is considered feasible and is well received by mental health professionals. No current studies have adequately examined mental health professional experiences of working with Flexible ACT. The aim of this study was to explore mental health professional experiences of working with the Flexible ACT model compared with standard care. The study was guided by grounded theory and based on the interviews with 19 theoretically chosen mental health professionals in Swedish urban areas primarily working with consumers with psychosis, who had worked with the Flexible ACT model for at least 6 months. The analysis resulted in the core category: "Flexible ACT and the shared caseload create a common action space" and three main categories: (1) "Flexible ACT fills the need for a systematic approach to crisis intervention"; (2) "Flexible ACT has advantages in the psychosocial working environment"; and (3) "Flexible ACT increases the quality of care". Mental health professionals may benefit from working with the Flexible ACT model through decreased job-strain and stress, increased feeling of being in control over their work situation, and experiences of providing higher quality of care.

  13. Making Things Right: Nurses' Experiences with Workplace Bullying—A Grounded Theory

    PubMed Central

    Gaffney, Donna A.; DeMarco, Rosanna F.; Hofmeyer, Anne; Vessey, Judith A.; Budin, Wendy C.

    2012-01-01

    While bullying in the healthcare workplace has been recognized internationally, there is still a culture of silence in many institutions in the United States, perpetuating underreporting and insufficient and unproven interventions. The deliberate, repetitive, and aggressive behaviors of bullying can cause psychological and/or physical harm among professionals, disrupt nursing care, and threaten patient safety and quality outcomes. Much of the literature focuses on categories of bullying behaviors and nurse responses. This qualitative study reports on the experiences of nurses confronting workplace bullying. We collected data from the narratives of 99 nurses who completed an open-ended question embedded in an online survey in 2007. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data and shape a theory of how nurses make things right when confronted with bullying. In a four-step process, nurses place bullying in context, assess the situation, take action, and judge the outcomes of their actions. While many nurses do engage in a number of effective yet untested strategies, two additional concerns remain: inadequate support among nursing colleagues and silence and inaction by nurse administrators. Qualitative inquiry has the potential to guide researchers to a greater understanding of the complexities of bullying in the workplace. PMID:22567223

  14. Making things right: nurses' experiences with workplace bullying-a grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Gaffney, Donna A; Demarco, Rosanna F; Hofmeyer, Anne; Vessey, Judith A; Budin, Wendy C

    2012-01-01

    While bullying in the healthcare workplace has been recognized internationally, there is still a culture of silence in many institutions in the United States, perpetuating underreporting and insufficient and unproven interventions. The deliberate, repetitive, and aggressive behaviors of bullying can cause psychological and/or physical harm among professionals, disrupt nursing care, and threaten patient safety and quality outcomes. Much of the literature focuses on categories of bullying behaviors and nurse responses. This qualitative study reports on the experiences of nurses confronting workplace bullying. We collected data from the narratives of 99 nurses who completed an open-ended question embedded in an online survey in 2007. A constructivist grounded theory approach was used to analyze the data and shape a theory of how nurses make things right when confronted with bullying. In a four-step process, nurses place bullying in context, assess the situation, take action, and judge the outcomes of their actions. While many nurses do engage in a number of effective yet untested strategies, two additional concerns remain: inadequate support among nursing colleagues and silence and inaction by nurse administrators. Qualitative inquiry has the potential to guide researchers to a greater understanding of the complexities of bullying in the workplace.

  15. Positive experiences for participants in suicide bereavement groups: a grounded theory model.

    PubMed

    Groos, Anita D; Shakespeare-Finch, Jane

    2013-01-01

    Grounded Theory was used to examine the experiences of 13 participants who had attended psycho-educational support groups for those bereaved by suicide. Results demonstrated core and central categories that fit well with group therapeutic factors developed by I. D. Yalom (1995) and emphasized the importance of universality, imparting information and instilling hope, catharsis and self-disclosure, and broader meaning-making processes surrounding acceptance or adjustment. Participants were commonly engaged in a lengthy process of oscillating between loss-oriented and restoration-focused reappraisals. The functional experience of the group comprised feeling normal within the group, providing a sense of permission to feel and to express emotions and thoughts and to bestow meaning. Structural variables of information and guidance and different perspectives on the suicide and bereavement were gained from other participants, the facilitators, group content, and process. Personal changes, including in relationships and in their sense of self assisted participants to develop an altered and more positive personal narrative.

  16. "The Complexity of Experience": A Grounded Theory Exploration of Scholarly Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falciani-White, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This grounded theory study explores the ways in which scholars conduct their research, including how they find and organize resources, how they identify and work with collaborators, how they interact with technology during the course of their research, and how they disseminate the results of a research project. Nine scholars were interviewed…

  17. "The Complexity of Experience": A Grounded Theory Exploration of Scholarly Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falciani-White, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This grounded theory study explores the ways in which scholars conduct their research, including how they find and organize resources, how they identify and work with collaborators, how they interact with technology during the course of their research, and how they disseminate the results of a research project. Nine scholars were interviewed…

  18. Discovering Shared Experiences of Second Generation Community College Employees: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studebaker, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The second generation community college employee had not been a target population of any previous research in the field of higher education. This study added to a broader understanding of employees, their various characteristics, and the implications of those characteristics. The purpose of this study was to develop a grounded theory defining the…

  19. Discovering Shared Experiences of Second Generation Community College Employees: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Studebaker, Eric J.

    2012-01-01

    The second generation community college employee had not been a target population of any previous research in the field of higher education. This study added to a broader understanding of employees, their various characteristics, and the implications of those characteristics. The purpose of this study was to develop a grounded theory defining the…

  20. Assisted normality--a grounded theory of adolescent's experiences of living with personal assistance.

    PubMed

    Hultman, Lill; Forinder, Ulla; Pergert, Pernilla

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to explore how adolescents with disabilities experience everyday life with personal assistants. In this qualitative study, individual interviews were conducted at 35 occasions with 16 Swedish adolescents with disabilities, in the ages 16-21. Data were analyzed using grounded theory methodology. The adolescents' main concern was to achieve normality, which is about doing rather than being normal. They try to resolve this by assisted normality utilizing personal assistance. Assisted normality can be obtained by the existing relationship, the cooperation between the assistant and the adolescent and the situational placement of the assistant. Normality is obstructed by physical, social and psychological barriers. This study is from the adolescents' perspective and has implications for understanding the value of having access to personal assistance in order to achieve assisted normality and enable social interaction in everyday life. Access to personal assistance is important to enable social interaction in everyday life. A good and functional relationship is enabled through the existing relation, co-operation and situational placement of the assistant. If the assistant is not properly sensitized, young people risk turning into objects of care. Access to personal assistants cannot compensate for disabling barriers in the society as for example lack of acceptance.

  1. Reinventing Grounded Theory: Some Questions about Theory, Ground and Discovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Gary; James, David

    2006-01-01

    Grounded theory's popularity persists after three decades of broad-ranging critique. In this article three problematic notions are discussed--"theory," "ground" and "discovery"--which linger in the continuing use and development of grounded theory procedures. It is argued that far from providing the epistemic security promised by grounded theory,…

  2. Grounded theory in music therapy research.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Clare

    2012-01-01

    Grounded theory is one of the most common methodologies used in constructivist (qualitative) music therapy research. Researchers use the term "grounded theory" when denoting varying research designs and theoretical outcomes. This may be challenging for novice researchers when considering whether grounded theory is appropriate for their research phenomena. This paper examines grounded theory within music therapy research. Grounded theory is briefly described, including some of its "contested" ideas. A literature search was conducted using the descriptor "music therapy and grounded theory" in Pubmed, CINAHL PsychlNFO, SCOPUS, ERIC (CSA), Web of Science databases, and a music therapy monograph series. A descriptive analysis was performed on the uncovered studies to examine researched phenomena, grounded theory methods used, and how findings were presented, Thirty music therapy research projects were found in refereed journals and monographs from 1993 to "in press." The Strauss and Corbin approach to grounded theory dominates the field. Descriptors to signify grounded theory components in the studies greatly varied. Researchers have used partial or complete grounded theory methods to examine clients', family members', staff, music therapy "overhearers," music therapists', and students' experiences, as well as music therapy creative products and professional views, issues, and literature. Seven grounded theories were offered. It is suggested that grounded theory researchers clarify what and who inspired their design, why partial grounded theory methods were used (when relevant), and their ontology. By elucidating assumptions underpinning the data collection, analysis, and findings' contribution, researchers will continue to improve music therapy research using grounded theory methods.

  3. Cope and Grow: A Grounded Theory Approach to Early College Entrants' Lived Experiences and Changes in a STEM Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, David Yun; Steenbergen-Hu, Saiying; Zhou, Yehan

    2015-01-01

    In this grounded theory qualitative study, we interviewed 34 graduates from one cohort of 51 students from a prestigious early college entrance program in China. Based on the interview data, we identified distinct convergent and divergent patterns of lived experiences and changes. We found several dominant themes, including peers' mutual…

  4. Cope and Grow: A Grounded Theory Approach to Early College Entrants' Lived Experiences and Changes in a STEM Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dai, David Yun; Steenbergen-Hu, Saiying; Zhou, Yehan

    2015-01-01

    In this grounded theory qualitative study, we interviewed 34 graduates from one cohort of 51 students from a prestigious early college entrance program in China. Based on the interview data, we identified distinct convergent and divergent patterns of lived experiences and changes. We found several dominant themes, including peers' mutual…

  5. Sympathy, empathy, and compassion: A grounded theory study of palliative care patients’ understandings, experiences, and preferences

    PubMed Central

    Sinclair, Shane; Beamer, Kate; Hack, Thomas F; McClement, Susan; Raffin Bouchal, Shelley; Chochinov, Harvey M; Hagen, Neil A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Compassion is considered an essential element in quality patient care. One of the conceptual challenges in healthcare literature is that compassion is often confused with sympathy and empathy. Studies comparing and contrasting patients’ perspectives of sympathy, empathy, and compassion are largely absent. Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate advanced cancer patients’ understandings, experiences, and preferences of “sympathy,” “empathy,” and “compassion” in order to develop conceptual clarity for future research and to inform clinical practice. Design: Data were collected via semi-structured interviews and then independently analyzed by the research team using the three stages and principles of Straussian grounded theory. Setting/participants: Data were collected from 53 advanced cancer inpatients in a large urban hospital. Results: Constructs of sympathy, empathy, and compassion contain distinct themes and sub-themes. Sympathy was described as an unwanted, pity-based response to a distressing situation, characterized by a lack of understanding and self-preservation of the observer. Empathy was experienced as an affective response that acknowledges and attempts to understand individual’s suffering through emotional resonance. Compassion enhanced the key facets of empathy while adding distinct features of being motivated by love, the altruistic role of the responder, action, and small, supererogatory acts of kindness. Patients reported that unlike sympathy, empathy and compassion were beneficial, with compassion being the most preferred and impactful. Conclusion: Although sympathy, empathy, and compassion are used interchangeably and frequently conflated in healthcare literature, patients distinguish and experience them uniquely. Understanding patients’ perspectives is important and can guide practice, policy reform, and future research. PMID:27535319

  6. Informed Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  7. Informed Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    There is a widespread idea that in grounded theory (GT) research, the researcher has to delay the literature review until the end of the analysis to avoid contamination--a dictum that might turn educational researchers away from GT. Nevertheless, in this article the author (a) problematizes the dictum of delaying a literature review in classic…

  8. Craving closeness: a grounded theory analysis of women's experiences of mothering in the Special Care Nursery.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Jennifer; Barclay, Lesley; Schmied, Virginia

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the study was to increase knowledge and understanding of how women begin their roles as mothers when their infant is in the neonatal nursery. Research is limited into how women experience mothering in contexts such as the neonatal nursery. Consequently many nurses and midwives remain inadequately informed of parents' experiences which we know may have long-term family outcomes. This paper presents the overarching synthesis of a grounded theory analysis of data collected from 28 Australian women whose infants were in Special Care Nurseries. It draws together a number of previous publications that have described in detail the categories derived from the analysis that explain the actions, interactions and reactions women engage in as they seek to 'connect' with their infant. Data collection consisted of two in-depth interviews conducted with women, 333h of taped cot side recordings, field notes and interview data collected from 20 nursery staff, 19 of whom were midwives. Six major categories were identified that, when combined, explained the intense emotional, cognitive and worry 'work' women undertook with both their infants and the nursery staff in an effort to learn how to mother in the nursery. Four explained how women worked to get to know and connect with their infants. The first three were labelled 'just existing', 'striving to be the baby's mother' and 'trying to establish competence'. The fourth, 'learning and playing the game', overlays the first three and represents the reality of having to undertake these already difficult and unexpected activities of mothering in the nursery. Two categories 'becoming connected' and 'struggling to mother' were identified as the consequences of women's actions and interactions. A significant finding of the study was the impact of the interactions between nurses and mothers' mothering. The nurse-mother relationship had the potential to significantly affect how women perceived their connection to the infant and

  9. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  10. Coding Issues in Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moghaddam, Alireza

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses grounded theory as one of the qualitative research designs. It describes how grounded theory generates from data. Three phases of grounded theory--open coding, axial coding, and selective coding--are discussed, along with some of the issues which are the source of debate among grounded theorists, especially between its…

  11. Finessing incivility: The professional socialisation experiences of student nurses' first clinical placement, a grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Juliet; Jinks, Annette; Jack, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Clinical practice is where student nurses are socialised into a professional role and acquire the distinct behaviour, attitudes and values of the nursing profession. Getting it right at the outset can maximise the development of a professional identity and the transmission of robust value systems. To explore the impact of the first clinical placement on the professional socialisation of adult undergraduate student nurses in the United Kingdom. Data of a longitudinal qualitative nature were collected and analysed using grounded theory. First year student nurses in hospital ward placements comprising a rural District General Hospital and a large inner city Hospital kept daily unstructured diaries for six weeks. A total of 26 undergraduate adult student nurses were purposefully sampled between 2008 and 2010 before undertaking their initial clinical placement. Data collection and analysis used grounded theory and the key question asked of the diarists 'tell me what it is like to be a first year nurse on a first placement' was theoretically adjusted during constant comparison and as the theory emerged. Ethical approval and consent was obtained. The theory of finessing incivility comprises a conceptual framework depicting how student nurses deal with professional incivility during their initial clinical placement and sustain a student identity. Being disillusioned with their role as worker rather than learner yields a sense of 'status dislocation'. Despite needing professional benevolence, they remain altruistic and seek recompense from significant others to negotiate for learning opportunities and relocate their student status. Despite the stressful transition into clinical practice rather than 'fit in', the student nurses want to belong as learners. His or her own resilience to learn nursing and be a professional student maintains their resolve, their altruism and strengthens their existing values to be benevolent towards an indifferent profession. This behaviour

  12. Adolescents' experiences on coping with parental multiple sclerosis: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Mauseth, Torild; Hjälmhult, Esther

    2016-03-01

    To gain insight into what adolescents see as their main concern when having parents who suffer from multiple sclerosis, and develop concepts and theory that may explain how they cope with this concern. Health professionals have a special responsibility towards children of parents with chronic diseases, including multiple sclerosis. Few studies show the perspective of the adolescents themselves, and point out that further knowledge is needed. Previous research supports the need for intervention at a youth, parent and family level. Grounded theory. We used grounded theory with a generative and constant comparative approach. Data were collected through fifteen individual semi-structured interviews with adolescents aged 12-18 years who had a parent diagnosed with multiple sclerosis. The adolescents' main concern was identified to be preserving control in an uncertain everyday life. This concern was resolved by 'balancing needs', implying the pattern of (1) reflecting, (2) adjusting, (3) taking responsibility and (4) seeking respite. These were used interchangeably in the adolescents' effort to solve their main concern. Openness within the family and outwards to the network, is essential for the well-being of the adolescents, and relies on knowledge about the disease, family functioning and support from health professionals. Thus, long-term intervention programs offering information and guidance should be offered. Understanding the impact of multiple sclerosis on the family from the perspective of the adolescents, gives a basis for health professionals when planning the best possible support for these adolescents. School nurses may play an active role in ensuring a high quality of this work. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Identifying the unique ground motion signatures of supershear earthquakes: Theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, M.; Bhat, H. S.; Rosakis, A. J.; Kanamori, H.

    2010-10-01

    The near field ground motion signatures associated with sub-Rayleigh and supershear ruptures are investigated using the laboratory earthquake experiment originally developed by Rosakis and coworkers (Xia et al., 2004, 2005a; Lu et al., 2007; Rosakis et al., 2007). Heterodyne laser interferometers enable continuous, high bandwidth measurements of fault-normal (FN) and fault-parallel (FP) particle velocity "ground motion" records at discrete locations on the surface of a Homalite test specimen as a sub-Rayleigh or a supershear rupture sweeps along the frictional fault. Photoelastic interference fringes, acquired using high-speed digital photography, provide a synchronized, spatially resolved, whole field view of the advancing rupture tip and surrounding maximum shear stress field. Experimental results confirm that near field ground motion records associated with the passage of a sub-Rayleigh rupture are characterized by a FN velocity swing which dominates over the FP velocity swing. The situation is shown to reverse in the supershear rupture speed regime whereby the motion along the shear Mach front is characterized by a FP particle velocity swing which dominates over the FN velocity swing. Additional distinguishing particle velocity signatures, consistent with theoretical and numerical predictions, and repeatedly observed in experimental records are (1) a pronounced peak in the FP velocity record, induced by the leading dilatational field, which sweeps the measurement station just prior to the arrival of the shear Mach front, and (2) a pronounced velocity swing in the FN record associated with the arrival of a "trailing Rayleigh disturbance", which sweeps the measurement station following passage of the shear Mach front. Each of these features are addressed in detail. We conclude by reexamining the 2002, Mw7.9 Denali fault earthquake and the remarkable set of ground motion records obtained at Pump Station 10 (PS10), located approximately 85 km east of the epicenter

  14. Theory of plasma contactors in ground-based experiments and low earth orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerver, M. J.; Hastings, D. E.; Oberhardt, M. R.

    1990-01-01

    An examination of several models of electron collection by plasma contactors leads to a definition of the range of validity and applicability for each model. It is noted that most present ground-based experiments are of limited relevance to space applications of plasma contactors, since they operate in a regime where the magnetic field and effective collisions are at most only marginally important. An exception is the experiment of Stenzel and Urrutia (1986), which examined a plasma whose electron Larmor radius was small by comparison to the scale of the potential, and in which the anomalous transport of electrons across the magnetic field was important. The enhanced electron current was not continuous in time, but occurred in periodic bursts as the instabilities periodically emerged, saturated, and decayed.

  15. Identifying the Unique Ground Motion Signatures of Supershear Earthquakes: Theory and Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, Michael

    The near-field ground motion signatures associated with sub-Rayleigh and supershear ruptures are investigated using the laboratory earthquake experiment originally developed by Rosakis and co-workers (Xia et al., 2004, 2005; Lu et al., 2007; Rosakis et al., 2007). Heterodyne laser interferometers enable continuous, high-bandwidth measurements of fault-normal (FN), fault-parallel (FP), and vertical (V) particle velocity ``ground motion" records at discrete locations on the surface of a Homalite-100 test specimen as a sub-Rayleigh or a supershear rupture sweeps along the frictional fault. Photoelastic interference fringes, acquired using high-speed digital photography, provide a synchronized, spatially resolved, whole field view of the advancing rupture tip and surrounding maximum shear stress field. The first phase of experimental investigations examine and verify the ground motion signatures of supershear ruptures. Experimental results demonstrate that a shear Mach front produced by a stable supershear rupture is characterized by a dominant FP velocity component. The situation is shown to reverse in the sub-Rayleigh rupture speed regime whereby the FN particle velocity component dominates the ground motion record. Additional distinguishing particle velocity signatures, consistent with theoretical and numerical predictions, and repeatedly observed in experimental records are, (1) a pronounced peak in the FP velocity record induced by the leading dilatational field, which sweeps the measurement station in advance of the shear Mach front, and (2) a pronounced velocity swing in the FN record associated with the arrival of a trailing Rayleigh sub-Rayleigh (secondary) rupture, which follows the arrival of the shear Mach front. Analysis of the particle velocity records also confirms 2D steady-state theoretical predictions pertaining to the separation, attenuation, and radiation partitioning of the shear and dilatational portions of the rupture velocity field components

  16. Grounded Theory: Research as Praxis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnotto, Joyce Neff

    In the mid-1960s, social scientists Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss developed grounded theory as a systematic and rigorous method of qualitative data analysis leading to "the discovery of theory from data." In grounded theory, the researcher applies a set of coding procedures to the data until a provisional theory emerges inductively.…

  17. Excitation of the ionospheric Alfvén resonator from the ground: Theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streltsov, A. V.; Chang, C.-L.; Labenski, J.; Milikh, G.; Vartanyan, A.; Snyder, A. L.

    2011-10-01

    We report results from numerical and experimental studies of the excitation of ULF shear Alfvén waves inside the ionospheric Alfvén resonator (IAR) by heating the ionosphere with powerful HF waves launched from the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility in Alaska. Numerical simulations of the two-fluid MHD model describing IAR in a dipole magnetic field geometry with plasma parameters taken from the observations at HAARP during the October-November 2010 experimental campaign reveal that the IAR quality is higher during nighttime conditions, when the ionospheric conductivity is very low. Simulations also reveal that the resonance wave cannot be identified from the magnetic measurements on the ground or at an altitude above 600 km because the magnetic field in this wave has nodes on both ends of the resonator, and the best way to detect IAR modes is by measuring the electric field on low Earth orbit satellites. These theoretical predictions are in good, quantitative agreement with results from observations: In particular, (1) observations from the ground-based magnetometer at the HAARP site demonstrate no significant difference in the amplitudes of the magnetic field generated by HAARP in the frequency range from 0 to 5 Hz, and (2) the DEMETER satellite detected the electric field of the IAR first harmonic at an altitude of 670 km above HAARP during the heating experiment.

  18. Enduring to gain new perspective: a grounded theory study of the experience of perinatal bereavement in Black adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fenstermacher, Kimberly H

    2014-04-01

    Black adolescents in the US experience perinatal loss at a higher rate than other races and ethnicities. The experience of eight Black urban adolescents through the first 3 months after perinatal loss was studied using grounded theory. The process of "enduring to gain new perspective" began with "denying and hesitating" when surprised by unplanned pregnancy but led to "getting ready for this whole new life," followed by shock of "suffering through the loss," "all that pain for nothing," and "mixed emotions going everywhere." Over time, the adolescents began "reaching out for support" and eventually "preserving the memory and maintaining relationship," "searching for meaning and asking why," and "gaining new perspective on life." Parallels are noted to extant bereavement theory. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Enduring to Gain New Perspective: A Grounded Theory Study of the Experience of Perinatal Bereavement in Black Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Fenstermacher, Kimberly

    2014-01-01

    Black adolescents in the US experience perinatal loss at a higher rate than other races and ethnicities. The experience of eight Black urban adolescents through the first three months after perinatal loss was studied using grounded theory. The process of “enduring to gain new perspective” began with “denying and hesitating” when surprised by unplanned pregnancy but led to “getting ready for this whole new life,” followed by shock of “suffering through the loss,” “all that pain for nothing,” and “mixed emotions going everywhere.” Over time, the adolescents began “reaching out for support” and eventually “preserving the memory and maintaining relationship,” “searching for meaning and asking why,” and gaining new perspective on life.” Parallels are noted to extant bereavement theory. PMID:24391049

  20. A path of perpetual resilience: exploring the experience of a diabetes-related amputation through grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Livingstone, Wendy; Mortel, Thea F van de; Taylor, Beverly

    2011-08-01

    Little research has been done on the experience of diabetes-related amputation. The aim of this study was to allow amputees to describe their experiences of amputation and to generate grounded theory that will lead health professionals towards a more comprehensive understanding of the realities of post-amputation life. Unstructured interviews were conducted with five participants with a diabetes-related amputation living in a rural setting, and their respective carers. The interviews were analysed using Grounded Theory methods. Data analysis revealed three categories: 'imposed powerlessness', 'adaptive functionality' and 'endurance'. The impact of participant's amputations were influenced by continuing limb problems post-amputation and co-existing complications affecting their physical function. Medical errors and lack of awareness of the risks for diabetic amputations resulted in uncertainty and fear. The participants' sense of grief, loss and shock post operatively continued later as they came to terms with their awkwardness of movement, yet they moved forward developing their own sense of hope through a coping process that revealed remarkable ability to endure and exert control over lives that seemed to be at the whim of an ongoing disease process. The substantive theory resulting from this grounded theory study was conceptualised as 'A Path of Perpetual Resilience'. It is important that psychosocial and not just physical adjustment is considered an indicator for determining outcomes for these people, and that future care involves strategies to promote this. A greater sample size is required to determine if these findings are transferable to the general diabetes-related amputation population.

  1. Generating Curriculum Theory Through Grounded Theory Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehrke, Nathalie J.; Parker, Walter C.

    The purpose of this paper is threefold: to describe grounded theory research strategies, to present a summary of several studies in education that have followed this approach, and to explore the potential uses of the grounded theory techniques in curriculum theory generation. The paper is arranged into six parts. In the first and second parts of…

  2. A grounded theory study of 'turning into a strong nurse': Earthquake experiences and perspectives on disaster nursing education.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Turale, Sue; Stone, Teresa E; Petrini, Marcia

    2015-09-01

    While Asia has the dubious distinction of being the world's most natural disaster-prone area, disaster nursing education and training are sparse in many Asian countries, especially China where this study took place. To explore the earthquake disaster experiences of Chinese nurses and develop a substantive theory of earthquake disaster nursing that will help inform future development of disaster nursing education. A qualitative study employing grounded theory, informed by symbolic interactionism. Fifteen Chinese registered nurses from five hospitals in Jiangxi Province who undertook relief efforts after the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake. Data were collected in 2012-2013 in digitally-recorded, semi-structured, in-depth interviews and reflective field notes, and analyzed using Glaser's grounded theory method. Participants were unprepared educationally and psychologically for their disaster work. Supporting the emergent theory of "working in that terrible environment", was the core category of "turning into a strong nurse", a process of three stages: "going to the disaster"; "immersing in the disaster"; and "trying to let disaster experiences fade away". The participants found themselves thrust in "terrible" scenes of destruction, experienced personal dangers and ethical dilemmas, and tried the best they could to help survivors, communities and themselves, with limited resources and confronting professional work. Our rich findings confirm those of other studies in China and elsewhere, that attention must be paid to disaster education and training for nurses, as well as the mental health of nurses who work in disaster areas. Emergent theory helps to inform nurse educators, researchers, leaders and policy makers in China, and elsewhere in developing strategies to better prepare nurses for future disasters, and assist communities to prepare for and recover after earthquake disasters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Managing preconceived expectations: mental health service users experiences of going home from hospital: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Keogh, B; Callaghan, P; Higgins, A

    2015-11-01

    What is known on the subject? The time of discharge from a mental health hospital can be challenging for mental health service users, with high rates of readmission in the immediate months following discharge. Although some research exists that explores service users' perspectives of being discharged, little evidence exists that explores the processes influencing or used by service users' to adapt to the transition from in-patient acute mental health service. What this papers adds to existing knowledge? The findings of this grounded theory study demonstrates the strategies service users used to managed their own, as well as their social audiences, preconceived expectations arising from their new identity as 'psychiatric patients' following their discharge from hospital. While there is a move to develop recovery-orientated mental health services, key indicators of recovery-oriented practices were often absent from service users' experiences of service provision. What are the implications for practice? Nurses and other mental health professionals need to recognize their contribution to the architecture of stigma that transcends the physical structures of hospital or ward and are entrenched within attitudes, interactions and practices. The findings of this study can provide guidance to those working with service users and help them to understand the complexities of their experiences when using mental health services, which go far beyond the management of their symptoms. Following a period of hospitalization, the transition to home can result in increased vulnerability and a source of stress for mental health service users. Readmission rates have been suggested as one indicator of the success of the transition from hospital to community care. Despite knowledge of some of the factors that impact on service users following discharge, no coherent model or theoretical framework could be located in the literature, which explains or aides an in-depth understanding of the

  4. Family physicians' experiences when collaborating with district nurses in home care-based medical treatment. A grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background This article concerns Swedish family physicians' (FPs) experiences collaborating with district nurses (DNs) when the DNs provide medical treatment for home care patients. The aim was to develop a model to illuminate this process from the FPs' perspective. Methods Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 FPs concerning one of their patients with home care by a DN. The interview focused on one patient's treatment and care by different care providers and the collaboration among them. Grounded theory methodology (GTM) was used in the analyses. Results It was essential for FPs to collaborate with and rely on DNs in the medical treatment of home care patients. According to the FPs, factors such as the disease, FPs' working conditions and attitude determined how much of the initiative in this treatment FPs retained or left to DNs. Depending on the circumstances, two different roles were adopted by the individual FPs: medical conductors who retain the initiative and medical consultants who leave the initiative to DNs. Factors as the disease, DNs' attitudes towards collaboration and DNs' working conditions influenced whether or not the FPs felt that grounds for relying on DNs were satisfactory. Regardless of the role of the FP, conditions for medical treatment were judged by the FPs to be good enough when the grounds for relying on the DN were satisfactory and problematic when they were not. Conclusions In the role of conductor, the FP will identify when the grounds for relying on the DN are unsatisfactory and be able to take action, but in the role of consultant the FP will not detect this, leaving home care patients without appropriate support. Only when there are satisfactory grounds for relying on the DN, will conditions for providing home care medical treatment be good enough when the FP adopts a consultative role. PMID:20979649

  5. Family physicians' experiences when collaborating with district nurses in home care-based medical treatment. A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Modin, Sonja; Törnkvist, Lena; Furhoff, Anna-Karin; Hylander, Ingrid

    2010-10-27

    This article concerns Swedish family physicians' (FPs) experiences collaborating with district nurses (DNs) when the DNs provide medical treatment for home care patients. The aim was to develop a model to illuminate this process from the FPs' perspective. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 13 FPs concerning one of their patients with home care by a DN. The interview focused on one patient's treatment and care by different care providers and the collaboration among them. Grounded theory methodology (GTM) was used in the analyses. It was essential for FPs to collaborate with and rely on DNs in the medical treatment of home care patients. According to the FPs, factors such as the disease, FPs' working conditions and attitude determined how much of the initiative in this treatment FPs retained or left to DNs. Depending on the circumstances, two different roles were adopted by the individual FPs: medical conductors who retain the initiative and medical consultants who leave the initiative to DNs. Factors as the disease, DNs' attitudes towards collaboration and DNs' working conditions influenced whether or not the FPs felt that grounds for relying on DNs were satisfactory. Regardless of the role of the FP, conditions for medical treatment were judged by the FPs to be good enough when the grounds for relying on the DN were satisfactory and problematic when they were not. In the role of conductor, the FP will identify when the grounds for relying on the DN are unsatisfactory and be able to take action, but in the role of consultant the FP will not detect this, leaving home care patients without appropriate support. Only when there are satisfactory grounds for relying on the DN, will conditions for providing home care medical treatment be good enough when the FP adopts a consultative role.

  6. Grounded Classification: Grounded Theory and Faceted Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Star, Susan Leigh

    1998-01-01

    Compares the qualitative method of grounded theory (GT) with Ranganathan's construction of faceted classifications (FC) in library and information science. Both struggle with a core problem--the representation of vernacular words and processes, empirically discovered, which will, although ethnographically faithful, be powerful beyond the single…

  7. District nurses’ experiences of caring for leg ulcers in accordance with clinical guidelines: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Lagerin, Annica; Hylander, Ingrid; Törnkvist, Lena

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This qualitative study used the grounded theory method to investigate district nurses’ experiences of caring for leg ulcers in accordance with clinical guidelines at seven primary health care centres in Stockholm, Sweden. Group interviews were conducted with 30 nurses. The results describe how district nurses strive to stay on track in order to follow clinical guidelines and remain motivated despite prolonged wound treatment and feelings of hopelessness. Three main obstacles to following the guidelines were found. District nurses used compensating strategies so the obstacles would not lead to negative consequences. If the compensating strategies were insufficient, perceived prolonged wound treatment and feelings of hopelessness could result. District nurses then used motivating strategies to overcome these feelings of hopelessness. Sometimes, despite the motivating strategies, treatment in accordance with guidelines could not be achieved. With some patients, district nurses had to compromise and follow the guidelines as far as possible. PMID:28747091

  8. Fascination and Isolation: A Grounded Theory Exploration of Unusual Sensory Experiences in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard S.; Sharp, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Unusual sensory experiences are commonly seen in people with Asperger syndrome (AS). They correlate with functional impairments and cause distress. The current study investigates how these experiences have affected nine adults with AS's lives, as well as the coping strategies utilised. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using Instant…

  9. Fascination and Isolation: A Grounded Theory Exploration of Unusual Sensory Experiences in Adults with Asperger Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard S.; Sharp, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Unusual sensory experiences are commonly seen in people with Asperger syndrome (AS). They correlate with functional impairments and cause distress. The current study investigates how these experiences have affected nine adults with AS's lives, as well as the coping strategies utilised. Semi-structured interviews were conducted using Instant…

  10. Electromagnetic scattering from a cavity in a ground plane: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, William Dieterich, Jr.

    1997-11-01

    We examine the electromagnetic scattering from an arbitrarily shaped open cavity embedded in a perfectly conducting, infinite ground plane. The cavity is filled with an arbitrary linear, isotropic, homogeneous, lossy material. The field everywhere in the cavity interior and above the ground plane are expressed in terms of the tangential fields on the cavity surface and aperture. We develop a coupled set of three integral equations to determine the tangential electromagnetic fields on the aperture and cavity surface. The integral equations are based on fundamental mathematical laws obeyed by the fields rather than on the usual surface or volume equivalence principles. The unknown functions are the tangential electric and magnetic fields on the cavity aperture, and the tangential magnetic field on the cavity surface. The support of the unknown tangential fields is finite. We design a moment-method based algorithm to find an approximate solution to the integral equations for plane wave illumination, and implement it on a digital computer. The algorithm is specialized for the case of axisymmetric cavities, and used the same basis functions as are used in traditional body-of-revolution scattering codes. The unknown tangential fields are expanded using piecewise-linear functions in the elevation plane and complex exponentials in the azimuth plane. Orthogonality of the complex exponentials is exploited to reduce the size of the moment method matrix. The algorithm yields a well-conditioned numerical solution for the tangential fields. The tangential fields obey the edge condition at the aperture rim. The integral equations are uniquely solvable at frequencies where other integral equation-based techniques admit spurious solutions. Radar cross section calculations are compared to experimental measurements of full-scale physical models. Results show that an open cavity can serve as an effective RCS enhancement device.

  11. Growing a Professional Identity: A Grounded Theory of the Educational Experience of Baccalaureate Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodolf, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    Nursing students experience high levels of stress while enrolled in baccalaureate nursing programs. Research has focused on the contributors of stress such as the responsibilities of patient care, the overwhelming amount of information, high stakes methods of evaluation, and rigorous course schedules. Little research has been found on the personal…

  12. Growing a Professional Identity: A Grounded Theory of the Educational Experience of Baccalaureate Nursing Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodolf, Dawn M.

    2013-01-01

    Nursing students experience high levels of stress while enrolled in baccalaureate nursing programs. Research has focused on the contributors of stress such as the responsibilities of patient care, the overwhelming amount of information, high stakes methods of evaluation, and rigorous course schedules. Little research has been found on the personal…

  13. Canadian Residents Teaching and Learning Psychiatry in Ethiopia: A Grounded Theory Analysis Focusing on Their Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Shelley; Robertson, David; Makuwaza, Tutsirai; Hodges, Brian D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The Toronto Addis Ababa Psychiatry Project (TAAPP) is an international collaboration between University of Toronto and Addis Ababa University. University of Toronto psychiatric residents may participate in TAAPP as an elective. The authors explored the Canadian resident experience in a qualitative study of the project. Methods: Eleven…

  14. Experiences of non-progressive and augmented labour among nulliparous women: a qualitative interview study in a Grounded Theory approach

    PubMed Central

    Kjaergaard, Hanne; Foldgast, Anne Maria; Dykes, Anna-Karin

    2007-01-01

    Background Non-progressive labour is the most common complication in nulliparas and is primarily treated by augmentation. Augmented labour is often terminated by instrumental delivery. Little qualitative research has addressed experiences of non-progressive and augmented deliveries. The aim of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the experience of non-progressive and augmented labour among nulliparas and their experience of the care they received. Methods A qualitative study was conducted using individual interviews. Data was collected and analysed according to the Grounded Theory method. The participants were a purposive sample of ten women. The interviews were conducted 4–15 weeks after delivery. Results The women had contrasting experiences during the birth process. During labour there was a conflict between the expectation of having a natural delivery and actually having a medical delivery. The women experienced a feeling of separation between mind and body. Interacting with the midwife had a major influence on feelings of losing and regaining control. Reconciliation between the contrasting feelings during labour was achieved. The core category was named Dialectical Birth Process and comprised three categories: Balancing natural and medical delivery, Interacting, Losing and regaining control. Conclusion A dialectical process was identified in these women's experiences of non-progressive labour. The process is susceptible to interaction with the midwife; especially her support to the woman's feeling of being in control. Midwives should secure that the woman's recognition of the fact that the labour is non-progressive and augmentation is required is handled with respect for the dialectical process. Augmentation of labour should be managed as close to the course of natural labour and delivery as possible. PMID:17662152

  15. "Like a trip to McDonalds": a grounded theory study of patient experiences of day surgery.

    PubMed

    Mottram, Anne

    2011-02-01

    The amount and complexity of (ambulatory) day surgery is rapidly expanding internationally. Nurses have a responsibility to provide quality care for day surgery patients. To do this they must understand all aspects of the patient experience. There is dearth of research into day surgery using a sociological frame of reference. The study investigated patients' experiences of day surgery using a sociological frame of reference. A qualitative study using the grounded theory approach was used. The study was based in two day surgery units in two urban public hospitals in the United Kingdom. 145 patients aged 18-70 years and 100 carers were purposely selected from the orthopaedic, ear nose and throat and general surgical lists. They were all English speaking and were of varied socio-economic background. The data was collected from 2004 to 2006. Semi-structured interviews were conducted on three occasions: before surgery, 48 h following surgery and one month following discharge. Permission was received from the Local Research Ethics Committee. Analysis of the data involved line-by-line analysis, compilation of key words and phrases (codes) and constant comparison of the codes until categories emerged. Patients liked day surgery and placed it within the wider societal context of efficiency and speed. Time was a major issue for them. They wished surgery, like all other aspects of their life to be a speedy process. They likened it to a McDonald's experience with its emphasis on speed, predictability and control. This study throws new light on patient experiences and offers an understanding of day surgery against a western culture which emphasises the importance of speed and efficiency. It is a popular choice for patients but at times it can be seen to be a mechanistic way of providing care. The implications for nurses to provide education and information to add to the quality of the patient experience are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Rigour and grounded theory research.

    PubMed

    Chiovitti, Rosalina F; Piran, Niva

    2003-11-01

    Grounded theory methodology is a suitable qualitative research approach for clinical inquiry into nursing practice, leading to theory development in nursing. Given the variations in, and subjectivity attached to, the manner in which qualitative research is carried out, it is important for researchers to explain the process of how a theory about a nursing phenomenon was generated. Similarly, when grounded theory research reports are reviewed for clinical use, nurses need to look for researchers' explanations of their inquiry process. The focus of this article is to discuss the practical application of grounded theory procedures as they relate to rigour. Reflecting on examples from a grounded theory research study, we suggest eight methods of research practice to delineate further Beck's schema for ensuring, credibility, auditability and fittingness, which are all components of rigour. The eight methods of research practice used to enhance rigour in the course of conducting a grounded theory research study were: (1) let participants guide the inquiry process; (2) check the theoretical construction generated against participants' meanings of the phenomenon; (3) use participants' actual words in the theory; (4) articulate the researcher's personal views and insights about the phenomenon explored; (5) specify the criteria built into the researcher's thinking; (6) specify how and why participants in the study were selected; (7) delineate the scope of the research; and (8) describe how the literature relates to each category which emerged in the theory. The eight methods of research practice should be of use to those in nursing research, management, practice and education in enhancing rigour during the research process and for critiquing published grounded theory research reports.

  17. Disclosing victimisation to healthcare professionals in Sweden: a constructivist grounded theory study of experiences among men exposed to interpersonal violence

    PubMed Central

    Brüggemann, Adrianus Jelmer; Swahnberg, Katarina

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop a theoretical model concerning male victims' processes of disclosing experiences of victimisation to healthcare professionals in Sweden. Design Qualitative interview study. Setting Informants were recruited from the general population and a primary healthcare centre in Sweden. Participants Informants were recruited by means of theoretical sampling among respondents in a previous quantitative study. Eligible for this study were men reporting sexual, physical and/or emotional violence victimisation by any perpetrator and reporting that they either had talked to a healthcare provider about their victimisation or had wanted to do so. Method Constructivist grounded theory. 12 interviews were performed and saturation was reached after 9. Results Several factors influencing the process of disclosing victimisation can be recognised from previous studies concerning female victims, including shame, fear of negative consequences of disclosing, specifics of the patient–provider relationship and time constraints within the healthcare system. However, this study extends previous knowledge by identifying strong negative effects of adherence to masculinity norms for victimised men and healthcare professionals on the process of disclosing. It is also emphasised that the process of disclosing cannot be separated from other, even seemingly unrelated, circumstances in the men's lives. Conclusions The process of disclosing victimisation to healthcare professionals was a complex process involving the men's experiences of victimisation, adherence to gender norms, their life circumstances and the dynamics of the actual healthcare encounter. PMID:27324711

  18. Methodological issues in grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Cutcliffe, J R

    2000-06-01

    Examination of the qualitative methodological literature shows that there appear to be conflicting opinions and unresolved issues regarding the nature and process of grounded theory. Researchers proposing to utilize this method would therefore be wise to consider these conflicting opinions. This paper therefore identifies and attempts to address four key issues, namely, sampling, creativity and reflexivity, the use of literature, and precision within grounded theory. The following recommendations are made. When utilizing a grounded method researchers need to consider their research question, clarify what level of theory is likely to be induced from their study, and then decide when they intend to access and introduce the second body of literature. They should acknowledge that in the early stages of data collection, some purposeful sampling appears to occur. In their search for conceptually dense theory, grounded theory researchers may wish to free themselves from the constraints that limit their use of creativity and tacit knowledge. Furthermore, the interests of researchers might be served by attention to issues of precision including, avoiding method slurring, ensuring theoretical coding occurs, and using predominantly one method of grounded theory while explaining and describing any deviation away from this chosen method. Such mindfulness and the resulting methodological rigour is likely to increase the overall quality of the inquiry and enhance the credibility of the findings.

  19. Victimising of School Bullying: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert; Halldin, Karolina; Bolmsjo, Natalie; Petersson, Annelie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how individuals;who had been victims of school bullying; perceived their bullying experiences and how these had affected them; and to generate a grounded theory of being a victim of bullying at school. Twenty-one individuals, who all had prior experiences of being bullied in school for more than one year,…

  20. Victimising of School Bullying: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert; Halldin, Karolina; Bolmsjo, Natalie; Petersson, Annelie

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how individuals;who had been victims of school bullying; perceived their bullying experiences and how these had affected them; and to generate a grounded theory of being a victim of bullying at school. Twenty-one individuals, who all had prior experiences of being bullied in school for more than one year,…

  1. A grounded theory of female adolescents' dating experiences and factors influencing safety: the dynamics of the Circle

    PubMed Central

    Toscano, Sharyl E

    2007-01-01

    Background This paper describes the nature and characteristics of the dating relationships of adolescent females, including any of their experiences of abuse. Methods A grounded theory approach was used with 22 theoretically sampled female adolescents ages 15–18. Results Several important themes emerged: Seven stages of dating consistently described the relationships of female adolescents. A circle consisting of two interacting same sex peer groups provided structure for each teen as they navigated the dating course. The circle was the central factor affecting a female adolescent's potential for risk or harm in dating relationships. Teens defined abuse as an act where the intention is to hurt. Having once succumbed to sexual pressure, teens felt unable to refuse sex in subsequent situations. Conclusion An awareness of both the stages of dating and the dynamics of the circle will assist health care providers to plan and implement interventions in the female adolescent population. Study findings on factors and influences that support non-abusive versus abusive relationship might help identify female teens at risk and/or support interventions aimed at preventing dating violence. PMID:17883833

  2. Taiwanese women's experiences of becoming a mother to a very-low-birth-weight preterm infant: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Shu-Nu Chang; Long, Ann; Boore, Jennifer

    2009-03-01

    Significant improvements have occurred in the survival rates of small preterm infants. As more infants survive their preterm birth, the number of parents associated with this experience has also increased. Clearly, the birth of very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infants poses considerable challenges for all mothers. These challenges are further compounded in Taiwan, where women are traditionally required to practise the cultural ritual (Zuo Yue Zi) which includes confinement to the house with a special balanced diet for the first month postnatally. Moreover, there is a deficit of information on mothers' experiences when their preterm infants are in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). The aim of this study was to explore Taiwanese mothers' (n=26) parenting experiences when their preterm infants were in NICUs. A qualitative research approach, grounded theory, was used to explore the mothers' lived reality of these experiences. In-depth interviews and participant observations were conducted to gain insight into the experience of parenting. A theoretical model was formulated from the findings delineating Taiwanese mothers' parenting experiences during their preterm infants stay in hospital. The findings indicated that the preterm birth, together with the admission of their infants to a NICU, presented mothers with an unexpected crisis. The particular cultural postnatal ritual posed this group of Taiwanese mothers with an additional difficulty in establishing physical interactions. However, the Taiwanese mothers created alternative channels of contact with their hospitalised infants using emotional connections, while the physical interactions were certainly limited. Despite all the difficulties this group of Taiwanese mothers faced and resolved, they all gradually captured and embraced the parenting role. The finding of this study further indicated that the support the mothers received from the healthcare professionals and the social networks the mothers made

  3. Grounded theory, feminist theory, critical theory: toward theoretical triangulation.

    PubMed

    Kushner, Kaysi Eastlick; Morrow, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Nursing and social science scholars have examined the compatibility between feminist and grounded theory traditions in scientific knowledge generation, concluding that they are complementary, yet not without certain tensions. This line of inquiry is extended to propose a critical feminist grounded theory methodology. The construction of symbolic interactionist, feminist, and critical feminist variants of grounded theory methodology is examined in terms of the presuppositions of each tradition and their interplay as a process of theoretical triangulation.

