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Sample records for ground-based microgravity analog

  1. Zero-Gravity Locomotion Simulators: New Ground-Based Analogs for Microgravity Exercise Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perusek, Gail P.; DeWitt, John K.; Cavanagh, Peter R.; Grodsinsky, Carlos M.; Gilkey, Kelly M.

    2007-01-01

    Maintaining health and fitness in crewmembers during space missions is essential for preserving performance for mission-critical tasks. NASA's Exercise Countermeasures Project (ECP) provides space exploration exercise hardware and monitoring requirements that lead to devices that are reliable, meet medical, vehicle, and habitat constraints, and use minimal vehicle and crew resources. ECP will also develop and validate efficient exercise prescriptions that minimize daily time needed for completion of exercise yet maximize performance for mission activities. In meeting these mission goals, NASA Glenn Research Center (Cleveland, OH, USA), in collaboration with the Cleveland Clinic (Cleveland, Ohio, USA), has developed a suite of zero-gravity locomotion simulators and associated technologies to address the need for ground-based test analog capability for simulating in-flight (microgravity) and surface (partial-gravity) exercise to advance the health and safety of astronaut crews and the next generation of space explorers. Various research areas can be explored. These include improving crew comfort during exercise, and understanding joint kinematics and muscle activation pattern differences relative to external loading mechanisms. In addition, exercise protocol and hardware optimization can be investigated, along with characterizing system dynamic response and the physiological demand associated with advanced exercise device concepts and performance of critical mission tasks for Exploration class missions. Three zero-gravity locomotion simulators are currently in use and the research focus for each will be presented. All of the devices are based on a supine subject suspension system, which simulates a reduced gravity environment by completely or partially offloading the weight of the exercising test subject s body. A platform for mounting treadmill is positioned perpendicularly to the test subject. The Cleveland Clinic Zero-g Locomotion Simulator (ZLS) utilizes a

  2. Dietary nucleotides prevent decrease in cellular immunity in ground-based microgravity analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamauchi, Keiko; Hales, Nathan W.; Robinson, Sandra M.; Niehoff, Michael L.; Ramesh, Vani; Pellis, Neal R.; Kulkarni, Anil D.

    2002-01-01

    Microgravity and stress of spaceflights result in immune dysfunction. The role of nutrition, especially nucleotide supplementation, has become an area of intensive research and significant interest in immunomodulation for maintenance of cellular immune responses. The studies presented here evaluate the plausibility of administering nucleotides to obviate immune dysfunction in an Earth-based in vivo analog of microgravity as studied in anti-orthostatic tail suspension (AOS) of mice. Mice were divided into three housing groups: group, isolation, and AOS. Mice were fed either control chow diet (CD), or RNA-, adenine-, or uracil-supplemented CD for the 1-wk duration of the experiments. In AOS mice, supplemental nucleotides significantly increased in vivo lymph node proliferation and ex vivo lymphoproliferation response to alloantigen and mitogens, respectively, and interleukin-2 and interferon-gamma production. A lower corticosterone level was observed in uracil-supplemented CD compared with CD. These results suggest that exogenous nucleotide supplementation, especially uracil, of normal diet is beneficial in the maintenance and restoration of the immune response during the microgravity analog conditions.

  3. Analysis by NASA's VESGEN Software of Vascular Branching in the Human Retina with a Ground-Based Microgravity Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Vyas, Ruchi J.; Raghunandan, Sneha; Vu, Amanda C.; Zanello, Susana B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Taibbi, Giovanni; Vizzeri, Gianmarco

    2016-01-01

    Significant risks for visual impairment were discovered recently in astronauts following spaceflight, especially after long-duration missions.1 We hypothesize that microgravity-induced fluid shifts result in pathological changes within the retinal vasculature that precede visual and other ocular impairments. We therefore are analyzing retinal vessels in healthy subjects with NASA's VESsel GENeration Analysis (VESGEN) software2 before and after head-down tilt (HDT), a ground-based microgravity analog For our preliminary study of masked images, two groups of venous trees with and without small veins (G=7) were clearly identified by VESGEN analysis. Upon completing all images and unmasking the subject status of pre- and post- HDT, we will determine whether differences in the presence or absence of small veins are important correlates, and perhaps reliable predictors, of other ocular and physiological adaptations to prolonged HDT and microgravity. Greater peripapillary retinal thickening was measured following 70-day HDT bed rest than 14-day HDT bed rest, suggesting that time of HDT may increase the amount of optic disc swelling.3 Spectralis OCT detected retinal nerve fiber layer thickening post HDT, without clinical signs of optic disc edema. Such changes may have resulted from HDT-induced cephalad fluid shifts. Clinical methods for examining adaptive microvascular remodeling in the retina to microgravity space flight are currently not established.

  4. Microgravity research in NASA ground-based facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lekan, Jack

    1989-01-01

    An overview of reduced gravity research performed in NASA ground-based facilities sponsored by the Microgravity Science and Applications Program of the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications is presented. A brief description and summary of the operations and capabilities of each of these facilities along with an overview of the historical usage of them is included. The goals and program elements of the Microgravity Science and Applications programs are described and the specific programs that utilize the low gravity facilities are identified. Results from two particular investigations in combustion (flame spread over solid fuels) and fluid physics (gas-liquid flows at microgravity conditions) are presented.

  5. Ground based research in microgravity materials processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Rathz, Tom

    1994-01-01

    The core activities performed during this time period have been concerned with tracking the TEMPEST experiments on the shuttle with drops of Zr, Ni, and Nb alloys. In particular a lot of Zr drops are being made to better define the recalescence characteristics of that system so that accurate comparisons of the drop tube results with Tempest can be made. A new liner, with minimal reflectivity characteristics, has been inserted into the drop tube in order to improve the recalescence measurements of the falling drops. The first installation to make the geometric measurements to ensure a proper fit has been made. The stovepipe sections are currently in the shop at MSFC being painted with low reflectivity black paint. Work has also continued on setting up the MEL apparatus obtained from Oak Ridge in the down stairs laboratory at the Drop Tube Facilities. Some ground-based experiments on the same metals as are being processed on TEMPEST are planned for the MEL. The flight schedules for the KC-135 experiments are still to be determined in the near future.

  6. Behavior of stem cells under outer-space microgravity and ground-based microgravity simulation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cui; Li, Liang; Chen, Jianling; Wang, Jinfu

    2015-06-01

    With rapid development of space engineering, research on life sciences in space is being conducted extensively, especially cellular and molecular studies on space medicine. Stem cells, undifferentiated cells that can differentiate into specialized cells, are considered a key resource for regenerative medicine. Research on stem cells under conditions of microgravity during a space flight or a ground-based simulation has generated several excellent findings. To help readers understand the effects of outer space and ground-based simulation conditions on stem cells, we reviewed recent studies on the effects of microgravity (as an obvious environmental factor in space) on morphology, proliferation, migration, and differentiation of stem cells.

  7. Responds of Bone Cells to Microgravity: Ground-Based Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian; Li, Jingbao; Xu, Huiyun; Yang, Pengfei; Xie, Li; Qian, Airong; Zhao, Yong; Shang, Peng

    2015-11-01

    Severe loss of bone occurs due to long-duration spaceflight. Mechanical loading stimulates bone formation, while bone degradation happens under mechanical unloading. Bone remodeling is a dynamic process in which bone formation and bone resorption are tightly coupled. Increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation caused by reduced mechanical loading, generally result in disrupted bone remodeling. Bone remodeling is orchestrated by multiple bone cells including osteoblast, osteocyte, osteoclast and mesenchymal stem cell. It is yet not clear that how these bone cells sense altered gravity, translate physical stimulus into biochemical signals, and then regulate themselves structurally and functionally. In this paper, studies elucidating the bioeffects of microgravity on bone cells (osteoblast, osteocyte, osteoclast, mesenchymal stem cell) using various platforms including spaceflight and ground-based simulated microgravity were summarized. Promising gravity-sensitive signaling pathways and protein molecules were proposed.

  8. Facilities for Simulation of Microgravity in the ESA Ground-Based Facility Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brungs, Sonja; Egli, Marcel; Wuest, Simon L.; M. Christianen, Peter C.; W. A. van Loon, Jack J.; Ngo Anh, Thu Jennifer; Hemmersbach, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    Knowledge of the role of gravity in fundamental biological processes and, consequently, the impact of exposure to microgravity conditions provide insight into the basics of the development of life as well as enabling long-term space exploration missions. However, experimentation in real microgravity is expensive and scarcely available; thus, a variety of platforms have been developed to provide, on Earth, an experimental condition comparable to real microgravity. With the aim of simulating microgravity conditions, different ground-based facilities (GBF) have been constructed such as clinostats and random positioning machines as well as magnets for magnetic levitation. Here, we give an overview of ground-based facilities for the simulation of microgravity which were used in the frame of an ESA ground-based research programme dedicated to providing scientists access to these experimental capabilities in order to prepare their space experiments.

  9. Insight into mechanisms of reduced orthostatic performance after exposure to microgravity: comparison of ground-based and space flight data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.

    1998-01-01

    Since the beginning of human spaceflight, the value of understanding mechanisms of physiological adaptation to microgravity became apparent to life scientists who were interested in maintining crew health and developing countermeasures agains adverse effects of the mission. However, several characteristics associated the the logistics of spaceflight presented significant limitations to the scientific study of human adaptation to microgravity. Because space missions are so infrequent and involve minimal numbers of crewmembers, meaninful statistical analysis of data are limited. Reproducibility of results from spaceflight experiments is difficult to assess since there are few repeated space missions involving the same crewmembers. Since the emphasis of space missions is placed on operations, experiments are compromised without adequate control over various factors (e.g., time, diet, physical activities, etc.) that can impact measured responses. With the mimimal opportunity to collect spaceflight data, there is a high risk of experiments that simultaneously interfere with other experiments by the increasing demand on the crewmembers to participate in mumerous experiments proposed by multiple investigators. The technology and ability to measure physiological functions necessary to test specific hypotheses can be severely limited by physical space and power constraints of the space enviroment. Finally, technical and logistical aspects of space missions such as launch delays, extended missions, and inflight operational emergencies can significantly compromise the timing and control of experiments. These limitations have stimulated scientists to develop ground-based analogs of microgravity in an effort to investigate the effects of spaceflight on physiological function in a controlled experimental setting. The purpose of this paper is to provide a selected comparison of data collected from ground-based experiments with those obtained from spaceflight in an effort to

  10. Insight into mechanisms of reduced orthostatic performance after exposure to microgravity: comparison of ground-based and space flight data.

    PubMed

    Convertino, V A

    1998-07-01

    Since the beginning of human spaceflight, the value of understanding mechanisms of physiological adaptation to microgravity became apparent to life scientists who were interested in maintining crew health and developing countermeasures agains adverse effects of the mission. However, several characteristics associated the the logistics of spaceflight presented significant limitations to the scientific study of human adaptation to microgravity. Because space missions are so infrequent and involve minimal numbers of crewmembers, meaninful statistical analysis of data are limited. Reproducibility of results from spaceflight experiments is difficult to assess since there are few repeated space missions involving the same crewmembers. Since the emphasis of space missions is placed on operations, experiments are compromised without adequate control over various factors (e.g., time, diet, physical activities, etc.) that can impact measured responses. With the mimimal opportunity to collect spaceflight data, there is a high risk of experiments that simultaneously interfere with other experiments by the increasing demand on the crewmembers to participate in mumerous experiments proposed by multiple investigators. The technology and ability to measure physiological functions necessary to test specific hypotheses can be severely limited by physical space and power constraints of the space enviroment. Finally, technical and logistical aspects of space missions such as launch delays, extended missions, and inflight operational emergencies can significantly compromise the timing and control of experiments. These limitations have stimulated scientists to develop ground-based analogs of microgravity in an effort to investigate the effects of spaceflight on physiological function in a controlled experimental setting. The purpose of this paper is to provide a selected comparison of data collected from ground-based experiments with those obtained from spaceflight in an effort to

  11. Postural Responses Following Space Flight and Ground Based Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kofman, Igor S.; Reschke, Millard F.; Cerisano, Jody M.; Fisher, Elizabeth A.; Tomilovskaya, Elena V.; Kozlovskaya, Inessa B.; Bloomberg, Jacob B.

    2013-01-01

    With the transition from the Shuttle program to the International Space Station (ISS), the opportunity to fly sensorimotor experiments in a weightless environment has become increasingly more difficult to obtain. As a result, more investigations have turned to ground-based analogs as a way of evaluating an experiment's viability. The two primary analogs available to most investigators are 6deg head down bed rest (HDBR) and dry immersion (DI). For the time being, HDBR investigations have been associated with studies conducted in the United States while the Russians and several other European Union states have concentrated their efforts on using DI as the space flight analog of choice. While either model may be viable for cardiovascular, bone and other system changes, vestibular and sensorimotor investigators have retained serious reservations of either analog's potential to serve as a replacement for a true weightless environment. These reservations have merit, but it is worthwhile to consider that not all changes associated with sensorimotor function during space flight are the result of top-down modifications, but may also be due to the lack, or change, of appropriate support surfaces applying force to the bottom of the feet. To this end we have compared quiet stance postural responses between short duration Space Shuttle flights, long duration ISS flights and HDBR of varying duration. Using these three platforms, representing different modifications of support we investigated postural ataxia using a quiet stance model. Quiet stance was obtained by asking the subjects to stand upright on a force plate, eyes open, arms at the side of the body for three min. From the force plate we obtained average sway velocity in two axes as well as length of line (stabilogram). These parameters were then related to EMG activity recorded from the medial gastrocnemius and lateral tibialis. It is significant to note that postural ataxia measured as quiet stance shows analogous

  12. Ground-Based Gas-Liquid Flow Research in Microgravity Conditions: State of Knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, J.; Colin, C.; Fabre, J.

    1999-01-01

    During the last decade, ground-based microgravity facilities have been utilized in order to obtain predictions for spacecraft system designers and further the fundamental understanding of two-phase flow. Although flow regime, pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient data has been obtained for straight tubes and a limited number of fittings, measurements of the void fraction, film thickness, wall shear stress, local velocity and void information are also required in order to develop general mechanistic models that can be utilized to ascertain the effects of fluid properties, tube geometry and acceleration levels. A review of this research is presented and includes both empirical data and mechanistic models of the flow behavior.

  13. Microgravity Investigation of Crew Reactions in 0-G (MICR0-G): Ground-Based Development Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Dava J.

    2002-01-01

    This report describes the technology development of an advanced load sensor ground-based prototype and details the preliminary tests in microgravity during parabolic flights. The research effort is entitled, the Microgravity Investigation and Crew Reactions in 0-G (MICR0-G), a ground-based research effort funded by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The MICR0-G project was a follow-on to the Enhanced Dynamic Load Sensors (EDLS) spaceflight experiment flown on the Russian Space Station Mir. The technology development of the advanced load sensor prototype has been carried out by the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), with collaboration from Politecnico di Milano University and the Italian Space Agency (ASI). The key hardware of the advanced sensor prototype is a set of two types of load sensors - a hand-hold and foot restraints - similar in appearance to the mobility aids found in the Space Shuttle orbiter to assist the crew in moving inside the spacecraft, but able to measure the applied forces and moments about the x-, y-, and z- axes. The aim of Chapter 1 is to give a brief overview of the report contents. The first section summarizes the previous research efforts on astronaut-induced loads in microgravity. The second section provides information on the MICR0-G research project and the technology development work conducted at MIT. Section 1.3 details the motivation for designing a new generation of load sensors and describes the main enhancements and contributions of the MICR0-G advanced load sensors system compared to the EDLS system. Finally, the last section presents the outline of the report.

  14. Escherichia coli biofilms formed under low-shear modeled microgravity in a ground-based system.

    PubMed

    Lynch, S V; Mukundakrishnan, K; Benoit, M R; Ayyaswamy, P S; Matin, A

    2006-12-01

    Bacterial biofilms cause chronic diseases that are difficult to control. Since biofilm formation in space is well documented and planktonic cells become more resistant and virulent under modeled microgravity, it is important to determine the effect of this gravity condition on biofilms. Inclusion of glass microcarrier beads of appropriate dimensions and density with medium and inoculum, in vessels specially designed to permit ground-based investigations into aspects of low-shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG), facilitated these studies. Mathematical modeling of microcarrier behavior based on experimental conditions demonstrated that they satisfied the criteria for LSMMG conditions. Experimental observations confirmed that the microcarrier trajectory in the LSMMG vessel concurred with the predicted model. At 24 h, the LSMMG Escherichia coli biofilms were thicker than their normal-gravity counterparts and exhibited increased resistance to the general stressors salt and ethanol and to two antibiotics (penicillin and chloramphenicol). Biofilms of a mutant of E. coli, deficient in sigma(s), were impaired in developing LSMMG-conferred resistance to the general stressors but not to the antibiotics, indicating two separate pathways of LSMMG-conferred resistance.

  15. Ground-Based Facilities for Simulation of Microgravity: Organism-Specific Recommendations for Their Use, and Recommended Terminology

    PubMed Central

    Anken, Ralf; Boonstra, Johannes; Braun, Markus; Christianen, Peter C.M.; de Geest, Maarten; Hauslage, Jens; Hilbig, Reinhard; Hill, Richard J.A.; Lebert, Michael; Medina, F. Javier; Vagt, Nicole; Ullrich, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Research in microgravity is indispensable to disclose the impact of gravity on biological processes and organisms. However, research in the near-Earth orbit is severely constrained by the limited number of flight opportunities. Ground-based simulators of microgravity are valuable tools for preparing spaceflight experiments, but they also facilitate stand-alone studies and thus provide additional and cost-efficient platforms for gravitational research. The various microgravity simulators that are frequently used by gravitational biologists are based on different physical principles. This comparative study gives an overview of the most frequently used microgravity simulators and demonstrates their individual capacities and limitations. The range of applicability of the various ground-based microgravity simulators for biological specimens was carefully evaluated by using organisms that have been studied extensively under the conditions of real microgravity in space. In addition, current heterogeneous terminology is discussed critically, and recommendations are given for appropriate selection of adequate simulators and consistent use of nomenclature. Key Words: 2-D clinostat—3-D clinostat—Gravity—Magnetic levitation—Random positioning machine—Simulated microgravity—Space biology. Astrobiology 13, 1–17. PMID:23252378

  16. The thermo-vibrational convection in microgravity condition. Ground-based modelling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyuzgin, A. V.; Putin, G. F.; Harisov, A. F.

    In 1995-2000 at orbital station "Mir" has been carried out the series of experiments with the equipment "Alice" for the studying regimes of heat transfer in the supercritical fluids under influence inertial microaccelerations. The experiments have found out existence of the thermo-vibrational and thermo-inertial convective movements in the real weightlessness[1] and controlling microgravity fields[2]. However regarding structures of thermovibrational convection the results of experiments have inconsistent character. Therefore carrying out the ground-based modeling of the given problem is actually. In this work in laboratory conditions were investigated the thermo-vibrational convective movements from the dot heat source at high-frequency vibrations of the cavity with the fluid and presence quasi-static microacceleration. As the result of ground-based modeling, the regimes of convective flows, similar observed in the space experiment are received. Evolution of the convective structures and the spatial-temporary characteristics of movements are investigated in a wide range of the problem parameters. The control criteria and its critical value are determined. The received results well coordinated to the data of space experiments and allow adding and expanding representation about thermo-vibrational effects in conditions of real weightlessness and remove the contradictions concerning structures thermo-vibrational convective flows, received at the analysis of the given orbital experiments. The research described in this publication was made possible in part by Russian Foundation for Basic Research and Administration of Perm Region, Russia, under grant 04-02-96038, and Award No. PE-009-0 of the U.S. Civilian Research & Development Foundation for the Independent States of the Former Soviet Union (CRDF). A.V. Zyuzgin, A. I. Ivanov, V. I. Polezhaev, G. F. Putin, E. B. Soboleva Convective Motions in Near-Critical Fluids under Real Zero-Gravity Conditions. Cosmic Research

  17. Long-duration bed rest as an analog to microgravity.

    PubMed

    Hargens, Alan R; Vico, Laurence

    2016-04-15

    Long-duration bed rest is widely employed to simulate the effects of microgravity on various physiological systems, especially for studies of bone, muscle, and the cardiovascular system. This microgravity analog is also extensively used to develop and test countermeasures to microgravity-altered adaptations to Earth gravity. Initial investigations of bone loss used horizontal bed rest with the view that this model represented the closest approximation to inactivity and minimization of hydrostatic effects, but all Earth-based analogs must contend with the constant force of gravity by adjustment of the G vector. Later concerns about the lack of similarity between headward fluid shifts in space and those with horizontal bed rest encouraged the use of 6 degree head-down tilt (HDT) bed rest as pioneered by Russian investigators. Headward fluid shifts in space may redistribute bone from the legs to the head. At present, HDT bed rest with normal volunteers is the most common analog for microgravity simulation and to test countermeasures for bone loss, muscle and cardiac atrophy, orthostatic intolerance, and reduced muscle strength/exercise capacity. Also, current physiologic countermeasures are focused on long-duration missions such as Mars, so in this review we emphasize HDT bed rest studies with durations of 30 days and longer. However, recent results suggest that the HDT bed rest analog is less representative as an analog for other important physiological problems of long-duration space flight such as fluid shifts, spinal dysfunction and radiation hazards.

  18. Investigation of the Influence of Microgravity on Transport Mechanisms in a Virtual Spaceflight Chamber: A Ground Based Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trolinger, James D.; Rangel, Roger; Witherow, William; Rogers, Jan; Lal, Ravindra B.

    1999-01-01

    In January 1992, the IML-1 FES experiment produced a set of classic experimental data and a 40 hour holographic "movie" of an ensemble of spheres in a fluid in microgravity. Because the data are in the form of holograms, we can study the three-dimensional distribution of particles with unprecedented detail by a variety of methods and for a wide variety of interests. The possession of the holographic movie is tantamount to having a complex experiment in space while working in an easily accessible laboratory on earth. The movie contains a vast amount of useful data, including residual g, g-jitter, convection and transport data, and particle fluid interaction data. The information content in the movie is so great that we have scarcely begun to tap into the data that is actually available in the more than 1000 holograms, each containing as much as 1000 megabytes of information. This ground-based project is exploiting this data and the concept of holographic storage of spaceflight data to provide an understanding of the effects of microgravity in materials processing. This paper provides the foundation, objectives, and status of the ground based project. The primary objective of this project is to advance the understanding of microgravity effects on crystal growth, convection in materials processing in the space environment, and complex transport phenomena at low Reynolds numbers. This objective is being achieved both experimentally and theoretically. Experiments are making use of existing holographic data recorded during the IML- I spaceflight. A parallel theoretical effort is providing the models for understanding the particle fields and their physics in the microgravity environment.

  19. Ground Based Studies of Gas-Liquid Flows in Microgravity Using Learjet Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bousman, W. S.; Dukler, A. E.

    1994-01-01

    A 1.27 cm diameter two phase gas-liquid flow experiment has been developed with the NASA Lewis Research Center to study two-phase flows in microgravity. The experiment allows for the measurement of void fraction, pressure drop, film thickness and bubble and wave velocities as well as for high speed photography. Three liquids were used to study the effects of liquid viscosity and surface tension, and flow pattern maps are presented for each. The experimental results are used to develop mechanistically based models to predict void fraction, bubble velocity, pressure drop and flow pattern transitions in microgravity.

  20. Microgravity Apparatus And Ground-Based Study Of The Flame Propagation And Quenching In Metal Dust Suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goroshin, Sam; Kolbe, Massimilliano; Bellerose, Julie; Lee, John

    2003-01-01

    Due to particle sedimentation and relatively low laminar flame speeds in dust suspensions, microgravity environment is essential for the observation of laminar dust flames in a wide range of particle sizes and fuel concentrations [1]. The capability of a reduced-gravity environment to facilitate study of dust combustion was realized by researchers long before current microgravity programs were established by the various national Space Agencies. Thus, several experimentalists even built their own, albeit very short-duration, drop tower facilities to study flames in particle and droplet suspensions [2,3]. About ten years ago, authors of the present paper started their dust combustion reduced gravity research with the investigation of the constant volume dust flames in a spherical-bomb on board a parabolic flight aircraft [4]. However it was soon realized that direct observation of the constant-pressure flame might be more beneficial. Thus, microgravity apparatus, permitting examination of the freely propagating flames in open-end tubes, was tested in parabolic flights three years later [5]. The improved design of the newlyconstructed apparatus for the experiments on board the NASA KC-135 aircraft is also based on the observation of the dust flame propagating in semi-opened tubes with free expansion of the combustion products that are continuously vented overboard. The apparatus design and results of its extensive ground-based testing are presented below.

  1. Loss of signal transduction and inhibition of lymphocyte locomotion in a ground-based model of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, Alamelu; Risin, Diana; Pellis, Neal R.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    Inflammatory adherence to, and locomotion through the interstitium is an important component of the immune response. Conditions such as microgravity and modeled microgravity (MMG) severely inhibit lymphocyte locomotion in vitro through gelled type I collagen. We used the NASA rotating wall vessel bioreactor or slow-turning lateral vessel as a prototype for MMG in ground-based experiments. Previous experiments from our laboratory revealed that when lymphocytes (human peripheral blood mononuclear cells [PBMCs]) were first activated with phytohemaglutinin followed by exposure to MMG, locomotory capacity was not affected. In the present study, MMG inhibits lymphocyte locomotion in a manner similar to that observed in microgravity. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) treatment of PBMCs restored lost locomotory capacity by a maximum of 87%. Augmentation of cellular calcium flux with ionomycin had no restorative effect. Treatment of lymphocytes with mitomycin C prior to exposure to MMG, followed by PMA, restored locomotion to the same extent as when nonmitomycin C-treated lymphocytes were exposed to MMG (80-87%), suggesting that deoxyribonucleic acid replication is not essential for the restoration of locomotion. Thus, direct activation of protein kinase C (PKC) with PMA was effective in restoring locomotion in MMG comparable to the normal levels seen in Ig cultures. Therefore, in MMG, lymphocyte calcium signaling pathways were functional, with defects occurring at either the level of PKC or upstream of PKC.

  2. Fluid-structural dynamics of ground-based and microgravity caloric tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kassemi, M.; Oas, J. G.; Deserranno, Dimitri

    2005-01-01

    Microgravity caloric tests aboard the 1983 SpaceLab1 mission produced nystagmus results with an intensity comparable to those elicited during post- and pre- flight tests, thus contradicting the basic premise of Barany's convection hypothesis for caloric stimulation. In this work, we present a dynamic fluid structural analysis of the caloric stimulation of the lateral semicircular canal based on two simultaneous driving forces for the endolymphatic flow: natural convection driven by the temperature-dependent density variation in the bulk fluid and expansive convection caused by direct volumetric displacement of the endolymph during the thermal irrigation. Direct numerical simulations indicate that on earth, the natural convection mechanism is dominant. But in the microgravity environment of orbiting spacecraft, where buoyancy effects are mitigated, expansive convection becomes the sole mechanism for producing cupular displacement. A series of transient 1 g and microgravity case studies are presented to delineate the differences between the dynamics of the 1 g and microgravity endolymphatic flows. The impact of these different flow dynamics on the endolymph-cupula fluid-structural interactions is also analyzed based on the time evolutions of cupular displacement and velocity and the transcupular pressure differences.

  3. Adaptation of Motility Analysis Apparatus for Space Science and Microgravity Ground-Based Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jacqueline U.

    1996-01-01

    Previous space flight studies have described unfavorable effects of microgravity on testicular morphology and spermatogenesis (Cosmos 1887 Biosputnik flight, 9/29/87 - 10/12/87). The flight animals demonstrated small reductions in testicular and epididymal size, the phenomenon explained as resulting water loss. Yet, light microscopic histological preparations revealed few spermatozoa in the rete testis of the flight males compared to control animals. The cause for this finding was subjectively assessed to be due to "the anatomical dislocation of the organs... and a disturbance in testicular blood supply". Unfortunately, the reported effects of microgravity on the reproductive processes (particularly within males) are few and divergent. If habitation in space is a futuristic goal, more objective testing (of male and female gametes) in a microgravity environment will provide insight to the developmental potential of these reproductive cells. As part of the Marshall Space Flight Centers' Summer Faculty Fellowship Program within the Biophysics Branch, a key component of the research investigation was to develop a test to evaluate individual cell motility and orientation in varying gravitational environments, using computerized assessment of sperm cell concentration, morphology and motility to provide objective, quantitative experimental control. In previous work performed jointly by the author and a NASA colleague, it has been shown that macroscopic motile aggregates of spermatozoa were not altered by the absence of microgravity. Variations in the number of normal versus abnormal sperm due to microgravity influences have yet to be established. It is therefore of interest to monitor the cytoskeletal matrix (microtubulin) of these organisms as a possible indicator of cell viability and/or function.

  4. Low Stretch PMMA Burning in Microgravity: Status of the Ground-Based Program and New ISS Glovebox Experiment SALSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, S. L.; T'ien, J. S.; Armstrong, J. B.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this ground-based program is to study low stretch diffusion flames burning PMMA as the solid fuel to determine the relationship between buoyant low stretch burning in normal gravity and forced flow low stretch burning in microgravity. The low stretch is generated in normal gravity by using the buoyant convection induced by burning the bottom of a large radius of curvature sample. Low stretch is also generated using the Combustion Tunnel drop tower rig (2.2 and 5.2 second facilities), which provides a forced convective low velocity flow past smaller radius of curvature samples. Lastly, an ISS glovebox investigation is being developed to study low stretch burning of PMMA spheres to obtain long duration testing needed to accurately assess the flammability and burning characteristics of the material in microgravity. A comparison of microgravity experiment results with normal gravity test results allows us to establish a direct link between a material's burning characteristics in normal gravity (easily measured) with its burning characteristics in extraterrestrial environments, including microgravity forced convective environments. Theoretical predictions and recent experimental results indicate that it should be possible to understand a material's burning characteristics in the low stretch environment of spacecraft (non-buoyant air movement induced by fans and crew disturbances) by understanding its burning characteristics in an equivalent Earth-based low stretch environment (induced by normal gravity buoyancy). Similarly, Earth-based stretch environments can be made equivalent to those in Lunar- and Martian-surface stretch environments (which would induce partial-gravity buoyancy).

  5. Condensation of cosmic analog material in microgravity conditions - Preliminary analysis of a first set of flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mancini, D.; Bussoletti, E.; Mennella, V.; Vittone, A. A.; Colangeli, L.; Mirra, C.; Stephens, J.; Nuth, J.; Lilleleht, L.; Furgeson, F.

    1992-01-01

    The first results of the STARDUST project, aimed at producing and analyzing cosmic-dust analog materials in microgravity conditions, are summarized. The discussion covers the purpose of the investigation, cosmic-dust formation and properties, previous simulations of cosmic-dust formation, the current approach, the microgravity experimental apparatus, and potential advantages of studying dust formation under microgravity conditions.

  6. Quantitative Computer Tomography for Determining Composition of Microgravity and Ground Based Solid Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, D. C.; Engel, H. P.

    1999-01-01

    Advances in x-ray Computer Tomography (CT) have been led by the medical profession, and by evaluation of industrial products, particularly castings. Porosity can readily be determined as a function of the density of a material, and CT is thus an industrially important NDE tool. Providing high purity, 100% dense standards of pure elements and compounds can be fabricated, the composition of solid solution alloys can be determined by measuring the CT number, which is a function of the absorption of the sample. Average densities across slices 1 mm thick can generally be determined to better than 1 percent. With present technology this spatial sensitivity is less than ideal, but important benefits can nevertheless be obtained by using CT, particularly single crystals, prior to making any destructive assault upon the sample. The sample can in fact be examined prior to removal from the mold within which it has been grown and, in the cases of microgravity flight samples, before removal from the cartridge assembly. This greatly assists the researcher in the characterization of the products, particularly as a guide to cutting and sampling. Examples of work with germanium-silicon alloys and mercury cadmium telluride taken with a radioactive cobalt source will be demonstrated.

  7. Laminar Dust Flames: A Program of Microgravity and Ground Based Studies at McGill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goroshin, Sam; Lee, John

    1999-01-01

    Fundamental knowledge of heterogeneous combustion mechanisms is required to improve utilization of solid fuels (e.g. coal), safe handling of combustible dusts in industry, and solid propulsion systems. The objective of the McGill University research program on dust combustion is to obtain a reliable set of data on basic combustion parameters for dust suspensions (i.e. laminar burning velocity, flame structure, quenching distance, flammability limits, etc.) over a range of particle sizes, dust concentrations, and types of fuel. This set of data then permits theoretical models to be validated and, when necessary, new models to be developed to describe the detailed reaction mechanisms and transport processes. Microgravity is essential to the generation of a uniform dust suspension of arbitrary particle size and concentration. When particles with a characteristic size on the order of tens of microns are suspended, they rapidly settle in a gravitational field. To maintain a particulate in suspension for time duration adequate to carry out combustion experiments invariably requires continuous convective flow in excess of the gravitational settling velocity (which is comparable with and can even exceed the dust laminar burning velocity). This makes the experiments turbulent in nature and thus renders it impossible to study laminar dust flames. Even for small particle sizes on the order of microns, a stable laminar dust flow can be maintained only for relatively low dust concentrations at normal gravity conditions. High dust loading leads to gravitational instability of the dust cloud and to the formation of recirculation cells in the dust suspension in a confined volume, or to the rapid sedimentation of the dense dust cloud, as a whole, in an unconfined volume. Many important solid fuels such as carbon and boron also have low laminar flame speeds (of the order of several centimeters per second). Convection that occurs in combustion products due to buoyancy disrupts the

  8. Detachment of Tertiary Dendrite Arms during Controlled Directional Solidification in Aluminum - 7 wt Percent Silicon Alloys: Observations from Ground-based and Microgravity Processed Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grugel, Richard N.; Erdman, Robert; Van Hoose, James R.; Tewari, Surendra; Poirier, David

    2012-01-01

    Electron Back Scattered Diffraction results from cross-sections of directionally solidified aluminum 7wt% silicon alloys unexpectedly revealed tertiary dendrite arms that were detached and mis-oriented from their parent arm. More surprisingly, the same phenomenon was observed in a sample similarly processed in the quiescent microgravity environment aboard the International Space Station (ISS) in support of the joint US-European MICAST investigation. The work presented here includes a brief introduction to MICAST and the directional solidification facilities, and their capabilities, available aboard the ISS. Results from the ground-based and microgravity processed samples are compared and possible mechanisms for the observed tertiary arm detachment are suggested.

  9. A comparison between protein crystals grown with vapor diffusion methods in microgravity and protein crystals using a gel liquid-liquid diffusion ground-based method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Teresa Y.; He, Xiao-Min; Carter, Daniel C.

    1992-01-01

    Crystals of human serum albumin have been successfully grown in a variety of gels using crystallization conditions otherwise equivalent to those utilized in the popular hanging-drop vapor-equilibrium method. Preliminary comparisons of gel grown crystals with crystals grown by the vapor diffusion method via both ground-based and microgravity methods indicate that crystals superior in size and quality may be grown by limiting solutal convection. Preliminary X-ray diffraction statistics are presented.

  10. Loss of Signal Transduction and Inhibition of Lymphocyte Locomotion in a Ground-Based Model of Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundaresan, Alamelu; Risin, Diana; Pellis, Neal R.

    1999-01-01

    Inflammatory adherence to, and locomotion through the interstitium is an important component of the immune response. Conditions such as true gravity (TG) and modeled microgravity (MMG) severely inhibit lymphocyte locomotion in vitro through gelled Type I collagen (Pellis et al., 1994, 1997). We used the rotating-wall vessel bioreactor (RWV) as a prototype for modeled microgravity. After observing that lymphocyte locomotion was severely affected in modeled microgravity, we found that polyclonal activation of lymphocytes before exposure to modeled microgravity reversed the locomotion inhibition. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) treatment of normal peripheral blood lymphocytes, after exposure to modeled microgravity, restored lymphocyte locomotion by 84%. Calcium ionophore had no effect on modeled microgravity-exposed lymphocytes. Therefore, the signal pathways involving calcium may not be affected by modeled microgravity. However, direct activation of Protein Kinase C (PKC) with PMA was effective in restoring locomotion in modeled microgravity almost comparable to normal levels in lymphocytes cultured in static T flasks. Thus, events either at the level of PKC or upstream are affected by modeled microgravity. Treatment of lymphocytes with mitomycin C prior to exposure to modeled microgravity, followed by PMA, restored locomotion to the same extent as nonmitomycin C-treated lymphocytes exposed to modeled microgravity (80-85%). Therefore 1) new DNA synthesis is not necessary to restore locomotion and 2) traditional activation and locomotion share common pathways up to PKC. Thereafter the signals diverge. Furthermore PMA added immediately before or after initiation of modeled microgravity prevents the loss of lymphocyte locomotion.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of Intranasal Scopolamine Gel Formation During Antiorthostatic Bedrest - A Microgravity Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lakshmi, Putcha; Singh, R. P.; Crady, V. A.; Derendorf, H.

    2011-01-01

    Space Motion sickness (SMS) is an age old problem for astronauts on both short and long duration space flights. Scopolamine (SCOP) is the most frequently used drug for the treatment of motion sickness (MS) which is currently available in transdermal patch and tablet dosage forms. These formulations of SCOP are ineffective for the treatment of SMS. Intranasal dosage forms are noninvasive with rapid absorption and enhanced bioavailability thus allowing precise and reduced dosing options in addition to offering rescue and treatment options. As such, an intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed and Pharmacokinetics (PK) and bioavailability were determined under IND guidelines. The present clinical trial compares PK and bioavailability of INSCOP in 12 normal, healthy subjects (6 male/ 6 female) during ambulation (AMB) and antiorthostatic bedrest (ABR) used as a ground-based microgravity analog. Subjects received 0.2 and 0.4 mg doses of INSCOP during AMB and ABR in a four-way crossover design. Results indicated no difference between AMB and ABR in PK parameters after 0.2 mg dose. Clearance (Cls) decreased with a concomitant increase in maximum concentration and area under concentration versus time curve (AUC) during ABR after the 0.4 mg dose. This difference in AUC and Cls at the higher but not the lower dose during ABR may suggest that ABR may affect metabolism and/or clearance at higher doses of INSCOP. These results indicate that dosing adjustment may be required for treatment of SMS with INSCOP in space.

  12. T cell regulation in microgravity - The current knowledge from in vitro experiments conducted in space, parabolic flights and ground-based facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauschild, Swantje; Tauber, Svantje; Lauber, Beatrice; Thiel, Cora S.; Layer, Liliana E.; Ullrich, Oliver

    2014-11-01

    Dating back to the Apollo and Skylab missions, it has been reported that astronauts suffered from bacterial and viral infections during space flight or after returning to Earth. Blood analyses revealed strongly reduced capability of human lymphocytes to become active upon mitogenic stimulation. Since then, a large number of in vitro studies on human immune cells have been conducted in space, in parabolic flights, and in ground-based facilities. It became obvious that microgravity affects cell morphology and important cellular functions. Observed changes include cell proliferation, the cytoskeleton, signal transduction and gene expression. This review gives an overview of the current knowledge of T cell regulation under altered gravity conditions obtained by in vitro studies with special emphasis on the cell culture conditions used. We propose that future in vitro experiments should follow rigorous standardized cell culture conditions, which allows better comparison of the results obtained in different flight- and ground-based experiment platforms.

  13. Pharmacokinetics of Intranasal Scopolamine Gel Formulation During Antiorthostatic Bed Rest, a Microgravity Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Rajendra P.; Daniels, Vernie R.; Crady, Camille J.; Derendorf, H.; Putcha, L.

    2011-01-01

    Statement of Purpose, Innovation or Hypothesis: Space Motion sickness (SMS) is a long-standing problem for astronauts on both short and long duration space flights. Scopolamine (SCOP) is frequently used for the treatment of motion sickness (MS), and is available as transdermal patch and tablet dosage forms. These formulations of SCOP are ineffective for the treatment of SMS. Intranasal dosage forms are noninvasive with rapid absorption and enhanced bioavailability, thus allowing precise and reduced dosing in addition to offering rescue and treatment options. An intranasal gel dosage formulation of scopolamine (INSCOP) was developed and pharmacokinetics (PK) and bioavailability were determined in clinical trials with human subjects under IND guidelines.Description of Methods and Materials: The present clinical trial compares PK and bioavailability of INSCOP in 12 normal, healthy subjects (6 male/ 6 female) during ambulation (AMB) and antiorthostaticbed rest (ABR) used as a ground-based microgravity analog. Subjects received 0.2 mg and 0.4 mg doses of INSCOP during AMB and ABR in a 4-way crossover design.Data and Results: Results indicated no difference between AMB and ABR in PK parameters after 0.2 mg dose, Clearance (Cls) decreased with a concomitant increase in maximum concentration and area under concentration-versus-time curve (AUC) during ABR after the 0.4 mg dose.Interpretation, Conclusion or Significance: The difference in AUC and Cls at the higher (0.4 mg) but not the lower dose (0.2 mg) during ABR suggests that ABR may affect metabolism and/or clearance of INSCOP at higher doses . These results indicate that dosing adjustment may be required for treatment of SMS with INSCOP in space.

  14. Progress toward studies of bubble-geometry Bose-Einstein condensates in microgravity with a ground-based prototype of NASA CAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lundblad, Nathan; Jarvis, Thomas; Paseltiner, Daniel; Lannert, Courtney

    2016-05-01

    We have proposed using NASA's Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL, launching to the International Space Station in 2017) to generate bubble-geometry Bose-Einstein condensates through radiofrequency dressing of an atom-chip magnetic trap. This geometry has not been truly realized terrestrially due to the perturbing influence of gravity, making it an ideal candidate for microgravity investigation aboard CAL. We report progress in the construction of a functional prototype of the orbital BEC apparatus: a compact atom-chip machine loaded by a 2D+MOT source, conventional 3D MOT, quadrupole trap, and transfer coil. We also present preliminary modeling of the dressed trap uniformity, which will crucially inform the geometric closure of the BEC shell surface as atom number, bubble radius, and bubble aspect ratio are varied. Finally, we discuss plans for experimental sequences to be run aboard CAL guided by intuition from ground-based prototype operation. JPL 1502172.

  15. Yin-yang of space travel: lessons from the ground-based models of microgravity and their applications to disease and health for life on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, A.; Yamauchi, K.; Hales, N.; Sundaresan, A.; Pellis, N.; Yamamoto, S.; Andrassy, R.

    Space flight environment has numerous clinical effects on human physiology; however, the advances made in physical and biological sciences have benefited humans on Earth. Space flight induces adverse effects on bone, muscle, cardiovascular, neurovestibular, gastrointestinal, and immune function. Similar pathophysiologic changes are also observed in aging with debilitating consequences. Anti-orthostatic tail-suspension (AOS) of rodents is an in vivo model to study many of these effects induced by the microgravity environment of space travel. Over the years AOS has been used by several researchers to study bone demineralization, muscle atrophy, neurovestibular and stress related effects. ecently we employed the AOS model in parallel with in vitro cell culture microgravity analog (Bioreactor) to document the decrease in immune function and its reversal by a nutritional countermeasure. We have modified the rodent model to study nutrient effects and benefits in a short period of time, usually within one to two weeks, in contrast to conventional aging research models which take several weeks to months to get the same results. This model has a potential for further development to study the role of nutrition in other pathophysiologies in an expedited manner. Using this model it is possible to evaluate the response of space travelers of various ages to microgravity stressors for long-term space travel. Hence this modified model will have significant impact on time and financial research budget. For the first time our group has documented a true potential immunonutritional countermeasure for the space flight induced effects on immune system (Clinical Nutrition 2002). Based on our nutritional and immunological studies we propose application of these microgravity analogs and its benefits and utility for nutritional effects on other physiologic parameters especially in aging. (Supported by NASA NCC8-168 grant, ADK)

  16. Investigation of the Influence of Microgravity on Transport Mechanisms in a Virtual Spaceflight Chamber: A Ground-Based Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trolinger, James D.; Lal, Ravindra B.; Rangel, Roger; Witherow, William; Rogers, Jan

    2001-01-01

    The IML-1 Spaceflight produced over 1000 holograms of a well-defined particle field in the low g Spacelab environment; each containing as much as 1000 megabytes of information. This project took advantage of these data and the concept of holographic "virtual" spaceflight to advance the understanding of convection in the space shuttle environment, g-jitter effects on crystal growth, and complex transport phenomena in low Reynolds number flows. The first objective of the proposed work was to advance the understanding of microgravity effects on crystal growth. This objective was achieved through the use of existing holographic data recorded during the IML-1 Spaceflight. The second objective was to design a spaceflight experiment that exploits the "virtual space chamber concept" in which holograms of space chambers can provide a virtual access to space. This led to a flight definition project, which is now underway under a separate contract known as SHIVA, Spaceflight Holography Investigation in a Virtual Apparatus.

  17. Magnetic Levitation of MC3T3 Osteoblast Cells as a Ground-Based Simulation of Microgravity.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Bruce E; Kidder, Louis S; Williams, Philip C; Xu, Wayne Wenzhong

    2009-11-01

    Diamagnetic samples placed in a strong magnetic field and a magnetic field gradient experience a magnetic force. Stable magnetic levitation occurs when the magnetic force exactly counter balances the gravitational force. Under this condition, a diamagnetic sample is in a simulated microgravity environment. The purpose of this study is to explore if MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells can be grown in magnetically simulated hypo-g and hyper-g environments and determine if gene expression is differentially expressed under these conditions. The murine calvarial osteoblastic cell line, MC3T3-E1, grown on Cytodex-3 beads, were subjected to a net gravitational force of 0, 1 and 2 g in a 17 T superconducting magnet for 2 days. Microarray analysis of these cells indicated that gravitational stress leads to up and down regulation of hundreds of genes. The methodology of sustaining long-term magnetic levitation of biological systems are discussed.

  18. Ground Based Experiments in Support of Microgravity Research Results-Vapor Growth of Organic Nonlinear Optical Thin Film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zugrav, M. Ittu; Carswell, William E.; Haulenbeek, Glen B.; Wessling, Francis C.

    2001-01-01

    This work is specifically focused on explaining previous results obtained for the crystal growth of an organic material in a reduced gravity environment. On STS-59, in April 1994, two experiments were conducted with N,N-dimethyl-p-(2,2-dicyanovinyl) aniline (DCVA), a promising nonlinear optical (NLO) material. The space experiments were set to reproduce laboratory experiments that yielded small, bulk crystals of DCVA. The results of the flight experiment, however, were surprising. Rather than producing a bulk single crystal, the result was the production of two high quality, single crystalline thin films. This result was even more intriguing when it is considered that thin films are more desirable for NLO applications than are bulk single crystals. Repeated attempts on the ground to reproduce these results were fruitless. A second set of flight experiments was conducted on STS-69 in September 1995. This time eight DCVA experiments were flown, with each of seven experiments containing a slight change from the first reference experiment. The reference experiment was programmed with growth conditions identical to those of the STS-59 mission. The slight variations in each of the other seven were an attempt to understand what particular parameter was responsible for the preference of thin film growth over bulk crystal growth in microgravity. Once again the results were surprising. In all eight cases thin films were grown again, albeit with varying quality. So now we were faced with a phenomenon that not only takes place in microgravity, but also is very robust, resisting all attempts to force the growth of bulk single crystals.

  19. Shear shedding of drops and the use of superhydrophobic surfaces in microgravity: PFC and ground based results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milne, Andrew; Amirfazli, Alidad

    In free fall, the absence of gravity poses many challenges for fluid handling systems. One such example of this is condensers. On earth, the condensed liquid is removed from the tilted condenser plate by gravity forced shedding. In microgravity, proposed solutions include the use of surfaces with gradients in wettability [1], the use of electrowetting [2], and shearing airflow [3]. In this talk, shear shedding results for a variety of surface (hydrophilic to superhydrophobic (extremely water repelling)) will be presented. Surface science and aerodynamics are used to reveal fundamental parameters controlling incipient motion for drops exposed to shearing airflow. It is found that wetting parameters such as contact angle and surface tension are very influential in determining the minimum required air velocity for drop shedding. Based on experimental results for drops of water and hexadecane (0.5-100 l) on PMMA, Teflon, and a superhydrophobic aluminum surface, an exponential function is proposed that relates the critical air velocity for shedding to the ratio of drop base length to projected area. The results for the water systems can be collapsed to a self similar curve by normalization, which also explains results from other researchers. Since shedding from superhydrophobic surfaces (SHS) is seen to be easier compared to other surfaces, the behaviour of SHS is also probed in this talk. SHS have space-based applications to shedding, self cleaning, anti-icing (spacecraft launch/re-entry), anti-fouling, fluid actuation, and decreased fluid friction. The mechanism for SHS is understood to be the existence of an air layer between large portions of the drop and solid. The first concrete visual evidence of this was gained performing a parabolic flight experiment with the ESA. Results of this experi-ment will be discussed, showing the extreme water repelling potential of SHS in microgravity, and demonstrating how the wetting behaviours seen (partial penetration, transition

  20. Ground based materials science experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, M. B.; Johnston, J. C.; Glasgow, T. K.

    1988-01-01

    The facilities at the Microgravity Materials Science Laboratory (MMSL) at the Lewis Research Center, created to offer immediate and low-cost access to ground-based testing facilities for industrial, academic, and government researchers, are described. The equipment in the MMSL falls into three categories: (1) devices which emulate some aspect of low gravitational forces, (2) specialized capabilities for 1-g development and refinement of microgravity experiments, and (3) functional duplicates of flight hardware. Equipment diagrams are included.

  1. Development of a Ground-Based Analog to the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device Aboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newby, Nathaniel J.; Scott-Pandorf, M. M.; Caldwell, E.; DeWitt, J.K.; Fincke, R.; Peters, B.T.

    2010-01-01

    NASA and Wyle engineers constructed a Horizontal Exercise Fixture (HEF) that was patented in 2006. Recently modifications were made to HEF with the goal of creating a device that mimics squat exercise on the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and can be used by bed rest subjects who must remain supine during exercise. This project posed several engineering challenges, such as how best to reproduce the hip motions (we used a sled that allowed hip motion in the sagittal plane), how to counterweight the pelvis against gravity (we used a pulley and free-weight mechanism), and how to apply large loads (body weight plus squat load) to the shoulders while simultaneously supporting the back against gravity (we tested a standard and a safety bar that allowed movement in the subject s z-axis, both of which used a retractable plate for back support). METHODS An evaluation of the HEF was conducted with human subjects (3F, 3M), who performed sets of squat exercises of increasing load from 10-repetition maximum (RM) up to 1-RM. Three pelvic counterweight loads were tested along with each of the two back-support squat bars. Data collection included 3-dimensional ground reaction forces (GRF), muscle activation (EMG), body motion (video-based motion capture), and subjective comments. These data were compared with previous ground-based ARED study data. RESULTS All subjects in the evaluation were able to perform low- to high-loading squats on the HEF. Four of the 6 subjects preferred a pelvic counterweight equivalent to 60 percent of their body weight. Four subjects preferred the standard squat bar, whereas 2 female subjects preferred the safety bar. EMG data showed muscle activation in the legs and low back typical of squat motion. GRF trajectories and eccentric-concentric loading ratios were similar to ARED. CONCLUSION: Squat exercise performed on HEF approximated squat exercise on ARED.

  2. Ground-based experiments complement microgravity flight opportunities in the investigation of the effects of space flight on the immune response: is protein kinase C gravity sensitive?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapes, S. K.; Woods, K. M.; Armstrong, J. W.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    This manuscript briefly reviews ground-based and flight experiments, discusses how those experiments complement each other, and details how those experiments lead us to speculate about the gravity-sensitive nature of protein kinase C.

  3. Cellular consequences of the microgravity environment on lymphocyte function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, A.; Pellis, N. R.

    Microgravity induces a cascade of changes in cell morphology and function. Mammalian cells adapt to the environment of low gravity and express a series of responses, some possibly from direct effects on cells and others based on environmental conditions created by microgravity. Human lymphocytes in microgravity culture are functionally diminished in activation and locomotion. Both processes are integral to optimal immune response to fight pathogens. The NASA Rotating-wall vessel (RWV) is an analog to many aspects of microgravity and is used to model microgravity for ground-based experiments. We found that lymphocyte activation and locomotion were significantly down-regulated in spaceflight and in the RWV. Using this analog culture system, we have isolated a signal transduction lesion either at the level of, or upstream from, Protein kinase C (PKC) activation. Analysis of expression and adaptation by gene array experiments and immunoblotting to identified upstream events in human lymphocytes adapting to microgravity analog culture. Microgravity induces selective changes, many of which are cell membrane related. Results showed that upstream of PKC in the T cell activation cascade, PLC-gamma and LAT are significantly diminished. ZAP 70 which controls LAT activation is also down-regulated in modeled microgravity indicating that events governing cell shape might warrant special attention in microgravity conditions. The goal of this study is to delineate response suites which are consequential, direct or indirect effects of the microgravity environment and which of these are essential to lymphocytes.

  4. Thin-bedded reservoir analogs in an ancient delta using terrestrial laser scanner and high-resolution ground-based hyperspectral cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Casey J.; Khan, Shuhab D.; Bhattacharya, Janok P.; Glennie, Craig; Seepersad, Darsel

    2016-08-01

    Ground-based terrestrial laser scanning and hyperspectral sensors were used to image fine-scale heterogeneity in outcrops of prodeltaic heterolithic facies of Parasequence 6 of the Cretaceous Ferron Notom delta in Southern Utah. Previous work shows that Parasequence 6 is an upward coarsening fluvial-dominated, wave-influenced deltaic deposit containing heterolithic thin-bedded facies representing distal delta front and proximal prodelta environments. Primarily, the thin beds have been interpreted as turbidites, storm beds (tempestites), and hyperpycnites. These deposits represent analogs for thin-bedded unconventional pay zones that lie at the margins of conventional deltaic sandstone reservoirs. The terrestrial laser scanner was used to create a centimeter- to decimeter-scale, digital representation of the outcrops in three dimensions. Hyperspectral sensors record electromagnetic radiation reflected off the outcrops in 840 contiguous bands, which were then used to generate a spectral signature for each pixel sampled. The spectral signatures are a function of mineralogy, chemistry, surface alteration, grain-size, and cements, and were used to distinguish thin mudstones from sandstones within an interbedded succession at the base of a deltaic parasequence. Comparison between the spectral signatures recorded from the outcrop and those of reference materials, and with previous facies architecture studies, enables lithofacies to be identified and subsequently accurately mapped. Hyperspectral data are then draped over the terrestrial laser scanner model to generate a spatially-accurate detailed three-dimensional (3D) geologic map of the heterogeneity. Approximately 100 m of outcrop was imaged laterally with the hyperspectral camera and terrestrial laser scanner on the previously mapped distal delta front and prodeltaic facies of Parasequence 6. Bed thickness data, based on measurements made along depositional dip versus strike, show that bed geometries are anisotropic

  5. The role of nucleotides in augmentation of lymphocyte locomotion: Adaptional countermeasure development in microgravity analog environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, Alamelu; Kulkarni, Anil D.; Yamauchi, Keiko; Pellis, Neal R.

    2006-09-01

    Space travel and long-term space residence such as envisaged in the exploration era implicates burdens on the immune system. An optimal immune response is required to countered and with-stand exposure to pathogens. Countermeasure development is an important avenue in space research especially for long-term space exploration. Microgravity exposure causes detrimental effects in lymphocyte functions which may impair immune response. Impaired lymphocyte function can be remedied by bypassing cell membrane events. This is done by using compounds such as Phorbol Myristate Acetate (PMA). Since activation in mouse splenocytes was augmented using nucleotides, it was essential to observe their effects on human lymphocyte locomotion. A nucleotide/nucleoside (NT/NT) mixture from Otsuka Pharmaceuticals (Naruto, Japan) was used at recommended doses. In lymphocytes cultured in modeled microgravity, the NT/NT mixture used orchestrated locomotion recovery by more than 87%, similar to the response documented with PMA in lymphocytes. Both 12µM and 120µM doses worked similarly. These are preliminary results leading to the possible use of the NT/NT mixture to mitigate immune suppression in micro-gravity. More studies in this direction are required to delineate the role of NT/NT on the immune response in microgravity.

  6. The pituitary-testicular axis in microgravity: analogies with the aging male syndrome.

    PubMed

    Strollo, F; Boitani, C; Basciani, S; Pecorelli, L; Palumbo, D; Borgia, L; Masini, M A; Morè, M; Strollo, G; Spera, G; Uva, B M; Riondino, G

    2005-01-01

    Extraterrestrial exploration has gone on for decades before reversible testicular failure was shown to be a consequence of space flight in humans and animals at the end of the XXth century. This phenomenon was initially thought to depend on the psycho-physical stress expected to derive from a decidedly unusual environment, but the lack of consistent data concerning cortisol increase and/or gonadotrophin suppression pointed to the possibility of a primary defect. This was indirectly confirmed by the observation that a continuum of testicular androgen secretion potential exists from microgravity to centrifuge-derived hypergravity. Further experiments using tissue slices and suspended cells confirmed a direct inhibitory effect of microgravity upon testicular androgen production. A parallel deterioration of major physiological parameters, such as bone density, muscle mass/force, red blood cell mass, hydration and cardiopulmonary performance, has been repeatedly described during space missions, which, luckily enough, fully recover within days to weeks after landing, the time lag depending on single organ/system adaptation rates. According to the Authors of the present review, when taking together all reported changes occurring in space, a picture emerges closely resembling the so-called aging male syndrome, which is currently the object of daily screening and clinical care in their endocrine unit, so that microgravity may become a tool for better understanding subtle mechanisms of testicular senescence.

  7. Characteristics of human dendritic cells generated in a microgravity analog culture system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savary, C. A.; Grazziuti, M. L.; Przepiorka, D.; Tomasovic, S. P.; McIntyre, B. W.; Woodside, D. G.; Pellis, N. R.; Pierson, D. L.; Rex, J. H.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Generation of an effective immune response requires that antigens be processed and presented to T lymphocytes by antigen-presenting cells, the most efficient of which are dendritic cells (DC). Because of their influence on both the innate and the acquired arms of immunity, a defect in DC would be expected to result in a broad impairment of immune function, not unlike that observed in astronauts during or after space flight. In the study reported here, we investigated whether DC generation and function are altered in a culture environment that models microgravity, i.e., the rotary-cell culture system (RCCS). We observed that RCCS supported the generation of DC identified by morphology, phenotype (HLA-DR+ and lacking lineage-associated markers), and function (high allostimulatory activity). However, the yield of DC from RCCS was significantly lower than that from static cultures. RCCS-generated DC were less able to phagocytose Aspergillus fumigatus conidia and expressed a lower density of surface HLA-DR. The proportion of DC expressing CD80 was also significantly reduced in RCCS compared to static cultures. When exposed to fungal antigens, RCCS-generated DC produced lower levels of interleukin-12 and failed to upregulate some costimulatory/adhesion molecules involved in antigen presentation. These data suggest that DC generation, and some functions needed to mount an effective immune response to pathogens, may be disturbed in the microgravity environment of space.

  8. Signaling in Human and Murine Lymphocytes in Microgravity: Parallels and Contrasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neal, Pellis; Alamelu, Sundaresan; Kulkarni, A. D.; Yamauchi, K.

    2006-01-01

    Immune function in space undergoes dramatic changes, some of which are detrimental to lymphocyte function. These changes may lead to significant immune suppression. Studies with human lymphocytes both in space flight and with ground-based models (NASA in vitro ground-based microgravity analog) indicate that T cell activation is inhibited in microgravity. Other lymphocyte functions, such as locomotion, are also inhibited. There is about an 80 percent homology in the immune response of mice to that of humans. A murine model was investigated because of its ability to parallel some microgravity using hind limb suspension. In in vivo antiorthostatically (AOS)-suspended mice, T cell activation is greatly suppressed, with the majority of activation related cytokines being inhibited. PHA activation in lymphocytes derived from AOS mice (in vivo ground-based microgravity analog) is also suppressed. Calcium ionophore studies in human lymphocytes exposed to modeled microgravity indicate that the calcium pathways are probably unaffected in microgravity. IP3 (inositol triphosphate) receptor expression in both human and mouse lymphocytes cultured in modeled microgravity indicate no suppression of calcium signaling. In the human system, microgravity seems to inhibit signaling cascades either at the level of, or up-stream of, Protein Kinase C (PKC). In particular, a membrane event, such as phospholipase C gamma 1 activity in human lymphocytes is affected, with its direct upstream effector, LAT, being deficiently expressed. In the mouse pathway, LAT is undiminished while another critical intermediate, SLP-76, is diminished significantly. This study identifies critical stages in the human and mouse immune systems and in lymphocytes as a function of microgravity.

  9. Analogy between training for dancers and problems of adjustment to microgravity: an evaluation of the subjective vertical in dancers.

    PubMed

    Dubois, K

    1991-01-01

    "Moderne dance" (as opposed to a more academic or classical dance form) uses techniques from kinesiology, anatomy and improvization which are adapted to a cultural, technological and political environment. The function of a choreographic system is to take and give a measure of the world. This includes, with the present tendency of the evolution of culture, a new "naturalism" which seeks the secrets of the body. Dance movements express in terms of space the dimension fo the infinite. It gives somehow the measure of a world within which everything is relative. Except for the speed of light, time and space are bound together by the same principle. The qualities of body awareness and specific motricity in dancers imply--besides a strict discipline--balance, coordination, muscular performance and perfect orientation, problems that astronauts also encounter in microgravity. Could chosen exercises used in modern dance technique be applied to the training of astronauts? Dancer-choreographer Kitsou Dubois has been working in this direction since 1988. She was granted a "Villa Medicis Hors Les Murs" by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, to carry on with her research at NASA, Houston, Tex. in April 1989. It allowed her to investigate the reality of this analogy. She intends to evaluate the dancers' subjective vertical refering to Mittelstaedt's observations on the proportional relationship between "space sickness" and some astronauts poor evaluation of the subjective vertical. This study should create a relationship between a choreographer's empirical intuition and a scientific reality.

  10. Analogy between training for dancers and problems of adjustment to microgravity: An evaluation of the subjective vertical in dancers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubois, Kitsou

    "Moderne dance" (as opposed to a more academic or classical dance form) uses techniques from kinesiology, anatomy and improvization which are adapted to a cultural, technological and political environment. The function of a choreographic system is to take and give a measure of the world. This includes, with the present tendency of the evolution of culture, a new "naturalism" which seeks the secrets of the body. Dance movements express in terms of space the dimension fo the infinite. It gives somehow the measure of a world within which everything is relative. Except for the speed of light, time and space are bound together by the same principle. The qualities of body awareness and specific motricity in dancers imply—besides a strict discipline—balance, coordination, muscular performance and perfect orientation, problems that astronauts also encounter in microgravity. Could chosen exercises used in modern dance technique be applied to the training of astronauts? Dancer-choreographer Kitsou Dubois has been working in this direction since 1988. She was granted a "Villa Medicis Hors Les Murs" by the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs, to carry on with her research at NASA, Houston, Tex. in April 1989. It allowed her to investigate the reality of this analogy. She intends to evaluate the dancers' subjective vertical refering to Mittelstaedt's observations on the proportional relationship between "space sickness" and some astronauts poor evaluation of the subjective vertical. This study should create a relationship between a choreographer's empirical intuition and a scientific reality.

  11. Lunar Analog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2009-01-01

    In this viewgraph presentation, a ground-based lunar analog is developed for the return of manned space flight to the Moon. The contents include: 1) Digital Astronaut; 2) Bed Design; 3) Lunar Analog Feasibility Study; 4) Preliminary Data; 5) Pre-pilot Study; 6) Selection of Stockings; 7) Lunar Analog Pilot Study; 8) Bed Design for Lunar Analog Pilot.

