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Sample records for ground-based microgravity analog

  1. Zero-Gravity Locomotion Simulators: New Ground-Based Analogs for Microgravity Exercise Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perusek, Gail P.; DeWitt, John K.; Cavanagh, Peter R.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Gilkey, Kelly M.

    2007-01-01

    Maintaining health and fitness in crewmembers during space missions is essential for preserving performance for mission-critical tasks. NASA's Exercise Countermeasures Project (ECP) provides space exploration exercise hardware and monitoring requirements that lead to devices that are reliable, meet medical, vehicle, and habitat constraints, and use minimal vehicle and crew resources. ECP will also develop and validate efficient exercise prescriptions that minimize daily time needed for completion of exercise yet maximize performance for mission activities. In meeting these mission goals, NASA Glenn Research Center (Cleveland, OH, USA), in collaboration with the Cleveland Clinic (Cleveland, Ohio, USA), has developed a suite of zero-gravity locomotion simulators and associated technologies to address the need for ground-based test analog capability for simulating in-flight (microgravity) and surface (partial-gravity) exercise to advance the health and safety of astronaut crews and the next generation of space explorers. Various research areas can be explored. These include improving crew comfort during exercise, and understanding joint kinematics and muscle activation pattern differences relative to external loading mechanisms. In addition, exercise protocol and hardware optimization can be investigated, along with characterizing system dynamic response and the physiological demand associated with advanced exercise device concepts and performance of critical mission tasks for Exploration class missions. Three zero-gravity locomotion simulators are currently in use and the research focus for each will be presented. All of the devices are based on a supine subject suspension system, which simulates a reduced gravity environment by completely or partially offloading the weight of the exercising test subject s body. A platform for mounting treadmill is positioned perpendicularly to the test subject. The Cleveland Clinic Zero-g Locomotion Simulator (ZLS) utilizes a

  2. Dietary nucleotides prevent decrease in cellular immunity in ground-based microgravity analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Keiko; Hales, Nathan W.; Robinson, Sandra M.; Niehoff, Michael L.; Ramesh, Vani; Pellis, Neal R.; Kulkarni, Anil D.

    2002-01-01

    Microgravity and stress of spaceflights result in immune dysfunction. The role of nutrition, especially nucleotide supplementation, has become an area of intensive research and significant interest in immunomodulation for maintenance of cellular immune responses. The studies presented here evaluate the plausibility of administering nucleotides to obviate immune dysfunction in an Earth-based in vivo analog of microgravity as studied in anti-orthostatic tail suspension (AOS) of mice. Mice were divided into three housing groups: group, isolation, and AOS. Mice were fed either control chow diet (CD), or RNA-, adenine-, or uracil-supplemented CD for the 1-wk duration of the experiments. In AOS mice, supplemental nucleotides significantly increased in vivo lymph node proliferation and ex vivo lymphoproliferation response to alloantigen and mitogens, respectively, and interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma production. A lower corticosterone level was observed in uracil-supplemented CD compared with CD. These results suggest that exogenous nucleotide supplementation, especially uracil, of normal diet is beneficial in the maintenance and restoration of the immune response during the microgravity analog conditions.

  3. Analysis by NASA's VESGEN Software of Vascular Branching in the Human Retina with a Ground-Based Microgravity Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Vyas, Ruchi J.; Raghunandan, Sneha; Vu, Amanda C.; Zanello, Susana B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Taibbi, Giovanni; Vizzeri, Gianmarco

    2016-01-01

    Significant risks for visual impairment were discovered recently in astronauts following spaceflight, especially after long-duration missions.1 We hypothesize that microgravity-induced fluid shifts result in pathological changes within the retinal vasculature that precede visual and other ocular impairments. We therefore are analyzing retinal vessels in healthy subjects with NASA's VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software2 before and after head-down tilt (HDT), a ground-based microgravity analog For our preliminary study of masked images, two groups of venous trees with and without small veins (G=7) were clearly identified by VESGEN analysis. Upon completing all images and unmasking the subject status of pre- and post- HDT, we will determine whether differences in the presence or absence of small veins are important correlates, and perhaps reliable predictors, of other ocular and physiological adaptations to prolonged HDT and microgravity. Greater peripapillary retinal thickening was measured following 70-day HDT bed rest than 14-day HDT bed rest, suggesting that time of HDT may increase the amount of optic disc swelling.3 Spectralis OCT detected retinal nerve fiber layer thickening post HDT, without clinical signs of optic disc edema. Such changes may have resulted from HDT-induced cephalad fluid shifts. Clinical methods for examining adaptive microvascular remodeling in the retina to microgravity space flight are currently not established.

  4. Ground based research in microgravity materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Rathz, Tom

    1994-01-01

    The core activities performed during this time period have been concerned with tracking the TEMPEST experiments on the shuttle with drops of Zr, Ni, and Nb alloys. In particular a lot of Zr drops are being made to better define the recalescence characteristics of that system so that accurate comparisons of the drop tube results with Tempest can be made. A new liner, with minimal reflectivity characteristics, has been inserted into the drop tube in order to improve the recalescence measurements of the falling drops. The first installation to make the geometric measurements to ensure a proper fit has been made. The stovepipe sections are currently in the shop at MSFC being painted with low reflectivity black paint. Work has also continued on setting up the MEL apparatus obtained from Oak Ridge in the down stairs laboratory at the Drop Tube Facilities. Some ground-based experiments on the same metals as are being processed on TEMPEST are planned for the MEL. The flight schedules for the KC-135 experiments are still to be determined in the near future.

  5. Behavior of stem cells under outer-space microgravity and ground-based microgravity simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui; Li, Liang; Chen, Jianling; Wang, Jinfu

    2015-06-01

    With rapid development of space engineering, research on life sciences in space is being conducted extensively, especially cellular and molecular studies on space medicine. Stem cells, undifferentiated cells that can differentiate into specialized cells, are considered a key resource for regenerative medicine. Research on stem cells under conditions of microgravity during a space flight or a ground-based simulation has generated several excellent findings. To help readers understand the effects of outer space and ground-based simulation conditions on stem cells, we reviewed recent studies on the effects of microgravity (as an obvious environmental factor in space) on morphology, proliferation, migration, and differentiation of stem cells.

  6. Insight into mechanisms of reduced orthostatic performance after exposure to microgravity: comparison of ground-based and space flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.

    1998-01-01

    Since the beginning of human spaceflight, the value of understanding mechanisms of physiological adaptation to microgravity became apparent to life scientists who were interested in maintining crew health and developing countermeasures agains adverse effects of the mission. However, several characteristics associated the the logistics of spaceflight presented significant limitations to the scientific study of human adaptation to microgravity. Because space missions are so infrequent and involve minimal numbers of crewmembers, meaninful statistical analysis of data are limited. Reproducibility of results from spaceflight experiments is difficult to assess since there are few repeated space missions involving the same crewmembers. Since the emphasis of space missions is placed on operations, experiments are compromised without adequate control over various factors (e.g., time, diet, physical activities, etc.) that can impact measured responses. With the mimimal opportunity to collect spaceflight data, there is a high risk of experiments that simultaneously interfere with other experiments by the increasing demand on the crewmembers to participate in mumerous experiments proposed by multiple investigators. The technology and ability to measure physiological functions necessary to test specific hypotheses can be severely limited by physical space and power constraints of the space enviroment. Finally, technical and logistical aspects of space missions such as launch delays, extended missions, and inflight operational emergencies can significantly compromise the timing and control of experiments. These limitations have stimulated scientists to develop ground-based analogs of microgravity in an effort to investigate the effects of spaceflight on physiological function in a controlled experimental setting. The purpose of this paper is to provide a selected comparison of data collected from ground-based experiments with those obtained from spaceflight in an effort to

  7. Postural Responses Following Space Flight and Ground Based Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofman, Igor S.; Reschke, Millard F.; Cerisano, Jody M.; Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Tomilovskaya, Elena V.; Kozlovskaya, Inessa B.; Bloomberg, Jacob B.

    2013-01-01

    With the transition from the Shuttle program to the International Space Station (ISS), the opportunity to fly sensorimotor experiments in a weightless environment has become increasingly more difficult to obtain. As a result, more investigations have turned to ground-based analogs as a way of evaluating an experiment's viability. The two primary analogs available to most investigators are 6deg head down bed rest (HDBR) and dry immersion (DI). For the time being, HDBR investigations have been associated with studies conducted in the United States while the Russians and several other European Union states have concentrated their efforts on using DI as the space flight analog of choice. While either model may be viable for cardiovascular, bone and other system changes, vestibular and sensorimotor investigators have retained serious reservations of either analog's potential to serve as a replacement for a true weightless environment. These reservations have merit, but it is worthwhile to consider that not all changes associated with sensorimotor function during space flight are the result of top-down modifications, but may also be due to the lack, or change, of appropriate support surfaces applying force to the bottom of the feet. To this end we have compared quiet stance postural responses between short duration Space Shuttle flights, long duration ISS flights and HDBR of varying duration. Using these three platforms, representing different modifications of support we investigated postural ataxia using a quiet stance model. Quiet stance was obtained by asking the subjects to stand upright on a force plate, eyes open, arms at the side of the body for three min. From the force plate we obtained average sway velocity in two axes as well as length of line (stabilogram). These parameters were then related to EMG activity recorded from the medial gastrocnemius and lateral tibialis. It is significant to note that postural ataxia measured as quiet stance shows analogous

  8. Analogs of microgravity: head-down tilt and water immersion.

    PubMed

    Watenpaugh, Donald E

    2016-04-15

    This article briefly reviews the fidelity of ground-based methods used to simulate human existence in weightlessness (spaceflight). These methods include horizontal bed rest (BR), head-down tilt bed rest (HDT), head-out water immersion (WI), and head-out dry immersion (DI; immersion with an impermeable elastic cloth barrier between subject and water). Among these, HDT has become by far the most commonly used method, especially for longer studies. DI is less common but well accepted for long-duration studies. Very few studies exist that attempt to validate a specific simulation mode against actual microgravity. Many fundamental physical, and thus physiological, differences exist between microgravity and our methods to simulate it, and between the different methods. Also, although weightlessness is the salient feature of spaceflight, several ancillary factors of space travel complicate Earth-based simulation. In spite of these discrepancies and complications, the analogs duplicate many responses to 0 G reasonably well. As we learn more about responses to microgravity and spaceflight, investigators will continue to fine-tune simulation methods to optimize accuracy and applicability.

  9. Analogs of microgravity: head-down tilt and water immersion.

    PubMed

    Watenpaugh, Donald E

    2016-04-15

    This article briefly reviews the fidelity of ground-based methods used to simulate human existence in weightlessness (spaceflight). These methods include horizontal bed rest (BR), head-down tilt bed rest (HDT), head-out water immersion (WI), and head-out dry immersion (DI; immersion with an impermeable elastic cloth barrier between subject and water). Among these, HDT has become by far the most commonly used method, especially for longer studies. DI is less common but well accepted for long-duration studies. Very few studies exist that attempt to validate a specific simulation mode against actual microgravity. Many fundamental physical, and thus physiological, differences exist between microgravity and our methods to simulate it, and between the different methods. Also, although weightlessness is the salient feature of spaceflight, several ancillary factors of space travel complicate Earth-based simulation. In spite of these discrepancies and complications, the analogs duplicate many responses to 0 G reasonably well. As we learn more about responses to microgravity and spaceflight, investigators will continue to fine-tune simulation methods to optimize accuracy and applicability. PMID:26869710

  10. Ground-Based Gas-Liquid Flow Research in Microgravity Conditions: State of Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, J.; Colin, C.; Fabre, J.

    1999-01-01

    During the last decade, ground-based microgravity facilities have been utilized in order to obtain predictions for spacecraft system designers and further the fundamental understanding of two-phase flow. Although flow regime, pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient data has been obtained for straight tubes and a limited number of fittings, measurements of the void fraction, film thickness, wall shear stress, local velocity and void information are also required in order to develop general mechanistic models that can be utilized to ascertain the effects of fluid properties, tube geometry and acceleration levels. A review of this research is presented and includes both empirical data and mechanistic models of the flow behavior.

  11. Microgravity Investigation of Crew Reactions in 0-G (MICR0-G): Ground-Based Development Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Dava J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the technology development of an advanced load sensor ground-based prototype and details the preliminary tests in microgravity during parabolic flights. The research effort is entitled, the Microgravity Investigation and Crew Reactions in 0-G (MICR0-G), a ground-based research effort funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The MICR0-G project was a follow-on to the Enhanced Dynamic Load Sensors (EDLS) spaceflight experiment flown on the Russian Space Station Mir. The technology development of the advanced load sensor prototype has been carried out by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), with collaboration from Politecnico di Milano University and the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The key hardware of the advanced sensor prototype is a set of two types of load sensors - a hand-hold and foot restraints - similar in appearance to the mobility aids found in the Space Shuttle orbiter to assist the crew in moving inside the spacecraft, but able to measure the applied forces and moments about the x-, y-, and z- axes. The aim of Chapter 1 is to give a brief overview of the report contents. The first section summarizes the previous research efforts on astronaut-induced loads in microgravity. The second section provides information on the MICR0-G research project and the technology development work conducted at MIT. Section 1.3 details the motivation for designing a new generation of load sensors and describes the main enhancements and contributions of the MICR0-G advanced load sensors system compared to the EDLS system. Finally, the last section presents the outline of the report.

  12. Ground-Based Facilities for Simulation of Microgravity: Organism-Specific Recommendations for Their Use, and Recommended Terminology

    PubMed Central

    Anken, Ralf; Boonstra, Johannes; Braun, Markus; Christianen, Peter C.M.; de Geest, Maarten; Hauslage, Jens; Hilbig, Reinhard; Hill, Richard J.A.; Lebert, Michael; Medina, F. Javier; Vagt, Nicole; Ullrich, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Research in microgravity is indispensable to disclose the impact of gravity on biological processes and organisms. However, research in the near-Earth orbit is severely constrained by the limited number of flight opportunities. Ground-based simulators of microgravity are valuable tools for preparing spaceflight experiments, but they also facilitate stand-alone studies and thus provide additional and cost-efficient platforms for gravitational research. The various microgravity simulators that are frequently used by gravitational biologists are based on different physical principles. This comparative study gives an overview of the most frequently used microgravity simulators and demonstrates their individual capacities and limitations. The range of applicability of the various ground-based microgravity simulators for biological specimens was carefully evaluated by using organisms that have been studied extensively under the conditions of real microgravity in space. In addition, current heterogeneous terminology is discussed critically, and recommendations are given for appropriate selection of adequate simulators and consistent use of nomenclature. Key Words: 2-D clinostat—3-D clinostat—Gravity—Magnetic levitation—Random positioning machine—Simulated microgravity—Space biology. Astrobiology 13, 1–17. PMID:23252378

  13. Long-duration bed rest as an analog to microgravity.

    PubMed

    Hargens, Alan R; Vico, Laurence

    2016-04-15

    Long-duration bed rest is widely employed to simulate the effects of microgravity on various physiological systems, especially for studies of bone, muscle, and the cardiovascular system. This microgravity analog is also extensively used to develop and test countermeasures to microgravity-altered adaptations to Earth gravity. Initial investigations of bone loss used horizontal bed rest with the view that this model represented the closest approximation to inactivity and minimization of hydrostatic effects, but all Earth-based analogs must contend with the constant force of gravity by adjustment of the G vector. Later concerns about the lack of similarity between headward fluid shifts in space and those with horizontal bed rest encouraged the use of 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest as pioneered by Russian investigators. Headward fluid shifts in space may redistribute bone from the legs to the head. At present, HDT bed rest with normal volunteers is the most common analog for microgravity simulation and to test countermeasures for bone loss, muscle and cardiac atrophy, orthostatic intolerance, and reduced muscle strength/exercise capacity. Also, current physiologic countermeasures are focused on long-duration missions such as Mars, so in this review we emphasize HDT bed rest studies with durations of 30 days and longer. However, recent results suggest that the HDT bed rest analog is less representative as an analog for other important physiological problems of long-duration space flight such as fluid shifts, spinal dysfunction and radiation hazards. PMID:26893033

  14. Ground-based research of LiIO3 and NaClO3 crystal growth under microgravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Youting

    Ground-based research of LiIO3 and NaClO3 crystal growth under microgravity environment Youting Song*, Wanchun Chen, Xiaolong Chen Institute of Physics and Beijing National Lab-oratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Beijing, 100080 P. R. China ytsong@aphy.iphy.ac.cn The progress in ground-based research of LiIO3 and NaClO3 crystal growth under micro-gravity environment was reported. (a) A new apparatus used for growth of large size of LiIO3 crystals by the evaporation method has been developed, in which the hydrophobic poly-terafluorothytene micro-filtration (PEFT) film was used to resist the leakage of LiIO3 solution and control the growth rate of LiIO3 crystals along with CaCl2 adsorbent. The pore diameters of PEFT film should be between 0.1-1.0m, and the optimal weight of the adsorbent should be as three times as that of the solvent H2O evaporated. During crystal growth, the solution is re-plenished by a creeping pump to avoid separating the growing crystal from the solution. Using this technique we have obtained good quality LiIO3 crystals in the ground-based experiments. (b) The nucleating experiment of NaClO3 seed-induction was carried out in a ground-based en-vironment, and experimental results showed that seed-induction of NaClO3 played certainly a role of increasing crystal chiral enantiomer excess (cee), which will become the basis of contrast experiment under microgravity environment.

  15. Investigation of the Influence of Microgravity on Transport Mechanisms in a Virtual Spaceflight Chamber: A Ground Based Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trolinger, James D.; Rangel, Roger; Witherow, William; Rogers, Jan; Lal, Ravindra B.

    1999-01-01

    In January 1992, the IML-1 FES experiment produced a set of classic experimental data and a 40 hour holographic "movie" of an ensemble of spheres in a fluid in microgravity. Because the data are in the form of holograms, we can study the three-dimensional distribution of particles with unprecedented detail by a variety of methods and for a wide variety of interests. The possession of the holographic movie is tantamount to having a complex experiment in space while working in an easily accessible laboratory on earth. The movie contains a vast amount of useful data, including residual g, g-jitter, convection and transport data, and particle fluid interaction data. The information content in the movie is so great that we have scarcely begun to tap into the data that is actually available in the more than 1000 holograms, each containing as much as 1000 megabytes of information. This ground-based project is exploiting this data and the concept of holographic storage of spaceflight data to provide an understanding of the effects of microgravity in materials processing. This paper provides the foundation, objectives, and status of the ground based project. The primary objective of this project is to advance the understanding of microgravity effects on crystal growth, convection in materials processing in the space environment, and complex transport phenomena at low Reynolds numbers. This objective is being achieved both experimentally and theoretically. Experiments are making use of existing holographic data recorded during the IML- I spaceflight. A parallel theoretical effort is providing the models for understanding the particle fields and their physics in the microgravity environment.

  16. Ground Based Studies of Gas-Liquid Flows in Microgravity Using Learjet Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, W. S.; Dukler, A. E.

    1994-01-01

    A 1.27 cm diameter two phase gas-liquid flow experiment has been developed with the NASA Lewis Research Center to study two-phase flows in microgravity. The experiment allows for the measurement of void fraction, pressure drop, film thickness and bubble and wave velocities as well as for high speed photography. Three liquids were used to study the effects of liquid viscosity and surface tension, and flow pattern maps are presented for each. The experimental results are used to develop mechanistically based models to predict void fraction, bubble velocity, pressure drop and flow pattern transitions in microgravity.

  17. Loss of signal transduction and inhibition of lymphocyte locomotion in a ground-based model of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, Alamelu; Risin, Diana; Pellis, Neal R.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Inflammatory adherence to, and locomotion through the interstitium is an important component of the immune response. Conditions such as microgravity and modeled microgravity (MMG) severely inhibit lymphocyte locomotion in vitro through gelled type I collagen. We used the NASA rotating wall vessel bioreactor or slow-turning lateral vessel as a prototype for MMG in ground-based experiments. Previous experiments from our laboratory revealed that when lymphocytes (human peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs]) were first activated with phytohemaglutinin followed by exposure to MMG, locomotory capacity was not affected. In the present study, MMG inhibits lymphocyte locomotion in a manner similar to that observed in microgravity. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) treatment of PBMCs restored lost locomotory capacity by a maximum of 87%. Augmentation of cellular calcium flux with ionomycin had no restorative effect. Treatment of lymphocytes with mitomycin C prior to exposure to MMG, followed by PMA, restored locomotion to the same extent as when nonmitomycin C-treated lymphocytes were exposed to MMG (80-87%), suggesting that deoxyribonucleic acid replication is not essential for the restoration of locomotion. Thus, direct activation of protein kinase C (PKC) with PMA was effective in restoring locomotion in MMG comparable to the normal levels seen in Ig cultures. Therefore, in MMG, lymphocyte calcium signaling pathways were functional, with defects occurring at either the level of PKC or upstream of PKC.

  18. Microgravity Apparatus And Ground-Based Study Of The Flame Propagation And Quenching In Metal Dust Suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goroshin, Sam; Kolbe, Massimilliano; Bellerose, Julie; Lee, John

    2003-01-01

    Due to particle sedimentation and relatively low laminar flame speeds in dust suspensions, microgravity environment is essential for the observation of laminar dust flames in a wide range of particle sizes and fuel concentrations [1]. The capability of a reduced-gravity environment to facilitate study of dust combustion was realized by researchers long before current microgravity programs were established by the various national Space Agencies. Thus, several experimentalists even built their own, albeit very short-duration, drop tower facilities to study flames in particle and droplet suspensions [2,3]. About ten years ago, authors of the present paper started their dust combustion reduced gravity research with the investigation of the constant volume dust flames in a spherical-bomb on board a parabolic flight aircraft [4]. However it was soon realized that direct observation of the constant-pressure flame might be more beneficial. Thus, microgravity apparatus, permitting examination of the freely propagating flames in open-end tubes, was tested in parabolic flights three years later [5]. The improved design of the newlyconstructed apparatus for the experiments on board the NASA KC-135 aircraft is also based on the observation of the dust flame propagating in semi-opened tubes with free expansion of the combustion products that are continuously vented overboard. The apparatus design and results of its extensive ground-based testing are presented below.

  19. Fluid-structural dynamics of ground-based and microgravity caloric tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassemi, M.; Oas, J. G.; Deserranno, Dimitri

    2005-01-01

    Microgravity caloric tests aboard the 1983 SpaceLab1 mission produced nystagmus results with an intensity comparable to those elicited during post- and pre- flight tests, thus contradicting the basic premise of Barany's convection hypothesis for caloric stimulation. In this work, we present a dynamic fluid structural analysis of the caloric stimulation of the lateral semicircular canal based on two simultaneous driving forces for the endolymphatic flow: natural convection driven by the temperature-dependent density variation in the bulk fluid and expansive convection caused by direct volumetric displacement of the endolymph during the thermal irrigation. Direct numerical simulations indicate that on earth, the natural convection mechanism is dominant. But in the microgravity environment of orbiting spacecraft, where buoyancy effects are mitigated, expansive convection becomes the sole mechanism for producing cupular displacement. A series of transient 1 g and microgravity case studies are presented to delineate the differences between the dynamics of the 1 g and microgravity endolymphatic flows. The impact of these different flow dynamics on the endolymph-cupula fluid-structural interactions is also analyzed based on the time evolutions of cupular displacement and velocity and the transcupular pressure differences.

  20. Adaptation of Motility Analysis Apparatus for Space Science and Microgravity Ground-Based Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jacqueline U.

    1996-01-01

    Previous space flight studies have described unfavorable effects of microgravity on testicular morphology and spermatogenesis (Cosmos 1887 Biosputnik flight, 9/29/87 - 10/12/87). The flight animals demonstrated small reductions in testicular and epididymal size, the phenomenon explained as resulting water loss. Yet, light microscopic histological preparations revealed few spermatozoa in the rete testis of the flight males compared to control animals. The cause for this finding was subjectively assessed to be due to "the anatomical dislocation of the organs... and a disturbance in testicular blood supply". Unfortunately, the reported effects of microgravity on the reproductive processes (particularly within males) are few and divergent. If habitation in space is a futuristic goal, more objective testing (of male and female gametes) in a microgravity environment will provide insight to the developmental potential of these reproductive cells. As part of the Marshall Space Flight Centers' Summer Faculty Fellowship Program within the Biophysics Branch, a key component of the research investigation was to develop a test to evaluate individual cell motility and orientation in varying gravitational environments, using computerized assessment of sperm cell concentration, morphology and motility to provide objective, quantitative experimental control. In previous work performed jointly by the author and a NASA colleague, it has been shown that macroscopic motile aggregates of spermatozoa were not altered by the absence of microgravity. Variations in the number of normal versus abnormal sperm due to microgravity influences have yet to be established. It is therefore of interest to monitor the cytoskeletal matrix (microtubulin) of these organisms as a possible indicator of cell viability and/or function.

  1. Low Stretch PMMA Burning in Microgravity: Status of the Ground-Based Program and New ISS Glovebox Experiment SALSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, S. L.; T'ien, J. S.; Armstrong, J. B.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this ground-based program is to study low stretch diffusion flames burning PMMA as the solid fuel to determine the relationship between buoyant low stretch burning in normal gravity and forced flow low stretch burning in microgravity. The low stretch is generated in normal gravity by using the buoyant convection induced by burning the bottom of a large radius of curvature sample. Low stretch is also generated using the Combustion Tunnel drop tower rig (2.2 and 5.2 second facilities), which provides a forced convective low velocity flow past smaller radius of curvature samples. Lastly, an ISS glovebox investigation is being developed to study low stretch burning of PMMA spheres to obtain long duration testing needed to accurately assess the flammability and burning characteristics of the material in microgravity. A comparison of microgravity experiment results with normal gravity test results allows us to establish a direct link between a material's burning characteristics in normal gravity (easily measured) with its burning characteristics in extraterrestrial environments, including microgravity forced convective environments. Theoretical predictions and recent experimental results indicate that it should be possible to understand a material's burning characteristics in the low stretch environment of spacecraft (non-buoyant air movement induced by fans and crew disturbances) by understanding its burning characteristics in an equivalent Earth-based low stretch environment (induced by normal gravity buoyancy). Similarly, Earth-based stretch environments can be made equivalent to those in Lunar- and Martian-surface stretch environments (which would induce partial-gravity buoyancy).

  2. Condensation of cosmic analog material in microgravity conditions - Preliminary analysis of a first set of flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancini, D.; Bussoletti, E.; Mennella, V.; Vittone, A. A.; Colangeli, L.; Mirra, C.; Stephens, J.; Nuth, J.; Lilleleht, L.; Furgeson, F.

    1992-01-01

    The first results of the STARDUST project, aimed at producing and analyzing cosmic-dust analog materials in microgravity conditions, are summarized. The discussion covers the purpose of the investigation, cosmic-dust formation and properties, previous simulations of cosmic-dust formation, the current approach, the microgravity experimental apparatus, and potential advantages of studying dust formation under microgravity conditions.

  3. Quantitative Computer Tomography for Determining Composition of Microgravity and Ground Based Solid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, D. C.; Engel, H. P.

    1999-01-01

    Advances in x-ray Computer Tomography (CT) have been led by the medical profession, and by evaluation of industrial products, particularly castings. Porosity can readily be determined as a function of the density of a material, and CT is thus an industrially important NDE tool. Providing high purity, 100% dense standards of pure elements and compounds can be fabricated, the composition of solid solution alloys can be determined by measuring the CT number, which is a function of the absorption of the sample. Average densities across slices 1 mm thick can generally be determined to better than 1 percent. With present technology this spatial sensitivity is less than ideal, but important benefits can nevertheless be obtained by using CT, particularly single crystals, prior to making any destructive assault upon the sample. The sample can in fact be examined prior to removal from the mold within which it has been grown and, in the cases of microgravity flight samples, before removal from the cartridge assembly. This greatly assists the researcher in the characterization of the products, particularly as a guide to cutting and sampling. Examples of work with germanium-silicon alloys and mercury cadmium telluride taken with a radioactive cobalt source will be demonstrated.

  4. Detachment of Tertiary Dendrite Arms during Controlled Directional Solidification in Aluminum - 7 wt Percent Silicon Alloys: Observations from Ground-based and Microgravity Processed Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Erdman, Robert; Van Hoose, James R.; Tewari, Surendra; Poirier, David

    2012-01-01

    Electron Back Scattered Diffraction results from cross-sections of directionally solidified aluminum 7wt% silicon alloys unexpectedly revealed tertiary dendrite arms that were detached and mis-oriented from their parent arm. More surprisingly, the same phenomenon was observed in a sample similarly processed in the quiescent microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in support of the joint US-European MICAST investigation. The work presented here includes a brief introduction to MICAST and the directional solidification facilities, and their capabilities, available aboard the ISS. Results from the ground-based and microgravity processed samples are compared and possible mechanisms for the observed tertiary arm detachment are suggested.

  5. A comparison between protein crystals grown with vapor diffusion methods in microgravity and protein crystals using a gel liquid-liquid diffusion ground-based method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Teresa Y.; He, Xiao-Min; Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    Crystals of human serum albumin have been successfully grown in a variety of gels using crystallization conditions otherwise equivalent to those utilized in the popular hanging-drop vapor-equilibrium method. Preliminary comparisons of gel grown crystals with crystals grown by the vapor diffusion method via both ground-based and microgravity methods indicate that crystals superior in size and quality may be grown by limiting solutal convection. Preliminary X-ray diffraction statistics are presented.

  6. Loss of Signal Transduction and Inhibition of Lymphocyte Locomotion in a Ground-Based Model of Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, Alamelu; Risin, Diana; Pellis, Neal R.

    1999-01-01

    Inflammatory adherence to, and locomotion through the interstitium is an important component of the immune response. Conditions such as true gravity (TG) and modeled microgravity (MMG) severely inhibit lymphocyte locomotion in vitro through gelled Type I collagen (Pellis et al., 1994, 1997). We used the rotating-wall vessel bioreactor (RWV) as a prototype for modeled microgravity. After observing that lymphocyte locomotion was severely affected in modeled microgravity, we found that polyclonal activation of lymphocytes before exposure to modeled microgravity reversed the locomotion inhibition. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) treatment of normal peripheral blood lymphocytes, after exposure to modeled microgravity, restored lymphocyte locomotion by 84%. Calcium ionophore had no effect on modeled microgravity-exposed lymphocytes. Therefore, the signal pathways involving calcium may not be affected by modeled microgravity. However, direct activation of Protein Kinase C (PKC) with PMA was effective in restoring locomotion in modeled microgravity almost comparable to normal levels in lymphocytes cultured in static T flasks. Thus, events either at the level of PKC or upstream are affected by modeled microgravity. Treatment of lymphocytes with mitomycin C prior to exposure to modeled microgravity, followed by PMA, restored locomotion to the same extent as nonmitomycin C-treated lymphocytes exposed to modeled microgravity (80-85%). Therefore 1) new DNA synthesis is not necessary to restore locomotion and 2) traditional activation and locomotion share common pathways up to PKC. Thereafter the signals diverge. Furthermore PMA added immediately before or after initiation of modeled microgravity prevents the loss of lymphocyte locomotion.

  7. Pharmacokinetics of Intranasal Scopolamine Gel Formation During Antiorthostatic Bedrest - A Microgravity Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakshmi, Putcha; Singh, R. P.; Crady, V. A.; Derendorf, H.

    2011-01-01

    Space Motion sickness (SMS) is an age old problem for astronauts on both short and long duration space flights. Scopolamine (SCOP) is the most frequently used drug for the treatment of motion sickness (MS) which is currently available in transdermal patch and tablet dosage forms. These formulations of SCOP are ineffective for the treatment of SMS. Intranasal dosage forms are noninvasive with rapid absorption and enhanced bioavailability thus allowing precise and reduced dosing options in addition to offering rescue and treatment options. As such, an intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed and Pharmacokinetics (PK) and bioavailability were determined under IND guidelines. The present clinical trial compares PK and bioavailability of INSCOP in 12 normal, healthy subjects (6 male/ 6 female) during ambulation (AMB) and antiorthostatic bedrest (ABR) used as a ground-based microgravity analog. Subjects received 0.2 and 0.4 mg doses of INSCOP during AMB and ABR in a four-way crossover design. Results indicated no difference between AMB and ABR in PK parameters after 0.2 mg dose. Clearance (Cls) decreased with a concomitant increase in maximum concentration and area under concentration versus time curve (AUC) during ABR after the 0.4 mg dose. This difference in AUC and Cls at the higher but not the lower dose during ABR may suggest that ABR may affect metabolism and/or clearance at higher doses of INSCOP. These results indicate that dosing adjustment may be required for treatment of SMS with INSCOP in space.

  8. Pharmacokinetics of Intranasal Scopolamine Gel Formulation During Antiorthostatic Bed Rest, a Microgravity Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Rajendra P.; Daniels, Vernie R.; Crady, Camille J.; Derendorf, H.; Putcha, L.

    2011-01-01

    Statement of Purpose, Innovation or Hypothesis: Space Motion sickness (SMS) is a long-standing problem for astronauts on both short and long duration space flights. Scopolamine (SCOP) is frequently used for the treatment of motion sickness (MS), and is available as transdermal patch and tablet dosage forms. These formulations of SCOP are ineffective for the treatment of SMS. Intranasal dosage forms are noninvasive with rapid absorption and enhanced bioavailability, thus allowing precise and reduced dosing in addition to offering rescue and treatment options. An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed and pharmacokinetics (PK) and bioavailability were determined in clinical trials with human subjects under IND guidelines.Description of Methods and Materials: The present clinical trial compares PK and bioavailability of INSCOP in 12 normal, healthy subjects (6 male/ 6 female) during ambulation (AMB) and antiorthostaticbed rest (ABR) used as a ground-based microgravity analog. Subjects received 0.2 mg and 0.4 mg doses of INSCOP during AMB and ABR in a 4-way crossover design.Data and Results: Results indicated no difference between AMB and ABR in PK parameters after 0.2 mg dose, Clearance (Cls) decreased with a concomitant increase in maximum concentration and area under concentration-versus-time curve (AUC) during ABR after the 0.4 mg dose.Interpretation, Conclusion or Significance: The difference in AUC and Cls at the higher (0.4 mg) but not the lower dose (0.2 mg) during ABR suggests that ABR may affect metabolism and/or clearance of INSCOP at higher doses . These results indicate that dosing adjustment may be required for treatment of SMS with INSCOP in space.

  9. Yin-yang of space travel: lessons from the ground-based models of microgravity and their applications to disease and health for life on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, A.; Yamauchi, K.; Hales, N.; Sundaresan, A.; Pellis, N.; Yamamoto, S.; Andrassy, R.

    Space flight environment has numerous clinical effects on human physiology; however, the advances made in physical and biological sciences have benefited humans on Earth. Space flight induces adverse effects on bone, muscle, cardiovascular, neurovestibular, gastrointestinal, and immune function. Similar pathophysiologic changes are also observed in aging with debilitating consequences. Anti-orthostatic tail-suspension (AOS) of rodents is an in vivo model to study many of these effects induced by the microgravity environment of space travel. Over the years AOS has been used by several researchers to study bone demineralization, muscle atrophy, neurovestibular and stress related effects. ecently we employed the AOS model in parallel with in vitro cell culture microgravity analog (Bioreactor) to document the decrease in immune function and its reversal by a nutritional countermeasure. We have modified the rodent model to study nutrient effects and benefits in a short period of time, usually within one to two weeks, in contrast to conventional aging research models which take several weeks to months to get the same results. This model has a potential for further development to study the role of nutrition in other pathophysiologies in an expedited manner. Using this model it is possible to evaluate the response of space travelers of various ages to microgravity stressors for long-term space travel. Hence this modified model will have significant impact on time and financial research budget. For the first time our group has documented a true potential immunonutritional countermeasure for the space flight induced effects on immune system (Clinical Nutrition 2002). Based on our nutritional and immunological studies we propose application of these microgravity analogs and its benefits and utility for nutritional effects on other physiologic parameters especially in aging. (Supported by NASA NCC8-168 grant, ADK)

  10. Progress toward studies of bubble-geometry Bose-Einstein condensates in microgravity with a ground-based prototype of NASA CAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundblad, Nathan; Jarvis, Thomas; Paseltiner, Daniel; Lannert, Courtney

    2016-05-01

    We have proposed using NASA's Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL, launching to the International Space Station in 2017) to generate bubble-geometry Bose-Einstein condensates through radiofrequency dressing of an atom-chip magnetic trap. This geometry has not been truly realized terrestrially due to the perturbing influence of gravity, making it an ideal candidate for microgravity investigation aboard CAL. We report progress in the construction of a functional prototype of the orbital BEC apparatus: a compact atom-chip machine loaded by a 2D+MOT source, conventional 3D MOT, quadrupole trap, and transfer coil. We also present preliminary modeling of the dressed trap uniformity, which will crucially inform the geometric closure of the BEC shell surface as atom number, bubble radius, and bubble aspect ratio are varied. Finally, we discuss plans for experimental sequences to be run aboard CAL guided by intuition from ground-based prototype operation. JPL 1502172.

  11. Magnetic Levitation of MC3T3 Osteoblast Cells as a Ground-Based Simulation of Microgravity.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Bruce E; Kidder, Louis S; Williams, Philip C; Xu, Wayne Wenzhong

    2009-11-01

    Diamagnetic samples placed in a strong magnetic field and a magnetic field gradient experience a magnetic force. Stable magnetic levitation occurs when the magnetic force exactly counter balances the gravitational force. Under this condition, a diamagnetic sample is in a simulated microgravity environment. The purpose of this study is to explore if MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells can be grown in magnetically simulated hypo-g and hyper-g environments and determine if gene expression is differentially expressed under these conditions. The murine calvarial osteoblastic cell line, MC3T3-E1, grown on Cytodex-3 beads, were subjected to a net gravitational force of 0, 1 and 2 g in a 17 T superconducting magnet for 2 days. Microarray analysis of these cells indicated that gravitational stress leads to up and down regulation of hundreds of genes. The methodology of sustaining long-term magnetic levitation of biological systems are discussed. PMID:20052306

  12. Magnetic Levitation of MC3T3 Osteoblast Cells as a Ground-Based Simulation of Microgravity.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Bruce E; Kidder, Louis S; Williams, Philip C; Xu, Wayne Wenzhong

    2009-11-01

    Diamagnetic samples placed in a strong magnetic field and a magnetic field gradient experience a magnetic force. Stable magnetic levitation occurs when the magnetic force exactly counter balances the gravitational force. Under this condition, a diamagnetic sample is in a simulated microgravity environment. The purpose of this study is to explore if MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells can be grown in magnetically simulated hypo-g and hyper-g environments and determine if gene expression is differentially expressed under these conditions. The murine calvarial osteoblastic cell line, MC3T3-E1, grown on Cytodex-3 beads, were subjected to a net gravitational force of 0, 1 and 2 g in a 17 T superconducting magnet for 2 days. Microarray analysis of these cells indicated that gravitational stress leads to up and down regulation of hundreds of genes. The methodology of sustaining long-term magnetic levitation of biological systems are discussed.

  13. Magnetic Levitation of MC3T3 Osteoblast Cells as a Ground-Based Simulation of Microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Kidder, Louis S.; Williams, Philip C.; Xu, Wayne Wenzhong

    2009-01-01

    Diamagnetic samples placed in a strong magnetic field and a magnetic field gradient experience a magnetic force. Stable magnetic levitation occurs when the magnetic force exactly counter balances the gravitational force. Under this condition, a diamagnetic sample is in a simulated microgravity environment. The purpose of this study is to explore if MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells can be grown in magnetically simulated hypo-g and hyper-g environments and determine if gene expression is differentially expressed under these conditions. The murine calvarial osteoblastic cell line, MC3T3-E1, grown on Cytodex-3 beads, were subjected to a net gravitational force of 0, 1 and 2 g in a 17 T superconducting magnet for 2 days. Microarray analysis of these cells indicated that gravitational stress leads to up and down regulation of hundreds of genes. The methodology of sustaining long-term magnetic levitation of biological systems are discussed. PMID:20052306

  14. Investigation of the Influence of Microgravity on Transport Mechanisms in a Virtual Spaceflight Chamber: A Ground-Based Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trolinger, James D.; Lal, Ravindra B.; Rangel, Roger; Witherow, William; Rogers, Jan

    2001-01-01

    The IML-1 Spaceflight produced over 1000 holograms of a well-defined particle field in the low g Spacelab environment; each containing as much as 1000 megabytes of information. This project took advantage of these data and the concept of holographic "virtual" spaceflight to advance the understanding of convection in the space shuttle environment, g-jitter effects on crystal growth, and complex transport phenomena in low Reynolds number flows. The first objective of the proposed work was to advance the understanding of microgravity effects on crystal growth. This objective was achieved through the use of existing holographic data recorded during the IML-1 Spaceflight. The second objective was to design a spaceflight experiment that exploits the "virtual space chamber concept" in which holograms of space chambers can provide a virtual access to space. This led to a flight definition project, which is now underway under a separate contract known as SHIVA, Spaceflight Holography Investigation in a Virtual Apparatus.

  15. Ground Based Experiments in Support of Microgravity Research Results-Vapor Growth of Organic Nonlinear Optical Thin Film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zugrav, M. Ittu; Carswell, William E.; Haulenbeek, Glen B.; Wessling, Francis C.

    2001-01-01

    This work is specifically focused on explaining previous results obtained for the crystal growth of an organic material in a reduced gravity environment. On STS-59, in April 1994, two experiments were conducted with N,N-dimethyl-p-(2,2-dicyanovinyl) aniline (DCVA), a promising nonlinear optical (NLO) material. The space experiments were set to reproduce laboratory experiments that yielded small, bulk crystals of DCVA. The results of the flight experiment, however, were surprising. Rather than producing a bulk single crystal, the result was the production of two high quality, single crystalline thin films. This result was even more intriguing when it is considered that thin films are more desirable for NLO applications than are bulk single crystals. Repeated attempts on the ground to reproduce these results were fruitless. A second set of flight experiments was conducted on STS-69 in September 1995. This time eight DCVA experiments were flown, with each of seven experiments containing a slight change from the first reference experiment. The reference experiment was programmed with growth conditions identical to those of the STS-59 mission. The slight variations in each of the other seven were an attempt to understand what particular parameter was responsible for the preference of thin film growth over bulk crystal growth in microgravity. Once again the results were surprising. In all eight cases thin films were grown again, albeit with varying quality. So now we were faced with a phenomenon that not only takes place in microgravity, but also is very robust, resisting all attempts to force the growth of bulk single crystals.

  16. Cosmic dust analog simulation in a microgravity environment: The STARDUST program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferguson, F.; Lilleleht, L. U.; Nuth, J.; Stephens, J. R.; Bussoletti, E.; Carotenuto, L.; Colangeli, L.; Dell'aversana, P.; Mele, F.; Mennella, V.

    1995-01-01

    We have undertaken a project called STARDUST which is a collaboration with Italian and American investigators. The goals of this program are to study the condensation and coagulation of refractory materials from the vapor and to study the properties of the resulting grains as analogs to cosmic dust particles. To reduce thermal convective currents and to develop valuable experience in designing an experiment for the Gas-Grain Simulation Facility aboard Space Station, Freedom we have built and flown a new chamber to study these processes under periods of microgravity available on NASA's KC-135 Research Aircraft. Preliminary results from flights with magnesium and zinc are discussed.

  17. Cosmic dust analog simulation in a microgravity environment: the STARDUST program.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, F; Lilleleht, L U; Nuth, J; Stephens, J R; Bussoletti, E; Carotenuto, L; Colangeli, L; Dell'Aversana, P; Mele, F; Mennella, V; Mirra, C

    1995-03-01

    We have undertaken a project called STARDUST which is a collaboration with Italian and American investigators. The goals of this program are to study the condensation and coagulation of refractory materials from the vapor and to study the properties of the resulting grains as analogs to cosmic dust particles. To reduce thermal convective currents and to develop valuable experience in designing an experiment for the Gas-Grain Simulation Facility aboard Space Station Freedom we have built and flown a new chamber to study these processes under periods of microgravity available on NASA's KC-135 Research Aircraft. Preliminary results from flights with magnesium and zinc are discussed.

  18. Development of a Ground-Based Analog to the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newby, Nathaniel J.; Scott-Pandorf, M. M.; Caldwell, E.; DeWitt, J.K.; Fincke, R.; Peters, B.T.

    2010-01-01

    NASA and Wyle engineers constructed a Horizontal Exercise Fixture (HEF) that was patented in 2006. Recently modifications were made to HEF with the goal of creating a device that mimics squat exercise on the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and can be used by bed rest subjects who must remain supine during exercise. This project posed several engineering challenges, such as how best to reproduce the hip motions (we used a sled that allowed hip motion in the sagittal plane), how to counterweight the pelvis against gravity (we used a pulley and free-weight mechanism), and how to apply large loads (body weight plus squat load) to the shoulders while simultaneously supporting the back against gravity (we tested a standard and a safety bar that allowed movement in the subject s z-axis, both of which used a retractable plate for back support). METHODS An evaluation of the HEF was conducted with human subjects (3F, 3M), who performed sets of squat exercises of increasing load from 10-repetition maximum (RM) up to 1-RM. Three pelvic counterweight loads were tested along with each of the two back-support squat bars. Data collection included 3-dimensional ground reaction forces (GRF), muscle activation (EMG), body motion (video-based motion capture), and subjective comments. These data were compared with previous ground-based ARED study data. RESULTS All subjects in the evaluation were able to perform low- to high-loading squats on the HEF. Four of the 6 subjects preferred a pelvic counterweight equivalent to 60 percent of their body weight. Four subjects preferred the standard squat bar, whereas 2 female subjects preferred the safety bar. EMG data showed muscle activation in the legs and low back typical of squat motion. GRF trajectories and eccentric-concentric loading ratios were similar to ARED. CONCLUSION: Squat exercise performed on HEF approximated squat exercise on ARED.

  19. Ground-based experiments complement microgravity flight opportunities in the investigation of the effects of space flight on the immune response: is protein kinase C gravity sensitive?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapes, S. K.; Woods, K. M.; Armstrong, J. W.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    This manuscript briefly reviews ground-based and flight experiments, discusses how those experiments complement each other, and details how those experiments lead us to speculate about the gravity-sensitive nature of protein kinase C.

  20. Cellular consequences of the microgravity environment on lymphocyte function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, A.; Pellis, N. R.

    Microgravity induces a cascade of changes in cell morphology and function. Mammalian cells adapt to the environment of low gravity and express a series of responses, some possibly from direct effects on cells and others based on environmental conditions created by microgravity. Human lymphocytes in microgravity culture are functionally diminished in activation and locomotion. Both processes are integral to optimal immune response to fight pathogens. The NASA Rotating-wall vessel (RWV) is an analog to many aspects of microgravity and is used to model microgravity for ground-based experiments. We found that lymphocyte activation and locomotion were significantly down-regulated in spaceflight and in the RWV. Using this analog culture system, we have isolated a signal transduction lesion either at the level of, or upstream from, Protein kinase C (PKC) activation. Analysis of expression and adaptation by gene array experiments and immunoblotting to identified upstream events in human lymphocytes adapting to microgravity analog culture. Microgravity induces selective changes, many of which are cell membrane related. Results showed that upstream of PKC in the T cell activation cascade, PLC-gamma and LAT are significantly diminished. ZAP 70 which controls LAT activation is also down-regulated in modeled microgravity indicating that events governing cell shape might warrant special attention in microgravity conditions. The goal of this study is to delineate response suites which are consequential, direct or indirect effects of the microgravity environment and which of these are essential to lymphocytes.

  1. Thin-bedded reservoir analogs in an ancient delta using terrestrial laser scanner and high-resolution ground-based hyperspectral cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Casey J.; Khan, Shuhab D.; Bhattacharya, Janok P.; Glennie, Craig; Seepersad, Darsel

    2016-08-01

    Ground-based terrestrial laser scanning and hyperspectral sensors were used to image fine-scale heterogeneity in outcrops of prodeltaic heterolithic facies of Parasequence 6 of the Cretaceous Ferron Notom delta in Southern Utah. Previous work shows that Parasequence 6 is an upward coarsening fluvial-dominated, wave-influenced deltaic deposit containing heterolithic thin-bedded facies representing distal delta front and proximal prodelta environments. Primarily, the thin beds have been interpreted as turbidites, storm beds (tempestites), and hyperpycnites. These deposits represent analogs for thin-bedded unconventional pay zones that lie at the margins of conventional deltaic sandstone reservoirs. The terrestrial laser scanner was used to create a centimeter- to decimeter-scale, digital representation of the outcrops in three dimensions. Hyperspectral sensors record electromagnetic radiation reflected off the outcrops in 840 contiguous bands, which were then used to generate a spectral signature for each pixel sampled. The spectral signatures are a function of mineralogy, chemistry, surface alteration, grain-size, and cements, and were used to distinguish thin mudstones from sandstones within an interbedded succession at the base of a deltaic parasequence. Comparison between the spectral signatures recorded from the outcrop and those of reference materials, and with previous facies architecture studies, enables lithofacies to be identified and subsequently accurately mapped. Hyperspectral data are then draped over the terrestrial laser scanner model to generate a spatially-accurate detailed three-dimensional (3D) geologic map of the heterogeneity. Approximately 100 m of outcrop was imaged laterally with the hyperspectral camera and terrestrial laser scanner on the previously mapped distal delta front and prodeltaic facies of Parasequence 6. Bed thickness data, based on measurements made along depositional dip versus strike, show that bed geometries are anisotropic

  2. Microgravity induced selective lesions in immunosignaling: Upstream targets in lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, A.; Pellis, N.

    Microgravity is a novel milieu for cells where re-ordering of forces induces different responses. Human lymphocytes undergo a suppression of activation and locomotion in space and modeled microgravity. Based on recovery of activation and locomotion with the phorbol ester PMA, the lesion induced by microgravity is presumed up- stream of the level of PKC signaling. Lymphocytes cultured in ground-based microgravity analog conditions display depressed calcium independent PKC isoforms. Upstream signaling molecules such as Phospholipase C gamma were not sufficiently activated in modeled microgravity. Immunoblotting revealed LAT, which is an adaptor protein crucial for Phospholipase C gamma recruitment in T cell activation, was down regulated in lymphocytes cultured at 72 and 96 hours in modeled microgravity. Also, ZAP 70 kinase, which is a LAT activator, down- regulated (>2 fold) at 96 hours modeled microgravity culture. Microarray analysis of lymphocytes cultured in 1g and modeled microgravity revealed significant down- regulation in upstream T cell activation molecules such as Diacylglycerol kinase, serine/threonine kinases, and tyrosine kinases. All up-stream targets in T cell activation are negatively affected in microgravity. Optimal immune function is critical in the ISS era where long term space travel is inevitable. Elucidation of the key mechanisms affected by microgravity lays the foundation for development of treatments that can counter these deleterious effects.

  3. Characteristics of human dendritic cells generated in a microgravity analog culture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savary, C. A.; Grazziuti, M. L.; Przepiorka, D.; Tomasovic, S. P.; McIntyre, B. W.; Woodside, D. G.; Pellis, N. R.; Pierson, D. L.; Rex, J. H.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Generation of an effective immune response requires that antigens be processed and presented to T lymphocytes by antigen-presenting cells, the most efficient of which are dendritic cells (DC). Because of their influence on both the innate and the acquired arms of immunity, a defect in DC would be expected to result in a broad impairment of immune function, not unlike that observed in astronauts during or after space flight. In the study reported here, we investigated whether DC generation and function are altered in a culture environment that models microgravity, i.e., the rotary-cell culture system (RCCS). We observed that RCCS supported the generation of DC identified by morphology, phenotype (HLA-DR+ and lacking lineage-associated markers), and function (high allostimulatory activity). However, the yield of DC from RCCS was significantly lower than that from static cultures. RCCS-generated DC were less able to phagocytose Aspergillus fumigatus conidia and expressed a lower density of surface HLA-DR. The proportion of DC expressing CD80 was also significantly reduced in RCCS compared to static cultures. When exposed to fungal antigens, RCCS-generated DC produced lower levels of interleukin-12 and failed to upregulate some costimulatory/adhesion molecules involved in antigen presentation. These data suggest that DC generation, and some functions needed to mount an effective immune response to pathogens, may be disturbed in the microgravity environment of space.

  4. Electrodeposition in microgravity: Ground-based experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riley, C.; Coble, H. D.

    1982-01-01

    Electrodeposition was studied at one-hundreth g and compared with bench studies at 1 g. The low gravity was achieved during KC-135 aircraft parobolic flights. Flow in a simple cobalt cell (1 M CoSO4) operating under typical commercial conditions (10 to 20 mA/sq cm and 1 V) was monitored with a Schlieren optical system. Natural convection was absent at one-hundreth g. Quantitative comparisons on a cobalt cell with shielded electrodes using interferometry were carried out. Fringe shift differences indicate greater semi-infinite linear diffusion at 1 g than at one-hundreth g for cobalt. Since a shielded electrode operates under diffusion controlled conditions, no differences between 1 g and one-hundreth g would be expected. Similar comparisons on a shielded electrode copper cell were inconclusive. Bench codeposition experiments using polystyrene neutral buoyancy particles coupled with a shielded electrode cobalt cell were begun. Tracking of 12 micron particles showed no measurable difference between thermal/Brownian motion when the cell was operational or nonoperational. Initial experiments on codeposition quality showed a strong dependence upon cathode surface preparation in a shielded electrode configuration.

  5. Analogy between training for dancers and problems of adjustment to microgravity: an evaluation of the subjective vertical in dancers.

    PubMed

    Dubois, K

    1991-01-01

    "Moderne dance" (as opposed to a more academic or classical dance form) uses techniques from kinesiology, anatomy and improvization which are adapted to a cultural, technological and political environment. The function of a choreographic system is to take and give a measure of the world. This includes, with the present tendency of the evolution of culture, a new "naturalism" which seeks the secrets of the body. Dance movements express in terms of space the dimension fo the infinite. It gives somehow the measure of a world within which everything is relative. Except for the speed of light, time and space are bound together by the same principle. The qualities of body awareness and specific motricity in dancers imply--besides a strict discipline--balance, coordination, muscular performance and perfect orientation, problems that astronauts also encounter in microgravity. Could chosen exercises used in modern dance technique be applied to the training of astronauts? Dancer-choreographer Kitsou Dubois has been working in this direction since 1988. She was granted a "Villa Medicis Hors Les Murs" by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, to carry on with her research at NASA, Houston, Tex. in April 1989. It allowed her to investigate the reality of this analogy. She intends to evaluate the dancers' subjective vertical refering to Mittelstaedt's observations on the proportional relationship between "space sickness" and some astronauts poor evaluation of the subjective vertical. This study should create a relationship between a choreographer's empirical intuition and a scientific reality. PMID:11540741

  6. Analogy between training for dancers and problems of adjustment to microgravity: An evaluation of the subjective vertical in dancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Kitsou

    "Moderne dance" (as opposed to a more academic or classical dance form) uses techniques from kinesiology, anatomy and improvization which are adapted to a cultural, technological and political environment. The function of a choreographic system is to take and give a measure of the world. This includes, with the present tendency of the evolution of culture, a new "naturalism" which seeks the secrets of the body. Dance movements express in terms of space the dimension fo the infinite. It gives somehow the measure of a world within which everything is relative. Except for the speed of light, time and space are bound together by the same principle. The qualities of body awareness and specific motricity in dancers imply—besides a strict discipline—balance, coordination, muscular performance and perfect orientation, problems that astronauts also encounter in microgravity. Could chosen exercises used in modern dance technique be applied to the training of astronauts? Dancer-choreographer Kitsou Dubois has been working in this direction since 1988. She was granted a "Villa Medicis Hors Les Murs" by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, to carry on with her research at NASA, Houston, Tex. in April 1989. It allowed her to investigate the reality of this analogy. She intends to evaluate the dancers' subjective vertical refering to Mittelstaedt's observations on the proportional relationship between "space sickness" and some astronauts poor evaluation of the subjective vertical. This study should create a relationship between a choreographer's empirical intuition and a scientific reality.

  7. Signaling in Human and Murine Lymphocytes in Microgravity: Parallels and Contrasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Pellis; Alamelu, Sundaresan; Kulkarni, A. D.; Yamauchi, K.

    2006-01-01

    Immune function in space undergoes dramatic changes, some of which are detrimental to lymphocyte function. These changes may lead to significant immune suppression. Studies with human lymphocytes both in space flight and with ground-based models (NASA in vitro ground-based microgravity analog) indicate that T cell activation is inhibited in microgravity. Other lymphocyte functions, such as locomotion, are also inhibited. There is about an 80 percent homology in the immune response of mice to that of humans. A murine model was investigated because of its ability to parallel some microgravity using hind limb suspension. In in vivo antiorthostatically (AOS)-suspended mice, T cell activation is greatly suppressed, with the majority of activation related cytokines being inhibited. PHA activation in lymphocytes derived from AOS mice (in vivo ground-based microgravity analog) is also suppressed. Calcium ionophore studies in human lymphocytes exposed to modeled microgravity indicate that the calcium pathways are probably unaffected in microgravity. IP3 (inositol triphosphate) receptor expression in both human and mouse lymphocytes cultured in modeled microgravity indicate no suppression of calcium signaling. In the human system, microgravity seems to inhibit signaling cascades either at the level of, or up-stream of, Protein Kinase C (PKC). In particular, a membrane event, such as phospholipase C gamma 1 activity in human lymphocytes is affected, with its direct upstream effector, LAT, being deficiently expressed. In the mouse pathway, LAT is undiminished while another critical intermediate, SLP-76, is diminished significantly. This study identifies critical stages in the human and mouse immune systems and in lymphocytes as a function of microgravity.

  8. Lunar Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2009-01-01

    In this viewgraph presentation, a ground-based lunar analog is developed for the return of manned space flight to the Moon. The contents include: 1) Digital Astronaut; 2) Bed Design; 3) Lunar Analog Feasibility Study; 4) Preliminary Data; 5) Pre-pilot Study; 6) Selection of Stockings; 7) Lunar Analog Pilot Study; 8) Bed Design for Lunar Analog Pilot.

  9. Flight- and Ground-Based Materials Science Programs at NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Research Division of NASA funds research programs in all branches of materials science including ceramics and glasses. A NASA Research Announcement (NRA)is currently planned with proposals due in March 1999. Proposals are accepted for both flight- definition and ground- based research projects with a main criterion being a strong justification for microgravity. A review of the program in its entirety will be given, with special emphasis on microgravity related ceramics research. The topics of current interest in the NRA will be discussed in terms of International Space Station research and NASA's Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) initiative.

  10. Microgravity and aging of animals.

    PubMed

    Serova, L V

    2001-07-01

    A study of changed gravity effects upon viability, life span and aging is of interest, on one hand, from a practical viewpoint in relation to the growing duration of space missions and on other hand, from a theoretical viewpoint, because gravity is one of the key factors in the evolutionary process on the Earth. In 1978 special conference titled "Space Gerontology" was held. Well known experts in space biology and physiology of aging participated in it. However, all the materiales presented at the conference were based on analogies and on what could be during exposure to microgravity rather than on real data. I shall try to discuss this problem, basing on the results of rats experiments on board "Cosmos" biosatellites and ground based model experiments. Male wistar rats examined after 1-3 weeks exposure to microgravity on board biosatellites demonstrated some changes similar to the signs [correction of sings] of aging, such as decreased motor activity, thymus involution, muscle atrophy, osteoporosis etc. But all these changes were reversible and in rats examined 3 weeks after return to the Earth we did not find any deviations from the controls.

  11. Ground based automated telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.; Thompson, W.

    1980-01-01

    Recommendation that a ground-based automated telescope of the 2-meter class be built for remote multiuser use as a natural facility. Experience dictates that a primary consideration is a time shared multitasking operating system with virtual memory overlayed with a real time priority interrupt. The primary user facility is a remote terminal networked to the single computer. Many users must have simultaneous time shared access to the computer for program development. The telescope should be rapid slewing, and hence a light weight construction. Automation allows for the closed loop pointing error correction independent of extreme accuracy of the mount.

  12. Strategies of Manipulating BMP Signaling in Microgravity to Prevent Bone Loss.

    PubMed

    Siamwala, Jamila H; Rajendran, Saranya; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2015-01-01

    Bone structure and function is shaped by gravity. Prolonged exposure to microgravity leads to 1-2% bone loss per month in crew members compared to 1% bone loss per year in postmenopausal women. Exercise countermeasures developed to date are ineffective in combating bone loss in microgravity. The search is on for alternate therapies to prevent bone loss in space. Microgravity is an ideal stimulus to understand bone interactions at different levels of organizations. Spaceflight experiments are limited by high costs and lack of opportunity. Ground-based microgravity analogs have proven to simulate biological responses in space. Mice experiments have given important signaling clues in microgravity-associated bone loss, but are restricted by numbers and human application. Cell-based systems provide initial clues to signaling changes; however, the information is simplistic and limited to the cell type. There is a need to integrate information at different levels and provide a complete picture which will help develop a unique strategy to prevent bone weakening. Limited exposure to simulated microgravity using random positioning machine induces proliferation and differentiation of bipotential murine oval liver stem cells. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are the prototypal osteogenic signaling molecule with multitude of bone protective functions. In this chapter, we discuss the basic BMP structure, its significance in bone repair, and stem cell differentiation in microgravity. Based on the current information, we propose a model for BMP signaling in space. Development of new technologies may help osteoporosis patients, bedridden people, spinal injuries, or paralytic patients.

  13. Ground based infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic instrumentation has been developed for ground-based measurements of astrophysical objects in the intermediate infrared. A conventional Michelson interferometer is limited for astronomical applications in the intermediate infrared by quantum noise fluctuations in the radiation form the source and/or background incident on the detector, and the multiplex advantage is no longer available. One feasible approach to recovering the multiplex advantage is post-dispersion. The infrared signal after passing through telescope and interferometer, is dispersed by a low resolution grating spectrometer onto an array of detectors. The feasibility of the post-dispersion system has been demonstrated with observations of astrophysical objects in the 5 and 10 micrometer atmospheric windows from ground-based telescopes. During FY87/88 the post-disperser was used at the Kitt Peak 4-meter telescope and McMath telescope with facility Fourier transform spectrometers. Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, and Venus were observed. On Jupiter, the resolution at 12 micrometer was 0.01/cm, considerably higher than had been acheived previously. The spectrum contains Jovian ethane and acetylene emission. Construction was begun on the large cryogenic grating spectrometer.