  4. A grounded theory study of Swedish women's experiences of inflammatory symptoms of the breast during breast feeding.

    PubMed

    Kvist, Linda J; Larsson, Bodil Wilde; Hall-Lord, Marie Louise

    2006-06-01

    to gain an understanding of the experiences of women who have had an episode of inflammatory symptoms of the breast during lactation. a grounded theory approach, inspired by Glaser and Strauss, was used in an interview study. the study was carried out at a midwife-led breast-feeding clinic in Sweden. the strategic sample consisted of 14 mothers, all of whom had had an episode of breast inflammation between 10 and 22 weeks before the interview. Nine were primiparous. Ages ranged between 24 and 38 years. the analysis resulted in the emergence of one core category and five conceptual categories. The core category was 'the will to breast feed', and the five conceptual categories were 'perspectives on breast feeding', 'personal strategies', 'enduring and adjustment', 'support' and 'causal frameworks'. The core category was reflected in all the other categories and was dependent on them. an episode of breast inflammation is a possible threat to the maintenance of breast feeding, but the will to breast feed may make it possible for mothers to withstand physical and emotional difficulties caused by the illness. Breast-feeding mothers may have chosen a goal for the length of time they wish to breast feed, and the attainment of this goal is prestige-filled. Midwives, throughout the chain of care, could improve the amount and type of information given about the demands and possible complications of breast feeding. The availability of immediate clinical expertise for these mothers is an important factor, and health-care planners should be aware of this.

  5. Experiences of using information and communication technology within the first year after stroke - a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Gustavsson, Martha; Ytterberg, Charlotte; Nabsen Marwaa, Mille; Tham, Kerstin; Guidetti, Susanne

    2016-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to identify how people 6-12 months after stroke were using and integrating information and communication technology (ICT) in their everyday lives. To capture the participants' experiences, one focus group and 14 individual interviews were carried out in Sweden and Denmark regarding the use of ICT in everyday life. The participants comprised 11 men and seven women aged 41-79 years. A grounded theory approach was used throughout the study and a constant comparative method was used in the analysis. Five categories were identified from the analysis of the interviews with the participants: 1) Using the mobile phone to feel safe, 2) Staying connected with others, 3) Recreating everyday life, 4) A tool for managing everyday life, and 5) Overcoming obstacles for using ICT. From these categories one core category emerged: The drive to integrate ICT in everyday life after stroke. People with stroke had a strong drive to integrate ICT in order to manage and bring meaning to their everyday lives, although sometimes they needed support and adaptations. It is not only possible but also necessary to start using ICT in rehabilitation in order to support people's recovery and promote participation in everyday life after stroke. Implications for rehabilitation People with stroke have a strong drive for using information and communication technology in their everyday lives, although support and adaptations are needed. The recovery process of people with stroke could benefit from the use of ICT in the rehabilitation and ICT could possibly contribute to independence and promote participation in everyday life. Knowledge from this study can be used in the development of an ICT-based stroke rehabilitation model.

  6. Motivations of Baby Boomer Doctoral Learners: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Julia J.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a substantive theory of the motivations of Baby Boomer doctoral learners, using the grounded theory approach. These Baby Boomers possess a wealth of wisdom. Their experiences, coupled with educational credentials, could take their leadership abilities to the next level. The grounded theory method developed by…

  7. Talking or Keeping Silent About Parental Mental Health Problems-A Grounded Theory of Parents' Decision Making and Experiences with Their Children.

    PubMed

    Nolte, Lizette; Wren, Bernadette

    2016-10-01

    This grounded theory study explored parents' experiences of responding to their children's need for understanding parental mental health concerns. Fifteen parents with severe and enduring mental health difficulties participated in the study. The findings suggest four main social processes that influence parents' talk with their children about parental mental health issues, namely "Protecting and being protected," "Responding to children's search for understanding," "Prioritizing family life," and "Relating to others." Implications of the findings for clinical practice and future research are considered. In particular, the need for more family-orientated services where parents experience parental mental health problems is highlighted. © 2016 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  8. The Mutual Relationship Between Immigrants' Disrupted Everyday Activities and Their Health: A Grounded Theory of Experiences of Korean Immigrants Settling in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hagyun; Hocking, Clare

    2016-01-01

    For Asian immigrants, immigration has the potential to disrupt all familiar routines. That is a threat to their health and well-being. This grounded theory study explored how immigrants adjust to a new environment by analyzing the experiences of 25 Korean immigrants in New Zealand. The findings suggest that immigration is a stress-inducing phenomenon that requires adjustment of valued activities and adversely affects their health. In response, participants worked on regaining control over disrupted activities by opting for two world perspectives. The study helps social workers to develop effective interventions and services for immigrants to better handle health problems.

  9. Investigating the dimension of time: findings from a modified grounded theory study about clients' experiences and descriptions of temporality or time within music therapy.

    PubMed

    Daveson, Barbara; O'Callaghan, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Many references to time or temporality are located within music therapy literature, however little research has been completed regarding this phenomenon. Findings from a modified grounded theory study about clients' experiences and descriptions of time within the context of music therapy are presented here. The study was informed by the constructivist-interpretive paradigm and a grounded-descriptive statement finding resulted. A 2-staged research methodology was used, comprising a deductive-inductive content analysis of information from the public domain, followed by data-mining of information from a minimum of 160 clients and analysis of data from at least 43 of these 160 clients. Information regarding memory experiences, the duration of music therapy effects, recall and retrieval, and experiences of time are identified. Implications for practice are emphasized, in particular the following is stressed (a) the importance of time orientation and temporal connectedness in relation to identity development, (b) temporal strategies within music experience to assist integration, recall, and retrieval of information, and (c) the importance of and the elements involved in time modification. New explanations for music therapy phenomena are shared, and areas for research highlighted. Benefits of using time dynamically to aid therapeutic process are proposed, and it is concluded that temporal experience within the context of music therapy is important in relation to both practice and research.

  10. Grounded theory methodology--narrativity revisited.

    PubMed

    Ruppel, Paul Sebastian; Mey, Günter

    2015-06-01

    This article aims to illuminate the role of narrativity in Grounded Theory Methodology and to explore an approach within Grounded Theory Methodology that is sensitized towards aspects of narrativity. The suggested approach takes into account narrativity as an aspect of the underlying data. It reflects how narrativity could be conceptually integrated and systematically used for shaping the way in which coding, category development and the presentation of results in a Grounded Theory Methodology study proceed.

  11. Disorder strength and field-driven ground state domain formation in artificial spin ice: experiment, simulation, and theory.

    PubMed

    Budrikis, Zoe; Morgan, J P; Akerman, J; Stein, A; Politi, Paolo; Langridge, S; Marrows, C H; Stamps, R L

    2012-07-20

    Quenched disorder affects how nonequilibrium systems respond to driving. In the context of artificial spin ice, an athermal system comprised of geometrically frustrated classical Ising spins with a twofold degenerate ground state, we give experimental and numerical evidence of how such disorder washes out edge effects and provide an estimate of disorder strength in the experimental system. We prove analytically that a sequence of applied fields with fixed amplitude is unable to drive the system to its ground state from a saturated state. These results should be relevant for other systems where disorder does not change the nature of the ground state.

  12. Grounded Theory Methodology: Positivism, Hermeneutics, and Pragmatism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Age, Lars-Johan

    2011-01-01

    Glaserian grounded theory methodology, which has been widely adopted as a scientific methodology in recent decades, has been variously characterised as "hermeneutic" and "positivist." This commentary therefore takes a different approach to characterising grounded theory by undertaking a comprehensive analysis of: (a) the philosophical paradigms of…

  13. Keeping hope possible: a grounded theory study of the hope experience of parental caregivers who have children in treatment for cancer.

    PubMed

    Bally, Jill M G; Duggleby, Wendy; Holtslander, Lorraine; Mpofu, Christopher; Spurr, Shelley; Thomas, Roanne; Wright, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Hope has been found to support parents as they care for their child with a life-limiting or life-threatening illness. However, very little research focuses on the nursing care of parents of pediatric oncology patients, and therefore, nurses may have difficulty in understanding and supporting parental well-being. The purpose of this qualitative study was to gain an understanding of the experience of hope for parents who care for their child in treatment for cancer. Using purposive theoretical sampling, 16 parents participated in this study. Thirty-three open-ended, face-to-face interviews were conducted, and 14 parent journals were collected. Analysis of the data was conducted using Charmaz's constructivist grounded theory approach. A developing, substantive grounded theory was constructed. Parental hope was described as an essential, powerful, deliberate, life-sustaining, dynamic, cyclical process that was anchored in time; was calming and strengthening; and provided inner guidance through the challenging experience of preparing for the worst and hoping for the best. Parents' main concern was "fearing the loss of hope," which was ameliorated by the basic social process of "keeping hope possible" through accepting reality, establishing control, restructuring hope, and purposive positive thinking. Parents journeyed through numerous transitions related to the treatment of cancer that caused feelings of uncertainty, anxiety, stress, and loss of control. Hope was identified as vital to parents. To minimize these adverse experiences, nurses can support parents' ability to keep hope possible and thus to optimize their well-being by understanding, assessing, and supporting parental hope.

  14. Essential methodological considerations when using grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Achora, Susan; Matua, Gerald Amandu

    2016-07-01

    To suggest important methodological considerations when using grounded theory. A research method widely used in nursing research is grounded theory, at the centre of which is theory construction. However, researchers still struggle with some of its methodological issues. Although grounded theory is widely used to study and explain issues in nursing practice, many researchers are still failing to adhere to its rigorous standards. Researchers should articulate the focus of their investigations - the substantive area of interest as well as the focal population. This should be followed by a succinct explanation of the strategies used to collect and analyse data, supported by clear coding processes. Finally, the resolution of the core issues, including the core category and related categories, should be explained to advance readers' understanding. Researchers should endeavour to understand the tenets of grounded theory. This enables 'neophytes' in particular to make methodological decisions that will improve their studies' rigour and fit with grounded theory. This paper complements the current dialogue on improving the understanding of grounded theory methodology in nursing research. The paper also suggests important procedural decisions researchers need to make to preserve their studies' scientific merit and fit with grounded theory.

  15. Ground Effect - Theory and Practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pistolesi, E

    1937-01-01

    The conclusion of a previous article by Pistolesi is that the increment of lift due to ground effect is largely attributable to the effect of induction of the free vortices, and is practically equivalent to a virtual increase in aspect ratio. The ground clearance was of the order of magnitude comparable to the wing chord. New reports by Le Seur and Datwyler treat the case of minimum distance from the ground and is confined to the plane problem only. The author briefly reviews these reports and also one by Timotika. References to all the reviewed reports are in the attached bibliography.

  16. A conflict of responsibilities: a grounded theory study of clinical psychologists' experience of client non-attendance within the British National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Tweed, A E; Salter, D P

    2000-12-01

    Within psychotherapy process research, the effects of client non-attendance upon therapists has been neglected. The present study interviewed six clinical psychologists concerning their experiences of client non-attendance in health service practice in the UK. Their accounts were analysed using a grounded theory method. A core category was identified and termed 'responsibility'. This highlighted conflicting relationships between participants' responsibilities in several areas. A process model pertaining to non-attendance was also developed. Client non-attendance was seen to produce a level of disruption, experienced as an affective reaction and often experienced in terms of negative affect. In response, re-organizational strategies were used to restore equilibrium. Reasons are suggested as to why negative affective reactions were experienced. These include factors concerning therapeutic competency, but also reflect upon the profession's espousal of an 'all-knowing' expert identity. This is seen to be incongruent to the complexities of clinical practice.

  17. Exploring the development of sun-tanning behavior: a grounded theory study of adolescents' decision-making experiences with becoming a sun tanner.

    PubMed

    Shoveller, Jean A; Lovato, Chris Y; Young, Richard A; Moffat, Barbara

    2003-01-01

    A grounded theory study was undertaken to describe how adolescents make decisions about sunbathing during the transition from childhood to adolescence and to propose an explanation for the relationships among factors affecting the adoption of sun tanning. In-depth interviews (n = 40) were conducted separately with adolescents (aged 12 to 16 years) and their parents. Constant comparative analysis of adolescents' accounts identified two methods that adolescents described as a means of getting a suntan: intentional sun tanning and incidental sun tanning. The process of adolescents' decision-making about getting a suntan can be understood by examining the following sequence: becoming motivated to get a tan, experimenting with sun tanning, and establishing self as an intentional tanner or incidental tanner. Implications for developing strategies to prevent the adoption of sun-tanning habits among adolescents are presented.

  18. Grounded theory as feminist research methodology.

    PubMed

    Keddy, B; Sims, S L; Stern, P N

    1996-03-01

    Feminist research is evolving, and with it new methods of doing science. In this feminist post-positivist era, grounded theory, while less inclusive and descriptive than ethnography, allows for complex analysis of complex questions. While Glaser & Strauss (the originators of this methodology) have written about grounded theory in an esoteric way, others have written extensively about this method in a much clearer and less rigid fashion. In this paper we discuss how grounded theory could be used in a creative and constantly evolving manner for feminist research.

  19. The Experience of Training Pilots over the Age of 40 Transitioning to Technologically Advanced Aircraft: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolmos, John A.

    2017-01-01

    Older adults face many challenges in the workplace, one being the advancement of technologies both in hardware and software development. The purpose of the study was to understand the learned experiences of older adults integrating advanced technologies into their critical decision-making work experience because of training. Literature claimed a…

  20. Ground based materials science experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, M. B.; Johnston, J. C.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    The facilities at the Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) at the Lewis Research Center, created to offer immediate and low-cost access to ground-based testing facilities for industrial, academic, and government researchers, are described. The equipment in the MMSL falls into three categories: (1) devices which emulate some aspect of low gravitational forces, (2) specialized capabilities for 1-g development and refinement of microgravity experiments, and (3) functional duplicates of flight hardware. Equipment diagrams are included.

  1. Ground based materials science experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, M. B.; Johnston, J. C.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    The facilities at the Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) at the Lewis Research Center, created to offer immediate and low-cost access to ground-based testing facilities for industrial, academic, and government researchers, are described. The equipment in the MMSL falls into three categories: (1) devices which emulate some aspect of low gravitational forces, (2) specialized capabilities for 1-g development and refinement of microgravity experiments, and (3) functional duplicates of flight hardware. Equipment diagrams are included.

  2. Grounded theory and feminist inquiry: revitalizing links to the past.

    PubMed

    Plummer, Marilyn; Young, Lynne E

    2010-04-01

    Grounded theory has served feminist research endeavors since the mid-1990s. Researchers from a variety of disciplines claim methodological compatibility and incorporate feminist principles into their grounded theory studies. This article seeks to demonstrate the epistemological affinity between feminist inquiry and grounded theory. Although this relationship is not necessarily unique, the authors contend that when combined, it loosens the androcentric moorings of the empirical processes underpinning grounded theory, enabling the researchers to design inquiry with greater potential to reveal issues particular to the lives and experiences of marginalized women. The article begins by retracing the roots of grounded theory and feminist inquiry to identify six key areas where the underpinnings of GT are enriched by a feminist perspective when working with women. In addition, the authors draw on the literature and their experience from a 2005 study of peer support and lone mothers' health to demonstrate the advantages of combining these theoretical perspectives. Finally, the authors recommend that nurse researchers draw on feminist principles to guide their use of grounded theory to better serve the interests of women by surfacing issues of gender and power that influence the health experience.

  3. A Grounded Theory of Counseling Students Who Report Problematic Peers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Lindy K.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Corthell, Kimere K.; Walsh, Maggie E.; Brack, Greg; Grubbs, Natalie K.

    2014-01-01

    All counselors, including students, are responsible for intervening when a colleague shows signs of impairment. This grounded theory study investigated experiences of 12 counseling students who reported problematic peers. An emergent theory of the peer reporting process is presented, along with implications for counselor educators and suggestions…

  4. Conducting Multi-Generational Qualitative Research in Education: An Experiment in Grounded Theory. Black Studies and Critical Thinking. Volume 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    This book outlines a methodology for viewing multiple generations of African Americans, specifically those who were called or called themselves Negro, Colored, Black, or African American (NCBAA). Within this framework, African Americans of varying ages describe their lives and educational experiences, allowing researchers to address a variety of…

  5. Accessibility and Autonomy Preconditions to "Our" Inclusion: A Grounded Theory Study of the Experiences of Secondary Students with Vision Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitburn, Ben

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I report core findings of a small-scale qualitative study that I conducted with a group of young people with vision impairment who attended an inclusive secondary school in the Australian state of Queensland. My objective was to capture their voiced experiences of their schooling through face-to-face interviews and to develop a…

  6. Student as Active Agent: A Grounded Theory of the Postsecondary Transition Experiences for Students with Psychiatric Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liparini, Christina Garczynski

    2008-01-01

    Although research indicates a trend toward increased representation of students with psychiatric disabilities in postsecondary education, the experiences of these students tend to be marked by academic failure and social isolation. However, the existing qualitative and quantitative research on this student population largely excludes the…

  7. Conducting Multi-Generational Qualitative Research in Education: An Experiment in Grounded Theory. Black Studies and Critical Thinking. Volume 5

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    This book outlines a methodology for viewing multiple generations of African Americans, specifically those who were called or called themselves Negro, Colored, Black, or African American (NCBAA). Within this framework, African Americans of varying ages describe their lives and educational experiences, allowing researchers to address a variety of…

  8. The experience and impact of living with gout: a study of men with chronic gout using a qualitative grounded theory approach.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Karen; Gow, Peter; Vanderpyl, Jane; Logo, Phillip; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2011-01-01

    Gout is commonly undertreated and can lead to significant disability. Few data are available about the lived experience of gout or the barriers to effective urate-lowering therapy in men with gout. This study aims to understand the experience of men living with chronic gout using a qualitative grounded theory approach. Eleven English-speaking men with chronic gout participated in an in-depth semistructured interview about their experiences of living with gout. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. Consensus groups were used to analyze and validate the themes arising from the transcripts. Three major themes related to the experience of gout emerged from the interviews: the impact of disease (pain, dependency on family members during flares, isolation, work disability), the progressiveness of untreated gout (increasing number of affected joints and frequency of flares, increase in food type triggers, escalating treatment required to control flares due to reducing efficacy of anti-inflammatory medication), and the lack of knowledge of gout (a community wide lack of understanding of the causes or prevention of gout, stoicism/tolerance to symptoms and disability, personal and social stigma related to gout). Chronic gout has an important impact on both the patient and his family. This work provides previously hidden perspectives of the experience of gout, which may be generalized to other men with gout, suggesting that shame, embarrassment, and stigma lead to trivialization of the impact of disease despite its severity. These experiences may lead to undertreatment of gout because of lack of disclosure of symptom severity and lack of expectation of treatment effectiveness, which in turn could contribute to the development of progressive gout.

  9. Straussian Grounded-Theory Method: An Illustration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thai, Mai Thi Thanh; Chong, Li Choy; Agrawal, Narendra M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the benefits and application of Straussian Grounded Theory method in conducting research in complex settings where parameters are poorly defined. It provides a detailed illustration on how this method can be used to build an internationalization theory. To be specific, this paper exposes readers to the behind-the-scene work…

  10. Decision-making experiences of family members of older adults with moderate dementia towards community and residential care home services: a grounded theory study protocol.

    PubMed

    Le Low, Lisa Pau; Lam, Lai Wah; Fan, Kim Pong

    2017-06-05

    Caring and supporting older people with dementia have become a major public health priority. Recent reports have also revealed a diminishing number of family carers to provide dementia care in the future. Carers who are engaged in the caring role are known to bear significant psychological, practical and economic challenges as the disease advances over time. Seemingly, evidence indicates that the burden of care can be relieved by formal services. This study aims to explore decision-making experiences of family members of older adults with moderate dementia towards the use of community support (CS) and residential care home (RCH) services. A large multi-site constructivist grounded theory in a range of non-government organizations and a private aged home will frame this Hong Kong study. Purposive sampling will begin the recruitment of family members, followed by theoretical sampling. It is estimated that more than 100 family members using CS and RCH services will participate in an interview. The process of successive constant comparative analysis will be undertaken. The final product, a theory, will generate an integrated and comprehensive conceptual understanding which will explain the processes associated with decision-making of family members for dementia sufferers. Deeper understanding of issues including, but not exclusive to, service needs, expectations and hopes among family carers for improving service support to serve dementia sufferers in CS and RCH services will also be revealed. Importantly, this study seeks to illustrate the practical and strategic aspects of the theory and how it may be useful to transfer its applicability to various service settings to better support those who deliver formal and informal care to the dementia population.

  11. Interprofessional collaboration in nursing homes (interprof): a grounded theory study of general practitioner experiences and strategies to perform nursing home visits.

    PubMed

    Fleischmann, Nina; Tetzlaff, Britta; Werle, Jochen; Geister, Christina; Scherer, Martin; Weyerer, Siegfried; Hummers-Pradier, Eva; Mueller, Christiane A

    2016-08-30

    Interprofessionalism, considered as collaboration between medical professionals, has gained prominence over recent decades and evidence for its impact has grown. The steadily increasing number of residents in nursing homes will challenge medical care and the interaction across professions, especially nurses and general practitioners (GPs). The nursing home visit, a key element of medical care, has been underrepresented in research. This study explores GP perspectives on interprofessional collaboration with a focus on their visits to nursing homes in order to understand their experiences and expectations. This research represents an aspect of the interprof study, which explores medical care needs as well as the perceived collaboration and communication by nursing home residents, their families, GPs and nurses. This paper focusses on GPs' views, investigating in particular their visits to nursing homes in order to understand their experiences. Open guideline-interviews covering interprofessional collaboration and the visit process were conducted with 30 GPs in three study centers and analyzed with grounded theory methodology. GPs were recruited via postal request and existing networks of the research partners. Four different types of nursing home visits were found: visits on demand, periodical visits, nursing home rounds and ad-hoc-decision based visits. We identified the core category "productive performance" of home visits in nursing homes which stands for the balance of GPs´ individual efforts and rewards. GPs used different strategies to perform a productive home visit: preparing strategies, on-site strategies and investing strategies. We compiled a theory of GPs home visits in nursing homes in Germany. The findings will be useful for research, and scientific and management purposes to generate a deeper understanding of GP perspectives and thereby improve interprofessional collaboration to ensure a high quality of care.

  12. Infusing Participants' Voices into Grounded Theory Research: A Poetic Anthology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Brianna L.

    2009-01-01

    This article augments the author's grounded theory study of student and teacher interactions in alternative education classrooms by presenting poetic transcription as a way to portray the essences and experiences of the participants. The author builds on the experimental writing traditions of other researchers to embrace her own experiences as a…

  13. Grounded Theory Methods and Qualitative Family Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaRossa, Ralph

    2005-01-01

    Among the different qualitative approaches that may be relied upon in family theorizing, grounded theory methods (GTM), developed by Barney Glaser and Anselm Strauss, are the most popular. Despite their centrality to family studies and to other fields, however, GTM can be opaque and confusing. Believing that simplifying GTM would allow them to be…

  14. A Grounded Theory of Adult Student Persistence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capps, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    This grounded theory study investigates adult student persistence at a community college. Student persistence in college is a prerequisite for degree achievement, which correlates with higher earnings and overall better quality of life. Persistence rates remain low for adult students, who combine their college endeavors with responsibilities to…

  15. A Grounded Theory Study of Supervision of Preservice Consultation Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Daniel S.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore a university-based supervision process for consultants-in-training (CITs) engaged in a preservice level consultation course with applied practicum experience. The study was approached from a constructivist worldview using a grounded theory methodology. Data consisted of supervision session transcripts,…

  16. Space Theory and Strategy: War From the High Ground Down

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    SPACE THEORY AND STRATEGY: WAR FROM THE HIGH GROUND DOWN BY ANGELO FERNANDEZ A THESIS PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE SCHOOL...OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES FOR COMPLETION OF GRADUATION REQUIREMENTS SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES AIR UNIVERSITY MAXWELL...Air Force and space operations experience with various weapon systems. Major Fernandez’s operational experience includes force enhancement missions

  17. On the Theory of Ground Anchors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    AD/A-O06 582 ON THE THEORY OF GROUND ANCHORS COLD REGIONS RESEARCH AND ENGINEERING LABORATORY JANUARY 1975 DISTRIBUTED BY: National Tocnical -Intonal...ANCHORS Austin Kovacs, Scott Bicuin Bruce McKelvy and Herman Colligan January 1975 PREPARED FOR U.S. ARMY MATERIL’ COMMAND DA PROJECT IT062112A 130...applications as the tie-backs for retaining walls and bulkheads and in foundations subjected to wind, explosions, earthquakes and thermally induced lateral

  18. Grounded theory in medical education research: AMEE Guide No. 70.

    PubMed

    Watling, Christopher J; Lingard, Lorelei

    2012-01-01

    Qualitative research in general and the grounded theory approach in particular, have become increasingly prominent in medical education research in recent years. In this Guide, we first provide a historical perspective on the origin and evolution of grounded theory. We then outline the principles underlying the grounded theory approach and the procedures for doing a grounded theory study, illustrating these elements with real examples. Next, we address key critiques of grounded theory, which continue to shape how the method is perceived and used. Finally, pitfalls and controversies in grounded theory research are examined to provide a balanced view of both the potential and the challenges of this approach. This Guide aims to assist researchers new to grounded theory to approach their studies in a disciplined and rigorous fashion, to challenge experienced researchers to reflect on their assumptions, and to arm readers of medical education research with an approach to critically appraising the quality of grounded theory studies.

  19. Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment. I. The normal modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comandi, G. L.; Chiofalo, M. L.; Toncelli, R.; Bramanti, D.; Polacco, E.; Nobili, A. M.

    2006-03-01

    Recent theoretical work suggests that violation of the equivalence principle might be revealed in a measurement of the fractional differential acceleration η between two test bodies—of different compositions, falling in the gravitational field of a source mass—if the measurement is made to the level of η ≃10-13 or better. This being within the reach of ground based experiments gives them a new impetus. However, while slowly rotating torsion balances in ground laboratories are close to reaching this level, only an experiment performed in a low orbit around the Earth is likely to provide a much better accuracy. We report on the progress made with the "Galileo Galilei on the ground" (GGG) experiment, which aims to compete with torsion balances using an instrument design also capable of being converted into a much higher sensitivity space test. In the present and following articles (Part I and Part II), we demonstrate that the dynamical response of the GGG differential accelerometer set into supercritical rotation—in particular, its normal modes (Part I) and rejection of common mode effects (Part II)—can be predicted by means of a simple but effective model that embodies all the relevant physics. Analytical solutions are obtained under special limits, which provide the theoretical understanding. A simulation environment is set up, obtaining a quantitative agreement with the available experimental data on the frequencies of the normal modes and on the whirling behavior. This is a needed and reliable tool for controlling and separating perturbative effects from the expected signal, as well as for planning the optimization of the apparatus.

  20. Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment. I. The normal modes

    SciTech Connect

    Comandi, G.L.; Chiofalo, M.L.; Toncelli, R.; Bramanti, D.; Polacco, E.; Nobili, A.M.

    2006-03-15

    Recent theoretical work suggests that violation of the equivalence principle might be revealed in a measurement of the fractional differential acceleration {eta} between two test bodies-of different compositions, falling in the gravitational field of a source mass--if the measurement is made to the level of {eta}{approx_equal}10{sup -13} or better. This being within the reach of ground based experiments gives them a new impetus. However, while slowly rotating torsion balances in ground laboratories are close to reaching this level, only an experiment performed in a low orbit around the Earth is likely to provide a much better accuracy. We report on the progress made with the 'Galileo Galilei on the ground' (GGG) experiment, which aims to compete with torsion balances using an instrument design also capable of being converted into a much higher sensitivity space test. In the present and following articles (Part I and Part II), we demonstrate that the dynamical response of the GGG differential accelerometer set into supercritical rotation-in particular, its normal modes (Part I) and rejection of common mode effects (Part II)-can be predicted by means of a simple but effective model that embodies all the relevant physics. Analytical solutions are obtained under special limits, which provide the theoretical understanding. A simulation environment is set up, obtaining a quantitative agreement with the available experimental data on the frequencies of the normal modes and on the whirling behavior. This is a needed and reliable tool for controlling and separating perturbative effects from the expected signal, as well as for planning the optimization of the apparatus.

  1. Treatment engagement in the early phase of cognitive-behavior therapy for panic disorder: A grounded theory analysis of patient experience.

    PubMed

    Tzavela, Eleni C; Mitskidou, Paschalia; Mertika, Antigoni; Stalikas, Anastassios; Kasvikis, Yiannis

    2016-11-15

    Exposure-based cognitive-behavior therapy (EBCBT) is the treatment of choice for panic disorder (PD). However, little is known about early treatment processes that facilitate retention in treatment and positive outcomes of PD treatment. We studied the development of early treatment process with semi-structured individual in-depth interviews with 12 patients with PD, conducted post session 3. Grounded theory was used to analyze the transcripts. The development of early treatment process was captured by four thematic categories: approaching the problem, easing in and opening up, building trust and bonding, and making sense of panic. The developmental scheme culminated to the core category: Jointly Engaging in PD Therapy versus Awaiting Relief, capturing early engagement or disengagement from PD therapy respectively. The emergent core category was cross-validated against distal treatment outcome. Emergent processes can be replicated and incorporated in early treatment procedures of EBCBT for PD. Clinical practice recommendations are discussed.

  2. Ground test experiment for large space structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tollison, D. K.; Waites, H. B.

    1985-01-01

    In recent years a new body of control theory has been developed for the design of control systems for Large Space Structures (LSS). The problems of testing this theory on LSS hardware are aggravated by the expense and risk of actual in orbit tests. Ground tests on large space structures can provide a proving ground for candidate control systems, but such tests require a unique facility for their execution. The current development of such a facility at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is the subject of this report.

  3. Tribology theory versus experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John

    1987-01-01

    Tribology, the study of friction and wear of materials, has achieved a new interest because of the need for energy conservation. Fundamental understanding of this field is very complex and requires a knowledge of solid-state physics, material science, chemistry, and mechanical engineering. This paper is meant to be didactic in nature and outlines some of the considerations needed for a tribology research program. The approach is first to present a simple model, a field emission tip in contact with a flat surface, in order to elucidate important considerations, such as contact area, mechanical deformations, and interfacial bonding. Then examples from illustrative experiments are presented. Finally, the current status of physical theories concerning interfacial bonding are presented.

  4. Moral Distress Model Reconstructed Using Grounded Theory.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hsun-Kuei; Chin, Chi-Chun; Hsu, Min-Tao

    2016-12-29

    The problems of nurse burnout and manpower shortage relate to moral distress. Thus, having a good understanding of moral distress is critical to developing strategies that effectively improve the clinical ethical climate and improve nursing retention in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to reconstruct the model of moral distress using the grounded theory. Twenty-five staff nurses at work units who attend to the needs of adult, pediatric, acute, and critical disease or end-of-life-care patients were recruited as participants using theoretical sampling from three teaching hospitals in Taiwan. Data were collected using intensive, 2- to 3-hour interviews with each participant. Audio recordings of the interviews were made and then converted into transcripts. The data were analyzed using the grounded theory. In the clinical setting, the perspective that nurses take toward clinical moral events reflects their moral values, which trigger moral cognition, provocation, and appraisal. The moral barriers that form when moral events that occur in clinical settings contradict personal moral values may later develop into moral distress. In handling moral barriers in the clinical environment, nurses make moral judgments and determine what is morally correct. Influenced by moral efficacy, the consequence may either be a moral action or an expression of personal emotion. Wasting National Health Insurance resources and Chinese culture are key sources of moral distress for nurses in Taiwan. The role of self-confidence in promoting moral efficacy and the role of heterodox skills in promoting moral actions represent findings that are unique to this study. The moral distress model was used in this study to facilitate the development of future nursing theories. On the basis of our findings, we suggested that nursing students be encouraged to use case studies to establish proper moral values, improve moral cognition and judgment capabilities, and promote moral actions to better handle the

  5. The Erosion of a Method: Examples from Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greckhamer, Thomas; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2005-01-01

    Since its original inception in the 1960s grounded theory has been widely used by many qualitative researchers. However, recently epistemologically different versions of grounded theory have been presented and this epistemological diversity among grounded theorists and the erosion of the method will be the major focus of this paper. The first…

  6. The Erosion of a Method: Examples from Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greckhamer, Thomas; Koro-Ljungberg, Mirka

    2005-01-01

    Since its original inception in the 1960s grounded theory has been widely used by many qualitative researchers. However, recently epistemologically different versions of grounded theory have been presented and this epistemological diversity among grounded theorists and the erosion of the method will be the major focus of this paper. The first…

  7. Reformulation of a methodological concept in grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Reed, Pamela G; Runquist, Jennifer J

    2007-04-01

    Although the grounded theory method was not designed with nursing science in mind, it is one of the most prevalent and theory-producing qualitative methods in nursing. Changes in the grounded theory methodology have been debated in numerous articles. What has not received much attention, however, is a central idea of the grounded theory method - the basic social process. The goal here is to raise for consideration the idea that change is needed in nurse researchers' understanding of the basic social process; there is a need to reformulate this substantive concept of the grounded theory method so as to render it more congruent with nursing ontology and productive of nursing knowledge.

  8. Apollo experience report: Ground-support equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    The experience gained in management of the ground-support-equipment and site-readiness activity for the Apollo Program is summarized. The design of equipment and facilities are examined as well as some operational aspects. The organization for ensuring site readiness and the maintenance of ground-support equipment are discussed. Recommendations for use in future programs are given in the areas of design considerations, cleanliness requirements, periodic evaluation of changing requirements, maintenance and overhaul, special test equipment, site-activation schedule coordination, and schematics for ground-support equipment.

  9. The use of grounded theory in studies of nurses and midwives' coping processes: a systematic literature search.

    PubMed

    Cheer, Karen; MacLaren, David; Tsey, Komla

    2015-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly using grounded theory methodologies to study the professional experience of nurses and midwives. To review common grounded theory characteristics and research design quality as described in grounded theory studies of coping strategies used by nurses and midwives. A systematic database search for 2005-2015 identified and assessed grounded theory characteristics from 16 studies. Study quality was assessed using a modified Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tool. Grounded theory was considered a methodology or a set of methods, able to be used within different nursing and midwifery contexts. Specific research requirements determined the common grounded theory characteristics used in different studies. Most researchers did not clarify their epistemological and theoretical perspectives. To improve research design and trustworthiness of grounded theory studies in nursing and midwifery, researchers need to state their theoretical stance and clearly articulate their use of grounded theory methodology and characteristics in research reporting.

  10. Assertiveness process of Iranian nurse leaders: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudirad, Gholamhossein; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Vanaki, Zohreh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the assertiveness process in Iranian nursing leaders. A qualitative design based on the grounded theory approach was used to collect and analyze the assertiveness experiences of 12 nurse managers working in four hospitals in Iran. Purposeful and theoretical sampling methods were employed for the data collection and selection of the participants, and semistructured interviews were held. During the data analysis, 17 categories emerged and these were categorized into three themes: "task generation", "assertiveness behavior", and "executive agents". From the participants' experiences, assertiveness theory emerged as being fundamental to the development of a schematic model describing nursing leadership behaviors. From another aspect, religious beliefs also played a fundamental role in Iranian nursing leadership assertiveness. It was concluded that bringing a change in the current support from top managers and improving self-learning are required in order to enhance the assertiveness of the nursing leaders in Iran.

  11. Communication: direct comparison between theory and experiment for correlated angular and product-state distributions of the ground-state and stretching-excited O((3)P) + CH4 reactions.

    PubMed

    Czakó, Gábor

    2014-06-21

    Motivated by a recent experiment [H. Pan and K. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 191101 (2014)], we report a quasiclassical trajectory study of the O((3)P) + CH4(vk = 0, 1) → OH + CH3 [k = 1 and 3] reactions on an ab initio potential energy surface. The computed angular distributions and cross sections correlated to the OH(v = 0, 1) + CH3(v = 0) coincident product states can be directly compared to experiment for O + CH4(v3 = 0, 1). Both theory and experiment show that the ground-state reaction is backward scattered, whereas the angular distributions shift toward sideways and forward directions upon antisymmetric stretching (v3) excitation of the reactant. Theory predicts similar behavior for the O + CH4(v1 = 1) reaction. The simulations show that stretching excitation enhances the reaction up to about 15 kcal/mol collision energy, whereas the O + CH4(vk = 1) reactions produce smaller cross sections for OH(v = 1) + CH3(v = 0) than those of O + CH4(v = 0) → OH(v = 0) + CH3(v = 0). The former finding agrees with experiment and the latter awaits for confirmation. The computed cold OH rotational distributions of O + CH4(v = 0) are in good agreement with experiment.

  12. Communication: Direct comparison between theory and experiment for correlated angular and product-state distributions of the ground-state and stretching-excited O({sup 3}P) + CH{sub 4} reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Czakó, Gábor

    2014-06-21

    Motivated by a recent experiment [H. Pan and K. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 191101 (2014)], we report a quasiclassical trajectory study of the O({sup 3}P) + CH{sub 4}(v{sub k} = 0, 1) → OH + CH{sub 3} [k = 1 and 3] reactions on an ab initio potential energy surface. The computed angular distributions and cross sections correlated to the OH(v = 0, 1) + CH{sub 3}(v = 0) coincident product states can be directly compared to experiment for O + CH{sub 4}(v{sub 3} = 0, 1). Both theory and experiment show that the ground-state reaction is backward scattered, whereas the angular distributions shift toward sideways and forward directions upon antisymmetric stretching (v{sub 3}) excitation of the reactant. Theory predicts similar behavior for the O + CH{sub 4}(v{sub 1} = 1) reaction. The simulations show that stretching excitation enhances the reaction up to about 15 kcal/mol collision energy, whereas the O + CH{sub 4}(v{sub k} = 1) reactions produce smaller cross sections for OH(v = 1) + CH{sub 3}(v = 0) than those of O + CH{sub 4}(v = 0) → OH(v = 0) + CH{sub 3}(v = 0). The former finding agrees with experiment and the latter awaits for confirmation. The computed cold OH rotational distributions of O + CH{sub 4}(v = 0) are in good agreement with experiment.

  13. Communication: Direct comparison between theory and experiment for correlated angular and product-state distributions of the ground-state and stretching-excited O(3P) + CH4 reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czakó, Gábor

    2014-06-01

    Motivated by a recent experiment [H. Pan and K. Liu, J. Chem. Phys. 140, 191101 (2014)], we report a quasiclassical trajectory study of the O(3P) + CH4(vk = 0, 1) → OH + CH3 [k = 1 and 3] reactions on an ab initio potential energy surface. The computed angular distributions and cross sections correlated to the OH(v = 0, 1) + CH3(v = 0) coincident product states can be directly compared to experiment for O + CH4(v3 = 0, 1). Both theory and experiment show that the ground-state reaction is backward scattered, whereas the angular distributions shift toward sideways and forward directions upon antisymmetric stretching (v3) excitation of the reactant. Theory predicts similar behavior for the O + CH4(v1 = 1) reaction. The simulations show that stretching excitation enhances the reaction up to about 15 kcal/mol collision energy, whereas the O + CH4(vk = 1) reactions produce smaller cross sections for OH(v = 1) + CH3(v = 0) than those of O + CH4(v = 0) → OH(v = 0) + CH3(v = 0). The former finding agrees with experiment and the latter awaits for confirmation. The computed cold OH rotational distributions of O + CH4(v = 0) are in good agreement with experiment.

  14. Experiment versus theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, F. H.; Yu, Y. H.; Boxwell, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    High speed compressibility noise and vortex interaction noise, which are aerodynamically generated noise sources, were investigated. Noise generating mechanisms were identified. Linear and nonlinear theory were compared and are in agreement with data on amplitude and wave forms. The interaction area between the acoustic planform and blade/vortex interaction lines are examined.

  15. A Leadership Identity Development Model: Applications from a Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komives, Susan R.; Mainella, Felicia C.; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Osteen, Laura; Owen, Julie E.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a stage-based model of leadership identity development (LID) that resulted from a grounded theory study on developing a leadership identity (Komives, Owen, Longerbeam, Mainella, & Osteen, 2005). The LID model expands on the leadership identity stages, integrates the categories of the grounded theory into the LID model, and…

  16. Constructing a Grounded Theory of E-Learning Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonso-Díaz, Laura; Yuste-Tosina, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    This study traces the development of a grounded theory of assessment in e-learning environments, a field in need of research to establish the parameters of an assessment that is both reliable and worthy of higher learning accreditation. Using grounded theory as a research method, we studied an e-assessment model that does not require physical…

  17. Grounded Theory in Practice: Is It Inherently a Mixed Method?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, R. B.; McGowan, M. W.; Turner, L. A.

    2010-01-01

    We address 2 key points of contention in this article. First, we engage the debate concerning whether particular methods are necessarily linked to particular research paradigms. Second, we briefly describe a mixed methods version of grounded theory (MM-GT). Grounded theory can be tailored to work well in any of the 3 major forms of mixed methods…

  18. Constructing a Grounded Theory of E-Learning Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alonso-Díaz, Laura; Yuste-Tosina, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    This study traces the development of a grounded theory of assessment in e-learning environments, a field in need of research to establish the parameters of an assessment that is both reliable and worthy of higher learning accreditation. Using grounded theory as a research method, we studied an e-assessment model that does not require physical…

  19. A Leadership Identity Development Model: Applications from a Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Komives, Susan R.; Mainella, Felicia C.; Longerbeam, Susan D.; Osteen, Laura; Owen, Julie E.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a stage-based model of leadership identity development (LID) that resulted from a grounded theory study on developing a leadership identity (Komives, Owen, Longerbeam, Mainella, & Osteen, 2005). The LID model expands on the leadership identity stages, integrates the categories of the grounded theory into the LID model, and…

  20. Ground-to-OICETS laser communication experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoshima, Morio; Takizawa, Kenichi; Kuri, Toshiaki; Klaus, Werner; Toyoda, Masahiro; Kunimori, Hiroo; Jono, Takashi; Takayama, Yoshihisa; Kura, Nobuhiro; Ohinata, Kouichi; Arai, Katsuyoshi; Shiratama, Koichi

    2006-09-01

    Ground-to-satellite laser communication experiments between the optical ground station located in Koganei of downtown Tokyo and a low earth orbit (LEO) satellite, the Optical Inter-orbit Communications Engineering Test Satellite (OICETS) called "Kirari", were successfully performed in March and May, 2006. The optical communication demonstration experiment at the optical ground station was conducted in cooperation between the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT). Ten trials over the course of two months were conducted during the test campaign. Acquisition and tracking of the satellite were successful on seven days out of the assigned test days. The tests were unsuccessful during three out of the four days when it was cloudy or rainy, but they were successful on all six of the days when partly clear skies were predominant. For the uplink, the fluctuation of the received signal power was well minimized by using multi-beam laser transmissions. The bit error ratio (BER) on the downlink was measured to be as low as 10-5. The applicability of the onboard optical terminal was demonstrated, aiming not only for geostationary earth orbit (GEO)-LEO links but also for ground-to-LEO optical links.