  12. Microgravity and aging of animals.

    PubMed

    Serova, L V

    2001-07-01

    A study of changed gravity effects upon viability, life span and aging is of interest, on one hand, from a practical viewpoint in relation to the growing duration of space missions and on other hand, from a theoretical viewpoint, because gravity is one of the key factors in the evolutionary process on the Earth. In 1978 special conference titled "Space Gerontology" was held. Well known experts in space biology and physiology of aging participated in it. However, all the materiales presented at the conference were based on analogies and on what could be during exposure to microgravity rather than on real data. I shall try to discuss this problem, basing on the results of rats experiments on board "Cosmos" biosatellites and ground based model experiments. Male wistar rats examined after 1-3 weeks exposure to microgravity on board biosatellites demonstrated some changes similar to the signs [correction of sings] of aging, such as decreased motor activity, thymus involution, muscle atrophy, osteoporosis etc. But all these changes were reversible and in rats examined 3 weeks after return to the Earth we did not find any deviations from the controls.

  13. NASA's Microgravity Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salzman, Jack A.

    1994-01-01

    Since the late 1980s, the NASA Microgravity Science Program has implemented a systematic effort to expand microgravity research. In 1992, 114 new investigators were selected to enter the program and more US microgravity experiments were conducted in space than in all the years combined since Skylab (1973-74). The use of NASA Research Announcements (NRA's) to solicit research proposals has proven to be highly successful in building a strong base of high-quality peer-reviewed science in both the ground-based and flight experiment elements of the program. The ground-based part of the program provides facilities for low gravity experiments including drop towers and aircraft for making parabolic flights. Program policy is that investigations should not proceed to the flight phase until all ground-based investigative capabilities have been exhausted. In the space experiments program, the greatest increase in flight opportunities has been achieved through dedicated or primary payload Shuttle missions. These missions will continue to be augmented by both mid-deck and GAS-Can accommodated experiments. A US-Russian cooperative flight program envisioned for 1995-97 will provide opportunities for more microgravity research as well as technology demonstration and systems validation efforts important for preparing for experiment operations on the Space Station.

  14. Ground based infrared astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.

    1988-01-01

    Infrared spectroscopic instrumentation has been developed for ground-based measurements of astrophysical objects in the intermediate infrared. A conventional Michelson interferometer is limited for astronomical applications in the intermediate infrared by quantum noise fluctuations in the radiation form the source and/or background incident on the detector, and the multiplex advantage is no longer available. One feasible approach to recovering the multiplex advantage is post-dispersion. The infrared signal after passing through telescope and interferometer, is dispersed by a low resolution grating spectrometer onto an array of detectors. The feasibility of the post-dispersion system has been demonstrated with observations of astrophysical objects in the 5 and 10 micrometer atmospheric windows from ground-based telescopes. During FY87/88 the post-disperser was used at the Kitt Peak 4-meter telescope and McMath telescope with facility Fourier transform spectrometers. Jupiter, Saturn, Mars, and Venus were observed. On Jupiter, the resolution at 12 micrometer was 0.01/cm, considerably higher than had been acheived previously. The spectrum contains Jovian ethane and acetylene emission. Construction was begun on the large cryogenic grating spectrometer.

  15. Computational and ground-based experimental investigations of the effects of specified and unspecified (free) pressure conditions at the condenser exit for condensing flows in terrestrial and microgravity environments.

    PubMed

    Narain, Amitabh; Kulkarni, Shantanu; Mitra, Soumya; Kurita, Jorge H; Kivisalu, Michael T

    2009-04-01

    Reported experimental and computational results confirm that both the flow features and heat transfer rates inside a condenser depend on the specification of inlet, wall, and exit conditions. The theoretical and experimental results presented in this paper allow us to propose important exit condition based categorization of these flows. Of these, category II flows are defined to be cases for which exit pressures are left unspecified. However it is shown here that steady flows under specified exit pressure conditions (category I flows) are more stable and can be more easily achieved under all conditions (normal or zero-gravity). Existence of self-selected exit pressure conditions for unspecified exit condition cases (category II flows) are more difficult to achieve and are often limited to gravity driven flows. In practice, however, special hardware arrangements are required for repeatable realization of both these categories of flow. If this is not so, one often has an inadvertent category I flow (flows with specified exit pressure) without the explicit knowledge of the exit pressure value. For microgravity situations, the remedy is to run condensers under suitably specified inlet and exit pressures (category I conditions) as well as a proper cooling strategy (i.e., proper wall temperature variations).

  16. Electrophoresis. [in microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bier, M.

    1977-01-01

    Ground-based techniques for electrophoresis take account of the need either to circumvent the effects of gravity to prevent convection, or to use gravity for fluid stabilization through artificial density gradients. The microgravity environments of orbiting spacecraft provides a new alternative for electrophoresis by avoiding the need for either of these two approaches. The paper presents some theoretical considerations concerning electrophoresis, examines certain experimental techniques (zone and high density gel electrophoresis, isoelectric focusing and isotachophoresis), and examines the electrophoresis of living cells.

  17. Macromolecular Crystallization in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, Edward H.; Helliwell, John R.

    2004-01-01

    The key concepts that attracted crystal growers, macromolecular or solid state, to microgravity research is that density difference fluid flows and sedimentation of the growing crystals are greatly reduced. Thus, defects and flaws in the crystals can be reduced, even eliminated, and crystal volume can be increased. Macromolecular crystallography differs from the field of crystalline semiconductors. For the latter, crystals are harnessed for their electrical behaviors. A crystal of a biological macromolecule is used instead for diffraction experiments (X-ray or neutron) to determine the three-dimensional structure of the macromolecule. The better the internal order of the crystal of a biological macromolecule then the more molecular structure detail that can be extracted. This structural information that enables an understanding of how the molecule functions. This knowledge is changing the biological and chemical sciences with major potential in understanding disease pathologies. Macromolecular structural crystallography in general is a remarkable field where physics, biology, chemistry, and mathematics meet to enable insight to the basic fundamentals of life. In this review, we examine the use of microgravity as an environment to grow macromolecular crystals. We describe the crystallization procedures used on the ground, how the resulting crystals are studied and the knowledge obtained from those crystals. We address the features desired in an ordered crystal and the techniques used to evaluate those features in detail. We then introduce the microgravity environment, the techniques to access that environment, and the theory and evidence behind the use of microgravity for crystallization experiments. We describe how ground-based laboratory techniques have been adapted to microgravity flights and look at some of the methods used to analyze the resulting data. Several case studies illustrate the physical crystal quality improvements and the macromolecular structural

  18. Comparison of Changes in Immunological Parameters in Human Lymphocytes in 2D Versus 3D Clinostats-Goal Towards Microgravity Analog Calibration for Future Space Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundaresan, Alamelu; Russomano, Thais; Pellis, Neal R.

    2008-06-01

    Exposure to microgravity may produce changes in the performance of the immunological system at the cellular level as well as in the major physiological systems of the body. Studies in true spaceflight and similar studies in 2D clinostats (Rotating wall vessels) related to decreased immune function in astronaut blood and normal human lymphocytes indicate a decrease in cell proliferation, T cell activation, locomotion and altered lymphocyte signal transduction (Sundaresan and Pellis, 2008, Sundaresan et al., 2004). The present study was designed to investigate whether the proliferation and viability of lymphocytes are reduced by exposure to rotation in a 3D-Clinostat, which is used to simulate microgravity for cells.

  19. Second Microgravity Fluid Physics Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The conference's purpose was to inform the fluid physics community of research opportunities in reduced-gravity fluid physics, present the status of the existing and planned reduced gravity fluid physics research programs, and inform participants of the upcoming NASA Research Announcement in this area. The plenary sessions provided an overview of the Microgravity Fluid Physics Program information on NASA's ground-based and space-based flight research facilities. An international forum offered participants an opportunity to hear from French, German, and Russian speakers about the microgravity research programs in their respective countries. Two keynote speakers provided broad technical overviews on multiphase flow and complex fluids research. Presenters briefed their peers on the scientific results of their ground-based and flight research. Fifty-eight of the sixty-two technical papers are included here.

  20. Low Temperature Research in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strayer, D.

    1993-01-01

    The recent flight of the Lambda Point Experiment has demonstrated the potential for performing precise tests of fundamental theories using low temperature techniques in Earth orbit. NASA's Microgravity Science and Applications Division has established a program of successor expermients to investigate other aspects of condensed matter physics using the same low temperature flight facility. This paper describes the new investigations that have been chosen for flight experiments, and those selected for ground-based studies that could lead to flight experiments later.

  1. Ground based silicon zoning program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, E. L.

    1981-01-01

    The preparation of building flight hardware and carrying out experiments in space was investigated. The ground based investigation phase A/B of the experimental float zoning of silicon is outlined. The overall program goals, leading to recommending experiments to be done in phase C/D are spelled out. Thermophysical properties which must be accurately known to compare thermophysical models to experimental zoning of silicon are listed.

  2. Microgravity research at LeRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, Fred J.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Lewis Research Center is conducting a wide variety of ground-based science and microgravity flight experiments in the disciplines of fluid physics and transport phenomena, combustion science, and materials science. Extensive use is made of low-gravity ground-based facilities such as drop towers and a Learjet aircraft, as well as extensive normal-gravity laboratories. The ground-based facilities are utilized to execute science programs, perform precursor tests to define space experiment science requirements and conceptual designs, and also to perform tests for space experiment technology development and verification. Finally, flight hardware is designed, developed and flown on the Space Shuttle.

  3. Ground-based IRCM testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greer, Derek; Owen, Mark

    2010-04-01

    Recent advances in the ability to perform comprehensive ground based Infrared Countermeasure (IRCM) testing have the capability to fill the Test and Evaluation (T&E) gaps for existing and future weapons system acquisition. IRCM testing has historically been dominated and in a manner limited by expensive live fire testing requirements. While live fire testing is a vital part of IRCM T&E, next generation technological developments now enable closed-loop, ground-based IRCM testing to provide valuable complementary test data at a much lower cost. The high cost and limited assets that have prevented live fire and flight testing from providing a thorough hardware based data set required for previous T&E analysis is no longer an issue. In the past, traditional physics based digital system model (DSM) analysis has been utilized to augment the IRCM data sets to make them statistically significant. While DSM is a useful tool in the development of IRCM systems, the newly developed installed system testing utilizing a hardware-in-the-loop construct provides for an enhanced level of fidelity and assurance that the systems will meet the warfighter's needs. The goal of the newly developed test technologies is to develop a statistical significant data set utilizing hardware-in-the-loop at a significantly lower cost than historical methods.

  4. Ukrainian Program for Material Science in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorov, Oleg

    Ukrainian Program for Material Sciences in Microgravity O.P. Fedorov, Space Research Insti-tute of NASU -NSAU, Kyiv, The aim of the report is to present previous and current approach of Ukrainian research society to the prospect of material sciences in microgravity. This approach is based on analysis of Ukrainian program of research in microgravity, preparation of Russian -Ukrainian experiments on Russian segment of ISS and development of new Ukrainian strategy of space activity for the years 2010-2030. Two parts of issues are discussed: (i) the evolution of our views on the priorities in microgravity research (ii) current experiments under preparation and important ground-based results. item1 The concept of "space industrialization" and relevant efforts in Soviet and post -Soviet Ukrainian research institutions are reviewed. The main topics are: melt supercooling, crystal growing, testing of materials, electric welding and study of near-Earth environment. The anticipated and current results are compared. item 2. The main experiments in the framework of Ukrainian-Russian Research Program for Russian Segment of ISS are reviewed. Flight installations under development and ground-based results of the experiments on directional solidification, heat pipes, tribological testing, biocorrosion study is presented. Ground-based experiments and theoretical study of directional solidification of transparent alloys are reviewed as well as preparation of MORPHOS installation for study of succinonitrile -acetone in microgravity.

  5. Response and adaptation of bone cells to simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Lifang; Li, Runzhi; Su, Peihong; Arfat, Yasir; Zhang, Ge; Shang, Peng; Qian, Airong

    2014-11-01

    Bone loss induced by microgravity during space flight is one of the most deleterious factors on astronaut's health and is mainly attributed to an unbalance in the process of bone remodeling. Studies from the space microgravity have demonstrated that the disruption of bone remodeling is associated with the changes of four main functional bone cells, including osteoblast, osteoclast, osteocyte, and mesenchymal stem cells. For the limited availability, expensive costs and confined experiment conditions for conducting space microgravity studies, the mechanism of bone cells response and adaptation to microgravity is still unclear. Therefore, some ground-based simulated microgravity methods have been developed to investigate the bioeffects of microgravity and the mechanisms. Here, based on our studies and others, we review how bone cells (osteoblasts, osteoclasts, osteocytes and mesenchymal stem cells) respond and adapt to simulated microgravity.

  6. Microgravity, bacteria, and the influence of motility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Michael R.; Klaus, David M.

    Space microbiology studies date back to the 1960s, with most investigations reporting that increased bacterial populations occur in flight compared to ground controls. Several exceptions to these findings, however, have created controversy and complicated explanations of how, or whether, microgravity affects microorganisms. Upon closer examination of the literature, we identified a trend relating cell motility to experimental outcome. Related studies conducted in microgravity analog devices, such as the clinostat or rotating wall vessel bioreactor, further corroborate this trend. We review the literature regarding bacterial growth experiments conducted in space (and using microgravity analogs) and analyze the influence of bacterial motility.

  7. New findings and instrumentation from the NASA Lewis microgravity facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D.; Greenberg, Paul S.

    1990-01-01

    The study of fundamental combustion and fluid physics in a microgravity environment is a relatively new scientific endeavor. The microgravity environment enables a new range of experiments to be performed since: buoyancy-induced flows are nearly eliminated; normally obscured forces and flows may be isolated; gravitational settling or sedimentation is nearly eliminated; and larger time or length scales in experiments become permissible. Unexpected phenomena have been observed, with surprising frequency, in microgravity experiments, raising questions about the degree of accuracy and completeness of the classical understanding. An overview is provided of some new phenomena found through ground-based, microgravity research, the instrumentation used in this research, and plans for new instrumentation.

  8. Immune Function Changes during a Spaceflight-Analog Undersea Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian; Stowe, Raymond; Mehta, Satish; Quiniarte, Heather; Yetman, Deborah; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2008-01-01

    There is ample evidence to suggest that space flight leads to immune system dysregulation. This may be a result of microgravity, confinement, physiological stress, radiation, environment or other mission-associated factors. It is attractive to utilize ground-based spaceflight analogs as appropriate to investigate this phenomenon. For spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation (SAID), the authors believe the most appropriate analogs might be NEEMO (short duration, Shuttle analog), Antarctic winter-over (long-duration, ISS analog) and the Haughton Mars Project in the Canadian Arctic (intermediate-duration). Each of these analogs replicate isolation, mission-associated stress, disrupted circadian rhythms, and other aspects of flight thought to contribute to SAID. To validate NEEMO as a flight analog with respect to SAID, a pilot study was conducted during the NEEMO-12 and 13 missions during 2007. Assays were performed that assessed immune status, physiological stress and latent viral reactivation. Blood and saliva samples were collected at pre-, mid-, and post-mission timepoints.

  9. Application of Acute Maximal Exercise to Enhance Mechanisms Underlying Blood Pressure Regulation and Orthostatic Tolerance After Exposure to Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Engelke, K. A.; Doerr, D. F.

    1999-01-01

    Development of orthostatic hypotension and intolerance in astronauts who return to earth following a spaceflight mission represents a significant operational concern to NASA. Reduced plasma volume, vascular resistance, and baroreflex responsiveness following exposure to actual and ground-based analogs of microgravity have been associated with orthostatic instability, suggesting that these mechanisms may contribute alone or in combination to compromise of blood pressure regulation after spaceflight. It therefore seems reasonable that development of procedures designed to reverse or restore the effects of microgravity on regulatory mechanisms of blood volume, vascular resistance and cardiac function should provide some protection against postflight orthostatic intolerance. Several investigations have provided evidence that a single bout of exhaustive dynamic exercise enhances functions of mechanisms responsible for blood pressure stability. Therefore, the purpose of our research project was to conduct a series of experiments using ground-based analogs of reduced gravity (i.e., prolonged restriction to the upright standing posture) in human subjects to investigate the hypothesis that a single bout of dynamic maximal exercise would restore blood volume, vascular resistance and cardiac function and improve blood pressure stability.

  10. Strata-1: A Planetary Science Experiment on the Behavior of Asteroid Regolith in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, K. K.; Abell, P.; Brisset, J.; Britt, D.; Colwell, J.; Durda, D.; Dove, A.; Fries, M.; Graham, L.; Hartzell, C.; Leonard, M.; Love, S.; Sanchez, D. P.; Scheeres, D. J.

    2016-10-01

    Strata-1 is an experiment studying asteroid regolith in the microgravity environment of ISS. The prolonged microgravity and vibrational conditions of ISS are analogous to those on small Solar System bodies.

  11. Unique cell culture systems for ground based research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Marian L.

    1990-01-01

    The horizontally rotating fluid-filled, membrane oxygenated bioreactors developed at NASA Johnson for spacecraft applications provide a powerful tool for ground-based research. Three-dimensional aggregates formed by cells cultured on microcarrier beads are useful for study of cell-cell interactions and tissue development. By comparing electron micrographs of plant seedlings germinated during Shuttle flight 61-C and in an earth-based rotating bioreactor it is shown that some effects of microgravity are mimicked. Bioreactors used in the UAH Bioreactor Laboratory will make it possible to determine some of the effects of altered gravity at the cellular level. Bioreactors can be valuable for performing critical, preliminary-to-spaceflight experiments as well as medical investigations such as in vitro tumor cell growth and chemotherapeutic drug response; the enrichment of stem cells from bone marrow; and the effect of altered gravity on bone and muscle cell growth and function and immune response depression.

  12. Flight Analogs (Bed Rest Research)

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flight Analogs / Bed Rest Research Projects provide NASA with a ground based research platform to complement space research. By mimicking the conditions of weightlessness in the human body here on ...

  13. Microgravity and Cellular Consequences in Lymphocyte Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Sundaresan, Alamelu

    2004-01-01

    Mammalian cells adapt to the environment of low gravity and express a series of responses, some possibly from direct effects on cells and others based on environmental conditions created by microgravity. Human lymphocytes in microgravity culture are functionally diminished in activation and locomotion. Both processes are integral to optimal immune response to fight pathogens. The NASA Rotating-wall vessel (RWV) is a well-accepted analog for microgravity culture on the ground. Gene array experiments and immunoblotting identified upstream events in human lymphocytes adapting to microgravity analog culture. Microgravity induces selective changes, many of which are cell membrane related. Results showed that upstream of PKC in the T cell activation cascade, PLC-gamma and LAT are significantly diminished. ZAP 70 which controls LAT activation is also down regulated in modeled microgravity. Thus events governing cell shape might warrant attention in microgravity conditions. The goal of this study is to delineate response suites that are consequential, direct or indirect effects of the microgravity environment and which of these are essential to lymphocytes

  14. NASA's Microgravity Materials Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald C.

    1998-01-01

    Materials Science research programs are funded by NASA through the Microgravity Research Division. Such programs are normally designated as flight definition or ground based and can be awarded initially for up to four years. Selection is through a peer review process in response to a biennial NASA Research Announcement (NRA). The next announcement is due in November 1998 with proposals due in March 1999. Topics of special interest to NASA are described in the guidelines for proposal writing within the NRA. NASA's interest in materials is wide and covers a range which includes metals and alloys, ceramics, glasses, polymers, non-linear optics, aerogels and nanostructures. With increasing interest in the Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) program, the materials research funded will not be exclusively devoted to processes dependent on microgravity, but will also support materials of strategic interest in meeting NASA's long range plans of interplanetary travel.

  15. Microgravity Effects on Transendothelial Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, John M.

    1996-01-01

    The Endothelial Cell (EC) layer which lines blood vessels from the aorta to the capillaries provides the principal barrier to transport of water and solutes between blood and underlying tissue. Endothelial cells are continuously exposed to the mechanical shearing force (shear stress) and normal force (pressure) imposed by flowing blood on their surface, and they are adapted to this mechanical environment. When the cardiovascular system is exposed to microgravity, the mechanical environmental of endothelial cells is perturbed drastically and the transport properties of EC layers are altered in response. We have shown recently that step changes in shear stress have an acute effect on transport properties of EC layers in a cell culture model, and several recent studies in different vessels of live animals have confirmed the shear-dependent transport properties of the endothelium. We hypothesize that alterations in mechanical forces induced by microgravity and their resultant influence on transendothelial transport of water and solutes are, in large measure, responsible for the characteristic cephalad fluid shift observed in humans experiencing microgravity. To study the effects of altered mechanical forces on transendothelial transport and to test pharmacologic agents as counter measures to microgravity induced fluid shifts we have proposed ground-based studies using well defined cell culture models.

  16. Spaceflight Sensorimotor Analogs: Simulating Acute and Adaptive Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Laura C.; Harm, Deborah L.; Kozlovskaya, Inessa; Reschke, Millard F.; Wood, Scott J.

    2009-01-01

    reviewed. DISCUSSION. A true ground-based flight analog for sensorimotor function is not feasible. A combination of flight analogs; however, can be used to selectively mimic different aspects of the spaceflight-induced sensorimotor performance decrements.

  17. Computational Material Processing in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Working with Professor David Matthiesen at Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) a computer model of the DPIMS (Diffusion Processes in Molten Semiconductors) space experiment was developed that is able to predict the thermal field, flow field and concentration profile within a molten germanium capillary under both ground-based and microgravity conditions as illustrated. These models are coupled with a novel nonlinear statistical methodology for estimating the diffusion coefficient from measured concentration values after a given time that yields a more accurate estimate than traditional methods. This code was integrated into a web-based application that has become a standard tool used by engineers in the Materials Science Department at CWRU.

  18. Ontogenesis of mammals in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gazenko, O. G. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This report is an English translation of a Russian report prepared by a group of authors from the USSR, Bulgaria, Hungary, the GDR, Poland, Czechoslovakia, France, and the USA. It presents results of the first microgravity experiment on mammalian embryology performed during the flight of the biosatellite Cosmos-1514 and in ground-based simulation studies. An overview is provided of the data available about the role of gravity in animal growth and development, and future studies into this problem are discussed. A new introduction has been provided for the English version.

  19. Tissue Engineering of Cartilage on Ground-Based Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshcheva, Ganna; Bauer, Johann; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Egli, Marcel; Wehland, Markus; Grimm, Daniela

    2016-06-01

    Investigations under simulated microgravity offer the opportunity for a better understanding of the influence of altered gravity on cells and the scaffold-free three-dimensional (3D) tissue formation. To investigate the short-term influence, human chondrocytes were cultivated for 2 h, 4 h, 16 h, and 24 h on a 2D Fast-Rotating Clinostat (FRC) in DMEM/F-12 medium supplemented with 10 % FCS. We detected holes in the vimentin network, perinuclear accumulations of vimentin after 2 h, and changes in the chondrocytes shape visualised by F-actin staining after 4 h of FRC-exposure. Scaffold-free cultivation of chondrocytes for 7 d on the Random Positioning Machine (RPM), the FRC and the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV) resulted in spheroid formation, a phenomenon already known from spaceflight experiments with chondrocytes (MIR Space Station) and thyroid cancer cells (SimBox/Shenzhou-8 space mission). The experiments enabled by the ESA-CORA-GBF programme gave us an optimal opportunity to study gravity-related cellular processes, validate ground-based facilities for our chosen cell system, and prepare long-term experiments under real microgravity conditions in space

  20. RWPV bioreactor mass transport: earth-based and in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Begley, Cynthia M.; Kleis, Stanley J.

    2002-01-01

    Mass transport and mixing of perfused scalar quantities in the NASA Rotating Wall Perfused Vessel bioreactor are studied using numerical models of the flow field and scalar concentration field. Operating conditions typical of both microgravity and ground-based cell cultures are studied to determine the expected vessel performance for both flight and ground-based control experiments. Results are presented for the transport of oxygen with cell densities and consumption rates typical of colon cancer cells cultured in the RWPV. The transport and mixing characteristics are first investigated with a step change in the perfusion inlet concentration by computing the time histories of the time to exceed 10% inlet concentration. The effects of a uniform cell utilization rate are then investigated with time histories of the outlet concentration, volume average concentration, and volume fraction starved. It is found that the operating conditions used in microgravity produce results that are quite different then those for ground-based conditions. Mixing times for microgravity conditions are significantly shorter than those for ground-based operation. Increasing the differential rotation rates (microgravity) increases the mixing and transport, while increasing the mean rotation rate (ground-based) suppresses both. Increasing perfusion rates enhances mass transport for both microgravity and ground-based cases, however, for the present range of operating conditions, above 5-10 cc/min there are diminishing returns as much of the inlet fluid is transported directly to the perfusion exit. The results show that exit concentration is not a good indicator of the concentration distributions in the vessel. In microgravity conditions, the NASA RWPV bioreactor with the viscous pump has been shown to provide an environment that is well mixed. Even when operated near the theoretical minimum perfusion rates, only a small fraction of the volume provides less than the required oxygen levels

  1. Microgravity Platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Del Basso, Steve

    2000-01-01

    The world's space agencies have been conducting microgravity research since the beginning of space flight. Initially driven by the need to understand the impact of less than- earth gravity physics on manned space flight, microgravity research has evolved into a broad class of scientific experimentation that utilizes extreme low acceleration environments. The U.S. NASA microgravity research program supports both basic and applied research in five key areas: biotechnology - focusing on macro-molecular crystal growth as well as the use of the unique space environment to assemble and grow mammalian tissue; combustion science - focusing on the process of ignition, flame propagation, and extinction of gaseous, liquid, and solid fuels; fluid physics - including aspects of fluid dynamics and transport phenomena; fundamental physics - including the study of critical phenomena, low-temperature, atomic, and gravitational physics; and materials science - including electronic and photonic materials, glasses and ceramics, polymers, and metals and alloys. Similar activities prevail within the Chinese, European, Japanese, and Russian agencies with participation from additional international organizations as well. While scientific research remains the principal objective behind these program, all hope to drive toward commercialization to sustain a long range infrastructure which .benefits the national technology and economy. In the 1997 International Space Station Commercialization Study, conducted by the Potomac Institute for Policy Studies, some viable microgravity commercial ventures were identified, however, none appeared sufficiently robust to privately fund space access at that time. Thus, government funded micro gravity research continues on an evolutionary path with revolutionary potential.

  2. Cardiovascular system and microgravity simulation and inflight results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pottier, J. M.; Patat, F.; Arbeille, P.; Pourcelot, L.; Massabuau, P.; Guell, A.; Gharib, C.

    Main results of cardiovascular investigation, performed with ultrasound methods during the common French/Soviet flight aboard Salyut VII in June 1982, are compared to variations of the same parameters studied during ground-based simulations on the same subject or observed by other investigators during various ground-based experiences. The antiorthostatic bed rest simulation partly reproduces microgravity conditions and seems to be better adaptated to cardiac hemodynamics, despite some differences, and to the cerebral circulation, than to the inferior limb circulation.

  3. Microgravity research applications of interferometry to heat and mass transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Robert B.

    1987-01-01

    Major space flight experiments which have used interferometric measurement as a major support system are described together with similar ground-based research. Space experiments include those flown on Spacelab 3 ad on the D-1 mission. Included in the ground-based experiments are aircraft studies, Spacelab 3 data reduction and evaluation, and supportive laboratory hardware development. It is shown that optical measurement techniques are crucial to microgravity research.

  4. The Use of Microgravity To Emulate Three-Dimensional Tissue Interactions in Colorectal Cancer Metastasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jessup, J. Milburn

    1997-01-01

    The hypothesis of this ground-based project was that simulated microgravity may be used to recreate with high fidelity the in vivo environment in tissue culture. The objectives were to determine whether: (1) simulated microgravity induces differentiation within poorly differentiated human colon carcinoma cells that are similar to that observed in experimental metastases in vivo in nude mice; and (2) the use of simulated microgravity helps define the experimental metastatic potential of human colorectal carcinoma.

  5. Microgravity science and applications: Apparatus and facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    NASA support apparatus and facilities for microgravity research are summarized in fact sheets. The facilities are ground-based simulation environments for short-term experiments, and the shuttle orbiter environment for long duration experiments. The 17 items of the microgravitational experimental apparatus are described. Electronic materials, alloys, biotechnology, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, glasses and ceramics, and combustion science are among the topics covered.

  6. Third Microgravity Fluid Physics Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The conference's purpose was to inform the fluid physics community of research opportunities in reduced-gravity fluid physics, present the status of the existing and planned reduced gravity fluid physics research programs, and inform participants of the upcoming NASA Research Announcement in this area. The plenary sessions provided an overview of the Microgravity Fluid Physics Program, present and future areas of emphasis, information on NASA's ground-based and space-based flight research facilities-especially use of the International Space Station, and the process by which future investigators enter the program. An international forum offered participants an opportunity to hear from Russian speakers about their microgravity research programs. Three keynote speakers provided broad technical overviews on the history and future development of the moon and on multiphase flow and complex fluids research. One keynote paper and an extended abstract are included in the proceedings. One hundred and thirty-two technical papers were presented in 28 sessions. Presenters briefed their peers on the scientific results of their ground-based and flight research. One hundred and twenty-two papers are included here.

  7. Formation of Carbon Nanotubes in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, J. M.; Mason, G. R.; Feikema, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    Even though nanotube science has become one of the worlds most rapidly advancing areas of research, very little is known about the processes involved in nanotube synthesis. To study the formation of carbon nanotubes in an environment unhindered by the buoyancy induced flows generated by the high temperatures necessary to vaporize carbon and grow nanotubes, we have designed a miniature carbon arc apparatus that can produce carbon nanotubes under microgravity conditions. During the first phase of this project, we designed, built, and successfully tested the mini carbon arc in both 1g and 2.2 sec drop tower microgravity conditions. We have demonstrated that microgravity can eliminate the strong convective flows from the carbon arc and we have successfully produced single-walled carbon nanotubes in microgravity. We believe that microgravity processing will allow us to better understand the nanotube formation process and eventually allow us to grow nanotubes that are superior to ground-based production.

  8. Materials science research in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perepezko, John H.

    1992-01-01

    There are several important attributes of an extended duration microgravity environment that offer a new dimension in the control of the microstructure, processing, and properties of materials. First, when gravitational effects are minimized, buoyancy driven convection flows are also minimized. The flows due to density differences, brought about either by composition or temperature gradients will then be reduced or eliminated to permit a more precise control of the temperature and the composition of a melt which is critical in achieving high quality crystal growth of electronic materials or alloy structures. Secondly, body force effects such as sedimentation, hydrostatic pressure, and deformation are similarly reduced. These effects may interfere with attempts to produce uniformly dispersed or aligned second phases during melt solidification. Thirdly, operating in a microgravity environment will facilitate the containerless processing of melts to eliminate the limitations of containment for reactive melts. The noncontacting forces such as those developed from electromagnet, electrostatic, or acoustic fields can be used to position samples. With this mode of operation, contamination can be minimized to enable the study of reactive melts and to eliminate extraneous crystal nucleation so that novel crystalline structures and new glass compositions may be produced. In order to take advantage of the microgravity environment for materials research, it has become clear that reliable processing models based on a sound ground based experimental experience and an established thermophysical property data base are essential.

  9. Virus protein assembly in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, D.; Paulsen, A.; Johnson, T. C.; Consigli, R. A.

    1993-07-01

    The coat of polyomavirus is composed of three proteins that can self-assemble to form an icosahedral capsid. VP1 represents 75% of the virus capsid protein and the VP1 capsomere subunits are capable of self assembly to form a capsid-like structure. Ground-based and orbiter studies were conducted with VP1 protein cloned in an expression vector and purified to provide ample quantities for capsomere-capsid assembly. Flight studies were conducted on STS-37 on April 5-9, 1991. Assembly initiated when a VP1 protein solution was interfaced with a Ca+2 buffer solution (pH 5.0). After four days a second alignment terminated the assembly process and allowed for glutaraldehyde fixation. Flight and ground-based samples were analyzed by electron microscopy. Ground-based experiments revealed the assembly of VP1 into capsid-like structures and a heterogenous size array of capsomere subunits. Samples reacted in microgravity, however, showed capsomeres of a homogenous size, but lack of capsid-like assembly.

  10. The VO and Ground-Based Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huchra, John

    The era of extremely large public databases in astronomy is upon us. such databases are opening the field to new research and new researchers. However it is important to be sure the resources are available to properly archive ground-based astronomical data and include the necessary quality checks and calibrations. A Virtual Observatory without proper archives will have limited usefulness. This also implies that with limited resources not all data can or should be archived. NASA already has a very good handle on US space-based astronomical data. Agencies and organizations that operate astronomical facilities particularly ground based observatories need to plan and budget for these activities now. We should not underestimate the effort required to produce high quality data products that will be useful for the broader community. Currently the best way to ""fill"" archives is with data ftom surveys. That will continue to be the case for most ground based observatories.

  11. Ground-based gravitational-wave observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaime, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    After decades of development and recent upgrades, a network of ground-based interferometric gravitational-wave detectors has begun regular operation. Last year LIGO's two detectors ran for ca. 4 months, observing waves emitted during the inspiral and coalescence of pairs of black holes hundreds of megaparsec from Earth. The results from LIGO's first observational run will be described, as will plans and expectations for a larger network to include Virgo in Europe and other ground-based detectors in the coming years.

  12. Ground-Based Astrometry 2010-2020

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    rare members of the Galaxy, such as cataclysmic vari- ables and the central stars of planetary nebulae ? Concerted efforts on CVs at optical wave- 4...densities (Thorstensen et al. 2008). Because of ground-based parallax efforts on planetary nebulae central stars, we now know their luminosities and how they

  13. Ground-Based Research within NASA's Materials Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald C.; Curreri, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ground-based research in Materials Science for NASA's Microgravity program serves several purposes, and includes approximately four Principal Investigators for every one in the flight program. While exact classification is difficult. the ground program falls roughly into the following categories: (1) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Theoretical Studies; (2) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Bringing to Maturity New Research; (3) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Enabling Characterization; (4) Intellectual Underpinning of the Flight Program - Thermophysical Property Determination; (5) Radiation Shielding; (6) Preliminary In Situ Resource Utilization; (7) Biomaterials; (8) Nanostructured Materials; (9) Materials Science for Advanced Space Propulsion. It must be noted that while the first four categories are aimed at using long duration low gravity conditions, the other categories pertain more to more recent NASA initiatives in materials science. These new initiatives address NASA's future materials science needs in the realms of crew health and safety, and exploration, and have been included in the most recent NASA Research Announcements (NRA). A description of each of these nine categories will be given together with examples of the kinds of research being undertaken.

  14. New scientific equipment for protein crystallization in microgravity, BELKA, and its approbation on the Bion-M No. 1 spacecraft

    SciTech Connect

    Baskakova, S. S. Kovalyov, S. I.; Kramarenko, V. A.; Zadorozhnaya, L. A.; Lyasnikova, M. S.; Dymshits, Y. M.; Shishkov, V. A.; Egorov, A. V.; Dolgin, A. M.; Voloshin, A. E.; Kovalchuk, M. V.

    2015-01-15

    A space experiment on the crystallization of lisozyme and glucose isomerase proteins in UK-1 and UK-2 crystallizers on the scientific equipment BELKA on the Bion-M no. 1 spacecraft was performed in April–May 2013. A ground-based experiment was carried out simultaneously at the Institute of Crystallography of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IC RAS). Transparent crystals were obtained in both cases. The lisozyme crystals grown in microgravity are larger than their terrestrial analogs. An optical study of glucose isomerase crystals grown in space has shown that the coalescence of equally oriented crystallites leads to the formation of quasi-single-crystal blocks. An X-ray diffraction experiment on lisozyme crystals has revealed the resolutions for crystals obtained under terrestrial conditions and in space to be 1.74 and 1.58 Å, respectively.

  15. Bacillus thuringiensis Conjugation in Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuls, Elise; van Houdt, Rob; Leys, Natalie; Dijkstra, Camelia; Larkin, Oliver; Mahillon, Jacques

    2009-10-01

    Spaceflight experiments have suggested a possible effect of microgravity on the plasmid transfer among strains of the Gram-positive Bacillus thuringiensis, as opposed to no effect recorded for Gram-negative conjugation. To investigate these potential effects in a more affordable experimental setup, three ground-based microgravity simulators were tested: the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV), the Random Positioning Machine (RPM), and a superconducting magnet. The bacterial conjugative system consisted in biparental matings between two B. thuringiensis strains, where the transfer frequencies of the conjugative plasmid pAW63 and its ability to mobilize the nonconjugative plasmid pUB110 were assessed. Specifically, potential plasmid transfers in a 0-g position (simulated microgravity) were compared to those obtained under 1-g (normal gravity) condition in each device. Statistical analyses revealed no significant difference in the conjugative and mobilizable transfer frequencies between the three different simulated microgravitational conditions and our standard laboratory condition. These important ground-based observations emphasize the fact that, though no stimulation of plasmid transfer was observed, no inhibition was observed either. In the case of Gram-positive bacteria, this ability to exchange plasmids in weightlessness, as occurs under Earth's conditions, should be seen as particularly relevant in the scope of spread of antibiotic resistances and bacterial virulence.

  16. Bacillus thuringiensis conjugation in simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Beuls, Elise; Van Houdt, Rob; Leys, Natalie; Dijkstra, Camelia; Larkin, Oliver; Mahillon, Jacques

    2009-10-01

    Spaceflight experiments have suggested a possible effect of microgravity on the plasmid transfer among strains of the Gram-positive Bacillus thuringiensis, as opposed to no effect recorded for Gram-negative conjugation. To investigate these potential effects in a more affordable experimental setup, three ground-based microgravity simulators were tested: the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV), the Random Positioning Machine (RPM), and a superconducting magnet. The bacterial conjugative system consisted in biparental matings between two B. thuringiensis strains, where the transfer frequencies of the conjugative plasmid pAW63 and its ability to mobilize the nonconjugative plasmid pUB110 were assessed. Specifically, potential plasmid transfers in a 0 g position (simulated microgravity) were compared to those obtained under 1 g (normal gravity) condition in each device. Statistical analyses revealed no significant difference in the conjugative and mobilizable transfer frequencies between the three different simulated microgravitational conditions and our standard laboratory condition. These important ground-based observations emphasize the fact that, though no stimulation of plasmid transfer was observed, no inhibition was observed either. In the case of Gram-positive bacteria, this ability to exchange plasmids in weightlessness, as occurs under Earth's conditions, should be seen as particularly relevant in the scope of spread of antibiotic resistances and bacterial virulence.

  17. Microbial Cellulose Assembly in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, R. Malcolm, Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Based on evidence indicating a possible correlation between hypo-gravity conditions and alteration of cellulose production by the gram negative bacterium, Acetobacter xylinum, a ground-based study for a possible long term Space Shuttle flight has been conducted. The proposed experiment for A. xylinum aboard the Shuttle is the BRIC (Biological Research in a Canister), a metal container containing spaces for nine Petri plates. Using a common experimental design, the cellulose production capability as well as the survivability of the A. xylinum strains NQ5 and AY201 have been described. It should now be possible to use the BRIC for the first long term microgravity experiments involving the biosynthesis of cellulose.

  18. MSFC Skylab ground-based astronomy program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duncan, B. J.

    1974-01-01

    The Skylab Ground-Based Astronomy Program (SGAP) was conducted to enhance the data base of solar physics obtained during the Apollo Telescope Mount (ATM) mission flown in conjunction with the Skylab orbital station. Leading solar physicists from various observatories obtained data from the ground at the same time that orbital data were being acquired by ATM. The acquisition of corollary solar data from the ground simultaneously with the ATM orbital observations helped to provide a broader basis for understanding solar physics by increasing spectral coverage and by the use of additional sophisticated instruments of various types. This report briefly describes the individual tasks and the associated instrumentation selected for this ground-based program and contains as appendices, the final reports from the Principal Investigators.

  19. Ground-based observations of exoplanet atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mooij, Ernst Johan Walter

    2011-11-01

    This thesis focuses on the properties of exoplanet atmospheres. The results for ground-based near-infrared secondary eclipse observations of three different exoplanets, TrES-3b, HAT-P-1b and WASP-33b, are presented which have been obtained with ground-based telescopes as part of the GROUSE project. In addition to secondary eclipse observations, the broadband transmission spectrum of the super-Earth GJ1214b is also presented. The transmission spectrum for this low-density planet indicates that it probably has a low-metallicity, hydrogen dominated atmosphere. Finally the results for an ensemble study of the thermal emission properties of hot Jupiters is presented, including the average spectrum for these planets separated based on the level of incident radiation and the activity of their host-stars.

  20. Microgravity Science Glovebox Investigations SUBSA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrogorsky, A.; Marin, C.; Vogel, M.; Volz, M. P.; Luz, P.; Jeter, L.; Spivey, Reggie; Duffar, Thierry; Geveden, Rex D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Solidification Using a Baffle in Sealed Ampoules (SUBSA) is a Microgravity Science Glovebox Investigation manifested for the UF2 flight, on the U.S. Orbiter 111, to the International Space Station (ISS). SUBSA complements the "parent" flight investigation CG13 (Space-and Groundbased Crystal Growth Using a Baffle). During directional solidification, the disk-shaped baffle acts as a partition, creating a small melt zone at the solid-liquid interface. As a result, the level of buoyancy-driven convection at the interface is significantly reduced. In space, the baffle will reduce convection driven by residual micro acceleration. The baffle reduces the Rayleigh number (Ra) of the melt by a factor of 103. The combined effect of the baffle and microgravity will yield a reduction in Ra by a factor of 107 to 109 approaching effectively the acceleration conditions in "nanogravity". The results of ground based tests and numerical modeling will be presented. The furnace for directional solidification (flight hardware and the ground unit) was developed by Tec-Masters Inc. The flight ampoules were produced jointly at Rensselaer, Tec-Masters Inc. and Crystallod Inc.

  1. Spaceflight and Simulated Microgravity Increases Virulence of the Known Bacterial Pathogen S. Marcescens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clemens-Grisham, Rachel Andrea; Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Wade, William

    2016-01-01

    After spaceflight, the number of immune cells is reduced in humans. In other research models, including Drosophila, not only is there a reduction in the number of plasmatocytes, but expression of immune-related genes is also changed after spaceflight. These observations suggest that the immune system is compromised after exposure to microgravity. It has also been reported that there is a change in virulence of some bacterial pathogens after spaceflight. We recently observed that samples of gram-negative S. marcescens retrieved from spaceflight is more virulent than ground controls, as determined by reduced survival and increased bacterial growth in the host. We were able to repeat this finding of increased virulence after exposure to simulated microgravity using the rotating wall vessel, a ground based analog to microgravity. With the ground and spaceflight samples, we looked at involvement of the Toll and Imd pathways in the Drosophila host in fighting infection by ground and spaceflight samples. We observed that Imd-pathway mutants were more susceptible to infection by the ground bacterial samples, which aligns with the known role of this pathway in fighting infections by gram-negative bacteria. When the Imd-pathway mutants were infected with the spaceflight sample, however, they exhibited the same susceptibility as seen with the ground control bacteria. Interestingly, all mutant flies show the same susceptibility to the spaceflight bacterial sample as do wild type flies. This suggests that neither humoral immunity pathway is effectively able to counter the increased pathogenicity of the space-flown S. marcescens bacteria.

  2. Novel Receptor-Based Countermeasures to Microgravity-Induced Bone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OMalley, Bert W.

    1999-01-01

    The biological actions mediated by the estrogen receptor (ER), vitamin D receptor (VDR) and Ca(sup 2+) (sub o) -sensing receptor (CaR) play key roles in the normal control of bone growth and skeletal turnover that is necessary for skeletal health. These receptors act by controlling the differentiation and/or function of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and other cell types within the bone and bone marrow microenvironment. The appropriate use of selective ER modulators (SERMS) which target bone, vitamin D analogs that favor bone formation relative to resorption, and CaR agonists may both stimulate osteoblastogenesis and inhibit osteoclastogenesis and the function of mature osteoclasts, should make it possible to prevent the reduction in bone formation and increase in bone resorption that normally contribute to the bone loss induced by weightlessness. Indeed, there may be synergistic interactions among these receptors that enhance the actions of any one used alone. Therefore, we proposed to: 1) assess the in vitro ability of novel ER, VDR and CaR agonists, alone or in combination, to modulate osteoblastogenesis and mature osteoblast function under conditions of 1g and simulated microgravity; 2) assess the in vitro ability of novel ER, VDR and CaR agonists, alone or in combination, to modulate osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption under conditions of lg and simulated microgravity; and 3) carry out baseline studies on the skeletal localization of the CaR in normal rat bone as well as the in vivo actions of our novel ER- and VDR-based therapeutics in the rat in preparation for their use, alone or in combination, in well-established ground-based models of microgravity and eventually in space flight.

  3. Microgravity science and applications bibliography, 1991 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This edition of the Microgravity Science and Applications (MSA) Bibliography is a compilation of government reports, contractor reports, conference proceedings, and journal articles dealing with flight experiments using a low gravity environment to elucidate and control various processes, or with ground based activities that provide supporting research. It encompasses literature published but not cited in the 1990 Revision and that literature which has been published in the past year. Subdivisions of the bibliography include: Electronic materials; Metals, alloys, and composites; Fluids, interfaces and transport; Glasses and ceramics; Biotechnology; Combustion science; and Experimental technology, instrumentation, and facilities. Also included are a limited number of publications from the European, Soviet, and Japanese programs.

  4. Microgravity science and applications bibliography, 1990 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This edition of the Microgravity Science and Applications (MSA) Bibliography is a compilation of government reports, contractor reports, conference proceedings, and journal articles dealing with flight experiments utilizing a low gravity environment to elucidate and control various processes, or with ground based activities that provide supporting research. It encompasses literature published but not cited in the 1989 Revision and that literature which has been published in the past year. Subdivisions of the bibliography include: electronic materials; metals, alloys, and composites; fluids, interfaces, and transport; glasses and ceramics; biotechnology; combustion science; and experimental technology, facilities, and instrumentation. Also included are publications from the European, Soviet, and Japanese programs.

  5. Microgravity science and applications bibliography, 1989 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This edition of the Microgravity Science and Applications (MSA) Bibliography is a compilation of government reports, contractor reports, conference proceedings, and journal articles dealing with flight experiments utilizing a low gravity environment to elucidate and control various processes, or with ground based activities that provide supported research. It encompasses literature published but not cited in the 1988 Revision and that literature which has been published in the past year. Subdivisions of the Bibliography include: electronic materials, metals, alloys, and composites; fluids, interfaces, and transport; glasses and ceramics; biotechnology; combustion science; experimental technology, facilities, and instrumentation. Also included are publications from the European, Soviet, and Japanese programs.

  6. Cardiovascular physiology - Effects of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V.; Hoffler, G. W.

    1992-01-01

    Experiments during spaceflight and its groundbase analog, bedrest, provide consistent data which demonstrate that numerous changes in cardiovascular function occur as part of the physiological adaptation process to the microgravity environment. These include elevated heart rate and venous compliance, lowered blood volume, central venous pressure and stroke volume, and attenuated autonomic reflex functions. Although most of these adaptations are not functionally apparent during microgravity exposure, they manifest themselves during the return to the gravitational challenge of earth's terrestrial environment as orthostatic hypotension and instability, a condition which could compromise safety, health and productivity. Development and application of effective and efficient countermeasures such as saline "loading," intermittent venous pooling, pharmacological treatments, and exercise have become primary emphases of the space life sciences research effort with only limited success. Successful development of countermeasures will require knowledge of the physiological mechanisms underlying cardiovascular adaptation to microgravity which can be obtained only through controlled, parallel groundbased research to complement carefully designed flight experiments. Continued research will provide benefits for both space and clinical applications as well as enhance the basic understanding of cardiovascular homeostasis in humans.

  7. Ground-Based Telescope Parametric Cost Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stahl, H. Philip; Rowell, Ginger Holmes

    2004-01-01

    A parametric cost model for ground-based telescopes is developed using multi-variable statistical analysis, The model includes both engineering and performance parameters. While diameter continues to be the dominant cost driver, other significant factors include primary mirror radius of curvature and diffraction limited wavelength. The model includes an explicit factor for primary mirror segmentation and/or duplication (i.e.. multi-telescope phased-array systems). Additionally, single variable models based on aperture diameter are derived. This analysis indicates that recent mirror technology advances have indeed reduced the historical telescope cost curve.

  8. Flocculation and aggregation in a microgravity environment (FAME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.; Dhadwal, Harbans S.; Suh, Kwang I.

    1994-01-01

    An experiment to study flocculation phenomena in the constrained microgravity environment of a space shuttle or space station is described. The small size and light weight experiment easily fits in a Spacelab Glovebox. Using an integrated fiber optic dynamic light scattering (DLS) system we obtain high precision particle size measurements from dispersions of colloidal particles within seconds, needs no onboard optical alignment, no index matching fluid, and offers sample mixing and shear melting capabilities to study aggregation (flocculation and coagulation) phenomena under both quiescent and controlled agitation conditions. The experimental system can easily be adapted for other microgravity experiments requiring the use of DLS. Preliminary results of ground-based study are reported.

  9. Characteristics of transitional and turbulent jet diffusion flames in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bahadori, Yousef M.; Small, James F., Jr.; Hegde, Uday G.; Zhou, Liming; Stocker, Dennis P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the ground-based results obtained to date in preparation of a proposed space experiment to study the role of large-scale structures in microgravity transitional and turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames by investigating the dynamics of vortex/flame interactions and their influence on flame characteristics. The overall objective is to gain an understanding of the fundamental characteristics of transitional and turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames. Understanding of the role of large-scale structures on the characteristics of microgravity transitional and turbulent flames will ultimately lead to improved understanding of normal-gravity turbulent combustion.

  10. Microgravity science & applications. Program tasks and bibliography for FY 1995

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This annual report includes research projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Microgravity Science and Applications Division, during FY 1994. It is a compilation of program tasks (objective, description, significance, progress, students funded under research, and bibliographic citations) for flight research and ground based research in five major scientific disciplines: benchmark science, biotechnology, combustion science, fluid physics, and materials science. Advanced technology development (ATD) program task descriptions are also included. The bibliography cites the related principle investigator (PI) publications and presentations for these program tasks in FY 1994. Three appendices include a Table of Acronyms, a Guest Investigator index and a Principle Investigator index.

  11. Exercise-training protocols for astronauts in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bulbulian, R.; Bernauer, E. M.; Haskell, W. L.; Moore, T.

    1989-01-01

    Based on physical working requirements for astronauts during intra- and extravehicular activity and on the findings from bed-rest studies that utilized exercise training as a countermeasure for the reduction of aerobic power, deterioration of muscular strength and endurance, decrements in mood and cognitive performance, and possibly for bone loss, two exercise protocols are proposed. One assumes that, during microgravity, astronaut exercise physiological functions should be maintained at 100 percent of ground-based levels. The other assumes that maximal aerobic power in flight can be reduced by 10 percent of the ground-based level.

  12. Archiving data from ground-based telescopes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, M. A.

    1992-01-01

    The scientific throughput of a particular observing facility has been demonstrated to be multiplied with the operation of a data archive and its corresponding retrieval system. A requisite to achieve such an exploitation is a well structured observations catalog, i.e. a catalog that includes all information necessary to reduce and analyze the data even many years after its acquisition. At the same time, an information system is required that allow users to browse through the catalog at different levels of detail, adapting the amount of information presented to the actual needs of the user. Archiving data acquired with ground-based telescopes is particularly difficult because of the relative short life-time of instruments and detectors in comparison to the expected life-time of the archive. This feature differentiates ground-based originated archives radically from its spaceborne counterparts. The organization of the observations catalog becomes highly dependent on the capability of the archive to deal with new instrumental configurations. We introduce in this paper, the concept of a catalog database as opposed to the static catalog design currently in use in many archiving facilities, as a method to deal with this problem. We also present a brief review of activities currently in progress in this area.

  13. Development of an improved ground-based prototype of space plant-growing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, S.; Liu, X.; Ai, W.; Tang, Y.; Zhu, J.; Wang, X.; Wei, M.; Qin, L.; Yang, Y.

    Based on a formerly developed ground-based prototype of space plant-growing facility, the development of its improved prototype has been finished, so as to make its operating principle better adapt to the space microgravity environment. According to the developing experience of its first generation prototype and detailed demonstration and design of technique plan, its blueprint design and machining of related components, whole facility installment, debugging and trial operations were all done gradually. Its growing chamber contains a volume of about 0.5 m3 and a growing area of approximate 0.5 m2; the atmospheric environmental parameters in the growing chamber and water content in the growing media were controlled totally and effectively; lighting source is a combination of both red and blue light emitting diodes (LED). The following demonstrating results showed that the entire system design of the prototype is reasonable and its operating principle can nearly meet the requirements of space microgravity environment. Therefore, our plant-growing technique in space was advanced further, which laid an important foundation for next development of the space plant-growing facility and plant-cultivating experimental research in space microgravity condition.

  14. Microgravity Day for Educators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The arnual conference for the Educator Resource Center Network (ERCN) Coordinators was held at Glenn Research Center at Lewis Field in Cleveland, Ohio. The conference included participants from NASA's Educator Resource Centers located throughout the country. The Microgravity Science Division at Glenn sponsored a Microgravity Day for all the conference participants. Kathy Higgins of the National Center for Microgravity Research at GRC explains educational resources to teachers. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  15. Material research in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langbein, D.

    1984-01-01

    A popular discussion is given of microgravity effects in engineering and medicine gained from Skylab experience. Areas covered include crystal growing, liquid surface properties, diffusion, ferromagnetism, and emulsions.

  16. Microgravity noncontact temperature requirements at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, G.

    1989-01-01

    NASA Lewis Research Center is currently supporting 66 microgravity science and applications projects. The 66 projects are separated into 23 flight projects and 43 ground-based projects. The part of the NASA Lewis program dealing with flight experiments is divided into six areas: Combustion Science, Materials Science, Fluid Physics, Instrumentation/Equipment, Advanced Technology Development, and Space Station Multi-User Facility studies. The part of the NASA Lewis program dealing with ground-based experiments is coincidentally also divided into six areas: Electronic Materials, Combustion Science, Fluid Dynamics and Transport Phenomena, Metals and Alloys, Glasses and Ceramics, and Physics and Chemistry Experiments. Several purposes exist for ground-based experimenting. Preliminary information is necessary before a decision can be made for flight status, the short low gravity durations available in ground facilities are adequate for a particular study, or extensive ground-based research must be conducted to define and support the microgravity science endeavors contemplated for space. Not all of the 66 microgravity science and application projects at NASA Lewis have temperature requirements, but most do. Since space allocation does not permit a review of all the pertinent projects, a decision was made to restrict the coverage to the science flight projects, flight projects minus the advanced technology development, and multiuser facility efforts. Very little is lost by this decision as the types of temperature requirements for science flight projects can be considered representative of those for the ground-based projects. The noncontact temperature needs at NASA Lewis, as represented by the science flight projects are discussed by describing briefly the experiments themselves, by displaying an illustration of each experimental setup, and by specifying their temperature requisites.

  17. Role for Lower Extremity Interstitial Fluid Volume Changes in the Development of Orthostasis after Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Platts, Steven H.; Summers, Richard L.; Martin, David S.; Meck, Janice V.; Coleman, Thomas G.

    2007-01-01

    vein diameter and stroke volume upon tilting in contrast to the observations made before bed rest (54 vs 23% respectively). Compliance in the calf increased by an average of 36% by day 27 of bedrest. A systems analysis using a computer model of cardiovascular physiology suggests that microgravity induced interstitial volume depletion results in an accentuation of venous blood volume sequestration and is the initiating event in reentry orthostasis. This hypothesis was tested in volunteer subjects using a ground-based spaceflight analog model that simulated the body fluid redistribution induced by microgravity exposure. Measurements of changes in the interstitial spaces and observed responses of the anterior tibial vein with tilt, together with the increase in calf compliance, were consistent with our proposed mechanism for the initiation of postflight orthostasis often seen in astronauts.

  18. Commercial applications in biomedical processing in the microgravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Terry C.; Taub, Floyd

    1995-01-01

    A series of studies have shown that a purified cell regulatory sialoglycopeptide (CeReS) that arrests cell division and induces cellular differentiation is fully capable of functionally interacting with target insect and mammalian cells in the microgravity environment. Data from several shuttle missions suggest that the signal transduction events that are known to be associated with CeReS action function as well in microgravity as in ground-based experiments. The molecular events known to be associated with CeReS include an ability to interfere with Ca2+ metabolism, the subsequent alkalinization of cell cytosol, and the inhibition of the phosphorylation of the nuclear protein product encoded by the retinoblastoma (RB) gene. The ability of CeReS to function in microgravity opens a wide variety of applications in space life sciences.

  19. Ground Based Studies of the Outer Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trafton, Laurence M.

    2005-01-01

    This report covers progress to date under this grant on our continuing program to conduct ground based studies of the outer solar system planets and satellites, with emphasis on spectroscopy and atmospheric phenomena. The research continues under our new PAST grant, NNG04G131G beginning 5/1/2004. The original period of performance of the subject grant was 3/1/2001 to 2/28/2004, but was extended one year at no cost. Although there is some overlap in the scientific projects conducted during the extended year with those of the new grant, this report is confined to the portion of the work funded under NAG5-10435. The primary goals for this grant period were a comparative study of outer planet thermospheres/ionospheres near solar maximum, extended to the mid-IR, and the investigation of molecular dimers in outer solar system atmospheres. This project supports NASA's planned space missions, Jupiter Polar Orbiter, outer Planet Microprobes, and the recent Cassini flyby of Jupiter. It also supports the OSS strategic plan themes, The Exploration of the Solar System and The Sun-Earth Connection/ Understanding comparative planetary space environments.

  20. SCIENTIFIC EFFICIENCY OF GROUND-BASED TELESCOPES

    SciTech Connect

    Abt, Helmut A.

    2012-10-01

    I scanned the six major astronomical journals of 2008 for all 1589 papers that are based on new data obtained from ground-based optical/IR telescopes worldwide. Then I collected data on numbers of papers, citations to them in 3+ years, the most-cited papers, and annual operating costs. These data are assigned to four groups by telescope aperture. For instance, while the papers from telescopes with an aperture >7 m average 1.29 more citations than those with an aperture of 2 to <4 m, this represents a small return for a factor of four difference in operating costs. Among the 17 papers that have received {>=}100 citations in 3+ years, only half come from the large (>7 m) telescopes. I wonder why the large telescopes do so relatively poorly and suggest possible reasons. I also found that papers based on archival data, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, produce 10.6% as many papers and 20.6% as many citations as those based on new data. Also, the 577.2 papers based on radio data produced 36.3% as many papers and 33.6% as many citations as the 1589 papers based on optical/IR telescopes.

  1. Scientific Efficiency of Ground-based Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abt, Helmut A.

    2012-10-01

    I scanned the six major astronomical journals of 2008 for all 1589 papers that are based on new data obtained from ground-based optical/IR telescopes worldwide. Then I collected data on numbers of papers, citations to them in 3+ years, the most-cited papers, and annual operating costs. These data are assigned to four groups by telescope aperture. For instance, while the papers from telescopes with an aperture >7 m average 1.29 more citations than those with an aperture of 2 to <4 m, this represents a small return for a factor of four difference in operating costs. Among the 17 papers that have received >=100 citations in 3+ years, only half come from the large (>7 m) telescopes. I wonder why the large telescopes do so relatively poorly and suggest possible reasons. I also found that papers based on archival data, such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, produce 10.6% as many papers and 20.6% as many citations as those based on new data. Also, the 577.2 papers based on radio data produced 36.3% as many papers and 33.6% as many citations as the 1589 papers based on optical/IR telescopes.

  2. Microgravity Combustion Science: 1995 Program Update

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D. (Editor); Gokoglu, Suleyman A. (Editor); Friedman, Robert (Editor)

    1995-01-01

    Microgravity greatly benefits the study of fundamental combustion processes. In this environment, buoyancy-induced flow is nearly eliminated, weak or normally obscured forces and flows can be isolated, gravitational settling or sedimentation is nearly eliminated, and temporal and spatial scales can be expanded. This document reviews the state of knowledge in microgravity combustion science with the emphasis on NASA-sponsored developments in the current period of 1992 to early 1995. The subjects cover basic research in gaseous premixed and diffusion-flame systems, flame structure and sooting, liquid droplets and pools, and solid-surface ignition and flame spread. They also cover applied research in combustion synthesis of ceramic-metal composites, advanced diagnostic instrumentation, and on-orbit fire safety. The review promotes continuing research by describing the opportunities for Principal Investigator participation through the NASA Research Announcement program and the available NASA Lewis Research Center ground-based facilities and spaceflight accommodations. This review is compiled by the members and associates of the NASA Lewis Microgravity Combustion Branch, and it serves as an update of two previous overview reports.

  3. Weightlessness and Microgravity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, David

    1991-01-01

    The term "microgravity" has begun to appear in science texts as a substitute for "weightlessness." Presents examples to clarify three common misconceptions about gravity and weightlessness. Further examines these and other examples with respect to microgravity to make distinctions between the terms and avoid additional…

  4. Functional assessment of ubiquitin-depended processes under microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhabereva, Anastasia; Shenkman, Boris S.; Gainullin, Murat; Gurev, Eugeny; Kondratieva, Ekaterina; Kopylov, Arthur

    Ubiquitylation, a widespread and important posttranslational modification of eukaryotic proteins, controls a multitude of critical cellular processes, both in normal and pathological conditions. The present work aims to study involvement of ubiquitin-dependent regulation in adaptive response to the external stimuli. Experiments were carried out on C57BL/6 mice. The microgravity state under conditions of real spaceflight on the biosatellite “BION-M1” was used as a model of stress impact. Additionally, number of control series including the vivarium control and experiments in Ground-based analog were also studied. The aggregate of endogenously ubiquitylated proteins was selected as specific feature of ubiquitin-dependent processes. Dynamic changes of modification pattern were characterized in liver tissue by combination of some methods, particularly by specific isolation of explicit protein pool, followed by immunodetection and/or mass spectrometry-based identification. The main approach includes specific extraction of proteins, modified by multiubiquitin chains of different length and topology. For this purpose two techniques were applied: 1) immunoprecipitation with antibodies against ubiquitin and/or multiubiquitin chains; 2) pull-down using synthetic protein construct termed Tandem Ubiquitin Binding Entities (TUBE, LifeSensors). TUBE represents fusion protein, composed of well characterized ubiquitin-binding domains, and thereby allows specific high-affinity binding and extraction of ubiquitylated proteins. Resulting protein fractions were analyzed by immunoblotting with antibodies against different types of multiubiquitin chains. Using this method we mapped endogenously modified proteins involved in two different types of ubiquitin-dependent processes, namely catabolic and non-catabolic ubiquitylation, in liver tissues, obtained from both control as well as experimental groups of animals, mentioned above. Then, isolated fractions of ubiquitylated proteins

  5. Ground Based GPS Phase Measurements for Atmospheric Sounding

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-14

    Ground Based GPS Phase Measurements for Atmospheric Sounding Principal Investigator: Randolph Ware Co-Principal Investigator Christian Rocken UNAVCO...objective of this research is to develop GPS sounding techniques for ground based atmospheric profiling. Atmospheric profiling with GPS from space has been...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ground Based GPS Phase Measurements for Atmospheric Sounding 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  6. Brine shrimp development in space: ground-based data to shuttle flight results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spooner, B. S.; DeBell, L.; Hawkins, L.; Metcalf, J.; Guikema, J. A.; Rosowski, J.