  14. Microgravity science and applications program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitz, Robert A.; Newcomb, John F.

    1991-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of NASA's microgravity science and applications program. It describes the program mission and goals and provides an overview of the process used to develop experimental concepts into actual flight experiments. The paper then overviews the present ground-based research and flight experiment portions of the microgravity science and applications program, examines recent results, and outlines flights planned for the near future.

  15. Electrophoresis. [in microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1977-01-01

    Ground-based techniques for electrophoresis take account of the need either to circumvent the effects of gravity to prevent convection, or to use gravity for fluid stabilization through artificial density gradients. The microgravity environments of orbiting spacecraft provides a new alternative for electrophoresis by avoiding the need for either of these two approaches. The paper presents some theoretical considerations concerning electrophoresis, examines certain experimental techniques (zone and high density gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing and isotachophoresis), and examines the electrophoresis of living cells.

  16. Macromolecular Crystallization in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, Edward H.; Helliwell, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The key concepts that attracted crystal growers, macromolecular or solid state, to microgravity research is that density difference fluid flows and sedimentation of the growing crystals are greatly reduced. Thus, defects and flaws in the crystals can be reduced, even eliminated, and crystal volume can be increased. Macromolecular crystallography differs from the field of crystalline semiconductors. For the latter, crystals are harnessed for their electrical behaviors. A crystal of a biological macromolecule is used instead for diffraction experiments (X-ray or neutron) to determine the three-dimensional structure of the macromolecule. The better the internal order of the crystal of a biological macromolecule then the more molecular structure detail that can be extracted. This structural information that enables an understanding of how the molecule functions. This knowledge is changing the biological and chemical sciences with major potential in understanding disease pathologies. Macromolecular structural crystallography in general is a remarkable field where physics, biology, chemistry, and mathematics meet to enable insight to the basic fundamentals of life. In this review, we examine the use of microgravity as an environment to grow macromolecular crystals. We describe the crystallization procedures used on the ground, how the resulting crystals are studied and the knowledge obtained from those crystals. We address the features desired in an ordered crystal and the techniques used to evaluate those features in detail. We then introduce the microgravity environment, the techniques to access that environment, and the theory and evidence behind the use of microgravity for crystallization experiments. We describe how ground-based laboratory techniques have been adapted to microgravity flights and look at some of the methods used to analyze the resulting data. Several case studies illustrate the physical crystal quality improvements and the macromolecular structural

  17. Second Microgravity Fluid Physics Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The conference's purpose was to inform the fluid physics community of research opportunities in reduced-gravity fluid physics, present the status of the existing and planned reduced gravity fluid physics research programs, and inform participants of the upcoming NASA Research Announcement in this area. The plenary sessions provided an overview of the Microgravity Fluid Physics Program information on NASA's ground-based and space-based flight research facilities. An international forum offered participants an opportunity to hear from French, German, and Russian speakers about the microgravity research programs in their respective countries. Two keynote speakers provided broad technical overviews on multiphase flow and complex fluids research. Presenters briefed their peers on the scientific results of their ground-based and flight research. Fifty-eight of the sixty-two technical papers are included here.

  18. Simulated microgravity alters the expression of key genes involved in fracture healing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe, N. Patrick; Androjna, Caroline; Hill, Esther; Globus, Ruth K.; Midura, Ronald J.

    2013-11-01

    Fracture healing in animal models has been shown to be altered in both ground based analogs of spaceflight and in those exposed to actual spaceflight. The molecular mechanisms behind altered fracture healing as a result of chronic exposure to microgravity remain to be elucidated. This study investigates temporal gene expression of multiple factors involved in secondary fracture healing, specifically those integral to the development of a soft tissue callus and the transition to that of hard tissue. Skeletally mature female rats were subjected to a 4 week period of simulated microgravity and then underwent a closed femoral fracture procedure. Thereafter, they were reintroduced to the microgravity and allowed to heal for a 1 or 2 week period. A synchronous group of weight bearing rats was used as a normal fracture healing control. Utilizing Real-Time quantitative PCR on mRNA from fracture callus tissue, we found significant reductions in the levels of transcripts associated with angiogenesis, chondrogenesis, and osteogenesis. These data suggest an altered fracture healing process in a simulated microgravity environment, and these alterations begin early in the healing process. These findings may provide mechanistic insight towards developing countermeasure protocols to mitigate these adaptations.

  19. Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grisaffe, S. J.

    1985-01-01

    A Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) has been planned, designed, and is being developed. This laboratory will support related efforts to define the requirements for the Microgravity and Materials Processing Laboratory (MMPF) and the MMPF Test Bed for the Space Station. The MMSL will serve as a check out and training facility for science mission specialists for STS, Spacelab and Space Station prior to the full operation of the MMPF Test Bed. The focus of the MMSL will be on experiments related to the understanding of metal/ceramic/glass solidification, high perfection crystal growth and fluid physics. This ground-based laboratory will be used by university/industry/government researchers to examine and become familiar with the potential of new microgravity materials science concepts and to conduct longer term studies aimed at fully developing a l-g understanding of materials and processing phenomena. Such research will help create new high quality concepts for space experiments and will provide the basis for modeling, theories, and hypotheses upon which key space experiments can be defined and developed.

  20. Ground-based IRCM testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Derek; Owen, Mark

    2010-04-01

    Recent advances in the ability to perform comprehensive ground based Infrared Countermeasure (IRCM) testing have the capability to fill the Test and Evaluation (T&E) gaps for existing and future weapons system acquisition. IRCM testing has historically been dominated and in a manner limited by expensive live fire testing requirements. While live fire testing is a vital part of IRCM T&E, next generation technological developments now enable closed-loop, ground-based IRCM testing to provide valuable complementary test data at a much lower cost. The high cost and limited assets that have prevented live fire and flight testing from providing a thorough hardware based data set required for previous T&E analysis is no longer an issue. In the past, traditional physics based digital system model (DSM) analysis has been utilized to augment the IRCM data sets to make them statistically significant. While DSM is a useful tool in the development of IRCM systems, the newly developed installed system testing utilizing a hardware-in-the-loop construct provides for an enhanced level of fidelity and assurance that the systems will meet the warfighter's needs. The goal of the newly developed test technologies is to develop a statistical significant data set utilizing hardware-in-the-loop at a significantly lower cost than historical methods.

  1. Ground-based activities in preparation of SELENE ISS experiment on self-rewetting fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savino, R.; Abe, Y.; Castagnolo, D.; Celata, G. P.; Kabov, O.; Kawaji, M.; Sato, M.; Tanaka, K.; Thome, J. R.; Van Vaerenbergh, S.

    2011-12-01

    SELENE (SELf rewetting fluids for thermal ENErgy management) is a microgravity experiment proposed to the European Space Agency (ESA) in response to the Announcement of Opportunities for Physical Sciences. Main objectives of the microgravity research onboard ISS include the quantitative investigation of heat transfer performances of "self-rewetting fluids" and "nano self-rewetting fluids" in model heat pipes and validation of adequate theoretical and numerical modelling able to predict their behaviour in microgravity conditions. This article summarizes the results of ground-based research activities in preparation of the microgravity experiments. They include: 1) thermophysical properties measurements; 2) study of thermo-soluto-capillary effects in micro-channels; 3) numerical modelling; 4) thermal and concentration distribution measurements with optical (e.g. interferometric) and intrusive techniques; 5) surface tension-driven effects and thermal performances test on different capillary structures and heat pipes; 6) breadboards development and support to definition of scientific requirements.

  2. Ukrainian Program for Material Science in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, Oleg

    Ukrainian Program for Material Sciences in Microgravity O.P. Fedorov, Space Research Insti-tute of NASU -NSAU, Kyiv, The aim of the report is to present previous and current approach of Ukrainian research society to the prospect of material sciences in microgravity. This approach is based on analysis of Ukrainian program of research in microgravity, preparation of Russian -Ukrainian experiments on Russian segment of ISS and development of new Ukrainian strategy of space activity for the years 2010-2030. Two parts of issues are discussed: (i) the evolution of our views on the priorities in microgravity research (ii) current experiments under preparation and important ground-based results. item1 The concept of "space industrialization" and relevant efforts in Soviet and post -Soviet Ukrainian research institutions are reviewed. The main topics are: melt supercooling, crystal growing, testing of materials, electric welding and study of near-Earth environment. The anticipated and current results are compared. item 2. The main experiments in the framework of Ukrainian-Russian Research Program for Russian Segment of ISS are reviewed. Flight installations under development and ground-based results of the experiments on directional solidification, heat pipes, tribological testing, biocorrosion study is presented. Ground-based experiments and theoretical study of directional solidification of transparent alloys are reviewed as well as preparation of MORPHOS installation for study of succinonitrile -acetone in microgravity.

  3. Response and adaptation of bone cells to simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lifang; Li, Runzhi; Su, Peihong; Arfat, Yasir; Zhang, Ge; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

    2014-11-01

    Bone loss induced by microgravity during space flight is one of the most deleterious factors on astronaut's health and is mainly attributed to an unbalance in the process of bone remodeling. Studies from the space microgravity have demonstrated that the disruption of bone remodeling is associated with the changes of four main functional bone cells, including osteoblast, osteoclast, osteocyte, and mesenchymal stem cells. For the limited availability, expensive costs and confined experiment conditions for conducting space microgravity studies, the mechanism of bone cells response and adaptation to microgravity is still unclear. Therefore, some ground-based simulated microgravity methods have been developed to investigate the bioeffects of microgravity and the mechanisms. Here, based on our studies and others, we review how bone cells (osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes and mesenchymal stem cells) respond and adapt to simulated microgravity.

  4. Immune Function Changes during a Spaceflight-Analog Undersea Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian; Stowe, Raymond; Mehta, Satish; Quiniarte, Heather; Yetman, Deborah; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2008-01-01

    There is ample evidence to suggest that space flight leads to immune system dysregulation. This may be a result of microgravity, confinement, physiological stress, radiation, environment or other mission-associated factors. It is attractive to utilize ground-based spaceflight analogs as appropriate to investigate this phenomenon. For spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation (SAID), the authors believe the most appropriate analogs might be NEEMO (short duration, Shuttle analog), Antarctic winter-over (long-duration, ISS analog) and the Haughton Mars Project in the Canadian Arctic (intermediate-duration). Each of these analogs replicate isolation, mission-associated stress, disrupted circadian rhythms, and other aspects of flight thought to contribute to SAID. To validate NEEMO as a flight analog with respect to SAID, a pilot study was conducted during the NEEMO-12 and 13 missions during 2007. Assays were performed that assessed immune status, physiological stress and latent viral reactivation. Blood and saliva samples were collected at pre-, mid-, and post-mission timepoints.

  5. New findings and instrumentation from the NASA Lewis microgravity facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D.; Greenberg, Paul S.

    1990-01-01

    The study of fundamental combustion and fluid physics in a microgravity environment is a relatively new scientific endeavor. The microgravity environment enables a new range of experiments to be performed since: buoyancy-induced flows are nearly eliminated; normally obscured forces and flows may be isolated; gravitational settling or sedimentation is nearly eliminated; and larger time or length scales in experiments become permissible. Unexpected phenomena have been observed, with surprising frequency, in microgravity experiments, raising questions about the degree of accuracy and completeness of the classical understanding. An overview is provided of some new phenomena found through ground-based, microgravity research, the instrumentation used in this research, and plans for new instrumentation.

  6. Application of Acute Maximal Exercise to Enhance Mechanisms Underlying Blood Pressure Regulation and Orthostatic Tolerance After Exposure to Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Engelke, K. A.; Doerr, D. F.

    1999-01-01

    Development of orthostatic hypotension and intolerance in astronauts who return to earth following a spaceflight mission represents a significant operational concern to NASA. Reduced plasma volume, vascular resistance, and baroreflex responsiveness following exposure to actual and ground-based analogs of microgravity have been associated with orthostatic instability, suggesting that these mechanisms may contribute alone or in combination to compromise of blood pressure regulation after spaceflight. It therefore seems reasonable that development of procedures designed to reverse or restore the effects of microgravity on regulatory mechanisms of blood volume, vascular resistance and cardiac function should provide some protection against postflight orthostatic intolerance. Several investigations have provided evidence that a single bout of exhaustive dynamic exercise enhances functions of mechanisms responsible for blood pressure stability. Therefore, the purpose of our research project was to conduct a series of experiments using ground-based analogs of reduced gravity (i.e., prolonged restriction to the upright standing posture) in human subjects to investigate the hypothesis that a single bout of dynamic maximal exercise would restore blood volume, vascular resistance and cardiac function and improve blood pressure stability.

  7. Unique cell culture systems for ground based research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Marian L.

    1990-01-01

    The horizontally rotating fluid-filled, membrane oxygenated bioreactors developed at NASA Johnson for spacecraft applications provide a powerful tool for ground-based research. Three-dimensional aggregates formed by cells cultured on microcarrier beads are useful for study of cell-cell interactions and tissue development. By comparing electron micrographs of plant seedlings germinated during Shuttle flight 61-C and in an earth-based rotating bioreactor it is shown that some effects of microgravity are mimicked. Bioreactors used in the UAH Bioreactor Laboratory will make it possible to determine some of the effects of altered gravity at the cellular level. Bioreactors can be valuable for performing critical, preliminary-to-spaceflight experiments as well as medical investigations such as in vitro tumor cell growth and chemotherapeutic drug response; the enrichment of stem cells from bone marrow; and the effect of altered gravity on bone and muscle cell growth and function and immune response depression.

  8. Flight Analogs (Bed Rest Research)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flight Analogs / Bed Rest Research Projects provide NASA with a ground based research platform to complement space research. By mimicking the conditions of weightlessness in the human body here on ...

  9. Microgravity and Cellular Consequences in Lymphocyte Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Sundaresan, Alamelu

    2004-01-01

    Mammalian cells adapt to the environment of low gravity and express a series of responses, some possibly from direct effects on cells and others based on environmental conditions created by microgravity. Human lymphocytes in microgravity culture are functionally diminished in activation and locomotion. Both processes are integral to optimal immune response to fight pathogens. The NASA Rotating-wall vessel (RWV) is a well-accepted analog for microgravity culture on the ground. Gene array experiments and immunoblotting identified upstream events in human lymphocytes adapting to microgravity analog culture. Microgravity induces selective changes, many of which are cell membrane related. Results showed that upstream of PKC in the T cell activation cascade, PLC-gamma and LAT are significantly diminished. ZAP 70 which controls LAT activation is also down regulated in modeled microgravity. Thus events governing cell shape might warrant attention in microgravity conditions. The goal of this study is to delineate response suites that are consequential, direct or indirect effects of the microgravity environment and which of these are essential to lymphocytes

  10. Spaceflight Sensorimotor Analogs: Simulating Acute and Adaptive Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Laura C.; Harm, Deborah L.; Kozlovskaya, Inessa; Reschke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    reviewed. DISCUSSION. A true ground-based flight analog for sensorimotor function is not feasible. A combination of flight analogs; however, can be used to selectively mimic different aspects of the spaceflight-induced sensorimotor performance decrements.

  11. Microgravity Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Munafo, Paul M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Manufacturing capability in outer space remains one of the critical milestones to surpass to allow humans to conduct long-duration manned space exploration. The high cost-to-orbit for leaving the Earth's gravitational field continues to be the limiting factor in carrying sufficient hardware to maintain extended life support in microgravity or on other planets. Additive manufacturing techniques, or 'chipless' fabrication, like RP are being considered as the most promising technologies for achieving in situ or remote processing of hardware components, as well as for the repair of existing hardware. At least three RP technologies are currently being explored for use in microgravity and extraterrestrial fabrication.

  12. NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Materials Science research programs are funded by NASA through the Microgravity Research Division. Such programs are normally designated as flight definition or ground based and can be awarded initially for up to four years. Selection is through a peer review process in response to a biennial NASA Research Announcement (NRA). The next announcement is due in November 1998 with proposals due in March 1999. Topics of special interest to NASA are described in the guidelines for proposal writing within the NRA. NASA's interest in materials is wide and covers a range which includes metals and alloys, ceramics, glasses, polymers, non-linear optics, aerogels and nanostructures. With increasing interest in the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) program, the materials research funded will not be exclusively devoted to processes dependent on microgravity, but will also support materials of strategic interest in meeting NASA's long range plans of interplanetary travel.

  13. Microgravity Effects on Transendothelial Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, John M.

    1996-01-01

    The Endothelial Cell (EC) layer which lines blood vessels from the aorta to the capillaries provides the principal barrier to transport of water and solutes between blood and underlying tissue. Endothelial cells are continuously exposed to the mechanical shearing force (shear stress) and normal force (pressure) imposed by flowing blood on their surface, and they are adapted to this mechanical environment. When the cardiovascular system is exposed to microgravity, the mechanical environmental of endothelial cells is perturbed drastically and the transport properties of EC layers are altered in response. We have shown recently that step changes in shear stress have an acute effect on transport properties of EC layers in a cell culture model, and several recent studies in different vessels of live animals have confirmed the shear-dependent transport properties of the endothelium. We hypothesize that alterations in mechanical forces induced by microgravity and their resultant influence on transendothelial transport of water and solutes are, in large measure, responsible for the characteristic cephalad fluid shift observed in humans experiencing microgravity. To study the effects of altered mechanical forces on transendothelial transport and to test pharmacologic agents as counter measures to microgravity induced fluid shifts we have proposed ground-based studies using well defined cell culture models.

  14. Ontogenesis of mammals in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazenko, O. G. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This report is an English translation of a Russian report prepared by a group of authors from the USSR, Bulgaria, Hungary, the GDR, Poland, Czechoslovakia, France, and the USA. It presents results of the first microgravity experiment on mammalian embryology performed during the flight of the biosatellite Cosmos-1514 and in ground-based simulation studies. An overview is provided of the data available about the role of gravity in animal growth and development, and future studies into this problem are discussed. A new introduction has been provided for the English version.

  15. Computational Material Processing in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Working with Professor David Matthiesen at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) a computer model of the DPIMS (Diffusion Processes in Molten Semiconductors) space experiment was developed that is able to predict the thermal field, flow field and concentration profile within a molten germanium capillary under both ground-based and microgravity conditions as illustrated. These models are coupled with a novel nonlinear statistical methodology for estimating the diffusion coefficient from measured concentration values after a given time that yields a more accurate estimate than traditional methods. This code was integrated into a web-based application that has become a standard tool used by engineers in the Materials Science Department at CWRU.

  16. RWPV bioreactor mass transport: earth-based and in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begley, Cynthia M.; Kleis, Stanley J.

    2002-01-01

    Mass transport and mixing of perfused scalar quantities in the NASA Rotating Wall Perfused Vessel bioreactor are studied using numerical models of the flow field and scalar concentration field. Operating conditions typical of both microgravity and ground-based cell cultures are studied to determine the expected vessel performance for both flight and ground-based control experiments. Results are presented for the transport of oxygen with cell densities and consumption rates typical of colon cancer cells cultured in the RWPV. The transport and mixing characteristics are first investigated with a step change in the perfusion inlet concentration by computing the time histories of the time to exceed 10% inlet concentration. The effects of a uniform cell utilization rate are then investigated with time histories of the outlet concentration, volume average concentration, and volume fraction starved. It is found that the operating conditions used in microgravity produce results that are quite different then those for ground-based conditions. Mixing times for microgravity conditions are significantly shorter than those for ground-based operation. Increasing the differential rotation rates (microgravity) increases the mixing and transport, while increasing the mean rotation rate (ground-based) suppresses both. Increasing perfusion rates enhances mass transport for both microgravity and ground-based cases, however, for the present range of operating conditions, above 5-10 cc/min there are diminishing returns as much of the inlet fluid is transported directly to the perfusion exit. The results show that exit concentration is not a good indicator of the concentration distributions in the vessel. In microgravity conditions, the NASA RWPV bioreactor with the viscous pump has been shown to provide an environment that is well mixed. Even when operated near the theoretical minimum perfusion rates, only a small fraction of the volume provides less than the required oxygen levels

  17. RWPV bioreactor mass transport: earth-based and in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Begley, Cynthia M; Kleis, Stanley J

    2002-11-20

    Mass transport and mixing of perfused scalar quantities in the NASA Rotating Wall Perfused Vessel bioreactor are studied using numerical models of the flow field and scalar concentration field. Operating conditions typical of both microgravity and ground-based cell cultures are studied to determine the expected vessel performance for both flight and ground-based control experiments. Results are presented for the transport of oxygen with cell densities and consumption rates typical of colon cancer cells cultured in the RWPV. The transport and mixing characteristics are first investigated with a step change in the perfusion inlet concentration by computing the time histories of the time to exceed 10% inlet concentration. The effects of a uniform cell utilization rate are then investigated with time histories of the outlet concentration, volume average concentration, and volume fraction starved. It is found that the operating conditions used in microgravity produce results that are quite different then those for ground-based conditions. Mixing times for microgravity conditions are significantly shorter than those for ground-based operation. Increasing the differential rotation rates (microgravity) increases the mixing and transport, while increasing the mean rotation rate (ground-based) suppresses both. Increasing perfusion rates enhances mass transport for both microgravity and ground-based cases, however, for the present range of operating conditions, above 5-10 cc/min there are diminishing returns as much of the inlet fluid is transported directly to the perfusion exit. The results show that exit concentration is not a good indicator of the concentration distributions in the vessel. In microgravity conditions, the NASA RWPV bioreactor with the viscous pump has been shown to provide an environment that is well mixed. Even when operated near the theoretical minimum perfusion rates, only a small fraction of the volume provides less than the required oxygen levels.

  18. Microgravity Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Basso, Steve

    2000-01-01

    The world's space agencies have been conducting microgravity research since the beginning of space flight. Initially driven by the need to understand the impact of less than- earth gravity physics on manned space flight, microgravity research has evolved into a broad class of scientific experimentation that utilizes extreme low acceleration environments. The U.S. NASA microgravity research program supports both basic and applied research in five key areas: biotechnology - focusing on macro-molecular crystal growth as well as the use of the unique space environment to assemble and grow mammalian tissue; combustion science - focusing on the process of ignition, flame propagation, and extinction of gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels; fluid physics - including aspects of fluid dynamics and transport phenomena; fundamental physics - including the study of critical phenomena, low-temperature, atomic, and gravitational physics; and materials science - including electronic and photonic materials, glasses and ceramics, polymers, and metals and alloys. Similar activities prevail within the Chinese, European, Japanese, and Russian agencies with participation from additional international organizations as well. While scientific research remains the principal objective behind these program, all hope to drive toward commercialization to sustain a long range infrastructure which .benefits the national technology and economy. In the 1997 International Space Station Commercialization Study, conducted by the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, some viable microgravity commercial ventures were identified, however, none appeared sufficiently robust to privately fund space access at that time. Thus, government funded micro gravity research continues on an evolutionary path with revolutionary potential.

  19. Cokriging with ground-based radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, P. M.; Webster, R.; Curran, P. J.

    1992-01-01

    The formulas for cokriging and a coherent coregionalization model are presented. The model is applied to design sampling strategies for surveys using a ground-based radiometer. Results indicate that cokriging based on measured radiation is nine times as efficient as kriging the cover alone. It is concluded that cokriging in conjunction with ground-based radiometry provides an economical and operational technique for using reflectance to estimate the earth surface properties.

  20. The Use of Microgravity To Emulate Three-Dimensional Tissue Interactions in Colorectal Cancer Metastasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jessup, J. Milburn

    1997-01-01

    The hypothesis of this ground-based project was that simulated microgravity may be used to recreate with high fidelity the in vivo environment in tissue culture. The objectives were to determine whether: (1) simulated microgravity induces differentiation within poorly differentiated human colon carcinoma cells that are similar to that observed in experimental metastases in vivo in nude mice; and (2) the use of simulated microgravity helps define the experimental metastatic potential of human colorectal carcinoma.

  1. Microgravity science and applications: Apparatus and facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA support apparatus and facilities for microgravity research are summarized in fact sheets. The facilities are ground-based simulation environments for short-term experiments, and the shuttle orbiter environment for long duration experiments. The 17 items of the microgravitational experimental apparatus are described. Electronic materials, alloys, biotechnology, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, glasses and ceramics, and combustion science are among the topics covered.

  2. Third Microgravity Fluid Physics Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The conference's purpose was to inform the fluid physics community of research opportunities in reduced-gravity fluid physics, present the status of the existing and planned reduced gravity fluid physics research programs, and inform participants of the upcoming NASA Research Announcement in this area. The plenary sessions provided an overview of the Microgravity Fluid Physics Program, present and future areas of emphasis, information on NASA's ground-based and space-based flight research facilities-especially use of the International Space Station, and the process by which future investigators enter the program. An international forum offered participants an opportunity to hear from Russian speakers about their microgravity research programs. Three keynote speakers provided broad technical overviews on the history and future development of the moon and on multiphase flow and complex fluids research. One keynote paper and an extended abstract are included in the proceedings. One hundred and thirty-two technical papers were presented in 28 sessions. Presenters briefed their peers on the scientific results of their ground-based and flight research. One hundred and twenty-two papers are included here.

  3. Formation of Carbon Nanotubes in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, J. M.; Mason, G. R.; Feikema, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    Even though nanotube science has become one of the worlds most rapidly advancing areas of research, very little is known about the processes involved in nanotube synthesis. To study the formation of carbon nanotubes in an environment unhindered by the buoyancy induced flows generated by the high temperatures necessary to vaporize carbon and grow nanotubes, we have designed a miniature carbon arc apparatus that can produce carbon nanotubes under microgravity conditions. During the first phase of this project, we designed, built, and successfully tested the mini carbon arc in both 1g and 2.2 sec drop tower microgravity conditions. We have demonstrated that microgravity can eliminate the strong convective flows from the carbon arc and we have successfully produced single-walled carbon nanotubes in microgravity. We believe that microgravity processing will allow us to better understand the nanotube formation process and eventually allow us to grow nanotubes that are superior to ground-based production.

  4. The VO and Ground-Based Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huchra, John

    The era of extremely large public databases in astronomy is upon us. such databases are opening the field to new research and new researchers. However it is important to be sure the resources are available to properly archive ground-based astronomical data and include the necessary quality checks and calibrations. A Virtual Observatory without proper archives will have limited usefulness. This also implies that with limited resources not all data can or should be archived. NASA already has a very good handle on US space-based astronomical data. Agencies and organizations that operate astronomical facilities particularly ground based observatories need to plan and budget for these activities now. We should not underestimate the effort required to produce high quality data products that will be useful for the broader community. Currently the best way to ""fill"" archives is with data ftom surveys. That will continue to be the case for most ground based observatories.

  5. The Microgravity Demonstrator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Wargo, Michael J.

    The Microgravity Demonstrator is a tool used to create microgravity conditions in the classroom. A series of demonstrations is used to provide a dramatically visual, physical connection between free-fall and microgravity conditions in order to understand why various types of experiments are performed under microgravity conditions. The manual is…

  6. Ground-Based Research within NASA's Materials Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald C.; Curreri, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ground-based research in Materials Science for NASA's Microgravity program serves several purposes, and includes approximately four Principal Investigators for every one in the flight program. While exact classification is difficult. the ground program falls roughly into the following categories: (1) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Theoretical Studies; (2) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Bringing to Maturity New Research; (3) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Enabling Characterization; (4) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Thermophysical Property Determination; (5) Radiation Shielding; (6) Preliminary In Situ Resource Utilization; (7) Biomaterials; (8) Nanostructured Materials; (9) Materials Science for Advanced Space Propulsion. It must be noted that while the first four categories are aimed at using long duration low gravity conditions, the other categories pertain more to more recent NASA initiatives in materials science. These new initiatives address NASA's future materials science needs in the realms of crew health and safety, and exploration, and have been included in the most recent NASA Research Announcements (NRA). A description of each of these nine categories will be given together with examples of the kinds of research being undertaken.

  7. Unprincipled microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattingly, James

    2014-05-01

    I argue that the key principle of microgravity is what I have called elsewhere the Lorentzian strategy. This strategy may be seen as either a reverse-engineering approach or a descent with modification approach, but however one sees if the method works neither by attempting to propound a theory that is the quantum version of either an extant or generalized gravitation theory nor by attempting to propound a theory that is the final version of quantum mechanics and finding gravity within it. Instead the method works by beginning with what we are pretty sure is a good approximation to the low-energy limit of whatever the real microprocesses are that generate what we experience as gravitation. This method is powerful, fruitful, and not committed to principles for which we have, as yet, only scant evidence; the method begins with what we do know and teases out what we can know next. The principle is methodological, not ontological.

  8. Hindlimb unloading: rodent analog for microgravity.

    PubMed

    Globus, Ruth K; Morey-Holton, Emily

    2016-05-15

    The rodent hindlimb unloading (HU) model was developed in the 1980s to make it possible to study mechanisms, responses, and treatments for the adverse consequences of spaceflight. Decades before development of the HU model, weightlessness was predicted to yield deficits in the principal tissues responsible for structure and movement on Earth, primarily muscle and bone. Indeed, results from early spaceflight and HU experiments confirmed the expected sensitivity of the musculoskeletal system to gravity loading. Results from human and animal spaceflight and HU experiments show that nearly all organ systems and tissues studied display some measurable changes, albeit sometimes minor and of uncertain relevance to astronaut health. The focus of this review is to examine key HU results for various organ systems including those related to stress; the immune, cardiovascular, and nervous systems; vision changes; and wound healing. Analysis of the validity of the HU model is important given its potential value for both hypothesis testing and countermeasure development. PMID:26869711

  9. Combustion Of Interacting Droplet Arrays In Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Struk, P. M.; Ikegami, M.; Xu, G.

    2003-01-01

    Theory and experiments involving single droplet combustion date back to 1953, with the first microgravity work appearing in 1956. The problem of a spherical droplet burning in an infinite, quiescent microgravity environment is a classical problem in combustion research with the classical solution appearing in nearly every textbook on combustion. The microgravity environment offered by ground-based facilities such as drop towers and space-based facilities is ideal for studying the problem experimentally. A recent review by Choi and Dryer shows significant advances in droplet combustion have been made by studying the problem experimentally in microgravity and comparing the results to one dimensional theoretical and numerical treatments of the problem. Studying small numbers of interacting droplets in a well-controlled geometry represents a logical step in extending single droplet investigations to more practical spray configurations. Studies of droplet interactions date back to Rex and co-workers, and were recently summarized by Annamalai and Ryan. All previous studies determined the change in the burning rate constant, k, or the flame characteristics as a result of interactions. There exists almost no information on how droplet interactions a effect extinction limits, and if the extinction limits change if the array is in the diffusive or the radiative extinction regime. Thus, this study examined experimentally the effect that droplet interactions have on the extinction process by investigating the simplest array configuration, a binary droplet array. The studies were both in normal gravity, reduced pressure ambients and microgravity facilities. The microgravity facilities were the 2.2 and 5.2 second drop towers at the NASA Glenn Research Center and the 10 second drop tower at the Japan Microgravity Center. The experimental apparatus and the data analysis techniques are discussed in detail elsewhere.

  10. New scientific equipment for protein crystallization in microgravity, BELKA, and its approbation on the Bion-M No. 1 spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Baskakova, S. S. Kovalyov, S. I.; Kramarenko, V. A.; Zadorozhnaya, L. A.; Lyasnikova, M. S.; Dymshits, Y. M.; Shishkov, V. A.; Egorov, A. V.; Dolgin, A. M.; Voloshin, A. E.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2015-01-15

    A space experiment on the crystallization of lisozyme and glucose isomerase proteins in UK-1 and UK-2 crystallizers on the scientific equipment BELKA on the Bion-M no. 1 spacecraft was performed in April–May 2013. A ground-based experiment was carried out simultaneously at the Institute of Crystallography of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IC RAS). Transparent crystals were obtained in both cases. The lisozyme crystals grown in microgravity are larger than their terrestrial analogs. An optical study of glucose isomerase crystals grown in space has shown that the coalescence of equally oriented crystallites leads to the formation of quasi-single-crystal blocks. An X-ray diffraction experiment on lisozyme crystals has revealed the resolutions for crystals obtained under terrestrial conditions and in space to be 1.74 and 1.58 Å, respectively.

  11. Global gene expression profiling of HeLa and HepG2 cells in response to simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clement, J.; Lacy, S.; Wilson, B.

    Microgravity is considered a major environmental factor that affects cells and tissues causing adverse effects to human health during space flight Ground-based gravity simulation experiments at the cellular and molecular levels have given much insight into the underlying molecular and cellular alterations induced by microgravity stress In the present study we investigated microgravity effects on human cell lines such as HeLa cells and HepG2 cells under simulated microgravity conditions using the Rotating Wall Vessel Bioreactor Gene expression profiles of time course microgravity treated cells were displayed through DNA microarray analysis Some of the microgravity-responsive genes were further validated using Northern and RT-PCR techniques The identified set of genes that are preferentially altered in microgravity conditions may constitute part of the major space genes that together play a major check-and-balance role ultimately determining the outcome of a cell or an organism in response to microgravity conditions

  12. MSFC Skylab ground-based astronomy program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, B. J.

    1974-01-01

    The Skylab Ground-Based Astronomy Program (SGAP) was conducted to enhance the data base of solar physics obtained during the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) mission flown in conjunction with the Skylab orbital station. Leading solar physicists from various observatories obtained data from the ground at the same time that orbital data were being acquired by ATM. The acquisition of corollary solar data from the ground simultaneously with the ATM orbital observations helped to provide a broader basis for understanding solar physics by increasing spectral coverage and by the use of additional sophisticated instruments of various types. This report briefly describes the individual tasks and the associated instrumentation selected for this ground-based program and contains as appendices, the final reports from the Principal Investigators.

  13. Bacillus thuringiensis Conjugation in Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuls, Elise; van Houdt, Rob; Leys, Natalie; Dijkstra, Camelia; Larkin, Oliver; Mahillon, Jacques

    2009-10-01

    Spaceflight experiments have suggested a possible effect of microgravity on the plasmid transfer among strains of the Gram-positive Bacillus thuringiensis, as opposed to no effect recorded for Gram-negative conjugation. To investigate these potential effects in a more affordable experimental setup, three ground-based microgravity simulators were tested: the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV), the Random Positioning Machine (RPM), and a superconducting magnet. The bacterial conjugative system consisted in biparental matings between two B. thuringiensis strains, where the transfer frequencies of the conjugative plasmid pAW63 and its ability to mobilize the nonconjugative plasmid pUB110 were assessed. Specifically, potential plasmid transfers in a 0-g position (simulated microgravity) were compared to those obtained under 1-g (normal gravity) condition in each device. Statistical analyses revealed no significant difference in the conjugative and mobilizable transfer frequencies between the three different simulated microgravitational conditions and our standard laboratory condition. These important ground-based observations emphasize the fact that, though no stimulation of plasmid transfer was observed, no inhibition was observed either. In the case of Gram-positive bacteria, this ability to exchange plasmids in weightlessness, as occurs under Earth's conditions, should be seen as particularly relevant in the scope of spread of antibiotic resistances and bacterial virulence.

  14. MOBI: Microgravity Observations of Bubble Interactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Donald L.; Sangani, Ashok

    2004-01-01

    One of the greatest uncertainties affecting the design of multiphase flow technologies for space exploration is the spatial distribution of phases that will arise in microgravity or reduced gravity. On Earth, buoyancy-driven motion predominates whereas the shearing of the bubble suspension controls its behavior in microgravity. We are conducting a series of ground-based experiments and a flight experiment spanning the full range of ratios of buoyancy to shear. These include: (1) bubbles rising in a quiescent liquid in a vertical channel; (2) weak shear flow induced by slightly inclining the channel; (3) moderate shear flow in a terrestrial vertical pipe flow; and (4) shearing of a bubble suspension in a cylindrical Couette cell in microgravity. We consider nearly monodisperse suspensions of 1 to 1.8 mm diameter bubbles in aqueous electrolyte solutions. The liquid velocity disturbance produced by bubbles in this size range can often be described using an inviscid analysis. Electrolytic solutions lead to hydrophilic repulsion forces that stabilize the bubble suspension without causing Marangoni stresses. We will discuss the mechanisms that control the flow behavior and phase distribution in the ground-based experiments and speculate on the factors that may influence the suspension flow and bubble volume fraction distribution in the flight experiment.

  15. Microbial Cellulose Assembly in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. Malcolm, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Based on evidence indicating a possible correlation between hypo-gravity conditions and alteration of cellulose production by the gram negative bacterium, Acetobacter xylinum, a ground-based study for a possible long term Space Shuttle flight has been conducted. The proposed experiment for A. xylinum aboard the Shuttle is the BRIC (Biological Research in a Canister), a metal container containing spaces for nine Petri plates. Using a common experimental design, the cellulose production capability as well as the survivability of the A. xylinum strains NQ5 and AY201 have been described. It should now be possible to use the BRIC for the first long term microgravity experiments involving the biosynthesis of cellulose.

  16. Novel Receptor-Based Countermeasures to Microgravity-Induced Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OMalley, Bert W.

    1999-01-01

    The biological actions mediated by the estrogen receptor (ER), vitamin D receptor (VDR) and Ca(sup 2+) (sub o) -sensing receptor (CaR) play key roles in the normal control of bone growth and skeletal turnover that is necessary for skeletal health. These receptors act by controlling the differentiation and/or function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and other cell types within the bone and bone marrow microenvironment. The appropriate use of selective ER modulators (SERMS) which target bone, vitamin D analogs that favor bone formation relative to resorption, and CaR agonists may both stimulate osteoblastogenesis and inhibit osteoclastogenesis and the function of mature osteoclasts, should make it possible to prevent the reduction in bone formation and increase in bone resorption that normally contribute to the bone loss induced by weightlessness. Indeed, there may be synergistic interactions among these receptors that enhance the actions of any one used alone. Therefore, we proposed to: 1) assess the in vitro ability of novel ER, VDR and CaR agonists, alone or in combination, to modulate osteoblastogenesis and mature osteoblast function under conditions of 1g and simulated microgravity; 2) assess the in vitro ability of novel ER, VDR and CaR agonists, alone or in combination, to modulate osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption under conditions of lg and simulated microgravity; and 3) carry out baseline studies on the skeletal localization of the CaR in normal rat bone as well as the in vivo actions of our novel ER- and VDR-based therapeutics in the rat in preparation for their use, alone or in combination, in well-established ground-based models of microgravity and eventually in space flight.

  17. Ground-Based Telescope Parametric Cost Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Rowell, Ginger Holmes

    2004-01-01

    A parametric cost model for ground-based telescopes is developed using multi-variable statistical analysis, The model includes both engineering and performance parameters. While diameter continues to be the dominant cost driver, other significant factors include primary mirror radius of curvature and diffraction limited wavelength. The model includes an explicit factor for primary mirror segmentation and/or duplication (i.e.. multi-telescope phased-array systems). Additionally, single variable models based on aperture diameter are derived. This analysis indicates that recent mirror technology advances have indeed reduced the historical telescope cost curve.

  18. Microgravity science and applications bibliography, 1989 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This edition of the Microgravity Science and Applications (MSA) Bibliography is a compilation of government reports, contractor reports, conference proceedings, and journal articles dealing with flight experiments utilizing a low gravity environment to elucidate and control various processes, or with ground based activities that provide supported research. It encompasses literature published but not cited in the 1988 Revision and that literature which has been published in the past year. Subdivisions of the Bibliography include: electronic materials, metals, alloys, and composites; fluids, interfaces, and transport; glasses and ceramics; biotechnology; combustion science; experimental technology, facilities, and instrumentation. Also included are publications from the European, Soviet, and Japanese programs.

  19. Microgravity science and applications bibliography, 1990 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This edition of the Microgravity Science and Applications (MSA) Bibliography is a compilation of government reports, contractor reports, conference proceedings, and journal articles dealing with flight experiments utilizing a low gravity environment to elucidate and control various processes, or with ground based activities that provide supporting research. It encompasses literature published but not cited in the 1989 Revision and that literature which has been published in the past year. Subdivisions of the bibliography include: electronic materials; metals, alloys, and composites; fluids, interfaces, and transport; glasses and ceramics; biotechnology; combustion science; and experimental technology, facilities, and instrumentation. Also included are publications from the European, Soviet, and Japanese programs.

  20. Microgravity science and applications bibliography, 1991 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This edition of the Microgravity Science and Applications (MSA) Bibliography is a compilation of government reports, contractor reports, conference proceedings, and journal articles dealing with flight experiments using a low gravity environment to elucidate and control various processes, or with ground based activities that provide supporting research. It encompasses literature published but not cited in the 1990 Revision and that literature which has been published in the past year. Subdivisions of the bibliography include: Electronic materials; Metals, alloys, and composites; Fluids, interfaces and transport; Glasses and ceramics; Biotechnology; Combustion science; and Experimental technology, instrumentation, and facilities. Also included are a limited number of publications from the European, Soviet, and Japanese programs.

  1. Development of an improved ground-based prototype of space plant-growing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S.; Liu, X.; Ai, W.; Tang, Y.; Zhu, J.; Wang, X.; Wei, M.; Qin, L.; Yang, Y.

    Based on a formerly developed ground-based prototype of space plant-growing facility, the development of its improved prototype has been finished, so as to make its operating principle better adapt to the space microgravity environment. According to the developing experience of its first generation prototype and detailed demonstration and design of technique plan, its blueprint design and machining of related components, whole facility installment, debugging and trial operations were all done gradually. Its growing chamber contains a volume of about 0.5 m3 and a growing area of approximate 0.5 m2; the atmospheric environmental parameters in the growing chamber and water content in the growing media were controlled totally and effectively; lighting source is a combination of both red and blue light emitting diodes (LED). The following demonstrating results showed that the entire system design of the prototype is reasonable and its operating principle can nearly meet the requirements of space microgravity environment. Therefore, our plant-growing technique in space was advanced further, which laid an important foundation for next development of the space plant-growing facility and plant-cultivating experimental research in space microgravity condition.

  2. Microgravity science & applications. Program tasks and bibliography for FY 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This annual report includes research projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Microgravity Science and Applications Division, during FY 1994. It is a compilation of program tasks (objective, description, significance, progress, students funded under research, and bibliographic citations) for flight research and ground based research in five major scientific disciplines: benchmark science, biotechnology, combustion science, fluid physics, and materials science. Advanced technology development (ATD) program task descriptions are also included. The bibliography cites the related principle investigator (PI) publications and presentations for these program tasks in FY 1994. Three appendices include a Table of Acronyms, a Guest Investigator index and a Principle Investigator index.

  3. Flocculation and aggregation in a microgravity environment (FAME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Suh, Kwang I.

    1994-01-01

    An experiment to study flocculation phenomena in the constrained microgravity environment of a space shuttle or space station is described. The small size and light weight experiment easily fits in a Spacelab Glovebox. Using an integrated fiber optic dynamic light scattering (DLS) system we obtain high precision particle size measurements from dispersions of colloidal particles within seconds, needs no onboard optical alignment, no index matching fluid, and offers sample mixing and shear melting capabilities to study aggregation (flocculation and coagulation) phenomena under both quiescent and controlled agitation conditions. The experimental system can easily be adapted for other microgravity experiments requiring the use of DLS. Preliminary results of ground-based study are reported.

  4. THEMIS Ground Based Observatory System Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, S. E.; Mende, S. B.; Angelopoulos, V.; Rachelson, W.; Donovan, E.; Jackel, B.; Greffen, M.; Russell, C. T.; Pierce, D. R.; Dearborn, D. J.; Rowe, K.; Connors, M.

    2008-12-01

    The comprehensive THEMIS approach to solving the substorm problem calls for monitoring the nightside auroral oval with low-cost, robust white-light imagers and magnetometers that can deliver high time resolution data (0.33 and 2 Hz, respectively). A network of 20 Ground-Based Observatories (GBOs) are deployed across Canada and Alaska to support the collection of data from these instruments. Here we describe the system design of the observatory, with emphasis on how the design meets the environmental and data-collection requirements. We also review the design of the All Sky Imager (ASI), discuss how it was built to survive Arctic deployments, and summarize the optical characterizations performed to qualify the design to meet THEMIS mission requirements.

  5. The Free Fall Machine--a ground-based facility for microgravity research in life sciences.

    PubMed

    Mesland, D A; Anton, A H; Willemsen, H; van den Ende, H

    1996-08-01

    A device is described in which a biological specimen is periodically accelerated for a short period. Each event is followed by a variable period of free fall. Assuming that the g-dose (expressed g s) has to surpass a certain minimal value to be perceived by cells, and in addition, there is a minimal time threshold for sensing a change in gravity, it is conceivable that conditions are created in which cells do not detect the periodic acceleration, and only experience the periodic free-fall movement as a long-term weightlessness condition. Using the cell-cycle progression of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas as an example, it is shown that with this device effects can be generated which are similar to those observed in satellite flights.

  6. Development of a Compact, Ground-Based Ozone DIAL System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chyba, T. H.; Zenker, T.; McCray, C. L.; Lee, H. R.; Thomas, B.; Elivert, R.; Higdon, N. Scott; Richter, D. A.; Fishman, J.

    1998-01-01

    We are developing a portable, eye-safe, ground-based ozone lidar instrument specialized for ozone differential absorption lidar (DIAL) measurements in the troposphere. This prototype instrument is intended to operate at remote field sites and to serve as the basic unit for future monitoring projects requiring multi-instrument networks, such as that proposed for the Global Tropospheric Ozone Project (GTOP). GTOP is currently being formulated by a scientific panel of the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project to meet its goal to better understand the processes that control the global distribution of tropospheric ozone. In order for the lidar to be widely deployed in networks, it must be fairly easy to use and maintain as well as being cost-competitive with ground station launching ozone sondes which operate several times a day. To achieve these goals, emphasis is placed upon the incorporation of: (1) all-solid state transmitters which can reliably produce 20-40 mJ pulses; (2) a highly efficient, narrow-bandpass receiver; (3) dual analog and photon-counting detector channels; and (4) flexible, user-friendly control software.

  7. Material research in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langbein, D.

    1984-01-01

    A popular discussion is given of microgravity effects in engineering and medicine gained from Skylab experience. Areas covered include crystal growing, liquid surface properties, diffusion, ferromagnetism, and emulsions.

  8. Microgravity noncontact temperature requirements at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G.

    1989-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is currently supporting 66 microgravity science and applications projects. The 66 projects are separated into 23 flight projects and 43 ground-based projects. The part of the NASA Lewis program dealing with flight experiments is divided into six areas: Combustion Science, Materials Science, Fluid Physics, Instrumentation/Equipment, Advanced Technology Development, and Space Station Multi-User Facility studies. The part of the NASA Lewis program dealing with ground-based experiments is coincidentally also divided into six areas: Electronic Materials, Combustion Science, Fluid Dynamics and Transport Phenomena, Metals and Alloys, Glasses and Ceramics, and Physics and Chemistry Experiments. Several purposes exist for ground-based experimenting. Preliminary information is necessary before a decision can be made for flight status, the short low gravity durations available in ground facilities are adequate for a particular study, or extensive ground-based research must be conducted to define and support the microgravity science endeavors contemplated for space. Not all of the 66 microgravity science and application projects at NASA Lewis have temperature requirements, but most do. Since space allocation does not permit a review of all the pertinent projects, a decision was made to restrict the coverage to the science flight projects, flight projects minus the advanced technology development, and multiuser facility efforts. Very little is lost by this decision as the types of temperature requirements for science flight projects can be considered representative of those for the ground-based projects. The noncontact temperature needs at NASA Lewis, as represented by the science flight projects are discussed by describing briefly the experiments themselves, by displaying an illustration of each experimental setup, and by specifying their temperature requisites.

  9. Role for Lower Extremity Interstitial Fluid Volume Changes in the Development of Orthostasis after Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven H.; Summers, Richard L.; Martin, David S.; Meck, Janice V.; Coleman, Thomas G.

    2007-01-01

    vein diameter and stroke volume upon tilting in contrast to the observations made before bed rest (54 vs 23% respectively). Compliance in the calf increased by an average of 36% by day 27 of bedrest. A systems analysis using a computer model of cardiovascular physiology suggests that microgravity induced interstitial volume depletion results in an accentuation of venous blood volume sequestration and is the initiating event in reentry orthostasis. This hypothesis was tested in volunteer subjects using a ground-based spaceflight analog model that simulated the body fluid redistribution induced by microgravity exposure. Measurements of changes in the interstitial spaces and observed responses of the anterior tibial vein with tilt, together with the increase in calf compliance, were consistent with our proposed mechanism for the initiation of postflight orthostasis often seen in astronauts.

  10. Ground Based Studies of the Outer Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trafton, Laurence M.

    2005-01-01

    This report covers progress to date under this grant on our continuing program to conduct ground based studies of the outer solar system planets and satellites, with emphasis on spectroscopy and atmospheric phenomena. The research continues under our new PAST grant, NNG04G131G beginning 5/1/2004. The original period of performance of the subject grant was 3/1/2001 to 2/28/2004, but was extended one year at no cost. Although there is some overlap in the scientific projects conducted during the extended year with those of the new grant, this report is confined to the portion of the work funded under NAG5-10435. The primary goals for this grant period were a comparative study of outer planet thermospheres/ionospheres near solar maximum, extended to the mid-IR, and the investigation of molecular dimers in outer solar system atmospheres. This project supports NASA's planned space missions, Jupiter Polar Orbiter, outer Planet Microprobes, and the recent Cassini flyby of Jupiter. It also supports the OSS strategic plan themes, The Exploration of the Solar System and The Sun-Earth Connection/ Understanding comparative planetary space environments.

  11. Ground based observations of stratospheric nitrogen dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syed, M. Q.; Harrison, A. W.

    1980-06-01

    The results of ground based measurements of stratospheric NO2, using four different established methods based on twilight sky observations in the spectral region 437.0-451.0 nm and made at two locations: Primrose Lake and at Priddis, Alberta, Canada, during March and April 1979 are presented. It is shown that the four methods differ from one another on the basis of: (a) whether or not stratospheric ozone is taken into account, (b) whether a continuous NO2 absorption spectrum or just the absorption at a few discrete wavelengths is used for analysis, and (c) the assumed altitude distribution of NO2 concentration. Further, two different independently developed altitude distribution models are employed in obtaining the NO2 vertical column abundance and its effective altitude from a set of slant column abundances measured in the twilight sky at different solar zenith angles in the range of 85 to 96 deg. Finally, a comparison shows that the use of one or the other of these two models alone could introduce a difference of as much as 30% in the derived vertical column abundance.

  12. Development of life sciences equipment for microgravity and hypergravity simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulenburg, G. M.; Evans, J.; Vasques, M.; Gundo, D. P.; Griffith, J. B.; Harper, J.; Skundberg, T.

    1994-01-01

    The mission of the Life Science Division at the NASA Ames Research Center is to investigate the effects of gravity on living systems in the spectrum from cells to humans. The range of these investigations is from microgravity, as experienced in space, to Earth's gravity, and hypergravity. Exposure to microgravity causes many physiological changes in humans and other mammals including a headward shift of body fluids, atrophy of muscles - especially the large muscles of the legs - and changes in bone and mineral metabolism. The high cost and limited opportunity for research experiments in space create a need to perform ground based simulation experiments on Earth. Models that simulate microgravity are used to help identify and quantify these changes, to investigate the mechanisms causing these changes and, in some cases, to develop countermeasures.

  13. Commercial applications in biomedical processing in the microgravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Terry C.; Taub, Floyd

    1995-01-01

    A series of studies have shown that a purified cell regulatory sialoglycopeptide (CeReS) that arrests cell division and induces cellular differentiation is fully capable of functionally interacting with target insect and mammalian cells in the microgravity environment. Data from several shuttle missions suggest that the signal transduction events that are known to be associated with CeReS action function as well in microgravity as in ground-based experiments. The molecular events known to be associated with CeReS include an ability to interfere with Ca2+ metabolism, the subsequent alkalinization of cell cytosol, and the inhibition of the phosphorylation of the nuclear protein product encoded by the retinoblastoma (RB) gene. The ability of CeReS to function in microgravity opens a wide variety of applications in space life sciences.

  14. Use of microgravity simulators for plant biological studies.

    PubMed

    Herranz, Raúl; Valbuena, Miguel A; Manzano, Aránzazu; Kamal, Khaled Y; Medina, F Javier

    2015-01-01

    Simulated microgravity and partial gravity research on Earth is highly convenient for every space biology researcher due to limitations of access to spaceflight. However, the use of ground-based facilities for microgravity simulation is far from simple. Microgravity simulation usually results in the need to consider additional environmental parameters which appear as secondary effects in the generation of altered gravity. These secondary effects may interfere with gravity alteration in the changes observed in the biological processes under study. Furthermore, ground-based facilities are also capable of generating hypergravity or fractional gravity conditions, which are worth being tested and compared with the results of microgravity exposure. Multiple technologies (2D clinorotation, random positioning machines, magnetic levitators or centrifuges), experimental hardware (proper use of containers and substrates for the seedlings or cell cultures), and experimental requirements (some life support/environmental parameters are more difficult to provide in certain facilities) should be collectively considered in defining the optimal experimental design that will allow us to anticipate, modify, or redefine the findings provided by the scarce spaceflight opportunities that have been (and will be) available. PMID:25981780

  15. Weightlessness and Microgravity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, David

    1991-01-01

    The term "microgravity" has begun to appear in science texts as a substitute for "weightlessness." Presents examples to clarify three common misconceptions about gravity and weightlessness. Further examines these and other examples with respect to microgravity to make distinctions between the terms and avoid additional misconceptions. (MDH)

  16. Microgravity Combustion Science: 1995 Program Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D. (Editor); Gokoglu, Suleyman A. (Editor); Friedman, Robert (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Microgravity greatly benefits the study of fundamental combustion processes. In this environment, buoyancy-induced flow is nearly eliminated, weak or normally obscured forces and flows can be isolated, gravitational settling or sedimentation is nearly eliminated, and temporal and spatial scales can be expanded. This document reviews the state of knowledge in microgravity combustion science with the emphasis on NASA-sponsored developments in the current period of 1992 to early 1995. The subjects cover basic research in gaseous premixed and diffusion-flame systems, flame structure and sooting, liquid droplets and pools, and solid-surface ignition and flame spread. They also cover applied research in combustion synthesis of ceramic-metal composites, advanced diagnostic instrumentation, and on-orbit fire safety. The review promotes continuing research by describing the opportunities for Principal Investigator participation through the NASA Research Announcement program and the available NASA Lewis Research Center ground-based facilities and spaceflight accommodations. This review is compiled by the members and associates of the NASA Lewis Microgravity Combustion Branch, and it serves as an update of two previous overview reports.

  17. Brine shrimp development in space: ground-based data to shuttle flight results.

    PubMed

    Spooner, B S; DeBell, L; Hawkins, L; Metcalf, J; Guikema, J A; Rosowski, J

    1992-01-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia salina, has been used as a model system to assess microgravity effects on developing organisms. Following fertilization and early development, the egg can arrest in early gastrula as a dehydrated cyst stage that is stable to harsh environments over long time periods. When salt water is added, the cysts can reactivate, with embryonic development and egg hatching occurring in about 24 h. A series of larval molts or instars, over about a 2 week period, results in the adult crustacean. We have assessed these developmental events in a closed syringe system, a bioprocessing module, in ground-based studies, and have conducted preliminary in-orbit experiments aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the flights of STS-37 and STS-43. Although the in-flight data are limited, spectacular degrees of development have been achieved.

  18. Brine shrimp development in space: ground-based data to shuttle flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; DeBell, L.; Hawkins, L.; Metcalf, J.; Guikema, J. A.; Rosowski, J.

    1992-01-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia salina, has been used as a model system to assess microgravity effects on developing organisms. Following fertilization and early development, the egg can arrest in early gastrula as a dehydrated cyst stage that is stable to harsh environments over long time periods. When salt water is added, the cysts can reactivate, with embryonic development and egg hatching occurring in about 24 h. A series of larval molts or instars, over about a 2 week period, results in the adult crustacean. We have assessed these developmental events in a closed syringe system, a bioprocessing module, in ground-based studies, and have conducted preliminary in-orbit experiments aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the flights of STS-37 and STS-43. Although the in-flight data are limited, spectacular degrees of development have been achieved.

  19. Proposed ground-based control of accelerometer on Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delombard, Richard

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the innovative control of an accelerometer to support the needs of the scientists operating science experiments that are on-board Space Station Freedom (SSF). Accelerometers in support of science experiments on the shuttle have typically been passive, record-only devices that present data only after the mission or that present limited data to the crew or ground operators during the mission. With the advent of science experiment operations on SSF, the principal investigators will need microgravity acceleration data during, as well as after, experiment operations. Because their data requirements may change during the experiment operations, the principal investigators will be allocated some control of accelerometer parameters. This paper summarizes the general-purpose Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) operation that supports experiments on the shuttle and describes the control of the SAMS for Space Station Freedom. Emphasis is placed on the proposed ground-based control of the accelerometer by the principal investigators.

  20. Functional assessment of ubiquitin-depended processes under microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhabereva, Anastasia; Shenkman, Boris S.; Gainullin, Murat; Gurev, Eugeny; Kondratieva, Ekaterina; Kopylov, Arthur

    Ubiquitylation, a widespread and important posttranslational modification of eukaryotic proteins, controls a multitude of critical cellular processes, both in normal and pathological conditions. The present work aims to study involvement of ubiquitin-dependent regulation in adaptive response to the external stimuli. Experiments were carried out on C57BL/6 mice. The microgravity state under conditions of real spaceflight on the biosatellite “BION-M1” was used as a model of stress impact. Additionally, number of control series including the vivarium control and experiments in Ground-based analog were also studied. The aggregate of endogenously ubiquitylated proteins was selected as specific feature of ubiquitin-dependent processes. Dynamic changes of modification pattern were characterized in liver tissue by combination of some methods, particularly by specific isolation of explicit protein pool, followed by immunodetection and/or mass spectrometry-based identification. The main approach includes specific extraction of proteins, modified by multiubiquitin chains of different length and topology. For this purpose two techniques were applied: 1) immunoprecipitation with antibodies against ubiquitin and/or multiubiquitin chains; 2) pull-down using synthetic protein construct termed Tandem Ubiquitin Binding Entities (TUBE, LifeSensors). TUBE represents fusion protein, composed of well characterized ubiquitin-binding domains, and thereby allows specific high-affinity binding and extraction of ubiquitylated proteins. Resulting protein fractions were analyzed by immunoblotting with antibodies against different types of multiubiquitin chains. Using this method we mapped endogenously modified proteins involved in two different types of ubiquitin-dependent processes, namely catabolic and non-catabolic ubiquitylation, in liver tissues, obtained from both control as well as experimental groups of animals, mentioned above. Then, isolated fractions of ubiquitylated proteins

  1. Development of an improved ground-based prototype of space vegetable-producing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Guo, S.; Zhu, J.; Wang, X.; Ai, W.; Wei, M.; Qin, L.; Deng, Y.

    Based on the development of a ground-based prototype of space vegetable-producing facility development of its improved prototype has been finished so as to make its operating principle adapt to the space microgravity environment better According to the developing experience of first-generation prototype of the space vegetable-producing facility and detailed demonstration and design of technique plan its blueprint design and machining of related components whole facility installment debugging and trial operations were done Its growing chamber contains a volume of about 0 5m 3 and a growing area of approximate 0 5m 2 the atmospheric environmental parameters in the growing chamber and water content in the growing media were totally and effectively controlled lighting sources are the combinations of both red and blue light emitting diode LED The following demonstrating results showed that the entire system design of the facility is reasonable and its operating principle can meet nearly the requirements of space microgravity environment Therefore our plant growing technique in space was advanced greatly which laid an important foundation for next development of the space vegetable-producing facility to be tested and applied in space station

  2. Microgravity Manufacturing Via Fused Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, K. G.; Griffin, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing polymer hardware during space flight is currently outside the state of the art. A process called fused deposition modeling (FDM) can make this approach a reality by producing net-shaped components of polymer materials directly from a CAE model. FDM is a rapid prototyping process developed by Stratasys, Inc.. which deposits a fine line of semi-molten polymer onto a substrate while moving via computer control to form the cross-sectional shape of the part it is building. The build platen is then lowered and the process is repeated, building a component directly layer by layer. This method enables direct net-shaped production of polymer components directly from a computer file. The layered manufacturing process allows for the manufacture of complex shapes and internal cavities otherwise impossible to machine. This task demonstrated the benefits of the FDM technique to quickly and inexpensively produce replacement components or repair broken hardware in a Space Shuttle or Space Station environment. The intent of the task was to develop and fabricate an FDM system that was lightweight, compact, and required minimum power consumption to fabricate ABS plastic hardware in microgravity. The final product of the shortened task turned out to be a ground-based breadboard device, demonstrating miniaturization capability of the system.

  3. Movable Ground Based Recovery System for Reuseable Space Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver, George L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A reusable space flight launch system is configured to eliminate complex descent and landing systems from the space flight hardware and move them to maneuverable ground based systems. Precision landing of the reusable space flight hardware is enabled using a simple, light weight aerodynamic device on board the flight hardware such as a parachute, and one or more translating ground based vehicles such as a hovercraft that include active speed, orientation and directional control. The ground based vehicle maneuvers itself into position beneath the descending flight hardware, matching its speed and direction and captures the flight hardware. The ground based vehicle will contain propulsion, command and GN&C functionality as well as space flight hardware landing cushioning and retaining hardware. The ground based vehicle propulsion system enables longitudinal and transverse maneuverability independent of its physical heading.