  1. Grounded theory: a methodological spiral from positivism to postmodernism.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jane; Chapman, Ysanne; Bonner, Ann; Francis, Karen

    2007-04-01

    Our aim in this paper is to explain a methodological/methods package devised to incorporate situational and social world mapping with frame analysis, based on a grounded theory study of Australian rural nurses' experiences of mentoring. Situational analysis, as conceived by Adele Clarke, shifts the research methodology of grounded theory from being located within a postpositivist paradigm to a postmodern paradigm. Clarke uses three types of maps during this process: situational, social world and positional, in combination with discourse analysis. During our grounded theory study, the process of concurrent interview data generation and analysis incorporated situational and social world mapping techniques. An outcome of this was our increased awareness of how outside actors influenced participants in their constructions of mentoring. In our attempts to use Clarke's methodological package, however, it became apparent that our constructivist beliefs about human agency could not be reconciled with the postmodern project of discourse analysis. We then turned to the literature on symbolic interactionism and adopted frame analysis as a method to examine the literature on rural nursing and mentoring as secondary form of data. While we found situational and social world mapping very useful, we were less successful in using positional maps. In retrospect, we would argue that collective action framing provides an alternative to analysing such positions in the literature. This is particularly so for researchers who locate themselves within a constructivist paradigm, and who are therefore unwilling to reject the notion of human agency and the ability of individuals to shape their world in some way. Our example of using this package of situational and social worlds mapping with frame analysis is intended to assist other researchers to locate participants more transparently in the social worlds that they negotiate in their everyday practice.

  2. Method development at Nordic School of Public Health NHV: Phenomenology and Grounded Theory.

    PubMed

    Strandmark, Margaretha

    2015-08-01

    Qualitative methods such as phenomenology and grounded theory have been valuable tools in studying public health problems. A description and comparison of these methods. Phenomenology emphasises an inside perspective in form of consciousness and subjectively lived experiences, whereas grounded theory emanates from the idea that interactions between people create new insights and knowledge. Fundamental aspects of phenomenology include life world, consciousness, phenomenological reduction and essence. Significant elements in grounded theory are coding, categories and core categories, which develop a theory. There are differences in the philosophical approach, the name of the concept and the systematic tools between the methods. Thus, the phenomenological method is appropriate when studying emotional and existential research problems, and grounded theory is a method more suited to investigate processes. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  3. Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment. II. The rejection of common mode forces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comandi, G. L.; Toncelli, R.; Chiofalo, M. L.; Bramanti, D.; Nobili, A. M.

    2006-03-01

    "Galileo Galilei on the ground" (GGG) is a fast rotating differential accelerometer designed to test the equivalence principle (EP). Its sensitivity to differential effects, such as the effect of an EP violation, depends crucially on the capability of the accelerometer to reject all effects acting in common mode. By applying the theoretical and simulation methods reported in Part I of this work, and tested therein against experimental data, we predict the occurrence of an enhanced common mode rejection of the GGG accelerometer. We demonstrate that the best rejection of common mode disturbances can be tuned in a controlled way by varying the spin frequency of the GGG rotor.

  4. Dynamical response of the Galileo Galilei on the ground rotor to test the equivalence principle: Theory, simulation, and experiment. II. The rejection of common mode forces

    SciTech Connect

    Comandi, G.L.; Toncelli, R.; Chiofalo, M.L.; Bramanti, D.; Nobili, A.M.

    2006-03-15

    'Galileo Galilei on the ground' (GGG) is a fast rotating differential accelerometer designed to test the equivalence principle (EP). Its sensitivity to differential effects, such as the effect of an EP violation, depends crucially on the capability of the accelerometer to reject all effects acting in common mode. By applying the theoretical and simulation methods reported in Part I of this work, and tested therein against experimental data, we predict the occurrence of an enhanced common mode rejection of the GGG accelerometer. We demonstrate that the best rejection of common mode disturbances can be tuned in a controlled way by varying the spin frequency of the GGG rotor.

  5. The application of grounded theory and symbolic interactionism.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Yun-Hee

    2004-09-01

    This paper describes the methodological and theoretical context and underpinnings of a study that examined community psychiatric nurses' work with family caregivers of older people with depression. The study used grounded theory research methods, with its theoretical foundations drawn from symbolic interactionism. The aims of the study were to describe and conceptualize the processes involved when community nurses work and interact with family caregivers and to develop an explanatory theory of these processes. This paper begins with an explanation of the rationale for using grounded theory as the method of choice, followed by a discussion of the theoretical underpinnings of the study, including a brief summary of the nature and origins of symbolic interactionism. Key premises of symbolic interactionism regarded as central to the study are outlined and an analytical overview of the grounded theory method is provided. The paper concludes with a commentary on some of the issues and debates in the use of grounded theory in nursing research. The main purpose of this paper is to provide a methodical and critical review of symbolic interactionism and grounded theory that can help readers, particularly those who are intending to use grounded theory, better understand the processes involved in applying this method to their research.

  6. Multidisciplinary collaboration reporting child abuse: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Feng, Jui-Ying; Fetzer, Susan; Chen, Yi-Wen; Yeh, Lily; Huang, Mei-Chih

    2010-12-01

    The complexity of reporting child abuse requires multidisciplinary collaboration. The dynamics of a mulidisciplinary team in reporting child abuse which begins the process of child protection remains unclear. To explore the experiences and perspectives of professionals working with other disciplines when reporting child abuse. A qualitative study with grounded theory was used. Participants were recruited from hospitals, the Department of Child Welfare, and schools in Taiwan. Twenty-one professionals from four disciplines agreed to participate. The purposive sample included 5 physicians, 5 nurses, 6 social workers, and 5 teachers. Individual interviews were conducted to explore the experiences in reporting child abuse of a purposive sample of 21 professionals including physicians, nurses, social workers, and teachers. Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Categorical themes were developed that reflected reporters' experiences and perspectives in reporting child abuse. The professionals involved in reported child abuse are described as participants in a relay race. Four themes emerged from the interviews: running the relay race of child protection; reporters as runners with expectations of runners' characteristics and the order of runners; carrying the baton of a mandatory report described using baton characteristics while running in space and time; and team chemistry including trust of and communication with teammates. Systems that encourage and promote team building and collaboration among child abuse reporters are needed. Success in the race to report child abuse across professional disciplines includes runners' skills, speed, a light and easy to carry baton, and team chemistry. As a team of child abuse reporters, when performance is enhanced by practice, the team's success will be measured as victories in child protection. The paradigm of individual disciplines developing their own goals, designing their own training, and practicing within

  7. A Grounded Theory of Western-Trained Asian Group Leaders Leading Groups in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taephant, Nattasuda; Rubel, Deborah; Champe, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This grounded theory research explored the experiences of Western-trained Asian group leaders leading groups in Asia. A total of 6 participants from Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand were interviewed 3 times over 9 months. The recursive process of data collection and analysis yielded substantive theory describing the participants' process of reconciling…

  8. "Putting My Man Face on": A Grounded Theory of College Men's Gender Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith E.; Jones, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    The theory that emerged from this constructivist grounded theory study of 10 college men's experiences depicts their gender identity as developed through constant interaction with society's expectations of them as men. In order to try to meet these perceived expectations, participants described putting on a performance that was like wearing a mask…

  9. Working Together Toward a Common Goal: A Grounded Theory of Nurse-Physician Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Fewster-Thuente, Lori

    2015-01-01

    Working together toward a common goal is an empirically derived theory that can guide education and practice to improve patient outcomes while saving money and lives. Grounded theory was used to explore nurses' and physicians' experiences with collaboration in order to understand the process intrinsically.

  10. "Putting My Man Face on": A Grounded Theory of College Men's Gender Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith E.; Jones, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    The theory that emerged from this constructivist grounded theory study of 10 college men's experiences depicts their gender identity as developed through constant interaction with society's expectations of them as men. In order to try to meet these perceived expectations, participants described putting on a performance that was like wearing a mask…

  11. A Grounded Theory of Western-Trained Asian Group Leaders Leading Groups in Asia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taephant, Nattasuda; Rubel, Deborah; Champe, Julia

    2015-01-01

    This grounded theory research explored the experiences of Western-trained Asian group leaders leading groups in Asia. A total of 6 participants from Japan, Taiwan, and Thailand were interviewed 3 times over 9 months. The recursive process of data collection and analysis yielded substantive theory describing the participants' process of reconciling…

  12. Sustaining the Image of Life: A Grounded Theory Study of Funeral Service Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Sharen

    2012-01-01

    This grounded theory dissertation explores the educational experiences of funeral service students as they matriculate through the college of funeral service. Student interviews were utilized to explore the world of funeral service education. The analysis of the data led to the discovery of the theory, "Sustaining the Image of Life." The…

  13. K-shell photoionization of ground-state Li-like carbon ions [C3+]: experiment, theory and comparison with time-reversed photorecombination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, A.; Schippers, S.; Phaneuf, R. A.; Scully, S. W. J.; Aguilar, A.; Covington, A. M.; Álvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Emmons, E. D.; Gharaibeh, M. F.; Hinojosa, G.; Schlachter, A. S.; McLaughlin, B. M.

    2009-12-01

    Absolute cross sections for the K-shell photoionization of ground-state Li-like carbon [C3+(1s22s 2S)] ions were measured by employing the ion-photon merged-beams technique at the Advanced Light Source. The energy ranges 299.8-300.15 eV, 303.29-303.58 eV and 335.61-337.57 eV of the [1s(2s2p)3P]2P, [1s(2s2p)1P]2P and [(1s2s)3S 3p]2P resonances, respectively, were investigated using resolving powers of up to 6000. The autoionization linewidth of the [1s(2s2p)1P]2P resonance was measured to be 27 ± 5 meV and compares favourably with a theoretical result of 26 meV obtained from the intermediate coupling R-matrix method. The present photoionization cross section results are compared with the outcome from photorecombination measurements by employing the principle of detailed balance.

  14. An Account of How Chinese Graduate Students in the United States View the Full Span of Their Educational Experiences: A Grounded Theory Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Ming-Che

    2009-01-01

    Many teachers of international students in the United States are challenged to address cultural differences in a classroom. International students often experience psychological, physical and cultural stress when they study abroad, due mainly to unfamiliar environments and a diverse culture. The question this study asks is: Are there any…

  15. Empowerment in School Nursing Practice: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broussard, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Professional empowerment is vital to nurses' productivity and job satisfaction. A grounded theory study was conducted to describe the basic social process experienced by school nurses in relation to professional empowerment. Interviews with 10 school nurses led to the development of a situation-specific theory of school nurse empowerment,…

  16. Empowerment in School Nursing Practice: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broussard, Lisa

    2007-01-01

    Professional empowerment is vital to nurses' productivity and job satisfaction. A grounded theory study was conducted to describe the basic social process experienced by school nurses in relation to professional empowerment. Interviews with 10 school nurses led to the development of a situation-specific theory of school nurse empowerment,…

  17. Reconceptualising Moderation in Asynchronous Online Discussions Using Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachopoulos, Panos; Cowan, John

    2010-01-01

    This article reports a grounded theory study of the moderation of asynchronous online discussions, to explore the processes by which tutors in higher education decide when and how to moderate. It aims to construct a theory of e-moderation based on some key factors which appear to influence e-moderation. It discusses previous research on the…

  18. A Grounded Theory of Master's-Level Counselor Research Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jorgensen, Maribeth F.; Duncan, Kelly

    2015-01-01

    A grounded theory approach was used to examine the research identity of 17 master's-level counseling trainees and practitioners. The emergent theory gave an understanding to sources of variation in the process and outcome of research identity. The authors provide recommendations for counselor educators to use with current and former students.

  19. Community Involvement of High School Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Karin Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study focused on the perspectives of high school seniors, college freshmen, and working young adults in Orange County, California, to create a useful and practical theory about high school students' civic participation as it relates to students' enrollment in postsecondary education. Data collection consisted of…

  20. Community Involvement of High School Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storm, Karin Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study focused on the perspectives of high school seniors, college freshmen, and working young adults in Orange County, California, to create a useful and practical theory about high school students' civic participation as it relates to students' enrollment in postsecondary education. Data collection consisted of…

  1. Ground Movement Analysis Based on Stochastic Medium Theory

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Meng; Li-chun, Wu; Jia-sheng, Zhang; Guo-dong, Deng; Zhi-hui, Ni

    2014-01-01

    In order to calculate the ground movement induced by displacement piles driven into horizontal layered strata, an axisymmetric model was built and then the vertical and horizontal ground movement functions were deduced using stochastic medium theory. Results show that the vertical ground movement obeys normal distribution function, while the horizontal ground movement is an exponential function. Utilizing field measured data, parameters of these functions can be obtained by back analysis, and an example was employed to verify this model. Result shows that stochastic medium theory is suitable for calculating the ground movement in pile driving, and there is no need to consider the constitutive model of soil or contact between pile and soil. This method is applicable in practice. PMID:24701184

  2. Empirical and pragmatic adequacy of grounded theory: Advancing nurse empowerment theory for nurses' practice.

    PubMed

    Udod, Sonia A; Racine, Louise

    2017-05-25

    To draw on the findings of a grounded theory study aimed at exploring how power is exercised in nurse-manager relationships in the hospital setting, this paper examines the empirical and pragmatic adequacy of grounded theory as a methodology to advance the concept of empowerment in the area of nursing leadership and management. The evidence on staff nurse empowerment has highlighted the magnitude of individual and organisational outcomes, but has not fully explicated the micro-level processes underlying how power is exercised, shared or created within the nurse-manager relationship. Although grounded theory is a widely adopted nursing research methodology, it remains less used in nursing leadership because of the dominance of quantitative approaches to research. Grounded theory methodology provides the empirical and pragmatic relevance to inform nursing practice and policy. Grounded theory is a relevant qualitative approach to use in leadership research as it provides a fine and detailed analysis of the process underlying complexity and bureaucracy. Discursive paper. A critical examination of the empirical and pragmatic relevance of grounded theory by (Corbin & Strauss, , ) as a method for analysing and solving problems in nurses' practice is provided. This paper provides evidence to support the empirical and pragmatic adequacy of grounded theory methodology. Although the application of the ontological, epistemological and methodological assumptions of grounded theory is challenging, this methodology is useful to address real-life problems in nursing practice by developing theoretical explanations of nurse empowerment, or lack thereof, in the workplace. Grounded theory represents a relevant methodology to inform nursing leadership research. Grounded theory is anchored in the reality of practice. The strength of grounded theory is to provide results that can be readily applied to clinical practice and policy as they arise from problems that affect practice and that

  3. A discussion of differences in preparation, performance and postreflections in participant observations within two grounded theory approaches.

    PubMed

    Berthelsen, Connie Bøttcher; Lindhardt, Tove; Frederiksen, Kirsten

    2016-05-10

    This paper presents a discussion of the differences in using participant observation as a data collection method by comparing the classic grounded theory methodology of Barney Glaser with the constructivist grounded theory methodology by Kathy Charmaz. Participant observations allow nursing researchers to experience activities and interactions directly in situ. However, using participant observations as a data collection method can be done in many ways, depending on the chosen grounded theory methodology, and may produce different results. This discussion shows that how the differences between using participant observations in classic and constructivist grounded theory can be considerable and that grounded theory researchers should adhere to the method descriptions of performing participant observations according to the selected grounded theory methodology to enhance the quality of research.

  4. Theory of ground state factorization in quantum cooperative systems.

    PubMed

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M; Adesso, Gerardo; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2008-05-16

    We introduce a general analytic approach to the study of factorization points and factorized ground states in quantum cooperative systems. The method allows us to determine rigorously the existence, location, and exact form of separable ground states in a large variety of, generally nonexactly solvable, spin models belonging to different universality classes. The theory applies to translationally invariant systems, irrespective of spatial dimensionality, and for spin-spin interactions of arbitrary range.

  5. A Laboratory Experiment on the Statistical Theory of Nuclear Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, Walter

    1971-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate laboratory experiment on the statistical theory of nuclear reactions. The experiment involves measuring the relative cross sections for formation of a nucleus in its meta stable excited state and its ground state by applying gamma-ray spectroscopy to an irradiated sample. Involves 3-4 hours of laboratory time plus…

  6. Is the ground state of Yang-Mills theory Coulombic?

    SciTech Connect

    Heinzl, T.; Ilderton, A.; Langfeld, K.; Lavelle, M.; McMullan, D.; Lutz, W.

    2008-08-01

    We study trial states modelling the heavy quark-antiquark ground state in SU(2) Yang-Mills theory. A state describing the flux tube between quarks as a thin string of glue is found to be a poor description of the continuum ground state; the infinitesimal thickness of the string leads to UV artifacts which suppress the overlap with the ground state. Contrastingly, a state which surrounds the quarks with non-Abelian Coulomb fields is found to have a good overlap with the ground state for all charge separations. In fact, the overlap increases as the lattice regulator is removed. This opens up the possibility that the Coulomb state is the true ground state in the continuum limit.

  7. Staying married after stroke: a constructivist grounded theory qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Sharon; Keating, Norah C; Wilson, Donna M

    2017-07-10

    Marriages are one of the most powerful predictors of health and longevity, yet research in stroke has focused separately on survivors' experience of impairments and how spouses deal with caregiving. The purpose of this constructivist grounded theory study was to understand the key themes related to reconstruction or breakdown of marriages after stroke. In semi-structured interviews, 18 couples in long-term marriages discussed how their marriages were reconstructed or broke down after one member of the couple returned home after being hospitalized for a stroke. Constant comparison methods were used to compare the experiences of 12 couples in which both partners indicated their relationship was going well with 6 couples who either separated or remained in parallel marriages. Analysis revealed an overarching process of reconstructing compatible role-identities and three themes related to the reconstruction or breakdown of the marital identity: feeling overwhelmed, resolving conflict, and perceiving value in the marriage. Our findings highlight that marriages are contexts in which survivors and spouses can recalibrate their role-identities. Marriage relationships are not peripheral to survivors' and spouses' outcomes after stroke; rather, marriage is fundamental to the management of impairments and to the well-being of the couple.

  8. Ensemble Theory for Stealthy Hyperuniform Disordered Ground States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torquato, Salvatore

    Disordered hyperuniform many-particle systems have been receiving recent attention because they are distinguishable exotic states of matter poised between a crystal and liquid that are endowed with novel thermodynamic and physical properties. It has been shown numerically that systems of particles interacting with ``stealthy'' bounded, long-ranged pair potentials (similar to Friedel oscillations) have classical ground states that are, counterintuitively, disordered, hyperuniform and highly degenerate. The task of formulating an ensemble theory that yields analytical predictions for the structural characteristics and other properties of stealthy degenerate ground states in d-dimensional Euclidean space is highly nontrivial because the dimensionality of the configuration space depends on the number density and there is a multitude of ways of sampling the ground-state manifold, each with its own probability measure for finding a particular ground-state configuration. A new type of statistical-mechanical theory had to be invented to characterize these exotic states of matter. I report on some initial progress that we have made in this direction. We show that stealthy disordered ground states behave like ''pseudo''-equilibrium hard-sphere systems in Fourier space. Our theoretical predictions for the structure and thermodynamic properties of the stealthy disordered ground states and associated excited states are in excellent agreement with computer simulations across dimensions.

  9. Maintaining Healthy Behaviors Following Weight Loss: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Cox, Tiffany L.; Ard, Jamy D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Rutt, Candace D.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the process of how women maintained their healthy behaviors after a weight management program using a grounded theory approach. We conducted 2 focus groups and 23 interviews with a purposeful sample of African American and Caucasian women aged 30 and older who lost greater than 5% of their body weight during a weight management…

  10. The Constant Comparative Analysis Method Outside of Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fram, Sheila M.

    2013-01-01

    This commentary addresses the gap in the literature regarding discussion of the legitimate use of Constant Comparative Analysis Method (CCA) outside of Grounded Theory. The purpose is to show the strength of using CCA to maintain the emic perspective and how theoretical frameworks can maintain the etic perspective throughout the analysis. My…

  11. Marshaling Resources: A Classic Grounded Theory Study of Online Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yalof, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    Students who enroll in online courses comprise one quarter of an increasingly diverse student body in higher education today. Yet, it is not uncommon for an online program to lose over 50% of its enrolled students prior to graduation. This study used a classic grounded theory qualitative methodology to investigate the persistent problem of…

  12. The Use of Grounded Theory within "Feminist" Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brine, Jacky

    A four-stage feminist research project investigating European Social Fund (ESF)-funded vocational training for unemployed women used the grounded theory approach. Stage 1 involved the formation of the research questions and design. Steps included the ontological, epistemological, and methodological positioning of the researcher. Stage 2 was the…

  13. How Chairpersons Enhance Faculty Research: A Grounded Theory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creswell, John W.; Brown, Martha L.

    1992-01-01

    A study examined how department chairpersons enhanced research performance of college and university faculty. By applying grounded theory methods to a corpus of 33 interviews with chairpersons, the study resulted in a typology of chair roles (administrative, advocacy, interpersonal), then assessed the process of assistance for faculty at four…

  14. Maintaining Healthy Behaviors Following Weight Loss: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Cox, Tiffany L.; Ard, Jamy D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Rutt, Candace D.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the process of how women maintained their healthy behaviors after a weight management program using a grounded theory approach. We conducted 2 focus groups and 23 interviews with a purposeful sample of African American and Caucasian women aged 30 and older who lost greater than 5% of their body weight during a weight management…

  15. Educational Administrative Inservice Training: An Outline of a Grounded Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krysinski, Patricia R.

    This outline of a grounded theory of educational administrative inservice training demonstrates the organizational characteristics and outcomes for participants as the results of a qualitative study. Focusing on high school principals, this study addresses two questions: What are the organizational characteristics of inservice training for school…

  16. Year 7 Students, Information Literacy, and Transfer: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herring, James E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the views of year 7 students, teacher librarians, and teachers in three state secondary schools in rural New South Wales, Australia, on information literacy and transfer. The aims of the study included the development of a grounded theory in relation to information literacy and transfer in these schools. The study's perspective…

  17. Quality of life in schizophrenia: A grounded theory approach

    PubMed Central

    Gee, Louise; Pearce, Emma; Jackson, Mike

    2003-01-01

    Background Research into health related quality of life (HRQoL) in schizophrenia has predominantly been conducted using lengthy interviewer administered questionnaires, many of which have not been validated for use with schizophrenic samples. The present study seeks to address the dearth of qualitative research by conducting a small-scale qualitative exploration of the impact of schizophrenia on HRQoL. Method The study was conducted using the qualitative approach of grounded theory. Six individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia participated (3 men, 3 women). Mean age of participants was 33.3 years (range 20–55), mean length of illness was 12 years (range 2–38 years) and average length of interviews was 47 minutes (range 20–70). Results Ten HRQoL domains were identified as being important: (1) barriers placed on relationships; (2) reduced control of behaviours and actions; (3) loss of opportunity to fulfil occupational roles; (4) financial constraints on activities and plans; (5) subjective experience of psychotic symptoms; (6) side effects and attitudes to medication; (7) psychological responses to living with schizophrenia; (8) labelling and attitudes from others; (9) concerns for the future and (10) positive outcomes from experiences. Conclusions Domains identified by participants encompassed a wide range of factors that may be expected to contribute generally to engaging in a positive quality of life. Participants identified that it was the loss of these things as a direct consequence of having schizophrenia that influenced their HRQoL. It would appear that in the main, factors that are secondary to the experience of schizophrenia are of most importance to participants. Suggestions are also made in the discussion for future research. PMID:12952542

  18. Learning the Ropes: A Grounded Theory Study of Children Crossing Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Patricia E.

    2012-01-01

    Educators in American public school settings have tried to determine the best practices to reach an increasingly diverse student population. In this qualitative study using grounded theory design, 13 individuals who have graduated from high schools in northern Virginia were asked to recollect their experiences as they moved through the dual…

  19. Women's Bodies as a "Puzzle" for College Men: Grounded Theory Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Patricia Barthalow

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the level of college men's understanding about women's bodies (i.e., reproductive anatomy and physiology) in order to structure learning experiences of most relevance and interest to them. A grounded theory research design, using the constant comparative method, was used in order to gain a deeper…

  20. Teachers' Perceived Influences on Technology Integration Decisions: A Grounded Theory on Instructional Decisions after Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhaus, Karen Larsen

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative grounded theory study explored teachers' instructional decisions around planning and practice for technology integration after participation in professional development. The purpose of this study was to determine how a long-term hybrid professional development experience influenced, if at all, math teachers' instructional…

  1. Recognizing Social Class in the Psychotherapy Relationship: A Grounded Theory Exploration of Low-Income Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Cole, Odessa D.; Nitzarim, Rachel S.

    2012-01-01

    The process of psychotherapy among 16 low-income clients was explored using grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967) in order to understand and identify their unique experiences and needs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 women and 4 men who had attended at least 6 sessions of psychotherapy within 6 months of the…

  2. A Grounded Theory of Counselor Educators Integrating Social Justice into Their Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odegard, Melissa A.; Vereen, Linwood G.

    2010-01-01

    The topic of social justice has received considerable attention in the counseling literature; however, little empirical research exists. This grounded theory study examined 4 counselor educators' process of integrating social justice constructs into their pedagogy. Data analysis revealed 4 primary experiences that emerged in the participants'…

  3. Professional Identity Development: A Grounded Theory of Transformational Tasks of New Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Donna M.; Dollarhide, Colette T.; Moss, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    Professional identity development is an important professional issue. Examining the lived experiences of counselors-in-training (CITs), the authors used grounded theory methodology to describe the transformational tasks that are required for professional identity development. Tasks include finding a personal definition of counseling, internalizing…

  4. Professional Identity Development: A Grounded Theory of Transformational Tasks of New Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Donna M.; Dollarhide, Colette T.; Moss, Julie M.

    2010-01-01

    Professional identity development is an important professional issue. Examining the lived experiences of counselors-in-training (CITs), the authors used grounded theory methodology to describe the transformational tasks that are required for professional identity development. Tasks include finding a personal definition of counseling, internalizing…

  5. Recognizing Social Class in the Psychotherapy Relationship: A Grounded Theory Exploration of Low-Income Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Mindi N.; Cole, Odessa D.; Nitzarim, Rachel S.

    2012-01-01

    The process of psychotherapy among 16 low-income clients was explored using grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967) in order to understand and identify their unique experiences and needs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 women and 4 men who had attended at least 6 sessions of psychotherapy within 6 months of the…

  6. Learning the Ropes: A Grounded Theory Study of Children Crossing Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Patricia E.

    2012-01-01

    Educators in American public school settings have tried to determine the best practices to reach an increasingly diverse student population. In this qualitative study using grounded theory design, 13 individuals who have graduated from high schools in northern Virginia were asked to recollect their experiences as they moved through the dual…

  7. A Grounded Theory of Counselor Educators Integrating Social Justice into Their Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odegard, Melissa A.; Vereen, Linwood G.

    2010-01-01

    The topic of social justice has received considerable attention in the counseling literature; however, little empirical research exists. This grounded theory study examined 4 counselor educators' process of integrating social justice constructs into their pedagogy. Data analysis revealed 4 primary experiences that emerged in the participants'…

  8. Teachers' Perceived Influences on Technology Integration Decisions: A Grounded Theory on Instructional Decisions after Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhaus, Karen Larsen

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative grounded theory study explored teachers' instructional decisions around planning and practice for technology integration after participation in professional development. The purpose of this study was to determine how a long-term hybrid professional development experience influenced, if at all, math teachers' instructional…

  9. The journey into fatherhood: A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Sansiriphun, Nantaporn; Kantaruksa, Kannika; Klunklin, Areewan; Baosuang, Chavee; Liamtrirat, Saowanee

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the process of transition into fatherhood for Thai men from childbirth to the postpartum period. Forty-one first-time Thai fathers were voluntarily recruited from two hospitals in Chiang Mai, Thailand, from December 2012 to June 2013. In-depth interviews were used to collect the data, which were analyzed based on grounded theory methodology. The basic social process that emerged as the core category was termed: "the journey into fatherhood." This process was divided into three phases: labor, delivery, and family beginning. Within this process, there were various situations, challenges, and pressures, which caused many changes of mood and feelings for the first-time fathers. Throughout this process, they applied various strategies to manage their concerns and needs, in order to develop into masterly fathers. Identifying the process of the journey into fatherhood provides nurses and midwives insight into the new fathers' experiences, which will enable them to be more sensitive, respectful, and effective caregivers. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Racial and Ethnic Diversity in Grounded Theory Research

    PubMed Central

    Draucker, Claire Burke; Al-Khattab, Halima; Hines, Dana D.; Mazurczyk, Jill; Russell, Anne C.; Stephenson, Pam Shockey; Draucker, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    National initiatives in the United States call for health research that addresses racial/ethnic disparities. Although grounded theory (GT) research has the potential to contribute much to the understanding of the health experiences of people of color, the extent to which it has contributed to health disparities research is unclear. In this article we describe a project in which we reviewed 44 GT studies published in Qualitative Health Research within the last five years. Using a framework proposed by Green, Creswell, Shope, and Clark (2007), we categorized the studies at one of four levels based on the status and significance afforded racial/ethnic diversity. Our results indicate that racial/ethnic diversity played a primary role in five studies, a complementary role in one study, a peripheral role in five studies, and an absent role in 33 studies. We suggest that GT research could contribute more to health disparities research if techniques were developed to better analyze the influence of race/ethnicity on health-related phenomena. PMID:26401523

  11. Confronting infertility in Iranian clients: a grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Zandi, Mitra; Mohammadi, Eesa; Vanaki, Zohreh; Shiva, Marziyeh; Bagheri Lankarani, Narges; Zarei, Faezeh

    2017-02-10

    The present study examined how infertile Iranian clients confront infertility. Research on infertility has confirmed the significance of a socio-cultural context in the formation of responses to infertility. This study used the grounded theory approach to explore the experiences of infertile individuals presenting at the Royan Institute in Iran from October 2013 to September 2014. Clients with infertility of at least two years in duration were recruited using purposive sampling followed by theoretical sampling. A total of 41 interviews were conducted with 36 people. Data were collected through in-depth unstructured interviews and field notes. Data analysis was performed using MAXQDA 2007. A sense of 'insecurity about personal and family identity' shaped in the context of 'facing the cultural-economic dilemmas' was identified as the main concern of infertile clients. The clients dealt with this concern through a series of strategies that included gradual acceptance of infertility, seeking information and consultation, pursuing treatment, focusing on saving the marriage, self-control and resilience and fighting inner turmoil. All these approaches suggest 'protecting personal and family identity' as the core concept. The findings highlight the need for the health care system to treat infertility as a broad concept than mere individual and biological dysfunction.

  12. Wilson operator algebras and ground states of coupled BF theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Apoorv; Chen, Xiao; Ryu, Shinsei

    2017-06-01

    The multiflavor BF theories in (3+1) dimensions with cubic or quartic coupling are the simplest topological quantum field theories that can describe fractional braiding statistics between looplike topological excitations (three-loop or four-loop braiding statistics). In this paper, by canonically quantizing these theories, we study the algebra of Wilson loop and Wilson surface operators, and multiplets of ground states on the three-torus. In particular, by quantizing these coupled BF theories on the three-torus, we explicitly calculate the S and T matrices, which encode fractional braiding statistics and the topological spin of looplike excitations, respectively. In the coupled BF theories with cubic and quartic coupling, the Hopf link and Borromean ring of loop excitations, together with pointlike excitations, form composite particles.

  13. No theory of justice can ground health care reform.

    PubMed

    Trotter, Griffin

    2012-01-01

    This essay argues that no theory or single conception of justice can provide a fundamental grounding for health care reform in the United States. To provide such a grounding, (1) there would need to be widespread support among citizens for a particular conception of justice, (2) citizens would have to apprehend this common conception of justice as providing the strongest available rationale for health care reform, and (3) this rationale would have to overwhelm countervailing values. I argue that neither of the first two conditions is met. © 2012 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  14. Student nurse socialisation in compassionate practice: a Grounded Theory study.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Katherine; Horton, Khim; Smith, Pam

    2012-10-01

    Compassionate practice is expected of Registered Nurses (RNs) around the world while at the same time remaining a contested concept. Nevertheless, student nurses are expected to enact compassionate practice in order to become RNs. In order for this to happen they require professional socialisation within environments where compassion can flourish. However, there is concern that student nurse socialisation is not enabling compassion to flourish and be maintained upon professional qualification. In order to investigate this further, a glaserian Grounded Theory study was undertaken using in-depth, digitally recorded interviews with student nurses (n=19) at a university in the north of England during 2009 and 2010. Interviews were also undertaken with their nurse teachers (n=5) and data from National Health Service (NHS) patients (n=72,000) and staff (n=290,000) surveys were used to build a contextual picture of the student experience. Within the selected findings presented, analysis of the data indicates that students aspire to the professional ideal of compassionate practice although they have concerns about how compassionate practice might fit within the RN role because of constraints on RN practice. Students feel vulnerable to dissonance between professional ideals and practice reality. They experience uncertainty about their future role and about opportunities to engage in compassionate practice. Students manage their vulnerability and uncertainty by balancing between an intention to uphold professional ideals and challenge constraints, and a realisation they might need to adapt their ideals and conform to constraints. This study demonstrates that socialisation in compassionate practice is compromised by dissonance between professional idealism and practice realism. Realignment between the reality of practice and professional ideals, and fostering student resilience, are required if students are to be successfully socialised in compassionate practice and enabled

  15. Newly-graduated midwives transcending barriers: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Barry, Michele J; Hauck, Yvonne L; O'Donoghue, Thomas; Clarke, Simon

    2013-12-01

    Midwifery has developed its own philosophy to formalise its unique identity as a profession. Newly-graduated midwives are taught, and ideally embrace, this philosophy during their education. However, embarking in their career within a predominantly institutionalised and the medically focused health-care model may challenge this application. The research question guiding this study was as follows: 'How do newly graduated midwives deal with applying the philosophy of midwifery in their first six months of practice?' The aim was to generate a grounded theory around this social process. This Western Australian grounded theory study is conceptualised within the social theory of symbolic interactionism. Data were collected by means of in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 11 recent midwifery graduates. Participant and interviewer's journals provided supplementary data. The 'constant comparison' approach was used for data analysis. The substantive theory of transcending barriers was generated. Three stages in transcending barriers were identified: Addressing personal attributes, Understanding the 'bigger picture', and finally, 'Evaluating, planning and acting' to provide woman-centred care. An overview of these three stages provides the focus of this article. The theory of transcending barriers provides a new perspective on how newly-graduated midwives deal with applying the philosophy of midwifery in their first six months of practice. A number of implications for pre and post registration midwifery education and policy development are suggested, as well as recommendations for future research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Satisfaction with College Major: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milsom, Amy; Coughlin, Julie

    2015-01-01

    All college students must eventually choose and complete a major. Many switch majors, and some change it multiple times. Despite extensive literature addressing factors that influence students' initial choice of major, few scholars have examined students' experiences after enrollment in a selected major. In this study, we used a grounded theory…

  17. Staying theoretically sensitive when conducting grounded theory research.

    PubMed

    Reay, Gudrun; Bouchal, Shelley Raffin; A Rankin, James

    2016-09-01

    Background Grounded theory (GT) is founded on the premise that underlying social patterns can be discovered and conceptualised into theories. The method and need for theoretical sensitivity are best understood in the historical context in which GT was developed. Theoretical sensitivity entails entering the field with no preconceptions, so as to remain open to the data and the emerging theory. Investigators also read literature from other fields to understand various ways to construct theories. Aim To explore the concept of theoretical sensitivity from a classical GT perspective, and discuss the ontological and epistemological foundations of GT. Discussion Difficulties in remaining theoretically sensitive throughout research are discussed and illustrated with examples. Emergence - the idea that theory and substance will emerge from the process of comparing data - and staying open to the data are emphasised. Conclusion Understanding theoretical sensitivity as an underlying guiding principle of GT helps the researcher make sense of important concepts, such as delaying the literature review, emergence and the constant comparative method (simultaneous collection, coding and analysis of data). Implications for practice Theoretical sensitivity and adherence to the GT research method allow researchers to discover theories that can bridge the gap between theory and practice.

  18. Health as expanding consciousness: a nursing perspective for grounded theory research.

    PubMed

    Brown, Janet Witucki

    2011-07-01

    Margaret Newman's theory of health as expanding consciousness provides an excellent nursing perspective for nursing grounded theory research studies. Application of this nursing theory to grounded theory research provides a unitary-transformative paradigm perspective to the sociological underpinnings of grounded theory methodology. The fit between this particular nursing theory and grounded theory methodology is apparent when purpose, timing, process, and health outcomes of the two are compared. In this column, the theory of health as expanding consciousness is described and the theory's research as praxis methodology is compared to grounded theory methodology. This is followed by a description of how the theory of health as expanding consciousness can be utilized as a perspective for nursing grounded theory research.

  19. Actual Operation Simulation of RESSOX Ground Experiments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-11-01

    experiments with VCOCXO control of Experiment Two. In Experiment One, the remote synchronization system of the onboard crystal oscillator (RESSOX...Experiment One, the remote synchronization system of the onboard crystal oscillator (RESSOX) control signal that includes information of the standard time...receive navigation signals from at least one of the QZSs near the zenith. In general, a global navigation satellite system ( GNSS ), such as the GPS of

  20. Recognizing social class in the psychotherapy relationship: a grounded theory exploration of low-income clients.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Mindi N; Cole, Odessa D; Nitzarim, Rachel S

    2012-04-01

    The process of psychotherapy among 16 low-income clients was explored using grounded theory (Charmaz, 2006; Glaser & Strauss, 1967) in order to understand and identify their unique experiences and needs. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 women and 4 men who had attended at least 6 sessions of psychotherapy within 6 months of the interview. Our grounded theory that evolved depicted a tapestry of the dynamic process by which low-income clients experience social class within psychotherapy. Specific therapist behaviors that contribute to more and less positive experiences emerged from the data and pointed to the importance of acknowledging social class within the therapy room. The significance of therapists enhancing the 50-min hour via advocacy and meaningful moments within and outside of the therapy room was highlighted among all participants. Implications for practice with low-income clients and directions for future research are provided.

  1. The roots and development of constructivist grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Higginbottom, Gina; Lauridsen, Erica I

    2014-05-01

    To deconstruct how Charmaz's constructivist grounded theory (CGT) evolved from the original ideas of Glaser and Strauss, and to explore how CGT is similar to and different from the original grounded theory (GT). The origins of GT date to 1967 with Glaser and Strauss's study of the treatment of dying individuals, applying an inductive method allowing for the development of theory without the guidance of a preconceived theory. CGT moves away from the positivism of the Glaserian and Straussian GT schools, approaching GT through a constructivist lens that addresses how realities are made. This article does not involve the collection and analysis of primary data; instead, academic literature written by leaders in the field of GT was reviewed to generate the ideas presented. Comprehensive literature review drawing on the 'integrative review' principles. When selecting a GT approach, the possibility of a congruence between the chosen methodology and the worldviews of the researcher's discipline and own outlook should be considered. The differences among the various schools of GT lie in their overarching goals and their perspectives of the nature of reality. Considering the alignment between the constructivist worldview and the field of nursing, CGT offers a valuable methodology for researchers in this area.

  2. Ensemble Theory for Stealthy Hyperuniform Disordered Ground States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torquato, S.; Zhang, G.; Stillinger, F. H.

    2015-04-01

    It has been shown numerically that systems of particles interacting with isotropic "stealthy" bounded long-ranged pair potentials (similar to Friedel oscillations) have classical ground states that are (counterintuitively) disordered, hyperuniform, and highly degenerate. Disordered hyperuniform systems have received attention recently because they are distinguishable exotic states of matter poised between a crystal and liquid that are endowed with novel thermodynamic and physical properties. The task of formulating an ensemble theory that yields analytical predictions for the structural characteristics and other properties of stealthy degenerate ground states in d -dimensional Euclidean space Rd is highly nontrivial because the dimensionality of the configuration space depends on the number density ρ and there is a multitude of ways of sampling the ground-state manifold, each with its own probability measure for finding a particular ground-state configuration. The purpose of this paper is to take some initial steps in this direction. Specifically, we derive general exact relations for thermodynamic properties (energy, pressure, and isothermal compressibility) that apply to any ground-state ensemble as a function of ρ in any d , and we show how disordered degenerate ground states arise as part of the ground-state manifold. We also derive exact integral conditions that both the pair correlation function g2(r ) and structure factor S (k ) must obey for any d . We then specialize our results to the canonical ensemble (in the zero-temperature limit) by exploiting an ansatz that stealthy states behave remarkably like "pseudo"-equilibrium hard-sphere systems in Fourier space. Our theoretical predictions for g2(r ) and S (k ) are in excellent agreement with computer simulations across the first three space dimensions. These results are used to obtain order metrics, local number variance, and nearest-neighbor functions across dimensions. We also derive accurate analytical

  3. Minority nursing student success: A grounded theory case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mister, Brenda J.

    There has been a dramatic increase in the nation's racial and ethnic minority populations over recent years. This increase is placing a higher demand on the health care industry to provide culturally competent care to these diverse populations. This challenge is met with yet another problem as the nation faces a critical shortage of nurses, particularly minority nurses. This shortage is only expected to worsen over the next several years. As schools of nursing across the country are being asked to increase the number of nursing program graduates, specifically minorities, they are confronted with a double edged sword as retention rates are decreasing, and attrition rates are increasing. This is particularly troublesome when many racial and ethnic minority nursing students do not graduate. This qualitative study was implemented to assess and understand the perceived educational experiences of racial and ethnic minority nursing students enrolled in a rural community college nursing program on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Eight voluntary nursing students who identified themselves as either a racial or ethnic minority participated in the study. Data were collected by: individual audio-taped interview sessions; audio-taped focus group sessions; and documentation of field notes. Participants also provided demographic information and were asked to provide a brief written response to a scenario regarding increasing the recruitment and retention rates of minority nursing students. All data were analyzed utilizing the constant comparative method. Results of the study revealed six different themes: personal support systems and peer relationships; college services and academic resources; faculty support; cultural understanding versus cultural insensitivity; personal attributes of self-efficacy/advice for future nursing students; and suggestions for college and nursing program improvement. After the major themes were examined one central theme, a grounded theory, was born. The

  4. Empowerment in school nursing practice: a grounded theory approach.

    PubMed

    Broussard, Lisa

    2007-12-01

    Professional empowerment is vital to nurses' productivity and job satisfaction. A grounded theory study was conducted to describe the basic social process experienced by school nurses in relation to professional empowerment. Interviews with 10 school nurses led to the development of a situation-specific theory of school nurse empowerment, Making a Difference: The Role of the School Nurse in the Health of Children in Schools. This theory was derived from four theoretical constructs: (a) enlisting support, (b) getting through the day, (c) maintaining control over practice, and (d) adjusting to challenges. Interviews revealed that knowing at the end of each school day that they made a difference in the health of children resulted in feelings of empowerment. Participants cited various areas in which their sense of empowerment was limited, including salaries and workload. Despite these issues, they believed they had a positive impact on the health of children, leading to job satisfaction and feelings of value.

  5. Simulations of Ground and Space-Based Oxygen Atom Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finchum, A. (Technical Monitor); Cline, J. A.; Minton, T. K.; Braunstein, M.

    2003-01-01

    A low-earth orbit (LEO) materials erosion scenario and the ground-based experiment designed to simulate it are compared using the direct-simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The DSMC model provides a detailed description of the interactions between the hyperthermal gas flow and a normally oriented flat plate for each case. We find that while the general characteristics of the LEO exposure are represented in the ground-based experiment, multi-collision effects can potentially alter the impact energy and directionality of the impinging molecules in the ground-based experiment. Multi-collision phenomena also affect downstream flux measurements.

  6. Simulations of Ground and Space-Based Oxygen Atom Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finchum, A. (Technical Monitor); Cline, J. A.; Minton, T. K.; Braunstein, M.

    2003-01-01

    A low-earth orbit (LEO) materials erosion scenario and the ground-based experiment designed to simulate it are compared using the direct-simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method. The DSMC model provides a detailed description of the interactions between the hyperthermal gas flow and a normally oriented flat plate for each case. We find that while the general characteristics of the LEO exposure are represented in the ground-based experiment, multi-collision effects can potentially alter the impact energy and directionality of the impinging molecules in the ground-based experiment. Multi-collision phenomena also affect downstream flux measurements.