    1992-01-01

    The brine shrimp, Artemia salina, has been used as a model system to assess microgravity effects on developing organisms. Following fertilization and early development, the egg can arrest in early gastrula as a dehydrated cyst stage that is stable to harsh environments over long time periods. When salt water is added, the cysts can reactivate, with embryonic development and egg hatching occurring in about 24 h. A series of larval molts or instars, over about a 2 week period, results in the adult crustacean. We have assessed these developmental events in a closed syringe system, a bioprocessing module, in ground-based studies, and have conducted preliminary in-orbit experiments aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during the flights of STS-37 and STS-43. Although the in-flight data are limited, spectacular degrees of development have been achieved.

  7. Microgravity Manufacturing Via Fused Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, K. G.; Griffin, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing polymer hardware during space flight is currently outside the state of the art. A process called fused deposition modeling (FDM) can make this approach a reality by producing net-shaped components of polymer materials directly from a CAE model. FDM is a rapid prototyping process developed by Stratasys, Inc.. which deposits a fine line of semi-molten polymer onto a substrate while moving via computer control to form the cross-sectional shape of the part it is building. The build platen is then lowered and the process is repeated, building a component directly layer by layer. This method enables direct net-shaped production of polymer components directly from a computer file. The layered manufacturing process allows for the manufacture of complex shapes and internal cavities otherwise impossible to machine. This task demonstrated the benefits of the FDM technique to quickly and inexpensively produce replacement components or repair broken hardware in a Space Shuttle or Space Station environment. The intent of the task was to develop and fabricate an FDM system that was lightweight, compact, and required minimum power consumption to fabricate ABS plastic hardware in microgravity. The final product of the shortened task turned out to be a ground-based breadboard device, demonstrating miniaturization capability of the system.

  8. Archiving Microgravity Flight Data and Samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    To obtain help in evaluating its current strategy for archiving data and samples obtained in microgravity research, NASA's Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) asked the Space Studies Board's Committee on Microgravity Research for guidance on the following questions: What data should be archived and where should it be kept? In what form should the data be maintained (electronic files, photographs, hard copy, samples)? What should the general format of the database be? To what extent should it be universally accessible and through what mechanisms? Should there be a period of time for which principal investigators have proprietary access? If so, how long should proprietary data be stored? What provisions should be made for data obtained from ground-based experiments? What should the deadline be for investigators placing their data in the archive? How long should data be saved? How long should data be easily accessible? As a prelude to making recommendations for optimum selection and storage of microgravity data and samples, the committee in this report briefly describes NASA's past archiving practices and outlines MSAD's current archiving strategy. Although the committee found that only a limited number of experiments have thus far been archived, it concluded that the general archiving strategy, characterized by MSAD as minimalist, appears viable. A central focus of attention is the Experiment Data Management Plan (EDMP), MSAD's recently instituted data management and archiving framework for flight experiments. Many of the report's recommendations are aimed at enhancing the effectiveness of the EDMP approach, which the committee regards as an appropriate data management method for MSAD. Other recommendations provide guidance on broader issues related to the questions listed above. This report does not address statutory or regulatory records retention requirements.

  9. Erythroid cell growth and differentiation in vitro in the simulated microgravity environment of the NASA rotating wall vessel bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sytkowski, A. J.; Davis, K. L.

    2001-01-01

    Prolonged exposure of humans and experimental animals to the altered gravitational conditions of space flight has adverse effects on the lymphoid and erythroid hematopoietic systems. Although some information is available regarding the cellular and molecular changes in lymphocytes exposed to microgravity, little is known about the erythroid cellular changes that may underlie the reduction in erythropoiesis and resultant anemia. We now report a reduction in erythroid growth and a profound inhibition of erythropoietin (Epo)-induced differentiation in a ground-based simulated microgravity model system. Rauscher murine erythroleukemia cells were grown either in tissue culture vessels at 1 x g or in the simulated microgravity environment of the NASA-designed rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor. Logarithmic growth was observed under both conditions; however, the doubling time in simulated microgravity was only one-half of that seen at 1 x g. No difference in apoptosis was detected. Induction with Epo at the initiation of the culture resulted in differentiation of approximately 25% of the cells at 1 x g, consistent with our previous observations. In contrast, induction with Epo at the initiation of simulated microgravity resulted in only one-half of this degree of differentiation. Significantly, the growth of cells in simulated microgravity for 24 h prior to Epo induction inhibited the differentiation almost completely. The results suggest that the NASA RWV bioreactor may serve as a suitable ground-based microgravity simulator to model the cellular and molecular changes in erythroid cells observed in true microgravity.

  10. Machining in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, Graylan

    2003-01-01

    A CNC mill was flown aboard NASA's KC-135 ``Weightless Wonder'' microgravity research aircraft to investigate the effect of gravity on the machining process and to demonstrate the feasibility and functionality of a CNC mill in a weightless environment, such as aboard the International Space Station. The experiment hypothesis was that the surface roughness of milling cuts made in microgravity would be of higher quality than cuts made in a gravitational environment due to increased chip removal. The technical problems associated with microgravity machining (such as the chip removal and collection process), and the engineering solutions to these problems were also evaluated in this experiment.

  11. Microgravity ignition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motevalli, Vahid; Elliott, William; Garrant, Keith

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a flight ready apparatus of the microgravity ignition experiment for the GASCan 2 program. This involved redesigning, testing, and making final modifications to the existing apparatus. The microgravity ignition experiment is intended to test the effect of microgravity on the time to ignition of a sample of alpha-cellulose paper. An infrared heat lamp is used to heat the paper sample within a sealed canister. The interior of the canister was redesigned to increase stability and minimize conductive heat transfer to the sample. This design was fabricated and tested and a heat transfer model of the paper sample was developed.

  12. Development of an improved ground-based prototype of space vegetable-producing facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, X.; Guo, S.; Zhu, J.; Wang, X.; Ai, W.; Wei, M.; Qin, L.; Deng, Y.

    Based on the development of a ground-based prototype of space vegetable-producing facility development of its improved prototype has been finished so as to make its operating principle adapt to the space microgravity environment better According to the developing experience of first-generation prototype of the space vegetable-producing facility and detailed demonstration and design of technique plan its blueprint design and machining of related components whole facility installment debugging and trial operations were done Its growing chamber contains a volume of about 0 5m 3 and a growing area of approximate 0 5m 2 the atmospheric environmental parameters in the growing chamber and water content in the growing media were totally and effectively controlled lighting sources are the combinations of both red and blue light emitting diode LED The following demonstrating results showed that the entire system design of the facility is reasonable and its operating principle can meet nearly the requirements of space microgravity environment Therefore our plant growing technique in space was advanced greatly which laid an important foundation for next development of the space vegetable-producing facility to be tested and applied in space station

  13. Effects of microgravity on osteoblast growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.; Tjandrawinata, R.; Fitzgerald, J.; Gasuad, K.; Gilbertson, V.

    1998-01-01

    Studies from space flights over the past two decades have demonstrated that basic physiological changes occur in humans during space flight. These changes include cephalic fluid shifts, loss of fluid and electrolytes, loss of muscle mass, space motion sickness, anemia, reduced immune response, and loss of calcium and mineralized bone. The cause of most of these manifestations is not known and until recently, the general approach was to investigate general systemic changes, not basic cellular responses to microgravity. Recently analyzed data from the 1973-1974 Skylabs disclose that there is a rise in the systemic hormone, cortisol, which may play a role in bone loss in flight. In two flights where bone growth was measured (Skylabs 3 and 4), the crew members had a significant loss of calcium accompanied by a rise in 24 hour urinary cortisol during the entire flight period. In ground-based work on osteoblasts, we have demonstrated that equivalent amounts of glucocorticoids can inhibit osteoblast cell growth. In addition, this laboratory has recently studied gene growth and activation of mouse osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1) during spaceflight. Osteoblast cells were grown on glass coverslips, loaded in the Biorack plunger boxes 18 hours before launch and activated 19 hours after launch in the Biorack incubator under microgravity conditions. The osteoblasts were launched in a serum deprived state, activated and collected in microgravity. Samples were collected at 29 hours after sera activation (0-g, n=4; 1-g, n=4). The osteoblasts were examined for changes in gene expression and cell morphology. Approximately one day after growth activation, remarkable differences were observed in gene expression in 0-g and 1-g flight samples. The 0-g activated cells had increased c-fos mRNA when compared to flight 1-g controls. The message of immediate early growth gene, cox-2 was decreased in the microgravity activated cells when compared to ground or 1-g flight controls. Cox-1 was not

  14. Ground-based assessment of JAXA mouse habitat cage unit by mouse phenotypic studies.

    PubMed

    Shimbo, Miki; Kudo, Takashi; Hamada, Michito; Jeon, Hyojung; Imamura, Yuki; Asano, Keigo; Okada, Risa; Tsunakawa, Yuki; Mizuno, Seiya; Yagami, Ken-Ichi; Ishikawa, Chihiro; Li, Haiyan; Shiga, Takashi; Ishida, Junji; Hamada, Juri; Murata, Kazuya; Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Hashimoto, Misuzu; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Yamane, Mutsumi; Ikawa, Masahito; Morita, Hironobu; Shinohara, Masahiro; Asahara, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Taishin; Akiyama, Nobuko; Sasanuma, Hiroki; Yoshida, Nobuaki; Zhou, Rui; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ito, Taito; Kokubu, Yuko; Noguchi, Taka-Aki K; Ishimine, Hisako; Kurisaki, Akira; Shiba, Dai; Mizuno, Hiroyasu; Shirakawa, Masaki; Ito, Naoki; Takeda, Shin; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-05-20

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the mouse Habitat Cage Unit (HCU) for installation in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) onboard the Japanese Experimental Module ("Kibo") on the International Space Station. The CBEF provides "space-based controls" by generating artificial gravity in the HCU through a centrifuge, enabling a comparison of the biological consequences of microgravity and artificial gravity of 1 g on mice housed in space. Therefore, prior to the space experiment, a ground-based study to validate the habitability of the HCU is necessary to conduct space experiments using the HCU in the CBEF. Here, we investigated the ground-based effect of a 32-day housing period in the HCU breadboard model on male mice in comparison with the control cage mice. Morphology of skeletal muscle, the thymus, heart, and kidney, and the sperm function showed no critical abnormalities between the control mice and HCU mice. Slight but significant changes caused by the HCU itself were observed, including decreased body weight, increased weights of the thymus and gastrocnemius, reduced thickness of cortical bone of the femur, and several gene expressions from 11 tissues. Results suggest that the HCU provides acceptable conditions for mouse phenotypic analysis using CBEF in space, as long as its characteristic features are considered. Thus, the HCU is a feasible device for future space experiments.

  15. Ground-based assessment of JAXA mouse habitat cage unit by mouse phenotypic studies

    PubMed Central

    Shimbo, Miki; Kudo, Takashi; Hamada, Michito; Jeon, Hyojung; Imamura, Yuki; Asano, Keigo; Okada, Risa; Tsunakawa, Yuki; Mizuno, Seiya; Yagami, Ken-ichi; Ishikawa, Chihiro; Li, Haiyan; Shiga, Takashi; Ishida, Junji; Hamada, Juri; Murata, Kazuya; Ishimaru, Tomohiro; Hashimoto, Misuzu; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Yamane, Mutsumi; Ikawa, Masahito; Morita, Hironobu; Shinohara, Masahiro; Asahara, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Taishin; Akiyama, Nobuko; Sasanuma, Hiroki; Yoshida, Nobuaki; Zhou, Rui; Wang, Ying-Ying; Ito, Taito; Kokubu, Yuko; Noguchi, Taka-aki K.; Ishimine, Hisako; Kurisaki, Akira; Shiba, Dai; Mizuno, Hiroyasu; Shirakawa, Masaki; Ito, Naoki; Takeda, Shin; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency developed the mouse Habitat Cage Unit (HCU) for installation in the Cell Biology Experiment Facility (CBEF) onboard the Japanese Experimental Module (“Kibo”) on the International Space Station. The CBEF provides “space-based controls” by generating artificial gravity in the HCU through a centrifuge, enabling a comparison of the biological consequences of microgravity and artificial gravity of 1 g on mice housed in space. Therefore, prior to the space experiment, a ground-based study to validate the habitability of the HCU is necessary to conduct space experiments using the HCU in the CBEF. Here, we investigated the ground-based effect of a 32-day housing period in the HCU breadboard model on male mice in comparison with the control cage mice. Morphology of skeletal muscle, the thymus, heart, and kidney, and the sperm function showed no critical abnormalities between the control mice and HCU mice. Slight but significant changes caused by the HCU itself were observed, including decreased body weight, increased weights of the thymus and gastrocnemius, reduced thickness of cortical bone of the femur, and several gene expressions from 11 tissues. Results suggest that the HCU provides acceptable conditions for mouse phenotypic analysis using CBEF in space, as long as its characteristic features are considered. Thus, the HCU is a feasible device for future space experiments. PMID:26822934

  16. Fundamental results from microgravity cell experiments with possible commericial applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winget, Charles M.; Fast, Thomas N.; Hinds, Williams E.; Schaefer, R. L.; Callahan, Paul X.

    1989-01-01

    Some of the major milestones are presented for studies in cell biology that were conducted by the Soviet Union and the United States in the upper layers of the atmosphere and in outer space for more than thirty-five years. The goals have changed as new knowledge is acquired and the priorities for the use of microgravity have shifted toward basic research and commercial applications. Certain details concerning the impact of microgravity on cell systems is presented. However, it needs to be emphasized that in planning and conducting microgravity experiments, there are some important prerequisites not normally taken into account. Apart from the required background knowledge of previous microgravity and ground-based experiments, the investigator should have the understanding of the hardware as a physical unit, the complete knowledge of its operation, the range of its capabilities and the anticipation of problems that may occur. Moreover, if the production of commercial products in space is to be manifested, data obtained from previous microgravity experiments must be used to optimize the design of flight hardware.

  17. Movable Ground Based Recovery System for Reuseable Space Flight Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarver, George L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A reusable space flight launch system is configured to eliminate complex descent and landing systems from the space flight hardware and move them to maneuverable ground based systems. Precision landing of the reusable space flight hardware is enabled using a simple, light weight aerodynamic device on board the flight hardware such as a parachute, and one or more translating ground based vehicles such as a hovercraft that include active speed, orientation and directional control. The ground based vehicle maneuvers itself into position beneath the descending flight hardware, matching its speed and direction and captures the flight hardware. The ground based vehicle will contain propulsion, command and GN&C functionality as well as space flight hardware landing cushioning and retaining hardware. The ground based vehicle propulsion system enables longitudinal and transverse maneuverability independent of its physical heading.

  18. Observational Selection Effects with Ground-based Gravitational Wave Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Holz, Daniel E.; Katsavounidis, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Ground-based interferometers are not perfect all-sky instruments, and it is important to account for their behavior when considering the distribution of detected events. In particular, the LIGO detectors are most sensitive to sources above North America and the Indian Ocean, and as the Earth rotates, the sensitive regions are swept across the sky. However, because the detectors do not acquire data uniformly over time, there is a net bias on detectable sources’ right ascensions. Both LIGO detectors preferentially collect data during their local night; it is more than twice as likely to be local midnight than noon when both detectors are operating. We discuss these selection effects and how they impact LIGO’s observations and electromagnetic (EM) follow-up. Beyond galactic foregrounds associated with seasonal variations, we find that equatorial observatories can access over 80% of the localization probability, while mid-latitudes will access closer to 70%. Facilities located near the two LIGO sites can observe sources closer to their zenith than their analogs in the south, but the average observation will still be no closer than 44° from zenith. We also find that observatories in Africa or the South Atlantic will wait systematically longer before they can begin observing compared to the rest of the world though, there is a preference for longitudes near the LIGOs. These effects, along with knowledge of the LIGO antenna pattern, can inform EM follow-up activities and optimization, including the possibility of directing observations even before gravitational-wave events occur.

  19. Microgravity and Cell Biology

    NASA Video Gallery

    The lecture covers the rationale for cell based research in the space program, the coordinated role of physical forces in life processes, cellular responses to microgravity and environmental condit...

  20. Microgravity Simulation Facility (MSF)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richards, Stephanie E. (Compiler); Levine, Howard G.; Zhang, Ye

    2016-01-01

    The Microgravity Simulator Facility (MSF) at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) was established to support visiting scientists for short duration studies utilizing a variety of microgravity simulator devices that negate the directional influence of the "g" vector (providing simulated conditions of micro or partial gravity). KSC gravity simulators can be accommodated within controlled environment chambers allowing investigators to customize and monitor environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, CO2, and light exposure.

  1. Microgravity strategic plan, 1988

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The NASA agency-wide microgravity strategic plan is presented, and its research, applications, and commercialization for the 1990's is addressed. The plan presents an analysis of the current situation, identifies critical factors, and defines goals, objectives, and strategies, which are intended to: (1) provide a context for decision making; (2) assure realism in long-range planning and direction for hardware development; and (3) establish a framework for developing a national microgravity research plan.

  2. Sample positioning in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, Govind (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Repulsion forces arising from laser beams are provided to produce mild positioning forces on a sample in microgravity vacuum environments. The system of the preferred embodiment positions samples using a plurality of pulsed lasers providing opposing repulsion forces. The lasers are positioned around the periphery of a confinement area and expanded to create a confinement zone. The grouped laser configuration, in coordination with position sensing devices, creates a feedback servo whereby stable position control of a sample within microgravity environment can be achieved.

  3. Microbial Responses to Microgravity and Other Low-Shear Environments

    PubMed Central

    Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Ott, C. Mark; Wilson, James W.; Ramamurthy, Rajee; Pierson, Duane L.

    2004-01-01

    Microbial adaptation to environmental stimuli is essential for survival. While several of these stimuli have been studied in detail, recent studies have demonstrated an important role for a novel environmental parameter in which microgravity and the low fluid shear dynamics associated with microgravity globally regulate microbial gene expression, physiology, and pathogenesis. In addition to analyzing fundamental questions about microbial responses to spaceflight, these studies have demonstrated important applications for microbial responses to a ground-based, low-shear stress environment similar to that encountered during spaceflight. Moreover, the low-shear growth environment sensed by microbes during microgravity of spaceflight and during ground-based microgravity analogue culture is relevant to those encountered during their natural life cycles on Earth. While no mechanism has been clearly defined to explain how the mechanical force of fluid shear transmits intracellular signals to microbial cells at the molecular level, the fact that cross talk exists between microbial signal transduction systems holds intriguing possibilities that future studies might reveal common mechanotransduction themes between these systems and those used to sense and respond to low-shear stress and changes in gravitation forces. The study of microbial mechanotransduction may identify common conserved mechanisms used by cells to perceive changes in mechanical and/or physical forces, and it has the potential to provide valuable insight for understanding mechanosensing mechanisms in higher organisms. This review summarizes recent and future research trends aimed at understanding the dynamic effects of changes in the mechanical forces that occur in microgravity and other low-shear environments on a wide variety of important microbial parameters. PMID:15187188

  4. Microbial responses to microgravity and other low-shear environments.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Cheryl A; Ott, C Mark; Wilson, James W; Ramamurthy, Rajee; Pierson, Duane L

    2004-06-01

    Microbial adaptation to environmental stimuli is essential for survival. While several of these stimuli have been studied in detail, recent studies have demonstrated an important role for a novel environmental parameter in which microgravity and the low fluid shear dynamics associated with microgravity globally regulate microbial gene expression, physiology, and pathogenesis. In addition to analyzing fundamental questions about microbial responses to spaceflight, these studies have demonstrated important applications for microbial responses to a ground-based, low-shear stress environment similar to that encountered during spaceflight. Moreover, the low-shear growth environment sensed by microbes during microgravity of spaceflight and during ground-based microgravity analogue culture is relevant to those encountered during their natural life cycles on Earth. While no mechanism has been clearly defined to explain how the mechanical force of fluid shear transmits intracellular signals to microbial cells at the molecular level, the fact that cross talk exists between microbial signal transduction systems holds intriguing possibilities that future studies might reveal common mechanotransduction themes between these systems and those used to sense and respond to low-shear stress and changes in gravitation forces. The study of microbial mechanotransduction may identify common conserved mechanisms used by cells to perceive changes in mechanical and/or physical forces, and it has the potential to provide valuable insight for understanding mechanosensing mechanisms in higher organisms. This review summarizes recent and future research trends aimed at understanding the dynamic effects of changes in the mechanical forces that occur in microgravity and other low-shear environments on a wide variety of important microbial parameters.

  5. Microbial Responses to Microgravity and Other Low-Shear Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, Cheryl A.; Ott, C. Mark; Wilson, James W.; Ramamurthy, Rajee; Pierson, Duane L.

    2004-01-01

    Microbial adaptation to environmental stimuli is essential for survival. While several of these stimuli have been studied in detail, recent studies have demonstrated an important role for a novel environmental parameter in which microgravity and the low fluid shear dynamics associated with microgravity globally regulate microbial gene expression, physiology, and pathogenesis. In addition to analyzing fundamental questions about microbial responses to spaceflight, these studies have demonstrated important applications for microbial responses to a ground-based, low-shear stress environment similar to that encountered during spaceflight. Moreover, the low-shear growth environment sensed by microbes during microgravity of spaceflight and during ground-based microgravity analogue culture is relevant to those encountered during their natural life cycles on Earth. While no mechanism has been clearly defined to explain how the mechanical force of fluid shear transmits intracellular signals to microbial cells at the molecular level, the fact that cross talk exists between microbial signal transduction systems holds intriguing possibilities that future studies might reveal common mechanotransduction themes between these systems and those used to sense and respond to low-shear stress and changes in gravitation forces. The study of microbial mechanotransduction may identify common conserved mechanisms used by cells to perceive changes in mechanical and/or physical forces, and it has the potential to provide valuable insight for understanding mechanosensing mechanisms in higher organisms. This review summarizes recent and future research trends aimed at understanding the dynamic effects of changes in the mechanical forces that occur in microgravity and other low-shear environments on a wide variety of important microbial parameters.

  6. Sleep and vestibular adaptation: implications for function in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobson, J. A.; Stickgold, R.; Pace-Schott, E. F.; Leslie, K. R.

    1998-01-01

    Optimal human performance depends upon integrated sensorimotor and cognitive functions, both of which are known to be exquisitely sensitive to loss of sleep. Under the microgravity conditions of space flight, adaptation of both sensorimotor (especially vestibular) and cognitive functions (especially orientation) must occur quickly--and be maintained--despite any concurrent disruptions of sleep that may be caused by microgravity itself, or by the uncomfortable sleeping conditions of the spacecraft. It is the three-way interaction between sleep quality, general work efficiency, and sensorimotor integration that is the subject of this paper and the focus of new work in our laboratory. To record sleep under field conditions including microgravity, we utilize a novel system called the Nightcap that we have developed and extensively tested on normal and sleep-disordered subjects. To perturb the vestibular system in ground-based studies, we utilize a variety of experimental conditions including optokinetic stimulation and both minifying and reversing goggle paradigms that have been extensively studied in relation to plasticity of the vestibulo-ocular reflex. Using these techniques we will test the hypothesis that vestibular adaptation both provokes and is enhanced by REM sleep under both ground-based and space conditions. In this paper we describe preliminary results of some of our studies.

  7. Microgravity science and applications bibliography, 1988 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The Microgravity Science and Applications (MSA) Bibliography is a compilation of government reports, contractor reports, conference proceedings, and journal articles dealing with flight experiments utilizing a low-gravity environment to elucidate and control various processes or with ground-based activities that provide supporting research. It encompasses literature published but not cited in the 1984 Revision and the literature which was published in the past year. Subdivisions of the bibliography include: electronic materials; metals, alloys, and composites; fluid dynamics and transports; biotechnology; glass and ceramics; and combustion. Also included are publications from the European, Soviet, and Japanese MSA programs. In addition, there is a list of patents and appendices providing a compilation of anonymously authored collections of reports and a cross reference index.

  8. Microgravity science and applications bibliography, 1986 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    This edition of the Microgravity Science and Applications (MSA) Bibliography is a compilation of Government reports, contractor reports, conference proceedings, and journal articles dealing with flight experiments utilizing a low-gravity environment to elucidate and control various processes or ground-based activities providing supporting research. It encompasses literature published in FY-86 and part of FY-87 but not cited in the 1985 Revision, pending publications, and those submitted for publication during this time period. Subdivisions of the bibliography include six major categories: Electronic Materials, Metals, Alloys, and Combustion Science. Other categories include Experimental Technology and General Studies. Included are publications from the European and Soviet programs. In addition, there is a list of patents and a cross reference index.

  9. Microgravity science and applications bibliography, 1987 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    This edition of the Microgravity Science and Applications (MSA) Bibliography is a compilation of Government reports, contractor reports, conference proceedings, and journal articles dealing with flight experiments utilizing a low gravity environment to elucidate and control various processes or with ground based activities that provide supporting research. It encompasses literature published but not cited in the 1984 Revision and literature which has been published in the past year. Subdivisions of the bibliography include six major categories: Electronic Materials; Metals, Alloys, and Composites; Fluid Dynamics and Transport; Biotechnology; Glass and Ceramics; and Combustion. Also included are publications from the European, Soviet, and Japanese MSA programs. In addition, there is a list of patents and appendices providing a compilation of an anonymously authored collection of reports and a cross reference index.

  10. Microgravity science and applications bibliography, 1985 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pentecost, E. (Compiler)

    1985-01-01

    This edition of the Microgravity Science and Applications (MSA) Bibliography is a compilation of Government reports, contractor reports, conference proceedings, and journal articles dealing with flight experiments utilizing a low-gravity environment to elucidate and control various processes or with ground-based activities that provide supporting research. It encompasses literature published but not cited in the 1984 Revision and that literature which has been published in the past year. Subdivisions of the bibliography include six major categories: Electronic Materials; Metal, Alloys, and Composites; Fluid Dynamics and Transports; Biotechnology; Glass and Ceramics; and Combustion. Also included are publications from the European, Soviet, and Japanese MSA programs. In addition, there is a list of patents and appendices providing a compilation of anonymously authored collection of reports and a cross reference index.

  11. Microgravity Outreach and Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Rosenberg, Carla B.

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Research Program has been actively developing classroom activities and educator's guides since the flight of the First United States Microgravity Laboratory. In addition, various brochures, posters, and exhibit materials have been produced for outreach efforts to the general public and to researchers outside of the program. These efforts are led by the Microgravity Research Outreach/Education team at Marshall Space Flight Center, with classroom material support from the K-12 Educational Program of The National Center for Microgravity Research on Fluids and Combustion (NCMR), general outreach material development by the Microgravity Outreach office at Hampton University, and electronic/media access coordinated by Marshall. The broad concept of the NCMR program is to develop a unique set of microgravity-related educational products that enable effective outreach to the pre-college community by supplementing existing mathematics, science, and technology curricula. The current thrusts of the program include summer teacher and high school internships during which participants help develop educational materials and perform research with NCMR and NASA scientists; a teacher sabbatical program which allows a teacher to concentrate on a major educational product during a full school year; frequent educator workshops held at NASA and at regional and national teachers conferences; a nascent student drop tower experiment competition; presentations and demonstrations at events that also reach the general public; and the development of elementary science and middle school mathematics classroom products. An overview of existing classroom products will be provided, along with a list of pertinent World Wide Web URLs. Demonstrations of some hands on activities will show the audience how simple it can be to bring microgravity into the classroom.

  12. Space transfer with ground-based laser/electric propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landis, Geoffrey A.; Stavnes, Mark; Oleson, Steve; Bozek, John

    1993-01-01

    A new method of providing power to space vehicles consists of using ground-based lasers to beam power to photovoltaic receivers in space. This can be used as a power source for electrically propelled orbital transfer vehicles.

  13. Challenges and Opportunities for Ground-based Helioseismic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaplin, W. J.

    2013-12-01

    I summarize the current status of ground-based helioseismic observations, in particular the two operational networks GONG and BiSON. I then discuss requirements for continued and future ground-based observations based on key science drivers, finishing with a discussion of SPRING, a proposed future high-spatial-resolution network that would provide helioseismic data and a broad range of synoptic data products.

  14. Germination of Arabidopsis Seed in Space and in Simulated Microgravity: Alterations in Root Cell Growth and Proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzano, Ana I.; Matía, Isabel; González-Camacho, Fernando; Carnero-Díaz, Eugénie; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Dijkstra, Camelia; Larkin, Oliver; Anthony, Paul; Davey, Michael R.; Marco, Roberto; Medina, F. Javier

    2009-11-01

    Changes have been reported in the pattern of gene expression in Arabidopsis on exposure to microgravity. Plant cell growth and proliferation are functions that are potentially affected by such changes in gene expression. In the present investigation, the cell proliferation rate, the regulation of cell cycle progression and the rate of ribosome biogenesis (this latter taken to estimate cell growth) have been studied using morphometric markers or parameters evaluated by light and electron microscopy in real microgravity on the International Space Station (ISS) and in ground-based simulated microgravity, using the Random Positioning Machine and the Magnetic Levitation Instrument. Results showed enhanced cell proliferation but depleted cell growth in both real and simulated microgravity, indicating that the two processes are uncoupled, unlike the situation under normal gravity on Earth in which they are strictly co-ordinated events. It is concluded that microgravity is an important stress condition for plant cells compared to normal ground gravity conditions.

  15. Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Gilbert J. (Editor); Greenberg, Paul S. (Editor); Piltch, Nancy D. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Through the Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) of the Office of Space Science and Applications (OSSA) at NASA Headquarters, a program entitled, Advanced Technology Development (ATD) was promulgated with the objective of providing advanced technologies that will enable the development of future microgravity science and applications experimental flight hardware. Among the ATD projects one, Microgravity Combustion Diagnostics (MCD), has the objective of developing advanced diagnostic techniques and technologies to provide nonperturbing measurements of combustion characteristics and parameters that will enhance the scientific integrity and quality of microgravity combustion experiments. As part of the approach to this project, a workshop was held on July 28 and 29, 1987, at the NASA Lewis Research Center. A small group of laser combustion diagnosticians met with a group of microgravity combustion experimenters to discuss the science requirements, the state-of-the-art of laser diagnostic technology, and plan the direction for near-, intermediate-, and long-term programs. This publication describes the proceedings of that workshop.

  16. Microgravity Environment Description Handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; McPherson, Kevin; Hrovat, Kenneth; Moskowitz, Milton; Rogers, Melissa J. B.; Reckart, Timothy

    1997-01-01

    The Microgravity Measurement and Analysis Project (MMAP) at the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) manages the Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS) and the Orbital Acceleration Research Experiment (OARE) instruments to measure the microgravity environment on orbiting space laboratories. These laboratories include the Spacelab payloads on the shuttle, the SPACEHAB module on the shuttle, the middeck area of the shuttle, and Russia's Mir space station. Experiments are performed in these laboratories to investigate scientific principles in the near-absence of gravity. The microgravity environment desired for most experiments would have zero acceleration across all frequency bands or a true weightless condition. This is not possible due to the nature of spaceflight where there are numerous factors which introduce accelerations to the environment. This handbook presents an overview of the major microgravity environment disturbances of these laboratories. These disturbances are characterized by their source (where known), their magnitude, frequency and duration, and their effect on the microgravity environment. Each disturbance is characterized on a single page for ease in understanding the effect of a particular disturbance. The handbook also contains a brief description of each laboratory.

  17. The Biophysics Microgravity Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorti, S.

    2016-01-01

    Biophysical microgravity research on the International Space Station using biological materials has been ongoing for several decades. The well-documented substantive effects of long duration microgravity include the facilitation of the assembly of biological macromolecules into large structures, e.g., formation of large protein crystals under micro-gravity. NASA is invested not only in understanding the possible physical mechanisms of crystal growth, but also promoting two flight investigations to determine the influence of µ-gravity on protein crystal quality. In addition to crystal growth, flight investigations to determine the effects of shear on nucleation and subsequent formation of complex structures (e.g., crystals, fibrils, etc.) are also supported. It is now considered that long duration microgravity research aboard the ISS could also make possible the formation of large complex biological and biomimetic materials. Investigations of various materials undergoing complex structure formation in microgravity will not only strengthen NASA science programs, but may also provide invaluable insight towards the construction of large complex tissues, organs, or biomimetic materials on Earth.

  18. Scaffold-free Tissue Formation Under Real and Simulated Microgravity Conditions.

    PubMed

    Aleshcheva, Ganna; Bauer, Johann; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Slumstrup, Lasse; Wehland, Markus; Infanger, Manfred; Grimm, Daniela

    2016-10-01

    Scaffold-free tissue formation in microgravity is a new method in regenerative medicine and an important topic in Space Medicine. In this MiniReview, we focus on recent findings in the field of tissue engineering that were observed by exposing cells to real microgravity in space or to devices simulating to at least some extent microgravity conditions on Earth (ground-based facilities). Under both conditions - real and simulated microgravity - a part of the cultured cells of various populations detaches from the bottom of a culture flask. The cells form three-dimensional (3D) aggregates resembling the organs from which the cells have been derived. As spaceflights are rare and extremely expensive, cell culture under simulated microgravity allows more comprehensive and frequent studies on the scaffold-free 3D tissue formation in some aspects, as a number of publications have proven during the last two decades. In this MiniReview, we summarize data from our own studies and work from various researchers about tissue engineering of multi-cellular spheroids formed by cancer cells, tube formation by endothelial cells and cartilage formation by exposing the cells to ground-based facilities such as the 3D Random Positioning Machine (RPM), the 2D Fast-Rotating Clinostat (FRC) or the Rotating Wall Vessel (RWV). Subsequently, we investigated self-organization of 3D aggregates without scaffolds pursuing to enhance the frequency of 3D formation and to enlarge the size of the organ-like aggregates. The density of the monolayer exposed to real or simulated microgravity as well as the composition of the culture media revealed an impact on the results. Genomic and proteomic alterations were induced by simulated microgravity. Under microgravity conditions, adherent cells expressed other genes than cells grown in spheroids. In this MiniReview, the recent improvements in scaffold-free tissue formation are summarized and relationships between phenotypic and molecular appearance are

  19. Suppression of antigen-specific lymphocyte activation in modeled microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, D.; Pride, M. W.; Brown, E. L.; Risin, D.; Pellis, N. R.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Various parameters of immune suppression are observed in lymphocytes from astronauts during and after a space flight. It is difficult to ascribe this suppression to microgravity effects on immune cells in crew specimens, due to the complex physiological response to space flight and the resultant effect on in vitro immune performance. Use of isolated immune cells in true and modeled microgravity in immune performance tests, suggests a direct effect of microgravity on in vitro cellular function. Specifically, polyclonal activation of T-cells is severely suppressed in true and modeled microgravity. These recent findings suggest a potential suppression of oligoclonal antigen-specific lymphocyte activation in microgravity. We utilized rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors as an analog of microgravity for cell cultures to analyze three models of antigen-specific activation. A mixed-lymphocyte reaction, as a model for a primary immune response, a tetanus toxoid response and a Borrelia burgdorferi response, as models of a secondary immune response, were all suppressed in the RWV bioreactor. Our findings confirm that the suppression of activation observed with polyclonal models also encompasses oligoclonal antigen-specific activation.

  20. Suppression of antigen-specific lymphocyte activation in modeled microgravity.

    PubMed

    Cooper, D; Pride, M W; Brown, E L; Risin, D; Pellis, N R

    2001-02-01

    Various parameters of immune suppression are observed in lymphocytes from astronauts during and after a space flight. It is difficult to ascribe this suppression to microgravity effects on immune cells in crew specimens, due to the complex physiological response to space flight and the resultant effect on in vitro immune performance. Use of isolated immune cells in true and modeled microgravity in immune performance tests, suggests a direct effect of microgravity on in vitro cellular function. Specifically, polyclonal activation of T-cells is severely suppressed in true and modeled microgravity. These recent findings suggest a potential suppression of oligoclonal antigen-specific lymphocyte activation in microgravity. We utilized rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactors as an analog of microgravity for cell cultures to analyze three models of antigen-specific activation. A mixed-lymphocyte reaction, as a model for a primary immune response, a tetanus toxoid response and a Borrelia burgdorferi response, as models of a secondary immune response, were all suppressed in the RWV bioreactor. Our findings confirm that the suppression of activation observed with polyclonal models also encompasses oligoclonal antigen-specific activation.

  1. Microgravity Stress: Bone and Connective Tissue.

    PubMed

    Bloomfield, Susan A; Martinez, Daniel A; Boudreaux, Ramon D; Mantri, Anita V

    2016-03-15

    The major alterations in bone and the dense connective tissues in humans and animals exposed to microgravity illustrate the dependency of these tissues' function on normal gravitational loading. Whether these alterations depend solely on the reduced mechanical loading of zero g or are compounded by fluid shifts, altered tissue blood flow, radiation exposure, and altered nutritional status is not yet well defined. Changes in the dense connective tissues and intervertebral disks are generally smaller in magnitude but occur more rapidly than those in mineralized bone with transitions to 0 g and during recovery once back to the loading provided by 1 g conditions. However, joint injuries are projected to occur much more often than the more catastrophic bone fracture during exploration class missions, so protecting the integrity of both tissues is important. This review focuses on the research performed over the last 20 years in humans and animals exposed to actual spaceflight, as well as on knowledge gained from pertinent ground-based models such as bed rest in humans and hindlimb unloading in rodents. Significant progress has been made in our understanding of the mechanisms for alterations in bone and connective tissues with exposure to microgravity, but intriguing questions remain to be solved, particularly with reference to biomedical risks associated with prolonged exploration missions.

  2. Glass formation in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, C. S.; Day, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    An account is given of containerless glass-forming experiments conducted aboard the Space Shuttle in 1985, using a single-axis acoustic levitator furnace apparatus. An attempt was made to obtain quantitative evidence for the suppression of heterogeneous nucleation/crystallization in containerless melts under microgravity conditions, as well as to study melt homogenization in the absence of gravity-driven convection and assess the feasibility of laser fusion target glass microsphere preparation with a microgravity apparatus of the present type. A ternary calcia-gallia-silica glass thus obtained indicated a 2-3-fold increase in glass-formation tendency for this material composition in microgravity, by comparison with 1g.

  3. NASA's Microgravity Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Dan

    1998-01-01

    This fiscal year (FY) 1997 annual report describes key elements of the NASA Microgravity Research Program (MRP) as conducted by the Microgravity Research Division (MRD) within NASA's Office of Life and Microgravity, Sciences and Applications. The program's goals, approach taken to achieve those goals, and program resources are summarized. All snapshots of the program's status at the end of FY 1997 and a review of highlights and progress in grounds and flights based research are provided. Also described are major space missions that flew during FY 1997, plans for utilization of the research potential of the International Space Station, the Advanced Technology Development (ATD) Program, and various educational/outreach activities. The MRP supports investigators from academia, industry, and government research communities needing a space environment to study phenomena directly or indirectly affected by gravity.

  4. The caloric vestibular nystagmus during short lasting microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oosterveld, W. J.; de Jong, H. A. A.; Kortschot, H. W.

    In human subjects the caloric vestibular test was conducted during parabolic flight. The ear irrigation was performed from 35 secs. till 5 secs. before the onset of microgravity. Nystagmography covered a 10-minutes period, including three parabolic manoeuvres of the aircraft. a. The slow phase velocity (SPV) of the caloric nystagmus increased proportionally with the value of the g-force. Introduction of microgravity induced an exponential decrease of the SPV decay. b. The nystagmus disappeared completely in microgravity, but SPV decay showed a specific time constant. c. The averaged time constant values of the caloric nystagmus SPV decay after sudden onset of microgravity and the averaged time constant of the SPV decay following a sudden stop after sustained rotation during 0-g appeared to be on the same level (10.2 s. and 10.6 s.). d. These two averaged time constant values obtained during shortlasting microgravity proved to be on a lower level than those time constants (15.5 secs.; 15.9 secs.) found in ground-based conditions. e. Because of the similarities in the characteristics of both SPV decay's and their accompanying time constants, a common working mechanism of cupular stimulation is likely. Most probably a fluid movement (or pressure) provokes a cupula deflexion followed by a cupula reflexion, either caused by a sudden stop after a sustained rotation or by a sudden onset of microgravity after g-load calorization. The present results support the Bárány convection theory with regard the endolymph stimulatory properties following the caloric test.

  5. Changes in gene expression and signal transduction in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.

    2001-01-01

    Studies from space flights over the past three decades have demonstrated that basic physiological changes occur in humans during space flight. These changes include cephalic fluid shifts, loss of fluid and electrolytes, loss of muscle mass, space motion sickness, anemia, reduced immune response, and loss of calcium and mineralized bone. The cause of most of these manifestations is not known and until recently, the general approach was to investigate general systemic changes, not basic cellular responses to microgravity. This laboratory has recently studied gene growth and activation of normal osteoblasts (MC3T3-El) during spaceflight. Osteoblast cells were grown on glass coverslips and loaded in the Biorack plunger boxes. The osteoblasts were launched in a serum deprived state, activated in microgravity and collected in microgravity. The osteoblasts were examined for changes in gene expression and signal transduction. Approximately one day after growth activation significant changes were observed in gene expression in 0-G flight samples. Immediate early growth genes/growth factors cox-2, c-myc, bcl2, TGF beta1, bFGF and PCNA showed a significant diminished mRNA induction in microgravity FCS activated cells when compared to ground and 1-G flight controls. Cox-1 was not detected in any of the samples. There were no significant differences in the expression of reference gene mRNA between the ground, 0-G and 1-G samples. The data suggest that quiescent osteoblasts are slower to enter the cell cycle in microgravity and that the lack of gravity itself may be a significant factor in bone loss in spaceflight. Preliminary data from our STS 76 flight experiment support our hypothesis that a basic biological response occurs at the tissue, cellular, and molecular level in 0-G. Here we examine ground-based and space flown data to help us understand the mechanism of bone loss in microgravity.

  6. Condensed Plasmas under Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morfill, G. E.; Thomas, H. M.; Konopka, U.; Rothermel, H.; Zuzic, M.; Ivlev, A.; Goree, J.; Rogers, Rick (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Experiments under microgravity conditions were carried out to study 'condensed' (liquid and crystalline) states of a colloidal plasma (ions, electrons, and charged microspheres). Systems with approximately 10(exp 6) microspheres were produced. The observed systems represent new forms of matter--quasineutral, self-organized plasmas--the properties of which are largely unexplored. In contrast to laboratory measurements, the systems under microgravity are clearly three dimensional (as expected); they exhibit stable vortex flows, sometimes adjacent to crystalline regions, and a central 'void,' free of microspheres.

  7. Microgravity Science and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The report presents fifteen papers from a workshop on microgravity science and applications held at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, on December 3 to 4, 1984. The workshop and panel were formed by the Solid State Sciences Committee of the Board on Physics and Astronomy of the National Research Council in response to a request from the Office of Science and Technology Policy. The goal was to review the microgravity science and applications (MSA) program of NASA and to evaluate the quality of the program. The topics for the papers are metals and alloys, electronic materials, ceramics and glasses, biotechnology, combustion science, and fluid dynamics.

  8. MSG: Microgravity Science Glovebox

    SciTech Connect

    Baugher, C.R.; Ramachandran, N.; Roark, W.

    1996-12-31

    The capabilities of the Space Station glovebox facility is described. Tentatively scheduled to be launched in 1999, this facility called the Microgravity Sciences Glovebox (MSG), will provide a robust and sophisticated platform for doing microgravity experiments on the Space Station. It will provide an environment not only for testing and evaluating experiment concepts, but also serve as a platform for doing fairly comprehensive science investigations. Its design has evolved substantially from the middeck glovebox, now flown on Space Shuttle missions, not only in increased experiment volume but also in significant capability enhancements. The system concept, functionality and architecture are discussed along with technical information that will benefit potential science investigators.

  9. Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    The Microgravity Science Glovebox is a facility for performing microgravity research in the areas of materials, combustion, fluids and biotechnology science. The facility occupies a full ISPR, consisting of: the ISPR rack and infrastructure for the rack, the glovebox core facility, data handling, rack stowage, outfitting equipment, and a video subsystem. MSG core facility provides the experiment developers a chamber with air filtering and recycling, up to two levels of containment, an airlock for transfer of payload equipment to/from the main volume, interface resources for the payload inside the core facility, resources inside the airlock, and storage drawers for MSG support equipment and consumables.

  10. Microgravity strategic planning exercise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Richard; Downey, Jim; Harvey, Harold

    1991-01-01

    The Center for Space and Advanced Technology supported a planning exercise for the Microgravity Program management at the Marshall Space Flight Center. The effort focused on the status of microgravity work at MSFC and elsewhere with the objective of preparing a goal-oriented strategic planning document which could be used for informational/brochure purposes. The effort entailed numerous interactions and presentations with Field Center programmatic components and Headquarters personnel. Appropriate material was consolidated in a draft format for a MSFC Strategic Plan.

  11. Microgravity and the lung

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, John B.

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented from studies of the effect of microgravity on the lungs of rats flown on the Cosmos 2044 mission, and from relevant laboratory experiments. The effects of microgravity fall into five categories: topographical structure and function, the lung volumes and mechanics, the intrathoracic blood pressures and volumes, the pulmonary deposition of aerosol, and denitrogenaton during EVA. The ultrastructure of the left lungs of rats flown for 14 days on the Cosmos 2044 spacecraft and that of some tail-suspended rats disclosed presence of red blood cells in the alveolar spaces, indicating that pulmonary hemorrhage and pulmonary edema occurred in these rats. Possible causes for this phenomenon are discussed.

  12. Current program to investigate phenomena in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oran, William A.

    1986-01-01

    Current NASA Microgravity Science and Applications Division Shuttle and terrestrial experiments to acquire basic data for space-based materials processing activities are summarized. The research is carried out to increase the understanding and to improve ground-based and space-based processing, to enhance the understanding of basic physical phenomena, and to characterize the forces which effect low-gravity processing. The main areas of research are crystal growth, metallic alloy solidification, bioseparation processes, blood rheology, containerless processing, and studies of combustion processes, chemical and transport phenomena, cloud microphysics and fluid behavior and surface phenomena in microgravity. Specific experiments, which exemplify the research goals and were performed on KC-135 flights along Keplerian trajectories and on Shuttle missions, are described.

  13. Chemical Vapor Deposition at High Pressure in a Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCall, Sonya; Bachmann, Klaus; LeSure, Stacie; Sukidi, Nkadi; Wang, Fuchao

    1999-01-01

    In this paper we present an evaluation of critical requirements of organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD) at elevated pressure for a channel flow reactor in a microgravity environment. The objective of using high pressure is to maintain single-phase surface composition for materials that have high thermal decomposition pressure at their optimum growth temperature. Access to microgravity is needed to maintain conditions of laminar flow, which is essential for process analysis. Based on ground based observations we present an optimized reactor design for OMCVD at high pressure and reduced gravity. Also, we discuss non-intrusive real-time optical monitoring of flow dynamics coupled to homogeneous gas phase reactions, transport and surface processes. While suborbital flights may suffice for studies of initial stages of heteroepitaxy experiments in space are essential for a complete evaluation of steady-state growth.

  14. Simulated Microgravity: Critical Review on the Use of Random Positioning Machines for Mammalian Cell Culture

    PubMed Central

    Wuest, Simon L.; Richard, Stéphane; Kopp, Sascha

    2015-01-01

    Random Positioning Machines (RPMs) have been used since many years as a ground-based model to simulate microgravity. In this review we discuss several aspects of the RPM. Recent technological development has expanded the operative range of the RPM substantially. New possibilities of live cell imaging and partial gravity simulations, for example, are of particular interest. For obtaining valuable and reliable results from RPM experiments, the appropriate use of the RPM is of utmost importance. The simulation of microgravity requires that the RPM's rotation is faster than the biological process under study, but not so fast that undesired side effects appear. It remains a legitimate question, however, whether the RPM can accurately and reliably simulate microgravity conditions comparable to real microgravity in space. We attempt to answer this question by mathematically analyzing the forces working on the samples while they are mounted on the operating RPM and by comparing data obtained under real microgravity in space and simulated microgravity on the RPM. In conclusion and after taking the mentioned constraints into consideration, we are convinced that simulated microgravity experiments on the RPM are a valid alternative for conducting examinations on the influence of the force of gravity in a fast and straightforward approach. PMID:25649075

  15. Cytotoxic activity of natural killer cells in vitro under microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorieva, O. V.; Buravkova, L. B.; Rykova, M. P.

    2005-08-01

    Changes in the immune response during space flight are close relation to functions of NK lymphocytes and their ability to interact with target cells. The aim of this research was to study NK cells cytotoxic activity and their ability to produce cytokines under microgravity in vitro. The modification of the method to study NK cells cytotoxic activity with the use of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and myeloblasts K-562 (as target cells) proved highly effective (Buravkova et al., 2004). The flight experiment "Cell-to-cell interaction" with the use of the special device "Fibroblast-1" was carried out by Russian cosmonauts within the first two days after the docking when a new crew was taking over on International Space Station (ISS 8 - 10). The data collected on board ISS revealed that NK lymphocytes cytotoxic activity in vitro can increase under microgravity. The ground-based simulation experiments showed that long-term changes in gravity vector direction clinorotation resulted in a smaller increase of NK cells cytotoxic activity than it did in microgravity. As lymphocytes produce cytokines while interacting with target cells, the levels of TNF-α, IL-1α, IL- 2, IL-6 in cell-conditioned medium were assessed. The data showed that microgravity has varied effects on cytokines production level.

  16. Microgravity nucleation and particle coagulation experiments support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lilleleht, L. U.; Ferguson, F. T.; Stephens, J. R.

    1992-01-01

    This project is a part of a program at GSFC to study to formation and growth of cosmic dust grain analogs under terrestrial as well as microgravity conditions. Its primary scientific objective is to study the homogeneous nucleation of refractory metal vapors and a variety of their oxides among others, while the engineering, and perhaps a more immediate objective is to develop a system capable of producing mono-dispersed, homogeneous suspensions of well-characterized refractory particles for various particle interaction experiments aboard the Space Shuttle and Space Station Freedom. Both of these objectives are to be met by a judicious combination of laboratory experiments on the ground and aboard NASA's KC-135 experimental research aircraft. Major effort during the current reporting period was devoted to the evaluation of our very successful first series of microgravity test runs in Feb. 1990. Although the apparatus performed well, it was decided to 'repackage' the equipment for easier installation on the KC-135 and access to various components. It will now consist of three separate racks: one each for the nucleation chamber, the power subsystem, and the electronic packages. The racks were fabricated at the University of Virginia and the assembly of the repackaged units is proceeding well. Preliminary analysis of the video data from the first microgravity flight series was performed and the results appear to display some trends expected from Hale's Scaled Nucleation Theory of 1986. The data acquisition system is currently being refined.

  17. Microgravity science and applications. Program tasks and bibliography for FY 1994

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This annual report includes research projects funded by the Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications, Microgravity Science and Applications Division, during FY 1994. It is a compilation of program tasks (objective, description, significance, progress, students funded under research, and bibliographic citations) for flight research and ground-based research in five major scientific disciplines: benchmark science, biotechnology, combustion science, fluid physics, and materials science. ATD (Advanced Technology Development) program task descriptions are also included. The bibliography cites the related PI (Principal Investigator) publications and presentations for these program tasks in FY 1994. Three appendices include Table of Acronyms, Guest Investigator Index, and Principal Investigator Index.

  18. ARADISH - Development of a Standardized Plant Growth Chamber for Experiments in Gravitational Biology Using Ground Based Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüler, Oliver; Krause, Lars; Görög, Mark; Hauslage, Jens; Kesseler, Leona; Böhmer, Maik; Hemmersbach, Ruth

    2016-06-01

    Plant development strongly relies on environmental conditions. Growth of plants in Biological Life Support Systems (BLSS), which are a necessity to allow human survival during long-term space exploration missions, poses a particular problem for plant growth, as in addition to the traditional environmental factors, microgravity (or reduced gravity such as on Moon or Mars) and limited gas exchange hamper plant growth. Studying the effects of reduced gravity on plants requires real or simulated microgravity experiments under highly standardized conditions, in order to avoid the influence of other environmental factors. Analysis of a large number of biological replicates, which is necessary for the detection of subtle phenotypical differences, can so far only be achieved in Ground Based Facilities (GBF). Besides different experimental conditions, the usage of a variety of different plant growth chambers was a major factor that led to a lack of reproducibility and comparability in previous studies. We have developed a flexible and customizable plant growth chamber, called ARAbidopsis DISH (ARADISH), which allows plant growth from seed to seedling, being realized in a hydroponic system or on Agar. By developing a special holder, the ARADISH can be used for experiments with Arabidopsis thaliana or a plant with a similar habitus on common GBF hardware, including 2D clinostats and Random Positioning Machines (RPM). The ARADISH growth chamber has a controlled illumination system of red and blue light emitting diodes (LED), which allows the user to apply defined light conditions. As a proof of concept we tested a prototype in a proteomic experiment in which plants were exposed to simulated microgravity or a 90° stimulus. We optimized the design and performed viability tests after several days of growth in the hardware that underline the utility of ARADISH in microgravity research.

  19. NASA Microgravity Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Dan

    1999-01-01

    The Fiscal Year 1998 Annual Report describes key elements of the NASA Microgravity Research Program. The Program's goals, approach taken to achieve those goals, and program resources are summarized. A review of the Program's status at the end of FY1998 and highlights of the ground- and-flight-based research are provided.

  20. Unit Operations in Microgravity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David T.; Pettit, Donald R.

    1987-01-01

    Presents some of the work currently under way in the development of microgravity chemical processes. Highlights some of the opportunities for materials processing in outer space. Emphasizes some of the contributions that chemical engineers can make in this emerging set of technologies. (TW)

  1. Lymphocyte Functions in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Risin, Diane; Sundaresan, A.; Cooper, D.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of immunity impairment in space it is important to analyze the direct effects of space-related conditions on different lymphocytes functions. Since 1992, we are investigating the effect of modeled and true microgravity (MG) on numerous lymphocyte functions. We had shown that modeled (MMG) and true microgravity inhibit lymphocyte locomotion through type I collagen. Modeled microgravity also suppresses polyclonal and antigen-specific lymphocyte activation. Polyclonal activation of lymphocytes prior to exposure to MMG abrogates the MG-induced inhibition of lymphocyte locomotion. The relationship between activation deficits and the loss of locomotion in MG was investigated using PKC activation by phorbol ester (PMA) and calcium ionophore (ionomycin). Direct activation of PKC by PMA substantially restored the MMG-inhibited lymphocyte locomotion and PHA-induced lymphocyte activation lonomycin by itself did not restore either locomotion or activation of the lymphocytes, indicating that these changes are not related to the impairment in the calcium flux in MMG. Treatment of lymphocytes with PMA before exposure to MMG prevented the loss of locomotion. It was observed that DNA synthesis is not necessary for restoration of locomotion since mitomicin C treated and untreated cells recovered their locomotion to the same level after PKC activation. Our recent data indicate that microgravity may selectively effect the expression of novel Ca2+ independent isoforms of PKC, in particularly PKC sigma and delta. This provides a new insight in understanding of the mechanisms of MG-sensitive cellular functions.

  2. Candle Flames in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.; Chang, P.; T'ien, J. S.

    2001-01-01

    The goal of this work is to study both experimentally and numerically the behavior of a candle flame burning in a microgravity environment. Two space experiments (Shuttle and Mir) have shown the candle flame in microgravity to be small (approximately 1.5 cm diameter), dim blue, and hemispherical. Near steady flames with very long flame lifetimes (up to 45 minutes in some tests) existed for many of the tests. Most of the flames spontaneously oscillated with a period of approximately 1 Hz just prior to extinction). In a previous model of candle flame in microgravity, a porous sphere wetted with liquid fuel simulated the evaporating wick. The sphere, with a temperature equal to the boiling temperature of the fuel, was at the end of an inert cone that had a prescribed temperature. This inert cone produces the quenching effect of the candle wax in the real configuration. Although the computed flame shape resembled that observed in the microgravity experiment, the model was not able to differentiate the effect of wick geometry, e.g., a long vs. a short wick. This paper presents recent developments in the numerical model of the candle flame. The primary focus has been to more realistically account for the actual shape of the candle.

  3. Microgravity strategic plan, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The mission of the NASA Microgravity program is to utilize the unique characteristics of the space environment, primarily the near absence of gravity, to understand the role of gravity in materials processing, and to demonstrate the feasibility of space production of improved materials that have high technological, and possible commercial, utility. The following five goals for the Microgravity Program are discussed: (1) Develop a comprehensive research program in fundamental sciences, materials science, and biotechnology for the purpose of attaining a structured understanding of gravity dependent physical phenomena in both Earth and non-Earth environments; (2) Foster the growth of interdisciplinary research community to conduct research in the space environment; (3) Encourage international cooperation for the purpose of conducting research in the space environment; (4) Utilize a permanently manned, multi-facility national microgravity laboratory in low-Earth orbit to provide a long-duration, stable microgravity environment; (5) Promote industrial applications of space research for the development of new, commercially viable products, services, and markets resulting from research in the space environment.

  4. GRADFLEX: Fluctuations in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vailati, A.; Cerbino, R.; Mazzoni, S.; Giglio, M.; Nikolaenko, G.; Cannell, D. S.; Meyer, W. V.; Smart, A. E.

    2004-01-01

    We present the results of experimental investigations of gradient driven fluctuations induced in a liquid mixture with a concentration gradient and in a single-component fluid with a temperature gradient. We also describe the experimental apparatus being developed to carry out similar measurement under microgravity conditions.

  5. NASA's Microgravity Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Dan R. (Editor); Henderson, Robin N. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Fiscal Year 1999 Annual Report describes key elements of the NASA Microgravity Research Program. The Program's goals, approach taken to achieve those goals, and program resources are summarized. A review of the Program's status at the end of FY1999 and highlights of the ground-and-flight research are provided.

  6. Microgravity silicon zoning investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A resistance heated zoner, suitable for early zoning experiments with silicon, was designed and put into operation. The initial power usage and size was designed for an shown to be compatible with payload carriers contemplated for the Shuttle. This equipment will be used in the definition and development of flight experiments and apparatus for float zoning silicon and other materials in microgravity.

  7. Microgravity ignition experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Motevalli, Vahid; Elliott, William; Garrant, Keith; Marcotte, Ryan

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to develop a flight-ready apparatus of the microgravity ignition experiment for the GASCAN 2 program. The microgravity ignition experiment is designed to study how a microgravity environment affects the time to ignition of a sample of alpha-cellulose paper. A microgravity environment will result in a decrease in the heat transferred from the sample due to a lack of convection currents, which would decrease time to ignition. A lack of convection current would also cause the oxygen supply at the sample not to be renewed, which could delay or even prevent ignition. When this experiment is conducted aboard GASCAN 2, the dominant result of the lack of ignition will be determined. The experiment consists of four canisters containing four thermocouples and a sensor to detect ignition of the paper sample. This year the interior of the canister was redesigned and a mathematical model of the heat transfer around the sample was developed. This heat transfer model predicts an ignition time of approximately 5.5 seconds if the decrease of heat loss from the sample is the dominant factor of the lack of convection currents.

  8. Animal surgery in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Mark R.; Billica, Roger D.; Johnston, Smith L., III

    1993-01-01

    Prototype hardware and procedures which could be applied to a surgical support system on SSF are realistically evaluated in microgravity using an animal model. Particular attention is given to the behavior of bleeding in a surgical scenario and techniques for hemostasis and fluid management.

  9. Physiology in microgravity.

    PubMed

    West, J B

    2000-07-01

    Studies of physiology in microgravity are remarkably recent, with almost all the data being obtained in the past 40 years. The first human spaceflight did not take place until 1961. Physiological measurements in connection with the early flights were crude, but, in the past 10 years, an enormous amount of new information has been obtained from experiments on Spacelab. The United States and Soviet/Russian programs have pursued different routes. The US has mainly concentrated on relatively short flights but with highly sophisticated equipment such as is available in Spacelab. In contrast, the Soviet/Russian program concentrated on first the Salyut and then the Mir space stations. These had the advantage of providing information about long-term exposure to microgravity, but the degree of sophistication of the measurements in space was less. It is hoped that the International Space Station will combine the best of both approaches. The most important physiological changes caused by microgravity include bone demineralization, skeletal muscle atrophy, vestibular problems causing space motion sickness, cardiovascular problems resulting in postflight orthostatic intolerance, and reductions in plasma volume and red cell mass. Pulmonary function is greatly altered but apparently not seriously impaired. Space exploration is a new frontier with long-term missions to the moon and Mars not far away. Understanding the physiological changes caused by long-duration microgravity remains a daunting challenge.

  10. Candle flames in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dietrich, D. L.; Ross, H. D.; Tien, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    The candle flame in both normal and microgravity is non-propagating. In microgravity, however, the candle flame is also non-convective where (excepting Stefan flow) pure diffusion is the only transport mode. It also shares many characteristics with another classical problem, that of isolated droplet combustion. Given their qualitatively similar flame shapes and the required heat feedback to condensed-phase fuels, the gas-phase flow and temperature fields should be relatively similar for a droplet and a candle in reduced gravity. Unless the droplet diameter is maintained somehow through non-intrusive replenishment of fuel, the quasi-steady burning characteristics of a droplet can be maintained for only a few seconds. In contrast, the candle flame in microgravity may achieve a nearly steady state over a much longer time and is therefore ideal for examining a number of combustion-related phenomena. In this paper, we examine candle flame behavior in both short-duration and long-duration, quiescent, microgravity environments. Interest in this type of flame, especially 'candle flames in weightlessness', is demonstrated by very frequent public inquiries. The question is usually posed as 'will a candle flame burn in zero gravity', or, 'will a candle burn indefinitely (or steadily) in zero gravity in a large volume of quiescent air'. Intuitive speculation suggests to some that, in the absence of buoyancy, the accumulation of products in the vicinity of the flame will cause flame extinction. The classical theory for droplet combustion with its spherically-shaped diffusion flame, however, shows that steady combustion is possible in the absence of buoyancy if the chemical kinetics are fast enough. Previous experimental studies of candle flames in reduced and microgravity environments showed the flame could survive for at least 5 seconds, but did not reach a steady state in the available test time.

  11. Quantitative Measurement of Oxygen in Microgravity Combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silver, Joel A.

    1997-01-01

    A low-gravity environment, in space or in ground-based facilities such as drop towers, provides a unique setting for studying combustion mechanisms. Understanding the physical phenomena controlling the ignition and spread of flames in microgravity has importance for space safety as well as for better characterization of dynamical and chemical combustion processes which are normally masked by buoyancy and other gravity-related effects. Due to restrictions associated with performing measurements in reduced gravity, diagnostic methods which have been applied to microgravity combustion studies have generally been limited to capture of flame emissions on film or video, laser Schlieren imaging and (intrusive) temperature measurements using thermocouples. Given the development of detailed theoretical models, more sophisticated diagnostic methods are needed to provide the kind of quantitative data necessary to characterize the properties of microgravity combustion processes as well as provide accurate feedback to improve the predictive capabilities of the models. When the demands of space flight are considered, the need for improved diagnostic systems which are rugged, compact, reliable, and operate at low power becomes apparent. The objective of this research is twofold. First, we want to develop a better understanding of the relative roles of diffusion and reaction of oxygen in microgravity combustion. As the primary oxidizer species, oxygen plays a major role in controlling the observed properties of flames, including flame front speed (in solid or liquid flames), extinguishment characteristics, flame size and flame temperature. The second objective is to develop better diagnostics based on diode laser absorption which can be of real value in both microgravity combustion research and as a sensor on-board Spacelab as either an air quality monitor or as part of a fire detection system. In our prior microgravity work, an eight line-of-sight fiber optic system measured

  12. Ground Base Skylab Electron Beam Welds in Tantalum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Comparison of ground-based (left) and Skylab (right) electron beam welds in pure tantalum (Ta) (10X magnification). Residual votices left behind in the ground-based sample after the electron beam passed were frozen into the grain structure. These occurred because of the rapid cooling rate at the high temperature. Although the thermal characteristics and electron beam travel speeds were comparable for the skylab sample, the residual vortices were erased in the grain structure. This may have been due to the fact that final grain size of the solidified material was smaller in the Skylab sample compared to the ground-based sample. The Skylab sample was processed in the M512 Materials Processing Facility (MPF) during Skylab SL-2 Mission. Principal Investigator was Richard Poorman.