  4. Ground-based assessment of JAXA mouse habitat cage unit by mouse phenotypic studies.

    PubMed

    Shimbo, Miki; Kudo, Takashi; Hamada, Michito; Jeon, Hyojung; Imamura, Yuki; Asano, Keigo; Okada, Risa; Tsunakawa, Yuki; Mizuno, Seiya; Yagami, Ken-Ichi; Ishikawa, Chihiro; Li, Haiyan; Shiga, Takashi; Ishida, Junji; Hamada, Juri; Murata, Kazuya; Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Hashimoto, Misuzu; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Yamane, Mutsumi; Ikawa, Masahito; Morita, Hironobu; Shinohara, Masahiro; Asahara, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Taishin; Akiyama, Nobuko; Sasanuma, Hiroki; Yoshida, Nobuaki; Zhou, Rui; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ito, Taito; Kokubu, Yuko; Noguchi, Taka-Aki K; Ishimine, Hisako; Kurisaki, Akira; Shiba, Dai; Mizuno, Hiroyasu; Shirakawa, Masaki; Ito, Naoki; Takeda, Shin; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-05-20

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the mouse Habitat Cage Unit (HCU) for installation in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) onboard the Japanese Experimental Module ("Kibo") on the International Space Station. The CBEF provides "space-based controls" by generating artificial gravity in the HCU through a centrifuge, enabling a comparison of the biological consequences of microgravity and artificial gravity of 1 g on mice housed in space. Therefore, prior to the space experiment, a ground-based study to validate the habitability of the HCU is necessary to conduct space experiments using the HCU in the CBEF. Here, we investigated the ground-based effect of a 32-day housing period in the HCU breadboard model on male mice in comparison with the control cage mice. Morphology of skeletal muscle, the thymus, heart, and kidney, and the sperm function showed no critical abnormalities between the control mice and HCU mice. Slight but significant changes caused by the HCU itself were observed, including decreased body weight, increased weights of the thymus and gastrocnemius, reduced thickness of cortical bone of the femur, and several gene expressions from 11 tissues. Results suggest that the HCU provides acceptable conditions for mouse phenotypic analysis using CBEF in space, as long as its characteristic features are considered. Thus, the HCU is a feasible device for future space experiments. PMID:26822934

  5. Ground-based assessment of JAXA mouse habitat cage unit by mouse phenotypic studies

    PubMed Central

    Shimbo, Miki; Kudo, Takashi; Hamada, Michito; Jeon, Hyojung; Imamura, Yuki; Asano, Keigo; Okada, Risa; Tsunakawa, Yuki; Mizuno, Seiya; Yagami, Ken-ichi; Ishikawa, Chihiro; Li, Haiyan; Shiga, Takashi; Ishida, Junji; Hamada, Juri; Murata, Kazuya; Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Hashimoto, Misuzu; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Yamane, Mutsumi; Ikawa, Masahito; Morita, Hironobu; Shinohara, Masahiro; Asahara, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Taishin; Akiyama, Nobuko; Sasanuma, Hiroki; Yoshida, Nobuaki; Zhou, Rui; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ito, Taito; Kokubu, Yuko; Noguchi, Taka-aki K.; Ishimine, Hisako; Kurisaki, Akira; Shiba, Dai; Mizuno, Hiroyasu; Shirakawa, Masaki; Ito, Naoki; Takeda, Shin; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the mouse Habitat Cage Unit (HCU) for installation in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) onboard the Japanese Experimental Module (“Kibo”) on the International Space Station. The CBEF provides “space-based controls” by generating artificial gravity in the HCU through a centrifuge, enabling a comparison of the biological consequences of microgravity and artificial gravity of 1 g on mice housed in space. Therefore, prior to the space experiment, a ground-based study to validate the habitability of the HCU is necessary to conduct space experiments using the HCU in the CBEF. Here, we investigated the ground-based effect of a 32-day housing period in the HCU breadboard model on male mice in comparison with the control cage mice. Morphology of skeletal muscle, the thymus, heart, and kidney, and the sperm function showed no critical abnormalities between the control mice and HCU mice. Slight but significant changes caused by the HCU itself were observed, including decreased body weight, increased weights of the thymus and gastrocnemius, reduced thickness of cortical bone of the femur, and several gene expressions from 11 tissues. Results suggest that the HCU provides acceptable conditions for mouse phenotypic analysis using CBEF in space, as long as its characteristic features are considered. Thus, the HCU is a feasible device for future space experiments. PMID:26822934

  6. Ground-based assessment of JAXA mouse habitat cage unit by mouse phenotypic studies.

    PubMed

    Shimbo, Miki; Kudo, Takashi; Hamada, Michito; Jeon, Hyojung; Imamura, Yuki; Asano, Keigo; Okada, Risa; Tsunakawa, Yuki; Mizuno, Seiya; Yagami, Ken-Ichi; Ishikawa, Chihiro; Li, Haiyan; Shiga, Takashi; Ishida, Junji; Hamada, Juri; Murata, Kazuya; Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Hashimoto, Misuzu; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Yamane, Mutsumi; Ikawa, Masahito; Morita, Hironobu; Shinohara, Masahiro; Asahara, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Taishin; Akiyama, Nobuko; Sasanuma, Hiroki; Yoshida, Nobuaki; Zhou, Rui; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ito, Taito; Kokubu, Yuko; Noguchi, Taka-Aki K; Ishimine, Hisako; Kurisaki, Akira; Shiba, Dai; Mizuno, Hiroyasu; Shirakawa, Masaki; Ito, Naoki; Takeda, Shin; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-05-20

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the mouse Habitat Cage Unit (HCU) for installation in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) onboard the Japanese Experimental Module ("Kibo") on the International Space Station. The CBEF provides "space-based controls" by generating artificial gravity in the HCU through a centrifuge, enabling a comparison of the biological consequences of microgravity and artificial gravity of 1 g on mice housed in space. Therefore, prior to the space experiment, a ground-based study to validate the habitability of the HCU is necessary to conduct space experiments using the HCU in the CBEF. Here, we investigated the ground-based effect of a 32-day housing period in the HCU breadboard model on male mice in comparison with the control cage mice. Morphology of skeletal muscle, the thymus, heart, and kidney, and the sperm function showed no critical abnormalities between the control mice and HCU mice. Slight but significant changes caused by the HCU itself were observed, including decreased body weight, increased weights of the thymus and gastrocnemius, reduced thickness of cortical bone of the femur, and several gene expressions from 11 tissues. Results suggest that the HCU provides acceptable conditions for mouse phenotypic analysis using CBEF in space, as long as its characteristic features are considered. Thus, the HCU is a feasible device for future space experiments.

  7. Archiving Microgravity Flight Data and Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    To obtain help in evaluating its current strategy for archiving data and samples obtained in microgravity research, NASA's Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) asked the Space Studies Board's Committee on Microgravity Research for guidance on the following questions: What data should be archived and where should it be kept? In what form should the data be maintained (electronic files, photographs, hard copy, samples)? What should the general format of the database be? To what extent should it be universally accessible and through what mechanisms? Should there be a period of time for which principal investigators have proprietary access? If so, how long should proprietary data be stored? What provisions should be made for data obtained from ground-based experiments? What should the deadline be for investigators placing their data in the archive? How long should data be saved? How long should data be easily accessible? As a prelude to making recommendations for optimum selection and storage of microgravity data and samples, the committee in this report briefly describes NASA's past archiving practices and outlines MSAD's current archiving strategy. Although the committee found that only a limited number of experiments have thus far been archived, it concluded that the general archiving strategy, characterized by MSAD as minimalist, appears viable. A central focus of attention is the Experiment Data Management Plan (EDMP), MSAD's recently instituted data management and archiving framework for flight experiments. Many of the report's recommendations are aimed at enhancing the effectiveness of the EDMP approach, which the committee regards as an appropriate data management method for MSAD. Other recommendations provide guidance on broader issues related to the questions listed above. This report does not address statutory or regulatory records retention requirements.

  8. Erythroid cell growth and differentiation in vitro in the simulated microgravity environment of the NASA rotating wall vessel bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sytkowski, A. J.; Davis, K. L.

    2001-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of humans and experimental animals to the altered gravitational conditions of space flight has adverse effects on the lymphoid and erythroid hematopoietic systems. Although some information is available regarding the cellular and molecular changes in lymphocytes exposed to microgravity, little is known about the erythroid cellular changes that may underlie the reduction in erythropoiesis and resultant anemia. We now report a reduction in erythroid growth and a profound inhibition of erythropoietin (Epo)-induced differentiation in a ground-based simulated microgravity model system. Rauscher murine erythroleukemia cells were grown either in tissue culture vessels at 1 x g or in the simulated microgravity environment of the NASA-designed rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor. Logarithmic growth was observed under both conditions; however, the doubling time in simulated microgravity was only one-half of that seen at 1 x g. No difference in apoptosis was detected. Induction with Epo at the initiation of the culture resulted in differentiation of approximately 25% of the cells at 1 x g, consistent with our previous observations. In contrast, induction with Epo at the initiation of simulated microgravity resulted in only one-half of this degree of differentiation. Significantly, the growth of cells in simulated microgravity for 24 h prior to Epo induction inhibited the differentiation almost completely. The results suggest that the NASA RWV bioreactor may serve as a suitable ground-based microgravity simulator to model the cellular and molecular changes in erythroid cells observed in true microgravity.

  9. Microgravity ignition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motevalli, Vahid; Elliott, William; Garrant, Keith

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a flight ready apparatus of the microgravity ignition experiment for the GASCan 2 program. This involved redesigning, testing, and making final modifications to the existing apparatus. The microgravity ignition experiment is intended to test the effect of microgravity on the time to ignition of a sample of alpha-cellulose paper. An infrared heat lamp is used to heat the paper sample within a sealed canister. The interior of the canister was redesigned to increase stability and minimize conductive heat transfer to the sample. This design was fabricated and tested and a heat transfer model of the paper sample was developed.

  10. Effects of microgravity on osteoblast growth.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Fulford, M; Tjandrawinata, R; Fitzgerald, J; Gasuad, K; Gilbertson, V

    1998-05-01

    Studies from space flights over the past two decades have demonstrated that basic physiological changes occur in humans during space flight. These changes include cephalic fluid shifts, loss of fluid and electrolytes, loss of muscle mass, space motion sickness, anemia, reduced immune response, and loss of calcium and mineralized bone. The cause of most of these manifestations is not known and until recently, the general approach was to investigate general systemic changes, not basic cellular responses to microgravity. Recently analyzed data from the 1973-1974 Skylabs disclose that there is a rise in the systemic hormone, cortisol, which may play a role in bone loss in flight. In two flights where bone growth was measured (Skylabs 3 and 4), the crew members had a significant loss of calcium accompanied by a rise in 24 hour urinary cortisol during the entire flight period. In ground-based work on osteoblasts, we have demonstrated that equivalent amounts of glucocorticoids can inhibit osteoblast cell growth. In addition, this laboratory has recently studied gene growth and activation of mouse osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) during spaceflight. Osteoblast cells were grown on glass coverslips, loaded in the Biorack plunger boxes 18 hours before launch and activated 19 hours after launch in the Biorack incubator under microgravity conditions. The osteoblasts were launched in a serum deprived state, activated and collected in microgravity. Samples were collected at 29 hours after sera activation (0-g, n=4; 1-g, n=4). The osteoblasts were examined for changes in gene expression and cell morphology. Approximately one day after growth activation, remarkable differences were observed in gene expression in 0-g and 1-g flight samples. The 0-g activated cells had increased c-fos mRNA when compared to flight 1-g controls. The message of immediate early growth gene, cox-2 was decreased in the microgravity activated cells when compared to ground or 1-g flight controls. Cox-1 was not

  11. Effects of microgravity on osteoblast growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Tjandrawinata, R.; Fitzgerald, J.; Gasuad, K.; Gilbertson, V.

    1998-01-01

    Studies from space flights over the past two decades have demonstrated that basic physiological changes occur in humans during space flight. These changes include cephalic fluid shifts, loss of fluid and electrolytes, loss of muscle mass, space motion sickness, anemia, reduced immune response, and loss of calcium and mineralized bone. The cause of most of these manifestations is not known and until recently, the general approach was to investigate general systemic changes, not basic cellular responses to microgravity. Recently analyzed data from the 1973-1974 Skylabs disclose that there is a rise in the systemic hormone, cortisol, which may play a role in bone loss in flight. In two flights where bone growth was measured (Skylabs 3 and 4), the crew members had a significant loss of calcium accompanied by a rise in 24 hour urinary cortisol during the entire flight period. In ground-based work on osteoblasts, we have demonstrated that equivalent amounts of glucocorticoids can inhibit osteoblast cell growth. In addition, this laboratory has recently studied gene growth and activation of mouse osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) during spaceflight. Osteoblast cells were grown on glass coverslips, loaded in the Biorack plunger boxes 18 hours before launch and activated 19 hours after launch in the Biorack incubator under microgravity conditions. The osteoblasts were launched in a serum deprived state, activated and collected in microgravity. Samples were collected at 29 hours after sera activation (0-g, n=4; 1-g, n=4). The osteoblasts were examined for changes in gene expression and cell morphology. Approximately one day after growth activation, remarkable differences were observed in gene expression in 0-g and 1-g flight samples. The 0-g activated cells had increased c-fos mRNA when compared to flight 1-g controls. The message of immediate early growth gene, cox-2 was decreased in the microgravity activated cells when compared to ground or 1-g flight controls. Cox-1 was not

  12. Fundamental results from microgravity cell experiments with possible commericial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, Charles M.; Fast, Thomas N.; Hinds, Williams E.; Schaefer, R. L.; Callahan, Paul X.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the major milestones are presented for studies in cell biology that were conducted by the Soviet Union and the United States in the upper layers of the atmosphere and in outer space for more than thirty-five years. The goals have changed as new knowledge is acquired and the priorities for the use of microgravity have shifted toward basic research and commercial applications. Certain details concerning the impact of microgravity on cell systems is presented. However, it needs to be emphasized that in planning and conducting microgravity experiments, there are some important prerequisites not normally taken into account. Apart from the required background knowledge of previous microgravity and ground-based experiments, the investigator should have the understanding of the hardware as a physical unit, the complete knowledge of its operation, the range of its capabilities and the anticipation of problems that may occur. Moreover, if the production of commercial products in space is to be manifested, data obtained from previous microgravity experiments must be used to optimize the design of flight hardware.

  13. Multilateral Collaborations in Analog Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, R. l.

    2016-01-01

    International collaborations in studies utilizing ground-based space flight analogs are an effective means for answering research questions common to participating agencies. These collaborations bring together worldwide experts to solve important space research questions. By collaborating unnecessary duplication of science is reduced, and the efficiency of analog use is improved. These studies also share resources among agencies for cost effective solutions to study implementation. Recently, NASA has engaged in collaborations with international partners at a variety of analog sites. The NASA Human Exploration Research Analog (HERA) is currently hosting investigator studies from NASA and from the German Space Agency (DLR). These isolation studies will answer questions in the areas of team cohesion, sleep and circadian rhythms, and neurobehavioral correlates to function. Planning for the next HERA campaign is underway as proposal selections are being made from the International Life Sciences Research Announcement (ILSRA). Studies selected from the ILSRA will be conducted across 4 HERA missions in 2017. NASA is planning collaborative studies with DLR at the :envihab facility in Cologne, Germany. Investigations were recently selected to study the effects of 0.5% CO2 exposure over 30 days of bed rest. These studies will help to determine the fidelity of this ground-based analog for studying the visual impairment intracranial pressure syndrome. NASA is also planning a multilateral collaboration at :envihab with DLR and the European Space Agency (ESA) to examine artificial gravity as a countermeasure to mitigate the effects of 60 days of bed rest. NASA is also considering collaborations with the Russian Institute for Biomedical Problems (IBMP) in studies that will utilize their Ground-based Experimental Facility (NEK). The NEK is comprised of 4 interconnected modules and a Martian surface simulator. This isolation analog can support 3 -10 crew members for long duration

  14. Microgravity strategic plan, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA agency-wide microgravity strategic plan is presented, and its research, applications, and commercialization for the 1990's is addressed. The plan presents an analysis of the current situation, identifies critical factors, and defines goals, objectives, and strategies, which are intended to: (1) provide a context for decision making; (2) assure realism in long-range planning and direction for hardware development; and (3) establish a framework for developing a national microgravity research plan.

  15. Microgravity Simulation Facility (MSF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephanie E. (Compiler); Levine, Howard G.; Zhang, Ye

    2016-01-01

    The Microgravity Simulator Facility (MSF) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) was established to support visiting scientists for short duration studies utilizing a variety of microgravity simulator devices that negate the directional influence of the "g" vector (providing simulated conditions of micro or partial gravity). KSC gravity simulators can be accommodated within controlled environment chambers allowing investigators to customize and monitor environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, CO2, and light exposure.

  16. Sample positioning in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, Govind (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Repulsion forces arising from laser beams are provided to produce mild positioning forces on a sample in microgravity vacuum environments. The system of the preferred embodiment positions samples using a plurality of pulsed lasers providing opposing repulsion forces. The lasers are positioned around the periphery of a confinement area and expanded to create a confinement zone. The grouped laser configuration, in coordination with position sensing devices, creates a feedback servo whereby stable position control of a sample within microgravity environment can be achieved.

  17. Sample positioning in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, Govind (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Repulsion forces arising from laser beams are provided to produce mild positioning forces on a sample in microgravity vacuum environments. The system of the preferred embodiment positions samples using a plurality of pulsed lasers providing opposing repulsion forces. The lasers are positioned around the periphery of a confinement area and expanded to create a confinement zone. The grouped laser configuration, in coordination with position sensing devices, creates a feedback servo whereby stable position control of a sample within microgravity environment can be achieved.

  18. Microbial Responses to Microgravity and Other Low-Shear Environments

    PubMed Central

    Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Ott, C. Mark; Wilson, James W.; Ramamurthy, Rajee; Pierson, Duane L.

    2004-01-01

    Microbial adaptation to environmental stimuli is essential for survival. While several of these stimuli have been studied in detail, recent studies have demonstrated an important role for a novel environmental parameter in which microgravity and the low fluid shear dynamics associated with microgravity globally regulate microbial gene expression, physiology, and pathogenesis. In addition to analyzing fundamental questions about microbial responses to spaceflight, these studies have demonstrated important applications for microbial responses to a ground-based, low-shear stress environment similar to that encountered during spaceflight. Moreover, the low-shear growth environment sensed by microbes during microgravity of spaceflight and during ground-based microgravity analogue culture is relevant to those encountered during their natural life cycles on Earth. While no mechanism has been clearly defined to explain how the mechanical force of fluid shear transmits intracellular signals to microbial cells at the molecular level, the fact that cross talk exists between microbial signal transduction systems holds intriguing possibilities that future studies might reveal common mechanotransduction themes between these systems and those used to sense and respond to low-shear stress and changes in gravitation forces. The study of microbial mechanotransduction may identify common conserved mechanisms used by cells to perceive changes in mechanical and/or physical forces, and it has the potential to provide valuable insight for understanding mechanosensing mechanisms in higher organisms. This review summarizes recent and future research trends aimed at understanding the dynamic effects of changes in the mechanical forces that occur in microgravity and other low-shear environments on a wide variety of important microbial parameters. PMID:15187188

  19. Microbial Responses to Microgravity and Other Low-Shear Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Ott, C. Mark; Wilson, James W.; Ramamurthy, Rajee; Pierson, Duane L.

    2004-01-01

    Microbial adaptation to environmental stimuli is essential for survival. While several of these stimuli have been studied in detail, recent studies have demonstrated an important role for a novel environmental parameter in which microgravity and the low fluid shear dynamics associated with microgravity globally regulate microbial gene expression, physiology, and pathogenesis. In addition to analyzing fundamental questions about microbial responses to spaceflight, these studies have demonstrated important applications for microbial responses to a ground-based, low-shear stress environment similar to that encountered during spaceflight. Moreover, the low-shear growth environment sensed by microbes during microgravity of spaceflight and during ground-based microgravity analogue culture is relevant to those encountered during their natural life cycles on Earth. While no mechanism has been clearly defined to explain how the mechanical force of fluid shear transmits intracellular signals to microbial cells at the molecular level, the fact that cross talk exists between microbial signal transduction systems holds intriguing possibilities that future studies might reveal common mechanotransduction themes between these systems and those used to sense and respond to low-shear stress and changes in gravitation forces. The study of microbial mechanotransduction may identify common conserved mechanisms used by cells to perceive changes in mechanical and/or physical forces, and it has the potential to provide valuable insight for understanding mechanosensing mechanisms in higher organisms. This review summarizes recent and future research trends aimed at understanding the dynamic effects of changes in the mechanical forces that occur in microgravity and other low-shear environments on a wide variety of important microbial parameters.

  20. Combustion synthesis of ZnS in microgravity

    SciTech Connect

    Goroshin, S.; Lee, J.H.S.; Frost, D.L.

    1994-12-31

    The self-heating nature of SHS (Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis) makes it particularly suitable for microgravity processing of materials where weight and power requirements are severely restricted. The absence of convection, hydrostatic pressure, and phase separation permits the combustion front dynamics and solidification processes of SHS to be studied under controlled conditions. This paper describes recent ground-based and microgravity (NASA KC-135 parabolic flight) experiments on SHS processing of ZnS. A novel technique was used for preparing the precursor mixture of Zn + S by mixing the zinc with molten sulfur, which allows the synthesis of a high-density and high-purity product. The flame speed, quenching diameter, and temperature profile in the flame front and crystal structure of the synthesized samples have been determined. Thermocouple measurement of the temperature profile in the flame front indicates that the thermal thickness of the flame is less than 0.3 mm. The average flame speed is of the order of 7 mm/s, and slightly lower values ({approximately}4 mm/s) are observed near the quenching limit. It was found that the flame speed is not stable along the samples with diameters more than 12 mm. The quenching diameter is found to be of the order of 5 mm (in microgravity less than 4 mm). X-ray diffraction data show a wurtzite structure both in ground-based and in-flight synthesized samples, and the lattice`s parameters are most similar to the ideal ZnS wurtzite structure in the outer part of samples synthesized in microgravity. The ability to provide containerless SHS processing of molten ZnS in microgravity also has been demonstrated.

  1. Space transfer with ground-based laser/electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Stavnes, Mark; Oleson, Steve; Bozek, John

    1993-01-01

    A new method of providing power to space vehicles consists of using ground-based lasers to beam power to photovoltaic receivers in space. This can be used as a power source for electrically propelled orbital transfer vehicles.

  2. Sleep and vestibular adaptation: implications for function in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobson, J. A.; Stickgold, R.; Pace-Schott, E. F.; Leslie, K. R.

    1998-01-01

    Optimal human performance depends upon integrated sensorimotor and cognitive functions, both of which are known to be exquisitely sensitive to loss of sleep. Under the microgravity conditions of space flight, adaptation of both sensorimotor (especially vestibular) and cognitive functions (especially orientation) must occur quickly--and be maintained--despite any concurrent disruptions of sleep that may be caused by microgravity itself, or by the uncomfortable sleeping conditions of the spacecraft. It is the three-way interaction between sleep quality, general work efficiency, and sensorimotor integration that is the subject of this paper and the focus of new work in our laboratory. To record sleep under field conditions including microgravity, we utilize a novel system called the Nightcap that we have developed and extensively tested on normal and sleep-disordered subjects. To perturb the vestibular system in ground-based studies, we utilize a variety of experimental conditions including optokinetic stimulation and both minifying and reversing goggle paradigms that have been extensively studied in relation to plasticity of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Using these techniques we will test the hypothesis that vestibular adaptation both provokes and is enhanced by REM sleep under both ground-based and space conditions. In this paper we describe preliminary results of some of our studies.

  3. Microgravity science and applications bibliography, 1988 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Microgravity Science and Applications (MSA) Bibliography is a compilation of government reports, contractor reports, conference proceedings, and journal articles dealing with flight experiments utilizing a low-gravity environment to elucidate and control various processes or with ground-based activities that provide supporting research. It encompasses literature published but not cited in the 1984 Revision and the literature which was published in the past year. Subdivisions of the bibliography include: electronic materials; metals, alloys, and composites; fluid dynamics and transports; biotechnology; glass and ceramics; and combustion. Also included are publications from the European, Soviet, and Japanese MSA programs. In addition, there is a list of patents and appendices providing a compilation of anonymously authored collections of reports and a cross reference index.

  4. Microgravity science and applications bibliography, 1987 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This edition of the Microgravity Science and Applications (MSA) Bibliography is a compilation of Government reports, contractor reports, conference proceedings, and journal articles dealing with flight experiments utilizing a low gravity environment to elucidate and control various processes or with ground based activities that provide supporting research. It encompasses literature published but not cited in the 1984 Revision and literature which has been published in the past year. Subdivisions of the bibliography include six major categories: Electronic Materials; Metals, Alloys, and Composites; Fluid Dynamics and Transport; Biotechnology; Glass and Ceramics; and Combustion. Also included are publications from the European, Soviet, and Japanese MSA programs. In addition, there is a list of patents and appendices providing a compilation of an anonymously authored collection of reports and a cross reference index.

  5. Microgravity science and applications bibliography, 1985 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentecost, E. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    This edition of the Microgravity Science and Applications (MSA) Bibliography is a compilation of Government reports, contractor reports, conference proceedings, and journal articles dealing with flight experiments utilizing a low-gravity environment to elucidate and control various processes or with ground-based activities that provide supporting research. It encompasses literature published but not cited in the 1984 Revision and that literature which has been published in the past year. Subdivisions of the bibliography include six major categories: Electronic Materials; Metal, Alloys, and Composites; Fluid Dynamics and Transports; Biotechnology; Glass and Ceramics; and Combustion. Also included are publications from the European, Soviet, and Japanese MSA programs. In addition, there is a list of patents and appendices providing a compilation of anonymously authored collection of reports and a cross reference index.

  6. Microgravity science and applications bibliography, 1986 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This edition of the Microgravity Science and Applications (MSA) Bibliography is a compilation of Government reports, contractor reports, conference proceedings, and journal articles dealing with flight experiments utilizing a low-gravity environment to elucidate and control various processes or ground-based activities providing supporting research. It encompasses literature published in FY-86 and part of FY-87 but not cited in the 1985 Revision, pending publications, and those submitted for publication during this time period. Subdivisions of the bibliography include six major categories: Electronic Materials, Metals, Alloys, and Combustion Science. Other categories include Experimental Technology and General Studies. Included are publications from the European and Soviet programs. In addition, there is a list of patents and a cross reference index.

  7. Challenges and Opportunities for Ground-based Helioseismic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    I summarize the current status of ground-based helioseismic observations, in particular the two operational networks GONG and BiSON. I then discuss requirements for continued and future ground-based observations based on key science drivers, finishing with a discussion of SPRING, a proposed future high-spatial-resolution network that would provide helioseismic data and a broad range of synoptic data products.

  8. Microgravity Outreach and Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Rosenberg, Carla B.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Research Program has been actively developing classroom activities and educator's guides since the flight of the First United States Microgravity Laboratory. In addition, various brochures, posters, and exhibit materials have been produced for outreach efforts to the general public and to researchers outside of the program. These efforts are led by the Microgravity Research Outreach/Education team at Marshall Space Flight Center, with classroom material support from the K-12 Educational Program of The National Center for Microgravity Research on Fluids and Combustion (NCMR), general outreach material development by the Microgravity Outreach office at Hampton University, and electronic/media access coordinated by Marshall. The broad concept of the NCMR program is to develop a unique set of microgravity-related educational products that enable effective outreach to the pre-college community by supplementing existing mathematics, science, and technology curricula. The current thrusts of the program include summer teacher and high school internships during which participants help develop educational materials and perform research with NCMR and NASA scientists; a teacher sabbatical program which allows a teacher to concentrate on a major educational product during a full school year; frequent educator workshops held at NASA and at regional and national teachers conferences; a nascent student drop tower experiment competition; presentations and demonstrations at events that also reach the general public; and the development of elementary science and middle school mathematics classroom products. An overview of existing classroom products will be provided, along with a list of pertinent World Wide Web URLs. Demonstrations of some hands on activities will show the audience how simple it can be to bring microgravity into the classroom.

  9. Effects of Simulated Microgravity on Sensitivity of Human Fibroblasts to Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, Nickolas

    2016-01-01

    Living organisms are exposed to radiation in space that consists of high energy protons and heavy charged particles. For humans, exposure to this environment is expected to cause cancer and other harmful effects. Current assessment of space radiation risk to astronauts is based on the information gained from human data and animal experiments under 1g gravity. If spaceflight factors, such as microgravity, affect the repair of space radiation-induced damage, then one would expect an additional impact on the mutation rate in living cells and consequently on the accuracy of current ground-based risk assessment methods. The project I worked on consisted of using clonogenic assays to analyze the survival of human fibroblast AG01522 cells exposed to radiation with and without simulated microgravity. A random positioning machine (RPM) was used to simulate microgravity because of the principle of gravity-vector-averaging. The effects of simulated microgravity were studied after exposing the cells to different doses of gamma radiation.

  10. The US Microgravity Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henderson, Robin

    2001-01-01

    Contents include the following: space science; earth science; human exploration and development of space; aerospace technology; and biological physical research; microgravity research strategic; microgravity research; space shuttle flight operations; and international space station preparation

  11. The Biophysics Microgravity Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, S.

    2016-01-01

    Biophysical microgravity research on the International Space Station using biological materials has been ongoing for several decades. The well-documented substantive effects of long duration microgravity include the facilitation of the assembly of biological macromolecules into large structures, e.g., formation of large protein crystals under micro-gravity. NASA is invested not only in understanding the possible physical mechanisms of crystal growth, but also promoting two flight investigations to determine the influence of µ-gravity on protein crystal quality. In addition to crystal growth, flight investigations to determine the effects of shear on nucleation and subsequent formation of complex structures (e.g., crystals, fibrils, etc.) are also supported. It is now considered that long duration microgravity research aboard the ISS could also make possible the formation of large complex biological and biomimetic materials. Investigations of various materials undergoing complex structure formation in microgravity will not only strengthen NASA science programs, but may also provide invaluable insight towards the construction of large complex tissues, organs, or biomimetic materials on Earth.

  12. Microgravity Environment Description Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; McPherson, Kevin; Hrovat, Kenneth; Moskowitz, Milton; Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Reckart, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    The Microgravity Measurement and Analysis Project (MMAP) at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) manages the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) and the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) instruments to measure the microgravity environment on orbiting space laboratories. These laboratories include the Spacelab payloads on the shuttle, the SPACEHAB module on the shuttle, the middeck area of the shuttle, and Russia's Mir space station. Experiments are performed in these laboratories to investigate scientific principles in the near-absence of gravity. The microgravity environment desired for most experiments would have zero acceleration across all frequency bands or a true weightless condition. This is not possible due to the nature of spaceflight where there are numerous factors which introduce accelerations to the environment. This handbook presents an overview of the major microgravity environment disturbances of these laboratories. These disturbances are characterized by their source (where known), their magnitude, frequency and duration, and their effect on the microgravity environment. Each disturbance is characterized on a single page for ease in understanding the effect of a particular disturbance. The handbook also contains a brief description of each laboratory.

  13. Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Gilbert J. (Editor); Greenberg, Paul S. (Editor); Piltch, Nancy D. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Through the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at NASA Headquarters, a program entitled, Advanced Technology Development (ATD) was promulgated with the objective of providing advanced technologies that will enable the development of future microgravity science and applications experimental flight hardware. Among the ATD projects one, Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics (MCD), has the objective of developing advanced diagnostic techniques and technologies to provide nonperturbing measurements of combustion characteristics and parameters that will enhance the scientific integrity and quality of microgravity combustion experiments. As part of the approach to this project, a workshop was held on July 28 and 29, 1987, at the NASA Lewis Research Center. A small group of laser combustion diagnosticians met with a group of microgravity combustion experimenters to discuss the science requirements, the state-of-the-art of laser diagnostic technology, and plan the direction for near-, intermediate-, and long-term programs. This publication describes the proceedings of that workshop.

  14. Suppression of antigen-specific lymphocyte activation in modeled microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D.; Pride, M. W.; Brown, E. L.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Various parameters of immune suppression are observed in lymphocytes from astronauts during and after a space flight. It is difficult to ascribe this suppression to microgravity effects on immune cells in crew specimens, due to the complex physiological response to space flight and the resultant effect on in vitro immune performance. Use of isolated immune cells in true and modeled microgravity in immune performance tests, suggests a direct effect of microgravity on in vitro cellular function. Specifically, polyclonal activation of T-cells is severely suppressed in true and modeled microgravity. These recent findings suggest a potential suppression of oligoclonal antigen-specific lymphocyte activation in microgravity. We utilized rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors as an analog of microgravity for cell cultures to analyze three models of antigen-specific activation. A mixed-lymphocyte reaction, as a model for a primary immune response, a tetanus toxoid response and a Borrelia burgdorferi response, as models of a secondary immune response, were all suppressed in the RWV bioreactor. Our findings confirm that the suppression of activation observed with polyclonal models also encompasses oligoclonal antigen-specific activation.

  15. Microgravity Stress: Bone and Connective Tissue.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Susan A; Martinez, Daniel A; Boudreaux, Ramon D; Mantri, Anita V

    2016-03-15

    The major alterations in bone and the dense connective tissues in humans and animals exposed to microgravity illustrate the dependency of these tissues' function on normal gravitational loading. Whether these alterations depend solely on the reduced mechanical loading of zero g or are compounded by fluid shifts, altered tissue blood flow, radiation exposure, and altered nutritional status is not yet well defined. Changes in the dense connective tissues and intervertebral disks are generally smaller in magnitude but occur more rapidly than those in mineralized bone with transitions to 0 g and during recovery once back to the loading provided by 1 g conditions. However, joint injuries are projected to occur much more often than the more catastrophic bone fracture during exploration class missions, so protecting the integrity of both tissues is important. This review focuses on the research performed over the last 20 years in humans and animals exposed to actual spaceflight, as well as on knowledge gained from pertinent ground-based models such as bed rest in humans and hindlimb unloading in rodents. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the mechanisms for alterations in bone and connective tissues with exposure to microgravity, but intriguing questions remain to be solved, particularly with reference to biomedical risks associated with prolonged exploration missions.

  16. Microgravity Stress: Bone and Connective Tissue.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Susan A; Martinez, Daniel A; Boudreaux, Ramon D; Mantri, Anita V

    2016-04-01

    The major alterations in bone and the dense connective tissues in humans and animals exposed to microgravity illustrate the dependency of these tissues' function on normal gravitational loading. Whether these alterations depend solely on the reduced mechanical loading of zero g or are compounded by fluid shifts, altered tissue blood flow, radiation exposure, and altered nutritional status is not yet well defined. Changes in the dense connective tissues and intervertebral disks are generally smaller in magnitude but occur more rapidly than those in mineralized bone with transitions to 0 g and during recovery once back to the loading provided by 1 g conditions. However, joint injuries are projected to occur much more often than the more catastrophic bone fracture during exploration class missions, so protecting the integrity of both tissues is important. This review focuses on the research performed over the last 20 years in humans and animals exposed to actual spaceflight, as well as on knowledge gained from pertinent ground-based models such as bed rest in humans and hindlimb unloading in rodents. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the mechanisms for alterations in bone and connective tissues with exposure to microgravity, but intriguing questions remain to be solved, particularly with reference to biomedical risks associated with prolonged exploration missions. PMID:27065165

  17. Microgravity Science in Space Flight Gloveboxes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baugher, Charles; Bennett, Nancy; Cockrell, David; Jex, David; Musick, Barry; Poe, James; Roark, Walter

    1998-01-01

    Microgravity science studies the influences of gravity on phenomena in fluids, materials processes, combustion, and human cell growth in the low acceleration environment of space flight. During the last decade, the accomplishment of the flight research in the field has evolved into an effective cooperation between the flight crew in the Shuttle and the ground-based investigator using real-time communication via voice and video links. This team structure has led to interactive operations in which the crew performs the experimentation while guided, as necessary, by the science investigator who formulated the investigation and who will subsequently interpret and analyze the data. One of the primary challenges to implementing this interactive research has been the necessity of structuring a means of handling fluids, gases, and hazardous materials in a manned laboratory that exhibits the novelty of weightlessness. Developing clever means of designing experiments in closed vessels is part of the solution- but the space flight requirement for one and two failure-tolerant containment systems leads to serious complications in the physical handling of sample materials. In response to the conflict between the clear advantage of human operation and judgment, versus the necessity to isolate the experiment from the crewmember and the spacecraft environment, the Microgravity Research Program has initiated a series of Gloveboxes in the various manned experiment carriers. These units provide a sealed containment vessel whose interior is under a negative pressure with respect to the ambient environment but is accessible to a crewmember through the glove ports.

  18. Amphibian amplexus in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Naitoh, T; Yamashita, M; Izumi-Kurotani, A; Yokota, S; Wassersug, R J

    1995-02-01

    We report here on the amplectic behavior of the Japanese treefrog (Hyla japonica) in microgravity. Treefrogs were exposed to 35 cycles of altered gravity, including approximately 1.5 sec of G < 0.1 every 3 min and 15 sec, on the FreeFall "G.0" ride at Space World amusement park in Kitakyushu, Japan. During this period a pair of frogs spontaneously entered and maintained amplexus for 1 hr 20 min, before being removed from the ride. In freefall, the pair extended their hindlimbs in the characteristic posture of treefrogs in microgravity. This is the first report of a vertebrate entering and sustaining a copulatory or amplectic posture under gravitational extremes, including true freefall. These observations bode well for the potential of anurans to breed in microgravity and to be used for biological research in space.

  19. NASA's Microgravity Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Dan

    1998-01-01

    This fiscal year (FY) 1997 annual report describes key elements of the NASA Microgravity Research Program (MRP) as conducted by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) within NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity, Sciences and Applications. The program's goals, approach taken to achieve those goals, and program resources are summarized. All snapshots of the program's status at the end of FY 1997 and a review of highlights and progress in grounds and flights based research are provided. Also described are major space missions that flew during FY 1997, plans for utilization of the research potential of the International Space Station, the Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program, and various educational/outreach activities. The MRP supports investigators from academia, industry, and government research communities needing a space environment to study phenomena directly or indirectly affected by gravity.

  20. Changes in gene expression and signal transduction in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.

    2001-01-01

    Studies from space flights over the past three decades have demonstrated that basic physiological changes occur in humans during space flight. These changes include cephalic fluid shifts, loss of fluid and electrolytes, loss of muscle mass, space motion sickness, anemia, reduced immune response, and loss of calcium and mineralized bone. The cause of most of these manifestations is not known and until recently, the general approach was to investigate general systemic changes, not basic cellular responses to microgravity. This laboratory has recently studied gene growth and activation of normal osteoblasts (MC3T3-El) during spaceflight. Osteoblast cells were grown on glass coverslips and loaded in the Biorack plunger boxes. The osteoblasts were launched in a serum deprived state, activated in microgravity and collected in microgravity. The osteoblasts were examined for changes in gene expression and signal transduction. Approximately one day after growth activation significant changes were observed in gene expression in 0-G flight samples. Immediate early growth genes/growth factors cox-2, c-myc, bcl2, TGF beta1, bFGF and PCNA showed a significant diminished mRNA induction in microgravity FCS activated cells when compared to ground and 1-G flight controls. Cox-1 was not detected in any of the samples. There were no significant differences in the expression of reference gene mRNA between the ground, 0-G and 1-G samples. The data suggest that quiescent osteoblasts are slower to enter the cell cycle in microgravity and that the lack of gravity itself may be a significant factor in bone loss in spaceflight. Preliminary data from our STS 76 flight experiment support our hypothesis that a basic biological response occurs at the tissue, cellular, and molecular level in 0-G. Here we examine ground-based and space flown data to help us understand the mechanism of bone loss in microgravity.

  1. The caloric vestibular nystagmus during short lasting microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oosterveld, W. J.; de Jong, H. A. A.; Kortschot, H. W.

    In human subjects the caloric vestibular test was conducted during parabolic flight. The ear irrigation was performed from 35 secs. till 5 secs. before the onset of microgravity. Nystagmography covered a 10-minutes period, including three parabolic manoeuvres of the aircraft. a. The slow phase velocity (SPV) of the caloric nystagmus increased proportionally with the value of the g-force. Introduction of microgravity induced an exponential decrease of the SPV decay. b. The nystagmus disappeared completely in microgravity, but SPV decay showed a specific time constant. c. The averaged time constant values of the caloric nystagmus SPV decay after sudden onset of microgravity and the averaged time constant of the SPV decay following a sudden stop after sustained rotation during 0-g appeared to be on the same level (10.2 s. and 10.6 s.). d. These two averaged time constant values obtained during shortlasting microgravity proved to be on a lower level than those time constants (15.5 secs.; 15.9 secs.) found in ground-based conditions. e. Because of the similarities in the characteristics of both SPV decay's and their accompanying time constants, a common working mechanism of cupular stimulation is likely. Most probably a fluid movement (or pressure) provokes a cupula deflexion followed by a cupula reflexion, either caused by a sudden stop after a sustained rotation or by a sudden onset of microgravity after g-load calorization. The present results support the Bárány convection theory with regard the endolymph stimulatory properties following the caloric test.

  2. Microgravity strategic planning exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Richard; Downey, Jim; Harvey, Harold

    1991-01-01

    The Center for Space and Advanced Technology supported a planning exercise for the Microgravity Program management at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The effort focused on the status of microgravity work at MSFC and elsewhere with the objective of preparing a goal-oriented strategic planning document which could be used for informational/brochure purposes. The effort entailed numerous interactions and presentations with Field Center programmatic components and Headquarters personnel. Appropriate material was consolidated in a draft format for a MSFC Strategic Plan.

  3. Microgravity Science and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The report presents fifteen papers from a workshop on microgravity science and applications held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, on December 3 to 4, 1984. The workshop and panel were formed by the Solid State Sciences Committee of the Board on Physics and Astronomy of the National Research Council in response to a request from the Office of Science and Technology Policy. The goal was to review the microgravity science and applications (MSA) program of NASA and to evaluate the quality of the program. The topics for the papers are metals and alloys, electronic materials, ceramics and glasses, biotechnology, combustion science, and fluid dynamics.

  4. Microgravity and the lung

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from studies of the effect of microgravity on the lungs of rats flown on the Cosmos 2044 mission, and from relevant laboratory experiments. The effects of microgravity fall into five categories: topographical structure and function, the lung volumes and mechanics, the intrathoracic blood pressures and volumes, the pulmonary deposition of aerosol, and denitrogenaton during EVA. The ultrastructure of the left lungs of rats flown for 14 days on the Cosmos 2044 spacecraft and that of some tail-suspended rats disclosed presence of red blood cells in the alveolar spaces, indicating that pulmonary hemorrhage and pulmonary edema occurred in these rats. Possible causes for this phenomenon are discussed.

  5. Condensed Plasmas under Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Thomas, H. M.; Konopka, U.; Rothermel, H.; Zuzic, M.; Ivlev, A.; Goree, J.; Rogers, Rick (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Experiments under microgravity conditions were carried out to study 'condensed' (liquid and crystalline) states of a colloidal plasma (ions, electrons, and charged microspheres). Systems with approximately 10(exp 6) microspheres were produced. The observed systems represent new forms of matter--quasineutral, self-organized plasmas--the properties of which are largely unexplored. In contrast to laboratory measurements, the systems under microgravity are clearly three dimensional (as expected); they exhibit stable vortex flows, sometimes adjacent to crystalline regions, and a central 'void,' free of microspheres.

  6. MSG: Microgravity Science Glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Baugher, C.R.; Ramachandran, N.; Roark, W.

    1996-12-31

    The capabilities of the Space Station glovebox facility is described. Tentatively scheduled to be launched in 1999, this facility called the Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG), will provide a robust and sophisticated platform for doing microgravity experiments on the Space Station. It will provide an environment not only for testing and evaluating experiment concepts, but also serve as a platform for doing fairly comprehensive science investigations. Its design has evolved substantially from the middeck glovebox, now flown on Space Shuttle missions, not only in increased experiment volume but also in significant capability enhancements. The system concept, functionality and architecture are discussed along with technical information that will benefit potential science investigators.

  7. Chemical Vapor Deposition at High Pressure in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCall, Sonya; Bachmann, Klaus; LeSure, Stacie; Sukidi, Nkadi; Wang, Fuchao

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we present an evaluation of critical requirements of organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD) at elevated pressure for a channel flow reactor in a microgravity environment. The objective of using high pressure is to maintain single-phase surface composition for materials that have high thermal decomposition pressure at their optimum growth temperature. Access to microgravity is needed to maintain conditions of laminar flow, which is essential for process analysis. Based on ground based observations we present an optimized reactor design for OMCVD at high pressure and reduced gravity. Also, we discuss non-intrusive real-time optical monitoring of flow dynamics coupled to homogeneous gas phase reactions, transport and surface processes. While suborbital flights may suffice for studies of initial stages of heteroepitaxy experiments in space are essential for a complete evaluation of steady-state growth.

  8. Simulated Microgravity: Critical Review on the Use of Random Positioning Machines for Mammalian Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Wuest, Simon L.; Richard, Stéphane; Kopp, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Random Positioning Machines (RPMs) have been used since many years as a ground-based model to simulate microgravity. In this review we discuss several aspects of the RPM. Recent technological development has expanded the operative range of the RPM substantially. New possibilities of live cell imaging and partial gravity simulations, for example, are of particular interest. For obtaining valuable and reliable results from RPM experiments, the appropriate use of the RPM is of utmost importance. The simulation of microgravity requires that the RPM's rotation is faster than the biological process under study, but not so fast that undesired side effects appear. It remains a legitimate question, however, whether the RPM can accurately and reliably simulate microgravity conditions comparable to real microgravity in space. We attempt to answer this question by mathematically analyzing the forces working on the samples while they are mounted on the operating RPM and by comparing data obtained under real microgravity in space and simulated microgravity on the RPM. In conclusion and after taking the mentioned constraints into consideration, we are convinced that simulated microgravity experiments on the RPM are a valid alternative for conducting examinations on the influence of the force of gravity in a fast and straightforward approach. PMID:25649075

  9. Simulated microgravity: critical review on the use of random positioning machines for mammalian cell culture.

    PubMed

    Wuest, Simon L; Richard, Stéphane; Kopp, Sascha; Grimm, Daniela; Egli, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Random Positioning Machines (RPMs) have been used since many years as a ground-based model to simulate microgravity. In this review we discuss several aspects of the RPM. Recent technological development has expanded the operative range of the RPM substantially. New possibilities of live cell imaging and partial gravity simulations, for example, are of particular interest. For obtaining valuable and reliable results from RPM experiments, the appropriate use of the RPM is of utmost importance. The simulation of microgravity requires that the RPM's rotation is faster than the biological process under study, but not so fast that undesired side effects appear. It remains a legitimate question, however, whether the RPM can accurately and reliably simulate microgravity conditions comparable to real microgravity in space. We attempt to answer this question by mathematically analyzing the forces working on the samples while they are mounted on the operating RPM and by comparing data obtained under real microgravity in space and simulated microgravity on the RPM. In conclusion and after taking the mentioned constraints into consideration, we are convinced that simulated microgravity experiments on the RPM are a valid alternative for conducting examinations on the influence of the force of gravity in a fast and straightforward approach.

  10. Microgravity nucleation and particle coagulation experiments support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilleleht, L. U.; Ferguson, F. T.; Stephens, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    This project is a part of a program at GSFC to study to formation and growth of cosmic dust grain analogs under terrestrial as well as microgravity conditions. Its primary scientific objective is to study the homogeneous nucleation of refractory metal vapors and a variety of their oxides among others, while the engineering, and perhaps a more immediate objective is to develop a system capable of producing mono-dispersed, homogeneous suspensions of well-characterized refractory particles for various particle interaction experiments aboard the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. Both of these objectives are to be met by a judicious combination of laboratory experiments on the ground and aboard NASA's KC-135 experimental research aircraft. Major effort during the current reporting period was devoted to the evaluation of our very successful first series of microgravity test runs in Feb. 1990. Although the apparatus performed well, it was decided to 'repackage' the equipment for easier installation on the KC-135 and access to various components. It will now consist of three separate racks: one each for the nucleation chamber, the power subsystem, and the electronic packages. The racks were fabricated at the University of Virginia and the assembly of the repackaged units is proceeding well. Preliminary analysis of the video data from the first microgravity flight series was performed and the results appear to display some trends expected from Hale's Scaled Nucleation Theory of 1986. The data acquisition system is currently being refined.

  11. Ground-based visual guidance in autonomous UAV landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yu; Shen, Lincheng; Cong, Yirui; Zhou, Dianle; Zhang, Daibing

    2013-12-01

    Visual guidance has attracted more and more attention in the navigation field thanks to its accuracy and robustness. This paper presents a ground-based visual guidance system for the autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV) landing. The system consists of two cameras and pan-tilt units (PTU) that mounted on both sides of the runway. In this system, computer vision is adopted for UAV detection and tracking. To be more specific, triangulation, a geometric method in binocular vision, is employed to calculate the 3D coordinates of the UAV in order to provide landing guidance parameters and finally achieve autonomous UAV landing. The 3D positioning principles adopted in ground-based measurement are simulated and verified. The results show that the accuracy can be achieved and relevant requirements are satisfied by ground-based visual guidance.

  12. Ground-based and satellite observations of substorm onset features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, T.; Cheng, C. Z.; Chiang, C.; Tam, S. W.; Chen, A. B.; Hsu, R.; Su, H.

    2009-12-01

    We present the ground-based and satellite observations of substorm onset events. In the observations from Ground Based Observatories (GBO) and the ISUAL/FORMOSAT-2 satellite, we find structures which consist of periodic bright spots on the auroral arc prior to the substorm expansion phase onset. The intensity of arc grows exponentially before breakup with a linear growth rate of ~O(1-3)sec-1. Under the arc, the negative H-bay associated with the substorm is evident in the ground-based magnetometer data. From ISUAL observations, the first auroral brightening is identified roughly at the beginning of the negative H-bay. The auroral arc is breaks up before dispersionless particle injections are observed at geosynchronous orbit. Based on analysis of these observations, we suggest that this event can be a support of the scenario of substorm onset which is caused by a kinetic ballooning instability which is localized at ~ -10RE.

  13. Ground Base Skylab Electron Beam Welds in Tantalum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Comparison of ground-based (left) and Skylab (right) electron beam welds in pure tantalum (Ta) (10X magnification). Residual votices left behind in the ground-based sample after the electron beam passed were frozen into the grain structure. These occurred because of the rapid cooling rate at the high temperature. Although the thermal characteristics and electron beam travel speeds were comparable for the skylab sample, the residual vortices were erased in the grain structure. This may have been due to the fact that final grain size of the solidified material was smaller in the Skylab sample compared to the ground-based sample. The Skylab sample was processed in the M512 Materials Processing Facility (MPF) during Skylab SL-2 Mission. Principal Investigator was Richard Poorman.

  14. Microgravity science and applications. Program tasks and bibliography for FY 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This annual report includes research projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Microgravity Science and Applications Division, during FY 1994. It is a compilation of program tasks (objective, description, significance, progress, students funded under research, and bibliographic citations) for flight research and ground-based research in five major scientific disciplines: benchmark science, biotechnology, combustion science, fluid physics, and materials science. ATD (Advanced Technology Development) program task descriptions are also included. The bibliography cites the related PI (Principal Investigator) publications and presentations for these program tasks in FY 1994. Three appendices include Table of Acronyms, Guest Investigator Index, and Principal Investigator Index.

  15. Drosophila melanogaster, a model system for comparative studies on the responses to real and simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Marco, R; Laván, D A; van Loon, J J W A; Leandro, L J; Larkin, O J; Dijkstra, C; Anthony, P; Villa, A; Davey, M R; Lowe, K C; Power, J B; Medina, F J

    2007-07-01

    A key requirement to enhance our understanding of the response of biological organisms to different levels of gravity is the availability of experimental systems that can simulate microgravity and hypergravity in ground-based laboratories. This paper compares the results obtained from analysing gene expression profiles of Drosophila in space versus those obtained in a random position machine (RPM) and by centrifugation. The correlation found validates the use of the RPM simulation technique to establish the effects of real microgravity on biological systems. This work is being extended to investigate Drosophila development in another gravity modifying instrument, the levitation magnet. PMID:18372731

  16. Microgravity silicon zoning investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A resistance heated zoner, suitable for early zoning experiments with silicon, was designed and put into operation. The initial power usage and size was designed for an shown to be compatible with payload carriers contemplated for the Shuttle. This equipment will be used in the definition and development of flight experiments and apparatus for float zoning silicon and other materials in microgravity.

  17. Physiology in microgravity.

    PubMed

    West, J B

    2000-07-01

    Studies of physiology in microgravity are remarkably recent, with almost all the data being obtained in the past 40 years. The first human spaceflight did not take place until 1961. Physiological measurements in connection with the early flights were crude, but, in the past 10 years, an enormous amount of new information has been obtained from experiments on Spacelab. The United States and Soviet/Russian programs have pursued different routes. The US has mainly concentrated on relatively short flights but with highly sophisticated equipment such as is available in Spacelab. In contrast, the Soviet/Russian program concentrated on first the Salyut and then the Mir space stations. These had the advantage of providing information about long-term exposure to microgravity, but the degree of sophistication of the measurements in space was less. It is hoped that the International Space Station will combine the best of both approaches. The most important physiological changes caused by microgravity include bone demineralization, skeletal muscle atrophy, vestibular problems causing space motion sickness, cardiovascular problems resulting in postflight orthostatic intolerance, and reductions in plasma volume and red cell mass. Pulmonary function is greatly altered but apparently not seriously impaired. Space exploration is a new frontier with long-term missions to the moon and Mars not far away. Understanding the physiological changes caused by long-duration microgravity remains a daunting challenge.

  18. NASA Microgravity Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Dan

    1999-01-01

    The Fiscal Year 1998 Annual Report describes key elements of the NASA Microgravity Research Program. The Program's goals, approach taken to achieve those goals, and program resources are summarized. A review of the Program's status at the end of FY1998 and highlights of the ground- and-flight-based research are provided.

  19. Lymphocyte Functions in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Risin, Diane; Sundaresan, A.; Cooper, D.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of immunity impairment in space it is important to analyze the direct effects of space-related conditions on different lymphocytes functions. Since 1992, we are investigating the effect of modeled and true microgravity (MG) on numerous lymphocyte functions. We had shown that modeled (MMG) and true microgravity inhibit lymphocyte locomotion through type I collagen. Modeled microgravity also suppresses polyclonal and antigen-specific lymphocyte activation. Polyclonal activation of lymphocytes prior to exposure to MMG abrogates the MG-induced inhibition of lymphocyte locomotion. The relationship between activation deficits and the loss of locomotion in MG was investigated using PKC activation by phorbol ester (PMA) and calcium ionophore (ionomycin). Direct activation of PKC by PMA substantially restored the MMG-inhibited lymphocyte locomotion and PHA-induced lymphocyte activation lonomycin by itself did not restore either locomotion or activation of the lymphocytes, indicating that these changes are not related to the impairment in the calcium flux in MMG. Treatment of lymphocytes with PMA before exposure to MMG prevented the loss of locomotion. It was observed that DNA synthesis is not necessary for restoration of locomotion since mitomicin C treated and untreated cells recovered their locomotion to the same level after PKC activation. Our recent data indicate that microgravity may selectively effect the expression of novel Ca2+ independent isoforms of PKC, in particularly PKC sigma and delta. This provides a new insight in understanding of the mechanisms of MG-sensitive cellular functions.

  20. NASA's Microgravity Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Dan R. (Editor); Henderson, Robin N. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Fiscal Year 1999 Annual Report describes key elements of the NASA Microgravity Research Program. The Program's goals, approach taken to achieve those goals, and program resources are summarized. A review of the Program's status at the end of FY1999 and highlights of the ground-and-flight research are provided.

  1. Candle Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.; Chang, P.; T'ien, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this work is to study both experimentally and numerically the behavior of a candle flame burning in a microgravity environment. Two space experiments (Shuttle and Mir) have shown the candle flame in microgravity to be small (approximately 1.5 cm diameter), dim blue, and hemispherical. Near steady flames with very long flame lifetimes (up to 45 minutes in some tests) existed for many of the tests. Most of the flames spontaneously oscillated with a period of approximately 1 Hz just prior to extinction). In a previous model of candle flame in microgravity, a porous sphere wetted with liquid fuel simulated the evaporating wick. The sphere, with a temperature equal to the boiling temperature of the fuel, was at the end of an inert cone that had a prescribed temperature. This inert cone produces the quenching effect of the candle wax in the real configuration. Although the computed flame shape resembled that observed in the microgravity experiment, the model was not able to differentiate the effect of wick geometry, e.g., a long vs. a short wick. This paper presents recent developments in the numerical model of the candle flame. The primary focus has been to more realistically account for the actual shape of the candle.

  2. Animal surgery in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Mark R.; Billica, Roger D.; Johnston, Smith L., III

    1993-01-01

    Prototype hardware and procedures which could be applied to a surgical support system on SSF are realistically evaluated in microgravity using an animal model. Particular attention is given to the behavior of bleeding in a surgical scenario and techniques for hemostasis and fluid management.

  3. Microgravity strategic plan, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The mission of the NASA Microgravity program is to utilize the unique characteristics of the space environment, primarily the near absence of gravity, to understand the role of gravity in materials processing, and to demonstrate the feasibility of space production of improved materials that have high technological, and possible commercial, utility. The following five goals for the Microgravity Program are discussed: (1) Develop a comprehensive research program in fundamental sciences, materials science, and biotechnology for the purpose of attaining a structured understanding of gravity dependent physical phenomena in both Earth and non-Earth environments; (2) Foster the growth of interdisciplinary research community to conduct research in the space environment; (3) Encourage international cooperation for the purpose of conducting research in the space environment; (4) Utilize a permanently manned, multi-facility national microgravity laboratory in low-Earth orbit to provide a long-duration, stable microgravity environment; (5) Promote industrial applications of space research for the development of new, commercially viable products, services, and markets resulting from research in the space environment.

  4. Microgravity Science Research Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, Bradley M.; Trinh, Eugene H.; DeLucas, Lawrence J.; Larson, David; Koss, Matthew; Ostrach, Simon

    2000-01-01

    This document is a transcription of the Microgravity Science Research Panel's discussion about their research and about some of the contributions that they feel have been important to the field during their time with the program. The panel includes Dr. Eugene Trinh, Dr. Lawrence DeLucas, Dr. Charles Bugg, Dr. David Larson, and Dr. Simon Ostrach.

  5. GRADFLEX: Fluctuations in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vailati, A.; Cerbino, R.; Mazzoni, S.; Giglio, M.; Nikolaenko, G.; Cannell, D. S.; Meyer, W. V.; Smart, A. E.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of experimental investigations of gradient driven fluctuations induced in a liquid mixture with a concentration gradient and in a single-component fluid with a temperature gradient. We also describe the experimental apparatus being developed to carry out similar measurement under microgravity conditions.

  6. Unit Operations in Microgravity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David T.; Pettit, Donald R.

    1987-01-01

    Presents some of the work currently under way in the development of microgravity chemical processes. Highlights some of the opportunities for materials processing in outer space. Emphasizes some of the contributions that chemical engineers can make in this emerging set of technologies. (TW)

  7. Ground-Based Observations of Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ringuette, R. A.; Cannady, N.; Case, G. L.; Cherry, M. L.; Granger, D.; Isbert, J.; Stewart, M.

    2010-10-01

    First seen from space by the BATSE gamma ray telescope in the 1990s, Terrestrial Gamma ray Flashes (TGFs) consist of extremely fast bursts of high energy (up to 40 MeV) gamma rays correlated with intense lightning from thunderstorms. Spacecraft experiments are sensitive to very large events, but ground-based detectors closer to the thunderstorms may provide data on the intensity spectrum of smaller events. Four detectors consisting of NaI scintillators viewed by photomultipliers have been placed on rooftops at LSU's Baton Rouge campus to monitor TGFs. The setup and design of the ground-based experiment will be discussed.

  8. Spaceflight Nutrition Research: Platforms and Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Tobin, Brian W.

    2002-01-01

    Understanding human adaptation to weightlessness requires research in either the true microgravity environment or iii a ground-based model. Over the years, many flight platforms have been available, and many ground models have emerged for both human and animal studies of the effects of spaceflight on physiology. In this review, we provide a brief description of these models and the main points to be considered when choosing a model. We do not intend to provide a comprehensive overview of each platform or model, but rather to provide the reader with an overview of the options available for space nutrition research, and the relative merits and/or drawbacks of each.

  9. Candle flames in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.; Tien, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    The candle flame in both normal and microgravity is non-propagating. In microgravity, however, the candle flame is also non-convective where (excepting Stefan flow) pure diffusion is the only transport mode. It also shares many characteristics with another classical problem, that of isolated droplet combustion. Given their qualitatively similar flame shapes and the required heat feedback to condensed-phase fuels, the gas-phase flow and temperature fields should be relatively similar for a droplet and a candle in reduced gravity. Unless the droplet diameter is maintained somehow through non-intrusive replenishment of fuel, the quasi-steady burning characteristics of a droplet can be maintained for only a few seconds. In contrast, the candle flame in microgravity may achieve a nearly steady state over a much longer time and is therefore ideal for examining a number of combustion-related phenomena. In this paper, we examine candle flame behavior in both short-duration and long-duration, quiescent, microgravity environments. Interest in this type of flame, especially 'candle flames in weightlessness', is demonstrated by very frequent public inquiries. The question is usually posed as 'will a candle flame burn in zero gravity', or, 'will a candle burn indefinitely (or steadily) in zero gravity in a large volume of quiescent air'. Intuitive speculation suggests to some that, in the absence of buoyancy, the accumulation of products in the vicinity of the flame will cause flame extinction. The classical theory for droplet combustion with its spherically-shaped diffusion flame, however, shows that steady combustion is possible in the absence of buoyancy if the chemical kinetics are fast enough. Previous experimental studies of candle flames in reduced and microgravity environments showed the flame could survive for at least 5 seconds, but did not reach a steady state in the available test time.