  7. Method for Studying a Human Ecology: An Adaptation of the Grounded Theory Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCaslin, Mark L.; Scott, Karen Wilson

    Constructivist grounded theory is focused on discovery through understanding data in a human ecology. The procedures outlined in this paper are designed to guide the beginning theorist through the process of creating a theory grounded in data that is a product of the human ecology under study. These new procedures extend grounded theory, providing…

  8. Taking-On: A Grounded Theory of Addressing Barriers in Task Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austinson, Julie Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study of taking-on was conducted using classical grounded theory methodology (Glaser, 1978, 1992, 1998, 2001, 2005; Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Classical grounded theory is inductive, empirical, and naturalistic; it does not utilize manipulation or constrained time frames. Classical grounded theory is a systemic research method used to generate…

  9. Taking-On: A Grounded Theory of Addressing Barriers in Task Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austinson, Julie Ann

    2011-01-01

    This study of taking-on was conducted using classical grounded theory methodology (Glaser, 1978, 1992, 1998, 2001, 2005; Glaser & Strauss, 1967). Classical grounded theory is inductive, empirical, and naturalistic; it does not utilize manipulation or constrained time frames. Classical grounded theory is a systemic research method used to generate…

  10. Use of empathy in psychiatric practice: constructivist grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Watling, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Background Psychiatry has faced significant criticism for overreliance on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and medications with purported disregard for empathetic, humanistic interventions. Aims To develop an empirically based qualitative theory explaining how psychiatrists use empathy in day-to-day practice, to inform practice and teaching approaches. Method This study used constructivist grounded theory methodology to ask (a) ‘How do psychiatrists understand and use empathetic engagement in the day-to-day practice of psychiatry?’ and (b) ‘How do psychiatrists learn and teach the skills of empathetic engagement?’ The authors interviewed 17 academic psychiatrists and 4 residents and developed a theory by iterative coding of the collected data. Results This constructivist grounded theory of empathetic engagement in psychiatric practice considered three major elements: relational empathy, transactional empathy and instrumental empathy. As one moves from relational empathy through transactional empathy to instrumental empathy, the actions of the psychiatrist become more deliberate and interventional. Conclusions Participants were described by empathy-based interventions which are presented in a theory of ’empathetic engagement’. This is in contrast to a paradigm that sees psychiatry as purely based on neurobiological interventions, with psychotherapy and interpersonal interventions as completely separate activities from day-to-day psychiatric practice. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2017. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) license. PMID:28243463

  11. Psychotherapists' spiritual, religious, atheist or agnostic identity and their practice of psychotherapy: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Magaldi-Dopman, Danielle; Park-Taylor, Jennie; Ponterotto, Joseph G

    2011-05-01

    In this present grounded theory study, 16 experienced psychologists, who practiced from varied theoretical orientations and came from diverse religious/spiritual/nonreligious backgrounds, explored their personal religious/spiritual/nonreligious identity development journeys, their experiences with clients' religious/spiritual content in psychotherapy sessions, and how their identity may have influenced the way they interacted with religious/spiritual material during sessions. Results revealed that psychologists' spiritual/religious/nonreligious identity is conflicted and complex and that their academic and clinical training did not provide sufficient opportunity to examine how this may affect their therapeutic work. A tentative grounded theory emerged suggesting that psychologists both identified with and were activated by clients' spiritual/religious conflicts and their internal experiences about the spiritual/religious content, both of which presented significant challenges to therapeutic work.

  12. Toward a grounded theory of lesbians' recovery from addiction.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Connie R; Lorah, Peggy; Fenton, Jaime

    2005-01-01

    This article presents the results of a qualitative study on lesbians' recovery from addiction. The study involved semi-structured interviews with 20 lesbians in recovery from addiction and was analyzed using grounded theory method. The central theme that emerged was self-acceptance, both as a lesbian and as a recovering alcoholic/addict, with considerable interaction between the two. Categories that contributed to this theme were learning to recover, relationships with other people, and relationship with something bigger than self. The discussion addresses how this information can be used to assist lesbians trying to recover from addiction.

  13. Accommodating interruptions: A grounded theory of young people with asthma.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Mary; Savage, Eileen; Andrews, Tom

    2017-05-11

    The aim of this study was to develop an explanatory theory on the lives of young people with asthma, issues affecting them and the impact of asthma on their day-to-day lives. Accommodating Interruptions is a theory that explains young people's concerns about living with asthma. Although national and international asthma management guidelines exist, it is accepted that the symptom control of asthma among the young people population is poor. This study was undertaken using Classic Grounded Theory. Data were collected through in-depth interviews and clinic consultations with young people aged 11-16 years who had asthma for over 1 year. Data were also collected from participant diaries. Constant comparative analysis, theoretical coding and memo writing were used to develop the substantive theory. The theory explains how young people resolve their main concern of being restricted by Accommodating Interruptions in their lives. They do this by assimilating behaviours in balance finding, moderating influence, fitting in and assuming control minimising the effects of asthma on their everyday lives. The theory of Accommodating Interruptions explains young people's asthma management behaviours in a new way. It allows us to understand how and why young people behave the way they do because they want to participate and be included in everyday activities, events and relationships. The theory adds to the body of knowledge on how young people with asthma live their day-to-day lives and it challenges some existing viewpoints in the literature regarding their behaviours. The findings have implications for developing services to support young people in a more meaningful way as they accommodate the interruptions associated with asthma in their lives. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. GIFTS EDU Ground-based Measurement Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, W. L., Sr.; Zollinger, L. J.; Huppi, R. J.; Reisse, R. A.; Larar, A. M.; Liu, X.; Tansock, J. J., Jr.; Jensen, S. M.; Revercomb, H. E.; hide

    2007-01-01

    Geosynchronous Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) is an imaging infrared spectrometer designed for atmospheric soundings. The EDU groundbased measurement experiment was held in Logan, Utah during September 2006 to demonstrate its extensive capabilities for geosynchronous and other applications.

  15. Proposed experiment to test fundamentally binary theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinmann, Matthias; Vértesi, Tamás; Cabello, Adán

    2017-09-01

    Fundamentally binary theories are nonsignaling theories in which measurements of many outcomes are constructed by selecting from binary measurements. They constitute a sensible alternative to quantum theory and have never been directly falsified by any experiment. Here we show that fundamentally binary theories are experimentally testable with current technology. For that, we identify a feasible Bell-type experiment on pairs of entangled qutrits. In addition, we prove that, for any n , quantum n -ary correlations are not fundamentally (n -1 ) -ary. For that, we introduce a family of inequalities that hold for fundamentally (n -1 ) -ary theories but are violated by quantum n -ary correlations.

  16. Research report: a grounded theory description of pastoral counseling.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Loren L

    2011-01-01

    Historically, clerical paradigms of ordained ministry have defined pastoral counseling. However, these fail to describe pastoral counselors in the complex social, theological and medical contexts in which they now work. This study asks the question: How do pastoral counselors in clinical practice describe what is uniquely "pastoral" about the counseling they offer clients? Grounded theory was used to propose a preliminary description and an intermediate theory of how pastoral counselors interpret "pastoral." Eighty-five pastoral counselors were selected for the study over a four year period using criteria to assure maximum variation. Interviews and pastoral identity statements were collected and coded, and theoretical models were organized using NVIVO, a computer assisted qualitative design and analysis software (CAQDAS) package. Results suggest that pastoral counselors share some common ideas regarding "pastoral identity" and clinical practice. How pastoral counselors interpret "pastoral" is highly context sensitive and varies widely.

  17. Spectropolarimeter of ground support of space experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Ivanov, Yu. S.; Morozhenko, O. V.; Siniavsky, I. I.; Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Nevodovskyi, P. V.; Sosonkim, M. G.

    2017-08-01

    At various space experiments it is necessary to plan carrying out parallel terrestrial observations. For this purpose spectropolarimeter of support of Space experiments in spectral range of 350-900 nm was developed and manufactured at the Main Astronomical Observatory of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. As a dispersing system of SPS it was proposed to use a complex prism system, whose elements can be located in different parts of the optical system and work with different angular increase. In the spectral range of 370-870 nm, the variance was almost uniform. Spectropolarimeter SPS of SE support, has been used for observation of stars with exoplanets and of Solar System bodies.

  18. A Brush with Research: Teaching Grounded Theory in the Art and Design Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Mike; Barrett, Sean

    2016-01-01

    Grounded Theory is a systematic approach to social research that allows for new concepts and theories to emerge from gathered data, as opposed to relying on either established theory or personal conjecture to interpret social processes. Although Grounded Theory is a well-known method within social science literature, it is relatively unknown in…

  19. A Lifespan Perspective on Cooperative Education Learning: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linn, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study sits at the intersection of two trends in vocational education. The first trend is a narrative approach to understanding cooperative education learning; the second is a movement away from career development theories toward the view that individuals use work experiences to help construct their lives. Both trends view learning…

  20. A grounded theory of abstraction in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed Central

    Zucker, Jean-Daniel

    2003-01-01

    In artificial intelligence, abstraction is commonly used to account for the use of various levels of details in a given representation language or the ability to change from one level to another while preserving useful properties. Abstraction has been mainly studied in problem solving, theorem proving, knowledge representation (in particular for spatial and temporal reasoning) and machine learning. In such contexts, abstraction is defined as a mapping between formalisms that reduces the computational complexity of the task at stake. By analysing the notion of abstraction from an information quantity point of view, we pinpoint the differences and the complementary role of reformulation and abstraction in any representation change. We contribute to extending the existing semantic theories of abstraction to be grounded on perception, where the notion of information quantity is easier to characterize formally. In the author's view, abstraction is best represented using abstraction operators, as they provide semantics for classifying different abstractions and support the automation of representation changes. The usefulness of a grounded theory of abstraction in the cartography domain is illustrated. Finally, the importance of explicitly representing abstraction for designing more autonomous and adaptive systems is discussed. PMID:12903672

  1. A grounded theory of abstraction in artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Jean-Daniel

    2003-07-29

    In artificial intelligence, abstraction is commonly used to account for the use of various levels of details in a given representation language or the ability to change from one level to another while preserving useful properties. Abstraction has been mainly studied in problem solving, theorem proving, knowledge representation (in particular for spatial and temporal reasoning) and machine learning. In such contexts, abstraction is defined as a mapping between formalisms that reduces the computational complexity of the task at stake. By analysing the notion of abstraction from an information quantity point of view, we pinpoint the differences and the complementary role of reformulation and abstraction in any representation change. We contribute to extending the existing semantic theories of abstraction to be grounded on perception, where the notion of information quantity is easier to characterize formally. In the author's view, abstraction is best represented using abstraction operators, as they provide semantics for classifying different abstractions and support the automation of representation changes. The usefulness of a grounded theory of abstraction in the cartography domain is illustrated. Finally, the importance of explicitly representing abstraction for designing more autonomous and adaptive systems is discussed.

  2. Implications of male circumcision for women in Papua New Guinea: a transformational grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Redman-MacLaren, Michelle; Mills, Jane; Tommbe, Rachael; MacLaren, David; Speare, Rick; McBride, William J H

    2017-07-27

    Male circumcision reduces the risk of female-to-male transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and is being explored for HIV prevention in Papua New Guinea (PNG). PNG has a concentrated HIV epidemic which is largely heterosexually transmitted. There are a diverse range of male circumcision and penile modification practices across PNG. Exploring the implications of male circumcision for women in PNG is important to inform evidence-based health policy that will result in positive, intended consequences. The transformational grounded theory study incorporated participatory action research and decolonizing methodologies. In Phase One, an existing data set from a male circumcision study of 861 male and 519 female participants was theoretically sampled and analyzed for women's understanding and experience of male circumcision. In Phase Two of the study, primary data were co-generated with 64 women in seven interpretive focus group discussions and 11 semi-structured interviews to develop a theoretical model of the processes used by women to manage the outcomes of male circumcision. In Phase Three participants assisted to refine the developing transformational grounded theory and identify actions required to improve health. Many women know a lot about male circumcision and penile modification and the consequences for themselves, their families and communities. Their ability to act on this knowledge is determined by numerous social, cultural and economic factors. A transformational grounded theory was developed with connecting categories of: Women Know a Lot, Increasing Knowledge; Increasing Options; and Acting on Choices. Properties and dimensions of each category are represented in the model, along with the intervening condition of Safety. The condition of Safety contextualises the overarching lived realty for women in PNG, enables the inclusion of men in the transformational grounded theory model, and helps to explain relationships between men and women. The

  3. Men in Nursing: Intention, Intentionality, Caring, and Healing: Emphasis on the Results of a Grounded Theory Study.

    PubMed

    Zahourek, Rothlyn P

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to amplify the results section of a grounded theory study on how men in nursing view and experience intention, intentionality, caring, and healing. This is the second grounded theory study addressing intentionality in healing. The first study included a female population. The theory that was generated-Intentionality: The Matrix of Healing (IMH)-is examined with these new data. The results are compared with issues generally faced by men in nursing and how they described their beliefs and experiences with intentionality and healing. The theory (IMH) is supported; the importance of action in this cohort was an additional emphasis. This article provides an expanded view of men in nursing and their experiences as nurses and with intentionality, caring, and healing and has implications for the development of holistic nursing theory as well.

  4. The illness of women and men with sickle cell disease: a Grounded Theory study1

    PubMed Central

    Cordeiro, Rosa Cândida; Ferreira, Silvia Lúcia; Santos, Ane Caroline da Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Objective: to understand the meanings given by women and men with sickle cell disease on the illness experience. Method: analytical study with a qualitative approach, conducted with 17 adults with sickle cell disease using the Theory Based on Data, or Grounded Theory, as theoretical-methodological referential. Data were collected between the years of 2012 and 2013, in an individual in-depth interview. All the interviews were recorded and analyzed according to the Grounded Theory comparative analysis technique. Results: data show four categories which group the experience of illness, the feelings experienced and the path to living with sickle cell disease. Conclusions: it was possible to understand that the experience was built by a process in which these people redefined the meaning of their lives, applying new directions to life and to care regarding the experience of the illness. In the context of chronic disease, the nurse's care is also seen in this study as a foundation, providing attention, directions, and guidance through the required confrontations. Understanding the experience lived by these people, it is possible to enlarge the dimensions and the essence of nursing care required throughout life. PMID:26626003

  5. The illness of women and men with sickle cell disease: a Grounded Theory study.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Rosa Cândida; Ferreira, Silvia Lúcia; Santos, Ane Caroline da Cruz

    2015-01-01

    To understand the meanings given by women and men with sickle cell disease on the illness experience. Analytical study with a qualitative approach, conducted with 17 adults with sickle cell disease using the Theory Based on Data, or Grounded Theory, as theoretical-methodological referential. Data were collected between the years of 2012 and 2013, in an individual in-depth interview. All the interviews were recorded and analyzed according to the Grounded Theory comparative analysis technique. Data show four categories which group the experience of illness, the feelings experienced and the path to living with sickle cell disease. It was possible to understand that the experience was built by a process in which these people redefined the meaning of their lives, applying new directions to life and to care regarding the experience of the illness. In the context of chronic disease, the nurse's care is also seen in this study as a foundation, providing attention, directions, and guidance through the required confrontations. Understanding the experience lived by these people, it is possible to enlarge the dimensions and the essence of nursing care required throughout life.

  6. Teaching Theory Construction With Initial Grounded Theory Tools: A Reflection on Lessons and Learning.

    PubMed

    Charmaz, Kathy

    2015-12-01

    This article addresses criticisms of qualitative research for spawning studies that lack analytic development and theoretical import. It focuses on teaching initial grounded theory tools while interviewing, coding, and writing memos for the purpose of scaling up the analytic level of students' research and advancing theory construction. Adopting these tools can improve teaching qualitative methods at all levels although doctoral education is emphasized here. What teachers cover in qualitative methods courses matters. The pedagogy presented here requires a supportive environment and relies on demonstration, collective participation, measured tasks, progressive analytic complexity, and accountability. Lessons learned from using initial grounded theory tools are exemplified in a doctoral student's coding and memo-writing excerpts that demonstrate progressive analytic development. The conclusion calls for increasing the number and depth of qualitative methods courses and for creating a cadre of expert qualitative methodologists. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Toward a Theory of "Experience"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Jornet, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    "Experience" is one of the most used terms in (science) education, and it is recognized as being related to learning (education). Yet "what" experience is and "how" it is related to learning and change remains untheorized. In this paper, we mainly draw on the work of J. Dewey and L. S. Vygotsky but also on M. Bakhtin…

  8. Toward a Theory of "Experience"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Jornet, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    "Experience" is one of the most used terms in (science) education, and it is recognized as being related to learning (education). Yet "what" experience is and "how" it is related to learning and change remains untheorized. In this paper, we mainly draw on the work of J. Dewey and L. S. Vygotsky but also on M. Bakhtin…

  9. The MSAT-X MARECS B2 satellite experiment - Ground segment results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jedrey, Thomas C.; Lay, Norman E.; Dessouky, Khaled I.; Cheetham, Craig M.; Parkyn, James F.

    1989-01-01

    The results of a recently completed satellite experiment employing the JPL MSAT-X developed land-mobile satellite communication terminal are described. In this experiment, a full duplex 4800-b/s digital data and voice communication link was established through the INMARSAT Marecs B2 satellite between Atlantic City, New Jersey, and Southbury, Connecticut. A series of experiments was performed to characterize the terminal performance over this link. The basic experimental setup and the preliminary results of the speech and data experiments are presented. The satellite environment proved to be near to what was expected, and as a result the experimental results were very close to theory/simulation/laboratory experiments. It was found that the ground-to-ground communication links were more benign links than the ground-to-air and air-to-ground links, and this is reflected in the improved margins for the ground-to-ground links (approximately 5 dB versus 3.2 dB for the aeronautical links).

  10. Clients' relational conceptions of conjoint couple and family therapy quality: a grounded formal theory.

    PubMed

    Chenail, Ronald J; George, Sally St; Wulff, Dan; Duffy, Maureen; Scott, Karen Wilson; Tomm, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Based upon a qualitative metasynthesis of 49 articles centered on clients' experiences of their conjoint couple and family therapy, the investigators constructed a grounded formal theory of Clients' Relational Conceptions of Conjoint Couple and Family Therapy Quality. The theory suggests from pretherapy conceptions to posttherapy reflections, clients' perceptions of conjoint couple and family therapy quality appear to consist of clients' constructed meanings regarding a series of interrelated relationships between clients and their therapists and therapy environments, between clients and themselves, between clients and other family members, and between process and outcome both inside and outside therapy. Within and across these relationships, clients appear to focus on expectations, connections, balance, and change when evaluating the quality of their clinical experiences. Based upon this theory, the investigators recommend that researchers continue to explore this clinical phenomenon and that therapists regularly seek clients' conceptions of quality in therapy. © 2011 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  11. Applying thematic analysis theory to practice: a researcher's experience.

    PubMed

    Tuckett, Anthony G

    2005-01-01

    This article describes an experience of thematic analysis. In order to answer the question 'What does analysis look like in practice?' it describes in brief how the methodology of grounded theory, the epistemology of social constructionism, and the theoretical stance of symbolic interactionism inform analysis. Additionally, analysis is examined by evidencing the systematic processes--here termed organising, coding, writing, theorising, and reading--that led the researcher to develop a final thematic schema.

  12. Discussion: Confronting theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, Hugh; Hayato, Yoshinari; Sobczyk, Jan

    2015-05-15

    This session focused on the current status of neutrino event generators, in practical terms the tool through which ‘theory confronts experiment’. Comparisons of event generators, both in terms of input physics, and in terms of produced distributions, has been a staple of this conference series, and the activities in this area are summarized. In addition, we discuss the highest priorities for model development, discuss the changing needs of experimental users, and comment on challenges and needs for the road ahead.

  13. Containing acute childhood illness within family life: a substantive grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Neill, Sarah J

    2010-12-01

    Acute childhood illness is a universal experience for children and families. This paper presents the central process of a Glaserian grounded theory study which explored family management of acute childhood illness at home. Twenty-nine interviews were conducted with 15 families of children 0-9 years of age. Constant comparative analysis generated the substantive grounded theory 'Containing acute childhood illness within family life'. This informal social rule was identified from families' persistent desire to do the right thing, for their child and in the eyes of others in social life. Families perceived that they were expected to contain illnesses which are defined as minor and to seek medical help for 'real' illnesses. Considerable uncertainty was evident around defining the illness and the legitimacy of seeking medical help. Their concern with the latter indicates doctors' role as moral agents for parents' behaviour, directing the containment of acute childhood illness.

  14. Psychosocial Intervention Use in Long-Stay Dementia Care: A Classic Grounded Theory.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Andrew; Keady, John; Casey, Dympna; Grealish, Annmarie; Murphy, Kathy

    2016-12-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a substantive grounded theory of staff psychosocial intervention use with residents with dementia in long-stay care. "Becoming a person again" emerged as the core category accounting for staffs' psychosocial intervention use within long-stay care. Interview data were collected from participants in nine Irish long-stay settings: 14 residents with dementia, 19 staff nurses, one clinical facilitator, seven nurse managers, 21 nursing assistants, and five relatives. Constant comparative method guided the data collection and analysis. The researcher's theoretical memos, based on unstructured observation, and applicable extant literature were also included as data. By identifying the mutuality of the participants' experiences, this classic grounded theory explains staff motivation toward psychosocial intervention use within long-stay care. It also explains how institutional factors interact with those personal factors that incline individuals toward psychosocial intervention use.

  15. Understanding Jordanian Psychiatric Nurses' Smoking Behaviors: A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Aldiabat, Khaldoun M.; Clinton, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Smoking is prevalent in psychiatric facilities among staff and patients. However, there have been few studies of how contextual factors in specific cultures influence rates of smoking and the health promotion role of psychiatric nurses. This paper reports the findings of a classical grounded theory study conducted to understand how contextual factors in the workplace influences the smoking behaviors of Jordanian psychiatric nurses (JPNs). Method. Semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with a sample of eight male JPNs smokers at a psychiatric facility in Amman, Jordan. Findings. Constant comparative analysis identified becoming a heavy smoker as a psychosocial process characterized by four sub-categories: normalization of smoking; living in ambiguity; experiencing workplace conflict; and, facing up to workplace stressors. Conclusion. Specific contextual workplace factors require targeted smoking cessation interventions if JPNs are to receive the help they need to reduce health risks associated with heavy smoking. PMID:23844286

  16. Grounded theory in medical laboratory science expert practice development.

    PubMed

    Leibach, Elizabeth Kenimer

    2011-01-01

    Grounded theory and methods related to expert practice development in medical laboratory science were described using data from a large national survey of medical laboratory scientists (MLS) overlaid on findings from analysis of expert practice domains reported in nursing literature. An extensive focus group/expert review iterative process followed by a survey of MLS practitioners produced 25 critical thinking (CT) behaviors important in expert practice. Factor analysis was applied to discern common threads or themes linking the CT behaviors. The 25 important CT behaviors were reduced to a 7-factor structure representing constructs underlying the individual, observable CT behaviors. This 7-factor structure in MLS was compared to the 7 practice domains identified in expert nursing practice. The comparison yielded commonality between MLS and nursing in CT behaviors observed in the 7 expert practice domains of both professions: professional techniques, caring communication, growing professionally, setting priorities, practicing with judgment, anticipating/revising, and creating unique meaning. Emergent grounded theory is that (1) critical thinking is a metaprocess that facilitates learning by interlinking the more basic processes associated with different learning orientations: cognitivist, behaviorist, humanist (affective), and situated/contextual learning, (2) CT behaviors are observable events following from the CT metaprocess, and (3) observations of CT behaviors increase as practice advances from novice to expert. Identification and definition of CT behaviors, i.e., practice competencies, along the continuum of novice to expert can serve as the foundation for MLS curriculum and instructional design as well as measurement and evaluation in both formal and continuing education settings.

  17. Grounded Theory as a "Family of Methods": A Genealogical Analysis to Guide Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Babchuk, Wayne A.

    2011-01-01

    This study traces the evolution of grounded theory from a nuclear to an extended family of methods and considers the implications that decision-making based on informed choices throughout all phases of the research process has for realizing the potential of grounded theory for advancing adult education theory and practice. [This paper was…

  18. 'Veiling sexualities': a grounded theory of mental health nurses responses to issues of sexuality.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Agnes; Barker, Phil; Begley, Cecily M

    2008-05-01

    This paper is a report of a study to develop a grounded theory explaining how mental health nurses respond to issues of sexuality in clinical practice. The history of sexuality and people with mental health problems has largely been a history shrouded in misunderstanding, stigma, myth and negativity. However, individuals with mental health problems may experience sexuality and relationship difficulties related to their life experiences, mental illness, or its treatment. Grounded theory was the methodology used for the study. Interviews were conducted in 2005-2006 with 27 mental health nurses working an urban area in the Republic of Ireland. Data were analysed using the concurrent processes of constant comparative analysis, data collection, theoretical sampling and memo writing. The core category to emerge from the data was 'veiling sexualities'. This refers to participants' accounts of how they responded to the sexuality dimension of clients' lives. Participants' main concerns about sexuality were related to feelings of personal and professional vulnerability, due to a lack of competence, comfort and confidence in this area. The theory highlights the manner in which nurses perpetuate practices that marginalize, discriminate and socially exclude clients as 'sexual citizens'. The theory of Veiled Sexualities may facilitate acknowledgement of the presence of sexuality in all nurse-client encounters, and promote a discourse on the sexual rights of people experiencing mental distress among mental health nurses and all involved in the delivery of mental health services.

  19. Interfacial adhesion - Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Banerjea, Amitava; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Finley, Clarence W.

    1988-01-01

    Adhesion, the binding of different materials at an interface, is of general interest to many branches of technology, e.g., microelectronics, tribology, manufacturing, construction, etc. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of such diverse interfaces. In addition, experimental techniques generally have practical objectives, such as the achievement of sufficient strength to sustain mechanical or thermal effects and/or have the proper electronic properties. In addition, the theoretical description of binding at interfaces is quite limited, and a proper data base for such theoretical analysis does not exist. This presentation will review both experimental and theoretical aspects of adhesion in nonpolymer materials. The objective will be to delineate the critical parameters needed, governing adhesion testing along with an outline of testing objectives. A distinction will be made between practical and fundamental objectives. Examples are given where interfacial bonding may govern experimental consideration. The present status of theory is presented along with recommendations for future progress and needs.

  20. Interfacial adhesion: Theory and experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrante, John; Bozzolo, Guillermo H.; Finley, Clarence W.; Banerjea, Amitava

    1988-01-01

    Adhesion, the binding of different materials at an interface, is of general interest to many branches of technology, e.g., microelectronics, tribology, manufacturing, construction, etc. However, there is a lack of fundamental understanding of such diverse interfaces. In addition, experimental techniques generally have practical objectives, such as the achievement of sufficient strength to sustain mechanical or thermal effects and/or have the proper electronic properties. In addition, the theoretical description of binding at interfaces is quite limited, and a proper data base for such theoretical analysis does not exist. This presentation will review both experimental and theoretical aspects of adhesion in nonpolymer materials. The objective will be to delineate the critical parameters needed, governing adhesion testing along with an outline of testing objectives. A distinction will be made between practical and fundamental objectives. Examples are given where interfacial bonding may govern experimental consideration. The present status of theory is presented along wiith recommendations for future progress and needs.

  1. Virtual Reference Interferometry: Theory & Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galle, Michael Anthony

    This thesis introduces the idea that a simulated interferogram can be used as a reference for an interferometer. This new concept represents a paradigm shift from the conventional thinking, where a reference is the phase of a wavefront that traverses a known path. The simulated interferogram used as a reference is called a virtual reference. This thesis develops the theory of virtual reference interferometry and uses it for the characterization of chromatic dispersion in short length (<1m) fibers and optical components. Characterization of chromatic dispersion on short length fiber and optical components is a very difficult challenge. Accurate measurement of first and second order dispersion is important for applications from optical component design to nonlinear photonics, sensing and communications. Techniques for short-length dispersion characterization are therefore critical to the development of many photonic systems. The current generation of short-length dispersion measurement techniques are either easy to operate but lack sufficient accuracy, or have sufficient accuracy but are difficult to operate. The use of a virtual reference combines the advantages of these techniques so that it is both accurate and easy to operate. Chromatic dispersion measurements based on virtual reference interferometry have similar accuracy as the best conventional measurement techniques due to the ability to measure first and second order dispersion directly from the interference pattern. Unique capabilities of virtual reference interferometry are demonstrated, followed by a derivation of the operational constraints and system parameters. The technique is also applied to the characterization of few-mode fibers, a hot topic in telecommunications research where mode division multiplexing promises to expand network bandwidth. Also introduced is the theory of dispersive virtual reference interferometry, which can be used to overcome the bandwidth limitations associated with the

  2. Spacelab operations planning. [ground handling, launch, flight and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    The paper reviews NASA planning in the fields of ground, launch and flight operations and experiment integration to effectively operate Spacelab. Payload mission planning is discussed taking consideration of orbital analysis and the mission of a multiuser payload which may be either single or multidiscipline. Payload analytical integration - as active process of analyses to ensure that the experiment payload is compatible to the mission objectives and profile ground and flight operations and that the resource demands upon Spacelab can be satisfied - is considered. Software integration is touched upon and the major integration levels in ground operational processing of Spacelab and its experimental payloads are examined. Flight operations, encompassing the operation of the Space Transportation System and the payload, are discussed as are the initial Spacelab missions. Charts and diagrams are presented illustrating the various planning areas.

  3. Building bridges to observational perspectives: a grounded theory of therapy processes in psychosis.

    PubMed

    Dilks, Sarah; Tasker, Fiona; Wren, Bernadette

    2008-06-01

    This study set out to explore therapy processes in psychosis with an initial focus on reflexivity and how this might be expressed in therapy conversations. Leiman's (2000) definition of reflexivity was used as a starting-point for an exploratory investigation of the use of language as reflective activity. Grounded theory was chosen as an appropriate methodology to distil an explanatory account across the qualitative data collected. Six psychologist-client pairs supplied three tapes of therapy sessions spread out across the course of therapy. Each participant was separately interviewed on two occasions to ascertain their views of therapy and of the emerging grounded theory. A grounded theory was developed conceptualizing the processes and activities in psychological therapy in psychosis. Building bridges to observational perspectives summarizes the core process in psychological therapy in psychosis. Therapy in psychosis is understood as intimately linking the social and internal world in a dialogical process aimed at enhancing the client's functioning in the social world rather than at specifically developing the private mental experience of reflexivity or mentalizing.

  4. A ground-based experiment for CMBR anisotropy observations: MITO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Petris, M.; Mainella, G.; Nerozzi, A.; de Bernardis, P.; Garavini, G.; Granata, S.; Guarini, G.; Masi, S.; Melchiorri, B.; Melchiorri, F.; Nobili, S.; Orlando, A.; Palummo, L.; Pisano, G.; Terracina, A.

    1999-07-01

    Ground-based observations at millimeter wavelengths are still competitive with space observatories if inevitable foreground contamination is considered at all stages of data acquisition and analysis. Technical solutions together with carefully chosen cosmological targets and observational strategies are the key points in the development of the MITO experiment.

  5. FOOT experiment (Foot/Ground Reaction Forces during Space Flight)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-06-29

    ISS011-E-09825 (29 June 2005) --- Astronaut John L. Phillips, Expedition 11 NASA Space Station science officer and flight engineer, enters data into a computer while participating in the Foot/Ground Reaction Forces During Spaceflight (FOOT) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. Phillips wore the specially instrumented Lower Extremity Monitoring Suit (LEMS), cycling tights outfitted with sensors, during the experiment.

  6. FOOT experiment (Foot/Ground Reaction Forces during Space Flight)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-06-29

    ISS011-E-09822 (29 June 2005) --- Astronaut John L. Phillips, Expedition 11 NASA Space Station science officer and flight engineer, uses the Cycle Ergometer with Vibration Isolation System (CEVIS) while participating in the Foot/Ground Reaction Forces During Spaceflight (FOOT) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. Phillips wore the specially instrumented Lower Extremity Monitoring Suit (LEMS), cycling tights outfitted with sensors, during the experiment.

  7. FOOT experiment (Foot/Ground Reaction Forces during Space Flight)

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-06-29

    ISS011-E-09831 (29 June 2005) --- Astronaut John L. Phillips, Expedition 11 NASA Space Station science officer and flight engineer, works at the Canadarm2 controls while participating in the Foot/Ground Reaction Forces During Spaceflight (FOOT) experiment in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station. Phillips wore the specially instrumented Lower Extremity Monitoring Suit (LEMS), cycling tights outfitted with sensors, during the experiment.

  8. Reflecting on the challenges of choosing and using a grounded theory approach.

    PubMed

    Markey, Kathleen; Tilki, Mary; Taylor, Georgina

    2014-11-01

    To explore three different approaches to grounded theory and consider some of the possible philosophical assumptions underpinning them. Grounded theory is a comprehensive yet complex methodology that offers a procedural structure that guides the researcher. However, divergent approaches to grounded theory present dilemmas for novice researchers seeking to choose a suitable research method. This is a methodology paper. This is a reflexive paper that explores some of the challenges experienced by a PhD student when choosing and operationalising a grounded theory approach. Before embarking on a study, novice grounded theory researchers should examine their research beliefs to assist them in selecting the most suitable approach. This requires an insight into the approaches' philosophical assumptions, such as those pertaining to ontology and epistemology. Researchers need to be clear about the philosophical assumptions underpinning their studies and the effects that different approaches will have on the research results. This paper presents a personal account of the journey of a novice grounded theory researcher who chose a grounded theory approach and worked within its theoretical parameters. Novice grounded theory researchers need to understand the different philosophical assumptions that influence the various grounded theory approaches, before choosing one particular approach.

  9. Inertial fusion experiments and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mima, Kunioki; Tikhonchuk, V.; Perlado, M.

    2011-09-01

    Inertial fusion research is approaching a critical milestone, namely the demonstration of ignition and burn. The world's largest high-power laser, the National Ignition Facility (NIF), is under operation at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), in the USA. Another ignition machine, Laser Mega Joule (LMJ), is under construction at the CEA/CESTA research centre in France. In relation to the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) at LLNL, worldwide studies on inertial fusion applications to energy production are growing. Advanced ignition schemes such as fast ignition, shock ignition and impact ignition, and the inertial fusion energy (IFE) technology are under development. In particular, the Fast Ignition Realization Experiment (FIREX) at the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University, and the OMEGA-EP project at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE), University Rochester, and the HiPER project in the European Union (EU) for fast ignition and shock ignition are progressing. The IFE technology research and development are advanced in the frameworks of the HiPER project in EU and the LIFE project in the USA. Laser technology developments in the USA, EU, Japan and Korea were major highlights in the IAEA FEC 2010. In this paper, the status and prospects of IFE science and technology are described.

  10. Dynamic test results for the CASES ground experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bukley, Angelia P.; Patterson, Alan F.; Jones, Victoria L.

    1993-01-01

    The Controls, Astrophysics, and Structures Experiment in Space (CASES) Ground Test Facility (GTF) has been developed at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to provide a facility for the investigation of Controls/Structures Interaction (CSI) phenomena, to support ground testing of a potential shuttle-based CASES flight experiment, and to perform limited boom deployment and retraction dynamics studies. The primary objectives of the ground experiment are to investigate CSI on a test article representative of a Large Space Structure (LSS); provide a platform for Guest Investigators (GI's) to conduct CSI studies; to test and evaluate LSS control methodologies, system identification (ID) techniques, failure mode analysis; and to compare ground test predictions and flight results. The proposed CASES flight experiment consists of a 32 meter deployable/retractable boom at the end of which is an occulting plate. The control objective of the experiment is to maintain alignment of the tip plate (occulter) with a detector located at the base of the boom in the orbiter bay. The tip plate is pointed towards a star, the sun, or the galactic center to collect high-energy X-rays emitted by these sources. The tip plate, boom, and detector comprise a Fourier telescope. The occulting holes in the tip plate are approximately one millimeter in diameter making the alignment requirements quite stringent. Control authority is provided by bidirectional linear thrusters located at the boom tip and Angular Momentum Exchange Devices (AMED's) located at mid-boom and at the tip. The experiment embodies a number of CSI control problems including vibration suppression, pointing a long flexible structure, and disturbance rejection. The CASES GTF is representative of the proposed flight experiment with identical control objectives.

  11. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was “what is going on in the field of dying today?” What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Methods Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Results Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient’s death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on “gut feelings” - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia

  12. De-tabooing dying control - a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Thulesius, Hans O; Scott, Helen; Helgesson, Gert; Lynöe, Niels

    2013-03-13

    Dying is inescapable yet remains a neglected issue in modern health care. The research question in this study was "what is going on in the field of dying today?" What emerged was to eventually present a grounded theory of control of dying focusing specifically on how people react in relation to issues about euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS). Classic grounded theory was used to analyze interviews with 55 laypersons and health care professionals in North America and Europe, surveys on attitudes to PAS among physicians and the Swedish general public, and scientific literature, North American discussion forum websites, and news sites. Open awareness of the nature and timing of a patient's death became common in health care during the 1960s in the Western world. Open dying awareness contexts can be seen as the start of a weakening of a taboo towards controlled dying called de-tabooing. The growth of the hospice movement and palliative care, but also the legalization of euthanasia and PAS in the Benelux countries, and PAS in Montana, Oregon and Washington further represents de-tabooing dying control. An attitude positioning between the taboo of dying control and a growing taboo against questioning patient autonomy and self-determination called de-paternalizing is another aspect of de-tabooing. When confronted with a taboo, people first react emotionally based on "gut feelings" - emotional positioning. This is followed by reasoning and label wrestling using euphemisms and dysphemisms - reflective positioning. Rarely is de-tabooing unconditional but enabled by stipulated positioning as in soft laws (palliative care guidelines) and hard laws (euthanasia/PAS legislation). From a global perspective three shapes of dying control emerge. First, suboptimal palliative care in closed awareness contexts seen in Asian, Islamic and Latin cultures, called closed dying. Second, palliative care and sedation therapy, but not euthanasia or PAS, is seen in Europe and North

  13. Decision-making processes for the self-management of persistent pain: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Fenwick, Clare; Chaboyer, Wendy; St John, Winsome

    2012-08-01

    Persistent pain negatively impacts upon the individual suffering this condition. Almost all care related to persistent pain is self-managed. Decision-making is a critical skill of the self-manager and without these skills it would be improbable that effective self-management would emerge. However, current theories regarding decision-making and self-management have not adequately accounted for the many difficulties faced by individuals enduring persistent pain and the consequences of these experiences for the decision-maker. This grounded theory study revealed that individuals will transform into three distinct types of decision-makers using three different styles of decision-making in response to the many and varied problems related to the experience of persistent pain. These findings will provide nurses with valuable information to better equip individuals with persistent pain through the decision-making processes necessary for successful self-management.

  14. Solar Constant (SOLCON) Experiment: Ground Support Equipment (GSE) software development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, M. Alan; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert

    1991-01-01

    The Solar Constant (SOLCON) Experiment, the objective of which is to determine the solar constant value and its variability, is scheduled for launch as part of the Space Shuttle/Atmospheric Laboratory for Application and Science (ATLAS) spacelab mission. The Ground Support Equipment (GSE) software was developed to monitor and analyze the SOLCON telemetry data during flight and to test the instrument on the ground. The design and development of the GSE software are discussed. The SOLCON instrument was tested during Davos International Solar Intercomparison, 1989 and the SOLCON data collected during the tests are analyzed to study the behavior of the instrument.

  15. Nucleation of nitrogen: experiment and theory

    SciTech Connect

    Wegener, P.P.

    1987-05-07

    Experimental results on the condensation of pure nitrogen in the supersaturated state are collected. New experiments on pure N2 and N2 in He are added. A comparison of experiment and the classical theory of nucleation using the liquid drop approach and recent work by Pal and Hoare computing energies of formation of microclusters of Lennard-Jones N2 is made. The new results give satisfactory agreement with experiment in their range of applicability.

  16. A Grounded Theory of Sexual Minority Women and Transgender Individuals' Social Justice Activism.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Whitney B; Hoover, Stephanie M; Morrow, Susan L

    2017-08-21

    Psychosocial benefits of activism include increased empowerment, social connectedness, and resilience. Yet sexual minority women (SMW) and transgender individuals with multiple oppressed statuses and identities are especially prone to oppression-based experiences, even within minority activist communities. This study sought to develop an empirical model to explain the diverse meanings of social justice activism situated in SMW and transgender individuals' social identities, values, and experiences of oppression and privilege. Using a grounded theory design, 20 SMW and transgender individuals participated in initial, follow-up, and feedback interviews. The most frequent demographic identities were queer or bisexual, White, middle-class women with advanced degrees. The results indicated that social justice activism was intensely relational, replete with multiple benefits, yet rife with experiences of oppression from within and outside of activist communities. The empirically derived model shows the complexity of SMW and transgender individuals' experiences, meanings, and benefits of social justice activism.

  17. Women's journey of recovery from sexual assault trauma: a grounded theory--part 1.

    PubMed

    Duma, S E; Mekwa, J N; Denny, L D

    2007-12-01

    Thousands of women and children experience sexual assault trauma annually in South Africa. The challenge posed by recovery from sexual assault trauma is a reality that confronts the survivors of sexual assault, their families and the larger community of service providers. Yet, little research has been conducted on recovery from sexual assault as a phenomenon. The purpose of the study was to explore and analyse the journey of recovery which is undertaken by women who have been sexually assaulted, with the aim of discovering and developing the grounded theory of recovery from sexual assault trauma within the first six months following the event of rape. The main research question was: What constitutes the journey of recovery undertaken by women within the first six months following sexual assault? A longitudinal qualitative study was conducted using the principles of grounded theory methodology as proposed by Strauss and Corbin (1990, 1998). A series of in-depth one-to-one interviews were conducted with a sample of ten women. The participants were selected through open, purposive and theoretical sampling procedures. The study was conducted over a period of six months following the event of sexual assault. The substantive theory was discovered and constructed through the inductive and deductive analysis of data, grounded on the ten women's descriptions of their journey of recovery from sexual assault. The theory of women's journey of recovery that was discovered and developed consisted of eight theoretical concepts or categories. These included the following concepts: 1. Sexual assault trauma 2. Awakening 3. Pragmatic acceptance 4. Turning point 5. Reclaiming what was lost 6. Defining own landmarks of healing 7. Readiness for closure 8. Returning to self. The grounded theory of the journey of recovery from sexual assault is a contribution to the knowledge about women's journey of recovery from sexual assault. It provides a process and language for understanding women

  18. Academic learning for specialist nurses: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Millberg, Lena German; Berg, Linda; Brämberg, Elisabeth Björk; Nordström, Gun; Ohlén, Joakim

    2014-11-01

    The aim was to explore the major concerns of specialist nurses pertaining to academic learning during their education and initial professional career. Specialist nursing education changed in tandem with the European educational reform in 2007. At the same time, greater demands were made on the healthcare services to provide evidence-based and safe patient-care. These changes have influenced specialist nursing programmes and consequently the profession. Grounded Theory guided the study. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire with open-ended questions distributed at the end of specialist nursing programmes in 2009 and 2010. Five universities were included. Further, individual, pair and group interviews were used to collect data from 12 specialist nurses, 5-14 months after graduation. A major concern for specialist nurses was that academic learning should be "meaningful" for their professional future. The specialist nurses' "meaningful academic learning process" was characterised by an ambivalence of partly believing in and partly being hesitant about the significance of academic learning and partly receiving but also lacking support. Specialist nurses were influenced by factors in two areas: curriculum and healthcare context. They felt that the outcome of contribution to professional confidence was critical in making academic learning meaningful.

  19. Gambler Risk Perception: A Mental Model and Grounded Theory Analysis.

    PubMed

    Spurrier, Michael; Blaszczynski, Alexander; Rhodes, Paul

    2015-09-01

    Few studies have investigated how gamblers perceive risk or the role of risk perception in disordered gambling. The purpose of the current study therefore was to obtain data on lay gamblers' beliefs on these variables and their effects on decision-making, behaviour, and disordered gambling aetiology. Fifteen regular lay gamblers (non-problem/low risk, moderate risk and problem gamblers) completed a semi-structured interview following mental models and grounded theory methodologies. Gambler interview data was compared to an expert 'map' of risk-perception, to identify comparative gaps or differences associated with harmful or safe gambling. Systematic overlapping processes of data gathering and analysis were used to iteratively extend, saturate, test for exception, and verify concepts and themes emerging from the data. The preliminary findings suggested that gambler accounts supported the presence of expert conceptual constructs, and to some degree the role of risk perception in protecting against or increasing vulnerability to harm and disordered gambling. Gambler accounts of causality, meaning, motivation, and strategy were highly idiosyncratic, and often contained content inconsistent with measures of disordered gambling. Disordered gambling appears heavily influenced by relative underestimation of risk and overvaluation of gambling, based on explicit and implicit analysis, and deliberate, innate, contextual, and learned processing evaluations and biases.