  13. Ground-based laser radar measurements of satellite vibrations.

    PubMed

    Schultz, K I; Fisher, S

    1992-12-20

    Vibration signatures from the low-power atmospheric compensation (LACE) satellite are obtained by using the MIT Lincoln Laboratory Firepond coherent CO(2) laser radar facility located in Westford, Mass. The LACE satellite is equipped with IR germanium retroreflectors on deployable/retractable booms to enhance ground-based IR laser radar measurements of on-orbit boom vibrations. Analysis of pulsed cw laser radar measurements of the satellite during and subsequent to boom retraction indicates the presence of a complex time-varying model structure. The observed vibration spectra include vibration modes not previously predicted. These data represent the first observations of satellite vibration modes from a ground-based laser radar.

  14. Spaceflight Nutrition Research: Platforms and Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Tobin, Brian W.

    2002-01-01

    Understanding human adaptation to weightlessness requires research in either the true microgravity environment or iii a ground-based model. Over the years, many flight platforms have been available, and many ground models have emerged for both human and animal studies of the effects of spaceflight on physiology. In this review, we provide a brief description of these models and the main points to be considered when choosing a model. We do not intend to provide a comprehensive overview of each platform or model, but rather to provide the reader with an overview of the options available for space nutrition research, and the relative merits and/or drawbacks of each.

  15. Overview of NASA's Microgravity Materials Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, James Patton; Grugel, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The NASA microgravity materials program is dedicated to conducting microgravity experiments and related modeling efforts that will help us understand the processes associated with the formation of materials. This knowledge will help improve ground based industrial production of such materials. The currently funded investigations include research on the distribution of dopants and formation of defects in semiconductors, transitions between columnar and dendritic grain morphology, coarsening of phase boundaries, competition between thermally and kinetically favored phases, and the formation of glassy vs. crystalline material. NASA microgravity materials science investigators are selected for funding either through a proposal in response to a NASA Research Announcement or by participation in a team proposing to a foreign agency research announcement. In the latter case, a US investigator participating in a successful proposal to a foreign agency can then apply to NASA for funding of an unsolicited proposal. The program relies on cooperation with other aerospace partners from around the world. The ISS facilities used for these investigations are provided primarily by partnering with foreign agencies and in most cases the US investigators are working as a part of a larger team studying a specific area of materials science. The following facilities are to be utilized for the initial investigations. The ESA provided Low Gradient Facility and the Solidification and Quench Inserts to the Materials Research Rack/Materials Science Laboratory are to be used primarily for creating bulk samples that are directionally solidified or quenched from a high temperature melt. The CNES provided DECLIC facility is used to observe morphological development in transparent materials. The ESA provided Electro-Magnetic Levitator (EML) is designed to levitate, melt and then cool samples in order to study nucleation behavior. The facility provides conditions in which nucleation of the solid is

  16. The Question of Impurities in Macromolecule Crystal Quality Improvement in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, Russell A.; Snell, Edward H.; Pusey, Marc L.; Sportiello, Michael G.; Todd, Paul; Bellamy, Henry; Borgstahl, Gloria E.; Pokros, Matthew; Cassanto, John M.

    2000-01-01

    While macromolecule impurities may affect crystal size and morphology the over-riding question is how do macromolecule impurities effect crystal X-ray quality and diffraction resolution. In the case of chicken egg white lysozyme previous researchers have reported that crystals grown in the presence of ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, and turkey egg white lysozyme show no difference in diffraction resolution compared to those grown in pure solutions. One impurity however, a naturally occurring lysozyme dimer, does negatively impact the X-ray crystal properties. For this impurity it has been reported that crystal quality improvement in microgravity may be due to improved impurity partitioning during crystallization. In this study we have examined the incorporation of the dimer into lysozyme crystals, both on the ground and in microgravity experiments, and have performed detailed X-ray analysis of the crystals using a new technique for finely probing the mosaicity of the crystal at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Dimer partitioning was not significantly different in microgravity compared to the ground based experiments, although it is significantly better than that previously reported in microgravity. Mosaicity analysis of pure crystals, 1422 indexed reflections (microgravity) and 752 indexed reflections (ground), gave average results of 0.0066 and 0.0092 degrees (FWHM) respectively. The microgravity crystals also provided an increased signal to noise. Dimer incorporation increased the average mosaicity in microgravity but not on the ground. However, dimer incorporation did greatly reduce the resolution limit in both ground and microgravity grown crystals. The data is being treated anisotropically to explore these effects. These results indicate that impurity effects in microgravity are complex and that the conditions or techniques employed may greatly affect the role of impurities.

  17. A ground-based experiment for CMBR anisotropy observations: MITO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Petris, M.; Mainella, G.; Nerozzi, A.; de Bernardis, P.; Garavini, G.; Granata, S.; Guarini, G.; Masi, S.; Melchiorri, B.; Melchiorri, F.; Nobili, S.; Orlando, A.; Palummo, L.; Pisano, G.; Terracina, A.

    1999-07-01

    Ground-based observations at millimeter wavelengths are still competitive with space observatories if inevitable foreground contamination is considered at all stages of data acquisition and analysis. Technical solutions together with carefully chosen cosmological targets and observational strategies are the key points in the development of the MITO experiment.

  18. Vigilant Eagle: ground-based countermeasure system against MANPADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollin, Jeff

    2006-05-01

    Man-Portable Air Defense Systems, or MANPADS, have arisen as a major threat to commercial and military air traffic. While no MANPADS attacks have yet occurred within the United States, the risk posed by these weapons is undeniable. MANPADS were originally developed by the Soviet Union and the United States for tactical air defense, but since then these weapons have proliferated around the world. Two major approaches to countering these weapons have arisen: aircraft based and ground based. Aircraft-based systems typically use either flares or lasers to either confuse or blind the oncoming missile, thus driving it off target. These systems have been in use for many years on military aircraft and have been proven effective. However, when one considers the commercial air travel industry, the cost of providing a countermeasure system on every plane becomes prohibitive. A ground-based system by contrast protects every aircraft arriving or departing from an airport. By deploying a ground-based system at high-traffic and hub airports, a large percentage of the flying public can be protected affordably. Vigilant Eagle is such a ground based system which uses High Power Microwaves (HPM) to accomplish this mission.

  19. GLAST and Ground-Based Gamma-Ray Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McEnery, Julie

    2008-01-01

    The launch of the Gamma-ray Large Area Space Telescope together with the advent of a new generation of ground-based gamma-ray detectors such as VERITAS, HESS, MAGIC and CANGAROO, will usher in a new era of high-energy gamma-ray astrophysics. GLAST and the ground based gamma-ray observatories will provide highly complementary capabilities for spectral, temporal and spatial studies of high energy gamma-ray sources. Joint observations will cover a huge energy range, from 20 MeV to over 20 TeV. The LAT will survey the entire sky every three hours, allowing it both to perform uniform, long-term monitoring of variable sources and to detect flaring sources promptly. Both functions complement the high-sensitivity pointed observations provided by ground-based detectors. Finally, the large field of view of GLAST will allow a study of gamma-ray emission on large angular scales and identify interesting regions of the sky for deeper studies at higher energies. In this poster, we will discuss the science returns that might result from joint GLAST/ground-based gamma-ray observations and illustrate them with detailed source simulations.

  20. Preliminary design document: Ground based testbed for avionics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The design and interface requirements for an avionics Ground Based Test bed (GBT) to support Heavy Lift Cargo Vehicles (HLCV) is presented. It also contains data on the vehicle subsystem configurations that are to be supported during their early, pre-PDR developmental phases. Several emerging technologies are also identified for support. A Preliminary Specification Tree is also presented.

  1. Ground-Based Sensing System for Weed Mapping in Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A ground-based weed mapping system was developed to measure weed intensity and distribution in a cotton field. The weed mapping system includes WeedSeeker® PhD600 sensor modules to indicate the presence of weeds between rows, a GPS receiver to provide spatial information, and a data acquisition and ...

  2. Biosensors for EVA: Improved Instrumentation for Ground-based Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soller, B.; Ellerby, G.; Zou, F.; Scott, P.; Jin, C.; Lee, S. M. C.; Coates, J.

    2010-01-01

    During lunar excursions in the EVA suit, real-time measurement of metabolic rate is required to manage consumables and guide activities to ensure safe return to the base. Metabolic rate, or oxygen consumption (VO2), is normally measured from pulmonary parameters but cannot be determined with standard techniques in the oxygen-rich environment of a spacesuit. Our group has developed novel near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) methods to calculate muscle oxygen saturation (SmO 2), hematocrit, and pH, and we recently demonstrated that we can use our NIRS sensor to measure VO 2 on the leg during cycling. Our NSBRI project has 4 objectives: (1) increase the accuracy of the metabolic rate calculation through improved prediction of stroke volume; (2) investigate the relative contributions of calf and thigh oxygen consumption to metabolic rate calculation for walking and running; (3) demonstrate that the NIRS-based noninvasive metabolic rate methodology is sensitive enough to detect decrement in VO 2 in a space analog; and (4) improve instrumentation to allow testing within a spacesuit. Over the past year we have made progress on all four objectives, but the most significant progress was made in improving the instrumentation. The NIRS system currently in use at JSC is based on fiber optics technology. Optical fiber bundles are used to deliver light from a light source in the monitor to the patient, and light reflected back from the patient s muscle to the monitor for spectroscopic analysis. The fiber optic cables are large and fragile, and there is no way to get them in and out of the test spacesuit used for ground-based studies. With complimentary funding from the US Army, we undertook a complete redesign of the sensor and control electronics to build a novel system small enough to be used within the spacesuit and portable enough to be used by a combat medic. In the new system the filament lamp used in the fiber optic system was replaced with a novel broadband near infrared

  3. Crystallization of Biological Macromolecules in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snell, Edward H.; Chayen, N. E.; Helliwell, J. R.

    2000-01-01

    An overview of microgravity crystallization explaining why microgravity is used, factors which affect crystallization, the method of crystallization and the environment itself. Also covered is how best to make use of microgravity and what the future might hold.

  4. Plasmid acquisition in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juergensmeyer, Margaret A.; Juergensmeyer, Elizabeth A.; Guikema, James A.

    1995-01-01

    In microgravity, bacteria often show an increased resistance to antibiotics. Bacteria can develop resistance to an antibiotic after transformation, the acquisition of DNA, usually in the form of a plasmid containing a gene for resistance to one or more antibiotics. In order to study the capacity of bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics in microgravity, we have modified the standard protocol for transformation of Escherichia coli for use in the NASA-flight-certified hardware package, The Fluid Processing Apparatus (FPA). Here we report on the ability of E. coli to remain competent for long periods of time at temperatures that are readily available on the Space Shuttle, and present some preliminary flight results.

  5. Microgravity particle reduction system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, Vanessa; Joslin, Michelle; Mateo, Lili; Tubbs, Tracey

    1988-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) project, sponsored by NASA, is assembling the knowledge required to design, construct, and operate a system which will grow and process higher plants in space for the consumption by crew members of a space station on a long term space mission. The problem of processing dry granular organic materials in microgravity is discussed. For the purpose of research and testing, wheat was chosen as the granular material to be ground into flour. Possible systems which were devised to transport wheat grains into the food processor, mill the wheat into flour, and transport the flour to the food preparation system are described. The systems were analyzed and compared and two satisfactory systems were chosen. Prototypes of the two preferred systems are to be fabricated next semester. They will be tested under simulated microgravity conditions and revised for maximum effectiveness.

  6. Protein crystallization in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Aibara, S; Shibata, K; Morita, Y

    1997-12-01

    A space experiment involving protein crystallization was conducted in a microgravity environment using the space shuttle "Endeavour" of STS-47, on a 9-day mission from September 12th to 20th in 1992. The crystallization was carried out according to a batch method, and 5 proteins were selected as flight samples for crystallization. Two of these proteins: hen egg-white lysozyme and co-amino acid: pyruvate aminotransferase from Pseudomonas sp. F-126, were obtained as single crystals of good diffraction quality. Since 1992 we have carried out several space experiments for protein crystallization aboard space shuttles and the space station MIR. Our experimental results obtained mainly from hen egg-white lysozyme are described below, focusing on the effects of microgravity on protein crystal growth.

  7. Amphibian development in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Souza, K. A.

    1987-01-01

    The results of experiments performed by the U.S. Biosatellites 1 and 2 and the Gemini VIII and XII missions and by the Soviet Salyut and Soyuz missions on the effect of gravity on the development of prefertilized amphibian egg and, in particular, of the vestibular system of amphibian embryo are described. In these experiments, the condition of microgravity was reached only after the prefertilized eggs were in the early stages of first cell division or in the blastula stage. No significant changes were observed in the morphology of the embryos or in the vestibular system of embyos developed, respectively, for 2-5 days or 20 days under conditions of microgravity. Experiments planned for future spaceflights are discussed.

  8. Surgical bleeding in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, M. R.; Billica, R. D.; Johnston, S. L. 3rd

    1993-01-01

    A surgical procedure performed during space flight would occur in a unique microgravity environment. Several experiments performed during weightlessness in parabolic flight were reviewed to ascertain the behavior of surgical bleeding in microgravity. Simulations of bleeding using dyed fluid and citrated bovine blood, as well as actual arterial and venous bleeding in rabbits, were examined. The high surface tension property of blood promotes the formation of large fluid domes, which have a tendency to adhere to the wound. The use of sponges and suction will be adequate to prevent cabin atmosphere contamination with all bleeding, with the exception of temporary arterial droplet streams. The control of the bleeding with standard surgical techniques should not be difficult.

  9. Microgravity crystal growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Advanced finite element models are used to study three-dimensional, time-dependent flow and segregation in crystal growth systems. In this image of a prototypical model for melt and crystal growth, pathlines at one instant in time are shown for the flow of heated liquid silicon in a cylindrical container. The container is subjected to g-jitter disturbances along the vertical axis. A transverse magnetic field is applied to control them. Such computations are extremely powerful for understanding melt growth in microgravity where g-jitter drives buoyant flows. The simulation is part of the Theoretical Analysis of 3D, Transient Convection and Segregation in Microgravity Bridgman Crystal Growth investigation by Dr. Jeffrey J. Derby of the University of Mirnesota, Minneapolis.

  10. ISS Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laible, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    The Microgravity performance assessment of the International Space Station (ISS) is comprised of a quasi-steady, structural dynamic and a vibro-acoustic analysis of the ISS assembly-complete vehicle configuration. The Boeing Houston (BHOU) Loads and Dynamics Team is responsible to verify compliance with the ISS System Specification (SSP 41000) and USOS Segment (SSP 41162) microgravity requirements. To verify the ISS environment, a series of accelerometers are on-board to monitor the current environment. This paper summarizes the results of the analysis that was performed for the Verification Analysis Cycle (VAC)-Assembly Complete (AC) and compares it to on-orbit acceleration values currently being reported. The analysis will include the predicted maximum and average environment on-board ISS during multiple activity scenarios

  11. Cartilage Engineering and Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toffanin, R.; Bader, A.; Cogoli, A.; Carda, C.; Fantazzini, P.; Garrido, L.; Gomez, S.; Hall, L.; Martin, I.; Murano, E.; Poncelet, D.; Pörtner, R.; Hoffmann, F.; Roekaerts, D.; Ronney, P.; Triebel, W.; Tummers, M.

    2005-06-01

    The complex effects of mechanical forces and growth factors on articular cartilage development still need to be investigated in order to identify optimal conditions for articular cartilage repair. Strictly controlled in vitro studies under modelled or space microgravity conditions can improve our understanding of the fundamental role of gravity in articular cartilage development. The main objective of this Topical Team is to use modelled microgravity as a tool to elucidate the fundamental science of cartilage regeneration. Particular attention is, therefore, given to the effects of physical forces under altered gravitational conditions, applied using controlled bioreactor systems, on cell metabolism, cell differentiation and tissue development. Specific attention is also directed toward the potential advantages of using magnetic resonance methods for the non-destructive characterisation of scaffolds, chondrocytes-polymer constructs and tissue engineered cartilage.

  12. Microgravity Fluid Management Symposium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The NASA Microgravity Fluid Management Symposium, held at the NASA Lewis Research Center, September 9 to 10, 1986, focused on future research in the microgravity fluid management field. The symposium allowed researchers and managers to review space applications that require fluid management technology, to present the current status of technology development, and to identify the technology developments required for future missions. The 19 papers covered three major categories: (1) fluid storage, acquisition, and transfer; (2) fluid management applications, i.e., space power and thermal management systems, and environmental control and life support systems; (3) project activities and insights including two descriptions of previous flight experiments and a summary of typical activities required during development of a shuttle flight experiment.

  13. Ground-based studies of tropisms in hardware developed for the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correll, Melanie J.; Edelmann, Richard E.; Hangarter, Roger P.; Mullen, Jack L.; Kiss, John Z.

    Phototropism and gravitropism play key roles in the oriented growth of roots in flowering plants. In blue or white light, roots exhibit negative phototropism, but red light induces positive phototropism in Arabidopsis roots. The blue-light response is controlled by the phototropins while the red-light response is mediated by the phytochrome family of photoreceptors. In order to better characterize root phototropism, we plan to perform experiments in microgravity so that this tropism can be more effectively studied without the interactions with the gravity response. Our experiments are to be performed on the European Modular Cultivation System (EMCS), which provides an incubator, lighting system, and high resolution video that are on a centrifuge palette. These experiments will be performed at μg, 1g (control) and fractional g-levels. In order to ensure success of this mission on the International Space Station, we have been conducting ground-based studies on growth, phototropism, and gravitropism in experimental unique equipment (EUE) that was designed for our experiments with Arabidopsis seedlings. Currently, the EMCS and our EUE are scheduled for launch on space shuttle mission STS-121. This project should provide insight into how the blue- and red-light signaling systems interact with each other and with the gravisensing system.

  14. Fostering Multilateral Involvement in Analog Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cromwell, Ronita L.

    2015-01-01

    International collaboration in space flight research is an effective means for conducting investigations and utilizing limited resources to the fullest extent. Through these multilateral collaborations mutual research questions can be investigated and resources contributed by each international partner to maximize the scientific benefits to all parties. Recently the international partners embraced this approach to initiate collaborations in ground-based space flight analog environments. In 2011, the International Analog Research Working Group was established, and later named the International Human Space Flight Analog Research Coordination Group (HANA). Among the goals of this working group are to 1) establish a framework to coordinate research campaigns, as appropriate, to minimize duplication of effort and enhance synergy; 2) define what analogs are best to use for collaborative interests; and 3) facilitate interaction between discipline experts in order to have the full benefit of international expertise. To accomplish these goals, HANA is currently engaged in developing international research campaigns in ground-based analogs. Plans are being made for an international solicitation for proposals to address research of common interest to all international partners. This solicitation with identify an analog environment that will best accommodate the types of investigations requested. Once selected, studies will be integrated into a campaign and implemented at the analog site. Through these combined efforts, research beneficial to all partners will be conducted efficiently to further address human risks of space exploration.

  15. Microgravity Outreach with Math Teachers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jimmy Grisham of the Microgravity Program Plarning Integration Office at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), demonstrates the classroom-size Microgravity Drop Tower Demonstrator. This apparatus provides 1/6 second of microgravity for small experiments. A video camera helps teachers observe what happens inside the package. This demonstration was at the April 2000 conference of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in Chicago. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  16. Microgravity Outreach with Math Teachers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Jimmy Grisham of the Microgravity Program Plarning Integration Office at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, demonstrates the classroom-size Microgravity Drop Tower Demonstrator. The apparatus provides 1/6 second of microgravity for small experiments. A video camera helps teachers observe what happens inside the package. This demonstration was at the April 2000 conference of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in Chicago. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  17. Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, William

    2009-01-01

    Microgravity Acceleration Measurement System (MAMS) is an ongoing study of the small forces (vibrations and accelerations) on the ISS that result from the operation of hardware, crew activities, as well as dockings and maneuvering. Results will be used to generalize the types of vibrations affecting vibration-sensitive experiments. Investigators seek to better understand the vibration environment on the space station to enable future research.

  18. Microgravity Experiments On Animals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dalton, B. P.; Leon, H.; Hogan, R.; Clarke, B.; Tollinger, D.

    1991-01-01

    Paper describes experiments on animal subjects planned for Spacelab Life Sciences 1 mission. Laboratory equipment evaluated, and physiological experiments performed. Represents first step in establishing technology for maintaining and manipulating rodents, nonhuman primates, amphibians, and plants during space flight without jeopardizing crew's environment. In addition, experiments focus on effects of microgravity on cardiopulmonary, cardiovascular, and musculoskeletal systems; on regulation of volume of blood and production of red blood cells; and on calcium metabolism and gravity receptors.

  19. Microgravity Silicon Zoning Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, E. L.

    1985-01-01

    This research program is directed toward the understanding of the float zone crystal growth process, the melt interactions which lead to crystal inhomogeneities, and the influence of microgravity on reducing these inhomogeneities. Silicon was selected as the model crystal because its inhomogeneities lead to known variations in device performance, and because the mechanisms involved in its growth are understood better than for other high temperature crystals. The objective of the program is to understand the growth mechanisms in float zone growth and thereby determine the feasibility and advantages of float zone growth of silicon under microgravity conditions. This will be done by characterizing the growth at g = 1, projecting the changes in melt flows due to microgravity, observing these in space growth and determining the effects on defective inhomogeneities. A Thin Rod Zoner was constructed as a laboratory prototype for flight growth of 5 mm diameter silicon crystals, which can be done within the power and cooling capabilities of shuttle flights. A new method of zoning silicon, using resistance heating, has resulted in melting 5 mm diameter ingots.

  20. Electrophoresis experiments in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Robert S.; Rhodes, Percy H.

    1991-01-01

    The use of the microgravity environment to separate and purify biological cells and proteins has been a major activity since the beginning of the NASA Microgravity Science and Applications program. Purified populations of cells are needed for research, transplantation and analysis of specific cell constituents. Protein purification is a necessary step in research areas such as genetic engineering where the new protein has to be separated from the variety of other proteins synthesized from the microorganism. Sufficient data are available from the results of past electrophoresis experiments in space to show that these experiments were designed with incomplete knowledge of the fluid dynamics of the process including electrohydrodynamics. However, electrophoresis is still an important separation tool in the laboratory and thermal convection does limit its performance. Thus, there is a justification for electrophoresis but the emphasis of future space experiments must be directed toward basic research with model experiments to understand the microgravity environment and fluid analysis to test the basic principles of the process.

  1. NASA Microgravity Materials Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szofran, Frank R. (Compiler); McCauley, D. (Compiler); Walker, C. (Compiler)

    1996-01-01

    The Microgravity Materials Science Conference was held June 10-11, 1996 at the Von Braun Civic Center in Huntsville, AL. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications (AMMSA). It was the second NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approximately 80 investigations and 69 principal investigators in FY96, all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. The conference's purpose was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity in preparation for a NASA Research Announcement (NRA) scheduled for release in late 1996 by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division at NASA Headquarters. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A tour of the MSFC microgravity research facilities was held on June 12, 1996. This volume is comprised of the research reports submitted by the principal investigators after the conference and presentations made by various NASA microgravity science managers.

  2. Frontal Polymerization in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pojman, John A.

    1999-01-01

    Frontal polymerization systems, with their inherent large thermal and compositional gradients, are greatly affected by buoyancy-driven convection. Sounding rocket experiments allowed the preparation of benchmark materials and demonstrated that methods to suppress the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in ground-based research did not significantly affect the molecular weight of the polymer. Experiments under weightlessness show clearly that bubbles produced during the reaction interact very differently than under 1 g.

  3. Aseptic technique in microgravity.

    PubMed

    McCuaig, K

    1992-11-01

    Within the next decade, the United States will launch a space station into low Earth orbit as a preliminary step toward a manned mission to Mars. Provision of asepsis in the unique microgravity environment, essential in operative and invasive procedures, is addressed. An assessment of conventional terrestrial aseptic methods and possible modifications for a microgravity environment was done during the microgravity portion of parabolic flight on NASA KC-135 aircraft. During 110 parabolas on three flight days, a "surgical team" (surgeon, scrub nurse and circulating nurse) using a life size mannequin fastened to a prototype surgical "work station" (operating table), evaluated open and closed gloving (ten parabolas), skin preparation (six parabolas), surgical scrub methods (24 parabolas), gowning (22 parabolas) and draping (48 parabolas). Evaluated were povidone iodine solution, 1 percent povidone iodine detergent, Chloroxylenol with detergent, wet prep soap sponge, a water insoluble iodophor polymer (DuraPrep, 3M), disposable towels, disposable and reusable gowns, large and small disposable drapes with and without adhesive edges, disposable latex surgeon's gloves with and without packaging modifications and restraint mechanisms (tether, swiss seat, waist and foot restraint devices, fairfield and wire clamps and clips). Ease of use, provision of restraint for supplies and personnel and waste disposal were assessed. The literature was reviewed and its relevance to the space environment discussed, including risk factors, environmental contamination, immune status and microbiology. The microgravity environment, limited water supply and restricted operating area mandated that modifications of fabrication and packaging of supplies and technique be made to create and preserve asepsis. Material must meet stringent flammability and off-gassing standards. Either a chlorhexidine or povidone iodine detergent prepackaged brush and sponge would provide an adequate scrub plus

  4. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) is a fluids experiment supported by the Fundamentals in Biotechnology program in association with the Human Exploration and Development of Space (BEDS) initiative. The MTP Experiment will investigate fluid transport phenomena both in ground based experiments and in the microgravity environment. Many fluid transport processes are affected by gravity. Osmotic flux kinetics in planar membrane systems have been shown to be influenced by gravimetric orientation, either through convective mixing caused by unstably stratified fluid layers, or through a stable fluid boundary layer structure that forms in association with the membrane. Coupled transport phenomena also show gravity related effects. Coefficients associated with coupled transport processes are defined in terms of a steady state condition. Buoyancy (gravity) driven convection interferes with the attainment of steady state, and the measurement of coupled processes. The MTP Experiment measures the kinetics of molecular migration that occurs in fluids, in response to the application of various driving potentials. Three separate driving potentials may be applied to the MTP Experiment fluids, either singly or in combination. The driving potentials include chemical potential, thermal potential, and electrical potential. Two separate fluid arrangements are used to study membrane mediated and bulk fluid transport phenomena. Transport processes of interest in membrane mediated systems include diffusion, osmosis, and streaming potential. Bulk fluid processes of interest include coupled phenomena such as the Soret Effect, Dufour Effect, Donnan Effect, and thermal diffusion potential. MTP Experiments are performed in the Microgravity Transport Apparatus (MTA), an instrument that has been developed specifically for precision measurement of transport processes. Experiment fluids are contained within the MTA fluid cells, designed to create a one dimensional flow geometry

  5. Antarctic Space Analog Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palinkas, Lawrence A; Gunderson, E. K. Eric; Johnson, Jeffrey C.; Holland, Albert W.

    1998-01-01

    The primary aim of this project was to examine group dynamics and individual performance in extreme, isolated environments and identify human factors requirements for long-duration space missions using data collected in an analog environment. Specifically, we wished to determine: 1) the characteristics of social relations in small groups of individuals living and working together in extreme, isolated environments, and 2) the environmental, social and psychological determinants of performance effectiveness in such groups. These two issues were examined in six interrelated studies using data collected in small, isolated research stations in Antarctica from 1963 to the present. Results from these six studies indicated that behavior and performance on long-duration space flights is likely to be seasonal or cyclical, situational, social, and salutogenic in nature. The project responded to two NASA program emphases for FY 1997 as described in the NRA: 1) the primary emphasis of the Behavior and Performance Program on determining long-term individual and group performance responses to space, identifying critical factors affecting those responses and understanding underlying mechanisms involved in behavior and performance, and developing and using ground-based models and analogs for studying space-related behavior and performance; and 2) the emphasis of the Data Analysis Program on extended data analysis. Results from the study were used to develop recommendations for the design and development of pre-flight crew training and in-flight psychological countermeasures for long-duration manned space missions.

  6. Lab-On-Chip Clinorotation System for Live-Cell Microscopy Under Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yew, Alvin G.; Atencia, Javier; Chinn, Ben; Hsieh, Adam H.

    1980-01-01

    Cells in microgravity are subject to mechanical unloading and changes to the surrounding chemical environment. How these factors jointly influence cellular function is not well understood. We can investigate their role using ground-based analogues to spaceflight, where mechanical unloading is simulated through the time-averaged nullification of gravity. The prevailing method for cellular microgravity simulation is to use fluid-filled containers called clinostats. However, conventional clinostats are not designed for temporally tracking cell response, nor are they able to establish dynamic fluid environments. To address these needs, we developed a Clinorotation Time-lapse Microscopy (CTM) system that accommodates lab-on- chip cell culture devices for visualizing time-dependent alterations to cellular behavior. For the purpose of demonstrating CTM, we present preliminary results showing time-dependent differences in cell area between human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) under modeled microgravity and normal gravity.

  7. Lab-On-Chip Clinorotation System for Live-Cell Microscopy Under Simulated Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yew, Alvin G.; Atencia, Javier; Chinn, Ben; Hsieh, Adam H.

    2013-01-01

    Cells in microgravity are subject to mechanical unloading and changes to the surrounding chemical environment. How these factors jointly influence cellular function is not well understood. We can investigate their role using ground-based analogues to spaceflight, where mechanical unloading is simulated through the time-averaged nullification of gravity. The prevailing method for cellular microgravity simulation is to use fluid-filled containers called clinostats. However, conventional clinostats are not designed for temporally tracking cell response, nor are they able to establish dynamic fluid environments. To address these needs, we developed a Clinorotation Time-lapse Microscopy (CTM) system that accommodates lab-on- chip cell culture devices for visualizing time-dependent alterations to cellular behavior. For the purpose of demonstrating CTM, we present preliminary results showing time-dependent differences in cell area between human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) under modeled microgravity and normal gravity.

  8. An experimental system for determining the influence of microgravity on B lymphocyte activation and cell fusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sammons, D. W.; Humphreys, R. C.; Emmons, S. P.; Zimmermann, U.; Gessner, P.; Klinman, N. R.; Neil, G. A.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of microgravity on lymphocyte activation is central to the understanding of immunological function in space. Moreover, the adaptation of ground-based technologies to microgravity conditions presents opportunities for biotechnological applications including high efficiency production of antibody forming hybridomas. Because the emerging technology of microgravity hybridoma generation is dependent upon activation and cultivation of B lymphocytes during flight, mitogen-driven B lymphocyte stimulation and culture were adapted that allow for the in vitro generation of large numbers of antibody forming cells suitable for cell fusion over a period of 1-2 weeks. It is believed that this activation and cultivation system can be flown on near-term space flights to test fundamental hypotheses about mammalian cell activation, cell fusion, metabolism, secretion, growth, and bioseparation.

  9. Combustion Research Aboard the ISS Utilizing the Combustion Integrated Rack and Microgravity Science Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutliff, Thomas J.; Otero, Angel M.; Urban, David L.

    2002-01-01

    The Physical Sciences Research Program of NASA sponsors a broad suite of peer-reviewed research investigating fundamental combustion phenomena and applied combustion research topics. This research is performed through both ground-based and on-orbit research capabilities. The International Space Station (ISS) and two facilities, the Combustion Integrated Rack and the Microgravity Science Glovebox, are key elements in the execution of microgravity combustion flight research planned for the foreseeable future. This paper reviews the Microgravity Combustion Science research planned for the International Space Station implemented from 2003 through 2012. Examples of selected research topics, expected outcomes, and potential benefits will be provided. This paper also summarizes a multi-user hardware development approach, recapping the progress made in preparing these research hardware systems. Within the description of this approach, an operational strategy is presented that illustrates how utilization of constrained ISS resources may be maximized dynamically to increase science through design decisions made during hardware development.

  10. Cytoplasm-to-myonucleus ratios following microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasper, C. E.; Xun, L.

    1996-01-01

    The cytoplasmic volume-to-myonucleus ratio in the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius muscles of juvenile rats after 5.4 days of microgravity was studied. Three groups of rats (n = 8 each) were used. The experimental group (space rats) was flown aboard the space shuttle Discovery (NASA, STS-48), while two ground-based groups, one hindlimb suspended (suspended rats), one non-suspended (control), served as controls. Single fibre analysis revealed a significant decrease in cross-sectional area (microns2) in the gastrocnemius for both the space and the suspended rats; in the tibialis anterior only the suspended rats showed a significant decrease. Myonuclei counts (myonuclei per mm) in both the tibialis anterior and gastrocnemius were significantly increased in the space rats but not in the suspended rats. The mean myonuclear volume (individual nuclei: microns3) in tibialis anterior fibres from the space rats, and in gastrocnemius fibres from both the space and the suspended rats, was significantly lower than that in the respective control group. Estimation of the total myonuclear volume (microns3 per.mm), however, revealed no significant differences between the three groups in either the tibialis anterior or gastrocnemius. The described changes in the cross-sectional area and myonuclei numbers resulted in significant decreases in the cytoplasmic volume-to-myonucleus ratio (microns3 x 10(3)) in both muscles and for both space and suspended rats (tibialis anterior; 15.6 +/- 0.6 (space), 17.2 +/- 1.0 (suspended), 20.8 +/- 0.9 (control): gastrocnemius; 13.4 +/- 0.4 (space) and 14.9 +/- 1.1 (suspended) versus 18.1 +/- 1.1 (control)). These results indicate that even short periods of unweighting due to microgravity or limb suspension result in changes in skeletal muscle fibres which lead to significant decreases in the cytoplasmic volume-to-myonucleus ratio.

  11. Detection of the quantity of kinesin and microgravity-sensitive kinesin genes in rat bone marrow stromal cells grown in a simulated microgravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Chengzhi; Wang, Chunyan; Li, Yuan; Li, Yinghui; Dai, Zhongquan; Zhao, Dongming; Sun, Hongyi; Wu, Bin

    2011-06-01

    Kinesin and kinesin-like proteins (KLPs) constitute a superfamily of microtubule motor proteins found in all eukaryotic organisms. Members of the kinesin superfamily are known to play important roles in many fundamental cellular and developmental processes. To date, few published studies have reported on the effects of microgravity on kinesin expression. In this paper, we describe the expression pattern and microgravity-sensitive genes of kinesin in rat bone marrow stromal cells cultured in a ground-based rotating bioreactor. The quantity of kinesin under the clinorotation condition was examined by immunoblot analysis with anti-kinesin. Furthermore, the distribution of kinesin at various times during clinorotation was determined by dual immunostaining, using anti-kinesin monoclonal antibody or anti-β-tubulin monoclonal antibody. In terms of kinesin quantity, we found that the ratios of the amounts of clinorotated/stationary KLPs decreased from clinorotation day 5 to day 10, although it increased on days 2 and 3. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed that kinesin in the nucleus was the first to be affected by simulated microgravity, following the kinesin at the periphery that was affected at various times during clinorotation. Real-time RT-PCR analysis of kinesin mRNA expression was performed and led to the identification of 3 microgravity-sensitive kinesin genes: KIF9, KIFC1, and KIF21A. Our results suggest that kinesin has a distinct expression pattern, and the identification of microgravity-sensitive kinesin genes offers insight into fundamental cell biology.

  12. Rainfall Measurement with a Ground Based Dual Frequency Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Takahashi, Nobuhiro; Horie, Hiroaki; Meneghini, Robert

    1997-01-01

    Dual frequency methods are one of the most useful ways to estimate precise rainfall rates. However, there are some difficulties in applying this method to ground based radars because of the existence of a blind zone and possible error in the radar calibration. Because of these problems, supplemental observations such as rain gauges or satellite link estimates of path integrated attenuation (PIA) are needed. This study shows how to estimate rainfall rate with a ground based dual frequency radar with rain gauge and satellite link data. Applications of this method to stratiform rainfall is also shown. This method is compared with single wavelength method. Data were obtained from a dual frequency (10 GHz and 35 GHz) multiparameter radar radiometer built by the Communications Research Laboratory (CRL), Japan, and located at NASA/GSFC during the spring of 1997. Optical rain gauge (ORG) data and broadcasting satellite signal data near the radar t location were also utilized for the calculation.

  13. The WASP and NGTS ground-based transit surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheatley, P. J.

    2015-10-01

    I will review the current status of ground-based exoplanet transit surveys, using the Wide Angle Search for Planets (WASP) and the Next Generation Transit Survey (NGTS) as specific examples. I will describe the methods employed by these surveys and show how planets from Neptune to Jupiter-size are detected and confirmed around bright stars. I will also give an overview of the remarkably wide range of exoplanet characterization that is made possible with large-telescope follow up of these bright transiting systems. This characterization includes bulk composition and spin-orbit alignment, as well as atmospheric properties such as thermal structure, composition and dynamics. Finally, I will outline how ground-based photometric studies of transiting planets will evolve with the advent of new space-based surveys such as TESS and PLATO.

  14. Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Technology Roadmap

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, Leslie A.

    2014-01-13

    This GNDD Technology Roadmap is intended to provide guidance to potential researchers and help management define research priorities to achieve technology advancements for ground-based nuclear explosion monitoring science being pursued by the Ground-based Nuclear Detonation Detection (GNDD) Team within the Office of Nuclear Detonation Detection in the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Four science-based elements were selected to encompass the entire scope of nuclear monitoring research and development (R&D) necessary to facilitate breakthrough scientific results, as well as deliver impactful products. Promising future R&D is delineated including dual use associated with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). Important research themes as well as associated metrics are identified along with a progression of accomplishments, represented by a selected bibliography, that are precursors to major improvements to nuclear explosion monitoring.

  15. Clinical aspects of the control of plasma volume at microgravity and during return to one gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.

    1996-01-01

    Plasma volume is reduced by 10-20% within 24-48 h of exposure to simulated or actual microgravity. The clinical importance of microgravity induced hypovolemia is manifested by its relationship with orthostatic intolerance and reduced maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) after return to one gravity (1G). Since there is no evidence to suggest that plasma volume reduction during microgravity is associated with thirst or renal dysfunctions, a diuresis induced by an immediate blood volume shift to the central circulation appears responsible for microgravity-induced hypovolemia. Since most astronauts choose to restrict their fluid intake before a space mission, absence of increased urine output during actual space flight may be explained by low central venous pressure (CVP) which accompanies dehydration. Compelling evidence suggests that prolonged reduction in CVP during exposure to microgravity reflects a "resetting" to a lower operating point, which acts to limit plasma volume expansion during attempts to increase fluid intake. In ground based and space flight experiments, successful restoration and maintenance of plasma volume prior to returning to an upright posture may depend upon development of treatments that can return CVP to its baseline IG operating point. Fluid-loading and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) have not proved completely effective in restoring plasma volume, suggesting that they may not provide the stimulus to elevate the CVP operating point. On the other hand, exercise, which can chronically increase CVP, has been effective in expanding plasma volume when combined with adequate dietary intake of fluid and electrolytes. The success of designing experiments to understand the physiological mechanisms of and development of effective counter measures for the control of plasma volume in microgravity and during return to IG will depend upon testing that can be conducted under standardized controlled baseline conditions during both ground-based and space

  16. An infrared system for monitoring Drosophila motility during microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Mark S.; Fortney, Michael D.; Keller, Tony S.

    2002-01-01

    Presently, the precise mechanisms of the aging process are unknown. Examination and comprehension of the aging process in other species could lead to significant advances in the understanding of human aging. Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), commonly used for aging studies, is a widely studied organism in terms of behavior, development, and genetics. Previous microgravity experiments have shown a significant decrease in the life span of young male Drosophila after microgravity exposure. This decrease in lifespan may be related to locomotor activity, a convenient measure of overall physiological performance. This study describes the design and performance of a Drosophila Infrared Motility Monitoring System (DIMMS). The DIMMS uses a unique design of two infrared (IR) beams per fly to measure the locomotor activity of 240 flies. Locomotor activity is measured in terms of number of IR crossings per unit time, instantaneous velocity, and continuous velocity. Ground-based results using the DIMMS equipment agree well with previous values for Drosophila locomotor velocity. DIMMS is an improvement over equipment previously used due to its ability to continuously monitor locomotor activity throughout short-duration microgravity exposure. DIMMS is also lightweight, compact, and power efficient. DIMMS has been flight tested onboard NASA's KC-135 reduced gravity research aircraft and a Nike-Orion sounding rocket.

  17. An infrared system for monitoring Drosophila motility during microgravity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Mark S; Fortney, Michael D; Keller, Tony S

    2002-12-01

    Presently, the precise mechanisms of the aging process are unknown. Examination and comprehension of the aging process in other species could lead to significant advances in the understanding of human aging. Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly), commonly used for aging studies, is a widely studied organism in terms of behavior, development, and genetics. Previous microgravity experiments have shown a significant decrease in the life span of young male Drosophila after microgravity exposure. This decrease in lifespan may be related to locomotor activity, a convenient measure of overall physiological performance. This study describes the design and performance of a Drosophila Infrared Motility Monitoring System (DIMMS). The DIMMS uses a unique design of two infrared (IR) beams per fly to measure the locomotor activity of 240 flies. Locomotor activity is measured in terms of number of IR crossings per unit time, instantaneous velocity, and continuous velocity. Ground-based results using the DIMMS equipment agree well with previous values for Drosophila locomotor velocity. DIMMS is an improvement over equipment previously used due to its ability to continuously monitor locomotor activity throughout short-duration microgravity exposure. DIMMS is also lightweight, compact, and power efficient. DIMMS has been flight tested onboard NASA's KC-135 reduced gravity research aircraft and a Nike-Orion sounding rocket.

  18. Resistance to chemical disinfection under conditions of microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchin, George L.

    1998-01-01

    In unit gravity, bacteria and disinfecting resin beads co-sediment to the septum in a fluid processing apparatus (FPA) resulting in effective chemical disinfection. In microgravity bacteria in suspension have access to a larger volume of the FPA because of a lack of sedimentation. Further, when disinfecting resin beads are added to the FPA they also remain in suspension reducing their effective concentration. Typically, therefore, disinfection experiments in microgravity return larger numbers of viable bacteria than ground-based controls. Preliminary experiments aboard the MIR Space Station with Pseudomonas aeruginosa additionally suggest that the longer bacteria are retained in microgravity the more resistant they become to chemical disinfection. This phenomenon is probably due to additional time to develop resistant biofilms on the interior of the FPA. To partially solve these problems we have developed additional disinfecting materials to use in conjunction with polyiodide containing resin beads. One of these materials carbon beads coated with 3-trimethoxy silylpropyl dimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (Dow-Corning 5700®), acts synergistically with polyiodide resin disinfectants. Carbon beads so treated are still able to remove aqueous iodine from the water stream while providing an additional level of chemical disinfection. This additional capability prevents contamination of the carbon beads with heterotrophic bacteria and insures that bacteria surviving iodine disinfection are efficiently devitalized.

  19. 2-D Clinostat for Simulated Microgravity Experiments with Arabidopsis Seedlings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hui; Li, Xugang; Krause, Lars; Görög, Mark; Schüler, Oliver; Hauslage, Jens; Hemmersbach, Ruth; Kircher, Stefan; Lasok, Hanna; Haser, Thomas; Rapp, Katja; Schmidt, Jürgen; Yu, Xin; Pasternak, Taras; Aubry-Hivet, Dorothée; Tietz, Olaf; Dovzhenko, Alexander; Palme, Klaus; Ditengou, Franck Anicet

    2016-04-01

    Ground-based simulators of microgravity such as fast rotating 2-D clinostats are valuable tools to study gravity related processes. We describe here a versatile g-value-adjustable 2-D clinostat that is suitable for plant analysis. To avoid seedling adaptation to 1 g after clinorotation, we designed chambers that allow rapid fixation. A detailed protocol for fixation, RNA isolation and the analysis of selected genes is described. Using this clinostat we show that mRNA levels of LONG HYPOCOTYL 5 (HY5), MIZU-KUSSEI 1 (MIZ1) and microRNA MIR163 are down-regulated in 5-day-old Arabidopsis thaliana roots after 3 min and 6 min of clinorotation using a maximal reduced g-force of 0.02 g, hence demonstrating that this 2-D clinostat enables the characterization of early transcriptomic events during root response to microgravity. We further show that this 2-D clinostat is able to compensate the action of gravitational force as both gravitropic-dependent statolith sedimentation and subsequent auxin redistribution (monitoring D R5 r e v :: G F P reporter) are abolished when plants are clinorotated. Our results demonstrate that 2-D clinostats equipped with interchangeable growth chambers and tunable rotation velocity are suitable for studying how plants perceive and respond to simulated microgravity.

  20. Mechano-biological Coupling of Cellular Responses to Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Mian; Wang, Yuren; Zheng, Huiqiong; Shang, Peng; Duan, Enkui; Lü, Dongyuan

    2015-11-01

    Cellular response to microgravity is a basic issue in space biological sciences as well as space physiology and medicine. It is crucial to elucidate the mechano-biological coupling mechanisms of various biological organisms, since, from the principle of adaptability, all species evolved on the earth must possess the structure and function that adapts their living environment. As a basic element of an organism, a cell usually undergoes mechanical and chemical remodeling to sense, transmit, transduce, and respond to the alteration of gravitational signals. In the past decades, new computational platforms and experimental methods/techniques/devices are developed to mimic the biological effects of microgravity environment from the viewpoint of biomechanical approaches. Mechanobiology of plant gravisensing in the responses of statolith movements along the gravity vector and the relevant signal transduction and molecular regulatory mechanisms are investigated at gene, transcription, and protein levels. Mechanotransduction of bone or immune cell responses and stem cell development and tissue histogenesis are elucidated under microgravity. In this review, several important issues are briefly discussed. Future issues on gravisensing and mechanotransducing mechanisms are also proposed for ground-based studies as well as space missions.

  1. NASA Microgravity Materials Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, D. C. (Compiler); McCauley, D. E. (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Materials Science Conference was held July 14-16, 1998 at the Von Braun Center in Huntsville, AL. It was organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters, and hosted by the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the Alliance for Microgravity Materials Science and Applications. It was the third NASA conference of this type in the microgravity materials science discipline. The microgravity science program sponsored approximately 125 investigations and 100 principal investigators in FY98, almost all of whom made oral or poster presentations at this conference. The conference's purpose was to inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity in preparation for a NASA Research Announcement scheduled for release in late 1998 by the Microgravity Research Division at NASA Headquarters. The conference was aimed at materials science researchers from academia, industry, and government. A tour of the Marshall Space Flight Center microgravity research facilities was held on July 16, 1998. This volume is comprised of the research reports submitted by the principal investigators after the conference.

  2. Protein crystal growth in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    The overall scientific goals and rationale for growing protein crystals in microgravity are discussed. Data on the growth of human serum albumin crystals which were produced during the First International Microgravity Laboratory (IML-1) are presented. Potential scientific advantages of the utilization of Space Station Freedom are discussed.

  3. The Validation of Ground Based Ozone Measurements over Korea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, K. H.; Kim, J. H.; Herman, J. R.; Haffner, D. P.; Kim, J.

    2015-12-01

    The Validation of Ground Based Ozone Measurements over KoreaKorea will launch GEMS instrument in 2018 onboard the Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite to monitor tropospheric gas concentrations in both high temporal and spatial resolution. In order to utilize information from satellite, it is crucial to carry out validation of satellite data with respect to ground-based measurements because satellite retrievals suffer from large error. The purpose of this study is to examine the performance of total ozone measurements from Pandora, Brewer, and Dobson which will be used for validation of GEMS ozone product. Because single version of the satellite retrieval algorithm is used to process the entire data set for a given satellite instrument and satellite instrument characteristics are typically changing slowly, it is assumed that sudden jumps or large drifts in ground-satellite total ozone measurements difference for individual sites are commonly related to problems with ground-based measurements. Thereby, satellite measurements can be used to estimate the performance of the ground-based measurement network as well as to identify potential problems residing in individual station. As a reference of satellite ozone measurements, we have selected ozone data derived from OMI-TOMS V8.5 algorithm because it is a very robust algorithm that has well studied about various error sources such as the effects of aerosols and clouds, variation in shape of ozone profiles with season, latitude, and total ozone. For the future validation of GEMS measurements, Korea has planned to use Pandora measurement that has been started operating since 2012. However, Pandora measurements reported to have unusual high total column ozone in the presence of clouds from the comparison of Pandora with OMI total ozone during DISCOVERY-AQ campaign. In this study, we will analyze the Pandora measurements associated with cloud and introduce the statistical technique, Kalman Filter, to correct the

  4. Ground-Based Surveillance and Tracking System (GSTS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    SCHEDULE UNLIMITED 4. PERFORMING ORGANiZATION REPORT NUMBER (S) 5. MONITORING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER (S) 6a. NAME OF. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION 6h. OFFICE...8b. OFFICE SYMBOL 9. PROCUREMENT INSTRUMENT IDENTIFICATION NUMBER ORGANIZATION (If applicable) 8c. ADDRESS (City, State, and ZIP Code) 10. SOURCE OF...FUNDING NUMBERS PROGRAM PROJECT TASK WORK UNIT ELEMENT NO. NO. NO. ACCESSION NO. 11. TITLE (Include Security Classi6carion) Ground-Based Surveillance

  5. Assessment of Nutritional Intake During Space Flight and Space Flight Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, Barbara L.; Dlouhy, Holly; Zwart, Sara R.; Smith, Scott M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Maintaining adequate nutrient intake in microgravity is important not only to meet health maintenance needs of astronauts but also to help counteract the negative effects of space flight. Beyond this, food provides psychosocial benefits throughout a mission. Objective: The purpose of this presentation is to discuss dietary intake data from multiple space programs, including Space Shuttle and the International Space Station. Description: These data arise from medical monitoring of both dietary intake and crew health, as well as research protocols designed to assess the role of diet in counteracting bone loss and other health concerns. Ground-based studies are conducted to better understand some of the negative issues related to space flight. Examples of these analog studies are extended bed rest studies, vitamin D supplementation studies in Antarctica, and saturation diving missions on the floor of the ocean. Methods and findings will be presented describing the use of weighed records, diet diaries, and food frequency questionnaires in these various environments. Provision of food and nutrients in spaceflight is important for many body systems including cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, endocrine, immune, and others. Some key areas of concern are loss of body mass, bone and muscle loss, radiation exposure, nutrient intakes during spacewalks, depletion of nutrient stores, and inadequate dietary intake. Initial experimental research studies using food and nutrition as a countermeasure to aid in mitigating these concerns are underway. Conclusion: Beyond their importance for the few individuals leaving the planet, these studies have significant implications for those remaining on Earth.

  6. Ground-based lidar for atmospheric boundary layer ozone measurements.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Shi; Newchurch, Michael J; Burris, John; Liu, Xiong

    2013-05-20

    Ground-based lidars are suitable for long-term ozone monitoring as a complement to satellite and ozonesonde measurements. However, current ground-based lidars are unable to consistently measure ozone below 500 m above ground level (AGL) due to both engineering issues and high retrieval sensitivity to various measurement errors. In this paper, we present our instrument design, retrieval techniques, and preliminary results that focus on the high-temporal profiling of ozone within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) achieved by the addition of an inexpensive and compact mini-receiver to the previous system. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest, consistently achievable observation height has been extended down to 125 m AGL for a ground-based ozone lidar system. Both the analysis and preliminary measurements demonstrate that this lidar measures ozone with a precision generally better than ±10% at a temporal resolution of 10 min and a vertical resolution from 150 m at the bottom of the ABL to 550 m at the top. A measurement example from summertime shows that inhomogeneous ozone aloft was affected by both surface emissions and the evolution of ABL structures.

  7. Ground-Based Lidar for Atmospheric Boundary Layer Ozone Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuang, Shi; Newchurch, Michael J.; Burris, John; Liu, Xiong

    2013-01-01

    Ground-based lidars are suitable for long-term ozone monitoring as a complement to satellite and ozonesonde measurements. However, current ground-based lidars are unable to consistently measure ozone below 500 m above ground level (AGL) due to both engineering issues and high retrieval sensitivity to various measurement errors. In this paper, we present our instrument design, retrieval techniques, and preliminary results that focus on the high-temporal profiling of ozone within the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) achieved by the addition of an inexpensive and compact mini-receiver to the previous system. For the first time, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest, consistently achievable observation height has been extended down to 125 m AGL for a ground-based ozone lidar system. Both the analysis and preliminary measurements demonstrate that this lidar measures ozone with a precision generally better than 10% at a temporal resolution of 10 min and a vertical resolution from 150 m at the bottom of the ABL to 550 m at the top. A measurement example from summertime shows that inhomogeneous ozone aloft was affected by both surface emissions and the evolution of ABL structures.

  8. Pulmonary function in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guy, H. J.; Prisk, G. K.; West, J. B.

    1992-01-01

    We report the successful collection of a large quantity of human resting pulmonary function data on the SLS-1 mission. Preliminary analysis suggests that cardiac stroke volumes are high on orbit, and that an adaptive reduction takes at least several days, and in fact may still be in progress after 9 days on orbit. It also suggests that pulmonary capillary blood volumes are high, and remain high on orbit, but that the pulmonary interstitium is not significantly impacted. The data further suggest that the known large gravitational gradients of lung function have only a modest influence on single breath tests such as the SBN washout. They account for only approximately 25% of the phase III slope of nitrogen, on vital capacity SBN washouts. These gradients are only a moderate source of the cardiogenic oscillations seen in argon (bolus gas) and nitrogen (resident gas), on such tests. They may have a greater role in generating the normal CO2 oscillations, as here the phase relationship to argon and nitrogen reverses in microgravity, at least at mid exhalation in those subjects studied to date. Microgravity may become a useful tool in establishing the nature of the non-gravitational mechanisms that can now be seen to play such a large part in the generation of intra-breath gradients and oscillations of expired gas concentration. Analysis of microgravity multibreath nitrogen washouts, single breath washouts from more physiological pre-inspiratory volumes, both using our existing SLS-1 data, and data from the upcoming D-2 and SLS-2 missions, should be very fruitful in this regard.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  9. Countermeasures to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luttges, Marvin W.

    1989-01-01

    Biological systems ranging from the most simple to the most complex generally survive exposure to microgravity. Changes in many characteristics of biological systems are well documented as a consequence of space flight. Attempts to devise countermeasures to microgravity may have direct pragmatic consequences for crew protection and may provide additional insights into the nature of microgravity influences on biological systems. Some of the most well documented changes occur in humans who have experienced space flight. Changes appear to be transient. Space adaption syndrome occurs relatively briefly whereas bone deterioration may require months of postflight time for restoration. It seems critical to recognize that these changes and others may derive from rather passive, active or even reactive changes in the biological systems that are hosts to them. For example, hydrostatic fluid redistributions may be quite passive occurrences that are realized through extensive fluid channels. Changes occur in cell metabolism because of fluid, nutrient and gas redistributions. Equally important are the misconstrued messages likely to be carried by fluid redistributions. These reactive events can trigger, for example, loss of fluids and electrolytes through altered kidney function. Each of these considerations must be evaluated in regard to the biological site affected. Countermeasures to the vast range of biological changes and sites are difficult to envision. The most obvious countermeasure is the restoration of gravity-like influences. Some options are discussed. Recent work has focussed on the use of magnetic fields. Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) are shown to alleviate bone deterioration produced in rodents exposed to tail suspension. Methods of PEMF exposure are consistent with human use in space. Related methods may provide muscular and neural benefits.

  10. Electrocrystallization in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    May, C. E.

    1986-01-01

    Electrocrystallization under microgravity conditions is proposed as a potential method of crystallization that would be almost completely free of fluid convection. Such crystallization may result in purer, more perfect, and larger crystals than is possible under normal gravity conditions. Observations made and data collected during the crystallization process under convection-free conditions should add to our knowledge of the crystallization process. The proposed method would allow easy comparison of crystals growth in space with those grown under normal gravity conditions. Nine types of electrocrystallization are presented: an example of each is discussed. Electrocrystallization is compared with the compartmental crystallization method used by 3M Corporation in recent shuttle experiments.

  11. Microgravity and Macromolecular Crystallography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundrot, Craig E.; Judge, Russell A.; Pusey, Marc L.; Snell, Edward H.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Macromolecular crystal growth has been seen as an ideal experiment to make use of the reduced acceleration environment provided by an orbiting spacecraft. The experiments are small, simply operated and have a high potential scientific and economic impact. In this review we examine the theoretical reasons why microgravity should be a beneficial environment for crystal growth and survey the history of experiments on the Space Shuttle Orbiter, on unmanned spacecraft, and on the Mir space station. Finally we outline the direction for optimizing the future use of orbiting platforms.

  12. Activation of nuclear transcription factor-kappaB in mouse brain induced by a simulated microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wise, Kimberly C.; Manna, Sunil K.; Yamauchi, Keiko; Ramesh, Vani; Wilson, Bobby L.; Thomas, Renard L.; Sarkar, Shubhashish; Kulkarni, Anil D.; Pellis, Neil R.; Ramesh, Govindarajan T.

    2005-01-01

    Microgravity induces inflammatory responses and modulates immune functions that may increase oxidative stress. Exposure to a microgravity environment induces adverse neurological effects; however, there is little research exploring the etiology of these effects resulting from exposure to such an environment. It is also known that spaceflight is associated with increase in oxidative stress; however, this phenomenon has not been reproduced in land-based simulated microgravity models. In this study, an attempt has been made to show the induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mice brain, using ground-based microgravity simulator. Increased ROS was observed in brain stem and frontal cortex with concomitant decrease in glutathione, on exposing mice to simulated microgravity for 7 d. Oxidative stress-induced activation of nuclear factor-kappaB was observed in all the regions of the brain. Moreover, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase was phosphorylated equally in all regions of the brain exposed to simulated microgravity. These results suggest that exposure of brain to simulated microgravity can induce expression of certain transcription factors, and these have been earlier argued to be oxidative stress dependent.

  13. Effects of short-term exposure to head-down tilt on cerebral hemodynamics: a prospective evaluation of a spaceflight analog using phase-contrast MRI

    PubMed Central

    Ambarki, Khalid; Eklund, Anders; Malm, Jan; Mulder, Edwin; Gerlach, Darius; Rittweger, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Alterations in cerebral hemodynamics in microgravity are hypothesized to occur during spaceflight and could be linked to the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure syndrome. Head-down tilt (HDT) is frequently used as a ground-based analog to simulate cephalad fluid shifts in microgravity; however, its effects on cerebral hemodynamics have not been well studied with MRI techniques. Here, we evaluate the effects of 1) various HDT angles on cerebral arterial and venous hemodynamics; and 2) exposure to 1% CO2 during an intermediate HDT angle (−12°) as an additional space-related environmental factor. Blood flow, cross-sectional area (CSA), and blood flow velocity were measured with phase-contrast MRI in the internal jugular veins, as well as the vertebral and internal carotid arteries. Nine healthy male subjects were measured at baseline (supine, 0°) and after 4.5 h of HDT at −6°, −12° (with and without 1% CO2), and −18°. We found a decrease in total arterial blood flow from baseline during all angles of HDT. On the venous side, CSA increased with HDT, and outflow decreased during −12° HDT (P = 0.039). Moreover, the addition of 1% CO2 to −12° HDT caused an increase in total arterial blood flow (P = 0.016) and jugular venous outflow (P < 0.001) compared with −12° HDT with ambient atmosphere. Overall, the results indicate decreased cerebral blood flow during HDT, which may have implications for microgravity-induced cerebral hemodynamic changes. PMID:27013606

  14. Microgravity liquid propellant management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hung, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The requirement to settle or to position liquid fluid over the outlet end of a spacecraft propellant tank prior to main engine restart, poses a microgravity fluid behavior problem. Resettlement or reorientation of liquid propellant can be accomplished by providing optimal acceleration to the spacecraft such that the propellant is reoriented over the tank outlet without any vapor entrainment, any excessive geysering, or any other undersirable fluid motion for the space fluid management under microgravity environment. The most efficient technique is studied for propellant resettling through the minimization of propellant usage and weight penalties. Both full scale and subscale liquid propellant tank of Space Transfer Vehicle were used to simulate flow profiles for liquid hydrogen reorientation over the tank outlet. In subscale simulation, both constant and impulsive resettling acceleration were used to simulate the liquid flow reorientation. Comparisons between the constant reverse gravity acceleration and impulsive reverse gravity acceleration to be used for activation of propellant resettlement shows that impulsive reverse gravity thrust is superior to constant reverse gravity thrust.

  15. Supercritical microgravity droplet vaporization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartfield, J.; Curtis, E.; Farrell, P.

    1990-01-01

    Supercritical droplet vaporization is an important issue in many combustion systems, such as liquid fueled rockets and compression-ignition (diesel) engines. In order to study the details of droplet behavior at these conditions, an experiment was designed to provide a gas phase environment which is above the critical pressure and critical temperature of a single liquid droplet. In general, the droplet begins as a cold droplet in the hot, high pressure environment. In order to eliminate disruptions to the droplet by convective motion in the gas, forced and natural convection gas motion are required to be small. Implementation of this requirement for forced convection is straightforward, while reduction of natural convection is achieved by reduction in the g-level for the experiment. The resulting experiment consists of a rig which can stably position a droplet without restraint in a high-pressure, high temperature gas field in microgravity. The microgravity field is currently achieved by dropping the device in the NASA Lewis 2.2 second drop tower. The performance of the experimental device and results to date are presented.

  16. Analog earthquakes

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, R.B.

    1995-09-01

    Analogs are used to understand complex or poorly understood phenomena for which little data may be available at the actual repository site. Earthquakes are complex phenomena, and they can have a large number of effects on the natural system, as well as on engineered structures. Instrumental data close to the source of large earthquakes are rarely obtained. The rare events for which measurements are available may be used, with modfications, as analogs for potential large earthquakes at sites where no earthquake data are available. In the following, several examples of nuclear reactor and liquified natural gas facility siting are discussed. A potential use of analog earthquakes is proposed for a high-level nuclear waste (HLW) repository.

  17. Straight Ahead in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clement, G.; Wood, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The subjective straight-ahead direction is a very basic perceptual reference for spatial orientation and locomotion. The perceived straight-ahead along the horizontal and vertical meridian is largely determined by both otolith and somatosensory inputs which are altered in microgravity. The Straight Ahead in Microgravity (SAM) experiment will be conducted on the International Space Station (ISS) to examine how this spatial processing changes as a function of spaceflight. METHODS Data will be collected before the flight, at one-month intervals during long-duration stay (180 days) on board ISS, and after return to Earth. Control studies will also be performed during parabolic flights. Three different protocols will be used in each test session: (1) Fixation: The subject will be asked to look at actual targets (normal vision) and then to imagine these same targets (occluded vision) in the straight-ahead direction. Targets will be located at near distance (arm s length, 0.5m), medium distance (1 m), and far distance (beyond 2 m). This task will be successively performed with subject s body aligned with the spacecraft interior, and with subject s body tilted forward and backward by an operator. (2) Saccades: The subject will be asked to make horizontal and vertical saccades, first relative to the spacecraft interior reference system, and then relative to the subject s head reference system. This task will be successively performed with subject s body aligned with the spacecraft interior, and with subject s body tilted in roll or in pitch by an operator. (3) Linear Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR): The subject will be asked to stare at actual visual targets (normal vision) at various distances (near, medium, far) in the straight-ahead direction. Vision will then be occluded, and the subject will be asked to continue staring at the same imagined targets while he/she is passively translated forward-backward, up-down, or side-to-side. The subject's body motion will

  18. Development of ground-based ELF/VLF receiver system in Wuhan and its first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanping; Yang, Guobin; Ni, Binbin; Zhao, Zhengyu; Gu, Xudong; Zhou, Chen; Wang, Feng

    2016-05-01

    A new digital low-frequency receiver system has been developed at Wuhan University for sensitive reception of low-latitude broadband Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and Very Low Frequency (VLF) radio waves originating from either natural or artificial sources. These low-frequency radio waves are useful for ionospheric remote sensing, geospace environment monitoring, and submarine communications. This paper presents the principle and architecture of the system framework, including magnetic loop antenna design, low-noise analog front-end and digital receiver with data sampling and transmission. A new structure is adopted in the analog front end to provide high common-mode rejection and to reduce interference. On basis of field programmable gate array (FPGA) device and Universal Serial Bus (USB) architecture, the digital receiver is developed along with time keeping and synchronization module. The validity and feasibility of the self-developed ground-based ELF/VLF receiver system is evaluated by first results of experimental data that show the temporal variation of broadband ELF/VLF wave spectral intensity in Wuhan (30.54 °N, 114.37 °E). In addition to the acquisition of VLF transmitter signals at various frequencies, tweek atmospherics are also clearly captured to occur at multiple modes up to n = 6.