  10. Quantitative Measurement of Oxygen in Microgravity Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Joel A.

    1997-01-01

    A low-gravity environment, in space or in ground-based facilities such as drop towers, provides a unique setting for studying combustion mechanisms. Understanding the physical phenomena controlling the ignition and spread of flames in microgravity has importance for space safety as well as for better characterization of dynamical and chemical combustion processes which are normally masked by buoyancy and other gravity-related effects. Due to restrictions associated with performing measurements in reduced gravity, diagnostic methods which have been applied to microgravity combustion studies have generally been limited to capture of flame emissions on film or video, laser Schlieren imaging and (intrusive) temperature measurements using thermocouples. Given the development of detailed theoretical models, more sophisticated diagnostic methods are needed to provide the kind of quantitative data necessary to characterize the properties of microgravity combustion processes as well as provide accurate feedback to improve the predictive capabilities of the models. When the demands of space flight are considered, the need for improved diagnostic systems which are rugged, compact, reliable, and operate at low power becomes apparent. The objective of this research is twofold. First, we want to develop a better understanding of the relative roles of diffusion and reaction of oxygen in microgravity combustion. As the primary oxidizer species, oxygen plays a major role in controlling the observed properties of flames, including flame front speed (in solid or liquid flames), extinguishment characteristics, flame size and flame temperature. The second objective is to develop better diagnostics based on diode laser absorption which can be of real value in both microgravity combustion research and as a sensor on-board Spacelab as either an air quality monitor or as part of a fire detection system. In our prior microgravity work, an eight line-of-sight fiber optic system measured

  11. Preparation for microgravity: The role of the microgravity materials science laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, J. Christopher; Rosenthal, Bruce N.; Meyer, Maryjo B.; Glasgow, Thomas K.

    1988-01-01

    A laboratory dedicated to ground based materials processing in preparation for space flight was established at the NASA Lewis Research Center. Experiments are performed to delineate the effects of gravity on processes of both scientific and commercial interest. Processes are modeled physically and mathematically. Transport model systems are used where possible to visually track convection, settling, crystal growth, phase separation, agglomeration, vapor transport, diffusive flow, and polymers reactions. The laboratory contains apparatus which functionally duplicates apparatus available for flight experiments and other pieces instrumented specifically to allow process characterization. Materials addressed include metals, alloys, salts, glasses, ceramics, and polymers. The Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory is staffed by engineers and technicians from a variety of disciplines and is open to users from industry and academia as well as the government. Examples will be given of the laboratory apparatus typical experiments and results.

  12. Overview of NASA's Microgravity Materials Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, James Patton; Grugel, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The NASA microgravity materials program is dedicated to conducting microgravity experiments and related modeling efforts that will help us understand the processes associated with the formation of materials. This knowledge will help improve ground based industrial production of such materials. The currently funded investigations include research on the distribution of dopants and formation of defects in semiconductors, transitions between columnar and dendritic grain morphology, coarsening of phase boundaries, competition between thermally and kinetically favored phases, and the formation of glassy vs. crystalline material. NASA microgravity materials science investigators are selected for funding either through a proposal in response to a NASA Research Announcement or by participation in a team proposing to a foreign agency research announcement. In the latter case, a US investigator participating in a successful proposal to a foreign agency can then apply to NASA for funding of an unsolicited proposal. The program relies on cooperation with other aerospace partners from around the world. The ISS facilities used for these investigations are provided primarily by partnering with foreign agencies and in most cases the US investigators are working as a part of a larger team studying a specific area of materials science. The following facilities are to be utilized for the initial investigations. The ESA provided Low Gradient Facility and the Solidification and Quench Inserts to the Materials Research Rack/Materials Science Laboratory are to be used primarily for creating bulk samples that are directionally solidified or quenched from a high temperature melt. The CNES provided DECLIC facility is used to observe morphological development in transparent materials. The ESA provided Electro-Magnetic Levitator (EML) is designed to levitate, melt and then cool samples in order to study nucleation behavior. The facility provides conditions in which nucleation of the solid is

  13. GLAST and Ground-Based Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The launch of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope together with the advent of a new generation of ground-based gamma-ray detectors such as VERITAS, HESS, MAGIC and CANGAROO, will usher in a new era of high-energy gamma-ray astrophysics. GLAST and the ground based gamma-ray observatories will provide highly complementary capabilities for spectral, temporal and spatial studies of high energy gamma-ray sources. Joint observations will cover a huge energy range, from 20 MeV to over 20 TeV. The LAT will survey the entire sky every three hours, allowing it both to perform uniform, long-term monitoring of variable sources and to detect flaring sources promptly. Both functions complement the high-sensitivity pointed observations provided by ground-based detectors. Finally, the large field of view of GLAST will allow a study of gamma-ray emission on large angular scales and identify interesting regions of the sky for deeper studies at higher energies. In this poster, we will discuss the science returns that might result from joint GLAST/ground-based gamma-ray observations and illustrate them with detailed source simulations.

  14. Ground-Based Sensing System for Weed Mapping in Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A ground-based weed mapping system was developed to measure weed intensity and distribution in a cotton field. The weed mapping system includes WeedSeeker® PhD600 sensor modules to indicate the presence of weeds between rows, a GPS receiver to provide spatial information, and a data acquisition and ...

  15. Challenges and Rewards in Ground-Based Observing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reardon, Kevin P.

    2016-05-01

    DKIST will be largest ground-based project in solar physics, and will offer access and data to the whole community. In pursuit of exciting science, many users may have their first encounters with high-resolution, ground-based solar observations. New facilities, space or ground-based, all bring particular signatures in their data. While tools or processed datasets might serve to minimize such non-solar signatures, it is nonetheless important for users to understand the impacts on observation planning, the nature of the corrections applied, and any residual effects on their data.In this talk I will review some of the instrumental and atmospheric signatures that are important for ground-based observing, in particular in planning for the potential capabilities of the DKIST Data Center. These techniques include image warping, local PSF deconvolution, atmospheric dispersion correction, and scattered light removal. I will present examples of data sets afflicted by such problems as well as some of the algorithms used in characterizing and removing these contributions. This will demonstrate how even with the challenges of observing through a turbulent atmosphere, it is possible to achieve dramatic scientific results.

  16. Preliminary design document: Ground based testbed for avionics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The design and interface requirements for an avionics Ground Based Test bed (GBT) to support Heavy Lift Cargo Vehicles (HLCV) is presented. It also contains data on the vehicle subsystem configurations that are to be supported during their early, pre-PDR developmental phases. Several emerging technologies are also identified for support. A Preliminary Specification Tree is also presented.

  17. Biosensors for EVA: Improved Instrumentation for Ground-based Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soller, B.; Ellerby, G.; Zou, F.; Scott, P.; Jin, C.; Lee, S. M. C.; Coates, J.

    2010-01-01

    During lunar excursions in the EVA suit, real-time measurement of metabolic rate is required to manage consumables and guide activities to ensure safe return to the base. Metabolic rate, or oxygen consumption (VO2), is normally measured from pulmonary parameters but cannot be determined with standard techniques in the oxygen-rich environment of a spacesuit. Our group has developed novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) methods to calculate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO 2), hematocrit, and pH, and we recently demonstrated that we can use our NIRS sensor to measure VO 2 on the leg during cycling. Our NSBRI project has 4 objectives: (1) increase the accuracy of the metabolic rate calculation through improved prediction of stroke volume; (2) investigate the relative contributions of calf and thigh oxygen consumption to metabolic rate calculation for walking and running; (3) demonstrate that the NIRS-based noninvasive metabolic rate methodology is sensitive enough to detect decrement in VO 2 in a space analog; and (4) improve instrumentation to allow testing within a spacesuit. Over the past year we have made progress on all four objectives, but the most significant progress was made in improving the instrumentation. The NIRS system currently in use at JSC is based on fiber optics technology. Optical fiber bundles are used to deliver light from a light source in the monitor to the patient, and light reflected back from the patient s muscle to the monitor for spectroscopic analysis. The fiber optic cables are large and fragile, and there is no way to get them in and out of the test spacesuit used for ground-based studies. With complimentary funding from the US Army, we undertook a complete redesign of the sensor and control electronics to build a novel system small enough to be used within the spacesuit and portable enough to be used by a combat medic. In the new system the filament lamp used in the fiber optic system was replaced with a novel broadband near infrared

  18. Fostering Multilateral Involvement in Analog Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2015-01-01

    International collaboration in space flight research is an effective means for conducting investigations and utilizing limited resources to the fullest extent. Through these multilateral collaborations mutual research questions can be investigated and resources contributed by each international partner to maximize the scientific benefits to all parties. Recently the international partners embraced this approach to initiate collaborations in ground-based space flight analog environments. In 2011, the International Analog Research Working Group was established, and later named the International Human Space Flight Analog Research Coordination Group (HANA). Among the goals of this working group are to 1) establish a framework to coordinate research campaigns, as appropriate, to minimize duplication of effort and enhance synergy; 2) define what analogs are best to use for collaborative interests; and 3) facilitate interaction between discipline experts in order to have the full benefit of international expertise. To accomplish these goals, HANA is currently engaged in developing international research campaigns in ground-based analogs. Plans are being made for an international solicitation for proposals to address research of common interest to all international partners. This solicitation with identify an analog environment that will best accommodate the types of investigations requested. Once selected, studies will be integrated into a campaign and implemented at the analog site. Through these combined efforts, research beneficial to all partners will be conducted efficiently to further address human risks of space exploration.

  19. GSBMS, a Ground Based Facility in Toulouse for plants, cells and microorganisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereda-Loth, Veronica; Gasset, Gilbert; Eche, Brigitte; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Ginibri, Didier; Collin, Laetitia; Courtade-Saidi, Monique

    2012-07-01

    GSBMS (Scientific Group of Space Biology and Medicine) was created in 1992 by a group of scientists willing to share their skills, knowledge and expertise on space science. Our main topics are: gravitational biology, physiology, radiobiology and medicine at the University of Toulouse. GSBMS is a horizontal structure, supported by CNES, which can help user teams to prepare and develop experiments which require microgravity environment (Space Station, automatic spacecraft, Airbus-0g ). GSBMS is also part of the ESA-Ground Based Facility program. The scientific teams that have been granted to carry out a space experiment can find in GSBMS the expertise needed to finalize their project by doing preliminary tests necessary to prove the relevance of future space experiments and all over the following operational phases of a selected experiment until the launching. GSBMS make available to scientific teams, some devices to generate either Hypergravity (centrifuge 1g-5g) or alteration of the gravitational stimulus (RPM and clinostats). GSBMS has also developed an innovating device providing continuous low dose γ radiations (patent pending). GSBMS has participated to several Biological Space experiments using devices like Biobloc, Cytos, Biorack, Biopan, Ibis, Kubik, EMCS. Recently, GSBMS participated to the logistics ant technical support for PolCa, Gravigen and Genara-A Experiment in the last two years.

  20. Ground-based studies of tropisms in hardware developed for the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correll, Melanie J.; Edelmann, Richard E.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Mullen, Jack L.; Kiss, John Z.

    Phototropism and gravitropism play key roles in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. The blue-light response is controlled by the phototropins while the red-light response is mediated by the phytochrome family of photoreceptors. In order to better characterize root phototropism, we plan to perform experiments in microgravity so that this tropism can be more effectively studied without the interactions with the gravity response. Our experiments are to be performed on the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), which provides an incubator, lighting system, and high resolution video that are on a centrifuge palette. These experiments will be performed at μg, 1g (control) and fractional g-levels. In order to ensure success of this mission on the International Space Station, we have been conducting ground-based studies on growth, phototropism, and gravitropism in experimental unique equipment (EUE) that was designed for our experiments with Arabidopsis seedlings. Currently, the EMCS and our EUE are scheduled for launch on space shuttle mission STS-121. This project should provide insight into how the blue- and red-light signaling systems interact with each other and with the gravisensing system.

  1. Ground-based PIV and numerical flow visualization results from the surface tension driven convection experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pline, Alexander D.; Wernet, Mark P.; Hsieh, Kwang-Chung

    1991-01-01

    The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a Space Transportation System flight experiment to study both transient and steady thermocapillary fluid flows aboard the United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 (USML-1) Spacelab mission planned for June, 1992. One of the components of data collected during the experiment is a video record of the flow field. This qualitative data is then quantified using an all electric, two dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique called Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT), which uses a simple space domain particle tracking algorithm. Results using the ground based STDCE hardware, with a radiant flux heating mode, and the PDT system are compared to numerical solutions obtained by solving the axisymmetric Navier Stokes equations with a deformable free surface. The PDT technique is successful in producing a velocity vector field and corresponding stream function from the raw video data which satisfactorily represents the physical flow. A numerical program is used to compute the velocity field and corresponding stream function under identical conditions. Both the PDT system and numerical results were compared to a streak photograph, used as a benchmark, with good correlation.

  2. Ground-based PIV and numerical flow visualization results from the Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pline, Alexander D.; Werner, Mark P.; Hsieh, Kwang-Chung

    1991-01-01

    The Surface Tension Driven Convection Experiment (STDCE) is a Space Transportation System flight experiment to study both transient and steady thermocapillary fluid flows aboard the United States Microgravity Laboratory-1 (USML-1) Spacelab mission planned for June, 1992. One of the components of data collected during the experiment is a video record of the flow field. This qualitative data is then quantified using an all electric, two dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique called Particle Displacement Tracking (PDT), which uses a simple space domain particle tracking algorithm. Results using the ground based STDCE hardware, with a radiant flux heating mode, and the PDT system are compared to numerical solutions obtained by solving the axisymmetric Navier Stokes equations with a deformable free surface. The PDT technique is successful in producing a velocity vector field and corresponding stream function from the raw video data which satisfactorily represents the physical flow. A numerical program is used to compute the velocity field and corresponding stream function under identical conditions. Both the PDT system and numerical results were compared to a streak photograph, used as a benchmark, with good correlation.

  3. The Question of Impurities in Macromolecule Crystal Quality Improvement in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, Russell A.; Snell, Edward H.; Pusey, Marc L.; Sportiello, Michael G.; Todd, Paul; Bellamy, Henry; Borgstahl, Gloria E.; Pokros, Matthew; Cassanto, John M.

    2000-01-01

    While macromolecule impurities may affect crystal size and morphology the over-riding question is how do macromolecule impurities effect crystal X-ray quality and diffraction resolution. In the case of chicken egg white lysozyme previous researchers have reported that crystals grown in the presence of ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and turkey egg white lysozyme show no difference in diffraction resolution compared to those grown in pure solutions. One impurity however, a naturally occurring lysozyme dimer, does negatively impact the X-ray crystal properties. For this impurity it has been reported that crystal quality improvement in microgravity may be due to improved impurity partitioning during crystallization. In this study we have examined the incorporation of the dimer into lysozyme crystals, both on the ground and in microgravity experiments, and have performed detailed X-ray analysis of the crystals using a new technique for finely probing the mosaicity of the crystal at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Dimer partitioning was not significantly different in microgravity compared to the ground based experiments, although it is significantly better than that previously reported in microgravity. Mosaicity analysis of pure crystals, 1422 indexed reflections (microgravity) and 752 indexed reflections (ground), gave average results of 0.0066 and 0.0092 degrees (FWHM) respectively. The microgravity crystals also provided an increased signal to noise. Dimer incorporation increased the average mosaicity in microgravity but not on the ground. However, dimer incorporation did greatly reduce the resolution limit in both ground and microgravity grown crystals. The data is being treated anisotropically to explore these effects. These results indicate that impurity effects in microgravity are complex and that the conditions or techniques employed may greatly affect the role of impurities.

  4. Amphibian development in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souza, K. A.

    1987-01-01

    The results of experiments performed by the U.S. Biosatellites 1 and 2 and the Gemini VIII and XII missions and by the Soviet Salyut and Soyuz missions on the effect of gravity on the development of prefertilized amphibian egg and, in particular, of the vestibular system of amphibian embryo are described. In these experiments, the condition of microgravity was reached only after the prefertilized eggs were in the early stages of first cell division or in the blastula stage. No significant changes were observed in the morphology of the embryos or in the vestibular system of embyos developed, respectively, for 2-5 days or 20 days under conditions of microgravity. Experiments planned for future spaceflights are discussed.

  5. Microgravity Fluid Management Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Fluid Management Symposium, held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, September 9 to 10, 1986, focused on future research in the microgravity fluid management field. The symposium allowed researchers and managers to review space applications that require fluid management technology, to present the current status of technology development, and to identify the technology developments required for future missions. The 19 papers covered three major categories: (1) fluid storage, acquisition, and transfer; (2) fluid management applications, i.e., space power and thermal management systems, and environmental control and life support systems; (3) project activities and insights including two descriptions of previous flight experiments and a summary of typical activities required during development of a shuttle flight experiment.

  6. Surgical bleeding in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, M. R.; Billica, R. D.; Johnston, S. L. 3rd

    1993-01-01

    A surgical procedure performed during space flight would occur in a unique microgravity environment. Several experiments performed during weightlessness in parabolic flight were reviewed to ascertain the behavior of surgical bleeding in microgravity. Simulations of bleeding using dyed fluid and citrated bovine blood, as well as actual arterial and venous bleeding in rabbits, were examined. The high surface tension property of blood promotes the formation of large fluid domes, which have a tendency to adhere to the wound. The use of sponges and suction will be adequate to prevent cabin atmosphere contamination with all bleeding, with the exception of temporary arterial droplet streams. The control of the bleeding with standard surgical techniques should not be difficult.

  7. Microgravity particle reduction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Vanessa; Joslin, Michelle; Mateo, Lili; Tubbs, Tracey

    1988-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) project, sponsored by NASA, is assembling the knowledge required to design, construct, and operate a system which will grow and process higher plants in space for the consumption by crew members of a space station on a long term space mission. The problem of processing dry granular organic materials in microgravity is discussed. For the purpose of research and testing, wheat was chosen as the granular material to be ground into flour. Possible systems which were devised to transport wheat grains into the food processor, mill the wheat into flour, and transport the flour to the food preparation system are described. The systems were analyzed and compared and two satisfactory systems were chosen. Prototypes of the two preferred systems are to be fabricated next semester. They will be tested under simulated microgravity conditions and revised for maximum effectiveness.

  8. Plasmid acquisition in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juergensmeyer, Margaret A.; Juergensmeyer, Elizabeth A.; Guikema, James A.

    1995-01-01

    In microgravity, bacteria often show an increased resistance to antibiotics. Bacteria can develop resistance to an antibiotic after transformation, the acquisition of DNA, usually in the form of a plasmid containing a gene for resistance to one or more antibiotics. In order to study the capacity of bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics in microgravity, we have modified the standard protocol for transformation of Escherichia coli for use in the NASA-flight-certified hardware package, The Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA). Here we report on the ability of E. coli to remain competent for long periods of time at temperatures that are readily available on the Space Shuttle, and present some preliminary flight results.

  9. ISS Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laible, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    The Microgravity performance assessment of the International Space Station (ISS) is comprised of a quasi-steady, structural dynamic and a vibro-acoustic analysis of the ISS assembly-complete vehicle configuration. The Boeing Houston (BHOU) Loads and Dynamics Team is responsible to verify compliance with the ISS System Specification (SSP 41000) and USOS Segment (SSP 41162) microgravity requirements. To verify the ISS environment, a series of accelerometers are on-board to monitor the current environment. This paper summarizes the results of the analysis that was performed for the Verification Analysis Cycle (VAC)-Assembly Complete (AC) and compares it to on-orbit acceleration values currently being reported. The analysis will include the predicted maximum and average environment on-board ISS during multiple activity scenarios

  10. Protein crystallization in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Aibara, S; Shibata, K; Morita, Y

    1997-12-01

    A space experiment involving protein crystallization was conducted in a microgravity environment using the space shuttle "Endeavour" of STS-47, on a 9-day mission from September 12th to 20th in 1992. The crystallization was carried out according to a batch method, and 5 proteins were selected as flight samples for crystallization. Two of these proteins: hen egg-white lysozyme and co-amino acid: pyruvate aminotransferase from Pseudomonas sp. F-126, were obtained as single crystals of good diffraction quality. Since 1992 we have carried out several space experiments for protein crystallization aboard space shuttles and the space station MIR. Our experimental results obtained mainly from hen egg-white lysozyme are described below, focusing on the effects of microgravity on protein crystal growth.

  11. Fourth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt R. (Compiler)

    1997-01-01

    This Conference Publication contains 84 papers presented at the Fourth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio, from May 19 to 21, 1997. The purpose of the workshop was twofold: to exchange information about the progress and promise of combustion science in microgravity and to provide a forum to discuss which areas in microgravity combustion science need to be expanded profitably and which should be included in upcoming NASA Research Announcements (NRA).

  12. Microgravity Outreach with Math Teachers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jimmy Grisham of the Microgravity Program Plarning Integration Office at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), demonstrates the classroom-size Microgravity Drop Tower Demonstrator. This apparatus provides 1/6 second of microgravity for small experiments. A video camera helps teachers observe what happens inside the package. This demonstration was at the April 2000 conference of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in Chicago. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  13. Microgravity Outreach with Math Teachers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jimmy Grisham of the Microgravity Program Plarning Integration Office at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, demonstrates the classroom-size Microgravity Drop Tower Demonstrator. The apparatus provides 1/6 second of microgravity for small experiments. A video camera helps teachers observe what happens inside the package. This demonstration was at the April 2000 conference of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in Chicago. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  14. Antarctic Space Analog Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Gunderson, E. K. Eric; Johnson, Jeffrey C.; Holland, Albert W.

    1998-01-01

    The primary aim of this project was to examine group dynamics and individual performance in extreme, isolated environments and identify human factors requirements for long-duration space missions using data collected in an analog environment. Specifically, we wished to determine: 1) the characteristics of social relations in small groups of individuals living and working together in extreme, isolated environments, and 2) the environmental, social and psychological determinants of performance effectiveness in such groups. These two issues were examined in six interrelated studies using data collected in small, isolated research stations in Antarctica from 1963 to the present. Results from these six studies indicated that behavior and performance on long-duration space flights is likely to be seasonal or cyclical, situational, social, and salutogenic in nature. The project responded to two NASA program emphases for FY 1997 as described in the NRA: 1) the primary emphasis of the Behavior and Performance Program on determining long-term individual and group performance responses to space, identifying critical factors affecting those responses and understanding underlying mechanisms involved in behavior and performance, and developing and using ground-based models and analogs for studying space-related behavior and performance; and 2) the emphasis of the Data Analysis Program on extended data analysis. Results from the study were used to develop recommendations for the design and development of pre-flight crew training and in-flight psychological countermeasures for long-duration manned space missions.

  15. Microgravity Experiments On Animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, B. P.; Leon, H.; Hogan, R.; Clarke, B.; Tollinger, D.

    1991-01-01

    Paper describes experiments on animal subjects planned for Spacelab Life Sciences 1 mission. Laboratory equipment evaluated, and physiological experiments performed. Represents first step in establishing technology for maintaining and manipulating rodents, nonhuman primates, amphibians, and plants during space flight without jeopardizing crew's environment. In addition, experiments focus on effects of microgravity on cardiopulmonary, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal systems; on regulation of volume of blood and production of red blood cells; and on calcium metabolism and gravity receptors.

  16. Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, William

    2009-01-01

    Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS) is an ongoing study of the small forces (vibrations and accelerations) on the ISS that result from the operation of hardware, crew activities, as well as dockings and maneuvering. Results will be used to generalize the types of vibrations affecting vibration-sensitive experiments. Investigators seek to better understand the vibration environment on the space station to enable future research.

  17. Electrophoresis experiments in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S.; Rhodes, Percy H.

    1991-01-01

    The use of the microgravity environment to separate and purify biological cells and proteins has been a major activity since the beginning of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications program. Purified populations of cells are needed for research, transplantation and analysis of specific cell constituents. Protein purification is a necessary step in research areas such as genetic engineering where the new protein has to be separated from the variety of other proteins synthesized from the microorganism. Sufficient data are available from the results of past electrophoresis experiments in space to show that these experiments were designed with incomplete knowledge of the fluid dynamics of the process including electrohydrodynamics. However, electrophoresis is still an important separation tool in the laboratory and thermal convection does limit its performance. Thus, there is a justification for electrophoresis but the emphasis of future space experiments must be directed toward basic research with model experiments to understand the microgravity environment and fluid analysis to test the basic principles of the process.

  18. NASA Microgravity Materials Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szofran, Frank R. (Compiler); McCauley, D. (Compiler); Walker, C. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The Microgravity Materials Science Conference was held June 10-11, 1996 at the Von Braun Civic Center in Huntsville, AL. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the second NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approximately 80 investigations and 69 principal investigators in FY96, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. The conference's purpose was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity in preparation for a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) scheduled for release in late 1996 by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at NASA Headquarters. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A tour of the MSFC microgravity research facilities was held on June 12, 1996. This volume is comprised of the research reports submitted by the principal investigators after the conference and presentations made by various NASA microgravity science managers.

  19. Exercise-training protocols for astronauts in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Greenleaf, J E; Bulbulian, R; Bernauer, E M; Haskell, W L; Moore, T

    1989-12-01

    The question of the composition of exercise protocols for use by astronauts in microgravity is unresolved. Based on our knowledge of physical working requirements for astronauts during intra- and extravehicular activity and on the findings from bed-rest studies that utilized exercise training as a countermeasure for the reduction of aerobic power, deterioration of muscular strength and endurance, decrements in mood and cognitive performance, and possibly for bone loss, two exercise protocols are proposed. One assumes that, during microgravity, astronaut exercise physiological functions should be maintained at 100% of ground-based levels; the other assumes that maximal aerobic power in flight can be reduced by 10% of the ground-based level. A recommended prescription for in-flight prevention or partial suppression of calcium (bone) loss cannot be written until further research findings are obtained that elucidate the site, the magnitude, and the mechanism of the changes. Hopefully these proposed exercise prescriptions will stimulate further research and discussion resulting in even more efficient protocols that will help ensure the optimal health and well-being of our astronauts. PMID:2691487

  20. The unidirectional solidification of Al-4 wt pct Cu ingots in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahoon, J. R.; Chaturvedi, M. C.; Tandon, K. N.

    1998-03-01

    Three Al-4 wt pct Cu alloy ingots, 10 mm in diameter and 25-mm long, were unidirectionally solidified in microgravity during the flight of a sounding rocket, with solidification rates of about 1.6×10-4 m/s and temperature gradients of about 2600 K/m. The apparatus was comprised of three muffle furnaces, which melted the ingots prior to the launch of the rocket. Unidirectional solidification of the ingots was accomplished by chill plates attached to the furnaces, which were withdrawn from the ingots during the microgravity portion of the flight, bringing the chill plates into contact with the bases of the capsules containing the ingots. Solidification was complete in less than 4 minutes. For comparison, several ground-based ingots were solidified in unit gravity under similar conditions. Metallographic analysis of the solidified ingots showed that the macrostructures of the unit-gravity and microgravity ingots were similar, all exhibiting columnar grains. However, the microstructures were significantly different, with the microgravity ingots exhibiting primary dendrite spacings about 40 pct larger than the unit-gravity ingots and secondary dendrite arm spacings about 85 pct larger. The larger dendrite spacings for the ingots solidified in microgravity are explained by lower dendrite growth velocities. The absence of convective mixing in the microgravity ingots slightly increased temperature gradients in the liquid portion of the alloy during solidification, which resulted in decreased growth velocities.

  1. Candle Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, Daniel L.; Ross, Howard D.; Frate, David T.; Tien, James S.; Shu, Yong

    1997-01-01

    This work is a study of a candle flame in a microgravity environment. The purpose of the work is to determine if a steady (or quasi-steady) flame can exist in a microgravity environment, study the characteristics of the steady flame, investigate the pre-extinction flame oscillations observed in a previous experiment in more detail, and finally, determine the nature of the interactions between two closely spaced candle flames. The candle flame is used as a model combustion system, in that in microgravity it is one of the only examples of a non-propagating, steady-state, pure diffusion flame. Others have used the candle to study a number of combustion phenomena including flame flicker, flame oscillations, electric field effects and enhanced and reduced gravitational effects in flames. The present work is a continuation of a small-scale Shuttle experiment on candle flames. That study showed that the candle flame lifetimes were on the order of 40 seconds, the flames were dim blue after a transient ignition period, and that just prior to extinction the flames oscillated spontaneously for about five seconds at a frequency of 1 Hz. The authors postulated that the gas phase in the immediate vicinity of the flame was quasi-steady. Further away from the flame, however, the assertion of a quasi-steady flame was less certain, thus the authors did not prove that a steady flame could exist. They also speculated that the short lifetime of the candle flame was due to the presence of the small, weakly perforated box that surrounded the candle. The Candle Flames in Microgravity (CFM) experiment, with revised hardware, was recently flown aboard the Mir orbiting station, and conducted inside the glovebox facility by Dr. Shannon Lucid. In addition to the purposes described above, the experiments were NASA's first ability to ascertain the merits of the Mir environment for combustion science studies. In this article, we present the results of that experiment. We are also in the process

  2. Aseptic technique in microgravity.

    PubMed

    McCuaig, K

    1992-11-01

    Within the next decade, the United States will launch a space station into low Earth orbit as a preliminary step toward a manned mission to Mars. Provision of asepsis in the unique microgravity environment, essential in operative and invasive procedures, is addressed. An assessment of conventional terrestrial aseptic methods and possible modifications for a microgravity environment was done during the microgravity portion of parabolic flight on NASA KC-135 aircraft. During 110 parabolas on three flight days, a "surgical team" (surgeon, scrub nurse and circulating nurse) using a life size mannequin fastened to a prototype surgical "work station" (operating table), evaluated open and closed gloving (ten parabolas), skin preparation (six parabolas), surgical scrub methods (24 parabolas), gowning (22 parabolas) and draping (48 parabolas). Evaluated were povidone iodine solution, 1 percent povidone iodine detergent, Chloroxylenol with detergent, wet prep soap sponge, a water insoluble iodophor polymer (DuraPrep, 3M), disposable towels, disposable and reusable gowns, large and small disposable drapes with and without adhesive edges, disposable latex surgeon's gloves with and without packaging modifications and restraint mechanisms (tether, swiss seat, waist and foot restraint devices, fairfield and wire clamps and clips). Ease of use, provision of restraint for supplies and personnel and waste disposal were assessed. The literature was reviewed and its relevance to the space environment discussed, including risk factors, environmental contamination, immune status and microbiology. The microgravity environment, limited water supply and restricted operating area mandated that modifications of fabrication and packaging of supplies and technique be made to create and preserve asepsis. Material must meet stringent flammability and off-gassing standards. Either a chlorhexidine or povidone iodine detergent prepackaged brush and sponge would provide an adequate scrub plus

  3. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  4. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) is a fluids experiment supported by the Fundamentals in Biotechnology program in association with the Human Exploration and Development of Space (BEDS) initiative. The MTP Experiment will investigate fluid transport phenomena both in ground based experiments and in the microgravity environment. Many fluid transport processes are affected by gravity. Osmotic flux kinetics in planar membrane systems have been shown to be influenced by gravimetric orientation, either through convective mixing caused by unstably stratified fluid layers, or through a stable fluid boundary layer structure that forms in association with the membrane. Coupled transport phenomena also show gravity related effects. Coefficients associated with coupled transport processes are defined in terms of a steady state condition. Buoyancy (gravity) driven convection interferes with the attainment of steady state, and the measurement of coupled processes. The MTP Experiment measures the kinetics of molecular migration that occurs in fluids, in response to the application of various driving potentials. Three separate driving potentials may be applied to the MTP Experiment fluids, either singly or in combination. The driving potentials include chemical potential, thermal potential, and electrical potential. Two separate fluid arrangements are used to study membrane mediated and bulk fluid transport phenomena. Transport processes of interest in membrane mediated systems include diffusion, osmosis, and streaming potential. Bulk fluid processes of interest include coupled phenomena such as the Soret Effect, Dufour Effect, Donnan Effect, and thermal diffusion potential. MTP Experiments are performed in the Microgravity Transport Apparatus (MTA), an instrument that has been developed specifically for precision measurement of transport processes. Experiment fluids are contained within the MTA fluid cells, designed to create a one dimensional flow geometry

  5. High resolution images of Venus from ground-based radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurgens, R. F.; Slade, M. A.; Robinett, L.; Brokl, S.; Downs, G. S.

    1988-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Station ground-based synthetic aperture radar system has been used to obtain radar images of Venus with resolutions of close to 1.3 km. Observations were made at 12.5 cm wavelength using circular polarization. From 12 days of observations during the 1986 inferior conjunction, three images have been selected for initial processing. The images show remarkable surface features including craters, ridges, and regions of high Fresnel reflectivity in the plains region.

  6. The Validation of Ground Based Ozone Measurements over Korea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, K. H.; Kim, J. H.; Herman, J. R.; Haffner, D. P.; Kim, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Validation of Ground Based Ozone Measurements over KoreaKorea will launch GEMS instrument in 2018 onboard the Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite to monitor tropospheric gas concentrations in both high temporal and spatial resolution. In order to utilize information from satellite, it is crucial to carry out validation of satellite data with respect to ground-based measurements because satellite retrievals suffer from large error. The purpose of this study is to examine the performance of total ozone measurements from Pandora, Brewer, and Dobson which will be used for validation of GEMS ozone product. Because single version of the satellite retrieval algorithm is used to process the entire data set for a given satellite instrument and satellite instrument characteristics are typically changing slowly, it is assumed that sudden jumps or large drifts in ground-satellite total ozone measurements difference for individual sites are commonly related to problems with ground-based measurements. Thereby, satellite measurements can be used to estimate the performance of the ground-based measurement network as well as to identify potential problems residing in individual station. As a reference of satellite ozone measurements, we have selected ozone data derived from OMI-TOMS V8.5 algorithm because it is a very robust algorithm that has well studied about various error sources such as the effects of aerosols and clouds, variation in shape of ozone profiles with season, latitude, and total ozone. For the future validation of GEMS measurements, Korea has planned to use Pandora measurement that has been started operating since 2012. However, Pandora measurements reported to have unusual high total column ozone in the presence of clouds from the comparison of Pandora with OMI total ozone during DISCOVERY-AQ campaign. In this study, we will analyze the Pandora measurements associated with cloud and introduce the statistical technique, Kalman Filter, to correct the

  7. Ground-Based Calibration Of A Microwave Landing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiriazes, John J.; Scott, Marshall M., Jr.; Willis, Alfred D.; Erdogan, Temel; Reyes, Rolando

    1996-01-01

    System of microwave instrumentation and data-processing equipment developed to enable ground-based calibration of microwave scanning-beam landing system (MSBLS) at distances of about 500 to 1,000 ft from MSBLS transmitting antenna. Ensures accuracy of MSBLS near touchdown point, without having to resort to expense and complex logistics of aircraft-based testing. Modified versions prove useful in calibrating aircraft instrument landing systems.

  8. Combustion Research Aboard the ISS Utilizing the Combustion Integrated Rack and Microgravity Science Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Thomas J.; Otero, Angel M.; Urban, David L.

    2002-01-01

    The Physical Sciences Research Program of NASA sponsors a broad suite of peer-reviewed research investigating fundamental combustion phenomena and applied combustion research topics. This research is performed through both ground-based and on-orbit research capabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) and two facilities, the Combustion Integrated Rack and the Microgravity Science Glovebox, are key elements in the execution of microgravity combustion flight research planned for the foreseeable future. This paper reviews the Microgravity Combustion Science research planned for the International Space Station implemented from 2003 through 2012. Examples of selected research topics, expected outcomes, and potential benefits will be provided. This paper also summarizes a multi-user hardware development approach, recapping the progress made in preparing these research hardware systems. Within the description of this approach, an operational strategy is presented that illustrates how utilization of constrained ISS resources may be maximized dynamically to increase science through design decisions made during hardware development.

  9. Lab-On-Chip Clinorotation System for Live-Cell Microscopy Under Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yew, Alvin G.; Atencia, Javier; Chinn, Ben; Hsieh, Adam H.

    2013-01-01

    Cells in microgravity are subject to mechanical unloading and changes to the surrounding chemical environment. How these factors jointly influence cellular function is not well understood. We can investigate their role using ground-based analogues to spaceflight, where mechanical unloading is simulated through the time-averaged nullification of gravity. The prevailing method for cellular microgravity simulation is to use fluid-filled containers called clinostats. However, conventional clinostats are not designed for temporally tracking cell response, nor are they able to establish dynamic fluid environments. To address these needs, we developed a Clinorotation Time-lapse Microscopy (CTM) system that accommodates lab-on- chip cell culture devices for visualizing time-dependent alterations to cellular behavior. For the purpose of demonstrating CTM, we present preliminary results showing time-dependent differences in cell area between human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) under modeled microgravity and normal gravity.

  10. Lab-On-Chip Clinorotation System for Live-Cell Microscopy Under Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yew, Alvin G.; Atencia, Javier; Chinn, Ben; Hsieh, Adam H.

    1980-01-01

    Cells in microgravity are subject to mechanical unloading and changes to the surrounding chemical environment. How these factors jointly influence cellular function is not well understood. We can investigate their role using ground-based analogues to spaceflight, where mechanical unloading is simulated through the time-averaged nullification of gravity. The prevailing method for cellular microgravity simulation is to use fluid-filled containers called clinostats. However, conventional clinostats are not designed for temporally tracking cell response, nor are they able to establish dynamic fluid environments. To address these needs, we developed a Clinorotation Time-lapse Microscopy (CTM) system that accommodates lab-on- chip cell culture devices for visualizing time-dependent alterations to cellular behavior. For the purpose of demonstrating CTM, we present preliminary results showing time-dependent differences in cell area between human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) under modeled microgravity and normal gravity.

  11. Silicon carbide optics for space and ground based astronomical telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, Joseph; Sampath, Deepak; Wainer, Chris; Schwartz, Jay; Peton, Craig; Mix, Steve; Heller, Court

    2012-09-01

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) optical materials are being applied widely for both space based and ground based optical telescopes. The material provides a superior weight to stiffness ratio, which is an important metric for the design and fabrication of lightweight space telescopes. The material also has superior thermal properties with a low coefficient of thermal expansion, and a high thermal conductivity. The thermal properties advantages are important for both space based and ground based systems, which typically need to operate under stressing thermal conditions. The paper will review L-3 Integrated Optical Systems - SSG’s (L-3 SSG) work in developing SiC optics and SiC optical systems for astronomical observing systems. L-3 SSG has been fielding SiC optical components and systems for over 25 years. Space systems described will emphasize the recently launched Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) developed for JHU-APL and NASA-GSFC. Review of ground based applications of SiC will include supporting L-3 IOS-Brashear’s current contract to provide the 0.65 meter diameter, aspheric SiC secondary mirror for the Advanced Technology Solar Telescope (ATST).

  12. Ground-based lidar for atmospheric boundary layer ozone measurements.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Shi; Newchurch, Michael J; Burris, John; Liu, Xiong

    2013-05-20

    Ground-based lidars are suitable for long-term ozone monitoring as a complement to satellite and ozonesonde measurements. However, current ground-based lidars are unable to consistently measure ozone below 500 m above ground level (AGL) due to both engineering issues and high retrieval sensitivity to various measurement errors. In this paper, we present our instrument design, retrieval techniques, and preliminary results that focus on the high-temporal profiling of ozone within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) achieved by the addition of an inexpensive and compact mini-receiver to the previous system. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest, consistently achievable observation height has been extended down to 125 m AGL for a ground-based ozone lidar system. Both the analysis and preliminary measurements demonstrate that this lidar measures ozone with a precision generally better than ±10% at a temporal resolution of 10 min and a vertical resolution from 150 m at the bottom of the ABL to 550 m at the top. A measurement example from summertime shows that inhomogeneous ozone aloft was affected by both surface emissions and the evolution of ABL structures.

  13. Ground-Based Lidar for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Ozone Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Shi; Newchurch, Michael J.; Burris, John; Liu, Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Ground-based lidars are suitable for long-term ozone monitoring as a complement to satellite and ozonesonde measurements. However, current ground-based lidars are unable to consistently measure ozone below 500 m above ground level (AGL) due to both engineering issues and high retrieval sensitivity to various measurement errors. In this paper, we present our instrument design, retrieval techniques, and preliminary results that focus on the high-temporal profiling of ozone within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) achieved by the addition of an inexpensive and compact mini-receiver to the previous system. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest, consistently achievable observation height has been extended down to 125 m AGL for a ground-based ozone lidar system. Both the analysis and preliminary measurements demonstrate that this lidar measures ozone with a precision generally better than 10% at a temporal resolution of 10 min and a vertical resolution from 150 m at the bottom of the ABL to 550 m at the top. A measurement example from summertime shows that inhomogeneous ozone aloft was affected by both surface emissions and the evolution of ABL structures.

  14. Cytoplasm-to-myonucleus ratios following microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasper, C. E.; Xun, L.

    1996-01-01

    The cytoplasmic volume-to-myonucleus ratio in the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles of juvenile rats after 5.4 days of microgravity was studied. Three groups of rats (n = 8 each) were used. The experimental group (space rats) was flown aboard the space shuttle Discovery (NASA, STS-48), while two ground-based groups, one hindlimb suspended (suspended rats), one non-suspended (control), served as controls. Single fibre analysis revealed a significant decrease in cross-sectional area (microns2) in the gastrocnemius for both the space and the suspended rats; in the tibialis anterior only the suspended rats showed a significant decrease. Myonuclei counts (myonuclei per mm) in both the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius were significantly increased in the space rats but not in the suspended rats. The mean myonuclear volume (individual nuclei: microns3) in tibialis anterior fibres from the space rats, and in gastrocnemius fibres from both the space and the suspended rats, was significantly lower than that in the respective control group. Estimation of the total myonuclear volume (microns3 per.mm), however, revealed no significant differences between the three groups in either the tibialis anterior or gastrocnemius. The described changes in the cross-sectional area and myonuclei numbers resulted in significant decreases in the cytoplasmic volume-to-myonucleus ratio (microns3 x 10(3)) in both muscles and for both space and suspended rats (tibialis anterior; 15.6 +/- 0.6 (space), 17.2 +/- 1.0 (suspended), 20.8 +/- 0.9 (control): gastrocnemius; 13.4 +/- 0.4 (space) and 14.9 +/- 1.1 (suspended) versus 18.1 +/- 1.1 (control)). These results indicate that even short periods of unweighting due to microgravity or limb suspension result in changes in skeletal muscle fibres which lead to significant decreases in the cytoplasmic volume-to-myonucleus ratio.

  15. Assessment of Nutritional Intake During Space Flight and Space Flight Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Barbara L.; Dlouhy, Holly; Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Maintaining adequate nutrient intake in microgravity is important not only to meet health maintenance needs of astronauts but also to help counteract the negative effects of space flight. Beyond this, food provides psychosocial benefits throughout a mission. Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to discuss dietary intake data from multiple space programs, including Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Description: These data arise from medical monitoring of both dietary intake and crew health, as well as research protocols designed to assess the role of diet in counteracting bone loss and other health concerns. Ground-based studies are conducted to better understand some of the negative issues related to space flight. Examples of these analog studies are extended bed rest studies, vitamin D supplementation studies in Antarctica, and saturation diving missions on the floor of the ocean. Methods and findings will be presented describing the use of weighed records, diet diaries, and food frequency questionnaires in these various environments. Provision of food and nutrients in spaceflight is important for many body systems including cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, endocrine, immune, and others. Some key areas of concern are loss of body mass, bone and muscle loss, radiation exposure, nutrient intakes during spacewalks, depletion of nutrient stores, and inadequate dietary intake. Initial experimental research studies using food and nutrition as a countermeasure to aid in mitigating these concerns are underway. Conclusion: Beyond their importance for the few individuals leaving the planet, these studies have significant implications for those remaining on Earth.

  16. Detection of the quantity of kinesin and microgravity-sensitive kinesin genes in rat bone marrow stromal cells grown in a simulated microgravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Chengzhi; Wang, Chunyan; Li, Yuan; Li, Yinghui; Dai, Zhongquan; Zhao, Dongming; Sun, Hongyi; Wu, Bin

    2011-06-01

    Kinesin and kinesin-like proteins (KLPs) constitute a superfamily of microtubule motor proteins found in all eukaryotic organisms. Members of the kinesin superfamily are known to play important roles in many fundamental cellular and developmental processes. To date, few published studies have reported on the effects of microgravity on kinesin expression. In this paper, we describe the expression pattern and microgravity-sensitive genes of kinesin in rat bone marrow stromal cells cultured in a ground-based rotating bioreactor. The quantity of kinesin under the clinorotation condition was examined by immunoblot analysis with anti-kinesin. Furthermore, the distribution of kinesin at various times during clinorotation was determined by dual immunostaining, using anti-kinesin monoclonal antibody or anti-β-tubulin monoclonal antibody. In terms of kinesin quantity, we found that the ratios of the amounts of clinorotated/stationary KLPs decreased from clinorotation day 5 to day 10, although it increased on days 2 and 3. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that kinesin in the nucleus was the first to be affected by simulated microgravity, following the kinesin at the periphery that was affected at various times during clinorotation. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of kinesin mRNA expression was performed and led to the identification of 3 microgravity-sensitive kinesin genes: KIF9, KIFC1, and KIF21A. Our results suggest that kinesin has a distinct expression pattern, and the identification of microgravity-sensitive kinesin genes offers insight into fundamental cell biology.

  17. Directional Solidification of Mercury Cadmium Telluride in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lechoczhy, Sandor L.; Gillies, Donald C.; Szofran, Frank R.; Watring, Dale A.

    1998-01-01

    Mercury cadmium telluride (MCT) has been directionally solidified for ten days in the Advanced Automated Directional Solidification Furnace (AADSF) on the second United States Microgravity Payload Mission (USMP-2). A second growth experiment is planned for the USMP-4 mission in November 1997. Results from USMP-2 demonstrated significant changes between microgravity and ground-based experiments, particularly in the compositional homogeneity. Changes were also observed during the microgravity mission which were dependent on the attitude of the space shuttle and the relative magnitudes of axial and transverse residual accelerations with respect to the growth axis of the crystal. Issues of shuttle operation, especially those concerned with safety and navigation, and the science needs of other payloads dictated the need for changes in attitude. One consequence for solidification of MCT in the USMP4 mission is the desire for a shorter growth time to complete the experiment without subjecting the sample to shuttle maneuvers. By using a seeded technique and a pre-processed boule of MCT with an established diffusion layer quenched into the solid, equilibrium steady state growth can be established within 24 hours, rather than the three days needed in USMP-2. The growth of MCT in AADSF during the USMP-4 mission has been planned to take less than 72 hours with 48 hours of actual growth time. A review of the USMP-2 results will be presented, and the rationale for the USMP-4 explained. Pre-mission ground based tests for the USN4P-4 mission will be presented, as will any available preliminary flight results from the mission.

  18. Analog earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, R.B.

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  19. Protein crystal growth in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    The overall scientific goals and rationale for growing protein crystals in microgravity are discussed. Data on the growth of human serum albumin crystals which were produced during the First International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) are presented. Potential scientific advantages of the utilization of Space Station Freedom are discussed.

  20. Pan Pacific Microgravity Conference -- Outreach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Teachers, students, and parents listen as scientists explain what is different about the microgravity envirornment of space and why it is a valuable tool for research. This was part of the outreach session of the Pan Pacific Microgravity Conference on May 2, 2001, at the California Science Center.

  1. NASA Microgravity Materials Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, D. C. (Compiler); McCauley, D. E. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Materials Science Conference was held July 14-16, 1998 at the Von Braun Center in Huntsville, AL. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications. It was the third NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approximately 125 investigations and 100 principal investigators in FY98, almost all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. The conference's purpose was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity in preparation for a NASA Research Announcement scheduled for release in late 1998 by the Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A tour of the Marshall Space Flight Center microgravity research facilities was held on July 16, 1998. This volume is comprised of the research reports submitted by the principal investigators after the conference.

  2. An infrared system for monitoring Drosophila motility during microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Mark S.; Fortney, Michael D.; Keller, Tony S.

    2002-01-01

    Presently, the precise mechanisms of the aging process are unknown. Examination and comprehension of the aging process in other species could lead to significant advances in the understanding of human aging. Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), commonly used for aging studies, is a widely studied organism in terms of behavior, development, and genetics. Previous microgravity experiments have shown a significant decrease in the life span of young male Drosophila after microgravity exposure. This decrease in lifespan may be related to locomotor activity, a convenient measure of overall physiological performance. This study describes the design and performance of a Drosophila Infrared Motility Monitoring System (DIMMS). The DIMMS uses a unique design of two infrared (IR) beams per fly to measure the locomotor activity of 240 flies. Locomotor activity is measured in terms of number of IR crossings per unit time, instantaneous velocity, and continuous velocity. Ground-based results using the DIMMS equipment agree well with previous values for Drosophila locomotor velocity. DIMMS is an improvement over equipment previously used due to its ability to continuously monitor locomotor activity throughout short-duration microgravity exposure. DIMMS is also lightweight, compact, and power efficient. DIMMS has been flight tested onboard NASA's KC-135 reduced gravity research aircraft and a Nike-Orion sounding rocket.

  3. An infrared system for monitoring Drosophila motility during microgravity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark S; Fortney, Michael D; Keller, Tony S

    2002-12-01

    Presently, the precise mechanisms of the aging process are unknown. Examination and comprehension of the aging process in other species could lead to significant advances in the understanding of human aging. Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), commonly used for aging studies, is a widely studied organism in terms of behavior, development, and genetics. Previous microgravity experiments have shown a significant decrease in the life span of young male Drosophila after microgravity exposure. This decrease in lifespan may be related to locomotor activity, a convenient measure of overall physiological performance. This study describes the design and performance of a Drosophila Infrared Motility Monitoring System (DIMMS). The DIMMS uses a unique design of two infrared (IR) beams per fly to measure the locomotor activity of 240 flies. Locomotor activity is measured in terms of number of IR crossings per unit time, instantaneous velocity, and continuous velocity. Ground-based results using the DIMMS equipment agree well with previous values for Drosophila locomotor velocity. DIMMS is an improvement over equipment previously used due to its ability to continuously monitor locomotor activity throughout short-duration microgravity exposure. DIMMS is also lightweight, compact, and power efficient. DIMMS has been flight tested onboard NASA's KC-135 reduced gravity research aircraft and a Nike-Orion sounding rocket. PMID:14638462

  4. Resistance to chemical disinfection under conditions of microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchin, George L.

    1998-01-01

    In unit gravity, bacteria and disinfecting resin beads co-sediment to the septum in a fluid processing apparatus (FPA) resulting in effective chemical disinfection. In microgravity bacteria in suspension have access to a larger volume of the FPA because of a lack of sedimentation. Further, when disinfecting resin beads are added to the FPA they also remain in suspension reducing their effective concentration. Typically, therefore, disinfection experiments in microgravity return larger numbers of viable bacteria than ground-based controls. Preliminary experiments aboard the MIR Space Station with Pseudomonas aeruginosa additionally suggest that the longer bacteria are retained in microgravity the more resistant they become to chemical disinfection. This phenomenon is probably due to additional time to develop resistant biofilms on the interior of the FPA. To partially solve these problems we have developed additional disinfecting materials to use in conjunction with polyiodide containing resin beads. One of these materials carbon beads coated with 3-trimethoxy silylpropyl dimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (Dow-Corning 5700®), acts synergistically with polyiodide resin disinfectants. Carbon beads so treated are still able to remove aqueous iodine from the water stream while providing an additional level of chemical disinfection. This additional capability prevents contamination of the carbon beads with heterotrophic bacteria and insures that bacteria surviving iodine disinfection are efficiently devitalized.

  5. An infrared system for monitoring Drosophila motility during microgravity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark S; Fortney, Michael D; Keller, Tony S

    2002-12-01

    Presently, the precise mechanisms of the aging process are unknown. Examination and comprehension of the aging process in other species could lead to significant advances in the understanding of human aging. Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), commonly used for aging studies, is a widely studied organism in terms of behavior, development, and genetics. Previous microgravity experiments have shown a significant decrease in the life span of young male Drosophila after microgravity exposure. This decrease in lifespan may be related to locomotor activity, a convenient measure of overall physiological performance. This study describes the design and performance of a Drosophila Infrared Motility Monitoring System (DIMMS). The DIMMS uses a unique design of two infrared (IR) beams per fly to measure the locomotor activity of 240 flies. Locomotor activity is measured in terms of number of IR crossings per unit time, instantaneous velocity, and continuous velocity. Ground-based results using the DIMMS equipment agree well with previous values for Drosophila locomotor velocity. DIMMS is an improvement over equipment previously used due to its ability to continuously monitor locomotor activity throughout short-duration microgravity exposure. DIMMS is also lightweight, compact, and power efficient. DIMMS has been flight tested onboard NASA's KC-135 reduced gravity research aircraft and a Nike-Orion sounding rocket.

  6. Clinical aspects of the control of plasma volume at microgravity and during return to one gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma volume is reduced by 10-20% within 24-48 h of exposure to simulated or actual microgravity. The clinical importance of microgravity induced hypovolemia is manifested by its relationship with orthostatic intolerance and reduced maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) after return to one gravity (1G). Since there is no evidence to suggest that plasma volume reduction during microgravity is associated with thirst or renal dysfunctions, a diuresis induced by an immediate blood volume shift to the central circulation appears responsible for microgravity-induced hypovolemia. Since most astronauts choose to restrict their fluid intake before a space mission, absence of increased urine output during actual space flight may be explained by low central venous pressure (CVP) which accompanies dehydration. Compelling evidence suggests that prolonged reduction in CVP during exposure to microgravity reflects a "resetting" to a lower operating point, which acts to limit plasma volume expansion during attempts to increase fluid intake. In ground based and space flight experiments, successful restoration and maintenance of plasma volume prior to returning to an upright posture may depend upon development of treatments that can return CVP to its baseline IG operating point. Fluid-loading and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) have not proved completely effective in restoring plasma volume, suggesting that they may not provide the stimulus to elevate the CVP operating point. On the other hand, exercise, which can chronically increase CVP, has been effective in expanding plasma volume when combined with adequate dietary intake of fluid and electrolytes. The success of designing experiments to understand the physiological mechanisms of and development of effective counter measures for the control of plasma volume in microgravity and during return to IG will depend upon testing that can be conducted under standardized controlled baseline conditions during both ground-based and space

  7. Parabolic flight as a spaceflight analog.

    PubMed

    Shelhamer, Mark

    2016-06-15

    Ground-based analog facilities have had wide use in mimicking some of the features of spaceflight in a more-controlled and less-expensive manner. One such analog is parabolic flight, in which an aircraft flies repeated parabolic trajectories that provide short-duration periods of free fall (0 g) alternating with high-g pullout or recovery phases. Parabolic flight is unique in being able to provide true 0 g in a ground-based facility. Accordingly, it lends itself well to the investigation of specific areas of human spaceflight that can benefit from this capability, which predominantly includes neurovestibular effects, but also others such as human factors, locomotion, and medical procedures. Applications to research in artificial gravity and to effects likely to occur in upcoming commercial suborbital flights are also possible.

  8. Pulmonary function in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.; West, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    We report the successful collection of a large quantity of human resting pulmonary function data on the SLS-1 mission. Preliminary analysis suggests that cardiac stroke volumes are high on orbit, and that an adaptive reduction takes at least several days, and in fact may still be in progress after 9 days on orbit. It also suggests that pulmonary capillary blood volumes are high, and remain high on orbit, but that the pulmonary interstitium is not significantly impacted. The data further suggest that the known large gravitational gradients of lung function have only a modest influence on single breath tests such as the SBN washout. They account for only approximately 25% of the phase III slope of nitrogen, on vital capacity SBN washouts. These gradients are only a moderate source of the cardiogenic oscillations seen in argon (bolus gas) and nitrogen (resident gas), on such tests. They may have a greater role in generating the normal CO2 oscillations, as here the phase relationship to argon and nitrogen reverses in microgravity, at least at mid exhalation in those subjects studied to date. Microgravity may become a useful tool in establishing the nature of the non-gravitational mechanisms that can now be seen to play such a large part in the generation of intra-breath gradients and oscillations of expired gas concentration. Analysis of microgravity multibreath nitrogen washouts, single breath washouts from more physiological pre-inspiratory volumes, both using our existing SLS-1 data, and data from the upcoming D-2 and SLS-2 missions, should be very fruitful in this regard.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  9. Countermeasures to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luttges, Marvin W.

    1989-01-01

    Biological systems ranging from the most simple to the most complex generally survive exposure to microgravity. Changes in many characteristics of biological systems are well documented as a consequence of space flight. Attempts to devise countermeasures to microgravity may have direct pragmatic consequences for crew protection and may provide additional insights into the nature of microgravity influences on biological systems. Some of the most well documented changes occur in humans who have experienced space flight. Changes appear to be transient. Space adaption syndrome occurs relatively briefly whereas bone deterioration may require months of postflight time for restoration. It seems critical to recognize that these changes and others may derive from rather passive, active or even reactive changes in the biological systems that are hosts to them. For example, hydrostatic fluid redistributions may be quite passive occurrences that are realized through extensive fluid channels. Changes occur in cell metabolism because of fluid, nutrient and gas redistributions. Equally important are the misconstrued messages likely to be carried by fluid redistributions. These reactive events can trigger, for example, loss of fluids and electrolytes through altered kidney function. Each of these considerations must be evaluated in regard to the biological site affected. Countermeasures to the vast range of biological changes and sites are difficult to envision. The most obvious countermeasure is the restoration of gravity-like influences. Some options are discussed. Recent work has focussed on the use of magnetic fields. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) are shown to alleviate bone deterioration produced in rodents exposed to tail suspension. Methods of PEMF exposure are consistent with human use in space. Related methods may provide muscular and neural benefits.

  10. Effects of short-term exposure to head-down tilt on cerebral hemodynamics: a prospective evaluation of a spaceflight analog using phase-contrast MRI

    PubMed Central

    Ambarki, Khalid; Eklund, Anders; Malm, Jan; Mulder, Edwin; Gerlach, Darius; Rittweger, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in cerebral hemodynamics in microgravity are hypothesized to occur during spaceflight and could be linked to the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure syndrome. Head-down tilt (HDT) is frequently used as a ground-based analog to simulate cephalad fluid shifts in microgravity; however, its effects on cerebral hemodynamics have not been well studied with MRI techniques. Here, we evaluate the effects of 1) various HDT angles on cerebral arterial and venous hemodynamics; and 2) exposure to 1% CO2 during an intermediate HDT angle (−12°) as an additional space-related environmental factor. Blood flow, cross-sectional area (CSA), and blood flow velocity were measured with phase-contrast MRI in the internal jugular veins, as well as the vertebral and internal carotid arteries. Nine healthy male subjects were measured at baseline (supine, 0°) and after 4.5 h of HDT at −6°, −12° (with and without 1% CO2), and −18°. We found a decrease in total arterial blood flow from baseline during all angles of HDT. On the venous side, CSA increased with HDT, and outflow decreased during −12° HDT (P = 0.039). Moreover, the addition of 1% CO2 to −12° HDT caused an increase in total arterial blood flow (P = 0.016) and jugular venous outflow (P < 0.001) compared with −12° HDT with ambient atmosphere. Overall, the results indicate decreased cerebral blood flow during HDT, which may have implications for microgravity-induced cerebral hemodynamic changes. PMID:27013606

  11. Effects of short-term exposure to head-down tilt on cerebral hemodynamics: a prospective evaluation of a spaceflight analog using phase-contrast MRI.

    PubMed

    Marshall-Goebel, Karina; Ambarki, Khalid; Eklund, Anders; Malm, Jan; Mulder, Edwin; Gerlach, Darius; Bershad, Eric; Rittweger, Jörn

    2016-06-15

    Alterations in cerebral hemodynamics in microgravity are hypothesized to occur during spaceflight and could be linked to the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure syndrome. Head-down tilt (HDT) is frequently used as a ground-based analog to simulate cephalad fluid shifts in microgravity; however, its effects on cerebral hemodynamics have not been well studied with MRI techniques. Here, we evaluate the effects of 1) various HDT angles on cerebral arterial and venous hemodynamics; and 2) exposure to 1% CO2 during an intermediate HDT angle (-12°) as an additional space-related environmental factor. Blood flow, cross-sectional area (CSA), and blood flow velocity were measured with phase-contrast MRI in the internal jugular veins, as well as the vertebral and internal carotid arteries. Nine healthy male subjects were measured at baseline (supine, 0°) and after 4.5 h of HDT at -6°, -12° (with and without 1% CO2), and -18°. We found a decrease in total arterial blood flow from baseline during all angles of HDT. On the venous side, CSA increased with HDT, and outflow decreased during -12° HDT (P = 0.039). Moreover, the addition of 1% CO2 to -12° HDT caused an increase in total arterial blood flow (P = 0.016) and jugular venous outflow (P < 0.001) compared with -12° HDT with ambient atmosphere. Overall, the results indicate decreased cerebral blood flow during HDT, which may have implications for microgravity-induced cerebral hemodynamic changes. PMID:27013606

  12. Electrocrystallization in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    Electrocrystallization under microgravity conditions is proposed as a potential method of crystallization that would be almost completely free of fluid convection. Such crystallization may result in purer, more perfect, and larger crystals than is possible under normal gravity conditions. Observations made and data collected during the crystallization process under convection-free conditions should add to our knowledge of the crystallization process. The proposed method would allow easy comparison of crystals growth in space with those grown under normal gravity conditions. Nine types of electrocrystallization are presented: an example of each is discussed. Electrocrystallization is compared with the compartmental crystallization method used by 3M Corporation in recent shuttle experiments.

  13. Microgravity and Macromolecular Crystallography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Judge, Russell A.; Pusey, Marc L.; Snell, Edward H.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Macromolecular crystal growth has been seen as an ideal experiment to make use of the reduced acceleration environment provided by an orbiting spacecraft. The experiments are small, simply operated and have a high potential scientific and economic impact. In this review we examine the theoretical reasons why microgravity should be a beneficial environment for crystal growth and survey the history of experiments on the Space Shuttle Orbiter, on unmanned spacecraft, and on the Mir space station. Finally we outline the direction for optimizing the future use of orbiting platforms.

  14. Development of ground-based ELF/VLF receiver system in Wuhan and its first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanping; Yang, Guobin; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Gu, Xudong; Zhou, Chen; Wang, Feng

    2016-05-01

    A new digital low-frequency receiver system has been developed at Wuhan University for sensitive reception of low-latitude broadband Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio waves originating from either natural or artificial sources. These low-frequency radio waves are useful for ionospheric remote sensing, geospace environment monitoring, and submarine communications. This paper presents the principle and architecture of the system framework, including magnetic loop antenna design, low-noise analog front-end and digital receiver with data sampling and transmission. A new structure is adopted in the analog front end to provide high common-mode rejection and to reduce interference. On basis of field programmable gate array (FPGA) device and Universal Serial Bus (USB) architecture, the digital receiver is developed along with time keeping and synchronization module. The validity and feasibility of the self-developed ground-based ELF/VLF receiver system is evaluated by first results of experimental data that show the temporal variation of broadband ELF/VLF wave spectral intensity in Wuhan (30.54 °N, 114.37 °E). In addition to the acquisition of VLF transmitter signals at various frequencies, tweek atmospherics are also clearly captured to occur at multiple modes up to n = 6.