  20. The importance of 'approaching' older people: a grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, Lise-Lotte; Berterö, Carina

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and describe the ethical values in caring encounters as experienced by older patients in their daily interaction with nurses in wards for older people. Ethical values and morals are important aspects that influence the quality of care. Empirical observational study including follow-up interviews. Twenty-two older patients participated voluntarily in this study. Constant comparative analysis, the core foundation of grounded theory was used. Five categories: being addressed, receiving respect, desiring to participate, increasing self-determination and gaining self-confidence formed the bases for the core category. APPROACHING: Approaching concerns how people become closer to each other in a physical space. It also includes how people become closer to each other in a dialogue, involving verbal or bodily communication. Approaching indicates the ethical values that guide nurses in their caring encounters with older patients. These values are noted by the patient and have an individual value as well as leading to improved quality of their care. The older patient will be confident and satisfied with the caring encounter if the desired components in the nurse's approaching are exhibited. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Evolving Grounded Theory Methodology: towards a discursive approach.

    PubMed

    McCreaddie, May; Payne, Sheila

    2010-06-01

    Grounded Theory Methodology (GTM) is a widely cited research approach based upon symbolic interaction with a focus on interaction, action and processes. Relatively recently, Discursive Psychology; a language-based interaction research approach also based on symbolic interaction, emerged. At present Discursive Psychology is principally cited in the social sciences literature. Given Discursive Psychology's symbolic interaction foundations, what relevance does this approach have for evolving GTM? A number of methodological challenges were posed by a study looking at humour in Clinical Nurse Specialist-patient interactions. This paper will use the phenomenon of spontaneous humour in healthcare interactions to illustrate the potential for a new form of GTM drawing on discursive approaches; Discursive GTM. First, the challenges presented by a study looking at spontaneous humour in Clinical Nurse Specialist-patient interactions are presented. Second, the research approach adopted to meet these challenges - Discursive GTM (DGTM) - is explicated and the results of the study are outlined. Third, the different GTM approaches and Discursive Psychology are compared and contrasted in relation to the DGTM approach adopted. Finally, the challenges and tensions of using DGTM as well as the opportunities afforded by the use of naturally occurring data are reviewed. The authors contend that a DGTM approach may be appropriate in analyzing certain phenomena. In particular, we highlight the potential contribution of naturally occurring data as an adjunct to researcher-elicited data. Thus, when exploring particular phenomena, a DGTM approach may address the potentially under-developed symbolic interaction tenet of language.

  2. Becoming empowered: a grounded theory study of Aboriginal women's agency.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Roxanne

    2011-07-01

    The study aim was to identify the process underlying the performance of agency for urban-dwelling Aboriginal women in contemporary Australian society with a view to promoting social change for Aboriginal people. Grounded theory methods were used in the conduct of 20 life history narrative interviews with Aboriginal women from across fourteen different language groups. Analysis identified a specific ecological model of Aboriginal women's empowerment, defined as "becoming empowered". "Performing Aboriginality" was identified as the core category and encompassed the women's concern for carving out a fulfilling life and carrying out their perceived responsibilities as Aboriginal women. While confirming much of the extant literature on empowerment, the analysis also offered unique contributions--a spiritual sensibility, cultural competence and an ethics of care and morality. This sheds new light on the creative ways in which Aboriginal women "disrupt" discourses and create alternate modes of existence. The findings have implications for improving quality of life for Aboriginal people by informing the practical development and delivery of social and health policies and programs.

  3. A Grounded Theory Study of the Re-Entry Process of Teen Parents' Return to School after Dropping Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Brenda L.

    2013-01-01

    Without the rich stories of the experiences of teen parents who drop out of school and then re-enter, we do not have a total picture of the dropout phenomenon and how best to address the issues for this marginalized group. Using the research strategies of Charmaz' social constructivist grounded theory, Melton has gathered detailed stories about…

  4. The Study of Electronic Medical Record Adoption in a Medicare Certified Home Health Agency Using a Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Joy L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to examine the experiences of clinicians in the adoption of Electronic Medical Records in a Medicare certified Home Health Agency. An additional goal for this study was to triangulate qualitative research between describing, explaining, and exploring technology acceptance. The experiences…

  5. The Study of Electronic Medical Record Adoption in a Medicare Certified Home Health Agency Using a Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Joy L.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory study was to examine the experiences of clinicians in the adoption of Electronic Medical Records in a Medicare certified Home Health Agency. An additional goal for this study was to triangulate qualitative research between describing, explaining, and exploring technology acceptance. The experiences…

  6. A Grounded Theory Study of the Re-Entry Process of Teen Parents' Return to School after Dropping Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melton, Brenda L.

    2013-01-01

    Without the rich stories of the experiences of teen parents who drop out of school and then re-enter, we do not have a total picture of the dropout phenomenon and how best to address the issues for this marginalized group. Using the research strategies of Charmaz' social constructivist grounded theory, Melton has gathered detailed stories about…

  7. Underlying Consumer-Valuing Structures of Baby Boomers as Older Adults in Community Colleges: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palazesi, Louis Mark; Bower, Beverly L.; Schwartz, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a grounded theory that fills in gaps in the higher education literature on the concept of educational consumer value and perceptions that support consumer value. Specifically, this study focuses on the learning experiences of Baby Boomers (40-60 year old adults) as older adult students attending community…

  8. Underlying Consumer-Valuing Structures of Baby Boomers as Older Adults in Community Colleges: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palazesi, Louis Mark; Bower, Beverly L.; Schwartz, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to present a grounded theory that fills in gaps in the higher education literature on the concept of educational consumer value and perceptions that support consumer value. Specifically, this study focuses on the learning experiences of Baby Boomers (40-60 year old adults) as older adult students attending community…

  9. Theory and experiment in gravitational physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    New technological advances have made it feasible to conduct measurements with precision levels which are suitable for experimental tests of the theory of general relativity. This book has been designed to fill a new need for a complete treatment of techniques for analyzing gravitation theory and experience. The Einstein equivalence principle and the foundations of gravitation theory are considered, taking into account the Dicke framework, basic criteria for the viability of a gravitation theory, experimental tests of the Einstein equivalence principle, Schiff's conjecture, and a model theory devised by Lightman and Lee (1973). Gravitation as a geometric phenomenon is considered along with the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism, the classical tests, tests of the strong equivalence principle, gravitational radiation as a tool for testing relativistic gravity, the binary pulsar, and cosmological tests.

  10. Theory and experiment in gravitational physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Will, C. M.

    1981-01-01

    New technological advances have made it feasible to conduct measurements with precision levels which are suitable for experimental tests of the theory of general relativity. This book has been designed to fill a new need for a complete treatment of techniques for analyzing gravitation theory and experience. The Einstein equivalence principle and the foundations of gravitation theory are considered, taking into account the Dicke framework, basic criteria for the viability of a gravitation theory, experimental tests of the Einstein equivalence principle, Schiff's conjecture, and a model theory devised by Lightman and Lee (1973). Gravitation as a geometric phenomenon is considered along with the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism, the classical tests, tests of the strong equivalence principle, gravitational radiation as a tool for testing relativistic gravity, the binary pulsar, and cosmological tests.

  11. Exploring Attitude Transformation: A Grounded Theory Study of Romanian Teachers of Roma Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Laura Estella

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic grounded theory study was to explore the process of change in teacher attitudes toward including Roma ("Gypsy") students in non-segregated schools in Romania. The theories guiding this study included Mezirow's (1991, 2000) theory of transformation, Gay's (2002, 2013) theory of culturally responsive…

  12. Understanding the Conceptual Development Phase of Applied Theory-Building Research: A Grounded Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storberg-Walker, Julia

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a provisional grounded theory of conceptual development for applied theory-building research. The theory described here extends the understanding of the components of conceptual development and provides generalized relations among the components. The conceptual development phase of theory-building research has been widely…

  13. Exploring Attitude Transformation: A Grounded Theory Study of Romanian Teachers of Roma Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Laura Estella

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this systematic grounded theory study was to explore the process of change in teacher attitudes toward including Roma ("Gypsy") students in non-segregated schools in Romania. The theories guiding this study included Mezirow's (1991, 2000) theory of transformation, Gay's (2002, 2013) theory of culturally responsive…

  14. Knowledge, Identity, & Professionalism: A Grounded Theory Analysis of How Urban Career Teachers Navigate Their Professional Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodeur, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    This grounded theory study highlights the words of urban career teachers who participated on a wikispace (wiki). The purpose of the investigation was to offer urban career teachers a space, outside of their daily work, in which to recognize and understand their professionalism. The grounded theory content analysis is carried out by way of a study…

  15. A Novel Method of Enhancing Grounded Theory Memos with Voice Recording

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Rachel; Close, Helen

    2013-01-01

    In this article the authors present the recent discovery of a novel method of supplementing written grounded theory memos with voice recording, the combination of which may provide significant analytical advantages over solely the traditional written method. Memo writing is an essential component of a grounded theory study, however it is often…

  16. Grounded Theory: Managing the Challenge for Those Facing Institutional Review Board Oversight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Mary Katherine; Netting, F. Ellen; Thomas, M. Lori

    2008-01-01

    The authors examine one of the earliest systematic forms of qualitative inquiry to identify some of the boundaries needed in grounded theory designs to provide a small corner of clarity in the discourse about what is acceptable science from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) perspective. Beginning with an overview of grounded theory research as…

  17. Knowledge, Identity, & Professionalism: A Grounded Theory Analysis of How Urban Career Teachers Navigate Their Professional Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodeur, Lori J.

    2013-01-01

    This grounded theory study highlights the words of urban career teachers who participated on a wikispace (wiki). The purpose of the investigation was to offer urban career teachers a space, outside of their daily work, in which to recognize and understand their professionalism. The grounded theory content analysis is carried out by way of a study…

  18. A connectionist theory of phenomenal experience.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, G; Opie, J

    1999-02-01

    When cognitive scientists apply computational theory to the problem of phenomenal consciousness, as many have been doing recently, there are two fundamentally distinct approaches available. Consciousness is to be explained either in terms of the nature of the representational vehicles the brain deploys or in terms of the computational processes defined over these vehicles. We call versions of these two approaches vehicle and process theories of consciousness, respectively. However, although there may be space for vehicle theories of consciousness in cognitive science, they are relatively rare. This is because of the influence exerted, on the one hand, by a large body of research that purports to show that the explicit representation of information in the brain and conscious experience are dissociable, and on the other, by the classical computational theory of mind--the theory that takes human cognition to be a species of symbol manipulation. Two recent developments in cognitive science combine to suggest that a reappraisal of this situation is in order. First, a number of theorists have recently been highly critical of the experimental methodologies used in the dissociation studies--so critical, in fact, that it is no longer reasonable to assume that the dissociability of conscious experience and explicit representation has been adequately demonstrated. Second, classicism, as a theory of human cognition, is no longer as dominant in cognitive science as it once was. It now has a lively competitor in the form of connectionism; and connectionism, unlike classicism, does have the computational resources to support a robust vehicle theory of consciousness. In this target article we develop and defend this connectionist vehicle theory of consciousness. It takes the form of the following simple empirical hypothesis: phenomenal experience consists of the explicit representation of information in neurally realized parallel distributed processing (PDP) networks. This

  19. Integrating theory and experiment in lecture using desktop experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Bruce A.; Chabay, Ruth W.

    1997-03-01

    "Desktop" experiments involve simple equipment that can be used by students in regular classrooms or at home. The 24-hour-a-day availability of the equipment makes it possible to integrate experiments much more tightly with other components of the course than is often the case in courses involving lectures plus a loosely-associated lab. In a calculus-based course on electricity and magnetism, students use a kit of simple equipment that makes possible critical experiments on electrostatics, circuits, and magnetism, during lecture, recitation, or at home. The students use a textbook that has the style of a workbook and that thoroughly integrates theory and experiment. The desktop experiments acquaint the student with otherwise unfamiliar phenomena and help in motivating and understanding the theory.

  20. Health effects of digital textbooks on school-age children: a grounded theory approach.

    PubMed

    Seomun, Gyeongae; Lee, Jung-Ah; Kim, Eun-Young; Im, Meeyoung; Kim, Miran; Park, Sun-A; Lee, Youngjin

    2013-10-01

    This qualitative study used the grounded theory approach to analyze digital textbook-related health experiences of school-age children. In-depth interviews were held with 40 elementary school students who had used digital textbooks for at least a year. Data analysis revealed a total of 56 concepts, 20 subcategories, and 11 categories related to digital textbook health issues, the central phenomena being "health-related experiences." Students' health-related experiences were classified into "physical" and "psychological" symptoms. Adverse health effects related to digital textbook usage were addressed via both "student-led" and "instructor-led" coping strategies. Students' coping strategies were often inefficient, but instructor-led strategies seemed to prevent health problems. When health issues were well managed, students tended to accept digital textbooks as educational tools. Our findings suggest that students can form healthy computer habits if digital textbook usage is directed in a positive manner.

  1. Space Shuttle Boundary Layer Transition Flight Experiment Ground Testing Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berger, Karen T.; Anderson, Brian P.; Campbell, Charles H.

    2014-01-01

    In support of the Boundary Layer Transition (BLT) Flight Experiment (FE) Project in which a manufactured protuberance tile was installed on the port wing of Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery for STS-119, STS- 128, STS-131 and STS-133 as well as Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour for STS-134, a significant ground test campaign was completed. The primary goals of the test campaign were to provide ground test data to support the planning and safety certification efforts required to fly the flight experiment as well as validation for the collected flight data. These test included Arcjet testing of the tile protuberance, aerothermal testing to determine the boundary layer transition behavior and resultant surface heating and planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) testing in order to gain a better understanding of the flow field characteristics associated with the flight experiment. This paper provides an overview of the BLT FE Project ground testing. High-level overviews of the facilities, models, test techniques and data are presented, along with a summary of the insights gained from each test.

  2. Results of the June 1993 Yuma ground penetration experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mirkin, M.I.; Grosch, T.O.; Murphy, T.J.; Ayasli, S.; Hellsten, H.; Vickers, R.; Ralston, J.M.

    1994-12-31

    Recently, considerable interest has been expressed in the use of radar to detect underground targets both small (e.g., antipersonnel mines) and large (e.g., buried vehicles). Particular interest has been directed at airborne SAR for this purpose. Several important issues requiring study include the scattering signature of objects buried in soil media, the attenuation and scattering of radar energy in inhomogeneous soils, and the impact of clutter (and particularly the impact of surface clutter layover) on subsurface target detection and recognition. To address these issues, a radar ground penetration experiment was conducted in the desert near Yuma, AZ from June 4--15, 1993. In this experiment a number of large and small targets of various shapes were buried at depths up to 3 m, and data was collected using several air and ground-based radars using both real and synthetic aperture data processing. The variety of radars available covered the range from 20 to 1,500 MHz. The data collected was calibrated with sufficient accuracy to permit the measurement of in situ radar signatures, allowing the calculation of ground penetration losses. Data from this test have been analyzed to develop a phenomenological understanding of soil penetration losses and clutter backscattering, and to investigate the characteristic signatures of specific buried targets. These data are compared to laboratory soil measurements and modeling studies. This paper will describe the experiment, sensors, sample radar measurements and some of the results of the data analysis.

  3. Living with coeliac disease: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Rose, C; Howard, R

    2014-02-01

    Coeliac disease can be controlled only through adherence to a gluten-free diet. This diet is highly restrictive and can be challenging to maintain. It has been linked with elevated levels of psychological distress, including depression, anxiety and social phobia. Narratives on living with coeliac disease were written by 130 adult members of Coeliac UK (mean age 52.7 years; mean time since diagnosis 10.2 years; 67% sample female; 28% male). Qualitative analysis using grounded theory methods identified five key categories: living with widespread ignorance; social invisibility; creating a coeliac community; a changed identity; grief - and accepting the trade-off. A psychosocial model of living with coeliac disease was constructed from the findings, the central category of which was the changed identity of those diagnosed with the condition. Grief was experienced in relation to a loss of the former diet, changed personal and social identities, loss of social confidence and loss of social activities. Grief was generally mitigated over time as adjustments were made to changes in identity and lifestyle. Creating (or becoming part of) a coeliac community was a strategy enabling those with coeliac disease to re-establish their identities and increase social recognition and acceptance of the condition. Gluten-free living entails a substantial restriction of food choice. The losses and changes entailed impact on the personal and social identities of those living with coeliac disease, and on the behaviour of others towards them. Psychosocial interventions focussed on facilitating coping and adjustment may benefit those experiencing difficulties. © 2013 The Authors Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics © 2013 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  4. Sense of self and anorexia nervosa: A grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Williams, Karen; King, Jane; Fox, John R E

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the nature of the relationship between the self and the eating disorder in individuals with a lifetime history of anorexia nervosa (AN). A qualitative design was used, given the exploratory nature of the study and the need to gain rich and in-depth data regarding the topic under investigation. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 11 women with a lifetime history of AN. Interview transcripts were analysed using constructivist grounded theory methodology. A theoretical framework of the nature of the relationship between the self and AN was developed, which included five related categories: AN taking over the self, AN protecting the self, sharing the self with AN, being no one without AN, and discovering the real me (accepting the fear). Participants described a process of the self being taken over by AN to the point where it was shared with the eating disorder. This led participants to fear being no one without AN and to be unable to let go of the disorder, appreciating AN's ability to protect the self. To recover from AN, participants had to discover the real self, by accepting the fear of the unknown and separating the self from AN. The findings have important implications for the target of therapeutic interventions to improve recovery rates. The self is shared with the eating disorder in AN, and separating the self from AN is crucial to recover from the disorder. Therapeutic interventions for AN need to target the enmeshed relationship between the self and the eating disorder, as opposed to focusing exclusively on weight and shape concerns. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  5. Pathways, Networks, and Systems: Theory and Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph H. Nadeau; John D. Lambris

    2004-10-30

    The international conference provided a unique opportunity for theoreticians and experimenters to exchange ideas, strategies, problems, challenges, language and opportunities in both formal and informal settings. This dialog is an important step towards developing a deep and effective integration of theory and experiments in studies of systems biology in humans and model organisms.

  6. Finding a balance: a grounded theory study of spirituality in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Walton, Joni

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to discover what spirituality means to hemodialysis patients and how it influences their lives. Grounded theory qualitative research method was used to discover meaning, provide understanding, and create a beginning substantive theory of spirituality. Four men and 7 women, 36 to 78 years of age, receiving outpatient hemodialysis in the northwestern United States, volunteered to participate in this study. Demographic data were collected and indepth interviews were completed. The Glaserian method of grounded theory was used for data collection and analysis. The central core category of this study was finding a balance, which occurred in the following four phases: (a) confronting mortality, (b) reframing, (c) adjusting to dialysis, and (d) facing the challenge. Categories of spirituality were faith, presence, and receiving and giving back. Participants described spirituality as a life-giving force from within, full of awe, wonder, and solitude, that inspires one to strive for balance in life. Participants validated the description of spirituality, categories, and phases to assure that it captured their person experiences. A focus group of hemodialysis staff validated the results for clarity, understanding, and application to clinical practice. The results of this study provide a theoretical framework to guide nursing practice as well as an understanding of what spirituality means to hemodialysis patients and how it influences their lives.

  7. Ingredients and change processes in occupational therapy for children: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Armitage, Samantha; Swallow, Veronica; Kolehmainen, Niina

    2017-05-01

    There is limited evidence about the effectiveness of occupational therapy interventions for participation outcomes in children with coordination difficulties. Developing theory about the interventions, i.e. their ingredients and change processes, is the first step to advance the evidence base. To develop theory about the key ingredients of occupational therapy interventions for children with coordination difficulties and the processes through which change in participation might happen. Grounded theory methodology, as described by Kathy Charmaz, was used to develop the theory. Children and parents participated in semi-structured interviews to share their experiences of occupational therapy and processes of change. Data collection and analysis were completed concurrently using constant comparison methods. Five key ingredients of interventions were described: performing activities and tasks; achieving; carer support; helping and supporting the child; and labelling. Ingredients related to participation by changing children's mastery experience, increasing capability beliefs and sense of control. Parents' knowledge, skills, positive emotions, sense of empowerment and capability beliefs also related to children's participation. The results identify intervention ingredients and change pathways within occupational therapy to increase participation. It is unclear how explicitly and often therapists consider and make use of these ingredients and pathway.

  8. ESA's bidirectional space-to-ground laser communication experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romba, Jose; Sodnik, Zoran; Reyes, Marcos; Alonso, Angel; Bird, Aneurin

    2004-10-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has built an optical ground station (OGS) for commissioning and checkout of its laser communication payloads in orbit. The first such payload is the laser communication terminal (LCT) onboard ARTEMIS, ESA's latest data-relay and telecommunication satellite in geostationary orbit. ARTEMIS is now routinely relaying Earth observation data sent via a similar LCT from the low-earth orbiting satellite SPOT-4 to a ground station in Toulouse. This paper focuses on bidirectional space to ground laser communication experiments, which have been performed between the OGS and ARTEMIS. ESA's interest in laser communication is first briefly explained, then the design of the ground and space terminals is introduced, the pointing, acquisition and tracking strategies are explained and a summary of all laser links performed so far is given. Experimental uplink and downlink results are presented in terms of temporal irradiance behavior and link statistics. The uplink irradiance behavior is investigated with changing number of transmit beams. Finally, ESA's future activities and upgrades planned for the OGS are discussed.

  9. Investigation of the RbCa molecule: Experiment and theory

    PubMed Central

    Pototschnig, Johann V.; Krois, Günter; Lackner, Florian; Ernst, Wolfgang E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a thorough theoretical and experimental study of the electronic structure of RbCa. The mixed alkali–alkaline earth molecule RbCa was formed on superfluid helium nanodroplets. Excited states of the molecule in the range of 13 000–23 000 cm−1 were recorded by resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization time-of-flight spectroscopy. The experiment is accompanied by high level ab initio calculations of ground and excited state properties, utilizing a multireference configuration interaction method based on multiconfigurational self consistent field calculations. With this approach the potential energy curves and permanent electric dipole moments of 24 electronic states were calculated. In addition we computed the transition dipole moments for transitions from the ground into excited states. The combination of experiment and theory allowed the assignment of features in the recorded spectrum to the excited 32Σ+, 42Σ+, 32Π, 52Σ+, 42Π, 62Σ+, 62Π, and 72Π states, where the experiment allowed to benchmark the calculation. This is the first experimental work giving insight into the previously unknown RbCa molecule, which offers great prospects in ultracold molecular physics due to its magnetic and electronic dipole moment in the 2Σ+ ground state. PMID:25922550

  10. On the ground state of Yang-Mills theory

    SciTech Connect

    Bakry, Ahmed S.; Leinweber, Derek B.; Williams, Anthony G.

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > The ground state overlap for sets of meson potential trial states is measured. > Non-uniform gluonic distributions are probed via Wilson loop operator. > The locally UV-regulated flux-tube operators can optimize the ground state overlap. - Abstract: We investigate the overlap of the ground state meson potential with sets of mesonic-trial wave functions corresponding to different gluonic distributions. We probe the transverse structure of the flux tube through the creation of non-uniform smearing profiles for the string of glue connecting two color sources in Wilson loop operator. The non-uniformly UV-regulated flux-tube operators are found to optimize the overlap with the ground state and display interesting features in the ground state overlap.

  11. Taking Root: a grounded theory on evidence-based nursing implementation in China.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Broome, M E; Feng, S; Hu, Y

    2017-08-02

    Evidence-based nursing is widely recognized as the critical foundation for quality care. To develop a middle-range theory on the process of evidence-based nursing implementation in Chinese context. A grounded theory study using unstructured in-depth individual interviews was conducted with 56 participants who were involved in 24 evidence-based nursing implementation projects in Mainland China from September 2015 to September 2016. A middle-range grounded theory of 'Taking Root' was developed. The theory describes the evidence implementation process consisting of four components (driving forces, process, outcome, sustainment/regression), three approaches (top-down, bottom-up and outside-in), four implementation strategies (patient-centred, nurses at the heart of change, reaching agreement, collaboration) and two patterns (transformational and adaptive implementation). Certain perspectives may have not been captured, as the retrospective nature of the interviewing technique did not allow for 'real-time' assessment of the actual implementation process. The transferability of the findings requires further exploration as few participants with negative experiences were recruited. This is the first study that explored evidence-based implementation process, strategies, approaches and patterns in the Chinese nursing practice context to inform international nursing and health policymaking. The theory of Taking Root described various approaches to evidence implementation and how the implementation can be transformational for the nurses and the setting in which they work. Nursing educators, managers and researchers should work together to improve nurses' readiness for evidence implementation. Healthcare systems need to optimize internal mechanisms and external collaborations to promote nursing practice in line with evidence and achieve clinical outcomes and sustainability. © 2017 International Council of Nurses.

  12. ROS-based ground stereo vision detection: implementation and experiments.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tianjiang; Zhao, Boxin; Tang, Dengqing; Zhang, Daibing; Kong, Weiwei; Shen, Lincheng

    This article concentrates on open-source implementation on flying object detection in cluttered scenes. It is of significance for ground stereo-aided autonomous landing of unmanned aerial vehicles. The ground stereo vision guidance system is presented with details on system architecture and workflow. The Chan-Vese detection algorithm is further considered and implemented in the robot operating systems (ROS) environment. A data-driven interactive scheme is developed to collect datasets for parameter tuning and performance evaluating. The flying vehicle outdoor experiments capture the stereo sequential images dataset and record the simultaneous data from pan-and-tilt unit, onboard sensors and differential GPS. Experimental results by using the collected dataset validate the effectiveness of the published ROS-based detection algorithm.

  13. The ETscope Ground Array for the ULTRA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chauvin, J.; Fava, L.; Lebrun, L.; Teyssier, D.; Vallania, P.; Vigorito, C.; EUSO Collaboration

    2003-07-01

    The ETscope detector designed for the ULTRA experiment is a small array made of 7 particle detection stations. operating simultaneously with an optical telescope it ˇ detects the Extensive Air Showers in coincidence with the Cerenkov light, diffused by the impact on the ground. The main goal of the detector is the characterization of the impinging shower by the measurement of size and arrival direction. These informations, together with the UV light measurement and an accurate MC simulation, will allow the determination of the diffusing features of the ground. Since it must be placed on different surfaces including sea, it has been optimized as portable, floating and waterpro of detector. First test has been performed during October 2002 at Mont-Cenis in the Alps region, at the France-Italy border. Detector performances and preliminary results will be discussed here.

  14. Qualitative research in healthcare: an introduction to grounded theory using thematic analysis.

    PubMed

    Chapman, A L; Hadfield, M; Chapman, C J

    2015-01-01

    In today's NHS, qualitative research is increasingly important as a method of assessing and improving quality of care. Grounded theory has developed as an analytical approach to qualitative data over the last 40 years. It is primarily an inductive process whereby theoretical insights are generated from data, in contrast to deductive research where theoretical hypotheses are tested via data collection. Grounded theory has been one of the main contributors to the acceptance of qualitative methods in a wide range of applied social sciences. The influence of grounded theory as an approach is, in part, based on its provision of an explicit framework for analysis and theory generation. Furthermore the stress upon grounding research in the reality of participants has also given it credence in healthcare research. As with all analytical approaches, grounded theory has drawbacks and limitations. It is important to have an understanding of these in order to assess the applicability of this approach to healthcare research. In this review we outline the principles of grounded theory, and focus on thematic analysis as the analytical approach used most frequently in grounded theory studies, with the aim of providing clinicians with the skills to critically review studies using this methodology.

  15. Ground-Based Experiments on Vibrational Thermal Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatz, Michael F.; Rogers, Jeffrey L.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-based experiments on g-jitter effects in fluid flow provide insight that complements both theoretical studies and space-based experiments on this problem. We report preliminary results for experiments on Rayleigh-Benard convection subjected to time-dependent accelerations on a shaker table. For sinusoidal modulation, two qualitatively different pattern forming mechanisms come into play: geometry induced wavenumber selection (as in the standard "no-shake" Rayleigh-Benard problem) and dispersion induced wavenumber selection due to parametric instability (as in the Faraday surface-wave problem). We discuss preliminary results on the competition and co-existence of patterns due to these different instability mechanisms. We also discuss the implications of this work on the general question of pattern formation in the presence of noise.

  16. Telling and Not-Telling: A Classic Grounded Theory of Sharing Life-Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Trudy Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study of "Telling and Not-Telling" was conducted using the classic grounded theory methodology (Glaser 1978, 1992, 1998; Glaser & Strauss, 1967). This unique methodology systematically and inductively generates conceptual theories from data. The goal is to discover theory that explains, predicts, and provides practical…

  17. Telling and Not-Telling: A Classic Grounded Theory of Sharing Life-Stories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Trudy Lee

    2013-01-01

    This study of "Telling and Not-Telling" was conducted using the classic grounded theory methodology (Glaser 1978, 1992, 1998; Glaser & Strauss, 1967). This unique methodology systematically and inductively generates conceptual theories from data. The goal is to discover theory that explains, predicts, and provides practical…

  18. Pioneers in our own lives: grounded theory of lesbians' midlife development.

    PubMed

    Howell, Lynn Calhoun; Beth, Amy

    2004-01-01

    Historically, human development theorists made no mention of experiences unique to lesbians. To explore implications of differences associated with lesbian midlife development, this qualitative study compared the midlife experiences of 12 lesbians between the ages of 41 and 54 to descriptions of midlife development resulting from two prior studies using similar methods with groups whose members were nearly all heterosexual women, i.e., data collected in a series of focus group meetings and analyzed using a grounded theory approach. While lesbians in this study faced many of the same occurrences described by other middle-aged women, they experienced those events in different ways. The lesbians experienced less emotional turmoil during midlife than did their heterosexual counterparts. They also expressed unique concerns about old age.

  19. Nobody was out back then: a grounded theory study of midlife and older lesbians with alcohol problems.

    PubMed

    Pettinato, Maria

    2008-06-01

    This explorative study used grounded theory methodology (GTM) to develop a substantive theory regarding the life experience of the misuse of alcohol among midlife and older lesbians. The core category in this study is represented by the overarching process of "Disconnecting from their Authentic Selves." Professional health care providers may better be able to understand and assist midlife and older lesbians who misuse alcohol by being aware of their life experience with alcohol problems and the concepts they have described. A theoretical model is presented as a visual representation of the key concepts described in this paper and their interrelationships.

  20. Brain simulation of action may be grounded in physical experience.

    PubMed

    Olsson, C J; Nyberg, Lars

    2011-12-01

    An intriguing quality of our brain is that when actions are imagined, corresponding brain regions are recruited as when the actions are actually performed. It has been hypothesized that the similarity between real and simulated actions depends on the nature of motor representations. Here we tested this hypothesis by examining S.D., who never used her legs but is an elite wheel chair athlete. Controls recruited motor brain regions during imagery of stair walking and frontal regions during imagery of wheel chair slalom. S.D. showed the opposite pattern. Thus, brain simulation of actions may be grounded in specific physical experiences.

  1. Theory, experiment and applications of metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, WenXuan; Mei, ZhongLei; Cui, TieJun

    2015-12-01

    In this review article, a brief introduction on the theory, experiments and applications of metamaterials is presented. The main focuses are concentrated on the composing meta-atoms, the method of transformation optics, the experimental demonstration of negative refraction, and the realizations of invisibility cloaks and electromagnetic black hole. At the end of this review, some typical applications of metamaterials, including high-performance antennas made of zero-refractive-index materials, inhomogeneous metamaterial lenses, and planar metasurfaces, are introduced in details.

  2. Coherent synchrotron radiation: Theory and experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Courtland L. Bohn

    2002-07-19

    Our understanding of the generation of coherent synchrotron radiation in magnetic bending systems and its impact on beam dynamics has grown considerably over the past few years. The search for understanding has brought a number of surprises, all related to the complexity of the fully self-consistent problem. Herein I survey the associated phenomenology, theory, and experiments while emphasizing important subtleties that have recently been uncovered. I conclude by speculating on courses of future investigations that may prove fruitful.

  3. Melting curve of materials: theory versus experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfè, D.; Vocadlo, L.; Price, G. D.; Gillan, M. J.

    2004-04-01

    A number of melting curves of various materials have recently been measured experimentally and calculated theoretically, but the agreement between different groups is not always good. We discuss here some of the problems which may arise in both experiments and theory. We also report the melting curves of Fe and Al calculated recently using quantum mechanics techniques, based on density functional theory with generalized gradient approximations. For Al our results are in very good agreement with both low pressure diamond-anvil-cell experiments (Boehler and Ross 1997 Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 153 223, Hänström and Lazor 2000 J. Alloys Compounds 305 209) and high pressure shock wave experiments (Shaner et al 1984 High Pressure in Science and Technology ed Homan et al (Amsterdam: North-Holland) p 137). For Fe our results agree with the shock wave experiments of Brown and McQueen (1986 J. Geophys. Res. 91 7485) and Nguyen and Holmes (2000 AIP Shock Compression of Condensed Matter 505 81) and the recent diamond-anvil-cell experiments of Shen et al (1998 Geophys. Res. Lett. 25 373). Our results are at variance with the recent calculations of Laio et al (2000 Science 287 1027) and, to a lesser extent, with the calculations of Belonoshko et al (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 3638). The reasons for these disagreements are discussed.

  4. Occupational therapy students in the process of interprofessional collaborative learning: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Howell, Dana

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to generate a theory of the interprofessional collaborative learning process of occupational therapy (OT) students who were engaged in a collaborative learning experience with students from other allied health disciplines. Data consisted of semi-structured interviews with nine OT students from four different interprofessional collaborative learning experiences at three universities. The emergent theory explained OT students' need to build a culture of mutual respect among disciplines in order to facilitate interprofessional collaborative learning. Occupational therapy students went through a progression of learned skills that included learning how to represent the profession of OT, hold their weight within a team situation, solve problems collaboratively, work as a team, and ultimately, to work in an actual team in practice. This learning process occurred simultaneously as students also learned course content. The students had to contend with barriers and facilitators that influenced their participation and the success of their collaboration. Understanding the interprofessional learning process of OT students will help allied health faculty to design more effective, inclusive interprofessional courses.

  5. CTE Teachers' Perspectives on the Process of CTE and Science Content Integration: A Grounded Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spindler, Matthew Kenneth

    The integration of career and technical education (CTE) and academic curricular content that capitalizes on natural and inherent connections represents a challenge for CTE professionals. The research question that was used to guide the current study was: What are CTE teachers' perspectives of and experiences with the process of CTE and science content integration? And more specifically, to generate a grounded theory which explicates the process of CTE and science content integration from the perspective of CTE teachers. The CTE teachers expressed that the process of CTE and science content integration was a process of evolutionizing. From the perspective of the CTE teachers involved integrating CTE and science content resulted in their programs of study being adapted into something different than they were before the process of integration was begun. The CTE teachers revealed that the evolutions in their programs of study and themselves were associated with three other categories within the grounded theory: (a) connecting; (b) enacting; and (c) futuring. The process of CTE and science content integration represents a deep and complex episode for CTE teachers. The process of CTE and science content integration requires connecting to others, putting ideas into action, and an orienting towards the future.

  6. Adopting a constructivist approach to grounded theory: implications for research design.

    PubMed

    Mills, Jane; Bonner, Ann; Francis, Karen

    2006-02-01

    Grounded theory is a popular research methodology that is evolving to account for a range of ontological and epistemological underpinnings. Constructivist grounded theory has its foundations in relativism and an appreciation of the multiple truths and realities of subjectivism. Undertaking a constructivist enquiry requires the adoption of a position of mutuality between researcher and participant in the research process, which necessitates a rethinking of the grounded theorist's traditional role of objective observer. Key issues for constructivist grounded theorists to consider in designing their research studies are discussed in relation to developing a partnership with participants that enables a mutual construction of meaning during interviews and a meaningful reconstruction of their stories into a grounded theory model.

  7. Grounded theory as a method for research in speech and language therapy.

    PubMed

    Skeat, J; Perry, A

    2008-01-01

    The use of qualitative methodologies in speech and language therapy has grown over the past two decades, and there is now a body of literature, both generally describing qualitative research, and detailing its applicability to health practice(s). However, there has been only limited profession-specific discussion of qualitative methodologies and their potential application to speech and language therapy. To describe the methodology of grounded theory, and to explain how it might usefully be applied to areas of speech and language research where theoretical frameworks or models are lacking. Grounded theory as a methodology for inductive theory-building from qualitative data is explained and discussed. Some differences between 'modes' of grounded theory are clarified and areas of controversy within the literature are highlighted. The past application of grounded theory to speech and language therapy, and its potential for informing research and clinical practice, are examined. This paper provides an in-depth critique of a qualitative research methodology, including an overview of the main difference between two major 'modes'. The article supports the application of a theory-building approach in the profession, which is sometimes complex to learn and apply, but worthwhile in its results. Grounded theory as a methodology has much to offer speech and language therapists and researchers. Although the majority of research and discussion around this methodology has rested within sociology and nursing, grounded theory can be applied by researchers in any field, including speech and language therapists. The benefit of the grounded theory method to researchers and practitioners lies in its application to social processes and human interactions. The resulting theory may support further research in the speech and language therapy profession.

  8. Is it really theoretical? A review of sampling in grounded theory studies in nursing journals.

    PubMed

    McCrae, Niall; Purssell, Edward

    2016-10-01

    Grounded theory is a distinct method of qualitative research, where core features are theoretical sampling and constant comparative analysis. However, inconsistent application of these activities has been observed in published studies. This review assessed the use of theoretical sampling in grounded theory studies in nursing journals. An adapted systematic review was conducted. Three leading nursing journals (2010-2014) were searched for studies stating grounded theory as the method. Sampling was assessed using a concise rating tool. A high proportion (86%) of the 134 articles described an iterative process of data collection and analysis. However, half of the studies did not demonstrate theoretical sampling, with many studies declaring or indicating a purposive sampling approach throughout. Specific reporting guidelines for grounded theory studies should be developed to ensure that study reports describe an iterative process of fieldwork and theoretical development. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) ground cold flow test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This photograph shows a ground cold flow test of the linear aerospike rocket engine mounted on the rear fuselage of an SR-71. The LASRE experiment was designed to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin evaluate the aerodynamic characteristics and the handling of the SR-71 linear aerospike experiment configuration. The goal of the project was to provide in-flight data to help Lockheed Martin validate the computational predictive tools it was using to determine the aerodynamic performance of a future reusable launch vehicle. The joint NASA, Rocketdyne (now part of Boeing), and Lockheed Martin Linear Aerospike SR-71 Experiment (LASRE) completed seven initial research flights at Dryden Flight Research Center. Two initial flights were used to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of the LASRE apparatus (pod) on the back of the SR-71. Five later flights focused on the experiment itself. Two were used to cycle gaseous helium and liquid nitrogen through the experiment to check its plumbing system for leaks and to test engine operational characteristics. During the other three flights, liquid oxygen was cycled through the engine. Two engine hot-firings were also completed on the ground. A final hot-fire test flight was canceled because of liquid oxygen leaks in the test apparatus. The LASRE experiment itself was a 20-percent-scale, half-span model of a lifting body shape (X-33) without the fins. It was rotated 90 degrees and equipped with eight thrust cells of an aerospike engine and was mounted on a housing known as the 'canoe,' which contained the gaseous hydrogen, helium, and instrumentation gear. The model, engine, and canoe together were called a 'pod.' The experiment focused on determining how a reusable launch vehicle's engine flume would affect the aerodynamics of its lifting-body shape at specific altitudes and speeds. The interaction of the aerodynamic flow with the engine plume could create drag; design refinements looked at minimizing this

  10. Coping with post-lingual severe-profound hearing impairment: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Hallberg, L R; Påsse, U; Ringdahl, A

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the experiences of coping with demanding auditory situations in everyday life from the perspective of individuals with severe-profound hearing impairment. Seventeen individuals (11 women and 6 men), with post-lingual severe-profound hearing impairment participated in the study. All were patients at the Department of Audiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Göteborg, Sweden. Inclusion criteria were a hearing impairment exceeding 70 dB HL at the frequency of 1 kHz in the better ear, and full-time employment. Data were assessed by in-depth interviews lasting about one hour. The interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed line-by-in line in accordance with the grounded theory tradition. Six theoretical constructs, or categories, were grounded in the data. These categories were labelled 'coaching', 'belonging to two worlds', 'self-efficacy', 'hardiness' and 'directing coping strategies'. In a grounded theory the central phenomenon on which all the other categories are integrated is known as the 'core category'. The core category, which emerged in the present study, was labelled 'finding flow and entering a positive circle'. This was described as a condition necessary for successful coping with the demanding situation of being a profoundly hearing-impaired person working full-time. According to the core category, there is a small 'margin' within the positive circle (a space where smaller mistakes may occur). However, if mistakes are too severe, or too many, individuals will no longer find flow in the positive circle, rather they enter a negative circle. In the present study subjects' personalities were characterized by hardiness. It is suggested that coaching behaviour and the hearing-impaired individuals' personality dispositions of hardiness and self-efficacy function as resistance resources, buffering stressful events in everyday life.

  11. Laser Ground System for Communication Experiments with ARTEMIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzkov, Volodymyr; Volovyk, Dmytro; Kuzkov, Sergii; Sodnik, Zoran; Pukha, Sergii; Caramia, Vincenzo

    2012-10-01

    The ARTEMIS satellite with the OPALE laser communication terminal on-board was launched on 12 July, 2001. 1789 laser communications sessions were performed between ARTEMIS and SPOT-4 (PASTEL) from 01 April 2003 to 09 January 2008 with total duration of 378 hours. Regular laser communication experiments between ESA's Optical Ground Station (OGS - altitude 2400 m above see level) and ARTEMIS in various atmosphere conditions were also performed. The Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) launched the KIRARI (OICETS) satellite with laser communication terminal called LUCE. Laser communication links between KIRARI and ARTEMIS were successfully realized and international laser communications experiments from the KIRARI satellite were also successfully performed with optical ground stations located in the USA (JPL), Spain (ESA OGS), Germany (DLR), and Japan (NICT). The German Space Agency (DLR) performed laser communication links between two LEO satellites (TerraSAR-X and NFIRE), demonstrating data transfer rates of 5.6Gbit/s and performed laser communication experiments between the satellites and the ESA optical ground station. To reduce the influence of weather conditions on laser communication between satellites and ground stations, a network of optical stations situated in different atmosphere regions needs to be created. In 2002, the Main Astronomical Observatory (MAO) started the development of its own laser communication system to be placed into the Cassegrain focus of its 0.7m AZT-2 telescope (Fe = 10.5m), located in Kyiv 190 meters above sea level. The work was supported by the National Space Agency of Ukraine and by ESA ARTEMIS has an orbital position of 21.4° E and an orbital inclination of more than 9.75°. As a result we developed a precise tracking system for AZT-2 telescope (weighing more than 2 tons) using micro-step motors. Software was developed for computer control of the telescope to track the satellite's orbit and a tracking accuracy of 0.6 arcsec was achieved

  12. Determination of Gravitational Potential at Ground Using Optical-Atomic Clocks on Board Satellites and on Ground Stations and Relevant Simulation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Ziyu; Shen, Wen-Bin; Zhang, Shuangxi

    2017-07-01

    The general relativity theory provides a potential way to directly determine the gravitational potential (GP) difference by comparing the running rate or vibration frequencies of two optical-atomic clocks located at two stations. Recently we proposed an approach referred to as satellite frequency signal transmission based on the Doppler canceling technique or tri-frequency combination technique to determine the GP difference between a satellite and a ground site via exchanging microwave signals. Here, as an extension of our previous study, we aim to formulate determination of GP at ground stations and establish simulation experiments in different cases, including determining the GP at a ground station via one or more satellites and determining the GP difference between two ground stations via one or more satellites. Concerning each case we made simulating experiments, and results show that the precision of the GP at a ground station and that of the GP difference between two stations, determined via one satellite, are, respectively, about 0.383 and 0.454 m2/s2, assuming the clocks with inaccuracy of about 1× 10^{-18} (s/s) level are available. If more satellites equipped with ultra-high-precise clocks are available, the precision of the determined GP (difference) at ground stations can be further improved.

  13. Reflection-transmission photoellipsometry: theory and experiments.

    PubMed

    Bader, G; Ashrit, P V; Girouard, F E; Truong, V V

    1995-04-01

    We propose a method that uses reflection and transmission photoellipsometry to analyze samples consisting of thin films combined with semitransparent thick layers or substrates in the form of multilayer structures. Athick film or substrate is defined as a layer for which no interference effects can be observed for a given wavelength resolution, and contributions from multiple reflections in the substrate are taken into account in the theoretical treatment. An automatic reflection-transmission spectroscopic ellipsometer was built to test the theory, and satisfactory results have been obtained. Examples corresponding to a strongly absorbing film deposited on a glass substrate and a highly transmitting film also deposited on glass are shown. In both cases a good fit between theory and experiment is found. The photoellipsometric method presented is particularly suited to the analysis of actual samples of energy-efficient coatings for windows.