  19. Implications of otoconial changes in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Muriel D.

    1987-01-01

    Otoconia of maculas of Sprague-Dawley rats (Taconic Farms) flown aboard Spacelab-3 showed no signs of demineralization. Other findings were accumulations of miniature otoconia at the lateral border of utricular patches and a smoothing of surfaces of saccular otoconia. These features were not observed in age- and weight-matched ground controls. Subsequent study showed otoconial asymmetry to be normal in this strain. Further research in space, taking this into account, is clearly required. Findings of ground-based studies would suggest that neural structures of maculas are adaptable to microgravity but might show changes over time. Moreover, maculas have the potential for integration of the sort ascribed to brain and retina, although on a less complex scale. They may act as comparators, and asymmetry may be an important property. Coordinated studies in space and on the ground could lead to new understanding of how maculas function and adapt to new acceleratory environments; and to insights about the functioning of neural tissue in general.

  20. Sleep and Respiration in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, John B.; Elliott, Ann R.; Prisk, G. Kim; Paiva, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Sleep is often reported to be of poor quality in microgravity, and studies on the ground have shown a strong relationship between sleep-disordered breathing and sleep disruption. During the 16-day Neurolab mission, we studied the influence of possible changes in respiratory function on sleep by performing comprehensive sleep recordings on the payload crew on four nights during the mission. In addition, we measured the changes in the ventilatory response to low oxygen and high carbon dioxide in the same subjects during the day, hypothesizing that changes in ventilatory control might affect respiration during sleep. Microgravity caused a large reduction in the ventilatory response to reduced oxygen. This is likely the result of an increase in blood pressure at the peripheral chemoreceptors in the neck that occurs when the normally present hydrostatic pressure gradient between the heart and upper body is abolished. This reduction was similar to that seen when the subjects were placed acutely in the supine position in one-G. In sharp contrast to low oxygen, the ventilatory response to elevated carbon dioxide was unaltered by microgravity or the supine position. Because of the similarities of the findings in microgravity and the supine position, it is unlikely that changes in ventilatory control alter respiration during sleep in microgravity. During sleep on the ground, there were a small number of apneas (cessation of breathing) and hypopneas (reduced breathing) in these normal subjects. During sleep in microgravity, there was a reduction in the number of apneas and hypopneas per hour compared to preflight. Obstructive apneas virtually disappeared in microgravity, suggesting that the removal of gravity prevents the collapse of upper airways during sleep. Arousals from sleep were reduced in microgravity compared to preflight, and virtually all of this reduction was as a result of a reduction in the number of arousals from apneas and hypopneas. We conclude that any sleep

  1. Space flight nutrition research: platforms and analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Uchakin, Peter N.; Tobin, Brian W.

    2002-01-01

    Conducting research during actual or simulated weightlessness is a challenging endeavor, where even the simplest activities may present significant challenges. This article reviews some of the potential obstacles associated with performing research during space flight and offers brief descriptions of current and previous space research platforms and ground-based analogs, including those for human, animal, and cell-based research. This review is intended to highlight the main issues of space flight research analogs and leave the specifics for each physiologic system for the other papers in this section.

  2. Ground-based observations of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snodgrass, C.

    2015-10-01

    I will described the campaign of observations from ground-based (and Earth orbiting) telescopes that supports the Rosetta mission. Rosetta gets closer to the nucleus than any previous mission, and returns wonderfully detailed measurements from the heart of the comet, but at the cost of not seeing the large scale coma and tails. The ground-based campaign fills in the missing part of the picture, studying the comet at #1000km resolution, and following how the overall activity of the comet varies. These data provide context information for Rosetta, so changes in the inner coma seen by the spacecraft can be correlated with the phenomena observable in comets. This not only helps to complete our understanding of the activity of 67P, but also allows us to compare it with other comets that are only observed from the ground, and in that way extend the results of the Rosetta mission to the wider population. The ground-based campaign includes observations with nearly all major facilities world-wide. In 2014 the majority of data came from the ESO VLT, as the comet was still relatively faint and in Southern skies, but as it returns to visibility from Earth in 2015 it will be considerably brighter, approaching its perihelion in August, and at Northern declinations. I will show results from the 2014 campaign, including visible wavelength photometry and spectroscopy, and the latest results from early 2015 observations. I will also describe the varied observations that will be included in the campaign post-perihelion, and how all of these results fit around what we are learning about 67P from Rosetta.

  3. Augmenting WFIRST Microlensing with a Ground-Based Telescope Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Gould, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    Augmenting the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) microlensing campaigns with intensive observations from a ground-based network of wide-field survey telescopes would have several major advantages. First, it would enable full two-dimensional (2-D) vector microlens parallax measurements for a substantial fraction of low-mass lenses as well as planetary and binary events that show caustic crossing features. For a significant fraction of the free-floating planet (FFP) events and all caustic-crossing planetary/binary events, these 2-D parallax measurements directly lead to complete solutions (mass, distance, transverse velocity) of the lens object (or lens system). For even more events, the complementary ground-based observations will yield 1-D parallax measurements. Together with the 1-D parallaxes from WFIRST alone, they can probe the entire mass range M > M_Earth. For luminous lenses, such 1-D parallax measurements can be promoted to complete solutions (mass, distance, transverse velocity) by high-resolution imaging. This would provide crucial information not only about the hosts of planets and other lenses, but also enable a much more precise Galactic model. Other benefits of such a survey include improved understanding of binaries (particularly with low mass primaries), and sensitivity to distant ice-giant and gas-giant companions of WFIRST lenses that cannot be detected by WFIRST itself due to its restricted observing windows. Existing ground-based microlensing surveys can be employed if WFIRST is pointed at lower-extinction fields than is currently envisaged. This would come at some cost to the event rate. Therefore the benefits of improved characterization of lenses must be weighed against these costs.

  4. Confocal microscopy in microgravity research.

    PubMed

    Goede, A P; Brakenhoff, G J; Woldringh, C L; Aalders, J W; Imhof, J P; van Kralingen, P; Mels, W A; Schreinemakers, P; Zegers, A

    1992-01-01

    We have studied the application and the feasibility of confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) in microgravity research. Its superior spatial resolution and 3D imaging capabilities and its use of light as a probe, render this instrument ideally suited for the study of living biological material on a (sub-)cellular level. In this paper a number of pertinent biological microgravity experiments is listed, concentrating on the direct observation of developing cells and cellular structures under microgravity condition. A conceptual instrument design is also presented, aimed at sounding rocket application followed by Biorack/Biolab application at a later stage.

  5. Dendritic Growth Velocities in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glicksman, M. E.; Koss, M. B.; Winsa, E. A.

    1994-01-01

    We measured dendritic tip velocities in pure succinonitrile (SCN) in microgravity. using a sequence of telemetered binary images sent to Earth from the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-62). Growth velocities were measured as a function of the supercooling over the range 0.05-1.5 K. Microgravity observations show that buoyancy-induced convection alters the growth kinetics of SCN dendrites at supercooling as high as 1.3 K. Also, the dendrite velocity data measured under microgravity agree well with the Ivantsov paraboloidal diffusion solution when coupled to a scaling constant of sigma(sup *) = 0.0157.

  6. Research on target accuracy for ground-based lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ling; Shi, Ruoming

    2009-05-01

    In ground based Lidar system, the targets are used in the process of registration, georeferencing for point cloud, and also can be used as check points. Generally, the accuracy of capturing the flat target center is influenced by scanning range and scanning angle. In this research, the experiments are designed to extract accuracy index of the target center with 0-90°scan angles and 100-195 meter scan ranges using a Leica HDS3000 laser scanner. The data of the experiments are listed in detail and the related results are analyzed.

  7. Ground-based observations and AD HOC models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ground based observations of B stars in the visible, the infrared, and the radio region are described along with the ad hoc models proposed to interpret them. It is shown that these observations refer essentially to the photosphere and to the regions of the outer atmosphere where the gas is cool and at low velocity. The characteristics of the variability of the continuous and line spectrum are examined in general and in the cases of individual stars. Finally, linear polarization in the B stars is discussed.

  8. Sky type discrimination using a ground-based sun photometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeFelice, Thomas P.; Wylie, Bruce K.

    2001-01-01

    A 2-year feasibility study was conducted at the USGS EROS Data Center, South Dakota (43.733°N, 96.6167°W) to assess whether a four-band, ground-based, sun photometer could be used to discriminate sky types. The results indicate that unique spectral signatures do exist between sunny skies (including clear and hazy skies) and cirrus, and cirrostratus, altocumulus or fair-weather cumulus, and thin stratocumulus or altostratus, and fog/fractostratus skies. There were insufficient data points to represent other cloud types at a statistically significant level.

  9. The GROUnd-based Secondary Eclipse project - GROUSE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Mooij, Ernst; de Kok, Remco; Nefs, Bas; Brogi, Matteo; Snellen, Ignas

    2011-11-01

    Secondary eclipse observations of exoplanets at near-infrared wavelengths are important to constrain the energy budgets of hot-Jupiters, since they probe the radiation from the planet's atmosphere at the peak of the spectral energy distribution. Since this wavelength range is accesible from the ground, we have started the GROUnd-based Secondary Eclipse (GROUSE) project. As part of the GROUSE project, we target a sample of hot-Jupiters at near-infrared and optical wavelengths. Planets include TrES-3b, HAT-P-1, WASP-18b and WASP-33b.

  10. Recent Improvements in AMSR2 Ground-Based RFI Filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, J. P.; Gentemann, C. L.; Wentz, F. J.

    2015-12-01

    Passive satellite radiometer measurements in the microwave frequencies (6-89 GHz) are useful in providing geophysical retrievals of sea surface temperature (SST), atmospheric water vapor, wind speed, rain rate, and more. However, radio frequency interference (RFI) is one of the fastest growing sources of error in these retrievals. RFI can originate from broadcasting satellites, as well as from ground-based instrumentation that makes use of the microwave range. The microwave channel bandwidths used by passive satellite radiometers are often wider than the protected bands allocated for this type of remote sensing, a common practice in microwave radiometer design used to reduce the effect of instrument noise in the observed signal. However, broad channel bandwidths allow greater opportunity for RFI to affect these observations and retrievals. For ground-based RFI, a signal is broadcast directly into the atmosphere which may interfere with the radiometer - its antenna, cold mirror, hot load or the internal workings of the radiometer itself. It is relatively easy to identify and flag RFI from large sources, but more difficult to do so from small, sporadic sources. Ground-based RFI has high spatial and temporal variability, requiring constant, automated detection and removal to avoid spurious trends leaching into the geophysical retrievals. Ascension Island in the South Atlantic Ocean has been one of these notorious ground-based RFI sources, affecting many microwave radiometers, including the AMSR2 radiometer onboard JAXA's GCOM-W1 satellite. Ascension Island RFI mainly affects AMSR2's lower frequency channels (6.9, 7.3, and 10.65 GHz) over a broad spatial region in the South Atlantic Ocean, which makes it challenging to detect and flag this RFI using conventional channel and geophysical retrieval differencing techniques. The authors have developed a new method of using the radiometer's earth counts and hot counts, for the affected channels, to detect an Ascension Island

  11. Microgravity Science and Applications: Program Tasks and Bibliography for Fiscal Year 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    NASA's Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) sponsors a program that expands the use of space as a laboratory for the study of important physical, chemical, and biochemical processes. The primary objective of the program is to broaden the value and capabilities of human presence in space by exploiting the unique characteristics of the space environment for research. However, since flight opportunities are rare and flight research development is expensive, a vigorous ground-based research program, from which only the best experiments evolve, is critical to the continuing strength of the program. The microgravity environment affords unique characteristics that allow the investigation of phenomena and processes that are difficult or impossible to study an Earth. The ability to control gravitational effects such as buoyancy driven convection, sedimentation, and hydrostatic pressures make it possible to isolate phenomena and make measurements that have significantly greater accuracy than can be achieved in normal gravity. Space flight gives scientists the opportunity to study the fundamental states of physical matter-solids, liquids and gasses-and the forces that affect those states. Because the orbital environment allows the treatment of gravity as a variable, research in microgravity leads to a greater fundamental understanding of the influence of gravity on the world around us. With appropriate emphasis, the results of space experiments lead to both knowledge and technological advances that have direct applications on Earth. Microgravity research also provides the practical knowledge essential to the development of future space systems. The Office of Life and Microgravity Sciences and Applications (OLMSA) is responsible for planning and executing research stimulated by the Agency's broad scientific goals. OLMSA's Microgravity Science and Applications Division (MSAD) is responsible for guiding and focusing a comprehensive program, and currently manages

  12. The NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program: Research Plans for the ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, Fred J.; Singh, Bhim S.; Shaw, Nancy J.; Chiaramonte, Francis P.

    2003-01-01

    Building on over four decades of research and technology development related to the behavior of fluids in low gravity environments, the current NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program continues the quest for knowledge to further understand and design better fluids systems for use on earth and in space. NASA's Biological and Physical Research Enterprise seeks to exploit the space environment to conduct research supporting human exploration of space (strategic research), research of intrinsic scientific importance and impact (fundamental research), and commercial research. The strategic research thrust will build the vital knowledge base needed to enable NASA's mission to explore the Universe and search for life. There are currently five major research areas in the Microgravity Fluid Physics Program: complex fluids, niultiphase flows and phase change, interfacial phenomena, biofluid mechanics, and dynamics and instabilities. Numerous investigations into these areas are being conducted in both ground-based laboratories and facilities and in the flight experiments program. Most of the future NASA- sponsored flight experiments in microgravity fluid physics and transport phenomena will be carried out on the International Space Station (ISS) in the Fluids Integrated Rack (FIR), in the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG), in EXPRESS racks, and in other facilities provided by international partners. This paper presents an overview of the near- and long-term visions for NASA's Microgravity Fluid Physics Research Program and brief descriptions of hardware systems planned to enable this research.

  13. Spindle structure and function changes of the human cells after simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yu; Wei, Lijun; Qi, Jing; Yan, Xing; Wang, Hongying; Feng, Hui; Yue, Lei; Zhang, Yao

    The main induce factors of the space environment are sustaining microgravity and ionizing radiation which can influence cell structure and function. In this study, for investigating the damage to human proliferation cells under microgravity effects, human osteosarcoma cell lines (MG-63 and U-2 OS) and peripheral blood lymphocytes were analyzed after ground-based simulated microgravity effect with clinostat. The present results showed that under the simu-lated microgravity effect for 72 hours the cytoskeleton both in human osteosarcoma cell lines and peripheral blood lymphocytes were in disorder and the spindle structure changed. The multiple polar spindle rates in human osteosarcoma cell lines MG-63 and U-2 OS increased in a linear relationship with simulated microgravity hours (0 to 96 hours). The mitotic index increased in human osteosarcoma cell lines MG-63 and U-2 OS, while decreased in human pe-ripheral blood lymphocytes. And the cell cycle of MG-63 arrest at G2/M phase. The mode number of chromosomes also varied in MG-63, while the chromosome number of human periph-eral blood lymphocytes didn't show significant difference. The Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blot showed that the spindle assembly checkpoint protein MAD2 and BUB1 in MG-63 and U-2 OS changed with the spindle structure change and chromosome number change.

  14. Noninvasive pulse transit time measurement for arterial stiffness monitoring in microgravity.

    PubMed

    McCall, Corey; Rostosky, Rea; Wiard, Richard M; Inan, Omer T; Giovangrandi, Laurent; Cuttino, Charles Marsh; Kovacs, Gregory T A

    2015-01-01

    The use of a noninvasive hemodynamic monitor to estimate arterial stiffness, by measurement of pulse transit time (PTT), was demonstrated in microgravity. The monitor's utility for space applications was shown by establishing the correlation between ground-based and microgravity-based measurements. The system consists of a scale-based ballistocardiogram (BCG) and a toe-mounted photoplethysmogram (PPG). PTT was measured from the BCG I-wave to the intersecting tangents of the first trough and maximum first derivative of the PPG waveforms of each subject. The system was tested on a recent series of parabolic flights in which the PTT of nine subjects was measured on the ground and in microgravity. An average of 60.2 ms PTT increase from ground to microgravity environments was shown, and was consistent across all test subjects (standard deviation = 32.9 ms). This increase in PTT could be explained by a number of factors associated with microgravity and reported in previous research, including elimination of hydrostatic pressure, reduction of intrathoracic pressure, and reduction of mean arterial pressure induced by vasodilation.

  15. A Critical Assessment of Protein Crystal Growth in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pusey, Marc

    1997-01-01

    Experiments to grow higher diffraction quality protein crystals in the microgravity environment of an orbiting spacecraft are one of the most frequently flown space experiments. Ground-based research has shown that convective flows occur even about protein crystals growing in the Earth's gravitational field. Further, this research has shown that the resultant flow velocities can cause growth cessation, and probably affect the measured X-ray data quality obtained. How flow deleteriously affects protein crystal growth (PCG) is still not known, and is the subject of ongoing research. Failing a rational method for ameliorating flow effects on Earth, one can, through NASA and other nations space agency sponsored programs, carry out protein crystal growth in the microgravity environment of an orbiting spacecraft. Early first generation PCG hardware was characterized by a very low success rate and a steep design learning curve. Subsequent hardware designs have improved upon their predecessors. Now the crystal grower has a wide variety of hardware configurations and crystal growth protocols to choose from, many of which implement "standard" laboratory protein crystal growth methods. While many of these are first or early second generation hardware the success rate, defined as growing crystals giving data better than has been obtained on Earth, is at least 20% overall and may be considerably higher if one only considers latter experiments. There are a large number of protein crystals grown every year, with hundreds of structures determined. Those crystallized in microgravity represent a small proportion of this total, and there is concern that the costs of the microgravity PCG program(s) do not justify such limited returns. Empirical evidence suggests that optimum crystal growth conditions in microgravity differ from those determined on Earth, further exacerbating the chances of success. Microgravity PCG is probably best suited for "mature" crystallizations, where one has

  16. Straight Ahead in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, S. J.; Vanya, R. D.; Clement, G.

    2014-01-01

    This joint ESA-NASA study will address adaptive changes in spatial orientation related to the subjective straight ahead, and the use of a vibrotactile sensory aid to reduce perceptual errors. The study will be conducted before and after long-duration expeditions to the International Space Station (ISS) to examine how spatial processing of target location is altered following exposure to microgravity. This project specifically addresses the sensorimotor research gap "What are the changes in sensorimotor function over the course of a mission?" Six ISS crewmembers will be requested to participate in three preflight sessions (between 120 and 60 days prior to launch) and then three postflight sessions on R+0/1 day, R+4 +/-2 days, and R+8 +/-2 days. The three specific aims include: (a) fixation of actual and imagined target locations at different distances; (b) directed eye and arm movements along different spatial reference frames; and (c) the vestibulo-ocular reflex during translation motion with fixation targets at different distances. These measures will be compared between upright and tilted conditions. Measures will then be compared with and without a vibrotactile sensory aid that indicates how far one has tilted relative to the straight-ahead direction. The flight study was been approved by the medical review boards and will be implemented in the upcoming Informed Crew Briefings to solicit flight subject participation. Preliminary data has been recorded on 6 subjects during parabolic flight to examine the spatial coding of eye movements during roll tilt relative to perceived orientations while free-floating during the microgravity phase of parabolic flight or during head tilt in normal gravity. Binocular videographic recordings obtained in darkness allowed us to quantify the mean deviations in gaze trajectories along both horizontal and vertical coordinates relative to the aircraft and head orientations. During some parabolas, a vibrotactile sensory aid provided

  17. Microgravity silicon zoning investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kern, E. L.; Gill, G. L., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The flow instabilities in floating zones of silicon were investigated and methods for investigation of these instabilities in microgravity were defined. Three principal tasks were involved: (1) characterization of the float zone in small diameter rods; (2) investigation of melt flow instabilities in circular melts in silicon disks; and (3) the development of a prototype of an apparatus that could be used in near term space experiments to investigate flow instabilities in a molten zone. It is shown that in a resistance heated zoner with 4 to 7 mm diameter silicon rods that the critical Marangoni number is about 1480 compared to a predicted value of 14 indicative that viable space experiments might be performed. The prototype float zone apparatus is built and specifications are prepared for a flight zoner should a decision be reached to proceed with a space flight experimental investigation.

  18. Cavitation studies in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobel, Philippe; Obreschkow, Danail; Farhat, Mohamed; Dorsaz, Nicolas; de Bosset, Aurele

    The hydrodynamic cavitation phenomenon is a major source of erosion for many industrial systems such as cryogenic pumps for rocket propulsion, fast ship propellers, hydraulic pipelines and turbines. Erosive processes are associated with liquid jets and shockwaves emission fol-lowing the cavity collapse. Yet, fundamental understanding of these processes requires further cavitation studies inside various geometries of liquid volumes, as the bubble dynamics strongly depends the surrounding pressure field. To this end, microgravity represents a unique platform to produce spherical fluid geometries and remove the hydrostatic pressure gradient induced by gravity. The goal of our first experiment (flown on ESA's parabolic flight campaigns 2005 and 2006) was to study single bubble dynamics inside large spherical water drops (having a radius between 8 and 13 mm) produced in microgravity. The water drops were created by a micro-pump that smoothly expelled the liquid through a custom-designed injector tube. Then, the cavitation bubble was generated through a fast electrical discharge between two electrodes immersed in the liquid from above. High-speed imaging allowed to analyze the implications of isolated finite volumes and spherical free surfaces on bubble evolution, liquid jets formation and shock wave dynamics. Of particular interest are the following results: (A) Bubble lifetimes are shorter than in extended liquid volumes, which could be explain by deriving novel corrective terms to the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. (B) Transient crowds of micro-bubbles (smaller than 1mm) appeared at the instants of shockwaves emission. A comparison between high-speed visualizations and 3D N-particle simulations of a shock front inside a liquid sphere reveals that focus zones within the drop lead to a significantly increased density of induced cavitation. Considering shock wave crossing and focusing may hence prove crucially useful to understand the important process of cavitation erosion

  19. First International Microgravity Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahan, Tracy; Shea, Charlotte; Wiginton, Margaret; Neal, Valerie; Gately, Michele; Hunt, Lila; Graben, Jean; Tiderman, Julie; Accardi, Denise

    1990-01-01

    This colorful booklet presents capsule information on every aspect of the International Microgravity Laboratory (IML). As part of Spacelab, IML is divided into Life Science Experiments and Materials Science Experiments. Because the life and materials sciences use different Spacelab resources, they are logically paired on the IML missions. Life science investigations generally require significant crew involvement, and crew members often participate as test subjects or operators. Materials missions capitalize on these complementary experiments. International cooperation consists in participation by the European Space Agency, Canada, France, Germany, and Japan who are all partners in developing hardware and experiments of IML missions. IML experiments are crucial to future space ventures, like the development of Space Station Freedom, the establishment of lunar colonies, and the exploration of other planets. Principal investigators are identified for each experiment.

  20. Microgravity Science Glovebox

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    Computer-generated drawing shows the relative scale and working space for the Microgravity Science Glovebox (MSG) being developed by NASA and the European Space Agency for science experiments aboard the International Space Station (ISS). The person at the glovebox repesents a 95th percentile American male. The MSG will be deployed first to the Destiny laboratory module and later will be moved to ESA's Columbus Attached Payload Module. Each module will be filled with International Standard Payload Racks (green) attached to standoff fittings (yellow) that hold the racks in position. Destiny is six racks in length. The MSG is being developed by the European Space Agency and NASA to provide a large working volume for hands-on experiments aboard the International Space Station. Scientists will use the MSG to carry out multidisciplinary studies in combustion science, fluid physics and materials science. The MSG is managed by NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. (Credit: NASA/Marshall)

  1. Minor surgery in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billica, Roger; Krupa, Debra T.; Stonestreet, Robert; Kizzee, Victor D.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose is to investigate and demonstrate equipment and techniques proposed for minor surgery on Space Station Freedom (SSF). The objectives are: (1) to test and evaluate methods of surgical instrument packaging and deployment; (2) to test and evaluate methods of surgical site preparation and draping; (3) to evaluate techniques of sterile procedure and maintaining sterile field; (4) to evaluate methods of trash management during medical/surgical procedures; and (4) to gain experience in techniques for performing surgery in microgravity. A KC-135 parabolic flight test was performed on March 30, 1990 with the goal of investigating and demonstrating surgical equipment and techniques under consideration for use on SSF. The flight followed the standard 40 parabola profile with 20 to 25 seconds of near-zero gravity in each parabola.

  2. Correlation of satellite lightning observations with ground-based lightning experiments in Florida, Texas and Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edgar, B. C.; Turman, B. N.

    1982-01-01

    Satellite observations of lightning were correlated with ground-based measurements of lightning from data bases obtained at three separate sites. The percentage of ground-based observations of lightning that would be seen by an orbiting satellite was determined.

  3. Ground-based visual inspection for CTBT verification

    SciTech Connect

    Hawkins, W.; Wohletz, K.

    1997-11-01

    Ground-based visual inspection will play an essential role in On-Site Inspection (OSI) for Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) verification. Although seismic and remote sensing techniques are the best understood and most developed methods for detection of evasive testing of nuclear weapons, visual inspection will greatly augment the certainty and detail of understanding provided by these more traditional methods. Not only can ground-based visual inspection offer effective documentation in cases of suspected nuclear testing, but it also can provide accurate source location and testing media properties necessary for detailed analysis of seismic records. For testing in violation of the CTBT, an offending state may attempt to conceal the test, which most likely will be achieved by underground burial. While such concealment may not prevent seismic detection, evidence of test deployment, location, and yield can be disguised. In this light, if a suspicious event is detected by seismic or other remote methods, visual inspection of the event area is necessary to document any evidence that might support a claim of nuclear testing and provide data needed to further interpret seismic records and guide further investigations. However, the methods for visual inspection are not widely known nor appreciated, and experience is presently limited. Visual inspection can be achieved by simple, non-intrusive means, primarily geological in nature, and it is the purpose of this report to describe the considerations, procedures, and equipment required to field such an inspection. The inspections will be carried out by inspectors from members of the CTBT Organization.

  4. Study of Trade Wind Clouds Using Ground Based Stereo Cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porter, J.

    2010-12-01

    We employ ground based stereo cameras to derive the three dimensional position of trade wind clouds features. The process employs both traditional and novel methods. The stereo cameras are calibrated for orientation using the sun as a geo-reference point at several times throughout the day. Spatial correlation is used to detect similar cloud features in both camera images and a simultaneous-differential equation is solved to get the best cloud position for the given rays from the cameras to the cloud feature. Once the positions of the clouds are known in three-dimensional space, then it is also possible to derive upper level wind speed and direction by tracking the position of clouds in space and time. The vector winds can be obtained at many locations and heights in a cone region over the surface site. The accuracy of the measurement depends on the camera separation with a trade-off occurring at different camera separations and cloud ranges. The system design and performance will be discussed along with field observations. This approach provides a new way to study clouds for climate change efforts. It also provides an inexpensive way to measure upper level wind fields in cloudy regions. Ground based stereo cameras are used to derive cloud position in space a time.

  5. Examples of recent ground based L-band radiometer experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwank, Mike; Voelksch, I.; Maetzler, Ch.; Wigneron, Jean-Pierre; Kerr, Y. H.; Antolin, M. C.; Coll, A.; Millan-Scheiding, C.; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto

    L-band (1 -2 GHz) microwave radiometry is a remote sensing technique to monitor soil mois-ture over land surfaces. The European Space Agency's (ESA) Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) radiometer mission aims at providing global maps of soil moisture, with accuracy bet-ter than 0.04 m3 m-3 every 3 days, with a spatial resolution of approximately 40 km. Monitoring the large scale moisture dynamics at the boundary between the deep bulk soil and the atmo-sphere provides essential information both for terrestrial and atmospheric modellers. Perform-ing ground based radiometer campaigns before the mission launch, during the commissioning phase and during the operative SMOS mission is important for validating the satellite data and for the further improvement of the used radiative transfer models. This presentation starts with an outline of the basic concepts behind remote moisture retrieval from passive L-band radiation. Then the results from a selection of ground based microwave campaigns performed ü with the ELBARA radiometer and its successor models (JULBARA, ELBARAII) are pre-sented. Furthermore, some of the most important technical features, which were implemented in ELBARAII as the result of the experiences made with the forerunner, are outlined.

  6. MODELING ATMOSPHERIC EMISSION FOR CMB GROUND-BASED OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Errard, J.; Borrill, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Akiba, Y.; Chinone, Y.; Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Barron, D.; Elleflot, T.; Baccigalupi, C.; Fabbian, G.; Boettger, D.; Chapman, S.; Cukierman, A.; Delabrouille, J.; Ducout, A.; Feeney, S.; Feng, C.; and others

    2015-08-10

    Atmosphere is one of the most important noise sources for ground-based cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. By increasing optical loading on the detectors, it amplifies their effective noise, while its fluctuations introduce spatial and temporal correlations between detected signals. We present a physically motivated 3D-model of the atmosphere total intensity emission in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. We derive a new analytical estimate for the correlation between detectors time-ordered data as a function of the instrument and survey design, as well as several atmospheric parameters such as wind, relative humidity, temperature and turbulence characteristics. Using an original numerical computation, we examine the effect of each physical parameter on the correlations in the time series of a given experiment. We then use a parametric-likelihood approach to validate the modeling and estimate atmosphere parameters from the polarbear-i project first season data set. We derive a new 1.0% upper limit on the linear polarization fraction of atmospheric emission. We also compare our results to previous studies and weather station measurements. The proposed model can be used for realistic simulations of future ground-based CMB observations.

  7. Ground-based observation of near-Earth asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaffey, Michael J.

    1992-01-01

    An increased ground-based observation program is an essential component of any serious attempt to assess the resource potential of near-Earth asteroids. A vigorous search and characterization program could lead to the discovery and description of about 400 to 500 near-Earth asteroids in the next 20 years. This program, in conjunction with meteorite studies, would provide the data base to ensure that the results of a small number of asteroid-rendezvous and sample-return missions could be extrapolated with confidence into a geological base map of the Aten, Apollo, and Amor asteroids. Ground-based spectral studies of nearly 30 members of the Aten/Apollo/Amor population provide good evidence that this class includes bodies composed of silicates, metal-silicates, and carbonaceous assemblages similar to those found in meteorites. The instruments that are being used or could be used to search for near-Earth asteroids are listed. Techniques useful in characterizing asteroids and the types of information obtainable using these techniques are listed.

  8. Aerosol Remote Sensing from AERONET, the Ground-Based Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holben, Brent N.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric particles including mineral dust, biomass burning smoke, pollution from carbonaceous aerosols and sulfates, sea salt, impact air quality and climate. The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) program, established in the early 1990s, is a federation of ground-based remote sensing aerosol networks of Sun/sky radiometers distributed around the world, which provides a long-term, continuous and readily accessible public domain database of aerosol optical (e.g., aerosol optical depth) and microphysical (e.g., aerosol volume size distribution) properties for aerosol characterization, validation of satellite retrievals, and synergism with Earth science databases. Climatological aerosol properties will be presented at key worldwide locations exhibiting discrete dominant aerosol types. Further, AERONET's temporary mesoscale network campaign (e.g., UAE2, TIGERZ, DRAGON-USA.) results that attempt to quantify spatial and temporal variability of aerosol properties, establish validation of ground-based aerosol retrievals using aircraft profile measurements, and measure aerosol properties on compatible spatial scales with satellite retrievals and aerosol transport models allowing for more robust validation will be discussed.

  9. Modeling Atmospheric Emission for CMB Ground-based Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errard, J.; Ade, P. A. R.; Akiba, Y.; Arnold, K.; Atlas, M.; Baccigalupi, C.; Barron, D.; Boettger, D.; Borrill, J.; Chapman, S.; Chinone, Y.; Cukierman, A.; Delabrouille, J.; Dobbs, M.; Ducout, A.; Elleflot, T.; Fabbian, G.; Feng, C.; Feeney, S.; Gilbert, A.; Goeckner-Wald, N.; Halverson, N. W.; Hasegawa, M.; Hattori, K.; Hazumi, M.; Hill, C.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hori, Y.; Inoue, Y.; Jaehnig, G. C.; Jaffe, A. H.; Jeong, O.; Katayama, N.; Kaufman, J.; Keating, B.; Kermish, Z.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.; Le Jeune, M.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Leon, D.; Linder, E.; Matsuda, F.; Matsumura, T.; Miller, N. J.; Myers, M. J.; Navaroli, M.; Nishino, H.; Okamura, T.; Paar, H.; Peloton, J.; Poletti, D.; Puglisi, G.; Rebeiz, G.; Reichardt, C. L.; Richards, P. L.; Ross, C.; Rotermund, K. M.; Schenck, D. E.; Sherwin, B. D.; Siritanasak, P.; Smecher, G.; Stebor, N.; Steinbach, B.; Stompor, R.; Suzuki, A.; Tajima, O.; Takakura, S.; Tikhomirov, A.; Tomaru, T.; Whitehorn, N.; Wilson, B.; Yadav, A.; Zahn, O.

    2015-08-01

    Atmosphere is one of the most important noise sources for ground-based cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments. By increasing optical loading on the detectors, it amplifies their effective noise, while its fluctuations introduce spatial and temporal correlations between detected signals. We present a physically motivated 3D-model of the atmosphere total intensity emission in the millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. We derive a new analytical estimate for the correlation between detectors time-ordered data as a function of the instrument and survey design, as well as several atmospheric parameters such as wind, relative humidity, temperature and turbulence characteristics. Using an original numerical computation, we examine the effect of each physical parameter on the correlations in the time series of a given experiment. We then use a parametric-likelihood approach to validate the modeling and estimate atmosphere parameters from the polarbear-i project first season data set. We derive a new 1.0% upper limit on the linear polarization fraction of atmospheric emission. We also compare our results to previous studies and weather station measurements. The proposed model can be used for realistic simulations of future ground-based CMB observations.

  10. Light pollution simulations for planar ground-based light sources.

    PubMed

    Kocifaj, Miroslav

    2008-02-20

    The light pollution model is employed to analyze spatial behavior of luminance at the night sky under cloudless and overcast conditions. Enhanced light excess is particularly identified at cloudy skies, because the clouds efficiently contribute to the downward luminous flux. It is evident that size of ground-based light sources can play an important role in the case of overcast sky conditions. Nevertheless, the realistically sized light sources are rarely embedded into light pollution modeling, and rather they are replaced by simple point sources. We discuss the discrepancies between sky luminance distributions when at first the planar light sources are considered and at second the point-source approximation is accepted. The found differences are noticeable if the size of the light source, distance to the observer, and altitude of a cloudy layer are comparable one to the other. Compared with point-source approximation, an inclusion of the size factor into modeling the light sources leads to partial elimination of the steep changes of sky luminance (typical for point sources of light). The narrow and sharp light pillars normally presented on the sky illuminated by point light sources can disappear or fuse together when two or more nearby light sources are considered with their real sizes. Sky elements situated close to the horizon will glow efficiently if luminous flux originates from two-dimensional ground-based entities (such as cities or villages).

  11. Statistical Studies of Ground-Based Optical Lightning Signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunt, C. R.; Nemzek, R. J.; Suszcynsky, D. M.

    2005-12-01

    Most extensive optical studies of lightning have been conducted from orbit, and the statistics of events collected from earth are relatively poorly documented. The time signatures of optical power measured in the presence of clouds are inevitably affected by scattering,which can distort the signatures by extending and delaying the amplitude profile in time. We have deployed two all-sky photodiode detectors, one in New Mexico and one in Oklahoma, which are gathering data alongside electric field change monitors as part of the LANL EDOTX Great Plains Array. Preliminary results show that the photodiode is sensitive to approximately 50% or more of RF events detected at ranges of up to 30 km, and still has some sensitivity at ranges in excess of 60 km (distances determined by the EDOTX field-change array). The shapes of events within this range were assessed, with focus on rise time, width, peak power, and their correlation to corresponding electric field signatures, and these are being compared with published on-orbit and ground-based data. Initial findings suggest a mean characteristic width (ratio of total detected optical energy to peak power) of 291 +/- 12 microseconds and a mean delay between the RF signal peak and optical peak of 121 +/- 17 microseconds. These values fall between prior ground-based measurements of direct return stroke emissions, and scattering-dominated on-orbit measurements. This work will promote better understanding of the correspondence between radio and optical measurements of lightning.

  12. Microgravity Program strategic plan, 1991

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The all encompassing objective of the NASA Microgravity Program is the use of space as a lab to conduct research and development. The on-orbit microgravity environment, with its substantially reduced buoyancy forces, hydrostatic pressures, and sedimentation, enables the conduction of scientific studies not possible on Earth. This environment allows processes to be isolated and controlled with an accuracy that cannot be obtained in the terrestrial environment. The Microgravity Science and Applications Div. has defined three major science categories in order to develop a program structure: fundamental science, including the study of the behavior of fluids, transport phenomena, condensed matter physics, and combustion science; materials science, including electronic and photonic materials, metals and alloys, and glasses and ceramics; and biotechnology, focusing on macromolecular crystal growth as well as cell and molecular science. Experiments in these areas seek to provide observations of complex phenomena and measurements of physical attributes with a precision that is enabled by the microgravity environment.

  13. Airborne and Ground-Based Measurements Using a High-Performance Raman Lidar. Part 2; Ground Based

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Cadirola, Martin; Venable, Demetrius; Connell, Rasheen; Rush, Kurt; Leblanc, Thierry; McDermid, Stuart

    2009-01-01

    The same RASL hardware as described in part I was installed in a ground-based mobile trailer and used in a water vapor lidar intercomparison campaign, hosted at Table Mountain, CA, under the auspices of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). The converted RASL hardware demonstrated high sensitivity to lower stratospheric water vapor indicating that profiling water vapor at those altitudes with sufficient accuracy to monitor climate change is possible. The measurements from Table Mountain also were used to explain the reason, and correct , for sub-optimal airborne aerosol extinction performance during the flight campaign.

  14. Microgravity Outreach with Math Teachers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Don Gillies, a materials scientist at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), demonstrates the classroom-size Microgravity Drop Tower Demonstrator. The apparatus provides 1/6 second of microgravity for small experiments. A video camera helps teachers observe what happens inside the package. This demonstration was at the April 2000 conference of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in Chicago. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  15. NASA's Microgravity Science Research Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The ongoing challenge faced by NASA's Microgravity Science Research Program is to work with the scientific and engineering communities to secure the maximum return from our Nation's investments by: assuring that the best possible science emerges from the science community for microgravity investigations; ensuring the maximum scientific return from each investigation in the most timely and cost-effective manner; and enhancing the distribution of data and applications of results acquired through completed investigations to maximize their benefits.

  16. Diagnostics in Japan's microgravity experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kadota, Toshikazu

    1995-01-01

    The achievement of the combustion research under microgravity depends substantially on the availability of diagnostic systems. The non-intrusive diagnostic systems are potentially applicable for providing the accurate, realistic and detailed information on momentum, mass and energy transport, complex gas phase chemistry, and phase change in the combustion field under microgravity. The non-intrusive nature of optical instruments is essential to the measurement of combustion process under microgravity which is very nervous to any perturbation. However, the implementation of the non-intrusive combustion diagnostic systems under microgravity is accompanied by several constraints. Usually, a very limited space is only available for constructing a highly sophisticated system which is so sensitive that it is easily affected by the magnitude of the gravitational force, vibration and heterogeneous field of temperature and density of the environments. The system should be properly adjusted prior to the experiment. Generally, it is quite difficult to tune the instruments during measurements. The programmed sequence of operation should also be provided. Extensive effort has been toward the development of non-intrusive diagnostic systems available for the combustion experiments under microgravity. This paper aims to describe the current art and the future strategy on the non-intrusive diagnostic systems potentially applicable to the combustion experiments under microgravity in Japan.

  17. Triptycene analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hua, Duy (Inventor); Perchellet, Jean-Pierre (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    This invention provides analogs of triptycene which are useful as anticancer drugs, as well as for other uses. The potency of these compounds is in a similar magnitude as daunomycin, a currently used anticancer drug. Each compound of the invention produces one or more desired effects (blocking nucleoside transport, inhibiting nucleic acid or protein syntheses, decreasing the proliferation and viability of cancer cells, inducing DNA fragmentation or retaining their effectiveness against multidrug-resistant tumor cells).

  18. Cyber Analogies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-28

    including the time for reviewing instructions , searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing... CONTENTS 1 Introduction Emily O. Goldman & John Arquilla 7 The Cyber Pearl Harbor James J. Wirtz 15 Applying the Historical Lessons of Surprise Attack...As H.G. Wells put it, “History is a race between education and catastrophe.” SURPRISE ATTACK The primarily history- based analogies contained herein

  19. Mundrabilla: A Microgravity Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budka, P. Z.; Viertl, J. R. M.

    1993-07-01

    The name "Mundrabilla" is applied to two nickel-iron meteorite masses (combined mass over 22,700 kg), which apparently were a single mass before atmospheric entry [1]. A medium octahedrite, Mundrabilla exhibits the microstructural features common to other nickel-iron meteorites such as Widmanstatten structure and troilite; however, its macrostructure is anything but common. Described by Buchwald as "anomalous" [1], Mundrabilla's macrostructural morphology is characterized by strikingly prominent, rounded Widmanstatten areas separated by regions of sulfur segregation (Fig. 1). While microstructural development of a metal can reflect both solidification and solid state reactions, macrostructural features are determined during solidification. Thus, a typical metallurgist, unfamiliar with microgravity solidification, might describe Mundrabilla's macrostructure as an "anomalous" casting. Those familiar with microgravity solidification might characterize Mundrabilla's macrostructural features as due to solidification of two immiscible liquids [2]--one rich in nickel-iron, the other rich in sulfur. Combining these observations, Mundrabilla's macrostructural features are consistent with that of a liquid mass solidified under microgravity conditions [3,4]. Since nickel-iron meteorite cooling rates often serve as the foundation for assumptions about the formation of solar system bodies, information on the solidification time for the Mundrabilla mass may give additional insights. How long did it take for Mundrabilla, with a minimum "as received" mass of approximately 22,700 kg to solidify? Because Mundrabilla's mass before atmospheric entry is unknown, we take as an upper boundary a mass of 4.1 x 10^15kg. These masses, assumed spherical, range in diameter between 1.8 meters and 10 kilometers, respectively. Mundrabilla can be idealized as a pure iron liquid mass cooling from the melting point of pure iron (1535C) by radiation into space at absolute zero. The latent heat of

  20. Microgravity Level Measurement of the Beijing Drop Tower Using a Sensitive Accelerometer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, T. Y.; Wu, Q. P.; Sun, B. Q.; Han, F. T.

    2016-01-01

    Drop tower is the most common ground-based facility to provide microgravity environment and widely used in many science experiments. A differential space accelerometer has been proposed to test the spin-gravity interaction between rotating extended bodies onboard a drag-free satellite. In order to assist design and test of this inertial sensor in a series of ground- based pre-flight experiments, it is very important to know accurately the residual acceleration of drop towers. In this report, a sensitive instrument for this purpose was built with a high-performance servo quartz accelerometer, and the dedicated interface electronics design providing small full-scale range and high sensitivity, up to 136.8 V/g0. The residual acceleration at the Beijing drop tower was measured using two different drop capsules. The experimental result shows that the microgravity level of the free-falling double capsule is better than 2 × 10−4g0 (Earth’s gravity). The measured data in this report provides critical microgravity information for design of the following ground experiments. PMID:27530726

  1. Microgravity Level Measurement of the Beijing Drop Tower Using a Sensitive Accelerometer.

    PubMed

    Liu, T Y; Wu, Q P; Sun, B Q; Han, F T

    2016-08-17

    Drop tower is the most common ground-based facility to provide microgravity environment and widely used in many science experiments. A differential space accelerometer has been proposed to test the spin-gravity interaction between rotating extended bodies onboard a drag-free satellite. In order to assist design and test of this inertial sensor in a series of ground- based pre-flight experiments, it is very important to know accurately the residual acceleration of drop towers. In this report, a sensitive instrument for this purpose was built with a high-performance servo quartz accelerometer, and the dedicated interface electronics design providing small full-scale range and high sensitivity, up to 136.8 V/g0. The residual acceleration at the Beijing drop tower was measured using two different drop capsules. The experimental result shows that the microgravity level of the free-falling double capsule is better than 2 × 10(-4)g0 (Earth's gravity). The measured data in this report provides critical microgravity information for design of the following ground experiments.

  2. Microgravity science and applications program tasks, 1991 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Presented here is a compilation of the active research tasks for FY 1991 sponsored by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division of the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications. The purpose is to provide an overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university, and government communities. Included is an introductory description of the program, the strategy and overall goal, identification of the organizational structures and the people involved, and a description of each. The tasks are grouped into several categories: electronic materials; solidification of metals, alloys, and composites; fluids, interfaces, and transport; biotechnology; combustion science; glasses and ceramics; experimental technology, instrumentation, and facilities; and Physical and Chemistry Experiments (PACE). The tasks cover both the ground based and flight programs.

  3. Cognitive performance aboard the life and microgravity spacelab.

    PubMed

    Eddy, D R; Schiflett, S G; Schlegel, R E; Shehab, R L

    1998-01-01

    The impact of microgravity and other stressors on cognitive performance need to be quantified before long duration space flights are planned or attempted since countermeasures may be required. Four astronauts completed 38 sessions of a 20-minute battery of six cognitive performance tests on a laptop computer. Twenty-four sessions were preflight, 9 sessions were in-orbit, and 5 sessions were postflight. Mathematical models of learning were fit to each subject's preflight data for each of 14 dependent variables. Assuming continued improvement, expected values were generated from the models for in-orbit comparison. Using single subject designs, two subjects showed statistically significant in-orbit effects. One subject was degraded in two tests, the other was degraded in one test and exceeded performance expectations in another. Other subjects showed no statistically significant effects on the tests. The factors causing the deterioration in the two subjects can not be determined without appropriate ground-based control groups.

  4. Microgravity Science and Applications Program tasks, 1990 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The active research tasks as of the end of the fiscal year 1990 sponsored by the Microgravity Science and Applications Division of the NASA Office of Space Science and Applications are compiled. The purpose is to provide an overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university, and government communities. The report includes an introductory description of the program, the strategy and overall goal; an index of principle investigators; and a description of each task. A list of recent publications is also provided. The tasks are grouped into six major categories: electronic materials; solidification of metals, alloys, and composites; fluid dynamics and transport phenomena; biotechnology; glasses and ceramics; combustion; experimental technology; facilities; and Physics And Chemistry Experiments (PACE). The tasks are divided into ground-based and flight experiments.

  5. Microgravity Science and Applications Program tasks, 1987 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    A compilation is presented of the active research tasks as of the end of the FY87 of the Microgravity Science and Applications Program, NASA-Office of Space Science and Applications, involving several NASA centers and other organizations. An overview is provided of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university, and government communities. An introductory description is provided of the program along with the strategy and overall goal, identification of the organizational structures and people involved, and a description of each task. A list of recent publications is also provided. The tasks are grouped into six major categories: Electronic Materials; Solidification of Metals, Alloys, and Composites; Fluid Dynamics and Transport Phenomena; Biotechnology; Glasses and Ceramics; and Combustion. Other categories include Experimental Technology, General Studies and Surveys; Foreign Government Affiliations; Industrial Affiliations; and Physics and Chemistry Experiments (PACE). The tasks are divided into ground based and flight experiments.

  6. Microgravity Science and Applications Program tasks, 1988 revision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    The active research tasks as of the end of the fiscal year 1988 of the Microgravity Science and Applications Program, NASA-Office of Space Science and Applications, involving several NASA centers and other organizations are compiled. The purpose is to provide an overview of the program scope for managers and scientists in industry, university, and government communities. Also included are an introductory description of the program, the strategy and overall goal, identification of the organizational structures and people involved, and a description of each task. A list of recent publications is provided. The tasks are grouped into six major categories: electronic materials; solidification of metals, alloys, and composites; fluid dynamics and transport phenomena; biotechnology; glasses and ceramics; and combustion. Other categories include experimental technology, general studies and surveys; foreign government affiliations; industrial affiliations; and Physics And Chemistry Experiments (PACE). The tasks are divided into ground-based and flight experiments.

  7. Telerobotic manipulator developments for ground-based space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herndon, J. N.; Babcock, S. M.; Butler, P. L.; Costello, H. M.; Glassell, R. L.; Kress, Reid L.; Kuban, D. P.; Rowe, J. C.; Williams, D. M.; Meintel, A. J.

    1988-01-01

    New opportunities for the application of telerobotic systems to enhance human intelligence and dexterity in the hazardous environment of space are presented by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Space Station Program. Because of the need for significant increases in extravehicular activity and the potential increase in hazards associated with space programs, emphasis is being heightened on telerobotic systems research and development. The Automation Technology Branch at NASA Langley Research Center currently is sponsoring the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator (LTM) program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop and demonstrate ground-based telerobotic manipulator system hardware for research and demonstrations aimed at future NASA applications. The LTM incorporates traction drives, modularity, redundant kinematics, and state-of-the-art hierarchical control techniques to form a basis for merging the diverse technological domains of robust, high-dexterity teleoperations and autonomous robotic operation into common hardware to further NASA's research.

  8. A New Ground-Based, Hourly Global Lightning Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Virts, K.; Wallace, J. M.; Hutchins, M. L.; Holzworth, R. H.

    2012-12-01

    The seasonally and diurnally-varying frequency of lightning flashes provides a measure of the frequency of occurrence of intense convection and, as such, is an important aspect of the Earth's climate. Using continuous observations from the ground-based World-Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN), it is possible to generate a global lightning climatology that captures seasonal variations and resolves the diurnal cycle. Hourly lightning animations illuminate the interplay between sea breezes, mountain-valley wind systems, and remotely forced gravity waves in touching off thunderstorms in a variety of geographical settings, such as the Maritime Continent, the central Andes, and equatorial Africa. Examination of intraseasonal variations in lightning over the Maritime Continent reveals the impact of shifts in the low-level wind field on the development and propagation of thunderstorms during the Madden-Julian Oscillation.

  9. Observational Selection Effects with Ground-based Gravitational Wave Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hsin-Yu; Essick, Reed; Vitale, Salvatore; Holz, Daniel; Katsavounidis, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Ground-based interferometers are not perfectly all-sky instruments, and it is important to account for their behavior when considering the distribution of detected events. In particular, the LIGO detectors are most sensitive to sources above North America and the Indian Ocean and, as the Earth rotates, the sensitive regions are swept across the sky. However, because the detectors do not acquire data uniformly over time, there is a net bias on detectable sources' right ascensions. Both LIGO detectors preferentially collect data during their local night; it is more than twice as likely to be local midnight than noon when both detectors are operating. We discuss these selection effects and how they impact LIGO's observations and electromagnetic follow-up. These effects can inform electromagnetic follow-up activities and optimization, including the possibility of directing observations even before gravitational-wave events occur.

  10. Compound auroral micromorphology: ground-based high-speed imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kataoka, Ryuho; Fukuda, Yoko; Miyoshi, Yoshizumi; Miyahara, Hiroko; Itoya, Satoru; Ebihara, Yusuke; Hampton, Donald; Dahlgren, Hanna; Whiter, Daniel; Ivchenko, Nickolay

    2015-02-01

    Auroral microphysics still remains partly unexplored. Cutting-edge ground-based optical observations using scientific complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (sCMOS) cameras recently enabled us to observe the fine-scale morphology of bright aurora at magnetic zenith for a variety of rapidly varying features for long uninterrupted periods. We report two interesting examples of combinations of fine-scale rapidly varying auroral features as observed by the sCMOS cameras installed at Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR), Alaska, in February 2014. The first example shows that flickering rays and pulsating modulation simultaneously appeared at the middle of a surge in the pre-midnight sector. The second example shows localized flickering aurora associated with growing eddies at the poleward edge of an arc in the midnight sector.

  11. Free electron lasers as ground based space weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Gary R.

    1988-12-01

    The free electron laser (FEL) is the most promising directed energy weapon in the SDI program. Its theoretical underpinnings, present achievements and future prospects are reviewed. The general requirements of a ground based laser system are derived and are seen to be quite expensive to implement as well as being far beyond current technical capabilities. Atmospheric propagation effects, particularly Stimulated Raman Scattering, will make the transmission of adequate powers dubious. A summary of existing and proposed FEL parameters shows that, at best, future facilities will be many orders of magnitude away from the required GigaWatt average output powers in the visible or near infrared region. Prospects for FEL midcourse or terminal phase weapons are equally problematic, given the simple countermeasures available to the offense. Use as an ASAT weapon is less technically demanding, but of limited applicability given the vulnerability of an extensive space based targeting system.

  12. Ground-based column abundance measurements of atmospheric hydroxyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, Clyde R.

    1988-04-01

    The preliminary results of ground-based OH column abundance measurements from Truk, Federated States of Micronesia, are contained. These are the first OH column measurements from the tropics, and constitute a signficcant contribution to the OH data base. Comparisons of tropical OH behavior with the extensive mid-latitude observations serve as a critical test of the current understanding of the HO (sub x) photochemistry and its relationship to the other major chemical families. The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in tropical stratospheric winds exerts a major influence on the Hadley cell vertical transport. Related QBOs in total O3 and in stratospheric H2O were identified, but QBO effects on other stratospheric species are still unknown. The solar tide in the tropics produces a diurnal surface pressure variation of 2 to 3 mb; its effect on OH photochemistry in the stratosphere may be significant.

  13. Ground-based column abundance measurements of atmospheric hydroxyl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnett, Clyde R.

    1988-01-01

    The preliminary results of ground-based OH column abundance measurements from Truk, Federated States of Micronesia, are contained. These are the first OH column measurements from the tropics, and constitute a signficcant contribution to the OH data base. Comparisons of tropical OH behavior with the extensive mid-latitude observations serve as a critical test of the current understanding of the HO (sub x) photochemistry and its relationship to the other major chemical families. The quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in tropical stratospheric winds exerts a major influence on the Hadley cell vertical transport. Related QBOs in total O3 and in stratospheric H2O were identified, but QBO effects on other stratospheric species are still unknown. The solar tide in the tropics produces a diurnal surface pressure variation of 2 to 3 mb; its effect on OH photochemistry in the stratosphere may be significant.

  14. Spatial-angular modeling of ground-based biaxial lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agishev, Ravil R.

    1997-10-01

    Results of spatial-angular LIDAR modeling based on an efficiency criterion introduced are represented. Their analysis shows that a low spatial-angular efficiency of traditional VIS and NIR systems is a main cause of a low S/BR ratio at the photodetector input. It determines the considerable measurements errors and the following low accuracy of atmospheric optical parameters retrieval. As we have shown, the most effective protection against intensive sky background radiation for ground-based biaxial LIDAR's consist in forming of their angular field according to spatial-angular efficiency criterion G. Some effective approaches to high G-parameter value achievement to achieve the receiving system optimization are discussed.

  15. Modelling atmospheric turbulence effects on ground-based telescope systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bradford, L.W.; Flatte, S.M.; Max, C.E.

    1993-09-30

    Questions still exist concerning the appropriate model for turbulence- induced phase fluctuations seen in ground-based telescopes. Bester et al. used a particular observable (slope of the Allan variance) with an infrared interferometer in an attempt to distinguish models. The authors have calculated that observable for Kolmogorov and {open_quotes}random walk{close_quotes} models with a variety of outer scales and altitude-dependent turbulence and wind velocity. The authors have found that clear distinction between models requires good data on the vertical distribution of wind and turbulence. Furthermore, measurements at time separations of order 60 s are necessary to distinguish the {open_quotes}random walk{close_quotes} model from the Kolmogorov model.

  16. Ground-Based Experiments on Vibrational Thermal Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatz, Michael F.; Rogers, Jeffrey L.

    1999-01-01

    Ground-based experiments on g-jitter effects in fluid flow provide insight that complements both theoretical studies and space-based experiments on this problem. We report preliminary results for experiments on Rayleigh-Benard convection subjected to time-dependent accelerations on a shaker table. For sinusoidal modulation, two qualitatively different pattern forming mechanisms come into play: geometry induced wavenumber selection (as in the standard "no-shake" Rayleigh-Benard problem) and dispersion induced wavenumber selection due to parametric instability (as in the Faraday surface-wave problem). We discuss preliminary results on the competition and co-existence of patterns due to these different instability mechanisms. We also discuss the implications of this work on the general question of pattern formation in the presence of noise.

  17. The STACEE Ground-Based Gamma-ray Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragan, Ken

    2002-04-01

    The Solar Tower Atmospheric Cherenkov Effect Experiment (STACEE) is a ground-based instrument designed to study astrophysical sources of gamma rays in the energy range from 50 to 500 GeV using an array of heliostat mirrors at the National Solar Thermal Test Facility in New Mexico. The mirrors collect Cherenkov light generated by gamma-ray air showers and concentrate it onto cameras composed of photomultiplier tubes. The STACEE instrument is now complete, and uses a total of 64 heliostats. Prototype instruments, using smaller numbers of heliostats, have previously detected gamma emission from both the Crab Nebula and the Active Galactic Nucleus Mrk421. The complete instrument has a lower threshold -- approximately 50 GeV -- than those prototypes due to superior triggering and electronics, including flash ADCs for every channel.We will discuss the performance of the complete instrument in its first full season of operation, and present preliminary results of selected observations.

  18. Microgravity Passive Phase Separator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paragano, Matthew; Indoe, William; Darmetko, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    A new invention disclosure discusses a structure and process for separating gas from liquids in microgravity. The Microgravity Passive Phase Separator consists of two concentric, pleated, woven stainless- steel screens (25-micrometer nominal pore) with an axial inlet, and an annular outlet between both screens (see figure). Water enters at one end of the center screen at high velocity, eventually passing through the inner screen and out through the annular exit. As gas is introduced into the flow stream, the drag force exerted on the bubble pushes it downstream until flow stagnation or until it reaches an equilibrium point between the surface tension holding bubble to the screen and the drag force. Gas bubbles of a given size will form a front that is moved further down the length of the inner screen with increasing velocity. As more bubbles are added, the front location will remain fixed, but additional bubbles will move to the end of the unit, eventually coming to rest in the large cavity between the unit housing and the outer screen (storage area). Owing to the small size of the pores and the hydrophilic nature of the screen material, gas does not pass through the screen and is retained within the unit for emptying during ground processing. If debris is picked up on the screen, the area closest to the inlet will become clogged, so high-velocity flow will persist farther down the length of the center screen, pushing the bubble front further from the inlet of the inner screen. It is desired to keep the velocity high enough so that, for any bubble size, an area of clean screen exists between the bubbles and the debris. The primary benefits of this innovation are the lack of any need for additional power, strip gas, or location for venting the separated gas. As the unit contains no membrane, the transport fluid will not be lost due to evaporation in the process of gas separation. Separation is performed with relatively low pressure drop based on the large surface

  19. Calcium metabolism in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Heer, M; Kamps, N; Biener, C; Korr, C; Boerger, A; Zittermann, A; Stehle, P; Drummer, C

    1999-09-09

    Unloading of weight bearing bones as induced by microgravity or immobilization has significant impacts on the calcium and bone metabolism and is the most likely cause for space osteoporosis. During a 4.5 to 6 month stay in space most of the astronauts develop a reduction in bone mineral density in spine, femoral neck, trochanter, and pelvis of 1%-1.6% measured by Dual Energy X-ray Absorption (DEXA). Dependent on the mission length and the individual turnover rates of the astronauts it can even reach individual losses of up to 14% in the femoral neck. Osteoporosis itself is defined as the deterioration of bone tissue leading to enhanced bone fragility and to a consequent increase in fracture risk. Thinking of long-term missions to Mars or interplanetary missions for years, space osteoporosis is one of the major concerns for manned spaceflight. However, decrease in bone density can be initiated differently. It either can be caused by increases in bone formation and bone resorption resulting in a net bone loss, as obtained in fast looser postmenopausal osteoporosis. On the other hand decrease in bone formation and increase in bone resorption also leads to bone losses as obtained in slow looser postmenopausal osteoporosis or in Anorexia Nervosa patients. Biomarkers of bone turnover measured during several missions indicated that the pattern of space osteoporosis is very similar to the pattern of Anorexia Nervosa patients or slow looser postmenopausal osteoporosis. However, beside unloading, other risk factors for space osteoporosis exist such as stress, nutrition, fluid shifts, dehydration and bone perfusion. Especially nutritional factors may contribute considerably to the development of osteoporosis. From earthbound studies it is known that calcium supplementation in women and men can prevent bone loss of 1% bone per year. Based on these results we studied the calcium intake during several European missions and performed an experiment during the German MIR 97 mission

  20. Martian Meteorological Measurements Using Ground-Based Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, A.; Bailey, J.; Walter, M.; Crisp, D.

    2005-12-01

    An important component of the continuing Mars research program is the accurate determination of atmospheric and meteorological parameters, and analysis of how these parameters vary spatially and temporally. Ground-based observations are particularly useful in this regard, as they allow simultaneous global coverage and use of high-resolution spectroscopy to complement orbital measurements. Aside from the perils of atmospheric turbulence (correctable to some degree using adaptive optics), infrared observations of planetary atmospheres face another challenge -- correcting for the presence of telluric spectral lines. Based on atmospheric simulations using the SMART radiative transfer modelling tool1, we present evidence that the current technique of mitigating the effect of Earth's atmosphere by observing a nearby star of known spectral type (the ``standard star" method) can generate significant errors. Indeed, our simulations of measurements of the Martian 2-micron carbon dioxide band at a resolving power of 1000 produced variation between ``standard reduced" spectra and original modelled spectra of up to 50%2. Furthermore, we outline our proposed computational technique of iterative reduction by progressing modelled parameters towards observed values (which negates the ``standard star" issue), to be validated on data obtained from IRTF/Gemini South observations in October/November 2005, and present results to date. 1Meadows, V.S., Crisp, D., 1996, Ground-based near-infrared observations of the Venus nightside: The thermal structure and water abundance near the surface, JGR 101:E2, 4595 2Bailey, J. A., Simpson, A. J., Crisp, D., 2005, Correcting Infrared Spectra for Atmospheric Absorption, in preparation

  1. Smoldering Combustion Experiments in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walther, David C.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Urban, David L.

    1997-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment is part of a study of the smolder characteristics of porous combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a non-flaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of porous materials and takes place in a number of processes ranging from smoldering of porous insulation materials to high temperature synthesis of metals. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smolder, both in microgravity and normal-gravity. As with many forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of oxidizer and transport of heat, and therefore the rate of combustion. Microgravity smolder experiments, in both a quiescent oxidizing environment, and in a forced oxidizing flow have been conducted aboard the NASA Space Shuttle (STS-69 and STS-77 missions) to determine the effect of the ambient oxygen concentration and oxidizer forced flow velocity on smolder combustion in microgravity. The experimental apparatus is contained within the NASA Get Away Special Canister (GAS-CAN) Payload. These two sets of experiments investigate the propagation of smolder along the polyurethane foam sample under both diffusion driven and forced flow driven smoldering. The results of the microgravity experiments are compared with identical ones carried out in normal gravity, and are used to verify present theories of smolder combustion. The results of this study will provide new insights into the smoldering combustion process. Thermocouple histories show that the microgravity smolder reaction temperatures (Ts) and propagation velocities (Us) lie between those of identical normal-gravity upward and downward tests. These observations indicate the effect of buoyancy on the transport of oxidizer to the reaction front.