  15. Activation of nuclear transcription factor-kappaB in mouse brain induced by a simulated microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Kimberly C.; Manna, Sunil K.; Yamauchi, Keiko; Ramesh, Vani; Wilson, Bobby L.; Thomas, Renard L.; Sarkar, Shubhashish; Kulkarni, Anil D.; Pellis, Neil R.; Ramesh, Govindarajan T.

    2005-01-01

    Microgravity induces inflammatory responses and modulates immune functions that may increase oxidative stress. Exposure to a microgravity environment induces adverse neurological effects; however, there is little research exploring the etiology of these effects resulting from exposure to such an environment. It is also known that spaceflight is associated with increase in oxidative stress; however, this phenomenon has not been reproduced in land-based simulated microgravity models. In this study, an attempt has been made to show the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mice brain, using ground-based microgravity simulator. Increased ROS was observed in brain stem and frontal cortex with concomitant decrease in glutathione, on exposing mice to simulated microgravity for 7 d. Oxidative stress-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB was observed in all the regions of the brain. Moreover, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase was phosphorylated equally in all regions of the brain exposed to simulated microgravity. These results suggest that exposure of brain to simulated microgravity can induce expression of certain transcription factors, and these have been earlier argued to be oxidative stress dependent.

  16. [Spatial orientation under microgravity].

    PubMed

    Koizuka, Izumi

    2012-01-01

    On Earth, humans are constantly exposed to the gravity. During head and body tilts, the otolith organs sense changes in head orientation with respect to the gravitational vertical. These graviceptors also transduce transient linear acceleration generated by translational head motion and centripetal acceleration during rotation about a distant axis. When individuals are rotated at a constant velocity in a centrifuge, they sense the direction of the summed gravitational and centripetal acceleration as the vertical in the steady state. Consequently they experience a roll-tilt of the body when upright and oriented either left-ear-out or right-ear-out. This perception of tilt has been called the somatogravic illusion. Under the microgravity, the graviceptors no longer respond during static tilt of the head or head and body, but they are still activated by linear acceleration. Adaptation to weightlessness early in space flight has been proposed to entail a reinterpretation of the signals from the graviceptors (primarily the otolith organs), so that on return to Earth pitch or roll of the head with respect to the vertical is sensed as fore-aft or left-right translation. In this article, formulation of the spatial orientation on the earth and under microgravity was described.

  17. Supercritical microgravity droplet vaporization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, J.; Curtis, E.; Farrell, P.

    1990-01-01

    Supercritical droplet vaporization is an important issue in many combustion systems, such as liquid fueled rockets and compression-ignition (diesel) engines. In order to study the details of droplet behavior at these conditions, an experiment was designed to provide a gas phase environment which is above the critical pressure and critical temperature of a single liquid droplet. In general, the droplet begins as a cold droplet in the hot, high pressure environment. In order to eliminate disruptions to the droplet by convective motion in the gas, forced and natural convection gas motion are required to be small. Implementation of this requirement for forced convection is straightforward, while reduction of natural convection is achieved by reduction in the g-level for the experiment. The resulting experiment consists of a rig which can stably position a droplet without restraint in a high-pressure, high temperature gas field in microgravity. The microgravity field is currently achieved by dropping the device in the NASA Lewis 2.2 second drop tower. The performance of the experimental device and results to date are presented.

  18. Microgravity liquid propellant management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement to settle or to position liquid fluid over the outlet end of a spacecraft propellant tank prior to main engine restart, poses a microgravity fluid behavior problem. Resettlement or reorientation of liquid propellant can be accomplished by providing optimal acceleration to the spacecraft such that the propellant is reoriented over the tank outlet without any vapor entrainment, any excessive geysering, or any other undersirable fluid motion for the space fluid management under microgravity environment. The most efficient technique is studied for propellant resettling through the minimization of propellant usage and weight penalties. Both full scale and subscale liquid propellant tank of Space Transfer Vehicle were used to simulate flow profiles for liquid hydrogen reorientation over the tank outlet. In subscale simulation, both constant and impulsive resettling acceleration were used to simulate the liquid flow reorientation. Comparisons between the constant reverse gravity acceleration and impulsive reverse gravity acceleration to be used for activation of propellant resettlement shows that impulsive reverse gravity thrust is superior to constant reverse gravity thrust.

  19. Critical dynamics in microgravity

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, R.; Boyd, S.; Akau, R.; Gianoulakis, S.

    1996-05-01

    Although many well-controlled experiments have been conducted to measure the static properties of systems near criticality, few experiments have explored the transport properties in systems driven very far away from equilibrium as the transition occurs. Here we propose to measure the thermal gradient across the superfluid (HeII)-normal fluid (HeI) interface in microgravity conditions as a function of the heat flux Q used to make the measurements. Microgravity conditions are required (1) to avoid the hydrostatic pressure variation along the height of the helium column (a concern for Q<0.1 {mu}W {center_dot}cm {sup {minus}2}), (2) avoid convection in He-I for Q> 3 {mu}W {center_dot}cm{sup {minus}2} in our apparatus, and (3) to increase the Q=O interfacial width from its value of a few tens of microns on Earth to about a millimeter in orbit. New technologies described in this paper are under development for this experiment, which is in definition for Space Shuttle flight.

  20. Space flight nutrition research: platforms and analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Tobin, Brian W.

    2002-01-01

    Conducting research during actual or simulated weightlessness is a challenging endeavor, where even the simplest activities may present significant challenges. This article reviews some of the potential obstacles associated with performing research during space flight and offers brief descriptions of current and previous space research platforms and ground-based analogs, including those for human, animal, and cell-based research. This review is intended to highlight the main issues of space flight research analogs and leave the specifics for each physiologic system for the other papers in this section.

  1. Augmenting WFIRST Microlensing with a Ground-Based Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Gould, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Augmenting the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) microlensing campaigns with intensive observations from a ground-based network of wide-field survey telescopes would have several major advantages. First, it would enable full two-dimensional (2-D) vector microlens parallax measurements for a substantial fraction of low-mass lenses as well as planetary and binary events that show caustic crossing features. For a significant fraction of the free-floating planet (FFP) events and all caustic-crossing planetary/binary events, these 2-D parallax measurements directly lead to complete solutions (mass, distance, transverse velocity) of the lens object (or lens system). For even more events, the complementary ground-based observations will yield 1-D parallax measurements. Together with the 1-D parallaxes from WFIRST alone, they can probe the entire mass range M > M_Earth. For luminous lenses, such 1-D parallax measurements can be promoted to complete solutions (mass, distance, transverse velocity) by high-resolution imaging. This would provide crucial information not only about the hosts of planets and other lenses, but also enable a much more precise Galactic model. Other benefits of such a survey include improved understanding of binaries (particularly with low mass primaries), and sensitivity to distant ice-giant and gas-giant companions of WFIRST lenses that cannot be detected by WFIRST itself due to its restricted observing windows. Existing ground-based microlensing surveys can be employed if WFIRST is pointed at lower-extinction fields than is currently envisaged. This would come at some cost to the event rate. Therefore the benefits of improved characterization of lenses must be weighed against these costs.

  2. Ground-based observations of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snodgrass, C.

    2015-10-01

    I will described the campaign of observations from ground-based (and Earth orbiting) telescopes that supports the Rosetta mission. Rosetta gets closer to the nucleus than any previous mission, and returns wonderfully detailed measurements from the heart of the comet, but at the cost of not seeing the large scale coma and tails. The ground-based campaign fills in the missing part of the picture, studying the comet at #1000km resolution, and following how the overall activity of the comet varies. These data provide context information for Rosetta, so changes in the inner coma seen by the spacecraft can be correlated with the phenomena observable in comets. This not only helps to complete our understanding of the activity of 67P, but also allows us to compare it with other comets that are only observed from the ground, and in that way extend the results of the Rosetta mission to the wider population. The ground-based campaign includes observations with nearly all major facilities world-wide. In 2014 the majority of data came from the ESO VLT, as the comet was still relatively faint and in Southern skies, but as it returns to visibility from Earth in 2015 it will be considerably brighter, approaching its perihelion in August, and at Northern declinations. I will show results from the 2014 campaign, including visible wavelength photometry and spectroscopy, and the latest results from early 2015 observations. I will also describe the varied observations that will be included in the campaign post-perihelion, and how all of these results fit around what we are learning about 67P from Rosetta.

  3. Space- and Ground-Based Observations of Exceptionally Young Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamblyn, P. M.; Merline, W. J.; Chapman, C. R.; Nesvorný, D.; Durda, D. D.

    2004-12-01

    We provide an overview and progress report on a suite of observations of very young asteroids. Three asteroid groups were previously identified through dynamical back integration as having arisen from very recent (<10 Myr) asteroid collisions (Nesvorný et al. 2002, Nature 417, 720; 2003 ApJ 591, 486). Hence these asteroid families provide an opportunity to probe the properties of the fragments of asteroid collisions before their characteristics have been masked by the aging and dynamical effects that dominate the observable properties of older asteroids. With a variety of observational programs, we aim to measure characteristics critical for comparison with hydrodynamical models of asteroid collisions. First, with a large Hubble Snapshot survey, we are testing if binaries are more prevalent among the young asteroids. This might be expected because ejection of mutually bound pairs is one mechanism for binary formation. Although our observed samples are small, we have discovered two new binaries among our control sample of old asteroids and none among the young asteroids sampled. We are extending the sample with ground-based Adaptive Optics at VLT, Gemini-N, Keck, and IRTF. In another ground-based experiment, we are measuring the lightcurve amplitudes and spin periods of these young asteroids for eventual comparison with simulations of asteroid breakup (e.g. Durda et al. 2004 Icarus 170, 243). Finally, with a Spitzer program, we are measuring the sizes and albedos of some of these young asteroids. This will immediately test if albedo is correlated with size or age, and provide the calibration for a ground-based determination of the size distribution. Together with the spin and shape information from lightcurves, these data will also further constrain the measurement of the Yarkovsky effect on main belt asteroids recently presented by Nesvorný & Bottke 2004 (Icarus, 170, 324).

  4. Straight Ahead in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, G.; Wood, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The subjective straight-ahead direction is a very basic perceptual reference for spatial orientation and locomotion. The perceived straight-ahead along the horizontal and vertical meridian is largely determined by both otolith and somatosensory inputs which are altered in microgravity. The Straight Ahead in Microgravity (SAM) experiment will be conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) to examine how this spatial processing changes as a function of spaceflight. METHODS Data will be collected before the flight, at one-month intervals during long-duration stay (180 days) on board ISS, and after return to Earth. Control studies will also be performed during parabolic flights. Three different protocols will be used in each test session: (1) Fixation: The subject will be asked to look at actual targets (normal vision) and then to imagine these same targets (occluded vision) in the straight-ahead direction. Targets will be located at near distance (arm s length, 0.5m), medium distance (1 m), and far distance (beyond 2 m). This task will be successively performed with subject s body aligned with the spacecraft interior, and with subject s body tilted forward and backward by an operator. (2) Saccades: The subject will be asked to make horizontal and vertical saccades, first relative to the spacecraft interior reference system, and then relative to the subject s head reference system. This task will be successively performed with subject s body aligned with the spacecraft interior, and with subject s body tilted in roll or in pitch by an operator. (3) Linear Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR): The subject will be asked to stare at actual visual targets (normal vision) at various distances (near, medium, far) in the straight-ahead direction. Vision will then be occluded, and the subject will be asked to continue staring at the same imagined targets while he/she is passively translated forward-backward, up-down, or side-to-side. The subject's body motion will

  5. Sky type discrimination using a ground-based sun photometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeFelice, Thomas P.; Wylie, B.K.

    2001-01-01

    A 2-year feasibility study was conducted at the USGS EROS Data Center, South Dakota (43.733°N, 96.6167°W) to assess whether a four-band, ground-based, sun photometer could be used to discriminate sky types. The results indicate that unique spectral signatures do exist between sunny skies (including clear and hazy skies) and cirrus, and cirrostratus, altocumulus or fair-weather cumulus, and thin stratocumulus or altostratus, and fog/fractostratus skies. There were insufficient data points to represent other cloud types at a statistically significant level.

  6. Recent Improvements in AMSR2 Ground-Based RFI Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, J. P.; Gentemann, C. L.; Wentz, F. J.

    2015-12-01

    Passive satellite radiometer measurements in the microwave frequencies (6-89 GHz) are useful in providing geophysical retrievals of sea surface temperature (SST), atmospheric water vapor, wind speed, rain rate, and more. However, radio frequency interference (RFI) is one of the fastest growing sources of error in these retrievals. RFI can originate from broadcasting satellites, as well as from ground-based instrumentation that makes use of the microwave range. The microwave channel bandwidths used by passive satellite radiometers are often wider than the protected bands allocated for this type of remote sensing, a common practice in microwave radiometer design used to reduce the effect of instrument noise in the observed signal. However, broad channel bandwidths allow greater opportunity for RFI to affect these observations and retrievals. For ground-based RFI, a signal is broadcast directly into the atmosphere which may interfere with the radiometer - its antenna, cold mirror, hot load or the internal workings of the radiometer itself. It is relatively easy to identify and flag RFI from large sources, but more difficult to do so from small, sporadic sources. Ground-based RFI has high spatial and temporal variability, requiring constant, automated detection and removal to avoid spurious trends leaching into the geophysical retrievals. Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean has been one of these notorious ground-based RFI sources, affecting many microwave radiometers, including the AMSR2 radiometer onboard JAXA's GCOM-W1 satellite. Ascension Island RFI mainly affects AMSR2's lower frequency channels (6.9, 7.3, and 10.65 GHz) over a broad spatial region in the South Atlantic Ocean, which makes it challenging to detect and flag this RFI using conventional channel and geophysical retrieval differencing techniques. The authors have developed a new method of using the radiometer's earth counts and hot counts, for the affected channels, to detect an Ascension Island

  7. Sleep and Respiration in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, John B.; Elliott, Ann R.; Prisk, G. Kim; Paiva, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Sleep is often reported to be of poor quality in microgravity, and studies on the ground have shown a strong relationship between sleep-disordered breathing and sleep disruption. During the 16-day Neurolab mission, we studied the influence of possible changes in respiratory function on sleep by performing comprehensive sleep recordings on the payload crew on four nights during the mission. In addition, we measured the changes in the ventilatory response to low oxygen and high carbon dioxide in the same subjects during the day, hypothesizing that changes in ventilatory control might affect respiration during sleep. Microgravity caused a large reduction in the ventilatory response to reduced oxygen. This is likely the result of an increase in blood pressure at the peripheral chemoreceptors in the neck that occurs when the normally present hydrostatic pressure gradient between the heart and upper body is abolished. This reduction was similar to that seen when the subjects were placed acutely in the supine position in one-G. In sharp contrast to low oxygen, the ventilatory response to elevated carbon dioxide was unaltered by microgravity or the supine position. Because of the similarities of the findings in microgravity and the supine position, it is unlikely that changes in ventilatory control alter respiration during sleep in microgravity. During sleep on the ground, there were a small number of apneas (cessation of breathing) and hypopneas (reduced breathing) in these normal subjects. During sleep in microgravity, there was a reduction in the number of apneas and hypopneas per hour compared to preflight. Obstructive apneas virtually disappeared in microgravity, suggesting that the removal of gravity prevents the collapse of upper airways during sleep. Arousals from sleep were reduced in microgravity compared to preflight, and virtually all of this reduction was as a result of a reduction in the number of arousals from apneas and hypopneas. We conclude that any sleep

  8. Triptycene analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy (Inventor); Perchellet, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    This invention provides analogs of triptycene which are useful as anticancer drugs, as well as for other uses. The potency of these compounds is in a similar magnitude as daunomycin, a currently used anticancer drug. Each compound of the invention produces one or more desired effects (blocking nucleoside transport, inhibiting nucleic acid or protein syntheses, decreasing the proliferation and viability of cancer cells, inducing DNA fragmentation or retaining their effectiveness against multidrug-resistant tumor cells).

  9. Dendritic Growth Velocities in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicksman, M. E.; Koss, M. B.; Winsa, E. A.

    1994-01-01

    We measured dendritic tip velocities in pure succinonitrile (SCN) in microgravity. using a sequence of telemetered binary images sent to Earth from the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-62). Growth velocities were measured as a function of the supercooling over the range 0.05-1.5 K. Microgravity observations show that buoyancy-induced convection alters the growth kinetics of SCN dendrites at supercooling as high as 1.3 K. Also, the dendrite velocity data measured under microgravity agree well with the Ivantsov paraboloidal diffusion solution when coupled to a scaling constant of sigma(sup *) = 0.0157.

  10. Confocal microscopy in microgravity research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goede, A. P. H.; Brakenhoff, G. J.; Woldringh, C. L.; Aalders, J. W. G.; Imhof, J. P.; van Kralingen, P.; Mels, W. A.; Schreinemakers, P.; Zegers, A.

    We have studied the application and the feasibility of confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) in microgravity research. Its superior spatial resolution and 3D imaging capabilities and its use of light as a probe, render this instrument ideally suited for the study of living biological material on a (sub-)cellular level. In this paper a number of pertinent biological microgravity experiments is listed, concentrating on the direct observation of developing cells and cellular structures under microgravity condition. A conceptual instrument design is also presented, aimed at sounding rocket application followed by Biorack/Biolab application at a later stage.

  11. Precipitation signatures of ground-based VLF transmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, P.; Inan, U. S.; Bell, T. F.; Bortnik, J.

    2008-07-01

    Numerical raytracing with Landau damping is used to calculate >100 keV electron precipitation signatures induced by hypothetical VLF transmitters distributed broadly in geomagnetic latitude and operating at a wide range of frequencies. A one-half second pulse from each source is simulated and attenuation to the base of the magnetosphere for geomagnetic latitudes from 10° to 60° is calculated. Source location affects induced precipitation more strongly than operating frequency or radiated power. Sources located at 35° to 45° induce the most >100 keV precipitation for the 10 to 40 kHz waves typical of ground-based VLF sources, while locations below λ ≃ 15° or above λ ≃ 55° are least effective at precipitating energetic electrons. In all cases, induced precipitation increases as the operating frequency decreases, with 10 kHz waves from a source at λ ≃ 35° the most effective at precipitating >100 keV electrons. Precipitation signatures produced by five existing ground-based VLF transmitters are also simulated: the NAA, NLK, NAU, NPM, and NWC VLF transmitters. NWC induces the strongest >100 keV electron precipitation signature, followed by NPM, NAU, NAA, and NLK.

  12. Light pollution simulations for planar ground-based light sources.

    PubMed

    Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2008-02-20

    The light pollution model is employed to analyze spatial behavior of luminance at the night sky under cloudless and overcast conditions. Enhanced light excess is particularly identified at cloudy skies, because the clouds efficiently contribute to the downward luminous flux. It is evident that size of ground-based light sources can play an important role in the case of overcast sky conditions. Nevertheless, the realistically sized light sources are rarely embedded into light pollution modeling, and rather they are replaced by simple point sources. We discuss the discrepancies between sky luminance distributions when at first the planar light sources are considered and at second the point-source approximation is accepted. The found differences are noticeable if the size of the light source, distance to the observer, and altitude of a cloudy layer are comparable one to the other. Compared with point-source approximation, an inclusion of the size factor into modeling the light sources leads to partial elimination of the steep changes of sky luminance (typical for point sources of light). The narrow and sharp light pillars normally presented on the sky illuminated by point light sources can disappear or fuse together when two or more nearby light sources are considered with their real sizes. Sky elements situated close to the horizon will glow efficiently if luminous flux originates from two-dimensional ground-based entities (such as cities or villages).

  13. Ground-based observation of near-Earth asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaffey, Michael J.

    An increased ground-based observation program is an essential component of any serious attempt to assess the resource potential of near-Earth asteroids. A vigorous search and characterization program could lead to the discovery and description of about 400 to 500 near-Earth asteroids in the next 20 years. This program, in conjunction with meteorite studies, would provide the data base to ensure that the results of a small number of asteroid-rendezvous and sample-return missions could be extrapolated with confidence into a geological base map of the Aten, Apollo, and Amor asteroids. Ground-based spectral studies of nearly 30 members of the Aten/Apollo/Amor population provide good evidence that this class includes bodies composed of silicates, metal-silicates, and carbonaceous assemblages similar to those found in meteorites. The instruments that are being used or could be used to search for near-Earth asteroids are listed. Techniques useful in characterizing asteroids and the types of information obtainable using these techniques are listed.

  14. Statistical Studies of Ground-Based Optical Lightning Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, C. R.; Nemzek, R. J.; Suszcynsky, D. M.

    2005-12-01

    Most extensive optical studies of lightning have been conducted from orbit, and the statistics of events collected from earth are relatively poorly documented. The time signatures of optical power measured in the presence of clouds are inevitably affected by scattering,which can distort the signatures by extending and delaying the amplitude profile in time. We have deployed two all-sky photodiode detectors, one in New Mexico and one in Oklahoma, which are gathering data alongside electric field change monitors as part of the LANL EDOTX Great Plains Array. Preliminary results show that the photodiode is sensitive to approximately 50% or more of RF events detected at ranges of up to 30 km, and still has some sensitivity at ranges in excess of 60 km (distances determined by the EDOTX field-change array). The shapes of events within this range were assessed, with focus on rise time, width, peak power, and their correlation to corresponding electric field signatures, and these are being compared with published on-orbit and ground-based data. Initial findings suggest a mean characteristic width (ratio of total detected optical energy to peak power) of 291 +/- 12 microseconds and a mean delay between the RF signal peak and optical peak of 121 +/- 17 microseconds. These values fall between prior ground-based measurements of direct return stroke emissions, and scattering-dominated on-orbit measurements. This work will promote better understanding of the correspondence between radio and optical measurements of lightning.

  15. Ground-based observation of near-Earth asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffey, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    An increased ground-based observation program is an essential component of any serious attempt to assess the resource potential of near-Earth asteroids. A vigorous search and characterization program could lead to the discovery and description of about 400 to 500 near-Earth asteroids in the next 20 years. This program, in conjunction with meteorite studies, would provide the data base to ensure that the results of a small number of asteroid-rendezvous and sample-return missions could be extrapolated with confidence into a geological base map of the Aten, Apollo, and Amor asteroids. Ground-based spectral studies of nearly 30 members of the Aten/Apollo/Amor population provide good evidence that this class includes bodies composed of silicates, metal-silicates, and carbonaceous assemblages similar to those found in meteorites. The instruments that are being used or could be used to search for near-Earth asteroids are listed. Techniques useful in characterizing asteroids and the types of information obtainable using these techniques are listed.

  16. Ground-based visual inspection for CTBT verification

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, W.; Wohletz, K.

    1997-11-01

    Ground-based visual inspection will play an essential role in On-Site Inspection (OSI) for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification. Although seismic and remote sensing techniques are the best understood and most developed methods for detection of evasive testing of nuclear weapons, visual inspection will greatly augment the certainty and detail of understanding provided by these more traditional methods. Not only can ground-based visual inspection offer effective documentation in cases of suspected nuclear testing, but it also can provide accurate source location and testing media properties necessary for detailed analysis of seismic records. For testing in violation of the CTBT, an offending state may attempt to conceal the test, which most likely will be achieved by underground burial. While such concealment may not prevent seismic detection, evidence of test deployment, location, and yield can be disguised. In this light, if a suspicious event is detected by seismic or other remote methods, visual inspection of the event area is necessary to document any evidence that might support a claim of nuclear testing and provide data needed to further interpret seismic records and guide further investigations. However, the methods for visual inspection are not widely known nor appreciated, and experience is presently limited. Visual inspection can be achieved by simple, non-intrusive means, primarily geological in nature, and it is the purpose of this report to describe the considerations, procedures, and equipment required to field such an inspection. The inspections will be carried out by inspectors from members of the CTBT Organization.

  17. MODELING ATMOSPHERIC EMISSION FOR CMB GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Errard, J.; Borrill, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Akiba, Y.; Chinone, Y.; Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Elleflot, T.; Baccigalupi, C.; Fabbian, G.; Boettger, D.; Chapman, S.; Cukierman, A.; Delabrouille, J.; Ducout, A.; Feeney, S.; Feng, C.; and others

    2015-08-10

    Atmosphere is one of the most important noise sources for ground-based cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. By increasing optical loading on the detectors, it amplifies their effective noise, while its fluctuations introduce spatial and temporal correlations between detected signals. We present a physically motivated 3D-model of the atmosphere total intensity emission in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. We derive a new analytical estimate for the correlation between detectors time-ordered data as a function of the instrument and survey design, as well as several atmospheric parameters such as wind, relative humidity, temperature and turbulence characteristics. Using an original numerical computation, we examine the effect of each physical parameter on the correlations in the time series of a given experiment. We then use a parametric-likelihood approach to validate the modeling and estimate atmosphere parameters from the polarbear-i project first season data set. We derive a new 1.0% upper limit on the linear polarization fraction of atmospheric emission. We also compare our results to previous studies and weather station measurements. The proposed model can be used for realistic simulations of future ground-based CMB observations.

  18. Microgravity Science and Applications: Program Tasks and Bibliography for Fiscal Year 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    NASA's Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) sponsors a program that expands the use of space as a laboratory for the study of important physical, chemical, and biochemical processes. The primary objective of the program is to broaden the value and capabilities of human presence in space by exploiting the unique characteristics of the space environment for research. However, since flight opportunities are rare and flight research development is expensive, a vigorous ground-based research program, from which only the best experiments evolve, is critical to the continuing strength of the program. The microgravity environment affords unique characteristics that allow the investigation of phenomena and processes that are difficult or impossible to study an Earth. The ability to control gravitational effects such as buoyancy driven convection, sedimentation, and hydrostatic pressures make it possible to isolate phenomena and make measurements that have significantly greater accuracy than can be achieved in normal gravity. Space flight gives scientists the opportunity to study the fundamental states of physical matter-solids, liquids and gasses-and the forces that affect those states. Because the orbital environment allows the treatment of gravity as a variable, research in microgravity leads to a greater fundamental understanding of the influence of gravity on the world around us. With appropriate emphasis, the results of space experiments lead to both knowledge and technological advances that have direct applications on Earth. Microgravity research also provides the practical knowledge essential to the development of future space systems. The Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications (OLMSA) is responsible for planning and executing research stimulated by the Agency's broad scientific goals. OLMSA's Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) is responsible for guiding and focusing a comprehensive program, and currently manages

  19. Examining auroral downward current region processes using ground based data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michell, Robert Gregory

    observed 7 distinct periods of NEIAL activity. These times correspond to (a) when the polar cap boundary of the auroral arcs passed through the magnetic zenith and (b) when small-scale filamentary dark structure was present in the magnetic zenith. These observations are consistent with NEIALs occurring within the same auroral morphology which is known to contain broad-band extremely low frequency (BBELF) wave activity. By comparing the densities at which NEIALs have been observed by previous studies, it is found that NEIALs occur at densities roughly between 5 and 30 x1010 m-3. The observations presented in this dissertation support the hypothesis that NEIALs and BBELF are differently observed aspects of the same auroral phenomenon. It is a goal of this thesis to connect these ground-based observations with previous in situ measurements and identify DCRs from the ground. A relation between NEIALs and the in situ signature of BBELF wave activity, provides a link between the in situ measurements and the ground-based observations. There are no actual ground-based/in situ conjugate events in this study. The focus here is to compare the optical observations to the morphology and auroral context of DCRs as measured in situ by previous studies. The use of ground-based observational techniques for observing DCR processes has many implications. These include identifying and following the temporal and spatial evolution of DCRs as well as being able to identify regions of potential ion outflow on a large spatial and temporal scale using ground based optical observations.

  20. Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar. Part 2; Ground Based

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Cadirola, Martin; Venable, Demetrius; Connell, Rasheen; Rush, Kurt; Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    The same RASL hardware as described in part I was installed in a ground-based mobile trailer and used in a water vapor lidar intercomparison campaign, hosted at Table Mountain, CA, under the auspices of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). The converted RASL hardware demonstrated high sensitivity to lower stratospheric water vapor indicating that profiling water vapor at those altitudes with sufficient accuracy to monitor climate change is possible. The measurements from Table Mountain also were used to explain the reason, and correct , for sub-optimal airborne aerosol extinction performance during the flight campaign.

  1. A Critical Assessment of Protein Crystal Growth in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc

    1997-01-01

    Experiments to grow higher diffraction quality protein crystals in the microgravity environment of an orbiting spacecraft are one of the most frequently flown space experiments. Ground-based research has shown that convective flows occur even about protein crystals growing in the Earth's gravitational field. Further, this research has shown that the resultant flow velocities can cause growth cessation, and probably affect the measured X-ray data quality obtained. How flow deleteriously affects protein crystal growth (PCG) is still not known, and is the subject of ongoing research. Failing a rational method for ameliorating flow effects on Earth, one can, through NASA and other nations space agency sponsored programs, carry out protein crystal growth in the microgravity environment of an orbiting spacecraft. Early first generation PCG hardware was characterized by a very low success rate and a steep design learning curve. Subsequent hardware designs have improved upon their predecessors. Now the crystal grower has a wide variety of hardware configurations and crystal growth protocols to choose from, many of which implement "standard" laboratory protein crystal growth methods. While many of these are first or early second generation hardware the success rate, defined as growing crystals giving data better than has been obtained on Earth, is at least 20% overall and may be considerably higher if one only considers latter experiments. There are a large number of protein crystals grown every year, with hundreds of structures determined. Those crystallized in microgravity represent a small proportion of this total, and there is concern that the costs of the microgravity PCG program(s) do not justify such limited returns. Empirical evidence suggests that optimum crystal growth conditions in microgravity differ from those determined on Earth, further exacerbating the chances of success. Microgravity PCG is probably best suited for "mature" crystallizations, where one has

  2. Spindle structure and function changes of the human cells after simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu; Wei, Lijun; Qi, Jing; Yan, Xing; Wang, Hongying; Feng, Hui; Yue, Lei; Zhang, Yao

    The main induce factors of the space environment are sustaining microgravity and ionizing radiation which can influence cell structure and function. In this study, for investigating the damage to human proliferation cells under microgravity effects, human osteosarcoma cell lines (MG-63 and U-2 OS) and peripheral blood lymphocytes were analyzed after ground-based simulated microgravity effect with clinostat. The present results showed that under the simu-lated microgravity effect for 72 hours the cytoskeleton both in human osteosarcoma cell lines and peripheral blood lymphocytes were in disorder and the spindle structure changed. The multiple polar spindle rates in human osteosarcoma cell lines MG-63 and U-2 OS increased in a linear relationship with simulated microgravity hours (0 to 96 hours). The mitotic index increased in human osteosarcoma cell lines MG-63 and U-2 OS, while decreased in human pe-ripheral blood lymphocytes. And the cell cycle of MG-63 arrest at G2/M phase. The mode number of chromosomes also varied in MG-63, while the chromosome number of human periph-eral blood lymphocytes didn't show significant difference. The Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot showed that the spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2 and BUB1 in MG-63 and U-2 OS changed with the spindle structure change and chromosome number change.

  3. Rac1 GTPase silencing counteracts microgravity-induced effects on osteoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Guignandon, Alain; Faure, Céline; Neutelings, Thibaut; Rattner, Aline; Mineur, Pierre; Linossier, Marie-Thérèse; Laroche, Norbert; Lambert, Charles; Deroanne, Christophe; Nusgens, Betty; Demets, René; Colige, Alain; Vico, Laurence

    2014-09-01

    Bone cells exposed to real microgravity display alterations of their cytoskeleton and focal adhesions, two major mechanosensitive structures. These structures are controlled by small GTPases of the Ras homology (Rho) family. We investigated the effects of RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 modulation of osteoblastic cells under microgravity conditions. Human MG-63 osteoblast-like cells silenced for RhoGTPases were cultured in the automated Biobox bioreactor (European Space Agency) aboard the Foton M3 satellite and compared to replicate ground-based controls. The cells were fixed after 69 h of microgravity exposure for postflight analysis of focal contacts, F-actin polymerization, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and matrix targeting. We found that RhoA silencing did not affect sensitivity to microgravity but that Rac1 and, to a lesser extent, Cdc42 abrogation was particularly efficient in counteracting the spaceflight-related reduction of the number of focal contacts [-50% in silenced, scrambled (SiScr) controls vs. -15% for SiRac1], the number of F-actin fibers (-60% in SiScr controls vs. -10% for SiRac1), and the depletion of matrix-bound VEGF (-40% in SiScr controls vs. -8% for SiRac1). Collectively, these data point out the role of the VEGF/Rho GTPase axis in mechanosensing and validate Rac1-mediated signaling pathways as potential targets for counteracting microgravity effects. PMID:24903274

  4. The NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program: Research Plans for the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, Fred J.; Singh, Bhim S.; Shaw, Nancy J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.

    2003-01-01

    Building on over four decades of research and technology development related to the behavior of fluids in low gravity environments, the current NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program continues the quest for knowledge to further understand and design better fluids systems for use on earth and in space. NASA's Biological and Physical Research Enterprise seeks to exploit the space environment to conduct research supporting human exploration of space (strategic research), research of intrinsic scientific importance and impact (fundamental research), and commercial research. The strategic research thrust will build the vital knowledge base needed to enable NASA's mission to explore the Universe and search for life. There are currently five major research areas in the Microgravity Fluid Physics Program: complex fluids, niultiphase flows and phase change, interfacial phenomena, biofluid mechanics, and dynamics and instabilities. Numerous investigations into these areas are being conducted in both ground-based laboratories and facilities and in the flight experiments program. Most of the future NASA- sponsored flight experiments in microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena will be carried out on the International Space Station (ISS) in the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR), in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), in EXPRESS racks, and in other facilities provided by international partners. This paper presents an overview of the near- and long-term visions for NASA's Microgravity Fluid Physics Research Program and brief descriptions of hardware systems planned to enable this research.

  5. Noninvasive pulse transit time measurement for arterial stiffness monitoring in microgravity.

    PubMed

    McCall, Corey; Rostosky, Rea; Wiard, Richard M; Inan, Omer T; Giovangrandi, Laurent; Cuttino, Charles Marsh; Kovacs, Gregory T A

    2015-01-01

    The use of a noninvasive hemodynamic monitor to estimate arterial stiffness, by measurement of pulse transit time (PTT), was demonstrated in microgravity. The monitor's utility for space applications was shown by establishing the correlation between ground-based and microgravity-based measurements. The system consists of a scale-based ballistocardiogram (BCG) and a toe-mounted photoplethysmogram (PPG). PTT was measured from the BCG I-wave to the intersecting tangents of the first trough and maximum first derivative of the PPG waveforms of each subject. The system was tested on a recent series of parabolic flights in which the PTT of nine subjects was measured on the ground and in microgravity. An average of 60.2 ms PTT increase from ground to microgravity environments was shown, and was consistent across all test subjects (standard deviation = 32.9 ms). This increase in PTT could be explained by a number of factors associated with microgravity and reported in previous research, including elimination of hydrostatic pressure, reduction of intrathoracic pressure, and reduction of mean arterial pressure induced by vasodilation. PMID:26737764

  6. Noninvasive pulse transit time measurement for arterial stiffness monitoring in microgravity.

    PubMed

    McCall, Corey; Rostosky, Rea; Wiard, Richard M; Inan, Omer T; Giovangrandi, Laurent; Cuttino, Charles Marsh; Kovacs, Gregory T A

    2015-01-01

    The use of a noninvasive hemodynamic monitor to estimate arterial stiffness, by measurement of pulse transit time (PTT), was demonstrated in microgravity. The monitor's utility for space applications was shown by establishing the correlation between ground-based and microgravity-based measurements. The system consists of a scale-based ballistocardiogram (BCG) and a toe-mounted photoplethysmogram (PPG). PTT was measured from the BCG I-wave to the intersecting tangents of the first trough and maximum first derivative of the PPG waveforms of each subject. The system was tested on a recent series of parabolic flights in which the PTT of nine subjects was measured on the ground and in microgravity. An average of 60.2 ms PTT increase from ground to microgravity environments was shown, and was consistent across all test subjects (standard deviation = 32.9 ms). This increase in PTT could be explained by a number of factors associated with microgravity and reported in previous research, including elimination of hydrostatic pressure, reduction of intrathoracic pressure, and reduction of mean arterial pressure induced by vasodilation.

  7. Rac1 GTPase silencing counteracts microgravity-induced effects on osteoblastic cells.

    PubMed

    Guignandon, Alain; Faure, Céline; Neutelings, Thibaut; Rattner, Aline; Mineur, Pierre; Linossier, Marie-Thérèse; Laroche, Norbert; Lambert, Charles; Deroanne, Christophe; Nusgens, Betty; Demets, René; Colige, Alain; Vico, Laurence

    2014-09-01

    Bone cells exposed to real microgravity display alterations of their cytoskeleton and focal adhesions, two major mechanosensitive structures. These structures are controlled by small GTPases of the Ras homology (Rho) family. We investigated the effects of RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42 modulation of osteoblastic cells under microgravity conditions. Human MG-63 osteoblast-like cells silenced for RhoGTPases were cultured in the automated Biobox bioreactor (European Space Agency) aboard the Foton M3 satellite and compared to replicate ground-based controls. The cells were fixed after 69 h of microgravity exposure for postflight analysis of focal contacts, F-actin polymerization, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression, and matrix targeting. We found that RhoA silencing did not affect sensitivity to microgravity but that Rac1 and, to a lesser extent, Cdc42 abrogation was particularly efficient in counteracting the spaceflight-related reduction of the number of focal contacts [-50% in silenced, scrambled (SiScr) controls vs. -15% for SiRac1], the number of F-actin fibers (-60% in SiScr controls vs. -10% for SiRac1), and the depletion of matrix-bound VEGF (-40% in SiScr controls vs. -8% for SiRac1). Collectively, these data point out the role of the VEGF/Rho GTPase axis in mechanosensing and validate Rac1-mediated signaling pathways as potential targets for counteracting microgravity effects.

  8. Straight Ahead in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Vanya, R. D.; Clement, G.

    2014-01-01

    This joint ESA-NASA study will address adaptive changes in spatial orientation related to the subjective straight ahead, and the use of a vibrotactile sensory aid to reduce perceptual errors. The study will be conducted before and after long-duration expeditions to the International Space Station (ISS) to examine how spatial processing of target location is altered following exposure to microgravity. This project specifically addresses the sensorimotor research gap "What are the changes in sensorimotor function over the course of a mission?" Six ISS crewmembers will be requested to participate in three preflight sessions (between 120 and 60 days prior to launch) and then three postflight sessions on R+0/1 day, R+4 +/-2 days, and R+8 +/-2 days. The three specific aims include: (a) fixation of actual and imagined target locations at different distances; (b) directed eye and arm movements along different spatial reference frames; and (c) the vestibulo-ocular reflex during translation motion with fixation targets at different distances. These measures will be compared between upright and tilted conditions. Measures will then be compared with and without a vibrotactile sensory aid that indicates how far one has tilted relative to the straight-ahead direction. The flight study was been approved by the medical review boards and will be implemented in the upcoming Informed Crew Briefings to solicit flight subject participation. Preliminary data has been recorded on 6 subjects during parabolic flight to examine the spatial coding of eye movements during roll tilt relative to perceived orientations while free-floating during the microgravity phase of parabolic flight or during head tilt in normal gravity. Binocular videographic recordings obtained in darkness allowed us to quantify the mean deviations in gaze trajectories along both horizontal and vertical coordinates relative to the aircraft and head orientations. During some parabolas, a vibrotactile sensory aid provided

  9. Cavitation studies in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobel, Philippe; Obreschkow, Danail; Farhat, Mohamed; Dorsaz, Nicolas; de Bosset, Aurele

    The hydrodynamic cavitation phenomenon is a major source of erosion for many industrial systems such as cryogenic pumps for rocket propulsion, fast ship propellers, hydraulic pipelines and turbines. Erosive processes are associated with liquid jets and shockwaves emission fol-lowing the cavity collapse. Yet, fundamental understanding of these processes requires further cavitation studies inside various geometries of liquid volumes, as the bubble dynamics strongly depends the surrounding pressure field. To this end, microgravity represents a unique platform to produce spherical fluid geometries and remove the hydrostatic pressure gradient induced by gravity. The goal of our first experiment (flown on ESA's parabolic flight campaigns 2005 and 2006) was to study single bubble dynamics inside large spherical water drops (having a radius between 8 and 13 mm) produced in microgravity. The water drops were created by a micro-pump that smoothly expelled the liquid through a custom-designed injector tube. Then, the cavitation bubble was generated through a fast electrical discharge between two electrodes immersed in the liquid from above. High-speed imaging allowed to analyze the implications of isolated finite volumes and spherical free surfaces on bubble evolution, liquid jets formation and shock wave dynamics. Of particular interest are the following results: (A) Bubble lifetimes are shorter than in extended liquid volumes, which could be explain by deriving novel corrective terms to the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. (B) Transient crowds of micro-bubbles (smaller than 1mm) appeared at the instants of shockwaves emission. A comparison between high-speed visualizations and 3D N-particle simulations of a shock front inside a liquid sphere reveals that focus zones within the drop lead to a significantly increased density of induced cavitation. Considering shock wave crossing and focusing may hence prove crucially useful to understand the important process of cavitation erosion

  10. First International Microgravity Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahan, Tracy; Shea, Charlotte; Wiginton, Margaret; Neal, Valerie; Gately, Michele; Hunt, Lila; Graben, Jean; Tiderman, Julie; Accardi, Denise

    This colorful booklet presents capsule information on every aspect of the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML). As part of Spacelab, IML is divided into Life Science Experiments and Materials Science Experiments. Because the life and materials sciences use different Spacelab resources, they are logically paired on the IML missions. Life science investigations generally require significant crew involvement, and crew members often participate as test subjects or operators. Materials missions capitalize on these complementary experiments. International cooperation consists in participation by the European Space Agency, Canada, France, Germany, and Japan who are all partners in developing hardware and experiments of IML missions. IML experiments are crucial to future space ventures, like the development of Space Station Freedom, the establishment of lunar colonies, and the exploration of other planets. Principal investigators are identified for each experiment.

  11. First International Microgravity Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahan, Tracy; Shea, Charlotte; Wiginton, Margaret; Neal, Valerie; Gately, Michele; Hunt, Lila; Graben, Jean; Tiderman, Julie; Accardi, Denise

    1990-01-01

    This colorful booklet presents capsule information on every aspect of the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML). As part of Spacelab, IML is divided into Life Science Experiments and Materials Science Experiments. Because the life and materials sciences use different Spacelab resources, they are logically paired on the IML missions. Life science investigations generally require significant crew involvement, and crew members often participate as test subjects or operators. Materials missions capitalize on these complementary experiments. International cooperation consists in participation by the European Space Agency, Canada, France, Germany, and Japan who are all partners in developing hardware and experiments of IML missions. IML experiments are crucial to future space ventures, like the development of Space Station Freedom, the establishment of lunar colonies, and the exploration of other planets. Principal investigators are identified for each experiment.

  12. Python microgravity accelerometer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nijhawan, V.; Arrott, A. P.; Grimes, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    A microgravity accelerometer system developed for use in the Space Shuttle middeck locker is described. The system, known as PYTHON, is a microcomputer-based digital acceleration-measurement system that uses primarily off-the-shelf qualified space hardware and modular software. It can be operated on-board in real time and on the ground either during the flight or post-flight. The sensor head consists of an accelerometer, which measures acceleration in three orthogonal axes, and an internal thermister for temperature compensation; threshold and resolution are better than 0.000001 g. The results of acceleration measurements with PYTHON carried out during parabolic maneuvers aboard the NASA's KC-135 aircraft are presented.

  13. Minor surgery in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Krupa, Debra T.; Stonestreet, Robert; Kizzee, Victor D.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate and demonstrate equipment and techniques proposed for minor surgery on Space Station Freedom (SSF). The objectives are: (1) to test and evaluate methods of surgical instrument packaging and deployment; (2) to test and evaluate methods of surgical site preparation and draping; (3) to evaluate techniques of sterile procedure and maintaining sterile field; (4) to evaluate methods of trash management during medical/surgical procedures; and (4) to gain experience in techniques for performing surgery in microgravity. A KC-135 parabolic flight test was performed on March 30, 1990 with the goal of investigating and demonstrating surgical equipment and techniques under consideration for use on SSF. The flight followed the standard 40 parabola profile with 20 to 25 seconds of near-zero gravity in each parabola.

  14. Microwave Dielectrophoretic Levitation In Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, John L.; Jackson, Henry W.; Barmatz, Martin B.

    1993-01-01

    Two reports propose use of dielectrophoresis in microwave resonant cavities to levitate samples of materials for containerless processing in microgravity in vacuum or in any suitable atmosphere. Also describe experiments undertaken to verify feasibility of proposal.

  15. Microgravity Program strategic plan, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The all encompassing objective of the NASA Microgravity Program is the use of space as a lab to conduct research and development. The on-orbit microgravity environment, with its substantially reduced buoyancy forces, hydrostatic pressures, and sedimentation, enables the conduction of scientific studies not possible on Earth. This environment allows processes to be isolated and controlled with an accuracy that cannot be obtained in the terrestrial environment. The Microgravity Science and Applications Div. has defined three major science categories in order to develop a program structure: fundamental science, including the study of the behavior of fluids, transport phenomena, condensed matter physics, and combustion science; materials science, including electronic and photonic materials, metals and alloys, and glasses and ceramics; and biotechnology, focusing on macromolecular crystal growth as well as cell and molecular science. Experiments in these areas seek to provide observations of complex phenomena and measurements of physical attributes with a precision that is enabled by the microgravity environment.

  16. NASA's Microgravity Science Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The ongoing challenge faced by NASA's Microgravity Science Research Program is to work with the scientific and engineering communities to secure the maximum return from our Nation's investments by: assuring that the best possible science emerges from the science community for microgravity investigations; ensuring the maximum scientific return from each investigation in the most timely and cost-effective manner; and enhancing the distribution of data and applications of results acquired through completed investigations to maximize their benefits.

  17. Microgravity Outreach with Math Teachers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Don Gillies, a materials scientist at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), demonstrates the classroom-size Microgravity Drop Tower Demonstrator. The apparatus provides 1/6 second of microgravity for small experiments. A video camera helps teachers observe what happens inside the package. This demonstration was at the April 2000 conference of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in Chicago. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  18. Diagnostics in Japan's microgravity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadota, Toshikazu

    1995-01-01

    The achievement of the combustion research under microgravity depends substantially on the availability of diagnostic systems. The non-intrusive diagnostic systems are potentially applicable for providing the accurate, realistic and detailed information on momentum, mass and energy transport, complex gas phase chemistry, and phase change in the combustion field under microgravity. The non-intrusive nature of optical instruments is essential to the measurement of combustion process under microgravity which is very nervous to any perturbation. However, the implementation of the non-intrusive combustion diagnostic systems under microgravity is accompanied by several constraints. Usually, a very limited space is only available for constructing a highly sophisticated system which is so sensitive that it is easily affected by the magnitude of the gravitational force, vibration and heterogeneous field of temperature and density of the environments. The system should be properly adjusted prior to the experiment. Generally, it is quite difficult to tune the instruments during measurements. The programmed sequence of operation should also be provided. Extensive effort has been toward the development of non-intrusive diagnostic systems available for the combustion experiments under microgravity. This paper aims to describe the current art and the future strategy on the non-intrusive diagnostic systems potentially applicable to the combustion experiments under microgravity in Japan.

  19. Microgravity science and applications overview - Research, facility and instrumentation development, Space Station Freedom operations and utilization planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kicza, M. E.

    1990-01-01

    An overview is provided of NASA's Microgravity Science and Applications Program, with emphasis on plans for evolution to the Space Station. The Microgravity Science and Applications Division program consists of two major parts including the ground-based research program and the flight program. Transition to flight experiment status may occur only after the ground-based research and testing demonstrates sufficient technical maturity to assure that scientific objectives can be met in space with a high degree of success. Program strategy calls for a transition to the Space Station Freedom before the end of the century. In this connection, six multi-user facilities are planned to be phased into operation aboard the Space Station over an extended time frame. It is projected that the design of these facilities will evolve based on experience with precursor experiment hardware designed and operated on Skylab and other carriers.

  20. Ground-based column abundance measurements of atmospheric hydroxyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, Clyde R.

    1988-01-01

    The preliminary results of ground-based OH column abundance measurements from Truk, Federated States of Micronesia, are contained. These are the first OH column measurements from the tropics, and constitute a signficcant contribution to the OH data base. Comparisons of tropical OH behavior with the extensive mid-latitude observations serve as a critical test of the current understanding of the HO (sub x) photochemistry and its relationship to the other major chemical families. The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in tropical stratospheric winds exerts a major influence on the Hadley cell vertical transport. Related QBOs in total O3 and in stratospheric H2O were identified, but QBO effects on other stratospheric species are still unknown. The solar tide in the tropics produces a diurnal surface pressure variation of 2 to 3 mb; its effect on OH photochemistry in the stratosphere may be significant.

  1. Ground-based column abundance measurements of atmospheric hydroxyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Clyde R.

    1988-04-01

    The preliminary results of ground-based OH column abundance measurements from Truk, Federated States of Micronesia, are contained. These are the first OH column measurements from the tropics, and constitute a signficcant contribution to the OH data base. Comparisons of tropical OH behavior with the extensive mid-latitude observations serve as a critical test of the current understanding of the HO (sub x) photochemistry and its relationship to the other major chemical families. The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in tropical stratospheric winds exerts a major influence on the Hadley cell vertical transport. Related QBOs in total O3 and in stratospheric H2O were identified, but QBO effects on other stratospheric species are still unknown. The solar tide in the tropics produces a diurnal surface pressure variation of 2 to 3 mb; its effect on OH photochemistry in the stratosphere may be significant.

  2. GBOT: ground based optical tracking of the Gaia satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altmann, Martin; Bouquillon, Sebastien; Taris, Francois; Steele, Iain A.; Smart, Ricky L.; Andrei, Alexandre H.; Barache, Christophe; Carlucci, Teddy; Els, Sebastian G.

    2014-08-01

    Gaia, the 1 billion star, high precision, astrometric satellite will revolutionise our understanding in many areas of astronomy ranging from bodies in our Solar System to the formation and structure of our Galaxy. To fully achieve the ambitious goals of the mission, and to completely eliminate effects such as aberration, we must know the position and velocity vectors of the spacecraft as it orbits the Lagrange point to an accuracy greater than can be obtained by traditional radar techniques, leading to the decision to conduct astrometric observations of the Gaia satellite itself from the ground. Therefore the Ground Based Optical Tracking (GBOT) project was formed and a small worldwide network using 1-2 m telescopes established in order to obtain one measurement per day of a precision/accuracy of 20 mas. We will discuss all aspects of GBOT, setup, feasibility considerations, preliminary tests of observing methods, partner observatories, the pipeline/database (see also contribution by Bouquillon et al.1).

  3. Ground-Based Experiments on Vibrational Thermal Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatz, Michael F.; Rogers, Jeffrey L.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-based experiments on g-jitter effects in fluid flow provide insight that complements both theoretical studies and space-based experiments on this problem. We report preliminary results for experiments on Rayleigh-Benard convection subjected to time-dependent accelerations on a shaker table. For sinusoidal modulation, two qualitatively different pattern forming mechanisms come into play: geometry induced wavenumber selection (as in the standard "no-shake" Rayleigh-Benard problem) and dispersion induced wavenumber selection due to parametric instability (as in the Faraday surface-wave problem). We discuss preliminary results on the competition and co-existence of patterns due to these different instability mechanisms. We also discuss the implications of this work on the general question of pattern formation in the presence of noise.

  4. Telerobotic manipulator developments for ground-based space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herndon, J. N.; Babcock, S. M.; Butler, P. L.; Costello, H. M.; Glassell, R. L.; Kress, Reid L.; Kuban, D. P.; Rowe, J. C.; Williams, D. M.; Meintel, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    New opportunities for the application of telerobotic systems to enhance human intelligence and dexterity in the hazardous environment of space are presented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Station Program. Because of the need for significant increases in extravehicular activity and the potential increase in hazards associated with space programs, emphasis is being heightened on telerobotic systems research and development. The Automation Technology Branch at NASA Langley Research Center currently is sponsoring the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop and demonstrate ground-based telerobotic manipulator system hardware for research and demonstrations aimed at future NASA applications. The LTM incorporates traction drives, modularity, redundant kinematics, and state-of-the-art hierarchical control techniques to form a basis for merging the diverse technological domains of robust, high-dexterity teleoperations and autonomous robotic operation into common hardware to further NASA's research.

  5. Progress in the ULTRA 1-m ground-based telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, Robert C.; Martin, Robert N.; Twarog, Bruce; Anthony-Twarog, Barbara; Taghavi, Ray; Hale, Rick; Etzel, Paul; Fesen, Rob; Shawl, Steve

    2006-06-01

    We present the technical status of the Ultra Lightweight Telescope for Research in Astronomy (ULTRA) program. The program is a 3-year Major Research Instrumentation (MRI) program funded by NSF. The MRI is a collaborative effort involving Composite Mirror Applications, Inc. (CMA), University of Kansas, San Diego State University and Dartmouth College. Objectives are to demonstrate the feasibility of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite mirror technology for ground-based optical telescopes. CMA is spearheading the development of surface replication techniques to produce the optics, fabricating the 1m glass mandrel, and constructing the optical tube assembly (OTA). Presented will be an overview and status of the 1-m mandrel fabrication, optics development, telescope design and CFRP telescope fabrication by CMA for the ULTRA Telescope.

  6. Laminar Premixed and Diffusion Flames (Ground-Based Study)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dai, Z.; El-Leathy, A. M.; Lin, K.-C.; Sunderland, P. B.; Xu, F.; Faeth, G. M.; Urban, D. L. (Technical Monitor); Yuan, Z.-G. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Ground-based studies of soot processes in laminar flames proceeded in two phases, considering laminar premixed flames and laminar diffusion flames, in turn. The test arrangement for laminar premixed flames involved round flat flame burners directed vertically upward at atmospheric pressure. The test arrangement for laminar jet diffusion flames involved a round fuel port directed vertically upward with various hydrocarbon fuels burning at atmospheric pressure in air. In both cases, coflow was used to prevent flame oscillations and measurements were limited to the flame axes. The measurements were sufficient to resolve soot nucleation, growth and oxidation rates, as well as the properties of the environment needed to evaluate mechanisms of these processes. The experimental methods used were also designed to maintain capabilities for experimental methods used in corresponding space-based experiments. This section of the report will be limited to consideration of flame structure for both premixed and diffusion flames.

  7. Modelling atmospheric turbulence effects on ground-based telescope systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, L.W.; Flatte, S.M.; Max, C.E.

    1993-09-30

    Questions still exist concerning the appropriate model for turbulence- induced phase fluctuations seen in ground-based telescopes. Bester et al. used a particular observable (slope of the Allan variance) with an infrared interferometer in an attempt to distinguish models. The authors have calculated that observable for Kolmogorov and {open_quotes}random walk{close_quotes} models with a variety of outer scales and altitude-dependent turbulence and wind velocity. The authors have found that clear distinction between models requires good data on the vertical distribution of wind and turbulence. Furthermore, measurements at time separations of order 60 s are necessary to distinguish the {open_quotes}random walk{close_quotes} model from the Kolmogorov model.

  8. Ground-Based Thermal Imaging of Coastal and Riverine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sliwinski, T.; McKenna, T. E.; Puleo, J. A.; Meehan, C. L.

    2010-12-01

    Ground-based remote sensing can provide information on spatio-temporal distributions of sediment and geotechnical properties in dynamic coastal and riverine environments where it can be difficult to collect representative in-situ data. The spatio-temporal variability of grain size, moisture content and biological activity in these environments presents a major challenge in the development of robust remote sensing applications. For ground-based thermal imaging, the radiation received by the imager is a function of the temperature and emissivity of the sediment, observation geometry, atmospheric transmittance (distance and humidity), and reflected background radiation. This study examines the effects of observation geometry on emissivity and the apparent temperature of sediments. A bench-scale multi-spectral imaging system was developed to assess the effects of viewing angle, heating/cooling and moisture variation on thermal imager response. Preliminary results show the expected decrease in emissivity with increasing view angle. Our goal is to parameterize this effect so that imagery from uncontrolled field conditions can be corrected. Combined with corrections for atmospheric transmittance and reflected radiation and an emissivity separation routine, this will allow for a more accurate evaluation of spatio-temporal variations in surface temperature and enable evaluation of the heat-transfer processes driving temporal variations. Of primary interest is estimating the thermal and hydraulic properties of the sediment which serve as proxies for grain size, porosity and moisture content (fundamental parameters for geotechnical applications). This is facilitated using a numerical model that couples heat transfer in the subsurface and atmosphere and allows for periodic inundation with surface water. Results from laboratory experiments and a recent field study on a sandy beach along the Wolf River in Mississippi will be presented.

  9. Martian Meteorological Measurements Using Ground-Based Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, A.; Bailey, J.; Walter, M.; Crisp, D.

    2005-12-01

    An important component of the continuing Mars research program is the accurate determination of atmospheric and meteorological parameters, and analysis of how these parameters vary spatially and temporally. Ground-based observations are particularly useful in this regard, as they allow simultaneous global coverage and use of high-resolution spectroscopy to complement orbital measurements. Aside from the perils of atmospheric turbulence (correctable to some degree using adaptive optics), infrared observations of planetary atmospheres face another challenge -- correcting for the presence of telluric spectral lines. Based on atmospheric simulations using the SMART radiative transfer modelling tool1, we present evidence that the current technique of mitigating the effect of Earth's atmosphere by observing a nearby star of known spectral type (the ``standard star" method) can generate significant errors. Indeed, our simulations of measurements of the Martian 2-micron carbon dioxide band at a resolving power of 1000 produced variation between ``standard reduced" spectra and original modelled spectra of up to 50%2. Furthermore, we outline our proposed computational technique of iterative reduction by progressing modelled parameters towards observed values (which negates the ``standard star" issue), to be validated on data obtained from IRTF/Gemini South observations in October/November 2005, and present results to date. 1Meadows, V.S., Crisp, D., 1996, Ground-based near-infrared observations of the Venus nightside: The thermal structure and water abundance near the surface, JGR 101:E2, 4595 2Bailey, J. A., Simpson, A. J., Crisp, D., 2005, Correcting Infrared Spectra for Atmospheric Absorption, in preparation

  10. Microgravity Level Measurement of the Beijing Drop Tower Using a Sensitive Accelerometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, T. Y.; Wu, Q. P.; Sun, B. Q.; Han, F. T.

    2016-08-01

    Drop tower is the most common ground-based facility to provide microgravity environment and widely used in many science experiments. A differential space accelerometer has been proposed to test the spin-gravity interaction between rotating extended bodies onboard a drag-free satellite. In order to assist design and test of this inertial sensor in a series of ground- based pre-flight experiments, it is very important to know accurately the residual acceleration of drop towers. In this report, a sensitive instrument for this purpose was built with a high-performance servo quartz accelerometer, and the dedicated interface electronics design providing small full-scale range and high sensitivity, up to 136.8 V/g0. The residual acceleration at the Beijing drop tower was measured using two different drop capsules. The experimental result shows that the microgravity level of the free-falling double capsule is better than 2 × 10‑4g0 (Earth’s gravity). The measured data in this report provides critical microgravity information for design of the following ground experiments.

  11. Microgravity Level Measurement of the Beijing Drop Tower Using a Sensitive Accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Liu, T Y; Wu, Q P; Sun, B Q; Han, F T

    2016-08-17

    Drop tower is the most common ground-based facility to provide microgravity environment and widely used in many science experiments. A differential space accelerometer has been proposed to test the spin-gravity interaction between rotating extended bodies onboard a drag-free satellite. In order to assist design and test of this inertial sensor in a series of ground- based pre-flight experiments, it is very important to know accurately the residual acceleration of drop towers. In this report, a sensitive instrument for this purpose was built with a high-performance servo quartz accelerometer, and the dedicated interface electronics design providing small full-scale range and high sensitivity, up to 136.8 V/g0. The residual acceleration at the Beijing drop tower was measured using two different drop capsules. The experimental result shows that the microgravity level of the free-falling double capsule is better than 2 × 10(-4)g0 (Earth's gravity). The measured data in this report provides critical microgravity information for design of the following ground experiments.

  12. Microgravity Level Measurement of the Beijing Drop Tower Using a Sensitive Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, T. Y.; Wu, Q. P.; Sun, B. Q.; Han, F. T.

    2016-01-01

    Drop tower is the most common ground-based facility to provide microgravity environment and widely used in many science experiments. A differential space accelerometer has been proposed to test the spin-gravity interaction between rotating extended bodies onboard a drag-free satellite. In order to assist design and test of this inertial sensor in a series of ground- based pre-flight experiments, it is very important to know accurately the residual acceleration of drop towers. In this report, a sensitive instrument for this purpose was built with a high-performance servo quartz accelerometer, and the dedicated interface electronics design providing small full-scale range and high sensitivity, up to 136.8 V/g0. The residual acceleration at the Beijing drop tower was measured using two different drop capsules. The experimental result shows that the microgravity level of the free-falling double capsule is better than 2 × 10−4g0 (Earth’s gravity). The measured data in this report provides critical microgravity information for design of the following ground experiments. PMID:27530726

  13. Microgravity Level Measurement of the Beijing Drop Tower Using a Sensitive Accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Liu, T Y; Wu, Q P; Sun, B Q; Han, F T

    2016-01-01

    Drop tower is the most common ground-based facility to provide microgravity environment and widely used in many science experiments. A differential space accelerometer has been proposed to test the spin-gravity interaction between rotating extended bodies onboard a drag-free satellite. In order to assist design and test of this inertial sensor in a series of ground- based pre-flight experiments, it is very important to know accurately the residual acceleration of drop towers. In this report, a sensitive instrument for this purpose was built with a high-performance servo quartz accelerometer, and the dedicated interface electronics design providing small full-scale range and high sensitivity, up to 136.8 V/g0. The residual acceleration at the Beijing drop tower was measured using two different drop capsules. The experimental result shows that the microgravity level of the free-falling double capsule is better than 2 × 10(-4)g0 (Earth's gravity). The measured data in this report provides critical microgravity information for design of the following ground experiments. PMID:27530726

  14. Microgravity science and applications program tasks, 1991 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Presented here is a compilation of the active research tasks for FY 1991 sponsored by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division of the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications. The purpose is to provide an overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university, and government communities. Included is an introductory description of the program, the strategy and overall goal, identification of the organizational structures and the people involved, and a description of each. The tasks are grouped into several categories: electronic materials; solidification of metals, alloys, and composites; fluids, interfaces, and transport; biotechnology; combustion science; glasses and ceramics; experimental technology, instrumentation, and facilities; and Physical and Chemistry Experiments (PACE). The tasks cover both the ground based and flight programs.