  14. Theory and Experiment on Radiative Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drake, R. Paul

    2005-07-01

    The current generation of high-energy-density research facilities has enabled the beginnings of experimental studies of radiation hydrodynamic systems, common in astrophysics but difficult to produce in the laboratory. Radiative shock experiments specifically have been a topic of increasing effort in recent years. Our group and collaborators [1] have emphasized the radiographic observation of structure in radiative shocks. These shocks have been produced on the Omega laser by driving a Be piston through Xenon at velocities above 100 km/s. The talk will summarize these experiments and their results. Interpreting these and other experiments is hampered by the limited range of assumptions used in published theories, and by the limitations in readily available simulation tools. This has motivated an examination of radiative shock theory [2]. The talk will summarize the key issues and present results for specific cases. [ 1 ] Gail Glendinning, Ted Perry, Bruce Remington, Jim Knauer, Tom Boehly, and other members of the NLUF Experimental Astrophysics Team. Publications: Reighard et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. submitted; Leibrandt, et al., Ap J., in press, Reighard et al., IFSA 03 Proceedings, Amer. Nucl. Soc. (2004). [2] Useful discussions with Dmitri Ryutov and Serge Bouquet. Supported by the NNSA programs via DOE Grants DE-FG52-03NA00064 and DE FG53 2005 NA26014

  15. Jet noise classical theory and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lilley, G. M.

    1991-08-01

    Lighthill's theory of aerodynamic noise is presented as the foundation on which to build all other theories of aerodynamic noise. The application of the Lighthill acoustic analogy to the estimation of the characteristics of the noise radiated from the jets is central. Attention is given to the assumptions on which the Lighthill acoustic analogy is based and it is shown why the theory gives results different from experiment when flow-acoustic interaction occurs. The details of flow-acoustic interaction are invariably unavailable to provide the necessary fine adjustments to the Lighthill source function to render it such that the noise radiation as calculated is exact. The alternative approaches to the understanding of aerodynamic noise theory are discussed. The emphasis is placed on the flow-acoustic interaction and such theories as are required to complement the results obtained by application of Lighthill's acoustic analogy. The authors discuss some of the dominant features of the mean flow and the turbulent structure of a jet as a guide to modeling the T sub ij four-order covariance, which is central to applications involving Lighthill's acoustic analogy. The results obtained from the acoustic analogy model are compared with experimental data obtained by application of the polar correlation technique to both a model-scale jet and a full-scale jet engine. The relatively close agreement is evidence that the flow field data are pertinent to the description of the acoustic analogy model. A brief description is given of attempts to reduce jet noise without incurring an undue penalty in the loss of nozzle efficiency. Finally, the importance of good, reliable, and accurate experimental data in all studies of aerodynamic noise is stressed.

  16. Directivity in NGA earthquake ground motions: Analysis using isochrone theory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spudich, P.; Chiou, B.S.J.

    2008-01-01

    We present correction factors that may be applied to the ground motion prediction relations of Abrahamson and Silva, Boore and Atkinson, Campbell and Bozorgnia, and Chiou and Youngs (all in this volume) to model the azimuthally varying distribution of the GMRotI50 component of ground motion (commonly called 'directivity') around earthquakes. Our correction factors may be used for planar or nonplanar faults having any dip or slip rake (faulting mechanism). Our correction factors predict directivity-induced variations of spectral acceleration that are roughly half of the strike-slip variations predicted by Somerville et al. (1997), and use of our factors reduces record-to-record sigma by about 2-20% at 5 sec or greater period. ?? 2008, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  17. Grounded theory--conceptual and operational aspects: a method possible to be applied in nursing research.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho Dantas, Claudia; Leite, Joséte Luzia; de Lima, Suzinara Beatriz Soares; Stipp, Marluci Andrade Conceição

    2009-01-01

    This is a descriptive-reflective study based on literature and qualitative design. It aimed to discuss conceptual aspects of Grounded Theory (GT) and to present the applicability of this methodology within the nursing field. GT consists of an interpretative and systematic framework that extracts significant aspects from experiences of social actors and which enables researchers to construct theoretical frameworks and intensify expansion of knowledge. It has been shown to be an important and consistent framework for objects of study that involve human interactions and which include phenomena concerning professional practice and which have not yet been properly examined and understood according to the rigor required for the construction of knowledge in qualitative designs.

  18. Teaching and Learning Medication Calculations: A Grounded Theory of Conceptual Understanding.

    PubMed

    Mills, Susan

    2016-05-13

    The purpose of this study was to identify the process of nursing students' attainment of conceptual understanding when learning medication dosage calculations. This study utilized a grounded theory research design with a blended theoretical framework of constructivism and symbolic interaction. A process of conceptual understanding began with the teaching and learning experiences in the classroom and progressed to students' reengagement with the course content outside of the classroom. Confusion was the core category of the process. Students who were able to work through the confusion and solve problems were able to attain conceptual understanding and progress to more complex problem solving. Nurse educators need to identify teaching and learning strategies that promote conceptual understanding. Helping students to get beyond memorization and move to understanding of medication calculations can help students' critical thinking and problem solving ability and lead to conceptual understanding.

  19. Exploring Partner Intimacy Among Couples Raising Children on the Autism Spectrum: A Grounded Theory Investigation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jake; Piercy, Fred P

    2017-10-01

    In this study, we explored how couples raising children with autism spectrum disorder negotiate intimacy, including what contextual and temporal factors influence these processes. We conducted conjoint interviews with 12 couples, employing grounded theory methodology to collect and analyze the data. Our results indicated that fostering intimacy in these couples' relationships involves partners working together to make key cognitive and relational shifts. Couples are aided or hindered in making these shifts by the degree to which they experience various contextual and environmental factors as resources or roadblocks. We also found that intimacy is not a fixed point at which couples one day arrive, but is an iterative process taking place over time and requiring work to develop and maintain. © 2017 American Association for Marriage and Family Therapy.

  20. A Computational Theory of Grounding in Natural Language Conversation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-12-01

    plan. This framework is then used to provide precise definitions of the grounding acts in terms of agents executing a general communication plan in...what kinds of actions are they? What are the enablement and generation conditions and what are the effects? One difficulty with formalizing speech acts...been understood. In general , many of the effects of speech actions will be be to the cognitive states of conversational participants. Because each agent

  1. Examples of recent ground based L-band radiometer experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwank, Mike; Voelksch, I.; Maetzler, Ch.; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre; Kerr, Y. H.; Antolin, M. C.; Coll, A.; Millan-Scheiding, C.; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto

    L-band (1 -2 GHz) microwave radiometry is a remote sensing technique to monitor soil mois-ture over land surfaces. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) radiometer mission aims at providing global maps of soil moisture, with accuracy bet-ter than 0.04 m3 m-3 every 3 days, with a spatial resolution of approximately 40 km. Monitoring the large scale moisture dynamics at the boundary between the deep bulk soil and the atmo-sphere provides essential information both for terrestrial and atmospheric modellers. Perform-ing ground based radiometer campaigns before the mission launch, during the commissioning phase and during the operative SMOS mission is important for validating the satellite data and for the further improvement of the used radiative transfer models. This presentation starts with an outline of the basic concepts behind remote moisture retrieval from passive L-band radiation. Then the results from a selection of ground based microwave campaigns performed ü with the ELBARA radiometer and its successor models (JULBARA, ELBARAII) are pre-sented. Furthermore, some of the most important technical features, which were implemented in ELBARAII as the result of the experiences made with the forerunner, are outlined.

  2. Seniors’ self-preservation by maintaining established self and defying deterioration – A grounded theory

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, Jeanette Källstrand; Hildingh, Cathrine; Buer, Nina; Thulesius, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to understand how seniors who are living independently resolve issues influenced by visual impairment and high fall risk. We interviewed and observed 13 seniors with visual impairment in their homes. We also interviewed six visual instructors with experience from many hundreds of relevant incidents from the same group of seniors. We found that the seniors are resolving their main concern of “remaining themselves as who they used to be” by self-preservation. Within this category, the strategies maintaining the established self and defying deterioration emerged as the most prominent in our data. The theme maintaining the established self is mostly guided by change inertia and includes living the past (retaining past activities, reminiscing, and keeping the home intact) and facading (hiding impairment, leading to avoidance of becoming a burden and to risk juggling). Defying deterioration is a proactive scheme and involves moving (by exercising, adapting activities, using walking aids, driving), adapting (by finding new ways), and networking by sustaining old support networks or finding new networks. Self-preservation is generic human behavior and modifying this theory to other fields may therefore be worthwhile. In addition, health care providers may have use for the theory in fall preventive planning. PMID:27172511

  3. Seniors' self-preservation by maintaining established self and defying deterioration - A grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Jeanette Källstrand; Hildingh, Cathrine; Buer, Nina; Thulesius, Hans

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this classic grounded theory study was to understand how seniors who are living independently resolve issues influenced by visual impairment and high fall risk. We interviewed and observed 13 seniors with visual impairment in their homes. We also interviewed six visual instructors with experience from many hundreds of relevant incidents from the same group of seniors. We found that the seniors are resolving their main concern of "remaining themselves as who they used to be" by self-preservation. Within this category, the strategies maintaining the established self and defying deterioration emerged as the most prominent in our data. The theme maintaining the established self is mostly guided by change inertia and includes living the past (retaining past activities, reminiscing, and keeping the home intact) and facading (hiding impairment, leading to avoidance of becoming a burden and to risk juggling). Defying deterioration is a proactive scheme and involves moving (by exercising, adapting activities, using walking aids, driving), adapting (by finding new ways), and networking by sustaining old support networks or finding new networks. Self-preservation is generic human behavior and modifying this theory to other fields may therefore be worthwhile. In addition, health care providers may have use for the theory in fall preventive planning.

  4. Intentionality in Healing--The Voices of Men in Nursing: A Grounded Theory Investigation.

    PubMed

    Zahourek, Rothlyn P

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and potentially modify or expand a previously developed theory: Intentionality: The Matrix of Healing (IMH) using a sample of men in nursing. A modified grounded theory approach described by Chen and Boore (2009) and by Amsteus (2014). Twelve men in nursing were recruited. Each was interviewed at least once and their feedback solicited to determine accuracy of interpretation. Results were compared and contrasted to those obtained from the earlier research with six female nurses and their patients. Both groups viewed intentionality as different from, and greater than, intention. Intentionality reflects the whole person's values, goals, and experiences. The men emphasized the importance of reflective spiritual practices, developing self-awareness, being aware of the stress experienced by males in a female profession, and the role of action in manifesting intentionality in healing. The theory is substantiated with minor changes in emphases. Further study is warranted to expand the understanding of this basic concept in nursing and healing. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Beryllium atom reinvestigated: A comparison between theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mårtensson-Pendrill, Ann-Marie; Alexander, Steve A.; Adamowicz, Ludwik; Oliphant, Nevin; Olsen, Jeppe; Öster, Per; Quiney, Harry M.; Salomonson, Sten; Sundholm, Dage

    1991-04-01

    We compare the theoretical and experimental energies for the ground state of the beryllium atom and investigate possible sources for the small discrepancy of about 60 μhartrees found by Bunge [Phys. Rev. A 14, 1965 (1976); 17, 486(E) (1978)]. Indications that the correlation energy may be underestimated in Bunge's work have been confirmed by a recent, very extensive multiconfigurational Hartree-Fock (MCHF) calculation. We emphasize that the critical part of the comparison between theory and experiment is the sum of the first and second ionization energies-the third and fourth are known more accurately from theory-and present the theoretical results accordingly. Before a comparison with experimental results can be performed, corrections must be added to account for mass polarization, for the effect of relativity including the Breit interaction and for radiative effects. The previously unknown mass-polarization contribution to the first ionization energy has recently been determined experimentally. Relativity is most important for the 1s electrons and this effect was included in Bunge's work, whereas the relativistic effect on the correlation involving the 2s electrons was neglected. Here, these contributions have been calculated to leading order. A crude estimate of the contribution to the Lamb shift from the 2s electrons is also given. When the revised relativistic corrections are combined with recent results from a very extensive MCHF calculation, the discrepancy in the beryllium ground-state energy is reduced to (10+/-50)μ hartrees.

  6. Shear layer excitation, experiment versus theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bechert, D. W.; Stahl, B.

    1984-01-01

    The acoustical excitation of shear layers is investigated. Acoustical excitation causes the so-called orderly structures in shear layers and jets. Also, the deviations in the spreading rate between different shear layer experiments are due to the same excitation mechanism. Measurements in the linear interaction region close to the edge from which the shear layer is shed are examined. Two sets of experiments (Houston 1981 and Berlin 1983/84) are discussed. The measurements were carried out with shear layers in air using hot wire anemometers and microphones. The agreement between these measurements and the theory is good. Even details of the fluctuating flow field correspond to theoretical predictions, such as the local occurrence of negative phase speeds.

  7. The Ebb and Flow of Filipino First-Time Fatherhood Transition Space: A Grounded Theory Study.

    PubMed

    Villamor, Neil Jupiter E; de Guzman, Allan B; Matienzo, Evangeline T

    2016-11-01

    Fatherhood, as a developmental process, is both a human experience and a text that needs to be read. For developing nations like the Philippines, little is known about the process undergone by first-time fathers on their transition to fatherhood, and how nurses can play a significant role in assisting them. This grounded theory study purported to conceptualize the multifaceted process of transition from the lens of Filipino first-time fathers' lived experiences. A total of 20 first-time fathers from Metro Manila, Philippines, were purposively selected to take part in an individual, semistructured, and in-depth interview. The Glaserian (classical) method of analysis was specifically used, and field texts were inductively analyzed using a repertory grid. Member checking and correspondence were done to validate the findings of the study. Six surfacing stages emerged relative to the process of transition. Interestingly, The B.R.I.D.G.E. Theory of First-Time Fatherhood Transition Space describes how these fathers progress from the beholding, reorganizing, inhibiting, delivering, grasping, and embracing phases toward successful transition. This emerged theoretical model can be used in framing health care programs where the needs of fathers during this period are met and addressed. Finally, it can also be used in guiding nurses in their provision of a more empathetic care for first-time fathers.

  8. Support Needs for Canadian Health Providers Responding to Disaster: New Insights from a Grounded Theory Approach

    PubMed Central

    Fahim, Christine; O'Sullivan, Tracey L.; Lane, Dan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: An earlier descriptive study exploring the various supports available to Canadian health and social service providers who deployed to the 2010 earthquake disaster in Haiti, indicated that when systems are compromised, professionals are at physical, emotional and mental risk during overseas deployment. While these risks are generally well-identified, there is little literature that explores the effectiveness of the supports in place to mitigate this risk. This study provides evidence to inform policy development regarding future disaster relief, and the effectiveness of supports available to responders assisting with international disaster response. Methods: This study follows Strauss and Corbin’s 1990 structured approach to grounded theory to develop a framework for effective disaster support systems. N=21 interviews with Canadian health and social service providers, who deployed to Haiti in response to the 2010 earthquake, were conducted and analyzed. Resulting data were transcribed, coded and analysed for emergent themes. Results and Discussion: Three themes were identified in the data and were used to develop the evolving theory. The interview data indicate that the experiences of responders are determined based on an interaction between the individual’s ‘lens’ or personal expectations, as well as the supports that an organization is able to provide. Therefore, organizations should consider the following factors: experience, expectations, and supports, to tailor a successful support initiative that caters to the needs of the volunteer workforce. PMID:26203399

  9. Common Ground of Two Paradigms: Incorporating Critical Theory into Current Art Therapy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Clinical art therapy and studio-based community art therapy represent two major paradigms in art therapy practice. This viewpoint explores how critical theory can be incorporated into both paradigms and result in common ground between them. Critical theory encompasses an understanding of oppression in psychological, social, and cultural contexts…

  10. Exploring Knowledge Exchange between Senior and Future Leaders: A Grounded-Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzaga, Stephanie Young

    2009-01-01

    A grounded theory study examined senior leaders methods of knowledge sharing with junior leaders in a small commercial mortgage company. The study was designed to develop an emergent theory to explain the cultural elements that influenced the methods leaders used to transfer knowledge to junior people. The study identified a systemic value of…

  11. Common Ground of Two Paradigms: Incorporating Critical Theory into Current Art Therapy Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nolan, Emily

    2013-01-01

    Clinical art therapy and studio-based community art therapy represent two major paradigms in art therapy practice. This viewpoint explores how critical theory can be incorporated into both paradigms and result in common ground between them. Critical theory encompasses an understanding of oppression in psychological, social, and cultural contexts…

  12. Parochial Dissonance: A Grounded Theory of Wisconsin's New North Response to the Employability Skills Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baneck, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a theory that explained the beliefs and behaviors of participants from business, not-for-profit business, education, and government sectors when resolving the employability skills gap. Classical grounded theory was the inductive methodology applied to this study. The New North, an 18 county region located…

  13. The Remodeling Process: A Grounded Theory Study of Perceptions of Treatment among Adult Male Incest Offenders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scheela, Rochelle A.

    1992-01-01

    Conducted grounded theory study to explore incest offender perceptions of treatment to generate explanatory theory of sexual abuse treatment process. Findings from theoretical sampling of 20 adult male incest offenders revealed that offenders felt remodeling process occurred as they faced discovery of their abuse and went through treatment.…

  14. Exploring Knowledge Exchange between Senior and Future Leaders: A Grounded-Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzaga, Stephanie Young

    2009-01-01

    A grounded theory study examined senior leaders methods of knowledge sharing with junior leaders in a small commercial mortgage company. The study was designed to develop an emergent theory to explain the cultural elements that influenced the methods leaders used to transfer knowledge to junior people. The study identified a systemic value of…

  15. Identifying Barriers in Implementing Outcomes-Based Assessment Program Review: A Grounded Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresciani, Marilee J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to identify the typical barriers encountered by faculty and administrators when implementing outcomes-based assessment program review. An analysis of interviews with faculty and administrators at nine institutions revealed a theory that faculty and administrators' promotion, tenure (if applicable),…

  16. Culturally Responsive Teaching in the Context of Mathematics: A Grounded Theory Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonner, Emily P.; Adams, Thomasenia L.

    2012-01-01

    In this grounded theory case study, four interconnected, foundational cornerstones of culturally responsive mathematics teaching (CRMT), communication, knowledge, trust/relationships, and constant reflection/revision, were systematically unearthed to develop an initial working theory of CRMT that directly informs classroom practice. These…

  17. Parochial Dissonance: A Grounded Theory of Wisconsin's New North Response to the Employability Skills Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baneck, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to generate a theory that explained the beliefs and behaviors of participants from business, not-for-profit business, education, and government sectors when resolving the employability skills gap. Classical grounded theory was the inductive methodology applied to this study. The New North, an 18 county region located…

  18. Being There: A Grounded-Theory Study of Student Perceptions of Instructor Presence in Online Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feeler, William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the perceptions of experienced individual online students at a community college in Texas in order to generate a substantive theory of community college student perceptions of online instructor presence. This qualitative study used Active Interviewing and followed a Straussian grounded-theory design to…

  19. A grounded theory study on the influence of sleep on Parkinson's symptoms.

    PubMed

    van Gilst, Merel M; Cramer, Iris C; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Overeem, Sebastiaan; Faber, Marjan J

    2016-06-10

    Upon awaking, many Parkinson's patients experience an improved mobility, a phenomenon known as 'sleep benefit'. Despite the potential clinical relevance, no objective correlates of sleep benefit exist. The discrepancy between the patients' subjective experience of improvement in absence of objective changes is striking, and raises questions about the nature of sleep benefit. We aimed to clarify what patients reporting subjective sleep benefit, actually experience when waking up. Furthermore, we searched for factors associated with subjective sleep benefit. Using a standardized topic list, we interviewed 14 Parkinson patients with unambiguous subjective sleep benefit, selected from a larger questionnaire-based cohort. A grounded theory approach was used to analyse the data. A subset of the participants described a temporary decrease in their Parkinson motor symptoms after sleep. Others did experience beneficial effects which were, however, non-specific for Parkinson's disease (e.g. feeling 'rested'). The last group misinterpreted the selection questionnaire and did not meet the definition of sleep benefit for various reasons. There were no general sleep-related factors that influenced the presence of sleep benefit. Factors mentioned to influence functioning at awakening were mostly stress related. The group of participants convincingly reporting sleep benefit in the selection questionnaire appeared to be very heterogeneous, with only a portion of them describing sleep benefit on motor symptoms. The group of participants actually experiencing motor sleep benefit may be much smaller than reported in the literature so far. Future studies should employ careful inclusion criteria, which could be based on our reported data.

  20. Discovery of dynamical space: experiments and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Reginald T.

    2015-09-01

    Recently the existence of space as a complex dynamical system was discovered, based upon various experiments going back to 1887. The early experiments by Michelson and Morley 1887, and Miller 1925/26, used light speed anisotropy detected with interferometers. Only in 2002 was the calibration theory first derived. More recently there have been other experimental techniques, including Doppler shift effects detected by NASA using spacecraft Earth flybys. The most recent technique uses current fluctuations through the nanotechnology reverse-biased Zener diode barrier potential, by using two detectors and measuring the time delay in correlations to determine speed and direction of the space flow. Physics has never had a knowledge of this dynamical space, and the theory is now well developed, and is now known to explain the origin of gravity, quantum fluctuations, bore hole g anomalies, galactic rotations, galactic lensing of light, universe dynamics, laboratory G measurements, and more. This dynamical space supports a coordinate system, and it was this that was originally thought to be space itself.

  1. Scenistic Methods in Training: Definitions and Theory Grounding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyons, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this article is to describe the scenistic approach to training with corresponding activities and the theory bases that support the approach. Design/methodology/approach: Presented is the definition of the concept of scenistic training along with the step-by-step details of the implementation of the approach. Scenistic methods,…

  2. Common Ground in Aristotle's and Dewey's Theories of Conduct.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambliss, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    Explores John Dewey's reconstruction of what he called "objectivism," considered by him as a compelling feature of Aristotle's thinking and discusses Aristotle's theory of conduct to determine whether or not his vision there is "limited to the existing world." Concludes that Aristotle's method, in matters of education, shares…

  3. BOOK REVIEW: Supersymmetry: Theory, Experiment and Cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Tim

    2008-06-01

    This volume presents a comprehensive introduction to supersymmetry, concentrating mainly on the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and its possible embedding in a grand unified theory, but also including material on supergravity, non-perturbative aspects of supersymmetry, string theory and cosmology. There is an excellent self-contained appendix on the standard model which could be read first; other appendices provide introductions to spinor representations of the Lorentz group, superfields, and cosmology, and there is a short appendix listing the MSSM renormalisation group beta-functions. The appendices in fact occupy over a quarter of the volume. Substantial knowledge of quantum field theory is required of the reader; and also a working knowledge of group theory as employed in the construction of particle physics models: while there is some useful material on this in the section on grand unification, an appendix on it might perhaps have been a useful addition. Supersymmetry is introduced via the particle physicist's concern with the hierarchy problem and developed in the component formalism beginning with the Wess Zumino model and proceeding to supersymmetric gauge theories. The treatment is detailed and authoritative; the author has 25 years of high-level research experience in the area and it shows. The level of presentation is high, and difficult concepts are explained clearly. The examples and associated hints are excellent. One topic I would have liked to see more on is the renormalisation of supersymmetric theories; presentation of the explicit calculation of the anomalous dimension of a chiral superfield (gamma) at one loop for at least the Wess Zumino model might perhaps have been pedagogically useful. Associated, perhaps, with this omission is an inconsistency in the definition of gamma; the sign of gamma in the treatment in section 8.3.2 clearly differs from its sign in the appendix section E.3. In the text the formalism of supersymmetry is

  4. Shifting Ground(s): Surveying the contested terrain of LGBT studies and queer theory.

    PubMed

    Lovaas, Karen E; Elia, John P; Yep, Gust A

    2006-01-01

    While queer theory initially grew out of lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) studies, there are numerous points of contestation between these two approaches, originating mostly from their disparate positions on (sexual) identity politics. To describe, analyze, and contextualize this contested terrain, we begin this piece by providing some historical notes on LGBT studies and queer theory. Next, we turn to an explication of some enduring tensions to identify the criticisms generated by LGBT scholars toward queer theory approaches and vice versa. What follows is our rationale for producing LGBT Studies and Queer Theory: New Conflicts, Collaborations, and Contested Terrain. In this section we discuss how this project originated and the specific objectives we hope this volume will meet. The contributions of the individual articles in this volume are identified and summarized next. Finally, in the context of LGBT studies' and queer theory's similar qualities and points of difference, we offer ideas for potential directions of scholarship in the future that would explore three major areas: identity and difference; community and community organizing; and political engagement and social change.

  5. The persistence of women in STEM: A constructivist grounded theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamm, Ryan

    Men and women have reached relative parity in most sectors of the United States workforce. Yet women remain underrepresented in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields (AAUW, 2010). Underrepresentation persists despite several decades of research, legislation, and intervention focused on gender equality in STEM fields (Clewell, 2002). The underrepresentation or shortage of women in STEM fields is identifiable primarily in degree attainment, in workforce demographics, and in a gender wage gap. Situated in constructivist grounded theory, this study asks how do women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields, particularly those in established career positions, persist when encountering personal and institutional barriers, resistance, and hostility? I use an interpretive-constructivist lens to conduct a grounded theory study exploring the experiences of women who persist in STEM fields, their relation to extant literature on this topic, and the connections to K-12 education practices, specifically curriculum. To understand the connections to curriculum I employ Pinar's (2012) method of currere. Pinar (2012) contends currere "provides a strategy for students of curriculum to study the relations between academic knowledge and life history in the interests of self-understanding and social reconstruction" (p.44). This qualitative study explored nine female STEM workers stories of persistence as each respondent works in STEM fields were gender parity has yet to be established. This study presents a substantive theory: As women persist in STEM fields they reframe themselves to be situated in the overlapping intersection of the social processes that correspond to "engagement" and "persistence." This reframing is possible by interpreting one's present day circumstances by independently removing oneself from current circumstances to understand the cumulative effect of both past and present. The findings highlight the importance

  6. Advancing Nursing Research in the Visual Era: Reenvisioning the Photovoice Process Across Phenomenological, Grounded Theory, and Critical Theory Methodologies.

    PubMed

    Evans-Agnew, Robin A; Boutain, Doris M; Rosemberg, Marie-Anne S

    Photovoice is a powerful research method that employs participant photography for advancing voice, knowledge, and transformative change among groups historically or currently marginalized. Paradoxically, this research method risks exploitation of participant voice because of weak methodology to method congruence. The purposes of this retrospective article are to revisit current interdisciplinary research using photovoice and to suggest how to advance photovoice by improving methodology-method congruence. Novel templates are provided for improving the photovoice process across phenomenological, grounded theory, and critical theory methodologies.

  7. Interpretive subgroup analysis extends modified grounded theory research findings in oncologic music therapy.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Hiscock, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Following an investigation into oncologic patients' experiences of the helpfulness of music therapy (O'Callaghan & McDermott, 2004), it was considered that examining relationships between specific patient characteristics and their responses could yield further interesting understandings. "Interpretative subgroup analysis" is introduced, which adapts principles of subgroup analysis in quantitative research to textual data analysis. Anonymous written responses from 128 oncologic patients were analyzed to compare responses from (a) those that had one music therapy session with those who had more than one session, (b) males and females, and (c) middle and older aged respondents. The number of music therapy sessions had scant effect on reported music therapy experiences, and males were much more likely to return questionnaires but much less likely to participate. Unlike some females, males always described positive affective responses when experiencing both sad and positive memories. Variations in the middle and older aged subgroups were evident in type of affective response, and emphases in descriptions of memories and music therapy's effect. Implications of these findings for music therapy practice are considered. Interpretive subgroup analysis is recommended for extending understanding of subjective within group experiences in music therapy research incorporating a grounded theory approach and large enough samples.

  8. Health visitor views on consultation using the Solihull approach: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Stefanopoulou, Evgenia; Coker, Sian; Greenshields, Maria; Pratt, Richard

    2011-07-01

    Consultation is integral to maintaining competence for health professionals and involves a collaborative relationship between specialist and primary care services. Although consultation aims to support them in their work, existing literature exploring health visitors' experiences of consultation is limited. This study explored health visitors' experiences of consultation in relation to their clinical practice, their experience of their work and its impact on the wider service. In all, 10 health visitors were interviewed using a semi-structured guide and analysis was subjected to a grounded theory framework. Participants' views were influenced by a combination of factors--consultants' training specific to their role, their communication and engagement, consultation's support of joint-working and/or transitions, and its relevance to and impact upon practice. Findings suggest that such interface activities require effective co-ordination, communication and structuring strategies, highlighting the importance of future initiatives in developing health visitors' mental health role further. Given the comparative lack of evaluation of such activities, these findings may inform policy-making and service development to ensure high quality of service delivery.

  9. The aphasic person's views of the encounter with other people: a grounded theory analysis.

    PubMed

    Andersson, S; Fridlund, B

    2002-06-01

    Being affected by aphasia influences the total life experience. The aim of this study was to generate a theoretical model, from a nursing perspective, of what aphasic persons (n = 12) experience in encounters with other people. Data were collected through interviews which adopted a biophysical, socio-cultural and psychological approach and then analysed using grounded theory method. Two main categories emerged, namely: 'interaction' and 'support'. Encountered experiences led to: 'a feeling of having ability'; 'a feeling of being an outsider'; and 'a feeling of dejection or uncertainty'. The feeling state was dependent on whether the interaction was 'obstructed' or 'secure' and on whether the support resulted in 'strengthened' or 'impaired' self-esteem. Therefore nurses need to give support that enhances patients' self-esteem and which results in them gaining a positive and realistic view of their aphasia, as well as involving those around them in this perspective. This then will give the possibility for the patient to turn the interaction process from an obstructed into a secure one.

  10. Effect of music therapy on oncologic staff bystanders: a substantive grounded theory.

    PubMed

    O'Callaghan, Clare; Magill, Lucanne

    2009-06-01

    Oncologic work can be satisfying but also stressful, as staff support patients and families through harsh treatment effects, uncertain illness trajectories, and occasional death. Although formal support programs are available, no research on the effects of staff witnessing patients' supportive therapies exists. This research examines staff responses to witnessing patient-focused music therapy (MT) programs in two comprehensive cancer centers. In Study 1, staff were invited to anonymously complete an open-ended questionnaire asking about the relevance of a music therapy program for patients and visitors (what it does; whether it helps). In Study 2, staff were theoretically sampled and interviewed regarding the personal effects of witnessing patient-centered music therapy. Data from each study were comparatively analyzed according to grounded theory procedures. Positive and negative cases were evident and data saturation arguably achieved. In Study 1, 38 staff unexpectedly described personally helpful emotional, cognitive, and team effects and consequent improved patient care. In Study 2, 62 staff described 197 multiple personal benefits and elicited patient care improvements. Respondents were mostly nursing (57) and medical (13) staff. Only three intrusive effects were reported: audibility, initial suspicion, and relaxation causing slowing of work pace. A substantive grounded theory emerged applicable to the two cancer centers: Staff witnessing MT can experience personally helpful emotions, moods, self-awarenesses, and teamwork and thus perceive improved patient care. Intrusive effects are uncommon. Music therapy's benefits for staff are attributed to the presence of live music, the human presence of the music therapist, and the observed positive effects in patients and families. Patient-centered oncologic music therapy in two cancer centers is an incidental supportive care modality for staff, which can reduce their stress and improve work environments and perceived

  11. Understanding psychological distress among mothers in rural Nepal: a qualitative grounded theory exploration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is a large burden of psychological distress in low and middle-income countries, and culturally relevant interventions must be developed to address it. This requires an understanding of how distress is experienced. We conducted a qualitative grounded theory study to understand how mothers experience and manage distress in Dhanusha, a low-resource setting in rural Nepal. We also explored how distressed mothers interact with their families and the wider community. Methods Participants were identified during a cluster-randomised controlled trial in which mothers were screened for psychological distress using the 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12). We conducted 22 semi-structured interviews with distressed mothers (GHQ-12 score ≥5) and one with a traditional healer (dhami), as well as 12 focus group discussions with community members. Data were analysed using grounded theory methods and a model was developed to explain psychological distress in this setting. Results We found that distress was termed tension by participants and mainly described in terms of physical symptoms. Key perceived causes of distress were poor health, lack of sons, and fertility problems. Tension developed in a context of limited autonomy for women and perceived duty towards the family. Distressed mothers discussed several strategies to alleviate tension, including seeking treatment for perceived physical health problems and tension from doctors or dhamis, having repeated pregnancies until a son was delivered, manipulating social circumstances in the household, and deciding to accept their fate. Their ability to implement these strategies depended on whether they were able to negotiate with their in-laws or husbands for resources. Conclusions Vulnerability, as a consequence of gender and social disadvantage, manifests as psychological distress among mothers in Dhanusha. Screening tools incorporating physical symptoms of tension should be envisaged, along with

  12. Building Employer Capacity to Support Meaningful Employment for Persons with Developmental Disabilities: A Grounded Theory Study of Employment Support Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Marghalara; Hodgetts, Sandra; Nicholas, David

    2017-08-29

    To explore strategies to build employer capacity to support people with DD in meaningful employment from perspective of employment support workers. A grounded theory study was conducted with 34 employment support individuals. A theoretical sampling approach was used to identify and recruit participants from multiple sites in Ontario and Alberta. Three main themes, with seven sub-themes, emerged: (1) experiences of supporting employment finding for people with DD, (2) institutional influences on employee experiences, and (3) attitudes, assumptions and stigma. Several recommendations related to building employer capacity were offered. Our findings provide insight on specific elements and strategies that can support building employer capacity for persons with DD.

  13. Challenging the philosophy of partnership with parents: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Imelda; Cowley, Sarah

    2007-08-01

    Parent participation is viewed as a pivotal concept to the provision of high quality nursing care for children and their families. Since the 1990's, the term 'partnership with parents' has increasingly been reported in the literature and adopted as a philosophy of care in most paediatric units in the United Kingdom. To explore children's, parents', and nurses' views on participation in care in the healthcare setting. Using grounded theory, data were collected through in-depth interviews, and participant observation. Sample consisted of eleven children, ten parents and twelve nurses from four paediatric wards in two hospitals in England. Most nurses assumed that parents would participate in care and viewed their role as facilitators rather than 'doers'. Nurses reported that the ideology of partnership with parents did not accurately reflect or describe their relationships with parents. Parents could never be partners in care as control of the boundaries of care rested with the nurses. Parents felt compelled to be there and to be responsible for their children's welfare in hospital. The pendulum of parent participation has swung from excluding parents in the past to making parents feel total responsibility for their child in hospital. It is argued that the current models or theories on parent participation/partnership are inappropriate or inadequate because they do not address important elements of children's, parents' and nurses' experiences in hospital.

  14. Organizational Culture Shapes the Adoption and Incorporation of Simulation into Nursing Curricula: A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Jack, Susan M.; Eva, Kevin; Martin, Lynn

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. To create a substantive mid-range theory explaining how the organizational cultures of undergraduate nursing programs shape the adoption and incorporation of mid-to high-level technical fidelity simulators as a teaching strategy within curricula. Method. A constructivist grounded theory was used to guide this study which was conducted in Ontario, Canada, during 2011-12. Semistructured interviews (n = 43) with participants that included nursing administrators, nursing faculty, and simulation leaders across multiple programs (n = 13) informed this study. Additionally, key documents (n = 67) were reviewed. Purposeful and theoretical sampling was used and data were collected and analyzed simultaneously. Data were compared among and between sites. Findings. The organizational elements that shape simulation in nursing (OESSN) model depicts five key organizational factors at the nursing program level that shaped the adoption and incorporation of simulation: (1) leaders working in tandem, (2) information exchange, (3) physical locale, (4) shared motivators, and (5) scaffolding to manage change. Conclusions. The OESSN model provides an explanation of the organizational factors that contributed to the adoption and incorporation of simulation into nursing curricula. Nursing programs that use the OESSN model may experience a more rapid or broad uptake of simulation when organizational factors that impact adoption and incorporation are considered and planned for. PMID:24818018

  15. Seeking Comfort: Women Mental Health Process in I. R. Iran: A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Eftekhari, Monir Baradaran; Dejman, Masoumeh; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh; Mirabzadeh, Arash

    2014-01-01

    Background: Psychosocial factor is considered as intermediate social determinant of health, because it has powerful effects on health especially in women. Hence deeper understanding of the mental-health process needed for its promotion. The aim of this study was to explore women's experience of the mental-health problem and related action-interactions activities to design the appropriate interventions. Methods: In-depth interviews with women 18-65 years were analyzed according to the grounded theory method. The selection of Participants was based on purposeful and theoretical sampling. Results: In this study, a substantive theory was generated; explaining how female with the mental-health problem handled their main concern, which was identified as their effort to achieve comfort (core variable). The other six categories are elements in this process. Daily stress as a trigger, satisfaction is the end point, marriage is the key point and action - interaction activities in this process are strengthening human essence, Developing life skills and help seeking. Conclusions: Better understanding the mental-health process might be useful to design the interventional program among women with mental-health problems. PMID:24627750

  16. Theory and experiments on centrifuge cratering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, R. M.; Holsapple, K. A.

    1980-01-01

    Centrifuge experimental techniques provide possibilities for laboratory simulation of ground motion and cratering effects due to explosive loadings. The results of a similarity analysis for the thermomechanical response of a continuum show that increased gravity is a necessary condition for subscale testing when identical materials for both model and prototype are being used. The general similarity requirements for this type of subscale testing are examined both theoretically and experimentally. The similarity analysis is used to derive the necessary and sufficient requirements due to the general balance and jump equations and gives relations among all the scale factors for size, density, stress, body forces, internal energy, heat supply, heat conduction, heat of detonation, and time. Additional constraints due to specific choices of material constitutive equations are evaluated separately. The class of constitutive equations that add no further requirements is identified. For this class of materials, direct simulation of large-scale cratering events at small scale on the centrifuge is possible and independent of the actual constitutive equations. For a rate-independent soil it is shown that a small experiment at gravity g and energy E is similar to a large event at 1 G but with energy equal to g3E. Consequently, experiments at 500 G with 8 grams of explosives can be used to simulate a kiloton in the field. A series of centrifuge experiments was performed to validate the derived similarity requirements and to determine the practicality of applying the technique to dry granular soils having little or no cohesion. Ten shots using Ottawa sand at various gravities confirmed reproducibility of results in the centrifuge environment, provided information on particle size effects, and demonstrated the applicability of the derived similitude requirements. These experiments used 0.5-4 grams of pentaerythritol-tetranitrate (PETN) and 1.7 grams of lead-azide explosives. They

  17. Development of three-dimensional state-space wake theory and application in dynamic ground effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ke

    In topics of rotorcraft wake analysis, state-space wake theory has a recognized reputation for advantages in real-time simulation, preliminary design and eigenvalue analysis. Developments in the past decades greatly improved range of validity and accuracy of the state-space modeling approach. This work focuses on further improvement of the state-space wake theory and applications in representing dynamic ground effect. Extended state-space model is developed to represent non-zero mass flux on rotor disk. Its instant practical application, representing ground effect with a mass source ground rotor, is evaluated in both steady and dynamic aspects. Investigations of partial ground effect simulation by state-space model are carried out in different rotor configurations. Additional work is done in improving simulation efficiency of practical application of state-space modeling.

  18. GAPEX: A Ground-Based Atmospheric Profiling Experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W. L.; Rvercomb, H. E.; Howell, H. B.; Woolf, H. M.; Knuteson, R. O.; Decker, R. G.; Lynch, M. J.; Westwater, E. R.; Strauch, R. G.; Moran, K. P.; Stankov, B.; Falls, M. J.; Jordan, J.; Jacobsen, M.; Dabberdt, W. F.; McBeth, R.; Albright, G.; Paneitz, C.; Wright, G.; May, P. T.; Decker, M. T.

    1990-03-01

    During the week 29 October-4 November 1988, a Ground-based Atmospheric Profiling Experiment (GAPEX) was conducted at Denver Stapleton International Airport. The objective of GAPEX was to acquire and analyze atomspheric-temperature and moisture-profile data from state-of-the-art remote sensors. The sensors included a six-spectral-channel, passive Microwave Profiler (MWP), a passive, infrared High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) that provides more than 1500 spectral channels, and an active Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS). A Cross-Chain Loran Atmospheric Sounding System (CLASS) was used to provide research-quality in situ thermodynamic observations to verify the accuracy and resolution characteristics of each of the three remote sensors. The first results of the project are presented here to inform the meteorological community of the progress achieved during the GAPEX field phase. These results also serve to demonstrate the excellent prospects for an accurate, continuous thermodynamic profiling system to complement NOAA's forthcoming operational wind profiler.

  19. Plasmas as Antennas - Theory, Experiment and Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, Gerard

    1999-11-01

    A variety of antennas are employed in telecommunications and radar systems. Some applications pose special problems. Large structures are easily detected by hostile radar. The performance of multi-element HF-VHF arrays is complicated by mutual coupling between large radiating elements. High speed data communications and radar can be limited by signal decay and ringing. A novel solution is an antenna made of plasma that can be made to disappear on microsecond time scales. Recent experiments at the Australian National University (G.G. Borg et. al. App. Phys. Letts. Vol. 74, 3272-3274 [1999]), have shown that highly efficient (25 - 50radiating elements for the range 3 - 300 MHz can be formed using low power (10 - 50 W average) plasma surface waves launched at one end of a tube containing a suitable gas. Only a single capacitive coupler is needed to launch the waves - there is no electrical connection to the other end of the tube. The regimes of wave propagation correlate with expectations from plasma surface wave theory. Actual communications experiments have shown that these plasma antennas can have surprisingly low noise provided they are excited by the rf surface waves and not by a low frequency or DC ohmic current. Applications to HF-VHF communications and radar are being developed. These include both single ruggedised plasma elements and multi-element arrays.

  20. Dry friction avalanches: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldyrev, Sergey V.; Ferrante, John; Zypman, Fredy R.

    2006-12-01

    Experimental evidence and theoretical models are presented supporting the conjecture that dry friction stick-slip is described by self-organized criticality. We use the data, obtained with a pin-on-disk tribometer set to measure lateral force, to examine the variation of the friction force as a function of time. We study nominally flat surfaces of matching aluminum and steel. The probability distribution of force drops follows a negative power law with exponents μ in the range 3.2-3.5. The frequency power spectrum follows a 1/fα pattern with α in the range 1-1.8. We first compare these experimental results with the well-known Robin Hood model of self-organized criticality. We find good agreement between theory and experiment for the force-drop distribution but not for the power spectrum. We explain this on a physical basis and propose a model which takes explicitly into account the stiffness and inertia of the tribometer. Specifically, we numerically solve the equation of motion of a block on a friction surface pulled by a spring and show that for certain spring constants the motion is characterized by the same power law spectrum as in experiments. We propose a physical picture relating the fluctuations of the force drops to the microscopic geometry of the surface.

  1. Dry friction avalanches: experiment and theory.

    PubMed

    Buldyrev, Sergey V; Ferrante, John; Zypman, Fredy R

    2006-12-01

    Experimental evidence and theoretical models are presented supporting the conjecture that dry friction stick-slip is described by self-organized criticality. We use the data, obtained with a pin-on-disk tribometer set to measure lateral force, to examine the variation of the friction force as a function of time. We study nominally flat surfaces of matching aluminum and steel. The probability distribution of force drops follows a negative power law with exponents mu in the range 3.2-3.5. The frequency power spectrum follows a 1/f alpha pattern with alpha in the range 1-1.8. We first compare these experimental results with the well-known Robin Hood model of self-organized criticality. We find good agreement between theory and experiment for the force-drop distribution but not for the power spectrum. We explain this on a physical basis and propose a model which takes explicitly into account the stiffness and inertia of the tribometer. Specifically, we numerically solve the equation of motion of a block on a friction surface pulled by a spring and show that for certain spring constants the motion is characterized by the same power law spectrum as in experiments. We propose a physical picture relating the fluctuations of the force drops to the microscopic geometry of the surface.

  2. Being, knowing, and doing: a phronetic approach to constructing grounded theory with Aboriginal Australian partners.

    PubMed

    Bainbridge, Roxanne; Whiteside, Mary; McCalman, Janya

    2013-02-01

    Researchers working with Aboriginal Australian partners are confronted with an array of historical, social, and political complexities which make it difficult to come to theoretical and methodological decisions. In this article, we describe a culturally safe and respectful framework that maintains the intellectual and theoretical rigor expected of academic research. As an Aboriginal woman and two non-Aboriginal women, we discuss the arguments and some of the challenges of using grounded theory methods in Aboriginal Australian contexts, giving examples from our studies of Aboriginal empowerment processes. We argue that the ethics of care and responsibility embedded in Aboriginal research methodologies fit well with grounded theory studies of Aboriginal social processes. We maintain that theory development grounded in data provides useful insights into the processes for raising the health, well-being, and prosperity of Aboriginal Australians.