  2. Blood flow and microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bureau, Lionel; Coupier, Gwennou; Dubois, Frank; Duperray, Alain; Farutin, Alexander; Minetti, Christophe; Misbah, Chaouqi; Podgorski, Thomas; Tsvirkun, Daria; Vysokikh, Mikhail

    2017-01-01

    The absence of gravity during space flight can alter cardio-vascular functions partially due to reduced physical activity. This affects the overall hemodynamics, and in particular the level of shear stresses to which blood vessels are submitted. Long-term exposure to space environment is thus susceptible to induce vascular remodeling through a mechanotransduction cascade that couples vessel shape and function with the mechanical cues exerted by the circulating cells on the vessel walls. Central to such processes, the glycocalyx - i.e. the micron-thick layer of biomacromolecules that lines the lumen of blood vessels and is directly exposed to blood flow - is a major actor in the regulation of biochemical and mechanical interactions. We discuss in this article several experiments performed under microgravity, such as the determination of lift force and collective motion in blood flow, and some preliminary results obtained in artificial microfluidic circuits functionalized with endothelium that offer interesting perspectives for the study of the interactions between blood and endothelium in healthy condition as well as by mimicking the degradation of glycocalyx caused by long space missions. A direct comparison between experiments and simulations is discussed. xml:lang="fr"

  3. Bubble formation in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.

    1996-01-01

    An extensive experimental program was initiated for the purpose of understanding the mechanisms leading to bubble generation during fluid handling procedures in a microgravity environment. Several key fluid handling procedures typical for PCG experiments were identified for analysis in that program. Experiments were designed to specifically understand how such procedures can lead to bubble formation. The experiments were then conducted aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft which is capable of simulating a low gravity environment by executing a parabolic flight attitude. However, such a flight attitude can only provide a low gravity environment of approximately 10-2go for a maximum period of 30 seconds. Thus all of the tests conducted for these experiments were designed to last no longer than 20 seconds. Several experiments were designed to simulate some of the more relevant fluid handling procedures during protein crystal growth experiments. These include submerged liquid jet cavitation, filling of a cubical vessel, submerged surface scratch, attached drop growth, liquid jet impingement, and geysering experiments. To date, four separate KC-135 flight campaigns were undertaken specifically for performing these experiments. However, different experiments were performed on different flights.

  4. Bubble formation in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antar, Basil N.

    1994-01-01

    Two KC-135 flight campaigns have been conducted to date which are specifically dedicated to study bubble formation in microgravity. The first flight was conducted during March 14-18, 1994, and the other during June 20-24, 1994. The results from the June 1994 flight have not been analyzed yet, while the results from the March flight have been partially analyzed. In the first flight three different experiments were performed, one with the specific aim at determining whether or not cavitation can take place during any of the fluid handling procedures adopted in the shuttle bioprocessing experiments. The other experiments were concerned with duplicating some of the procedures that resulted in bubble formation, namely the NCS filling procedure and the needle scratch of a solid surface. The results from this set of experiments suggest that cavitation did not take place during any of the fluid handling procedures. The results clearly indicate that almost all were generated as a result of the breakup of the gas/liquid interface. This was convincingly demonstrated in the scratch tests as well as in the liquid fill tests.

  5. Tagging insulin in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobeck, Michael; Nelson, Ronald S.

    1992-01-01

    Knowing the exact subcellular sites of action of insulin in the body has the potential to give basic science investigators a basis from which a cause and cure for this disease can be approached. The goal of this project is to create a test reagent that can be used to visualize these subcellular sites. The unique microgravity environment of the Shuttle will allow the creation of a reagent that has the possibility of elucidating the subcellular sites of action of insulin. Several techniques have been used in an attempt to isolate the sites of action of items such as insulin. One of these is autoradiography in which the test item is obtained from animals fed radioactive materials. What is clearly needed is to visualize individual insulin molecules at their sites of action. The insulin tagging process to be used on G-399 involves the conjugation of insulin molecules with ferritin molecules to create a reagent that will be used back on Earth in an attempt to elucidate the sites of action of insulin.

  6. Vitamin K status in spaceflight and ground-based models of spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Zwart, Sara R; Booth, Sarah L; Peterson, James W; Wang, Zuwei; Smith, Scott M

    2011-05-01

    Bone loss is a well-documented change during and after long-duration spaceflight. Many types of countermeasures to bone loss have been proposed, including vitamin K supplementation. The objective of this series of studies was to measure change in vitamin K status in response to microgravity under a variety of spaceflight and spaceflight analog (model) conditions, including long-duration spaceflight studies (n = 15), three bed rest studies (n = 15, 49, and 24), and a 14-day saturation dive (n = 6). In crew members who flew 2-6 months on the International Space Station, in-flight and postflight plasma phylloquinone concentrations were unchanged from the preflight mean. Consistent with this finding, urinary γ-carboxyglutamic acid (GLA), a measure of vitamin K-dependent protein turnover, did not change in response to flight. Serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin (%ucOC), a measure of vitamin K function, was generally unchanged in response to flight. Spaceflight findings were corroborated by findings of no changes in phylloquinone, urinary GLA, or %ucOC during or after bed rest in three separate bed rest studies (21-90 days in duration) or after a 14-day saturation dive. The data presented here do not support either a need for vitamin K supplementation during spaceflight or the suggestion of using vitamin K as a bone loss countermeasure in spaceflight.

  7. The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chui, T.; Holmes, W.; Lai, A.; Croonquist, A.; Eraker, J.; Abbott, R.; Mills, G.; Mohl, J.; Craig, J.; Balachandra, B.; Gannon, J.

    2000-01-01

    We describe the design and development of the Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility, which is intended to provide a unique environment of low temperature and microgravity for the scientists to perform breakthrough investigations on board the International Space Station.

  8. Sleep and respiration in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prisk, G. K.

    1998-01-01

    Sleep studies conducted during the STS-90 Neurolab mission are explored. The relationship between sleep, melatonin, and circadian phase is reviewed. The study contained both sleep and awake components. The objectives of the sleep component were to test five hypotheses: that circadian rhythms of core body temperature and urinary melatonin are synchronized to required sleep-wake schedules, that spaceflight results in substantial disruption of sleep, that the pattern of chest and abdominal wall motion alters during the different sleep stages in microgravity, that arterial oxygen saturation is reduced during some stages of sleep in microgravity, and that pre-sleep administration of melatonin during microgravity results in improved sleep quality. The awake component tested three hypotheses: that ventilatory response to carbon dioxide is increased during exposure to microgravity and that this exacerbates sleep disruption, that ventilatory response to hypoxia is increased by exposure to microgravity, and that the improved sleep resulting from the pre-sleep administration of melatonin enhances next day cognition when compared to placebo.

  9. Microgravity-Enhanced Stem Cell Selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Claudio, Pier Paolo; Valluri, Jagan

    2011-01-01

    Stem cells, both embryonic and adult, promise to revolutionize the practice of medicine in the future. In order to realize this potential, a number of hurdles must be overcome. Most importantly, the signaling mechanisms necessary to control the differentiation of stem cells into tissues of interest remain to be elucidated, and much of the present research on stem cells is focused on this goal. Nevertheless, it will also be essential to achieve large-scale expansion and, in many cases, assemble cells in 3D as transplantable tissues. To this end, microgravity analog bioreactors can play a significant role. Microgravity bioreactors were originally conceived as a tool to study the cellular responses to microgravity. However, the technology can address some of the shortcomings of conventional cell culture systems; namely, the deficiency of mass transport in static culture and high mechanical shear forces in stirred systems. Unexpectedly, the conditions created in the vessel were ideal for 3D cell culture. Recently, investigators have demonstrated the capability of the microgravity bioreactors to expand hematopoietic stem cells compared to static culture, and facilitate the differentiation of umbilical cord stem cells into 3D liver aggregates. Stem cells are capable of differentiating into functional cells. However, there are no reliable methods to induce the stem cells to form specific cells or to gain enough cells for transplantation, which limits their application in clinical therapy. The aim of this study is to select the best experimental setup to reach high proliferation levels by culturing these cells in a microgravity-based bioreactor. In typical cell culture, the cells sediment to the bottom surface of their container and propagate as a one-cell-layer sheet. Prevention of such sedimentation affords the freedom for self-assembly and the propagation of 3D tissue arrays. Suspension of cells is easily achievable using stirred technologies. Unfortunately, in

  10. Development of Optical Diagnostic Techniques for Microgravity Materials Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cha, Soyoung Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Materials processing including crystal growth, either under a gravity environment on ground or a microgravity environment in space, involves complicated phenomena of fluid motions in gas or liquid phases as well as interaction of various species. To obtain important physical insight, it is very necessary to provide gross-field optical diagnostics for monitoring various physical properties. Materials processing inhibits easy access by ordinary instruments and thus characterizing gross-field physical properties is very challenging. Typical properties of importance can be fluid velocity, temperature, and species concentration for fluids, and surface topology and defects for solids. Observing surface grow rate during crystal growth is also important. Material microstructures, i.e., integrity of crystal structures, is strongly influenced by the existence of thermally-induced flow as well as local nucleation of particles during solidification, which may act in many detrimental ways. In both ground-based and microgravity experiments, the nature of product property changes resulting from three-dimensional fluid or particle motions need be characterized. Gross-field diagnostics is thus required to identify their effects on product defects and process deficiencies. The quantitative visualization techniques can also be used for validation of numerical modeling. For optical nonintrusive gross-field diagnostic techniques, two approaches were developed as summer projects. One optical approach allows us to provide information of species concentration and temperature for monitoring in real time. The other approach, that is, the concept which is formulated for detection of surface topography measurement can provide unprecedented spatial resolution during crystal growth.

  11. Microgravity combustion of dust clouds: Quenching distance measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goroshin, S.; Kleine, H.; Lee, J. H. S.; Frost, D.

    1995-01-01

    parameters is in a gravity-free environment. Access to the microgravity environment provided by the use of large-scale drop towers, parabolic flights of aircraft and rockets, and shuttle and space station orbits has permitted now to proceed with a systematic program of dust combustion microgravity research. For example, the NASA-Lewis drop tower and a Lear jet parabolic flight aircraft were used by Ross et al. and by Berlad and Tangirala for experiments with Iycopodium/air mixtures. The Japan Microgravity Center drop shaft (JAMIC) where a microgravity condition of 10(exp -4) g for 10 s is available, was recently used by Kobayashi, Niioka et al. for measuring flame propagation velocities in polymethyl methacrylate dust/air suspensions. Microgravity dust combustion experiments were started at McGill University in the early 90's under the sponsorship of the Canadian Space Agency. Several generations of dust combustion platforms permitting dust combustion microgravity experiments to be carried out on board a parabolic flight aircraft (KC-135, NASA) have been designed and tested. The experimental data and experience gained from this research allowed us to design and build in a current phase of this program the microgravity apparatus for the visual observation of freely propagating constant pressure laminar dust flames. Quenching distances in aluminum dust suspensions have been measured in a wide range of dust cloud parameters in ground-based experiments and in recent microgravity experiments (KC-135 parabolic flights, Houston, February 1995).

  12. 2002 Microgravity Materials Science Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillies, Donald (Editor); Ramachandran, Narayanan (Editor); Murphy, Karen (Editor); McCauley, Dannah (Editor); Bennett, Nancy (Editor)

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 Microgravity Materials Science Conference was held June 25-26, 2002, at the Von Braun Center, Huntsville, Alabama. Organized by the Microgravity Materials Science Discipline Working Group, sponsored by the Physical Sciences Research Division, NASA Headquarters, and hosted by NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and member institutions under the Cooperative Research in Biology and Materials Science (CORBAMS) agreement, the conference provided a forum to review the current research and activities in materials science, discuss the envisioned long-term goals, highlight new crosscutting research areas of particular interest to the Physical Sciences Research Division, and inform the materials science community of research opportunities in reduced gravity. An abstracts book was published and distributed at the conference to the approximately 240 people attending, who represented industry, academia, and other NASA Centers. This CD-ROM proceedings is comprised of the research reports submitted by the Principal Investigators in the Microgravity Materials Science program.

  13. Responses, applications, and analysis of microgravity effects on bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Michael Robert

    Spaceflight causes many changes to the growth and behavior of bacteria, most likely because of microgravity. However, we do not fully understand the gravity-dependent mechanisms that alter bacterial cell physiology. Furthermore, the literature consists of many contradictory results, creating controversy over the mechanisms by which spaceflight affects bacterial cultures. The research described in this dissertation combines empirical, analytical, and numerical modeling techniques aimed at characterizing the various gravity-dependent phenomena that act on bacteria. While reviewing the literature, I identified an interesting trend in prior experimental results regarding bacterial motility. With this information, we can begin to explain some of the seemingly contradictory findings. This discovery should help to resolve several controversial theories in the field of space microbiology. Chapter 3 describes a microbial antibiotic production experiment conducted onboard the International Space Station. The results corroborated earlier findings of increased antibiotic production for samples taken during the first two weeks of spaceflight. For later samples, however, a reversal occurred, showing decreased production in the spaceflight samples. This insight highlights the benefit of conducting long duration experiments in space to fully evaluate biological responses. Chapter 4 describes a novel technique for preventing bacterial cell sedimentation to partially simulate microgravity in ground-based experiments. The results of this study showed a correlation between cell sedimentation and bacterial growth. As documented in Chapter 5, I investigated the use of digital holographic interferometry to measure extracellular fluid density changes caused by bacterial metabolism. The results showed that fluid density changes surrounding individual bacteria were too small to measure directly. Therefore, I used mathematical analyses and numerical model simulations (described in Chapter 6

  14. Electric fields in micro-gravity can replace gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgolewski, S.

    The influence of the world-wide atmospheric electric field on the growth of plants seems to have been neglected. The confirmation of the existence of electrotropism shows effects on some plants similar to gravity. I propose space ex eriments withp plants that grow in microgravity but are exposed to different electric field configurations with various field strengths and polarity. The electric field in terrestrial environment shows strong effects on some plants that can be regarded as due to phototropism. In microgravity we have full control of light and electric field, and thus we can practically eliminate the effects of gravity and we can study to what degree the electric field can replace the gravitational effects on plants. In this way we can create a new habitat for some plants and study its role in the rate of growth as well as in the sensing of free space for growth of plants in absence of gravity. By varying the strength and direction of illumination of plants we can also study the relative role of phototropism and electrotropism on different plants. This should enable us to select the most suitable plants for Advanced Life Support systems (ALS) for long-duration missions in microgravity environment. Some simple space experiments for verification of these assumptions are described that should answer the basic questions how should we design the ALS for the future high performance space stations and long duration manned space flights. The selection of the suitable plants for such ALS may go along two approaches: the self supporting electrotropic plants using the optimal electric field strength and its range of variation, non electrotropic plants that creep along the "ground" or other supporting plants or special structures. Ground based fitotron experiments have shown that several kV/m electric fields overwhelm the gravity better than clinostats can do. It happens in case of electrotropic plants but also after several days for non-electrotropic plants

  15. Turbulent scales of dilute particle-laden flows in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groszmann, Daniel E.; Rogers, Chris B.

    2004-12-01

    The work described in this paper attempts to characterize the effects of inertia, isolated from gravity, on the dispersion of solid particles in a turbulent air flow. The experiment consisted of releasing particles of various sizes in an enclosed box of fan-generated, near-homogeneous, isotropic, and stationary turbulent airflow and examining the particle behavior in a microgravity environment. The turbulence box was characterized in ground-based experiments using laser Doppler velocimetry techniques. Microgravity was established by free floating the experiment apparatus during the parabolic trajectory of NASA's KC-135 reduced-gravity aircraft. The microgravity generally lasted about 20 s, with about 50 parabolas per flight and one flight per day over a testing period of four days. To cover a broad range of flow regimes of interest, particles with Stokes numbers St of about 1-100 were released in the turbulence box. The three-dimensional measurements of particle motion were made with a particle-tracking algorithm using a three-camera stereo imaging system. Digital photogrammetric techniques were used to determine the particle locations from the calibrated camera images. The epipolar geometry constraint identified matching particles from the three different camera views and a direct spatial intersection scheme determined the coordinates of particles in three-dimensional space. Since particle loadings were light, velocity and acceleration constraints allowed particles in a sequence of frames to be matched, resulting in particle tracks and dispersion measurements. The goal was to compare the dispersion of different Stokes number particles in zero gravity and thereby decouple the effects of gravity from inertia on the dispersion. Results show that higher inertia particles disperse less in isotropic, nondecaying turbulent flows under zero gravity, in agreement with current models. Measurements show that particles with St≈1 dispersed about ten times more than the St

  16. Microgravity control of autophagy modulates osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sambandam, Yuvaraj; Townsend, Molly T; Pierce, Jason J; Lipman, Cecilia M; Haque, Azizul; Bateman, Ted A; Reddy, Sakamuri V

    2014-04-01

    Evidence indicates that astronauts experience significant bone loss during space mission. Recently, we used the NASA developed rotary cell culture system (RCCS) to simulate microgravity (μXg) conditions and demonstrated increased osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow cultures. Autophagy is a cellular recycling process of nutrients. Therefore, we hypothesize that μXg control of autophagy modulates osteoclastogenesis. Real-time PCR analysis of total RNA isolated from mouse bone marrow derived non-adherent cells subjected to modeled μXg showed a significant increase in autophagic marker Atg5, LC3 and Atg16L mRNA expression compared to ground based control (Xg) cultures. Western blot analysis of total cell lysates identified an 8.0-fold and 7.0-fold increase in the Atg5 and LC3-II expression, respectively. Confocal microscopy demonstrated an increased autophagosome formation in μXg subjected RAW 264.7 preosteoclast cells. RT(2) profiler PCR array screening for autophagy related genes identified that μXg upregulates intracellular signaling molecules associated with autophagy, autophagosome components and inflammatory cytokines/growth factors which coregulate autophagy in RAW 264.7 preosteoclast cells. Autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA) treatment of mouse bone marrow derived non-adherent mononuclear cells showed a significant decrease in μXg induced Atg5 and LC3 mRNA expression in the presence or absence of RANK ligand (RANKL) stimulation. Furthermore, RANKL treatment significantly increased (8-fold) p-CREB transcription factor levels under μXg as compared to Xg cultures and 3-MA inhibited RANKL increased p-CREB expression in these cells. Also, 3-MA suppresses μXg elevated osteoclast differentiation in mouse bone marrow cultures. Thus, our results suggest that μXg induced autophagy plays an important role in enhanced osteoclast differentiation and could be a potential therapeutic target to prevent bone loss in astronauts during space flight missions.

  17. Probing Pluto's Atmosphere Using Ground-Based Stellar Occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicardy, Bruno; Rio de Janeiro Occultation Team, Granada Team, International Occultation and Timing Association, Royal Astronomical Society New Zealand Occultation Section, Lucky Star associated Teams

    2016-10-01

    Over the last three decades, some twenty stellar occultations by Pluto have been monitored from Earth. They occur when the dwarf planet blocks the light from a star for a few minutes as it moves on the sky. Such events led to the hint of a Pluto's atmosphere in 1985, that was fully confirmed during another occultation in 1988, but it was only in 2002 that a new occultation could be recorded. From then on, the dwarf planet started to move in front of the galactic center, which amplified by a large factor the number of events observable per year.Pluto occultations are essentially refractive events during which the stellar rays are bent by the tenuous atmosphere, causing a gradual dimming of the star. This provides the density, pressure and temperature profiles of the atmosphere from a few kilometers above the surface up to about 250 km altitude, corresponding respectively to pressure levels of about 10 and 0.1 μbar. Moreover, the extremely fine spatial resolution (a few km) obtained through this technique allows the detection of atmospheric gravity waves, and permits in principle the detection of hazes, if present.Several aspects make Pluto stellar occultations quite special: first, they are the only way to probe Pluto's atmosphere in detail, as the dwarf planet is far too small on the sky and the atmosphere is far too tenuous to be directly imaged from Earth. Second, they are an excellent example of participative science, as many amateurs have been able to record those events worldwide with valuable scientific returns, in collaboration with professional astronomers. Third, they reveal Pluto's climatic changes on decade-scales and constrain the various seasonal models currently explored.Finally, those observations are fully complementary to space exploration, in particular with the New Horizons (NH) mission. I will show how ground-based occultations helped to better calibrate some NH profiles, and conversely, how NH results provide some key boundary conditions

  18. Independet Component Analyses of Ground-based Exoplanetary Transits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva Martins-Filho, Walter; Griffith, Caitlin Ann; Pearson, Kyle; Waldmann, Ingo; Biddle, Lauren; Zellem, Robert Thomas; Alvarez-Candal, Alvaro

    2016-10-01

    Most observations of exoplanetary atmospheres are conducted when a "Hot Jupiter" exoplanet transits in front of its host star. These Jovian-sized planets have small orbital periods, on the order of days, and therefore a short transit time, making them more ameanable to observations. Measurements of Hot Jupiter transits must achieve a 10-4 level of accuracy in the flux to determine the spectral modulations of the exoplanetary atmosphere. In order to accomplish this level of precision, we need to extract systematic errors, and, for ground-based measurements, the effects of Earth's atmosphere, from the signal due to the exoplanet, which is several orders of magnitudes smaller. Currently, the effects of the terrestrial atmosphere and the some of the time-dependent systematic errors are treated by dividing the host star by a reference star at each wavelength and time step of the transit. More recently, Independent Component Analyses (ICA) have been used to remove systematic effects from the raw data of space-based observations (Waldmann 2014,2012; Morello et al.,2015,2016). ICA is a statistical method born from the ideas of the blind-source separation studies, which can be used to de-trend several independent source signals of a data set (Hyvarinen and Oja, 2000). One strength of this method is that it requires no additional prior knowledge of the system. Here, we present a study of the application of ICA to ground-based transit observations of extrasolar planets, which are affected by Earth's atmosphere. We analyze photometric data of two extrasolar planets, WASP-1b and GJ3470b, recorded by the 61" Kuiper Telescope at Stewart Observatory using the Harris B and U filters. The presentation will compare the light curve depths and their dispersions as derived from the ICA analysis to those derived by analyses that ratio of the host star to nearby reference stars.References: Waldmann, I.P. 2012 ApJ, 747, 12, Waldamann, I. P. 2014 ApJ, 780, 23; Morello G. 2015 ApJ, 806

  19. Effect Of Low External Flow On Flame Spreading Over ETFE Insulated Wire Under Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nishizawa, Katsuhiro; Fujita, Osamu; Ito, Kenichi; Kikuchi, Masao; Olson, Sandra L.; Kashiwagi, Takashi

    2003-01-01

    Fire safety is one of the most important issues for manned space missions. A likely cause of fires in spacecraft is wire insulation combustion in electrical system. Regarding the wire insulation combustion it important to know the effect of low external flow on the combustion because of the presence of ventilation flow in spacecraft. Although, there are many researches on flame spreading over solid material at low external flows under microgravity, research dealing with wire insulation is very limited. An example of wire insulation combustion in microgravity is the Space Shuttle experiments carried out by Greenberg et al. However, the number of experiments was very limited. Therefore, the effect of low flow velocity is still not clear. The authors have reported results on flame spreading over ETFE (ethylene - tetrafluoroetylene) insulated wire in a quiescent atmosphere in microgravity by 10 seconds drop tower. The authors also performed experiments of polyethylene insulated nichrom wire combustion in low flow velocity under microgravity. The results suggested that flame spread rate had maximum value in low flow velocity condition. Another interesting issue is the effect of dilution gas, especially CO2, which is used for fire extinguisher in ISS. There are some researches working on dilution gas effect on flame spreading over solid material in quiescent atmosphere in microgravity. However the research with low external flow is limited and, of course, the research discussing a relation of the appearance of maximum wire flammability in low flow velocity region with different dilution gas cannot be found yet. The present paper, therefore, investigates the effect of opposed flow with different dilution gas on flame spreading over ETFE insulated wire and change in the presence of the maximum flammability depending on the dilution gas type is discussed within the limit of microgravity time given by ground-based facility.

  20. Cell Culture in Microgravity: Opening the Door to Space Cell Biology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellis, Neal R.; Dawson, David L. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Adaptational response of human cell populations to microgravity is investigated using simulation, short-term Shuttle experiments, and long-term microgravity. Simulation consists of a clinostatically-rotated cell culture system. The system is a horizontally-rotated cylinder completely filled with culture medium. Low speed rotation results in continuous-fall of the cells through the fluid medium. In this setting, cells: 1) aggregate, 2) propagate in three dimensions, 3) synthesize matrix, 4) differentiate, and 5) form sinusoids that facilitate mass transfer. Space cell culture is conducted in flight bioreactors and in static incubators. Cells grown in microgravity are: bovine cartilage, promyelocytic leukemia, kidney proximal tubule cells, adrenal medulla, breast and colon cancer, and endothelium. Cells were cultured in space to test specific hypotheses. Cartilage cells were used to determine structural differences in cartilage grown in space compared to ground-based bioreactors. Results from a 130-day experiment on Mir revealed that cartilage grown in space was substantially more compressible due to insufficient glycosaminoglycan in the matrix. Interestingly, earth-grown cartilage conformed better to the dimensions of the scaffolding material, while the Mir specimens were spherical. The other cell populations are currently being analyzed for cell surface properties, gene expression, and differentiation. Results suggest that some cells spontaneously differentiate in microgravity. Additionally, vast changes in gene expression may occur in response to microgravity. In conclusion, the transition to microgravity may constitute a physical perturbation in cells resulting in unique gene expressions, the consequences of which may be useful in tissue engineering, disease modeling, and space cell biology.

  1. Human blood platelets at microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Surgenor, D. MACN.; Ausprunk, D.; Blevins, D.; Chao, F. C.; Curby, W.

    1987-01-01

    A set of freshly collected and separated human platelet suspensions were transported, in three types of plastic containers, on a 6 day, 2 hr mission of the orbiter Columbia to study the effect of prolonged exposure of human blood cells to microgravity. A controlled environment at a temperature of 22 + or - 1 deg with air flow was provided and another set of samples held on the ground acted as controls. Paired comparisons of platelets at ug versus controls at lxg revealed superior platelet survival at microgravity. When viewed in terms of plastic type, ug platelets in containers fabricated from PVC-TOTM displayed the best overall postflight viability.

  2. Microgravity Researchers to Investigate Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide -- a semiconductor material -- can be grown in nanoclusters. Small molecules of cadmium sulfide, shown here, can be prepared by traditional chemical methods. However, if larger, more uniform nanoparticles of cadmium sulfide could be fabricated, they may be used to improve electronic devices such as light emitting diodes and diode lasers. Using a NASA grant, Dr. Jimmy Mays of the University of Alabama at Birmingham is studying whether microgravity will enhance the size and shape of a nanoparticle. This experiment is managed by the Microgravity Research Program Office at NASA's Marshall Spce Flight Center in Huntsville, AL. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center

  3. Protein crystal growth in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delucas, Lawrence J.; Smith, Craig D.; Smith, H. Wilson; Vijay-Kumar, Senadhi; Senadhi, Shobha E.; Ealick, Steven E.; Carter, Daniel C.; Snyder, Robert S.

    1989-01-01

    The crystals of most proteins or other biological macromolecules are poorly ordered and diffract to lower resolutions than those observed for most crystals of simple organic and inorganic compounds. Crystallization in the microgravity environment of space may improve crystal quality by eliminating convection effects near growing crystal surfaces. A series of 11 different protein crystal growth experiments was performed on U.S. Space Shuttle flight STS-26 in September 1988. The microgravity-grown crystals of gamma-interferon D1, porcine elastase, and isocitrate lyase are larger, display more uniform morphologies, and yield diffraction data to significantly higher resolutions than the best crystals of these proteins grown on earth.

  4. Microgravity Science Laboratory (MSL-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, M. B. (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    The MSL-1 payload first flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-83) April 4-8, 1997. Due to a fuel cell problem, the mission was cut short, and the payload flew again on Columbia (STS-94) July 1-17, 1997. The MSL-1 investigations were performed in a pressurized Spacelab module and the Shuttle middeck. Twenty-nine experiments were performed and represented disciplines such as fluid physics, combustion, materials science, biotechnology, and plant growth. Four accelerometers were used to record and characterize the microgravity environment. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity.

  5. Physical Vapor Transport of Mercurous Chloride Crystals: Design of a Microgravity Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duval, W, M. B.; Singh, N. B.; Glicksman, M. E.

    1997-01-01

    Flow field characteristics predicted from a computational model show that the dynamical state of the flow, for practical crystal growth conditions of mercurous chloride, can range from steady to unsteady. Evidence that the flow field can be strongly dominated by convection for ground-based conditions is provided by the prediction of asymmetric velocity profiles bv the model which show reasonable agreement with laser Doppler velocimetry experiments in both magnitude and planform. Unsteady flow is shown to be correlated with a degradation of crystal quality as quantified by light scattering pattern measurements, A microgravity experiment is designed to show that an experiment performed with parameters which yield an unsteady flow becomes steady (diffusive-advective) in a microgravity environment of 10(exp -3) g(sub 0) as predicted by the model, and hence yields crystals with optimal quality.

  6. Use of microgravity to improve the efficiency and power output of Nd-doped laser glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Chandra S.

    1992-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to: (1) obtain further evidence and understand the science for the reported improvement in chemical homogeneity in glasses prepared in microgravity; and (2) study the feasibility of improving the optical and fluorescence properties, particularly, the limit for Nd(+3) concentration quenching and threshold energy for laser action for laser glasses prepared in microgravity. Attention was directed to ground based investigation whose primary purpose was to determine the suitability and conditions for processing these laser glasses in space. This report describes that the scientific and technical information required for planning flight experiments for these glasses have been obtained, and the preparation for handling and analyzing post flight samples have also been taken. Instruments required for measuring the fluorescence properties of interest have been constructed. The optical and fluorescence properties for the glasses have been measured and made available for comparative property analysis.

  7. Fluid Flow and Solidification Under Combined Action of Magnetic Fields and Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, B. Q.; Shu, Y.; Li, K.; deGroh, H. C.

    2002-01-01

    Mathematical models, both 2-D and 3-D, are developed to represent g-jitter induced fluid flows and their effects on solidification under combined action of magnetic fields and microgravity. The numerical model development is based on the finite element solution of governing equations describing the transient g-jitter driven fluid flows, heat transfer and solutal transport during crystal growth with and without an applied magnetic field in space vehicles. To validate the model predictions, a ground-based g-jitter simulator is developed using the oscillating wall temperatures where timely oscillating fluid flows are measured using a laser PIV system. The measurements are compared well with numerical results obtained from the numerical models. Results show that a combined action derived from magnetic damping and microgravity can be an effective means to control the melt flow and solutal transport in space single crystal growth systems.

  8. Suspension cell culture in microgravity and development of a space bioreactor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, Dennis R.

    1987-01-01

    NASA has methodically developed unique suspension type cell and recovery apparatus culture systems for bioprocess technology experiments and production of biological products in microgravity. The first space bioreactor has been designed for microprocessor control, no gaseous headspace, circulation and resupply of culture medium, and slow mixing in very low shear regimes. Various ground based bioreactors are being used to test reactor vessel design, on-line sensors, effects of shear, nutrient supply, and waste removal from continuous culture of human cells attached to microcarriers. The small (500 ml) bioreactor is being constructed for flight experiments in the Shuttle middeck to verify systems operation under microgravity conditions and to measure the efficiencies of mass transport, gas transfer, oxygen consumption, and control of low shear stress on cells.

  9. Models of ionospheric VLF absorption of powerful ground based transmitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, M. B.; Lehtinen, N. G.; Inan, U. S.

    2012-12-01

    Ground based Very Low Frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) radio transmitters play a role in precipitation of energetic Van Allen electrons. Initial analyses of the contribution of VLF transmitters to radiation belt losses were based on early models of trans-ionospheric propagation known as the Helliwell absorption curves, but some recent studies have found that the model overestimates (by 20-100 dB) the VLF energy reaching the magnetosphere. It was subsequently suggested that conversion of wave energy into electrostatic modes may be responsible for the error. We utilize a newly available extensive record of VLF transmitter energy reaching the magnetosphere, taken from the DEMETER satellite, and perform a direct comparison with a sophisticated full wave model of trans-ionospheric propagation. Although the model does not include the effect of ionospheric irregularities, it correctly predicts the average total power injected into the magnetosphere within several dB. The results, particularly at nighttime, appear to be robust against the variability of the ionospheric electron density. We conclude that the global effect of irregularity scattering on whistler mode conversion to quasi-electrostatic may be no larger than 6 dB.

  10. Future enhancements to ground-based microburst detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Steven D.; Matthews, Michael P.; Dasey, Timothy J.

    1994-01-01

    This set of viewgraphs presents the results of the Cockpit Weather Information (CWI) program at M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory. The CWI program has been funded through NaSA Langley Research Center by the joint NASA/FAA Integrated Airborne Wind Shear Program for the past four years. During this time, over 120 microburst penetrations by research aircraft have been conducted under Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) testbed radar surveillance at Orlando, FL. The results of these in-situ measurements have been compared with ground-based detection methods. Several valuable insights were gained from this research activity. First, it was found that the current TDWR microburst shapes do not permit accurate characterization of microburst hazard in terms of the F factor hazard index, because they are based on loss value rather than shear. Second, it was found that the horizontal component of the F factor can be accurately estimated from shear, provided compensation is made for the dependence of outflow strength on altitude. Third, it was found that a simple continuity assumption for estimating the vertical component of the F factor yielded poor results. However, further research has shown that downdraft strength is correlated with features aloft detected by the TDWR radar scan strategy. The outcome of the CWI program is to move from the loss-based wind shear detection algorithm used in the TDWR to a shear-based detection scheme as proposed in the Integrated Terminal Weather System (ITWS).

  11. A design for a ground-based data management system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambird, Barbara A.; Lavine, David

    1988-01-01

    An initial design for a ground-based data management system which includes intelligent data abstraction and cataloging is described. The large quantity of data on some current and future NASA missions leads to significant problems in providing scientists with quick access to relevant data. Human screening of data for potential relevance to a particular study is time-consuming and costly. Intelligent databases can provide automatic screening when given relevent scientific parameters and constraints. The data management system would provide, at a minimum, information of availability of the range of data, the type available, specific time periods covered together with data quality information, and related sources of data. The system would inform the user about the primary types of screening, analysis, and methods of presentation available to the user. The system would then aid the user with performing the desired tasks, in such a way that the user need only specify the scientific parameters and objectives, and not worry about specific details for running a particular program. The design contains modules for data abstraction, catalog plan abstraction, a user-friendly interface, and expert systems for data handling, data evaluation, and application analysis. The emphasis is on developing general facilities for data representation, description, analysis, and presentation that will be easily used by scientists directly, thus bypassing the knowledge acquisition bottleneck. Expert system technology is used for many different aspects of the data management system, including the direct user interface, the interface to the data analysis routines, and the analysis of instrument status.

  12. Ground-based validation of scientific SCIAMACHY products: First results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittrock, F.; Fietkau, S.; Heckel, A.; Medeke, T.; Oetjen, H.; Richter, A.; Tarsu, M.; Burrows, J.

    2003-04-01

    In this study data from the Bremian DOAS network for atmospheric measurements (BREDOM) were used to validate columns of O3, NO2, BrO, HCHO and OClO derived from measurements of the SCIAMACHY instrument using the scientific algorithms developed at the University of Bremen. The ground sites range from northern high latitudes (Ny-Ålesund, 79° N, 12°E) over mid-latitudes (Bremen, 53°N, 9°E and Alzate, 46°N, 9°E) to equatorial regions (Nairobi, 1°S, 36° E). Trace gas columns of ozone, NO2, OClO, HCHO, and BrO were retrieved applying the well-known DOAS method to the UV/vis spectra. All ground-based instruments within the network use the MAX (multi axis) DOAS technique. With this it is possible to derive some profile information for the retrieved absorbers, which enables us to further investigate the consistency of trace gas column amounts derived from different platforms.

  13. Bridge Testing With Ground-Based Interferometric Radar: Experimental Results

    SciTech Connect

    Chiara, P.; Morelli, A.

    2010-05-28

    The research of innovative non-contact techniques aimed at the vibration measurement of civil engineering structures (also for damage detection and structural health monitoring) is continuously directed to the optimization of measures and methods. Ground-Based Radar Interferometry (GBRI) represents the more recent technique available for static and dynamic control of structures and ground movements.Dynamic testing of bridges and buildings in operational conditions are currently performed: (a) to assess the conformity of the structure to the project design at the end of construction; (b) to identify the modal parameters (i.e. natural frequencies, mode shapes and damping ratios) and to check the variation of any modal parameters over the years; (c) to evaluate the amplitude of the structural response to special load conditions (i.e. strong winds, earthquakes, heavy railway or roadway loads). If such tests are carried out by using a non-contact technique (like GBRI), the classical issues of contact sensors (like accelerometers) are easily overtaken.This paper presents and discusses the results of various tests carried out on full-scale bridges by using a Stepped Frequency-Continuous Wave radar system.

  14. Cardiovascular effects of weightlessness and ground-based simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandler, Harold

    1988-01-01

    A large number of animal and human flight and ground-based studies were conducted to uncover the cardiovascular effects of weightlessness. Findings indicate changes in cardiovascular function during simulations and with spaceflight that lead to compromised function on reambulation and/or return to earth. This altered state termed cardiovascular deconditioning is most clearly manifest when in an erect body state. Hemodynamic parameters inidicate the presence of excessive tachnycardia, hypotension (leading to presyncope in one-third of the subjects), decreased heart volume, decreased plasma and circulating blood volumes and loss of skeletal muscle mass, particularly in the lower limbs. No clinically harmful effects were observed to date, but in-depth follow-ups were limited, as was available physiologic information. Available data concerning the causes for the observed changes indicate significant roles for mechanisms involved with body fluid-volume regulation, altered cardiac function, and the neurohumoral control of the control of the peripheral circulation. Satisfactory measures are not found. Return to preflight state was variable and only slightly dependent on flight duration. Future progress awaits availability of flight durations longer than several weeks.

  15. Ground deformation from ground-based SAR interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarchi, Dario; Casagli, Nicola; Fortuny-Guasch, Joaquim; Guerri, Letizia; Antonello, Giuseppe; Leva, Davide

    An in-depth analysis of the last two images acquired by the ground-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar system installed on Stromboli before the 5 April 2003 explosion allowed us to detect the precursory signals of the explosion related to ground deformation. In particular, it was possible to estimate the exact time of the explosion through the time domain analysis of raw data from the radar acquisition. This was interrupted by a blackout that occurred a few seconds after the event. The explosion onset time corresponds to a clear change in the intensity of the backscattered energy, related to the dense volcanic plume emission from the Crater. In addiction, the use of a particular interferometric processing technique for the last two acquisitions, consisting of the selection of synthetic sub-apertures from the main ones and creating with these a sequence of interferograms with a higher temporal resolution, detected precursory deformations starting 2 min before the explosion. These observations indicate the occurrence of an elastic deformation of a centimeter amplitude that affected the volcanic edifice progressively from the Crater down to the Sciara del Fuoco depression.

  16. Ground-based testing and demonstrations of starshades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harness, Anthony; Warwick, Steve; Shipley, Ann; Cash, Webster

    2016-07-01

    The direct detection and characterization of an Earth-like exoplanet is of the highest scientific priority and a leading technology that will enable such discovery is the starshade external occulter. We report on the latest results in ground-based efforts for demonstrating and advancing the technology of starshades. Using the McMath- Pierce Solar Telescope at the Kitt Peak National Observatory, we are able to track stars as they move across the night sky and stabilize a beam of starlight behind a starshade. This has allowed us to conduct the first astronomical observations achieving high-contrast with starshades. In our latest efforts, we have extended the separation between the starshade and telescope to reach an inner working angle of 10 arcseconds at a flight-like Fresnel number and resolution. In this report, we detail the development of a closed-loop feedback system to further stabilize the beam at the extended baseline and provide results on the contrast achieved. We conclude by laying out future work to design a dedicated siderostat-starshade facility for future testing of and observations with starshades. Our main result: we achieved a broadband contrast ratio of 3:2 x 10-5 at 15 arcseconds IWA, while at a flight-like Fresnel number and resolution.

  17. Predicting thunderstorm evolution using ground-based lightning detection networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodman, Steven J.

    1990-01-01

    Lightning measurements acquired principally by a ground-based network of magnetic direction finders are used to diagnose and predict the existence, temporal evolution, and decay of thunderstorms over a wide range of space and time scales extending over four orders of magnitude. The non-linear growth and decay of thunderstorms and their accompanying cloud-to-ground lightning activity is described by the three parameter logistic growth model. The growth rate is shown to be a function of the storm size and duration, and the limiting value of the total lightning activity is related to the available energy in the environment. A new technique is described for removing systematic bearing errors from direction finder data where radar echoes are used to constrain site error correction and optimization (best point estimate) algorithms. A nearest neighbor pattern recognition algorithm is employed to cluster the discrete lightning discharges into storm cells and the advantages and limitations of different clustering strategies for storm identification and tracking are examined.

  18. An approach to space weather studies from ground based observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minarovjech, M.; Rušin, V.; Rybanský, M.; Kudela, K.; Kollár, V.

    2004-10-01

    We use daily values of the green corona hole areas, as prepared from the ground-based observations above the E-limb of the Sun and cosmic ray flux observed at Climax and Huancayo/Haleakala, to study a relation between them during a long-term period. A cross-correlation method has been used in the period 1953-2002 (the end of solar cycle 18 to mid-cycle 23). There were found green coronal hole areas that precede the cosmic ray of 200 - 270 days, with the maximum of 230 days (an average of 8 months). The 27-day rotational periodicity is stored around the maximum of correlation coefficients that reached values of 0.78 and 0.72, respectively. This correlation could be used to forecast the level of the cosmic ray daily flux at neutron monitor energies. We try to explain this behavior in a framework of the total coronal mass and its expansion into the heliosphere.

  19. Use of ground-based wind profiles in mesoscale forecasting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlatter, Thomas W.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review is presented of recent uses of ground-based wind profile data in mesoscale forecasting. Some of the applications are in real time, and some are after the fact. Not all of the work mentioned here has been published yet, but references are given wherever possible. As Gage and Balsley (1978) point out, sensitive Doppler radars have been used to examine tropospheric wind profiles since the 1970's. It was not until the early 1980's, however, that the potential contribution of these instruments to operational forecasting and numerical weather prediction became apparent. Profiler winds and radiosonde winds compare favorably, usually within a few m/s in speed and 10 degrees in direction (see Hogg et al., 1983), but the obvious advantage of the profiler is its frequent (hourly or more often) sampling of the same volume. The rawinsonde balloon is launched only twice a day and drifts with the wind. In this paper, I will: (1) mention two operational uses of data from a wind profiling system developed jointly by the Wave Propagation and Aeronomy Laboratories of NOAA; (2) describe a number of displays of these same data on a workstation for mesoscale forecasting developed by the Program for Regional Observing and Forecasting Services (PROFS); and (3) explain some interesting diagnostic calculations performed by meteorologists of the Wave Propagation Laboratory.

  20. Observing Tsunamis in the Ionosphere Using Ground Based GPS Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galvan, D. A.; Komjathy, A.; Song, Y. Tony; Stephens, P.; Hickey, M. P.; Foster, J.

    2011-01-01

    Ground-based Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of ionospheric Total Electron Content (TEC) show variations consistent with atmospheric internal gravity waves caused by ocean tsunamis following recent seismic events, including the Tohoku tsunami of March 11, 2011. We observe fluctuations correlated in time, space, and wave properties with this tsunami in TEC estimates processed using JPL's Global Ionospheric Mapping Software. These TEC estimates were band-pass filtered to remove ionospheric TEC variations with periods outside the typical range of internal gravity waves caused by tsunamis. Observable variations in TEC appear correlated with the Tohoku tsunami near the epicenter, at Hawaii, and near the west coast of North America. Disturbance magnitudes are 1-10% of the background TEC value. Observations near the epicenter are compared to estimates of expected tsunami-driven TEC variations produced by Embry Riddle Aeronautical University's Spectral Full Wave Model, an atmosphere-ionosphere coupling model, and found to be in good agreement. The potential exists to apply these detection techniques to real-time GPS TEC data, providing estimates of tsunami speed and amplitude that may be useful for future early warning systems.

  1. Characterizing GEO Titan Transtage Fragmentations using Ground-based Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowardin, H.; Anz-Meador, P.

    2016-01-01

    In a continued effort to better characterize the Geosynchronous Orbit (GEO) environment, NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) utilizes various ground-based optical assets to acquire photometric and spectral data of known debris associated with fragmentations in or near GEO. The Titan IIIC Transtage upper stage is known to have fragmented four times. Two of the four fragmentations were in GEO while a third Transtage fragmented in GEO transfer orbit. The forth fragmentation occurred in Low Earth Orbit. In order to better assess what may be causing these fragmentations, the NASA ODPO recently acquired a Titan Transtage test and display article that was previously in the custody of the 309th Aerospace Maintenance and Regeneration Group (AMARG) in Tucson, Arizona. After initial inspections at AMARG demonstrated that the test article was of sufficient fidelity to be of interest, the test article was brought to JSC to continue material analysis and historical documentation of the Titan Transtage. The Transtage will be a subject of forensic analysis using spectral measurements to compare with telescopic data; as well, a scale model will be created to use in the Optical Measurement Center for photometric analysis of an intact Transtage, including a BRDF. The following presentation will provide a review of the Titan Transtage, the current analysis that has been done to date, and the future work to be completed in support of characterizing the GEO and near GEO orbital debris environment.

  2. Satellite Type Estination from Ground-based Photometric Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, T.; Ono, H.; Suzuki, J.; Ando, T.; Takanezawa, T.

    2016-09-01

    The optical photometric observation is potentially a powerful tool for understanding of the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) objects. At first, we measured in laboratory the surface reflectance of common satellite materials, for example, Multi-layer Insulation (MLI), mono-crystalline silicon cells, and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP). Next, we calculated visual magnitude of a satellite by simplified shape and albedo. In this calculation model, solar panels have dimensions of 2 by 8 meters, and the bus area is 2 meters squared with measured optical properties described above. Under these conditions, it clarified the brightness can change the range between 3 and 4 magnitudes in one night, but color index changes only from 1 to 2 magnitudes. Finally, we observed the color photometric data of several GEO satellites visible from Japan multiple times in August and September 2014. We obtained that light curves of GEO satellites recorded in the B and V bands (using Johnson filters) by a ground-base optical telescope. As a result, color index changed approximately from 0.5 to 1 magnitude in one night, and the order of magnitude was not changed in all cases. In this paper, we briefly discuss about satellite type estimation using the relation between brightness and color index obtained from the photometric observation.

  3. Assuring Ground-Based Detect and Avoid for UAS Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denney, Ewen W.; Pai, Ganeshmadhav Jagadeesh; Berthold, Randall; Fladeland, Matthew; Storms, Bruce; Sumich, Mark

    2014-01-01

    One of the goals of the Marginal Ice Zones Observations and Processes Experiment (MIZOPEX) NASA Earth science mission was to show the operational capabilities of Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) when deployed on challenging missions, in difficult environments. Given the extreme conditions of the Arctic environment where MIZOPEX measurements were required, the mission opted to use a radar to provide a ground-based detect-and-avoid (GBDAA) capability as an alternate means of compliance (AMOC) with the see-and-avoid federal aviation regulation. This paper describes how GBDAA safety assurance was provided by interpreting and applying the guidelines in the national policy for UAS operational approval. In particular, we describe how we formulated the appropriate safety goals, defined the processes and procedures for system safety, identified and assembled the relevant safety verification evidence, and created an operational safety case in compliance with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) requirements. To the best of our knowledge, the safety case, which was ultimately approved by the FAA, is the first successful example of non-military UAS operations using GBDAA in the U.S. National Airspace System (NAS), and, therefore, the first nonmilitary application of the safety case concept in this context.

  4. Monitoring Surface Deformation using Polarimetric Ground Based Interferometric Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legarsky, J. J.; Gomez, F.; Rosenblad, B.; Loehr, E.; Cherukumilli, S.; Deng, H.; Held, B.; Jenkins, W.

    2012-12-01

    Surface deformation monitoring using ground based interferometric radar (GBIR) measurements may be desirable for a number of applications in the earth sciences. The University of Missouri (MU) research team has ongoing efforts to use the MU GBIR for monitoring surface deformation at a number of sites. Measurements have been collected at sites requiring access by various transportation means such as using off-road vehicle, hiking, and helicopter. Once on site, initial setup takes about 10 minutes. After setup, an image may be acquired by azimuth scan about every 20 seconds. The highly portable system lends itself to rapid deployment in remote environments and repeat survey sites. The MU GBIR's high portability and fast imaging capabilities allow rapid surveying and long-term surveying potential of surface deformation. Imagery may be formed in near real time for initial quick looks. After data collection, imagery data may be further enhanced by radiometric calibration, polarimetric calibration, and time-series analysis. Imaging may be acquired at the electromagnetic spectral bands of C-band and Ku-band. Prior demonstration of millimeter and better sensitivity to deformation over the course of a day of data collects has been performed using the MU GBIR. In addition, the MU GBIR can be removed and re-positioned at the same point with geodetic-grade precision for repeat surveys. Study results and additional development progress will be presented. This project is sponsored by a grant from the National Science Foundation.

  5. Terrestrial stress analogs for spaceflight associated immune system dysregulation.

    PubMed

    Crucian, Brian; Simpson, Richard J; Mehta, Satish; Stowe, Raymond; Chouker, Alexander; Hwang, Shen-An; Actor, Jeffrey K; Salam, Alex P; Pierson, Duane; Sams, Clarence

    2014-07-01

    Recent data indicates that dysregulation of the immune system occurs and persists during spaceflight. Impairment of immunity, especially in conjunction with elevated radiation exposure and limited clinical care, may increase certain health risks during exploration-class deep space missions (i.e. to an asteroid or Mars). Research must thoroughly characterize immune dysregulation in astronauts to enable development of a monitoring strategy and validate any necessary countermeasures. Although the International Space Station affords an excellent platform for on-orbit research, access may be constrained by technical, logistical vehicle or funding limitations. Therefore, terrestrial spaceflight analogs will continue to serve as lower cost, easier access platforms to enable basic human physiology studies. Analog work can triage potential in-flight experiments and thus result in more focused on-orbit studies, enhancing overall research efficiency. Terrestrial space analogs generally replicate some of the physiological or psychological stress responses associated with spaceflight. These include the use of human test subjects in a laboratory setting (i.e. exercise, bed rest, confinement, circadian misalignment) and human remote deployment analogs (Antarctica winterover, undersea, etc.) that incorporate confinement, isolation, extreme environment, physiological mission stress and disrupted circadian rhythms. While bed rest has been used to examine the effects of physical deconditioning, radiation and microgravity may only be simulated in animal or microgravity cell culture (clinorotation) analogs. This article will characterize the array of terrestrial analogs for spaceflight immune dysregulation, the current evidence base for each, and interpret the analog catalog in the context of acute and chronic stress.

  6. Evaluation of Simulated Microgravity Environments Induced by Diamagnetic Levitation of Plant Cell Suspension Cultures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamal, Khaled Y.; Herranz, Raúl; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; Christianen, Peter C. M.; Medina, F. Javier

    2016-06-01

    Ground-Based Facilities (GBF) are essetial tools to understand the physical and biological effects of the absence of gravity and they are necessary to prepare and complement space experiments. It has been shown previously that a real microgravity environment induces the dissociation of cell proliferation from cell growth in seedling root meristems, which are limited populations of proliferating cells. Plant cell cultures are large and homogeneous populations of proliferating cells, so that they are a convenient model to study the effects of altered gravity on cellular mechanisms regulating cell proliferation and associated cell growth. Cell suspension cultures of the Arabidopsis thaliana cell line MM2d were exposed to four altered gravity and magnetic field environments in a magnetic levitation facility for 3 hours, including two simulated microgravity and Mars-like gravity levels obtained with different magnetic field intensities. Samples were processed either by quick freezing, to be used in flow cytometry for cell cycle studies, or by chemical fixation for microscopy techniques to measure parameters of the nucleolus. Although the trend of the results was the same as those obtained in real microgravity on meristems (increased cell proliferation and decreased cell growth), we provide a technical discussion in the context of validation of proper conditions to achieve true cell levitation inside a levitating droplet. We conclude that the use of magnetic levitation as a simulated microgravity GBF for cell suspension cultures is not recommended.

  7. The NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program: Knowledge for Use on Earth and Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, Fred J.; Singh, Bhim S.; Alexander, J. Iwan; Shaw, Nancy J.; Hill, Myron E.; Gati, Frank G.

    2002-01-01

    Building on over four decades of research and technology development related to the behavior of fluids in low gravity environments, the current NASA Microgravity Fluid Physics Program continues the quest for knowledge to further understand and design better fluids systems for use on earth and in space. The purpose of the Fluid Physics Program is to support the goals of NASA's Biological and Physical Research Enterprise which seeks to exploit the space environment to conduct research and to develop commercial opportunities, while building the vital knowledge base needed to enable efficient and effective systems for protecting and sustaining humans during extended space flights. There are currently five major research areas in the Microgravity Fluid Physics Program: complex fluids, multiphase flows and phase change, interfacial phenomena, biofluid mechanics, and dynamics and instabilities. Numerous investigations into these areas are being conducted in both ground-based laboratories and facilities and in the flight experiments program. Most of the future NASA-sponsored fluid physics and transport phenomena studies will be carried out on the International Space Station in the Fluids Integrated Rack, in the Microgravity Science Glovebox, in EXPRESS racks, and in other facilities provided by international partners. This paper will present an overview of the near- and long-term visions for NASA's Microgravity Fluid Physics Research Program and brief descriptions of hardware systems planned to achieve this research.

  8. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) is a fluids experiment supported by the Fundamentals in Biotechnology program in association with the Human Exploration and Development of Space (BEDS) initiative. The MTP Experiment will investigate fluid transport phenomena both in ground based experiments and in the microgravity environment. Many fluid transport processes are affected by gravity. Osmotic flux kinetics in planar membrane systems have been shown to be influenced by gravimetric orientation, either through convective mixing caused by unstably stratified fluid layers, or through a stable fluid boundary layer structure that forms in association with the membrane. Coupled transport phenomena also show gravity related effects. Coefficients associated with coupled transport processes are defined in terms of a steady state condition. Buoyancy (gravity) driven convection interferes with the attainment of steady state, and the measurement of coupled processes. The MTP Experiment measures the kinetics of molecular migration that occurs in fluids, in response to the application of various driving potentials. Three separate driving potentials may be applied to the MTP Experiment fluids, either singly or in combination. The driving potentials include chemical potential, thermal potential, and electrical potential. Two separate fluid arrangements are used to study membrane mediated and bulk fluid transport phenomena. Transport processes of interest in membrane mediated systems include diffusion, osmosis, and streaming potential. Bulk fluid processes of interest include coupled phenomena such as the Soret Effect, Dufour Effect, Donnan Effect, and thermal diffusion potential. MTP Experiments are performed in the Microgravity Transport Apparatus (MTA), an instrument that has been developed specifically for precision measurement of transport processes. Experiment fluids are contained within the MTA fluid cells, designed to create a one dimensional flow geometry

  9. A Semi-automated Electrophysiology System for Recording from Xenopus Oocytes Under Microgravity Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Stéphane; Henggeler, Daniele; Ille, Fabian; Vadrucci Beck, Sonia; Moeckli, Michel; Forster, Ian C.; Franco-Obregón, Alfredo; Egli, Marcel

    2012-09-01

    We describe a custom-made two electrode voltage clamp (TEVC) system suitable for real-time recording from Xenopus laevis oocytes in microgravity research applications. This miniaturized version of a standard laboratory TEVC, has proven to be reliable and robust. It allows the recording of membrane currents of comparable quality to ground-based TEVC measurements. The data presented were obtained during an ESA parabolic flight campaign (Bordeaux, France) and suggests that differing gravity conditions can reversibly modulate transmembrane ionic current in Xenopus laevis oocytes.

  10. Preparation of large-particle-size monodisperse polystyrene latexes in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderhoff, J. W.; El-Aasser, M. S.; Micale, F. J.; Sudol, E. D.; Tseng, C. M.; Silwanowicz, A.; Kornfeld, D. M.; Vicente, F. A.

    1982-01-01

    Three large-particle-size monodisperse latexes (3.44, 4.08, and 4.98 micron diameter) were prepared in an automated four-reactor apparatus on the third orbital mission of the 'Columbia' begun on March 22. Comparison with ground-based controls showed that the 4.98 micron-size flight sample was the more uniform; the uniformity at the other two sizes was about the same. The rates of polymerization in microgravity and on earth were the same within experimental error, demonstrating that radical-initiated vinyl addition polymerizations are unaffected by the weightless environment.

  11. Altered baroreflex control of forearm vascular resistance during simulated microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Doerr, D. F.; Vernikos, J.

    1994-01-01

    Reflex peripheral vasoconstriction induced by activation of cardiopulmonary baroreceptors in response to reduced central venous pressure (CVP) is a basic mechanism for elevating systemic vascular resistance and defending arterial blood pressure during orthostatically-induced reductions in cardiac filling and output. The sensitivity of the cardiopulmonary baroreflex response [defined as the slope of the relationship between changes in forearm vascular resistance (FVR) and CVP] and the resultant vasoconstriction are closely and inversely associated with the amount of circulating blood volume. Thus, a high-gain FVR response will be elicited by a hypovolemic state. Exposure to microgravity during spaceflight results in reduced plasma volume. It is therefore reasonable to expect that the FVR response to cardiopulmonary baroreceptor unloading would be accentuated following adaptation to microgravity. Such data could provide better insight about the physiological mechanisms underlying alterations in blood pressure control following spaceflight. We therefore exposed eleven men to 6 degrees head-down bedrest for 7 days and measured specific hemodynamic responses to low levels of the lower body negative pressure to determine if there are alterations in cardiopulmonary baroreceptor stimulus-FVR reflex response relationship during prolonged exposure to an analog of microgravity.

  12. 17th International Microgravity Measurements Group Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard

    1998-01-01

    The Seventeenth International Microgravity Measurements Group (MGMG) meeting was held 24-26 March 1998 at the Ohio Aerospace Institute (OAI) in Brook Park, Ohio. This meeting focused on the transition of microgravity science research from the Shuttle, Mir, and free flyers to the International Space Station. The MGMG series of meetings are conducted by the Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project of the Microgravity Science Division at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The MGMG meetings provide a forum for the exchange of information and ideas about the microgravity environment and microgravity acceleration research in the Microgravity Research Program. The meeting had participation from investigators in all areas of microgravity research. The attendees included representatives from: NASA centers; National Space Development Agency of Japan; European Space Agency; Daimler Benz Aerospace AG; Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt; Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales; Canadian Space Agency, national research institutions; Universities in U.S., Italy, Germany, and Russia; and commercial companies in the U.S. and Russia. Several agencies presented summaries of the measurement, analysis, and characterization of the microgravity environment of the Shuttle, Mir, and sounding rockets over the past fifteen years. This extensive effort has laid a foundation for pursuing a similar course during future microgravity science experiment operations on the ISS. Future activities of microgravity environment characterization were discussed by several agencies who plan to operate on the ISS.

  13. Spatiotemporal Path-Matching for Comparisons Between Ground- Based and Satellite Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkoff, Timothy A.; Valencia, Sandra; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Spinhirne, James D.

    2005-01-01

    The spatiotemporal sampling differences between ground-based and satellite lidar data can contribute to significant errors for direct measurement comparisons. Improvement in sample correspondence is examined by the use of radiosonde wind velocity to vary the time average in ground-based lidar data to spatially match coincident satellite lidar measurements. Results are shown for the 26 February 2004 GLAS/ICESat overflight of a ground-based lidar stationed at NASA GSFC. Statistical analysis indicates that improvement in signal correlation is expected under certain conditions, even when a ground-based observation is mismatched in directional orientation to the satellite track.

  14. Microgravity Smoldering Combustion Takes Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) experiment lifted off aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour in September 1995 on the STS-69 mission. This experiment is part of series of studies focused on the smolder characteristics of porous, combustible materials in a microgravity environment. Smoldering is a nonflaming form of combustion that takes place in the interior of combustible materials. Common examples of smoldering are nonflaming embers, charcoal briquettes, and cigarettes. The objective of the study is to provide a better understanding of the controlling mechanisms of smoldering, both in microgravity and Earth gravity. As with other forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of air and the transport of heat, and therefore, the rate of combustion. Results of the microgravity experiments will be compared with identical experiments carried out in Earth's gravity. They also will be used to verify present theories of smoldering combustion and will provide new insights into the process of smoldering combustion, enhancing our fundamental understanding of this frequently encountered combustion process and guiding improvement in fire safety practices.

  15. Toward a microgravity research strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Recommendations of the Committee on Microgravity Research (CMGR) of the Space Studies Board of the National Research Council are found in the Summary and Recommendations in the front of the report. The CMGR recommends a long-range research strategy. The main rationale for the microgravity research program should be to improve our fundamental scientific and technical knowledge base, particularly in the areas that are likely to lead to improvements in processing and manufacturing on earth. The CMGR recommends research be categorized as Biological science and technology, Combustion, Fluid science, Fundamental phenomena, Materials, and Processing science and technology. The committee also recommends that NASA apply a set of value criteria and measurement indicators to define the research and analysis program more clearly. The CMGR recommends that the funding level for research and analysis in microgravity science be established as a fixed percentage of the total program of NASA's Microgravity Science and Applications Division in order to build a strong scientific base for future experiments. The committee also recommends a cost-effective approach to experiments. Finally the CMGR recommends that a thorough technical review of the centers for commercial development of space be conducted to determine the quality of their activities and to ascertain to what degree their original mission has been accomplished.

  16. Exercise detraining: Applicability to microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, Edward F.

    1994-01-01

    Physical training exposes the various systems of the body to potent physiologic stimuli. These stimuli induce specific adaptations that enhance an individual's tolerance for the type of exercise encountered in training. The level of adaptation and the magnitude of improvement in exercise tolerance is proportional to the potency of the physical training stimuli. Likewise, our bodies are stimulated by gravity, which promotes adaptations of both the cardiovascular and skeletal muscles. Exposure to microgravity removes normal stimuli to these systems, and the body adapts to these reduced demands. In many respects the cessation of physical training in athletes and the transition from normal gravity to microgravity represent similar paradigms. Inherent to these situations is the concept of the reversibility of the adaptations induced by training or by exposure to normal gravity. The reversibility concept holds that when physical training is stopped (i.e., detraining) or reduced, or a person goes from normal gravity to microgravity, the bodily systems readjust in accordance with the diminished physiologic stimuli. The focus of this chapter is on the time course of loss of the adaptations to endurance training as well as on the possibility that certain adaptations persist, to some extent, when training is stopped. Because endurance exercise training generally improves cardiovascular function and promotes metabolic adaptations within the exercising skeletal musculature, the reversibility of these specific adaptations is considered. These observations have some applicability to the transition from normal to microgravity.