  15. Microgravity Science and Applications Program tasks, 1990 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The active research tasks as of the end of the fiscal year 1990 sponsored by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division of the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications are compiled. The purpose is to provide an overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university, and government communities. The report includes an introductory description of the program, the strategy and overall goal; an index of principle investigators; and a description of each task. A list of recent publications is also provided. The tasks are grouped into six major categories: electronic materials; solidification of metals, alloys, and composites; fluid dynamics and transport phenomena; biotechnology; glasses and ceramics; combustion; experimental technology; facilities; and Physics And Chemistry Experiments (PACE). The tasks are divided into ground-based and flight experiments.

  16. Microgravity Science and Applications Program tasks, 1988 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The active research tasks as of the end of the fiscal year 1988 of the Microgravity Science and Applications Program, NASA-Office of Space Science and Applications, involving several NASA centers and other organizations are compiled. The purpose is to provide an overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university, and government communities. Also included are an introductory description of the program, the strategy and overall goal, identification of the organizational structures and people involved, and a description of each task. A list of recent publications is provided. The tasks are grouped into six major categories: electronic materials; solidification of metals, alloys, and composites; fluid dynamics and transport phenomena; biotechnology; glasses and ceramics; and combustion. Other categories include experimental technology, general studies and surveys; foreign government affiliations; industrial affiliations; and Physics And Chemistry Experiments (PACE). The tasks are divided into ground-based and flight experiments.

  17. Microgravity Science and Applications Program tasks, 1987 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A compilation is presented of the active research tasks as of the end of the FY87 of the Microgravity Science and Applications Program, NASA-Office of Space Science and Applications, involving several NASA centers and other organizations. An overview is provided of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university, and government communities. An introductory description is provided of the program along with the strategy and overall goal, identification of the organizational structures and people involved, and a description of each task. A list of recent publications is also provided. The tasks are grouped into six major categories: Electronic Materials; Solidification of Metals, Alloys, and Composites; Fluid Dynamics and Transport Phenomena; Biotechnology; Glasses and Ceramics; and Combustion. Other categories include Experimental Technology, General Studies and Surveys; Foreign Government Affiliations; Industrial Affiliations; and Physics and Chemistry Experiments (PACE). The tasks are divided into ground based and flight experiments.

  18. Smoldering Combustion Experiments in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walther, David C.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Urban, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment is part of a study of the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a non-flaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of porous materials and takes place in a number of processes ranging from smoldering of porous insulation materials to high temperature synthesis of metals. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smolder, both in microgravity and normal-gravity. As with many forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of oxidizer and transport of heat, and therefore the rate of combustion. Microgravity smolder experiments, in both a quiescent oxidizing environment, and in a forced oxidizing flow have been conducted aboard the NASA Space Shuttle (STS-69 and STS-77 missions) to determine the effect of the ambient oxygen concentration and oxidizer forced flow velocity on smolder combustion in microgravity. The experimental apparatus is contained within the NASA Get Away Special Canister (GAS-CAN) Payload. These two sets of experiments investigate the propagation of smolder along the polyurethane foam sample under both diffusion driven and forced flow driven smoldering. The results of the microgravity experiments are compared with identical ones carried out in normal gravity, and are used to verify present theories of smolder combustion. The results of this study will provide new insights into the smoldering combustion process. Thermocouple histories show that the microgravity smolder reaction temperatures (Ts) and propagation velocities (Us) lie between those of identical normal-gravity upward and downward tests. These observations indicate the effect of buoyancy on the transport of oxidizer to the reaction front.

  19. Bubble formation in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.

    1996-01-01

    An extensive experimental program was initiated for the purpose of understanding the mechanisms leading to bubble generation during fluid handling procedures in a microgravity environment. Several key fluid handling procedures typical for PCG experiments were identified for analysis in that program. Experiments were designed to specifically understand how such procedures can lead to bubble formation. The experiments were then conducted aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft which is capable of simulating a low gravity environment by executing a parabolic flight attitude. However, such a flight attitude can only provide a low gravity environment of approximately 10-2go for a maximum period of 30 seconds. Thus all of the tests conducted for these experiments were designed to last no longer than 20 seconds. Several experiments were designed to simulate some of the more relevant fluid handling procedures during protein crystal growth experiments. These include submerged liquid jet cavitation, filling of a cubical vessel, submerged surface scratch, attached drop growth, liquid jet impingement, and geysering experiments. To date, four separate KC-135 flight campaigns were undertaken specifically for performing these experiments. However, different experiments were performed on different flights.

  20. Bubble formation in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.

    1994-01-01

    Two KC-135 flight campaigns have been conducted to date which are specifically dedicated to study bubble formation in microgravity. The first flight was conducted during March 14-18, 1994, and the other during June 20-24, 1994. The results from the June 1994 flight have not been analyzed yet, while the results from the March flight have been partially analyzed. In the first flight three different experiments were performed, one with the specific aim at determining whether or not cavitation can take place during any of the fluid handling procedures adopted in the shuttle bioprocessing experiments. The other experiments were concerned with duplicating some of the procedures that resulted in bubble formation, namely the NCS filling procedure and the needle scratch of a solid surface. The results from this set of experiments suggest that cavitation did not take place during any of the fluid handling procedures. The results clearly indicate that almost all were generated as a result of the breakup of the gas/liquid interface. This was convincingly demonstrated in the scratch tests as well as in the liquid fill tests.

  1. Tagging insulin in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobeck, Michael; Nelson, Ronald S.

    1992-01-01

    Knowing the exact subcellular sites of action of insulin in the body has the potential to give basic science investigators a basis from which a cause and cure for this disease can be approached. The goal of this project is to create a test reagent that can be used to visualize these subcellular sites. The unique microgravity environment of the Shuttle will allow the creation of a reagent that has the possibility of elucidating the subcellular sites of action of insulin. Several techniques have been used in an attempt to isolate the sites of action of items such as insulin. One of these is autoradiography in which the test item is obtained from animals fed radioactive materials. What is clearly needed is to visualize individual insulin molecules at their sites of action. The insulin tagging process to be used on G-399 involves the conjugation of insulin molecules with ferritin molecules to create a reagent that will be used back on Earth in an attempt to elucidate the sites of action of insulin.

  2. The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chui, T.; Holmes, W.; Lai, A.; Croonquist, A.; Eraker, J.; Abbott, R.; Mills, G.; Mohl, J.; Craig, J.; Balachandra, B.; Gannon, J.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the design and development of the Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility, which is intended to provide a unique environment of low temperature and microgravity for the scientists to perform breakthrough investigations on board the International Space Station.

  3. Probing Pluto's Atmosphere Using Ground-Based Stellar Occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicardy, Bruno; Rio de Janeiro Occultation Team, Granada Team, International Occultation and Timing Association, Royal Astronomical Society New Zealand Occultation Section, Lucky Star associated teams

    2016-10-01

    Over the last three decades, some twenty stellar occultations by Pluto have been monitored from Earth. They occur when the dwarf planet blocks the light from a star for a few minutes as it moves on the sky. Such events led to the hint of a Pluto's atmosphere in 1985, that was fully confirmed during another occultation in 1988, but it was only in 2002 that a new occultation could be recorded. From then on, the dwarf planet started to move in front of the galactic center, which amplified by a large factor the number of events observable per year.Pluto occultations are essentially refractive events during which the stellar rays are bent by the tenuous atmosphere, causing a gradual dimming of the star. This provides the density, pressure and temperature profiles of the atmosphere from a few kilometers above the surface up to about 250 km altitude, corresponding respectively to pressure levels of about 10 and 0.1 μbar. Moreover, the extremely fine spatial resolution (a few km) obtained through this technique allows the detection of atmospheric gravity waves, and permits in principle the detection of hazes, if present.Several aspects make Pluto stellar occultations quite special: first, they are the only way to probe Pluto's atmosphere in detail, as the dwarf planet is far too small on the sky and the atmosphere is far too tenuous to be directly imaged from Earth. Second, they are an excellent example of participative science, as many amateurs have been able to record those events worldwide with valuable scientific returns, in collaboration with professional astronomers. Third, they reveal Pluto's climatic changes on decade-scales and constrain the various seasonal models currently explored.Finally, those observations are fully complementary to space exploration, in particular with the New Horizons (NH) mission. I will show how ground-based occultations helped to better calibrate some NH profiles, and conversely, how NH results provide some key boundary conditions

  4. Independet Component Analyses of Ground-based Exoplanetary Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva Martins-Filho, Walter; Griffith, Caitlin Ann; Pearson, Kyle; Waldmann, Ingo; Biddle, Lauren; Zellem, Robert Thomas; Alvarez-Candal, Alvaro

    2016-10-01

    Most observations of exoplanetary atmospheres are conducted when a "Hot Jupiter" exoplanet transits in front of its host star. These Jovian-sized planets have small orbital periods, on the order of days, and therefore a short transit time, making them more ameanable to observations. Measurements of Hot Jupiter transits must achieve a 10-4 level of accuracy in the flux to determine the spectral modulations of the exoplanetary atmosphere. In order to accomplish this level of precision, we need to extract systematic errors, and, for ground-based measurements, the effects of Earth's atmosphere, from the signal due to the exoplanet, which is several orders of magnitudes smaller. Currently, the effects of the terrestrial atmosphere and the some of the time-dependent systematic errors are treated by dividing the host star by a reference star at each wavelength and time step of the transit. More recently, Independent Component Analyses (ICA) have been used to remove systematic effects from the raw data of space-based observations (Waldmann 2014,2012; Morello et al.,2015,2016). ICA is a statistical method born from the ideas of the blind-source separation studies, which can be used to de-trend several independent source signals of a data set (Hyvarinen and Oja, 2000). One strength of this method is that it requires no additional prior knowledge of the system. Here, we present a study of the application of ICA to ground-based transit observations of extrasolar planets, which are affected by Earth's atmosphere. We analyze photometric data of two extrasolar planets, WASP-1b and GJ3470b, recorded by the 61" Kuiper Telescope at Stewart Observatory using the Harris B and U filters. The presentation will compare the light curve depths and their dispersions as derived from the ICA analysis to those derived by analyses that ratio of the host star to nearby reference stars.References: Waldmann, I.P. 2012 ApJ, 747, 12, Waldamann, I. P. 2014 ApJ, 780, 23; Morello G. 2015 ApJ, 806

  5. Sleep and respiration in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Prisk, G K

    1998-01-01

    Sleep studies conducted during the STS-90 Neurolab mission are explored. The relationship between sleep, melatonin, and circadian phase is reviewed. The study contained both sleep and awake components. The objectives of the sleep component were to test five hypotheses: that circadian rhythms of core body temperature and urinary melatonin are synchronized to required sleep-wake schedules, that spaceflight results in substantial disruption of sleep, that the pattern of chest and abdominal wall motion alters during the different sleep stages in microgravity, that arterial oxygen saturation is reduced during some stages of sleep in microgravity, and that pre-sleep administration of melatonin during microgravity results in improved sleep quality. The awake component tested three hypotheses: that ventilatory response to carbon dioxide is increased during exposure to microgravity and that this exacerbates sleep disruption, that ventilatory response to hypoxia is increased by exposure to microgravity, and that the improved sleep resulting from the pre-sleep administration of melatonin enhances next day cognition when compared to placebo.

  6. Sleep and respiration in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    Sleep studies conducted during the STS-90 Neurolab mission are explored. The relationship between sleep, melatonin, and circadian phase is reviewed. The study contained both sleep and awake components. The objectives of the sleep component were to test five hypotheses: that circadian rhythms of core body temperature and urinary melatonin are synchronized to required sleep-wake schedules, that spaceflight results in substantial disruption of sleep, that the pattern of chest and abdominal wall motion alters during the different sleep stages in microgravity, that arterial oxygen saturation is reduced during some stages of sleep in microgravity, and that pre-sleep administration of melatonin during microgravity results in improved sleep quality. The awake component tested three hypotheses: that ventilatory response to carbon dioxide is increased during exposure to microgravity and that this exacerbates sleep disruption, that ventilatory response to hypoxia is increased by exposure to microgravity, and that the improved sleep resulting from the pre-sleep administration of melatonin enhances next day cognition when compared to placebo.

  7. Decreased succinate dehydrogenase activity of gamma and alpha motoneurons in mouse spinal cords following 13 weeks of exposure to microgravity.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Akihiko; Nagatomo, Fumiko; Fujino, Hidemi; Kondo, Hiroyo; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2013-10-01

    Cell body size and succinate dehydrogenase activity of motoneurons in the dorsolateral region of the ventral horn in the lumbar and cervical segments of the mouse spinal cord were assessed after long-term exposure to microgravity and compared with those of ground-based controls. Mice were housed in a mouse drawer system on the International Space Station for 13 weeks. The mice were transported to the International Space Station by the Space Shuttle Discovery and returned to Earth by the Space Shuttle Atlantis. No changes in the cell body size of motoneurons were observed in either segment after exposure to microgravity, but succinate dehydrogenase activity of small-sized (<300 μm(2)) gamma and medium-sized (300-700 μm(2)) alpha motoneurons, which have higher succinate dehydrogenase activity than large-sized (>700 μm(2)) alpha motoneurons, in both segments was lower than that of ground-based controls. We concluded that exposure to microgravity for longer than 3 months induced decreased succinate dehydrogenase activity of both gamma and slow-type alpha motoneurons. In particular, the decreased succinate dehydrogenase activity of gamma motoneurons was observed only after long-term exposure to microgravity. PMID:23943522

  8. Decreased succinate dehydrogenase activity of gamma and alpha motoneurons in mouse spinal cords following 13 weeks of exposure to microgravity.

    PubMed

    Ishihara, Akihiko; Nagatomo, Fumiko; Fujino, Hidemi; Kondo, Hiroyo; Ohira, Yoshinobu

    2013-10-01

    Cell body size and succinate dehydrogenase activity of motoneurons in the dorsolateral region of the ventral horn in the lumbar and cervical segments of the mouse spinal cord were assessed after long-term exposure to microgravity and compared with those of ground-based controls. Mice were housed in a mouse drawer system on the International Space Station for 13 weeks. The mice were transported to the International Space Station by the Space Shuttle Discovery and returned to Earth by the Space Shuttle Atlantis. No changes in the cell body size of motoneurons were observed in either segment after exposure to microgravity, but succinate dehydrogenase activity of small-sized (<300 μm(2)) gamma and medium-sized (300-700 μm(2)) alpha motoneurons, which have higher succinate dehydrogenase activity than large-sized (>700 μm(2)) alpha motoneurons, in both segments was lower than that of ground-based controls. We concluded that exposure to microgravity for longer than 3 months induced decreased succinate dehydrogenase activity of both gamma and slow-type alpha motoneurons. In particular, the decreased succinate dehydrogenase activity of gamma motoneurons was observed only after long-term exposure to microgravity.

  9. Microgravity-Enhanced Stem Cell Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claudio, Pier Paolo; Valluri, Jagan

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells, both embryonic and adult, promise to revolutionize the practice of medicine in the future. In order to realize this potential, a number of hurdles must be overcome. Most importantly, the signaling mechanisms necessary to control the differentiation of stem cells into tissues of interest remain to be elucidated, and much of the present research on stem cells is focused on this goal. Nevertheless, it will also be essential to achieve large-scale expansion and, in many cases, assemble cells in 3D as transplantable tissues. To this end, microgravity analog bioreactors can play a significant role. Microgravity bioreactors were originally conceived as a tool to study the cellular responses to microgravity. However, the technology can address some of the shortcomings of conventional cell culture systems; namely, the deficiency of mass transport in static culture and high mechanical shear forces in stirred systems. Unexpectedly, the conditions created in the vessel were ideal for 3D cell culture. Recently, investigators have demonstrated the capability of the microgravity bioreactors to expand hematopoietic stem cells compared to static culture, and facilitate the differentiation of umbilical cord stem cells into 3D liver aggregates. Stem cells are capable of differentiating into functional cells. However, there are no reliable methods to induce the stem cells to form specific cells or to gain enough cells for transplantation, which limits their application in clinical therapy. The aim of this study is to select the best experimental setup to reach high proliferation levels by culturing these cells in a microgravity-based bioreactor. In typical cell culture, the cells sediment to the bottom surface of their container and propagate as a one-cell-layer sheet. Prevention of such sedimentation affords the freedom for self-assembly and the propagation of 3D tissue arrays. Suspension of cells is easily achievable using stirred technologies. Unfortunately, in

  10. Microgravity Effects on Combustion of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hirsch, David; Williams, Jim; Beeson, Harold

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation describing various microgravity effects on the combustion of polymers is shown. The topics include: 1) Major combustion processes and controlling mechanisms in normal and microgravity environments; 2) Review of some buoyancy effects on combustion: melting of thermoplastics; flame strength, geometry and temperature; smoldering combustion; 3) Video comparing polymeric rods burning in normal and microgravity environments; and 4) Relation to spacecraft fire safety of current knowledge of polymers microgravity combustion.

  11. Development of Optical Diagnostic Techniques for Microgravity Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cha, Soyoung Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Materials processing including crystal growth, either under a gravity environment on ground or a microgravity environment in space, involves complicated phenomena of fluid motions in gas or liquid phases as well as interaction of various species. To obtain important physical insight, it is very necessary to provide gross-field optical diagnostics for monitoring various physical properties. Materials processing inhibits easy access by ordinary instruments and thus characterizing gross-field physical properties is very challenging. Typical properties of importance can be fluid velocity, temperature, and species concentration for fluids, and surface topology and defects for solids. Observing surface grow rate during crystal growth is also important. Material microstructures, i.e., integrity of crystal structures, is strongly influenced by the existence of thermally-induced flow as well as local nucleation of particles during solidification, which may act in many detrimental ways. In both ground-based and microgravity experiments, the nature of product property changes resulting from three-dimensional fluid or particle motions need be characterized. Gross-field diagnostics is thus required to identify their effects on product defects and process deficiencies. The quantitative visualization techniques can also be used for validation of numerical modeling. For optical nonintrusive gross-field diagnostic techniques, two approaches were developed as summer projects. One optical approach allows us to provide information of species concentration and temperature for monitoring in real time. The other approach, that is, the concept which is formulated for detection of surface topography measurement can provide unprecedented spatial resolution during crystal growth.

  12. Predicting thunderstorm evolution using ground-based lightning detection networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.

    1990-01-01

    Lightning measurements acquired principally by a ground-based network of magnetic direction finders are used to diagnose and predict the existence, temporal evolution, and decay of thunderstorms over a wide range of space and time scales extending over four orders of magnitude. The non-linear growth and decay of thunderstorms and their accompanying cloud-to-ground lightning activity is described by the three parameter logistic growth model. The growth rate is shown to be a function of the storm size and duration, and the limiting value of the total lightning activity is related to the available energy in the environment. A new technique is described for removing systematic bearing errors from direction finder data where radar echoes are used to constrain site error correction and optimization (best point estimate) algorithms. A nearest neighbor pattern recognition algorithm is employed to cluster the discrete lightning discharges into storm cells and the advantages and limitations of different clustering strategies for storm identification and tracking are examined.

  13. Future enhancements to ground-based microburst detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Steven D.; Matthews, Michael P.; Dasey, Timothy J.

    1994-01-01

    This set of viewgraphs presents the results of the Cockpit Weather Information (CWI) program at M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory. The CWI program has been funded through NaSA Langley Research Center by the joint NASA/FAA Integrated Airborne Wind Shear Program for the past four years. During this time, over 120 microburst penetrations by research aircraft have been conducted under Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) testbed radar surveillance at Orlando, FL. The results of these in-situ measurements have been compared with ground-based detection methods. Several valuable insights were gained from this research activity. First, it was found that the current TDWR microburst shapes do not permit accurate characterization of microburst hazard in terms of the F factor hazard index, because they are based on loss value rather than shear. Second, it was found that the horizontal component of the F factor can be accurately estimated from shear, provided compensation is made for the dependence of outflow strength on altitude. Third, it was found that a simple continuity assumption for estimating the vertical component of the F factor yielded poor results. However, further research has shown that downdraft strength is correlated with features aloft detected by the TDWR radar scan strategy. The outcome of the CWI program is to move from the loss-based wind shear detection algorithm used in the TDWR to a shear-based detection scheme as proposed in the Integrated Terminal Weather System (ITWS).

  14. Phobos and Deimos. [ground based and spacecraft observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.

    1977-01-01

    Ground-based and spacecraft observations of Phobos and Deimos are reviewed and the satellites' origin is discussed. The crater densities of both bodies are close to the saturation level. The largest impact events may have caused extensive fracturing of their surfaces. The surfaces are at least 1.5 billion years old and may date back to the early history of the solar system. The Martian satellites display large deviations from sphericity. As a result of tidal processes, they are in synchronous rotation. Several independent lines of evidence show that they have regoliths. Despite some provocative arguments, their internal strengths and the nature of their interior are poorly known at present. Photometric measurements suggest that they are made of either carbonaceous chondritic material or a basalt. Sinclair (1972), Born and Duxbury (1975) and Shor (1975) apparently have successfully determined Phobos' secular acceleration. Their value of approximately .001 deg/year/year implies that the interior of Mars has a low specific dissipation factor (about 100), may indicate that a portion of the Martian interior is experiencing partial melting. The low inclination of the satellites' orbits indicates that they were formed as part of the same process that resulted in Mars.

  15. A comparative study of satellite and ground-based phenology.

    PubMed

    Studer, S; Stöckli, R; Appenzeller, C; Vidale, P L

    2007-05-01

    Long time series of ground-based plant phenology, as well as more than two decades of satellite-derived phenological metrics, are currently available to assess the impacts of climate variability and trends on terrestrial vegetation. Traditional plant phenology provides very accurate information on individual plant species, but with limited spatial coverage. Satellite phenology allows monitoring of terrestrial vegetation on a global scale and provides an integrative view at the landscape level. Linking the strengths of both methodologies has high potential value for climate impact studies. We compared a multispecies index from ground-observed spring phases with two types (maximum slope and threshold approach) of satellite-derived start-of-season (SOS) metrics. We focus on Switzerland from 1982 to 2001 and show that temporal and spatial variability of the multispecies index correspond well with the satellite-derived metrics. All phenological metrics correlate with temperature anomalies as expected. The slope approach proved to deviate strongly from the temporal development of the ground observations as well as from the threshold-defined SOS satellite measure. The slope spring indicator is considered to indicate a different stage in vegetation development and is therefore less suited as a SOS parameter for comparative studies in relation to ground-observed phenology. Satellite-derived metrics are, however, very susceptible to snow cover, and it is suggested that this snow cover should be better accounted for by the use of newer satellite sensors.

  16. Characterizing GEO Titan Transtage Fragmentations using Ground-based Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowardin, H.; Anz-Meador, P.

    2016-01-01

    In a continued effort to better characterize the Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) environment, NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) utilizes various ground-based optical assets to acquire photometric and spectral data of known debris associated with fragmentations in or near GEO. The Titan IIIC Transtage upper stage is known to have fragmented four times. Two of the four fragmentations were in GEO while a third Transtage fragmented in GEO transfer orbit. The forth fragmentation occurred in Low Earth Orbit. In order to better assess what may be causing these fragmentations, the NASA ODPO recently acquired a Titan Transtage test and display article that was previously in the custody of the 309th Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Group (AMARG) in Tucson, Arizona. After initial inspections at AMARG demonstrated that the test article was of sufficient fidelity to be of interest, the test article was brought to JSC to continue material analysis and historical documentation of the Titan Transtage. The Transtage will be a subject of forensic analysis using spectral measurements to compare with telescopic data; as well, a scale model will be created to use in the Optical Measurement Center for photometric analysis of an intact Transtage, including a BRDF. The following presentation will provide a review of the Titan Transtage, the current analysis that has been done to date, and the future work to be completed in support of characterizing the GEO and near GEO orbital debris environment.

  17. Nonlinear analysis of the ground-based magnetometer network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiTommaso, Joseph Henry

    When the first magnetometer was created by Frederick Gauss in 1833, scientists gained a powerful tool for studying the structure, dynamics, and strength of the Earth's magnetic field: the magnetosphere. Since Gauss' time, the world's scientific community has established ground-based magnetometer stations around the globe in an effort to study local and global perturbations and patterns of the Earth's magnetic field. The main focus of this network has been monitoring the magnetic flux and impact from the Sun's constant outflow of radiation and particles known as the solar wind, as well as its more violent eruptive events. There has been little work, by comparison, into the signals and correlations within the network itself. Since the Earth's field can roughly be mapped to a dipole and disturbances often have a large scale structure, one can surmise there should be some correlation between stations based on their relative positions to one another. What that correlation is or represents is not clear. To investigate this possible correlation and its nature, a set of nonlinear analytic methods were conducted on magnetic data collected from stations scattered across North America over an 18 year period. The analysis was focused on searching for spatial and temporal correlations of nonperiodic signals in the magnetometer network. The findings from that analysis suggest there exist nonlocal correlations between stations that are dependent on position, which could be useful in the development of a space weather risk assessment.

  18. Time series inversion of spectra from ground-based radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, O. M.; Eriksson, P.

    2013-07-01

    Retrieving time series of atmospheric constituents from ground-based spectrometers often requires different temporal averaging depending on the altitude region in focus. This can lead to several datasets existing for one instrument, which complicates validation and comparisons between instruments. This paper puts forth a possible solution by incorporating the temporal domain into the maximum a posteriori (MAP) retrieval algorithm. The state vector is increased to include measurements spanning a time period, and the temporal correlations between the true atmospheric states are explicitly specified in the a priori uncertainty matrix. This allows the MAP method to effectively select the best temporal smoothing for each altitude, removing the need for several datasets to cover different altitudes. The method is compared to traditional averaging of spectra using a simulated retrieval of water vapour in the mesosphere. The simulations show that the method offers a significant advantage compared to the traditional method, extending the sensitivity an additional 10 km upwards without reducing the temporal resolution at lower altitudes. The method is also tested on the Onsala Space Observatory (OSO) water vapour microwave radiometer confirming the advantages found in the simulation. Additionally, it is shown how the method can interpolate data in time and provide diagnostic values to evaluate the interpolated data.

  19. Time series inversion of spectra from ground-based radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, O. M.; Eriksson, P.

    2013-02-01

    Retrieving time series of atmospheric constituents from ground-based spectrometers often requires different temporal averaging depending on the altitude region in focus. This can lead to several datasets existing for one instrument which complicates validation and comparisons between instruments. This paper puts forth a possible solution by incorporating the temporal domain into the maximum a posteriori (MAP) retrieval algorithm. The state vector is increased to include measurements spanning a time period, and the temporal correlations between the true atmospheric states are explicitly specified in the a priori uncertainty matrix. This allows the MAP method to effectively select the best temporal smoothing for each altitude, removing the need for several datasets to cover different altitudes. The method is compared to traditional averaging of spectra using a simulated retrieval of water vapour in the mesosphere. The simulations show that the method offers a significant advantage compared to the traditional method, extending the sensitivity an additional 10 km upwards without reducing the temporal resolution at lower altitudes. The method is also tested on the OSO water vapour microwave radiometer confirming the advantages found in the simulation. Additionally, it is shown how the method can interpolate data in time and provide diagnostic values to evaluate the interpolated data.

  20. Ground-based testing and demonstrations of starshades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harness, Anthony; Warwick, Steve; Shipley, Ann; Cash, Webster

    2016-07-01

    The direct detection and characterization of an Earth-like exoplanet is of the highest scientific priority and a leading technology that will enable such discovery is the starshade external occulter. We report on the latest results in ground-based efforts for demonstrating and advancing the technology of starshades. Using the McMath- Pierce Solar Telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, we are able to track stars as they move across the night sky and stabilize a beam of starlight behind a starshade. This has allowed us to conduct the first astronomical observations achieving high-contrast with starshades. In our latest efforts, we have extended the separation between the starshade and telescope to reach an inner working angle of 10 arcseconds at a flight-like Fresnel number and resolution. In this report, we detail the development of a closed-loop feedback system to further stabilize the beam at the extended baseline and provide results on the contrast achieved. We conclude by laying out future work to design a dedicated siderostat-starshade facility for future testing of and observations with starshades. Our main result: we achieved a broadband contrast ratio of 3:2 x 10-5 at 15 arcseconds IWA, while at a flight-like Fresnel number and resolution.

  1. Observing Tsunamis in the Ionosphere Using Ground Based GPS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galvan, D. A.; Komjathy, A.; Song, Y. Tony; Stephens, P.; Hickey, M. P.; Foster, J.

    2011-01-01

    Ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) show variations consistent with atmospheric internal gravity waves caused by ocean tsunamis following recent seismic events, including the Tohoku tsunami of March 11, 2011. We observe fluctuations correlated in time, space, and wave properties with this tsunami in TEC estimates processed using JPL's Global Ionospheric Mapping Software. These TEC estimates were band-pass filtered to remove ionospheric TEC variations with periods outside the typical range of internal gravity waves caused by tsunamis. Observable variations in TEC appear correlated with the Tohoku tsunami near the epicenter, at Hawaii, and near the west coast of North America. Disturbance magnitudes are 1-10% of the background TEC value. Observations near the epicenter are compared to estimates of expected tsunami-driven TEC variations produced by Embry Riddle Aeronautical University's Spectral Full Wave Model, an atmosphere-ionosphere coupling model, and found to be in good agreement. The potential exists to apply these detection techniques to real-time GPS TEC data, providing estimates of tsunami speed and amplitude that may be useful for future early warning systems.

  2. Bridge Testing With Ground-Based Interferometric Radar: Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chiara, P.; Morelli, A.

    2010-05-28

    The research of innovative non-contact techniques aimed at the vibration measurement of civil engineering structures (also for damage detection and structural health monitoring) is continuously directed to the optimization of measures and methods. Ground-Based Radar Interferometry (GBRI) represents the more recent technique available for static and dynamic control of structures and ground movements.Dynamic testing of bridges and buildings in operational conditions are currently performed: (a) to assess the conformity of the structure to the project design at the end of construction; (b) to identify the modal parameters (i.e. natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios) and to check the variation of any modal parameters over the years; (c) to evaluate the amplitude of the structural response to special load conditions (i.e. strong winds, earthquakes, heavy railway or roadway loads). If such tests are carried out by using a non-contact technique (like GBRI), the classical issues of contact sensors (like accelerometers) are easily overtaken.This paper presents and discusses the results of various tests carried out on full-scale bridges by using a Stepped Frequency-Continuous Wave radar system.

  3. Ground Based Studies of Thermocapillary Flows in Levitated Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadhal, Satwindar Singh; Trinh, Eugene H.

    1996-01-01

    Ground-based experiments together with analytical studies are presently being conducted for levitated drops. Both acoustic and electrostatic techniques are being employed to achieve levitation of drops in a gaseous environment. The scientific effort is principally on the thermal and the fluid phenomena associated with the local heating of levitated drops, both at 1-g and at low-g. In particular, the thermocapillary flow associated with local spot heating is being studied. Fairly stable acoustic levitation of drops has been achieved with some exceptions when random rotational motion of the drop persists. The flow visualization has been carried out by light scattering from smoke particles for the exterior flow and fluorescent tracer particles in the drop. The results indicate a lack of axial symmetry in the internal flow even though the apparatus and the heating are symmetric. The theoretical studies for the past year have included fundamental analyses of acoustically levitated spherical drops. The flow associated with a particle near the velocity antinode is being investigated by the singular perturbation technique. As a first step towards understanding the effect of the particle displacement from the antinode, the flow field about the node has been calculated for the first time. The effect of the acoustic field on the interior of a liquid drop has also been investigated. The results predict that the internal flow field is very weak.

  4. Assuring Ground-Based Detect and Avoid for UAS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen W.; Pai, Ganeshmadhav Jagadeesh; Berthold, Randall; Fladeland, Matthew; Storms, Bruce; Sumich, Mark

    2014-01-01

    One of the goals of the Marginal Ice Zones Observations and Processes Experiment (MIZOPEX) NASA Earth science mission was to show the operational capabilities of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) when deployed on challenging missions, in difficult environments. Given the extreme conditions of the Arctic environment where MIZOPEX measurements were required, the mission opted to use a radar to provide a ground-based detect-and-avoid (GBDAA) capability as an alternate means of compliance (AMOC) with the see-and-avoid federal aviation regulation. This paper describes how GBDAA safety assurance was provided by interpreting and applying the guidelines in the national policy for UAS operational approval. In particular, we describe how we formulated the appropriate safety goals, defined the processes and procedures for system safety, identified and assembled the relevant safety verification evidence, and created an operational safety case in compliance with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requirements. To the best of our knowledge, the safety case, which was ultimately approved by the FAA, is the first successful example of non-military UAS operations using GBDAA in the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS), and, therefore, the first nonmilitary application of the safety case concept in this context.

  5. Detecting Exoplanet Atmospheres from 2-m Ground-Based Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Shannon; Jang-Condell, H.; Lopez-Morales, M.; Kobulnicky, H. A.; Runnoe, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    The field of exoplanet atmospheric research is quickly expanding. Exoplanet atmospheres are difficult to detect in transmission because their signatures are so small compared to the light coming from the star during transit. However, by comparing observations of the superimposed exoplanet during transit to observations of the star alone, the planet's transmission spectrum may be obtained. We selected the hot Jupiter Kepler-4b and made observations of its host star during primary transits using the long-slit spectrograph at the 2.3m Wyoming Infrared Observatory (WIRO). We used an 1800 l/mm grating which covered a wavelength range from approximately 5400 to 6800 angstroms. The slit was oriented to include a well-known comparison star of similar brightness, located 60 arcseconds away. The spectrum of this comparison star may be used to perform differential spectroscopy with the target spectrum. This minimizes atmospheric variations and helps to normalize the spectrum, reducing it to Poisson noise only. Absorption features seen only during transit can be attributed to the atmosphere of the planet. We will present preliminary data demonstrating the feasibility of detecting exoplanet atmospheres from medium-sized ground-based telescopes.

  6. Cardiovascular effects of weightlessness and ground-based simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, Harold

    1988-01-01

    A large number of animal and human flight and ground-based studies were conducted to uncover the cardiovascular effects of weightlessness. Findings indicate changes in cardiovascular function during simulations and with spaceflight that lead to compromised function on reambulation and/or return to earth. This altered state termed cardiovascular deconditioning is most clearly manifest when in an erect body state. Hemodynamic parameters inidicate the presence of excessive tachnycardia, hypotension (leading to presyncope in one-third of the subjects), decreased heart volume, decreased plasma and circulating blood volumes and loss of skeletal muscle mass, particularly in the lower limbs. No clinically harmful effects were observed to date, but in-depth follow-ups were limited, as was available physiologic information. Available data concerning the causes for the observed changes indicate significant roles for mechanisms involved with body fluid-volume regulation, altered cardiac function, and the neurohumoral control of the control of the peripheral circulation. Satisfactory measures are not found. Return to preflight state was variable and only slightly dependent on flight duration. Future progress awaits availability of flight durations longer than several weeks.

  7. Ground deformation from ground-based SAR interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarchi, Dario; Casagli, Nicola; Fortuny-Guasch, Joaquim; Guerri, Letizia; Antonello, Giuseppe; Leva, Davide

    An in-depth analysis of the last two images acquired by the ground-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar system installed on Stromboli before the 5 April 2003 explosion allowed us to detect the precursory signals of the explosion related to ground deformation. In particular, it was possible to estimate the exact time of the explosion through the time domain analysis of raw data from the radar acquisition. This was interrupted by a blackout that occurred a few seconds after the event. The explosion onset time corresponds to a clear change in the intensity of the backscattered energy, related to the dense volcanic plume emission from the Crater. In addiction, the use of a particular interferometric processing technique for the last two acquisitions, consisting of the selection of synthetic sub-apertures from the main ones and creating with these a sequence of interferograms with a higher temporal resolution, detected precursory deformations starting 2 min before the explosion. These observations indicate the occurrence of an elastic deformation of a centimeter amplitude that affected the volcanic edifice progressively from the Crater down to the Sciara del Fuoco depression.

  8. Better flat-fielding for ground-based UV spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerber, Florian; Hanuschik, Reinhard; Moehler, Sabine; Smette, Alain; Smoker, Jonathan; Bourget, Pierre; Dwyer, Peter J.; Rotschädl, Michael

    2014-07-01

    A new technological development, the laser driven light source (LDLS), in which a laser excited plasma emits intense continuum radiation over a wide wavelength range from well below the atmospheric cut-off up to 800 nm, promises to greatly improve our ability to provide high quality flat-fields for astronomical spectrographs. Its particular strength lies in the ground-based ultraviolet (UV). We report on tests conducted with a LDLS using FORS2, UVES, X-Shooter and CRIRES at ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in August 2013. Comparison with standard calibration sources such as halogen and deuterium lamps shows that with the LDLS flat-fields with a better balanced dynamic range and excellent signal to noise ratio can be achieved within short exposure times. This will enable higher quality science at the short wavelength end of existing spectrographs at the VLT. Furthermore the LDLS provides exceptional stability and long lifetime as important operational aspects. Optimised UV spectrographs such as the proposed CUBES (wavelength range 300-400 nm) project will be able to take full advantage of this development removing the long-standing limitation of signal to noise ratios of UV flat-fields.

  9. Microgravity combustion of dust clouds: Quenching distance measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goroshin, S.; Kleine, H.; Lee, J. H. S.; Frost, D.

    1995-01-01

    parameters is in a gravity-free environment. Access to the microgravity environment provided by the use of large-scale drop towers, parabolic flights of aircraft and rockets, and shuttle and space station orbits has permitted now to proceed with a systematic program of dust combustion microgravity research. For example, the NASA-Lewis drop tower and a Lear jet parabolic flight aircraft were used by Ross et al. and by Berlad and Tangirala for experiments with Iycopodium/air mixtures. The Japan Microgravity Center drop shaft (JAMIC) where a microgravity condition of 10(exp -4) g for 10 s is available, was recently used by Kobayashi, Niioka et al. for measuring flame propagation velocities in polymethyl methacrylate dust/air suspensions. Microgravity dust combustion experiments were started at McGill University in the early 90's under the sponsorship of the Canadian Space Agency. Several generations of dust combustion platforms permitting dust combustion microgravity experiments to be carried out on board a parabolic flight aircraft (KC-135, NASA) have been designed and tested. The experimental data and experience gained from this research allowed us to design and build in a current phase of this program the microgravity apparatus for the visual observation of freely propagating constant pressure laminar dust flames. Quenching distances in aluminum dust suspensions have been measured in a wide range of dust cloud parameters in ground-based experiments and in recent microgravity experiments (KC-135 parabolic flights, Houston, February 1995).

  10. Macromolecular crystal growth in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherson, Alexander

    1996-03-01

    Two T=1 and one T=3 plant viruses, along with a protein were crystallized in microgravity during the International Microgravity Laboratory-2 (IML-2) mission in July of 1994 (Koszelak, et al. 1995). The method employed was liquid-liquid diffusion in the European Space Agency's Advanced Protein Crystallization Facility (APCF). Distinctive alterations in the habits of Turnip Yellow Mosaic Virus (TYMV) crystals and hexagonal canavalin crystals were observed. Crystals of cubic Satellite Tobacco Mosaic Virus (STMV) more than thirty times the volume of crystals grown in the laboratory were produced in microgravity. X-ray diffraction analysis demonstrated that both crystal forms of canavalin and the cubic STMV crystals diffracted to significantly higher resolution and had superior diffraction properties as judged by relative Wilson plots.

  11. 2002 Microgravity Materials Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald (Editor); Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 Microgravity Materials Science Conference was held June 25-26, 2002, at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. Organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Physical Sciences Research Division, NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and member institutions under the Cooperative Research in Biology and Materials Science (CORBAMS) agreement, the conference provided a forum to review the current research and activities in materials science, discuss the envisioned long-term goals, highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to the Physical Sciences Research Division, and inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity. An abstracts book was published and distributed at the conference to the approximately 240 people attending, who represented industry, academia, and other NASA Centers. This CD-ROM proceedings is comprised of the research reports submitted by the Principal Investigators in the Microgravity Materials Science program.

  12. Polydiacetylene Films Prepared in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carswell, William E.; Paley, Mark S.; Frazier, Donald O.; Naumann, Robert J.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    A diffusive/kinetic rate equation was developed for the growth of polydiacetylene films from solution and compared with a microgravity experiment. The model takes into account both the kinetics of thin film growth and the diffusive transport limitations inherent to microgravity. In order to apply this model, measurements of the density and the ultraviolet extinction coefficient of the films, as well as of the diffusion coefficient of the monomer/solvent system, were made. The thin films grown in microgravity were predicted by the model to grow to a thickness of 0.148 micron, versus 0.150 micron for the ground control films. The flight films grew to 0.102 micron.

  13. Effect Of Low External Flow On Flame Spreading Over ETFE Insulated Wire Under Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishizawa, Katsuhiro; Fujita, Osamu; Ito, Kenichi; Kikuchi, Masao; Olson, Sandra L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Fire safety is one of the most important issues for manned space missions. A likely cause of fires in spacecraft is wire insulation combustion in electrical system. Regarding the wire insulation combustion it important to know the effect of low external flow on the combustion because of the presence of ventilation flow in spacecraft. Although, there are many researches on flame spreading over solid material at low external flows under microgravity, research dealing with wire insulation is very limited. An example of wire insulation combustion in microgravity is the Space Shuttle experiments carried out by Greenberg et al. However, the number of experiments was very limited. Therefore, the effect of low flow velocity is still not clear. The authors have reported results on flame spreading over ETFE (ethylene - tetrafluoroetylene) insulated wire in a quiescent atmosphere in microgravity by 10 seconds drop tower. The authors also performed experiments of polyethylene insulated nichrom wire combustion in low flow velocity under microgravity. The results suggested that flame spread rate had maximum value in low flow velocity condition. Another interesting issue is the effect of dilution gas, especially CO2, which is used for fire extinguisher in ISS. There are some researches working on dilution gas effect on flame spreading over solid material in quiescent atmosphere in microgravity. However the research with low external flow is limited and, of course, the research discussing a relation of the appearance of maximum wire flammability in low flow velocity region with different dilution gas cannot be found yet. The present paper, therefore, investigates the effect of opposed flow with different dilution gas on flame spreading over ETFE insulated wire and change in the presence of the maximum flammability depending on the dilution gas type is discussed within the limit of microgravity time given by ground-based facility.

  14. Cell Culture in Microgravity: Opening the Door to Space Cell Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Adaptational response of human cell populations to microgravity is investigated using simulation, short-term Shuttle experiments, and long-term microgravity. Simulation consists of a clinostatically-rotated cell culture system. The system is a horizontally-rotated cylinder completely filled with culture medium. Low speed rotation results in continuous-fall of the cells through the fluid medium. In this setting, cells: 1) aggregate, 2) propagate in three dimensions, 3) synthesize matrix, 4) differentiate, and 5) form sinusoids that facilitate mass transfer. Space cell culture is conducted in flight bioreactors and in static incubators. Cells grown in microgravity are: bovine cartilage, promyelocytic leukemia, kidney proximal tubule cells, adrenal medulla, breast and colon cancer, and endothelium. Cells were cultured in space to test specific hypotheses. Cartilage cells were used to determine structural differences in cartilage grown in space compared to ground-based bioreactors. Results from a 130-day experiment on Mir revealed that cartilage grown in space was substantially more compressible due to insufficient glycosaminoglycan in the matrix. Interestingly, earth-grown cartilage conformed better to the dimensions of the scaffolding material, while the Mir specimens were spherical. The other cell populations are currently being analyzed for cell surface properties, gene expression, and differentiation. Results suggest that some cells spontaneously differentiate in microgravity. Additionally, vast changes in gene expression may occur in response to microgravity. In conclusion, the transition to microgravity may constitute a physical perturbation in cells resulting in unique gene expressions, the consequences of which may be useful in tissue engineering, disease modeling, and space cell biology.

  15. Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, M. B. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The MSL-1 payload first flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-83) April 4-8, 1997. Due to a fuel cell problem, the mission was cut short, and the payload flew again on Columbia (STS-94) July 1-17, 1997. The MSL-1 investigations were performed in a pressurized Spacelab module and the Shuttle middeck. Twenty-nine experiments were performed and represented disciplines such as fluid physics, combustion, materials science, biotechnology, and plant growth. Four accelerometers were used to record and characterize the microgravity environment. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity.

  16. Fluid behavior in microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.; Lee, C. C.; Tsao, Y. D.

    1990-01-01

    The instability of liquid and gas interface can be induced by the presence of longitudinal and lateral accelerations, vehicle vibration, and rotational fields of spacecraft in a microgravity environment. In a spacecraft design, the requirements of settled propellant are different for tank pressurization, engine restart, venting, or propellent transfer. In this paper, the dynamical behavior of liquid propellant, fluid reorientation, and propellent resettling have been carried out through the execution of a CRAY X-MP super computer to simulate fluid management in a microgravity environment. Characteristics of slosh waves excited by the restoring force field of gravity jitters have also been investigated.

  17. Protein crystal growth in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delucas, Lawrence J.; Smith, Craig D.; Smith, H. Wilson; Vijay-Kumar, Senadhi; Senadhi, Shobha E.; Ealick, Steven E.; Carter, Daniel C.; Snyder, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    The crystals of most proteins or other biological macromolecules are poorly ordered and diffract to lower resolutions than those observed for most crystals of simple organic and inorganic compounds. Crystallization in the microgravity environment of space may improve crystal quality by eliminating convection effects near growing crystal surfaces. A series of 11 different protein crystal growth experiments was performed on U.S. Space Shuttle flight STS-26 in September 1988. The microgravity-grown crystals of gamma-interferon D1, porcine elastase, and isocitrate lyase are larger, display more uniform morphologies, and yield diffraction data to significantly higher resolutions than the best crystals of these proteins grown on earth.

  18. Microgravity Researchers to Investigate Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide -- a semiconductor material -- can be grown in nanoclusters. Small molecules of cadmium sulfide, shown here, can be prepared by traditional chemical methods. However, if larger, more uniform nanoparticles of cadmium sulfide could be fabricated, they may be used to improve electronic devices such as light emitting diodes and diode lasers. Using a NASA grant, Dr. Jimmy Mays of the University of Alabama at Birmingham is studying whether microgravity will enhance the size and shape of a nanoparticle. This experiment is managed by the Microgravity Research Program Office at NASA's Marshall Spce Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

  19. Human blood platelets at microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, D. MACN.; Ausprunk, D.; Blevins, D.; Chao, F. C.; Curby, W.

    1987-01-01

    A set of freshly collected and separated human platelet suspensions were transported, in three types of plastic containers, on a 6 day, 2 hr mission of the orbiter Columbia to study the effect of prolonged exposure of human blood cells to microgravity. A controlled environment at a temperature of 22 + or - 1 deg with air flow was provided and another set of samples held on the ground acted as controls. Paired comparisons of platelets at ug versus controls at lxg revealed superior platelet survival at microgravity. When viewed in terms of plastic type, ug platelets in containers fabricated from PVC-TOTM displayed the best overall postflight viability.

  20. [Adaptation to new environments: microgravity].

    PubMed

    Serova, L V

    2005-01-01

    Review and analysis of the experiments with Wastar rats in microgravity onboard "Cosmos" biosatellites allows to conclude that adaptive potentials of mammals in space flights lasting up to 1/50 th of their life span are enough for rapid elimination of microgravity-induced metabolic and structural alterations on return to Earth, for maintenance of adequate reactions to acute and chronic stressors in the post-flight period, for normal reproductive function and life span. Consideration is given to individual differences in body responses to the micro-g environment.

  1. Use of microgravity to improve the efficiency and power output of Nd-doped laser glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Chandra S.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to: (1) obtain further evidence and understand the science for the reported improvement in chemical homogeneity in glasses prepared in microgravity; and (2) study the feasibility of improving the optical and fluorescence properties, particularly, the limit for Nd(+3) concentration quenching and threshold energy for laser action for laser glasses prepared in microgravity. Attention was directed to ground based investigation whose primary purpose was to determine the suitability and conditions for processing these laser glasses in space. This report describes that the scientific and technical information required for planning flight experiments for these glasses have been obtained, and the preparation for handling and analyzing post flight samples have also been taken. Instruments required for measuring the fluorescence properties of interest have been constructed. The optical and fluorescence properties for the glasses have been measured and made available for comparative property analysis.

  2. Suspension cell culture in microgravity and development of a space bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    1987-01-01

    NASA has methodically developed unique suspension type cell and recovery apparatus culture systems for bioprocess technology experiments and production of biological products in microgravity. The first space bioreactor has been designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small (500 ml) bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption, and control of low shear stress on cells.

  3. Fluid Flow and Solidification Under Combined Action of Magnetic Fields and Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, B. Q.; Shu, Y.; Li, K.; deGroh, H. C.

    2002-01-01

    Mathematical models, both 2-D and 3-D, are developed to represent g-jitter induced fluid flows and their effects on solidification under combined action of magnetic fields and microgravity. The numerical model development is based on the finite element solution of governing equations describing the transient g-jitter driven fluid flows, heat transfer and solutal transport during crystal growth with and without an applied magnetic field in space vehicles. To validate the model predictions, a ground-based g-jitter simulator is developed using the oscillating wall temperatures where timely oscillating fluid flows are measured using a laser PIV system. The measurements are compared well with numerical results obtained from the numerical models. Results show that a combined action derived from magnetic damping and microgravity can be an effective means to control the melt flow and solutal transport in space single crystal growth systems.

  4. Fluid-solid phase transitions in three-dimensional complex plasmas under microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Khrapak, S A; Klumov, B A; Huber, P; Molotkov, V I; Lipaev, A M; Naumkin, V N; Ivlev, A V; Thomas, H M; Schwabe, M; Morfill, G E; Petrov, O F; Fortov, V E; Malentschenko, Yu; Volkov, S

    2012-06-01

    Phase behavior of large three-dimensional (3D) complex plasma systems under microgravity conditions onboard the International Space Station is investigated. The neutral gas pressure is used as a control parameter to trigger phase changes. Detailed analysis of structural properties and evaluation of three different melting-freezing indicators reveal that complex plasmas can exhibit melting by increasing the gas pressure. Theoretical estimates of complex plasma parameters allow us to identify main factors responsible for the observed behavior. The location of phase states of the investigated systems on a relevant equilibrium phase diagram is estimated. Important differences between the melting process of 3D complex plasmas under microgravity conditions and that of flat 2D complex plasma crystals in ground based experiments are discussed.

  5. A ground-based comparison of nutrient delivery technologies originally developed for growing plants in the spaceflight environment.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, D M; Dreschel, T W; Musgrave, M E

    2000-01-01

    A ground-based comparison of plant nutrient delivery systems that have been developed for microgravity application was conducted for dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'Yecora Rojo') and rapid-cycling brassica (Brassica rapa L. CrGC#1-33) plants. These experiments offer insight into nutrient and oxygen delivery concerns for greenhouse crop production systems. The experiments were completed over a 12-day period to simulate a typical space shuttle-based spaceflight experiment. The plant materials, grown either using the porous-tube nutrient delivery system, the phenolic foam support system, or a solidified agar nutrient medium, were compared by plant-growth analysis, root zone morphological measurements, elemental composition analysis, and alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme activity assay. The results of these analyses indicate that the porous tube plant nutrient delivery and the phenolic foam systems maintain plant growth at a higher level than the solidified agar gel medium system. Root zone oxygenation problems associated with the agar system were manifested through biochemical and morphological responses. The porous tube nutrient delivery system outperformed the other two systems on the basis of plant growth analysis parameters and physiological indicators of root zone aeration. This information is applicable to the current crop production techniques used in greenhouse-controlled environments.

  6. A ground-based comparison of nutrient delivery technologies originally developed for growing plants in the spaceflight environment.

    PubMed

    Porterfield, D M; Dreschel, T W; Musgrave, M E

    2000-01-01

    A ground-based comparison of plant nutrient delivery systems that have been developed for microgravity application was conducted for dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 'Yecora Rojo') and rapid-cycling brassica (Brassica rapa L. CrGC#1-33) plants. These experiments offer insight into nutrient and oxygen delivery concerns for greenhouse crop production systems. The experiments were completed over a 12-day period to simulate a typical space shuttle-based spaceflight experiment. The plant materials, grown either using the porous-tube nutrient delivery system, the phenolic foam support system, or a solidified agar nutrient medium, were compared by plant-growth analysis, root zone morphological measurements, elemental composition analysis, and alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme activity assay. The results of these analyses indicate that the porous tube plant nutrient delivery and the phenolic foam systems maintain plant growth at a higher level than the solidified agar gel medium system. Root zone oxygenation problems associated with the agar system were manifested through biochemical and morphological responses. The porous tube nutrient delivery system outperformed the other two systems on the basis of plant growth analysis parameters and physiological indicators of root zone aeration. This information is applicable to the current crop production techniques used in greenhouse-controlled environments. PMID:17654790

  7. The NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program: Knowledge for Use on Earth and Future Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl, Fred J.; Singh, Bhim S.; Alexander, J. Iwan; Shaw, Nancy J.; Hill, Myron E.; Gati, Frank G.

    2002-12-01

    Building on over four decades of research and technology development related to the behavior of fluids in low gravity environments, the current NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program continues the quest for knowledge to further understand and design better fluids systems for use on earth and in space. The purpose of the Fluid Physics Program is to support the goals of NASA's Biological and Physical Research Enterprise which seeks to exploit the space environment to conduct research and to develop commercial opportunities, while building the vital knowledge base needed to enable efficient and effective systems for protecting and sustaining humans during extended space flights. There are currently five major research areas in the Microgravity Fluid Physics Program: complex fluids, multiphase flows and phase change, interfacial phenomena, biofluid mechanics, and dynamics and instabilities. Numerous investigations into these areas are being conducted in both ground-based laboratories and facilities and in the flight experiments program. Most of the future NASA-sponsored fluid physics and transport phenomena studies will be carried out on the International Space Station in the Fluids Integrated Rack, in the Microgravity Science Glovebox, in EXPRESS racks, and in other facilities provided by international partners. This paper will present an overview of the near- and long-term visions for NASA's Microgravity Fluid Physics Research Program and brief descriptions of hardware systems planned to achieve this research.

  8. Effect of microgravity on the biomechanical properties of lumbar and caudal intervertebral discs in mice.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jeannie F; Hargens, Alan R; Cheng, Kevin K; Lotz, Jeffrey C

    2014-09-22

    Prolonged exposure to microgravity has shown to have deleterious effects on the human spine, indicated by low back pain during spaceflight and increased incidence of post-spaceflight herniated nucleus pulposus. We examined the effect of microgravity on biomechanical properties of lumbar and caudal discs from mice having been on 15-day shuttle mission STS-131. Sixteen C57BL/C mice (spaceflight group, n=8; ground-based control group, n=8) were sacrificed immediately after spaceflight. Physiological disc height (PDH) was measured in situ, and compressive creep tests were performed to parameterize biomechanical properties into endplate permeability (k), nuclear swelling pressure strain dependence (D), and annular viscoelasticity (G). For caudal discs, the spaceflight group exhibited 32% lower PDH, 70% lower D and crept more compared to the control mice (p=0.03). For lumbar discs, neither PDH nor D was significantly different between murine groups. Initial modulus, osmotic pressure, k and G for lumbar and caudal discs did not appear influenced by microgravity (p>0.05). Decreases in both PDH and D suggest prolonged microgravity effectively diminished biomechanical properties of caudal discs. By contrast, differences were not noted for lumbar discs. This potentially deleterious interaction between prolonged weightlessness and differential ranges of motion along the spine may underlie the increased cervical versus lumbar disc herniation rates observed among astronauts. PMID:25085756

  9. The NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program: Knowledge for Use on Earth and Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, Fred J.; Singh, Bhim S.; Alexander, J. Iwan; Shaw, Nancy J.; Hill, Myron E.; Gati, Frank G.

    2002-01-01

    Building on over four decades of research and technology development related to the behavior of fluids in low gravity environments, the current NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program continues the quest for knowledge to further understand and design better fluids systems for use on earth and in space. The purpose of the Fluid Physics Program is to support the goals of NASA's Biological and Physical Research Enterprise which seeks to exploit the space environment to conduct research and to develop commercial opportunities, while building the vital knowledge base needed to enable efficient and effective systems for protecting and sustaining humans during extended space flights. There are currently five major research areas in the Microgravity Fluid Physics Program: complex fluids, multiphase flows and phase change, interfacial phenomena, biofluid mechanics, and dynamics and instabilities. Numerous investigations into these areas are being conducted in both ground-based laboratories and facilities and in the flight experiments program. Most of the future NASA-sponsored fluid physics and transport phenomena studies will be carried out on the International Space Station in the Fluids Integrated Rack, in the Microgravity Science Glovebox, in EXPRESS racks, and in other facilities provided by international partners. This paper will present an overview of the near- and long-term visions for NASA's Microgravity Fluid Physics Research Program and brief descriptions of hardware systems planned to achieve this research.

  10. Effect of microgravity on the biomechanical properties of lumbar and caudal intervertebral discs in mice.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Jeannie F; Hargens, Alan R; Cheng, Kevin K; Lotz, Jeffrey C

    2014-09-22

    Prolonged exposure to microgravity has shown to have deleterious effects on the human spine, indicated by low back pain during spaceflight and increased incidence of post-spaceflight herniated nucleus pulposus. We examined the effect of microgravity on biomechanical properties of lumbar and caudal discs from mice having been on 15-day shuttle mission STS-131. Sixteen C57BL/C mice (spaceflight group, n=8; ground-based control group, n=8) were sacrificed immediately after spaceflight. Physiological disc height (PDH) was measured in situ, and compressive creep tests were performed to parameterize biomechanical properties into endplate permeability (k), nuclear swelling pressure strain dependence (D), and annular viscoelasticity (G). For caudal discs, the spaceflight group exhibited 32% lower PDH, 70% lower D and crept more compared to the control mice (p=0.03). For lumbar discs, neither PDH nor D was significantly different between murine groups. Initial modulus, osmotic pressure, k and G for lumbar and caudal discs did not appear influenced by microgravity (p>0.05). Decreases in both PDH and D suggest prolonged microgravity effectively diminished biomechanical properties of caudal discs. By contrast, differences were not noted for lumbar discs. This potentially deleterious interaction between prolonged weightlessness and differential ranges of motion along the spine may underlie the increased cervical versus lumbar disc herniation rates observed among astronauts.

  11. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) is a fluids experiment supported by the Fundamentals in Biotechnology program in association with the Human Exploration and Development of Space (BEDS) initiative. The MTP Experiment will investigate fluid transport phenomena both in ground based experiments and in the microgravity environment. Many fluid transport processes are affected by gravity. Osmotic flux kinetics in planar membrane systems have been shown to be influenced by gravimetric orientation, either through convective mixing caused by unstably stratified fluid layers, or through a stable fluid boundary layer structure that forms in association with the membrane. Coupled transport phenomena also show gravity related effects. Coefficients associated with coupled transport processes are defined in terms of a steady state condition. Buoyancy (gravity) driven convection interferes with the attainment of steady state, and the measurement of coupled processes. The MTP Experiment measures the kinetics of molecular migration that occurs in fluids, in response to the application of various driving potentials. Three separate driving potentials may be applied to the MTP Experiment fluids, either singly or in combination. The driving potentials include chemical potential, thermal potential, and electrical potential. Two separate fluid arrangements are used to study membrane mediated and bulk fluid transport phenomena. Transport processes of interest in membrane mediated systems include diffusion, osmosis, and streaming potential. Bulk fluid processes of interest include coupled phenomena such as the Soret Effect, Dufour Effect, Donnan Effect, and thermal diffusion potential. MTP Experiments are performed in the Microgravity Transport Apparatus (MTA), an instrument that has been developed specifically for precision measurement of transport processes. Experiment fluids are contained within the MTA fluid cells, designed to create a one dimensional flow geometry

  12. Spatiotemporal Path-Matching for Comparisons Between Ground- Based and Satellite Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkoff, Timothy A.; Valencia, Sandra; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Spinhirne, James D.

    2005-01-01

    The spatiotemporal sampling differences between ground-based and satellite lidar data can contribute to significant errors for direct measurement comparisons. Improvement in sample correspondence is examined by the use of radiosonde wind velocity to vary the time average in ground-based lidar data to spatially match coincident satellite lidar measurements. Results are shown for the 26 February 2004 GLAS/ICESat overflight of a ground-based lidar stationed at NASA GSFC. Statistical analysis indicates that improvement in signal correlation is expected under certain conditions, even when a ground-based observation is mismatched in directional orientation to the satellite track.

  13. Three Years of Ground-based Thermal Monitoring at Kilauea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, A. J.; Johnson, J. B.; Pirie, D.; Horton, K.; Flynn, L.; Garbeil, H.; Ramm, H.; Pilger, E.

    2003-12-01

    Three permanent ground-based infrared (8 to 14 micron) radiometers, located on Pu'u 'O'o's north crater rim, have provided continuous real-time monitoring of activity within Pu'u 'O'o since March 2001. Our thermal sensors are able to detect lava flows, catastrophic changes in crater floor morphology, and variations in the style and vigor of volcanic degassing. These continuous, long-term thermal observations, integrated with RSAM and tilt measurements, provide an opportunity to investigate the changing nature of systemic activity at Kilauea. For example, our thermal sensors are able to detect periods of lava effusion on the crater floor, coincident with the termination of the rootless shield to the east and subsequent back-up into Pu'u O'o, before activity transitioned to the Mother's Day flow field. Since June 2001, at least one radiometer has been continuously aimed at the central pit vent of Pu'u O'o, whose thermal record has been dominated by regular gas jetting events, typically referred to as gas pistoning. These events are very often observed in the thermal records, indicating that they are a dominant mode of degassing at Kilauea. During June and July of 2000, gas pistoning from the central pit vent occurred with fundamental recurrence intervals of about 2 to 10 minutes, but since October has slowed to less frequent 20 to 40 minute intervals. We propose that the variation in piston frequency is related to dramatic changes in the geometry of the underground plumbing system at Pu'u 'O'o. Currently thermal monitoring of two individual vents, which are separated by ~100 m, provides evidence for linked degassing, further demonstrating the complex and ephemeral nature of the plumbing system beneath Pu'u 'O'o's crater floor.