  3. An Embodied Model for Sensorimotor Grounding and Grounding Transfer: Experiments with Epigenetic Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangelosi, Angelo; Riga, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The grounding of symbols in computational models of linguistic abilities is one of the fundamental properties of psychologically plausible cognitive models. In this article, we present an embodied model for the grounding of language in action based on epigenetic robots. Epigenetic robotics is one of the new cognitive modeling approaches to…

  4. An Embodied Model for Sensorimotor Grounding and Grounding Transfer: Experiments with Epigenetic Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cangelosi, Angelo; Riga, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    The grounding of symbols in computational models of linguistic abilities is one of the fundamental properties of psychologically plausible cognitive models. In this article, we present an embodied model for the grounding of language in action based on epigenetic robots. Epigenetic robotics is one of the new cognitive modeling approaches to…

  5. Readying One's Self: A Grounded Theory Investigation of the LatinoJustice PRLDEF LawBound Program Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Angela Marie Banner

    2011-01-01

    This study was a grounded theory investigation of the LatinoJustice PRLDEF LawBound participants. The research was conducted using the grounded theory method developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967) and Glaser (1978, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1998, 2001, 2003, 2005) to discover an explanatory theory directly from the data. The discovery of the…

  6. Readying One's Self: A Grounded Theory Investigation of the LatinoJustice PRLDEF LawBound Program Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Angela Marie Banner

    2011-01-01

    This study was a grounded theory investigation of the LatinoJustice PRLDEF LawBound participants. The research was conducted using the grounded theory method developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967) and Glaser (1978, 1992, 1993, 1996, 1998, 2001, 2003, 2005) to discover an explanatory theory directly from the data. The discovery of the…

  7. Continuity means "preserving a consistent whole"-A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Östman, Malin; Ung, Eva Jakobsson; Falk, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Living with a chronic disease like chronic heart failure (CHF) results in disruptions, losses, and setbacks in the participants' daily lives that affect health and well-being. By using grounded theory method, we illuminate whether persons with CHF experience discontinuity in life and, if so, what helps them to preserve and strengthen continuity in their daily lives. Thirteen individual interviews and one group interview with five participants, aged 62 to 88 years, were carried out. Through data collection and data analysis, we constructed three concepts that make up a model illustrating the participants' experiences in daily life in relation to corporeality, temporality, and identity: experiences of discontinuity, recapturing approaches, and reconciliation. The first concept, experiences of discontinuity, was constructed from the following categories: the alienated body, the disrupted time, and the threatened self. The second concept, recapturing approaches, consists of categories with continuity creative constructions: repossessing the body, maintaining a façade, seizing the day, restoring the balance of time, and preserving self. These actions are intended to overcome problems and master changes in order to maintain balance in daily life through constructions that recreate normality and predictability. The third concept, reconciliation, was constructed from three categories: feel normal, set to adjust, and be positioned. These categories describe how the participants minimize their experiences of discontinuity by recapturing approaches in order to reconcile with various changes and maintain continuity in daily life. Our findings provide a fresh perspective on continuity that may contribute to the development of significant interventions in continuity of care for persons with CHF. However, continuity requires that healthcare systems support each patient's ability to manage change, reorientation, and adjustment to the new situation in order to make it easier for

  8. Continuity means "preserving a consistent whole"--A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Östman, Malin; Jakobsson Ung, Eva; Falk, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Living with a chronic disease like chronic heart failure (CHF) results in disruptions, losses, and setbacks in the participants' daily lives that affect health and well-being. By using grounded theory method, we illuminate whether persons with CHF experience discontinuity in life and, if so, what helps them to preserve and strengthen continuity in their daily lives. Thirteen individual interviews and one group interview with five participants, aged 62 to 88 years, were carried out. Through data collection and data analysis, we constructed three concepts that make up a model illustrating the participants' experiences in daily life in relation to corporeality, temporality, and identity: experiences of discontinuity, recapturing approaches, and reconciliation. The first concept, experiences of discontinuity, was constructed from the following categories: the alienated body, the disrupted time, and the threatened self. The second concept, recapturing approaches, consists of categories with continuity creative constructions: repossessing the body, maintaining a façade, seizing the day, restoring the balance of time, and preserving self. These actions are intended to overcome problems and master changes in order to maintain balance in daily life through constructions that recreate normality and predictability. The third concept, reconciliation, was constructed from three categories: feel normal, set to adjust, and be positioned. These categories describe how the participants minimize their experiences of discontinuity by recapturing approaches in order to reconcile with various changes and maintain continuity in daily life. Our findings provide a fresh perspective on continuity that may contribute to the development of significant interventions in continuity of care for persons with CHF. However, continuity requires that healthcare systems support each patient's ability to manage change, reorientation, and adjustment to the new situation in order to make it easier for

  9. Continuity means “preserving a consistent whole”—A grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Ung, Eva Jakobsson; Falk, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Living with a chronic disease like chronic heart failure (CHF) results in disruptions, losses, and setbacks in the participants’ daily lives that affect health and well-being. By using grounded theory method, we illuminate whether persons with CHF experience discontinuity in life and, if so, what helps them to preserve and strengthen continuity in their daily lives. Thirteen individual interviews and one group interview with five participants, aged 62 to 88 years, were carried out. Through data collection and data analysis, we constructed three concepts that make up a model illustrating the participants’ experiences in daily life in relation to corporeality, temporality, and identity: experiences of discontinuity, recapturing approaches, and reconciliation. The first concept, experiences of discontinuity, was constructed from the following categories: the alienated body, the disrupted time, and the threatened self. The second concept, recapturing approaches, consists of categories with continuity creative constructions: repossessing the body, maintaining a façade, seizing the day, restoring the balance of time, and preserving self. These actions are intended to overcome problems and master changes in order to maintain balance in daily life through constructions that recreate normality and predictability. The third concept, reconciliation, was constructed from three categories: feel normal, set to adjust, and be positioned. These categories describe how the participants minimize their experiences of discontinuity by recapturing approaches in order to reconcile with various changes and maintain continuity in daily life. Our findings provide a fresh perspective on continuity that may contribute to the development of significant interventions in continuity of care for persons with CHF. However, continuity requires that healthcare systems support each patient's ability to manage change, reorientation, and adjustment to the new situation in order to make it easier

  10. An embodied model for sensorimotor grounding and grounding transfer: experiments with epigenetic robots.

    PubMed

    Cangelosi, Angelo; Riga, Thomas

    2006-07-08

    The grounding of symbols in computational models of linguistic abilities is one of the fundamental properties of psychologically plausible cognitive models. In this article, we present an embodied model for the grounding of language in action based on epigenetic robots. Epigenetic robotics is one of the new cognitive modeling approaches to modeling autonomous mental development. The robot model is based on an integrative vision of language in which linguistic abilities are strictly dependent on and grounded in other behaviors and skills. It uses simulated robots that learn through imitation the names of basic actions. Robots also learn higher order action concepts through the process of grounding transfer. The simulation demonstrates how new, higher order behavioral abilities can be autonomously built on previously grounded basic action categories following linguistic interaction with human users. 2006 Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.

  11. Photocatalytic oxidation of dinitronaphthalenes: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Bekbolet, Miray; Cinar, Zekiye; Kiliç, Murat; Uyguner, Ceyda Senem; Minero, Claudio; Pelizzetti, Ezio

    2009-05-01

    A combination of photocatalytic oxidation experiments and quantum mechanical calculations was used in order to describe the mechanism and the nature of the photocatalytic oxidation reactions of dinitronaphthalane isomers and interprete their reactivities within the framework of the Density Functional Theory (DFT). The photocatalytic oxidation reactions of three dinitronaphthalene isomers, 1,3-dinitronaphthalene, 1,5-dinitronaphthalene and 1,8-dinitronaphthalene in the presence of TiO(2) Degussa P-25 grade were investigated experimentally. The reactions were carried out in a Solarbox photoreactor equipped with a Xenon lamp. The removal of the individual substrates was followed by means of a gas chromatographic method. Nonpurgable organic carbon contents of the samples were determined by means of the catalytic oxidation method using Total Organic Carbon analyzer. With the intention of determining the best reactivity descriptors to explain the differences in the photocatalytic oxidation rates in terms of the molecular properties, geometry optimizations of the compounds were performed with the Density Functional Theory DFT at B3LYP/6-31G( *) level. In order to take the effect of adsorption on the oxidation rate, a cluster Ti(9)O(18) cut from the anatase bulk structure was modeled. The binding energies for the compounds were calculated by using the double-zeta basis set. Global hardness, softness, Fukui functions, local hardness-softness and local softness differences were calculated. The results show that the reactions investigated are orbital-controlled and electrophilic in nature. Local DFT descriptors reflect the reactivities of the dinitronaphthalene isomers better than the global ones, due to the differences in their adsorptive capacities.

  12. Modeling active memory: Experiment, theory and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amit, Daniel J.

    2001-06-01

    Neuro-physiological experiments on cognitively performing primates are described to argue that strong evidence exists for localized, non-ergodic (stimulus specific) attractor dynamics in the cortex. The specific phenomena are delay activity distributions-enhanced spike-rate distributions resulting from training, which we associate with working memory. The anatomy of the relevant cortex region and the physiological characteristics of the participating elements (neural cells) are reviewed to provide a substrate for modeling the observed phenomena. Modeling is based on the properties of the integrate-and-fire neural element in presence of an input current of Gaussian distribution. Theory of stochastic processes provides an expression for the spike emission rate as a function of the mean and the variance of the current distribution. Mean-field theory is then based on the assumption that spike emission processes in different neurons in the network are independent, and hence the input current to a neuron is Gaussian. Consequently, the dynamics of the interacting network is reduced to the computation of the mean and the variance of the current received by a cell of a given population in terms of the constitutive parameters of the network and the emission rates of the neurons in the different populations. Within this logic we analyze the stationary states of an unstructured network, corresponding to spontaneous activity, and show that it can be stable only if locally the net input current of a neuron is inhibitory. This is then tested against simulations and it is found that agreement is excellent down to great detail. A confirmation of the independence hypothesis. On top of stable spontaneous activity, keeping all parameters fixed, training is described by (Hebbian) modification of synapses between neurons responsive to a stimulus and other neurons in the module-synapses are potentiated between two excited neurons and depressed between an excited and a quiescent neuron

  13. "You're a Grounded Theorist for the Day": Teaching Students the Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Docan-Morgan, Tony

    2010-01-01

    Undergraduate research experience offers students a host of benefits including: (a) improving interpersonal and technical skills; (b) fostering independent learning and analytical abilities; and (c) creating close personal connections with faculty members. However, Rodrick and Dickmeyer (2002) suggest that, "although communication educators…

  14. Barriers to Healthcare Provision for Victims of Sexual Assault: A Grounded Theory Study

    PubMed Central

    Shahali, Shadab; Mohammadi, Eesa; Lamyian, Minoor; Kashanian, Maryam; Eslami, Mohammad; Montazeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Victims of sexual assault need comprehensive healthcare services to deal with the consequences of their experience. However, there are still many girls/women that delay seeking healthcare after they experience sexual assault. Objectives: To explore the process of health care and clinical services for victims of sexual assault in the health care centers of Iran. Patients and Methods: This was a qualitative study based on the grounded theory method. The sample consisted of 23 health care providers and 10 victims of sexual violence. Unstructured interviews and observations were used for data collection. Constant comparative analysis was used according to the Strauss and Corbin method. Results: The analysis of all data led to the extraction of four categories: “performing routines”, “victims’ expectations”, “conflict between expectations of victims and existing healthcare services”, and the core category of “neglect of healthcare providers to address the needs and expectations of victims”. Providers were offering health care to the victims of sexual violence regardless of their needs. Due to this neglect, victims sought illegal solutions to overcome the consequences that led to social stigma. Conclusions: The findings indicate the lack of mutual understanding between health care providers and victims of sexual violence in relation to the expectations and priorities of victims. PMID:27231579

  15. Promoting participation in healthcare situations for children with JIA: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Gilljam, Britt-Mari; Arvidsson, Susann; Nygren, Jens M.; Svedberg, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Children's right to participate in their own healthcare has increasingly become highlighted in national and international research as well as in government regulations. Nevertheless, children's participation in healthcare is unsatisfactorily applied in praxis. There is a growing body of research regarding children's participation, but research from the children's own perspective is scarce. The aim of this study was thus to explore the experiences and preferences for participation in healthcare situations among children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) as a foundation for creating strategies to promote their participation in pediatric healthcare. Twenty children, aged 8 to 17 years, with JIA were interviewed individually and in focus groups. In order to increase the children's opportunities to express their own experiences, different interview techniques were used, such as draw-and-tell and role play with dolls. The analysis was conducted with a constructivist grounded theory. The result explores children's perspective of influencing processes promoting their participation in healthcare situations. The core category that emerged was, “Releasing fear and uncertainty opens up for confidence and participation,” and the categories related to the core category are, “surrounded by a sense of security and comfort,” and “strengthened and supported to become involved.” In conclusion, the knowledge gained in this study offers new insights from the perspective of children themselves, and can constitute a valuable contribution to the understanding of necessary conditions for the development of specific interventions that promote participation among children in healthcare situations. PMID:27172512

  16. Promoting participation in healthcare situations for children with JIA: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Gilljam, Britt-Mari; Arvidsson, Susann; Nygren, Jens M; Svedberg, Petra

    2016-01-01

    Children's right to participate in their own healthcare has increasingly become highlighted in national and international research as well as in government regulations. Nevertheless, children's participation in healthcare is unsatisfactorily applied in praxis. There is a growing body of research regarding children's participation, but research from the children's own perspective is scarce. The aim of this study was thus to explore the experiences and preferences for participation in healthcare situations among children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) as a foundation for creating strategies to promote their participation in pediatric healthcare. Twenty children, aged 8 to 17 years, with JIA were interviewed individually and in focus groups. In order to increase the children's opportunities to express their own experiences, different interview techniques were used, such as draw-and-tell and role play with dolls. The analysis was conducted with a constructivist grounded theory. The result explores children's perspective of influencing processes promoting their participation in healthcare situations. The core category that emerged was, "Releasing fear and uncertainty opens up for confidence and participation," and the categories related to the core category are, "surrounded by a sense of security and comfort," and "strengthened and supported to become involved." In conclusion, the knowledge gained in this study offers new insights from the perspective of children themselves, and can constitute a valuable contribution to the understanding of necessary conditions for the development of specific interventions that promote participation among children in healthcare situations.

  17. Why risk professional fulfilment: a grounded theory of physician engagement in healthcare development.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Åsa; Bååthe, Fredrik; Dellve, Lotta

    2013-01-01

    The need for trans-professional collaboration when developing healthcare has been stressed by practitioners and researchers. Because physicians have considerable impact on this process, their willingness to become involved is central to this issue. This study aims to gain a deeper understanding of how physicians view their engagement in healthcare development. Using a grounded theory approach, the study developed a conceptual model based on empirical data from qualitative interviews with physicians working at a hospital (n = 25). A continual striving for experiences of usefulness and progress, conceptualized as 'striving for professional fulfilment' (the core category), emerged as a central motivational drive for physician engagement in healthcare development. Such experiences were gained when achieving meaningful results, having impact, learning to see the greater context and fulfilling the perceived doctor role. Reinforcing organizational preconditions that facilitated physician engagement in healthcare development were workplace continuity, effective strategies and procedures, role clarity regarding participation in development and opportunities to gain knowledge about organization and development. Two opposite role-taking tendencies emerged: upholding a traditional doctor role with high autonomy in relation to organization and management, clinical work serving as the main source of fulfilment, or approaching a more complete 'employeeship' role in which organizational engagement also provides a sense of fulfilment. Experiencing professional fulfilment from participation in healthcare development is crucial for sustainable physician engagement in such activities. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. A Grounded Theory of Students' Long-Distance Coping With a Family Member's Cancer.

    PubMed

    Basinger, Erin D; Wehrman, Erin C; Delaney, Amy L; McAninch, Kelly G

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we explore how family members cope with one source of stress-cancer diagnosis and treatment. We suggest that coping away from one's family is characterized by constraints that are not common to proximal coping. We conducted six focus groups with college students (N = 21) at a university in the United States to investigate their long-distance coping experiences and used grounded theory methods to develop a model of college students' long-distance coping. Negotiating the tension between being here (at school) and being there (at home) was central to their experiences. Participants described four manifestations of their negotiation between here and there (i.e., expressing/hiding emotion, longing to care for the patient there/avoiding responsibility here, feeling shock at degeneration there/escaping degeneration by being here, and lacking information from there) and three strategies they used to cope (i.e., being here and withdrawing, being here and doing school, and seeking/not seeking support).

  19. Clinical reasoning of junior doctors in emergency medicine: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Adams, E; Goyder, C; Heneghan, C; Brand, L; Ajjawi, R

    2017-02-01

    Emergency medicine (EM) has a high case turnover and acuity making it a demanding clinical reasoning domain especially for junior doctors who lack experience. We aimed to better understand their clinical reasoning using dual cognition as a guiding theory. EM junior doctors were recruited from six hospitals in the south of England to participate in semi-structured interviews (n=20) and focus groups (n=17) based on recall of two recent cases. Transcripts were analysed using a grounded theory approach to identify themes and to develop a model of junior doctors' clinical reasoning in EM. Within cases, clinical reasoning occurred in three phases. In phase 1 (case framing), initial case cues and first impressions were predominantly intuitive, but checked by analytical thought and determined the urgency of clinical assessment. In phase 2 (evolving reasoning), non-analytical single cue and pattern recognitions were common which were subsequently validated by specific analytical strategies such as use of red flags. In phase 3 (ongoing uncertainty) analytical self-monitoring and reassurance strategies were used to precipitate a decision regarding discharge. We found a constant dialectic between intuitive and analytical cognition throughout the reasoning process. Our model of clinical reasoning by EM junior doctors illustrates the specific contextual manifestations of the dual cognition theory. Distinct diagnostic strategies are identified and together these give EM learners and educators a framework and vocabulary for discussion and learning about clinical reasoning. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  20. Restoring integrity—A grounded theory of coping with a fast track surgery programme

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Fridlund, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives The aim of this study was to generate a theory conceptualizing and explaining behavioural processes involved in coping in order to identify the predominant coping types and coping type-specific features. Background Patients undergoing fast track procedures do not experience a higher risk of complications, readmission, or mortality. However, such programmes presuppose an increasing degree of patient involvement, placing high educational, physical, and mental demands on the patients. There is a lack of knowledge about how patients understand and cope with fast track programmes. Design The study design used classical grounded theory. Methods The study used a multimodal approach with qualitative and quantitative data sets from 14 patients. Results Four predominant types of coping, with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features, existed among patients going through a fast track total hip replacement programme. These patients’ main concern was to restore their physical and psychosocial integrity, which had been compromised by reduced function and mobility in daily life. To restore integrity they economized their mental resources, while striving to fulfil the expectations of the fast track programme. This goal was achieved by being mentally proactive and physically active. Three out of the four predominant types of coping matched the expectations expressed in the fast track programme. The non-matching behaviour was seen among the most nervous patients, who claimed the right to diverge from the programme. Conclusion In theory, four predominant types of coping with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features occur among patients going through a fast track total hip arthroplasty programme. PMID:26751199

  1. Restoring integrity-A grounded theory of coping with a fast track surgery programme.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Fridlund, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives The aim of this study was to generate a theory conceptualizing and explaining behavioural processes involved in coping in order to identify the predominant coping types and coping type-specific features. Background Patients undergoing fast track procedures do not experience a higher risk of complications, readmission, or mortality. However, such programmes presuppose an increasing degree of patient involvement, placing high educational, physical, and mental demands on the patients. There is a lack of knowledge about how patients understand and cope with fast track programmes. Design The study design used classical grounded theory. Methods The study used a multimodal approach with qualitative and quantitative data sets from 14 patients. Results Four predominant types of coping, with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features, existed among patients going through a fast track total hip replacement programme. These patients' main concern was to restore their physical and psychosocial integrity, which had been compromised by reduced function and mobility in daily life. To restore integrity they economized their mental resources, while striving to fulfil the expectations of the fast track programme. This goal was achieved by being mentally proactive and physically active. Three out of the four predominant types of coping matched the expectations expressed in the fast track programme. The non-matching behaviour was seen among the most nervous patients, who claimed the right to diverge from the programme. Conclusion In theory, four predominant types of coping with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features occur among patients going through a fast track total hip arthroplasty programme.

  2. The 100-meter dash: Theory and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Glenn

    1998-03-01

    This note outlines the theory regarding the position and velocity associated with the 100-m dash. The theory is applied to data produced by world-class sprinters as well as students with little formal training in sprinting. Inexpensive computer software is used to analyze the data to verify the outcome of these races so as to comment on the accuracy of the theory.

  3. Breaking Ground: A Study of Gestalt Therapy Theory and Holland's Theory of Vocational Choice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartung, Paul J.

    In both Gestalt therapy and Holland's theory of vocational choice, person-environment interaction receives considerable emphasis. Gestalt therapy theory suggests that people make contact (that is, meet needs) through a characteristic style of interacting with the environment. Holland identifies six personality types in his theory and asserts that…

  4. Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment: MISTE science requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the MISTE (Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment) is to provide a stringent test of scaling theory predictions for critical behavior near a liquid-gas critical point both in the asymptomatic and crossover regions.

  5. Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment: MISTE science requirements document

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of the MISTE (Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment) is to provide a stringent test of scaling theory predictions for critical behavior near a liquid-gas critical point both in the asymptomatic and crossover regions.

  6. Ground control system for the midcourse space experiment UTC clock

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dragonette, Richard

    1994-01-01

    One goal of the Midcourse Space Experiment (MSX) spacecraft Operations Planning Center is to maintain the onboard satellite UTC clock (UTC(MSX)) to within 1 millisecond of UTC(APL) (the program requirement is 10 msec). The UTC(MSX) clock employs as its time base an APL built 5 MHz quartz oscillator, which is expected to have frequency instabilities (aging rate + drift rate + frequency offset) that will cause the clock to drift approximately two to ten milliseconds per day. The UTC(MSX) clock can be advanced or retarded by the APL MSX satellite ground control center by integer multiples of 1 millisecond. The MSX Operations Planning Center is developing software which records the drift of UTC(MSX) relative to UTC(APL) and which schedules the time of day and magnitude of UTC(MSX) clock updates up to 48 hours in advance. Because of the manner in which MSX spacecraft activities are scheduled, MSX clock updates are planned 24 to 48 hours in advance, and stored in the satellite's computer controller for later execution. Data will be collected on the drift of UTC(MSX) relative to UTC(APL) over a three to five day period. Approximately six times per day, the time offset between UTC(MSX) and UTC(APL) will be measured by APL with a resolution of less than 100 microseconds. From this data a second order analytical model of the clock's drift will be derived. This model will be used to extrapolate the offset of the MSX clock in time from the present to 48 hours in the future. MSX clock updates will be placed on the spacecraft's daily schedule whenever the predicted clock offset exceeds 0.5 milliseconds. The paper includes a discussion of how the empirical model of the MSX clock is derived from satellite telemetry data, as well as the algorithm used to schedule MSX clock updates based on the model.

  7. Tone-excited jet: Theory and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahuja, K. K.; Lepicovsky, J.; Tam, C. K. W.; Morris, P. J.; Burrin, R. H.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed study to understand the phenomenon of broadband jet-noise amplification produced by upstream discrete-tone sound excitation has been carried out. This has been achieved by simultaneous acquisition of the acoustic, mean velocity, turbulence intensities, and instability-wave pressure data. A 5.08 cm diameter jet has been tested for this purpose under static and also flight-simulation conditions. An open-jet wind tunnel has been used to simulate the flight effects. Limited data on heated jets have also been obtained. To improve the physical understanding of the flow modifications brought about by the upstream discrete-tone excitation, ensemble-averaged schlieren photographs of the jets have also been taken. Parallel to the experimental study, a mathematical model of the processes that lead to broadband-noise amplification by upstream tones has been developed. Excitation of large-scale turbulence by upstream tones is first calculated. A model to predict the changes in small-scale turbulence is then developed. By numerically integrating the resultant set of equations, the enhanced small-scale turbulence distribution in a jet under various excitation conditions is obtained. The resulting changes in small-scale turbulence have been attributed to broadband amplification of jet noise. Excellent agreement has been found between the theory and the experiments. It has also shown that the relative velocity effects are the same for the excited and the unexcited jets.

  8. Methodological tools for the collection and analysis of participant observation data using grounded theory.

    PubMed

    Laitinen, Heleena; Kaunonen, Marja; Astedt-Kurki, Päivi

    2014-11-01

    To give clarity to the analysis of participant observation in nursing when implementing the grounded theory method. Participant observation (PO) is a method of collecting data that reveals the reality of daily life in a specific context. In grounded theory, interviews are the primary method of collecting data but PO gives a distinctive insight, revealing what people are really doing, instead of what they say they are doing. However, more focus is needed on the analysis of PO. An observational study carried out to gain awareness of nursing care and its electronic documentation in four acute care wards in hospitals in Finland. Discussion of using the grounded theory method and PO as a data collection tool. The following methodological tools are discussed: an observational protocol, jotting of notes, microanalysis, the use of questioning, constant comparison, and writing and illustrating. Each tool has specific significance in collecting and analysing data, working in constant interaction. Grounded theory and participant observation supplied rich data and revealed the complexity of the daily reality of acute care. In this study, the methodological tools provided a base for the study at the research sites and outside. The process as a whole was challenging. It was time-consuming and it required rigorous and simultaneous data collection and analysis, including reflective writing. Using these methodological tools helped the researcher stay focused from data collection and analysis to building theory. Using PO as a data collection method in qualitative nursing research provides insights. It is not commonly discussed in nursing research and therefore this study can provide insight, which cannot be seen or revealed by using other data collection methods. Therefore, this paper can produce a useful tool for those who intend to use PO and grounded theory in their nursing research.

  9. Theorizing Teachers' Perspectives on an EFL Textbook for Public High Schools of Iran: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Namaghi, Seyyed Ali Ostovar; Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza Saboor; Tajzad, Maryam

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore language teachers' perspectives on Iranian third grade senior high school EFL textbook, which is prescribed by the Ministry of Education. In data collection and analysis, the researchers used theoretical sampling and the coding schemes presented in grounded theory. Final analysis yielded "Negative…

  10. Motivating and Inhibiting Factors in Online Gambling Behaviour: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Abby; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    To date, there has been very little empirical research examining why people gamble online or--just as importantly--why they do not gamble online. A grounded theory study examining the motivating and inhibiting factors in online gambling was carried out. The sample comprised 15 online gamblers, 14 offline gamblers, and 11 non-gamblers, and resulted…

  11. Using Grounded Theory to Understand Resiliency in Pre-Teen Children of High-Conflict Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pomrenke, Marlene

    2007-01-01

    Using grounded theory, this study identified factors that contributed to children's ability to utilize their resilient attributes. Children between the ages of 9 and 12 from high-conflict separated or divorced families participated in a study that examined how family and community interactions promote resilient behaviour. Substantive-level theory…

  12. Motivating and Inhibiting Factors in Online Gambling Behaviour: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Abby; Griffiths, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    To date, there has been very little empirical research examining why people gamble online or--just as importantly--why they do not gamble online. A grounded theory study examining the motivating and inhibiting factors in online gambling was carried out. The sample comprised 15 online gamblers, 14 offline gamblers, and 11 non-gamblers, and resulted…

  13. Instilling Foundation Behaviors of Professional Practice in Undergraduate Athletic Training Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to investigate the implementation of the "Foundational Behaviors of Professional Practice" in undergraduate athletic training education program curriculums accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education [CAATE]. Specifically, this study examined the educational and…

  14. Construction of a Conceptualization of Personal Knowledge within a Knowledge Management Perspective Using Grounded Theory Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straw, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The current research used grounded theory methodology (GTM) to construct a conceptualization of personal knowledge within a knowledge management (KM) perspective. The need for the current research was based on the use of just two categories of knowledge, explicit and tacit, within KM literature to explain diverse characteristics of personal…

  15. Doing the Things We Do: A Grounded Theory of Academic Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraw, Gregory; Wadkins, Theresa; Olafson, Lori

    2007-01-01

    The authors conducted a grounded theory study of academic procrastination to explore adaptive and maladaptive aspects of procrastination and to help guide future empirical research. They discuss previous research on the definition and dimensionality of procrastination and describe the study in which interview data were collected in 4 stages,…

  16. Action Learning and Constructivist Grounded Theory: Powerfully Overlapping Fields of Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Jane

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the shared characteristics between action learning (AL) and the research methodology constructivist grounded theory (CGT). Mirroring Edmonstone's [2011. "Action Learning and Organisation Development: Overlapping Fields of Practice." "Action Learning: Research and Practice" 8 (2): 93-102] article, which…

  17. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  18. Using survey data to assist theoretical sampling in grounded theory research.

    PubMed

    Currie, Kay

    2009-01-01

    Grounded theory methods can help to generate a theoretical explanation of social processes in specific contexts. This paper discusses theoretical sampling to guide interview participant selection and reflects on the practical application of this procedure to outline the value and limitations of using survey data in this way.

  19. How Robotics Programs Influence Young Women's Career Choices: A Grounded Theory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Cecilia Dosh-Bluhm

    2014-01-01

    The fields of engineering, computer science, and physics have a paucity of women despite decades of intervention by universities and organizations. Women's graduation rates in these fields continue to stagnate, posing a critical problem for society. This qualitative grounded theory (GT) study sought to understand how robotics programs influenced…

  20. Perspectives on the Aetiology of ODD and CD: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Patrick; Sanders, James; Hagen, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are common reasons for youth to be seen for clinical intervention. The intent of this constructivist grounded theory study was to evaluate clinicians' perspectives on the aetiology of antisocial disorders. Six professionals from various professional…

  1. Graphic Novels as Great Books: A Grounded Theory Study of Faculty Teaching Graphic Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Boniecki, Jeannie

    2013-01-01

    This Glaserian grounded theory study, through conceptual coding of interviews and course syllabi, aimed at exploring the motivations and aspirations university professors had when they offered courses dedicated to the study of graphic novels. As a result, the emergence of the graphic novel as a vital literary influence in 21st-century academia was…

  2. The Conflicts between Grounded Theory Requirements and Institutional Requirements for Scientific Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckerhoff, Jason; Guillemette, Francois

    2011-01-01

    The authors examined the conflicts between grounded theory (GT) requirements and institutional requirements for scientific research such as they were experienced by researchers and students. The overview of how GT was originally conceived served as background to the analysis of the problems GT users often faced when they submitted research…

  3. Phenomenography and Grounded Theory as Research Methods in Computing Education Research Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnunen, Paivi; Simon, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses two qualitative research methods, phenomenography and grounded theory. We introduce both methods' data collection and analysis processes and the type or results you may get at the end by using examples from computing education research. We highlight some of the similarities and differences between the aim, data collection and…

  4. Fathers' Orientation to Their Children's Autism Diagnosis: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannon, Michael D.; Hannon, LaChan V.

    2017-01-01

    Sixteen fathers of individuals with autism were interviewed to develop a grounded theory explaining how they learned about their children's autism diagnosis. Results suggest the orientation process entails at least two phases: orienting oneself and orienting others. The orienting oneself phase entailed fathers having suspicion of developmental…

  5. Graphic Novels as Great Books: A Grounded Theory Study of Faculty Teaching Graphic Novels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans-Boniecki, Jeannie

    2013-01-01

    This Glaserian grounded theory study, through conceptual coding of interviews and course syllabi, aimed at exploring the motivations and aspirations university professors had when they offered courses dedicated to the study of graphic novels. As a result, the emergence of the graphic novel as a vital literary influence in 21st-century academia was…

  6. Doing the Things We Do: A Grounded Theory of Academic Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schraw, Gregory; Wadkins, Theresa; Olafson, Lori

    2007-01-01

    The authors conducted a grounded theory study of academic procrastination to explore adaptive and maladaptive aspects of procrastination and to help guide future empirical research. They discuss previous research on the definition and dimensionality of procrastination and describe the study in which interview data were collected in 4 stages,…

  7. Finding the Groove: A Grounded Theory Study on Leading Others to a Productive Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roshann Reed

    2011-01-01

    Finding the groove was systematically discovered directly from data following the classical grounded theory methodology developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967) and further developed by Glaser (1965, 1978, 1992, 1998, 2001). This basic social process emerged from data as the pattern of behavior that leaders proceed through to increase performer…

  8. Student Affairs Professionals Supporting Students with Disabilities: A Grounded Theory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Ezekiel; Vaccaro, Annemarie; Vargas, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    In an action-based grounded theory project, the authors collected data from 31 student affairs professionals. During seven focus groups, practitioners described feeling unknowledgeable about disability law, accommodations, and diagnoses. However, they drew upon their core values and transferrable skills to support individual students. Participants…

  9. Relating Categories in Grounded Theory Analysis: Using a Conditional Relationship Guide and Reflective Coding Matrix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Karen Wilson

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the process for employing two principal instruments for relating the categories identifying the central phenomenon in grounded theory analysis. The Conditional Relationship Guide contextualizes the central phenomenon and relates structure with process. The second tool, the Reflective Coding Matrix, captures the higher level of…

  10. How Australian Female Adolescents Prioritize Pregnancy Protection: A Grounded Theory Study of Contraceptive Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jennifer L.; Skinner, S. Rachel; Fenwick, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Grounded theory principles were systematically employed to reveal key differences in pregnancy risk and underlying disparities in contraceptive use in (a) never-pregnant (b) pregnant-terminated and (c) pregnant-continued teenagers. Analysis of 69 semistructured interviews revealed a bicausal model of pregnancy protection that accounted for…

  11. A Grounded Theory Study of the Relationship between E-Mail and Burnout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camargo, Marta Rocha

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: This study consisted of a qualitative investigation into the role of e-mail in work-related burnout among high technology employees working full time and on-site for Internet, hardware, and software companies. Method: Grounded theory methodology was used to provide a systemic approach in categorising, sorting, and analysing data…

  12. Ganas of Showing the Way: A Grounded Theory Study of Hispanic Presidents in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios Gutierrez, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, based on classical grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967, 1971; Glaser, 1978, 1992, 1993, 1994a, 1994b, 1996, 1998, 2001, 2003, 2004), second generation Hispanic presidents and chancellors in higher education were studied to discover how they continually try to resolve second culture-coping challenges, the…

  13. Leading Critically: A Grounded Theory of Applied Critical Thinking in Leadership Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jekins, Daniel M.; Cutchens, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the development of a grounded theory of applied critical thinking in leadership studies and examines how student-centered experiential learning in leadership education bridged critical thinking with action. Over three semester undergraduate students in an upper level leadership studies course at a large four-year public…

  14. The Lack of Motivation to Pursue Postsecondary Education among Hmong Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Xang

    2015-01-01

    In rural areas, a lack of motivation to pursue a postsecondary degree continues to affect Hmong students at the postsecondary education level. The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory research was to create a model based on the exploration of the lack of motivation to pursue postsecondary education among Hmong high school students.…

  15. Integration of Learning: A Grounded Theory Analysis of College Students' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, James P.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a grounded theory of "integration of learning" among traditional aged college students, which is characterized by the demonstrated ability to link various skills and knowledge learned in a variety of contexts. The author analyzed 194 interviews with students at liberal arts colleges to investigate empirically the ways…

  16. Making Connections: Grounding Professional Development in the Developmental Theories of Vygotsky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eun, Barohny

    2008-01-01

    Professional development is grounded in the developmental theories of Vygotsky in an attempt to better understand the mechanism underlying teacher development. The rationale for the use of Vygotskian framework is provided in the context of describing the various models of professional development. Within this theoretical framework, it is argued…

  17. School Counselors Walking the Walk and Talking the Talk: A Grounded Theory of Effective Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scarborough, Janna L.; Luke, Melissa

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive, developmental school counseling programming has been associated with numerous benefits for students and is considered current best practice. A qualitative, grounded theory study was conducted to investigate eight professional school counselors employed across grade level, geographic setting, and region within the United States. This…

  18. Academic Affairs and Student Affairs Partnerships Promoting Diversity Initiatives on Campus: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LePeau, Lucy Anne

    2012-01-01

    Higher education research suggests student affairs and academic affairs partner to address challenges on campus, such as building inclusive environments for diverse students and staff, but evidence about "how" partnerships form is lacking in the literature. The purpose of this constructivist grounded theory was to understand…

  19. How Homeless Sector Workers Deal with the Death of Service Users: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakeman, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Homeless sector workers often encounter the deaths of service users. A modified grounded theory methodology project was used to explore how workers make sense of, respond to, and cope with sudden death. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 16 paid homeless sector workers who had experienced the death of someone with whom they worked.…

  20. Applying Grounded Theory to Weight Management among Women: Making a Commitment to Healthy Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Ivankova, Nataliya

    2011-01-01

    In this study we developed a theory grounded in data from women who continued healthy eating behaviors after a weight management program. Participant recruitment was guided by theoretical sampling strategies for focus groups and individual interviews. Inclusion criteria were: African American or Caucasian women aged 30+ who lost [greater than or…

  1. Philosophical Roots of Classical Grounded Theory: Its Foundations in Symbolic Interactionism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldiabat, Khaldoun M.; Le Navenec, Carole-Lynne

    2011-01-01

    Although many researchers have discussed the historical relationship between the Grounded Theory methodology and Symbolic Interactionism, they have not clearly articulated the congruency of their salient concepts and assumptions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a thorough discussion of this congruency. A hypothetical example about smoking…

  2. A Grounded Theory of Connectivity and Persistence in a Limited Residency Doctoral Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrell, Steven R.; Snyder, Martha M.; Dringus, Laurie P.; Maddrey, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Limited-residency and online doctoral programs have an attrition rate significantly higher than traditional programs. This grounded-theory study focused on issues pertaining to communication between students, their peers and faculty and how interpersonal communication may affect persistence. Data were collected from 17 students actively working on…

  3. Conceptualization of Calling: A Grounded Theory Exploration of CCCU Women Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longman, Karen A.; Dahlvig, Jolyn; Wikkerink, Richard J.; Cunningham, Debra; O'Connor, Candy M.

    2011-01-01

    This grounded theory study provides a conceptualization of the role of calling in women's leadership development based on semistructured interviews with 16 female leaders in the Council for Christian Colleges & Universities. Centered in the participants knowing and using their unique talents and strengths, which were often viewed as being…

  4. A Grounded Theory Study of Effective Global Leadership Development Strategies: Perspectives from Brazil, India, and Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokkesmoe, Karen Jane

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study focuses on global leadership and global leadership development strategies from the perspective of people from three developing countries, Brazil, India, and Nigeria. The study explores conceptualizations of global leadership, the skills required to lead effectively in global contexts, and recommended…

  5. The Factors That Influence Bureaucracy and Professionalism in Schools: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koybasi, Fatma; Ugurlu, Celal Teyyar

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the factors that influence the interaction between bureaucracy and professionalism in schools and to develop a model of bureaucracy-professionalism interaction. This is a qualitative study carried out in grounded theory model. The study group consisted of 10 male and 10 female teachers who were working in Sivas…

  6. Reading Comprehension Profiles of High-Functioning Students on the Autism Spectrum: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Pamela; Carnahan, Christina R.; Jacobs, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, this study sought to understand what influences reading comprehension and how meaning is made from text among high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a think-aloud procedure, 13 individuals ages 7-13 with ASD read 16 passages at their instructional reading level.…

  7. How Youth Get Engaged: Grounded-Theory Research on Motivational Development in Organized Youth Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawes, Nickki Pearce; Larson, Reed

    2011-01-01

    For youth to benefit from many of the developmental opportunities provided by organized programs, they need to not only attend but become psychologically engaged in program activities. This research was aimed at formulating empirically based grounded theory on the processes through which this engagement develops. Longitudinal interviews were…

  8. Looping as an Educational Practice in Deaf Education: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, Yvonne Theresa Artis

    2009-01-01

    The current qualitative study, using a grounded theory approach, explores the benefits of looping as an instructional practice by comparing the success of deaf and hard-of-hearing students in looping classrooms to the success of hearing students in looping classrooms. Limited information is currently available about the success of looping as an…

  9. Finding the Groove: A Grounded Theory Study on Leading Others to a Productive Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Roshann Reed

    2011-01-01

    Finding the groove was systematically discovered directly from data following the classical grounded theory methodology developed by Glaser and Strauss (1967) and further developed by Glaser (1965, 1978, 1992, 1998, 2001). This basic social process emerged from data as the pattern of behavior that leaders proceed through to increase performer…

  10. A Grounded Theory of Collaborative Synchronizing in Relation to Challenging Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multiprofessional collaboration as well as collaboration between professionals and challenging students and their parents in which the focus for these collaborations was on handling the challenging students' academic and social behavior. A grounded theory study of collaboration between a prereferral…

  11. Integration of Learning: A Grounded Theory Analysis of College Students' Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, James P.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a grounded theory of "integration of learning" among traditional aged college students, which is characterized by the demonstrated ability to link various skills and knowledge learned in a variety of contexts. The author analyzed 194 interviews with students at liberal arts colleges to investigate empirically the ways…

  12. How Homeless Sector Workers Deal with the Death of Service Users: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lakeman, Richard

    2011-01-01

    Homeless sector workers often encounter the deaths of service users. A modified grounded theory methodology project was used to explore how workers make sense of, respond to, and cope with sudden death. In-depth interviews were undertaken with 16 paid homeless sector workers who had experienced the death of someone with whom they worked.…

  13. Phenomenography and Grounded Theory as Research Methods in Computing Education Research Field

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinnunen, Paivi; Simon, Beth

    2012-01-01

    This paper discusses two qualitative research methods, phenomenography and grounded theory. We introduce both methods' data collection and analysis processes and the type or results you may get at the end by using examples from computing education research. We highlight some of the similarities and differences between the aim, data collection and…

  14. How Australian Female Adolescents Prioritize Pregnancy Protection: A Grounded Theory Study of Contraceptive Histories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Jennifer L.; Skinner, S. Rachel; Fenwick, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Grounded theory principles were systematically employed to reveal key differences in pregnancy risk and underlying disparities in contraceptive use in (a) never-pregnant (b) pregnant-terminated and (c) pregnant-continued teenagers. Analysis of 69 semistructured interviews revealed a bicausal model of pregnancy protection that accounted for…

  15. Ganas of Showing the Way: A Grounded Theory Study of Hispanic Presidents in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrios Gutierrez, Eugenio

    2010-01-01

    In this dissertation, based on classical grounded theory (Glaser & Strauss, 1967, 1971; Glaser, 1978, 1992, 1993, 1994a, 1994b, 1996, 1998, 2001, 2003, 2004), second generation Hispanic presidents and chancellors in higher education were studied to discover how they continually try to resolve second culture-coping challenges, the…

  16. Executive Function and Reading Aptitude: A Grounded Theory Analysis of Teacher Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study investigated teacher perspectives on the relationship between executive function and reading aptitude. The influence of executive function may be underestimated in terms of its impact on reading aptitude, which could have significant implications on how reading aptitude is currently defined. The foundational…

  17. The Development and Support of Teacher Leaders in Ohio: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jennifer Elaine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explore and conceptualize how teacher leaders are trained, developed, and supported both formally and informally to be effective in their roles. The study furthered examined teachers perceptions of the Ohio teacher leader endorsement and its impact on them as teacher leaders. The study was conducted…

  18. Making Connections: Grounding Professional Development in the Developmental Theories of Vygotsky

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eun, Barohny

    2008-01-01

    Professional development is grounded in the developmental theories of Vygotsky in an attempt to better understand the mechanism underlying teacher development. The rationale for the use of Vygotskian framework is provided in the context of describing the various models of professional development. Within this theoretical framework, it is argued…

  19. Instilling Foundation Behaviors of Professional Practice in Undergraduate Athletic Training Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to investigate the implementation of the "Foundational Behaviors of Professional Practice" in undergraduate athletic training education program curriculums accredited by the Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education [CAATE]. Specifically, this study examined the educational and…

  20. Student Affairs Professionals Supporting Students with Disabilities: A Grounded Theory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kimball, Ezekiel; Vaccaro, Annemarie; Vargas, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    In an action-based grounded theory project, the authors collected data from 31 student affairs professionals. During seven focus groups, practitioners described feeling unknowledgeable about disability law, accommodations, and diagnoses. However, they drew upon their core values and transferrable skills to support individual students. Participants…

  1. Using Popular Media and a Collaborative Approach to Teaching Grounded Theory Research Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creamer, Elizabeth G.; Ghoston, Michelle R.; Drape, Tiffany; Ruff, Chloe; Mukuni, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Popular movies were used in a doctoral-level qualitative research methods course as a way to help students learn about how to collect and analyze qualitative observational data in order to develop a grounded theory. The course was designed in such a way that collaboration was central to the generation of knowledge. Using media depictions had the…

  2. Factors Affecting Christian Parents' School Choice Decision Processes: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prichard, Tami G.; Swezey, James A.