  17. Influence of Microgravity Environment on Root Growth, Soluble Sugars, and Starch Concentration of Sweetpotato Stem Cuttings

    PubMed Central

    Mortley, Desmond G.; Bonsi, Conrad K.; Hill, Walter A.; Morris, Carlton E.; Williams, Carol S.; Davis, Ceyla F.; Williams, John W.; Levine, Lanfang H.; Petersen, Barbara V.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2009-01-01

    Because sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.] stem cuttings regenerate very easily and quickly, a study of their early growth and development in microgravity could be useful to an understanding of morphological changes that might occur under such conditions for crops that are propagated vegetatively. An experiment was conducted aboard a U.S. Space Shuttle to investigate the impact of microgravity on root growth, distribution of amyloplasts in the root cells, and on the concentration of soluble sugars and starch in the stems of sweetpotatoes. Twelve stem cuttings of ‘Whatley/Loretan’ sweetpotato (5 cm long) with three to four nodes were grown in each of two plant growth units filled with a nutrient agarose medium impregnated with a half-strength Hoagland solution. One plant growth unit was flown on Space Shuttle Colombia for 5 days, whereas the other remained on the ground as a control. The cuttings were received within 2 h postflight and, along with ground controls, processed in ≈45 min. Adventitious roots were counted, measured, and fixed for electron microscopy and stems frozen for starch and sugar assays. Air samples were collected from the headspace of each plant growth unit for postflight determination of carbon dioxide, oxygen, and ethylene levels. All stem cuttings produced adventitious roots and growth was quite vigorous in both ground-based and flight samples and, except for a slight browning of some root tips in the flight samples, all stem cuttings appeared normal. The roots on the flight cuttings tended to grow in random directions. Also, stem cuttings grown in microgravity had more roots and greater total root length than ground-based controls. Amyloplasts in root cap cells of ground-based controls were evenly sedimented toward one end compared with a more random distribution in the flight samples. The concentration of soluble sugars, glucose, fructose, and sucrose and total starch concentration were all substantially greater in the stems of

  18. Highlights from Ground-Based O/IR Interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, J. Thomas; Creech-Eakman, M. J.; Akeson, R. L.; Bakker, E. J.; Hutter, D. J.; McAlister, H. A.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Townes, C. H.

    2009-01-01

    Ground-based optical/infrared long-baseline interferometry has continued to extend its capabilities in the U.S., where several existing facilites demonstrate its capabilites in a broad range of scientific applications. This poster presents brief overviews of the CHARA Array and the Infrared Spatial Interferometer (ISI) on Mt. Wilson, CA; the Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI) on Mt. Palomar, CA; the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) located on Anderson Mesa near Flagstaff, AZ; and the Keck Interferometer (KI) on Mauna Kea, HI; as well as the Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI) now under construction at the highest elevation of the Magdalena Mountains of New Mexico. The poster also includes pointers to a small fraction of the scientific results from U.S. interferometers. Recent scientific highlights range from stellar atmospheres (precise diameters, including G/K dwarfs; limb darkening; Cepheid pulsations) to circumstellar material (water detected in a protoplanetary disk; debris disks; Be star disks; warped circumbinary disks; dust shells) to orbits and stellar masses in double, triple, and quadruple systems, to images of stellar surfaces (rapid rotators such Altair), to name a few. While the great majority of results to date have focused on stellar astrophysics, the MROI strives to have sensitivity sufficient to access a number of AGN. Research with these independently operated facilities is sponsored by the California Institute of Technology and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for PTI; the Oceanographer of the Navy and the Office of Naval Research for NPOI; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for KI; the National Science Foundation and Georgia State University for the CHARA Array; and the Office of Naval Research, the National Science Foundation, and the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation for ISI. Funding for MROI is administered through the Office of Naval Research.

  19. Science Highlights from Ground-Based O/IR Interferometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAlister, Harold A.; Akeson, R.; Armstrong, T.; Bakker, E.; Boden, A.; ten Brummelaar, T.; Creech-Eakman, M.; Hutter, D.

    2007-05-01

    Ground-based optical/infrared long-baseline interferometry has come of age in the U.S. where several existing or planned facilities have produced remarkable scientific results demonstrating the power of the technique within a broad range of scientific applications. This paper presents brief overviews of the following facilities: the Palomar Testbed Interferometer (PTI) on Mt. Palomar, CA; the Navy Prototype Optical Interferometer (NPOI) located on Anderson Mesa near Flagstaff, AZ; the Keck Interferometer (KI) on Mauna Kea, HI; and the CHARA Array on Mt. Wilson, CA. Also described is the Magdalena Ridge Observatory Interferometer (MROI) to be built at the highest elevation of the Magdalena Mountains of New Mexico. Example scientific highlights to date include: The first measurement of stellar rotational oblateness (Altair), the detection of Cepheid pulsations, and ultra-precise astrometry of binaries with PTI; the first six-telescope images (the triple system eta Virginis) and constraints on disk parameters of Be stars with NPOI; resolving the nucleus of NGC 4151 and probing the inner disk regions of YSOs with KI; and, the first direct detection of gravity darkening in single stars (Regulus), calibration of the Baade-Wesselink method for Cepheids, and the first direct measurement of the diameter of an exoplanet (the transit system HD 189733) using the CHARA Array. While the great majority of results to date have focused on stellar astrophysics, the MROI strives to have sensitivity sufficient to access a number of AGN. Research with these independently operated facilities is sponsored by the California Institute of Technology and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for PTI; the U.S. Naval Observatory and the Naval Research Laboratory for NPOI; the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for KI; and, the National Science Foundation and Georgia State University for the CHARA Array. Funding for MROI is administered through the Office of Naval Research.

  20. Ground-Based Remote Retrievals of Cumulus Entrainment Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, Timothy J.; Turner, David D.; Berg, Larry K.; Krueger, Steven K.

    2013-07-26

    While fractional entrainment rates for cumulus clouds have typically been derived from airborne observations, this limits the size and scope of available data sets. To increase the number of continental cumulus entrainment rate observations available for study, an algorithm for retrieving them from ground-based remote sensing observations has been developed. This algorithm, called the Entrainment Rate In Cumulus Algorithm (ERICA), uses the suite of instruments at the Southern Great Plains (SGP) site of the United States Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility as inputs into a Gauss-Newton optimal estimation scheme, in which an assumed guess of the entrainment rate is iteratively adjusted through intercomparison of modeled liquid water path and cloud droplet effective radius to their observed counterparts. The forward model in this algorithm is the Explicit Mixing Parcel Model (EMPM), a cloud parcel model that treats entrainment as a series of discrete entrainment events. A quantified value for measurement uncertainty is also returned as part of the retrieval. Sensitivity testing and information content analysis demonstrate the robust nature of this method for retrieving accurate observations of the entrainment rate without the drawbacks of airborne sampling. Results from a test of ERICA on three months of shallow cumulus cloud events show significant variability of the entrainment rate of clouds in a single day and from one day to the next. The mean value of 1.06 km-¹ for the entrainment rate in this dataset corresponds well with prior observations and simulations of the entrainment rate in cumulus clouds.

  1. Orbital debris removal using ground-based lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Charles R.

    1996-01-01

    Orbiting the Earth are spent rocket stages, non-functioning satellites, hardware from satellite deployment and staging, fragments of exploded spacecraft, and other relics of decades of space exploration: orbital debris. The United States Space Command tracks and maintains a catalog of the largest objects. The catalog contains over 7000 objects. Recent studies have assessed the debris environment in an effort to estimate the number of smaller particles and the probability of a collision causing catastrophic damage to a functioning spacecraft. The results of the studies can be used to show, for example, that the likelihood of a collision of a particle larger than about one centimeter in diameter with the International Space Station during a 10-year period is a few percent, roughly in agreement with earlier estimates for Space Station Freedom. Particles greater than about one centimeter in diameter pose the greatest risk to shielded spacecraft. There are on the order of 105 such particles in low Earth orbit. The United States National Space Policy, begun in 1988, is to minimize debris consistent with mission requirements. Measures such as venting unused fuel to prevent explosions, retaining staging and deployment hardware, and shielding against smaller debris have been taken by the U.S. and other space faring nations. There is at present no program to remove debris from orbit. The natural tendency for upper atmospheric drag to remove objects from low Earth orbit is more than balanced by the increase in the number of debris objects from new launches and fragmentation of existing objects. In this paper I describe a concept under study by the Program Development Laboratory of Marshall Space Flight Center and others to remove debris with a ground-based laser. A longer version of this report, including figures, is available from the author.

  2. Space- and Ground-based Coronal Spectro-Polarimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fineschi, Silvano; Bemporad, Alessandro; Rybak, Jan; Capobianco, Gerardo

    This presentation gives an overview of the near-future perspectives of ultraviolet and visible-light spectro-polarimetric instrumentation for probing coronal magnetism from space-based and ground-based observatories. Spectro-polarimetric imaging of coronal emission-lines in the visible-light wavelength-band provides an important diagnostics tool of the coronal magnetism. The interpretation in terms of Hanle and Zeeman effect of the line-polarization in forbidden emission-lines yields information on the direction and strength of the coronal magnetic field. As study case, this presentation will describe the Torino Coronal Magnetograph (CorMag) for the spectro-polarimetric observation of the FeXIV, 530.3 nm, forbidden emission-line. CorMag - consisting of a Liquid Crystal (LC) Lyot filter and a LC linear polarimeter - has been recently installed on the Lomnicky Peak Observatory 20cm Zeiss coronagraph. The preliminary results from CorMag will be presented. The linear polarization by resonance scattering of coronal permitted line-emission in the ultraviolet (UV)can be modified by magnetic fields through the Hanle effect. Space-based UV spectro-polarimeters would provide an additional tool for the disgnostics of coronal magnetism. As a case study of space-borne UV spectro-polarimeters, this presentation will describe the future upgrade of the Sounding-rocket Coronagraphic Experiment (SCORE) to include the capability of imaging polarimetry of the HI Lyman-alpha, 121.6 nm. SCORE is a multi-wavelength imager for the emission-lines, HeII 30.4 nm and HI 121.6 nm, and visible-light broad-band emission of the polarized K-corona. SCORE has flown successfully in 2009. This presentation will describe how in future re-flights SCORE could observe the expected Hanle effect in corona with a HI Lyman-alpha polarimeter.

  3. Ground-based Measurements of Next Generation Spectroradiometric Standard Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGraw, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Accurate, radiometric standards are essential to the future of ground- and space-based astronomy and astrophysics. While astronomers tend to think of “standard stars” as available calibration sources, progress at NIST to accurately calibrate inexpensive, easy to use photodiode detectors as spectroradiometric standards from 200 nm to 1800 nm allows referencing astronomical measurements to these devices. Direction-, time-, and wavelength-dependent transmission of Earth’s atmosphere is the single largest source of error for ground-based radiometric measurement of astronomical objects. Measurements and impacts of atmospheric extinction - scattering and absorption - on imaging radiometric and spectroradiometric measurements are described. The conclusion is that accurate real-time measurement of extinction in the column of atmosphere through which standard star observations are made, over the spectral region being observed and over the field of view of the telescope are required. New techniques to directly and simultaneously measure extinction in the column of atmosphere through which observations are made are required. Our direct extinction measurement solution employs three small facility-class instruments working in parallel: a lidar to measure rapidly time variable transmission at three wavelengths with uncertainty of 0.25% per airmass, a spectrophotometer to measure rapidly wavelength variable extinction with sub-1% precision per nanometer resolution element from 350 to 1050nm, and a wide-field camera to measure angularly variable extinction over the field of view. These instruments and their operation will be described. We assert that application of atmospheric metadata provided by this instrument suite corrects for a significant fraction of systematic errors currently limiting radiometric precision, and provides a major step towards measurements that are provably dominated by random noise.

  4. Ozone profiles above Kiruna from two ground-based radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Niall J.; Walker, Kaley A.; Raffalski, Uwe; Kivi, Rigel; Gross, Jochen; Manney, Gloria L.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents new atmospheric ozone concentration profiles retrieved from measurements made with two ground-based millimetre-wave radiometers in Kiruna, Sweden. The instruments are the Kiruna Microwave Radiometer (KIMRA) and the Millimeter wave Radiometer 2 (MIRA 2). The ozone concentration profiles are retrieved using an optimal estimation inversion technique, and they cover an altitude range of ˜ 16-54 km, with an altitude resolution of, at best, 8 km. The KIMRA and MIRA 2 measurements are compared to each other, to measurements from balloon-borne ozonesonde measurements at Sodankylä, Finland, and to measurements made by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) aboard the Aura satellite. KIMRA has a correlation of 0.82, but shows a low bias, with respect to the ozonesonde data, and MIRA 2 shows a smaller magnitude low bias and a 0.98 correlation coefficient. Both radiometers are in general agreement with each other and with MLS data, showing high correlation coefficients, but there are differences between measurements that are not explained by random errors. An oscillatory bias with a peak of approximately ±1 ppmv is identified in the KIMRA ozone profiles over an altitude range of ˜ 18-35 km, and is believed to be due to baseline wave features that are present in the spectra. A time series analysis of KIMRA ozone for winters 2008-2013 shows the existence of a local wintertime minimum in the ozone profile above Kiruna. The measurements have been ongoing at Kiruna since 2002 and late 2012 for KIMRA and MIRA 2, respectively.

  5. Cryogenics for ground based and space-borne instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duband, L.

    In many space sciences project cryogenic detectors are essential for the accomplishment of the scientific objectives, offering unique advantages and unmatched performance. In addition several other components such as the optics can benefit from a cryogenic cooling which reduces the radiative loading. The Service des Basses Températ- ures (SBT) of CEA Grenoble has been involved in space cryogenics for over 20 years now and features a dedicated laboratory, the Cryocoolers and Space Cryogenics group. Various cryocoolers have been developed in the past and our fields of activity focus now on four main technologies: sorption coolers, multistage pulse tubes, adiabatic demagnetization refrigerators (ADR), and cryogenic loop heat pipes. In addition work on two new concepts for ground based dilution refrigerators is also ongoing. Finally developments on various key technologies such as the heat switches, the suspension or structural systems are also carried out. These developments are mainly funded by the European Space Agency (ESA) or by the Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES). In this paper we mostly give an overview of the developments carried out at SBT along with several examples of other relevant systems. We use space cryogenics as a thread. However these coolers or techniques can be used on ground, particularly on remote locations where liquid cryogen are unavailable and/or where maintenance must be limited to a strict minimum. In this case they can be simplified and take advantage of on ground resources, and their cost can be significantly reduced. For most of these systems the common feature is the absence of any moving parts or any friction, which guarantees a very good reliability and make them very good candidates for space borne instruments requiring cryogenic temperatures.

  6. Ground based monitoring of channel and floodplain inundation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nghia Hung, Nguyen; Thoss, Heiko; Güntner, Andreas; Apel, Heiko

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring of floodplain inundation is one of the key issues in respect to hydraulic model calibration, especially for 2-dimensional modeling of floodplains. While in recent years the use of remote sensing products for flood mapping have received a large boost by new techniques and platforms (LiDAR, SAR, optical system, both satellite and airborn) and proved to be a significant step forward in floodplain inundation model calibration, they are not the encompassing answer to the chronic lack of data of floodplain inundation. Due to the singular nature of floods and restrictions in sensor availability, overpass frequencies, unfavorable atmospheric conditions and difficulties in signal interpretation, remote sensing products usually provide only a short but spatially extensive view on the inundation process. In order to get a more encompassing picture of the inundation dynamics, time series of flood parameters have to be collected in the floodplains itself. In order to overcome the intrinsic problem of testing flood monitoring equipment in a short termed research project, an extensive ground-based flood monitoring system was established within the WISDOM (www.wisdom.caf.dlr.de) project in the Mekong Delta. Due to annual flood rhythm flood condition could be guaranteed within the projects duration. The test site Tam Nong in the Plain of Reeds in the Delta was equipped with 21 water level pressure gauges, 7 turbidity sensors and 2 GPS buoys, all designed to run autonomously for a period of 6 month and sampling data in short termed intervals. The collected data show a detailed picture of the inundation and sediment dynamics in the whole area including tidal influence and dike overtopping. This unique data set will be used in combination with spatial explicit water masks derived by remote sensing for 2D hydraulic model calibration.

  7. Project management for complex ground-based instruments: MEGARA plan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Vargas, María. Luisa; Pérez-Calpena, Ana; Gil de Paz, Armando; Gallego, Jesús; Carrasco, Esperanza; Cedazo, Raquel; Iglesias, Jorge

    2014-08-01

    The project management of complex instruments for ground-based large telescopes is a challenge itself. A good management is a clue for project success in terms of performance, schedule and budget. Being on time has become a strict requirement for two reasons: to assure the arrival at the telescope due to the pressure on demanding new instrumentation for this first world-class telescopes and to not fall in over-costs. The budget and cash-flow is not always the expected one and has to be properly handled from different administrative departments at the funding centers worldwide distributed. The complexity of the organizations, the technological and scientific return to the Consortium partners and the participation in the project of all kind of professional centers working in astronomical instrumentation: universities, research centers, small and large private companies, workshops and providers, etc. make the project management strategy, and the tools and procedures tuned to the project needs, crucial for success. MEGARA (Multi-Espectrógrafo en GTC de Alta Resolución para Astronomía) is a facility instrument of the 10.4m GTC (La Palma, Spain) working at optical wavelengths that provides both Integral-Field Unit (IFU) and Multi-Object Spectrograph (MOS) capabilities at resolutions in the range R=6,000-20,000. The project is an initiative led by Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain) in collaboration with INAOE (Mexico), IAA-CSIC (Spain) and Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (Spain). MEGARA is being developed under contract with GRANTECAN.

  8. Thermo-electro-hydrodynamic convection under microgravity: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutabazi, Innocent; Yoshikawa, Harunori N.; Tadie Fogaing, Mireille; Travnikov, Vadim; Crumeyrolle, Olivier; Futterer, Birgit; Egbers, Christoph

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies on thermo-electro-hydrodynamic (TEHD) convection are reviewed with focus on investigations motivated by the analogy with natural convection. TEHD convection originates in the action of the dielectrophoretic force generated by an alternating electric voltage applied to a dielectric fluid with a temperature gradient. This electrohydrodynamic force is analogous to Archimedean thermal buoyancy and can be regarded as a thermal buoyancy force in electric effective gravity. The review is concerned with TEHD convection in plane, cylindrical, and spherical capacitors under microgravity conditions, where the electric gravity can induce convection without any complexities arising from geometry or the buoyancy force due to the Earth’s gravity. We will highlight the convection in spherical geometry, comparing developed theories and numerical simulations with the GEOFLOW experiments performed on board the International Space Station (ISS).

  9. The Effect of Acute Microgravity on Mechanically-Induced Membrane Damage and Membrane-Membrane Fusion Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, Mark, S. F.; Vanderburg, Charles R.; Feedback, Daniel L.

    2001-01-01

    Although it is unclear how a living cell senses gravitational forces there is no doubt that perturbation of the gravitational environment results in profound alterations in cellular function. In the present study, we have focused our attention on how acute microgravity exposure during parabolic flight affects the skeletal muscle cell plasma membrane (i.e. sarcolemma), with specific reference to a mechanically-reactive signaling mechanism known as mechanically-induced membrane disruption or "wounding". This response is characterized by both membrane rupture and membrane resealing events mediated by membrane-membrane fusion. We here present experimental evidence that acute microgravity exposure can inhibit membrane-membrane fusion events essential for the resealing of sarcolemmal wounds in individual human myoblasts. Additional evidence to support this contention comes from experimental studies that demonstrate acute microgravity exposure also inhibits secretagogue-stimulated intracellular vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane in HL-60 cells. Based on our own observations and those of other investigators in a variety of ground-based models of membrane wounding and membrane-membrane fusion, we suggest that the disruption in the membrane resealing process observed during acute microgravity is consistent with a microgravity-induced decrease in membrane order.

  10. The effect of acute microgravity on mechanically-induced membrane damage and membrane-membrane fusion events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clarke, M. S.; Vanderburg, C. R.; Feeback, D. L.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    2001-01-01

    Although it is unclear how a living cell senses gravitational forces there is no doubt that perturbation of the gravitational environment results in profound alterations in cellular function. In the present study, we have focused our attention on how acute microgravity exposure during parabolic flight affects the skeletal muscle cell plasma membrane (i.e. sarcolemma), with specific reference to a mechanically-reactive signaling mechanism known as mechanically-induced membrane disruption or "wounding". Both membrane rupture and membrane resealing events mediated by membrane-membrane fusion characterize this response. We here present experimental evidence that acute microgravity exposure can inhibit membrane-membrane fusion events essential for the resealing of sarcolemmal wounds in individual human myoblasts. Additional evidence to support this contention comes from experimental studies that demonstrate acute microgravity exposure also inhibits secretagogue-stimulated intracellular vesicle fusion with the plasma membrane in HL-60 cells. Based on our own observations and those of other investigators in a variety of ground-based models of membrane wounding and membrane-membrane fusion, we suggest that the disruption in the membrane resealing process observed during acute microgravity is consistent with a microgravity-induced decrease in membrane order.

  11. Robust Control for Microgravity Vibration Isolation using Fixed Order, Mixed H2/Mu Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whorton, Mark

    2003-01-01

    Many space-science experiments need an active isolation system to provide a sufficiently quiescent microgravity environment. Modern control methods provide the potential for both high-performance and robust stability in the presence of parametric uncertainties that are characteristic of microgravity vibration isolation systems. While H2 and H(infinity) methods are well established, neither provides the levels of attenuation performance and robust stability in a compensator with low order. Mixed H2/H(infinity), controllers provide a means for maximizing robust stability for a given level of mean-square nominal performance while directly optimizing for controller order constraints. This paper demonstrates the benefit of mixed norm design from the perspective of robustness to parametric uncertainties and controller order for microgravity vibration isolation. A nominal performance metric analogous to the mu measure, for robust stability assessment is also introduced in order to define an acceptable trade space from which different control methodologies can be compared.

  12. Microgravity Experiment Programs for Students at the Bremen Drop Tower

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Könemann, Thorben; Eigenbrod, Christian; Von Kampen, Peter; Laemmerzahl, Claus

    The Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) founded by Prof. Dr.-Ing. Hans J. Rath in 1985 is part of the Department of Production Engineering at the University of Bremen, Germany. ZARM established as a research center and currently headed by Prof. Dr. Claus Lämmerzahl is mainly concentrated on fundamental investigations of gravitational and space-related phenomenas under conditions of weightlessness as well as questions and developments related to technologies for space. At ZARM more than 70 scientists, engineers and administrative staff as well as many students from different departments are employed. Today, ZARM is still one of the largest and most important university institutes for space sciences and technologies in Europe as well as worldwide well known in the space community. With a height of 146 m the Bremen Drop Tower is the predominant facility of ZARM and also the only drop tower of its class in Europe. ZARM’s ground-based laboratory offers the opportunity for daily short-term experiments under conditions of high-quality weightlessness at a level of 10 (-6) g (microgravity). The provided quality is one of the purest for experiments under weightlessness worldwide achieved. The scientists may choose between a single drop experiment with 4.74 s in simple free fall and a catapult experiment with 9.3 s of weightlessness. Either in the drop or in the worldwide unique catapult operation routine the repetition rates of microgravity experiments at ZARM are always the same, generally up to 3 times per day. Since the start of operation of the facility in 1990, over 6750 launches of more than 160 different experiment types from various scientific fields like Fundamental Physics, Combustion, Fluid Dynamics, Planetary Formation / Astrophysics, Biology and Materials Sciences have been successfully accomplished so far. In our paper we will report and inform about microgravity experiment programs for students like „Drop Your Thesis!“ by ESA and

  13. Microgravity Environment on the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric; McPherson, Kevin

    2004-01-01

    A primary feature of the International Space Station will be its microgravity environment--an environment in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced. The International Space Station design has been driven by a long-standing, high-level requirement for a microgravity mode of operation. Various types of data are gathered when science experiments are conducted. The acceleration levels experienced during experiment operation should be factored into the analysis of the results of most microgravity experiments. To this end, the Space Acceleration Measurement System records the acceleration levels to support microgravity researchers for nearly three years of International Space Station operations. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project assists the experiments principal investigators with their analysis of the acceleration (microgravity) environment. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project provides cataloged data, periodic analysis summary reports, specialized reports for experiment teams, and real-time data in a variety of user-defined formats. Characterization of the various microgravity carriers (e.g., Shuttle and International Space Station) is also accomplished for the experiment teams. Presented in this paper will be a short description of how microgravity disturbances may affect some experiment classes, a snapshot of the microgravity environment, and a view into how well the space station is expected to meet the user requirements.

  14. NASA HRP Immunology Discipline - Use of Terrestrial Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crucian, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Due to the cost and operational constraints, as well as technical implementation limitations, it is desirous to perform relevant space physiology investigations first in terrestrial 'space analogs'. This is particularly true for initial investigations, which may then provide appropriate focus for subsequent flight investigations, or for mechanistic investigations that simply cannot be performed during spaceflight. Appropriate analog choice is extremely important. There are a wide variety of terrestrial space analogs, each relevant to a particular physiological discipline (or disciplines) and each with a particular fidelity (or lack thereof) to spaceflight, and each with unique operational constraints. The HRP Immunology Discipline is tasked with managing the HRP Risk concerning clinical risk for Astronaut crews related to spaceflight-associated immune dysregulation. Such dysregulation has been documented to occur during spaceflight, and found to persist for the duration of a 6-month ISS mission. Studies continue to characterize the onorbit phenomenon, but it generally consists of diminished immunocyte function, dysregulated cytokine profiles, and persistent herpesvirus reactivation. Causes are thought to synergistically include microgravity, psychological or physiological stress, radiation, and/or circadian misalignment. An appropriate terrestrial analog for immune dysregulation would replicate as many of these influences as possible. Such analogs may include clinostat or bioreactor cell culture (microgravity), hindlimb suspension (stress, fluid shifts, hypokinesis), or human deployment to remote or extreme environments (isolation, stress, circadian). Also, the laboratory setting may be used as an analog, or to augment analogs, such as sleep deprivation/misalignment or human centrifugation to replicate gravitational stress. As an appropriate example of a NASA Disciplines use of Terrestrial space analogs, this talk will discuss spaceflight associated immune

  15. A microgravity boiling and convective condensation experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kachnik, Leo; Lee, Doojeong; Best, Frederick; Faget, Nanette

    1987-01-01

    A boiling and condensing test article consisting of two straight tube boilers, one quartz and one stainless steel, and two 1.5 m long glass-in-glass heat exchangers, on 6 mm ID and one 10 mm ID, was flown on the NASA KC-135 0-G aircraft. Using water as the working fluid, the 5 kw boiler produces two phase mixtures of varying quality for mass flow rates between 0.005 and 0.1 kg/sec. The test section is instrumented at eight locations with absolute and differential pressure transducers and thermocouples. A gamma densitometer is used to measure void fraction, and high speed photography records the flow regimes. A three axis accelerometer provides aircraft acceleration data (+ or - 0.01G). Data are collected via an analog-to-digital conversion and data acquisition system. Bubbly, annular, and slug flow regimes were observed in the test section under microgravity conditions. Flow oscillations were observed for some operating conditions and the effect of the 2-G pullout prior to the 0-G period was observed by continuously recording data throughout the parabolas. A total fo 300 parabolas was flown.

  16. A microgravity boiling and convective condensation experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachnik, Leo; Lee, Doojeong; Best, Frederick; Faget, Nanette

    1987-12-01

    A boiling and condensing test article consisting of two straight tube boilers, one quartz and one stainless steel, and two 1.5 m long glass-in-glass heat exchangers, on 6 mm ID and one 10 mm ID, was flown on the NASA KC-135 0-G aircraft. Using water as the working fluid, the 5 kw boiler produces two phase mixtures of varying quality for mass flow rates between 0.005 and 0.1 kg/sec. The test section is instrumented at eight locations with absolute and differential pressure transducers and thermocouples. A gamma densitometer is used to measure void fraction, and high speed photography records the flow regimes. A three axis accelerometer provides aircraft acceleration data (+ or - 0.01G). Data are collected via an analog-to-digital conversion and data acquisition system. Bubbly, annular, and slug flow regimes were observed in the test section under microgravity conditions. Flow oscillations were observed for some operating conditions and the effect of the 2-G pullout prior to the 0-G period was observed by continuously recording data throughout the parabolas. A total fo 300 parabolas was flown.

  17. Ground Based Investigation of Electrostatic Accelerometer in HUST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Y.; Zhou, Z.

    2013-12-01

    High-precision electrostatic accelerometers with six degrees of freedom (DOF) acceleration measurement were successfully used in CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE missions which to measure the Earth's gravity field. In our group, space inertial sensor based on the capacitance transducer and electrostatic control technique has been investigated for test of equivalence principle (TEPO), searching non-Newtonian force in micrometer range, and satellite Earth's field recovery. The significant techniques of capacitive position sensor with the noise level at 2×10-7pF/Hz1/2 and the μV/Hz1/2 level electrostatic actuator are carried out and all the six servo loop controls by using a discrete PID algorithm are realized in a FPGA device. For testing on ground, in order to compensate one g earth's gravity, the fiber torsion pendulum facility is adopt to measure the parameters of the electrostatic controlled inertial sensor such as the resolution, and the electrostatic stiffness, the cross couple between different DOFs. A short distance and a simple double capsule equipment the valid duration about 0.5 second is set up in our lab for the free fall tests of the engineering model which can directly verify the function of six DOF control. Meanwhile, high voltage suspension method is also realized and preliminary results show that the horizontal axis of acceleration noise is about 10-8m/s2/Hz1/2 level which limited mainly by the seismic noise. Reference: [1] Fen Gao, Ze-Bing Zhou, Jun Luo, Feasibility for Testing the Equivalence Principle with Optical Readout in Space, Chin. Phys. Lett. 28(8) (2011) 080401. [2] Z. Zhu, Z. B. Zhou, L. Cai, Y. Z. Bai, J. Luo, Electrostatic gravity gradiometer design for the advanced GOCE mission, Adv. Sp. Res. 51 (2013) 2269-2276. [3] Z B Zhou, L Liu, H B Tu, Y Z Bai, J Luo, Seismic noise limit for ground-based performance measurements of an inertial sensor using a torsion balance, Class. Quantum Grav. 27 (2010) 175012. [4] H B Tu, Y Z Bai, Z B Zhou, L Liu, L

  18. The Automatic Measuring Machines and Ground-Based Astrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergeeva, T. P.

    The introduction of the automatic measuring machines into the astronomical investigations a little more then a quarter of the century ago has increased essentially the range and the scale of projects which the astronomers could capable to realize since then. During that time, there have been dozens photographic sky surveys, which have covered all of the sky more then once. Due to high accuracy and speed of automatic measuring machines the photographic astrometry has obtained the opportunity to create the high precision catalogs such as CpC2. Investigations of the structure and kinematics of the stellar components of our Galaxy has been revolutionized in the last decade by the advent of automated plate measuring machines. But in an age of rapidly evolving electronic detectors and space-based catalogs, expected soon, one could think that the twilight hours of astronomical photography have become. On opposite of that point of view such astronomers as D.Monet (U.S.N.O.), L.G.Taff (STScI), M.K.Tsvetkov (IA BAS) and some other have contended the several ways of the photographic astronomy evolution. One of them sounds as: "...special efforts must be taken to extract useful information from the photographic archives before the plates degrade and the technology required to measure them disappears". Another is the minimization of the systematic errors of ground-based star catalogs by employment of certain reduction technology and a dense enough and precise space-based star reference catalogs. In addition to that the using of the higher resolution and quantum efficiency emulsions such as Tech Pan and some of the new methods of processing of the digitized information hold great promise for future deep (B<25) surveys (Bland-Hawthorn et al. 1993, AJ, 106, 2154). Thus not only the hard working of all existing automatic measuring machines is apparently needed but the designing, development and employment of a new generation of portable, mobile scanners is very necessary. The

  19. Ground based monitoring of channel and floodplain inundation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apel, H.; Hung, N. N.; Güntner, A.; Thoss, H.

    2009-12-01

    Monitoring of floodplain inundation is one of the key issues in respect to hydraulic model calibration, especially for 2-dimensional modeling of floodplains. While in recent years the use of remote sensing products for flood mapping have received a large boost by new techniques and platforms (LiDAR, SAR, optical system, both satellite and airborn) and proved to be a significant step forward in floodplain inundation model calibration, they are not the encompassing answer to the chronic lack of data of floodplain inundation. Due to the singular nature of floods and restrictions in sensor availability, overpass frequencies, unfavorable atmospheric conditions and difficulties in signal interpretation, remote sensing products usually provide only a short but spatially extensive view on the inundation process. In order to get a more encompassing picture of the inundation dynamics, time series of flood parameters have to be collected in the floodplains itself. In order to overcome the intrinsic problem of testing flood monitoring equipment in a short termed research project, an extensive ground-based flood monitoring system was established within the WISDOM (www.wisdom.caf.dlr.de) project in the Mekong Delta. Due to annual flood rhythm flood condition could be guaranteed within the projects duration. The test site Tam Nong in the Plain of Reeds in the Delta was equipped with 21 water level pressure gauges, 7 turbidity sensors and 2 GPS buoys, all designed to run autonomously for a period of 6 month and sampling data in short termed intervals. The equipment used range from cheap pressure sensors to rather expensive developments like the GPS buoys. Nevertheless, overall costs of the systems are comparatively low, especially in cost-benefit considerations. This is because they are developed for continuous monitoring, are modular in their sensor configuration and movable, i.e. reusable. The collected data show a detailed picture of the inundation and sediment dynamics in the

  20. Ground-Based Observing Campaign of Briz-M Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lederer, S. M.; Buckalew, B.; Frith, J.; Cowardin, H. M.; Hickson, P.; Matney, M.; Anz-Meador, P.

    2017-01-01

    In 2015, NASA's Orbital Debris Program Office (ODPO) completed the installation of the Meter Class Autonomous Telescope (MCAT) on Ascension Island. MCAT is a 1.3m optical telescope designed with a fast tracking capability for observing orbital debris at all orbital regimes (Low-Erath orbits to Geosyncronous (GEO) orbits) from a low latitude site. This new asset is dedicated year-round for debris observations, and its location fills a geographical gap in the Ground-based Electro Optical Space Surveillance (GEODSS) network. A commercial off the shelf (COTS) research grade 0.4m telescope (named the Benbrook telescope) will also be installed on Ascension at the end of 2016. This smaller version is controlled by the same master software, designed by Euclid Research, and can be tasked to work independently or in concert with MCAT. Like MCAT, it has a the same suite of filters, a similar field of view, and a fast-tracking Astelco mount, and is also capable of tracking debris at all orbital regimes. These assets are well suited for targeted campagins or surveys of debris. Since 2013, NASA's ODPO has also had extensive access to the 3.8m infrared UKIRT telescope, located on Mauna Kea. At nearly 14,000-ft, this site affords excellent conditions for collecting both photometery and spectroscopy at near-IR (0.9 - 2.5 micrometers SWIR) and thermal-IR (8 - 25 micrometers; LWIR) regimes, ideal for investigating material properties as well as thermal characteristics and sizes of debris. For the purposes of understanding orbital debris, taking data in both survey mode as well as targeting individual objects for more in-depth characterizations are desired. With the recent break-ups of Briz-M rocket bodies, we have collected a suite of data in the optical, near-infrared, and mid-infrared of in-tact objects as well as those classified as debris. A break-up at GEO of a Briz-M rocket occurred in January, 2016, well timed for the first remote observing survey-campaign with MCAT. Access to

  1. Long term landslide monitoring with Ground Based SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monserrat, Oriol; Crosetto, Michele; Luzi, Guido; Gili, Josep; Moya, Jose; Corominas, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    In the last decade, Ground-Based (GBSAR) has proven to be a reliable microwave Remote Sensing technique in several application fields, especially for unstable slopes monitoring. GBSAR can provide displacement measurements over few squared kilometres areas and with a very high spatial and temporal resolution. This work is focused on the use of GBSAR technique for long term landslide monitoring based on a particular data acquisition configuration, which is called discontinuous GBSAR (D-GBSAR). In the most commonly used GBSAR configuration, the radar is left installed in situ, acquiring data periodically, e.g. every few minutes. Deformations are estimated by processing sets of GBSAR images acquired during several weeks or months, without moving the system. By contrast, in the D-GBSAR the radar is installed and dismounted at each measurement campaign, revisiting a given site periodically. This configuration is useful to monitor slow deformation phenomena. In this work, two alternative ways for exploiting the D-GBSAR technique will be presented: the DInSAR technique and the Amplitude based Technique. The former is based on the exploitation of the phase component of the acquired SAR images and it allows providing millimetric precision on the deformation estimates. However, this technique presents several limitations like the reduction of measurable points with an increase in the period of observation, the ambiguous nature of the phase measurements, and the influence of the atmospheric phase component that can make it non applicable in some cases, specially when working in natural environments. The second approach, that is based on the use of the amplitude component of GB-SAR images combined with a image matching technique, will allow the estimation of the displacements over specific targets avoiding two of the limitations commented above: the phase unwrapping and atmosphere contribution but reducing the deformation measurement precision. Two successful examples of D

  2. Determination of Roles of Microgravity and Ionizing Radiation on the Reactivation of Epstein-Barr Virus In Vitro

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mehta, Satish K; Renner, Ashlie; Stowe, Raymond; Bloom, David; Pierson, Duane

    2015-01-01

    Astronauts experience symptomatic and asymptomatic herpes virus reactivation during spaceflight. We have shown increases in reactivation of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) and shedding in body fluids (saliva and urine) in astronauts during space travel. Alterations in immunity, increased stress hormone levels, microgravity, increased radiation, and other conditions unique to spaceflight may promote reactivation of latent herpes viruses. Unique mechanico-physico forces associated with spaceflight can have profound effects on cellular function, especially immune cells. In space flight analog studies such as Antarctica, bed rest studies, and NASA's undersea habitat (Aquarius), reactivation of these viruses occurred, but to a lesser extent than spaceflight. Spaceflight analogs model some spaceflight factors, but none of the analogs recreates all factors experienced in space. Most notably, microgravity and radiation are not included in many analogs. Stress, processed through the HPA axis and SAM systems, induces viral reactivation. However, the respective roles of microgravity and increased space radiation levels or if any synergy exists are not known. Therefore, we studied the effect of modeled space radiation and/or microgravity, independent of the immune system on the changes in cellular gene expression that results in viral (EBV) reactivation. The effects of modeled microgravity and low shear on EBV replication and cellular and EBV gene expression were studied in human B-lymphocyte cell cultures. Latently infected B-lymphocytes were propagated in the rotating wall bioreactor and irradiated with the various dosages of gamma irradiation. At specific time intervals following exposure to modeled microgravity, the cells and supernatant were harvested and reactivation of EBV were assessed by measuring EBV and gene expression, DNA methylation, and infectious virus production.

  3. Magnetic activity of seismic solar analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salabert, D.; García, R. A.; Beck, P. G.

    2016-12-01

    We present our latest results on the solar-stellar connection by studying 18 solar analogs that we identified among the Kepler seismic sample tep{salabert16a}. We measured their magnetic activity properties using observations collected by the Kepler satellite and the ground-based, high-resolution HERMES spectrograph. The photospheric (S{_ph}) and chromospheric (S) magnetic activity proxies of these seismic solar analogs are compared in relation to solar activity. We show that the activity of the Sun is actually comparable to the activity of the seismic solar analogs. Furthermore, we report on the discovery of temporal variability in the acoustic frequencies of the young (1 Gyr-old) solar analog KIC 10644253 with a modulation of about 1.5 years, which agrees with the derived photospheric activity tep{salabert16b}. It could actually be the signature of the short-period modulation, or quasi-biennal oscillation, of its magnetic activity as observed in the Sun and the 1-Gyr-old solar analog HD 30495. In addition, the lithium abundance and the chromospheric activity estimated from HERMES confirms that KIC 10644253 is a young and more active star than the Sun.

  4. Microgravity Fluids for Biology, Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, DeVon; Kohl, Fred; Massa, Gioia D.; Motil, Brian; Parsons-Wingerter, Patricia; Quincy, Charles; Sato, Kevin; Singh, Bhim; Smith, Jeffrey D.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2013-01-01

    Microgravity Fluids for Biology represents an intersection of biology and fluid physics that present exciting research challenges to the Space Life and Physical Sciences Division. Solving and managing the transport processes and fluid mechanics in physiological and biological systems and processes are essential for future space exploration and colonization of space by humans. Adequate understanding of the underlying fluid physics and transport mechanisms will provide new, necessary insights and technologies for analyzing and designing biological systems critical to NASAs mission. To enable this mission, the fluid physics discipline needs to work to enhance the understanding of the influence of gravity on the scales and types of fluids (i.e., non-Newtonian) important to biology and life sciences. In turn, biomimetic, bio-inspired and synthetic biology applications based on physiology and biology can enrich the fluid mechanics and transport phenomena capabilities of the microgravity fluid physics community.

  5. Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downey, James Patton (Compiler)

    1998-01-01

    This document reports the results and analyses presented at the Life and Microgravity Spacelab One Year Science Review meeting. The science conference was held in Montreal, Canada, on August 20-21, 1997, and was hosted by the Canadian Space Agency. The LMS payload flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-78) from June 20 - July 7, 1996. The LMS investigations were performed in a pressurized Spacelab module and the Shuttle middeck. Forty scientific experiments were performed in fields such as fluid physics, solidification of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, the growth of protein crystals, and animal, human, and plant life sciences. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity.

  6. Fifth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)

    1999-01-01

    This conference proceedings document is a compilation of 120 papers presented orally or as poster displays to the Fifth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio on May 18-20, 1999. The purpose of the workshop is to present and exchange research results from theoretical and experimental work in combustion science using the reduced-gravity environment as a research tool. The results are contributed by researchers funded by NASA throughout the United States at universities, industry and government research agencies, and by researchers from at least eight international partner countries that are also participating in the microgravity combustion science research discipline. These research results are intended for use by public and private sector organizations for academic purposes, for the development of technologies needed for the Human Exploration and Development of Space, and to improve Earth-bound combustion and fire-safety related technologies.

  7. Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Downey, James Patton

    1998-02-01

    This document reports the results and analyses presented at the Life and Microgravity Spacelab One Year Science Review meeting. The science conference was held in Montreal, Canada, on August 20-21, 1997, and was hosted by the Canadian Space Agency. The LMS payload flew on the Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-78) from June 20 - July 7, 1996. The LMS investigations were performed in a pressurized Spacelab module and the Shuttle middeck. Forty scientific experiments were performed in fields such as fluid physics, solidification of metals, alloys, and semiconductors, the growth of protein crystals, and animal, human, and plant life sciences. The results demonstrate the range of quality science that can be conducted utilizing orbital laboratories in microgravity.

  8. Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sacksteder, Kurt (Compiler)

    2001-01-01

    This conference proceedings document is a compilation of papers presented orally or as poster displays to the Sixth International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio on May 22-24, 2001. The purpose of the workshop is to present and exchange research results from theoretical and experimental work in combustion science using the reduced-gravity environment as a research tool. The results are contributed by researchers funded by NASA throughout the United States at universities, industry and government research agencies, and by researchers from international partner countries that are also participating in the microgravity combustion science research discipline. These research results are intended for use by public and private sector organizations for academic purposes, for the development of technologies needed for Human Exploration and Development of Space, and to improve Earth-bound combustion and fire-safety related technologies.

  9. The 3rd International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, Howard D. (Compiler)

    1995-01-01

    This Conference Publication contains 71 papers presented at the Third International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, Ohio, from April 11 to 13, 1995. The purpose of the workshop was twofold: to exchange information about the progress and promise of combustion science in microgravity and to provide a forum to discuss which areas in microgravity combustion science need to be expanded profitably and which should be included in upcoming NASA Research Announcements (NRA).

  10. Design of A Microgravity Spray Cooling Experiment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    bubbles will coalesce into a large bubble on the surface of the heater in reduced gravity. During subcooled boiling , thermocapillary flows can...flights, and in-orbit experiments. Two-phase, one-component flow with heat transfer in microgravity is seen in many thermal management systems such...to predict the behavior of, and to design, prototypes for microgravity.2 Microgravity research on pool boiling with and without subcooling has been

  11. The Second International Microgravity Combustion Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This CP contains 40 papers presented at the Second International Microgravity Combustion Workshop held in Cleveland, OH, from September 15 to 17, 1992. The purpose of the workshop was twofold: to exchange information about the progress and promise of combustion science in microgravity and to provide a forum to discuss which areas in microgravity combustion science need to be expanded profitably and which should be included in upcoming NASA Research Announcements (NRA).

  12. Interpreting the International Space Station Microgravity Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard; Hrovat, Kenneth; Kelly, Eric M.; Humphreys, Brad

    2005-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) serves as a platform for microgravity research for the foreseeable future. A microgravity environment is one in which the effects of gravity are drastically reduced which then allows physical experiments to be conducted without the overpowering effects of gravity. A physical environment with very low-levels of acceleration and vibration has been accomplished by both the free fall associated with orbital flight and the design of the International Space Station. The International Space Station design has been driven by a long-standing, high-level requirement for a microgravity mode of operation. The Space Acceleration Measurement System has been in operation for nearly four years on the ISS measuring the microgravity environment in support of principal investigators and to characterize the ISS microgravity environment. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project functions as a detective to ascertain the source of disturbances seen in the ISS microgravity environment to allow correlation between that environment and experimental data. Payload developers need to predict the microgravity environment that will be imposed upon an experiment and ensure that the science and engineering requirements will be met. The Principal Investigator Microgravity Services project is developing n interactive tool to predict the microgravity environment at science payloads based on user defined operational scenarios. These operations (predictions and post-analyses) allow a researcher to examine the microgravity acceleration levels expected to exist when their experiment is operated and then receive an analysis of the environment which existed during their experiment operations. Presented in this paper will be descriptions of the environment predictive tool and an investigation into a previously unknown disturbance in the ISS microgravity environment.

  13. Microgravity effects on 'postural' muscle activity patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Layne, Charles S.; Spooner, Brian S.

    1994-01-01

    Changes in neuromuscular activation patterns associated with movements made in microgravity can contribute to muscular atrophy. Using electromyography (EMG) to monitor 'postural' muscles, it was found that free floating arm flexions made in microgravity were not always preceded by neuromuscular activation patterns normally observed during movements made in unit gravity. Additionally, manipulation of foot sensory input during microgravity arm flexion impacted upon anticipatory postural muscle activation.

  14. Particle cloud mixing in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ross, H.; Facca, L.; Tangirala, V.; Berlad, A. L.

    1989-01-01

    Quasi-steady flame propagation through clouds of combustible particles requires quasi-steady transport properties and quasi-steady particle number density. Microgravity conditions may be employed to help achieve the conditions of quiescent, uniform clouds needed for such combustion studies. Joint experimental and theoretical NASA-UCSD studies were concerned with the use of acoustic, electrostatic, and other methods of dispersion of fuel particulates. Results of these studies are presented for particle clouds in long cylindrical tubes.

  15. Protein Crystallization Apparatus for Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Protein Crystallization for Microgravity (DCAM) was developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. A droplet of solution with protein molecules dissolved in it is isolated in the center of a small well. In orbit, an elastomer seal is lifted so the solution can evaporate and be absorbed by a wick material. This raises the concentration of the solution, thus prompting protein molecules in the solution to form crystals. The principal investigator is Dr. Dan Carter of New Century Pharmaceuticals in Huntsville, AL.

  16. Protein crystallization apparatus for microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Protein Crystallization for Microgravity (DCAM) was developed at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. A droplet of solution with protein molecules dissolved in it is isolated in the center of a small well. In orbit, an elastomer seal is lifted so the solution can evaporate and be absorbed by a wick material. This raises the concentration of the solution, thus prompting protein molecules in the solution to form crystals. The principal investigator is Dr. Dan Carter of New Century Pharmaceuticals in Huntsville, AL.

  17. Marangoni convection under microgravity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyoshi, Ryo; Enya, Shintaro

    An evaluation is presented of the consequences for crystal growth of the dominant effect exerted by Marangoni convection during microgravity crystallization experiments conducted on PbSnTe. During the aircraft experiments in question, 0.02 G was sustained for more than 20 sec. The lessons learned from this experiment will inform the design of Japan's First Material Processing Test, which will be conducted aboard the Space Shuttle.

  18. Microgravity Foam Structure and Rheology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durian, Douglas J.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this research was to exploit rheological and multiple-light scattering techniques, and ultimately microgravity conditions, in order to quantify and elucidate the unusual elastic character of foams in terms of their underlying microscopic structure and dynamics. Special interest was in determining how this elastic character vanishes, i.e. how the foam melts into a simple viscous liquid, as a function of both increasing liquid content and shear strain rate.

  19. Spacelab 3: Research in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, G. H.; Cremin, J. W.; Hill, C. K.; Vaughan, O. H.; Theon, J. S.; Schmitz, R.

    1987-01-01

    The Spacelab 3 mission, which focused on research in microgravity, took place during the period April 29 through May 6, 1985. Spacelab 3 was the second flight of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's modular Shuttle-borne research facility. An overview of the mission is presented. Preliminary scientific results from the mission were presented by investigators at a symposium held at Marshall Space Flight Center on December 4, 1985. This special issue is based on reports presented at that symposium.

  20. Student Observe Microgravity Space Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Paula Crawford (assisted by an American Sign Language interpreter) lectures students about materials science research in space during the U.S. Microgravity Payload-4 mission (STS-87, Nov. 19 - Dec. 5, 1997) in the visitor's center set up by the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) team at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI) in Troy, NY. IDGE, flown on three Space Shuttle mission, is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operation. Photo credit: Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI)

  1. Ground-based Space Weather Monitoring with LOFAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, Michael; van Haarlem, Michiel; Lawrence, Gareth; Reid, Simon; Bos, Andre; Rawlings, Steve; Salvini, Stef; Mitchell, Cathryn; Soleimani, Manuch; Amado, Sergio; Teresa, Vital

    As one of the first of a new generation of radio instruments, the International LOFAR Telescope (ILT) will provide a number of unique and novel capabilities for the astronomical community. These include remote configuration and operation, dynamic real-time processing and system response, and the ability to provide multiple simultaneous streams of data to a community whose scientific interests run the gamut from lighting in the atmospheres of distant planets to the origins of the universe itself. The LOFAR (LOw Frequency ARray) system is optimized for a frequency range from 30-240 MHz and consists of multiple antenna fields spread across Europe. In the Netherlands, a total 36 LOFAR stations are nearing completion with an initial 8 international stations currently being deployed in Germany, France, Sweden, and the UK. Digital beam-forming techniques make the LOFAR system agile and allow for rapid repointing of the telescope as well as the potential for multiple simultaneous observations. With its dense core array and long interferometric baselines, LOFAR has the potential to achieve unparalleled sensitivity and spatial resolution in the low frequency radio regime. LOFAR will also be one of the first radio observatories to feature automated processing pipelines to deliver fully calibrated science products to its user community. As we discuss in this presentation, the same capabilities that make LOFAR a powerful tool for radio astronomy also provide an excellent platform upon which to build a ground-based monitoring system for space weather events. For example, the ability to monitor Solar activity in near real-time is one of the key scientific capabilities being developed for LOFAR. With only a fraction of its total observing capacity, LOFAR will be able to provide continuous monitoring of the Solar spectrum over the entire 10-240 MHz band down to microsecond timescales. Autonomous routines will scan these incoming spectral data for evidence of Solar flares and be

  2. Bioregenerative system components for microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nevill, Gale E., Jr.; Hessel, Michael I., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    The goal of the class was to design, fabricate, and test prototype designs that were independent, yet applicable to a Closed Loop Life Support System. The three prototypes chosen were in the areas of agar plant growth, regnerative filtration, and microgravity food preparation. The plant growth group designed a prototype agar medium growth system that incorporates nutrient solution replenishment and post-harvest refurbishment. In addition, the unit emphasizes material containment and minimization of open interfaces. The second project was a filter used in microgravity that has the capability to clean itself. The filters are perforated plates which slide through a duct and are cleaned outside of the flow with a vacuum system. The air in the duct is prevented from flowing outside of the duct by a network of sliding seals. The food preparation group developed a device which dispenses and mixes ingredients and then cooks the mixture in microgravity. The dry ingredients are dispensed from a canister by a ratchet-operated piston. The wet ingredients are dispensed from plastic bags through tubing attached to a syringe. Once inside the mixing chamber, the ingredients are mixed using a collapsible whisk and then pushed into the cooking device.

  3. Manipulation hardware for microgravity research

    SciTech Connect

    Herndon, J.N.; Glassell, R.L.; Butler, P.L.; Williams, D.M. ); Rohn, D.A. . Lewis Research Center); Miller, J.H. )

    1990-01-01

    The establishment of permanent low earth orbit occupation on the Space Station Freedom will present new opportunities for the introduction of productive flexible automation systems into the microgravity environment of space. The need for robust and reliable robotic systems to support experimental activities normally intended by astronauts will assume great importance. Many experimental modules on the space station are expected to require robotic systems for ongoing experimental operations. When implementing these systems, care must be taken not to introduce deleterious effects on the experiments or on the space station itself. It is important to minimize the acceleration effects on the experimental items being handled while also minimizing manipulator base reaction effects on adjacent experiments and on the space station structure. NASA Lewis Research Center has been performing research on these manipulator applications, focusing on improving the basic manipulator hardware, as well as developing improved manipulator control algorithms. By utilizing the modular manipulator concepts developed during the Laboratory Telerobotic Manipulator program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed an experimental testbed system called the Microgravity Manipulator, incorporating two pitch-yaw modular positioners to provide a 4 dof experimental manipulator arm. A key feature in the design for microgravity manipulation research was the use of traction drives for torque transmission in the modular pitch-yaw differentials.

  4. Microgravity combustion of dust suspensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, John H. S.; Peraldi, Olivier; Knystautas, Rom

    1993-01-01

    Unlike the combustion of homogeneous gas mixtures, there are practically no reliable fundamental data (i.e., laminar burning velocity, flammability limits, quenching distance, minimum ignition energy) for the combustion of heterogeneous dust suspensions. Even the equilibrium thermodynamic data such as the constant pressure volume combustion pressure and the constant pressure adiabatic flame temperature are not accurately known for dust mixtures. This is mainly due to the problem of gravity sedimentation. In normal gravity, turbulence, convective flow, electric and acoustic fields are required to maintain a dust in suspension. These external influences have a dominating effect on the combustion processes. Microgravity offers a unique environment where a quiescent dust cloud can in principle be maintained for a sufficiently long duration for almost all combustion experiments (dust suspensions are inherently unstable due to Brownian motion and particle aggregation). Thus, the microgravity duration provided by drop towers, parabolic flights, and the space shuttle, can all be exploited for different kinds of dust combustion experiments. The present paper describes some recent studies on microgravity combustion of dust suspension carried out on the KC-135 and the Caravelle aircraft. The results reported are obtained from three parabolic flight campaigns.

  5. Creating Simulated Microgravity Patient Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurst, Victor; Doerr, Harold K.; Bacal, Kira

    2004-01-01

    The Medical Operational Support Team (MOST) has been tasked by the Space and Life Sciences Directorate (SLSD) at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) to integrate medical simulation into 1) medical training for ground and flight crews and into 2) evaluations of medical procedures and equipment for the International Space Station (ISS). To do this, the MOST requires patient models that represent the physiological changes observed during spaceflight. Despite the presence of physiological data collected during spaceflight, there is no defined set of parameters that illustrate or mimic a 'space normal' patient. Methods: The MOST culled space-relevant medical literature and data from clinical studies performed in microgravity environments. The areas of focus for data collection were in the fields of cardiovascular, respiratory and renal physiology. Results: The MOST developed evidence-based patient models that mimic the physiology believed to be induced by human exposure to a microgravity environment. These models have been integrated into space-relevant scenarios using a human patient simulator and ISS medical resources. Discussion: Despite the lack of a set of physiological parameters representing 'space normal,' the MOST developed space-relevant patient models that mimic microgravity-induced changes in terrestrial physiology. These models are used in clinical scenarios that will medically train flight surgeons, biomedical flight controllers (biomedical engineers; BME) and, eventually, astronaut-crew medical officers (CMO).

  6. Altered cell function in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Hughes-Fulford, M

    1991-01-01

    Physiological changes in humans during spaceflight upon return to earth have been attributed to systemic adaptation, response to stress, and lack of normal exercise. Studies from the Skylab, SL-3, and D-1 missions have demonstrated that significant physiological alterations are seen in single cell prokaryotes and eukaryotes, as well as in animal tissues. Basic cellular functions such as electrolyte concentration, cell growth rate, glucose utilization, bone formation, response to growth stimulation, and exocytosis are modified in microgravity. Many of the physiological changes seen in humans, vertebrate and simple organisms in spaceflight may originate from dysfunction of basic biological mechanisms caused by microgravity. Aging humans share many of the symptoms seen in astronauts during spaceflight. These include reduced cardiac function, loss of bone and reduced immune response and orthostatic hypotension. It is possible that some of physiological adaptations seen in aging may share common physiological basis with those changes seen in spaceflight. Since microgravity affects prokaryotic and eukaryotic cell function at a subcellular and molecular level, space offers us an opportunity to learn more about basic biological mechanisms which are essential to life.

  7. Use of Microgravity to Control the Microstructure of Eutectics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox. William R.; Regel, Liya L.

    1999-01-01

    first of these hypotheses and set out to test it both experimentally and theoretically. We planned the following approaches: I .Pass electric current pulses through the MnBi/Bi eutectic during directional solidification in order to produce an oscillatory freezing rate. 2. Directionally solidify the MnBi/Bi eutectic on Mir using the QUELD II gradient freeze furnace developed by Professor Smith at Queen's University. 3. Select another fibrous eutectic system for investigation using the Accelerated Crucible Rotation Technique to introduce convection. 4. Develop theoretical models for eutectic solidification with an oscillatory freezing rate. Because of the problems with Mir, we substituted ground-based experiments at Queen's University with QUELD II vertical and horizontal, with and without vibration of the furnace. The Al-Si system was chosen for the ACRT experiments. Three related approaches were used to model eutectic solidification with an oscillatory freezing rate. A sharp interface model was used to calculate composition oscillations at the freezing interface in response to imposed freezing rate oscillations.

  8. Exoplanets -New Results from Space and Ground-based Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udry, Stephane

    The exploration of the outer solar system and in particular of the giant planets and their environments is an on-going process with the Cassini spacecraft currently around Saturn, the Juno mission to Jupiter preparing to depart and two large future space missions planned to launch in the 2020-2025 time frame for the Jupiter system and its satellites (Europa and Ganymede) on the one hand, and the Saturnian system and Titan on the other hand [1,2]. Titan, Saturn's largest satellite, is the only other object in our Solar system to possess an extensive nitrogen atmosphere, host to an active organic chemistry, based on the interaction of N2 with methane (CH4). Following the Voyager flyby in 1980, Titan has been intensely studied from the ground-based large telescopes (such as the Keck or the VLT) and by artificial satellites (such as the Infrared Space Observatory and the Hubble Space Telescope) for the past three decades. Prior to Cassini-Huygens, Titan's atmospheric composition was thus known to us from the Voyager missions and also through the explorations by the ISO. Our perception of Titan had thus greatly been enhanced accordingly, but many questions remained as to the nature of the haze surrounding the satellite and the composition of the surface. The recent revelations by the Cassini-Huygens mission have managed to surprise us with many discoveries [3-8] and have yet to reveal more of the interesting aspects of the satellite. The Cassini-Huygens mission to the Saturnian system has been an extraordinary success for the planetary community since the Saturn-Orbit-Insertion (SOI) in July 2004 and again the very successful probe descent and landing of Huygens on January 14, 2005. One of its main targets was Titan. Titan was revealed to be a complex world more like the Earth than any other: it has a dense mostly nitrogen atmosphere and active climate and meteorological cycles where the working fluid, methane, behaves under Titan conditions the way that water does on

  9. Analog current mode analog/digital converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hadidi, Khayrollah (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An improved subranging or comparator circuit is provided for an analog-to-digital converter. As a subranging circuit, the circuit produces a residual signal representing the difference between an analog input signal and an analog of a digital representation. This is achieved by subdividing the digital representation into two or more parts and subtracting from the analog input signal analogs of each of the individual digital portions. In another aspect of the present invention, the subranging circuit comprises two sets of differential input pairs in which the transconductance of one differential input pair is scaled relative to the transconductance of the other differential input pair. As a consequence, the same resistor string may be used for two different digital-to-analog converters of the subranging circuit.

  10. A Carbon Arc Apparatus For Production Of Nanotubes In Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, J. M.; Mason, G. R.; Feikema, D. A.

    2003-01-01

    Although many methods are available for production of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), the conventional carbon arc process remains the most popular due to its simplicity and large production rate. However, high temperatures inside the carbon arc generate strong buoyancy driven convection, and it is hypothesized that the non-uniform environment created by this flow will have large effects on the growth and morphology of SWNTs produced by the arc process. Indeed, using normal gravity experiments, Marin et al. have demonstrated that changes in the buoyant convection plume produced by altering the arc electrode orientation can be used to change the diameter distribution of the SWNTs produced; an effect they attribute to changes in the temperature of the local nanotube growth environment. While these experiments present convincing evidence that buoyant convection has a strong effect on nanotube growth, normal gravity experiments are severely limited in scope. The ideal way to study the effect of buoyancy on SWNT production is to remove it completely. Toward this goal, a microgravity carbon arc reactor has been designed for use in the NASA Glenn 2.2 and 5 second drop towers. Although simple in principle, conventional carbon arc machines, which generally employ large reaction chambers and require heavy duty welding power supplies capable of supplying kilowatts of power, are not suitable for microgravity experiments. Here we describe a miniature carbon arc machine for SWNT production that fits into a conventional drop rig for use on the NASA Glenn 2.2 and 5 second drop towers, but that has a performance (production rate) that is better than most large ground-based machines.

  11. The use of Antarctic analogs for the Space Exploration Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barney; Lynch, John T.

    1991-01-01

    Potential approaches to the use of the Antarctic as an analog to the lunar and Mars planetary surface segments of the SEI are reviewed. It is concluded that a well-planned and sustained program of ground-based research and testing in environments analogous to the moon and Mars is a rational method for reducing the risks associated with human space missions. Antarctica may provide an ideal setting for testing critical technologies (habitat design, life support, and advanced scientific instrumentation), studying human factors and physiology, and conducting basic scientific research similar to and directly relevant to that planned for the SEI.

  12. Simulation of fluid flows during growth of organic crystals in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Gary D.; Sutter, James K.; Balasubramaniam, R.; Fowlis, William K.; Radcliffe, M. D.; Drake, M. C.

    1987-01-01

    Several counter diffusion type crystal growth experiments were conducted in space. Improvements in crystal size and quality are attributed to reduced natural convection in the microgravity environment. One series of experiments called DMOS (Diffusive Mixing of Organic Solutions) was designed and conducted by researchers at the 3M Corporation and flown by NASA on the space shuttle. Since only limited information about the mixing process is available from the space experiments, a series of ground based experiments was conducted to further investigate the fluid dynamics within the DMOS crystal growth cell. Solutions with density differences in the range of 10 to the -7 to 10 to the -4 power g/cc were used to simulate microgravity conditions. The small density differences were obtained by mixing D2O and H2O. Methylene blue dye was used to enhance flow visualization. The extent of mixing was measured photometrically using the 662 nm absorbance peak of the dye. Results indicate that extensive mixing by natural convection can occur even under microgravity conditions. This is qualitatively consistent with results of a simple scaling analysis. Quantitave results are in close agreement with ongoing computational modeling analysis.