  14. Ozone profiles above Kiruna from two ground-based radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Niall J.; Walker, Kaley A.; Raffalski, Uwe; Kivi, Rigel; Gross, Jochen; Manney, Gloria L.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents new atmospheric ozone concentration profiles retrieved from measurements made with two ground-based millimetre-wave radiometers in Kiruna, Sweden. The instruments are the Kiruna Microwave Radiometer (KIMRA) and the Millimeter wave Radiometer 2 (MIRA 2). The ozone concentration profiles are retrieved using an optimal estimation inversion technique, and they cover an altitude range of ˜ 16-54 km, with an altitude resolution of, at best, 8 km. The KIMRA and MIRA 2 measurements are compared to each other, to measurements from balloon-borne ozonesonde measurements at Sodankylä, Finland, and to measurements made by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Aura satellite. KIMRA has a correlation of 0.82, but shows a low bias, with respect to the ozonesonde data, and MIRA 2 shows a smaller magnitude low bias and a 0.98 correlation coefficient. Both radiometers are in general agreement with each other and with MLS data, showing high correlation coefficients, but there are differences between measurements that are not explained by random errors. An oscillatory bias with a peak of approximately ±1 ppmv is identified in the KIMRA ozone profiles over an altitude range of ˜ 18-35 km, and is believed to be due to baseline wave features that are present in the spectra. A time series analysis of KIMRA ozone for winters 2008-2013 shows the existence of a local wintertime minimum in the ozone profile above Kiruna. The measurements have been ongoing at Kiruna since 2002 and late 2012 for KIMRA and MIRA 2, respectively.

  15. Project management for complex ground-based instruments: MEGARA plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Vargas, María. Luisa; Pérez-Calpena, Ana; Gil de Paz, Armando; Gallego, Jesús; Carrasco, Esperanza; Cedazo, Raquel; Iglesias, Jorge

    2014-08-01

    The project management of complex instruments for ground-based large telescopes is a challenge itself. A good management is a clue for project success in terms of performance, schedule and budget. Being on time has become a strict requirement for two reasons: to assure the arrival at the telescope due to the pressure on demanding new instrumentation for this first world-class telescopes and to not fall in over-costs. The budget and cash-flow is not always the expected one and has to be properly handled from different administrative departments at the funding centers worldwide distributed. The complexity of the organizations, the technological and scientific return to the Consortium partners and the participation in the project of all kind of professional centers working in astronomical instrumentation: universities, research centers, small and large private companies, workshops and providers, etc. make the project management strategy, and the tools and procedures tuned to the project needs, crucial for success. MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is a facility instrument of the 10.4m GTC (La Palma, Spain) working at optical wavelengths that provides both Integral-Field Unit (IFU) and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) capabilities at resolutions in the range R=6,000-20,000. The project is an initiative led by Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain) in collaboration with INAOE (Mexico), IAA-CSIC (Spain) and Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain). MEGARA is being developed under contract with GRANTECAN.

  16. Ground-based Measurement Of Saharan Dust In Marine Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, M. J.; Ji, Q.; Tsay, S.; Hsu, C.; Hansell, R. A.; Augustine, D.

    2007-12-01

    An extensive field experiment, named NASA African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (NAMMA) was conducted during August-September of 2006 to investigate the genesis and development of hurricanes. Two ground-based mobile laboratories, Surface-sensing Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer (SMART) and Chemical, Optical, Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere (COMMIT), were deployed at Sal Island, Cape Verde to continuously monitor the structure and composition of the atmosphere in the major path of the Saharan Air Layer and the African Easterly Waves. A Micro-Pulse Lidar in SMART, which measures the vertical profiles of backscatter from the atmospheric particulates continuously, caught several episodes of Saharan dust layers reached the surface site. Simultaneously, physical and optical properties of aerosols (e.g., mixture of the Saharan dust and maritime aerosols) were captured by several instruments in COMMIT. In this study, we propose a novel method to separate dust properties from those of marine background aerosols by utilizing the synergy of a suite of in-situ measurements. Derived parameters are mass scattering coefficients and single scattering albedo (SSA) for dust near the surface (~10m). As a crosscheck, the SSA based on the surface measurements is compared with the result of Deep Blue satellite-based aerosol retrievals, which is now incorporated in the operational MODIS aerosol product. The presented preliminary results will be useful in studying the properties of Saharan dust originated from various source regions, which, in turns, can be used as inputs to aerosol transport models to help better understand the interactions between aerosol and cloud water cycle.

  17. Ground-based observations of the Io plasma torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, N.

    A series of ground-based 1-D spatially resolved, high resolution spectra (in SII, SIII, and OII) of the Io plasma torus were acquired in October 1999, around the time of the Galileo I24 passage through the IPT. In a previous paper (Thomas et al., JGR, 106, 26277, 2001), we have presented the initial results from these observations. In this presentation, we will describe recent more detailed analysis which seems to be lending further insight into the structure of the IPT. In particular, we have used an "onion-peeling" technique to remove line of sight effects from the observations. The resulting profiles, show the so-called ribbon region (5.7 RJ) being clearly separated from the cold torus (5.3 RJ) by a region of lower SII emission. SIII emission is now shown to be almost completely absent in the cold torus. The ratio of these two species is seen to rise systematically and almost linearly with jovicentric distance from the cold torus through to the warm torus (beyond 6.0 RJ). Models can be used to interpret this behaviour in terms of changing electron temperature with distance. We compare our results with the only other measurement of this property which was based on Voyager 1 PLS observations. We further show that the peak of OII emission is not centred at the, what we now call, the sulphur ribbon. We attempt to derive the relative composition of the three major species in the torus as a function of jovicentric distance using our data.

  18. Cloud optical thickness retrievals from ground-based pyranometer measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Jinhuan

    2006-11-01

    A method is developed to retrieve total cloud optical thickness (COT) from global solar radiation (GSR) detected by ground-based pyranometer, and approaches to input aerosol/molecular/gas parameters for COT retrievals are presented. On the basis of numerical simulations and comparative tests, main error factors of COT retrievals are analyzed, which include radiation data error, cloud inhomogeneity, uncertainties of aerosol optical parameters, and surface albedo. The retrieved COT error, caused by a -5% or 5% systematic error of the GSR measurement, is within ±0.6 and ±5.0 for COT ranges of 0-5.0 and 5-100, respectively. The AOT, the aerosol single scatter albedo (SSA), and the surface albedo are three significant parameters affecting COT retrieval accuracy. The mean SSA in the pyranometer spectral response range and the broadband surface albedo are suitably used in the retrievals. If uncertainties of AOT, SSA, and surface albedo are within ±0.1, ±0.05, and ±0.05, respectively, the retrieval accuracy is accepted for most applications. Furthermore, COTs (τPyr) from pyranometer data at two meteorological observatories are compared with COTs (τISCCP) from ISCCP and COTs (τMODIS) from MODIS. The relative standard deviations between monthly mean τPyr and τMODIS, or τPyr and τISCCP, are all less than 45.4% for both sites. The agreement among the yearly mean τPyr,τMODIS, and τISCCP is satisfactory. The absolute (relative) deviations between the yearly mean τPyr and τMODIS are within ±1.55 (8%) for both sites, and the deviations between the τPyr and τISCCP are within ±1.94 (25%). The yearly mean τPyr also agrees considerably well with τISCCP in the broken cloud case.

  19. Simulating the Performance of Ground-Based Optical Asteroid Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Eric J.; Shelly, Frank C.; Gibbs, Alex R.; Grauer, Albert D.; Hill, Richard E.; Johnson, Jess A.; Kowalski, Richard A.; Larson, Stephen M.

    2014-11-01

    We are developing a set of asteroid survey simulation tools in order to estimate the capability of existing and planned ground-based optical surveys, and to test a variety of possible survey cadences and strategies. The survey simulator is composed of several layers, including a model population of solar system objects and an orbital integrator, a site-specific atmospheric model (including inputs for seeing, haze and seasonal cloud cover), a model telescope (with a complete optical path to estimate throughput), a model camera (including FOV, pixel scale, and focal plane fill factor) and model source extraction and moving object detection layers with tunable detection requirements. We have also developed a flexible survey cadence planning tool to automatically generate nightly survey plans. Inputs to the cadence planner include camera properties (FOV, readout time), telescope limits (horizon, declination, hour angle, lunar and zenithal avoidance), preferred and restricted survey regions in RA/Dec, ecliptic, and Galactic coordinate systems, and recent coverage by other asteroid surveys. Simulated surveys are created for a subset of current and previous NEO surveys (LINEAR, Pan-STARRS and the three Catalina Sky Survey telescopes), and compared against the actual performance of these surveys in order to validate the model’s performance. The simulator tracks objects within the FOV of any pointing that were not discovered (e.g. too few observations, too trailed, focal plane array gaps, too fast or slow), thus dividing the population into “discoverable” and “discovered” subsets, to inform possible survey design changes. Ongoing and future work includes generating a realistic “known” subset of the model NEO population, running multiple independent simulated surveys in coordinated and uncoordinated modes, and testing various cadences to find optimal strategies for detecting NEO sub-populations. These tools can also assist in quantifying the efficiency of novel

  20. Ground-Based Remote Retrievals of Cumulus Entrainment Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Timothy J.; Turner, David D.; Berg, Larry K.; Krueger, Steven K.

    2013-07-26

    While fractional entrainment rates for cumulus clouds have typically been derived from airborne observations, this limits the size and scope of available data sets. To increase the number of continental cumulus entrainment rate observations available for study, an algorithm for retrieving them from ground-based remote sensing observations has been developed. This algorithm, called the Entrainment Rate In Cumulus Algorithm (ERICA), uses the suite of instruments at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site of the United States Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility as inputs into a Gauss-Newton optimal estimation scheme, in which an assumed guess of the entrainment rate is iteratively adjusted through intercomparison of modeled liquid water path and cloud droplet effective radius to their observed counterparts. The forward model in this algorithm is the Explicit Mixing Parcel Model (EMPM), a cloud parcel model that treats entrainment as a series of discrete entrainment events. A quantified value for measurement uncertainty is also returned as part of the retrieval. Sensitivity testing and information content analysis demonstrate the robust nature of this method for retrieving accurate observations of the entrainment rate without the drawbacks of airborne sampling. Results from a test of ERICA on three months of shallow cumulus cloud events show significant variability of the entrainment rate of clouds in a single day and from one day to the next. The mean value of 1.06 km-¹ for the entrainment rate in this dataset corresponds well with prior observations and simulations of the entrainment rate in cumulus clouds.

  1. Jovian thundercloud research with ground-based telescope and spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Yukihiro; Nakajima, Kensuke; Takeuchi, Satoru; Sugiyama, Ko-Ichiro; Sato, Mitsuteru; Fukuhara, Tetsuya; Sato, Soga; Yair, Yoav; Aplin, Karen; Fischer, Georg

    2010-05-01

    The latest observational and theoretical studies suggest that thunderstorms, i.e., strong moist convective clouds in Jupiter's atmosphere are very important not only as an essential ingredient of meteorology of Jupiter, which determines the large scale structures such as belt/zone and big ovals, but also as a potentially very useful tool for probing the water abundance of the deep atmosphere, which is crucial to constrain the behavior of volatiles in early solar system. Here we suggest a very simple high-speed imaging unit onboard Jovian orbiter, Optical Lightning Detector, OLD, optimized for detecting optical emissions from lightning discharge in Jupiter. OLD consists of radiation-tolerant CMOS sensors and two H Balmer Alpha line (656.3nm) filters. In normal sampling mode the frame intervals is 29ms with a full frame format of 512x512 pixels and in high-speed sampling mode the interval could be reduced down to 0.1ms by concentrating a limited area of 30x30 pixels. Weight, size and power consumption are about 1kg, 16x7x5.5 cm (sensor) and 16x12x4 cm (circuit), and 4W, respectively, though they can be reduced according to the spacecraft resources. Also we plan to investigate the optical flashes using a ground-based middle-sized telescope, which will be built by Hokkaido University, with narrow-band high speed imaging unit. Observational strategy with such optical lightning detectors and spectral imagers, which enable us to estimate the horizontal motion and altitude of clouds, will be introduced.

  2. Altered baroreflex control of forearm vascular resistance during simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Doerr, D. F.; Vernikos, J.

    1994-01-01

    Reflex peripheral vasoconstriction induced by activation of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors in response to reduced central venous pressure (CVP) is a basic mechanism for elevating systemic vascular resistance and defending arterial blood pressure during orthostatically-induced reductions in cardiac filling and output. The sensitivity of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex response [defined as the slope of the relationship between changes in forearm vascular resistance (FVR) and CVP] and the resultant vasoconstriction are closely and inversely associated with the amount of circulating blood volume. Thus, a high-gain FVR response will be elicited by a hypovolemic state. Exposure to microgravity during spaceflight results in reduced plasma volume. It is therefore reasonable to expect that the FVR response to cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading would be accentuated following adaptation to microgravity. Such data could provide better insight about the physiological mechanisms underlying alterations in blood pressure control following spaceflight. We therefore exposed eleven men to 6 degrees head-down bedrest for 7 days and measured specific hemodynamic responses to low levels of the lower body negative pressure to determine if there are alterations in cardiopulmonary baroreceptor stimulus-FVR reflex response relationship during prolonged exposure to an analog of microgravity.

  3. Preparation of large-particle-size monodisperse polystyrene latexes in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderhoff, J. W.; El-Aasser, M. S.; Micale, F. J.; Sudol, E. D.; Tseng, C. M.; Silwanowicz, A.; Kornfeld, D. M.; Vicente, F. A.

    1982-01-01

    Three large-particle-size monodisperse latexes (3.44, 4.08, and 4.98 micron diameter) were prepared in an automated four-reactor apparatus on the third orbital mission of the 'Columbia' begun on March 22. Comparison with ground-based controls showed that the 4.98 micron-size flight sample was the more uniform; the uniformity at the other two sizes was about the same. The rates of polymerization in microgravity and on earth were the same within experimental error, demonstrating that radical-initiated vinyl addition polymerizations are unaffected by the weightless environment.

  4. 17th International Microgravity Measurements Group Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Seventeenth International Microgravity Measurements Group (MGMG) meeting was held 24-26 March 1998 at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. This meeting focused on the transition of microgravity science research from the Shuttle, Mir, and free flyers to the International Space Station. The MGMG series of meetings are conducted by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project of the Microgravity Science Division at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The MGMG meetings provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas about the microgravity environment and microgravity acceleration research in the Microgravity Research Program. The meeting had participation from investigators in all areas of microgravity research. The attendees included representatives from: NASA centers; National Space Development Agency of Japan; European Space Agency; Daimler Benz Aerospace AG; Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt; Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales; Canadian Space Agency, national research institutions; Universities in U.S., Italy, Germany, and Russia; and commercial companies in the U.S. and Russia. Several agencies presented summaries of the measurement, analysis, and characterization of the microgravity environment of the Shuttle, Mir, and sounding rockets over the past fifteen years. This extensive effort has laid a foundation for pursuing a similar course during future microgravity science experiment operations on the ISS. Future activities of microgravity environment characterization were discussed by several agencies who plan to operate on the ISS.

  5. Impairment of antigen-specific cellular immune responses under simulated microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Sastry, K J; Nehete, P N; Savary, C A

    2001-04-01

    Microgravity has been implicated to play a role in the observed immune dysfunction of astronauts and cosmonauts after either short-term or long-term space travel. These reports, together with studies describing increased levels of microorganisms in the space cabin environment suggest potential risk for in-flight incidences of infectious diseases. In order to understand the mechanism underlying these immune defects, it is important to have a ground-based model that would reliably mimic the effects of microgravity on antigen-specific immune function. We tested the utility of the rotating wall vessel (RWV) technology developed at NASA as a model system because in the RWV the culture medium and the cells rotate synchronously with the vessel, thereby creating simulated microgravity conditions. We compared the RWV to the conventional tissue culture flask (T-flask), for culturing immune precursor cells with cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity against synthetic viral peptides. We observed a significant loss of antigen-specific CTL activity in RWV cultures, but not in those from the T-flask, irrespective of the peptide immunogen used for inducing the primary immune response in different mouse strains. Loss of CTL activity in RWV cultures coincided with a significant reduction in CD8+ cells as well as CD4+ cells and DEC205+ dendritic cells, suggesting adverse effects of RWV culturing on both the effector and accessory cells for the loss of antigen-specific CTL function. These results provide a strong parallel to the reported defects in cell-mediated immunity during space travel and strongly support the utility of the RWV technology as an effective ground-based model for identifying key steps in immune cell dysfunction related to microgravity.

  6. Selected microgravity combustion diagnostic techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Devon W.; Greenberg, Paul S.

    1993-01-01

    During FY 1989-1992, several diagnostic techniques for studying microgravity combustion have moved from the laboratory to use in reduced-gravity facilities. This paper discusses current instrumentation for rainbow schlieren deflectometry and thermophoretic sampling of soot from gas jet diffusion flames.

  7. Exercise detraining: Applicability to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, Edward F.

    1994-01-01

    Physical training exposes the various systems of the body to potent physiologic stimuli. These stimuli induce specific adaptations that enhance an individual's tolerance for the type of exercise encountered in training. The level of adaptation and the magnitude of improvement in exercise tolerance is proportional to the potency of the physical training stimuli. Likewise, our bodies are stimulated by gravity, which promotes adaptations of both the cardiovascular and skeletal muscles. Exposure to microgravity removes normal stimuli to these systems, and the body adapts to these reduced demands. In many respects the cessation of physical training in athletes and the transition from normal gravity to microgravity represent similar paradigms. Inherent to these situations is the concept of the reversibility of the adaptations induced by training or by exposure to normal gravity. The reversibility concept holds that when physical training is stopped (i.e., detraining) or reduced, or a person goes from normal gravity to microgravity, the bodily systems readjust in accordance with the diminished physiologic stimuli. The focus of this chapter is on the time course of loss of the adaptations to endurance training as well as on the possibility that certain adaptations persist, to some extent, when training is stopped. Because endurance exercise training generally improves cardiovascular function and promotes metabolic adaptations within the exercising skeletal musculature, the reversibility of these specific adaptations is considered. These observations have some applicability to the transition from normal to microgravity.

  8. Microgravity Smoldering Combustion Takes Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment lifted off aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour in September 1995 on the STS-69 mission. This experiment is part of series of studies focused on the smolder characteristics of porous, combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a nonflaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of combustible materials. Common examples of smoldering are nonflaming embers, charcoal briquettes, and cigarettes. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smoldering, both in microgravity and Earth gravity. As with other forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of air and the transport of heat, and therefore, the rate of combustion. Results of the microgravity experiments will be compared with identical experiments carried out in Earth's gravity. They also will be used to verify present theories of smoldering combustion and will provide new insights into the process of smoldering combustion, enhancing our fundamental understanding of this frequently encountered combustion process and guiding improvement in fire safety practices.

  9. Toward a microgravity research strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Recommendations of the Committee on Microgravity Research (CMGR) of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council are found in the Summary and Recommendations in the front of the report. The CMGR recommends a long-range research strategy. The main rationale for the microgravity research program should be to improve our fundamental scientific and technical knowledge base, particularly in the areas that are likely to lead to improvements in processing and manufacturing on earth. The CMGR recommends research be categorized as Biological science and technology, Combustion, Fluid science, Fundamental phenomena, Materials, and Processing science and technology. The committee also recommends that NASA apply a set of value criteria and measurement indicators to define the research and analysis program more clearly. The CMGR recommends that the funding level for research and analysis in microgravity science be established as a fixed percentage of the total program of NASA's Microgravity Science and Applications Division in order to build a strong scientific base for future experiments. The committee also recommends a cost-effective approach to experiments. Finally the CMGR recommends that a thorough technical review of the centers for commercial development of space be conducted to determine the quality of their activities and to ascertain to what degree their original mission has been accomplished.

  10. Standing ballistocardiography measurements in microgravity.

    PubMed

    McCall, Corey; Stuart, Zachary; Wiard, Richard M; Inan, Omer T; Giovangrandi, Laurent; Cuttino, Charles Marsh; Kovacs, Gregory T A

    2014-01-01

    The performance and practicality of a scale-based ballistocardiogram (BCG) system for hemodynamic monitoring of astronauts on extended space missions was demonstrated. The system consists of a modified electronic weighing scale fitted with foot bindings to mechanically couple the subject to the scale. This system was tested on a recent series of parabolic flights in which scale-based and accelerometry-based free-floating BCG of 10 subjects was measured in microgravity. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the scale-based BCG was, on average, a factor of 2.1 (6.3 dB) higher than the free-floating method, suggesting that the tethered scale approach might be more robust in terms of signal quality. Additionally, this approach enables practical BCG-based hemodynamic monitoring in fractional-g environments, and on small space vehicles such as NASA's upcoming Orion capsule. The scale-based results in microgravity were also compared to ground measurements (1 g), where there was an average 38.7 ms RJ interval reduction from ground to microgravity environments that is consistent across 9 of 10 subjects. This phenomenon is likely due to the transient increase in venous return, and consequent decrease in pre-ejection period, experienced during the microgravity time intervals.

  11. NASA HRP Immunology Discipline - Use of Terrestrial Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Due to the cost and operational constraints, as well as technical implementation limitations, it is desirous to perform relevant space physiology investigations first in terrestrial 'space analogs'. This is particularly true for initial investigations, which may then provide appropriate focus for subsequent flight investigations, or for mechanistic investigations that simply cannot be performed during spaceflight. Appropriate analog choice is extremely important. There are a wide variety of terrestrial space analogs, each relevant to a particular physiological discipline (or disciplines) and each with a particular fidelity (or lack thereof) to spaceflight, and each with unique operational constraints. The HRP Immunology Discipline is tasked with managing the HRP Risk concerning clinical risk for Astronaut crews related to spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation. Such dysregulation has been documented to occur during spaceflight, and found to persist for the duration of a 6-month ISS mission. Studies continue to characterize the onorbit phenomenon, but it generally consists of diminished immunocyte function, dysregulated cytokine profiles, and persistent herpesvirus reactivation. Causes are thought to synergistically include microgravity, psychological or physiological stress, radiation, and/or circadian misalignment. An appropriate terrestrial analog for immune dysregulation would replicate as many of these influences as possible. Such analogs may include clinostat or bioreactor cell culture (microgravity), hindlimb suspension (stress, fluid shifts, hypokinesis), or human deployment to remote or extreme environments (isolation, stress, circadian). Also, the laboratory setting may be used as an analog, or to augment analogs, such as sleep deprivation/misalignment or human centrifugation to replicate gravitational stress. As an appropriate example of a NASA Disciplines use of Terrestrial space analogs, this talk will discuss spaceflight associated immune

  12. Influence of Microgravity Environment on Root Growth, Soluble Sugars, and Starch Concentration of Sweetpotato Stem Cuttings.

    PubMed

    Mortley, Desmond G; Bonsi, Conrad K; Hill, Walter A; Morris, Carlton E; Williams, Carol S; Davis, Ceyla F; Williams, John W; Levine, Lanfang H; Petersen, Barbara V; Wheeler, Raymond M

    2008-05-01

    Because sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] stem cuttings regenerate very easily and quickly, a study of their early growth and development in microgravity could be useful to an understanding of morphological changes that might occur under such conditions for crops that are propagated vegetatively. An experiment was conducted aboard a U.S. Space Shuttle to investigate the impact of microgravity on root growth, distribution of amyloplasts in the root cells, and on the concentration of soluble sugars and starch in the stems of sweetpotatoes. Twelve stem cuttings of 'Whatley/Loretan' sweetpotato (5 cm long) with three to four nodes were grown in each of two plant growth units filled with a nutrient agarose medium impregnated with a half-strength Hoagland solution. One plant growth unit was flown on Space Shuttle Colombia for 5 days, whereas the other remained on the ground as a control. The cuttings were received within 2 h postflight and, along with ground controls, processed in approximately 45 min. Adventitious roots were counted, measured, and fixed for electron microscopy and stems frozen for starch and sugar assays. Air samples were collected from the headspace of each plant growth unit for postflight determination of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and ethylene levels. All stem cuttings produced adventitious roots and growth was quite vigorous in both ground-based and flight samples and, except for a slight browning of some root tips in the flight samples, all stem cuttings appeared normal. The roots on the flight cuttings tended to grow in random directions. Also, stem cuttings grown in microgravity had more roots and greater total root length than ground-based controls. Amyloplasts in root cap cells of ground-based controls were evenly sedimented toward one end compared with a more random distribution in the flight samples. The concentration of soluble sugars, glucose, fructose, and sucrose and total starch concentration were all substantially greater in the

  13. Burning in Outer Space: Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matkowsky, Bernard; Aldushin, Anatoly

    2000-01-01

    A better understanding of combustion can lead to significant technological advances, such as less polluting, more fuel-efficient vehicles. Unfortunately, gravity can interfere with the study of combustion. Gravity drags down gases that are cooler- and, therefore, denser-than heated gases. This movement mixes the fuel and the oxidizer substance that promotes burning. Because of this mixing, an observer cannot necessarily distinguish what is happening as a result of the natural combustion process and what is caused, by the pull of gravity. To remove this uncertainty, scientists can conduct experiments that simulate the negation of gravity through freefall. This condition is known as a microgravity environment. A micro-gravity experiment may take place in a chamber that is dropped down a hole or from a high-speed drop tower. The experiment also be conducted in an airplane or a rocket during freefall in a parabolic flight path. This method provides less than a minute of microgravity at most. An experiment that requires the prolonged absence of gravity may necessitate the use of an orbiting spacecraft as a venue. However, access to an orbital laboratory is difficult to acquire. High-end computing centers such as the NCCS can provide a practical alternative to operating in microgravity. Scientists can model phenomena such as combustion without gravitys observational interference. The study of microgravity combustion produces important benefits beyond increased observational accuracy. Certain valuable materials that are produced through combustion can be formed with a more uniform crystal structure-and, therefore, improved structural quality-when the pull of gravity is removed. Furthermore, understanding how fires propagate in the absence of gravity can improve fire safety aboard spacecraft.

  14. Processing electronic photos of Mercury produced by ground based observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ksanfomality, Leonid

    New images of Mercury have been obtained by processing of ground based observations that were carried out using the short exposure technique. The disk of the planet extendeds usually from 6 to 7 arc seconds, with the linear size of the image in a focal plane of the telescope about 0.3-0.5 mm on the average. Processing initial millisecond electronic photos of the planet is very labour-consuming. Some features of processing of initial millisecond electronic photos by methods of correlation stacking were considered in (Ksanfomality et al., 2005; Ksanfomality and Sprague, 2007). The method uses manual selection of good photos including a so-called pilot- file, the search for which usually must be done manually. The pilot-file is the most successful one, in opinion of the operator. It defines the future result of the stacking. To change pilot-files increases the labor of processing many times. Programs of processing analyze the contents of a sample, find in it any details, and search for recurrence of these almost imperceptible details in thousand of other stacking electronic pictures. If, proceeding from experience, the form and position of a pilot-file still can be estimated, the estimation of a reality of barely distinct details in it is somewhere in between the imaging and imagination. In 2006-07 some programs of automatic processing have been created. Unfortunately, the efficiency of all automatic programs is not as good as manual selection. Together with the selection, some other known methods are used. The point spread function (PSF) is described by a known mathematical function which in its central part decreases smoothly from the center. Usually the width of this function is accepted at a level 0.7 or 0.5 of the maxima. If many thousands of initial electronic pictures are acquired, it is possible during their processing to take advantage of known statistics of random variables and to choose the width of the function at a level, say, 0.9 maxima. Then the

  15. Ground Based Investigation of Electrostatic Accelerometer in HUST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Y.; Zhou, Z.

    2013-12-01

    High-precision electrostatic accelerometers with six degrees of freedom (DOF) acceleration measurement were successfully used in CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions which to measure the Earth's gravity field. In our group, space inertial sensor based on the capacitance transducer and electrostatic control technique has been investigated for test of equivalence principle (TEPO), searching non-Newtonian force in micrometer range, and satellite Earth's field recovery. The significant techniques of capacitive position sensor with the noise level at 2×10-7pF/Hz1/2 and the μV/Hz1/2 level electrostatic actuator are carried out and all the six servo loop controls by using a discrete PID algorithm are realized in a FPGA device. For testing on ground, in order to compensate one g earth's gravity, the fiber torsion pendulum facility is adopt to measure the parameters of the electrostatic controlled inertial sensor such as the resolution, and the electrostatic stiffness, the cross couple between different DOFs. A short distance and a simple double capsule equipment the valid duration about 0.5 second is set up in our lab for the free fall tests of the engineering model which can directly verify the function of six DOF control. Meanwhile, high voltage suspension method is also realized and preliminary results show that the horizontal axis of acceleration noise is about 10-8m/s2/Hz1/2 level which limited mainly by the seismic noise. Reference: [1] Fen Gao, Ze-Bing Zhou, Jun Luo, Feasibility for Testing the Equivalence Principle with Optical Readout in Space, Chin. Phys. Lett. 28(8) (2011) 080401. [2] Z. Zhu, Z. B. Zhou, L. Cai, Y. Z. Bai, J. Luo, Electrostatic gravity gradiometer design for the advanced GOCE mission, Adv. Sp. Res. 51 (2013) 2269-2276. [3] Z B Zhou, L Liu, H B Tu, Y Z Bai, J Luo, Seismic noise limit for ground-based performance measurements of an inertial sensor using a torsion balance, Class. Quantum Grav. 27 (2010) 175012. [4] H B Tu, Y Z Bai, Z B Zhou, L Liu, L

  16. Robust Control for Microgravity Vibration Isolation using Fixed Order, Mixed H2/Mu Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Many space-science experiments need an active isolation system to provide a sufficiently quiescent microgravity environment. Modern control methods provide the potential for both high-performance and robust stability in the presence of parametric uncertainties that are characteristic of microgravity vibration isolation systems. While H2 and H(infinity) methods are well established, neither provides the levels of attenuation performance and robust stability in a compensator with low order. Mixed H2/H(infinity), controllers provide a means for maximizing robust stability for a given level of mean-square nominal performance while directly optimizing for controller order constraints. This paper demonstrates the benefit of mixed norm design from the perspective of robustness to parametric uncertainties and controller order for microgravity vibration isolation. A nominal performance metric analogous to the mu measure, for robust stability assessment is also introduced in order to define an acceptable trade space from which different control methodologies can be compared.

  17. The effect of acute microgravity on mechanically-induced membrane damage and membrane-membrane fusion events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, M. S.; Vanderburg, C. R.; Feeback, D. L.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Although it is unclear how a living cell senses gravitational forces there is no doubt that perturbation of the gravitational environment results in profound alterations in cellular function. In the present study, we have focused our attention on how acute microgravity exposure during parabolic flight affects the skeletal muscle cell plasma membrane (i.e. sarcolemma), with specific reference to a mechanically-reactive signaling mechanism known as mechanically-induced membrane disruption or "wounding". Both membrane rupture and membrane resealing events mediated by membrane-membrane fusion characterize this response. We here present experimental evidence that acute microgravity exposure can inhibit membrane-membrane fusion events essential for the resealing of sarcolemmal wounds in individual human myoblasts. Additional evidence to support this contention comes from experimental studies that demonstrate acute microgravity exposure also inhibits secretagogue-stimulated intracellular vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane in HL-60 cells. Based on our own observations and those of other investigators in a variety of ground-based models of membrane wounding and membrane-membrane fusion, we suggest that the disruption in the membrane resealing process observed during acute microgravity is consistent with a microgravity-induced decrease in membrane order.

  18. The Effect of Acute Microgravity on Mechanically-Induced Membrane Damage and Membrane-Membrane Fusion Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Mark, S. F.; Vanderburg, Charles R.; Feedback, Daniel L.

    2001-01-01

    Although it is unclear how a living cell senses gravitational forces there is no doubt that perturbation of the gravitational environment results in profound alterations in cellular function. In the present study, we have focused our attention on how acute microgravity exposure during parabolic flight affects the skeletal muscle cell plasma membrane (i.e. sarcolemma), with specific reference to a mechanically-reactive signaling mechanism known as mechanically-induced membrane disruption or "wounding". This response is characterized by both membrane rupture and membrane resealing events mediated by membrane-membrane fusion. We here present experimental evidence that acute microgravity exposure can inhibit membrane-membrane fusion events essential for the resealing of sarcolemmal wounds in individual human myoblasts. Additional evidence to support this contention comes from experimental studies that demonstrate acute microgravity exposure also inhibits secretagogue-stimulated intracellular vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane in HL-60 cells. Based on our own observations and those of other investigators in a variety of ground-based models of membrane wounding and membrane-membrane fusion, we suggest that the disruption in the membrane resealing process observed during acute microgravity is consistent with a microgravity-induced decrease in membrane order.

  19. Microgravity Experiment Programs for Students at the Bremen Drop Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könemann, Thorben; Eigenbrod, Christian; Von Kampen, Peter; Laemmerzahl, Claus

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) founded by Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hans J. Rath in 1985 is part of the Department of Production Engineering at the University of Bremen, Germany. ZARM established as a research center and currently headed by Prof. Dr. Claus Lämmerzahl is mainly concentrated on fundamental investigations of gravitational and space-related phenomenas under conditions of weightlessness as well as questions and developments related to technologies for space. At ZARM more than 70 scientists, engineers and administrative staff as well as many students from different departments are employed. Today, ZARM is still one of the largest and most important university institutes for space sciences and technologies in Europe as well as worldwide well known in the space community. With a height of 146 m the Bremen Drop Tower is the predominant facility of ZARM and also the only drop tower of its class in Europe. ZARM’s ground-based laboratory offers the opportunity for daily short-term experiments under conditions of high-quality weightlessness at a level of 10 (-6) g (microgravity). The provided quality is one of the purest for experiments under weightlessness worldwide achieved. The scientists may choose between a single drop experiment with 4.74 s in simple free fall and a catapult experiment with 9.3 s of weightlessness. Either in the drop or in the worldwide unique catapult operation routine the repetition rates of microgravity experiments at ZARM are always the same, generally up to 3 times per day. Since the start of operation of the facility in 1990, over 6750 launches of more than 160 different experiment types from various scientific fields like Fundamental Physics, Combustion, Fluid Dynamics, Planetary Formation / Astrophysics, Biology and Materials Sciences have been successfully accomplished so far. In our paper we will report and inform about microgravity experiment programs for students like „Drop Your Thesis!“ by ESA and

  20. A microgravity boiling and convective condensation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kachnik, Leo; Lee, Doojeong; Best, Frederick; Faget, Nanette

    1987-01-01

    A boiling and condensing test article consisting of two straight tube boilers, one quartz and one stainless steel, and two 1.5 m long glass-in-glass heat exchangers, on 6 mm ID and one 10 mm ID, was flown on the NASA KC-135 0-G aircraft. Using water as the working fluid, the 5 kw boiler produces two phase mixtures of varying quality for mass flow rates between 0.005 and 0.1 kg/sec. The test section is instrumented at eight locations with absolute and differential pressure transducers and thermocouples. A gamma densitometer is used to measure void fraction, and high speed photography records the flow regimes. A three axis accelerometer provides aircraft acceleration data (+ or - 0.01G). Data are collected via an analog-to-digital conversion and data acquisition system. Bubbly, annular, and slug flow regimes were observed in the test section under microgravity conditions. Flow oscillations were observed for some operating conditions and the effect of the 2-G pullout prior to the 0-G period was observed by continuously recording data throughout the parabolas. A total fo 300 parabolas was flown.

  1. Ground-based monitoring of solar radiation in Moldova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aculinin, Alexandr; Smicov, Vladimir

    2010-05-01

    Integrated measurements of solar radiation in Kishinev, Moldova have been started by Atmospheric Research Group (ARG) at the Institute of Applied Physics from 2003. Direct, diffuse and total components of solar and atmospheric long-wave radiation are measured by using of the radiometric complex at the ground-based solar radiation monitoring station. Measurements are fulfilled at the stationary and moving platforms equipped with the set of 9 broadband solar radiation sensors overlapping wavelength range from UV-B to IR. Detailed description of the station can be found at the site http://arg.phys.asm.md. Ground station is placed in an urban environment of Kishinev city (47.00N; 28.56E). Summary of observation data acquired at the station in the course of short-term period from 2004 to 2009 are presented below. Solar radiation measurements were fulfilled by using CM11(280-3000 nm) and CH1 sensors (Kipp&Zonen). In the course of a year maximum and minimum of monthly sums of total radiation was ~706.4 MJm-2 in June and ~82.1MJm-2 in December, respectively. Monthly sums of direct solar radiation (on horizontal plane) show the maximum and minimum values of the order ~456.9 MJm-2 in July and ~25.5MJm-2 in December, respectively. In an average, within a year should be marked the predominance of direct radiation over the scattered radiation, 51% and 49%, respectively. In the course of a year, the percentage contribution of the direct radiation into the total radiation is ~55-65% from May to September. In the remaining months, the percentage contribution decreases and takes the minimum value of ~ 28% in December. In an average, annual sum of total solar radiation is ~4679.9 MJm-2. For the period from April to September accounts for ~76% of the annual amount of total radiation. Annual sum of sunshine duration accounts for ~2149 hours, which is of ~ 48% from the possible sunshine duration. In an average, within a year maximum and minimum of sunshine duration is ~ 304 hours in

  2. Determination of Roles of Microgravity and Ionizing Radiation on the Reactivation of Epstein-Barr Virus In Vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K; Renner, Ashlie; Stowe, Raymond; Bloom, David; Pierson, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts experience symptomatic and asymptomatic herpes virus reactivation during spaceflight. We have shown increases in reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) and shedding in body fluids (saliva and urine) in astronauts during space travel. Alterations in immunity, increased stress hormone levels, microgravity, increased radiation, and other conditions unique to spaceflight may promote reactivation of latent herpes viruses. Unique mechanico-physico forces associated with spaceflight can have profound effects on cellular function, especially immune cells. In space flight analog studies such as Antarctica, bed rest studies, and NASA's undersea habitat (Aquarius), reactivation of these viruses occurred, but to a lesser extent than spaceflight. Spaceflight analogs model some spaceflight factors, but none of the analogs recreates all factors experienced in space. Most notably, microgravity and radiation are not included in many analogs. Stress, processed through the HPA axis and SAM systems, induces viral reactivation. However, the respective roles of microgravity and increased space radiation levels or if any synergy exists are not known. Therefore, we studied the effect of modeled space radiation and/or microgravity, independent of the immune system on the changes in cellular gene expression that results in viral (EBV) reactivation. The effects of modeled microgravity and low shear on EBV replication and cellular and EBV gene expression were studied in human B-lymphocyte cell cultures. Latently infected B-lymphocytes were propagated in the rotating wall bioreactor and irradiated with the various dosages of gamma irradiation. At specific time intervals following exposure to modeled microgravity, the cells and supernatant were harvested and reactivation of EBV were assessed by measuring EBV and gene expression, DNA methylation, and infectious virus production.

  3. The Influence of Microgravity on Astronaut Health: Global Study of Microgravity Effects on Human Stem Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaber, E.; Marcal, H.; Foster, L. J. R.; Burns, B. P.

    2010-04-01

    We employed here a global approach to examine the effect of microgravity on a stem cell line, and specific proteins were identified and linked to pathways that are affected by microgravity. This has significant implications to astronaut health.

  4. Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)

    2001-01-01

    This conference proceedings document is a compilation of papers presented orally or as poster displays to the Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio on May 22-24, 2001. The purpose of the workshop is to present and exchange research results from theoretical and experimental work in combustion science using the reduced-gravity environment as a research tool. The results are contributed by researchers funded by NASA throughout the United States at universities, industry and government research agencies, and by researchers from international partner countries that are also participating in the microgravity combustion science research discipline. These research results are intended for use by public and private sector organizations for academic purposes, for the development of technologies needed for Human Exploration and Development of Space, and to improve Earth-bound combustion and fire-safety related technologies.

  5. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  6. Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, James Patton (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This document reports the results and analyses presented at the Life and Microgravity Spacelab One Year Science Review meeting. The science conference was held in Montreal, Canada, on August 20-21, 1997, and was hosted by the Canadian Space Agency. The LMS payload flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-78) from June 20 - July 7, 1996. The LMS investigations were performed in a pressurized Spacelab module and the Shuttle middeck. Forty scientific experiments were performed in fields such as fluid physics, solidification of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, the growth of protein crystals, and animal, human, and plant life sciences. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity.

  7. Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, James Patton

    1998-02-01

    This document reports the results and analyses presented at the Life and Microgravity Spacelab One Year Science Review meeting. The science conference was held in Montreal, Canada, on August 20-21, 1997, and was hosted by the Canadian Space Agency. The LMS payload flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-78) from June 20 - July 7, 1996. The LMS investigations were performed in a pressurized Spacelab module and the Shuttle middeck. Forty scientific experiments were performed in fields such as fluid physics, solidification of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, the growth of protein crystals, and animal, human, and plant life sciences. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity.

  8. Fifth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This conference proceedings document is a compilation of 120 papers presented orally or as poster displays to the Fifth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio on May 18-20, 1999. The purpose of the workshop is to present and exchange research results from theoretical and experimental work in combustion science using the reduced-gravity environment as a research tool. The results are contributed by researchers funded by NASA throughout the United States at universities, industry and government research agencies, and by researchers from at least eight international partner countries that are also participating in the microgravity combustion science research discipline. These research results are intended for use by public and private sector organizations for academic purposes, for the development of technologies needed for the Human Exploration and Development of Space, and to improve Earth-bound combustion and fire-safety related technologies.

  9. Analog current mode analog/digital converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadidi, Khayrollah (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An improved subranging or comparator circuit is provided for an analog-to-digital converter. As a subranging circuit, the circuit produces a residual signal representing the difference between an analog input signal and an analog of a digital representation. This is achieved by subdividing the digital representation into two or more parts and subtracting from the analog input signal analogs of each of the individual digital portions. In another aspect of the present invention, the subranging circuit comprises two sets of differential input pairs in which the transconductance of one differential input pair is scaled relative to the transconductance of the other differential input pair. As a consequence, the same resistor string may be used for two different digital-to-analog converters of the subranging circuit.

  10. Microgravity effects on 'postural' muscle activity patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layne, Charles S.; Spooner, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in neuromuscular activation patterns associated with movements made in microgravity can contribute to muscular atrophy. Using electromyography (EMG) to monitor 'postural' muscles, it was found that free floating arm flexions made in microgravity were not always preceded by neuromuscular activation patterns normally observed during movements made in unit gravity. Additionally, manipulation of foot sensory input during microgravity arm flexion impacted upon anticipatory postural muscle activation.

  11. The 3rd International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This Conference Publication contains 71 papers presented at the Third International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio, from April 11 to 13, 1995. The purpose of the workshop was twofold: to exchange information about the progress and promise of combustion science in microgravity and to provide a forum to discuss which areas in microgravity combustion science need to be expanded profitably and which should be included in upcoming NASA Research Announcements (NRA).

  12. Interpreting the International Space Station Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric M.; Humphreys, Brad

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) serves as a platform for microgravity research for the foreseeable future. A microgravity environment is one in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced which then allows physical experiments to be conducted without the overpowering effects of gravity. A physical environment with very low-levels of acceleration and vibration has been accomplished by both the free fall associated with orbital flight and the design of the International Space Station. The International Space Station design has been driven by a long-standing, high-level requirement for a microgravity mode of operation. The Space Acceleration Measurement System has been in operation for nearly four years on the ISS measuring the microgravity environment in support of principal investigators and to characterize the ISS microgravity environment. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project functions as a detective to ascertain the source of disturbances seen in the ISS microgravity environment to allow correlation between that environment and experimental data. Payload developers need to predict the microgravity environment that will be imposed upon an experiment and ensure that the science and engineering requirements will be met. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project is developing n interactive tool to predict the microgravity environment at science payloads based on user defined operational scenarios. These operations (predictions and post-analyses) allow a researcher to examine the microgravity acceleration levels expected to exist when their experiment is operated and then receive an analysis of the environment which existed during their experiment operations. Presented in this paper will be descriptions of the environment predictive tool and an investigation into a previously unknown disturbance in the ISS microgravity environment.

  13. The Second International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This CP contains 40 papers presented at the Second International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, OH, from September 15 to 17, 1992. The purpose of the workshop was twofold: to exchange information about the progress and promise of combustion science in microgravity and to provide a forum to discuss which areas in microgravity combustion science need to be expanded profitably and which should be included in upcoming NASA Research Announcements (NRA).

  14. Plant cell gravisensitivity and adaptation to microgravity.

    PubMed

    Kordyum, E L

    2014-01-01

    A short overview on the effects of real and simulated microgravity on certain cell components and processes, including new information obtained recently, is presented. Attention is focused on the influence of real and simulated microgravity on plant cells that are not specialised to gravity perception and on seed formation. The paper considers the possibility of full adaptation of plants to microgravity, and suggests some questions for future plant research in order to make decisions on fundamental and applied problems of plant space biology.

  15. Particle cloud mixing in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H.; Facca, L.; Tangirala, V.; Berlad, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    Quasi-steady flame propagation through clouds of combustible particles requires quasi-steady transport properties and quasi-steady particle number density. Microgravity conditions may be employed to help achieve the conditions of quiescent, uniform clouds needed for such combustion studies. Joint experimental and theoretical NASA-UCSD studies were concerned with the use of acoustic, electrostatic, and other methods of dispersion of fuel particulates. Results of these studies are presented for particle clouds in long cylindrical tubes.

  16. Spacelab 3: Research in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, G. H.; Cremin, J. W.; Hill, C. K.; Vaughan, O. H.; Theon, J. S.; Schmitz, R.

    1987-01-01

    The Spacelab 3 mission, which focused on research in microgravity, took place during the period April 29 through May 6, 1985. Spacelab 3 was the second flight of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's modular Shuttle-borne research facility. An overview of the mission is presented. Preliminary scientific results from the mission were presented by investigators at a symposium held at Marshall Space Flight Center on December 4, 1985. This special issue is based on reports presented at that symposium.

  17. [Early Development under Microgravity Conditions].

    PubMed

    Ogneva, I V

    2015-01-01

    The review is devoted to various aspects of early development under the space flight conditions. The different possible cell mechanosensors are considered. Structural and functional changes in the cells, predominantly, in non-muscle ones, were discussed. The results of the different experiments with the embryos of fish, amphibians, birds and mammals under microgravity conditions are shown discussing possible reasons for the development of morphological changes. PMID:26591615

  18. Candle Flames in Microgravity Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This video of a candle flame burning in space was taken by the Candle Flames in Microgravity (CFM) experiment on the Russian Mir space station. It is actually a composite of still photos from a 35mm camera since the video images were too dim. The images show a hemispherically shaped flame, primarily blue in color, with some yellow early int the flame lifetime. The actual flame is quite dim and difficult to see with the naked eye. Nearly 80 candles were burned in this experiment aboard Mir. NASA scientists have also studied how flames spread in space and how to detect fire in microgravity. Researchers hope that what they learn about fire and combustion from the flame ball experiments will help out here on Earth. Their research could help create things such as better engines for cars and airplanes. Since they use very weak flames, flame balls require little fuel. By studying how this works, engineers may be able to design engines that use far less fuel. In addition, microgravity flame research is an important step in creating new safety precautions for astronauts living in space. By understanding how fire works in space, the astronauts can be better prepared to fight it.

  19. Bioregenerative system components for microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevill, Gale E., Jr.; Hessel, Michael I., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the class was to design, fabricate, and test prototype designs that were independent, yet applicable to a Closed Loop Life Support System. The three prototypes chosen were in the areas of agar plant growth, regnerative filtration, and microgravity food preparation. The plant growth group designed a prototype agar medium growth system that incorporates nutrient solution replenishment and post-harvest refurbishment. In addition, the unit emphasizes material containment and minimization of open interfaces. The second project was a filter used in microgravity that has the capability to clean itself. The filters are perforated plates which slide through a duct and are cleaned outside of the flow with a vacuum system. The air in the duct is prevented from flowing outside of the duct by a network of sliding seals. The food preparation group developed a device which dispenses and mixes ingredients and then cooks the mixture in microgravity. The dry ingredients are dispensed from a canister by a ratchet-operated piston. The wet ingredients are dispensed from plastic bags through tubing attached to a syringe. Once inside the mixing chamber, the ingredients are mixed using a collapsible whisk and then pushed into the cooking device.

  20. Microgravity and bone cell mechanosensitivity.

    PubMed

    Burger, E H; Klein-Nulend, J

    1998-05-01

    Bone cells, in particular osteocytes, are extremely sensitive to mechanical stress, a quality that is probably linked to the process of mechanical adaptation (Wolff's law). The in vivo operating cell stress derived from bone loading is likely a flow of an interstitial fluid along the surface of the osteocytes and lining cells. The response of bone cells in culture to fluid flow includes prostaglandin synthesis and expression of inducible prostaglandin G/H synthase (PGHS-2 or inducible cyclooxygenase, COX-2), an enzyme that mediates the induction of bone formation by mechanical loading in vivo. Disruption of the actin-cytoskeleton abolishes the response to stress, suggesting that the cytoskeleton is involved in cellular mechanotransduction. Microgravity has catabolic effects on the skeleton of astronauts, as well as on mineral metabolism in bone organ cultures. This might be explained simply as resulting from an exceptional form of disuse under weightlessness conditions. However, under microgravity conditions, the assembly of cytoskeletal elements may be altered, as gravity has been shown to determine the pattern of microtubular orientation assembled in vitro. Therefore, it is possible that the mechanosensitivity of bone cells is altered under microgravity conditions, and that this abnormal mechanosensation contributes to the disturbed bone metabolism observed in astronauts. In vitro experiments on the International Space Station should test this hypothesis experimentally.

  1. Microgravity combustion of dust suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, John H. S.; Peraldi, Olivier; Knystautas, Rom

    1993-01-01

    Unlike the combustion of homogeneous gas mixtures, there are practically no reliable fundamental data (i.e., laminar burning velocity, flammability limits, quenching distance, minimum ignition energy) for the combustion of heterogeneous dust suspensions. Even the equilibrium thermodynamic data such as the constant pressure volume combustion pressure and the constant pressure adiabatic flame temperature are not accurately known for dust mixtures. This is mainly due to the problem of gravity sedimentation. In normal gravity, turbulence, convective flow, electric and acoustic fields are required to maintain a dust in suspension. These external influences have a dominating effect on the combustion processes. Microgravity offers a unique environment where a quiescent dust cloud can in principle be maintained for a sufficiently long duration for almost all combustion experiments (dust suspensions are inherently unstable due to Brownian motion and particle aggregation). Thus, the microgravity duration provided by drop towers, parabolic flights, and the space shuttle, can all be exploited for different kinds of dust combustion experiments. The present paper describes some recent studies on microgravity combustion of dust suspension carried out on the KC-135 and the Caravelle aircraft. The results reported are obtained from three parabolic flight campaigns.

  2. Creating Simulated Microgravity Patient Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Victor; Doerr, Harold K.; Bacal, Kira

    2004-01-01

    The Medical Operational Support Team (MOST) has been tasked by the Space and Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to integrate medical simulation into 1) medical training for ground and flight crews and into 2) evaluations of medical procedures and equipment for the International Space Station (ISS). To do this, the MOST requires patient models that represent the physiological changes observed during spaceflight. Despite the presence of physiological data collected during spaceflight, there is no defined set of parameters that illustrate or mimic a 'space normal' patient. Methods: The MOST culled space-relevant medical literature and data from clinical studies performed in microgravity environments. The areas of focus for data collection were in the fields of cardiovascular, respiratory and renal physiology. Results: The MOST developed evidence-based patient models that mimic the physiology believed to be induced by human exposure to a microgravity environment. These models have been integrated into space-relevant scenarios using a human patient simulator and ISS medical resources. Discussion: Despite the lack of a set of physiological parameters representing 'space normal,' the MOST developed space-relevant patient models that mimic microgravity-induced changes in terrestrial physiology. These models are used in clinical scenarios that will medically train flight surgeons, biomedical flight controllers (biomedical engineers; BME) and, eventually, astronaut-crew medical officers (CMO).

  3. Manipulation hardware for microgravity research

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, J.N.; Glassell, R.L.; Butler, P.L.; Williams, D.M. ); Rohn, D.A. . Lewis Research Center); Miller, J.H. )

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of permanent low earth orbit occupation on the Space Station Freedom will present new opportunities for the introduction of productive flexible automation systems into the microgravity environment of space. The need for robust and reliable robotic systems to support experimental activities normally intended by astronauts will assume great importance. Many experimental modules on the space station are expected to require robotic systems for ongoing experimental operations. When implementing these systems, care must be taken not to introduce deleterious effects on the experiments or on the space station itself. It is important to minimize the acceleration effects on the experimental items being handled while also minimizing manipulator base reaction effects on adjacent experiments and on the space station structure. NASA Lewis Research Center has been performing research on these manipulator applications, focusing on improving the basic manipulator hardware, as well as developing improved manipulator control algorithms. By utilizing the modular manipulator concepts developed during the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed an experimental testbed system called the Microgravity Manipulator, incorporating two pitch-yaw modular positioners to provide a 4 dof experimental manipulator arm. A key feature in the design for microgravity manipulation research was the use of traction drives for torque transmission in the modular pitch-yaw differentials.

  4. Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment - Experiment Implementation Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hahn, I.; Weilert, M.

    1999-01-01

    Microgravity Scaling Theory Experiment (MISTE) is a candidate experiment competitively peer reviewed and selected for flight definition from the 1996 Fundamental Physics NASA Research Announcement (NRA).

  5. Replication Experiments in Microgravity Liquid Phase Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, Randall M.; Johnson, John L.

    2016-05-01

    Although considerable experience exists with sintering on Earth, the behavior under reduced gravity conditions is poorly understood. This study analyzes replica microgravity liquid phase sintering data for seven tungsten alloys (35 to 88 wt pct tungsten) sintered for three hold times (1, 180, or 600 minutes) at 1773 K (1500 °C) using 0.002 pct of standard gravity. Equivalent sintering is performed on Earth using the same heating cycles. Microgravity sintering results in a lower density and more shape distortion. For Earth-based sintering, minimized distortion is associated with low liquid contents to avoid solid settling and slumping. Distortion in microgravity sintering involves viscous spreading of the component at points of contact with the containment crucible. Distortion in microgravity is minimized by short hold times; long hold times allow progressive component reshaping toward a spherical shape. Microgravity sintering also exhibits pore coalescence into large, stable voids that cause component swelling. The microgravity sintering results show good replication in terms of mass change and sintered density. Distortion is scattered but statistically similar between the replica microgravity runs. However, subtle factors, not typically of concern on Earth, emerge to influence microgravity sintering, such that ground experiments do not provide a basis to predict microgravity behavior.

  6. Exoplanets -New Results from Space and Ground-based Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udry, Stephane

    The exploration of the outer solar system and in particular of the giant planets and their environments is an on-going process with the Cassini spacecraft currently around Saturn, the Juno mission to Jupiter preparing to depart and two large future space missions planned to launch in the 2020-2025 time frame for the Jupiter system and its satellites (Europa and Ganymede) on the one hand, and the Saturnian system and Titan on the other hand [1,2]. Titan, Saturn's largest satellite, is the only other object in our Solar system to possess an extensive nitrogen atmosphere, host to an active organic chemistry, based on the interaction of N2 with methane (CH4). Following the Voyager flyby in 1980, Titan has been intensely studied from the ground-based large telescopes (such as the Keck or the VLT) and by artificial satellites (such as the Infrared Space Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope) for the past three decades. Prior to Cassini-Huygens, Titan's atmospheric composition was thus known to us from the Voyager missions and also through the explorations by the ISO. Our perception of Titan had thus greatly been enhanced accordingly, but many questions remained as to the nature of the haze surrounding the satellite and the composition of the surface. The recent revelations by the Cassini-Huygens mission have managed to surprise us with many discoveries [3-8] and have yet to reveal more of the interesting aspects of the satellite. The Cassini-Huygens mission to the Saturnian system has been an extraordinary success for the planetary community since the Saturn-Orbit-Insertion (SOI) in July 2004 and again the very successful probe descent and landing of Huygens on January 14, 2005. One of its main targets was Titan. Titan was revealed to be a complex world more like the Earth than any other: it has a dense mostly nitrogen atmosphere and active climate and meteorological cycles where the working fluid, methane, behaves under Titan conditions the way that water does on

  7. Use of Microgravity to Control the Microstructure of Eutectics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox. William R.; Regel, Liya L.

    1999-01-01

    first of these hypotheses and set out to test it both experimentally and theoretically. We planned the following approaches: I .Pass electric current pulses through the MnBi/Bi eutectic during directional solidification in order to produce an oscillatory freezing rate. 2. Directionally solidify the MnBi/Bi eutectic on Mir using the QUELD II gradient freeze furnace developed by Professor Smith at Queen's University. 3. Select another fibrous eutectic system for investigation using the Accelerated Crucible Rotation Technique to introduce convection. 4. Develop theoretical models for eutectic solidification with an oscillatory freezing rate. Because of the problems with Mir, we substituted ground-based experiments at Queen's University with QUELD II vertical and horizontal, with and without vibration of the furnace. The Al-Si system was chosen for the ACRT experiments. Three related approaches were used to model eutectic solidification with an oscillatory freezing rate. A sharp interface model was used to calculate composition oscillations at the freezing interface in response to imposed freezing rate oscillations.

  8. The use of Antarctic analogs for the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney; Lynch, John T.

    1991-01-01

    Potential approaches to the use of the Antarctic as an analog to the lunar and Mars planetary surface segments of the SEI are reviewed. It is concluded that a well-planned and sustained program of ground-based research and testing in environments analogous to the moon and Mars is a rational method for reducing the risks associated with human space missions. Antarctica may provide an ideal setting for testing critical technologies (habitat design, life support, and advanced scientific instrumentation), studying human factors and physiology, and conducting basic scientific research similar to and directly relevant to that planned for the SEI.

  9. A ground-based comparison of the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) and a commercially available isokinetic dynamometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Kirk L.; Hackney, Kyle J.; De Witt, John K.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Goetchius, Elizabeth L.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2013-11-01

    IntroductionInternational Space Station (ISS) crewmembers perform muscle strength and endurance testing pre- and postflight to assess the physiologic adaptations associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity. However, a reliable and standardized method to document strength changes in-flight has not been established. To address this issue, a proprietary dynamometer, the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) has been developed and flown aboard the ISS. The aims of this ground-based investigation were to: (1) evaluate the test-retest reliability of MARES and (2) determine its agreement with a commercially available isokinetic dynamometer previously used for pre- and postflight medical testing. MethodsSix males (179.5±4.7 cm; 82.0±8.7 kg; 31.3±4.0 yr) and four females (163.2±7.3 cm; 63.2±1.9 kg; 32.3±6.8 yr) completed two testing sessions on a HUMAC NORM isokinetic dynamometer (NORM) and two sessions on MARES using a randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over design. Peak torque values at 60° and 180° s-1 were calculated from five maximal repetitions of knee extension (KE) and knee flexion (KF) for each session. Total work at 180° s-1 was determined from the area under the torque versus displacement curve during 20 maximal repetitions of KE and KF. ResultsIntraclass correlation coefficients were relatively high for both devices (0.90-0.99). Only one dependent measure, KE peak torque at 60° s-1 exhibited good concordance between devices (ρ=0.92) and a small average difference (0.9±17.3 N m). ConclusionMARES demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability and thus should serve as a good tool to monitor in-flight strength changes. However, due to poor agreement with NORM, it is not advisable to compare absolute values obtained on these devices.

  10. A Ground-Based Comparison of the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) and a Standard Isokinetic Dynamometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackney, K. J.; English, K. L.; Redd, E.; DeWitt, J. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: 1) To compare the test-to-test reliability of Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) with a standard laboratory isokinetic dynamometer (ISOK DYN) and; 2) to determine if measures of peak torque and total work differ between devices. METHODS: Ten subjects (6M, 4F) completed two trials on both MARES and an ISOK DYN in a counterbalanced order. Peak torque values at 60 deg & 180 deg / s were obtained from five maximal repetitions of knee extension (KE) and knee flexion (KF). Total work at 180 deg / s was determined from the area under the torque vs. displacement curve during twenty maximal repetitions of KE and KF. Reliability of measures within devices was interpreted from the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and compared between devices using the ratio of the within-device standard deviations. Indicators of agreement for the two devices were evaluated from: 1) a calculation of concordance (rho) and; 2) the correlation between the mean of measures versus the delta difference between measures (m u vs delta). RESULTS: For all outcome measures ICCs were high for both the ISOK DYN (0.95-0.99) and MARES (0.90-0.99). However, ratios of the within-device standard deviation were 1.3 to 4.3 times higher on MARES. On average, a wide range (3.3 to 1054 Nm) of differences existed between the values obtained. Only KE peak torque measured at 60 deg & 180 deg / s showed similarities between devices (rho = 0.91 & 0.87; Pearson's r for m u vs delta = -0.22 & -0.37, respectively). CONCLUSION: Although MARES was designed for use in microgravity it was quite reliable during ground-based testing. However, MARES was consistently more variable than an ISOK DYN. Future longitudinal studies evaluating a change in isokinetic peak torque or total work should be limited within one device.

  11. Directional solidification of transparent substances in ground and microgravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, O. P.; Shpak, A. P.; Zhivolub, E. L.; Bersudskyy, Y. J.; Shuleshova, O. V.