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies factors affecting the decision processes for school choice by Christian parents. Grounded theory design incorporated interview transcripts, field notes, and a reflective journal to analyze themes. Comparative analysis, including open, axial, and selective coding, was used to reduce the coded statements to five code families:…

  3. The Development and Support of Teacher Leaders in Ohio: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Jennifer Elaine

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to explore and conceptualize how teacher leaders are trained, developed, and supported both formally and informally to be effective in their roles. The study furthered examined teachers perceptions of the Ohio teacher leader endorsement and its impact on them as teacher leaders. The study was conducted…

  4. The Lack of Motivation to Pursue Postsecondary Education among Hmong Students: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Xang

    2015-01-01

    In rural areas, a lack of motivation to pursue a postsecondary degree continues to affect Hmong students at the postsecondary education level. The purpose of this qualitative grounded theory research was to create a model based on the exploration of the lack of motivation to pursue postsecondary education among Hmong high school students.…

  5. Leading Critically: A Grounded Theory of Applied Critical Thinking in Leadership Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jekins, Daniel M.; Cutchens, Amanda B.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the development of a grounded theory of applied critical thinking in leadership studies and examines how student-centered experiential learning in leadership education bridged critical thinking with action. Over three semester undergraduate students in an upper level leadership studies course at a large four-year public…

  6. Executive Function and Reading Aptitude: A Grounded Theory Analysis of Teacher Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordman, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study investigated teacher perspectives on the relationship between executive function and reading aptitude. The influence of executive function may be underestimated in terms of its impact on reading aptitude, which could have significant implications on how reading aptitude is currently defined. The foundational…

  7. Leading Effective Educational Technology in K-12 School Districts: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Lara Gillian C.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic grounded theory qualitative study was conducted investigating the process of effectively leading educational technology in New Jersey public K-12 school districts. Data were collected from educational technology district leaders (whether formal or non-formal administrators) and central administrators through a semi-structured online…

  8. Reading Comprehension Profiles of High-Functioning Students on the Autism Spectrum: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Pamela; Carnahan, Christina R.; Jacobs, Jennifer A.

    2012-01-01

    Using a constructivist grounded theory approach, this study sought to understand what influences reading comprehension and how meaning is made from text among high-functioning individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Using a think-aloud procedure, 13 individuals ages 7-13 with ASD read 16 passages at their instructional reading level.…

  9. A Grounded Theory of Text Revision Processes Used by Young Adolescents Who Are Deaf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuknis, Christina

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the revising processes used by 8 middle school students who are deaf or hard-of-hearing as they composed essays for their English classes. Using grounded theory, interviews with students and teachers in one middle school, observations of the students engaging in essay creation, and writing samples were collected for analysis.…

  10. Clarification of the Blurred Boundaries between Grounded Theory and Ethnography: Differences and Similarities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aldiabat, Khaldoun; Le Navenec, Carol-Lynne

    2011-01-01

    There is confusion among graduate students about how to select the qualitative methodology that best fits their research question. Often this confusion arises in regard to making a choice between a grounded theory methodology and an ethnographic methodology. This difficulty may stem from the fact that these students do not have a clear…

  11. Residents' Interaction with Their College Living-Learning Peer Mentor: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Jonathan Patrick

    2012-01-01

    This study used Strauss and Corbin's (1998) grounded theory model to describe and explain the stories of residents' interactions with their peer mentor, in a health, education, and human development living-learning community (LLC). The question answered in this study was: What is the impact of the interaction between a peer mentor and…

  12. How Robotics Programs Influence Young Women's Career Choices: A Grounded Theory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Cecilia Dosh-Bluhm

    2014-01-01

    The fields of engineering, computer science, and physics have a paucity of women despite decades of intervention by universities and organizations. Women's graduation rates in these fields continue to stagnate, posing a critical problem for society. This qualitative grounded theory (GT) study sought to understand how robotics programs influenced…

  13. A Grounded Theory Study of Effective Global Leadership Development Strategies: Perspectives from Brazil, India, and Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lokkesmoe, Karen Jane

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative, grounded theory study focuses on global leadership and global leadership development strategies from the perspective of people from three developing countries, Brazil, India, and Nigeria. The study explores conceptualizations of global leadership, the skills required to lead effectively in global contexts, and recommended…

  14. Construction of a Conceptualization of Personal Knowledge within a Knowledge Management Perspective Using Grounded Theory Methodology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straw, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    The current research used grounded theory methodology (GTM) to construct a conceptualization of personal knowledge within a knowledge management (KM) perspective. The need for the current research was based on the use of just two categories of knowledge, explicit and tacit, within KM literature to explain diverse characteristics of personal…

  15. Perspectives on the Aetiology of ODD and CD: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFarland, Patrick; Sanders, James; Hagen, Bradley

    2016-01-01

    Antisocial disorders, such as oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) and conduct disorder (CD), are common reasons for youth to be seen for clinical intervention. The intent of this constructivist grounded theory study was to evaluate clinicians' perspectives on the aetiology of antisocial disorders. Six professionals from various professional…

  16. The Process of Social Identity Development in Adolescent High School Choral Singers: A Grounded Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Elizabeth Cassidy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this grounded theory study was to describe the process of adolescent choral singers' social identity development within three midsized, midwestern high school mixed choirs. Forty-nine interviews were conducted with 36 different participants. Secondary data sources included memoing, observations, and interviews with the choir…

  17. The Role of Professional School Counselors in Working with Students in Gangs: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Jennifer Cahoon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a grounded theory that contributed to the understanding of the professional school counselor's role at the secondary school level in working with students in gangs. The study explored the role of the professional school counselor from the first person perspective of the professional school counselor and…

  18. Getting Clean in a Drug Rehabilitation Program in Prison: A Grounded Theory Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Sharon; Ferguson, Neil

    2005-01-01

    High-risk drug use is prevalent among UK prison populations (Lipton, 1995) while recovery in prison is both complex and variable. Grounded theory methodology was employed to gain a greater understanding of the perceptions and conceptualisations of "risk," "need" and "motivation" in relation to prisoner drug abusing…

  19. The Role of Professional School Counselors in Working with Students in Gangs: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Jennifer Cahoon

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to propose a grounded theory that contributed to the understanding of the professional school counselor's role at the secondary school level in working with students in gangs. The study explored the role of the professional school counselor from the first person perspective of the professional school counselor and…

  20. A Grounded Theory of Collaborative Synchronizing in Relation to Challenging Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornberg, Robert

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate multiprofessional collaboration as well as collaboration between professionals and challenging students and their parents in which the focus for these collaborations was on handling the challenging students' academic and social behavior. A grounded theory study of collaboration between a prereferral…

  1. Ground-state properties and high-pressure behavior of plutonium dioxide: Density functional theory calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ping; Wang, Bao-Tian; Zhao, Xian-Geng

    2010-10-01

    Plutonium dioxide is of high technological importance in nuclear fuel cycle and is particularly crucial in long-term storage of Pu-based radioactive waste. Using first-principles density-functional theory, in this paper we systematically study the structural, electronic, mechanical, thermodynamic properties, and pressure-induced structural transition of PuO2 . To properly describe the strong correlation in Pu5f electrons, the local-density approximation (LDA)+U and the generalized gradient approximation+U theoretical formalisms have been employed. We optimize U parameter in calculating the total energy, lattice parameters, and bulk modulus at nonmagnetic, ferromagnetic, and antiferromagnetic configurations for both ground-state fluorite structure and high-pressure cotunnite structure. Best agreement with experiments is obtained by tuning the effective Hubbard parameter U at around 4 eV within LDA+U approach. After carefully testing the validity of the ground-state calculation, we further investigate the bonding nature, elastic constants, various moduli, Debye temperature, hardness, ideal tensile strength, and phonon dispersion for fluorite PuO2 . Some thermodynamic properties, e.g., Gibbs free energy, volume thermal expansion, and specific heat are also calculated. As for cotunnite phase, besides elastic constants, various moduli, and Debye temperature at 0 GPa, we have further presented our calculated electronic, structural, and magnetic properties for PuO2 under pressure up to 280 GPa. A metallic transition at around 133 GPa and an isostructural transition in pressure range of 75-133 GPa are predicted. Additionally, as an illustration on the valency trend and subsequent effect on the mechanical properties, the calculated results for other actinide metal dioxides ( ThO2 , UO2 , and NpO2 ) are also presented.

  2. Multiconfiguration Pair-Density Functional Theory Outperforms Kohn-Sham Density Functional Theory and Multireference Perturbation Theory for Ground-State and Excited-State Charge Transfer.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Soumen; Sonnenberger, Andrew L; Hoyer, Chad E; Truhlar, Donald G; Gagliardi, Laura

    2015-08-11

    The correct description of charge transfer in ground and excited states is very important for molecular interactions, photochemistry, electrochemistry, and charge transport, but it is very challenging for Kohn-Sham (KS) density functional theory (DFT). KS-DFT exchange-correlation functionals without nonlocal exchange fail to describe both ground- and excited-state charge transfer properly. We have recently proposed a theory called multiconfiguration pair-density functional theory (MC-PDFT), which is based on a combination of multiconfiguration wave function theory with a new type of density functional called an on-top density functional. Here we have used MC-PDFT to study challenging ground- and excited-state charge-transfer processes by using on-top density functionals obtained by translating KS exchange-correlation functionals. For ground-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT performs better than either the PBE exchange-correlation functional or CASPT2 wave function theory. For excited-state charge transfer, MC-PDFT (unlike KS-DFT) shows qualitatively correct behavior at long-range with great improvement in predicted excitation energies.

  3. Supersaturated Electrolyte Solutions: Theory and Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Izmailov, Alexander F.; Myerson, Allan S.; Na, Han-Soo

    1995-01-01

    Highly supersaturated electrolyte solutions can be prepared and studied employing an electrodynamic levitator trap (ELT) technique. The ELT technique involves containerless suspension of a microdroplet thus eliminating dust, dirt, and container walls which normally cause heterogeneous nucleation. This allows very high supersaturations to be achieved. A theoretical study of the experimental results obtained for the water activity in microdroplets of various electrolyte solutions is based on the development of the Cahn-Hilliard formalism for electrolyte solutions. In the approach suggested the metastable state for electrolyte solutions is described in terms of the conserved order parameter omega(r,t) associated with fluctuations of the mean solute concentration n(sub 0). Parameters of the corresponding Ginzburg-Landau free energy functional which defines the dynamics of metastable state relaxation are determined and expressed through the experimentally measured quantities. A correspondence of 96-99 % between theory and experiment for all solutions studied was achieved and allowed the determination of an analytical expression for the spinodal concentration n(sub spin), and its calculation for various electrolyte solutions at 298 K. The assumption that subcritical solute clusters consist of the electrically neutral Bjerrum pairs has allowed both analytical and numerical investigation of the number-size N(sub c) of nucleation monomers (aggregates of the Bjerrum pairs) which are elementary units of the solute critical clusters. This has also allowed estimations for the surface tension Alpha, and equilibrium bulk energy Beta per solute molecule in the nucleation monomers. The dependence of these properties on the temperature T and on the solute concentration n(sub 0) through the entire metastable zone (from saturation concentration n(sub sat) to spinodal n(sub spin) is examined. It has been demonstrated that there are the following asymptotics: N(sub c), = I at spinodal

  4. 'Single molecule': theory and experiments, an introduction.

    PubMed

    Riveline, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    At scales below micrometers, Brownian motion dictates most of the behaviors. The simple observation of a colloid is striking: a permanent and random motion is seen, whereas inertial forces play a negligible role. This Physics, where velocity is proportional to force, has opened new horizons in biology. The random feature is challenged in living systems where some proteins--molecular motors--have a directed motion whereas their passive behaviors of colloid should lead to a Brownian motion. Individual proteins, polymers of living matter such as DNA, RNA, actin or microtubules, molecular motors, all these objects can be viewed as chains of colloids. They are submitted to shocks from molecules of the solvent. Shapes taken by these biopolymers or dynamics imposed by motors can be measured and modeled from single molecules to their collective effects. Thanks to the development of experimental methods such as optical tweezers, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), micropipettes, and quantitative fluorescence (such as Förster Resonance Energy Transfer, FRET), it is possible to manipulate these individual biomolecules in an unprecedented manner: experiments allow to probe the validity of models; and a new Physics has thereby emerged with original biological insights. Theories based on statistical mechanics are needed to explain behaviors of these systems. When force-extension curves of these molecules are extracted, the curves need to be fitted with models that predict the deformation of free objects or submitted to a force. When velocity of motors is altered, a quantitative analysis is required to explain the motions of individual molecules under external forces. This lecture will give some elements of introduction to the lectures of the session 'Nanophysics for Molecular Biology'.

  5. Color-reflection holography: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Hubel, P M; Solymar, L

    1991-10-10

    We present a theoretical and experimental analysis of color-reflection holography. Full parallax three-dimensional color images are obtained by the superposition of wavelength-selective reflection holograms recorded at eight combinations of three laser wavelengths. The test object used was a set of eight Munsell color chips recommended by the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage (CIE) for color-rendering analysis. The spectral power distributions of all the holographic images are measured using a telespectroradiometer and corresponding points are calculated and plotted on a color diagram. The holograms are modeled by a combination of sinc functions for the diffracted replay signal and an empirically determined function for the replay scatter noise. A new definition of signal-to-noise ratio for color holograms is described. The model is matched to a spectral power distribution by choosing values for relative diffraction efficiencies, bandwidth, signal-to-noise ratio, and wavelength shift components. One spectral power distribution having been matched, theoretical predictions of the remaining colors in the holographic images are obtained. The predictions mapped on the CIE 1976 diagram are shown to agree with experimental results: the average distance between theoretical and experimental points on the CIE diagram for all eight Munsell chips on all eight holograms is 0.0001 CIE 1976 chromaticity diagram unit; the discrepancy of the average gamut area between theoretical and experimental points on the CIE diagrams was < 10%. Good agreement between theory and experiment having been shown, a synthesis of holographic color reproduction at any combination of wavelengths predicts optimum recording wavelengths of 460, 530, and 615 nm for typical replay by a color-reflection hologram.

  6. 'Single molecule': theory and experiments, an introduction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    At scales below micrometers, Brownian motion dictates most of the behaviors. The simple observation of a colloid is striking: a permanent and random motion is seen, whereas inertial forces play a negligible role. This Physics, where velocity is proportional to force, has opened new horizons in biology. The random feature is challenged in living systems where some proteins - molecular motors - have a directed motion whereas their passive behaviors of colloid should lead to a Brownian motion. Individual proteins, polymers of living matter such as DNA, RNA, actin or microtubules, molecular motors, all these objects can be viewed as chains of colloids. They are submitted to shocks from molecules of the solvent. Shapes taken by these biopolymers or dynamics imposed by motors can be measured and modeled from single molecules to their collective effects. Thanks to the development of experimental methods such as optical tweezers, Atomic Force Microscope (AFM), micropipettes, and quantitative fluorescence (such as Förster Resonance Energy Transfer, FRET), it is possible to manipulate these individual biomolecules in an unprecedented manner: experiments allow to probe the validity of models; and a new Physics has thereby emerged with original biological insights. Theories based on statistical mechanics are needed to explain behaviors of these systems. When force-extension curves of these molecules are extracted, the curves need to be fitted with models that predict the deformation of free objects or submitted to a force. When velocity of motors is altered, a quantitative analysis is required to explain the motions of individual molecules under external forces. This lecture will give some elements of introduction to the lectures of the session 'Nanophysics for Molecular Biology'. PMID:24565227

  7. How Female Professionals Successfully Process and Negotiate Involuntary Job Loss at Faith-Based Colleges and Universities: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Debra Jayne

    2013-01-01

    Using a constructivist grounded theory approach (Charmaz, 2006), this qualitative study examined how 8 female senior-level professionals employed at faith-based colleges and universities processed and navigated the experience of involuntary job loss and successfully transitioned to another position. The purpose of this research was to contribute…

  8. How Female Professionals Successfully Process and Negotiate Involuntary Job Loss at Faith-Based Colleges and Universities: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Debra Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Using a constructivist grounded theory approach (Charmaz, 2006), this qualitative study examined how eight female senior-level professionals employed at faith-based colleges and universities processed and navigated the experience of involuntary job loss and successfully transitioned to another position. The theoretical framework of psychological…

  9. How Female Professionals Successfully Process and Negotiate Involuntary Job Loss at Faith-Based Colleges and Universities: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Debra Jayne

    2015-01-01

    Using a constructivist grounded theory approach (Charmaz, 2006), this qualitative study examined how eight female senior-level professionals employed at faith-based colleges and universities processed and navigated the experience of involuntary job loss and successfully transitioned to another position. The theoretical framework of psychological…

  10. How Female Professionals Successfully Process and Negotiate Involuntary Job Loss at Faith-Based Colleges and Universities: A Grounded Theory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Debra Jayne

    2013-01-01

    Using a constructivist grounded theory approach (Charmaz, 2006), this qualitative study examined how 8 female senior-level professionals employed at faith-based colleges and universities processed and navigated the experience of involuntary job loss and successfully transitioned to another position. The purpose of this research was to contribute…

  11. Grounded Learning Experience: Helping Students Learn Physics through Visuo-Haptic Priming and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shih-Chieh Douglas

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate the effects of a grounded learning experience on college students' mental models of physics systems. The grounded learning experience consisted of a priming stage and an instruction stage, and within each stage, one of two different types of visuo-haptic representation was applied: visuo-gestural simulation…

  12. Grounded Learning Experience: Helping Students Learn Physics through Visuo-Haptic Priming and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shih-Chieh Douglas

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation, I investigate the effects of a grounded learning experience on college students' mental models of physics systems. The grounded learning experience consisted of a priming stage and an instruction stage, and within each stage, one of two different types of visuo-haptic representation was applied: visuo-gestural simulation…

  13. How parents process child health and nutrition information: A grounded theory model.

    PubMed

    Lovell, Jennifer L

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate low-income parents' experiences receiving, making meaning of, and applying sociocultural messages about childhood health and nutrition. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents from 16 low-income Early Head Start families. Verbatim interview transcripts, observations, field notes, documentary evidence, and follow-up participant checks were used during grounded theory analysis of the data. Data yielded a potential theoretical model of parental movement toward action involving (a) the culture and context influencing parents, (b) parents' sources of social and cultural messages, (c) parental values and engagement, (d) parental motivation for action, (e) intervening conditions impacting motivation and application, and (f) parent action taken on the individual and social levels. Parent characteristics greatly impacted the ways in which parents understood and applied health and nutrition information. Among other implications, it is recommended that educators and providers focus on a parent's beliefs, values, and cultural preferences regarding food and health behaviors as well as his/her personal/family definition of "health" when framing recommendations and developing interventions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Managing socio-institutional enclosure: A grounded theory of caregivers' attentiveness in hospital care.

    PubMed

    Klaver, Klaartje; Baart, Andries

    2016-06-01

    Caregivers' attentiveness is vital for healthcare quality, yet existing research lacks a specific definition and neglects its different forms and aspects. This paper presents a qualitative, grounded theory of attentiveness in hospital oncology care. Our data show nine types of attentiveness. We answer the question why a caregiver practices one type of attentiveness in a certain situation, and not another type. First, it appears to be of crucial importance whether attentiveness is essential for giving care in the opinion of the caregiver. Second, the focus of attention is essential. Care given by doctors and nurses is always ambivalent; on the one hand, it concerns the body, and on the other hand, it involves the person whom that body belongs to. What is the caregiver (mainly) focused on? The significance of socio-institutional enclosure emerged as a key theme within the findings. Socio-institutional enclosure concerns the space a caregiver may or may not experience to break free from the preponderant institutional orientation towards the physical body of the patient. At the intersection of the influence of socio-institutional enclosure and the substance of the caregivers' concepts of care, three cultures are found that comprise the different types of attentiveness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Can nurse teachers manage student incivility by guided democracy? A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Rad, Mostafa; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Ildarabadi, Eshagh

    2017-07-17

    Managing incivility in academic settings is among the basic concerns and challenges of most educational systems, including nursing education. Incivility management cannot be considered devoid of disruptive behaviors. However, incivility management is a complexphenomenon upon which few studies are conducted. The present study aims at discovering teachers and students' experiences regarding incivility and developing an approach to manage nursing students' incivility. The present study was conducted based on the qualitative research design of the grounded theory methodology. This study was conducted at schools of nursing in academic settings in Iran. Study participants in the present study include nurse teachers (N=20) and nursing students (N=9). In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted using theoretical and purposive sampling. Constant comparative analysis was used for data analysis. The results include four main categories; (1) deterioration of learning; (2) dominant individual and organisational culture; (3) guided democracy; and (4) movement toward professionalism. Guided democracy is recognised as the main basic psychosocial process for incivility management. Incivility management is pursued to help learners develop professional performance. As indicated by the results of the present study, guided democracy is an effective strategy for incivility management in nursing education. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. The Docent Method: A Grounded Theory Approach for Researching Place and Health.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jamie Suki

    2016-09-14

    To understand health, research needs to move outside of controlled research settings into the environments where health activities occur-homes, streets, and neighborhoods. I offer the docent method as a qualitative place-based approach for exploring health in a participant-driven, structured, and flexible way. The docent method is a participant-led, audiotaped, and photographed walking interview through broad "sites of interest" (SOIs). It is rooted in grounded theory and influenced by community-based participatory research and walking interviews. The three stages of the docent method involve: (a) a warm-up interview focusing on positionality, participant background, and mapping/planning SOIs; (b) a participant-led, photographed walking interview to and around the SOI; and (c) a wind-down interview in the community. I describe the methodological influences, development, and procedures of the docent method drawing from my own experiences conducting it with formerly homeless women living in permenant supportive housing in the Tenderloin neighborhood of San Francisco.

  17. The core of after death care in relation to organ donation - a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Forsberg, Anna; Flodén, Anne; Lennerling, Annette; Karlsson, Veronika; Nilsson, Madeleine; Fridh, Isabell

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate how intensive and critical care nurses experience and deal with after death care i.e. the period from notification of a possible brain dead person, and thereby a possible organ donor, to the time of post-mortem farewell. Grounded theory, based on Charmaz' framework, was used to explore what characterises the ICU-nurses concerns during the process of after death and how they handle it. Data was collected from open-ended interviews. The core category: achieving a basis for organ donation through dignified and respectful care of the deceased person and the close relatives highlights the main concern of the 29 informants. This concern is categorised into four main areas: safeguarding the dignity of the deceased person, respecting the relatives, dignified and respectful care, enabling a dignified farewell. After death care requires the provision of intense, technical, medical and nursing interventions to enable organ donation from a deceased person. It is achieved by extensive nursing efforts to preserve and safeguard the dignity of and respect for the deceased person and the close relatives, within an atmosphere of peace and tranquillity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Process of becoming a mother for Iranian surrogacy-commissioning mothers: A grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Zandi, Mitra; Vanaki, Zohreh; Shiva, Marziyeh; Mohammadi, Eesa

    2017-01-20

    Little knowledge is available about the experiences of the commissioning mothers during the process of surrogacy; thus, the present study was conducted in order to explore and analyze this process. This study was conducted in a referral institute in Tehran with a qualitative approach and using grounded theory methodology. The data were collected through 39 unstructured, in-depth interviews that were conducted with 15 gestational commissioning mothers, two of their husbands, four surrogates, and five of the personnel at centers for assisted reproduction (some participants were interviewed more than once). Sampling started purposively and then continued theoretically. The analysis revealed the main concern of these mothers to be the feeling of "insecurity about becoming a mother" and their predominant strategy for dealing with it to be "seeking security about becoming a mother," which emerged as a core concept. The consequences of the mothers' adopted strategies and the effects of the intervening factors included "reaching a state of relative peace," "a continuing threat to one's identity," and "mental and physical exhaustion." Identifying the demands of this group of mothers can help medical personnel, particularly nurses, adopt better plans for the future and to optimize the care they provide to these patients. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  19. Balancing the Roles of a Family Medicine Residency Faculty: A Grounded Theory Study.

    PubMed

    Reitz, Randall; Sudano, Laura; Siler, Anne; Trimble, Kristopher

    2016-05-01

    Great variety exists in the roles that family medicine residency faculty fill in the lives of their residents. A family medicine-specific model has never been created to describe and promote effective training relationships. This research aims to create a consensus model for faculty development, ethics education, and policy creation. Using a modified grounded theory methods, researchers conducted phone interviews with 22 key informants from US family medicine residencies. Data were analyzed to delineate faculty roles, common role conflicts, and ethical principles for avoiding and managing role conflicts. Key informants were asked to apply their experience and preferences to adapt an existing model to fit with family medicine residency settings. The primary result of this research is the creation of a family medicine-specific model that describes faculty roles and provides insight into how to manage role conflicts with residents. Primary faculty roles include Role Model, Advisor, Teacher, Supervisor, and Evaluator. Secondary faculty roles include Friendly Colleague, Wellness Supporter, and Helping Hand. The secondary roles exist on a continuum from disengaged to enmeshed. When not balanced, the secondary roles can detract from the primary roles. Differences were found between role expectations of physician versus behavioral science faculty and larger/university/urban residencies versus smaller/community/rural residencies. Diversity of opinion exists related to the types of roles that are appropriate for family medicine faculty to maintain with residents. This new model is a first attempt to build consensus in the field and has application to faculty development, ethics education, and policy creation.

  20. Can nurse teachers manage student incivility by guided democracy? A grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Rad, Mostafa; Ildarabadi, Eshagh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Managing incivility in academic settings is among the basic concerns and challenges of most educational systems, including nursing education. Incivility management cannot be considered devoid of disruptive behaviors. However, incivility management is a complexphenomenon upon which few studies are conducted. Objectives The present study aims at discovering teachers and students’ experiences regarding incivility and developing an approach to manage nursing students’ incivility. Design The present study was conducted based on the qualitative research design of the grounded theory methodology. Settings This study was conducted at schools of nursing in academic settings in Iran. Participants Study participants in the present study include nurse teachers (N=20) and nursing students (N=9). Method In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted using theoretical and purposive sampling. Constant comparative analysis was used for data analysis. Results The results include four main categories; (1) deterioration of learning; (2) dominant individual and organisational culture; (3) guided democracy; and (4) movement toward professionalism. Guided democracy is recognised as the main basic psychosocial process for incivility management. Conclusions Incivility management is pursued to help learners develop professional performance. As indicated by the results of the present study, guided democracy is an effective strategy for incivility management in nursing education. PMID:28716787

  1. The educational journeys of first-generation college women in STEM: A grounded theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geier, Susan

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain the various factors that influenced these first-generation college women as they chose a college and selected a STEM major and subsequently persisted to upper level (junior/senior) status. Twenty-five first-generation college women in STEM majors who attended a research-intensive university in the Midwest were interviewed. Approaching this study using constructivist grounded theory provided the opportunity for deeper insights by examining data at a conceptual level while preserving the voices of the women in this study. The women faced numerous challenges on their journeys, yet they persisted. As the women in this study selected and persisted in STEM, they demonstrated thoughtful determination, experienced shifting identities, established purposeful relationships and applied forward thinking, as they practiced high-stakes decision-making during their journeys. The experiences of these women, namely first-generation women in STEM fields, may inform students, parents, educators, researchers, and policymakers concerned with (a) inspiring students to consider STEM majors, (b) fostering student success in STEM throughout their academic journeys, and (c) ultimately increasing the number of underrepresented minorities and women in the STEM fields.

  2. Being publicly diagnosed: a grounded theory study of Danish patients with tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Konradsen, Hanne; Lillebaek, Troels; Wilcke, Torgny; Lomborg, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease which affects people worldwide, but there is knowledge lacking about patients' experiences in low-prevalence and high-income countries. To provide a theoretical framework for the process of being diagnosed with tuberculosis in a Danish setting. A grounded theory design with field studies and qualitative interviews, following the recommendations from Glaser and Strauss. A process of being publicly diagnosed was identified, which developed during the patient's trajectory from being on the way to becoming a patient, becoming a patient with TB, and finally being in medical treatment. Before being diagnosed with TB, patients were weighing between biding their time and deciding to undergo an examination. Social pressure and feelings of social responsibility tended to affect the decision. Having undergone the examination(s), the patients were publicly diagnosed. Being publicly diagnosed meant changing social interactions and fighting to regain control. Findings offer new insight and an empirically derived basis for developing interventions aimed at reducing the burden of being diagnosed with tuberculosis and increasing the wellbeing of the patients.

  3. User involvement and experiential knowledge in interprofessional rehabilitation: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Slomic, Mirela; Christiansen, Bjørg; Soberg, Helene L; Sveen, Unni

    2016-10-04

    User involvement is increasingly important in developing relevant health care services. The aim of this study was to contribute to a deeper understanding of user involvement and patients' experiential knowledge as recognized and incorporated into clinical practice by rehabilitation professionals. A qualitative design using a grounded theory approach was applied. Data were collected by observations of the interprofessional meetings at two rehabilitation units treating patients with traumatic brain injury and multiple trauma and by individual semi-structured interviews with rehabilitation professionals. The professionals recognized and incorporated user involvement into clinical practice as formal or authentic. Formal user involvement was sometimes considered pro forma. Incorporating patient' experiential knowledge was considered a part of authentic user involvement. Possible gaps between the patients' experiential knowledge and professional expertise were recognized. Challenges included dealing with 'artifacts', sources of information external to the patients' own experiences, and addressing the patients' possibly reduced insight due to trauma. Patients' experiential knowledge was recognized as an essential component of the professionals' knowledge base. The professionals considered user involvement and patients' experiential knowledge as part of their clinical practice. Implementation of user involvement and contribution of patients' experiential knowledge could be improved by understanding the issues raised in practice, such as possible negative consequences of user involvement in form of burdening or disempowering the patients. A better understanding of the characteristics and measures of user involvement is necessary in order to be able to offer its full benefits for both the patients and the professionals.

  4. Minimizing the risk of intrusion: a grounded theory of intimate partner violence disclosure in emergency departments.

    PubMed

    Catallo, Cristina; Jack, Susan M; Ciliska, Donna; MacMillan, Harriet L

    2013-06-01

    To report a study of processes used by women to disclose intimate partner violence to healthcare professionals in urban emergency department settings. Women seek emergency care for impairment related to intimate partner violence yet face barriers non-judgmental and supportive care. A two-phase sequential explanatory mixed methods study. The study was conducted in Ontario, Canada (May 2006-December 2007). In a sub-analysis of quantitative data with 1182 participants, 15% of women patients reported intimate partner violence, but only 2% disclosed to a healthcare professional. To understand these results, grounded theory with 19 participants was completed. Participants identified that the basic social problem was the violence 'being found out' by healthcare professionals while receiving care. To address this problem, women undertook a process to minimize intrusion including: deciding to seek care, evaluating the level of trust with the presenting healthcare professional, and establishing personal readiness to disclose. The trajectory of this process was different for each participant with some negotiating all phases leading to violence disclosure. The length of time it took for participants to move through each phase varied across all participants. Common to all participants was the anticipation and the actual experience of intrusion and its influence on women's willingness to disclose intimate partner violence. The results suggest nurses may be able to facilitate disclosure of intimate partner violence through limiting intrusion. This can include assessment in a private setting, and fewer professionals who interact with the client. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Negotiating a Place in the Family-A Grounded Theory Exploration of Stepgrandmothers' Enactment of Roles.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Ashton; Ganong, Lawrence; Coleman, Marilyn; Kang, Youngjin; Sanner, Caroline; Russell, Luke T

    2016-08-12

    Stepgrandparents are becoming more common, and they can, and often do, provide affective and instrumental support to families. Little is known, however, about how they negotiate and enact their roles within families, especially with stepgrandchildren. Stepgrandmothers warrant special attention because researchers have found that women experience more challenges than men in stepfamilies. Guided by symbolic interactionism, the purposes of our study were: (a) to explore stepgrandmothers' role enactment and (b) to explore the intrapersonal, interpersonal, and contextual factors that contribute to role enactment in intergenerational steprelationships. Eighteen stepgrandmothers participated in semi-structured interviews, discussing their relationships with 94 stepgrandchildren. Consistent with grounded theory methods, data collection and analysis occurred simultaneously. Interviews with stepgrandmothers revealed that they spend considerable time and energy defining their roles with stepgrandchildren. Stepgrandmothers' role enactment is a complex, reflexive process. A few perceived that their roles were shaped by their own dispositions, desires, and expectations (evidence for role-making), but most stepgrandmothers described their roles as reflecting the dispositions, desires, and expectations of others (evidence for role-taking). Stepgrandmothers reflected on their roles as a delicate balance of intra- and inter-personal negotiations, operating within cultural expectations. Findings draw attention to the complex nature of role-taking, role-making, and gendered, relational processes in multigenerational stepfamilies. We discuss implications for research and theory related to stepgrandmotherhood as an incomplete institution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Applicability of Aerospace Materials Ground Flammability Test Data to Spacecraft Environments Theory and Applied Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Williams, Jim; Beeson, Harold

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the use of ground test data in reference to flammability to spacecraft environments. It reviews the current approach to spacecraft fire safety, the challenges to fire safety that the Constellation program poses, the current trends in the evaluation of the Constellation materials flammability, and the correlation of test data from ground flammability tests with the spacecraft environment. Included is a proposal for testing and the design of experiments to test the flammability of materials under similar spacecraft conditions.

  7. Psychotherapy: theory, experience, and personalized actuarial tables.

    PubMed

    Leventhal, D B; Shemberg, K M

    1977-12-01

    This paper addresses the issue of the role of theory in the actual application of psychotherapeutic operations. Within the present framework, psychotherapeutic effectiveness is seen as an empirical, actuarial process which occurs in an interpersonal setting separate from theoretical considerations. The role of theory is discussed and a rationale for the coexistence of equally 'effective' contradictory theories is presented. Suggestions for future research in the area of behaviour change are made and an argument for the eventual development of a 'therapeutic cookbook' is presented.

  8. Coupled Simulations, Ground-Based Experiments and Flight Experiments for Astrodynamics Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyce, R.; Brown, M.; Lorrain, P.; Capon, C.; Lambert, A.; Benson, C.; Tuttle, S.; Griffin, D.

    Near-Earth satellites undergo complex and poorly understood interactions with their environment, leading to large uncertainties in predicting orbits and an associated risk of collision with other satellites and with space debris. The nature, evolution and behaviour of the growing cloud of space debris in that environment is even less well understood. Significant effort and expenditure is currently being made by governments in Australia, UK, USA, Europe and elsewhere in space surveillance and tracking, in order to mitigate the risk. However, a major gap exists with respect to the science of in-orbit behaviour. Research is underway in Australia to enable the prediction of the orbits of near-Earth space objects with order(s) of magnitude greater fidelity than currently possible. This is being achieved by coupling together the necessary parts of the puzzle - the physics of rarefied space object “aerodynamics” and the space physics and space weather that affects it - and employing our capabilities in ground-based and in-orbit experiments, ground-based observations and high performance computing to do so. As part of the effort, UNSW Canberra is investing $10M to develop a sustainable university-led program to develop and fly affordable in-orbit missions for space research. In the coming 6 years, we will fly a minimum of four cubesat missions, some in partnership with DSTO, which will include flight experiments for validating Space Situational Awareness astrodynamics simulation and observation capabilities. The flights are underpinned by ground-based experimental research employing space test chambers, advanced diagnostics, and supercomputer simulations that couple DSMC and Particle-in-Cell methods for modelling space object interactions with the ionosphere. This paper will describe the research both underway and planned, with particular emphasis on the coupled numerical/experimental/flight approach.

  9. The arcing rate for a High Voltage Solar Array - Theory, experiment and predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Daniel E.; Cho, Mengu; Kuninaka, Hitoshi

    1992-01-01

    All solar arrays have biased surfaces which can be exposed to the space environment. It has been observed that when the array bias is less than a few hundred volts negative then the exposed conductive surfaces may undergo arcing in the space plasma. A theory for arcing is developed on these high voltage solar arrays which ascribes the arcing to electric field runaway at the interface of the plasma, conductor and solar cell dielectric. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory for the High Voltage Solar Array (HVSA) experiment which will fly on the Japanese Space Flyer Unit (SFU) in 1994. The theory was compared in detail to the experiment and shown to give a reasonable explanation for the data. The combined theory and ground experiments were then used to develop predictions for the SFU flight.

  10. Arcing rates for High Voltage Solar Arrays - Theory, experiment, and predictions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hastings, Daniel E.; Cho, Mengu; Kuninaka, Hitoshi

    1992-01-01

    All solar arrays have biased surfaces that can be exposed to the space environment. It has been observed that when the array bias is less than a few hundred volts negative, then the exposed conductive surfaces may undergo arcing in the space plasma. A theory for arcing is developed on these high voltage solar arrays that ascribes the arcing to electric field runaway at the interface of the plasma, conductor, and solar cell dielectric. Experiments were conducted in the laboratory for the High Voltage Solar Array experiment that will fly on the Japanese Space Flyer Unit (SFU) in 1994. The theory was compared in detail with the experiment and shown to give a reasonable explanation for the data. The combined theory and ground experiments were then used to develop predictions for the SFU flight.

  11. A Grounded Theory Study on Journeying through the Shield to Sacredness: "Ni'hokaa' Diyin Dine'e Idliini Dolzin"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    In doing a grounded theory study, the researcher does not identify a hypothesis, formulate research questions, or state a specific problem at the beginning of the research. Grounded theory research begins with data collection, minimizing preconceptions about outcomes to the greatest extent possible. I began my research with this attitude of not…

  12. A Grounded Theory for Identifying Students with Emotional Disturbance: Promising Practices for Assessment, Intervention, and Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Dori

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative grounded theory study examined how practicing professionals involved in the ED identification process reconstructed the category of "emotional disturbance" as it applied to students in an alternative educational setting. A grounded theory integrates six emergent themes and essentially reframes the existing ED criteria in contemporary…

  13. A Grounded Theory Study on Journeying through the Shield to Sacredness: "Ni'hokaa' Diyin Dine'e Idliini Dolzin"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrity, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    In doing a grounded theory study, the researcher does not identify a hypothesis, formulate research questions, or state a specific problem at the beginning of the research. Grounded theory research begins with data collection, minimizing preconceptions about outcomes to the greatest extent possible. I began my research with this attitude of not…

  14. A Grounded Theory for Identifying Students with Emotional Disturbance: Promising Practices for Assessment, Intervention, and Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Dori

    2012-01-01

    A qualitative grounded theory study examined how practicing professionals involved in the ED identification process reconstructed the category of "emotional disturbance" as it applied to students in an alternative educational setting. A grounded theory integrates six emergent themes and essentially reframes the existing ED criteria in contemporary…

  15. Three Slit Experiments and the Structure of Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ududec, Cozmin; Barnum, Howard; Emerson, Joseph

    2011-03-01

    In spite of the interference manifested in the double-slit experiment, quantum theory predicts that a measure of interference defined by Sorkin and involving various outcome probabilities from an experiment with three slits, is identically zero. We adapt Sorkin's measure into a general operational probabilistic framework for physical theories, and then study its relationship to the structure of quantum theory. In particular, we characterize the class of probabilistic theories for which the interference measure is zero as ones in which it is possible to fully determine the state of a system via specific sets of `two-slit' experiments.

  16. Gravitation theory - Empirical status from solar system experiments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordtvedt, K. L., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Review of historical and recent experiments which speak in favor of a post-Newtonian relativistic gravitational theory. The topics include the foundational experiments, metric theories of gravity, experiments designed to differentiate among the metric theories, and tests of Machian concepts of gravity. It is shown that the metric field for any metric theory can be specified by a series of potential terms with several parameters. It is pointed out that empirical results available up to date yield values of the parameters which are consistent with the prediction of Einstein's general relativity.

  17. Gravitation theory - Empirical status from solar system experiments.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordtvedt, K. L., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    Review of historical and recent experiments which speak in favor of a post-Newtonian relativistic gravitational theory. The topics include the foundational experiments, metric theories of gravity, experiments designed to differentiate among the metric theories, and tests of Machian concepts of gravity. It is shown that the metric field for any metric theory can be specified by a series of potential terms with several parameters. It is pointed out that empirical results available up to date yield values of the parameters which are consistent with the prediction of Einstein's general relativity.

  18. Stigma and treatment delay in first-episode psychosis: a grounded theory study

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Lauren; Carter, Tandrea; Leiner, Amy S.; Bergner, Erin; Thompson, Nancy J.; Compton, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Aim A longer duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is associated with greater morbidity in the early course of schizophrenia. This formative, hypothesis-generating study explored the effects of stigma, as perceived by family members, on DUP. Methods Qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 African American family members directly involved in treatment initiation for a relative with first-episode psychosis. Data analysis relied on a grounded theory approach. A testable model informed by constructs of Link's modified labelling theory was developed. Results Four main themes were identified, including: (i) society's beliefs about mental illnesses; (ii) families' beliefs about mental illnesses; (iii) fear of the label of a mental illness; and (iv) a raised threshold for the initiation of treatment. A grounded theory model was developed as a schematic representation of the themes and subthemes uncovered in the family members' narratives. Conclusions The findings suggest that due to fear of the official label of a mental illness, certain coping mechanisms may be adopted by families, which may result in a raised threshold for treatment initiation, and ultimately treatment delay. If the relationships within the grounded theory model are confirmed by further qualitative and quantitative research, public educational programs could be developed with the aim of reducing this threshold, ultimately decreasing DUP. PMID:20199480

  19. Field Experiment Provides Ground Truth for Surface NMR Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, R. J.; Abraham, J. D.; Cannia, J. C.; Dlubac, K. I.; Grau, B.; Grunewald, E. D.; Irons, T.; Song, Y.; Walsh, D.

    2010-12-01

    Effective and sustainable long-term management of fresh water resources requires accurate information about the availability of water in groundwater aquifers. Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) can provide a direct link to the presence of water in the pore space of geological materials through the detection of the nuclear magnetization of the hydrogen nuclei (protons) in the pore water. Of interest for groundwater applications is the measurement of the proton-NMR relaxation time constant, referred to as T2. This parameter is sensitive to the geometry of the water-filled pore space and can be related to the hydraulic conductivity. NMR logging instruments, which have been available since the 1980’s, provide direct measurements of T2 in boreholes. Surface NMR (SNMR) is a non-invasive geophysical method that uses a loop of wire on the surface to probe the NMR properties of groundwater aquifers to a depth of ~100 m, without the need for the drilling of boreholes. SNMR provides reliable measurements of a different NMR time constant referred to as T2*, that is related to, but not necessarily equivalent to, T2. The relationship between T2* and T2 is likely to depend upon the physical environment and the composition of the sampled material. In order to advance the use of SNMR as a non-invasive means of characterizing groundwater aquifers, we must answer the fundamental question: When probing a groundwater aquifer, what information is provided by T2*, the time constant measured with SNMR? Our approach was to conduct a field experiment in Nebraska, in an area underlain by the Quaternary Alluvium and Tertiary Ogallala aquifers. We first used SNMR to obtain a 1D profile of T2* to a depth of ~60 m. We then drilled a well inside the area of the SNMR loop, to a depth of ~150 m, and used the drill cuttings to describe the composition of the geologic material at the site. The borehole was kept open for 2 days to acquire logging NMR T2 measurements over the total depth. Three

  20. Conceptualisation of community-based basic nursing education in South Africa: a grounded theory analysis.

    PubMed

    Mtshali, N G

    2005-05-01

    Community-based education is about a decade old in basic nursing education in South Africa. An extensive review of literature revealed that although CBE was a familiar concept in South Africa, there was however, limited understanding of what this phenomenon means. The purpose of the study was to analyse the concept 'community-based education' with the aim of discovering shared understanding of this phenomenon in basic nursing education within the South African context. Strauss and Corbin's (1990) grounded theory approach was used to guide the research process. The South African Nursing Council's (SANC) education committee, the National Department of Health, human resources division representatives as well as seven nursing education institutions with well-established CBE programmes participated in the study. The data was collected by means of observations, interviews and document analysis. Purposive sampling and later theoretical sampling was used for selecting interviewees. This resulted in a total of 45 interviewees. The data collection and initial data analysis took place concurrently. Descriptive analysis followed by conceptual analysis was performed using Strauss and Corbin's model. The findings in this study revealed that community-based education is education that uses the community extensively, especially the under-developed and under-resourced settings, for learning purposes in order to enhance relevance of nursing education to the needs of the South African population. The core discriminatory characteristics of CBE were found to include; primacy of the community as a learning environment; the early exposure of students to community-based learning experiences; community-based learning experiences dominating the curriculum, exposure to community-based learning experiences throughout the curriculum, vertical sequencing of community-based learning experiences in a curriculum, starting from primary settings to secondary and later tertiary health care settings