  13. Depression, mood state, and back pain during microgravity simulated by bed rest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Styf, J. R.; Hutchinson, K.; Carlsson, S. G.; Hargens, A. R.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a ground-based model for spinal adaptation to microgravity and to study the effects of spinal adaptation on depression, mood state, and pain intensity. METHODS: We investigated back pain, mood state, and depression in six subjects, all of whom were exposed to microgravity, simulated by two forms of bed rest, for 3 days. One form consisted of bed rest with 6 degrees of head-down tilt and balanced traction, and the other consisted of horizontal bed rest. Subjects had a 2-week period of recovery between the studies. The effects of bed rest on pain intensity in the lower back, depression, and mood state were investigated. RESULTS: Subjects experienced significantly more intense lower back pain, lower hemisphere abdominal pain, headache, and leg pain during head-down tilt bed rest. They had higher scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (ie, were more depressed) and significantly lower scores on the activity scale of the Bond-Lader questionnaire. CONCLUSIONS: Bed rest with 6 degrees of head-down tilt may be a better experimental model than horizontal bed rest for inducing the pain and psychosomatic reactions experienced in microgravity. Head-down tilt with balanced traction may be a useful method to induce low back pain, mood changes, and altered self-rated activity level in bed rest studies.

  14. Quenching dust mixtures: A new microgravity testing method using electric particulate suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Colver, G.M.; Greene, N.; Shoemaker, D.; Kim, S.W.; Yu, T.U.

    2004-10-15

    The electric particulate suspension (EPS) is a combustion ignition system under development at Iowa State University for the evaluation of quenching effects of powders in microgravity (quenching distance, ignition energy, and flammability limits). Both walls and (inert) particles can be tested as quenching media. The EPS method has potential as a benchmark design for quenching powder flames that would provide NASA and the scientific community with a new fire safety standard. Because of its simplicity and size, it is also suitable for tests on the International Space Station and the Mars Rover. The EPS method also supports combustion modeling by providing accurate measurement of flame-quenching distance as an important parameter in laminar flame theory because it is closely related to characteristic flame thickness and flame structure. In microgravity, the EPS method is expected to produce dust suspensions that are highly uniform (before ignition) compared to 1-g, where gravity can cause stratification of the suspension. Microgravity will also permit increased concentrations of particles to be tested (for a given electric field strength). Several EPS experiments are reviewed, including X-Y laser scans for cloud stratification, particle velocity distribution evaluation by the use of particle tracking velocimetry/particle image velocimetry and a leak hole sampling rig, and measurement of particle slip velocity by the use of laser Doppler anemometry. Sample quenching and ignition energy curves are presented for aluminum powder and coal dust. Only ground-based data at 1-g are reported.

  15. Nineteenth International Microgravity Measurements Group Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeLombard, Richard (Compiler)

    2000-01-01

    The Microgravity Measurements Group meetings provide a forum for an exchange of information and ideas about various aspects of microgravity acceleration research in international microgravity research programs. These meetings are sponsored by the PI Microgravity Services (PIMS) project at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The 19th MGMG meeting was held 11-13 July 2000 at the Sheraton Airport Hotel in Cleveland, Ohio. The 44 attendees represented NASA, other space agencies, universities, and commercial companies; 8 of the attendees were international representatives from Japan, Italy, Canada, Russia, and Germany. Twenty-seven presentations were made on a variety of microgravity environment topics including the International Space Station (ISS), acceleration measurement and analysis results, science effects from microgravity accelerations, vibration isolation, free flyer satellites, ground testing, vehicle characterization, and microgravity outreach and education. The meeting participants also toured three microgravity-related facilities at the NASA Glenn Research Center. Contained within the minutes is the conference agenda, which indicates each speaker, the title of their presentation, and the actual time of their presentation. The minutes also include the charts for each presentation, which indicate the authors' name(s) and affiliation. In some cases, a separate written report was submitted and has been Included here

  16. A Ground-Based Comparison of the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) and a Standard Isokinetic Dynamometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hackney, K. J.; English, K. L.; Redd, E.; DeWitt, J. K.; Ploutz-Snyder, R.; Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: 1) To compare the test-to-test reliability of Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) with a standard laboratory isokinetic dynamometer (ISOK DYN) and; 2) to determine if measures of peak torque and total work differ between devices. METHODS: Ten subjects (6M, 4F) completed two trials on both MARES and an ISOK DYN in a counterbalanced order. Peak torque values at 60 deg & 180 deg / s were obtained from five maximal repetitions of knee extension (KE) and knee flexion (KF). Total work at 180 deg / s was determined from the area under the torque vs. displacement curve during twenty maximal repetitions of KE and KF. Reliability of measures within devices was interpreted from the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and compared between devices using the ratio of the within-device standard deviations. Indicators of agreement for the two devices were evaluated from: 1) a calculation of concordance (rho) and; 2) the correlation between the mean of measures versus the delta difference between measures (m u vs delta). RESULTS: For all outcome measures ICCs were high for both the ISOK DYN (0.95-0.99) and MARES (0.90-0.99). However, ratios of the within-device standard deviation were 1.3 to 4.3 times higher on MARES. On average, a wide range (3.3 to 1054 Nm) of differences existed between the values obtained. Only KE peak torque measured at 60 deg & 180 deg / s showed similarities between devices (rho = 0.91 & 0.87; Pearson's r for m u vs delta = -0.22 & -0.37, respectively). CONCLUSION: Although MARES was designed for use in microgravity it was quite reliable during ground-based testing. However, MARES was consistently more variable than an ISOK DYN. Future longitudinal studies evaluating a change in isokinetic peak torque or total work should be limited within one device.

  17. A ground-based comparison of the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) and a commercially available isokinetic dynamometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    English, Kirk L.; Hackney, Kyle J.; De Witt, John K.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert J.; Goetchius, Elizabeth L.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.

    2013-11-01

    IntroductionInternational Space Station (ISS) crewmembers perform muscle strength and endurance testing pre- and postflight to assess the physiologic adaptations associated with long-duration exposure to microgravity. However, a reliable and standardized method to document strength changes in-flight has not been established. To address this issue, a proprietary dynamometer, the Muscle Atrophy Research and Exercise System (MARES) has been developed and flown aboard the ISS. The aims of this ground-based investigation were to: (1) evaluate the test-retest reliability of MARES and (2) determine its agreement with a commercially available isokinetic dynamometer previously used for pre- and postflight medical testing. MethodsSix males (179.5±4.7 cm; 82.0±8.7 kg; 31.3±4.0 yr) and four females (163.2±7.3 cm; 63.2±1.9 kg; 32.3±6.8 yr) completed two testing sessions on a HUMAC NORM isokinetic dynamometer (NORM) and two sessions on MARES using a randomized, counterbalanced, cross-over design. Peak torque values at 60° and 180° s-1 were calculated from five maximal repetitions of knee extension (KE) and knee flexion (KF) for each session. Total work at 180° s-1 was determined from the area under the torque versus displacement curve during 20 maximal repetitions of KE and KF. ResultsIntraclass correlation coefficients were relatively high for both devices (0.90-0.99). Only one dependent measure, KE peak torque at 60° s-1 exhibited good concordance between devices (ρ=0.92) and a small average difference (0.9±17.3 N m). ConclusionMARES demonstrated acceptable test-retest reliability and thus should serve as a good tool to monitor in-flight strength changes. However, due to poor agreement with NORM, it is not advisable to compare absolute values obtained on these devices.

  18. Precursor Analysis for Flight- and Ground-Based Anomaly Risk Significance Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Groen, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the precursor analysis for flight and ground based anomaly risk significance. It includes information on accident precursor analysis, real models vs. models, and probabilistic analysis.

  19. Assessing ground-based counts of nestling bald eagles in northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, M.R.; Hatfield, J.S.; Lindquist, E.L.

    1995-01-01

    We present evidence that the bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) productivity survey in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness of northeastern Minnesota may have underestimated the number of nestlings during 1986-1988. Recommendations are provided to achieve more accurate ground-based counts. By conducting ground-based observations for up to 1 hour/nest, an accurate count of the number of bald eagle nestlings can be obtained. If nests are only observed for up to 30 minutes/nest, an accurate determination of nest success can be made. The effort that managers put into counts should be based on the intended use of the productivity data. If small changes in mean productivity would trigger management action, the less acurate ground-based counts should be conducted with caution. Prior to implementing ground-based counts, a study like ours should estimate bias associated with different survey procedures and the observation time needed to achieve accurate results.

  20. Application of ground-based LIDAR for gully investigation in agricultural landscapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detailed scientific investigation of gullies in agricultural fields requires accurate topographic information with adequate temporal and spatial resolution. New technologies, such as ground-based LIDAR systems, are capable of generating datasets with high temporal and spatial resolutions. The spatia...

  1. Ground-based Infrared Observations of Water Vapor and Hydrogen Peroxide in the Atmosphere of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Encrenaz, T.; Greathouse, T. K.; Bitner, M.; Kruger, A.; Richter, M. J.; Lacy, J. H.; Bézard, B.; Fouchet, T.; Lefevre, F.; Forget, F.; Atreya, S. K.

    2008-11-01

    Ground-based observations of water vapor and hydrogen peroxide have been obtained in the thermal infrared range, using the TEXES instrument at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, for different times of the seasonal cycle.

  2. Review of European microgravity measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamacher, Hans

    1994-01-01

    AA In a French/Russion cooperation, CNES developed a microgravity detection system for analyzing the Mir space station micro-g-environment for the first time. European efforts to characterize the microgravity (1/9) environment within a space laboratory began in the late seventies with the design of the First Spacelab Mission SL-1. Its Material Science Double Rack was the first payload element to carry its own tri-axial acceleration package. Even though incapable for any frequency analysis, the data provided a wealth of novel information for optimal experiment and hardware design and operations for missions to come. Theoretical investigations under ESA contract demonstrated the significance of the detailed knowledge of micro-g data for a thorough experiment analysis. They especially revealed the high sensitivity of numerous phenomena to low frequency acceleration. Accordingly, the payloads of the Spacelab missions D-1 and D-2 were furnished with state-of-the-art detection systems to ensure frequency analysis between 0.1 and 100 Hz. The Microgravity Measurement Assembly (MMA) of D-2 was a centralized system comprising fixed installed as well as mobile tri-axial packages showing real-time data processing and transmission to ground. ESA's free flyer EURECA carried a system for continuous measurement over the entire mission. All EURECA subsystems and experimental facilities had to meet tough requirements defining the upper acceleration limits. In a French/Russion cooperation, CNES developed a mi crogravity detection system for analyzing the Mir space station micro-g-environment for the first time. An approach to get access to low frequency acceleration between 0 and 0.02 Hz will be realized by QSAM (Quasi-steady Acceleration Measurement) on IML-2, complementary to the NASA system Spacelab Acceleration Measurement System SAMS. A second flight of QSAM is planned for the Russian free flyer FOTON.

  3. Turning toys into microgravity machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sumners, C.; Reiff, P.

    The Toys in Space program communicates the experience of being in space and ultimately living in space. In space, what would happen to a yo-yo's speed, a top's wobble, or your skill in playing soccer, throwing a boomerang or jumping rope? Discover how these toys and others have performed in microgravity and how these demonstrations can link children to the space program. On April 12, 1985 astronauts carried the first experiment package of miniature mechanical systems called toys into space. Since that time 54 toys have been demonstrated in microgravity. This summer, NASA and the Houston Museum of Natural Science have sponsored the first International Toys in Space project with sixteen toys chosen for their popularity and relevance around the world. This set of toys takes advantage of the larger Space Station by providing toys that take up more room - from two-person games of soccer, lacrosse, marbles, and hockey to a jump rope and several kinds of yoyos. Three earlier Toys in Space missions have shown that toys are ideal machines to demonstrate how gravity affects moving objects on the Earth's surface and how the motions of these objects change in microgravity. In this presentation, participants actually experiment with miniature versions of toys, predict their behavior on orbit, and watch the surprising results. Participants receive toy patterns to share with young people at home, around the world. The Toys in Space program scales for all ages. Young learners can use their observation and comparison skills while older students apply physics concepts to toy behaviors. Concepts demonstrated include all of Newton's Laws of Motion, gyroscopic stability, centripetal force, density, as well as conservation of linear and angular momentum.

  4. A Geology Sampling System for Microgravity Bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hood, Anthony; Naids, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of microgravity bodies is being investigated as a precursor to a Mars surface mission. Asteroids, comets, dwarf planets, and the moons of Mars all fall into this microgravity category and some are been discussed as potential mission targets. Obtaining geological samples for return to Earth will be a major objective for any mission to a microgravity body. Currently the knowledge base for geology sampling in microgravity is in its infancy. Humans interacting with non-engineered surfaces in microgravity environment pose unique challenges. In preparation for such missions a team at the NASA Johnson Space Center has been working to gain experience on how to safely obtain numerous sample types in such an environment. This paper describes the type of samples the science community is interested in, highlights notable prototype work, and discusses an integrated geology sampling solution.

  5. Industrial applications of the microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Opportunities for commercialization of the microgravity environment will depend upon the success of basic research projects performed in space. Significant demands for manufacturing opportunities are unlikely in the near term. The microgravity environment is to be considered primarily as a tool for research and secondarily as a manufacturing site. This research tool is unique, valuable, and presently available to U.S. investigators only through resources provided by NASA. The United States has an obligation to facilitate corporate research, maintain a flexible international policy, foster use of and assure access to a wide variety of facilities, and develop a posture of national and international leadership in and stewardship of research and materials processing in the microgravity environment. The National Research Council's Committee on Industrial Applications of the Microgravity Environment recommends six actions that strengthen this posture, including the formation of an authoritative organization to oversee the implementation of a program of microgravity research and its industrial applications.

  6. System Identification and Automatic Mass Balancing of Ground-Based Three-Axis Spacecraft Simulator

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    System Identification and Automatic Mass Balancing of Ground-Based Three-Axis Spacecraft Simulator Jae-Jun Kim∗ and Brij N. Agrawal † Department of...TITLE AND SUBTITLE System Identification and Automatic Mass Balancing of Ground-Based Three-Axis Spacecraft Simulator 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...and Dynamics, Vol. 20, No. 4, July-August 1997, pp. 625-632. 6Schwartz, J. L. and Hall, C. D., “ System Identification of a Spherical Air-Bearing

  7. Studies of Plasma Instability Processes Excited by Ground Based High Power HF ("Heating") Facilities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-04-01

    by ground based high power HF (’ heating ’) facilities 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Dr. Alexander...Prescribed by ANSI Std. Z39-18 Grant SPC 00-4010 Final Report STUDIES OF PLASMA INSTABILITY PROCESSES EXCITED BY GROUND BASED HIGH POWER HF (" HEATING ...growing field of ionospheric HF heating . The main new results can be summarized as following: 1. Two sets of observations of suprathermal electrons

  8. (DCT-FY08) Target Detection Using Multiple Modality Airborne and Ground Based Sensors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0005 (DCT-FY08) Target Detection Using Multiple Modality Airborne and Ground Based Sensors Avideh Zakhor...Include area code) 17-08-2012 FINAL 4-1-2008 to 11-30-2011 (DCT-FY08) Target Detection Using Multiple Modality Airborne and Ground Based Sensors ...automatic, photo-realistic 3D models of building interiors. We have developed an ambulatory human operated backpack system made of a suite of sensors

  9. Predictors of sprint start speed: the effects of resistive ground-based vs. inclined treadmill training.

    PubMed

    Myer, Gregory D; Ford, Kevin R; Brent, Jensen L; Divine, Jon G; Hewett, Timothy E

    2007-08-01

    There is currently no consensus with regard to the most effective method to train for improved acceleration, or with regard to which kinematic variable provides the greatest opportunity for improvement in this important performance characteristic. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of resistive ground-based speed training and incline treadmill speed training on speed-related kinematic measures and sprint start speed. The hypothesis tested was that incline treadmill training would improve sprint start time, while the ground-based resistive training would not. Corollary hypotheses were that treadmill training would increase stride frequency and ground-based training would not affect kinematics during the sprint start. Thirty-one high school female soccer players (15.7 +/- 0.5 years) were assigned to either treadmill (n = 17) or ground-based (n = 14) training groups and trained 2 times a week for 6 weeks. The treadmill group utilized incline speed training on a treadmill, while the ground-based group utilized partner band resistance ground-based techniques. Three-dimensional motion analysis was used (4.5 m mark) before and after training to quantify kinematics during the fastest of 3 recorded sprint starts (9.1 m). Both groups decreased average sprint start time from 1.75 +/- 0.12 to 1.68 +/- 0.08 seconds (p < 0.001). Training increased stride frequency (p = 0.030) but not stride length. After training, total vertical pelvic displacement and stride length predicted 62% of the variance in sprint start time for the resistive ground-based group, while stride length and stride frequency accounted for 67% prediction of the variance in sprint start time for the treadmill group. The results of this study indicate that both incline treadmill and resistive ground-based training are effective at improving sprint start speed, although they potentially do so through differing mechanisms.

  10. Life sciences, biotechnology, and microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hymer, W. C.; Hayes, C.; Grindeland, R.; Lanhan, J. W.; Morrison, D.

    1987-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) studies on rats flown aboard Spacelab 3 are discussed, and evidence for the direct effect of microgravity on cell function is reviewed. SL-3 rat GH cells were found to experience a secretory lesion (they contained more hormone per cell, but released less per cell relative to controls). Pituitary cell culture experiments on the STS-8 mission showed that GH cells did not subsequently release as much hormone as did control cells, indicating a secretory lesion. Changes in bone and muscle noted in SL-3 rats are related to GH cell findings.

  11. Microgravity Materials and Biotechnology Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vlasse, Marcus

    1998-01-01

    Presentation will deal with an overview of the Materials Science and Biotechnology/Crystal Growth flight experiments and their requirements for a successful execution. It will also deal with the hardware necessary to perform these experiments as well as the hardware requirements. This information will serve as a basis for the Abstract: workshop participants to review the poss7ibilifies for a low cost unmanned carrier and the simple automation to carry-out experiments in a microgravity environment with little intervention from the ground. The discussion will include what we have now and what will be needed to automate totally the hardware and experiment protocol at relatively low cost.

  12. Microgravity human factors workstation development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Wilmington, Robert P.; Morris, Randy B.; Jensen, Dean G.

    1992-01-01

    Microgravity evaluations of workstation hardware as well as its system components were found to be very useful for determining the expected needs of the Space Station crew and for refining overall workstation design. Research at the Johnson Space Center has been carried out to provide optimal workstation design and human interface. The research included evaluations of hand controller configurations for robots and free flyers, the identification of cursor control device requirements, and the examination of anthropometric issues of workstation design such as reach, viewing distance, and head clearance.

  13. Japan's microgravity combustion science program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Junichi

    1993-01-01

    Most of energy used by us is generated by combustion of fuels. On the other hand, combustion is responsible for contamination of our living earth. Combustion, also, gives us damage to our life as fire or explosive accidents. Therefore, clean and safe combustion is now eagerly required. Knowledge of the combustion process in combustors is needed to achieve proper designs that have stable operation, high efficiency, and low emission levels. However, current understanding on combustion is far from complete. Especially, there is few useful information on practical liquid and solid particle cloud combustion. Studies on combustion process under microgravity condition will provide many informations for basic questions related to combustors.

  14. Embryogenic plant cells in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, Abraham D.

    1991-01-01

    In view of circumstantial evidence for the role of gravity (g) in shaping the embryo environment, normal embryo development may not occur reliably and efficiently in the microgravity environment of space. Attention must accordingly be given to those aspects of higher plant reproductive biology in space environments required for the production of viable embryos in a 'seed to seed to seed' experiment. It is suggested that cultured cells can be grown to be morphogenetically competent, and can be evaluated as to their ability to simulate embryogenic events usually associated with fertilized eggs in the embryo sac of the ovule in the ovary.

  15. Materials Research in Microgravity 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyers, R. (Editor); Bojarevis, V. (Editor); Downey, J.; Henein, H. (Editor); Matson, D.; Seidel, A. (Editor); Voss, D. (Editor); SanSoucie, M. (Compiler)

    2012-01-01

    Reducing gravitational effects such as thermal and solutal buoyancy enables investigation of a large range of different phenomena in materials science. The Symposium on Materials Research in Microgravity involved 6 sessions composed of 39 presentations and 14 posters with contributions from more than 14 countries. The sessions concentrated on four different categories of topics related to ongoing reduced-gravity research. Highlights from this symposium will be featured in the September 2012 issue of JOM. The TMS Materials Processing and Manufacturing Division, Process Technology and Modeling Committee and Solidification Committee sponsored the symposium.

  16. Altered cell function in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, Millie

    1991-01-01

    The paper overviews published results from investigations of changes in basic biological parameters taking place as a result of spaceflight exposure. These include changes in the rates of the DNA, mRNA, and protein biosyntheses; changes in the growth rate of an organism; and alterations in the cytoskeleton structure, differentiation, hormone accumulation, and collagen matrix secretion. These results, obtained both in complex biological organisms and on cultured cells, suggest that a basic cellular function is influenced and changed by microgravity. Many of the above mentioned changes are also found to take place in aging cells.

  17. Use of Microgravity to Control the Microstructure of Eutectics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, William R.; Regel, Liya L.; Smith, Reginald W.

    1998-01-01

    This grant began in June of 1996. Its long term goal is to be able to control the microstructure of directionally solidified eutectic alloys, through an improved understanding of the influence of convection. The primary objective of the present projects is to test hypotheses for the reported influence of microgravity on the microstructure of three fibrous eutectics (MnBi-Bi, InSb-NiSb, Al3Ni-Al). A secondary objective is to determine the influence of convection on the microstructure of other eutectic alloys. Two doctoral students and a masters student supported as a teaching assistant were recruited for this research. Techniques were developed for directional solidification of MnBi-Bi eutectics with periodic application of current pulses to produce an oscillatory freezing rate. Image analysis techniques were developed to obtain the variation in MnBi fiber spacing, which was found to be normally distributed. The mean and standard deviation of fiber spacing were obtained for several freezing conditions. Eighteen ampoules were prepared for use in the gradient freeze furnace QUELD developed at Queen's University for use in microgravity. Nine of these ampoules will be solidified soon at Queen's in a ground-based model. We hope to solidify the other nine in the QUELD that is mounted on the Canadian Microgravity Isolation Mount on MIR. Techniques are being developed for directional solidification of the Al-Si eutectic at different freezing rates, with and without application of accelerated crucible rotation to induce convection. For the first time, theoretical methods are being developed to analyze eutectic solidification with an oscillatory freezing rate. In a classical sharp-interface model, we found that an oscillatory freezing rate increases the deviation of the average interfacial composition from the eutectic, and increases the undercooling of the two phases by different amounts. This would be expected to change the volume fraction solidifying and the fiber spacing

  18. Learning by Analogy: Discriminating between Potential Analogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richland, Lindsey E.; McDonough, Ian M.

    2010-01-01

    The ability to successfully discriminate between multiple potentially relevant source analogs when solving new problems is crucial to proficiency in a mathematics domain. Experimental findings in two different mathematical contexts demonstrate that providing cues to support comparative reasoning during an initial instructional analogy, relative to…

  19. Structural and functional changes in lymphocytes in microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risin, D.; Risin, S.; Ward, N.; Sundaresan, A.; Pellis, N. R.

    Impairment of the immunity in astronauts and cosmonauts even in short-term flights is a recognized risk. Long-term orbital space missions and anticipated interplanetary flights increase the concern for more pronounced effects on the immune system with potential clinical consequences. Since 1992 we are investigating the effect of modeled (MMG) and true microgravity on isolated lymphocytes in vitro. We had shown that modeled and true microgravity inhibit lymphocyte locomotion. Modeled microgravity also suppresses polyclonal and antigen-specific lymphocyte activation. At the same time polyclonal lymphocyte activation prior to exposure to MMG abrogates the MG-induced inhibition of lymphocyte locomotion. Analysis of the relationship between activation deficits and the loss of locomotion in MG suggested a fundamental defect in signal transduction mechanism that was confirmed in further studies. FACS analysis showed that MMG selectively inhibits the expression of PKC isoforms. The decrease was most prominent and substantial in PKC ɛ, less obvious in PKC δ and almost marginal and insignificant in PKC α . Downregulation of PKC isoforms δ and ɛ was proven at the mRNA level by RT-PCR and at protein level by Western blot. We had also demonstrated that MMG selectively affects not only the expression but also the cell distribution of different PKC isoforms that may contribute to the impairment of signal transduction in MG. MMG inhibits programmed cell death (PCD) in lymphocytes. Inhibition was observed in two experimental models (PCD induced by gamma-radiation in PBMC and activation-induced PCD in activated T cells after restimulation with PHA-M or PMA+ionomycin.). Comparative DNA chip analysis has demonstrated a significant difference in gene expression profiles between static and MG analog cultures of activated T cells. (Supported by NRA OLMSA-02 and NSCORT NAG5-4072 grants).

  20. Spheroid formation of human thyroid cancer cells under simulated microgravity: a possible role of CTGF and CAV1

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Multicellular tumor spheroids (MCTS) formed scaffold-free under microgravity are of high interest for research and medicine. Their formation mechanism can be studied in space in real microgravity or on Earth using ground-based facilities (GBF), which simulate microgravity. On Earth, these experiments are more cost-efficient and easily performable. However, each GBF might exert device-specific and altered superimposingly gravity-dependent effects on the cells. Results FTC-133 human thyroid cancer cells were cultivated on a 2D clinostat (CN) and a random positioning machine (RPM) and compared with corresponding 1 g control cells. Harvested cell samples were investigated by microscopy, quantitative realtime-PCR and Multi-Analyte Profiling. Spheroid formation and growth occurred during 72 h of cultivation on both devices. Cytokine secretion and gene activation patterns frequently altered in different ways, when the cells were cultured either on the RPM or the CN. A decreased expression of CAV1 and CTGF in MCTS compared to adherent cells was observed after cultivation on both machines. Conclusion The development of MCTS proceeds similarly on the RPM and the CN resembling the situation observed under real microgravity conditions, while no MCTS formation was observed at 1 g under identical experimental conditions. Simultaneously, changes in the regulation of CTGF and CAV1 appeared in a comparable manner on both machines. A relationship between these molecules and MCTS formation is discussed. PMID:24885050

  1. Microgravity: Teacher's Guide with Activities for Physical Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Wargo, Michael J.

    This teacher's guide to microgravity contains 16 student science activities with full background information to facilitate an understanding of the concepts of microgravity for teachers and students. Topics covered in the background sections include the definitions of gravity and microgravity, creating microgravity, the fluid state, combustion…

  2. Asteroid 2867 Steins. I. Photometric properties from OSIRIS/Rosetta and ground-based visible observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorda, L.; Lamy, P. L.; Faury, G.; Weissman, P.; Barucci, M. A.; Fornasier, S.; Lowry, S.; Toth, I.; Küppers, M.

    2008-09-01

    Context: Asteroid 2867 Steins is the first target of the Rosetta space mission with a flyby scheduled in September 2008. Aims: An early characterization is needed to optimize the flyby parameters and the science operations and to maximize the scientific return. The aim of this article is to characterize the photometric properties of this asteroid. Methods: The asteroid was imaged with the Narrow Angle Camera (NAC) of the Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) during the cruise phase of the Rosetta spacecraft, at a phase angle of 41.7° significantly larger than achievable from Earth. It was continuously monitored over ~24 h (on 11 March 2006), thus covering four rotational periods, at a temporal cadence of 6 min. An accurate photometric calibration was obtained from the observations of a solar analog star, 16 Cyg B. Results: The light curve in the R photometric band of the Johnson-Kron-Cousins system has a mean value R(1,1,α = 41.7° = 14.13 ± 0.03 and an amplitude of 0.25 ± 0.04 mag. The periodicity was analyzed with different techniques yielding a mean value of the synodic rotational period of 6.054 ± 0.003 h. By combining with ground-based observations obtained at different phase angles, the phase function is constructed and characterized by a linear part having a phase coefficient β = 0.025 ± 0.001 mag/deg and a mean value R(1,1,0) = 13.10 ± 0.04. In terms of the H-G formalism, the best fit photometric values are G = 0.35 ± 0.05 and H = 12.84 ± 0.07, but the resulting opposition surge of 0.25 mag, although typical of E-type asteroids, is not really constrained because of the lack of data at phase angles below 7°. Altogether the photometric properties of asteroid 2867 Steins (phase function, color and albedo) indicate that it is a somewhat extreme E-type object, although it is known that this quite small population exhibits at least three different surface mineralogies. Table [see full textsee full text] is only available

  3. A Microgravity Helium Dilution Cooler

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roach, Pat R.; Sperans, Joel (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    We are developing a He-3-He-4 dilution cooler to operate in microgravity. It uses charcoal adsorption pumps and heaters for its operation; it has no moving parts. It currently operates cyclically to well below 0.1 K and we have designed a version to operate continuously. We expect that the continuous version will be able to provide the long-duration cooling that many experiments need at temperatures down to 0.040 K. More importantly, such a dilution cooler could provide the precooling that enables the use of adiabatic demagnetization techniques that can reach temperatures below 0.001 K. At temperatures below 0.002 K many fascinating microgravity experiments on superfluid He-3 become possible. Among the possibilities are: research into a superfluid He-3 gyroscope, study of the nucleation of the B-phase of superfluid He-3 when the sample is floating out of contact with walls, study of the anisotropy of the surface tension of the B-phase, and NMR experiments on tiny free-floating clusters of superfluid He-3 atoms that should model the shell structure of nuclei.

  4. Formation and Combustion of Unconfined Drop Clusters in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, S.; Craig, G.; Zhang, Y.; Ruff, G. A.

    1997-01-01

    Single-drop and droplet array studies have become common methods to isolate and investigate the effects of any of the complexities that enter into the drop combustion process. Microgravity environments are required to allow larger drops to be studied while minimizing or eliminating the confounding effects of buoyancy. Based on the results from current isolated drop, drop array, and spray studies funded through the Microgravity Science and Applications Division, it has become clear that even with the effects of buoyancy removed, the extrapolation of results from droplet array studies to spray flames is difficult. The problem occurs because even the simplest spray systems introduce complexities of multi-disperse drop sizes and drop-drop interactions, coupled with more complicated fluid dynamics. Not only do these features make the interpretation of experimental data difficult, they also make the problem very difficult to analyze computationally. Group combustion models, in which the interaction between droplets is treated on a statistical manner, have become a popular method to investigate the behavior of large numbers of interacting droplets, particularly through the work of Ryan et al. and Bellan and co-workers. While these models idealize the actual spray systems to a point where they can be treated computationally, the experimental analogy to these models is difficult to achieve because it requires the formation and Combustion of drop clusters without the effects of buoyancy. Therefore, even though these models have provided useful and insightful information, the verification of the results by direct comparison with experimental data is still lacking.

  5. Is there resetting of central venous pressure in microgravity?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, V. A.; Ludwig, D. A.; Elliott, J. J.; Wade, C. E.

    2001-01-01

    In the early phase of the Space Shuttle program, NASA flight surgeons implemented a fluid-loading countermeasure in which astronauts were instructed to ingest eight 1-g salt tablets with 960 ml of water approximately 2 hours prior to reentry from space. This fluid loading regimen was intended to enhance orthostatic tolerance by replacing circulating plasma volume reduced during the space mission. Unfortunately, fluid loading failed to replace plasma volume in groundbased experiments and has proven minimally effective as a countermeasure against post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance. In addition to the reduction of plasma volume, central venous pressure (CVP) is reduced during exposure to actual and groundbased analogs of microgravity. In the present study, we hypothesized that the reduction in CVP due to exposure to microgravity represents a resetting of the CVP operating point to a lower threshold. A lower CVP 'setpoint' might explain the failure of fluid loading to restore plasma volume. In order to test this hypothesis, we conducted an investigation in which we administered an acute volume load (stimulus) and measured responses in CVP, plasma volume and renal functions. If our hypothesis is true, we would expect the elevation in CVP induced by saline infusion to return to its pre-infusion levels in both HDT and upright control conditions despite lower vascular volume during HDT. In contrast to previous experiments, our approach is novel in that it provides information on alterations in CVP and vascular volume during HDT that are necessary for interpretation of the proposed CVP operating point resetting hypothesis.

  6. Signal transduction in cells of the immune system in microgravity.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Oliver; Huber, Kathrin; Lang, Kerstin

    2008-10-28

    Life on Earth developed in the presence and under the constant influence of gravity. Gravity has been present during the entire evolution, from the first organic molecule to mammals and humans. Modern research revealed clearly that gravity is important, probably indispensable for the function of living systems, from unicellular organisms to men. Thus, gravity research is no more or less a fundamental question about the conditions of life on Earth. Since the first space missions and supported thereafter by a multitude of space and ground-based experiments, it is well known that immune cell function is severely suppressed in microgravity, which renders the cells of the immune system an ideal model organism to investigate the influence of gravity on the cellular and molecular level. Here we review the current knowledge about the question, if and how cellular signal transduction depends on the existence of gravity, with special focus on cells of the immune system. Since immune cell function is fundamental to keep the organism under imnological surveillance during the defence against pathogens, to investigate the effects and possible molecular mechanisms of altered gravity is indispensable for long-term space flights to Earth Moon or Mars. Thus, understanding the impact of gravity on cellular functions on Earth will provide not only important informations about the development of life on Earth, but also for therapeutic and preventive strategies to cope successfully with medical problems during space exploration.

  7. Mechanisms of microgravity induced orthostatic intolerance: implications for effective countermeasures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    2002-01-01

    The development of orthostatic hypotension and instability immediately after return from spaceflight has been a significant operational problem to astronauts for more than four decades. Significant reductions in stroke volume and peripheral vascular resistance contribute to ineffective maintenance of systemic arterial blood pressure during standing after spaceflight despite compensatory elevations in heart rate. The primary mechanism underlying reduced stroke volume appears to be a reduction in preload associated with reduced circulating blood volume, although cardiac atrophy might also contribute. Space flight and ground based experiments have demonstrated that an inability to provide adequate peripheral vasoconstriction in astronauts that become presyncopal may be associated with several mechanisms including reduced sympathetic nerve activity, arterial smooth muscle atrophy and/or hyporeactivity, hypersensitivity of beta-adrenergic receptors, etc. In addition, an inability to provide adequate tachycardia in presyncopal subjects may be associated with reduced carotid-cardiac baroreflex sensitivity. Based on the current knowledge and understanding of cardiovascular mechanisms that are altered during exposure to microgravity, a major focus of future research should be directed to the systematic evaluation of potential countermeasures that specifically target and restore the function of these mechanisms. Based on a preliminary systematic evaluation presented in this review, acute physical exercise designed to elicit maximal effort, G-suit inflation, artificial gravity, and specific pharmacological interventions, alone or in combination, have shown promise as successful countermeasures that provide protection against post-flight orthostatic intolerance.

  8. Life and Microgravity Sciences Spacelab Mission: Human Research Pilot Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B. (Editor); Walker, Karen R. (Editor); Hargens, Alan (Editor)

    1996-01-01

    The Life Sciences, Microgravity Science and Spacelab Mission contains a number of human experiments directed toward identifying the functional, metabolic and neurological characteristics of muscle weakness and atrophy during space flight. To ensure the successful completion of the flight experiments, a ground-based pilot study, designed to mimic the flight protocols as closely as possible, was carried out in the head-down tilt bed rest model. This report records the rationales, procedures, preliminary results and estimated value of the pilot study, the first of its kind, for 12 of the 13 planned experiments in human research. The bed rest study was conducted in the Human Research Facility at Ames Research Center from July 11 - August 28, 1995. Eight healthy male volunteers performed the experiments before, during and after 17 days bed rest. The immediate purposes of this simulation were to integrate the experiments, provide data in a large enough sample for publication of results, enable investigators to review individual experiments in the framework of a multi-disciplinary study and relay the experience of the pilot study to the mission specialists prior to launch.

  9. Radioactive Decay - An Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeachy, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Presents an analog of radioactive decay that allows the student to grasp the concept of half life and the exponential nature of the decay process. The analog is devised to use small, colored, plastic poker chips or counters. Provides the typical data and a graph which supports the analog. (YP)

  10. The Analogical Mind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holyoak, Keith J.; Thagard, Paul

    1997-01-01

    The use of analogy in human thinking is examined from the perspective of a multiconstraint theory that postulates similarity, structure, and purpose as three kinds of constraints. The theory has been implemented in computational simulations of the analogical human mind using the Analogical Mapping by Constraint Satisfaction (ACME) model. (SLD)

  11. Computations of Boiling in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tryggvason, Gretar; Jacqmin, David

    1999-01-01

    The absence (or reduction) of gravity, can lead to major changes in boiling heat transfer. On Earth, convection has a major effect on the heat distribution ahead of an evaporation front, and buoyancy determines the motion of the growing bubbles. In microgravity, convection and buoyancy are absent or greatly reduced and the dynamics of the growing vapor bubbles can change in a fundamental way. In particular, the lack of redistribution of heat can lead to a large superheat and explosive growth of bubbles once they form. While considerable efforts have been devoted to examining boiling experimentally, including the effect of microgravity, theoretical and computational work is limited to very simple models. In this project, the growth of boiling bubbles is studied by direct numerical simulations where the flow field is fully resolved and the effects of inertia, viscosity, surface deformation, heat conduction and convection, as well as the phase change, are fully accounted for. The proposed work is based on previously funded NASA work that allowed us to develop a two-dimensional numerical method for boiling flows and to demonstrate the ability of the method to simulate film boiling. While numerical simulations of multi-fluid flows have been advanced in a major way during the last five years, or so, similar capability for flows with phase change are still in their infancy. Although the feasibility of the proposed approach has been demonstrated, it has yet to be extended and applied to fully three-dimensional simulations. Here, a fully three-dimensional, parallel, grid adaptive code will be developed. The numerical method will be used to study nucleate boiling in microgravity, with particular emphasis on two aspects of the problem: 1) Examination of the growth of bubbles at a wall nucleation site and the instabilities of rapidly growing bubbles. Particular emphasis will be put on accurately capturing the thin wall layer left behind as a bubble expands along a wall, on

  12. An in vivo ovine model of bone tissue alterations in simulated microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Gadomski, Benjamin C; McGilvray, Kirk C; Easley, Jeremiah T; Palmer, Ross H; Ehrhart, E J; Haussler, Kevin K; Browning, Raymond C; Santoni, Brandon G; Puttlitz, Christian M

    2014-02-01

    Microgravity and its inherent reduction in body-weight associated mechanical loading encountered during spaceflight have been shown to produce deleterious effects on important human physiological processes. Rodent hindlimb unloading is the most widely-used ground-based microgravity model. Unfortunately, results from these studies are difficult to translate to the human condition due to major anatomic and physiologic differences between the two species such as bone microarchitecture and healing rates. The use of translatable ovine models to investigate orthopedic-related conditions has become increasingly popular due to similarities in size and skeletal architecture of the two species. Thus, a new translational model of simulated microgravity was developed using common external fixation techniques to shield the metatarsal bone of the ovine hindlimb during normal daily activity over an 8 week period. Bone mineral density, quantified via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, decreased 29.0% (p < 0.001) in the treated metatarsi. Post-sacrifice biomechanical evaluation revealed reduced bending modulus (-25.8%, p < 0.05) and failure load (-27.8%, p < 0.001) following the microgravity treatment. Microcomputed tomography and histology revealed reduced bone volume (-35.9%, p < 0.01), trabecular thickness (-30.9%, p < 0.01), trabecular number (-22.5%, p < 0.05), bone formation rate (-57.7%, p < 0.01), and osteoblast number (-52.5%, p < 0.001), as well as increased osteoclast number (269.1%, p < 0.001) in the treated metatarsi of the microgravity group. No significant alterations occurred for any outcome parameter in the Sham Surgery Group. These data indicate that the external fixation technique utilized in this model was able to effectively unload the metatarsus and induce significant radiographic, biomechanical, and histomorphometric alterations that are known to be induced by spaceflight. Further, these findings demonstrate that the

  13. Spaceflight induces changes in splenocyte subpopulations: effectiveness of ground-based models.

    PubMed

    Pecaut, M J; Simske, S J; Fleshner, M

    2000-12-01

    Spaceflight produces changes in the immune system. The mechanisms for the alterations in immune function after spaceflight remain unclear due in part to the difficulties associated with conducting spaceflight research. The purpose of the following studies, therefore, was to create a ground-based protocol that can reproduce the immunological changes found after spaceflight, i.e., changes in splenic lymphocyte populations. Rats were exposed to either flight aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavor (STS-77) or ground-based simulations of various components of the spaceflight experience. The ground-based mock spaceflight was comprised of exposure to launch and landing loads and unloading of the hindlimbs. In addition, each component of this ground-based mock spaceflight was tested separately. The results were that spaceflight reduced splenic CD4(+) T (helper/inducer) cells and CD11b(+) (neutrophils/macrophages) cells. The ground-based simulations of spaceflight did not reproduce the same pattern of splenocyte changes. In fact, exposure to landing loads alone increased splenic CD4(+) T (helper/inducer) cells. These findings support the conclusion that the ground models tested did not induce similar changes in the immune system as did spaceflight. It is possible, therefore, that stressors/factors unique to the spaceflight experience impact the immune system in ways that cannot be currently, fully modeled on the ground.

  14. NASA Microgravity Combustion Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Merrill K.

    1999-01-01

    Combustion has been a subject of increasingly vigorous scientific research for over a century, not surprising considering that combustion accounts for approximately 85% of the world's energy production and is a key element of many critical technologies used by contemporary society. Although combustion technology is vital to our standard of living, it also poses great challenges to maintaining a habitable environment. A major goal of combustion research is production of fundamental (foundational) knowledge that can be used in developing accurate simulations of complex combustion processes, replacing current "cut-and-try" approaches and allowing developers to improve the efficiency of combustion devices, to reduce the production of harmful emissions, and to reduce the incidence of accidental uncontrolled combustion. With full understanding of the physics and chemistry involved in a given combustion process, including details of the unit processes and their interactions, physically accurate models which can then be used for parametric exploration of new combustion domains via computer simulation can be developed, with possible resultant definition of radically different approaches to accomplishment of various combustion goals. Effects of gravitational forces on earth impede combustion studies more than they impede most other areas of science. The effects of buoyancy are so ubiquitous that we often do not appreciate the enormous negative impact that they have had on the rational development of combustion science. Microgravity offers potential for major gains in combustion science understanding in that it offers unique capability to establish the flow environment rather than having it dominated by uncontrollable (under normal gravity) buoyancy effects and, through this control, to extend the range of test conditions that can be studied. It cannot be emphasized too strongly that our program is dedicated to taking advantage of microgravity to untangle complications caused

  15. Microgravity Outreach with Math Teachers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Don Gillies, a materials scientist at NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), demonstrates the greater bounce to the ounce of metal made from a supercooled bulk metallic glass alloy that NASA is studying in space experiments. The metal plates at the bottom of the plexiglass tubes are made of three different types of metal. Bulk metallic glass is more resilient and, as a result, the dropped ball bearing bounces higher. Fundamental properties of this bulk metallic glass were measured in a space flight in 1997 Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MSL-1) mission. These properties could not have been measured on Earth and have been incorporated into recent design. This demonstration was at the April 2000 conference of the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics (NCTM) in Chicago. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  16. Simulated microgravity (SMG) and bacteria.

    PubMed

    Huitema, Carly; Beaudette, Lee A; Trevors, Jack T

    2002-01-01

    This past century has been a scientific revolution in the understanding of the cell as the basic unit of life. However an immense paucity of knowledge exists on microbial growth, survival, function and structure in space. However, there are significant constraints placed on conducting biological research in space such as time, available stowage space, trained personnel, power requirements, weight and the possibility of accidental microbiological contamination. One Earth-based approach is to use a modification of a clinostat known as a HARV (high-aspect-ratio-vessel; Synthecon Inc., Houston, Texas, USA) to conduct this research. In this note we describe the use of the HARV to examine the effects of randomized microgravity (RMG) on bacterial growth and membrane polarization.

  17. Microgravity computing codes. User's guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-01-01

    Codes used in microgravity experiments to compute fluid parameters and to obtain data graphically are introduced. The computer programs are stored on two diskettes, compatible with the floppy disk drives of the Apple 2. Two versions of both disks are available (DOS-2 and DOS-3). The codes are written in BASIC and are structured as interactive programs. Interaction takes place through the keyboard of any Apple 2-48K standard system with single floppy disk drive. The programs are protected against wrong commands given by the operator. The programs are described step by step in the same order as the instructions displayed on the monitor. Most of these instructions are shown, with samples of computation and of graphics.

  18. Protein crystal growth in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, William M.; Delucas, Lawrence J.; Wilson, William W.

    1989-01-01

    Major advances have been made in several of the experimental aspects of protein crystallography, leaving protein crystallization as one of the few remaining bottlenecks. As a result, it has become important that the science of protein crystal growth is better understood and that improved methods for protein crystallization are developed. Preliminary experiments with both small molecules and proteins indicate that microgravity may beneficially affect crystal growth. For this reason, a series of protein crystal growth experiments using the Space Shuttle was initiated. The preliminary space experiments were used to evolve prototype hardware that will form the basis for a more advanced system that can be used to evaluate effects of gravity on protein crystal growth. Various optical techniques are being utilized to monitor the crystal growth process from the incipient or nucleation stage and throughout the growth phase. The eventual goal of these studies is to develop a system which utilizes optical monitoring for dynamic control of the crystallization process.

  19. NASA Microgravity Combustion Science Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Merrill K.

    1997-01-01

    Combustion is a key element of many critical technologies used by contemporary society. For example, electric power production, home heating, surface and air transportation, space propulsion, and materials synthesis all utilize combustion as a source of energy. Yet, although combustion technology is vital to our standard of living, it poses great challenges to maintaining a habitable environment. For example, pollutants, atmospheric change and global warming, unwanted fires and explosions, and the incineration of hazardous wastes are major problem areas which would benefit from improved understanding of combustion. Effects of gravitational forces impede combustion studies more than most other areas of science since combustion involves production of high-temperature gases whose low density results in buoyant motion, vastly complicating the execution and interpretation of experiments. Effects of buoyancy are so ubiquitous that their enormous negative impact on the rational development of combustion science is generally not recognized. Buoyant motion also triggers the onset of turbulence, yielding complicating unsteady effects. Finally, gravity forces cause particles and drops to settle, inhibiting deconvoluted studies of heterogeneous flames important to furnace, incineration and power generation technologies. Thus, effects of buoyancy have seriously limited our capabilities to carry out 'clean' experiments needed for fundamental understanding of flame phenomena. Combustion scientists can use microgravity to simplify the study of many combustion processes, allowing fresh insights into important problems via a deeper understanding of elemental phenomena also found in Earth-based combustion processes and to additionally provide valuable information concerning how fires behave in microgravity and how fire safety on spacecraft can be enhanced.

  20. 3D Simulation: Microgravity Environments and Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, Steve L.; Dischinger, Charles; Estes, Samantha; Parker, Nelson C. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most, if not all, 3-D and Virtual Reality (VR) software programs are designed for one-G gravity applications. Space environments simulations require gravity effects of one one-thousandth to one one-million of that of the Earth's surface (10(exp -3) - 10(exp -6) G), thus one must be able to generate simulations that replicate those microgravity effects upon simulated astronauts. Unfortunately, the software programs utilized by the National Aeronautical and Space Administration does not have the ability to readily neutralize the one-G gravity effect. This pre-programmed situation causes the engineer or analysis difficulty during micro-gravity simulations. Therefore, microgravity simulations require special techniques or additional code in order to apply the power of 3D graphic simulation to space related applications. This paper discusses the problem and possible solutions to allow microgravity 3-D/VR simulations to be completed successfully without program code modifications.

  1. The low temperature microgravity physics facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pensinger, J. F.; Croonquist, A P.; Liu, F. C.; Larson, M. E.; Chui, T. C.

    2002-01-01

    The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility currently in the design phase is a multiple user and multiple flight facility intended to provide a long duration low temperature environment onboard the International Space Station.

  2. The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pensinger, J. F.; Chui, T.; Croonquist, A.; Larson, M.; Liu, F.

    2002-01-01

    The Low Temperature Microgravity Physics Facility currently in the design phase is a multiple user and multiple flight facility intended to provide a long duration low temperature environment onboard the International Space Station.

  3. Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) contest

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The first NASA Dropping In a Microgravity Environment (DIME) student competition pilot project came to a conclusion at the Glenn Research Center in April 2001. The competition involved high-school student teams who developed the concept for a microgravity experiment and prepared an experiment proposal. The two student teams - COSI Academy, sponsored by the Columbus Center of Science and Industry, and another team from Cincinnati, Ohio's Sycamore High School, designed a microgravity experiment, fabricated the experimental apparatus, and visited NASA Glenn to operate their experiment in the 2.2 Second Drop Tower. Here Carol Hodanbosi of the National Center for Microgravity Research and Jose Carrion, a lab mechanic with AKAC, prepare a student experiment package (inside the silver-colored frame) inside the orange-colored drag shield that encloses all experiment hardware. This image is from a digital still camera; higher resolution is not available.

  4. Effect of Microgravity on Mammalian Lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, H.; Blackshear, M.; Mahaffey, K.; Khan, A. A.; Delucas, L.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of microgravity on mammalian system is an important and interesting topic for scientific investigation, since NASA s objective is to send manned flights to planets like Mars and eventual human colonization. The Astronauts will be exposed to microgravity environment for a long duration of time during these flights. Our objective of research is to conduct in vitro studies for the effect of microgravity on mammalian immune system and nervous system. We did our preliminary investigations by exposing mammalian lymphocytes and astrocyte cells to a microgravity simulator cell bioreactor designed by NASA and manufactured at Synthecon, Inc. (USA).Our initial results showed no significant change in cytokine expression in these cells up to a time period of 120 hours exposure. Our future experiments will involve exposure for a longer period of time.

  5. Effect of Microgravity on Mammalian Lymphocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banerjee, H.; Blackshear, M.; Mahaffey, K.; Knight, C.; Khan, A. A.; Delucas, L.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of microgravity on mammalian system is an important and interesting topic for scientific investigation, since NASA s objective is to send manned flights to planets like Mars and eventual human colonization.The Astronauts will be exposed to microgravity environment for a long duration of time during these flights.Our objective of research is to conduct in vitro studies for the effect of microgravity on mammalian immune system.We did our preliminary investigations by exposing mammalian lymphocytes to a microgravity simulator cell bioreactor designed by NASA and manufactured at Synthecon Inc (USA).Our initial results showed no significant change in cytokine expression in these cells for a time period of forty eight hours exposure.Our future experiments will involve exposure for a longer period of time.

  6. BIM LAU-PE: Seedlings in Microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gass, S.; Pennese, R.; Chapuis, D.; Dainesi, P.; Nebuloni, S.; Garcia, M.; Oriol, A.

    2015-09-01

    The effect of gravity on plant roots is an intensive subject of research. Sounding rockets represent a costeffective platform to study this effect under microgravity conditions. As part of the upcoming MASER 13 sounding rocket campaign, two experiments on Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings have been devised: GRAMAT and SPARC. These experiments are aimed at studying (1) the genes that are specifically switched on or off during microgravity, and (2) the position of auxin-transporting proteins during microgravity. To perform these experiments, RUAG Space Switzerland site of Nyon, in collaboration with the Swedish Space Corporation (SSC) and the University of Freiburg, has developed the BIM LAU-PE (Biolology In Microgravity Late Access Unit Plant Experiment). In the following an overview of the BIM LAU-PE design is presented, highlighting specific module design features and verifications performed. A particular emphasis is placed on the parabolic flight experiments, including results of the micro-g injection system validation.

  7. Microgravity Effects on Yersinia Pestis Virulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawal, A.; Abogunde, O.; Jejelowo, O.; Rosenzweig, J.-A.

    2010-04-01

    Microgravity effects on Yersinia pestis proliferation, cold growth, and type three secretion system function were evaluated in macrophage cell infections, HeLa cell infections, and cold growth plate assays.

  8. Microgravity experiment system utilizing a balloon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, M.; Ohta, S.; Yamagami, T.; Koma, Y.; Akiyama, H.; Hirosawa, H.; Nishimura, J.

    A system for microgravity experiments by using a stratospheric balloon has been planned and developed in ISAS since 1978. A rocket-shaped chamber mounting the experiment apparatus is released from the balloon around 30 km altitude. The microgravity duration is from the release to opening of parachute, controlled by an on-board sequential timer. Test flights were performed in 1980 and in 1981. In September 1983 the first scientific experiment, observing behaviors and brain activities of fishes in the microgravity circumstance, have been successfully carried out. The chamber is specially equipped with movie cameras and subtransmitters, and its release altitude is about 32 km. The microgravity observed inside the chamber is less than 2.9 × 10-3 G during 10 sec. Engineering aspects of the system used in the 1983 experiment are presented.

  9. BigBOSS: The Ground-Based Stage IV BAO Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schlegel, David; Bebek, Chris; Heetderks, Henry; Ho, Shirley; Lampton, Michael; Levi, Michael; Mostek, Nick; Padmanabhan, Nikhil; Perlmutter, Saul; Roe, Natalie; Sholl, Michael; Smoot, George; White, Martin; Dey, Arjun; Abraham, Tony; Jannuzi, Buell; Joyce, Dick; Liang, Ming; Merrill, Mike; Olsen, Knut; Salim, Samir

    2009-04-01

    The BigBOSS experiment is a proposed DOE-NSF Stage IV ground-based dark energy experiment to study baryon acoustic oscillations (BAO) and the growth of structure with an all-sky galaxy redshift survey. The project is designed to unlock the mystery of dark energy using existing ground-based facilities operated by NOAO. A new 4000-fiber R=5000 spectrograph covering a 3-degree diameter field will measure BAO and redshift space distortions in the distribution of galaxies and hydrogen gas spanning redshifts from 0.2< z< 3.5. The Dark Energy Task Force figure of merit (DETF FoM) for this experiment is expected to be equal to that of a JDEM mission for BAO with the lower risk and cost typical of a ground-based experiment.

  10. Extragalactic Science with the Next Generation of Ground Based TeV {gamma}-Ray Telescopes

    SciTech Connect

    Krawczynski, Henric

    2008-12-24

    The ground based Cherenkov telescope experiments H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and VERITAS, and the space borne Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope are currently exploring the galactic and extragalactic Universe in {gamma}-rays. At the time of writing this article, a large number of Active Galactic Nuclei have been studied in great detail and the {gamma}-ray observations have had a major impact on our understanding of the structure of jets from these objects. In this contribution, the status of ground based {gamma}-ray observations of AGN and other extragalactic source classes is reviewed as of October, 2008. After discussing source classes that could be detected with next generation ground based experiments like AGIS, CTA, and HAWC, the potential impact of the observations on the fields of high energy astrophysics, structure formation, observational cosmology, and fundamental physics is reviewed. We close with a discussion of the technical requirements that arise from the science drivers.

  11. A Study of Alterations in DNA Epigenetic Modifications (5mC and 5hmC) and Gene Expression Influenced by Simulated Microgravity in Human Lymphoblastoid Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiping; Liu, Yunlong; Lossie, Amy C.; Thimmapuram, Jyothi; Irudayaraj, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Cells alter their gene expression in response to exposure to various environmental changes. Epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation are believed to regulate the alterations in gene expression patterns. In vitro and in vivo studies have documented changes in cellular proliferation, cytoskeletal remodeling, signal transduction, bone mineralization and immune deficiency under the influence of microgravity conditions experienced in space. However microgravity induced changes in the epigenome have not been well characterized. In this study we have used Next-generation Sequencing (NGS) to profile ground-based “simulated” microgravity induced changes on DNA methylation (5-methylcytosine or 5mC), hydroxymethylation (5-hydroxymethylcytosine or 5hmC), and simultaneous gene expression in cultured human lymphoblastoid cells. Our results indicate that simulated microgravity induced alterations in the methylome (~60% of the differentially methylated regions or DMRs are hypomethylated and ~92% of the differentially hydroxymethylated regions or DHMRs are hyperhydroxymethylated). Simulated microgravity also induced differential expression in 370 transcripts that were associated with crucial biological processes such as oxidative stress response, carbohydrate metabolism and regulation of transcription. While we were not able to obtain any global trend correlating the changes of methylation/ hydroxylation with gene expression, we have been able to profile the simulated microgravity induced changes of 5mC over some of the differentially expressed genes that includes five genes undergoing differential methylation over their promoters and twenty five genes undergoing differential methylation over their gene-bodies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first NGS-based study to profile epigenomic patterns induced by short time exposure of simulated microgravity and we believe that our findings can be a valuable resource for future explorations. PMID:26820575

  12. Laser-Induced Incandescence in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanderWal, Randall L.

    1997-01-01

    Microgravity offers unique opportunities for studying both soot growth and the effect of soot radiation upon flame structure and spread. LII has been characterized and developed at NASA-Lewis for soot volume fraction determination in a wide range of 1-g combustion applications. Reported here are the first demonstrations of LII performed in a microgravity environment. Examples are shown for laminar and turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames in 0-g.

  13. Spacelab J: Microgravity and life sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Spacelab J is a joint venture between NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). Using a Spacelab pressurized long module, 43 experiments will be performed in the areas of microgravity and life sciences. These experiments benefit from the microgravity environment available on an orbiting Shuttle. Removed from the effects of gravity, scientists will seek to observe processes and phenomena impossible to study on Earth, to develop new and more uniform mixtures, to study the effects of microgravity and the space environment on living organisms, and to explore the suitability of microgravity for certain types of research. Mission planning and an overview of the experiments to be performed are presented. Orbital research appears to hold many advantages for microgravity science investigations, which on this mission include electronic materials, metals and alloys, glasses and ceramics, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, and biotechnology. Gravity-induced effects are eliminated in microgravity. This allows the investigations on Spacelab J to help scientists develop a better understanding of how these gravity-induced phenomena affect both processing and products on Earth and to observe subtle phenomena that are masked in gravity. The data and samples from these investigations will not only allow scientists to better understand the materials but also will lead to improvements in the methods used in future experiments. Life sciences research will collect data on human adaptation to the microgravity environment, investigate ways of assisting astronauts to readapt to normal gravity, explore the effects of microgravity and radiation on living organisms, and gather data on the fertilization and development of organisms in the absence of gravity. This research will improve crew comfort and safety on future missions while helping scientists to further understand the human body.

  14. Norman Thagard Explains the Microgravity Vestibular Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In this video, astronaut Norman Thagard explains how he and his fellow STS-42 crew mates interacted with the rotator chair for the Microgravity Vestibular Investigations (MVI) onboard the International Microgravity Laboratory in July 1992. In the MVI, researchers from Canada, the United States, and other countries examined the effects of orbital flight on the human orientation system to obtain a better understanding of the mechanisms of adaptation to orbit.

  15. Condensation heat transfer in a microgravity environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, L. C.; Parish, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    In the present treatment of the condensation heat transfer process in a microgravity environment, two mechanisms for condensate removal are analyzed in light of two problems: (1) film condensation on a flat, porous plate, with condensate being removed by wall suction; and (2) the analytical prediction of the heat transfer coefficient of condensing annular flows, where the condensate film is driven by vapor shear. Both suction and vapor shear can effectively drain the condensate, ensuring continuous operation in microgravity.

  16. Charge of the containerless experimentation in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Mark C.

    1990-01-01

    The experimentation was undertaken to study the elimination or reduction of surface contamination for which there is adequate Earth-based technology along with the reduction of dynamic nucleation for which there a paucity of reliable data. One objective is to delineate scientific justification of the U.S. Containerless Experimentation Program in Microgravity for the next decade and beyond. Another objective is for the guidance of NASA to define the next generation of containerless experimentation instruments in microgravity.

  17. IJEMS: Iowa Joint Experiment in Microgravity Solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bendle, John R.; Mashl, Steven J.; Hardin, Richard A.

    1995-01-01

    The Iowa Joint Experiment in Microgravity Solidification (IJEMS) is a cooperative effort between Iowa State University and the University of Iowa to study the formation of metal-matrix composites in a microgravity environment. Of particular interest is the interaction between the solid/liquid interface and the particles in suspension. The experiment is scheduled to fly on STS-69, Space Shuttle Endeavor on August 3, 1995. This project is unique in its heavy student participation and cooperation between the universities involved.

  18. Spacelab J: Microgravity and life sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spacelab J is a joint venture between NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). Using a Spacelab pressurized long module, 43 experiments will be performed in the areas of microgravity and life sciences. These experiments benefit from the microgravity environment available on an orbiting Shuttle. Removed from the effects of gravity, scientists will seek to observe processes and phenomena impossible to study on Earth, to develop new and more uniform mixtures, to study the effects of microgravity and the space environment on living organisms, and to explore the suitability of microgravity for certain types of research. Mission planning and an overview of the experiments to be performed are presented. Orbital research appears to hold many advantages for microgravity science investigations, which on this mission include electronic materials, metals and alloys, glasses and ceramics, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, and biotechnology. Gravity-induced effects are eliminated in microgravity. This allows the investigations on Spacelab J to help scientists develop a better understanding of how these gravity-induced phenomena affect both processing and products on Earth and to observe subtle phenomena that are masked in gravity. The data and samples from these investigations will not only allow scientists to better understand the materials but also will lead to improvements in the methods used in future experiments. Life sciences research will collect data on human adaptation to the microgravity environment, investigate ways of assisting astronauts to readapt to normal gravity, explore the effects of microgravity and radiation on living organisms, and gather data on the fertilization and development of organisms in the absence of gravity. This research will improve crew comfort and safety on future missions while helping scientists to further understand the human body.

  19. Decadal Challenges in Ground-Based Observations for Solar and Space Physics (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    Ground-based observations of the sun and near-Earth space have long provided the fundamental information needed to achieve a better understanding of the coupled Sun-Earth system and the processes responsible for solar activity and its effects on Earth's magnetosphere, ionosphere, and atmosphere. Observations based on both active and passive radio wave and optical techniques provide measurements throughout Earth's atmosphere, geospace, the heliosphere, and the Sun. Although the number of observing instruments, the capabilities of the instruments, and the variety of ground-based assets continue to open new frontiers and enable scientific discoveries, gaps still exist, not only in terms of the spatial coverage of the measurements, but also in the properties of the system that are observed and the cadence and frequency of the observations. Fortunately, new technologies have provided the tools by which these challenges can be overcome. This is an opportune time to develop an integrated strategy for development, deployment, operation, and data analysis of ground-based assets. These include, for example, advanced networking technologies, crowd-sourced data acquisition, and multi-use observational platforms. Ground-based observations can also be optimized through the development of smart sensors, that operate at low power and are easily deployable, reconfigurable, and remotely operable. Furthermore, the data from ground-based observations will be collected, archived, and disseminated in ways that will enable effective and productive data mining, image and pattern recognition, cross-correlation among diverse data sets, and broadly-based collaborative research. These capabilities are especially important as we attempt to understand the system aspects of the solar-terrestrial environment. The next decade will undoubtedly see new understanding and discoveries resulting from improved and expanded ground-based instruments, as well as in their strategic deployment and operation.

  20. Design of ground-based physical simulation system for satellite-borne TDI-CCD dynamic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhiyuan; Zhang, Liu; Jin, Guang; Yang, Xiubin

    2010-11-01

    As we know, the existence of image motion has a bad effect on the image quality of satellite-borne TDI CCD camera. Although many theories on image motion are proposed to cope with this problem, few simulations are done to justify the proposed theories on ground. And thus, in this paper, a ground-based physical simulation system for TDI CCD imaging is developed and specified, which consists of a physical simulation subsystem for precise satellite attitude control based on a 3-axis air bearing table, and an imaging and simulation subsystem utilizing area-array CCD to simulate TDI CCD. The designed system could realize not only a precise simulation of satellite attitude control, whose point accuracy is above 0.1° and steady accuracy above 0.01°/s, but also an imaging simulation of 16-stage TDI CCD with 0.1s its integration time. This paper also gives a mathematical model of image motion of this system analogous with satellite-borne TDI CCD, and detailed descriptions on the principle utilizing area-array CCD to simulate TDI CCD. It is shown that experiment results are in accordance with mathematical simulation, and that the image quality deteriorate seriously when the correspondence between the image velocity and signal charges transfer velocity is broken out, which suggest not only the validity of the system design but also the validity of the proposed image motion theory of TDI CCD.