    Experimental study of crystallization process in microgravity environment is one of the foreground tasks for material science in space and plays considerable role in ISS research programs. This work is devoted to the direct study of the solid-liquid interface development under directional solidification in ground and microgravity conditions. The main difference of our experiment is investigation of structure formation process at different crystallographic orientations. For in situ real time observation of both dynamics of interface morphology and convective flow in the melt we used cylindrical 3-dimensional samples. Flight experimental set-up "MORPHOS" is under development. The aim of ground-based test of MORPHOS installation is to prepare flight experiment and to obtain morphological data sequence for transparent model substances succinonitrile (SCN) and pivalic acid (PA). Special attention was concentrated on the development of technique for single crystals production. Seed crystals of <100>, <110> and <111> orientations were used. Results of ground-based experiments. Brigman-type of experimental technique is used both for 3-dimensional and 2-dimensional samples of succinonitrile. <100>, <110> and <111> seed crystals were grown in bulk samples; growth orientations between <100> and <110> were studied in thin plane samples. In the range of growth rates 0.4 div 1.6 μ m/s planar interface, node, cellular, dendrite structures were observed. Special attention was paid to the time dependence of node and cellular spacing under stationary growth conditions. The comparison of 2 and 3 dimensional growth pattern is carry on. The influence of crystallographic growth direction on formation of equiaxed and elongated cells is discussed. The oscillations of mean cellular spacing and other peculiarities for 2 and 3-dimensional samples are noted. The comparison of the evolution of nodes and cells, their interaction under different growth rates in bulk and plane preparations is

  12. A Carbon Arc Apparatus For Production Of Nanotubes In Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, J. M.; Mason, G. R.; Feikema, D. A.

    2003-01-01

    Although many methods are available for production of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), the conventional carbon arc process remains the most popular due to its simplicity and large production rate. However, high temperatures inside the carbon arc generate strong buoyancy driven convection, and it is hypothesized that the non-uniform environment created by this flow will have large effects on the growth and morphology of SWNTs produced by the arc process. Indeed, using normal gravity experiments, Marin et al. have demonstrated that changes in the buoyant convection plume produced by altering the arc electrode orientation can be used to change the diameter distribution of the SWNTs produced; an effect they attribute to changes in the temperature of the local nanotube growth environment. While these experiments present convincing evidence that buoyant convection has a strong effect on nanotube growth, normal gravity experiments are severely limited in scope. The ideal way to study the effect of buoyancy on SWNT production is to remove it completely. Toward this goal, a microgravity carbon arc reactor has been designed for use in the NASA Glenn 2.2 and 5 second drop towers. Although simple in principle, conventional carbon arc machines, which generally employ large reaction chambers and require heavy duty welding power supplies capable of supplying kilowatts of power, are not suitable for microgravity experiments. Here we describe a miniature carbon arc machine for SWNT production that fits into a conventional drop rig for use on the NASA Glenn 2.2 and 5 second drop towers, but that has a performance (production rate) that is better than most large ground-based machines.

  13. Assessing ground-based counts of nestling bald eagles in northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, M.R.; Hatfield, J.S.; Lindquist, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    We present evidence that the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) productivity survey in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness of northeastern Minnesota may have underestimated the number of nestlings during 1986-1988. Recommendations are provided to achieve more accurate ground-based counts. By conducting ground-based observations for up to 1 hour/nest, an accurate count of the number of bald eagle nestlings can be obtained. If nests are only observed for up to 30 minutes/nest, an accurate determination of nest success can be made. The effort that managers put into counts should be based on the intended use of the productivity data. If small changes in mean productivity would trigger management action, the less acurate ground-based counts should be conducted with caution. Prior to implementing ground-based counts, a study like ours should estimate bias associated with different survey procedures and the observation time needed to achieve accurate results.

  14. Precursor Analysis for Flight- and Ground-Based Anomaly Risk Significance Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the precursor analysis for flight and ground based anomaly risk significance. It includes information on accident precursor analysis, real models vs. models, and probabilistic analysis.

  15. Predictors of sprint start speed: the effects of resistive ground-based vs. inclined treadmill training.

    PubMed

    Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Brent, Jensen L; Divine, Jon G; Hewett, Timothy E

    2007-08-01

    There is currently no consensus with regard to the most effective method to train for improved acceleration, or with regard to which kinematic variable provides the greatest opportunity for improvement in this important performance characteristic. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of resistive ground-based speed training and incline treadmill speed training on speed-related kinematic measures and sprint start speed. The hypothesis tested was that incline treadmill training would improve sprint start time, while the ground-based resistive training would not. Corollary hypotheses were that treadmill training would increase stride frequency and ground-based training would not affect kinematics during the sprint start. Thirty-one high school female soccer players (15.7 +/- 0.5 years) were assigned to either treadmill (n = 17) or ground-based (n = 14) training groups and trained 2 times a week for 6 weeks. The treadmill group utilized incline speed training on a treadmill, while the ground-based group utilized partner band resistance ground-based techniques. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used (4.5 m mark) before and after training to quantify kinematics during the fastest of 3 recorded sprint starts (9.1 m). Both groups decreased average sprint start time from 1.75 +/- 0.12 to 1.68 +/- 0.08 seconds (p < 0.001). Training increased stride frequency (p = 0.030) but not stride length. After training, total vertical pelvic displacement and stride length predicted 62% of the variance in sprint start time for the resistive ground-based group, while stride length and stride frequency accounted for 67% prediction of the variance in sprint start time for the treadmill group. The results of this study indicate that both incline treadmill and resistive ground-based training are effective at improving sprint start speed, although they potentially do so through differing mechanisms.

  16. Nineteenth International Microgravity Measurements Group Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    The Microgravity Measurements Group meetings provide a forum for an exchange of information and ideas about various aspects of microgravity acceleration research in international microgravity research programs. These meetings are sponsored by the PI Microgravity Services (PIMS) project at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The 19th MGMG meeting was held 11-13 July 2000 at the Sheraton Airport Hotel in Cleveland, Ohio. The 44 attendees represented NASA, other space agencies, universities, and commercial companies; 8 of the attendees were international representatives from Japan, Italy, Canada, Russia, and Germany. Twenty-seven presentations were made on a variety of microgravity environment topics including the International Space Station (ISS), acceleration measurement and analysis results, science effects from microgravity accelerations, vibration isolation, free flyer satellites, ground testing, vehicle characterization, and microgravity outreach and education. The meeting participants also toured three microgravity-related facilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Contained within the minutes is the conference agenda, which indicates each speaker, the title of their presentation, and the actual time of their presentation. The minutes also include the charts for each presentation, which indicate the authors' name(s) and affiliation. In some cases, a separate written report was submitted and has been Included here

  17. Microgravity survey for shallow subsurface investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Nozaki, Kyozo; Kanemori, Takashi

    1996-11-01

    Recently, the portability, repeatability, and accuracy of gravity meter measurements have improved enough to be useful for shallow applications for engineering purposes. The authors have performed microgravity surveys in Japan for the last several years with successful results. In this paper, the authors present three case histories of typical microgravity applications.

  18. Depression, mood state, and back pain during microgravity simulated by bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Styf, J. R.; Hutchinson, K.; Carlsson, S. G.; Hargens, A. R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a ground-based model for spinal adaptation to microgravity and to study the effects of spinal adaptation on depression, mood state, and pain intensity. METHODS: We investigated back pain, mood state, and depression in six subjects, all of whom were exposed to microgravity, simulated by two forms of bed rest, for 3 days. One form consisted of bed rest with 6 degrees of head-down tilt and balanced traction, and the other consisted of horizontal bed rest. Subjects had a 2-week period of recovery between the studies. The effects of bed rest on pain intensity in the lower back, depression, and mood state were investigated. RESULTS: Subjects experienced significantly more intense lower back pain, lower hemisphere abdominal pain, headache, and leg pain during head-down tilt bed rest. They had higher scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (ie, were more depressed) and significantly lower scores on the activity scale of the Bond-Lader questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: Bed rest with 6 degrees of head-down tilt may be a better experimental model than horizontal bed rest for inducing the pain and psychosomatic reactions experienced in microgravity. Head-down tilt with balanced traction may be a useful method to induce low back pain, mood changes, and altered self-rated activity level in bed rest studies.

  19. Simulation of fluid flows during growth of organic crystals in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Sutter, James K.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Fowlis, William K.; Radcliffe, M. D.; Drake, M. C.

    1987-01-01

    Several counter diffusion type crystal growth experiments were conducted in space. Improvements in crystal size and quality are attributed to reduced natural convection in the microgravity environment. One series of experiments called DMOS (Diffusive Mixing of Organic Solutions) was designed and conducted by researchers at the 3M Corporation and flown by NASA on the space shuttle. Since only limited information about the mixing process is available from the space experiments, a series of ground based experiments was conducted to further investigate the fluid dynamics within the DMOS crystal growth cell. Solutions with density differences in the range of 10 to the -7 to 10 to the -4 power g/cc were used to simulate microgravity conditions. The small density differences were obtained by mixing D2O and H2O. Methylene blue dye was used to enhance flow visualization. The extent of mixing was measured photometrically using the 662 nm absorbance peak of the dye. Results indicate that extensive mixing by natural convection can occur even under microgravity conditions. This is qualitatively consistent with results of a simple scaling analysis. Quantitave results are in close agreement with ongoing computational modeling analysis.

  20. Quenching dust mixtures: A new microgravity testing method using electric particulate suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Colver, G.M.; Greene, N.; Shoemaker, D.; Kim, S.W.; Yu, T.U.

    2004-10-15

    The electric particulate suspension (EPS) is a combustion ignition system under development at Iowa State University for the evaluation of quenching effects of powders in microgravity (quenching distance, ignition energy, and flammability limits). Both walls and (inert) particles can be tested as quenching media. The EPS method has potential as a benchmark design for quenching powder flames that would provide NASA and the scientific community with a new fire safety standard. Because of its simplicity and size, it is also suitable for tests on the International Space Station and the Mars Rover. The EPS method also supports combustion modeling by providing accurate measurement of flame-quenching distance as an important parameter in laminar flame theory because it is closely related to characteristic flame thickness and flame structure. In microgravity, the EPS method is expected to produce dust suspensions that are highly uniform (before ignition) compared to 1-g, where gravity can cause stratification of the suspension. Microgravity will also permit increased concentrations of particles to be tested (for a given electric field strength). Several EPS experiments are reviewed, including X-Y laser scans for cloud stratification, particle velocity distribution evaluation by the use of particle tracking velocimetry/particle image velocimetry and a leak hole sampling rig, and measurement of particle slip velocity by the use of laser Doppler anemometry. Sample quenching and ignition energy curves are presented for aluminum powder and coal dust. Only ground-based data at 1-g are reported.

  1. Industrial applications of the microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Opportunities for commercialization of the microgravity environment will depend upon the success of basic research projects performed in space. Significant demands for manufacturing opportunities are unlikely in the near term. The microgravity environment is to be considered primarily as a tool for research and secondarily as a manufacturing site. This research tool is unique, valuable, and presently available to U.S. investigators only through resources provided by NASA. The United States has an obligation to facilitate corporate research, maintain a flexible international policy, foster use of and assure access to a wide variety of facilities, and develop a posture of national and international leadership in and stewardship of research and materials processing in the microgravity environment. The National Research Council's Committee on Industrial Applications of the Microgravity Environment recommends six actions that strengthen this posture, including the formation of an authoritative organization to oversee the implementation of a program of microgravity research and its industrial applications.

  2. A Geology Sampling System for Microgravity Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Anthony; Naids, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of microgravity bodies is being investigated as a precursor to a Mars surface mission. Asteroids, comets, dwarf planets, and the moons of Mars all fall into this microgravity category and some are been discussed as potential mission targets. Obtaining geological samples for return to Earth will be a major objective for any mission to a microgravity body. Currently the knowledge base for geology sampling in microgravity is in its infancy. Humans interacting with non-engineered surfaces in microgravity environment pose unique challenges. In preparation for such missions a team at the NASA Johnson Space Center has been working to gain experience on how to safely obtain numerous sample types in such an environment. This paper describes the type of samples the science community is interested in, highlights notable prototype work, and discusses an integrated geology sampling solution.

  3. Turning toys into microgravity machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumners, C.; Reiff, P.

    The Toys in Space program communicates the experience of being in space and ultimately living in space. In space, what would happen to a yo-yo's speed, a top's wobble, or your skill in playing soccer, throwing a boomerang or jumping rope? Discover how these toys and others have performed in microgravity and how these demonstrations can link children to the space program. On April 12, 1985 astronauts carried the first experiment package of miniature mechanical systems called toys into space. Since that time 54 toys have been demonstrated in microgravity. This summer, NASA and the Houston Museum of Natural Science have sponsored the first International Toys in Space project with sixteen toys chosen for their popularity and relevance around the world. This set of toys takes advantage of the larger Space Station by providing toys that take up more room - from two-person games of soccer, lacrosse, marbles, and hockey to a jump rope and several kinds of yoyos. Three earlier Toys in Space missions have shown that toys are ideal machines to demonstrate how gravity affects moving objects on the Earth's surface and how the motions of these objects change in microgravity. In this presentation, participants actually experiment with miniature versions of toys, predict their behavior on orbit, and watch the surprising results. Participants receive toy patterns to share with young people at home, around the world. The Toys in Space program scales for all ages. Young learners can use their observation and comparison skills while older students apply physics concepts to toy behaviors. Concepts demonstrated include all of Newton's Laws of Motion, gyroscopic stability, centripetal force, density, as well as conservation of linear and angular momentum.

  4. Altered cell function in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    1991-01-01

    The paper overviews published results from investigations of changes in basic biological parameters taking place as a result of spaceflight exposure. These include changes in the rates of the DNA, mRNA, and protein biosyntheses; changes in the growth rate of an organism; and alterations in the cytoskeleton structure, differentiation, hormone accumulation, and collagen matrix secretion. These results, obtained both in complex biological organisms and on cultured cells, suggest that a basic cellular function is influenced and changed by microgravity. Many of the above mentioned changes are also found to take place in aging cells.

  5. Materials Research in Microgravity 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyers, R. (Editor); Bojarevis, V. (Editor); Downey, J.; Henein, H. (Editor); Matson, D.; Seidel, A. (Editor); Voss, D. (Editor); SanSoucie, M. (Compiler)

    2012-01-01

    Reducing gravitational effects such as thermal and solutal buoyancy enables investigation of a large range of different phenomena in materials science. The Symposium on Materials Research in Microgravity involved 6 sessions composed of 39 presentations and 14 posters with contributions from more than 14 countries. The sessions concentrated on four different categories of topics related to ongoing reduced-gravity research. Highlights from this symposium will be featured in the September 2012 issue of JOM. The TMS Materials Processing and Manufacturing Division, Process Technology and Modeling Committee and Solidification Committee sponsored the symposium.

  6. Transient thermal convection in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, R. F.

    1981-01-01

    The unsteady two-dimensional thermal convection in a cylinder due to a transient acceleration solved for a step-function excitation. From this, the solution was obtained for an arbitrary time-dependent acceleration. The solutions are valied for sufficiently low Rayleigh numbers and therefore, relevant to microgravity fields. As an example, two graphs are presented for he convection resulting from the movement of an astronaut inside the Shuttle. The analysis can be applied to obtain any other convective flows such as those caused by g-jitter or variable rotation of the Shuttle.

  7. Microgravity human factors workstation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Wilmington, Robert P.; Morris, Randy B.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1992-01-01

    Microgravity evaluations of workstation hardware as well as its system components were found to be very useful for determining the expected needs of the Space Station crew and for refining overall workstation design. Research at the Johnson Space Center has been carried out to provide optimal workstation design and human interface. The research included evaluations of hand controller configurations for robots and free flyers, the identification of cursor control device requirements, and the examination of anthropometric issues of workstation design such as reach, viewing distance, and head clearance.

  8. Embryogenic plant cells in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, Abraham D.

    1991-01-01

    In view of circumstantial evidence for the role of gravity (g) in shaping the embryo environment, normal embryo development may not occur reliably and efficiently in the microgravity environment of space. Attention must accordingly be given to those aspects of higher plant reproductive biology in space environments required for the production of viable embryos in a 'seed to seed to seed' experiment. It is suggested that cultured cells can be grown to be morphogenetically competent, and can be evaluated as to their ability to simulate embryogenic events usually associated with fertilized eggs in the embryo sac of the ovule in the ovary.

  9. Microgravity Materials and Biotechnology Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlasse, Marcus

    1998-01-01

    Presentation will deal with an overview of the Materials Science and Biotechnology/Crystal Growth flight experiments and their requirements for a successful execution. It will also deal with the hardware necessary to perform these experiments as well as the hardware requirements. This information will serve as a basis for the Abstract: workshop participants to review the poss7ibilifies for a low cost unmanned carrier and the simple automation to carry-out experiments in a microgravity environment with little intervention from the ground. The discussion will include what we have now and what will be needed to automate totally the hardware and experiment protocol at relatively low cost.

  10. Life sciences, biotechnology, and microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Hayes, C.; Grindeland, R.; Lanhan, J. W.; Morrison, D.

    1987-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) studies on rats flown aboard Spacelab 3 are discussed, and evidence for the direct effect of microgravity on cell function is reviewed. SL-3 rat GH cells were found to experience a secretory lesion (they contained more hormone per cell, but released less per cell relative to controls). Pituitary cell culture experiments on the STS-8 mission showed that GH cells did not subsequently release as much hormone as did control cells, indicating a secretory lesion. Changes in bone and muscle noted in SL-3 rats are related to GH cell findings.

  11. Japan's microgravity combustion science program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Junichi

    1993-01-01

    Most of energy used by us is generated by combustion of fuels. On the other hand, combustion is responsible for contamination of our living earth. Combustion, also, gives us damage to our life as fire or explosive accidents. Therefore, clean and safe combustion is now eagerly required. Knowledge of the combustion process in combustors is needed to achieve proper designs that have stable operation, high efficiency, and low emission levels. However, current understanding on combustion is far from complete. Especially, there is few useful information on practical liquid and solid particle cloud combustion. Studies on combustion process under microgravity condition will provide many informations for basic questions related to combustors.

  12. Structural and functional changes in lymphocytes in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risin, D.; Risin, S.; Ward, N.; Sundaresan, A.; Pellis, N. R.

    Impairment of the immunity in astronauts and cosmonauts even in short-term flights is a recognized risk. Long-term orbital space missions and anticipated interplanetary flights increase the concern for more pronounced effects on the immune system with potential clinical consequences. Since 1992 we are investigating the effect of modeled (MMG) and true microgravity on isolated lymphocytes in vitro. We had shown that modeled and true microgravity inhibit lymphocyte locomotion. Modeled microgravity also suppresses polyclonal and antigen-specific lymphocyte activation. At the same time polyclonal lymphocyte activation prior to exposure to MMG abrogates the MG-induced inhibition of lymphocyte locomotion. Analysis of the relationship between activation deficits and the loss of locomotion in MG suggested a fundamental defect in signal transduction mechanism that was confirmed in further studies. FACS analysis showed that MMG selectively inhibits the expression of PKC isoforms. The decrease was most prominent and substantial in PKC ɛ, less obvious in PKC δ and almost marginal and insignificant in PKC α . Downregulation of PKC isoforms δ and ɛ was proven at the mRNA level by RT-PCR and at protein level by Western blot. We had also demonstrated that MMG selectively affects not only the expression but also the cell distribution of different PKC isoforms that may contribute to the impairment of signal transduction in MG. MMG inhibits programmed cell death (PCD) in lymphocytes. Inhibition was observed in two experimental models (PCD induced by gamma-radiation in PBMC and activation-induced PCD in activated T cells after restimulation with PHA-M or PMA+ionomycin.). Comparative DNA chip analysis has demonstrated a significant difference in gene expression profiles between static and MG analog cultures of activated T cells. (Supported by NRA OLMSA-02 and NSCORT NAG5-4072 grants).

  13. Acoustic excitation of droplet combustion in microgravity and normal gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Dattarajan, S.; Lutomirski, A.; Lobbia, R.; Smith, O.I.; Karagozian, A.R.

    2006-01-01

    This experimental study focused on methanol droplet combustion characteristics during exposure to external acoustical perturbations in both normal gravity and microgravity. Emphasis was placed on examination of excitation conditions in which the droplet was situated (1) at or near a velocity antinode (pressure node), where the droplet experienced the greatest effects of velocity perturbations, or (2) at a velocity node (pressure antinode), where the droplet was exposed to minimal velocity fluctuations. Acoustic excitation had a significantly greater influence on droplet-burning rates and flame structures in microgravity than in normal gravity. In normal gravity, acoustic excitation of droplets situated near a pressure node produced only very moderate increases in burning rate (about 11-15% higher than for nonacoustically excited, burning droplets) and produced no significant change in burning rate near a pressure antinode. In microgravity, for the same range in sound pressure level, droplet burning rates increased by over 75 and 200% for droplets situated at or near pressure antinode and pressure node locations, respectively. Observed flame deformation for droplets situated near pressure nodes or antinodes were generally consistent with the notion of acoustic radiation forces arising in connection with acoustic streaming, yet both velocity and pressure perturbations were seen to affect flame behavior, even when the droplet was situated precisely at or extremely close to node or antinode locations. Displacements of the droplet with respect to node or antinode locations were observed to have a measureable effect on droplet burning rates, yet acoustic accelerations associated with such displacements, as an analogy to gravitational acceleration, did not completely explain the significant increases in burning rate resulting from the excitation.

  14. Use of Microgravity to Control the Microstructure of Eutectics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, William R.; Regel, Liya L.; Smith, Reginald W.

    1998-01-01

    This grant began in June of 1996. Its long term goal is to be able to control the microstructure of directionally solidified eutectic alloys, through an improved understanding of the influence of convection. The primary objective of the present projects is to test hypotheses for the reported influence of microgravity on the microstructure of three fibrous eutectics (MnBi-Bi, InSb-NiSb, Al3Ni-Al). A secondary objective is to determine the influence of convection on the microstructure of other eutectic alloys. Two doctoral students and a masters student supported as a teaching assistant were recruited for this research. Techniques were developed for directional solidification of MnBi-Bi eutectics with periodic application of current pulses to produce an oscillatory freezing rate. Image analysis techniques were developed to obtain the variation in MnBi fiber spacing, which was found to be normally distributed. The mean and standard deviation of fiber spacing were obtained for several freezing conditions. Eighteen ampoules were prepared for use in the gradient freeze furnace QUELD developed at Queen's University for use in microgravity. Nine of these ampoules will be solidified soon at Queen's in a ground-based model. We hope to solidify the other nine in the QUELD that is mounted on the Canadian Microgravity Isolation Mount on MIR. Techniques are being developed for directional solidification of the Al-Si eutectic at different freezing rates, with and without application of accelerated crucible rotation to induce convection. For the first time, theoretical methods are being developed to analyze eutectic solidification with an oscillatory freezing rate. In a classical sharp-interface model, we found that an oscillatory freezing rate increases the deviation of the average interfacial composition from the eutectic, and increases the undercooling of the two phases by different amounts. This would be expected to change the volume fraction solidifying and the fiber spacing

  15. Radioactive Decay - An Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeachy, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Presents an analog of radioactive decay that allows the student to grasp the concept of half life and the exponential nature of the decay process. The analog is devised to use small, colored, plastic poker chips or counters. Provides the typical data and a graph which supports the analog. (YP)

  16. Terrestrial stress analogs for spaceflight associated immune system dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Crucian, Brian; Simpson, Richard J; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Raymond; Chouker, Alexander; Hwang, Shen-An; Actor, Jeffrey K; Salam, Alex P; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2014-07-01

    Recent data indicates that dysregulation of the immune system occurs and persists during spaceflight. Impairment of immunity, especially in conjunction with elevated radiation exposure and limited clinical care, may increase certain health risks during exploration-class deep space missions (i.e. to an asteroid or Mars). Research must thoroughly characterize immune dysregulation in astronauts to enable development of a monitoring strategy and validate any necessary countermeasures. Although the International Space Station affords an excellent platform for on-orbit research, access may be constrained by technical, logistical vehicle or funding limitations. Therefore, terrestrial spaceflight analogs will continue to serve as lower cost, easier access platforms to enable basic human physiology studies. Analog work can triage potential in-flight experiments and thus result in more focused on-orbit studies, enhancing overall research efficiency. Terrestrial space analogs generally replicate some of the physiological or psychological stress responses associated with spaceflight. These include the use of human test subjects in a laboratory setting (i.e. exercise, bed rest, confinement, circadian misalignment) and human remote deployment analogs (Antarctica winterover, undersea, etc.) that incorporate confinement, isolation, extreme environment, physiological mission stress and disrupted circadian rhythms. While bed rest has been used to examine the effects of physical deconditioning, radiation and microgravity may only be simulated in animal or microgravity cell culture (clinorotation) analogs. This article will characterize the array of terrestrial analogs for spaceflight immune dysregulation, the current evidence base for each, and interpret the analog catalog in the context of acute and chronic stress. PMID:24462949

  17. Microgravity: Teacher's Guide with Activities for Physical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Wargo, Michael J.

    This teacher's guide to microgravity contains 16 student science activities with full background information to facilitate an understanding of the concepts of microgravity for teachers and students. Topics covered in the background sections include the definitions of gravity and microgravity, creating microgravity, the fluid state, combustion…

  18. Is there resetting of central venous pressure in microgravity?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Ludwig, D. A.; Elliott, J. J.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    In the early phase of the Space Shuttle program, NASA flight surgeons implemented a fluid-loading countermeasure in which astronauts were instructed to ingest eight 1-g salt tablets with 960 ml of water approximately 2 hours prior to reentry from space. This fluid loading regimen was intended to enhance orthostatic tolerance by replacing circulating plasma volume reduced during the space mission. Unfortunately, fluid loading failed to replace plasma volume in groundbased experiments and has proven minimally effective as a countermeasure against post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance. In addition to the reduction of plasma volume, central venous pressure (CVP) is reduced during exposure to actual and groundbased analogs of microgravity. In the present study, we hypothesized that the reduction in CVP due to exposure to microgravity represents a resetting of the CVP operating point to a lower threshold. A lower CVP 'setpoint' might explain the failure of fluid loading to restore plasma volume. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted an investigation in which we administered an acute volume load (stimulus) and measured responses in CVP, plasma volume and renal functions. If our hypothesis is true, we would expect the elevation in CVP induced by saline infusion to return to its pre-infusion levels in both HDT and upright control conditions despite lower vascular volume during HDT. In contrast to previous experiments, our approach is novel in that it provides information on alterations in CVP and vascular volume during HDT that are necessary for interpretation of the proposed CVP operating point resetting hypothesis.

  19. A Microgravity Helium Dilution Cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Pat R.; Sperans, Joel (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We are developing a He-3-He-4 dilution cooler to operate in microgravity. It uses charcoal adsorption pumps and heaters for its operation; it has no moving parts. It currently operates cyclically to well below 0.1 K and we have designed a version to operate continuously. We expect that the continuous version will be able to provide the long-duration cooling that many experiments need at temperatures down to 0.040 K. More importantly, such a dilution cooler could provide the precooling that enables the use of adiabatic demagnetization techniques that can reach temperatures below 0.001 K. At temperatures below 0.002 K many fascinating microgravity experiments on superfluid He-3 become possible. Among the possibilities are: research into a superfluid He-3 gyroscope, study of the nucleation of the B-phase of superfluid He-3 when the sample is floating out of contact with walls, study of the anisotropy of the surface tension of the B-phase, and NMR experiments on tiny free-floating clusters of superfluid He-3 atoms that should model the shell structure of nuclei.

  20. Melting processes under microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glicksman, M.; Lupulescu, A.; Koss, M.

    The Rensselaer Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (RIDGE) uses the large data archive amassed through a series of three NASA-supported microgravity experiments (IDGE/USMP-2, -3, and -4), all of which flew aboard the space shuttle Columbia. The IDGE instruments aboard USMP-2 and -3 provided in-flight CCD images, and 35-mm films (postflight). USMP-4 also allowed streaming of near-real-time video. Using 30 fps video data, it became possible for the first time to study both freezing and melting sequences for high-purity pivalic acid (PVA). We report on the melting process observed for PVA crystal fragments, observed under nearly ideal convection-free conditions. Conduction-limited melting processes are of importance in orbital melting of materials, meteoritic genesis, mushy-zone evolution, and in fusion weld pools where length scales for thermal buoyancy are restricted. Microgravity video show clearly that PVA dendrites melt into fragments that shrink at accelerating rates to extinction. The melting paths of individual fragments follow characteristic time dependences derived from theory. The theoretical melting kinetics against which the experimental observations are carefully compared is based on conduction-limited quasi-static melting under shape-preserving conditions. Good agreement between theory and experiment is found for the stable melting of needle-shaped prolate spheroidal PVA crystal fragments with aspect ratios near C /A = 12.

  1. Mechanisms of microgravity induced orthostatic intolerance: implications for effective countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    2002-01-01

    The development of orthostatic hypotension and instability immediately after return from spaceflight has been a significant operational problem to astronauts for more than four decades. Significant reductions in stroke volume and peripheral vascular resistance contribute to ineffective maintenance of systemic arterial blood pressure during standing after spaceflight despite compensatory elevations in heart rate. The primary mechanism underlying reduced stroke volume appears to be a reduction in preload associated with reduced circulating blood volume, although cardiac atrophy might also contribute. Space flight and ground based experiments have demonstrated that an inability to provide adequate peripheral vasoconstriction in astronauts that become presyncopal may be associated with several mechanisms including reduced sympathetic nerve activity, arterial smooth muscle atrophy and/or hyporeactivity, hypersensitivity of beta-adrenergic receptors, etc. In addition, an inability to provide adequate tachycardia in presyncopal subjects may be associated with reduced carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity. Based on the current knowledge and understanding of cardiovascular mechanisms that are altered during exposure to microgravity, a major focus of future research should be directed to the systematic evaluation of potential countermeasures that specifically target and restore the function of these mechanisms. Based on a preliminary systematic evaluation presented in this review, acute physical exercise designed to elicit maximal effort, G-suit inflation, artificial gravity, and specific pharmacological interventions, alone or in combination, have shown promise as successful countermeasures that provide protection against post-flight orthostatic intolerance.

  2. Life and Microgravity Sciences Spacelab Mission: Human Research Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B. (Editor); Walker, Karen R. (Editor); Hargens, Alan (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The Life Sciences, Microgravity Science and Spacelab Mission contains a number of human experiments directed toward identifying the functional, metabolic and neurological characteristics of muscle weakness and atrophy during space flight. To ensure the successful completion of the flight experiments, a ground-based pilot study, designed to mimic the flight protocols as closely as possible, was carried out in the head-down tilt bed rest model. This report records the rationales, procedures, preliminary results and estimated value of the pilot study, the first of its kind, for 12 of the 13 planned experiments in human research. The bed rest study was conducted in the Human Research Facility at Ames Research Center from July 11 - August 28, 1995. Eight healthy male volunteers performed the experiments before, during and after 17 days bed rest. The immediate purposes of this simulation were to integrate the experiments, provide data in a large enough sample for publication of results, enable investigators to review individual experiments in the framework of a multi-disciplinary study and relay the experience of the pilot study to the mission specialists prior to launch.

  3. Signal transduction in cells of the immune system in microgravity

    PubMed Central

    Ullrich, Oliver; Huber, Kathrin; Lang, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    Life on Earth developed in the presence and under the constant influence of gravity. Gravity has been present during the entire evolution, from the first organic molecule to mammals and humans. Modern research revealed clearly that gravity is important, probably indispensable for the function of living systems, from unicellular organisms to men. Thus, gravity research is no more or less a fundamental question about the conditions of life on Earth. Since the first space missions and supported thereafter by a multitude of space and ground-based experiments, it is well known that immune cell function is severely suppressed in microgravity, which renders the cells of the immune system an ideal model organism to investigate the influence of gravity on the cellular and molecular level. Here we review the current knowledge about the question, if and how cellular signal transduction depends on the existence of gravity, with special focus on cells of the immune system. Since immune cell function is fundamental to keep the organism under imnological surveillance during the defence against pathogens, to investigate the effects and possible molecular mechanisms of altered gravity is indispensable for long-term space flights to Earth Moon or Mars. Thus, understanding the impact of gravity on cellular functions on Earth will provide not only important informations about the development of life on Earth, but also for therapeutic and preventive strategies to cope successfully with medical problems during space exploration. PMID:18957108

  4. The Second International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    This CP contains 40 papers presented at the Second International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, OH, from September 15 to 17, 1992. The purpose of the workshop was twofold: to exchange information about the progress and promise of combustion science in microgravity and to provide a forum to discuss which areas in microgravity combustion science need to be expanded profitably and which should be included in upcoming NASA Research Announcements (NRA). Topics covered included the production of fullerenes, and the processing of ceramics. Separate abstracts have been prepared for articles from this CP.

  5. Ground-Based Studies of Thermocapillary Flows in Levitated Laser-Heated Drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadhai, S. S.; Zhao, H.; Trinh, Eugene H.

    1999-01-01

    The fluid flow phenomena are studied together with the thermal effects on drops levitated in acoustic and/or electrostatic fields. While the study is concerned primarily with particles in strong acoustic fields to overcome gravity, some results for microgravity have also been obtained. The study also includes an analysis and an experimental investigation of the thermocapillary flow in a spot-heated drop. Results of a Glovebox experiment on the MSL-1 mission, one of whose objectives was to evaluate the acoustic stability criteria in microgravity, are also discussed.

  6. Robust Control for The G-Limit Microgravity Vibration Isolation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark S.

    2004-01-01

    Many microgravity science experiments need an active isolation system to provide a sufficiently quiescent acceleration environment. The g-LIMIT vibration isolation system will provide isolation for Microgravity Science Glovebox experiments in the International Space Station. While standard control system technologies have been demonstrated for these applications, modern control methods have the potential for meeting performance requirements while providing robust stability in the presence of parametric uncertainties that are characteristic of microgravity vibration isolation systems. While H2 and H infinity methods are well established, neither provides the levels of attenuation performance and robust stability in a compensator with low order. Mixed H2/mu controllers provide a means for maximizing robust stability for a given level of mean-square nominal performance while directly optimizing for controller order constraints. This paper demonstrates the benefit of mixed norm design from the perspective of robustness to parametric uncertainties and controller order for microgravity vibration isolation. A nominal performance metric analogous to the mu measure for robust stability assessment is also introduced in order to define an acceptable trade space from which different control methodologies can be compared.

  7. Computations of Boiling in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tryggvason, Gretar; Jacqmin, David

    1999-01-01

    The absence (or reduction) of gravity, can lead to major changes in boiling heat transfer. On Earth, convection has a major effect on the heat distribution ahead of an evaporation front, and buoyancy determines the motion of the growing bubbles. In microgravity, convection and buoyancy are absent or greatly reduced and the dynamics of the growing vapor bubbles can change in a fundamental way. In particular, the lack of redistribution of heat can lead to a large superheat and explosive growth of bubbles once they form. While considerable efforts have been devoted to examining boiling experimentally, including the effect of microgravity, theoretical and computational work is limited to very simple models. In this project, the growth of boiling bubbles is studied by direct numerical simulations where the flow field is fully resolved and the effects of inertia, viscosity, surface deformation, heat conduction and convection, as well as the phase change, are fully accounted for. The proposed work is based on previously funded NASA work that allowed us to develop a two-dimensional numerical method for boiling flows and to demonstrate the ability of the method to simulate film boiling. While numerical simulations of multi-fluid flows have been advanced in a major way during the last five years, or so, similar capability for flows with phase change are still in their infancy. Although the feasibility of the proposed approach has been demonstrated, it has yet to be extended and applied to fully three-dimensional simulations. Here, a fully three-dimensional, parallel, grid adaptive code will be developed. The numerical method will be used to study nucleate boiling in microgravity, with particular emphasis on two aspects of the problem: 1) Examination of the growth of bubbles at a wall nucleation site and the instabilities of rapidly growing bubbles. Particular emphasis will be put on accurately capturing the thin wall layer left behind as a bubble expands along a wall, on

  8. Extragalactic Science with the Next Generation of Ground Based TeV {gamma}-Ray Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Krawczynski, Henric

    2008-12-24

    The ground based Cherenkov telescope experiments H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and VERITAS, and the space borne Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope are currently exploring the galactic and extragalactic Universe in {gamma}-rays. At the time of writing this article, a large number of Active Galactic Nuclei have been studied in great detail and the {gamma}-ray observations have had a major impact on our understanding of the structure of jets from these objects. In this contribution, the status of ground based {gamma}-ray observations of AGN and other extragalactic source classes is reviewed as of October, 2008. After discussing source classes that could be detected with next generation ground based experiments like AGIS, CTA, and HAWC, the potential impact of the observations on the fields of high energy astrophysics, structure formation, observational cosmology, and fundamental physics is reviewed. We close with a discussion of the technical requirements that arise from the science drivers.

  9. BigBOSS: The Ground-Based Stage IV BAO Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schlegel, David; Bebek, Chris; Heetderks, Henry; Ho, Shirley; Lampton, Michael; Levi, Michael; Mostek, Nick; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Perlmutter, Saul; Roe, Natalie; Sholl, Michael; Smoot, George; White, Martin; Dey, Arjun; Abraham, Tony; Jannuzi, Buell; Joyce, Dick; Liang, Ming; Merrill, Mike; Olsen, Knut; Salim, Samir

    2009-04-01

    The BigBOSS experiment is a proposed DOE-NSF Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with an all-sky galaxy redshift survey. The project is designed to unlock the mystery of dark energy using existing ground-based facilities operated by NOAO. A new 4000-fiber R=5000 spectrograph covering a 3-degree diameter field will measure BAO and redshift space distortions in the distribution of galaxies and hydrogen gas spanning redshifts from 0.2< z< 3.5. The Dark Energy Task Force figure of merit (DETF FoM) for this experiment is expected to be equal to that of a JDEM mission for BAO with the lower risk and cost typical of a ground-based experiment.

  10. Data Processing in Microgravity Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blecha, V.

    2013-05-01

    The current land gravity meters have a sensitivity of 1 μGal and gravity method has become common part of near-surface geophysical surveys. Mean square error of measurements is usually less than 5 μGal and anomalies with amplitude of about 10 μGal can often be regarded as credible and it is possible to link them to specific sources. Gravity survey can be divided into three phases: data acquisition, processing and interpretation. In microgravity surveys each of these phases has its own specifics, because increasing the accuracy and reliability of data by each μGal is important. This contribution focuses on the processing of microgravity data. In most cases, the measured data in microgravity surveys are processed into the relative Bouguer anomalies. Calculation of the relative Bouguer anomaly means that the value of gravity on the base station is arbitrary, instead of altitudes of gravity stations only their elevation are measured and instead of computing of theoretical gravity only latitude correction is calculated. When local surveys are performed on relatively small areas topographic corrections are calculated only in limited distance and gravity curvature (Bullard B) correction is omitted. The gravity effects of topographic features outside the survey area generally have spatial wavelengths larger than that of the target anomaly. Therefore, the topographic features outside the survey area can be often treated as components of the local regional field variation and corrected in a single regional-residual field separation step. An important part of microgravity data processing is correction for diurnal temporal variations of gravity. Diurnal temporal variations consist of tidal effect of the Moon and Sun and drift of gravity meter. A substantial part of the tidal effects and long-term linear drift is removed automatically by gravity meter software. Residual parts of temporal changes are registered by reoccupation of base station in a time interval of ca. 1 hour

  11. Protein crystal growth in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, William M.; Delucas, Lawrence J.; Wilson, William W.

    1989-01-01

    Major advances have been made in several of the experimental aspects of protein crystallography, leaving protein crystallization as one of the few remaining bottlenecks. As a result, it has become important that the science of protein crystal growth is better understood and that improved methods for protein crystallization are developed. Preliminary experiments with both small molecules and proteins indicate that microgravity may beneficially affect crystal growth. For this reason, a series of protein crystal growth experiments using the Space Shuttle was initiated. The preliminary space experiments were used to evolve prototype hardware that will form the basis for a more advanced system that can be used to evaluate effects of gravity on protein crystal growth. Various optical techniques are being utilized to monitor the crystal growth process from the incipient or nucleation stage and throughout the growth phase. The eventual goal of these studies is to develop a system which utilizes optical monitoring for dynamic control of the crystallization process.

  12. NASA Microgravity Combustion Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Merrill K.

    1999-01-01

    Combustion has been a subject of increasingly vigorous scientific research for over a century, not surprising considering that combustion accounts for approximately 85% of the world's energy production and is a key element of many critical technologies used by contemporary society. Although combustion technology is vital to our standard of living, it also poses great challenges to maintaining a habitable environment. A major goal of combustion research is production of fundamental (foundational) knowledge that can be used in developing accurate simulations of complex combustion processes, replacing current "cut-and-try" approaches and allowing developers to improve the efficiency of combustion devices, to reduce the production of harmful emissions, and to reduce the incidence of accidental uncontrolled combustion. With full understanding of the physics and chemistry involved in a given combustion process, including details of the unit processes and their interactions, physically accurate models which can then be used for parametric exploration of new combustion domains via computer simulation can be developed, with possible resultant definition of radically different approaches to accomplishment of various combustion goals. Effects of gravitational forces on earth impede combustion studies more than they impede most other areas of science. The effects of buoyancy are so ubiquitous that we often do not appreciate the enormous negative impact that they have had on the rational development of combustion science. Microgravity offers potential for major gains in combustion science understanding in that it offers unique capability to establish the flow environment rather than having it dominated by uncontrollable (under normal gravity) buoyancy effects and, through this control, to extend the range of test conditions that can be studied. It cannot be emphasized too strongly that our program is dedicated to taking advantage of microgravity to untangle complications caused

  13. Microgravity Outreach with Math Teachers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Don Gillies, a materials scientist at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), demonstrates the greater bounce to the ounce of metal made from a supercooled bulk metallic glass alloy that NASA is studying in space experiments. The metal plates at the bottom of the plexiglass tubes are made of three different types of metal. Bulk metallic glass is more resilient and, as a result, the dropped ball bearing bounces higher. Fundamental properties of this bulk metallic glass were measured in a space flight in 1997 Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) mission. These properties could not have been measured on Earth and have been incorporated into recent design. This demonstration was at the April 2000 conference of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in Chicago. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  14. Modeling of microgravity combustion experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckmaster, John

    1993-01-01

    Modeling plays a vital role in providing physical insights into behavior revealed by experiment. The program at the University of Illinois is designed to improve our understanding of basic combustion phenomena through the analytical and numerical modeling of a variety of configurations undergoing experimental study in NASA's microgravity combustion program. Significant progress has been made in two areas: (1) flame-balls, studied experimentally by Ronney and his co-workers; (2) particle-cloud flames studied by Berlad and his collaborators. Additional work is mentioned below. NASA funding for the U. of Illinois program commenced in February 1991 but work was initiated prior to that date and the program can only be understood with this foundation exposed. Accordingly, we start with a brief description of some key results obtained in the pre - 2/91 work.

  15. Microgravity research in Japanese industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Isao

    1993-07-01

    Japanese industry will have many opportunities to perform microgravity tests in the 1990s. The world's longest dropshaft was completed in Hokkaido last year. SJAC has many programs, including GAS, MASER, CASIMIR, COSIMA, and MIR. In fact, 12 electronic and 4 biomaterial experiments using GAS canisters which have been waiting since 1986 will be finished by early 1993. STC will carry out 4 experiments on D-2 in 1993. USEF has two high-quality experiment programs on SFU and EXPRESS. SFU is an unmanned platform for multiple uses and the first flight is expected in 1994 or 95. Ground tests of 8 material experiments are now in progress. EXPRESS is a reusable reentry capsule. Multireactors in an autoclave which are designed for zeolite and catalyst crystal growth on EXPRESS have been developed.

  16. Analog, still without fear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delagrange, A. D.

    1984-09-01

    This report is an update of one issued in 1977 which predicted that the predicted death of analog circuitry (also called linear) would not occur; in fact, the patient appeared remarkably healthy. The report proved correct. We have the same situation again today: the same predictions and counter-prediction. Each year brings significant advances in the field of analog integrated circuitry. Many of the traditional arguments against analog circuitry are no longer valid. This report attempts to summarize what is available now, and what can (and cannot) be done with analog integrated circuits. It defines analog and makes some comparisons with digital. The most common types of analog integrated circuits are then listed and discussed. Lastly, some design and trouble-shooting hints are given, and the state-of-the-art is discussed.

  17. NASA Microgravity Combustion Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Merrill K.

    1997-01-01

    Combustion is a key element of many critical technologies used by contemporary society. For example, electric power production, home heating, surface and air transportation, space propulsion, and materials synthesis all utilize combustion as a source of energy. Yet, although combustion technology is vital to our standard of living, it poses great challenges to maintaining a habitable environment. For example, pollutants, atmospheric change and global warming, unwanted fires and explosions, and the incineration of hazardous wastes are major problem areas which would benefit from improved understanding of combustion. Effects of gravitational forces impede combustion studies more than most other areas of science since combustion involves production of high-temperature gases whose low density results in buoyant motion, vastly complicating the execution and interpretation of experiments. Effects of buoyancy are so ubiquitous that their enormous negative impact on the rational development of combustion science is generally not recognized. Buoyant motion also triggers the onset of turbulence, yielding complicating unsteady effects. Finally, gravity forces cause particles and drops to settle, inhibiting deconvoluted studies of heterogeneous flames important to furnace, incineration and power generation technologies. Thus, effects of buoyancy have seriously limited our capabilities to carry out 'clean' experiments needed for fundamental understanding of flame phenomena. Combustion scientists can use microgravity to simplify the study of many combustion processes, allowing fresh insights into important problems via a deeper understanding of elemental phenomena also found in Earth-based combustion processes and to additionally provide valuable information concerning how fires behave in microgravity and how fire safety on spacecraft can be enhanced.

  18. Interpretation of ground-based microwave measurements of the moon using a detailed regolith properties model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L.; Keihm, S. J.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed model for the regolith's thermophysical and microwave properties has been used for the interpretation of ground-based measurements of the moon's microwave brightness temperature variation with lunar phase and changes during eclipses. The ground-based measurements include some crucial new lunation variation observations at 2.8, 6.0 and 13.1 cm. The many parameters in the regolith properties model were assigned values based on a careful review of Apollo in situ and lab sample measurements of thermophysical and electrical properties. The first identification of a wavelength-dependent component of scattering is reported.

  19. Consistent interpretation of ground based and GOME BrO slant column data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, R. W.; Bovensmann, H.; Kaiser, J. W.; Richter, A.; Rozanov, A.; Wittrock, F.; Burrows, J. P.

    Model computations of slant column densities (SCD) enable the comparison between ground based and satellite based absorption measurements of scattered light and are therefore a good basis to investigate the presence of tropospheric BrO amounts. In this study ground based zenith sky and GOME nadir measurements of BrO SCD are compared with simulations for the 19-21 March 1997 at Ny-Ålesund. The vertical columns of tropospheric BrO amounts are estimated to be in the range 4 ±0.8 ∗ 10 13 [molecules/cm 2] for the investigated period and location.

  20. Ground-based determination of atmospheric radiance for correction of ERTS-1 data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, K.

    1974-01-01

    A technique is described for estimating the atmospheric radiance observed by a downward sensor (ERTS) using ground-based measurements. A formula is obtained for the sky radiance at the time of the ERTS overpass from the radiometric measurement of the sky radiance made at a particular solar zenith angle and air mass. A graph illustrates ground-based sky radiance measurements as a function of the scattering angle for a range of solar air masses. Typical values for sky radiance at a solar zenith angle of 48 degrees are given.

  1. Effect of Microgravity on Mammalian Lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, H.; Blackshear, M.; Mahaffey, K.; Knight, C.; Khan, A. A.; Delucas, L.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of microgravity on mammalian system is an important and interesting topic for scientific investigation, since NASA s objective is to send manned flights to planets like Mars and eventual human colonization.The Astronauts will be exposed to microgravity environment for a long duration of time during these flights.Our objective of research is to conduct in vitro studies for the effect of microgravity on mammalian immune system.We did our preliminary investigations by exposing mammalian lymphocytes to a microgravity simulator cell bioreactor designed by NASA and manufactured at Synthecon Inc (USA).Our initial results showed no significant change in cytokine expression in these cells for a time period of forty eight hours exposure.Our future experiments will involve exposure for a longer period of time.

  2. Effect of Microgravity on Mammalian Lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, H.; Blackshear, M.; Mahaffey, K.; Khan, A. A.; Delucas, L.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of microgravity on mammalian system is an important and interesting topic for scientific investigation, since NASA s objective is to send manned flights to planets like Mars and eventual human colonization. The Astronauts will be exposed to microgravity environment for a long duration of time during these flights. Our objective of research is to conduct in vitro studies for the effect of microgravity on mammalian immune system and nervous system. We did our preliminary investigations by exposing mammalian lymphocytes and astrocyte cells to a microgravity simulator cell bioreactor designed by NASA and manufactured at Synthecon, Inc. (USA).Our initial results showed no significant change in cytokine expression in these cells up to a time period of 120 hours exposure. Our future experiments will involve exposure for a longer period of time.

  3. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  4. BIM LAU-PE: Seedlings in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gass, S.; Pennese, R.; Chapuis, D.; Dainesi, P.; Nebuloni, S.; Garcia, M.; Oriol, A.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of gravity on plant roots is an intensive subject of research. Sounding rockets represent a costeffective platform to study this effect under microgravity conditions. As part of the upcoming MASER 13 sounding rocket campaign, two experiments on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings have been devised: GRAMAT and SPARC. These experiments are aimed at studying (1) the genes that are specifically switched on or off during microgravity, and (2) the position of auxin-transporting proteins during microgravity. To perform these experiments, RUAG Space Switzerland site of Nyon, in collaboration with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) and the University of Freiburg, has developed the BIM LAU-PE (Biolology In Microgravity Late Access Unit Plant Experiment). In the following an overview of the BIM LAU-PE design is presented, highlighting specific module design features and verifications performed. A particular emphasis is placed on the parabolic flight experiments, including results of the micro-g injection system validation.

  5. Planning Experiments for a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.

    1998-01-01

    Prior to performing science experiments in a microgravity environment, scientists must understand and appreciate a variety of issues related to that environment. The microgravity conditions required for optimum performance of the experiment will help define an appropriate carrier, drop facility, sounding rocket, free-flyer, or manned orbiting spacecraft. Within a given carrier, such as the International Space Station, experiment sensitivity to vibrations and quasi-steady accelerations should also influence the location and orientation of the experiment apparatus; the flight attitude of the carrier (if selectable); and the scheduling of experiment operations in conjunction with other activities. If acceptable microgravity conditions are not expected from available carriers or experiment scheduling cannot avoid disruptive activities, then a vibration isolation system should be considered. In order to best interpret the experimental results, appropriate accelerometer data must be collected contemporaneously with the experimental data. All of this requires a good understanding of experiment sensitivity to the microgravity environment.

  6. Microgravity Effects on Yersinia Pestis Virulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawal, A.; Abogunde, O.; Jejelowo, O.; Rosenzweig, J.-A.

    2010-04-01

    Microgravity effects on Yersinia pestis proliferation, cold growth, and type three secretion system function were evaluated in macrophage cell infections, HeLa cell infections, and cold growth plate assays.

  7. Protein single crystal growth under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littke, Walter; John, Christina

    1986-08-01

    Crystal growth conditions for proteins under microgravity were investigated with two model compounds (β-galactosidase and lysozyme). The single crystals obtained have been found to be significantly larger than those prepared in the same environment on earth.

  8. The Current Microgravity Materials Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    2000-01-01

    A description will be made of the current materials science program within the microgravity research division. This presentation will be made at a plenary session of the biennial materials Science Conference.

  9. Microgravity experiment system utilizing a balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, M.; Ohta, S.; Yamagami, T.; Koma, Y.; Akiyama, H.; Hirosawa, H.; Nishimura, J.

    A system for microgravity experiments by using a stratospheric balloon has been planned and developed in ISAS since 1978. A rocket-shaped chamber mounting the experiment apparatus is released from the balloon around 30 km altitude. The microgravity duration is from the release to opening of parachute, controlled by an on-board sequential timer. Test flights were performed in 1980 and in 1981. In September 1983 the first scientific experiment, observing behaviors and brain activities of fishes in the microgravity circumstance, have been successfully carried out. The chamber is specially equipped with movie cameras and subtransmitters, and its release altitude is about 32 km. The microgravity observed inside the chamber is less than 2.9 × 10-3 G during 10 sec. Engineering aspects of the system used in the 1983 experiment are presented.

  10. Nonvolatile Analog Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A nonvolatile analog memory uses pairs of ferroelectric field effect transistors (FFETs). Each pair is defined by a first FFET and a second FFET. When an analog value is to be stored in one of the pairs, the first FFET has a saturation voltage applied thereto, and the second FFET has a storage voltage applied thereto that is indicative of the analog value. The saturation and storage voltages decay over time in accordance with a known decay function that is used to recover the original analog value when the pair of FFETs is read.

  11. Analog synthetic biology.

    PubMed

    Sarpeshkar, R

    2014-03-28

    We analyse the pros and cons of analog versus digital computation in living cells. Our analysis is based on fundamental laws of noise in gene and protein expression, which set limits on the energy, time, space, molecular count and part-count resources needed to compute at a given level of precision. We conclude that analog computation is significantly more efficient in its use of resources than deterministic digital computation even at relatively high levels of precision in the cell. Based on this analysis, we conclude that synthetic biology must use analog, collective analog, probabilistic and hybrid analog-digital computational approaches; otherwise, even relatively simple synthetic computations in cells such as addition will exceed energy and molecular-count budgets. We present schematics for efficiently representing analog DNA-protein computation in cells. Analog electronic flow in subthreshold transistors and analog molecular flux in chemical reactions obey Boltzmann exponential laws of thermodynamics and are described by astoundingly similar logarithmic electrochemical potentials. Therefore, cytomorphic circuits can help to map circuit designs between electronic and biochemical domains. We review recent work that uses positive-feedback linearization circuits to architect wide-dynamic-range logarithmic analog computation in Escherichia coli using three transcription factors, nearly two orders of magnitude more efficient in parts than prior digital implementations. PMID:24567476

  12. Laser-Induced Incandescence in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWal, Randall L.

    1997-01-01

    Microgravity offers unique opportunities for studying both soot growth and the effect of soot radiation upon flame structure and spread. LII has been characterized and developed at NASA-Lewis for soot volume fraction determination in a wide range of 1-g combustion applications. Reported here are the first demonstrations of LII performed in a microgravity environment. Examples are shown for laminar and turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames in 0-g.

  13. Capillary Movement in Substrates in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bula, R. J.; Duffie, N. A.

    1996-01-01

    A more complete understanding of the dynamics of capillary flow through an unsaturated porous medium would be useful for a number of space and terrestrial applications. Knowledge of capillary migration of liquids in granular beds in microgravity would significantly enhance the development and understanding of how a matrix based nutrient delivery system for the growth of plants would function in a microgravity environment. Thus, such information is of interest from the theoretical as well as practical point of view.

  14. Spacelab J: Microgravity and life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Spacelab J is a joint venture between NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). Using a Spacelab pressurized long module, 43 experiments will be performed in the areas of microgravity and life sciences. These experiments benefit from the microgravity environment available on an orbiting Shuttle. Removed from the effects of gravity, scientists will seek to observe processes and phenomena impossible to study on Earth, to develop new and more uniform mixtures, to study the effects of microgravity and the space environment on living organisms, and to explore the suitability of microgravity for certain types of research. Mission planning and an overview of the experiments to be performed are presented. Orbital research appears to hold many advantages for microgravity science investigations, which on this mission include electronic materials, metals and alloys, glasses and ceramics, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, and biotechnology. Gravity-induced effects are eliminated in microgravity. This allows the investigations on Spacelab J to help scientists develop a better understanding of how these gravity-induced phenomena affect both processing and products on Earth and to observe subtle phenomena that are masked in gravity. The data and samples from these investigations will not only allow scientists to better understand the materials but also will lead to improvements in the methods used in future experiments. Life sciences research will collect data on human adaptation to the microgravity environment, investigate ways of assisting astronauts to readapt to normal gravity, explore the effects of microgravity and radiation on living organisms, and gather data on the fertilization and development of organisms in the absence of gravity. This research will improve crew comfort and safety on future missions while helping scientists to further understand the human body.

  15. Lifted Partially Premixed Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lock, Andrew J.; Ganguly, Ranjan; Puri, Ishwar K.; Aggarwal, Suesh K.; Hegde, Uday

    2004-01-01

    Lifted Double and Triple flames are established in the UIC-NASA Partially Premixed microgravity rig. The flames examined in this paper are established above a coannular burner because its axisymmetric geometry allows for future implementation of other non-intrusive optical diagnostic techniques easily. Both burner-attached stable flames and lifted flames are established at normal and microgravity conditions in the drop tower facility.

  16. Charge of the containerless experimentation in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C.

    1990-01-01

    The experimentation was undertaken to study the elimination or reduction of surface contamination for which there is adequate Earth-based technology along with the reduction of dynamic nucleation for which there a paucity of reliable data. One objective is to delineate scientific justification of the U.S. Containerless Experimentation Program in Microgravity for the next decade and beyond. Another objective is for the guidance of NASA to define the next generation of containerless experimentation instruments in microgravity.

  17. Spacelab J: Microgravity and life sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spacelab J is a joint venture between NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). Using a Spacelab pressurized long module, 43 experiments will be performed in the areas of microgravity and life sciences. These experiments benefit from the microgravity environment available on an orbiting Shuttle. Removed from the effects of gravity, scientists will seek to observe processes and phenomena impossible to study on Earth, to develop new and more uniform mixtures, to study the effects of microgravity and the space environment on living organisms, and to explore the suitability of microgravity for certain types of research. Mission planning and an overview of the experiments to be performed are presented. Orbital research appears to hold many advantages for microgravity science investigations, which on this mission include electronic materials, metals and alloys, glasses and ceramics, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, and biotechnology. Gravity-induced effects are eliminated in microgravity. This allows the investigations on Spacelab J to help scientists develop a better understanding of how these gravity-induced phenomena affect both processing and products on Earth and to observe subtle phenomena that are masked in gravity. The data and samples from these investigations will not only allow scientists to better understand the materials but also will lead to improvements in the methods used in future experiments. Life sciences research will collect data on human adaptation to the microgravity environment, investigate ways of assisting astronauts to readapt to normal gravity, explore the effects of microgravity and radiation on living organisms, and gather data on the fertilization and development of organisms in the absence of gravity. This research will improve crew comfort and safety on future missions while helping scientists to further understand the human body.

  18. IJEMS: Iowa Joint Experiment in Microgravity Solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendle, John R.; Mashl, Steven J.; Hardin, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    The Iowa Joint Experiment in Microgravity Solidification (IJEMS) is a cooperative effort between Iowa State University and the University of Iowa to study the formation of metal-matrix composites in a microgravity environment. Of particular interest is the interaction between the solid/liquid interface and the particles in suspension. The experiment is scheduled to fly on STS-69, Space Shuttle Endeavor on August 3, 1995. This project is unique in its heavy student participation and cooperation between the universities involved.

  19. A Study of Alterations in DNA Epigenetic Modifications (5mC and 5hmC) and Gene Expression Influenced by Simulated Microgravity in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiping; Liu, Yunlong; Lossie, Amy C.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Cells alter their gene expression in response to exposure to various environmental changes. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are believed to regulate the alterations in gene expression patterns. In vitro and in vivo studies have documented changes in cellular proliferation, cytoskeletal remodeling, signal transduction, bone mineralization and immune deficiency under the influence of microgravity conditions experienced in space. However microgravity induced changes in the epigenome have not been well characterized. In this study we have used Next-generation Sequencing (NGS) to profile ground-based “simulated” microgravity induced changes on DNA methylation (5-methylcytosine or 5mC), hydroxymethylation (5-hydroxymethylcytosine or 5hmC), and simultaneous gene expression in cultured human lymphoblastoid cells. Our results indicate that simulated microgravity induced alterations in the methylome (~60% of the differentially methylated regions or DMRs are hypomethylated and ~92% of the differentially hydroxymethylated regions or DHMRs are hyperhydroxymethylated). Simulated microgravity also induced differential expression in 370 transcripts that were associated with crucial biological processes such as oxidative stress response, carbohydrate metabolism and regulation of transcription. While we were not able to obtain any global trend correlating the changes of methylation/ hydroxylation with gene expression, we have been able to profile the simulated microgravity induced changes of 5mC over some of the differentially expressed genes that includes five genes undergoing differential methylation over their promoters and twenty five genes undergoing differential methylation over their gene-bodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first NGS-based study to profile epigenomic patterns induced by short time exposure of simulated microgravity and we believe that our findings can be a valuable resource for future explorations. PMID:26820575

  20. A Study of Alterations in DNA Epigenetic Modifications (5mC and 5hmC) and Gene Expression Influenced by Simulated Microgravity in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Basudev; Seetharam, Arun; Wang, Zhiping; Liu, Yunlong; Lossie, Amy C; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Cells alter their gene expression in response to exposure to various environmental changes. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are believed to regulate the alterations in gene expression patterns. In vitro and in vivo studies have documented changes in cellular proliferation, cytoskeletal remodeling, signal transduction, bone mineralization and immune deficiency under the influence of microgravity conditions experienced in space. However microgravity induced changes in the epigenome have not been well characterized. In this study we have used Next-generation Sequencing (NGS) to profile ground-based "simulated" microgravity induced changes on DNA methylation (5-methylcytosine or 5mC), hydroxymethylation (5-hydroxymethylcytosine or 5hmC), and simultaneous gene expression in cultured human lymphoblastoid cells. Our results indicate that simulated microgravity induced alterations in the methylome (~60% of the differentially methylated regions or DMRs are hypomethylated and ~92% of the differentially hydroxymethylated regions or DHMRs are hyperhydroxymethylated). Simulated microgravity also induced differential expression in 370 transcripts that were associated with crucial biological processes such as oxidative stress response, carbohydrate metabolism and regulation of transcription. While we were not able to obtain any global trend correlating the changes of methylation/ hydroxylation with gene expression, we have been able to profile the simulated microgravity induced changes of 5mC over some of the differentially expressed genes that includes five genes undergoing differential methylation over their promoters and twenty five genes undergoing differential methylation over their gene-bodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first NGS-based study to profile epigenomic patterns induced by short time exposure of simulated microgravity and we believe that our findings can be a valuable resource for future explorations.